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Sample records for 4-year survival rate

  1. Survival rate of sealed, refurbished and repaired defective restorations: 4-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Eduardo M; Martin, Javier A; Angel, Pablo A; Mjör, Ivar A; Gordan, Valeria V; Moncada, Gustavo A

    2011-01-01

    The most common treatment in general dental practice is the replacement of restorations affected by secondary caries or marginal deficiencies. Alternative treatments to replacement of defective restorations, such as marginal sealing, refurbishment and repair, have demonstrated improvement of their clinical properties with minimal intervention. The aim of this clinical study was to estimate the median survival time (MST) of marginal sealing, repair and refurbishment of amalgam and resin-based composite restorations with localized defects as a treatment to increase the restoration longevity. A cohort of 66 patients, with 271 class I and II restorations clinically diagnosed with localized defects was longitudinally assessed. Each restoration was assigned to one of the following 5 groups: Marginal Sealing (n=48), Refurbishment (n=73), Repair (n=27), Replacement (n=42), and Untreated (n=81). Two calibrated examiners assessed the restorations at baseline and annually during 4 years, using the modified Ryge criteria: marginal adaptation, anatomic form, roughness, secondary caries and luster. Fifty-two patients with 208 restorations were assessed after 4 years; the distribution of restorations in the groups was as follows: Marginal Sealing (n=36), Refurbishment (n=63), Repair (n=21), Replacement (n=28) and Untreated (n=60). Kaplan Meier test indicated that the Sealed margins group showed the lowest MST while the Repair group showed the highest MST for restorations examined after 4 years of follow up. Defective amalgam and resin-based composite restorations treated by sealing of marginal gaps, refurbishment of anatomic form, luster or roughness, and repair of secondary caries lesions, had their longevity increased.

  2. 4-Year Cohort Graduation Rate: Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Federal law requires Pennsylvania, and all other states, to transition to a new calculation method for determining high school graduation rates. Beginning in 2012, using graduation data from the Classes of 2010 and 2011, the "4-Year Cohort Graduation Rate" calculation will replace the "4-Year Leaver Graduation Rate" calculation. The new…

  3. Complete DIEP flap survival following pedicle resection, 4 years after its transfer. Clinical evidence of autonomization

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Benedetto; Laporta, Rosaria; Sorotos, Michail; Atzeni, Matteo; Santanelli di Pompeo, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We report a case of complete DIEP flap survival, following venous congestion due to the excision of a local recurrence with main pedicle, 4 years after its transfer for breast reconstruction. PMID:27713917

  4. Inverse Planned High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Locoregionally Advanced Cervical Cancer: 4-Year Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Tinkle, Christopher L.; Weinberg, Vivian; Chen, Lee-May; Littell, Ramey; Cunha, J. Adam M.; Sethi, Rajni A.; Chan, John K.; Hsu, I-Chow

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: Evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of image guided brachytherapy using inverse planning simulated annealing (IPSA) high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB) boost for locoregionally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: From December 2003 through September 2009, 111 patients with primary cervical cancer were treated definitively with IPSA-planned HDRB boost (28 Gy in 4 fractions) after external radiation at our institution. We performed a retrospective review of our experience using image guided brachytherapy. Of the patients, 70% had a tumor size >4 cm, 38% had regional nodal disease, and 15% had clinically evident distant metastasis, including nonregional nodal disease, at the time of diagnosis. Surgical staging involving pelvic lymph node dissection was performed in 15% of patients, and 93% received concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Toxicities are reported according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 guidelines. Results: With a median follow-up time of 42 months (range, 3-84 months), no acute or late toxicities of grade 4 or higher were observed, and grade 3 toxicities (both acute and late) developed in 8 patients (1 constitutional, 1 hematologic, 2 genitourinary, 4 gastrointestinal). The 4-year Kaplan-Meier estimate of late grade 3 toxicity was 8%. Local recurrence developed in 5 patients (4 to 9 months after HDRB), regional recurrence in 3 (6, 16, and 72 months after HDRB), and locoregional recurrence in 1 (4 months after HDR boost). The 4-year estimates of local, locoregional, and distant control of disease were 94.0%, 91.9%, and 69.1%, respectively. The overall and disease-free survival rates at 4 years were 64.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] of 54%-73%) and 61.0% (95% CI, 51%-70%), respectively. Conclusions: Definitive radiation by use of inverse planned HDRB boost for locoregionally advanced cervical cancer is well tolerated and achieves excellent local control of disease. However, overall

  5. Transfer Rates of Texas Hispanic Community College Students to 4-Year Institutions: Selected Institutional Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klement, Emily Conrady

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this non-experimental, quantitative study was to determine how well selected institutional characteristics explain the variance in Hispanic community college students' transfer rates to 4-year institutions. Due to the rapidly growing Texas Hispanic population, understanding challenges to their educational attainment has become…

  6. Leading Indicators: Increasing Statewide Bachelor's Degree Completion Rates at 4-Year Public Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Jeffrey Cody

    2014-01-01

    For the United States to maintain national and global economic stability, colleges must graduate more students. Four-year completion rates have declined and less than one-third of full-time, degree-seeking students graduate in 4 years. Some researchers and policymakers have suggested "leading indicators" to track postsecondary…

  7. Medication compliance and comorbid substance abuse in schizophrenia: impact on community survival 4 years after a relapse.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Glenn E; Bergen, Jenny; Bashir, Marie

    2002-04-01

    This prospective study examined the effect of medication compliance and substance abuse on 4 year outcome in 99 patients following a relapse of schizophrenia. Univariate survival analysis revealed longer community tenure in patients if they were over the age of 35 years, not admitted 2 years prior to the index episode, remained medication compliant and did not abuse substances during the follow-up interval. Comparisons between patients grouped according to medication compliance and current substance abuse indicated that those patients who regularly took their medication but also abused substances were readmitted to hospital sooner (median survival, 10 months) compared to compliant patients who did not use substances (37 months). For noncompliant patients, time to first readmission was shorter for patients with a dual diagnosis (5 months) compared to patients with a singular diagnosis of schizophrenia (10 months). Over the 4 year period, noncompliant patients with a dual diagnosis (n=28) accounted for 57% of all hospital readmissions for the cohort and averaged 1.5 admissions per patient year. These data indicate that much of the benefit that antipsychotic medication has on increasing community survival is reduced by substance abuse. This interval is further reduced in patients who are both substance abusers and noncompliant with medication resulting in a revolving door situation of frequent hospital admissions. Integrated treatment programs which address these issues are likely to reduce the need for hospital readmission in patients with a dual diagnosis. PMID:11950550

  8. Developmental milestones record - 4 years

    MedlinePlus

    Normal childhood growth milestones - 4 years; Growth milestones for children - 4 years; Childhood growth milestones - 4 years ... care provider. PHYSICAL AND MOTOR During the fourth year, a child typically: Gains weight at the rate ...

  9. Sources of variation in waterfowl survival rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, D.G.; Barker, R.J.; Nichols, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    Because of the need to manage hunted populations of waterfowl (Anatidae), biologists have studied many demographic traits of waterfowl by analyzing band recoveries. These analyses have produced the most extensive and best estimates of survival available for any group of birds. Using these data, we examined several factors that might explain variation among annual survival rates to explore large-scale patterns that might be useful in understanding waterfowl population dynamics. We found that geography, body mass, and tribe (i.e. phylogeny) were important in explaining variation in average waterfowl survival rates.

  10. Annual rates of change in pre- vs. post-bronchodilator FEV1 and FVC over 4 years in moderate to very severe COPD.

    PubMed

    Tashkin, Donald P; Li, Ning; Halpin, David; Kleerup, Eric; Decramer, Marc; Celli, Bartolome; Elashoff, Robert

    2013-12-01

    While the slope of decline in FEV1 has traditionally been calculated from the post- rather than the pre-bronchodilator measurement in COPD interventional trials, it is not clear whether and to what extent these two slopes differ in symptomatic patients with COPD. Therefore, we used data from the 4-year UPLIFT trial of tiotropium 18 mcg QD vs. placebo to compare annual rates of change in pre- vs. post-bronchodilator FEV1 in 5041 patients with moderate to very severe COPD (mean FEV1 48% pred) in whom the post-bronchodilator FEV1 was measured after 4 inhalations of two different classes of short-acting inhaled bronchodilators at baseline and 1 month and every 6 months post-randomization over 4 years. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate annual rates of decline in FEV1 and FVC pre- and post-bronchodilator in each treatment group separately, after adjusting for height, gender, smoking status, baseline % predicted FEV1 or FVC, and baseline acute % improvement in lung function. The slopes of the post-bronchodilator FEV1 and FVC were significantly steeper than the pre-bronchodilator slopes regardless of treatment arm (p < 0.001), while the estimated variances of the slopes were similar. Post-bronchodilator increases in FEV1 and FVC diminished progressively and significantly (p < 0.0001) over the 4-year trial, suggesting a possible explanation for the significant differences between the pre- and post-bronchodilator slopes. While the reasons for these differences are not completely clear, they are important to consider when assessing treatment effects on rates of decline in FEV1 and FVC.

  11. WCPSS High School Graduation Rates: 4-Year and 5-Year Cohort Rates 2011-12. Measuring Up. D&A Report No. 13.04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regan, Roger

    2013-01-01

    The Wake County Public School System (WCPSS) four-year cohort graduation rate declined slightly to 80.6% in 2011-12 from 80.9% in the previous year. Disaggregated graduation rates for most racial and ethnic groups stayed nearly the same or declined slightly in 2011-12, but the rate for African-American students rose from 67.9% to 69.6%. The other…

  12. Survival rates of cervical cancer patients in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Muhamad, Nor Asiah; Kamaluddin, Muhammad Amir; Adon, Mohd Yusoff; Noh, Mohamed Asyraf; Bakhtiar, Mohammed Faizal; Ibrahim Tamim, Nor Saleha; Mahmud, Siti Haniza; Aris, Tahir

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common malignant cancer of the female reproductive organs worldwide. Currently, cervical cancer can be prevented by vaccination and detected at an early stage via various screening methods. Malaysia, as a developing country faces a heavy disease burden of cervical cancer as it is the second most common cancer among Malaysian women. This population based study was carried out to fulfil the primary aim of determining the survival rates of Malaysian women with cervical cancer and associated factors. Data were obtained from two different sources namely, the Malaysian National Cancer Registry (MNCR) and National Health Informatics Centre (NHIC) from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2005. Kaplan Meier analyses were conducted to identify the overall survival rates and median survival time. Differences in survival among different ethnic and age group were compared using the log-rank test. A total of 5,859 patients were included. The median survival time for cervical cancer in this study was 65.8 months and the 5-year survival rate was 71.1%. The overall observed survival rates at 1, 3 and 5 years were 94.1%, 79.3% and 71.1% respectively. The log-rank test finding also showed that there were significant differences in the 5-year survival rate among different ethnic groups. Malays had the lowest survival rate of 59.2% followed by Indians (69.5%) and Chinese (73.8%). The overall 5-year survival rate among patients with cervical cancer in Malaysia is relatively good. Age and ethnic groups remain as significant determining factors for cervical cancer survival rate.

  13. Comment on 'Are survival rates for northern spotted owls biased?'

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franklin, A.B.; Nichols, J.D.; Anthony, R.G.; Burnham, K.P.; White, Gary C.; Forsman, E.D.; Anderson, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    Loehle et al. recently estimated survival rates from radio-telemetered northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina (Merriam, 1898)) and suggested that survival rates estimated for this species from capture-recapture studies were negatively biased, which subsequently resulted in the negatively biased estimates of rates of population change (lambda) reported by Anthony et al. (Wildl. Monogr. No. 163, pp. 1-47 (2006)). We argue that their survival estimates were inappropriate for comparison with capture-recapture estimates because (i) the manner in which they censored radio-telemetered individuals had the potential to positively bias their survival estimates, (ii) their estimates of survival were not valid for evaluating bias, and (iii) the size and distribution of their radiotelemetry study areas were sufficiently different from capture-recapture study areas to preclude comparisons. In addition, their inferences of negative bias in rates of population change estimated by Anthony et al. were incorrect and reflected a misunderstanding about those estimators.

  14. Survival rates of children with severe neurologic disabilities: a review.

    PubMed

    Plioplys, Audrius V

    2003-06-01

    Knowledge of accurate survival rates of children with neurologic disabilities is important for third-party insurance payers planning future medical expenses. This is of particular importance to pediatric skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) that depend on financial support from governmental sources. Eyman published survival rate results from California that were extremely pessimistic and not in keeping with our clinical impressions. This led us to conduct a thorough review of our survival rates, which were much better than those reported by Eyman. Since the publication of our study, a large number of reports have appeared from many different countries, as well as further information from California using an expanded database. The survival rate data that we obtained remain consistently better than that in most recent reports. In the California results, 10-year survival rates for the most-disabled group (group 1) were reported to be 32% in 1993 and 45% in 1998, compared with 73% in our study. Eight-year survival rates for group 1 from California were reported to be 38% in 1993 and 63% in 2000, compared with our finding of 73%. The reasons for our better survival rates include the fact that all of our patients were in SNFs, where prompt medical care for acute illnesses was always provided, whereas only 3.5% of the study group was in SNFs in California. Also, the California data contained many methodologic and statistical errors, which are reviewed here. PMID:14572148

  15. Estimating survival rates from banding of adult and juvenile birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, D.H.

    1974-01-01

    The restrictive assumptions required by most available methods for estimating survival probabilities render them unsuitable for analyzing real banding data. A model is proposed which allows survival rates and recovery rates to vary with the calendar year, and also allows juveniles to have rates different from adults. In addition to survival rates and recovery rates, the differential vulnerability factors of juveniles relative to adults are estimated. Minimum values of the variances of the estimators are also given. The new procedure is applied to sets of duck and goose data in which reasonably large numbers of adult and juvenile birds were banded. The results are shown to be generally comparable to those procured by other methods, but, in addition, insight into the extent of annual variation is gained. Combining data from adults and juveniles also increases the effective sample size, since the juveniles are assumed to enter the adult age class after surviving their initial year.

  16. Survival rates of birds of tropical and temperate forests: will the dogma survive?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karr, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Klimkiewicz, M.K.; Brawn, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Survival rates of tropical forest birds are widely assumed to be high relative to the survival rates of temperate forest birds. Much life-history theory is based on this assumption despite the lack of empirical data to support it. We provide the first detailed comparison of survival rates of tropical and temperate forest birds based on extensive data bases and modern capture-recapture models. We find no support for the conventional wisdom. Because clutch size is only one component of reproductive rate, the frequently assumed, simple association between clutch size and adult survival rates should not necessarily be expected. Our results emphasize the need to consider components of fecundity in addition to clutch size when comparing the life histories of tropical and temperate birds and suggest similar considerations in the development of vertebrate life-history theory.

  17. Temporal and spatial variation in age-specific survival rates of a long-lived mammal, the Hawaiian monk seal.

    PubMed

    Baker, Jason D; Thompson, Paul M

    2007-02-01

    Estimates of variability in pinniped survival rates are generally based on observations at single sites, so it is not certain whether observed rates represent the whole population. Here, we provide a comprehensive analysis of spatio-temporal variation in age-specific survival rates for endangered Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslandi) based on capture-recapture analyses of more than 85% of the pups weaned in this population over the last two decades. Uniquely, these data have been collected from six subpopulations, encompassing all major breeding sites across its 1800 km long core range. Analyses of individual subpopulations revealed similar patterns in age-specific survival, characterized by the relatively low survival rates from weaning to 2 years of age, intermediate rates to 4 years of age, and then by relatively high 'mature' survival rates until 17 years of age, after which a senescent decline was observed. Juvenile, subadult and adult survival rates all varied significantly over time. Trends in survival among subpopulations were coherent with their relative geographical positions, suggesting regional structuring and connectedness within the archipelago. Survival rates for different age classes tended to be positively correlated, suggesting that similar factors may influence the survival for seals of all ages. PMID:17164205

  18. Generalized procedures for testing hypotheses about survival or recovery rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, J.R.; Williams, B.K.

    1989-01-01

    Comparisons of survival or recovery rates from different time periods or geographic regions may be difficult to accomplish using the Z-tests suggested by Brownie et al. (1985). We propose a general Chi-square statistic that addresses an unambiguous null hypothesis of homogeneity among several survival or recovery rates. With this statistic, specific hypotheses of differences in rates can be simultaneously tested using contrasts. If necessary, a posteriori multiple comparisons can also be conducted that incorporate an adjustment for Type I error.

  19. Prognostic factors on survival rate of fingers replantation

    PubMed Central

    Lima, José Queiroz; Carli, Alberto De; Nakamoto, Hugo Alberto; Bersani, Gustavo; Crepaldi, Bruno Eiras; de Rezende, Marcelo Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the factors that influence the survival rate of replantation and revascularization of the thumb and/or fingers. Methods: We included fifty cases treated in our department from May 2012 to October 2013 with total or partial finger amputations, which had blood perfusion deficit and underwent vascular anastomosis. The parameters evaluated were: age, gender, comorbidities, trauma, time and type of ischemia, mechanism, the injured area, number of anastomosed vessels and use of vein grafts. The results were statistically analyzed and type I error value was set at p <0.05 . Results: Fifty four percent of the 50 performed replantation survived. Of 15 revascularizations performed, the survival rate was 93.3%. The only factor that affected the survival of the amputated limb was the necessity of venous anastomosis. Conclusion: We could not establish contraindications or absolute indications for the replantation and revascularization of finger amputations in this study. Level of Evidence III, Retropective Study. PMID:26327788

  20. Survival rates of some terrestrial microorganisms under simulated space conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, J.; Oshima, T.; Koike, K. A.; Taguchi, H.; Tanaka, R.; Nishimura, K.; Miyaji, M.

    1992-10-01

    In connection with planetary quarantine, we have been studying the survival rates of nine species of terrestrial microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, yeasts, fungi, etc.) under simulated interstellar conditions. If common terrestrial microorganisms cannot survive in space even for short periods, we can greatly reduce expenditure for sterilizing space probes. The interstellar environment in the solar system has been simulated by low temperature, high vacuum (77 k, 4 × 10-6 torr), and protons irradiation from a Van de Graaff generator. After exposure to a barrage of protons corresponding to about 250 years of irradiation in solar space, Tobacco mosaic virus. Bacillus subtilis spores, Aspergillus niger spores, and Clostridium mangenoti spores showed survival rates of 82%, 45%, 28%, and 25%, respectively. Furthermore, pathogenic Candida albicans showed 7% survival after irradiation corresponding to about 60 years in space.

  1. Effect of lead poisoning on spectacled elder survival rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grand, J.B.; Flint, P.L.; Petersen, M.R.; Moran, C.L.

    1998-01-01

    Spectacled eider (Somateria fischeri) populations on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (Y-K Delta), Alaska, declined rapidly through the 1980s, and low adult female survival was suggested as the likely cause of the decline. We used mark-resighting techniques to study annual survival rates of adult female spectacled eiders at 2 sites on the Y-K Delta during 1993-96. Our data suggest survival rates may differ among sites. However, a model fit to a subset of data on females for which we knew lead levels in blood suggests lead exposure influences survival. Adult females exposed to lead prior to hatching their eggs survived at a much lower rate (0.44 ?? 0.10) each year than females not exposed to lead before hatch (0.78 ?? 0.05). We suggest most mortality from lead exposure occurs over winter, and the related reduction in adult survival may be impeding recovery of local populations. We encourage managers to curtail input of lead shot into the environment.

  2. Annual survival rates of breeding adult roseate terns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spendelow, J.A.; Nichols, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Analyses of the capture-recapture data on 0 individual roseate terns (Sterna dougallii) trapped from 1978-1987 as breeding adults on nests on Falkner Island, Connecticut, estimate the average annual minimum adult survival rate to be 0.74-0.75. There was weak evidence of year-to-year variation in annual survival rates during the study period. The Jolly-Seber models used to estimate survival rates also generated estimates of population size and capture probabilities. To determine the relative importance of adult mortality and permanent emigration in contribuuting to the estimated annual loss of one-fourth of the breeding population will require further study of intercolony movemnet between all the major colony cities.

  3. Temporal variation in survival and recovery rates of lesser scaup

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, Todd W.; Afton, Alan D.; Anteau, Michael J.; Koons, David N.; Nicolai, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Management of lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) has been hindered by access to reliable data on population trajectories and vital rates. We conducted a Bayesian analysis of historical (1951–2011) band-recovery data throughout North America to estimate annual survival and recovery rates for juvenile and adult male and female lesser scaup to determine if increasing harvest or declining survival rates have contributed to population changes and to determine if harvest has been primarily additive or compensatory. Annual recovery rates were low, ranging from 1% to 4% for adults and 2% to 10% for juveniles during most years, with trend models indicating that recovery rates have declined through time for all age–sex classes. Annual survival (mid-Aug to mid-Aug) averaged 0.402 (σ ̂ 0.043) for juvenile males, 0.416 (σ ̂ 0.067) for juvenile females, 0.689 (σ ̂ 0.109) for adult males, and 0.602 (σ ̂ 0.115) for adult females, where σ ̂ represents an estimate of annual process variation in each survival rate. Annual survival rates exhibited no evidence of long-term declines or negative correlations with annual recovery rates (i.e., an index of harvest intensity) for any age–sex class, suggesting that declining fecundity was the most likely explanation for population declines during 1975–2005. We conclude that hunting mortality played a minor role in affecting population dynamics of lesser scaup and waterfowl managers could take a less cautious approach in managing harvest, especially if recruiting or maintaining waterfowl hunters are viewed as important management objectives.

  4. The seven-year cumulative survival rate of Osstem implants

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Kyun; Kim, Bum-Su; Yun, Pil-Young; Mun, Sang-Un; Yi, Yang-Jin; Jeong, Kyung-In

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was performed to analyze the cumulative survival rate of Osstem implants (Osstem Implant Co., Ltd.) over a seven-year period. Materials and Methods A total of 105 patients who had 467 Osstem implants that were placed at the Section of Dentistry, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital (Seongnam, Korea) from June 2003 through December 2005 were analyzed. The life table method and a cross-tubulation analysis, log rank test were used to evaluate the survival curve and the influence that the prognostic factors. The prognostic factors, i.e., age and gender of patients, diameter and length, type of implants, bone graft history and loading time were determined with a Cox proportional hazard model based on logistic regression analysis. Results The seven-year cumulative survival rate of Osstem implants was 95.37%. The Cox proportional hazard model revealed that the following factors had a significant influence on survival rate; increased diameter, reduced prosthetic loading period and performance of bone grafting. Conclusion The osstem implants showed satisfactory results over the seven-year study period. PMID:24868503

  5. CAFFEINE IMPROVES HEART RATE WITHOUT IMPROVING SEPSIS SURVIVAL

    PubMed Central

    Bauzá, Gustavo; Remick, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Caffeine is consumed on a daily basis for its nervous system stimulant properties and is a global adenosine receptor antagonist. Since adenosine receptors have been found to play a major role in regulating the immune response to a septic insult, we investigated if caffeine consumption prior to a septic insult would alter immunological and physiological responses, as well as survival. Methods Two separate experimental designs were employed, both using outbred female ICR mice. In the first experiment mice were administered 20mg/kg of caffeine (equal to 2–3 cups of coffee for a human) or normal saline intraperitoneally at the time of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Immunological parameters including cytokines and local cell recruitment measured. In the second experiment caffeine (10mg/kg/hr) was delivered continuously for 24 hours via a subcutaneous infusion pump placed the day prior to CLP and hemodynamic parameters were examined. In both experiments survival was followed for five days. Results A single dose of caffeine at the initiation of sepsis did not alter survival. This single dose of caffeine did significantly increase in plasma levels of the chemokine KC six hours after the onset of sepsis compared to septic mice given normal saline. There were no changes in IL-6 or IL-10 levels in the caffeine groups. Peritoneal lavages performed 24 hours post-CLP showed no difference in the levels of IL-6, TNF, KC, MIP-1, IL-10 or the IL-1 receptor antagonist between caffeine and normal saline treated mice. Additionally, the lavages yielded similar numbers of cells (4.1×106 vehicle vs. 6.9×106 caffeine) and bacterial colony forming units (CFU, 4.1 million CFU vehicle vs. 2.8 million CFU caffeine). In the infusion group, caffeine also did not alter survival. However, caffeine infusion did increase heart rate prior to CLP, and prevented the decline in heart rate after CLP. Conclusion Caffeine increased heart rate in mice but does not impact cytokine

  6. Rate, relative risk, and method of suicide by students at 4-year colleges and universities in the United States, 2004-2005 through 2008-2009.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Allan J

    2011-08-01

    A total of 622 suicides were reported among students attending 645 distinct campuses from 2004-2005 through 2008-2009. Adjusting for gender in the population at risk of 14.9 million student-years and for the source of these data, the student suicide rate of 7.0 was significantly and substantially lower than for a matched national sample. Suicide rates by firearm were significantly and substantially lower for both female and male students. Hanging was significantly and substantially lower for male students, less prominently so for female students. It is principally the ninefold decrease in the availability of firearms on campuses (vs. homes) and secondarily other features of the campus environment that are the bases for lower student suicide rates.

  7. A Statistical Comparison of First Time Praxis II Pass Rates between Homegrown 4 Year Students and Transfer Students of a Medium Size Suburban University: A Six Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Jason Edward, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    In order to meet the federal mandate specified by the No Child Left Behind Act to demonstrate content competency for teaching certification, students must pass a written examination. Missouri and 37 other states chose the Praxis II to satisfy requirements. Presently, schools of education advertise the passing rate of the Praxis II as 100%, since…

  8. Rate, Relative Risk, and Method of Suicide by Students at 4-Year Colleges and Universities in the United States, 2004-2005 through 2008-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Allan J.

    2011-01-01

    A total of 622 suicides were reported among students attending 645 distinct campuses from 2004-2005 through 2008-2009. Adjusting for gender in the population at risk of 14.9 million student-years and for the source of these data, the student suicide rate of 7.0 was significantly and substantially lower than for a matched national sample. Suicide…

  9. Does Percentage of Latinas/os Affect Graduation Rates at 4-Year Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSIs), Emerging HSIs, and Non-HSIs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Gina A.

    2013-01-01

    As the population of college-aged Latinas/os grows, the number of Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSIs) increases. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the percentage of Latinas/os has an effect on the institutional graduation rates of Latina/o students attending HSIs, emerging HSIs, and non-HSIs. Data were drawn from the Integrated…

  10. Estimating cancer mortality rates from SEER incidence and survival data.

    PubMed Central

    Chu, K C; Horm, J W; Smart, C R

    1990-01-01

    A method to estimate site-specific cancer mortality rates using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program incidence and survival data is proposed, calculated, and validated. This measure, the life table-derived mortality rate (LTM), is the sum of the product of the probability of being alive at the beginning of an interval times the probability of dying of the cancer of interest during the interval times the annual age-adjusted incidence rate for each year that data have been collected. When the LTM is compared to death certificate mortality rates (DCM) for organ sites with no known misclassification problems, the LTM was within 10 percent of the death certificate rates for 13 of 14 organ sites. In the sites that have problems with the death certificate rates, there were major disagreements between the LTM and DCM. The LTM was systematically lower than the DCM for sites if there was overreporting on the death certificates, and the LTM was higher than the DCM for sites if there was underreporting. The limitations and applications of the LTM are detailed. PMID:2106703

  11. Epidemiological Data and Survival Rate of Removable Partial Dentures

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Amália; Haddad, Marcela Filié; Rocha, Eduardo Passos; Assunção, Wirley Gonçalves; Filho, Humberto Gennari; Santos, Emerson Gomes Dos; Sonego, Mariana Vilela; Santos, Daniela Micheline Dos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The use of removable partial denture (RPD) is considered as low-cost and common treatment option to rehabilitate edentulous areas. Aim This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological data of patients rehabilitated with removable partial denture (RPD) in order to assess treatment survival rate and failures. Materials and Methods Epidemiological data and medical records of patients treated with RPD between 2007 and 2012 at the RPD discipline of a Brazilian University (Aracatuba Dental School- UNESP) were evaluated as well as dental records of patients who underwent RPD treatments (fabrication or repairs) between 2000 and 2010. Factors such as gender, age, presence of systemic disease, main complaint, edentulous arch, period and cause of denture replacement and the prosthesis characteristics were recorded. The chi-square test was used to assess the differences between the variables and the Kaplan Meyer to assess the survival of the RPDs evaluated. Results A total of 324 maxillary RPD and 432 mandibular RPD were fabricated. Most of the patients were women aging 41 to 60-year-old. The number of mandibular RPD Kennedy class I (26%) was statistically higher for the maxillary arch (p<.05). There was no association between main complaint to gender or the presence of systemic disease. The lingual plate was the most common major connector used in the mandible (32%). The main reason for altering the design of replaced RPDs were changes during treatment plan. Conclusion The number of patients who require RPD is large; most of RPDs are Kennedy Class I. A good treatment plan is very important for achieving a positive treatment outcome, and it is strictly related to the survival rate. PMID:27437367

  12. Prevalence of drug resistance and culture-positive rate among microorganisms isolated from patients with ocular infections over a 4-year period

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Yusuke; Toshida, Hiroshi; Honda, Rio; Matsui, Asaki; Ohta, Toshihiko; Asada, Yousuke; Murakami, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the microbial isolates from patients with ocular infections and the trend in the emergence of levofloxacin-resistant strains over the past four years from 2006 to 2009 retrospectively. Patients and methods The subjects were 242 patients with ocular infections or traumas treated in our hospital including outpatients, inpatients, and emergency room patients. Most of them needed urgent care presenting with eye complaints, traumas, or decreased vision. Clinical samples were obtained from discharges, corneal, conjunctival tissues or vitreous fluid or aqueous humor, and cultured. Items for assessment included the patient’s age, the diagnosis, the prevalence of isolated bacteria, and the results of susceptibility tests for levofloxacin (LVFX) cefamezin (CEZ), gentamicin (GM) and vancomycin. This information was obtained from the patients’ medical records. Results There were 156 male patients and 86 female patients who were aged from 2 months old to 94 years old and mean age was 56.8 ± 24.2 years. Of the 242 patients, 78 (32.2%) had positive cultures. The culture-positive rate was significantly higher in male patients than female in total (P = 0.002) and in patients with corneal perforation (P = 0.005). Corneal perforation was the highest culture-positive rate (60.0%), followed by orbital cellulitis (56.5%), blepharitis (50.0%), dacryoadenitis (45.5%), conjunctivitis (38.2%), infectious corneal ulcer (28.5%) and endophthalmitis (24.7%). LVFX-resistant strains accounted for 40 out of a total of 122 strains (32.8%), and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was significantly higher in LVFX and GM compared with the other antibiotics. There were no vancomycin-resistant strains. Conclusion Attention should be paid to a possible future increase of strains with resistance to LVFX, as commonly prescribed ocular antibiotics bring emergence of resistant bacteria. Although no vancomycin-resistant strains were isolated this drug should be reserved as

  13. 38 CFR 3.10 - Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... compensation rate for a surviving spouse. 3.10 Section 3.10 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... General § 3.10 Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse. (a) General determination of rate. When VA grants a surviving spouse entitlement to DIC, VA will determine the rate of...

  14. Inferences regarding survival and recovery rates of winter-banded canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Haramis, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    Banding and recovery data from 3 populations of winter-banded canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) were analyzed and survival and recovery rates were estimated. Sex-specific differences in these rates were detected in some populations, and lower survival rates were exhibited by females. Some geographic variation in survival rates was evident, suggesting that canvasbacks should not be managed strictly on a continent-wide basis. Evidence of temporal variation in both survival and recovery rates was found. Lower recovery rates were noted during periods of restrictive hunting regulations, but the relationship between survival rates and hunting regulations was not clear-cut.

  15. Survival and band recovery rates of sympatric grey ducks and mallards in New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caithness, T.; Williams, M.; Nichols, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    We used band recovery data from grey ducks (Anas superciliosa) and mallards. (A. platyrhynchos) banded sympatrically during 1957-74 to estimate annual survival and recovery rates. Young birds tended to have higher recovery rates and lower survival rates than adults for both species. Both species showed strong evidence of year-to-year variation in annual survival rates. Survival rates of male mallards were higher than those in females, as is typical for this species in North America, but there was no evidence of sex-specific survival differences in grey ducks. Recovery rate estimates for grey ducks were high and were significantly higher than those for mallards. However, survival rates did not differ significantly between the 2 species within any age-sex class. The similar survival rates, when mallard populations were increasing and grey ducks were decreasing, suggest that mallard reproductive rates have been greater than those of grey ducks.

  16. Band reporting rates of waterfowl: does individual heterogeneity bias estimated survival rates?

    PubMed Central

    White, Gary C; Cordes, Line S; Arnold, Todd W

    2013-01-01

    In capture–recapture studies, the estimation accuracy of demographic parameters is essential to the efficacy of management of hunted animal populations. Dead recovery models based upon the reporting of rings or bands are often used for estimating survival of waterfowl and other harvested species. However, distance from the ringing site or condition of the bird may introduce substantial individual heterogeneity in the conditional band reporting rates (r), which could cause bias in estimated survival rates (S) or suggest nonexistent individual heterogeneity in S. To explore these hypotheses, we ran two sets of simulations (n = 1000) in MARK using Seber's dead recovery model, allowing time variation on both S and r. This included a series of heterogeneity models, allowing substantial variation on logit(r), and control models with no heterogeneity. We conducted simulations using two different values of S: S = 0.60, which would be typical of dabbling ducks such as mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and S = 0.80, which would be more typical of sea ducks or geese. We chose a mean reporting rate on the logit scale of −1.9459 with SD = 1.5 for the heterogeneity models (producing a back-transformed mean of 0.196 with SD = 0.196, median = 0.125) and a constant reporting rate for the control models of 0.196. Within these sets of simulations, estimation models where σS = 0 and σS > 0 (σS is SD of individual survival rates on the logit scale) were incorporated to investigate whether real heterogeneity in r would induce apparent individual heterogeneity in S. Models where σS = 0 were selected approximately 91% of the time over models where σS > 0. Simulation results showed < 0.05% relative bias in estimating survival rates except for models estimating σS > 0 when true S = 0.8, where relative bias was a modest 0.5%. These results indicate that considerable variation in reporting rates does not cause major bias in estimated survival rates of waterfowl, further highlighting

  17. A new approach to the "apparent survival" problem: estimating true survival rates from mark-recapture studies.

    PubMed

    Gilroy, James J; Virzi, Thomas; Boulton, Rebecca L; Lockwood, Julie L

    2012-07-01

    Survival estimates generated from live capture-mark-recapture studies may be negatively biased due to the permanent emigration of marked individuals from the study area. In the absence of a robust analytical solution, researchers typically sidestep this problem by simply reporting estimates using the term "apparent survival." Here, we present a hierarchical Bayesian multistate model designed to estimate true survival by accounting for predicted rates of permanent emigration. Initially we use dispersal kernels to generate spatial projections of dispersal probability around each capture location. From these projections, we estimate emigration probability for each marked individual and use the resulting values to generate bias-adjusted survival estimates from individual capture histories. When tested using simulated data sets featuring variable detection probabilities, survival rates, and dispersal patterns, the model consistently eliminated negative biases shown by apparent survival estimates from standard models. When applied to a case study concerning juvenile survival in the endangered Cape Sable Seaside Sparrow (Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis), bias-adjusted survival estimates increased more than twofold above apparent survival estimates. Our approach is applicable to any capture-mark-recapture study design and should be particularly valuable for organisms with dispersive juvenile life stages. PMID:22919897

  18. The relationship between harvest and survival rates of mallards: A straightforward approach with partitioned data sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    We randomly partitioned mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) bandings and recoveries from each of a number of selected reference areas into 2 groups and estimated survival and harvest rates for each area and group. This procedure produced independent vectors of survival- and harvest-rate estimates, which were used to test the general hypothesis that mallard survival and harvest rates were inversely related. We used Spearman rank correlation analysis and z-test contrasts between survival rates from years of high vs. low harvest rates. We also conducted computer simulation experiments to gain insight into the ability of these analyses to detect the relationship of interest. The data analyses suggested that survival and harvest rates of young females were inversely related, at least for the 5 areas included in the analysis. However, for young males and adults of both sexes, the analyses provided no evidence of an inverse relationship between survival and harvest rates, except possibly in a few specific areas.

  19. The effects of hunting on survival rates of American black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, D.G.; Conroy, M.J.; Hines, J.E.; Percival, H.F.

    1988-01-01

    Using data from 10 preseason and 10 winter major reference areas from 1950-83, the authors tested hypotheses regarding the effects of hunting on the survival and recovery rates of the American black duck (Anas rubripes ). Although estimates of the proportion of total annual mortality due to hunting are low (35% for ad and 45% for young) compared to Blandin's (1982) estimates, mean mortality and kill rates have increased since 1982. When hunting regulations were liberalized, recovery rates increased and survival rates decreased in males whereas only recovery rates increased in females. Changes in hunting regulations appeared to affect survival rates of adult males and young American black ducks.

  20. Survival rates of female greater sage-grouse in autumn and winter in Southeastern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, R.G.; Willis, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    We estimated survival rates of 135 female greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) on 3 study areas in southeastern Oregon, USA during autumn and winter for 3 years. We used known-fate models in Program MARK to test for differences among study areas and years, investigate the potential influence of weather, and compute estimates of overwinter survival. We found no evidence for differences in survival rates among study areas, which was contrary to our original hypothesis. There also were no declines in survival rates during fallwinter, but survival rates varied among years and time within years. Average survival rate from October through February was 0.456 (SE 0.062). The coefficient of variation for this estimate was 13.6% indicating good precision in our estimates of survival. We found strong evidence for an effect of weather (i.e., mean daily min. temp, extreme min. temp, snow depth) on bi-weekly survival rates of sage-grouse for 2 of the study areas in one year. Extremely low (1,500 m) elevations. In contrast, we found no evidence for an influence of weather on the low-elevation study area or during the winters of 19891990 and 19911992. Extreme weather during winter can cause lower survival of adult female sage-grouse, so managers should be aware of these potential effects and reduce harvest rates accordingly.

  1. Additional comments on the assumption of homogenous survival rates in modern bird banding estimation models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Stokes, S.L.; Hines, J.E.; Conroy, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    We examined the problem of heterogeneous survival and recovery rates in bird banding estimation models. We suggest that positively correlated subgroup survival and recovery probabilities may result from winter banding operations and that this situation will produce positively biased survival rate estimates. The magnitude of the survival estimate bias depends on the proportion of the population in each subgroup. Power of the suggested goodness-of-fit test to reject the inappropriate model for heterogeneous data sets was low for all situations examined and was poorest for positively related subgroup survival and recovery rates. Despite the magnitude of some of the biases reported and the relative inability to detect heterogeneity, we suggest that levels of heterogeneity normally encountered in real data sets will produce relatively small biases of average survival rates.

  2. 38 CFR 3.10 - Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... compensation rate for a surviving spouse. 3.10 Section 3.10 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.10 Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse. (a)...

  3. 38 CFR 3.10 - Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... compensation rate for a surviving spouse. 3.10 Section 3.10 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.10 Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse. (a)...

  4. 38 CFR 3.10 - Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... compensation rate for a surviving spouse. 3.10 Section 3.10 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.10 Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse. (a)...

  5. Estimation of survival rates from band recoveries of mule deer in Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    White, G.C.; Bartmann, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    An attempt has been made to determine the survival rate of mule deer in the White River drainage basin in northwestern Colorado. During five winters, 1972-76, 1923 mule deer were trapped and marked. Survival rates were determined at yearly intervals. A FORTRAN program was used to perform the analysis.

  6. Variability in nest survival rates and implications to nesting studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, A.T.; Johnson, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    We used four reasonably large samples (83-213) of Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and Blue-winged Teal (A. discors) nests on an interstate highway right-of-way in southcentral North Dakota to evaluate potential biases in hatch-rate estimates. Twelve consecutive, weekly searches for nests were conducted with a cable-chain drag in 1976 and 1977. Nests were revisited at weekly intervals. Four methods were used to estimate hatch rates for the four data sets: the Traditional Method, the Mayfield Method, and two modifications of the Mayfield Method that are sometimes appropriate when daily mortality rates of nests are not constant. Hatch rates and the average age of nests at discovery declined as the interval between searches decreased, suggesting that mortality rates were not constant in our samples. An analysis of variance indicated that daily mortality rates varied with the age of nests in all four samples. Mortality was generally highest during the early laying period, moderately high during the late laying period, and lowest during incubation. We speculate that this relationship of mortality to nest age might be due to the presence of hens at nests or to differences in the vulnerability of nest sites to predation. A modification of the Mayfield Method that accounts for age-related variation in nest mortality was most appropriate for our samples. We suggest methods for conducting nesting studies and estimating nest success for species possessing similar nesting habits.

  7. Survival rates of adult lake trout in northwestern Lake Michigan, 1983-1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabrizio, Mary C.; Holey, Mark E.; McKee, Patrick C.; Toneys, Michael L.

    1997-01-01

    The restoration of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Michigan has been an elusive goal of resource management agencies in the Great Lakes region. In this study, we estimated annual survival rates of adult lake trout from an area in northwestern Lake Michigan known as the Clay Banks refuge. We tagged and recaptured fish with gill nets during the fall spawning season (N = 12,175; 1983–1989 and 1991–1993) and with pound nets in the spring (N = 52,035; 1984–1990 and 1992–1993). We fit Cormack–Jolly–Seber models to the two sets of data. We had insufficient data to analyze annual differences in survival rates of fall-tagged fish, but we were able to estimate an overall annual survival rate of 0.67. Annual survival rates of spring-tagged fish varied between 0.53 and 0.88 and increased after 1987–1988. In addition to the mark–recapture studies, we analyzed catch rates of lake trout from gill-net and pound-net surveys to estimate survival rates using catch curve analyses; these annual rates were generally lower than those estimated from mark–recapture analyses of tagged fish. However, survival rates of lake trout from the Clay Banks refuge appeared to meet the minimum rate believed necessary for restoration of this species in Lake Michigan. Furthermore, adult survival rates have been increasing in recent years, and lake trout restoration in Lake Michigan is not hampered by low survival of adult fish. We hypothesize that the recent decrease in abundance of adult lake trout is primarily due to decreases in survival rates of lake trout younger than 6 years.

  8. Survival rate of breast cancer patients in Malaysia: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Nor Aini; Wan Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita; Muhammad, Nor Asiah; Ali, Zainudin Mohamad; Ibrahim, Lailanor; Ibrahim Tamim, Nor Saleha; Mustafa, Amal Nasir; Kamaluddin, Muhammad Amir

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Malaysian women. Other than hospital-based results, there are no documented population-based survival rates of Malaysian women for breast cancers. This population- based retrospective cohort study was therefore conducted. Data were obtained from Health Informatics Centre, Ministry of Health Malaysia, National Cancer Registry and National Registration Department for the period from 1st Jan 2000 to 31st December 2005. Cases were captured by ICD-10 and linked to death certificates to identify the status. Only complete data were analysed. Survival time was calculated from the estimated date of diagnosis to the date of death or date of loss to follow-up. Observed survival rates were estimated by Kaplan- Meier method using SPSS Statistical Software version 17. A total of 10,230 complete data sets were analysed. The mean age at diagnosis was 50.6 years old. The overall 5-year survival rate was 49% with median survival time of 68.1 months. Indian women had a higher survival rate of 54% compared to Chinese women (49%) and Malays (45%). The overall 5-year survival rate of breast cancer patient among Malaysian women was still low for the cohort of 2000 to 2005 as compared to survival rates in developed nations. Therefore, it is necessary to enhance the strategies for early detection and intervention.

  9. Trends in 5-year survival rates among breast cancer patients by hormone receptor status and stage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lu; Linden, Hannah M.; Anderson, Benjamin O.; Li, Christopher I.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Improvement in breast cancer survival has been observed in recent decades in the U.S., but it is unclear if similar survival gains are consistent across breast cancer subtypes, especially with regards to more advanced stages of the disease. Methods Data were from 13 population-based cancer registries participating in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program, consisting of women between 20–79 years of age diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 1992 and 2008. 2-year (1992–2008) and 5-year (1992–2006) breast cancer cause-specific survival rates were calculated and stratified by estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) status, stage and race. Annual percent changes in survival rates were assessed. Results From 1992 through 1998–1999, 5-year and 2-year cause specific survival rates significantly improved across ER+/PR+, ER−/PR− and ER+/PR− subtypes, with an annual increase ranging from 0.5%–1.0%. From 1998–1999 to 2006, different patterns were observed by ER/PR subtypes with survival rates slightly improving for ER+/PR+, continuing to improve at a rate of 0.5% per year for ER−/PR−, and dropping 0.3% annually for ER+/PR− No significant survival gains were experienced by patients with ER−/PR+ cancer during the study period. In terms of advanced diseases, greatest annual increases in survival rates were seen for patients with stage III–IV ER+/PR+ and ER−/PR− tumors but less progress was observed for advanced ER+/PR− breast cancers. Conclusion Steady improvements in survival rates for breast cancer have been achieved over the past several decades. However, 5-year survival rates for stage IV disease remained dismally below 20% for most ER/PR subtypes. PMID:25164974

  10. Is the rate of metabolic ageing and survival determined by Basal metabolic rate in the zebra finch?

    PubMed

    Rønning, Bernt; Moe, Børge; Berntsen, Henrik H; Noreen, Elin; Bech, Claus

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between energy metabolism and ageing is of great interest because aerobic metabolism is the primary source of reactive oxygen species which is believed to be of major importance in the ageing process. We conducted a longitudinal study on captive zebra finches where we tested the effect of age on basal metabolic rate (BMR), as well as the effect of BMR on the rate of metabolic ageing (decline in BMR with age) and survival. Basal metabolic rate declined with age in both sexes after controlling for the effect of body mass, indicating a loss of functionality with age. This loss of functionality could be due to accumulated oxidative damage, believed to increase with increasing metabolic rate, c.f. the free radical theory of ageing. If so, we would expect the rate of metabolic ageing to increase and survival to decrease with increasing BMR. However, we found no effect of BMR on the rate of metabolic ageing. Furthermore, survival was not affected by BMR in the males. In female zebra finches there was a tendency for survival to decrease with increasing BMR, but the effect did not reach significance (P<0.1). Thus, the effect of BMR on the rate of functional deterioration with age, if any, was not strong enough to influence neither the rate of metabolic ageing nor survival in the zebra finches.

  11. Monitoring survival rates of Swainson's Thrush Catharus ustulatus at multiple spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberg, D.K.; DeSante, D.F.; McKelvey, K.S.; Hines, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    We estimated survival rates of Swainson's Thrush, a common, neotropical, migratory landbird, at multiple spatial scales, using data collected in the western USA from the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship Programme. We evaluated statistical power to detect spatially heterogeneous survival rates and exponentially declining survival rates among spatial scales with simulated populations parameterized from results of the Swainson's Thrush analyses. Models describing survival rates as constant across large spatial scales did not fit the data. The model we chose as most appropriate to describe survival rates of Swainson's Thrush allowed survival rates to vary among Physiographic Provinces, included a separate parameter for the probability that a newly captured bird is a resident individual in the study population, and constrained capture probability to be constant across all stations. Estimated annual survival rates under this model varied from 0.42 to 0.75 among Provinces. The coefficient of variation of survival estimates ranged from 5.8 to 20% among Physiographic Provinces. Statistical power to detect exponentially declining trends was fairly low for small spatial scales, although large annual declines (3% of previous year's rate) were likely to be detected when monitoring was conducted for long periods of time (e.g. 20 years). Although our simulations and field results are based on only four years of data from a limited number and distribution of stations, it is likely that they illustrate genuine difficulties inherent to broadscale efforts to monitor survival rates of territorial landbirds. In particular, our results suggest that more attention needs to be paid to sampling schemes of monitoring programmes, particularly regarding the trade-off between precision and potential bias of parameter estimates at varying spatial scales.

  12. Monitoring survival rates of Swainson's Thrush Catharus ustulatus at multiple spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberg, D.K.; DeSante, D.F.; McKelvey, K.S.; Hines, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    We estimated survival rates of Swainson's Thrush, a common, neotropical, migratory landbird, at multiple spatial scales, using data collected in the western USA from the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship Programme. We evaluated statistical power to detect spatially heterogeneous survival rates and exponentially declining survival rates among spatial scales with simulated populations parameterized from results of the Swainson's Thrush analyses. Models describing survival rates as constant across large spatial scales did not fit the data. The model we chose as most appropriate to describe survival rates of Swainson's Thrush allowed survival rates to vary among Physiographic Provinces, included a separate parameter for the probability that a newly captured bird is a resident individual in the study population, and constrained capture probability to be constant across all stations. Estimated annual survival rates under this model varied from 0.42 to 0.75 among Provinces. The coefficient of variation of survival estimates ranged from 5.8 to 20% among Physiographic Provinces. Statistical power to detect exponentially declining trends was fairly low for small spatial scales, although large annual declines (3% of previous year's rate) were likely to be detected when monitoring was conducted for long periods of time (e.g. 20 years). Although our simulations and field results are based on only four years of date from a limited number and distribution of stations, it is likely that they illustrate genuine difficulties inherent to broadscale efforts to monitor survival rates of territorial landbirds. In particular, our results suggest that more attention needs to be paid to sampling schemes of monitoring programmes particularly regarding the trade-off between precison and potential bias o parameter estimates at varying spatial scales.

  13. Aircrew Survival Equipmentman 1 and C. NAVPERS 10360-D. Rate Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    A guide for advancement and training in the Aircrew Survival Equipmentman rating for enlisted personnel of the Regular Navy and the Naval Reserve is provided in this training manual. The chapters outline the qualifications necessary and the responsibilities of Aircrew Survival Equipmentmen involved in blueprint reading and the development of…

  14. Aircrew Survival Equipmentman 3 & 2; Naval Training Command Rate Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    The training manual is one of a series prepared for enlisted personnel of the Regular Navy and the Naval Reserve who are training for performance proficiency and studying for advancement in the Aircrew Survival Equipmentman (PR) rating. The illustrated and indexed manual focuses on the personnel parachute and other related survival equipment.…

  15. 38 CFR 3.23 - Improved pension rates-Veterans and surviving spouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality of life. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 501) Cross References: Improved pension. See § 3.1(w). Child. See...-Veterans and surviving spouses. 3.23 Section 3.23 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF....23 Improved pension rates—Veterans and surviving spouses. (a) Maximum annual rates of...

  16. 38 CFR 3.23 - Improved pension rates-Veterans and surviving spouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality of life. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 501) Cross References: Improved pension. See § 3.1(w). Child. See...-Veterans and surviving spouses. 3.23 Section 3.23 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF....23 Improved pension rates—Veterans and surviving spouses. (a) Maximum annual rates of...

  17. 38 CFR 3.23 - Improved pension rates-Veterans and surviving spouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality of life. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 501) Cross References: Improved pension. See § 3.1(w). Child. See...-Veterans and surviving spouses. 3.23 Section 3.23 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF....23 Improved pension rates—Veterans and surviving spouses. (a) Maximum annual rates of...

  18. 38 CFR 3.23 - Improved pension rates-Veterans and surviving spouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality of life. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 501) Cross References: Improved pension. See § 3.1(w). Child. See...-Veterans and surviving spouses. 3.23 Section 3.23 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF....23 Improved pension rates—Veterans and surviving spouses. (a) Maximum annual rates of...

  19. 38 CFR 3.23 - Improved pension rates-Veterans and surviving spouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality of life. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 501) Cross References: Improved pension. See § 3.1(w). Child. See...-Veterans and surviving spouses. 3.23 Section 3.23 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF....23 Improved pension rates—Veterans and surviving spouses. (a) Maximum annual rates of...

  20. Adult survival and population growth rate in Colorado big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, T.J.; Ellison, L.E.; Stanley, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    We studied adult survival and population growth at multiple maternity colonies of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Fort Collins, Colorado. We investigated hypotheses about survival using information-theoretic methods and mark-recapture analyses based on passive detection of adult females tagged with passive integrated transponders. We constructed a 3-stage life-history matrix model to estimate population growth rate (??) and assessed the relative importance of adult survival and other life-history parameters to population growth through elasticity and sensitivity analysis. Annual adult survival at 5 maternity colonies monitored from 2001 to 2005 was estimated at 0.79 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.77-0.82). Adult survival varied by year and roost, with low survival during an extreme drought year, a finding with negative implications for bat populations because of the likelihood of increasing drought in western North America due to global climate change. Adult survival during winter was higher than in summer, and mean life expectancies calculated from survival estimates were lower than maximum longevity records. We modeled adult survival with recruitment parameter estimates from the same population. The study population was growing (?? = 1.096; 95% CI = 1.057-1.135). Adult survival was the most important demographic parameter for population growth. Growth clearly had the highest elasticity to adult survival, followed by juvenile survival and adult fecundity (approximately equivalent in rank). Elasticity was lowest for fecundity of yearlings. The relative importances of the various life-history parameters for population growth rate are similar to those of large mammals. ?? 2011 American Society of Mammalogists.

  1. Implant survival rates, marginal bone level changes, and complications in full-mouth rehabilitation with flapless computer-guided surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Moraschini, V; Velloso, G; Luz, D; Barboza, E Porto

    2015-07-01

    This systematic review evaluated the implant survival rate, changes in marginal bone level, and complications associated with guided surgery for the treatment of fully edentulous patients followed up for longer than 1 year. A comprehensive literature search was conducted in MEDLINE/PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) to retrieve studies published up until July 2014 that met predefined eligibility criteria. Thirteen studies were included. In studies on the guided surgery technique, a survival rate of 97.2% and a mean marginal bone loss of 1.45 mm were found during 1-4 years of follow-up. However, associated complications, such as implant loss, prosthesis or surgical guide fractures, and low primary stability, were often found, and there is a learning curve to achieve treatment success. Further longitudinal comparative studies should improve the technique and its success rate.

  2. Estimating survival rates with time series of standing age-structure data.

    PubMed

    Udevitz, Mark S; Gogan, Peter J P

    2012-04-01

    It has long been recognized that age-structure data contain useful information for assessing the status and dynamics of wildlife populations. For example, age-specific survival rates can be estimated with just a single sample from the age distribution of a stable, stationary population. For a population that is not stable, age-specific survival rates can be estimated using techniques such as inverse methods that combine time series of age-structure data with other demographic data. However, estimation of survival rates using these methods typically requires numerical optimization, a relatively long time series of data, and smoothing or other constraints to provide useful estimates. We developed general models for possibly unstable populations that combine time series of age-structure data with other demographic data to provide explicit maximum likelihood estimators of age-specific survival rates with as few as two years of data. As an example, we applied these methods to estimate survival rates for female bison (Bison bison) in Yellowstone National Park, USA. This approach provides a simple tool for monitoring survival rates based on age-structure data.

  3. Survival Rate of Short, Locking Taper Implants with a Plateau Design: A 5-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Demiralp, Kemal Özgür; Akbulut, Nihat; Kursun, Sebnem; Argun, Didem; Bagis, Nilsun; Orhan, Kaan

    2015-01-01

    Background. Short implants have become popular in the reconstruction of jaws, especially in cases with limited bone height. Shorter implants, those with locking tapers and plateau root shapes, tend to have longer survival times. We retrospectively investigated the cumulative survival rates of Bicon short implants (<8 mm) according to patient variables over a 5-year period. Materials and Methods. This study included 111 consecutively treated patients with 371 implants supporting fixed or removable prosthetics. Data were evaluated to acquire cumulative survival rates according to gender, age, tobacco use, surgical procedure, bone quality, and restoration type. Statistics were performed using chi-square, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal Wallis H tests. Results. The survival rate was 97.3% with, on average, 22.8 months of follow-up. Patients older than 60 years had higher failure rate than the other age groups (P < 0.05). Placed region, age, and bone quality had adverse effects on survival rate in the <8 mm implant group with statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Approximately 23-month follow-up data indicate that short implants with locking tapers and plateau-type roots have comparable survival rates as other types of dental implants. However, due to limitations of study, these issues remain to be further investigated in future randomized controlled clinical trials. PMID:25961004

  4. Estimating survival rates with time series of standing age-structure data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Udevitz, Mark S.; Gogan, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    It has long been recognized that age-structure data contain useful information for assessing the status and dynamics of wildlife populations. For example, age-specific survival rates can be estimated with just a single sample from the age distribution of a stable, stationary population. For a population that is not stable, age-specific survival rates can be estimated using techniques such as inverse methods that combine time series of age-structure data with other demographic data. However, estimation of survival rates using these methods typically requires numerical optimization, a relatively long time series of data, and smoothing or other constraints to provide useful estimates. We developed general models for possibly unstable populations that combine time series of age-structure data with other demographic data to provide explicit maximum likelihood estimators of age-specific survival rates with as few as two years of data. As an example, we applied these methods to estimate survival rates for female bison (Bison bison) in Yellowstone National Park, USA. This approach provides a simple tool for monitoring survival rates based on age-structure data.

  5. TFF3 and survivin expressions associate with a lower survival rate in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jia-Rong; Tang, Hui-Zhong; Zhou, Kai-Zong; Shen, Wu-Hong; Guo, He-Yi

    2013-11-01

    Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) and survivin with functions of inhibiting apoptosis are involved in the gastric cancer by overexpression. The purpose of this study is to examine the expression of TFF3 and survivin in patients' tissue samples with gastric cancer and analyze the relationship between the protein expression and the different clinical records. By studying the expressions of TFF3 and survivin in gastric cancer through immunohistochemical staining and examining the survival rate via Kaplan-Meier analysis for gastric cancer patients, we found that the TFF3 and survivin positive expressions have a significant relationship with the lower survival rate comparing to that of negative expressions in the analyzed patients (P < 0.05). And moreover, patients with double positive TFF3 and survivin expressions have the lowest survival rate. TFF3 or survivin positive expression correlates with the lymph node metastasis, metastasis, and TNM stages of gastric cancer. Survival analysis indicates that survival rate has a close relationship with the age, tumor histology, tumor differentiation, degree of infiltration, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, and TNM stages (P < 0.01). Our data suggest that TFF3 and survivin expressions play a vital role in gastric cancer development, and these two proteins are important markers for prognosis in gastric cancer. Patients with gastric cancer can increase the survival rate through an earlier diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

  6. Survival rates, mortality causes, and habitats of Pennsylvania white-tailed deer fawns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vreeland, J.K.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Wallingford, B.D.

    2004-01-01

    Estimates of survival and cause-specific mortality of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns are important to population management. We quantified cause-specific mortality, survival rates, and habitat characteristics related to fawn survival in a forested landscape and an agricultural landscape in central Pennsylvania. We captured and radiocollared neonatal (0.05). Predation accounted for 46.2% (95% Cl = 37.6-56.7%) of 106 mortalities through 34 weeks. We attributed 32.7% (95% Cl = 21.9-48.6%) and 36.7% (95% Cl = 25.5-52.9%) of 49 predation events to black bears (Ursus americanus) and coyotes (Canis latrans], respectively. Natural causes, excluding predation, accounted for 27.4% (95% Cl = 20.1-37.3) of mortalities. Fawn survival in Pennsylvania was comparable to reported survival in forested and agricultural regions in northern portions of the white-tailed deer range. We have no evidence to suggest that the fawn survival rates we observed were preventing population growth. Because white-tailed deer are habitat generalists, home-range-scale habitat characteristics may be unrelated to fawn survival; therefore, future studies should consider landscape-related characteristics on fawn survival.

  7. Effects of habitat disturbance on survival rates of softshell turtles (Apalone spinifera) in an urban stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plummer, M.V.; Krementz, D.G.; Powell, L.A.; Mills, N.E.

    2008-01-01

    We monitored Spiny Softshell Turtles (Apalone spinifera) using mark-recapture during 1994-2005 in Gin Creek, Searcy, Arkansas. In 1997-2000 the creek bed and riparian zone were bulldozed in an effort to remove debris and improve water flow. This disturbance appeared to reduce the quantity and quality of turtle habitat. We tested for the potential effect of this habitat disturbance on the survival rates of marked turtles. We estimated annual survival rates for the population using models that allowed for variation in survival by state of maturation, year, and effects of the disturbance; we evaluated two different models of the disturbance impact. The first disturbance model incorporated a single change in survival rates, following the disturbance, whereas the second disturbance model incorporated three survival rates: pre- and postdisturbance, as well as a short-term decline during the disturbance. We used a state-transition model for our mark-recapture analysis, as softshells transition from juveniles to adults in a variable period of time. Our analysis indicated that survival varied by maturation state and was independent of a time trend or the disturbance. Annual survival rates were lower for juveniles (S?? = 0.717, SE = 0.039) than for adults (S?? = 0.836, SE = 0.025). Despite the dramatic habitat disturbance, we found no negative effects on survival rates. Our results demonstrate that, like a few other freshwater turtle species known to thrive in urban environments, populations of A. spinifera are resilient and can persist in urban environments despite periodic habitat disturbances. Copyright 2008 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  8. Banding reference areas and survival rates of green-winged teal, 1950-1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chu, D.S.; Nichols, J.D.; Hestbeck, J.B.; Hines, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    The green-winged teal (Anas crecca carolinensis) is an important harvest species, yet we know relatively little about its population ecology. We investigated aspects of green-winged teal population ecology of potential importance to waterfowl managers. We used recoveries of green-winged teal banded during winter (1950-89) to establish banding reference areas and estimate survival and band recovery rates. We used cluster analysis based on similarities in recovery patterns to group banding degree blocks into 8 minor and 5 major reference areas describing the principal wintering range of green-winged teal in North America. We then estimated survival and recovery rates of green-winged teal banded in these areas. Mean annual survival rate estimates across years and reference areas were similar (P gt 0.05) for males (0.55, cxa SE = 0.022) and females (0.51, cxa SE = 0.057). Mean annual recovery rate estimates were larger for males (0.033, cxa SE = 0.0017) than for females (0.024, cxa SE = 0.0024) (P lt 0.01). There was little evidence of temporal variation in survival or recovery rates for most datasets. There was evidence of geographic variation in survival rates among major reference areas for males (P = 0.04) but not for females (P = 0.30). We recommend that analyses be conducted on greenwinged teal banded during preseason to further investigate possible sex specificity of survival rates and to address questions about the relationship between harvest rates and survival.

  9. Modeling the effect of toe clipping on treefrog survival: Beyond the return rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waddle, J.H.; Rice, K.G.; Mazzotti, F.J.; Percival, H.F.

    2008-01-01

    Some studies have described a negative effect of toe clipping on return rates of marked anurans, but the return rate is limited in that it does not account for heterogeneity of capture probabilities. We used open population mark-recapture models to estimate both apparent survival (ϕ) and the recapture probability (p) of two treefrog species individually marked by clipping 2–4 toes. We used information-theoretic model selection to examine the effect of toe clipping on survival while accounting for variation in capture probability. The model selection results indicate strong support for an effect of toe clipping on survival of Green Treefrogs (Hyla cinerea) and only limited support for an effect of toe clipping on capture probability. We estimate there was a mean absolute decrease in survival of 5.02% and 11.16% for Green Treefrogs with three and four toes removed, respectively, compared to individuals with just two toes removed. Results for Squirrel Treefrogs (Hyla squirella) indicate little support for an effect of toe clipping on survival but may indicate some support for a negative effect on capture probability. We believe that the return rate alone should not be used to examine survival of marked animals because constant capture probability must be assumed, and our examples demonstrate how capture probability may vary over time and among groups. Mark-recapture models provide a method for estimating the effect of toe clipping on anuran survival in situations where unique marks are applied.

  10. Program CONTRAST--A general program for the analysis of several survival or recovery rate estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hines, J.E.; Sauer, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This manual describes the use of program CONTRAST, which implements a generalized procedure for the comparison of several rate estimates. This method can be used to test both simple and composite hypotheses about rate estimates, and we discuss its application to multiple comparisons of survival rate estimates. Several examples of the use of program CONTRAST are presented. Program CONTRAST will run on IBM-cimpatible computers, and requires estimates of the rates to be tested, along with associated variance and covariance estimates.

  11. Monitoring survival rates of landbirds at varying spatial scales: An application of the MAPS Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberg, D.K.; DeSante, D.F.; Hines, J.E.; Bonney, Rick; Pashley, David N.; Cooper, Robert; Niles, Larry

    2000-01-01

    Survivorship is a primary demographic parameter affecting population dynamics, and thus trends in species abundance. The Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship (MAPS) program is a cooperative effort designed to monitor landbird demographic parameters. A principle goal of MAPS is to estimate annual survivorship and identify spatial patterns and temporal trends in these rates. We evaluated hypotheses of spatial patterns in survival rates among a collection of neighboring sampling sites, such as within national forests, among biogeographic provinces, and between breeding populations that winter in either Central or South America, and compared these geographic-specific models to a model of a common survival rate among all sampling sites. We used data collected during 1992-1995 from Swainson's Thrush (Cathorus ustulatus) populations in the western region of the United States. We evaluated the ability to detect spatial and temporal patterns of survivorship with simulated data. We found weak evidence of spatial differences in survival rates at the local scale of 'location,' which typically contained 3 mist-netting stations. There was little evidence of differences in survival rates among biogeographic provinces or between populations that winter in either Central or South America. When data were pooled for a regional estimate of survivorship, the percent relative bias due to pooling 'locations' was 12 years of monitoring. Detection of spatial patterns and temporal trends in survival rates from local to regional scales will provide important information for management and future research directed toward conservation of landbirds.

  12. Demography of forest birds in Panama: How do transients affect estimates of survival rates?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brawn, J.D.; Karr, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Robinson, W.D.; Adams, N.J.; Slotow, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    Estimates of annual survival rates of neotropical birds have proven controversial. Traditionally, tropical birds were thought to have high survival rates for their size, but analyses of a multispecies assemblage from Panama by Karr et al. (1990) provided a counterexample to that view. One criticism of that study has been that the estimates were biased by transient birds captured only once as they passed through the area being sampled. New models that formally adjust for transient individuals have been developed since 1990. Preliminary analyses indicate that these models are indeed useful in modelling the data from Panama. Nonetheless, there is considerable interspecific variation and overall estimates of annual survival rates for understorey birds in Panama remain lower than those from other studies in the Neotropics and well below the rates long assumed for tropical birds (i.e. > 0.80). Therefore, tropical birds may not have systematically higher survival rates than temperate-zone species. Variation in survival rates among tropical species suggests that theory based on a simple tradeoff between clutch size and longevity is inadequate. The demographic traits of birds in the tropics (and elsewhere) vary within and among species according to some combination of historical and ongoing ecological factors. Understanding these processes is the challenge for future work.

  13. Estimating the personal cure rate of cancer patients using population-based grouped cancer survival data.

    PubMed

    Binbing Yu; Tiwari, Ram C; Feuer, Eric J

    2011-06-01

    Cancer patients are subject to multiple competing risks of death and may die from causes other than the cancer diagnosed. The probability of not dying from the cancer diagnosed, which is one of the patients' main concerns, is sometimes called the 'personal cure' rate. Two approaches of modelling competing-risk survival data, namely the cause-specific hazards approach and the mixture model approach, have been used to model competing-risk survival data. In this article, we first show the connection and differences between crude cause-specific survival in the presence of other causes and net survival in the absence of other causes. The mixture survival model is extended to population-based grouped survival data to estimate the personal cure rate. Using the colorectal cancer survival data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Programme, we estimate the probabilities of dying from colorectal cancer, heart disease, and other causes by age at diagnosis, race and American Joint Committee on Cancer stage.

  14. Demography of forest birds in Panama: How do transients affect estimates of survival rates?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brawn, J.D.; Karr, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Robinson, W.D.; Adams, N.J.; Slotow, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    Estimates of annual survival rates for a multispecies sample of neotropical birds from Panama have proven controversial. Traditionally, tropical birds were thought to have high survival rates for their size, but analyses by Kart et al. (1990. Am. Nat. 136:277-91) contradicted that view, suggesting tropical birds may not have systematically high survival rates. A persistent criticism of that study has been that the estimates were biased by transient birds captured only once as they passed through the area being sampled. New models that formally adjust for transient individuals have been developed since 1990. Preliminary analyses using these models indicate that, despite some variation among species, overall estimates of survival rates for understory birds in Panama are not strongly affected by adjustments for transients. We also compare estimates of survival rates based on mark-recapture models with observations of colour-marked birds. The demographic traits of birds in the tropics (and elsewhere) vary within and among species according to combinations of historical and ongoing ecological factors. Understanding sources of this variation is the challenge for future work.

  15. Differential rates of ischemic cholangiopathy and graft survival associated with induction therapy in DCD liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Halldorson, J B; Bakthavatsalam, R; Montenovo, M; Dick, A; Rayhill, S; Perkins, J; Reyes, J

    2015-01-01

    Transplantation utilizing donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors is associated with ischemic cholangiopathy (IC) and graft loss. The University of Washington (UW) DCD experience totals 89 DCD liver transplants performed between 2003 and 2011. Overall outcome after DCD liver transplantation at UW demonstrates Kaplan-Meier estimated 5-year patient and graft survival rates of 81.6% and 75.6%, respectively, with the great majority of patient and graft losses occurring in the first-year posttransplant from IC. Our program has almost exclusively utilized either anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) or basiliximab induction (86/89) for DCD liver transplantations. Analysis of the differential effect of induction agent on graft survival demonstrated graft survival of 96.9% at 1 year for ATG versus 75.9% for basiliximab (p = 0.013). The improved survival did not appear to be from a lower rate of rejection (21.9% vs. 22.2%) but rather a differential rate of IC, 35.2% for basiliximab versus 12.5% for ATG (p = 0.011). Multivariable analysis demonstrated induction agent to be independently associated with graft survival and IC free graft survival when analyzed against variables including donor age, fWIT, donor cold ischemia time and transplant era. PMID:25534449

  16. Problems in estimating age-specific survival rates from recovery data of birds ringed as young

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, D.R.; Burnham, Kenneth P.; White, Gary C.

    1985-01-01

    (1) The life table model is frequently employed in the analysis of ringer samples of young in bird populations. The basic model is biologically unrealistic and of little use in making inferences concerning age-specific survival probabilities. (2) This model rests on a number of restrictive assumptions, the failure of which causes serious biases. Several important assumptions are not met with real data and the estimators of age-specific survival are not robust enough to these failures. (3) Five major problems in the use of the life table method are reviewed. Examples are provided to illustrate several of the problems involved in using this method in making inferences about survival rates and its age-specific nature. (4) We conclude that this is an invalid procedure and it should not be used. Furthermore, ringing studies involving only young birds are pointless as regards survival estimation because no valid method exists for estimating age-specific or time-specific survival rates from such data. (5) In our view, inferences about age-specific survival rates are possible only if both young and adult (or young, subadult and adult) age classes are ringed each year for k years (k ≥ 2).

  17. The Dominance of Warming Rate Over Cooling Rate in the Survival of Mouse Oocytes Subjected to a Vitrification Procedure✰

    PubMed Central

    Seki, Shinsuke; Mazur, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The formation of more than trace amounts of ice in cells is lethal. The two contrasting routes to avoiding it are slow equilibrium freezing and vitrification. The cryopreservation of mammalian oocytes by either method continues to be difficult, but there seems a slowly emerging consensus that vitrification procedures are somewhat better for mouse and human oocytes. The approach in these latter procedures is to load cells with high concentrations of glass-inducing solutes and cool them at rates high enough to induce the glassy state. Several devices have been developed to achieve very high cooling rates. Our study has been concerned with the relative influences of warming rate and cooling rate on the survival of mouse oocytes subjected to a vitrification procedure. Oocytes suspended in an ethylene glycol-acetamide-Ficoll-sucrose solution were cooled to −196°C at rates ranging from 37°C/min to 1827°C/min between 20°C and −120°C, and for each cooling rate, warmed at rates ranging from 139°C/min to 2950°C/min between −70°C and −35°C. The results are unambiguous. If the samples were warmed at the highest rate, survivals were >80% over cooling rates of 187°C/min to 1827°C/min. If the samples were warmed at the lowest rate, survivals were near 0% regardless of the cooling rate. We interpret the lethality of slow warming to be a consequence of it allowing time for the growth of small intracellular ice crystals by recrystallization. PMID:19427303

  18. Temperature, Larval Diet, and Density Effects on Development Rate and Survival of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Couret, Jannelle; Dotson, Ellen; Benedict, Mark Q.

    2014-01-01

    Many environmental factors, biotic and abiotic interact to influence organismal development. Given the importance of Aedes aegypti as a vector of human pathogens including dengue and yellow fever, understanding the impact of environmental factors such as temperature, resource availability, and intraspecific competition during development is critical for population control purposes. Despite known associations between developmental traits and factors of diet and density, temperature has been considered the primary driver of development rate and survival. To determine the relative importance of these critical factors, wide gradients of conditions must be considered. We hypothesize that 1) diet and density, as well as temperature influence the variation in development rate and survival, 2) that these factors interact, and this interaction is also necessary to understand variation in developmental traits. Temperature, diet, density, and their two-way interactions are significant factors in explaining development rate variation of the larval stages of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. These factors as well as two and three-way interactions are significantly associated with the development rate from hatch to emergence. Temperature, but not diet or density, significantly impacted juvenile mortality. Development time was heteroskedastic with the highest variation occurring at the extremes of diet and density conditions. All three factors significantly impacted survival curves of experimental larvae that died during development. Complex interactions may contribute to variation in development rate. To better predict variation in development rate and survival in Ae. aegypti, factors of resource availability and intraspecific density must be considered in addition, but never to the exclusion of temperature. PMID:24498328

  19. Temperature, larval diet, and density effects on development rate and survival of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Couret, Jannelle; Dotson, Ellen; Benedict, Mark Q

    2014-01-01

    Many environmental factors, biotic and abiotic interact to influence organismal development. Given the importance of Aedes aegypti as a vector of human pathogens including dengue and yellow fever, understanding the impact of environmental factors such as temperature, resource availability, and intraspecific competition during development is critical for population control purposes. Despite known associations between developmental traits and factors of diet and density, temperature has been considered the primary driver of development rate and survival. To determine the relative importance of these critical factors, wide gradients of conditions must be considered. We hypothesize that 1) diet and density, as well as temperature influence the variation in development rate and survival, 2) that these factors interact, and this interaction is also necessary to understand variation in developmental traits. Temperature, diet, density, and their two-way interactions are significant factors in explaining development rate variation of the larval stages of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. These factors as well as two and three-way interactions are significantly associated with the development rate from hatch to emergence. Temperature, but not diet or density, significantly impacted juvenile mortality. Development time was heteroskedastic with the highest variation occurring at the extremes of diet and density conditions. All three factors significantly impacted survival curves of experimental larvae that died during development. Complex interactions may contribute to variation in development rate. To better predict variation in development rate and survival in Ae. aegypti, factors of resource availability and intraspecific density must be considered in addition, but never to the exclusion of temperature.

  20. Survival rates and risk factors for mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus patients in a Chinese center.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ge; Jia, Xiaoyuan; Gao, Dan; Zhao, Zhanzheng

    2014-07-01

    This paper aims to study the survival and risk factors affecting the long-term prognosis of Chinese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We collected clinical data of 1,072 SLE patients at the time of diagnosis. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the survival rate, and the Cox proportional hazard regression model for the risk factors affecting prognosis. Of the original 1,072 recruited SLE patients, 665 (570 females and 95 males) were successfully followed up. Mean follow-up was 5.47 ± 4.62 years. Mean age of onset was 29.4 ± 13.4 years. Eighty-one patients did not survive during follow-up; infection, followed by cardiovascular disease, renal failure and SLE disease activity were the leading causes of death. The 5- and 10-year survival rates were 91.2 and 79.6 %, respectively. Moreover, the 5-year survival rates of female and male patients were 92.6 and 81.6 % respectively, and the 10-year survival rates were 80.8 and 62.3 %, respectively. Univariate analyses indicated that male gender, older age of onset, hypertension, increased blood creatinine levels, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol at the time of diagnosis of SLE were risk factors for all-cause mortality. After adjusting for potential confounders by multivariate analysis, male gender, older age of onset, and high SLEDAI scores at the time of diagnosis were independent risk factors for all-cause mortality in SLE patients. The long-term survival of Chinese SLE patients is comparable to that of other countries. Older age of onset, high disease activity, and decline in renal function are independent risk factors for mortality in patients with SLE.

  1. Spring-summer survival rates of yearling versus adult mallard females

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, R.E.; Blohm, R.J.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the timing, magnitude, and cause of mortality in wildlife populations is imperative for developing management strategies that protect or improve the status of these populations. Age- and sex-specific population parameter estimates provide the most useful information for this purpose. Numerous studies have provided information about survival rates in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), but little is known about age-related differences in female survival during the breeding period. We examined band-recovery data for female mallards banded in southern portions of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba during spring and summer 1981-85. We used band-recovery models to test the hypothesis that yearling females would exhibit higher survival compared with that of older females during spring-summer. There was evidence (P = 0.08) that spring-summer survival rates of yearling females (0.728) were higher than that of older females (0.574). These findings support the hypothesis that age-specific differences in nesting behavior (e.g., later nest initiation and fewer nesting attempts by yearlings) influence losses to predators and are responsible for the difference in spring-summer survival. Management treatments that increase nest success, and consequently reduce the need for prolonged nesting, will increase mallard survival during spring-summer.

  2. Age-specificity of black-capped chickadee survival rates: Analysis of capture-recapture data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loery, G.; Pollock, K.H.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    The ornithological literature indicates a widespread belief in two generalizations about the age-specificity of avian survival rates: (1) survival rates of young birds for some period following fledging are lower than those of adults, and (2) after reaching adulthood survival rates are constant for birds of all ages. There is a growing body of evidence in support of the first generalization, although little is known about how long the survival difference between young and adults lasts. This latter question can be addressed with capture-recapture or band recovery studies based on birds marked in the winter, but the inability to determine age in many species during winter has prevented the use of standard methods. There is very little evidence supporting the second generalization, and we are in need of methods and actual analyses that address this question. In the present paper we restate the two generalizations as hypotheses and test them using data from a wintering Black-capped Chickadee (Parus atricapillus) population in Connecticut, which has been studied by Loery for 26 yr. We use a cohort-based Jolly-Seber approach, which should be useful in other investigations of this nature. We found strong evidence of lower survival rates in 1st-yr birds than in adults, but could not determine whether this was the result of higher mortality rates, higher emigration rates, or a combination of the two. We also found evidence that survival rates of adult birds were not constant with age but decreased at a rate of ? 3.5%/yr. As adult birds are very faithful to their wintering areas, we believe that almost all this decrease can be attributed to an increase in mortality with age. Simulation results suggest that heterogeneity of capture probabilities could not explain the magnitude of the decrease in survival with age. Age-dependent tag loss is also discussed as an alternative explanation, but is dismissed as very unlikely in this situation. This analysis thus provides some of the

  3. [Effects of different transplanting conditions on survival rate and growing status of Anoictochilus roxburghii plantlets].

    PubMed

    Shao, Qing-Song; Zhou, Ai-Cun; Huang, Yu-Qiu; Dong, Ying-Lei; Hu, Bing-Kang; Li, Ming-Yan

    2014-03-01

    The growing status of Anoectochilus roxburghii seedling was observed and the survival rate of seedlings, height, stem diameter and plant fresh weight under the conditions of different transplanting substrate compositions, planting density, shading rate were measured. The results showed that the effects of different transplanting substrates, planting densities, shading rates and nutrient solutions on the growing status of A. roxburghii plantlets varied greatly. A. roxburghii plantlets demonstrated a high survival rate and better growing status under the Following conditions: the ratio of peat and river sand as 2: 1, the planting density as 3 cm x 3 cm, the shading rate as 70%, and the nutrient solution as 1/4MS. The findings of the study provide a solid technical solution for the artificial cultivation of A. roxburghii plantlets.

  4. Possible effects of the 2004 and 2005 hurricanes on manatee survival rates and movement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langtimm, C.A.; Krohn, M.D.; Reid, J.P.; Stith, B.M.; Beck, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    Prior research on manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) survival in northwest Florida, based on mark-resighting photo-identification data from 1982-1998, showed that annual adult apparent survival rate was significantly lower during years with extreme storms. Mechanisms that we proposed could have led to lower estimates included stranding, injury from debris, being fatally swept out to sea, or displacement into poorly monitored areas due to storm-generated longshore currents or storm-related loss of habitat. In 2004 and 2005, seven major hurricanes impacted areas of Florida encompassing three regional manatee subpopulations, enabling us to further examine some of these mechanisms. Data from a group of manatees tracked in southwest Florida with satellite transmitters during Hurricanes Charley, Katrina, and Wilma showed that these animals made no significant movement before and during storm passage. Mark-resighting data are being collected to determine if survival rates were lower with the 2004 and 2005 storms. ?? 2006 Estuarine Research Federation.

  5. Long-term survival rate of teeth receiving multidisciplinary endodontic, periodontal and prosthodontic treatments.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, A S; Radafshar, G; Taramsari, M; Darabi, F

    2014-03-01

    Deciding whether to replace or preserve a compromised tooth, even with emerging trends in implant dentistry, is still a common dilemma for practitioners. This study sought to determine the 3- to more than 10-year survival rate of teeth that had undergone endodontic, periodontal and prosthodontic treatments. A total of 245 teeth in 87 patients were clinically and radiographically evaluated. All the teeth had received crown lengthening surgery by a single periodontist. Root canal therapy and prosthodontic procedures were rendered either by specialists or by experienced general dentists. Numbers of lost teeth were recorded and the criteria for hopeless teeth were defined. Survival rate was determined using the Kaplan-Meier estimator. Clinical indices including pocket depth (PD), bleeding index (BI), C/R ratio, position of the restoration margin relative to the gingival margin (RM-GM) and the presence of intra-canal post were compared between different survival groups (<3, 3-5, 5-10 and >10 years) using one-way analysis of variance (anova). Potential predictors of failure were determined using the Cox regression model. The mean ± s.d. of 3-, 5-, 10- and 13-year survival rates was 98 ± 1%, 96 ± 1·6%, 83·1 ± 4·5% and 51·9 ± 14·5%, respectively. The mean PD (P < 0·013), as well as C/R ratio in the mesial (P = 0·003) and distal (P = 0·007) surfaces, was significantly higher in the >10-year-survived teeth. Bleeding index and RM-GM showed no significant differences between the groups. C/R ratio and RM-GM position appeared to be the major determinants of tooth loss. The long-term survival rate of multidisciplinary-treated teeth was 83-98% in this specific sample.

  6. Marathon Running Fails to Influence RBC Survival Rates in Iron-Replete Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steenkamp, Irene; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This study used radiolabeling to measure red blood cell (RBC) survival rates in six iron-replete female marathon runners, and urinary tests were conducted to search for secondary evidence of RBC damage. The hypothesized RBC fragmentation was not disclosed. (Author/MT)

  7. 38 CFR 3.24 - Improved pension rates-Surviving children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Improved pension rates-Surviving children. 3.24 Section 3.24 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.24 Improved...

  8. The effect of chemical weapons incineration on the survival rates of Red-tailed Tropicbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreiber, E.A.; Schenk, G.A.; Doherty, P.F.

    2001-01-01

    In 1992, the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS) began incinerating U.S. chemical weapons stockpiles on Johnston Atoll (Pacific Ocean) where about 500,000 seabirds breed, including Red-tailed Tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda). We hypothesized that survival rates of birds were lower in those nesting downwind of the incinerator smokestack compared to those upwind, and that birds might move away from the area. From 1992 - 2000 we monitored survival and movements between areas upwind and downwind from the JACADS facility. We used a multi-strata mark recapture approach to model survival, probability of recapture and movement. Probability of recapture was significantly higher for birds in downwind areas (owing to greater recapture effort) and thus was an important 'nuisance' parameter to take into account in modeling. We found no differences in survival between birds nesting upwind ( 0.8588) and downwind (0.8550). There was no consistent difference in movement rates between upwind or downwind areas from year to year: differences found may be attributed to differing vegetation growth and human activities between the areas. Our results suggest that JACADS has had no documentable influence on the survival and year to year movement of Red-tailed Tropicbirds.

  9. Evaluation of survival and success rates of dental implants reported in longitudinal studies with a follow-up period of at least 10 years: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Moraschini, V; Poubel, L A da C; Ferreira, V F; Barboza, E dos S P

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the survival and success rates of osseointegrated implants determined in longitudinal studies that conducted a follow-up of at least 10 years. A broad electronic search was conducted in MEDLINE/PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) for relevant publications in indexed journals, evaluating the clinical performance of dental implants. Using inclusion and exclusion criteria, two reviewers analyzed titles, abstracts, and complete articles, prioritizing studies of the randomized clinical trial type. A total of 23 articles were included in this review. Ten prospective studies, nine retrospective studies, and four randomized clinical trials, which evaluated 7711 implants, were selected. The mean follow-up time of the studies included was 13.4 years. All of the studies reported survival rates and mean marginal bone resorption values, with cumulative mean values of 94.6% and 1.3mm, respectively. Fourteen studies related success rates. Taking into consideration the disparate outcome measures employed to assess dental implant performance and within the limitations of this systematic review, we may affirm that osseointegrated implants are safe and present high survival rates and minimal marginal bone resorption in the long term.

  10. Relationship of electro-mechanical remodeling to survival rates after cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Jawad; Agarwal, Sunil Kumar; Kamireddy, Swapna; Adelstein, Evan; Saba, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy, when added to optimal medical therapy, increases longevity in symptomatic congestive heart failure patients with left ventricular ejection fractions (LVEF)≤0.35 and QRS durations>120 ms. Cardiac resynchronization therapy is also associated with electrical and mechanical reverse remodeling. We examined whether reverse remodeling predicts increased survival rates in non-trial settings. Recipients of cardiac resynchronization therapy and defibrillators (n=112; 78 men; mean age, 69±11 yr) underwent repeat echocardiography and electrocardiography at least 90 days after device implantation. Forty patients had mechanical responses of at least 0.05 improvement in absolute LVEF; 56 had electrical responses (any narrowing of biventricular-paced QRS duration compared with the electrocardiogram immediately after therapy). During a mean follow-up period of 3.1±1.7 years, 55 patients died. The average death rate per 100 person-years was lower among mechanical responders than nonresponders (9.2% vs 23.9%; P=0.009); the unadjusted hazard ratio was 0.39 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.19-0.79). In a multivariate model adjusted for age, sex, baseline LVEF, and QRS duration, mechanical responders had 60% better survival than nonresponders (hazard ratio=0.40; 95% CI, 0.21-0.79; P=0.008). No difference in survival was observed in electrical response. In our association of absolute change in LVEF over the observed range with death (using restricted cubic splines), we observed a linear relationship with survival. In patients given cardiac resynchronization therapy, mechanical but not electrical remodeling was associated with better survival rates, suggesting that mechanical remodeling underlies this therapy's mechanism of conferring a survival benefit.

  11. Effect of loading time on the survival rate of anodic oxidized implants: prospective multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seok-Gyu; Yun, Pil-Young; Park, Hyun-Sik; Shim, June-Sung; Hwang, Jung-Won

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the effect of early loading on survival rate or clinical parameter of anodic oxidized implants during the 12-month postloading period. MATERIALS AND METHODS Total 69 implants were placed in 42 patients. Anodic oxidized implants (GS II, Osstem Cor., Busan, Korea) placed on the posterior mandibles were divided into two groups, according to their prosthetic loading times: test group (2 to 6 weeks), and control group (3 to 4 months). The implant survival rates were determined during one-year postloading period and analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method. The radiographic peri-implant bone loss and periodontal parameters were also evaluated and statistically analyzed by unpaired t-test. RESULTS Total 69 implants were placed in 42 patients. The cumulative postloading implant survival rates were 88.89% in test group, compared to 100% in control group (P<.05). Periimplant marginal bone loss (T: 0.27±0.54 mm, C: 0.40±0.55 mm) and periodontal parameters showed no significant difference between the groups (P>.05). CONCLUSION Within the limitation of the present study, implant survival was affected by early loading on the anodic oxidized implants placed on posterior mandibles during one-year follow-up. Early implant loading did not influence peri-implant marginal bone loss, and periodontal parameters. PMID:22439096

  12. Effect of thaw rates on survival of buffalo spermatozoa frozen straws.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, K

    1984-07-01

    Eighteen ejaculates from three buffalo bulls of Nili-Ravi breed were tested in a 3 X 6 X 3 factorial experiment. Semen was extended in lactose-fructose-egg yolk-glycerol extender containing penicillin (1000 IU/ml) and streptomycin (1000 micrograms/ml). Semen was frozen in .5-ml polyvinyl chloride straws in liquid nitrogen vapor and stored in liquid nitrogen for 24 h. Straws were thawed at water bath temperatures of 0, 37, or 75 degrees C for 2 min, 15 s, and 9 s, respectively. At thawing bath temperature of 0, 37, or 75 degrees C, percentage of motile spermatozoa averaged 30, 40, and 50%. Differences were significant between thaw rates for initial postthaw motility, postthaw sperm survival at 37 degrees C, and absolute index of survival of spermatozoa. Bulls were also different for initial postthaw motility, postthaw sperm survival at 37 degrees C, and absolute index of survival of spermatozoa. Thaw rate of 75 degrees C for 9 s was superior to other rates.

  13. Analysis of feedbacks between nucleation rate, survival probability and cloud condensation nuclei formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westervelt, D. M.; Pierce, J. R.; Adams, P. J.

    2014-06-01

    Aerosol nucleation is an important source of particle number in the atmosphere. However, in order to become cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), freshly nucleated particles must undergo significant condensational growth while avoiding coagulational scavenging. In an effort to quantify the contribution of nucleation to CCN, this work uses the GEOS-Chem-TOMAS global aerosol model to calculate changes in CCN concentrations against a broad range of nucleation rates and mechanisms. We then quantify the factors that control CCN formation from nucleation, including daily nucleation rates, growth rates, coagulation sinks, condensation sinks, survival probabilities, and CCN formation rates, in order to examine feedbacks that may limit growth of nucleated particles to CCN. Nucleation rate parameterizations tested in GEOS-Chem-TOMAS include ternary nucleation (with multiple tuning factors), activation nucleation (with two pre-factors), binary nucleation, and ion-mediated nucleation. We find that nucleation makes a significant contribution to boundary layer CCN(0.2%), but this contribution is only modestly sensitive to the choice of nucleation scheme, ranging from 49 to 78% increase in concentrations over a control simulation with no nucleation. Moreover, a two order-of-magnitude increase in the globally averaged nucleation rate (via changes to tuning factors) results in small changes (less than 10%) to global CCN(0.2%) concentrations. To explain this, we present a simple theory showing that survival probability has an exponentially decreasing dependence on the square of the condensation sink. This functional form stems from a negative correlation between condensation sink and growth rate and a positive correlation between condensation sink and coagulational scavenging. Conceptually, with a fixed condensable vapor budget (sulfuric acid and organics), any increase in CCN concentrations due to higher nucleation rates necessarily entails an increased aerosol surface area in the

  14. Survival, recruitment, and population growth rate of an important mesopredator: the northern raccoon.

    PubMed

    Troyer, Elizabeth M; Cameron Devitt, Susan E; Sunquist, Melvin E; Goswami, Varun R; Oli, Madan K

    2014-01-01

    Populations of mesopredators (mid-sized mammalian carnivores) are expanding in size and range amid declining apex predator populations and ever-growing human presence, leading to significant ecological impacts. Despite their obvious importance, population dynamics have scarcely been studied for most mesopredator species. Information on basic population parameters and processes under a range of conditions is necessary for managing these species. Here we investigate survival, recruitment, and population growth rate of a widely distributed and abundant mesopredator, the northern raccoon (Procyon lotor), using Pradel's temporal symmetry models and >6 years of monthly capture-mark-recapture data collected in a protected area. Monthly apparent survival probability was higher for females (0.949, 95% CI = 0.936-0.960) than for males (0.908, 95% CI = 0.893-0.920), while monthly recruitment rate was higher for males (0.091, 95% CI = 0.078-0.106) than for females (0.054, 95% CI = 0.042-0.067). Finally, monthly realized population growth rate was 1.000 (95% CI = 0.996-1.004), indicating that our study population has reached a stable equilibrium in this relatively undisturbed habitat. There was little evidence for substantial temporal variation in population growth rate or its components. Our study is one of the first to quantify survival, recruitment, and realized population growth rate of raccoons using long-term data and rigorous statistical models.

  15. Survival and recovery rates of mottled ducks banded in Texas and Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haukos, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The Western Gulf Coast population of the mottled duck (Anas fulvigula) is dependent on the Gulf coastal marsh to complete its entire life cycle. Band recovery data can be used to monitor mottled duck populations by estimating annual survival, indexing harvest rate, and assessing movements. Band returns from hunting seasons 1997–2013 were used to evaluate factors influencing annual survival, recovery rates, and movements of mottled ducks in Texas and Louisiana. For banding years of 1997–2013, 58,349 normal, wild mottled ducks were banded and released in Texas and Louisiana. Since 2002, 86% of mottled duck bandings have occurred on the Chenier Plain of Texas and Louisiana. Hunters shot, recovered, and reported 7,061birds with bands during this period. Direct recovery rates were greater for juveniles than adults but changed little since the 1970s. Estimates of annual survival did not differ between Texas and Louisiana, but did among years and between sex and age classes. Adult male and juvenile female mottled ducks had the greatest and lowest annual survival rates, respectively. Recovery of birds banded on the Chenier Plain was four times greater for birds banded in Texas and harvested in Louisiana than banded in Louisiana and harvested in Texas. Much of the current inference of results from banding mottled ducks is limited to the Chenier Plain. To monitor the entire Western Gulf Coast population of mottled ducks, managers can consider expanding operational banding operations with annual quotas, which would improve survival and recovery estimates and allow for inference beyond the Chenier Plain region.

  16. Environmental effects on survival rates: robust regression, recovery planning and endangered Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Bowlby, Heather D; Gibson, A Jamie F

    2015-08-01

    Describing how population-level survival rates are influenced by environmental change becomes necessary during recovery planning to identify threats that should be the focus for future remediation efforts. However, the ways in which data are analyzed have the potential to change our ecological understanding and thus subsequent recommendations for remedial actions to address threats. In regression, distributional assumptions underlying short time series of survival estimates cannot be investigated a priori and data likely contain points that do not follow the general trend (outliers) as well as contain additional variation relative to an assumed distribution (overdispersion). Using juvenile survival data from three endangered Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. populations in response to hydrological variation, four distributions for the response were compared using lognormal and generalized linear models (GLM). The influence of outliers as well as overdispersion was investigated by comparing conclusions from robust regressions with these lognormal models and GLMs. The analyses strongly supported the use of a lognormal distribution for survival estimates (i.e., modeling the instantaneous rate of mortality as the response) and would have led to ambiguity in the identification of significant hydrological predictors as well as low overall confidence in the predicted relationships if only GLMs had been considered. However, using robust regression to evaluate the effect of additional variation and outliers in the data relative to regression assumptions resulted in a better understanding of relationships between hydrological variables and survival that could be used for population-specific recovery planning. This manuscript highlights how a systematic analysis that explicitly considers what monitoring data represent and where variation is likely to come from is required in order to draw meaningful conclusions when analyzing changes in survival relative to environmental

  17. Investigating Rates of Hunting and Survival in Declining European Lapwing Populations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Understanding effects of harvest on population dynamics is of major interest, especially for declining species. European lapwing Vanellus vanellus populations increased from the 1960s until the 1980s and declined strongly thereafter. About 400,000 lapwings are harvested annually and it is thus of high conservation relevance to assess whether hunting was a main cause for the observed changes in lapwing population trends. We developed a multi-event cause-specific mortality model which we applied to a long-term ring-recovery data set (1960–2010) of > 360,000 records to estimate survival and cause-specific mortalities. We found no temporal change in survival over the last 50 years for first-year (FY) and older birds (after first-year; AFY) originating from different ringing areas. Mean survival was high, around 0.60 and 0.80 for FY and AFY individuals, respectively. The proportion of total mortality due to hunting was <0.10 over the study period and the estimated proportion of harvested individuals (kill rate) was <0.05 in each year. Our result of constant survival indicates that demographic processes other than survival were responsible for the pronounced change in lapwing population trends in the 1980s. Our findings lend support to the hypothesis that hunting was not a significant contributor to the large-scale decline of lapwing populations. To halt the ongoing decline of European lapwing populations management should focus on life history stages other than survival (e.g. productivity). Further analyses are required to investigate the contribution of other demographic rates to the decline of lapwings and to identify the most efficient conservation actions. PMID:27685660

  18. Population trend of the Yellowstone grizzly bear as estimated from reproductive and survival rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberhardt, L. L.; Blanchard, B. M.; Knight, R. R.

    1993-01-01

    The trend of the Yellowstone grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) population was estimated using reproductive rates calculated from 22 individual females and survival rates from 400 female bear-years. The point estimate of the rate of increase was 4.6%, with 95% confidence limits of 0 and 9%. Caution in interpreting this result is advised because of possible biases in the population parameter estimates. The main prospects for improving present knowledge of the population trend appear to be further study of possible biases in the parameter estimates, and the continued use of radiotelemetry to increase the number of samples on which the estimates are based.

  19. Annual survival rates of adult and immature eastern population tundra swans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Bart, J.; Limpert, R.J.; Sladen, William J. L.; Hines, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus ) of the eastern population were neckbanded in Maryland, North Carolina, and Alaska from 1966 through 1990. These swans were resighted and recaptured during autumn, winter, and spring, 1966-1990. Although the original motivation for this study involved swan movements, we wanted to use the resulting data to test hypotheses about sources of variation in swan survival rates. Recaptures of legbanded and neckbanded swans permitted us to estimate neckband loss rates, which were found to vary with age and sex of swans, and number of years since initial application. Estimates of annual neckband retention rate ranged from about 0.50 for adult male swans greater than or equal to 2 years after initial neckbanding to > 0.96 for immature swans and adult females the first year following neckbanding. This variation in neckband loss rates prevented the simple correction of survival estimates to account for such loss. Consequently, we developed a series of multinomial models parameterized with survival, sighting, and neckband retention probabilities for use with the recapture and resighting data.

  20. Impacts of Bokashi on survival and growth rates of Pinus pseudostrobus in community reforestation projects.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo-López, P F; Ramírez, M I; Pérez-Salicrup, D R

    2015-03-01

    Community-based small-scale reforestation practices have been proposed as an alternative to low-efficiency massive reforestations conducted by external agents. These latter conventional reforestations are often carried out in soils that have been seriously degraded and this has indirectly contributed to the introduction of non-native species and/or acceptance of very low seedling survival rates. Bokashi is a fermented soil organic amendment that can be made from almost any available agricultural byproduct, and its beneficial effects in agriculture have been reported in various contexts. Here, we report the results of a community-based small-scale experimental reforestation where the provenance of pine seedlings (local and commercial) and the use of Bokashi as a soil amendment were evaluated. Bokashi was prepared locally by members of a small rural community in central Mexico. Almost two years after the establishment of the trial, survival rates for the unamended and amended local trees were 97-100% while survival of the commercial trees from unamended and amended treatments were 87-93%. Consistently through time, local and commercial seedlings planted in Bokashi-amended soils were significantly taller (x̅ = 152 cm) than those planted in unamended soils (̅x = 86 cm). An unplanned infection by Cronartium quercuum in the first year of the experiment was considered as a covariable. Infected seedlings showed malformations but this did not affect survival and growth rates. Bokashi amendment seems as an inexpensive, locally viable technology to increase seedling survival and growth and to help recover deforested areas where soils have been degraded. This allows local stakeholders to see more rapid results while helping them to maintain their interest in conservation activities. PMID:25460423

  1. Simultaneous use of mark-recapture and radiotelemetry to estimate survival, movement, and capture rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, L.A.; Conroy, M.J.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Krementz, D.G.

    2000-01-01

    Biologists often estimate separate survival and movement rates from radio-telemetry and mark-recapture data from the same study population. We describe a method for combining these data types in a single model to obtain joint, potentially less biased estimates of survival and movement that use all available data. We furnish an example using wood thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) captured at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge in central Georgia in 1996. The model structure allows estimation of survival and capture probabilities, as well as estimation of movements away from and into the study area. In addition, the model structure provides many possibilities for hypothesis testing. Using the combined model structure, we estimated that wood thrush weekly survival was 0.989 ? 0.007 ( ?SE). Survival rates of banded and radio-marked individuals were not different (alpha hat [S_radioed, ~ S_banded]=log [S hat _radioed/ S hat _banded]=0.0239 ? 0.0435). Fidelity rates (weekly probability of remaining in a stratum) did not differ between geographic strata (psi hat=0.911 ? 0.020; alpha hat [psi11, psi22]=0.0161 ? 0.047), and recapture rates ( = 0.097 ? 0.016) banded and radio-marked individuals were not different (alpha hat [p_radioed, p_banded]=0.145 ? 0.655). Combining these data types in a common model resulted in more precise estimates of movement and recapture rates than separate estimation, but ability to detect stratum or mark-specific differences in parameters was week. We conducted simulation trials to investigate the effects of varying study designs on parameter accuracy and statistical power to detect important differences. Parameter accuracy was high (relative bias [RBIAS] <2 %) and confidence interval coverage close to nominal, except for survival estimates of banded birds for the 'off study area' stratum, which were negatively biased (RBIAS -7 to -15%) when sample sizes were small (5-10 banded or radioed animals 'released' per time interval). To provide

  2. Crossing beef x beef and beef x Brown Swiss: pregnancy rate, calf survival, weaning age and rate.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, W L; Bellows, R A; Urick, J J; Knapp, B W

    1986-07-01

    October pregnancy rate, calf survival to weaning, weaning age, weaning rate and actual kg of calf weaned/cow exposed were determined in a 4-yr study involving 880 matings of Angus (A), Hereford (H) and Charolais (C) sires to A, H, C and Brown Swiss (BS) dams. Cows were mated in single-sire herds for 45 or 60 d under pasture conditions; heifers were bred to produce their first calf at 3 yr of age. Pregnancy rate of lactating dams was 9.4% higher (P less than .01) than for non-lactating dams. Pregnancy rates for straightbred matings were 87.5%, 80.6% and 75.4%, respectively, for A, H and C groups (P less than .05). No differences (P greater than .10) due to sire breed were found for any of the traits studied except for calf age at weaning. Calves from C sires were younger (P less than .01) at weaning than calves from H and A sires. Breed-of-dam differences (P less than .05 to P less than .01) were found for all traits studied except calf survival rate. All BS dams produced crossbred calves and had lower pregnancy and weaning rates (both P less than .01), calves were younger at weaning (P less than .05), had lower kg of calf weaned/cow exposed (P less than .05) than for beef-breed dams producing crossbred calves. Crossbred calves from BS dams were 4.9, 11.0 and 3.4 d younger (P less than .05 to P less than .01) at weaning, respectively, than crossbred calves from H, A and C dams.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Effects of copper and decreased salinity on survival rate and development of Tridacna gigas larvae.

    PubMed

    Blidberg, E

    2004-01-01

    Giant clams (Family: Tridacnidae) are endangered species distributed in the Indo-Pacific region. In this study, survival rate and development of Tridacna gigas larvae were studied for three days in ambient water (32 psu), copper (2.5 microg Cu(2+) L(-1)), reduced salinities (25 and 20 psu) and the combination of copper and 25 psu salinity. No significant differences were found in larval development between treatments. The survival rates decreased considerably with reduced salinities although the combination of copper and reduced salinity gave synergistic effects. As a consequence, this could limit population growth of giant clams in coastal areas and could also explain the absence of larval settlement on reefs close to harbours or river mouths. More research is needed to understand the basic requirements and stress tolerance in giant clam larvae for reef restoration and other management actions to be successful.

  4. Modeling the effect of temperature on survival rate of Listeria monocytogenes in yogurt.

    PubMed

    Szczawiński, J; Szczawińska, M E; Łobacz, A; Jackowska-Tracz, A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to (i) evaluate the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes in a commercially produced yogurt, (ii) determine the survival/inactivation rates of L. monocytogenes during cold storage of yogurt and (iii) to generate primary and secondary mathematical models to predict the behavior of these bacteria during storage at different temperatures. The samples of yogurt were inoculated with the mixture of three L. monocytogenes strains and stored at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15°C for 16 days. The number of listeriae was determined after 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, 14 and 16 days of storage. From each sample a series of decimal dilutions were prepared and plated onto ALOA agar (agar for Listeria according to Ottaviani and Agosti). It was found that applied temperature and storage time significantly influenced the survival rate of listeriae (p<0.01). The number of L. monocytogenes in all the samples decreased linearly with storage time. The slowest decrease in the number of the bacteria was found in the samples stored at 6°C (D-10 value = 243.9 h), whereas the highest reduction in the number of the bacteria was observed in the samples stored at 15°C (D-10 value = 87.0 h). The number of L. monocytogenes was correlated with the pH value of the samples (p<0.01). The natural logarithm of the mean survival/inactivation rates of L. monocytogenes calculated from the primary model was fitted to two secondary models, namely linear and polynomial. Mathematical equations obtained from both secondary models can be applied as a tool for the prediction of the survival/inactivation rate of L. monocytogenes in yogurt stored under temperature range from 3 to 15°C, however, the polynomial model gave a better fit to the experimental data. PMID:27487505

  5. Survival rates of radio-collared female polar bears and their dependent young

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Durner, G.M.

    1995-01-01

    Polar bears are hunted throughout most of their range. In addition to hunting, polar bears of the Beaufort Sea region are exposed to mineral and hydrocarbon extraction and related human activities such as shipping, road building, and seismic testing. As human populations increase and demands for polar bears and other arctic resources escalate, reliable estimates of survivorship of polar bears are needed to predict and manage the impacts of those activities. We used the Kaplan-Meier model to estimate annual survival (with 95% confidence intervals) for radio-collared female polar bears and their dependent young that were followed during a 12-year study in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. Survival of adult female polar bears was higher than had been previously thought: S = 0.969 (range 0.952-0.983). If human-caused mortalities were deleted, the computed survival rate was 0.996 (0.990-1.002). Survival of young from den exit to weaning was 0.676 (0.634-0.701). Survival during the second year of life, 0.860 (0.751-0.903), was substantially higher than during the first year, 0.651 (0.610-0.675). Shooting by local hunters accounted for 85% of the documented deaths of adult female polar bears. Conversely, 90% of documented losses of young were independent of litter size (P = 0.36), indicating that parental investment in single cubs was not different from investment in litters of two or more. Precise estimates of the survival of independent juveniles and adult males still need to be developed.

  6. Exercise training improves early survival rate in diabetic rats submitted to acute coronary artery ligation.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, A; Rousseau-Migneron, S; Tancrède, G

    1988-09-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that the decreased early survival rate of diabetic rats submitted to acute experimental myocardial infarction could be improved by a previous training program. Male Wistar rats (+/- 200 g) were rendered diabetic with the i.v. injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg) but only those presenting one week later a tail-blood glucose value between 250-400 mg/dl were retained in the protocol. Diabetic and control rats were either kept sedentary or submitted to a progressive 10-week program of treadmill running. The left coronary artery was then ligated under ether anesthesia. Adequate occlusion was confirmed by an elevation of plasma CK-MB levels four hours later or by a toluidine blue injection technique in rats which died earlier. Since the first 20 minutes after such a procedure represents a most critical period for sudden death, the early survival rate was calculated for each group of rats and significance in differences was established with the Fisher's test. While the 27% early survival rate observed in sedentary diabetics was significantly lower (p = 0.02) than the 49% found in sedentary controls, this was completely alleviated by previous training in diabetic animals (50%; p = 0.018 vs sedentary diabetics and 0.623 vs sedentary controls). This beneficial effect of training was not found in nondiabetic animals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Temperature dependence of metabolic rates for microbial growth, maintenance, and survival

    PubMed Central

    Price, P. Buford; Sowers, Todd

    2004-01-01

    Our work was motivated by discoveries of prokaryotic communities that survive with little nutrient in ice and permafrost, with implications for past or present microbial life in Martian permafrost and Europan ice. We compared the temperature dependence of metabolic rates of microbial communities in permafrost, ice, snow, clouds, oceans, lakes, marine and freshwater sediments, and subsurface aquifer sediments. Metabolic rates per cell fall into three groupings: (i) a rate, μg(T), for growth, measured in the laboratory at in situ temperatures with minimal disturbance of the medium; (ii) a rate, μm(T), sufficient for maintenance of functions but for a nutrient level too low for growth; and (iii) a rate, μs(T), for survival of communities imprisoned in deep glacial ice, subsurface sediment, or ocean sediment, in which they can repair macromolecular damage but are probably largely dormant. The three groups have metabolic rates consistent with a single activation energy of ≈110 kJ and that scale as μg(T):μm(T):μs(T) ≈ 106:103:1. There is no evidence of a minimum temperature for metabolism. The rate at -40°C in ice corresponds to ≈10 turnovers of cellular carbon per billion years. Microbes in ice and permafrost have metabolic rates similar to those in water, soil, and sediment at the same temperature. This finding supports the view that, far below the freezing point, liquid water inside ice and permafrost is available for metabolism. The rate μs(T) for repairing molecular damage by means of DNA-repair enzymes and protein-repair enzymes such as methyltransferase is found to be comparable to the rate of spontaneous molecular damage. PMID:15070769

  8. Temperature dependence of metabolic rates for microbial growth, maintenance, and survival.

    PubMed

    Price, P Buford; Sowers, Todd

    2004-03-30

    Our work was motivated by discoveries of prokaryotic communities that survive with little nutrient in ice and permafrost, with implications for past or present microbial life in Martian permafrost and Europan ice. We compared the temperature dependence of metabolic rates of microbial communities in permafrost, ice, snow, clouds, oceans, lakes, marine and freshwater sediments, and subsurface aquifer sediments. Metabolic rates per cell fall into three groupings: (i) a rate, microg(T), for growth, measured in the laboratory at in situ temperatures with minimal disturbance of the medium; (ii) a rate, microm(T), sufficient for maintenance of functions but for a nutrient level too low for growth; and (iii) a rate, micros(T), for survival of communities imprisoned in deep glacial ice, subsurface sediment, or ocean sediment, in which they can repair macromolecular damage but are probably largely dormant. The three groups have metabolic rates consistent with a single activation energy of approximately 110 kJ and that scale as microg(T):microm(T):micros(T) approximately 10(6):10(3):1. There is no evidence of a minimum temperature for metabolism. The rate at -40 degrees C in ice corresponds to approximately 10 turnovers of cellular carbon per billion years. Microbes in ice and permafrost have metabolic rates similar to those in water, soil, and sediment at the same temperature. This finding supports the view that, far below the freezing point, liquid water inside ice and permafrost is available for metabolism. The rate micros(T) for repairing molecular damage by means of DNA-repair enzymes and protein-repair enzymes such as methyltransferase is found to be comparable to the rate of spontaneous molecular damage.

  9. Mathematical Modeling of Therapy-induced Cancer Drug Resistance: Connecting Cancer Mechanisms to Population Survival Rates

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoqiang; Bao, Jiguang; Shao, Yongzhao

    2016-01-01

    Drug resistance significantly limits the long-term effectiveness of targeted therapeutics for cancer patients. Recent experimental studies have demonstrated that cancer cell heterogeneity and microenvironment adaptations to targeted therapy play important roles in promoting the rapid acquisition of drug resistance and in increasing cancer metastasis. The systematic development of effective therapeutics to overcome drug resistance mechanisms poses a major challenge. In this study, we used a modeling approach to connect cellular mechanisms underlying cancer drug resistance to population-level patient survival. To predict progression-free survival in cancer patients with metastatic melanoma, we developed a set of stochastic differential equations to describe the dynamics of heterogeneous cell populations while taking into account micro-environment adaptations. Clinical data on survival and circulating tumor cell DNA (ctDNA) concentrations were used to confirm the effectiveness of our model. Moreover, our model predicted distinct patterns of dose-dependent synergy when evaluating a combination of BRAF and MEK inhibitors versus a combination of BRAF and PI3K inhibitors. These predictions were consistent with the findings in previously reported studies. The impact of the drug metabolism rate on patient survival was also discussed. The proposed model might facilitate the quantitative evaluation and optimization of combination therapeutics and cancer clinical trial design. PMID:26928089

  10. Estimating annual survival and movement rates of adults within a metapopulation of roseate terns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spendelow, J.A.; Nichols, J.D.; Nisbet, I.C.T.; Hays, H.; Cormons, G.D.; Burger, J.; Safina, C.; Hines, J.E.; Gochfeld, M.

    1995-01-01

    Several multistratum capture-recapture models were used to test various hypotheses about possible geographic and temporal variation in survival, movement, and recapture/resighting probabilities of 2399 adult Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii) color-banded from 1988 to 1992 at the sites of the four largest breeding colonies of this species in the northeastern USA. Linear-logistic ultrastructural models also were developed to investigate possible correlates of geographic variation in movement probabilities. Based on goodness-of-fit tests and comparisons of Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) values, the fully parameterized model (Model A) with time- and location-specific survival, movement, and capture probabilities, was selected as the most appropriate model for this metapopulation structure. With almost all movement accounted for, on average gt 90% of the surviving adults from each colony site returned to the same site the following year. Variations in movement probabilities were more closely associated with the identity of the destination colony site than with either the identity of the colony site of origin or the distance between colony sites. The average annual survival estimates (0.740.84) of terns from all four sites indicate a high rate of annual mortality relative to that of other species of marine birds.

  11. SU-E-T-352: Why Is the Survival Rate Low in Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma?

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Z; Feng, Y; Rasmussen, K; Rice, J; Stephenson, S; Ferreira, Maria C; Liu, T; Yuh, K; Wang, R; Grecula, J; Lo, S; Mayr, N; Yuh, W

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Tumors are composed of a large number of clonogens that have the capability of indefinite reproduction. Even when there is complete clinical or radiographic regression of the gross tumor mass after treatment, tumor recurrence can occur if the clonogens are not completely eradicated by radiotherapy. This study was to investigate the colonogen number and its association with the tumor control probability (TCP) in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCCA). Methods: A literature search was conducted to collect clinical information of patients with OSCCA, including the prescription dose, tumor volume and survival rate. The linear-quadratic (LQ) model was incorporated into TCP model for clinical data analysis. The total dose ranged from 60 to 70 Gy and tumor volume ranged from 10 to 50 cc. The TCP was calculated for each group according to tumor size and dose. The least χ{sup 2} method was used to fit the TCP calculation to clinical data while other LQ model parameters (α, β) were adopted from the literature, due to the limited patient data. Results: A total of 190 patients with T2–T4 OSCCA were included. The association with HPV was not available for all the patients. The 3-year survival rate was about 82% for T2 squamous cell carcinoma and 40% for advanced tumors. Fitting the TCP model to the survival data, the average clonogen number was 1.56×10{sup 12}. For the prescription dose of 70 Gy, the calculated TCP ranged from 40% to 90% when the tumor volume varied from 10 to 50 cc. Conclusion: Our data suggests variation between the clonogen number and TCP in OSCCA. Tumors with larger colonogen number tend to have lower TCP and therefore dose escalation above 70 Gy may be indicated in order to improve the TCP and survival rate. Our result will require future confirmation with a large number of patients.

  12. Increased survival rate by local release of diclofenac in a murine model of recurrent oral carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Will, Olga Maria; Purcz, Nicolai; Chalaris, Athena; Heneweer, Carola; Boretius, Susann; Purcz, Larissa; Nikkola, Lila; Ashammakhi, Nureddin; Kalthoff, Holger; Glüer, Claus-Christian; Wiltfang, Jörg; Açil, Yahya; Tiwari, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Despite aggressive treatment with radiation and combination chemotherapy following tumor resection, the 5-year survival rate for patients with head and neck cancer is at best only 50%. In this study, we examined the therapeutic potential of localized release of diclofenac from electrospun nanofibers generated from poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) polymer. Diclofenac was chosen since anti-inflammatory agents that inhibit cyclooxygenase have shown great potential in their ability to directly inhibit tumor growth as well as suppress inflammation-mediated tumor growth. A mouse resection model of oral carcinoma was developed by establishing tumor growth in the oral cavity by ultrasound-guided injection of 1 million SCC-9 cells in the floor of the mouth. Following resection, mice were allocated into four groups with the following treatment: 1) no treatment, 2) implanted scaffolds without diclofenac, 3) implanted scaffolds loaded with diclofenac, and 4) diclofenac given orally. Small animal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging were utilized for longitudinal determination of tumor recurrence. At the end of 7 weeks following tumor resection, 33% of mice with diclofenac-loaded scaffolds had a recurrent tumor, in comparison to 90%–100% of the mice in the other three groups. At this time point, mice with diclofenac-releasing scaffolds showed 89% survival rate, while the other groups showed survival rates of 10%–25%. Immunohistochemical staining of recurrent tumors revealed a near 10-fold decrease in the proliferation marker Ki-67 in the tumors derived from mice with diclofenac-releasing scaffolds. In summary, the local application of diclofenac in an orthotopic mouse tumor resection model of oral cancer reduced tumor recurrence with significant improvement in survival over a 7-week study period following tumor resection. Local drug release of anti-inflammatory agents should be investigated as a therapeutic option in the prevention of tumor recurrence in oral squamous

  13. The influence of disturbance events on survival and dispersal rates of Florida box turtles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dodd, C.K.; Ozgul, A.; Oli, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    Disturbances have the potential to cause long-term effects to ecosystem structure and function, and they may affect individual species in different ways. Long-lived vertebrates such as turtles may be at risk from such events, inasmuch as their life histories preclude rapid recovery should extensive mortality occur. We applied capture–mark–recapture models to assess disturbance effects on a population of Florida box turtles (Terrapene carolina bauri) on Egmont Key, Florida, USA. Near the midpoint of the study, a series of physical disturbances affected the island, from salt water overwash associated with several tropical storms to extensive removal of nonindigenous vegetation. These disturbances allowed us to examine demographic responses of the turtle population and to determine if they affected dispersal throughout the island. Adult survival rates did not vary significantly either between sexes or among years of the study. Survival rates did not vary significantly between juvenile and adult turtles, or among years of the study. Furthermore, neither adult nor juvenile survival rates differed significantly between pre- and post-disturbance. However, dispersal rates varied significantly among the four major study sites, and dispersal rates were higher during the pre-disturbance sampling periods compared to post-disturbance. Our results suggest few long-term effects on the demography of the turtle population. Florida box turtles responded to tropical storms and vegetation control by moving to favorable habitats minimally affected by the disturbances and remaining there. As long as turtles and perhaps other long-lived vertebrates can disperse to non-disturbed habitat, and high levels of mortality do not occur in a population, a long life span may allow them to wait out the impact of disturbance with potentially little effect on long-term population processes.

  14. Survival, Recruitment, and Population Growth Rate of an Important Mesopredator: The Northern Raccoon

    PubMed Central

    Troyer, Elizabeth M.; Cameron Devitt, Susan E.; Sunquist, Melvin E.; Goswami, Varun R.; Oli, Madan K.

    2014-01-01

    Populations of mesopredators (mid-sized mammalian carnivores) are expanding in size and range amid declining apex predator populations and ever-growing human presence, leading to significant ecological impacts. Despite their obvious importance, population dynamics have scarcely been studied for most mesopredator species. Information on basic population parameters and processes under a range of conditions is necessary for managing these species. Here we investigate survival, recruitment, and population growth rate of a widely distributed and abundant mesopredator, the northern raccoon (Procyon lotor), using Pradel’s temporal symmetry models and >6 years of monthly capture-mark-recapture data collected in a protected area. Monthly apparent survival probability was higher for females (0.949, 95% CI = 0.936–0.960) than for males (0.908, 95% CI = 0.893–0.920), while monthly recruitment rate was higher for males (0.091, 95% CI = 0.078–0.106) than for females (0.054, 95% CI = 0.042–0.067). Finally, monthly realized population growth rate was 1.000 (95% CI = 0.996–1.004), indicating that our study population has reached a stable equilibrium in this relatively undisturbed habitat. There was little evidence for substantial temporal variation in population growth rate or its components. Our study is one of the first to quantify survival, recruitment, and realized population growth rate of raccoons using long-term data and rigorous statistical models. PMID:24901349

  15. Changing central Pacific El Niños reduce stability of North American salmon survival rates

    PubMed Central

    Kilduff, D. Patrick; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Botsford, Louis W.; Teo, Steven L. H.

    2015-01-01

    Pacific salmon are a dominant component of the northeast Pacific ecosystem. Their status is of concern because salmon abundance is highly variable—including protected stocks, a recently closed fishery, and actively managed fisheries that provide substantial ecosystem services. Variable ocean conditions, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), have influenced these fisheries, while diminished diversity of freshwater habitats have increased variability via the portfolio effect. We address the question of how recent changes in ocean conditions will affect populations of two salmon species. Since the 1980s, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events have been more frequently associated with central tropical Pacific warming (CPW) rather than the canonical eastern Pacific warming ENSO (EPW). CPW is linked to the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), whereas EPW is linked to the PDO, different indicators of northeast Pacific Ocean ecosystem productivity. Here we show that both coho and Chinook salmon survival rates along western North America indicate that the NPGO, rather than the PDO, explains salmon survival since the 1980s. The observed increase in NPGO variance in recent decades was accompanied by an increase in coherence of local survival rates of these two species, increasing salmon variability via the portfolio effect. Such increases in coherence among salmon stocks are usually attributed to controllable freshwater influences such as hatcheries and habitat degradation, but the unknown mechanism underlying the ocean climate effect identified here is not directly subject to management actions. PMID:26240365

  16. Changing central Pacific El Niños reduce stability of North American salmon survival rates.

    PubMed

    Kilduff, D Patrick; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Botsford, Louis W; Teo, Steven L H

    2015-09-01

    Pacific salmon are a dominant component of the northeast Pacific ecosystem. Their status is of concern because salmon abundance is highly variable--including protected stocks, a recently closed fishery, and actively managed fisheries that provide substantial ecosystem services. Variable ocean conditions, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), have influenced these fisheries, while diminished diversity of freshwater habitats have increased variability via the portfolio effect. We address the question of how recent changes in ocean conditions will affect populations of two salmon species. Since the 1980s, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events have been more frequently associated with central tropical Pacific warming (CPW) rather than the canonical eastern Pacific warming ENSO (EPW). CPW is linked to the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), whereas EPW is linked to the PDO, different indicators of northeast Pacific Ocean ecosystem productivity. Here we show that both coho and Chinook salmon survival rates along western North America indicate that the NPGO, rather than the PDO, explains salmon survival since the 1980s. The observed increase in NPGO variance in recent decades was accompanied by an increase in coherence of local survival rates of these two species, increasing salmon variability via the portfolio effect. Such increases in coherence among salmon stocks are usually attributed to controllable freshwater influences such as hatcheries and habitat degradation, but the unknown mechanism underlying the ocean climate effect identified here is not directly subject to management actions. PMID:26240365

  17. The evolution of HPV-related anogenital cancers reported in Quebec - incidence rates and survival probabilities.

    PubMed

    Louchini, R; Goggin, P; Steben, M

    2008-01-01

    Non-cervical anogenital cancers (i.e. anal, vulvar, vaginal and penile cancers) associated with the human papillomavirus (HPV), for which HPV is known to be the necessary cause of carcinogenesis, are poorly documented due to their relatively low incidence rate. The aim of this study is to describe the incidence rates of these cancers between 1984 and 2001, and their relative survival probabilities, in Quebec (Canada) between 1984 and 1998. The incidence of these cancers is on the rise, particularly anal cancer in women and, more recently (since 1993-95), vulvar cancer. Between 1984-86 and 1993-95, the 5-year relative survival probability for men with anal cancer decreased from 57% to 46%, while that for penile cancer dropped from 75% to 59%. However, during the same period, the 5-year relative survival probability for women with anal cancer rose from 56% to 65%, and remained stable for cervical and vulvar cancers, at 74% and 82%, respectively. PMID:18341764

  18. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on survival rate and growth performance of Convict Cichlid (Amatitlania nigrofasciata)

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, F; Mousavi, S. M.; Ahmadmoradi, E.; Zakeri, M.; Jahedi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Using probiotics can control pathogens by a variety of mechanisms. Probiotics can promote growth performance and have, therefore, become increasingly important in the aquaculture industry. Convict Cichlid belongs to the family of Cichlidae and is known for its rapid development in laboratory conditions and is suitable for behavioral examinations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on growth performance, survival rate and body composition of Convict Cichlids (Amatitlania nigrofasciata). One hundred sixty eight Convict Cichlids (mean weight: 2.1 ± 0.12 g and mean length: 2.2 ± 0.05 cm) were fed by commercial diets with different concentrations of S. cerevisiae (0, 0.5%, 1%, 2%). At the end of the experiment, survival rate and growth indices were measured. Based on the results, growth performance significantly increased with probiotic, S. cerevisiae, specially, at the 2% probiotic level of concentration. In the present study, the best FCR (feed conversion rate), SGR (specific growth rate), CF (condition factor) and BWG (body weight gain) values were observed in a 2% concentration of S. cerevisiae. The results suggest that this yeast could improve feed utilization in this fish species. PMID:27175152

  19. [Recurrence and survival rate of advanced gastric cancer after preoperative intraarterial EAP I injection therapy].

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, K; Taniguchi, H; Miyata, K; Koyama, H; Tanaka, H; Ueshima, Y; Okano, S; Oguro, A; Itoh, A; Sawai, K

    1993-08-01

    In our department, curative operations were performed for 32 patients with advanced gastric cancer from April 1989 to August 1990. Preoperative intra-arterial injection therapy with etoposide (100 mg), pirarubicin (20 mg) and cisplatin (20 mg) was given 18 patients. Recurrence and survival rate were investigated. The survival rate of patients with preoperative intra-arterial injection therapy 45 months after operation was 59.2%, while that of patients without preoperative intra-arterial injection therapy was 75.8%. There were no significant differences between these two groups. Three lymph node recurrences were seen in patients with preoperative intra-arterial injection therapy (recurrence rate, 16.7%). Four recurrences were observed in patients without preoperative injection therapy (peritoneal dissemination 2, liver 1, local 1; recurrence rate, 28.6%). We earlier reported that preoperative intra-arterial cisplatin (40 or 60 mg) injection therapy may reduce the incidence of lymph node recurrence and liver metastasis but may not be effective to prevent postoperative peritoneal recurrence, while no peritoneal dissemination was observed in patients with preoperative intra-arterial EAP I injection therapy. Thus, it was concluded that further study of combination and dose of anti-cancer drug may improve effectiveness of preoperative intra-arterial injection therapy for gastric cancer.

  20. Analysis of recurrence and survival rates in grade 3 endometrioid endometrial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jieyu; Jia, Nan; Li, Qing; Wang, Chao; Tao, Xiang; Hua, Keqin; Feng, Weiwei

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine risk factors associated with recurrence and survival in patients with grade 3 endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (G3EEC). A retrospective analysis of 117 patients with G3EEC, who were admitted to the Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University between January 2000 and December 2011, was performed. The χ2 test or Fisher's exact test were used for the comparison of categorical variables. Kaplan-Meier method was used for estimating recurrence-free survival (RFS), disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS) rates. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards model were used to assess the prognostic significance of various patient characteristics. In 117 patients, 16 patients (13.7%) had tumor recurrence, of which 6 (37.5%) developed local-regional recurrence and 10 (62.5%) developed distant recurrence. Out of the 16 patients with tumor recurrence, 14 (87.5%) had a recurrence within 3 years of surgery. Statistically significant characteristics affecting RFS, DSS and OS rates were outer half myometrial invasion (MI ≥50%), advanced International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, positive lymph node metastasis (PLNM), lymph vascular space invasion, adnexal involvement and characterization as a high-risk group, according to the Gynecologic Oncology Group 99 stratification algorithm. RFS was associated with the depth of cervical mucosa (stromal) involvement. Furthermore, in the multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, significant independent adverse factors for RFS and DSS included MI ≥50% and adnexal involvement. For OS, there were no statistically significant prognostic factors. In conclusion, MI ≥50% and adnexal involvement are independent prognostic factors for RFS and DSS in G3EEC patients.

  1. Analysis of recurrence and survival rates in grade 3 endometrioid endometrial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jieyu; Jia, Nan; Li, Qing; Wang, Chao; Tao, Xiang; Hua, Keqin; Feng, Weiwei

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine risk factors associated with recurrence and survival in patients with grade 3 endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (G3EEC). A retrospective analysis of 117 patients with G3EEC, who were admitted to the Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University between January 2000 and December 2011, was performed. The χ2 test or Fisher's exact test were used for the comparison of categorical variables. Kaplan-Meier method was used for estimating recurrence-free survival (RFS), disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS) rates. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards model were used to assess the prognostic significance of various patient characteristics. In 117 patients, 16 patients (13.7%) had tumor recurrence, of which 6 (37.5%) developed local-regional recurrence and 10 (62.5%) developed distant recurrence. Out of the 16 patients with tumor recurrence, 14 (87.5%) had a recurrence within 3 years of surgery. Statistically significant characteristics affecting RFS, DSS and OS rates were outer half myometrial invasion (MI ≥50%), advanced International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, positive lymph node metastasis (PLNM), lymph vascular space invasion, adnexal involvement and characterization as a high-risk group, according to the Gynecologic Oncology Group 99 stratification algorithm. RFS was associated with the depth of cervical mucosa (stromal) involvement. Furthermore, in the multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, significant independent adverse factors for RFS and DSS included MI ≥50% and adnexal involvement. For OS, there were no statistically significant prognostic factors. In conclusion, MI ≥50% and adnexal involvement are independent prognostic factors for RFS and DSS in G3EEC patients. PMID:27698871

  2. Metadoxine improves the three- and six-month survival rates in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Higuera-de la Tijera, Fátima; Servín-Caamaño, Alfredo I; Serralde-Zúñiga, Aurora E; Cruz-Herrera, Javier; Pérez-Torres, Eduardo; Abdo-Francis, Juan M; Salas-Gordillo, Francisco; Pérez-Hernández, José L

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the impact of metadoxine (MTD) on the 3- and 6-mo survival of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis (AH). METHODS: This study was an open-label clinical trial, performed at the “Hospital General de México, Dr. Eduardo Liceaga”. We randomized 135 patients who met the criteria for severe AH into the following groups: 35 patients received prednisone (PDN) 40 mg/d, 35 patients received PDN+MTD 500 mg three times daily, 33 patients received pentoxifylline (PTX) 400 mg three times daily, and 32 patients received PTX+MTD 500 mg three times daily. The duration of the treatment for all of the groups was 30 d. RESULTS: In the groups treated with the MTD, the survival rate was higher at 3 mo (PTX+MTD 59.4% vs PTX 33.3%, P = 0.04; PDN+MTD 68.6% vs PDN 20%, P = 0.0001) and at 6 mo (PTX+MTD 50% vs PTX 18.2%, P = 0.01; PDN+MTD 48.6% vs PDN 20%, P = 0.003) than in the groups not treated with MTD. A relapse in alcohol intake was the primary independent factor predicting mortality at 6 mo. The patients receiving MTD maintained greater abstinence than those who did not receive it (74.5% vs 59.4%, P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: MTD improves the 3- and 6-mo survival rates in patients with severe AH. Alcohol abstinence is a key factor for survival in these patients. The patients who received the combination therapy with MTD were more likely to maintain abstinence than those who received monotherapy with either PDN or PTX. PMID:25945012

  3. Study of Survival Rate After Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) in Hospitals of Kermanshah in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Goodarzi, Afshin; Jalali, Amir; Almasi, Afshin; Naderipour, Arsalan; Kalhori, Reza Pourmirza; Khodadadi, Amineh

    2015-01-01

    Background: After CPR, the follow-up of survival rate and caused complications are the most important practices of the medical group. This study was performed aimed at determining the follow-up results after CPR in patients of university hospitals in Kermanshah in 2014. Methods: In this prospective study, 320 samples were examined. A purposive sampling method was used, and data was collected using a researcher-made information form with content and face validity and reliability of r= 0.79. Data was analyzed with STATA9 software and statistical tests, including calculation of the success rate, relative risk (RR), chi-square and Fisher at significance level of P < 0.05. Results: The initial success rate of cardiopulmonary resuscitation was equal to 15.3%, while the ultimate success rate (discharged alive from the hospital) was as 10.6%. The six-month success rate after resuscitation was 8.78% than those who were discharged alive. There were no significant statistical differences between different age groups regarding the initial success rate of resuscitation (P = 0.14), and the initial resuscitation success rate was higher in patients in morning shift (P = 0.02). Conclusion: By the results of study, it is recommended to increase the medical - nursing knowledge and techniques for personnel in the evening and night shifts. Also, an appropriate dissemination of health care staff in working shifts should be done to increase the success rate of CPR procedure. PMID:25560341

  4. Incorporating dose-rate effects in Markov radiation cell survival models.

    PubMed

    Sachs, R K; Hlatky, L; Hahnfeldt, P; Chen, P L

    1990-11-01

    Markov models for the survival of cells subjected to ionizing radiation take stochastic fluctuations into account more systematically than do non-Markov counterparts. Albright's Markov RMR (repair-misrepair) model (Radiat. Res. 118, 1-20, 1989) and Curtis's Markov LPL (lethal-potentially lethal) model [in Quantitative Mathematical Models in Radiation Biology (J. Kiefer, Ed.), pp. 127-146. Springer, New York, 1989], which assume acute irradiation, are here generalized to finite dose rates. Instead of treating irradiation as an instantaneous event we introduce an irradiation period T and analyze processes during the interval T as well as afterward. Albright's RMR transition matrix is used throughout for computing the time development of repair and misrepair. During irradiation an additional matrix is added to describe the evolving radiation damage. Albright's and Curtis's Markov models are recovered as limiting cases by taking T----0 with total dose fixed; the opposite limit, of low dose rates, is also analyzed. Deviations from Poisson behavior in the statistical distributions of lesions are calculated. Other continuous-time Markov chain models ("compartmental models") are discussed briefly, for example, models which incorporate cell proliferation and saturable repair models. It is found that for low dose rates the Markov RMR and LPL models give lower survivals compared to the original non-Markov versions. For acute irradiation and high doses, the Markov models predict higher survivals. In general, theoretical extrapolations which neglect some random fluctuations have a systematic bias toward overoptimism when damage to irradiated tumors is compared with damage to surrounding tissues. PMID:2247602

  5. Local annual survival and seasonal residency rates of semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) in Puerto rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, S.M.; Collazo, J.A.; Alldredge, M.W.; Harrington, B.A.; Lewis, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    We report seasonal residency and local annual survival rates of migratory Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) at the Cabo Rojo salt flats, Puerto Rico. Residency rate (daily probability of remaining on the flats) was 0.991 ?? 0.001 (x?? ?? SE), yielding a mean length of stay of 110 days. This finding supports the inclusion of the Caribbean as part of the species' winter range. Average estimated percentage of fat was low but increased throughout the season, which suggests that birds replenish some spent fat reserves and strive for energetic maintenance. Local annual survival rate was 0.62 ?? 0.04, within the range of values reported for breeding populations at Manitoba and Alaska (0.53-0.76). The similarity was not unexpected because estimates were obtained annually but at opposite sites of their annual migratory movements. Birds captured at the salt flats appeared to be a mix of birds from various parts of the breeding range, judging from morphology (culmen's coefficient of variation = 9.1, n = 106). This suggested that origin (breeding area) of birds and their proportion in the data should be ascertained and accounted for in analyses to glean the full conservation implications of winter-based annual survival estimates. Those data are needed to unravel the possibility that individuals of distinct populations are affected by differential mortality factors across different migratory routes. Mean length of stay strongly suggested that habitat quality at the salt flats was high. Rainfall and tidal flow combine to increase food availability during fall. The salt flats dry up gradually toward late January, at the onset of the dry season. Semipalmated Sandpipers may move west to other Greater Antilles or south to sites such as coastal Surinam until the onset of spring migration. They are not an oversummering species at the salt flats. Conservation efforts in the Caribbean region require understanding the dynamics of this species throughout winter to protect

  6. Evaluating the Survival Rate and the Secondary Malignancies after Treating Hodgkin's Lymphoma Patients with Chemotherapy Regimens

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadzadeh, Ahmad; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Jalili, Mohamad H; Bahadoram, Mohammad; Efazat, Mehdi; Seghatoleslami, Mohammad; Yazdi, Fatemeh; Mahdipour, Mozhdeh; Valizadeh, Armita

    2014-01-01

    In this study we surveyed the average survival time of the treated Hodgkin's lymphoma patients and also the side effects and malignancies occurring secondary to the treatment. This is a retrospective study of patients referring to Ahwaz's Shafa hospital in a period of 10 years diagnosed with Hodgkin's lymphoma without any age restriction. After gathering all their data, we calculated their survival rate and the chance for a relapse and the secondary malignancies. 389 patients were included in the study with an average age of 27.5 years old and they had received only chemotherapy regimens. 87.9% of them had been treated by ABVD and 12.1 % by Stanford V regimen. 23.1% of them experienced a relapse and 13.1% of all patients, passed away during the study. Secondary malignancies were observed in 11 cases. An overall mean survival time of 295.31 months was resulted. The secondary malignancies after treating Hodgkin's lymphoma patients are different between chemotherapy regimens and chemotherapy – radiotherapy. PMID:24800035

  7. AgeStandardized Incidence Rates and Survival of Osteosarcoma in Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pruksakorn, Dumnoensun; Phanphaisarn, Areerak; Pongnikorn, Donsuk; Daoprasert, Karnchana; Teeyakasem, Pimpisa; Chaiyawat, Parunya; Katruang, Narisara; Settakorn, Jongkolnee

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is a common primary malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. Recent worldwide average incidences of osteosarcoma in people aged 0 to 24 years were 4.3 and 3.4 per million, respectively, with a ratio of 1.4:1. However, data on the incidence of osteosarcoma in Thailand are limited. This study analyzed the incidence of osteosarcoma in the upper northern region of Thailand, with a population of 5.85 million people (8.9% of the total Thai population), using data for the years 1998 to 2012, obtained from the Chiang Mai Cancer Registry (CMCR) at Chiang Mai University Hospital and the Lampang Cancer Registry (LCR) at the Lampang Cancer Hospital, a total of 144 cases. The overall annual incidence of osteosarcoma was 1.67 per million with a male:female ratio of 1.36:1. Incidences by age group (male and female) at 0 to 24, 25 to 59 and over 60 years were 3.5 (3.9 and 3.0), 0.8 (0.9 and 0.6), and 0.7 (0.8 and 0.5), respectively. The peak incidence occurred at 15 to 19 years for males and at 10 to 14 years for females. The median survival time was 18 months with a 5year survival rate of 43%. Neither the age group nor the 5year interval period of treatment was significantly correlated with survival during the 15year period studied. PMID:27509991

  8. High Survival Rates and Associated Factors Among Ebola Virus Disease Patients Hospitalized at Donka National Hospital, Conakry, Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Adnan I.; Chughtai, Morad; Bah, Elhadj Ibrahima; Barry, Moumié; Béavogui, Kézély; Loua, Tokpagnan Oscar; Malik, Ahmed A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Anecdotal reports suggesting that survival rates among hospitalized patients with Ebola virus disease in Guinea are higher than the 29.2% rate observed in the current epidemic in West Africa. Methods Survival after symptom onset was determined using Kaplan Meier survival methods among patients with confirmed Ebola virus disease treated in Conakry, Guinea from March 25, 2014, to August 5, 2014. We analyzed the relationship between survival and patient factors, including demographics and clinical features. Results Of the 70 patients analyzed [mean age ± standard deviation (SD), 34 ± 14.1; 44 were men], 42 were discharged alive with a survival rate among hospitalized patients of 60% (95% confidence interval, 41.5–78.5%). The survival rate was 28 (71.8%) among 39 patients under 34 years of age, and 14 (46.7%) among 30 patients aged 35 years or greater (p = 0.034). The rates of myalgia (3 of 42 versus 7 of 28, p = 0.036) and hiccups (1 of 42 versus 5 of 28, p = 0.023) were significantly lower among patients who survived. Conclusions Our results provide insights into a cohort of hospitalized patients with Ebola virus disease in whom survival is prominently higher than seen in other cohorts of hospitalized patients. PMID:25992182

  9. Controls on Arctic sea ice from first-year and multi-year ice survival rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armour, K.; Bitz, C. M.; Hunke, E. C.; Thompson, L.

    2009-12-01

    The recent decrease in Arctic sea ice cover has transpired with a significant loss of multi-year (MY) ice. The transition to an Arctic that is populated by thinner first-year (FY) sea ice has important implications for future trends in area and volume. We develop a reduced model for Arctic sea ice with which we investigate how the survivability of FY and MY ice control various aspects of the sea-ice system. We demonstrate that Arctic sea-ice area and volume behave approximately as first-order autoregressive processes, which allows for a simple interpretation of September sea-ice in which its mean state, variability, and sensitivity to climate forcing can be described naturally in terms of the average survival rates of FY and MY ice. This model, used in concert with a sea-ice simulation that traces FY and MY ice areas to estimate the survival rates, reveals that small trends in the ice survival rates explain the decline in total Arctic ice area, and the relatively larger loss of MY ice area, over the period 1979-2006. Additionally, our model allows for a calculation of the persistence time scales of September area and volume anomalies. A relatively short memory time scale for ice area (~ 1 year) implies that Arctic ice area is nearly in equilibrium with long-term climate forcing at all times, and therefore observed trends in area are a clear indication of a changing climate. A longer memory time scale for ice volume (~ 5 years) suggests that volume can be out of equilibrium with climate forcing for long periods of time, and therefore trends in ice volume are difficult to distinguish from its natural variability. With our reduced model, we demonstrate the connection between memory time scale and sensitivity to climate forcing, and discuss the implications that a changing memory time scale has on the trajectory of ice area and volume in a warming climate. Our findings indicate that it is unlikely that a “tipping point” in September ice area and volume will be

  10. Xuebijing Injection Promotes M2 Polarization of Macrophages and Improves Survival Rate in Septic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan-Cun; Yao, Feng-Hua; Chai, Yan-Fen; Dong, Ning; Sheng, Zhi-Yong; Yao, Yong-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Xuebijing (XBJ) injection, a concoction of several Chinese herbs, has been widely used as an immunomodulator for the treatment of severe sepsis in China. However, the precise mechanisms responsible for its efficacy have not been fully elucidated. In our study, we determined the flow cytometry markers (F4/80, CD11c, and CD206), the levels of secreted cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10), and the expression of specific proteins of M2 (Ym1, Fizz1, and Arg1) to assess macrophage polarization. Treatment with XBJ lowered M1 associated cytokine levels and increased the level of M2 associated cytokine level. The percentage of M2 phenotype cells of XBJ group was much higher than that of the control group. Expressions of phosphorylated Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) were markedly enhanced after the administration of XBJ; on the other hand, the M2 associated cytokines and proteins were decreased following treatment with JAK1 or STAT6 inhibitor. In addition, the treatment of XBJ significantly improved the survival rate of septic mice. These studies demonstrate that XBJ can markedly promote M2 polarization and improve the survival rate of septic mice, thereby contributing to therapeutic effect in the treatment of septic complications. PMID:26064161

  11. Effect of Fascioloides magna (Digenea) on fecundity, shell height, and survival rate of Pseudosuccinea columella (Lymnaeidae).

    PubMed

    Pankrác, Jan; Novobilský, Adam; Rondelaud, Daniel; Leontovyč, Roman; Syrovátka, Vít; Rajský, Dušan; Horák, Petr; Kašný, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Infection with Fascioloides magna (Digenea) causes serious damage to liver tissue in definitive hosts represented by ruminants, especially cervids. The distribution of F. magna includes the indigenous areas in North America, and the areas to which F. magna was introduced-Central Europe, Southeast Europe, and Italy. The North American intermediate host of F. magna, the freshwater snail Pseudosuccinea columella (Lymnaeidae), is an invasive species recorded in South America, the Caribbean, Africa, Australia, and west and Southeast Europe. In Europe, Galba truncatula is the snail serving for transmission, but P. columella has potential to become here a new intermediate host of F. magna. Little is known about interactions between F. magna and P. columella. In this study, the susceptibility of P. columella (Oregon, USA) to the infection by a single miracidium of the Czech strain of F. magna and the influence of F. magna on snail fecundity, shell height, and survival were evaluated. The data show that the Oregon strain of P. columella is a highly suitable host for the Czech strain of F. magna, with the infection rate of 74 %. In addition, a negative effect on survival rate of infected snails was recorded only in the late phase of infection. The infection was accompanied by a major reduction in egg mass production and by a decrease in the number of eggs per egg mass. The shell height of infected snails did not significantly differ from that in unexposed controls. PMID:27098161

  12. Survival-rate analysis of surface treated dental zirconia (Y-TZP) ceramics.

    PubMed

    Oblak, Cedomir; Verdenik, Ivan; Swain, Michael V; Kosmac, Tomaz

    2014-10-01

    The role of surface preparation, hydrothermal ageing exposure and subsequent cyclic fatigue testing on the biaxial strength of a dental Y-TZP material are investigated. The initial strength and survival rate of a dental Y-TZP ceramic material to fatigue testing was found to be highly dependent upon surface preparation more so than exposure to various hydrothermal exposure conditions. The results suggest that the monoclinic phase generated by either surface damage (especially sandblasting) and to a lesser extent hydrothermal exposure does appear to mitigate strength and fatigue degradation. The results are discussed in terms of the size of defects generated following various surface treatments and the role of cyclic fatigue induced crack growth. A critical ratio is established between the monotonic strength and fatigue stress survival. From the specimens that failed and exhibited reduced strength after cycling a plot of averaged crack growth rate versus max cyclic stress intensity factor was established which closely matched existing results for Y-TZP ceramics.

  13. Effect of hydrogen gas on the survival rate of mice following global cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Nagatani, Kimihiro; Wada, Kojiro; Takeuchi, Satoru; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Uozumi, Yoichi; Otani, Naoki; Fujita, Masanori; Tachibana, Shoichi; Nawashiro, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    Global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) often result in high mortality. Free radicals have been reported to play an important role in global cerebral I/R, and therefore, reduction of these might improve the outcome. Here, we investigated the effect of hydrogen gas (H2) (a strong free radical scavenger) on the survival rate of mice following global cerebral I/R. We further examined the histopathological outcome and also the brain water content (as a possible determinant of mortality). Male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to global cerebral I/R by means of 45-min bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO). A total of 160 mice were divided into three groups: sham surgery (sham group), BCCAO without H2 (BCCAO group), and BCCAO treated with 1.3% H2 (BCCAO + H2 group). We observed that H2 treatment significantly (P = 0.0232) improved the 7-day survival rate of mice, from 8.3% (BCCAO group, n = 12) to 50% (BCCAO + H2 group, n = 10). Histopathological analysis revealed that H2 treatment significantly attenuated neuronal injury and autophagy in the hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 sector and also brain edema, after 24 h of reperfusion. The beneficial effects of H2 treatment on brain injury were associated with significantly lower levels of oxidative stress markers (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and malondialdehyde) in the brain tissue. Thus, we believe that H2 may be an effective treatment for global cerebral I/R.

  14. Energy related germination and survival rates of water-imbibed Arabidopsis seeds irradiated with protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, H. L.; Xue, J. M.; Lai, J. N.; Wang, J. Y.; Zhang, W. M.; Miao, Q.; Yan, S.; Zhao, W. J.; He, F.; Gu, H. Y.; Wang, Y. G.

    2006-04-01

    In order to investigate the influence of ion energy on the germination and survival rates, water-imbibed Arabidopsis seeds were irradiated with protons in atmosphere. The ion fluence used in this experiment was in the range of 4 × 109-1 × 1014 ions/cm2. The ion energy is from 1.1 MeV to 6.5 MeV. According to the structure of the seed and TRIM simulation, the ions with the energy of 6.5 MeV can irradiate the shoot apical meristem directly whereas the ions with the energy of 1.1 MeV cannot. The results showed that both the germination and survival rates decrease while increasing the ion fluence, and the fluence-respond curve for each energy has different character. Besides the shoot apical meristem (SAM), which is generally considered as the main radiobiological target, the existence of a secondary target around SAM is proposed in this paper.

  15. Modeling the effect of temperature on survival rate of Salmonella Enteritidis in yogurt.

    PubMed

    Szczawiński, J; Szczawińska, M E; Łobacz, A; Jackowska-Tracz, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the inactivation rates of Salmonella Enteritidis in commercially produced yogurt and to generate primary and secondary mathematical models to predict the behaviour of these bacteria during storage at different temperatures. The samples were inoculated with the mixture of three S. Enteritidis strains and stored at 5 degrees C, 10 degrees C, 15 degrees C, 20 degrees C and 25 degrees C for 24 h. The number of salmonellae was determined every two hours. It was found that the number of bacteria decreased linearly with storage time in all samples. Storage temperature and pH of yogurt significantly influenced survival rate of S. Enteritidis (p < 0.05). In samples kept at 5 degrees C the number of salmonellae decreased at the lowest rate, whereas at 25 degrees C the reduction in number of bacteria was the most dynamic. The natural logarithm of mean inactivation rates of Salmonella calculated from primary model was fitted to two secondary models: linear and polynomial. Equations obtained from both secondary models can be applied as a tool for prediction of inactivation rate of Salmonella in yogurt stored under temperature range from 5 to 25 degrees C; however, polynomial model gave the better fit to the experimental data.

  16. Tidal and seasonal effects on survival rates of the endangered California clapper rail: does invasive Spartina facilitate greater survival in a dynamic environment?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Overton, Cory T.; Casazza, Michael L.; Takekawa, John Y.; Strong, Donald R.; Holyoak, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species frequently degrade habitats, disturb ecosystem processes, and can increase the likelihood of extinction of imperiled populations. However, novel or enhanced functions provided by invading species may reduce the impact of processes that limit populations. It is important to recognize how invasive species benefit endangered species to determine overall effects on sensitive ecosystems. For example, since the 1990s, hybrid Spartina (Spartina foliosa × alterniflora) has expanded throughout South San Francisco Bay, USA, supplanting native vegetation and invading mudflats. The endangered California clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) uses the tall, dense hybrid Spartina for cover and nesting, but the effects of hybrid Spartina on clapper rail survival was unknown. We estimated survival rates of 108 radio-marked California clapper rails in South San Francisco Bay from January 2007 to March 2010, a period of extensive hybrid Spartina eradication, with Kaplan–Meier product limit estimators. Clapper rail survival patterns were consistent with hybrid Spartina providing increased refuge cover from predators during tidal extremes which flood native vegetation, particularly during the winter when the vegetation senesces. Model averaged annual survival rates within hybrid Spartina dominated marshes before eradication (Ŝ = 0.466) were greater than the same marshes posttreatment (Ŝ = 0.275) and a marsh dominated by native vegetation (Ŝ = 0.272). However, models with and without marsh treatment as explanatory factor for survival rates had nearly equivalent support in the observed data, lending ambiguity as to whether hybrid Spartina facilitated greater survival rates than native marshland. Conservation actions to aid in recovery of this endangered species should recognize the importance of available of high tide refugia, particularly in light of invasive species eradication programs and projections of future sea-level rise.

  17. Failure to Achieve a PSA Level {<=}1 ng/mL After Neoadjuvant LHRHA Therapy Predicts for Lower Biochemical Control Rate and Overall Survival in Localized Prostate Cancer Treated With Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Darren M. McAleese, Jonathan; Park, Richard M.; Stewart, David P.; Stranex, Stephen; Eakin, Ruth L.; Houston, Russell F.; O'Sullivan, Joe M.

    2007-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether failure to suppress the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level to {<=}1 ng/mL after {>=}2 months of neoadjuvant luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist therapy in patients scheduled to undergo external beam radiotherapy for localized prostate carcinoma is associated with reduced biochemical failure-free survival. Methods and Materials: A retrospective case note review of consecutive patients with intermediate- or high-risk localized prostate cancer treated between January 2001 and December 2002 with neoadjuvant hormonal deprivation therapy, followed by concurrent hormonal therapy and radiotherapy was performed. Patient data were divided for analysis according to whether the PSA level in Week 1 of radiotherapy was {<=}1.0 ng/mL. Biochemical failure was determined using the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (Phoenix) definition. Results: A total of 119 patients were identified. The PSA level after neoadjuvant hormonal deprivation therapy was {<=}1 ng/mL in 67 patients and >1 ng/mL in 52. At a median follow-up of 49 months, the 4-year actuarial biochemical failure-free survival rate was 84% vs. 60% (p = 0.0016) in favor of the patients with a PSA level after neoadjuvant hormonal deprivation therapy of {<=}1 ng/mL. The overall survival rate was 94% vs. 77.5% (p = 0.0045), and the disease-specific survival rate at 4 years was 98.5% vs. 82.5%. Conclusions: The results of our study have shown that patients with a PSA level >1 ng/mL at the beginning of external beam radiotherapy after {>=}2 months of neoadjuvant luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist therapy have a significantly greater rate of biochemical failure and lower survival rate compared with those with a PSA level of {<=}1 ng/mL. Patients without adequate PSA suppression should be considered a higher risk group and considered for dose escalation or the use of novel treatments.

  18. Age specific survival rates of Steller sea lions at rookeries with divergent population trends in the Russian Far East.

    PubMed

    Altukhov, Alexey V; Andrews, Russel D; Calkins, Donald G; Gelatt, Thomas S; Gurarie, Eliezer D; Loughlin, Thomas R; Mamaev, Evgeny G; Nikulin, Victor S; Permyakov, Peter A; Ryazanov, Sergey D; Vertyankin, Vladimir V; Burkanov, Vladimir N

    2015-01-01

    After a dramatic population decline, Steller sea lions have begun to recover throughout most of their range. However, Steller sea lions in the Western Aleutians and Commander Islands are continuing to decline. Comparing survival rates between regions with different population trends may provide insights into the factors driving the dynamics, but published data on vital rates have been extremely scarce, especially in regions where the populations are still declining. Fortunately, an unprecedented dataset of marked Steller sea lions at rookeries in the Russian Far East is available, allowing us to determine age and sex specific survival in sea lions up to 22 years old. We focused on survival rates in three areas in the Russian range with differing population trends: the Commander Islands (Medny Island rookery), Eastern Kamchatka (Kozlov Cape rookery) and the Kuril Islands (four rookeries). Survival rates differed between these three regions, though not necessarily as predicted by population trends. Pup survival was higher where the populations were declining (Medny Island) or not recovering (Kozlov Cape) than in all Kuril Island rookeries. The lowest adult (> 3 years old) female survival was found on Medny Island and this may be responsible for the continued population decline there. However, the highest adult survival was found at Kozlov Cape, not in the Kuril Islands where the population is increasing, so we suggest that differences in birth rates might be an important driver of these divergent population trends. High pup survival on the Commander Islands and Kamchatka Coast may be a consequence of less frequent (e.g. biennial) reproduction there, which may permit females that skip birth years to invest more in their offspring, leading to higher pup survival, but this hypothesis awaits measurement of birth rates in these areas.

  19. Age Specific Survival Rates of Steller Sea Lions at Rookeries with Divergent Population Trends in the Russian Far East

    PubMed Central

    Altukhov, Alexey V.; Andrews, Russel D.; Calkins, Donald G.; Gelatt, Thomas S.; Gurarie, Eliezer D.; Loughlin, Thomas R.; Mamaev, Evgeny G.; Nikulin, Victor S.; Permyakov, Peter A.; Ryazanov, Sergey D.; Vertyankin, Vladimir V.; Burkanov, Vladimir N.

    2015-01-01

    After a dramatic population decline, Steller sea lions have begun to recover throughout most of their range. However, Steller sea lions in the Western Aleutians and Commander Islands are continuing to decline. Comparing survival rates between regions with different population trends may provide insights into the factors driving the dynamics, but published data on vital rates have been extremely scarce, especially in regions where the populations are still declining. Fortunately, an unprecedented dataset of marked Steller sea lions at rookeries in the Russian Far East is available, allowing us to determine age and sex specific survival in sea lions up to 22 years old. We focused on survival rates in three areas in the Russian range with differing population trends: the Commander Islands (Medny Island rookery), Eastern Kamchatka (Kozlov Cape rookery) and the Kuril Islands (four rookeries). Survival rates differed between these three regions, though not necessarily as predicted by population trends. Pup survival was higher where the populations were declining (Medny Island) or not recovering (Kozlov Cape) than in all Kuril Island rookeries. The lowest adult (> 3 years old) female survival was found on Medny Island and this may be responsible for the continued population decline there. However, the highest adult survival was found at Kozlov Cape, not in the Kuril Islands where the population is increasing, so we suggest that differences in birth rates might be an important driver of these divergent population trends. High pup survival on the Commander Islands and Kamchatka Coast may be a consequence of less frequent (e.g. biennial) reproduction there, which may permit females that skip birth years to invest more in their offspring, leading to higher pup survival, but this hypothesis awaits measurement of birth rates in these areas. PMID:26016772

  20. Size-sex variation in survival rates and abundance of pig frogs, Rana grylio, in northern Florida wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, K.V.; Nichols, J.D.; Percival, H.F.; Hines, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    During 1991-1993, we conducted capture-recapture studies on pig frogs, Rana grylio, in seven study locations in northcentral Florida. Resulting data were used to test hypotheses about variation in survival probability over different size-sex classes of pig frogs. We developed multistate capture-recapture models for the resulting data and used them to estimate survival rates and frog abundance. Tests provided strong evidence of survival differences among size-sex classes, with adult females showing the highest survival probabilities. Adult males and juvenile frogs had lower survival rates that were similar to each other. Adult females were more abundant than adult males in most locations at most sampling occasions. We recommended probabilistic capture-recapture models in general, and multistate models in particular, for robust estimation of demographic parameters in amphibian populations.

  1. Immunocompetence and high metabolic rates enhance overwinter survival in the root vole, Microtus oeconomus.

    PubMed

    Książek, Aneta; Zub, Karol; Szafrańska, Paulina A; Wieczorek, Monika; Konarzewski, Marek

    2014-12-01

    Despite its presumed significance, the association between immune defence, energy expenditures and overwinter survival is rarely studied. We analysed individual variation in immunocompetence quantified as neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (N/L), total white blood cells (WBC) and natural antibody levels, along with resting (RMR) and peak metabolic rates (PMR) and mortality during three consecutive winter seasons in a natural population of the root vole, Microtus oeconomus. In early winter, WBC count was negatively correlated with RMR, whereas N/L ratio was negatively correlated with swim-elicited PMR. We suggest that while the first correlation reflected the trade-off between energy allocation in immunocompetence and other metabolically demanding processes, the latter correlation stemmed from stress-induced immunosuppression elicited by the necessity to cope with swimming in frequently flooded habitat. In addition, the analysis carried out during the first year of study characterized by a high population density and prevalence of infestation with a blood parasite--Babesia spp., showed that its intensity was inversely correlated with the N/L ratio. In summary, our results suggest that elevated N/L ratio increases the winter survival of free-ranging rodents by increasing their ability to cope with parasitic infections.

  2. An objective index to estimate the survival rate of primary blast lung injury.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kihyuck; Yoon, Jungmin; Min, Kyeongran; Lee, Jungchang; Kang, Shinil; Hong, Sung Jun; Yoon, Sung Hoon; Lee, Jong-Shill; Nam, Kyoung Won; Cho, Seok Hyun; Park, Hoonki; Young, Kim In

    2014-01-01

    To supply proper treatments to the primary blast lung injury (PBLI) patients, it is important to estimate the severity of the primary blast lung injury in accordance with the blast conditions. In this study, a blast-induced mechanical parameter (first principal stress) of lung was calculated using a finite element thorax model and the correlation between the survival rate of the subjects with blast-induced lung damage and an objective index that was related to the first principal stress of the lung model. This study propose the objective index for the estimation of the degree of PBLI. The results have a potential clinical application to improve the efficacy of treatment for blast injury patients.

  3. Survival rate and fracture strength of maxillary incisors, restored with different kinds of full veneers.

    PubMed

    Stappert, C F J; Stathopoulou, N; Gerds, T; Strub, J R

    2005-04-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the survival rate and fracture strength of different kinds of ceramic full veneers, fabricated with a new experimental press ceramic (EPC VP2117/TC2, Ivoclar-Vivadent AG, Schaan, Liechtenstein). Eighty, caries-free human maxillary central incisors were used as abutments and were randomly divided into one control group and four test-groups of 16 samples each. In group A, unprepared teeth served as control. In the test groups, four different types of full veneer preparations were performed. In test groups B/C, the preparation was maintained in enamel and the contact point was on the tooth/on the veneer, respectively. In test groups D/E, the preparation was extended into dentin and the contact point was on the tooth/on the veneer, respectively. All veneers were adhesively luted using Variolink II (Ivoclar-Vivadent AG). Then, the samples were exposed to the artificial mouth for 1.2 million chewing cycles (49 N). After exposure in the artificial mouth, a survival rate of the abutment teeth of 81-100% was reported among the different groups, but was not significantly different between the groups. However, no failures of the ceramic materials could be recognized. The median fracture strength of group A was 713.3 N, of group B 647.1 N, of group C 594.8 N, of group D 483.8 N and of group E 502.6 N. Among the different groups no significant difference was found. All mean values obtained were within the limits of clinical acceptance, indicating further clinical investigations on full veneers made out of the EPC.

  4. Survival rates of anterior composites in managing tooth wear: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, K E; Murbay, S

    2016-02-01

    The use of composite restorations for patients with tooth wear is considered as a more conservative treatment option. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature investigating the survival rates of anterior composite restorations when used in managing tooth wear in patients. PubMed and MEDLINE (Ovid) databases were screened for studies from 1995 to 2015. Cross-referencing was used to further identify articles. Article selection and data extraction were performed in duplication. Languages were restricted to English. A quality appraisal of included studies was carried out using the Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy system. Six hundred and sixty-six articles were initially identified from which eight articles were full-text reviewed. Six articles involving five studies were selected for inclusion. Three studies were prospective and two retrospective. Included studies involved placement of 772 direct and indirect anterior composite restorations in 100 patients with follow-up periods between 5 months and 10 years. The survival rates of anterior composites were >90% and 50% at 2.5 and 5 years, respectively. Posterior occlusion was re-established in 91% of patients within 18 months. Meta-analysis could not be performed due to the heterogeneity of included studies. The systematic review's overall strength of recommendation was graded B. There is evidence to support the use of anterior composite restorations at an increased vertical dimension of occlusion in the short/medium-term management of tooth wear. Long-term reporting of outcomes remains limited. Further research is needed with standardised study design, detailed reporting of outcomes and long-term review.

  5. Survival rates of anterior composites in managing tooth wear: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, K E; Murbay, S

    2016-02-01

    The use of composite restorations for patients with tooth wear is considered as a more conservative treatment option. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature investigating the survival rates of anterior composite restorations when used in managing tooth wear in patients. PubMed and MEDLINE (Ovid) databases were screened for studies from 1995 to 2015. Cross-referencing was used to further identify articles. Article selection and data extraction were performed in duplication. Languages were restricted to English. A quality appraisal of included studies was carried out using the Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy system. Six hundred and sixty-six articles were initially identified from which eight articles were full-text reviewed. Six articles involving five studies were selected for inclusion. Three studies were prospective and two retrospective. Included studies involved placement of 772 direct and indirect anterior composite restorations in 100 patients with follow-up periods between 5 months and 10 years. The survival rates of anterior composites were >90% and 50% at 2.5 and 5 years, respectively. Posterior occlusion was re-established in 91% of patients within 18 months. Meta-analysis could not be performed due to the heterogeneity of included studies. The systematic review's overall strength of recommendation was graded B. There is evidence to support the use of anterior composite restorations at an increased vertical dimension of occlusion in the short/medium-term management of tooth wear. Long-term reporting of outcomes remains limited. Further research is needed with standardised study design, detailed reporting of outcomes and long-term review. PMID:26440584

  6. High survival and homing rate of hand-reared wild-strain mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, F.B.; Kruse, A.D.

    1973-01-01

    In the summer of 1970, 648 (329 males and 319 females) hand-reared wild-strain mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were banded and released at the Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge, Edmunds, North Dakota. The females were also marked with numbered nasal saddles. Liberation was by the gentle release method, and no special effort was made to isolate or condition the ducklings prior to release. Ducklings were placed in an enclosed pond area at 25 to 45 days of age. Altogether, 627 (97 percent) ducklings reached flight age and dispersed gradually into the wild. All had left the release area by 25 November. First-year band recovery reports indicated that 68 (11 percent) of the birds were shot in 15 states. Their migration pattern was similar to that for immature wild mallards banded in North Dakota in 1970.Eighty-nine (33 percent) of a possible 270 marked females returned to Arrowwood Refuge during 1971. When consideration is given to assumed normal natural mortality and crippling loss, an estimated minimum of 43 percent of the surviving females returned to the release area. Returning birds not observed would raise this figure even higher. This potential homing rate is considerably higher than rates reported for other studies using various strains of mallards. Numerous observations of nests and broods indicated that breeding behavior and nesting success were similar to those of wild mallards in the area. The success of this release is attributed to the inherent capability of hand-reared, wild-strain mallards to revert to their wild behavior, and to the high survival to flight age and first fall migration afforded by the gentle release in a sanctuary area. Indications are that releases of this type under the described conditions can be used to increase the breeding population of mallards in a local area.

  7. Chloroquine improves survival and hematopoietic recovery following lethal low dose- rate radiation

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Yiting; Hedayati, Mohammad; Merchant, Akil A.; Zhang, Yonggang; Yu, Hsiang-Hsuan M; Kastan, Michael B.; Matsui, William; DeWeese, Theodore L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We have previously shown that the anti-malarial agent chloroquine can abrogate the lethal cellular effects of low dose-rate (LDR) radiation in vitro, most likely by activating the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein. Here, we demonstrate that chloroquine treatment also protects against lethal doses of LDR radiation in vivo. Methods and Materials C57BL/6 mice were irradiated with total of 12.8 Gy delivered at 9.4 cGy/hr. ATM null mice from the same background were used to determine the influence of ATM. Chloroquine was administered by two intraperitoneal injections of 59.4 μg per 17 g of body weight, 24 hrs and 4 hrs before irradiation. Bone marrow cells isolated from tibia, fibula and vertebral bones were transplanted into lethally irradiated CD45 congenic recipient mice by retro orbital injection. Chimerism was assessed by flow cytometry. In vitro methyl cellulose colony forming assay of whole bone marrow cells as well as FACS analysis of lineage depleted cells was used to assess the effect of chloroquine on progenitor cells. Results Mice pretreated with chloroquine prior to radiation exhibited a significantly higher survival rate compared to mice treated with radiation alone (80 vs.31 percent, p=0.0026). Chloroquine administration prior to radiation did not impact the survival of ATM null mice (p=0.86). Chloroquine also had a significant effect on the early engraftment of bone marrow cells from the irradiated donor mice 6 weeks after the transplantation (4.2 percent vs. 0.4 percent, p=0.015). Conclusion Chloroquine administration prior to radiation had a significant effect on the survival of normal but not ATM null mice strongly suggesting that the in vivo effect like the in vitro effect is also ATM dependent. Chloroquine improved the early engraftment of bone marrow cells from LDR irradiated mice, presumably by protecting the progenitor cells from radiation injury. Chloroquine thus could serve as a very useful drug for protection against the

  8. Chloroquine Improves Survival and Hematopoietic Recovery After Lethal Low-Dose-Rate Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lim Yiting; Hedayati, Mohammad; Merchant, Akil A.; Zhang Yonggang; Yu, Hsiang-Hsuan M.; Kastan, Michael B.; Matsui, William; DeWeese, Theodore L.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: We have previously shown that the antimalarial agent chloroquine can abrogate the lethal cellular effects of low-dose-rate (LDR) radiation in vitro, most likely by activating the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein. Here, we demonstrate that chloroquine treatment also protects against lethal doses of LDR radiation in vivo. Methods and Materials: C57BL/6 mice were irradiated with a total of 12.8 Gy delivered at 9.4 cGy/hour. ATM null mice from the same background were used to determine the influence of ATM. Chloroquine was administered by two intraperitoneal injections of 59.4 {mu}g per 17 g of body weight, 24 hours and 4 hours before irradiation. Bone marrow cells isolated from tibia, fibula, and vertebral bones were transplanted into lethally irradiated CD45 congenic recipient mice by retroorbital injection. Chimerism was assessed by flow cytometry. In vitro methylcellulose colony-forming assay of whole bone marrow cells and fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis of lineage depleted cells were used to assess the effect of chloroquine on progenitor cells. Results: Mice pretreated with chloroquine before radiation exhibited a significantly higher survival rate than did mice treated with radiation alone (80% vs. 31%, p = 0.0026). Chloroquine administration before radiation did not affect the survival of ATM null mice (p = 0.86). Chloroquine also had a significant effect on the early engraftment of bone marrow cells from the irradiated donor mice 6 weeks after transplantation (4.2% vs. 0.4%, p = 0.015). Conclusion: Chloroquine administration before radiation had a significant effect on the survival of normal but not ATM null mice, strongly suggesting that the in vivo effect, like the in vitro effect, is also ATM dependent. Chloroquine improved the early engraftment of bone marrow cells from LDR-irradiated mice, presumably by protecting the progenitor cells from radiation injury. Chloroquine thus could serve as a very useful drug for protection

  9. Survival rate of salmonella on cooked pig ear pet treats at refrigerated and ambient temperature storage.

    PubMed

    Taormina, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Pet treats, including pig ears, have been implicated as vehicles of human salmonellosis, and Salmonella has been isolated on commercially produced pig ears. Therefore, behavior of the pathogen on this very low water activity (aw) pet treat is of interest. The survival of Salmonella serotypes Newport and Typhimurium DT104 was measured on natural (aw 0.256) and smoked (aw 0.306) pig ear pet treat products inoculated at ca. 6.5 log CFU per sample and stored at 4.4 or 22°C for 365 days. Surviving populations of Salmonella were enumerated periodically, and a modified Weibull model was used to fit the inactivation curves for log populations. After 14 days, the decline of Salmonella was significantly (P < 0.05) greater at 22°C than at 4.4°C. By 365 days of storage at 4.4°C, Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 declined by 2.19 log on smoked pig ears and 1.14 log on natural pig ears, while Salmonella Newport declined by 4.20 log on smoked pig ears and 2.08 log on natural pig ears. Populations of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 on refrigerated natural pig ears rebounded between day 152 (3.21 log CFU per sample) and day 175 (4.79 log CFU per sample) and rose gradually for the duration of the study to 5.28 log CFU per sample. The model fits for survival rate of Salmonella on pig ears at 4.4°C show a rapid initial decline followed by a long tailing effect. Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 on natural pig ears at 4.4°C had the slowest rate of reduction. At 22°C Salmonella declined nonlinearly by >4.5 log for each combination of serotype and pig ear type at 22°C but remained detectable by enrichment. The model parameter for days to first decimal reduction of Salmonella on pig ears was two to three times higher at 4.4°C compared with 22°C, demonstrating that Salmonella slowly declines on very low aw refrigerated pet treats and more rapidly at room temperature. This information may be useful for pet treat safety assessments. PMID:24405998

  10. Cognitive function, stress hormones, heart rate and nutritional status during simulated captivity in military survival training.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Harris R; Farina, Emily K; Caldwell, John; Williams, Kelly W; Thompson, Lauren A; Niro, Philip J; Grohmann, Kyle A; McClung, James P

    2016-10-15

    Stress influences numerous psychological and physiological processes, and its effects have practical implications in a variety of professions and real-world activities. However, few studies have concurrently assessed multiple behavioral, hormonal, nutritional and heart-rate responses of humans to acute, severe stress. This investigation simultaneously assessed cognitive, affective, hormonal, and heart-rate responses induced by an intensely stressful real-world environment designed to simulate wartime captivity. Sixty males were evaluated during and immediately following participation in U.S. Army Survival, Evasion, Resistance, and Escape (SERE) school, three weeks of intense but standardized training for Soldiers at risk of capture. Simulated captivity and intense mock interrogations degraded grammatical reasoning (p<0.005), sustained-attention (p<0.001), working memory (p<0.05) and all aspects of mood assessed by the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire: Tension/Anxiety, Depression/Dejection, Anger/Hostility, Vigor/Activity, Fatigue/Inertia; Confusion/Bewilderment, and Total Mood Disturbance (p<0.001) It also elevated heart rate (p<0.001); increased serum and salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-s) (p<0.01); elevated serum epinephrine, norepinephrine, and soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR) (p<0.01); increased salivary neuropeptide-Y (NPY) (p<0.001); and decreased serum prolactin and serum and salivary testosterone (p<0.001). Partial recovery was observed immediately after training, but stress-induced changes, particularly in body weight and several of the biomarkers, persisted. This study demonstrates that when individuals were exposed to realistic and controlled simulated captivity, cognition, mood, stress hormones, nutritional status and heart rate are simultaneously altered, and each of these subsequently recovers at different rates. PMID:27374427

  11. 38 CFR 3.24 - Improved pension rates-Surviving children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Surviving children. 3.24 Section 3.24 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... rates—Surviving children. (a) General. The provisions of this section apply to children of a deceased veteran not in the custody of a surviving spouse who has basic eligibility to receive improved...

  12. 38 CFR 3.24 - Improved pension rates-Surviving children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-Surviving children. 3.24 Section 3.24 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... rates—Surviving children. (a) General. The provisions of this section apply to children of a deceased.... Children in custody of a surviving spouse who has basic eligibility to receive improved pension do not...

  13. 38 CFR 3.24 - Improved pension rates-Surviving children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Surviving children. 3.24 Section 3.24 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... rates—Surviving children. (a) General. The provisions of this section apply to children of a deceased.... Children in custody of a surviving spouse who has basic eligibility to receive improved pension do not...

  14. 38 CFR 3.24 - Improved pension rates-Surviving children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Surviving children. 3.24 Section 3.24 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... rates—Surviving children. (a) General. The provisions of this section apply to children of a deceased.... Children in custody of a surviving spouse who has basic eligibility to receive improved pension do not...

  15. Sensitivity of the Giant LOop Binary LEsion (GLOBLE) cell survival model on parameters characterising dose rate effects.

    PubMed

    Herr, L; Friedrich, T; Durante, M; Scholz, M

    2015-09-01

    The sensitivity of the Giant LOop Binary LEsion model for cell survival probabilities after arbitrary photon irradiation schedules on its parameters is presented. Since these parameters are closely linked to observable features of cell repair, the modelled influence of the parameters on cell survival gives indications about the relation between cell line-specific repair characteristics and the radiation response. To visualise the general findings about the impact of parameter changes on cell survival probabilities, survival curves for an exemplary cell line are shown. Furthermore, the relative change in the effect of radiation after a change in parameter values is investigated over the range of doses and dose rates usually applied in cell survival experiments.

  16. The Rate of Osmotic Downshock Determines the Survival Probability of Bacterial Mechanosensitive Channel Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Bialecka-Fornal, Maja; Lee, Heun Jin

    2014-01-01

    Mechanosensitive (MS) channels allow cells to sense and respond to environmental changes. In bacteria, these channels are believed to protect against an osmotic shock. The physiological function of these channels has been characterized primarily by a standardized assay, where aliquots of batch-cultured cells are rapidly pipetted into a hypotonic medium. Under this method, it has been inferred many types of MS channels (MscS homologs in Escherichia coli) demonstrate limited effectiveness against shock, typically rescuing less than 10% of the cells when expressed at native levels. We introduce a single-cell-based assay which allows us to control how fast the osmolarity changes, over time scales ranging from a fraction of a second to several minutes. We find that the protection provided by MS channels depends strongly on the rate of osmotic change, revealing that, under a slow enough osmotic drop, MscS homologs can lead to survival rates comparable to those found in wild-type strains. Further, after the osmotic downshift, we observe multiple death phenotypes, which are inconsistent with the prevailing paradigm of how cells lyse. Both of these findings require a reevaluation of our basic understanding of the physiology of MS channels. PMID:25349158

  17. Estimating the effect of hunting on annual survival rates of adult mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnham, Kenneth P.; White, Gary C.; Anderson, David R.

    1984-01-01

    Management programs for waterfowl populations include rationale for, and establishment of, hunting regulations. These programs rest partially on the results of scientific studies on the effect of harvest rates on annual survival rates. The evidence of this relationship has changed markedly since the mid-1970's, and it is not widely believed that a largely compensatory relationship exists between hunting mortality and other forms of mortality for the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). This paper employs a general probabilistic model formulated to include a parameter (b) representing a continuum between complete compensation (b=0) and total additivity (b=1). Maximum likelihood estimates of this parameter were computer for 47 data sets of adult mallards banded throughout North American before hunting commenced. We found additional evidence of a highly compensatory mortality process for adult male mallards, while the evidence for adults female mallards remains inconclusive. Effective harvest, land acquisition, and land management programs depend upon additional information on the chronology and mechanisms underlying a compensatory mortality process.

  18. Predicting remembering and forgetting of autobiographical memories in children and adults: a 4-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Patricia J; Larkina, Marina

    2016-11-01

    Preservation and loss to forgetting of autobiographical memories is a focus in both the adult and developmental literatures. In both, there are comparative arguments regarding rates of forgetting. Children are assumed to forget autobiographical memories more rapidly than adults, and younger children are assumed to forget more rapidly than older children. Yet few studies can directly inform these comparisons: few feature children and adults, and few prospectively track the survival of specific autobiographical memories over time. In a 4-year prospective study, we obtained autobiographical memories from children 4, 6, and 8 years, and adults. We tested recall of different subsets of the events after 1, 2, and 3 years. Accelerated rates of forgetting were apparent among all child groups relative to adults; within the child groups, 4- and 6-year-olds had accelerated forgetting relative to 8-year-olds. The differences were especially pronounced in open-ended recall. The thematic coherence of initial memory reports also was a significant predictor of the survival of specific memories. The pattern of findings is consistent with suggestions that the adult distribution of autobiographical memories is achieved as the quality of memory traces increases (here measured by thematic coherence) and the rate of forgetting decreases.

  19. The Maine Question: How Is 4-Year College Enrollment Affected by Mandatory College Entrance Exams?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurwitz, Michael; Smith, Jonathan; Niu, Sunny; Howell, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    We use a difference-in-differences analytic approach to estimate postsecondary consequences from Maine's mandate that all public school juniors take the SAT®. We find that, overall, the policy increased 4-year college-going rates by 2- to 3-percentage points and that 4-year college-going rates among induced students increased by 10-percentage…

  20. Effects of pond salinization on survival rate of amphibian hosts infected with the chytrid fungus.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Michelle Pirrie; Storrie, Lachlan James; Pollard, Carla Jean; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael Joseph

    2015-04-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been implicated in the decline and extinction of amphibian populations worldwide, but management options are limited. Recent studies show that sodium chloride (NaCl) has fungicidal properties that reduce the mortality rates of infected hosts in captivity. We investigated whether similar results can be obtained by adding salt to water bodies in the field. We increased the salinity of 8 water bodies to 2 or 4 ppt and left an additional 4 water bodies with close to 0 ppt and monitored salinity for 18 months. Captively bred tadpoles of green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea) were released into each water body and their development, levels of B. dendrobatidis infection, and survival were monitored at 1, 4, and 12 months. The effect of salt on the abundance of nontarget organisms was also investigated in before and after style analyses. Salinities remained constant over time with little intervention. Hosts in water bodies with 4 ppt salt had a significantly lower prevalence of chytrid infection and higher survival, following metamorphosis, than hosts in 0 ppt salt. Tadpoles in the 4 ppt group were smaller in length after 1 month in the release site than those in the 0 and 2 ppt groups, but after metamorphosis body size in all water bodies was similar . In water bodies with 4 ppt salt, the abundance of dwarf tree frogs (Litoria fallax), dragonfly larvae, and damselfly larvae was lower than in water bodies with 0 and 2 ppt salt, which could have knock-on effects for community structure. Based on our results, salt may be an effective field-based B. dendrobatidis mitigation tool for lentic amphibians that could contribute to the conservation of numerous susceptible species. However, as in all conservation efforts, these benefits need to be weighed against negative effects on both target and nontarget organisms.

  1. Effects of pond salinization on survival rate of amphibian hosts infected with the chytrid fungus.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Michelle Pirrie; Storrie, Lachlan James; Pollard, Carla Jean; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael Joseph

    2015-04-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been implicated in the decline and extinction of amphibian populations worldwide, but management options are limited. Recent studies show that sodium chloride (NaCl) has fungicidal properties that reduce the mortality rates of infected hosts in captivity. We investigated whether similar results can be obtained by adding salt to water bodies in the field. We increased the salinity of 8 water bodies to 2 or 4 ppt and left an additional 4 water bodies with close to 0 ppt and monitored salinity for 18 months. Captively bred tadpoles of green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea) were released into each water body and their development, levels of B. dendrobatidis infection, and survival were monitored at 1, 4, and 12 months. The effect of salt on the abundance of nontarget organisms was also investigated in before and after style analyses. Salinities remained constant over time with little intervention. Hosts in water bodies with 4 ppt salt had a significantly lower prevalence of chytrid infection and higher survival, following metamorphosis, than hosts in 0 ppt salt. Tadpoles in the 4 ppt group were smaller in length after 1 month in the release site than those in the 0 and 2 ppt groups, but after metamorphosis body size in all water bodies was similar . In water bodies with 4 ppt salt, the abundance of dwarf tree frogs (Litoria fallax), dragonfly larvae, and damselfly larvae was lower than in water bodies with 0 and 2 ppt salt, which could have knock-on effects for community structure. Based on our results, salt may be an effective field-based B. dendrobatidis mitigation tool for lentic amphibians that could contribute to the conservation of numerous susceptible species. However, as in all conservation efforts, these benefits need to be weighed against negative effects on both target and nontarget organisms. PMID:25354647

  2. Abundance and Survival Rates of the Hawai’i Island Associated Spinner Dolphin (Stenella longirostris) Stock

    PubMed Central

    Tyne, Julian A.; Pollock, Kenneth H.; Johnston, David W.; Bejder, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Reliable population estimates are critical to implement effective management strategies. The Hawai’i Island spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) is a genetically distinct stock that displays a rigid daily behavioural pattern, foraging offshore at night and resting in sheltered bays during the day. Consequently, they are exposed to frequent human interactions and disturbance. We estimated population parameters of this spinner dolphin stock using a systematic sampling design and capture–recapture models. From September 2010 to August 2011, boat-based photo-identification surveys were undertaken monthly over 132 days (>1,150 hours of effort; >100,000 dorsal fin images) in the four main resting bays along the Kona Coast, Hawai’i Island. All images were graded according to photographic quality and distinctiveness. Over 32,000 images were included in the analyses, from which 607 distinctive individuals were catalogued and 214 were highly distinctive. Two independent estimates of the proportion of highly distinctive individuals in the population were not significantly different (p = 0.68). Individual heterogeneity and time variation in capture probabilities were strongly indicated for these data; therefore capture–recapture models allowing for these variations were used. The estimated annual apparent survival rate (product of true survival and permanent emigration) was 0.97 SE±0.05. Open and closed capture–recapture models for the highly distinctive individuals photographed at least once each month produced similar abundance estimates. An estimate of 221±4.3 SE highly distinctive spinner dolphins, resulted in a total abundance of 631±60.1 SE, (95% CI 524–761) spinner dolphins in the Hawai’i Island stock, which is lower than previous estimates. When this abundance estimate is considered alongside the rigid daily behavioural pattern, genetic distinctiveness, and the ease of human access to spinner dolphins in their preferred resting habitats, this

  3. Daily nest survival rates of Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus): assessing local- and landscape-scale drivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Thomas R.; Cameron Aldridge,; Joanne Saher,; Theresa Childers,

    2015-01-01

    The Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus) is a species of conservation concern and is a candidate for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act because of substantial declines in populations from historic levels. It is thought that loss, fragmentation, and deterioration of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitat have contributed to the decline and isolation of this species into seven geographically distinct subpopulations. Nest survival is known to be a primary driver of demography of Greater Sage-Grouse (C. urophasianus), but no unbiased estimates of daily nest survival rates (hereafter nest survival) exist for Gunnison Sage-Grouse or published studies identifying factors that influence nest survival. We estimated nest survival of Gunnison Sage-Grouse for the western portion of Colorado's Gunnison Basin subpopulation, and assessed the effects and relative importance of local- and landscape-scale habitat characteristics on nest survival. Our top performing model was one that allowed variation in nest survival among areas, suggesting a larger landscape-area effect. Overall nest success during a 38-day nesting period (egg-laying plus incubation) was 50% (daily survival rate; SE  =  0.982 [0.003]), which is higher than previous estimates for Gunnison Sage-Grouse and generally higher than published for the closely related Greater Sage-Grouse. We did not find strong evidence that local-scale habitat variables were better predictors of nest survival than landscape-scale predictors, nor did we find strong evidence that any of the habitat variables we measured were good predictors of nest survival. Nest success of Gunnison Sage-Grouse in the western portion of the Gunnison Basin was higher than previously believed.

  4. Differences in vitamin D status may account for unexplained disparities in cancer survival rates between African and white Americans

    PubMed Central

    Grant, William B.; Peiris, Alan N.

    2012-01-01

    Considerable disparities in cancer survival rates exist between African Americans (AAs) and white Americans (WAs). Various factors such as differences in socioeconomic status (SES), cancer stage at time of diagnosis, and treatment—which this analysis considers primary explanatory factors—have accounted for many of these differences. An additional factor not usually considered is vitamin D. Previous studies have inversely correlated higher solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) doses and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations with incidence and/or mortality rates for about 20 types of cancer and improved survival rates for eight types of cancer. Because of darker skin pigmentation, AAs have 40% lower serum 25(OH)D concentrations than WAs. This study reviews the literature on disparities in cancer survival between AAs and WAs. The journal literature indicates that there are disparities for 13 types of cancer after consideration of SES, stage at diagnosis and treatment: bladder, breast, colon, endometrial, lung, ovarian, pancreatic, prostate, rectal, testicular, and vaginal cancer; Hodgkin lymphoma and melanoma. Solar UVB doses and/or serum 25(OH)D concentrations have been reported inversely correlated with incidence and/or mortality rates for all of these cancers. This finding suggests that future studies should consider serum 25(OH)D concentrations in addressing cancer survival disparities through both measurements of serum 25(OH)D concentrations and increasing serum 25(OH)D concentrations of those diagnosed with cancer, leading to improved survival rates and reduced disparities. PMID:22928063

  5. Survival analysis approach to account for non-exponential decay rate effects in lifetime experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coakley, K. J.; Dewey, M. S.; Huber, M. G.; Huffer, C. R.; Huffman, P. R.; Marley, D. E.; Mumm, H. P.; O`Shaughnessy, C. M.; Schelhammer, K. W.; Thompson, A. K.; Yue, A. T.

    2016-03-01

    In experiments that measure the lifetime of trapped particles, in addition to loss mechanisms with exponential survival probability functions, particles can be lost by mechanisms with non-exponential survival probability functions. Failure to account for such loss mechanisms produces systematic measurement error and associated systematic uncertainties in these measurements. In this work, we develop a general competing risks survival analysis method to account for the joint effect of loss mechanisms with either exponential or non-exponential survival probability functions, and a method to quantify the size of systematic effects and associated uncertainties for lifetime estimates. As a case study, we apply our survival analysis formalism and method to the Ultra Cold Neutron lifetime experiment at NIST. In this experiment, neutrons can escape a magnetic trap before they decay due to a wall loss mechanism with an associated non-exponential survival probability function.

  6. Survival Rates of Juvenile Salmonids Passing Through the Bonneville Dam and Spillway in 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Faber, Derrek M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Johnson, Gary E.; Hughes, James S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Wilberding, Matthew C.; Durham, Robin E.; Townsend, R. L.; Skalski, J. R.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Kim, Jina; Fischer, Eric S.; Meyer, Matthew M.; McComas, Roy L.; Everett, Jason

    2009-12-28

    This report describes a 2008 acoustic telemetry survival study conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The study estimated the survival of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead passing Bonneville Dam (BON) and its spillway. Of particular interest was the relative survival of smolts detected passing through end spill bays 1-3 and 16-18, which had deep flow deflectors immediately downstream of spill gates, versus survival of smolts passing middle spill bays 4-15, which had shallow flow deflectors.

  7. Effect of Coating Method on the Survival Rate of L. plantarum for Chicken Feed.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Yoon; Jo, Yeon-Ji; Choi, Mi-Jung; Lee, Boo-Yong; Han, Jong-Kwon; Lim, Jae Kag; Oh, Jae-Wook

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to find the most suitable method and wall material for microencapsulation of the Lactobacillus plantarum to maintain cell viability in different environmental conditions. To improve the stability of L. plantarum, we developed an encapsulation system of L. plantarum, using water-in-oil emulsion system. For the encapsulation of L. plantarum, corn starch and glyceryl monostearate were selected to form gel beads. Then 10% (w/v) of starch was gelatinized by autoclaving to transit gel state, and cooled down at 60ºC and mixed with L. plantarum to encapsulate it. The encapsulated L. plantarum was tested for the tolerance of acidic conditions at different temperatures to investigate the encapsulation ability. The study indicated that the survival rate of the microencapsulated cells in starch matrix was significantly higher than that of free cells in low pH conditions with relatively higher temperature. The results showed that corn starch as a wall material and glycerol monostearate as a gelling agent in encapsulation could play a role in the viability of lactic acid bacteria in extreme conditions. Using the current study, it would be possible to formulate a new water-in-oil system as applied in the protection of L. plantarum from the gastric conditions for the encapsulation system used in chicken feed industry.

  8. Effect of Coating Method on the Survival Rate of L. plantarum for Chicken Feed

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Yoon; Jo, Yeon-Ji; Choi, Mi-Jung; Lee, Boo-Yong; Han, Jong-Kwon; Lim, Jae Kag

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to find the most suitable method and wall material for microencapsulation of the Lactobacillus plantarum to maintain cell viability in different environmental conditions. To improve the stability of L. plantarum, we developed an encapsulation system of L. plantarum, using water-in-oil emulsion system. For the encapsulation of L. plantarum, corn starch and glyceryl monostearate were selected to form gel beads. Then 10% (w/v) of starch was gelatinized by autoclaving to transit gel state, and cooled down at 60ºC and mixed with L. plantarum to encapsulate it. The encapsulated L. plantarum was tested for the tolerance of acidic conditions at different temperatures to investigate the encapsulation ability. The study indicated that the survival rate of the microencapsulated cells in starch matrix was significantly higher than that of free cells in low pH conditions with relatively higher temperature. The results showed that corn starch as a wall material and glycerol monostearate as a gelling agent in encapsulation could play a role in the viability of lactic acid bacteria in extreme conditions. Using the current study, it would be possible to formulate a new water-in-oil system as applied in the protection of L. plantarum from the gastric conditions for the encapsulation system used in chicken feed industry. PMID:26760943

  9. Long-term analysis of survival, fertility, and population growth rate of black bears in North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brongo, L.L.; Mitchell, M.S.; Grand, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    We estimated survival, fertility, and realized and asymptotic population growth rates from 1981 to 2002 for a protected population of black bears (Ursus americanus) in the southern Appalachian Mountains. We used Akaike's information criterion to assess the time interval for averaging observations that was best for estimating vital rates for our study, given our yearly sample sizes. The temporal symmetry approach allowed us to directly assess population growth and to address all losses and gains to the population by using only capture data, offering an alternative to the logistically intensive collection of reproductive data. Models that averaged survival and fertility across 5- and 7-year time intervals were best supported by our data. Studies of black bear populations with annual sample sizes similar to ours should be of at least 5 years in duration to estimate vital rates reliably, and at least 10 years in duration to evaluate changes in population growth rate (??). We also hypothesized that survival would not track changes in ?? because ?? is influenced by both survival and fertility. The 5-year model supported our hypothesis, but the 7-year model did not. Where long-term dynamics of large, relatively stable bear populations are of interest, monitoring survival is likely to be sufficient for evaluating trends in ??. For rapidly changing, small populations, however, failure to incorporate fertility into assessments of ?? could be misleading. ?? 2005 American Society of Mammalogists.

  10. Early marine growth in relation to marine-stage survival rates for Alaska sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farley, Edward V.; Murphy, J.M.; Adkison, M.D.; Eisner, L.B.; Helle, J.H.; Moss, J.H.; Nielsen, J.

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that larger juvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Bristol Bay, Alaska, have higher marine-stage survival rates than smaller juvenile salmon. We used scales from returning adults (33 years of data) and trawl samples of juveniles (n = 3572) collected along the eastern Bering Sea shelf during August through September 2000-02. The size of juvenile sockeye salmon mirrored indices of their marine-stage survival rate (e.g., smaller fish had lower indices of marine-stage survival rate). However, there was no relationship between the size of sockeye salmon after their first year at sea, as estimated from archived scales, and brood-year survival size was relatively uniform over the time series, possibly indicating size-selective mortality on smaller individuals during their marine residence. Variation in size, relative abundance, and marine-stage survival rate of juvenile sockeye salmon is likely related to ocean conditions affecting their early marine migratory pathways along the eastern Bering Sea shelf.

  11. Comparative Survival [Rate] Study (CSS); Design and Analysis, 2002 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bouwes, Nick; Petrosky, Charlie; Schaller, Howard

    2002-04-01

    Fisheries agencies and tribes have developed a multi-year program, the Comparative Survival Study (CSS), to obtain information to be used in monitoring and evaluating the impacts of the mitigation measures and actions (e.g., flow augmentation, spill, and transportation) under NMFS' Biological Opinion to recover listed stocks. Through 2001, the CSS has utilized PIT tagged yearling hatchery chinook that were tagged specifically for the CSS and PIT tagged wild chinook from all available marking efforts in the Snake River basin above Lower Granite Dam. We selected hatchery programs that would allow the opportunity to mark sufficient numbers of smolts to give enough returning adult fish that statistically rigorous smolt-to-adult survival rates could be computed. Since the CSS inception, hatchery fish that have consistently been used include spring/summer chinook tagged at McCall, Rapid River, Dworshak, and Lookingglass (Imnaha stock) hatcheries. The CSS has also included a group of spring chinook from Carson Hatchery in the lower Columbia River for planned upstream/downstream comparison. The wild stocks included chinook PIT tagged as parr (summer/fall tagging season) and smolts (spring tagging season) in each major tributary above Lower Granite Dam. Future years will see the CSS add wild and hatchery steelhead in the Snake River basin, hatchery steelhead in the Mid-Columbia River basin, hatchery yearling chinook in the Mid-Columbia River basin, and wild chinook in John Day River in the lower Columbia River. Each PIT (passive integrated transponder) tag has a unique code. The tags are glass encapsulated, 11 mm in length, and implanted into the fish's underbelly by a syringe. All attempts are made to make the PIT tagged fish as representative of their untagged cohorts as possible. At trapping sites, sampling and tagging occur over the entire migration season. At hatcheries, fish to tag are obtained across as wide a set of ponds and raceways as possible to allow effective

  12. Planetary quarantine in the solar system. Survival rates of some terrestrial organisms under simulated space conditions by proton irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, J.; Oshima, T.

    We have been studying the survival rates of some species of terrestrial unicellular and multicellular organism (viruses, bacteria, yeasts, fungi, algae, etc.) under simulated interstellar conditions, in connection with planetary quarantine. The interstellar environment in the solar system has been simulated by low temperature, high vacuum (77 K, 4 × 10 -8 torr), and proton irradiation from a Van de Graaff generator. After exposure to a barrage of protons corresponding to about 250 years of irradiation in solar space, tobacco mosaic virus, Bacillus subtilis spores, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus flavus, Aspergillus niger spores, and Clostridium mangenoti spores showed survival rates of 82, 45, 74, 13, 28, and 25%, respectively.

  13. Population ecology of the mallard VIII: Winter distribution patterns and survival rates of winter-banded mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, James D.; Hines, James E.

    1987-01-01

    In the present report we address questions about winter distribution patterns and survival rates of North American mallards Anas platyrhynchos. Inferences are based on analyses of banding and recovery data from both winter and preseason banding period. The primary wintering range of the mallard was dividded into 45 minor reference areas and 15 major reference areas which were used to summarize winter banding data. Descriptive tables and figures on the recovery distributions of winter-banded mallards are presented. Using winter recoveries of preseason-banded mallards, we found apparent differences between recovery distribution of young versus adult birds from the same breeding ground reference areas. However, we found no sex-specific differences in winter recovery distribution patterns. Winter recovery distributions of preseason-banded birds also provided evidence that mallards exhibited some degree of year-to-year variation in wintering ground location. The age- and sex-specificity of such variation was tested using winter recoveries of winter-banded birds, and results indicated that subadult (first year) birds were less likely to return to the same wintering grounds the following year than adults. Winter recovery distributions of preseason-banded mallards during 1950-58 differed from distributions in 1966-76. These differences could have resulted from either true distributional shifts or geographic changes in hunting pressure. Survival and recovery rates were estimated from winter banding data. We found no evidence of differences in survival or recovery rates between subadult and adult mallards. Thus, the substantial difference between survival rates of preseason-banded young and adult mallards must result almost entirely from higher mortality of young birds during the approximate period, August-January. Male mallards showed higher survival than females, corroborating inferences based on preseason data. Tests with winter banding and band recovery data indicated

  14. Relationship between prenatal survival rate at 70 days of gestation and morphometric parameters of vagina, uterus and placenta in gilts.

    PubMed

    Vianna, W L; Pinese, M E; de Campos Rosseto, A; Bombonato, P P; Rodrigues, P H M; de Sant'Anna Moretti, A

    2004-12-01

    Swine uterine capacity affects litter size, and it could be used as a selection parameter of reproductive performance. Although there are some controversial results, evidences show that the catheter penetration length is positively correlated with litter size, and it could be used as a tool for predicting selection methods. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is any association between the prenatal survival rate and placental size at 70 days of gestation, the vaginal length [catheter penetration length during artificial insemination (AI)] and the uterine capacity in a homogeneous group of gilts. Sixty-six commercial-line gilts in pre-pubertal phase had their oestrus induced by hormonal treatment [600 UI of Equine Chorionic Gonadtrophin (eCG) i.m. and after a 72-h period 5 mg of luteinizing hormone (LH) i.m.], but only 40 gilts showed cyclicity after induction. The AI catheter penetration length was tested on these 40 gilts at the moment of AI using a calibrated AI catheter. Four gilts returned to oestrus and the other 36 were killed at around day 69 of pregnancy. The uterine length and weight showed a significant and positive correlation with the prenatal survival rate (p <0.05). The catheter penetration length was unable to predict the conceptus survival rate on 70 days of gestation; however, the uterine size influenced the survival rate positively. The mean placental area was positively correlated with the mean placental weight (p <0.0001), and both with the mean foetal weight (p <0.0001 and p <0.001, respectively). The analysis of the results obtained showed that neither did the catheter penetration length measurement during AI, nor the prenatal survival rate on day 70 of pregnancy predict the uterine capacity, but the uterine and placental size had a significant influence on the prenatal survival and foetus weight, respectively.

  15. Moderate progress for ovarian cancer in the last 20 years: prolongation of survival, but no improvement in the cure rate.

    PubMed

    Engel, J; Eckel, R; Schubert-Fritschle, G; Kerr, J; Kuhn, W; Diebold, J; Kimmig, R; Rehbock, J; Hölzel, D

    2002-12-01

    Although ovarian cancer treatment has advanced in the last 20 years, long-term survival remains stable. The purpose of this study was to determine whether survival has improved in line with treatment advances in a population-based prospective cohort of ovarian cancer patients (1978-1997, with a follow-up through to 2000). The 10-year overall survival rate for cancer patients was similar before and after 1988: 32.2% (n=1661) and 34.4% (n=2089). For patients after 1988, a 12-month prolongation of median survival was observed. In terms of stage according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO), only FIGO I and FIGO II patients showed, in addition to a prolongation in survival, an absolute improvement of 12.9 and 12.6% after 5 years and of 13.2 and 8.6% after 10 years. This hardly affected the survival of the total sample. For the most frequent stage FIGO III patients and for FIGO IV patients, a prolongation in survival time, but no improvement in survival rate, was seen after five or 10 years. The progress in FIGO I and II patients may be due to more accurate staging. More effective chemotherapy may also explain some of the improvement. The prolongation in FIGO-stages III-IV may be due to more radical surgery. Patient selection criteria, not only the treatment modalities, may be responsible for the superior results reported in clinical trials. Cancer registries are important for evaluating the quality of healthcare delivery.

  16. [Follow up of patients with prostatic cancer after radical prostatectomy: results, late complication, survival rate].

    PubMed

    Romics, I; Bach, D; Würtz, U

    1995-02-19

    The authors performed radical prostatectomy on 35 prostate cancer patients between 1986 and 1991. At the end of 1993 the authors were informed about 25 patients. The mean follow-up was 4.4. years. Two patients have died in tumour related diseases, one in intercurrent diseases. In six patients progression was observed. Five patients had to operated because of anastomosis stricture. One patient was operated because of total incontinence another one uses penis clamp.

  17. Apparent Survival Rates of Forest Birds in Eastern Ecuador Revisited: Improvement in Precision but No Change in Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Blake, John G.; Loiselle, Bette A.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of survival rates of Neotropical landbirds remains limited, with estimates of apparent survival available from relatively few sites and species. Previously, capture-mark-recapture models were used to estimate apparent survival of 31 species (30 passerines, 1 Trochilidae) from eastern Ecuador based on data collected from 2001 to 2006. Here, estimates are updated with data from 2001-2012 to determine how additional years of data affect estimates; estimates for six additional species are provided. Models assuming constant survival had highest support for 19 of 31 species when based on 12 years of data compared to 27 when based on six; models incorporating effects of transients had the highest support for 12 of 31 species compared to four when based on 12 and six years, respectively. Average apparent survival based on the most highly-supported model (based on model averaging, when appropriate) was 0.59 (± 0.02 SE) across 30 species of passerines when based on 12 years and 0.57 (± 0.02) when based on six. Standard errors of survival estimates based on 12 years were approximately half those based on six years. Of 31 species in both data sets, estimates of apparent survival were somewhat lower for 13, somewhat higher for 17, and remained unchanged for one; confidence intervals for estimates based on six and 12 years of data overlapped for all species. Results indicate that estimates of apparent survival are comparable but more precise when based on longer-term data sets; standard error of the estimates was negatively correlated with numbers of captures (rs = −0.72) and recaptures (rs = −0.93, P<0.001 in both cases). Thus, reasonable estimates of apparent survival may be obtained with relatively few years of data if sample sizes are sufficient. PMID:24312519

  18. Epinephrine, but not vasopressin, improves survival rates in an adult rabbit model of asphyxia cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meng-Hua; Xie, Lu; Liu, Tang-Wei; Song, Feng-Qing; He, Tao; Zeng, Zhi-yu; Mo, Shu-Rong

    2007-06-01

    Although vasopressin has been reported to be more effective than epinephrine for cardiopulmonary resuscitation in ventricular fibrillation animal models, its efficacy in asphyxia model remains controversy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of vasopressin vs epinephrine on restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in a rabbit model of asphyxia cardiac arrest. Cardiac arrest was induced by clamping endotracheal tube. After 5 minutes of basic life-support cardiopulmonary resuscitation, animals who had no ROSC were randomly assigned to receive either epinephrine alone (epinephrine group; 200 microg/kg) or vasopressin alone (vasopressin group; 0.8 U/kg). The coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) was calculated as the difference between the minimal diastolic aortic and simultaneously recorded right atrial pressure. Restoration of spontaneous circulation was defined as an unassisted pulse with a systolic arterial pressure of 60 mm Hg or higher for 5 minutes or longer. We induced arrest in 62 rabbits, 15 of whom had ROSC before drug administration and were excluded from analysis. The remaining 47 rabbits were randomized to epinephrine group (n = 24) and vasopressin group (n = 23). Before and after drug administration, CPP in epinephrine group increased significantly (from -4 +/- 4 to 36 +/- 9 mm Hg at peak value, P = .000), whereas CPP in vasopressin group increased only slightly (from 9 +/- 5 to 18 +/- 6 mm Hg at peak value, P = .20). After drug administration, 13 of 24 epinephrine rabbit had ROSC, and only 2 of 23 vasopressin rabbit had ROSC (P < .01). Consequently, we conclude that epinephrine, but not vasopressin, increases survival rates in this adult rabbit asphyxia model.

  19. Smoking Patterns, Attitudes and Motives: Unique Characteristics among 2-Year versus 4-Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, C. J.; An, L. C.; Thomas, J. L.; Lust, K. A.; Sanem, J. R.; Swan, D. W.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    Given the previously documented higher rates of smoking among 2-year college students in comparison with 4-year university students, this study compares smoking patterns, attitudes and motives among 2-year and 4-year college students. Two thousand two hundred and sixty-five undergraduate students aged 18-25 years at a 2-year college and a 4-year…

  20. Survival and fertility rate of cooled dromedary camel spermatozoa supplemented with catalase enzyme.

    PubMed

    Medan, Mohamed Sabry; Absy, Gamal; Zeidan, Alaa Elsayed; Khalil, Medhat Hussein; Khalifa, Hesham Hussein; Abdel-Salaam, Atef Mahrous; Abdel-Khalek, Tarek Mohammad

    2008-02-01

    The present study was planned to study the effects of addition of different concentrations of catalase enzyme (0, 250, 500 and 1,000 IU/ml) to cooled dromedary camel semen extended with tris-yolk-fructose extender on semen quality during storage at 5 C for up to 5 days. Conception rates of she-camels artificially inseminated with whole fresh or extended cooled dromedary camel semen with or without 500 IU/ml catalase enzyme were also estimated. The results showed that addition of catalase enzyme at concentrations of 250 or 500 IU/ml to extended cooled dromedary camel semen significantly increased (P<0.01) the percentage of sperm motility and significantly decreased (P<0.01) the percentages of dead spermatozoa, sperm abnormalities and acrosomal damage. The highest (P<0.01) percentage of sperm motility was recorded with extended cooled dromedary camel semen supplemented with catalase enzyme at a concentration of 500 IU/ml, and the lowest (P<0.01) value was recorded with catalase enzyme at a concentration of 1000 IU/ml. On the other hand, the lowest (P<0.01) percentages of dead spermatozoa, sperm abnormalities and acrosomal damage of spermatozoa were recorded with extended cooled dromedary camel semen supplemented with 500 IU/ml, and the highest (P<0.01) values were recorded with catalase enzyme at a concentration of 1,000 IU/ml. Advancement of the storage time at 5 C significantly decreased (P<0.01) the percentage of sperm motility and significantly increased (P<0.01) the percentages of dead spermatozoa, sperm abnormalities and acrosomal damage of spermatozoa. Moreover, the conception rates of she-camels artificially inseminated with whole fresh, extended cooled dromedary camel semen free-catalase enzyme and extended cooled dromedary camel semen supplemented with catalase enzyme at a concentration of 500 IU/ml were 46.15, 22.22 and 37.50%, respectively. In conclusion, the results show that addition of catalase enzyme at a concentration of 500 IU/ml to semen extender

  1. Hyperglycemia and survival rate in Asian patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sin, Hye Yeon

    2014-06-01

    Current studies are debating on the association of higher admission blood glucose (BG) and increased mortality of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This study evaluated association of mortality between admission BG and BG control in 222 patients with ACS who received coronary intervention in the intensive care unit. This study observed medical records through electronic medical record retrospectively and evaluated all patients who were admitted for the first attack of ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI), non-STEMI, and unstable angina pectoris. Admission BG higher than 220 mg/dl was statistically significantly associated with lower survival in patients; the association was stronger than in patients with admission BG higher than 140 mg/dl to less than 220 mg/dl and patients with admission BG less than 140 mg/dl (Wilcoxon test, p = 0.002). Survival time after admission was also associated with the history of diabetes mellitus (DM). Patients with diabetes had significantly lower survival than those without diabetes (Wilcoxon test, p = 0.028). Survival after ACS was not consistent with each insulin intervention of on admission to 6, 24, and 48 h after admission. There is a statistically significant association between admission BG higher than 220 mg/dl and low survival but each intervention of post admission BG levels were not consistently associated with the mortality. Additionally, history of DM is associated with lower survival in patients with ACS on admission.

  2. Genetic parameters for calving rate and calf survival from linear, threshold, and logistic models in a multibreed beef cattle population.

    PubMed

    Guerra, J L L; Franke, D E; Blouin, D C

    2006-12-01

    Generalized mixed linear, threshold, and logistic sire models and Markov chain, Monte Carlo simulation procedures were used to estimate genetic parameters for calving rate and calf survival in a multibreed beef cattle population. Data were obtained from a 5-generation rotational crossbreeding study involving Angus, Brahman, Charolais, and Hereford (1969 to 1995). Gelbvieh and Simmental bulls sired terminal-cross calves from a sample of generation 5 cows. A total of 1,458 cows sired by 158 bulls had a mean calving rate of 78% based on 4,808 calving records. Ninety-one percent of 5,015 calves sired by 260 bulls survived to weaning. Mean heritability estimates and standard deviations for daughter calving rate from posterior distributions were 0.063 +/- 0.024, 0.150 +/- 0.049, and 0.130 +/- 0.047 for linear, threshold, and logistic models, respectively. For calf survival, mean heritability estimates and standard deviations from posterior distributions were 0.049 +/- 0.022, 0.160 +/- 0.058, and 0.190 +/- 0.078 from linear, threshold, and logistic models, respectively. When transformed to an underlying normal scale, linear sire, mixed model, heritability estimates were similar to threshold and logistic sire mixed model estimates. Posterior density distributions of estimated heritabilities from all models were normal. Spearman rank correlations between sire EPD across statistical models were greater than 0.97 for daughter calving rate and for calf survival. Sire EPD had similar ranges across statistical models for daughter calving rate and for calf survival. PMID:17093211

  3. A Population-Based Study of the Association of Prenatal Diagnosis With Survival Rate for Infants With Congenital Heart Defects

    PubMed Central

    Oster, Matthew E.; Kim, Christopher H.; Kusano, Aaron S.; Cragan, Janet D.; Dressler, Paul; Hales, Alice R.; Mahle, William T.; Correa, Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal diagnosis has been shown to improve preoperative morbidity in newborns with congenital heart defects (CHDs), but there are conflicting data as to the association with mortality. We performed a population-based, retrospective, cohort study of infants with prenatally versus postnatally diagnosed CHDs from 1994 to 2005 as ascertained by the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program. Among infants with isolated CHDs, we estimated 1-year Kaplan-Meier survival probabilities for prenatal versus postnatal diagnosis and estimated Cox proportional hazard ratios adjusted for critical CHD status, gestational age, and maternal race/ethnicity. Of 539,519 live births, 4,348 infants had CHDs (411 prenatally diagnosed). Compared with those with noncritical defects, those with critical defects were more likely to be prenatally diagnosed (58% vs 20%, respectively, p <0.001). Of the 3,146 infants with isolated CHDs, 1-year survival rate was 77% for those prenatally diagnosed (n = 207) versus 96% for those postnatally diagnosed (n = 2,939, p <0.001). Comparing 1-year survival rate among those with noncritical CHDs alone (n = 2,455) showed no difference between prenatal and postnatal diagnoses (96% vs 98%, respectively, p = 0.26), whereas among those with critical CHDs (n = 691), prenatally diagnosed infants had significantly lower survival rate (71% vs 86%, respectively, p <0.001). Among infants with critical CHDs, the adjusted hazard ratio for 1-year mortality rate for those prenatally versus postnatally (reference) diagnosed was 2.51 (95% confidence interval 1.72 to 3.66). In conclusion, prenatal diagnosis is associated with lower 1-year survival rate for infants with isolated critical CHDs but shows no change for those with isolated noncritical CHDs. More severe disease among the critical CHD subtypes diagnosed prenatally might explain these findings. PMID:24472597

  4. Esophageal cancer epidemiology in blacks and whites: racial and gender disparities in incidence, mortality, survival rates and histology.

    PubMed Central

    Baquet, Claudia R.; Commiskey, Patricia; Mack, Kelly; Meltzer, Stephen; Mishra, Shiraz I.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Esophageal cancer rate disparities are pronounced for blacks and whites. This study presents black-white esophageal cancer incidence, mortality, relative survival rates, histology and trends for two five-year time periods--1991-1995 and 1996-2000--and for the time period 1991-2000. METHODS: The study used data from the National Cancer Institute's population-based Surveillance Epidemiology End Results (SEER) program with submission dates 1991-2000. Age-adjusted incidence, mortality, relative survival rates and histology for esophageal carcinoma were calculated for nine SEER cancer registries for 1991-2000. Rates were analyzed by race and gender for changes over specified time periods. RESULTS: Esophageal cancer age-adjusted incidence of blacks was about twice that of whites (8.63 vs. 4.39/100,000, p < 0.05). Age-adjusted mortality for blacks, although showing a declining trend, was nearly twice that of whites (7.79 vs. 3.96, p < 0.05). Although survival was poor for all groups, it was significantly poorer in blacks than in whites. Squamous cell carcinoma was more commonly diagnosed in blacks and white females, whereas adenocarcinoma was more common among white males (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Racial disparities in esophageal cancer incidence, mortality, survival and histology exist. Survival rates from this disease have not significantly improved over the decade. These data support the need for advances in prevention, early detection biomarker research and research on new, more effective treatment modalities for this disease. Images Figure 1 PMID:16334494

  5. The influence of printing parameters on cell survival rate and printability in microextrusion-based 3D cell printing technology.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu; Li, Yang; Mao, Shuangshuang; Sun, Wei; Yao, Rui

    2015-11-02

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell printing technology has provided a versatile methodology to fabricate cell-laden tissue-like constructs and in vitro tissue/pathological models for tissue engineering, drug testing and screening applications. However, it still remains a challenge to print bioinks with high viscoelasticity to achieve long-term stable structure and maintain high cell survival rate after printing at the same time. In this study, we systematically investigated the influence of 3D cell printing parameters, i.e. composition and concentration of bioink, holding temperature and holding time, on the printability and cell survival rate in microextrusion-based 3D cell printing technology. Rheological measurements were utilized to characterize the viscoelasticity of gelatin-based bioinks. Results demonstrated that the bioink viscoelasticity was increased when increasing the bioink concentration, increasing holding time and decreasing holding temperature below gelation temperature. The decline of cell survival rate after 3D cell printing process was observed when increasing the viscoelasticity of the gelatin-based bioinks. However, different process parameter combinations would result in the similar rheological characteristics and thus showed similar cell survival rate after 3D bioprinting process. On the other hand, bioink viscoelasticity should also reach a certain point to ensure good printability and shape fidelity. At last, we proposed a protocol for 3D bioprinting of temperature-sensitive gelatin-based hydrogel bioinks with both high cell survival rate and good printability. This research would be useful for biofabrication researchers to adjust the 3D bioprinting process parameters quickly and as a referable template for designing new bioinks.

  6. The distribution of Yin-Deficient symptoms and their relationship on survival rate in cancer patients with Yin-Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shu-Chuan; Chen, Ming-Feng; Li, Tsai-Chung; Hsieh, Yu-Ho; Liu, Shwu-Jiuan

    2008-01-01

    Yin-Deficiency (YD), representing a status of the human body under lack of nutrition and fluid in traditional Chinese medicine, is commonly seen in late stage of cancer patients. It is not known whether the severity of YD related symptoms/signs can predict the survival rate of cancer patients. This study evaluated the distribution of Yin-deficiency symptoms/signs (YDS) in cancer patients with YD, and investigated whether the severity of YDS can predict the survival rate of cancer patients with YD. From 5 January 2007 to 5 May 2007, we selected 43 cancer patients with diagnosis of YD from hospitalized patients and outpatients. The severity of YD was evaluated by a questionnaire. We further estimated the cumulative probabilities of the survival rates over 4 months since the start of study by the Kaplan-Meier product-limit method, and compared the differences among groups with various severities in each symptom/sign with the use of the log-rank test. The results revealed that, the 3 most common YDS were sleeplessness with annoyance, less or non-coated tongue with or without redness and dry mouth. In the survival rate analysis, only 2 parameters, rapidly small pulse (p = 0.002) and less-or non-coated tongue with paleness (p = 0.017), were found to be related to the decrease of cancer patients with YD. This suggests that, both rapidly small pulse and less-or non-coated tongue without redness may be used as predictors for the estimation of survival rate in cancer patients with YD. PMID:18711763

  7. Long-term survival rates of gravity-assisted, adjustable differential pressure valves in infants with hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Gebert, Anna-Felicitas; Schulz, Matthias; Schwarz, Karin; Thomale, Ulrich-Wilhelm

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE The use of adjustable differential pressure valves with gravity-assisted units in shunt therapy of children with hydrocephalus was reported to be feasible and promising as a way to avoid chronic overdrainage. In this single-center study, the authors' experiences in infants, who have higher rates of shunt complications, are presented. METHODS All data were collected from a cohort of infants (93 patients [37 girls and 56 boys], less than 1 year of age [mean age 4.1 ± 3.1 months]) who received their first adjustable pressure hydrocephalus shunt as either a primary or secondary implant between May 2007 and April 2012. Rates of valve and shunt failure were recorded for a total of 85 months until the end of the observation period in May 2014. RESULTS During a follow-up of 54.2 ± 15.9 months (range 26-85 months), the Kaplan-Meier rate of shunt survival was 69.2% at 1 year and 34.1% at 85 months; the Kaplan-Meier rate of valve survival was 77.8% at 1 year and 56% at 85 months. Survival rates of the shunt were significantly inferior if the patients had previous shunt surgery. During follow-up, 44 valves were exchanged in cases of infection (n = 19), occlusion (n = 14), dysfunction of the adjustment unit (n = 10), or to change the gravitational unit (n = 1). CONCLUSIONS Although a higher shunt complication rate is observed in infant populations compared with older children, reasonable survival rates demonstrate the feasibility of using this sophisticated valve technology. The gravitational unit of this valve is well tolerated and its adjustability offers the flexible application of opening pressure in an unpredictable cohort of patients. This may adequately address overdrainage-related complications from early in treatment.

  8. Fermi Large Area Telescope Operations: Progress Over 4 Years

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, Robert A.; /SLAC

    2012-06-28

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope was launched into orbit in June 2008, and is conducting a multi-year gamma-ray all-sky survey, using the main instrument on Fermi, the Large Area Telescope (LAT). Fermi began its science mission in August 2008, and has now been operating for almost 4 years. The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory hosts the LAT Instrument Science Operations Center (ISOC), which supports the operation of the LAT in conjunction with the Mission Operations Center (MOC) and the Fermi Science Support Center (FSSC), both at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The LAT has a continuous output data rate of about 1.5 Mbits per second, and data from the LAT are stored on Fermi and transmitted to the ground through TDRS and the MOC to the ISOC about 10 times per day. Several hundred computers at SLAC are used to process LAT data to perform event reconstruction, and gamma-ray photon data are subsequently delivered to the FSSC for public release with a few hours of being detected by the LAT. We summarize the current status of the LAT, and the evolution of the data processing and monitoring performed by the ISOC during the first 4 years of the Fermi mission, together with future plans for further changes to detected event data processing and instrument operations and monitoring.

  9. Delayed implantation of nigral grafts improves survival of dopamine neurones and rate of functional recovery.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, S R; Fawcett, J W; Dunnett, S B

    1999-04-26

    In order to test the hypothesis that poor survival of dopaminergic neurones in nigral transplants may be due, at least in part, to acute toxic changes in the host striatum within the first hour after injury, we experimentally evaluated the consequences of imposing a brief delay (20 min, 1 or 3 h) between positioning the injection cannula and extruding the graft tissue. A delay of as little as 1 h resulted in a three-fold increase in survival of dopamine neurones in the grafts and a more rapid abolition of amphetamine-induced rotational asymmetry in the host animals. These results suggest that acute but rapidly resolving changes in the host striatal environment induced by the implantation procedure itself can have a significantly deleterious effect on the survival of embryonic nigral grafts. PMID:10363936

  10. High rates of long-term survival of deep-sea infauna in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, James R.

    1990-08-01

    Living bivalves ( Nucula, Thyasira), a gastropod ( Frigidoalvania brychia) and a calcareous foraminiferan ( Laticarinina pauperata), from 775 m depth in the northwest Atlantic, were maintained in the laboratory for 772 days to measure their survival. The organisms, <4 mm in size, were maintained at 1 atm and at 5°C in cups containing sediment and seawater. Over the 772 day period, 46% of all bivalves and one of two gastropods survived. Minimum estimates for survival of L. pauperata in six containers ranged from 0 to 67% for a 1-2 year period. This study demonstrates that it is feasible to maintain continental slope infauna in the laboratory for long periods of time. Such organisms could be used in experiments that examine their mobility, responses to different sediments and foods, and sizes and shapes of biogenic structures produced in sediments.

  11. Growth performance and survival rate of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1979) larvae using different doses of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Habib, Ahasan; Das, Nani Gopal; Hossain, M Belal

    2014-07-01

    The efficiency of probiotics (Ecomarine) in rearing of Macrobrachium rosenbergii larvae was evaluated in a commercial prawn hatchery for five weeks. Stage-1 (zero age) larvae (of length: 2 mm; weight: 0.12 mg) were stocked at the rate of 100 L(-1). The experiment determined the growth rate, survival rate of the larvae for the both treatment and control groups. Final average weight were found 8.39 ± 3.28E-04 and 8.18 ± 2.86E-04 mg and length were found 9.08 ± 0.649 and 9.02 ± 0.081 mm for treatment and control group respectively. Comparatively higher growth performance was observed in treatment than control. Post Larvae (PL) was first observed 20th days of culture in treatment tanks whereas PL in control tanks was found 24th days of culture. Survival rate was found 58 and 46% in treatment and control group respectively. There was significant (p < 0.05) survival rate between two experiment groups. This study revealed that probiotics could be better in quality seed production of M. rosenbergii while significant changes were not noticed in the physic-chemical parameters i.e., water temperature, salinity, DO, pH, nitrate-NO2, hardness and alkalinity observed in both the treatments.

  12. A comparison of injectable fluorescent marks in two genera of darters: Effects on survival and retention rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, J.H.; Angermeier, P.L.

    2004-01-01

    Visible implant elastomer (VIE) and injectable photonic dye (IPD), two types of injectable fluorescent marks, have shown promise in previous applications in a variety of fishes but have not been extensively tested on darters. We marked a species from each of two genera of darters, Percina and Etheostoma, in a laboratory experiment to determine the influence of VIE and IPD marks on survival and the influences of mark type, location, and color on mark retention. Short-term (???80-d) survival was similar between marked and control specimens for both marks in both species. Over the long term (200-240 d), however, the survival rate for IPD-marked Roanoke darters P. roanoka was significantly lower than that for controls (50% versus 80%), whereas VIE-marked Roanoke darters had a survival rate (88%) similar to that of controls. Long-term survival of riverweed darters E. podostemone did not differ among groups. In Roanoke darters, the mark retention rate for IPD was significantly lower than that for VIE by day 80 of the experiment (80% versus 94%), and ventral IPD marks were retained with greater frequency than were dorsal IPD marks. In riverweed darters, retention was similar for VIE and IPD (79% versus 83%) in all body locations through day 240. In both species, yellow IPD marks exhibited higher retention rates than did green IPD marks, whereas the reverse was true for yellow and green VIE marks. Overall, VIE was a superior mark in the Percina representative but performed similarly to IPD in Etheostoma. Because of interspecific and intraspecific variability in mark performance, we recommend a pilot study before initiating field use of injectable marks in untested species.

  13. Precise calculation of a bond percolation transition and survival rates of nodes in a complex network.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Hirokazu; Takayasu, Hideki; Jensen, Henrik Jeldtoft; Takayasu, Misako

    2015-01-01

    Through precise numerical analysis, we reveal a new type of universal loopless percolation transition in randomly removed complex networks. As an example of a real-world network, we apply our analysis to a business relation network consisting of approximately 3,000,000 links among 300,000 firms and observe the transition with critical exponents close to the mean-field values taking into account the finite size effect. We focus on the largest cluster at the critical point, and introduce survival probability as a new measure characterizing the robustness of each node. We also discuss the relation between survival probability and k-shell decomposition.

  14. Precise Calculation of a Bond Percolation Transition and Survival Rates of Nodes in a Complex Network

    PubMed Central

    Kawamoto, Hirokazu; Takayasu, Hideki; Jensen, Henrik Jeldtoft; Takayasu, Misako

    2015-01-01

    Through precise numerical analysis, we reveal a new type of universal loopless percolation transition in randomly removed complex networks. As an example of a real-world network, we apply our analysis to a business relation network consisting of approximately 3,000,000 links among 300,000 firms and observe the transition with critical exponents close to the mean-field values taking into account the finite size effect. We focus on the largest cluster at the critical point, and introduce survival probability as a new measure characterizing the robustness of each node. We also discuss the relation between survival probability and k-shell decomposition. PMID:25885791

  15. Comparison of in vivo and in vitro survival and fecundity rates of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae.

    PubMed

    Arkle, S; George, D R; Guy, J H; Sparagano, O A E

    2010-04-01

    To assist in the testing of possible antigens in developing a vaccine against the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae De Geer), a rapid and reliable in vitro screening method is critical. This short paper describes how D. gallinae survival and fecundity rates in an in vivo feeding device compared to that of mites fed using an in vitro method. Results showed that survival of fed D. gallinae females and mites overall was greater in vitro, although there was no difference between male survival and fecundity between in vivo and in vitro designs. The in vitro feeding device described therefore has the potential to provide reliable results, comparable to those obtained by in vivo testing, to allow for the rapid screening of D. gallinae antigens.

  16. Smolt Monitoring Program Comparative Survival Rate Study (CSS); Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Jonasson, Brian; Carmichael, Richard

    2003-05-01

    We PIT-tagged juvenile spring chinook salmon reared at Lookingglass Hatchery in October 2001 as part of the Comparative Survival Rate Study (CSS) for migratory year (MY) 2002. We tagged 20,998 Imnaha stock spring chinook salmon, and after mortality and tag loss, we allowed the remaining 20,920 fish to leave the acclimation pond at our Imnaha River satellite facility beginning 21 March 2002 to begin their seaward migration. The fish remaining in the pond were forced out on 17 April 2002. We tagged 20,973 Catherine Creek stock captive brood progeny spring chinook salmon, and after mortality and tag loss, we allowed the remaining 20,796 fish to leave the acclimation ponds at our Catherine Creek satellite facility beginning 1 April 2001 to begin their seaward migration. The fish remaining in the ponds were forced out on 15 April 2001. We estimated survival rates, from release to Lower Granite Dam in MY 2002, for three stocks of hatchery spring chinook salmon tagged at Lookingglass Hatchery to determine their relative migration performance. Imnaha River stock and Lostine River stock survival rates were similar and were higher than the survival rate of Catherine Creek stock. We PIT-tagged 20,950 BY 2001 Imnaha River stock and 20,820 BY 2001 Catherine Creek stock captive brood progeny in October 2002 as part of the CSS for MY 2003. At the time the fish were transferred from Lookingglass Hatchery to the acclimation site, the rates of mortality and tag loss for Imnaha River stock were 0.14% and 0.06%, respectively. Catherine Creek stock, during the same period, had rates of mortality and tag loss of 0.57% and 0.31%, respectively. There was slightly elevated mortality, primarily from BKD, in one raceway of Catherine Creek stock at Lookingglass Hatchery for BY 2001.

  17. ALEXIS, the little satellite that could -- 4 years later

    SciTech Connect

    Roussel-Dupre, D.; Bloch, J.; Little, C.

    1997-10-01

    The 113-kg Array of Low Energy X-ray Imaging Sensors (ALEXIS) satellite was launched from the fourth flight of Pegasus on 25 April, 1993 into a 750 x 850 km, 70 degree inclination orbit. Due to damage sustained at the time of launch, ground controllers did not make contact with the satellite until late June. By late July, full satellite operations had been restored through the implementation of new procedures for attitude control. Science operations with the two onboard experiments began at that time. Now 4 years later is still collecting more than 100 MB of mission data per day. ALEXIS was originally designed to be a high risk, single string. {open_quotes}Smarter-Faster-Cheaper{close_quotes} satellite, with a 1 year nominal and a 3 year design limit. This paper will discuss how well the various satellite and experiment subsystems are surviving a variety of low and high radiation environments and what improvements have been made to make operations more autonomous. 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Contemporary phase III clinical trial endpoints in advanced ovarian cancer: assessing the pros and cons of objective response rate, progression-free survival, and overall survival.

    PubMed

    Tate Thigpen, J

    2015-01-01

    Among gynecologic cancers, ovarian cancer provides the greatest challenge because 75% to 80% of patients present with stage III/IV disease. Over the last 40 years, a series of large trials conducted by the Gynecologic Oncology Group and other cooperative groups has produced striking improvements in patient outcome; but the majority still dies of their disease. Further research in both the laboratory and the clinic is essential to continued improvement in patient management. Clinical trials, however, have become a major challenge because of issues with trial endpoints. Historically, overall survival (OS) has been regarded as the "gold standard" of endpoints. Lack of effective treatment for patients who progressed on or recurred after front-line therapy allowed trials to avoid obfuscation of OS by post-progression therapy. More recently, studies have identified over 20 agents active against ovarian cancer. Reasonable evidence shows that effective post-progression therapy with multiple lines of active agents can render the survival endpoint uninterpretable. Two other endpoints avoid this problem. The objective response rate, assessed by the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST), is an accepted endpoint for accelerated approval in ovarian cancer. More importantly, progression-free survival (PFS), measured from study entry to progression of disease, avoids post-progression therapy completely. Without effective post-progression therapy (prior to 1990), data show that PFS is a surrogate for OS. Recent experience with 4 large trials of bevacizumab shows that PFS can be accurately assessed if progression is clearly defined and if timing of assessments is consistent in all study arms. Acceptance of PFS as the optimal endpoint for ovarian cancer trials by investigators and regulatory agencies is crucial to further advances in management because effective post-progression therapy has rendered differences in OS virtually impossible to assess reliably.

  19. [Recurrence and survival rate of advanced gastric cancer after preoperative EAP-II intra-arterial infusion therapy].

    PubMed

    Masuyama, M; Taniguchi, H; Takeuchi, K; Miyata, K; Koyama, H; Tanaka, H; Higashida, T; Koishi, Y; Mugitani, T; Yamaguchi, T

    1994-09-01

    Ninety-eight patients with advanced gastric cancers underwent gastrectomy from Jan. 1989 to Dec. 1991. For these patients, preoperative intra-arterial injection therapy using EAP-II (etoposide 100 mg, epirubicin 20 mg, carboplatin 100 mg) was given to 24 patients. In this report, the recurrence and survival rate of these patients were investigated. After curative resection, the survival rate of patients with EAP-II 36 months after operation was 76.9%, while that of patients without EAP-II was 78.6%. There were no significant differences between these two groups. Two peritoneal carcinomatoses and two liver metastases were seen in patients with EAP-II (recurrence rate, 30.7%). Eight recurrences were observed in patients without preoperative injection therapy (peritoneal dissemination, 4; local recurrence, 3; lymph node recurrence, 1). Previously, we reported that drugs were remarkably accumulated in gastric cancer tissue and regional lymph nodes after EAP-II intra-arterial injection therapy. This high accumulation might cause no local or lymph node recurrence was seen in patient with EAP-II. Thus, it was concluded that preoperative EAP-II intra-arterial injection may prevent local and lymph node recurrences, and that further study of the combination and dose of anti-cancer drug needed to improve the postoperative survival rate in advanced gastric cancer patients.

  20. Survival Rate of Resin and Ceramic Inlays, Onlays, and Overlays: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, S; Rebello de Sampaio, F B W; Braga, M M; Sesma, N; Özcan, M

    2016-08-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the survival rate of ceramic and resin inlays, onlays, and overlays and to identify the complication types associated with the main clinical outcomes. Two reviewers searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for articles published between 1983 through April 2015, conforming to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines for systematic reviews. Clinical studies meeting the following criteria were included: 1) studies related to resin and ceramic inlays, onlays, and overlays; 2) prospective, retrospective, or randomized controlled trials conducted in humans; 3) studies with a dropout rate of less than 30%; and 4) studies with a follow-up longer than 5 y. Of 1,389 articles, 14 met the inclusion criteria. The meta-regression indicated that the type of ceramic material (feldspathic porcelain vs. glass-ceramic), study design (retrospective vs. prospective), follow-up time (5 vs. 10 y), and study setting (university vs. private clinic) did not affect the survival rate. Estimated survival rates for glass-ceramics and feldspathic porcelain were between 92% and 95% at 5 y (n = 5,811 restorations) and were 91% at 10 y (n = 2,154 restorations). Failures were related to fractures/chipping (4%), followed by endodontic complications (3%), secondary caries (1%), debonding (1%), and severe marginal staining (0%). Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 0.19 (0.04 to 0.96) and 0.54 (0.17 to 1.69) for pulp vitality and type of tooth involved (premolars vs. molars), respectively. Ceramic inlays, onlays, and overlays showed high survival rates at 5 y and 10 y, and fractures were the most frequent cause of failure.

  1. Survival Rate of Resin and Ceramic Inlays, Onlays, and Overlays: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, S; Rebello de Sampaio, F B W; Braga, M M; Sesma, N; Özcan, M

    2016-08-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the survival rate of ceramic and resin inlays, onlays, and overlays and to identify the complication types associated with the main clinical outcomes. Two reviewers searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for articles published between 1983 through April 2015, conforming to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines for systematic reviews. Clinical studies meeting the following criteria were included: 1) studies related to resin and ceramic inlays, onlays, and overlays; 2) prospective, retrospective, or randomized controlled trials conducted in humans; 3) studies with a dropout rate of less than 30%; and 4) studies with a follow-up longer than 5 y. Of 1,389 articles, 14 met the inclusion criteria. The meta-regression indicated that the type of ceramic material (feldspathic porcelain vs. glass-ceramic), study design (retrospective vs. prospective), follow-up time (5 vs. 10 y), and study setting (university vs. private clinic) did not affect the survival rate. Estimated survival rates for glass-ceramics and feldspathic porcelain were between 92% and 95% at 5 y (n = 5,811 restorations) and were 91% at 10 y (n = 2,154 restorations). Failures were related to fractures/chipping (4%), followed by endodontic complications (3%), secondary caries (1%), debonding (1%), and severe marginal staining (0%). Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 0.19 (0.04 to 0.96) and 0.54 (0.17 to 1.69) for pulp vitality and type of tooth involved (premolars vs. molars), respectively. Ceramic inlays, onlays, and overlays showed high survival rates at 5 y and 10 y, and fractures were the most frequent cause of failure. PMID:27287305

  2. Scoring Systems to Estimate Intracerebral Control and Survival Rates of Patients Irradiated for Brain Metastases;Brain metastases; Radiation therapy; Local control; Survival; Prognostic scores

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk; Dziggel, Liesa; Haatanen, Tiina; Veninga, Theo; Lohynska, Radka; Dunst, Juergen; Schild, Steven E.

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To create and validate scoring systems for intracerebral control (IC) and overall survival (OS) of patients irradiated for brain metastases. Methods and Materials: In this study, 1,797 patients were randomly assigned to the test (n = 1,198) or the validation group (n = 599). Two scoring systems were developed, one for IC and another for OS. The scores included prognostic factors found significant on multivariate analyses. Age, performance status, extracerebral metastases, interval tumor diagnosis to RT, and number of brain metastases were associated with OS. Tumor type, performance status, interval, and number of brain metastases were associated with IC. The score for each factor was determined by dividing the 6-month IC or OS rate (given in percent) by 10. The total score represented the sum of the scores for each factor. The score groups of the test group were compared with the corresponding score groups of the validation group. Results: In the test group, 6-month IC rates were 17% for 14-18 points, 49% for 19-23 points, and 77% for 24-27 points (p < 0.0001). IC rates in the validation group were 19%, 52%, and 77%, respectively (p < 0.0001). In the test group, 6-month OS rates were 9% for 15-19 points, 41% for 20-25 points, and 78% for 26-30 points (p < 0.0001). OS rates in the validation group were 7%, 39%, and 79%, respectively (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Patients irradiated for brain metastases can be given scores to estimate OS and IC. IC and OS rates of the validation group were similar to the test group demonstrating the validity and reproducibility of both scores.

  3. The National Practitioner Data Bank: the first 4 years.

    PubMed

    Oshel, R E; Croft, T; Rodak, J

    1995-01-01

    The National Practitioner Data Bank became operational September 1, 1990, as a flagging system to identify health care practitioners who may have been involved in incidents of medical incompetence. Query volumes have grown substantially over the Data Bank's first 4 years of operation. The greatest increase has come in the number of voluntary queries. By the end of 1994, the Data Bank had processed more than 4.5 million requests for information on practitioners, more than 1.5 million of which were received in 1994 alone. The proportion of queries for which the Data Bank contains information on the practitioner in question has grown as the Data Bank has come to contain more reports. During 1994, 7.9 percent of queries were matched. The Data Bank contained more than 97,500 reports at the end of 1994. More than 82 percent of the reports concerned malpractice payments. Licensure reports made up the bulk of the rest. Physicians predominate in reports, accounting for slightly more than 76 percent of the total. The remainder are related to dentists (16 percent) and all other types of practitioners (8 percent). Since reporting of adverse actions is mandatory only for physicians and dentists, the proportion of reports attributable to these types of practitioners is higher than it would be if adverse action reporting requirements were uniform for all practitioners. State malpractice payment rates and adverse action rates vary widely, but a State's rate in any given year is highly correlated with its rate in any other year. State malpractice rates are not strongly correlated with adverse action rates, neither are the rates for physicians strongly correlated with those for dentists. There is a weak tendency for States with smaller physician populations to have higher levels of licensure and privileging actions.

  4. The National Practitioner Data Bank: the first 4 years.

    PubMed Central

    Oshel, R E; Croft, T; Rodak, J

    1995-01-01

    The National Practitioner Data Bank became operational September 1, 1990, as a flagging system to identify health care practitioners who may have been involved in incidents of medical incompetence. Query volumes have grown substantially over the Data Bank's first 4 years of operation. The greatest increase has come in the number of voluntary queries. By the end of 1994, the Data Bank had processed more than 4.5 million requests for information on practitioners, more than 1.5 million of which were received in 1994 alone. The proportion of queries for which the Data Bank contains information on the practitioner in question has grown as the Data Bank has come to contain more reports. During 1994, 7.9 percent of queries were matched. The Data Bank contained more than 97,500 reports at the end of 1994. More than 82 percent of the reports concerned malpractice payments. Licensure reports made up the bulk of the rest. Physicians predominate in reports, accounting for slightly more than 76 percent of the total. The remainder are related to dentists (16 percent) and all other types of practitioners (8 percent). Since reporting of adverse actions is mandatory only for physicians and dentists, the proportion of reports attributable to these types of practitioners is higher than it would be if adverse action reporting requirements were uniform for all practitioners. State malpractice payment rates and adverse action rates vary widely, but a State's rate in any given year is highly correlated with its rate in any other year. State malpractice rates are not strongly correlated with adverse action rates, neither are the rates for physicians strongly correlated with those for dentists. There is a weak tendency for States with smaller physician populations to have higher levels of licensure and privileging actions. PMID:7638325

  5. Controls on Arctic sea ice from first-year and multi-year survival rates

    SciTech Connect

    Hunke, Jes

    2009-01-01

    The recent decrease in Arctic sea ice cover has transpired with a significant loss of multi year ice. The transition to an Arctic that is populated by thinner first year sea ice has important implications for future trends in area and volume. Here we develop a reduced model for Arctic sea ice with which we investigate how the survivability of first year and multi year ice control the mean state, variability, and trends in ice area and volume.

  6. Effects of Cryptocaryon irritans infection on the survival, feeding, respiratory rate and ionic regulation of the marbled rockfish Sebastiscus marmoratus.

    PubMed

    Yin, Fei; Gong, Qiyang; Li, Yanwei; Dan, Xueming; Sun, Peng; Gao, Quanxin; Shi, Zhaohong; Peng, Shiming; Li, Anxing

    2014-02-01

    To clarify the effects of a Cryptocaryon irritans infection on the physiological functions of the marbled rockfish Sebastiscus marmoratus, this study utilized C. irritans at concentrations of 2500; 5000; 7500; 10,000; 20,000; and 30,000 theronts/fish to infect marbled rockfish weighing 45 ± 3 g. The survival rate, food intake, respiratory rate, serum ion concentrations and gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity were determined. With the increase of the infection concentration and the passage of time, the survival rate of the rockfish gradually decreased. The groups infected with more than 5000 theronts/fish had stopped feeding within 4 days. The respiratory rates of the fish in the groups infected with 2500 and 5000 theronts/fish initially increased and then decreased. In contrast, the respiratory rate of the fish in the groups infected with more than 7500 theronts/fish was elevated to levels significantly higher than the control group after 12 h. The Na+/K+-ATPase activity and serum Na+ and Cl- concentrations increased with increasing infection concentration. In conclusion, the physiological functions of the fish infected with low concentrations of C. irritans can be effectively restored, whereas a high concentration infection induced severe stress. The declined food intake and accelerated respiratory rate could be useful for an early warning system as important indicators.

  7. Comparison of drug survival rates for tumor necrosis factor antagonists in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Santana, Virginia; González-Sarmiento, E; Calleja-Hernández, MA; Sánchez-Sánchez, T

    2013-01-01

    Background Persistence of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an overall marker of treatment success. Objective To assess the survival of anti-TNF treatment and to define the potential predictors of drug discontinuation in RA, in order to verify the adequacy of current practices. Design An observational, descriptive, longitudinal, retrospective study. Setting The Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain. Patients RA patients treated with anti-TNF therapy between January 2011 and January 2012. Measurements Demographic information and therapy assessments were gathered from medical and pharmaceutical records. Data is expressed as means (standard deviations) for quantitative variables and frequency distribution for qualitative variables. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis was used to assess persistence, and Cox multivariate regression models were used to assess potential predictors of treatment discontinuation. Results In total, 126 treatment series with infliximab (n = 53), etanercept (n = 51) or adalimumab (n = 22) were administered to 91 patients. Infliximab has mostly been used as a first-line treatment, but it was the drug with the shortest time until a change of treatment. Significant predictors of drug survival were: age; the anti-TNF agent; and the previous response to an anti-TNF drug. Limitation The small sample size. Conclusion The overall efficacy of anti-TNF drugs diminishes with time, with infliximab having the shortest time until a change of treatment. The management of biologic therapy in patients with RA should be reconsidered in order to achieve disease control with a reduction in costs. PMID:24023512

  8. Smoking patterns, attitudes and motives: unique characteristics among 2-year versus 4-year college students.

    PubMed

    Berg, C J; An, L C; Thomas, J L; Lust, K A; Sanem, J R; Swan, D W; Ahluwalia, J S

    2011-08-01

    Given the previously documented higher rates of smoking among 2-year college students in comparison with 4-year university students, this study compares smoking patterns, attitudes and motives among 2-year and 4-year college students. Two thousand two hundred and sixty-five undergraduate students aged 18-25 years at a 2-year college and a 4-year university completed an online survey in 2008. Current (past 30-day) smoking was reported by 43.5% of 2-year and 31.9% of 4-year college students, and daily smoking was reported by 19.9% of 2-year and 8.3% of 4-year college students. Attending a 2-year college was associated with higher rates of current smoking [odds ratio (OR) = 1.72] and daily smoking (OR = 2.84), and with less negative attitudes regarding smoking, controlling for age, gender, ethnicity and parental education. Also, compared with 4-year college student smokers, 2-year college smokers had lower motivation to smoke for social reasons, but more motivation to smoke for affect regulation, after controlling for age, gender, ethnicity and parental education. Two- and 4-year college students report different smoking patterns, attitudes and motives. These distinctions might inform tobacco control messages and interventions targeting these groups of young adults.

  9. Survival thresholds and mortality rates in adaptive dynamics: conciliating deterministic and stochastic simulations.

    PubMed

    Perthame, Benoît; Gauduchon, Mathias

    2010-09-01

    Deterministic population models for adaptive dynamics are derived mathematically from individual-centred stochastic models in the limit of large populations. However, it is common that numerical simulations of both models fit poorly and give rather different behaviours in terms of evolution speeds and branching patterns. Stochastic simulations involve extinction phenomenon operating through demographic stochasticity, when the number of individual 'units' is small. Focusing on the class of integro-differential adaptive models, we include a similar notion in the deterministic formulations, a survival threshold, which allows phenotypical traits in the population to vanish when represented by few 'individuals'. Based on numerical simulations, we show that the survival threshold changes drastically the solution; (i) the evolution speed is much slower, (ii) the branching patterns are reduced continuously and (iii) these patterns are comparable to those obtained with stochastic simulations. The rescaled models can also be analysed theoretically. One can recover the concentration phenomena on well-separated Dirac masses through the constrained Hamilton-Jacobi equation in the limit of small mutations and large observation times. PMID:19734200

  10. EVALUATION OF THE MORTALITY RATE ONE YEAR AFTER HIP FRACTURE AND FACTORS RELATING TO DIMINISHED SURVIVAL AMONG ELDERLY PEOPLE

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Guilherme; Longaray, Maurício Portal; Gonçalves, Ramiro Zilles; Neto, Ary da Silva Ungaretti; Manente, Marislei; Barbosa, Luíza Barbosa Horta

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the mortality rate after one year and correlated preoperative factors, among patients with hip fractures. Methods: We prospectively studied 202 out of a total of 376 patients with a diagnosis of hip fracture who were admitted to the Hospital Cristo Redentor, between October 2007 and March 2009. The database with the epidemiological analysis was set up during their hospitalization, and follow–up data were obtained preferentially by phone. Results: The overall mortality rate after one year of follow-up was 28.7% or 58 deaths, among which 11 (5.45%) occurred during hospitalization. Fractures were more prevalent among women (71.3%) and rare among blacks (5%). Among the comorbidities, dementia and depression showed a statistically significant reduction in survival (p = 0.018 and 0.007, respectively). Conclusion: The mortality rate after one year of follow-up was 28.7%. Dementia and depression increased this rate. PMID:27042638

  11. Evaluation of ultrastructure and random effects band recovery models for estimating relationships between survival and harvest rates in exploited populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otis, D.L.; White, Gary C.

    2004-01-01

    Increased population survival rate after an episode of seasonal exploitation is considered a type of compensatory population response. Lack of an increase is interpreted as evidence that exploitation results in added annual mortality in the population. Despite its importance to management of exploited species, there are limited statistical techniques for comparing relative support for these two alternative models. For exploited bird species, the most common technique is to use a fixed effect, deterministic ultrastructure model incorporated into band recovery models to estimate the relationship between harvest and survival rate. We present a new likelihood-based technique within a framework that assumes that survival and harvest are random effects that covary through time. We conducted a Monte Carlo simulation study under this framework to evaluate the performance of these two techniques. The ultrastructure models performed poorly in all simulated scenarios, due mainly to pathological distributional properties. The random effects estimators and their associated estimators of precision had relatively small negative bias under most scenarios, and profile likelihood intervals achieved nominal coverage. We suggest that the random effects estimation method approach has many advantages compared to the ultrastructure models, and that evaluation of robustness and generalization to more complex population structures are topics for additional research. ?? 2004 Museu de Cie??ncies Naturals.

  12. Bladder Preservation for Localized Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: The Survival Impact of Local Utilization Rates of Definitive Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kozak, Kevin R.; Hamidi, Maryam; Manning, Matthew; Moody, John S.

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: This study examines the management and outcomes of muscle-invasive bladder cancer in the United States. Methods and Materials: Patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer diagnosed between 1988 and 2006 were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Patients were classified according to three mutually exclusive treatment categories based on the primary initial treatment: no local management, radiotherapy, or surgery. Overall survival was assessed with Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox models based on multiple factors including treatment utilization patterns. Results: The study population consisted of 26,851 patients. Age, sex, race, tumor grade, histology, and geographic location were associated with differences in treatment (all p < 0.01). Patients receiving definitive radiotherapy tended to be older and have less differentiated tumors than patients undergoing surgery (RT, median age 78 years old and 90.6% grade 3/4 tumors; surgery, median age 71 years old and 77.1% grade 3/4 tumors). No large shifts in treatment were seen over time, with most patients managed with surgical resection (86.3% for overall study population). Significant survival differences were observed according to initial treatment: median survival, 14 months with no definitive local treatment; 17 months with radiotherapy; and 43 months for surgery. On multivariate analysis, differences in local utilization rates of definitive radiotherapy did not demonstrate a significant effect on overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.002; 95% confidence interval, 0.999-1.005). Conclusions: Multiple factors influence the initial treatment strategy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer, but definitive radiotherapy continues to be used infrequently. Although patients who undergo surgery fare better, a multivariable model that accounted for patient and tumor characteristics found no survival detriment to the utilization of definitive radiotherapy. These results support continued

  13. Estimating Survival Rates in Engineering for Community College Transfer Students Using Grades in Calculus and Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laugerman, Marcia; Shelley, Mack; Rover, Diane; Mickelson, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This study uses a unique synthesized set of data for community college students transferring to engineering by combining several cohorts of longitudinal data along with transcript-level data, from both the Community College and the University, to measure success rates in engineering. The success rates are calculated by developing Kaplan-Meier…

  14. Estimation of Flattened Musk Turtle (Sternotherus depressus) survival, recapture, and recovery rate during and after a disease outbreak

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fonnesbeck, C.J.; Dodd, C.K., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    We estimated survivorship, recapture probabilities and recovery rates in a threatened population of Flattened Musk Turtles (Sternotherus depressus) through a disease outbreak in Alabama in 1985. We evaluated a set of models for the demographic effects of disease by analyzing recaptures and recoveries simultaneously. Multiple-model inference suggested survival was temporally dynamic, whereas recapture probability was sex- and age-specifc. Biweekly survivorship declined from 98-99% before to 82-88% during the outbreak. Live recapture was twice as likely for male turtles relative to juveniles or females, whereas dead recoveries varied only slightly by sex and age. Our results suggest modest reduction in survival over a relatively short time period may severely affect population status.

  15. Effective Treatment for Improving the Survival Rate of Raccoon Dogs Infected with Sarcoptes scabiei

    PubMed Central

    KIDO, Nobuhide; OMIYA, Tomoko; KAMEGAYA, Chihiro; WADA, Yuko; TAKAHASHI, Maya; YAMAMOTO, Yasuhiko

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sarcoptes scabiei is one of the important external parasites. Although ivermectin is the recommended treatment, many raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) that were rescued and brought to the Kanazawa Zoological Gardens (Yokohama, Japan) have died because of S. scabiei, even after receiving single ivermectin treatment. Therefore, supportive treatment should be required. The present study revealed the number of animals that survived was greater after the administration of ivermectin along with an antibiotic for all raccoon dogs, as well as following the administration of fluid therapy to the debilitated raccoon dogs infected with S. scabiei, immediately after the rescue. During the initial period, treatment to improve the general clinical condition was required prior to deworming treatment for S. scabiei. PMID:24813465

  16. Effective treatment for improving the survival rate of raccoon dogs infected with Sarcoptes scabiei.

    PubMed

    Kido, Nobuhide; Omiya, Tomoko; Kamegaya, Chihiro; Wada, Yuko; Takahashi, Maya; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko

    2014-08-01

    Sarcoptes scabiei is one of the important external parasites. Although ivermectin is the recommended treatment, many raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) that were rescued and brought to the Kanazawa Zoological Gardens (Yokohama, Japan) have died because of S. scabiei, even after receiving single ivermectin treatment. Therefore, supportive treatment should be required. The present study revealed the number of animals that survived was greater after the administration of ivermectin along with an antibiotic for all raccoon dogs, as well as following the administration of fluid therapy to the debilitated raccoon dogs infected with S. scabiei, immediately after the rescue. During the initial period, treatment to improve the general clinical condition was required prior to deworming treatment for S. scabiei.

  17. Examining mortality risk and rate of ageing among Polish Olympic athletes: a survival follow-up from 1924 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yuhui; Gajewski, Antoni; Poznańska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Population-based studies have shown that an active lifestyle reduces mortality risk. Therefore, it has been a longstanding belief that individuals who engage in frequent exercise will experience a slower rate of ageing. It is uncertain whether this widely-accepted assumption holds for intense wear-and-tear. Here, using the 88 years survival follow-up data of Polish Olympic athletes, we report for the first time on whether frequent exercise alters the rate of ageing. Design Longitudinal survival data of male elite Polish athletes who participated in the Olympic Games from year 1924 to 2010 were used. Deaths occurring before the end of World War II were excluded for reliable estimates. Setting and participants Recruited male elite athletes N=1273 were preassigned to two categorical birth cohorts—Cohort I 1890–1919; Cohort II 1920–1959—and a parametric frailty survival analysis was conducted. An event-history analysis was also conducted to adjust for medical improvements from year 1920 onwards: Cohort II. Results Our findings suggest (1) in Cohort I, for every threefold reduction in mortality risk, the rate of ageing decelerates by 1%; (2) socioeconomic transitions and interventions contribute to a reduction in mortality risk of 29% for the general population and 50% for Olympic athletes; (3) an optimum benefit gained for reducing the rate of ageing from competitive sports (Cohort I 0.086 (95% CI 0.047 to 0.157) and Cohort II 0.085 (95% CI 0.050 to 0.144)). Conclusions This study further suggests that intensive physical training during youth should be considered as a factor to improve ageing and mortality risk parameters. PMID:27091824

  18. Migratory behaviour and survival rates of wild northern Atlantic salmon Salmo salar post-smolts: Effects of environmental factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davidsen, J.G.; Rikardsen, A.H.; Halttunen, E.; Thorstad, E.B.; Okland, F.; Letcher, B.H.; Skarhamar, J.; Naesje, T.F.

    2009-01-01

    To study smolt behaviour and survival of a northern Atlantic salmon Salmo salar population during river descent, sea entry and fjord migration, 120 wild S. salar were tagged with acoustic tags and registered at four automatic listening station arrays in the mouth of the north Norwegian River Alta and throughout the Alta Fjord. An estimated 75% of the post-smolts survived from the river mouth, through the estuary and the first 17 km of the fjord. Survival rates in the fjord varied with fork length (LF), and ranged from 97??0 to 99??5% km-1. On average, the post-smolts spent 1??5 days (36 h, range 11-365 h) travelling from the river mouth to the last fjord array, 31 km from the river mouth. The migratory speed was slower (1??8 LF s-1) in the first 4 km after sea entry compared with the next 27 km (3??0 LF s-1). Post-smolts entered the fjord more often during the high or ebbing tide (70%). There was no clear diurnal migration pattern within the river and fjord, but most of the post-smolts entered the fjord at night (66%, 2000-0800 hours), despite the 24 h daylight at this latitude. The tidal cycle, wind-induced currents and the smolts' own movements seemed to influence migratory speeds and routes in different parts of the fjord. A large variation in migration patterns, both in the river and fjord, might indicate that individuals in stochastic estuarine and marine environments are exposed to highly variable selection regimes, resulting in different responses to environmental factors on both temporal and spatial scales. Post-smolts in the northern Alta Fjord had similar early marine survival rates to those observed previously in southern fjords; however, fjord residency in the north was shorter. ?? 2009 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  19. The survival rate of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Bacteroides forsythus following 4 randomized treatment modalities.

    PubMed

    Shiloah, J; Patters, M R; Dean, J W; Bland, P; Toledo, G

    1997-08-01

    The overall goal of this clinical study was to determine the short-term anti-infective effects of four randomized treatment modalities on Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), and Bacteroides forsythus (Bf) and determine the effects of bacterial survival on treatment outcomes in patients with adult periodontitis. Twelve adult patients requiring therapy for moderate periodontitis were selected for this study. All patients had at least one tooth in each quadrant that had an inflamed pocket of probing depth > or =5 mm with probing attachment loss that harbored at least one of the following three periodontal pathogens: Aa, Pg, or Bf. The number of target organisms per site was determined pre-operatively, at 1 week, and 1 month and 3 months postoperatively utilizing DNA probes. One quadrant in each patient was randomly assigned to each one of the following four treatment groups: 1) scaling and root planing (SRP group); 2) pocket reduction through osseous surgery and apically-positioned flap (OS group); 3) modified Widman flap (MWF group); and 4) modified Widman flap and topical application of saturated citric acid at pH 1 for 3 minutes (CA group). The 4 treatment modalities were performed in one appointment. No postoperative antibiotics were used. Patients were instructed to supplement their daily oral hygiene with chlorohexidine oral rinse during the study. The results of this investigation indicated that: 1) none of the treatment modalities was effective in eliminating the target species; 2) the incidence of infected sites for all groups was 100% preoperatively; 62.5%, 33.3%, and 31.3% at 1 week, and 1 and 3 months postoperatively, respectively; 3) these infected sites lost 1.1 +/- 0.4 mm of probing attachment compared to gain of 0.0 +/- 0.3 mm for uninfected sites; 4) the infected sites had higher plaque and bleeding on probing 0.9 +/- 0.3, 73 +/- 12%, respectively, compared to 0.3 +/- 0.1 and 30 +/- 8% for the uninfected sites

  20. Possible natural hybridization of two morphologically distinct species of Acropora (Cnidaria, Scleractinia) in the Pacific: fertilization and larval survival rates.

    PubMed

    Isomura, Naoko; Iwao, Kenji; Fukami, Hironobu

    2013-01-01

    Natural hybridization of corals in the Indo-Pacific has been considered rather rare. However, field studies have observed many corals with intermediate interspecific or unusual morphologies. Given that the existence of F1 hybrids with intermediate interspecific morphologies has been proven in the Caribbean, hybrids may also inhabit the Indo-Pacific and occur more frequently than expected. In this study, we focused on two morphologically different species, Acropora florida and A. intermedia, and performed crossing experiments at Akajima Island, Japan. Results showed that these species could hybridize in both directions via eggs and sperm, but that fertilization rates significantly differed according to which species provided eggs. These results are similar to those reported from the Caribbean. Although all embryos developed normally to the planular larval stage, the developmental processes of some hybrid embryos were delayed by approximately 1 h compared with conspecific embryos, suggesting that fertilization occurred 1 h later in interspecific crosses than in intraspecific crosses. More successful hybridization could occur under conditions with low numbers of conspecific colonies. Additionally, a comparison of survival rates between hybrid and intraspecific larvae revealed that intra- and interspecific larvae produced from eggs of A. florida survived for significantly longer than those produced from eggs of A. intermedia. Considering these data, under specific conditions, hybrids can be expected to be produced and survive in nature in the Pacific. Furthermore, we identified one colony with intermediate morphology between A. florida and A. intermedia in the field. This colony was fertilized only by eggs of A. florida, with high fertilization rates, suggesting that this colony would be a hybrid of these two species and might be backcrossed.

  1. Survival and success rates of immediately and early loaded implants: 12-month results from a multicentric randomized clinical study.

    PubMed

    Grandi, Tommaso; Garuti, Giovanna; Guazzi, Paolo; Tarabini, Luciano; Forabosco, Andrea

    2012-06-01

    Our objective was to compare survival and peri-implant bone levels of immediately nonocclusally vs early loaded implants in partially edentulous patients up to 12 months after implant placement. Eighty patients (inclusion criteria: general good health, good oral hygiene, 30-65 years old; exclusion criteria: head and neck irradiation/cancer, pregnancy, uncontrolled diabetes, substance abuse, bruxism, lack of opposing occluding dentition, smokers >10 cigarettes/day, need for bone augmentation procedures) were selected in 5 Italian study centers and randomized into 2 groups: 40 patients in the immediately loaded group (minimal insertion torque 30 Ncm) and 40 patients in the early loaded group. Immediately loaded implants were provided with nonoccluding temporary restorations. Final restorations were provided 2 months later. Early loaded implants were provided with a definitive restoration after 2 months. Peri-implant bone resorption was evaluated radiographically with software (ImageJ 1.42). No dropout occurred. Both groups gradually lost peri-implant bone. After 12 months, patients of both groups lost an average of 0.4 mm of peri-implant bone. There were no statistically significant differences (evaluated with t test) between the 2 loading strategies for peri-implant bone level changes at 2 (P = .6730), 6 (P = .6613) and 12 (P = .5957) months or for survival rates (100% in both groups). If adequate primary stability is achieved, immediate loading of dental implants can provide similar success rates, survival rates, and peri-implant bone resorption as compared with early loading, as evaluated in the present study. PMID:21480777

  2. Survival rates and lifetime reproduction of breeding male Cooper’s Hawks in Wisconsin, 1980-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenfield, Robert N.; Bielefeldt, John; Rosenfield, Laura J.; Booms, Travis L.; Bozek, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    There are few published data on annual survival and no reports of lifetime reproduction for breeding Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperii). Breeding males (n  =  105) in central and southeastern Wisconsin had an annual mortality rate of 19%, or a survival rate of 81% for birds ≤10 years of age. We did not detect significant differences in mortality rates between urban and rural habitats, nor between the earlier 13 years and later 13 years of this study. Male Cooper's Hawks produced from zero to 32 nestlings during their lifetimes. Body mass or size appeared unrelated to annual survivorship and lifetime reproduction, although lifetime reproduction was correlated strongly with longevity of breeding males. Fifteen of 66 males (23%) produced most (53%) of the nestlings. Our studies occurred in an area where breeding populations may be increasing with some of the highest reported productivity indices and nesting densities for this species. Habitat used for nesting on our Wisconsin study areas may be less important for survivorship and lifetime reproduction than acquisition of a nesting area in which a male will breed throughout his life.

  3. Sulfide toxicity: Mechanical ventilation and hypotension determine survival rate and brain necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Baldelli, R.J.; Green, F.H.Y.; Auer, R.N. )

    1993-09-01

    Occupational exposure to hydrogen sulfide is one of the leading causes of sudden death in the workplace, especially in the oil and gas industry. High-dose exposure causes immediate neurogenic apnea and death; lower doses cause [open quotes]knockdown[close quotes] (transient loss of consciousness, with apnea). Because permanent neurological sequelae have been reported, the authors sought to determine whether sulfide can directly kill central nervous system neurons. Ventilated and unventilated rats were studied to allow administration of higher doses of sulfide and to facilitate physiological monitoring. It was extremely difficult to produce cerebral necrosis with sulfide. Only one of eight surviving unventilated rats given high-dose sulfide (a dose that was lethal in [ge]50% of animals) showed cerebral necrosis. Mechanical ventilation shifted the dose that was lethal in 50% of the animals to 190 mg/kg from 94 mg/kg in the unventilated rats. Sulfide was found to potently depress blood pressure. Cerebral necrosis was absent in the ventilated rats (n = 11), except in one rat that showed profound and sustained hypotension to [le]35 Torr. Electroencephalogram activity ceased during exposure but recovered when the animals regained consciousness. The authors conclude that very-high-dose sulfide is incapable of producing cerebral necrosis by a direct histotoxic effect. 32 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Daily survival rates for nests of Black Skimmers from a core breeding area of the Southeastern USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Gillian L.; Sanders, Felicia J.; Gerard, Patrick D.; Jodice, Patrick G.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the reproductive success of Black Skimmers (Rynchops niger) throughout the southeastern USA where availability of undisturbed beaches for nesting is limited. Daily survival rates (DSR) of nests were examined at three nesting sites in Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge (CRNWR), South Carolina, USA, 2009–2010. The percent of successful nests (n  =  346 nests) ranged from 42–69% among colony sites when data were pooled across both years. The DSR of nests was primarily related to colony site, predation risk, height of high tide, and clutch size. Predation and overwash were the principal causes of identifiable nest loss, each accounting for ∼33% of nest failures during the two study years. Because of the challenges of resighting skimmer chicks, we were not able to measure chick survival effectively and therefore accurate measures of productivity remain elusive. High variability in nest success among sites within close proximity to each other (<20 km) suggests factors at local scales such as disturbance, predation, and overwash events strongly influenced nest success of Black Skimmers during these 2 years as opposed to more region-wide stressors such as tropical storms or food availability. Although time-intensive techniques to control predators do exist, management options to limit flooding and overwash are far more limited. Conservation of Black Skimmers in the southeastern USA would benefit from coordinated, multi-state efforts to measure nest and chick survival.

  5. Temperature- and Age-Dependent Survival, Development, and Oviposition Rates of the Pupal Parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Skovgård, Henrik; Nachman, Gösta

    2016-08-01

    The combined effect of temperature and age on development, survival, attack rate, and oviposition of the parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Perkins) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) exploiting house fly pupae was investigated by conducting life-table experiments at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35°C. Temperature had a pronounced effect on survival and development of the immature stages. Survival was highest at 25°C, where 88.5% of the parasitized host pupae resulted in adult parasitoids, and lowest at 35°C when only 3.78% emerged. Females constituted between 50% (at 20°C) and 100% (at 35°C) of the surviving immatures. Males developed faster than females, with the shortest developmental times at 30°C (18.18 d for males and 19.41 d for females). Longevity of adult females decreased with temperature from 80 d at 15°C to 18 d at 35°C. Total attack rate of female parasitoids was highest at 20°C (106 hosts per female), and life-time reproduction highest at 20°C and 25°C (about 60 offspring per female). Sex ratio was female biased (65% females). A generic model was used to estimate and predict the temperature effect on the intrinsic rate of increase (rm), the net reproduction rate (R0), and the generation time (G). The model predicted that rm peaks at 33.5°C (rm = 0.182 d(-1)), that maximum R0 is reached at 27.2°C (R0 = 50.2), and that the shortest generation time occurs at 34.5°C (G = 21.1 d). Doubling time was 4.19 d at 33°C. In the temperature range between 20°C and 30°C, S. cameroni has the potential to be an efficient control agent against nuisance flies. PMID:27298392

  6. Correlations of survival with progression-free survival, response rate, and disease control rate in advanced biliary tract cancer: a meta-analysis of randomised trials of first-line chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Moriwaki, Toshikazu; Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki; Gosho, Masahiko; Kobayashi, Mariko; Sugaya, Akinori; Yamada, Takeshi; Endo, Shinji; Hyodo, Ichinosuke

    2016-01-01

    Background: The need to promote novel drug development for advanced biliary tract cancer (ABTC) has emphasised the importance of determining whether various efficacy end points can act as surrogates for overall survival (OS). Methods: We conducted a literature search of randomised trials of first-line chemotherapy for ABTC and investigated correlations between efficacy end points and OS using weighted linear regression analysis. The ratios of the median OS, median progression-free survival (PFS), response rate, and disease control rate in each trial were used to summarise treatment effects. The surrogate threshold effect (STE), which was the minimum treatment effect on PFS required to predict a non-zero treatment effect on OS, was calculated. Results: Seventeen randomised trials with 36 treatment arms were identified, and a sample size of 2148 patients with 19 paired arms was analysed. The strongest correlation between all evaluated efficacy end points was observed between median OS and median PFS ratios (r2=0.66). In trials with gemcitabine-containing therapies and targeted agents, the r2-values were 0.78. The STE was estimated at 0.83 for all trials and 0.81 for trials with gemcitabine-containing therapies, and was not calculated for trials with targeted agents. Conclusions: The median PFS ratio correlated well with the median OS ratio, and may be useful for planning a clinical trial for novel drug development. PMID:27031848

  7. Early Detection, Curative Treatment, and Survival Rates for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Surveillance in Patients with Cirrhosis: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Singal, Amit G.; Pillai, Anjana; Tiro, Jasmin

    2014-01-01

    Background Surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has level I evidence among patients with hepatitis B but only level II evidence in patients with cirrhosis. This lack of randomized data has spurred questions regarding the utility of HCC surveillance in this patient population; however, lack of randomized data does not equate to a lack of data supporting the efficacy of surveillance. The aim of our study was to determine the effect of HCC surveillance on early stage tumor detection, receipt of curative therapy, and overall survival in patients with cirrhosis. Methods and Findings We performed a systematic literature review using Medline from January 1990 through January 2014 and a search of national meeting abstracts from 2009–2012. Two investigators identified studies that reported rates of early stage tumor detection, curative treatment receipt, or survival, stratified by HCC surveillance status, among patients with cirrhosis. Both investigators independently extracted data on patient populations, study methods, and results using standardized forms. Pooled odds ratios, according to HCC surveillance status, were calculated for each outcome using the DerSimonian and Laird method for a random effects model. We identified 47 studies with 15,158 patients, of whom 6,284 (41.4%) had HCC detected by surveillance. HCC surveillance was associated with improved early stage detection (odds ratio [OR] 2.08, 95% CI 1.80–2.37) and curative treatment rates (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.99–2.52). HCC surveillance was associated with significantly prolonged survival (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.67–2.17), which remained significant in the subset of studies adjusting for lead-time bias. Limitations of current data included many studies having insufficient duration of follow-up to assess survival and the majority not adjusting for liver function or lead-time bias. Conclusions HCC surveillance is associated with significant improvements in early tumor detection, receipt of curative

  8. Does Habitat Heterogeneity in a Multi-Use Landscape Influence Survival Rates and Density of a Native Mesocarnivore?

    PubMed Central

    Gese, Eric M.; Thompson, Craig M.

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between predators, prey, and habitat have long been of interest to applied and basic ecologists. As a native Great Plains mesocarnivore of North America, swift foxes (Vulpes velox) depended on the historic disturbance regime to maintain open grassland habitat. With a decline in native grasslands and subsequent impacts to prairie specialists, notably the swift fox, understanding the influence of habitat on native predators is paramount to future management efforts. From 2001 to 2004, we investigated the influence of vegetation structure on swift fox population ecology (survival and density) on and around the Piñon Canyon Maneuver Site, southeastern Colorado, USA. We monitored 109 foxes on 6 study sites exposed to 3 different disturbance regimes (military training, grazing, unused). On each site we evaluated vegetation structure based on shrub density, basal coverage, vegetation height, and litter. Across all sites, annual fox survival rates ranged from 0.50 to 0.92 for adults and 0.27 to 0.78 for juveniles. Among sites, population estimates ranged from 1 to 7 foxes per 10 km transect. Fox density or survival was not related to the relative abundance of prey. A robust model estimating fox population size and incorporating both shrub density and percent basal cover as explanatory variables far outperformed all other models. Our results supported the idea that, in our region, swift foxes were shortgrass prairie specialists and also indicated a relationship between habitat quality and landscape heterogeneity. We suggest the regulation of swift fox populations may be based on habitat quality through landscape-mediated survival, and managers may effectively use disturbance regimes to create or maintain habitat for this native mesocarnivore. PMID:24963713

  9. Sex difference in the survival rate of wild brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) experimentally challenged with bovine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Rouco, Carlos; Richardson, Kyle S; Buddle, Bryce M; French, Nigel P; Tompkins, Daniel M

    2016-08-01

    The main wildlife reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in New Zealand is the introduced brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), with spillover of infection from possums to livestock being regarded as the largest barrier to eradicating TB from the country. Past studies have experimentally challenged possums with Mycobacterium bovis (the causative agent of TB) to quantify infection parameters. However, the challenge models used are invariably non-representative of natural infection due to their resulting in much faster rates, and different clinical patterns of disease progression. We monitored the survival of 16 wild free-living possums, fitted with VHF mortality collars and experimentally challenged with a new model, out to six months post-challenge. The aim was to assess whether the new model does indeed result in an ongoing pathogenesis trajectory that is more reflective of natural TB in possums. The mean survival period of challenged possums (~4.6months) did not differ from that estimated for wild free-living possums with naturally acquired TB. In addition, and unexpectedly, infected males survived on average for five weeks longer than females. This significant difference has not been previously observed in experimental trials with other TB/possum challenge models. If this is reflective of natural disease (as is the survival period produced by the percutaneous challenge model), TB infected males in the wild may be generating more secondary cases of infection than infected females. This insight has important implications for understanding the dynamics of, and managing, the disease in its New Zealand wildlife reservoir. PMID:27473982

  10. Causes and consequences of increase in child survival rates: ethnoepidemiology among the Hmong of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kunstadter, P; Kunstadter, S L; Leepreecha, P; Podhisita, C; Laoyang, M; Thao, C S; Thao, R S; Yang, W S

    1992-12-01

    The Hmong "hill tribe" minority in Thailand has much higher exposure to factors usually associated with risk of child mortality (high fertility, low status of women, low education, less use of modern medical care for births, exposure to warfare, economic and physical disruption, and poor hygienic conditions) than the rural ethnic Thai population. Nonetheless, infant mortality has declined from over 120 per 1000 to under 50 per 1000 live births among both these populations in the past 30 years. The reason for the rapid increase in child survival among the Hmong appears to be better access to and more use of modern curative and preventive medical care associated with road construction rather than major changes in social or hygienic conditions. Conventional wisdom suggests that high fertility is both a cause and a consequence of high infant and child mortality and that parents will not reduce fertility until they see that mortality has declined. Most Hmong parents recognize the decline in child mortality and attribute it to better access to modern medical care. Most Hmong parents also say that, if they were starting to have children now, they would want to have fewer children. Fear of child death is infrequently mentioned as a motive for having more children, and the perceived decline in child mortality is rarely mentioned as a reason for reduced fertility. Most Hmong parents explain their desired family size in terms of economic conditions rather than perceived risk of child mortality. Results of this study suggest that fertility and child mortality can vary independently of one another and that major reductions in child mortality can be accomplished without waiting for major social changes (e.g., improved education or status of women) or major reductions in fertility.

  11. A cure rate survival model under a hybrid latent activation scheme.

    PubMed

    Borges, Patrick; Rodrigues, Josemar; Louzada, Francisco; Balakrishnan, Narayanaswamy

    2016-04-01

    In lifetimes studies, the occurrence of an event (such as tumor detection or death) might be caused by one of many competing causes. Moreover, both the number of causes and the time-to-event associated with each cause are not usually observable. The number of causes can be zero, corresponding to a cure fraction. In this article, we propose a method of estimating the numerical characteristics of unobservable stages (such as initiation, promotion and progression) of carcinogenesis from data on tumor size at detection in the presence of latent competing causes. To this end, a general survival model for spontaneous carcinogenesis under a hybrid latent activation scheme has been developed to allow for a simple pattern of the dynamics of tumor growth. It is assumed that a tumor becomes detectable when its size attains some threshold level (proliferation of tumorais cells (or descendants) generated by the malignant cell), which is treated as a random variable. We assume the number of initiated cells and the number of malignant cells (competing causes) both to follow weighted Poisson distributions. The advantage of this model is that it incorporates into the analysis characteristics of the stage of tumor progression as well as the proportion of initiated cells that had been 'promoted' to the malignant ones and the proportion of malignant cells that die before tumor induction. The lifetimes corresponding to each competing cause are assumed to follow a Weibull distribution. Parameter estimation of the proposed model is discussed through the maximum likelihood estimation method. A simulation study has been carried out in order to examine the coverage probabilities of the confidence intervals. Finally, we illustrate the usefulness of the proposed model by applying it to a real data involving malignant melanoma.

  12. Causes and consequences of increase in child survival rates: ethnoepidemiology among the Hmong of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kunstadter, P; Kunstadter, S L; Leepreecha, P; Podhisita, C; Laoyang, M; Thao, C S; Thao, R S; Yang, W S

    1992-12-01

    The Hmong "hill tribe" minority in Thailand has much higher exposure to factors usually associated with risk of child mortality (high fertility, low status of women, low education, less use of modern medical care for births, exposure to warfare, economic and physical disruption, and poor hygienic conditions) than the rural ethnic Thai population. Nonetheless, infant mortality has declined from over 120 per 1000 to under 50 per 1000 live births among both these populations in the past 30 years. The reason for the rapid increase in child survival among the Hmong appears to be better access to and more use of modern curative and preventive medical care associated with road construction rather than major changes in social or hygienic conditions. Conventional wisdom suggests that high fertility is both a cause and a consequence of high infant and child mortality and that parents will not reduce fertility until they see that mortality has declined. Most Hmong parents recognize the decline in child mortality and attribute it to better access to modern medical care. Most Hmong parents also say that, if they were starting to have children now, they would want to have fewer children. Fear of child death is infrequently mentioned as a motive for having more children, and the perceived decline in child mortality is rarely mentioned as a reason for reduced fertility. Most Hmong parents explain their desired family size in terms of economic conditions rather than perceived risk of child mortality. Results of this study suggest that fertility and child mortality can vary independently of one another and that major reductions in child mortality can be accomplished without waiting for major social changes (e.g., improved education or status of women) or major reductions in fertility. PMID:1427741

  13. Comparison of Survival Rates, Tumor Stages, and Localization in between Obese and Nonobese Patients with Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dogan, Hakan; Oguz, Basak; Ocak Serin, Sibel; Okuturlar, Yildiz; Gunaldi, Meral; Erismis, Betul; Ozdemir, Bahar; Tural, Deniz; Hursitoglu, Mehmet; Harmankaya, Ozlem; Kumbasar, Abdulbaki

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. In this study we tried to determine the association between body-mass index (BMI), survival rate, and the stage of tumor at the time of diagnosis in patients with gastric cancer. Methods. A total of 270 gastric cancer patients' hospital records were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were grouped according to their BMI at the time of tumor diagnosis. Tumor stages at admission were compared according to their BMI values. Results. There were no differences in OS among BMI subgroups (p = 0.230). The percent of patients with stage III tumor was significantly higher in nonobese while the percent of stage IV tumor was surprisingly higher in obese patients (p was 0.011 and 0.004, resp.). Percent of patients who did not have any surgical intervention was significantly lower in overweight and obese patients than normal and/or underweight patients. Conclusions. At the time of diagnosis, obese patients had significantly higher percent of stage IV tumor than nonobese patients. Despite of that, there were no differences in survival rates among BMI subgroups. Our study results are consistent with “obesity paradox” in gastric cancer patients. We also did not find any relationship between BMI and localization of gastric tumor. PMID:27418926

  14. Survival Rate and Hematological Responses with Temperature Changes of Red Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus akaara in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Youn; Han, Kyeong Ho; Cho, Jae Kwon; Kim, Kyong Min; Son, Maeng Hyun; Park, Jae Min; Kang, Hee Woong

    2016-06-01

    The effect of sudden changes of water temperature (WT) on the survival rate and physiological responses of the red spotted grouper (Epinephelus akaara) were examined by manipulating WT control system for 9 days. Experimental condition was divided in two different regimes at low (from 10°C to 4°C, decreased 1℃/d) and high (from 28°C to 34°C, increased 1°C/d) WT. Survival rate of experimental fishes were observed, and determined the changes of hematological characteristics by analyzing plasma levels of cortisol, glucose, total protein, and electrolytes (Na(+), Cl-, K(+)). No mortality was observed until low WT 6°C (144 h) and high WT 32°C (96 h), and 100% mortality was observed at low WT 4°C (216 h) and high WT 35°C (171 h). Plasma levels of cortisol and glucose increased rapidly as decreasing WT, and the loss of swimming ability and respiration response was observed at low WT 7°C and high WT 34°C conditions. PMID:27660825

  15. Survival Rate and Hematological Responses with Temperature Changes of Red Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus akaara in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong Youn; Han, Kyeong Ho; Cho, Jae Kwon; Kim, Kyong Min; Son, Maeng Hyun; Park, Jae Min; Kang, Hee Woong

    2016-01-01

    The effect of sudden changes of water temperature (WT) on the survival rate and physiological responses of the red spotted grouper (Epinephelus akaara) were examined by manipulating WT control system for 9 days. Experimental condition was divided in two different regimes at low (from 10°C to 4°C, decreased 1℃/d) and high (from 28°C to 34°C, increased 1°C/d) WT. Survival rate of experimental fishes were observed, and determined the changes of hematological characteristics by analyzing plasma levels of cortisol, glucose, total protein, and electrolytes (Na+, Cl–, K+). No mortality was observed until low WT 6°C (144 h) and high WT 32°C (96 h), and 100% mortality was observed at low WT 4°C (216 h) and high WT 35°C (171 h). Plasma levels of cortisol and glucose increased rapidly as decreasing WT, and the loss of swimming ability and respiration response was observed at low WT 7°C and high WT 34°C conditions.

  16. IMPLANTS INSERTED IN POST EXTRACTIVE SOCKETS HAVE SURVIVAL RATES SIMILAR TO FIXTURES INSERTED IN HEALED BONE: A CASE SERIES STUDY.

    PubMed

    Corradini, G; Delle Donne, U; Boni, W; Tettamanti, L; Tagliabue, A

    2015-01-01

    Post-extractive implants (i.e. PEIs) are widely used to reduce surgical steps and improve patient compliance. The aim of this study is to perform a retrospective study on 2,273 PEIs to evaluate their survival rate. In the period between January 2008 and December 2013, 877 patients (498 females and 379 males) were operated at the BDD private Practice Clinic (Milan, Italy). The mean post-surgical follow-up was 30±17 months (max – min, 84 – 1). Two thousand two hundred and seventy-three PEIs (EDIERRE Implant System SpA, Genoa, Italy) were evaluated in the present study. All patients underwent the same surgical protocol and agreed to participate in a post-operative check-up program. SPSS program was used for statistical analysis. Survival rate (SVR) was 97.7% since only 53 fixtures were lost from a total of 2,273 implants. Cross-tabulation between failures and timing of loading demonstrated a statistically significant higher risk of failures in case of immediate loading (p= 0.013). There were 26 failures out of 761 immediate loaded implants against 27 lost fixtures out of 1,485 delayed loaded implants. PEIs is a reliable procedure, however surgeons should carefully select those cases which can be immediately loaded.

  17. Survival Rate and Hematological Responses with Temperature Changes of Red Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus akaara in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong Youn; Han, Kyeong Ho; Cho, Jae Kwon; Kim, Kyong Min; Son, Maeng Hyun; Park, Jae Min; Kang, Hee Woong

    2016-01-01

    The effect of sudden changes of water temperature (WT) on the survival rate and physiological responses of the red spotted grouper (Epinephelus akaara) were examined by manipulating WT control system for 9 days. Experimental condition was divided in two different regimes at low (from 10°C to 4°C, decreased 1℃/d) and high (from 28°C to 34°C, increased 1°C/d) WT. Survival rate of experimental fishes were observed, and determined the changes of hematological characteristics by analyzing plasma levels of cortisol, glucose, total protein, and electrolytes (Na+, Cl–, K+). No mortality was observed until low WT 6°C (144 h) and high WT 32°C (96 h), and 100% mortality was observed at low WT 4°C (216 h) and high WT 35°C (171 h). Plasma levels of cortisol and glucose increased rapidly as decreasing WT, and the loss of swimming ability and respiration response was observed at low WT 7°C and high WT 34°C conditions. PMID:27660825

  18. Metabolic and protein interaction sub-networks controlling the proliferation rate of cancer cells and their impact on patient survival.

    PubMed

    Feizi, Amir; Bordel, Sergio

    2013-10-24

    Cancer cells can have a broad scope of proliferation rates. Here we aim to identify the molecular mechanisms that allow some cancer cell lines to grow up to 4 times faster than other cell lines. The correlation of gene expression profiles with the growth rate in 60 different cell lines has been analyzed using several genome-scale biological networks and new algorithms. New possible regulatory feedback loops have been suggested and the known roles of several cell cycle related transcription factors have been confirmed. Over 100 growth-correlated metabolic sub-networks have been identified, suggesting a key role of simultaneous lipid synthesis and degradation in the energy supply of the cancer cells growth. Many metabolic sub-networks involved in cell line proliferation appeared also to correlate negatively with the survival expectancy of colon cancer patients.

  19. Dose-rate models for human survival after exposure to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.D.; Morris, M.D.; Young, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews new estimates of the L/sub 50/ in man by Mole and by Rotblat, the biological processes contributing to hematologic death, the collection of animal experiments dealing with hematologic death, and the use of regression analysis to make new estimates of human mortality based on all relevant animal studies. Regression analysis of animal mortality data has shown that mortality is dependent strongly on dose rate, species, body weight, and time interval over which the exposure is delivered. The model has predicted human LD/sub 50/s of 194, 250, 310, and 360 rad to marrow when the exposure time is a minute, an hour, a day, and a week, respectively.

  20. Treatment of the edentulous atrophic maxilla using zygomatic implants: evaluation of survival rates over 5-10 years.

    PubMed

    Yates, J M; Brook, I M; Patel, R R; Wragg, P F; Atkins, S A; El-Awa, A; Bakri, I; Bolt, R

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this retrospective observational cohort study was to analyse and report the 5-10-year survival rates of endosseous zygomatic implants used in the rehabilitation of the atrophic maxilla. Forty-three consecutive zygomatic implant placements in 25 patients were evaluated over a 5-10-year period. All zygomatic implant surgery was carried out under general anaesthesia. Nobel Biocare zygomatic machined-surface implants were used, and placement was undertaken using the modified sinus slot method. The main outcome measures and determinants for success were survival of the restored implants and the proportion of originally planned prostheses delivered to patients. Of the 25 patients treated, 12 were male and 13 were female; 19 were non-smokers, and the mean age at time of surgery was 64 years. Patients were treatment-planned for implant-retained bridgework, a removable prosthesis retained by fixed cast gold or milled titanium beams, or magnet-retained removable prostheses. A combination of zygomatic and conventional implants was used in all but one patient. In this study it was shown that the overall success rate for zygomatic implants was 86%, with six of the implants either failing to integrate or requiring removal due to persistent infection associated with the maxillary sinus. All patients received their planned prosthesis, although in six cases the method of retention required modification. This study illustrates that zygomatic implants are a successful and important treatment option when trying to restore the atrophic maxilla, with the potential to avoid additional augmentation/grafting procedures and resulting in a high long-term success rate. PMID:24120903

  1. Hypoglycemia: a factor associated with low survival rate of neonatal piglets infected with transmissible gastroenteritis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Drolet, R; Morin, M; Fontaine, M

    1984-01-01

    The main purpose of this work was to study changes in the balance of fluids, electrolytes and blood metabolites in neonatal piglets with severe transmissible gastroenteritis. Six two day old conventional piglets were infected with transmissible gastroenteritis virus while six others were used as normal controls. Blood samples were collected in heparin when the infected piglets were moribund. The following variables were measured: packed red cell volume, total plasma protein and bicarbonate, blood pH, blood urea nitrogen and plasma glucose, creatinine, chloride, inorganic phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium. Vomiting and diarrhea appeared 12 to 24 hours postinoculation in the infected piglets and they were moribund one or two days later. Before becoming moribund, most of the piglets fell rapidly into a lethargic and comatose state. The most evident changes in their blood variables were an increase in packed cell volume, total protein, blood urea nitrogen, phosphorus and magnesium levels and a decrease in pH and bicarbonate concentration as well as a severe hypoglycemia. The results suggest that severe hypoglycemia coupled with metabolic acidosis and dehydration might be an important factor contributing to the high mortality rates caused by transmissible gastroenteritis in neonatal piglets. The hypoglycemia results from a combination of the inadequate glucose metabolism inherent to neonatal piglets and the acute maldigestion and malabsorption resulting from the diffuse and severe villous atrophy induced by the virus. PMID:6478297

  2. Reactive oxygen species in plasma against E. coli cells survival rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ren-Wu; Zhang, Xian-Hui; Zong, Zi-Chao; Li, Jun-Xiong; Yang, Zhou-Bin; Liu, Dong-Ping; Yang, Si-Ze

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we report on the contrastive analysis of inactivation efficiency of E. coli cells in solution with different disinfection methods. Compared with the hydrogen peroxide solution and the ozone gas, the atmospheric-pressure He plasma can completely kill the E. coli cells in the shortest time. The inactivation efficiency of E. coli cells in solution can be well described by using the chemical reaction rate model. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis shows that the C-O or C=O content of the inactivated E. coli cell surface by plasma is predominantly increased, indicating the quantity of oxygen-containing species in plasma is more than those of two other methods, and then the C-C or C-H bonds can be broken, leading to the etching of organic compounds. Analysis also indicates that plasma-generated species can play a crucial role in the inactivation process by their direct reactions or the decompositions of reactive species, such as ozone into OH radicals in water, then reacting with E. coli cells. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Fujian Province, China (Grant No. 2014J01025), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11275261), and the Funds from the Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory for Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, China.

  3. Rapid wetland expansion during European settlement and its implication for marsh survival under modern sediment delivery rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirwan, Matthew L.; Murray, A. Brad; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Corbett, D. Reide

    2011-01-01

    Fluctuations in sea-level rise rates are thought to dominate the formation and evolution of coastal wetlands. Here we demonstrate a contrasting scenario in which land-use-related changes in sediment delivery rates drive the formation of expansive marshland, and vegetation feedbacks maintain their morphology despite recent sediment supply reduction. Stratigraphic analysis and radiocarbon dating in the Plum Island Estuary (Massachusetts, United States) suggest that salt marshes expanded rapidly during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries due to increased rates of sediment delivery following deforestation associated with European settlement. Numerical modeling coupled with the stratigraphic observations suggests that existing marshland could survive, but not form under the low suspended sediment concentrations observed in the estuary today. These results suggest that many of the expansive marshes that characterize the modern North American coast are metastable relicts of high nineteenth century sediment delivery rates, and that recent observations of degradation may represent a slow return to pre-settlement marsh extent. In contrast to ecosystem management practices in which restoring pre-anthropogenic conditions is seen as a way to increase ecosystem services, our results suggest that widespread efforts to restore valuable coastal wetlands actually prevent some systems from returning to a natural state.

  4. Sodium chloride inhibits the growth and infective capacity of the amphibian chytrid fungus and increases host survival rates.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Michelle Pirrie; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a recently emerged pathogen that causes the infectious disease chytridiomycosis and has been implicated as a contributing factor in the global amphibian decline. Since its discovery, research has been focused on developing various methods of mitigating the impact of chytridiomycosis on amphibian hosts but little attention has been given to the role of antifungal agents that could be added to the host's environment. Sodium chloride is a known antifungal agent used routinely in the aquaculture industry and this study investigates its potential for use as a disease management tool in amphibian conservation. The effect of 0-5 ppt NaCl on the growth, motility and survival of the chytrid fungus when grown in culture media and its effect on the growth, infection load and survivorship of infected Peron's tree frogs (Litoria peronii) in captivity, was investigated. The results reveal that these concentrations do not negatively affect the survival of the host or the pathogen. However, concentrations greater than 3 ppt significantly reduced the growth and motility of the chytrid fungus compared to 0 ppt. Concentrations of 1-4 ppt NaCl were also associated with significantly lower host infection loads while infected hosts exposed to 3 and 4 ppt NaCl were found to have significantly higher survival rates. These results support the potential for NaCl to be used as an environmentally distributed antifungal agent for the prevention of chytridiomycosis in susceptible amphibian hosts. However, further research is required to identify any negative effects of salt exposure on both target and non-target organisms prior to implementation. PMID:22590639

  5. Sodium chloride inhibits the growth and infective capacity of the amphibian chytrid fungus and increases host survival rates.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Michelle Pirrie; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a recently emerged pathogen that causes the infectious disease chytridiomycosis and has been implicated as a contributing factor in the global amphibian decline. Since its discovery, research has been focused on developing various methods of mitigating the impact of chytridiomycosis on amphibian hosts but little attention has been given to the role of antifungal agents that could be added to the host's environment. Sodium chloride is a known antifungal agent used routinely in the aquaculture industry and this study investigates its potential for use as a disease management tool in amphibian conservation. The effect of 0-5 ppt NaCl on the growth, motility and survival of the chytrid fungus when grown in culture media and its effect on the growth, infection load and survivorship of infected Peron's tree frogs (Litoria peronii) in captivity, was investigated. The results reveal that these concentrations do not negatively affect the survival of the host or the pathogen. However, concentrations greater than 3 ppt significantly reduced the growth and motility of the chytrid fungus compared to 0 ppt. Concentrations of 1-4 ppt NaCl were also associated with significantly lower host infection loads while infected hosts exposed to 3 and 4 ppt NaCl were found to have significantly higher survival rates. These results support the potential for NaCl to be used as an environmentally distributed antifungal agent for the prevention of chytridiomycosis in susceptible amphibian hosts. However, further research is required to identify any negative effects of salt exposure on both target and non-target organisms prior to implementation.

  6. Sodium Chloride Inhibits the Growth and Infective Capacity of the Amphibian Chytrid Fungus and Increases Host Survival Rates

    PubMed Central

    Stockwell, Michelle Pirrie; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a recently emerged pathogen that causes the infectious disease chytridiomycosis and has been implicated as a contributing factor in the global amphibian decline. Since its discovery, research has been focused on developing various methods of mitigating the impact of chytridiomycosis on amphibian hosts but little attention has been given to the role of antifungal agents that could be added to the host's environment. Sodium chloride is a known antifungal agent used routinely in the aquaculture industry and this study investigates its potential for use as a disease management tool in amphibian conservation. The effect of 0–5 ppt NaCl on the growth, motility and survival of the chytrid fungus when grown in culture media and its effect on the growth, infection load and survivorship of infected Peron's tree frogs (Litoria peronii) in captivity, was investigated. The results reveal that these concentrations do not negatively affect the survival of the host or the pathogen. However, concentrations greater than 3 ppt significantly reduced the growth and motility of the chytrid fungus compared to 0 ppt. Concentrations of 1–4 ppt NaCl were also associated with significantly lower host infection loads while infected hosts exposed to 3 and 4 ppt NaCl were found to have significantly higher survival rates. These results support the potential for NaCl to be used as an environmentally distributed antifungal agent for the prevention of chytridiomycosis in susceptible amphibian hosts. However, further research is required to identify any negative effects of salt exposure on both target and non-target organisms prior to implementation. PMID:22590639

  7. Model-based estimates of annual survival rate are preferable to observed maximum lifespan statistics for use in comparative life-history studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, D.G.; Sauer, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Estimates of longevity are available for many animals, and are commonly used in comparative life-history analyses. We suggest that annual survival rate is more appropriate life history parameter for most comparative life history analyses. Observed maximum longevities were not correlated with the annual survival rate estimates and appear to be unstable over time. We recommend that observed maximum lifespans not be used in life history analyses.

  8. Clopidogrel use After Myocardial Revascularization: Prevalence, Predictors, and One-Year Survival Rate

    PubMed Central

    Prates, Paulo Roberto L.; Williams, Judson B.; Mehta, Rajendra H.; Stevens, Susanna R.; Thomas, Laine; Smith, Peter K.; Newby, L. Kristin; Kalil, Renato A. K.; Alexander, John H.; Lopes, Renato D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Antiplatelet therapy after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) has been used. Little is known about the predictors and efficacy of clopidogrel in this scenario. Objective Identify predictors of clopidogrel following CABG. Methods We evaluated 5404 patients who underwent CABG between 2000 and 2009 at Duke University Medical Center. We excluded patients undergoing concomitant valve surgery, those who had postoperative bleeding or death before discharge. Postoperative clopidogrel was left to the discretion of the attending physician. Adjusted risk for 1-year mortality was compared between patients receiving and not receiving clopidogrel during hospitalization after undergoing CABG. Results At hospital discharge, 931 (17.2%) patients were receiving clopidogrel. Comparing patients not receiving clopidogrel at discharge, users had more comorbidities, including hyperlipidemia, hypertension, heart failure, peripheral arterial disease and cerebrovascular disease. Patients who received aspirin during hospitalization were less likely to receive clopidogrel at discharge (P≤0.0001). Clopidogrel was associated with similar 1-year mortality compared with those who did not use clopidogrel (4.4% vs. 4.5%, P=0.72). There was, however, an interaction between the use of cardiopulmonary bypass and clopidogrel, with lower 1-year mortality in patients undergoing off-pump CABG who received clopidogrel, but not those undergoing conventional CABG (2.6% vs 5.6%, P Interaction = 0.032). Conclusion Clopidogrel was used in nearly one-fifth of patients after CABG. Its use was not associated with lower mortality after 1 year in general, but lower mortality rate in those undergoing off-pump CABG. Randomized clinical trials are needed to determine the benefit of routine use of clopidogrel in CABG. PMID:27556308

  9. Effect of Clearcutting Operations on the Survival Rate of a Small Mammal

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, Martín A. H.; Uribe, Sandra V.; Chiappe, Romina; Estades, Cristián F.

    2015-01-01

    Clearcutting is a common timber harvesting technique that represents a significant and abrupt change in habitat conditions for wildlife living in industrial forests. Most research on this type of impact has focused on comparing populations or communities in mature forests/plantations and the resulting clearcut stands. However, this approach does not separate the effect of changes in habitat attributes from direct mortality produced by the intensive use of heavy machinery required for cutting down trees and dragging them to a road. Because knowing the fate of individuals after a disturbance is important for modelling landscape-scale population dynamics in industrial forests, we conducted a study in South-Central Chile to understand the short-term response to clearcutting operations of the long-haired Akodont (Abrothrix longipillis), a forest specialist mouse. Between 2009 and 2013 we radiotracked a total of 51 adult male Akodonts, before, during and after the clearcutting of the pine plantations in which they lived. A minimum of 52.4% of the individuals died as a direct cause of the timbering operations, being crushed by vehicles or logs during logging operations. Our observations suggest that, instead of fleeing the area, the response of long-haired Akodonts to the approaching machinery is to hide under the forest litter or in burrows, which exposes them to a serious risk of death. The real mortality rate associated to clearcutting may be higher than that estimated by us because of some methodological biases (i.e. individuals with crushed radiotransmitters not recorded) and the fact that additional mortality sources may affect the population in the weeks following logging operations (e.g. higher exposure to predation, effects of site preparation for the new plantation, etc). PMID:25748217

  10. Inverted teats (Mammillae invertitae) in gilts - effect on piglet survival and growth rate.

    PubMed

    Chalkias, H; Ekman, E; Lundeheim, N; Rydhmer, L; Jacobson, M

    2014-06-01

    In the modern pig industry, the increasing number of piglets born per litter augments the importance of the number of functional teats in the sow. The aim of this study was to evaluate the function and importance of inverted teats during nursing and to analyze structural and functional differences between the mammary glands of inverted teats versus normal teats. Nine farrowing gilts (8 purebred Swedish Yorkshire gilts and 1 cross between Swedish Yorkshire and Norwegian Landrace) and 94 piglets (59 piglets suckling normal teats, 32 piglets suckling protruded teats [i.e., previously inverted], 2 piglets suckling inverted teats, and 3 piglets suckling considerably smaller teats) were included in the study. Teat fidelity (keeping the same teat between the nursings) was registered, excluding the first 48 h postpartum. Piglet weight was recorded daily during the first week of life and thereafter once a week until weaning at 4 wk of age. Weight and growth rate were analyzed using repeated observation mixed-model analysis of variance. The 2 piglets that suckled the inverted teats were not able to emerge the teats and they were euthanized 4 and 8 d after birth, respectively, due to loss of BW. The average weight at weaning (28 d of age) was 8.1 kg (range 3.2-13.8 kg). In the normal teats (n = 53), the weight of the corresponding mammary gland tissue at necropsy was positively correlated to the piglet average daily weight gain during wk 2 (r = 0.33, P < 0.05), 3 (r = 0.55, P < 0.001), and 4 (r = 0.47, P < 0.001). In the protruded teats (n = 32), the weight of the corresponding mammary gland tissue was positively correlated to the piglet average daily weight gain during wk 2 (r = 0.63, P < 0.001) and 3 (r = 0.43, P < 0.05). Among the piglets nursing normal teats, 82% kept fidelity to its teat and the corresponding percent for the protruded teats was 26%. In 7 of the 9 sows, the weaning weight of the piglets suckling protruded teats was numerically lower compared to the

  11. Enhanced cardiac TBC1D10C expression lowers heart rate and enhances exercise capacity and survival

    PubMed Central

    Volland, Cornelia; Bremer, Sebastian; Hellenkamp, Kristian; Hartmann, Nico; Dybkova, Nataliya; Khadjeh, Sara; Kutschenko, Anna; Liebetanz, David; Wagner, Stefan; Unsöld, Bernhard; Didié, Michael; Toischer, Karl; Sossalla, Samuel; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Seidler, Tim

    2016-01-01

    TBC1D10C is a protein previously demonstrated to bind and inhibit Ras and Calcineurin. In cardiomyocytes, also CaMKII is inhibited and all three targeted enzymes are known to promote maladaptive cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Here, in accordance with lack of Calcineurin inhibition in vivo, we did not observe a relevant anti-hypertrophic effect despite inhibition of Ras and CaMKII. However, cardiomyocyte-specific TBC1D10C overexpressing transgenic mice exhibited enhanced longevity. Ejection fraction and exercise capacity were enhanced in transgenic mice, but shortening of isolated cardiomyocytes was not increased. This suggests longevity resulted from enhanced cardiac performance but independent of cardiomyocyte contractile force. In further search for mechanisms, a transcriptome-wide analysis revealed expressional changes in several genes pertinent to control of heart rate (HR) including Hcn4, Scn10a, Sema3a and Cacna2d2. Indeed, telemetric holter recordings demonstrated slower atrial conduction and significantly lower HR. Pharmacological reduction of HR was previously demonstrated to enhance survival in mice. Thus, in addition to inhibition of stress signaling, TBC1D10C economizes generation of cardiac output via HR reduction, enhancing exercise capacity and survival. TBC1D10C may be a new target for HR reduction and longevity. PMID:27667030

  12. Mandible-Powered Escape Jumps in Trap-Jaw Ants Increase Survival Rates during Predator-Prey Encounters

    PubMed Central

    Larabee, Fredrick J.; Suarez, Andrew V.

    2015-01-01

    Animals use a variety of escape mechanisms to increase the probability of surviving predatory attacks. Antipredator defenses can be elaborate, making their evolutionary origin unclear. Trap-jaw ants are known for their rapid and powerful predatory mandible strikes, and some species have been observed to direct those strikes at the substrate, thereby launching themselves into the air away from a potential threat. This potential escape mechanism has never been examined in a natural context. We studied the use of mandible-powered jumping in Odontomachus brunneus during their interactions with a common ant predator: pit-building antlions. We observed that while trap-jaw ant workers escaped from antlion pits by running in about half of interactions, in 15% of interactions they escaped by mandible-powered jumping. To test whether escape jumps improved individual survival, we experimentally prevented workers from jumping and measured their escape rate. Workers with unrestrained mandibles escaped from antlion pits significantly more frequently than workers with restrained mandibles. Our results indicate that some trap-jaw ant species can use mandible-powered jumps to escape from common predators. These results also provide a charismatic example of evolutionary co-option, where a trait that evolved for one function (predation) has been co-opted for another (defense). PMID:25970637

  13. Factors relating to poor survival rates of aged cervical cancer patients: a population-based study with the relative survival model in Osaka, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ioka, Akiko; Ito, Yuri; Tsukuma, Hideaki

    2009-01-01

    Poor survival of older cervical cancer patients has been reported; however, related factors, such as the extent of disease and the competitive risk by aging have not been well evaluated. We applied the relative survival model developed by Dickman et al to resolve this issue. Study subjects were cervical cancer patients retrieved from the Osaka Cancer Registry. They were limited to the 10,048 reported cases diagnosed from 1975 to 1999, based on the quality of data collection on vital status. Age at diagnosis was categorized into <30, 30-54, 55-64, and > or = 65 years. The impact of prognostic factors on 5-year survival was evaluated with the relative survival model, incorporating patients' expected survival in multivariate analysis. The age-specific relative excess risk (RER) of death was significantly higher for older groups as compared with women aged 30-54 years (RER, 1.58 at 55-64 and 2.51 at > or = 65 years). The RER was decreased by 64.8% among the 55-64 year olds as an effect of cancer stage at diagnosis, and by 43.4% among those 65 years old and over. After adding adjustment for treatment modalities, the RER was no longer significantly higher among 55-64 year olds; however, it was still higher among 65 year olds and over. Advanced stage at diagnosis was the main determinant of poor survival among the aged cervical cancer patients, although other factors such as limitations on the combination of treatment were also suggested to have an influence in those aged 65 years and over.

  14. Long Cut Straw Provides Stable the Rates of Survival, Pregnancy and Live Birth for Vitrification of Human Blasotcysts

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Woo; Cha, Jeong-Ho; Shin, Sun-Hee; Kim, Yun-Jeong; Lee, Seul-Ki; Cha, Hye-Jin; Kim, Ji-Hae; Ahn, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Hye-Young; Pak, Kyung-Ah; Yoon, Ji-Sung; Park, Seo-Young; Park, Choon-keun

    2016-01-01

    Most of the commercial devices for vitrification are directly immersed into the warming solution (WS) for increasing of warming rate. However, the previous modified cut standard straw (MCS) which has reported is difficult to immerse into the WS. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the long cut straw (LCS) could be useful as a stable tool for vitrified-warmed human blastocysts. A total of 138 vitrified-warmed cycles were performed between November 2013 and November 2014 (exclusion criteria: women ≥38 years old, poor responder, surgical retrieval sperm, and severe male factor). The artificial shrinkage was conducted using 29-gauge needles. Ethylene glycol and dimethyl sulfoxide (7.5% and 15% (v/v)) were used as cryoprotectants. Freezing and warming were conducted using the LCS tool. The cap of LCS was removed using the forceps in the liquid nitrogen (LN2) and then directly immersed into the first WS for 1 min at 37℃ (1 M sucrose). Only re-expanded blastocysts were transferred after it was cultured in sequential media for 18-20 h. A total of 294 blastocysts were warmed, and all were recovered (100%). Two hundred eighty-five embryos were survived (96.9%). The vitrifiedwarmed blastocysts of all patients were transferred without any cancellation. We were able to achieve a reasonable implantation (24.2%), following by clinical pregnancy (36.2%), which then continued to ongoing pregnancy (36.2%), and live birth (31.2%). Using LCS is achieved the acceptable rates of survival, pregnancy and live birth. Therefore, the LCS could be considered as a stable and simple tool for human embryo vitrificaton. PMID:27796003

  15. Effect of Warming Rate on the Survival of Vitrified Mouse Oocytes and on the Recrystallization of Intracellular Ice1

    PubMed Central

    Seki, Shinsuke; Mazur, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Successful cryopreservation demands there be little or no intracellular ice. One procedure is classical slow equilibrium freezing, and it has been successful in many cases. However, for some important cell types, including some mammalian oocytes, it has not. For the latter, there are increasing attempts to cryopreserve them by vitrification. However, even if intracellular ice formation (IIF) is prevented during cooling, it can still occur during the warming of a vitrified sample. Here, we examine two aspects of this occurrence in mouse oocytes. One took place in oocytes that were partly dehydrated by an initial hold for 12 min at −25°C. They were then cooled rapidly to −70°C and warmed slowly, or they were warmed rapidly to intermediate temperatures and held. These oocytes underwent no IIF during cooling but blackened from IIF during warming. The blackening rate increased about 5-fold for each five-degree rise in temperature. Upon thawing, they were dead. The second aspect involved oocytes that had been vitrified by cooling to −196°C while suspended in a concentrated solution of cryoprotectants and warmed at rates ranging from 140°C/min to 3300°C/min. Survivals after warming at 140°C/min and 250°C/min were low (<30%). Survivals after warming at ≥2200°C/min were high (80%). When warmed slowly, they were killed, apparently by the recrystallization of previously formed small internal ice crystals. The similarities and differences in the consequences of the two types of freezing are discussed. PMID:18562703

  16. Polymorphism at the ovine beta3-adrenergic receptor locus: associations with birth weight, growth rate, carcass composition and cold survival.

    PubMed

    Forrest, R H; Hickford, J G H; Hogan, A; Frampton, C

    2003-02-01

    The beta3-adrenergic receptors (ADRB3s) are predominantly found on the surface of adipocytes and are the major mediators of the lipolytic and thermogenic effects of high catecholamine concentrations. Polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis of part of the ovine beta3-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB3) intron was used to screen 12 large Merino half-sib families for sequence variation. Six different alleles that segregated in a Mendelian fashion were observed. The genetic basis for the allelic differences were identified by sequencing the ADRB3 (coding and non-coding regions) from animals that were homozygous for each of the alleles. Five sire lines (two Merino x Merino, two Merino x Coopworth, one Dorset Down x Coopworth) provided phenotypic and genotypic data used to ascertain the effects of allelic variation at the ADRB3 locus on birth weight, weaning weight, growth rate (up until weaning), carcass composition at 63 days post-weaning and cold survival. Statistical analyses within each half-sib family showed that in some sire lines (S13, S15, and S17) the inheritance of a particular allele was associated with increased birth weights and/or increased growth rates up until weaning. The inheritance of a particular sire allele was associated with fatter carcasses in sire line S16. Chi-squared analysis revealed the association of the E allele with cold survival and the D allele with cold-related mortality in sire line S14. Such associations support the hypothesis that ADRB3s are involved in energy homeostasis. With more research, the variation detected at the ADRB3 locus may assist in the genetic selection for desirable animal production traits.

  17. Novel brachytherapy treatment planning system utilizing dose rate dependent average cell survival, CT-simulator, and dose-volume histogram

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, R.; Fong, W.; Frankel, T.

    1995-12-31

    This report describes a new brachytherapy planning program that provides an evaluation of a given low or high dose rate treatment taking into account spatial dose heterogeneity and cell response to radiation. This brachytherapy scheme uses the images from a CT-Simulator (AcQSim, Picker International, Cleveland, Ohio) to simultaneously localize the seed positions and to axially scan the patient. This procedure helps to ensure accurate registration of the putative seed positions with the patient tissues and organs. The seed positions are determined by back-projecting positions of seeds or dummy seeds from the CT-Simulator setup scout images. Physicians delineate the tissues of interest on the axial slices. Dose is computed after assigning activity (low dose rate) of dwell times (high dose rate) to the Ir{sup 192} or I{sup 125} seed. The planar isodose distribution is superimposed onto axial cuts of the tissues and onto coronal or sagital views of the tissues following image reconstruction. Areal or volumetric calculations of the dose distribution within a given tissue are computed from the tissue outlines. The treatment plan computes (1) volume differential and cummulative dose histograms of the dose delivered to individual tissues, (2) the average, standard deviation, and coefficient of skewness of the dose distribution delivered to the individual tissues, (3) the average survival probability for a given radiation treatment.

  18. Automated Peritoneal Dialysis Is Associated with Better Survival Rates Compared to Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Beduschi, Gabriela de Carvalho; Figueiredo, Ana Elizabeth; Olandoski, Marcia; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto; Barretti, Pasqual; de Moraes, Thyago Proenca

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The impact of peritoneal dialysis modality on patient survival and peritonitis rates is not fully understood, and no large-scale randomized clinical trial (RCT) is available. In the absence of a RCT, the use of an advanced matching procedure to reduce selection bias in large cohort studies may be the best approach. The aim of this study is to compare automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) according to peritonitis risk, technique failure and patient survival in a large nation-wide PD cohort Methods This is a prospective cohort study that included all incident PD patients with at least 90 days of PD recruited in the BRAZPD study. All patients who were treated exclusively with either APD or CAPD were matched for 15 different covariates using a propensity score calculated with the nearest neighbor method. Clinical outcomes analyzed were overall mortality, technique failure and time to first peritonitis. For all analysis we also adjusted the curves for the presence of competing risks with the Fine and Gray analysis. Results After the matching procedure, 2,890 patients were included in the analysis (1,445 in each group). Baseline characteristics were similar for all covariates including: age, diabetes, BMI, Center-experience, coronary artery disease, cancer, literacy, hypertension, race, previous HD, gender, pre-dialysis care, family income, peripheral artery disease and year of starting PD. Mortality rate was higher in CAPD patients (SHR1.44 CI95%1.21-1.71) compared to APD, but no difference was observed for technique failure (SHR0.83 CI95%0.69-1.02) nor for time till the first peritonitis episode (SHR0.96 CI95%0.93-1.11). Conclusion In the first large PD cohort study with groups balanced for several covariates using propensity score matching, PD modality was not associated with differences in neither time to first peritonitis nor in technique failure. Nevertheless, patient survival was significantly better

  19. Population-based study of ovarian cancer in Côte d'Or: prognostic factors and trends in relative survival rates over the last 20 years

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of this population-based study was to assess independent prognostic factors in ovarian cancer using relative survival (RS) and to investigate changes in RS rates from 1982 to 2005. Methods Data on 748 patients with ovarian cancer were provided by the Côte d'Or gynaecologic cancer registry. The RS was estimated using a generalized linear model with a Poisson error structure. Relative survival and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were described at the following specific time points 1, 3 and 5 years. The effect of prognostic factors on survival was assessed with multivariate analyses of RS. Results The median follow-up was 12 years. The RS rates at 1, 3 and 5 years were 81%, 55% and 44%, respectively. As compared with the period 1982-1989, an improvement in survival was found for the period 1998-2005: HR = 0.52[0.40-0.67]. Women who lived in urban areas had better RS: HR = 0.82[0.67-0.99]. Patients with epithelial types of ovarian cancer other than mucinous or endometrioid cancer had worse RS than those with serous histology. Age ≥ 70 years was associated with lower survival. Conclusions Period of diagnosis, stage at diagnosis, histology, place of residence and age were independent prognostic factors for survival in ovarian cancer. An improvement in the survival rate was observed after 1998 but a significant improvement was limited to advanced stage cancers. PMID:21067600

  20. The Effectiveness of Alcohol Policies in 4-Year Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Gayle T.

    2010-01-01

    A problem facing American universities is heavy drinking by the student body which results in unintentional injuries and deaths, illegal offenses, sexual assault, altercations, and academic demise. The relationship between the type of alcohol policy enacted on campus and alcohol consumption among undergraduate students attending 4-year public…

  1. 20 CFR 210.4 - Year of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Year of service. 210.4 Section 210.4 Employees... SERVICE § 210.4 Year of service. (a) A year of service is twelve months of reported or deemed service, consecutive or not consecutive. A fraction of a year of service is taken at its actual value. (b) The...

  2. 20 CFR 210.4 - Year of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Year of service. 210.4 Section 210.4... RAILROAD SERVICE § 210.4 Year of service. (a) A year of service is twelve months of reported or deemed service, consecutive or not consecutive. A fraction of a year of service is taken at its actual value....

  3. 20 CFR 210.4 - Year of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Year of service. 210.4 Section 210.4... RAILROAD SERVICE § 210.4 Year of service. (a) A year of service is twelve months of reported or deemed service, consecutive or not consecutive. A fraction of a year of service is taken at its actual value....

  4. 20 CFR 210.4 - Year of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Year of service. 210.4 Section 210.4 Employees... SERVICE § 210.4 Year of service. (a) A year of service is twelve months of reported or deemed service, consecutive or not consecutive. A fraction of a year of service is taken at its actual value. (b) The...

  5. 20 CFR 210.4 - Year of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Year of service. 210.4 Section 210.4... RAILROAD SERVICE § 210.4 Year of service. (a) A year of service is twelve months of reported or deemed service, consecutive or not consecutive. A fraction of a year of service is taken at its actual value....

  6. Head Start, 4 years After Completing the Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Joo

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of the Head Start program on children's achievements in reading and math tests during their first 4 years of schooling after completing the program. Using nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, I found large measurement error in the parental reports of Head Start attendance,…

  7. Faculty Employment at 4-Year Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Liang; Liu, Xiangmin

    2010-01-01

    We examine the variation in employment levels of part-time faculty, full-time teaching faculty, and full-time professorial faculty across 4-year colleges and universities in the United States. Employment structures and practices in higher education institutions are determined by a variety of economic and institutional factors. For example, a 1%…

  8. Emerging Understanding of Patterning in 4-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Fyfe, Emily R.; McLean, Laura E.; McEldoon, Katherine L.

    2013-01-01

    Young children have an impressive amount of mathematics knowledge, but past psychological research has focused primarily on their number knowledge. Preschoolers also spontaneously engage in a form of early algebraic thinking-patterning. In the current study, we assessed 4-year-old children's knowledge of repeating patterns on two occasions…

  9. Functioning survival rate of fixtures and superstructures of osseointegrated implants: ten years of progress in Tokyo Dental College Hospital (second report).

    PubMed

    Yoshida, K; Takamatsu, Y; Adachi, Y; Kishi, M; Sekine, H; Shigematsu, T

    1996-05-01

    Osseointegrated implant bridges (OIB) have shown excellent results in the majority of cases. Since 1983, 1,022 fixtures has been applied to 241 superstructures in Tokyo Dental College Hospital. The aim of present study was to examine their functioning survival rate during recent ten years. The functioning survival rate of the superstructure of OIB has been almost 100% in both maxilla and mandible. Although 13.0% of these fixtures had to be removed in maxillary complete cases, only 3.3% of fixtures were removed in other cases. In maxillary complete cases, the functioning survival rate of OIB fixtures gradually decreases from 91% to 74% (91%, less than 3 years; 84%, between 3 and 7 years; 74%, more than 7 years), but it remained at about 97% for all periods in other cases. Apparently, the functioning survival rate of OIB fixture is generally determined within the period of one year, so almost the same rate is maintained thereafter. It is suggested that if more fixture numbers in the superstructure were applied to maxillary complete cases, the functional survival rate might improve.

  10. Daily survival rate for nests and chicks of Least Terns (Sternula antillarum) at natural nest sites in South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Gillian L.; Sanders, Felicia J.; Gerard, Patrick D.; Jodice, Patrick G.

    2013-01-01

    Although a species of conservation concern, little is known about the reproductive success of Least Terns (Sternula antillarum) throughout the southeastern USA where availability of natural beaches for nesting is limited. Daily survival rate (DSR) of nests and chicks was examined at four natural nesting sites in Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge, South Carolina, 2009–2010. Measures of nest success (n = 257 nests) ranged from 0–93% among colony sites. The DSR of nests was primarily related to colony site, but year and estimates of predation risk also were related to DSR. Predation was the principal cause of identifiable nest loss, accounting for 47% of nest failures when the two years of data were pooled. The probability (± SE) of a chick surviving from hatching to fledging = 0.449 ± 0.01 (n = 92 chicks). DSR of chicks was negatively related to tide height and rainfall. Therefore, productivity of Least Terns is being lost during both the nesting and chick stage through a combination of biotic and abiotic factors that may prove difficult to fully mitigate or manage. Although natural nesting sites within Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge intermittently produce successful nests, the consistency of productivity over the long term is still unknown. Given that the long term availability of anthropogenic nest sites (e.g., rooftops, dredge-spoil islands) for Least Terns is questionable, further research is required both locally and throughout the region to assess the extent to which natural sites act as population sources or sinks.

  11. Acute opercular syndrome in 4-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Pniewska, Anna; Pawłowska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Acute opercular syndrome is a rare described syndrome caused by a sudden damage of the cerebral cortex and subcortical white matter, located around the insula. A rare cause of this syndrome can be an infectious agent, particularly herpes simplex virus. Quick diagnosis and immediate initiation of treatment significantly reduce the risk of neurological consequences and mortality. We present a case of encephalitis of unknown etiology and severe course, with the symptoms of acute opercular syndrome in 4-year-old boy. PMID:27154445

  12. Reproductive rates, birth weight, calving ease and 24-h calf survival in a four-breed diallel among Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Comerford, J W; Bertrand, J K; Benyshek, L L; Johnson, M H

    1987-01-01

    Calving and weaning rates, birth weight, calving ease, and 24-h calf survival were evaluated in a four-breed diallel of Simmental (S), Limousin (L), Polled Hereford (H) and Brahman (B) beef cattle in five calf crops. Limousin dams tended to have the highest calving and weaning rates because they were able to have heavier calves with less calving difficulty and higher survival rates. Brahman-sired calves were the heaviest at birth (P less than .05) and B dams produced the lightest calves (P less than .001). Lower birth weights tended to be the limiting factor on survival of these calves. A linear comparison among means to evaluate purebred, additive, maternal and specific combining ability effects showed most of the reduction in birth weight from B dams was due to maternal effects. Breed of dam accounted for a higher proportion of variation in calving ease than did sire breed. Simmental sires had significantly heavier calves at birth and S and H dams tended to have more calving difficulty and lower survival rates. Heterosis for these traits was generally not significant. Correlations were generally positive and significant for birth weight and calving ease, but were more variable for birth weight and survival. Linear regressions of calving ease on birth weight both within years and within dam-breed-year subclasses were very similar in that the association of these two traits was reduced as dam age increased. PMID:3818492

  13. Route-Specific Passage Proportions and Survival Rates for Fish Passing through John Day Dam, The Dalles Dam, and Bonneville Dam in 2010 and 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-06-04

    This report fulfills a request of the U.S. Army Engineer District, Portland, Oregon, to produce an interim report of estimates of route-specific fish passage proportions and survival rates for lower Columbia River dams in 2010 and 2011. The estimates are needed to update the Compass Model for the Columbia River Treaty and the new Biological Opinion before detail technical reports are published in late 2012. This report tabulates route-specific fish-passage proportions and survival rates for steelhead and Chinook salmon smolts passing through various sampled routes at John Day Dam, The Dalles Dam, and Bonneville Dam in 2010 and 2011. Results were compiled from analyses of data acquired in spring 2010 and 2011 studies that were specifically designed to estimate dam-passage and forebay-to-tailrace survival rates, travel time metrics, and spill passage efficiency, as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion and the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. The study designs allowed for estimation of route-specific fish passage proportions and survival rates as well as estimation of forebay-passage survival, all of which are summarized herein.

  14. Effects of hydroperiod duration on survival, developmental rate, and size at metamorphosis in boreal chorus frog tadpoles (Pseudacris maculata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amburgey, Staci; Funk, W. Chris; Murphy, Melanie; Muths, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between climate-driven habitat conditions and survival is key to preserving biodiversity in the face of rapid climate change. Hydroperiod—the length of time water is in a wetland—is a critical limiting habitat variable for amphibians as larvae must metamorphose before ponds dry. Changes in precipitation and temperature patterns are affecting hydroperiod globally, but the impact of these changes on amphibian persistence is poorly understood. We studied the responses of Boreal Chorus Frog (Pseudacris maculata) tadpoles to simulated hydroperiods (i.e., water level reductions) in the laboratory using individuals collected from ponds spanning a range of natural hydroperiods (Colorado Front Range, USA). To assess the effects of experimental hydroperiod reduction, we measured mortality, time to metamorphosis, and size at metamorphosis. We found that tadpoles grew at rates reflecting the hydroperiods of their native ponds, regardless of experimental treatment. Tadpoles from permanent ponds metamorphosed faster than those from ephemeral ponds across all experimental treatments, a pattern which may represent a predation selection gradient or countergradient variation in developmental rates. Size at metamorphosis did not vary across experimental treatments. Mortality was low overall but varied with pond of origin. Our results suggest that adaptation to local hydroperiod and/or predation and temperature conditions is important in P. maculata. Moreover, the lack of a plastic response to reduced hydroperiods suggests that P. maculata may not be able to metamorphose quickly enough to escape drying ponds. These results have important implications for amphibian persistence in ponds predicted to dry more quickly due to rapid climate change.

  15. Computed Tomography-Guided High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Safety, Efficacy, and Effect on Survival

    SciTech Connect

    Mohnike, Konrad; Wieners, Gero; Schwartz, Franziska; Seidensticker, Max; Pech, Maciej; Ruehl, Ricarda; Wust, Peter; Lopez-Haenninen, Enrique; Gademann, Guenther; Peters, Nils; Berg, Thomas; Malfertheiner, Peter; Ricke, Jens

    2010-09-01

    Purpose: To determine the saftety and efficacy of computed tomography (CT)-guided brachytherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: A total of 83 patients were recruited, presenting with 140 HCC- lesions. Treatment was performed by CT-guided high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy with an iridium-192 source. The primary endpoint was time to progression; secondary endpoints included local tumor control and overall survival (OS). A matched-pair analysis with patients not receiving brachytherapy was performed. Match criteria included the Cancer of the Liver Italian Program (CLIP) score, alpha-fetoprotein, presence, and extent of multifocal disease. For statistical analysis, Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression were performed. Results: Mean and median cumulative TTP for all patients (n = 75) were 17.7 and 10.4 months. Five local recurrences were observed. The OS after inclusion reached median times of 19.4 months (all patients), 46.3 months (CLIP score, 0), 20.6 months (CLIP score, 1) 12.7 months, (CLIP score, 2), and 8.3 months (CLIP score, {>=}3). The 1- and 3-year OS were 94% and 65% (CLIP score, 0), 69% and 12% (CLIP score, 1), and 48% and 19% (CLIP score, 2), respectively. Nine complications requiring intervention were encountered in 124 interventions. Matched-pair analysis revealed a significantly longer OS for patients undergoing CT-guided brachytherapy. Conclusion: Based on our results the study treatment could be safely performed. The study treatment had a beneficial effect on OS in patients with advanced HCC, with respect to (and depending on) the CLIP score and compared with OS in a historical control group. A high rate of local control was also observed, regardless of applied dose in a range of 15 to 25 Gy.

  16. Evaluation of annual survival and mortality rates and longevity of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) at the United States Navy Marine Mammal Program from 2004 through 2013.

    PubMed

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie K; Jensen, Eric D; Smith, Cynthia R; Xitco, Mark; Ridgway, Sam H

    2015-04-15

    Objective-To evaluate annual survival and mortality rates and the longevity of a managed population of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Design-Retrospective cohort study. Animals-103 bottlenose dolphins at the US Navy Marine Mammal Program (MMP). Procedures-Population age structures, annual survival and crude mortality rates, and median age at death for dolphins > 30 days old were determined from 2004 through 2013. Results-During 2004 through 2013, the annual survival rates for MMP dolphins ranged from 0.98 to 1.0, and the annual crude mortality rates ranged from 0% to 5%, with a mean of 2.7%. The median age at death was 30.1 years from 2004 through 2008 and increased to 32 years from 2009 through 2013. The maximum age for a dolphin in the study was 52 years. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results indicated that the annual mortality rates were low and survival rates were high for dolphins in the MMP from 2004 through 2013 and that the median age at death for MMP dolphins during that time was over 10 years greater than that reported in free-ranging dolphins. These findings were likely attributable to the continually improving care and husbandry of managed dolphin populations.

  17. Active Smoking May Negatively Affect Response Rate, Progression-Free Survival, and Overall Survival of Patients With Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Treated With Sunitinib

    PubMed Central

    Keizman, Daniel; Gottfried, Maya; Ish-Shalom, Maya; Maimon, Natalie; Peer, Avivit; Neumann, Avivit; Hammers, Hans; Eisenberger, Mario A.; Sinibaldi, Victoria; Pili, Roberto; Hayat, Henry; Kovel, Svetlana; Sella, Avishay; Boursi, Ben; Weitzen, Rony; Mermershtain, Wilmosh; Rouvinov, Keren; Berger, Raanan; Carducci, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Obesity, smoking, hypertension, and diabetes are risk factors for renal cell carcinoma development. Their presence has been associated with a worse outcome in various cancers. We sought to determine their association with outcome of sunitinib treatment in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Methods. An international multicenter retrospective study of sunitinib-treated mRCC patients was performed. Multivariate analyses were performed to determine the association between outcome and the pretreatment status of smoking, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, and other known prognostic factors. Results. Between 2004 and 2013, 278 mRCC patients were treated with sunitinib: 59 were active smokers, 67 were obese, 73 were diabetic, and 165 had pretreatment hypertension. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 9 months, and overall survival (OS) was 22 months. Factors associated with PFS were smoking status (past and active smokers: hazard ratio [HR]: 1.17, p = .39; never smokers: HR: 2.94, p < .0001), non-clear cell histology (HR: 1.62, p = .011), pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio >3 (HR: 3.51, p < .0001), use of angiotensin system inhibitors (HR: 0.63, p = .01), sunitinib dose reduction or treatment interruption (HR: 0.72, p = .045), and Heng risk (good and intermediate risk: HR: 1.07, p = .77; poor risk: HR: 1.87, p = .046). Factors associated with OS were smoking status (past and active smokers: HR: 1.25, p = .29; never smokers: HR: 2.7, p < .0001), pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio >3 (HR: 2.95, p < .0001), and sunitinib-induced hypertension (HR: 0.57, p = .002). Conclusion. Active smoking may negatively affect the PFS and OS of sunitinib-treated mRCC. Clinicians should consider advising patients to quit smoking at initiation of sunitinib treatment for mRCC. PMID:24309979

  18. Perlite exposure and 4-year change in lung function.

    PubMed

    Polatli, M; Erdinç, M; Erdinç, E; Okyay, E

    2001-07-01

    Perlite is a volcanic glass or amorphous aluminium silicate composed of 71-75% SiO(2). When heated to 800-1100 degrees C, it expands to form processed perlite, which has a low density, high surface area, and a low thermal conductivity. The objective was to determine the effect of perlite exposure on pulmonary function tests. Pulmonary function tests in conjunction with chest radiogram were carried out in 36 perlite-exposed workers and 22 unexposed office workers in 1992 and 1996. Respirable dust level exceeded permissible dust levels in work places in the 4 years under study. Transfer coefficient (K(CO)) decline was significant in nonsmoker perlite-exposed workers (n=9), and found to be 5.28+/-0.71 (predicted 4.32+/-0.11) and 3.84+/-0.96 (predicted 4.18+/-0.18) 1/min/mmHg, in 1992 and 1996, respectively (P<0.001). Both smoker perlite workers and office workers showed significant obstruction to airflow in small airways with respect to predicted values and 4-year change in transfer factor (T(L), CO) was significant. Although predicted, 12-year perlite exposure did not lead to a decrease in mean pulmonary function test parameters, there was a tendency to a decline in T(L), CO in the 4-year study period, which may be due to high perlite dust levels. As early effects of perlite dust exposure may not be detected by spirometric measurements alone, the transfer coefficient should be added to spirometry.

  19. Factors influencing coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii) seasonal survival rates: A spatially continuous approach within stream networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, A.M.; Gresswell, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    Mark-recapture methods were used to examine watershed-scale survival of coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii) from two headwater stream networks. A total of 1725 individuals (???100 mm, fork length) were individually marked and monitored seasonally over a 3-year period. Differences in survival were compared among spatial (stream segment, subwatershed, and watershed) and temporal (season and year) analytical scales, and the effects of abiotic (discharge, temperature, and cover) and biotic (length, growth, condition, density, movement, and relative fish abundance) factors were evaluated. Seasonal survival was consistently lowest and least variable (years combined) during autumn (16 September - 15 December), and evidence suggested that survival was negatively associated with periods of low stream discharge. In addition, relatively low (-) and high (+) water temperatures, fish length (-), and boulder cover (+) were weakly associated with survival. Seasonal abiotic conditions affected the adult cutthroat trout population in these watersheds, and low-discharge periods (e.g., autumn) were annual survival bottlenecks. Results emphasize the importance of watershed-scale processes to the understanding of population-level survival.

  20. The effects of ambient temperature and mixing time of glass ionomer cement material on the survival rate of proximal ART restorations in primary molars

    PubMed Central

    Kemoli, Arthur M

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Temperature fluctuations and material mixing times are likely to affect the consistency and integrity of the material mixture, and hence the restoration made out of it. The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of the ambient temperature and the mixing time of glass ionomer cement (GIC) restorative material on the survival rate of proximal atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations placed in primary molars. Materials and Methods: A total of 804 restorations were placed in the primary molars of 6-8-year-olds using the ART approach. The restorations were then followed for a period of 2 years and evaluated at given intervals. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS computer statistical program, and the results tested and compared using the Chi-square, Kaplan Meier survival analysis and Cox Proportional hazard statistical tests. Results: The cumulative survival rate of the restorations dropped from the initial 94.4% to 30.8% at the end of 2 years. The higher survival rate of the restorations was associated with the experienced operators and assistants when using the rubber dam isolation method. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the survival rate of the restorations when related to the room temperature and the mixing time of the GIC materials used in spite of the variations in the temperature recoded and the methods used in mixing the materials. Conclusion: The ambient temperature and mixing time of GIC did not have a significant effect on the survival of the proximal ART restorations. PMID:24808692

  1. Hydrophobic Surfaces of Spacecraft Components Enhance the Aggregation of Microorganisms and May Lead to Higher Survival Rates on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuerger, A. C.; Kern, R. G.

    2003-01-01

    In order to minimize the forward contamination of Mars, spacecraft are assembled under clean-room conditions that often require several procedures to clean and sterilize components. Surface characteristics of spacecraft materials may contribute to microbial survival by protecting spores from sterilizing agents, including UV irradiation on the surface of Mars. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of surface characteristics of several spacecraft materials on the survival of Bacillus subtilis spores under simulated Martian conditions.

  2. Changes in survival rate of multiple myeloma after the introduction of bortezomib: a single institutional experience over 20 years.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Manabu; Suehara, Yasuhito; Fukumoto, Kota; Takeuchi, Masami; Matsue, Kosei

    2016-01-01

    The data of factors on the changes in survival before and after the introduction of bortezomib in unselected multiple myeloma (MM) patients is scarce in Asian population. We analyzed the clinical features and treatment outcomes of 270 consecutive MM patients admitted to our hospital between January 1995 and August 2014. The patients were divided into two groups, 1995–2005 (n=106) and 2006–2014 (n=164), based on bortezomib availability. There were no differences in baseline characteristics between the groups, except age and percentage of patients receiving autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT). The proportion of patients obtaining ≥very good partial response (VGPR) was higher in the recent cohort, which was translated as better overall survival in both younger and older patients (36.1 vs. 79.8 months, P=0.024, and 40.0 vs. 110.7 months, respectively). Patients receiving bortezomib early after diagnosis showed significantly better survival. However, there was no difference in survival between patients obtaining ≥VGPR in the two groups. On multivariate analysis, age ≥75 and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) >normal were associated with shorter survival, while early bortezomib use and auto-SCT were associated with longer survival. On Cox regression analysis, International Staging System (ISS) stage III, LDH, and treatment response survival. Our observations indicated marked improvement of survival in MM patients diagnosed from 2006 to 2014 mainly due to the availability of bortezomib in Japan.

  3. Linking reproduction and survival can improve model estimates of vital rates derived from limited time-series counts of pinnipeds and other species.

    PubMed

    Battaile, Brian C; Trites, Andrew W

    2013-01-01

    We propose a method to model the physiological link between somatic survival and reproductive output that reduces the number of parameters that need to be estimated by models designed to determine combinations of birth and death rates that produce historic counts of animal populations. We applied our Reproduction and Somatic Survival Linked (RSSL) method to the population counts of three species of North Pacific pinnipeds (harbor seals, Phoca vitulina richardii (Gray, 1864); northern fur seals, Callorhinus ursinus (L., 1758); and Steller sea lions, Eumetopias jubatus (Schreber, 1776))--and found our model outperformed traditional models when fitting vital rates to common types of limited datasets, such as those from counts of pups and adults. However, our model did not perform as well when these basic counts of animals were augmented with additional observations of ratios of juveniles to total non-pups. In this case, the failure of the ratios to improve model performance may indicate that the relationship between survival and reproduction is redefined or disassociated as populations change over time or that the ratio of juveniles to total non-pups is not a meaningful index of vital rates. Overall, our RSSL models show advantages to linking survival and reproduction within models to estimate the vital rates of pinnipeds and other species that have limited time-series of counts. PMID:24324541

  4. Effects of Some Natural Immunomodulatory Compounds in Combination with Thalidomide on Survival Rate and Tumor Size in Fibrosarcoma-Bearing Mice

    PubMed Central

    Aghebati Maleki, Reza; Shanehbandi, Dariush; Sadigh Eteghad, Saeed; Zarredar, Habib; Zare Shahneh, Fatemeh; Aghebati Maleki, Leili; Samavati, Mehrnosh; Asadi, Hamed; Mosavi, Seyed Ehsan; Habibzadeh, Afshin; Mohammadian, Mozhdeh; Baradaran, Behzad

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Despite significant advances have been achieved in cancer therapy, response to conventional treatments like surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy varies among individuals. Immunotherapy is known to be an effective strategy for patients who are resistant to the currently available interventions. Methods: Ninety-six male Balb/c mice (aged 6-8 weeks) were selected and divided into twelve groups of eight. Approximately, 1×106of WEHI-164 cells were injected to each mouse for tumor genesis. Five immunotherapy treatments were considered in this study, including Heat Shock Proteins (HSP), Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), Bifidobacterium, Immuno-Modulator Drug (IMOD) and Thalidomide. After tumor formation, the groups were treated with one or more of these therapies. Tumor size and survival rate was regularly monitored. Results: Depending on the treatment group, tumor sizes were different. In some groups, combined treatments demonstrated more inhibitory effects on tumor growth rate. The mice in group (IMOD+ Thalidomide) had the lowest survival rate but group (BCG+ HSP+ Thalidomide) survived until the end of the experiment. Conclusion: The (HSP+ BCG+ Thalidomide) group exhibited satisfactory outcomes and two third of the mice in this group went into complete remission. Some combination therapies in test groups had significant impacts on survival and tumor growth rate. PMID:25364664

  5. Multifocal tumoral calcinosis in a 4-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Sayar, Ilyas; Peker, Kemal; Kapısız, Alparslan; Bostancı, Isıl Esen; Gürbüzel, Mehmet; Isik, Arda; Peker, Necla Aydın

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Female, 4 Final Diagnosis: Tumoral calcinosis Symptoms: Hard immobile mass Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Surgery Objective: Congenital defects Background: Tumoral calcinosis is an uncommon condition associated with the deposition of painless calcific masses. It is more common in childhood or early adolescence of African-American females. Case Report: We present a case of a 4-year-old girl with tumoral calcinosis treated surgically. The case is rather rare in terms of the age of the patient and the localization of the masses (gluteal site). In our patient, the biochemical findings were normal, except for hyperphosphatemia and elevated alkaline phosphatase. Conclusions: Total excision appears to lead to a good clinical outcome and a low incidence of local relapse. PMID:24644527

  6. Influence of Ketotifen, Cromolyn Sodium, and Compound 48/80 on the survival rates after intestinal ischemia reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zi-qing, Hei; Xiao-liang, Gan; Pin-jie, Huang; Jing, Wei; Ning, Shen; Wan-ling, Gao

    2008-01-01

    Background Mast cells were associated with intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury, the study was to observe the influence of Ketotifen, Cromolyn Sdium(CS), and Compound 48/80(CP) on the survival rates on the third day after intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Methods 120 healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, Sham-operated group (group S), model group (group M), group K, group C and group CP. Intestinal damage was triggered by clamping the superior mesenteric artery for 75 minutes, group K, C, and CP were treated with kotifen 1 mg·kg-1, CS 50 mg·kg-1, and CP 0.75 mg·kg-1 i.v. at 5 min before reperfusion and once daily for three days following reperfusion respectively. Survival rate in each group was recorded during the three days after reperfusion. All the surviving rats were killed for determining the concentration of serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase(AST), glutamic pyruvic transaminase(ALT), the ratio of AST compare ALT(S/L), total protein(TP), albumin(ALB), globulin(GLB), the ratio of ALB compare GLB(A/G), phosphocreatine kinase(CK), lactate dehydrogenase(LDH), urea nitrogen(BUN) and creatinine(CRE) at the 3rd day after reperfusion. And ultrastructure of IMMC, Chiu's score, lung histology, IMMC counts, the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 of the small intestine were detected at the same time. Results Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury reduced the survival rate. The concentrations of TP, ALB and level of IL-10 in intestine in group M decreased significantly while the concentrations of S/L, LDH and the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in intestine increased significantly compared with group S (P < 0.05). Treatment with Ketotifen and CS increased the survival rate compared with group M (P < 0.05), attenuated the down-regulation or up-regulation of the above index (P < 0.05). Treatment with CP decreased the survival rate on the 3rd day after reperfusion compared with group M(P < 0.05). Group K and C had better

  7. Efficacy and safety of continuous 4-year telbivudine treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y; Thongsawat, S; Gane, E J; Liaw, Y-F; Jia, J; Hou, J; Chan, H L Y; Papatheodoridis, G; Wan, M; Niu, J; Bao, W; Trylesinski, A; Naoumov, N V

    2013-01-01

    In the phase-III GLOBE/015 studies, telbivudine demonstrated superior efficacy vs lamivudine during 2-year treatment in HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB). After completion, 847 patients had an option to continue telbivudine treatment for further 2 years. A total of 596 (70%) of telbivudine-treated patients, who were serum HBV DNA positive or negative and without genotypic resistance to telbivudine at the end of the GLOBE/015 trials, were enrolled into a further 2-year extension study. A group of 502 patients completed 4 years of continuous telbivudine treatment and were included in the telbivudine per-protocol population. Amongst 293 HBeAg-positive patients, 76.2% had undetectable serum HBV DNA and 86.0% had normal serum ALT at the end of 4 years. Notably, the cumulative rate of HBeAg seroconversion was 53.2%. Amongst 209 HBeAg-negative patients, 86.4% had undetectable HBV DNA and 89.6% had normal serum ALT. In patients who had discontinued telbivudine treatment due to HBeAg seroconversion, the HBeAg response was durable in 82% of patients (median 111 weeks of off-treatment follow-up). The cumulative 4-year resistance rate was 10.6% for HBeAg-positive and 10.0% for HBeAg-negative patients. Most adverse events were mild or moderate in severity and transient. Renal function measured by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) increased by 14.9 mL/min/1.73 m2 (16.6%) from baseline to 4 years (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, in HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative CHB patients without resistance after 2 years, two additional years of telbivudine treatment continued to provide effective viral suppression with a favourable safety profile. Moreover, telbivudine achieved 53% of HBeAg seroconversion in HBeAg-positive patients. PMID:23490388

  8. Comparative Survival [Rate] Study (CSS) of Hatchery PIT-tagged Chinook; Migration Years 1996-1998 Mark/Recapture Activities, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Berggren, Thomas J.; Basham, Larry R.

    2000-10-01

    The Comparative Survival Rate Study (CSS) is a multi-year program of the fishery agencies and tribes to measure the smolt-to-adult survival rates of hatchery spring and summer chinook at major production hatcheries in the Snake River basin and at selected hatcheries in the lower Columbia River. The CSS also compares the smolt-to-adult survival rates for Snake River basin chinook that were transported versus those that migrated in-river to below Bonneville Dam. Estimates of smolt-to-adult survival rates will be made both from Lower Granite Dam back to Lower Granite Dam (upriver stocks) and from the hatchery back to the hatchery (upriver and downriver stocks). This status report covers the first three migration years, 1996 to 1998, of the study. Study fish were implanted with a PIT (Passive Integrated Transponder) tag which allows unique identification of individual fish. Beginning in 1997, a predetermined proportion of the PIT tagged study fish in the collection/bypass channel at the transportation sites, such as Lower Granite and Little Goose dams, was purposely routed to the raceways for transportation and the rest was routed back to the river. Two categories of in-river migrating fish are used in this study. The in-river group most representative of the non-tagged fish are fish that migrate past Lower Granite, Little Goose, and Lower Monumental dams undetected in the bypass systems. This is because all non-tagged fish collected at these three dams are currently being transported. The other in-river group contains those fish remaining in-river below Lower Monumental Dam that had previously been detected at one or more dams. The number of fish starting at Lower Granite dam that are destined to one of these two in-river groups must be estimated. The Jolly-Seber capture-recapture methodology was used for that purpose. Adult (including jacks) study fish returning to the hatcheries in the Snake River basin were sampled at the Lower Granite Dam adult trap. There the PIT

  9. Does the use of vaginal-implant transmitters affect neonate survival rate of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, C.C.; Jenks, J.A.; DePerno, C.S.; Klaver, R.W.; Osborn, R.G.; Tardiff, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    We compared survival of neonate white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus captured using vaginal-implant transmitters (VITs) and traditional ground searches to determine if capture method affects neonate survival. During winter 2003, 14 adult female radio-collared deer were fitted with VITs to aid in the spring capture of neonates; neonates were captured using VITs (N = 14) and traditional ground searches (N = 7). Of the VITs, seven (50%) resulted in the location of birth sites and the capture of 14 neonates. However, seven (50%) VITs were prematurely expelled prior to parturition. Predation accounted for seven neonate mortalities, and of these, five were neonates captured using VITs. During summer 2003, survival for neonates captured using VITs one. two, and three months post capture was 0.76 (SE = 0.05; N = 14). 0.64 (SE = 0.07; N = 11) and 0.64 (SE = 0.08; N = 9), respectively. Neonate survival one, two and three months post capture for neonates captured using ground searches was 0.71 (SE = 0.11 N = 7), 0.71 (SE = 0.15; N = 5) and 0.71 (SE = 0.15; N = 5), respectively. Although 71% of neonates that died were captured <24 hours after birth using VITs, survival did not differ between capture methods. Therefore, use of VITs to capture neonate white-tailed deer did not influence neonate survival. VITs enabled us to capture neonates in dense habitats which would have been difficult to locate using traditional ground searches. ?? Wildlife Biology (2008).

  10. Clinical evaluation of osseointegrated implants in Tokyo Dental College Hospital (third report): long-term observation of functioning survival rate of fixtures.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Yuko; Arataki, Tomohiko; Nomura, Takao; Suzuki, Hiroki; Atsuta, Syunichi; Hotta, Hiromi; Shimamura, Ichiro; Adachi, Yasushi; Kishi, Masataka

    2003-08-01

    The objective of this report was to review 365 cases of Brånemark Implant Bridge including 1,444 fixtures in patients of Tokyo Dental College Chiba Hospital. The term of implantation was divided into several phases; less than 1 year, from 1 year to 3 years, from 3 years to 5 years, from 5 years to 7 years, from 7 years to 10 years, more than 10 years, and the survival rate was calculated for each phase. The removal rate of fixture after connecting the superstructure was 13% in maxillary cases and 2% in mandibular cases. The functioning survival rate in maxillary cases slightly decreased from 91% in less than 1 year to 87% after more than 10 years; however, the functioning survival rate in mandibular cases was about 99% in all periods. The removal rate of fixtures per patient was 23% in maxillary cases and 6% in mandibular ones. The average removal number of fixtures was 1.8 in maxillary cases and 1.2 in mandibular ones. The removal of the fixture occurred most frequently at less than 1 year in maxillary cases, but there was no tendency for a pattern of removal of fixture in mandibular cases.

  11. Prognostic factors of 28 days survival rate in patients with a first acute myocardial infarction based on gender in Isfahan, Iran (2000-2009)

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadian, Mahdi; Hosseini, Shidokht; Salehiniya, Hamid; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Roohafza, Hamid Reza; Khazaei, Salman; Soltani, Shahin; Sarrafkia, Ali; Golshahi, Jafar; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Determinant prognostic factors of 28 days survival rate in patients with a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI) based on gender in teen year’s period in Isfahan, Iran, was the aim of this study. METHODS This study is a prospective hospital-based study that consisted, all patients with AMI admitted to all hospitals (private and universal hospitals) in Isfahan and Najafabad (Iran) during 2000-2009. To determinant the prognostic factors of 28 days survival rate in patients based on gender, analysis conducted separately for male and female. In analysis, we use of t-test, log Rank tests, Kaplan-Meier method, and univariate and multivariate Cox regression model. RESULTS Short-term (28 days) survival rate was 92.5% in male and 86.7% in female (P < 0.001). The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of death for age group 80 years and older was 12.7 [95% confidence interval (CI): 5.14-31.3] in male and 8.78 (95% CI: 1.2-63.1) in female. HR for acute transmural MI of the unspecified site in male was 8.9 (95% CI: 4.68-16.97) and in female 9.33 (95% CI: 4.42-19.7). HR for receive of streptokinase in male was 1.11 (95% CI: 0.94-1.31) and in female was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.56-0.84). CONCLUSION Short-term survival rate in male was a higher than female. In male age, anatomic location of MI and hospital status and in female streptokinase use and anatomic location of MI was the most important prognostic factors of survival in-patient with AMI in Isfahan. PMID:26862341

  12. Repeated freeze-thaw cycles reduce the survival rate of osteocytes in bone-tendon constructs without affecting the mechanical properties of tendons.

    PubMed

    Suto, Kaori; Urabe, Ken; Naruse, Kouji; Uchida, Kentaro; Matsuura, Terumasa; Mikuni-Takagaki, Yuko; Suto, Mitsutoshi; Nemoto, Noriko; Kamiya, Kentaro; Itoman, Moritoshi

    2012-03-01

    Frozen bone-patellar tendon bone allografts are useful in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction as the freezing procedure kills tissue cells, thereby reducing immunogenicity of the grafts. However, a small portion of cells in human femoral heads treated by standard bone-bank freezing procedures survive, thus limiting the effectiveness of allografts. Here, we characterized the survival rates and mechanisms of cells isolated from rat bones and tendons that were subjected to freeze-thaw treatments, and evaluated the influence of these treatments on the mechanical properties of tendons. After a single freeze-thaw cycle, most cells isolated from frozen bone appeared morphologically as osteocytes and expressed both osteoblast- and osteocyte-related genes. Transmission electron microscopic observation of frozen cells using freeze-substitution revealed that a small number of osteocytes maintained large nuclei with intact double membranes, indicating that these osteocytes in bone matrix were resistant to ice crystal formation. We found that tendon cells were completely killed by a single freeze-thaw cycle, whereas bone cells exhibited a relatively high survival rate, although survival was significantly reduced after three freeze-thaw cycles. In patella tendons, the ultimate stress, Young's modulus, and strain at failure showed no significant differences between untreated tendons and those subjected to five freeze-thaw cycles. In conclusion, we identified that cells surviving after freeze-thaw treatment of rat bones were predominantly osteocytes. We propose that repeated freeze-thaw cycles could be applied for processing bone-tendon constructs prior to grafting as the treatment did not affect the mechanical property of tendons and drastically reduced surviving osteocytes, thereby potentially decreasing allograft immunogenecity.

  13. Lowering GTP level increases survival of amino acid starvation but slows growth rate for Bacillus subtilis cells lacking (p)ppGpp.

    PubMed

    Bittner, Alycia N; Kriel, Allison; Wang, Jue D

    2014-06-01

    Bacterial cells sense external nutrient availability to regulate macromolecular synthesis and consequently their growth. In the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis, the starvation-inducible nucleotide (p)ppGpp negatively regulates GTP levels, both to resist nutritional stress and to maintain GTP homeostasis during growth. Here, we quantitatively investigated the relationship between GTP level, survival of amino acid starvation, and growth rate when GTP synthesis is uncoupled from its major homeostatic regulator, (p)ppGpp. We analyzed growth and nucleotide levels in cells that lack (p)ppGpp and found that their survival of treatment with a nonfunctional amino acid analog negatively correlates with both growth rate and GTP level. Manipulation of GTP levels modulates the exponential growth rate of these cells in a positive dose-dependent manner, such that increasing the GTP level increases growth rate. However, accumulation of GTP levels above a threshold inhibits growth, suggesting a toxic effect. Strikingly, adenine counteracts GTP stress by preventing GTP accumulation in cells lacking (p)ppGpp. Our results emphasize the importance of maintaining appropriate levels of GTP to maximize growth: cells can survive amino acid starvation by decreasing GTP level, which comes at a cost to growth, while (p)ppGpp enables rapid adjustment to nutritional stress by adjusting GTP level, thus maximizing fitness.

  14. The effectiveness of alcohol policies in 4-year public universities.

    PubMed

    Walter, Gayle; Kowalczyk, John

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the type of alcohol policy in place in 4-year public universities against the odds of heavy drinking. Data was collected during the months of April-June 2010 using the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey. The participants included a random sample of undergraduate students from 4 public universities in the Midwest. Two of the universities had policies in place allowing the sale and use of alcohol on campus, and 2 universities had policies in place prohibiting the sale and use of alcohol. There were a total of 186 participants which included 63 males and 123 females. There was statistical significance in gender, age, and participation in sports against the odds of heavy drinking (P < .05). The type of policy in place was not significantly associated with the odds of heavy drinking. Even though there was an association between gender, age, and participation in sports with the odds of heavy drinking among college students in this sample, the type of alcohol policy (wet or dry) had no association. The results demonstrate the need for the implementation of alcohol prevention strategies, in addition to policy, to reduce the number of college students who drink heavily. It may be beneficial to target those alcohol intervention programs to the high risk groups such as males, over the age of 21, and those students who participate in sports.

  15. Nasopharyngeal cancer: a review of 1605 patients treated radically with cobalt 60. [5- and 10-year survival rates and complications of radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S.C.

    1980-04-01

    A retrospective study was performed on 1605 patients with histologically proven and radically treated nasopharyngeal carcinoma. All were followed for a minimum of five years; 833 patients had a minimum follow-up period of ten years. Treatment results were reviewed according to: (1) size of primary tumor; (2) base of skull invasion; (3) cranial nerve involvement; (4) cervical node metastases; and (5) distant spread. An appropriate staging system was developed that reflected these prognostic factors. The evidence presented indicates that in this series of patients, base of skull involvement was less ominous than cranial nerve involvement. Unilteral lymph node involvement carried a better prognosis than bilateral neck nodes, this was the poorest sign of all since it predicted distant metastases. The average 5-year survival rate for 1605 patients in all stages, was 529/1605(32.1%); the 10-year survival rate for 833 patients in all stages was 20.2%.

  16. Robust estimates of environmental effects on population vital rates: an integrated capture-recapture model of seasonal brook trout growth, survival and movement in a stream network.

    PubMed

    Letcher, Benjamin H; Schueller, Paul; Bassar, Ronald D; Nislow, Keith H; Coombs, Jason A; Sakrejda, Krzysztof; Morrissey, Michael; Sigourney, Douglas B; Whiteley, Andrew R; O'Donnell, Matthew J; Dubreuil, Todd L

    2015-03-01

    Modelling the effects of environmental change on populations is a key challenge for ecologists, particularly as the pace of change increases. Currently, modelling efforts are limited by difficulties in establishing robust relationships between environmental drivers and population responses. We developed an integrated capture-recapture state-space model to estimate the effects of two key environmental drivers (stream flow and temperature) on demographic rates (body growth, movement and survival) using a long-term (11 years), high-resolution (individually tagged, sampled seasonally) data set of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) from four sites in a stream network. Our integrated model provides an effective context within which to estimate environmental driver effects because it takes full advantage of data by estimating (latent) state values for missing observations, because it propagates uncertainty among model components and because it accounts for the major demographic rates and interactions that contribute to annual survival. We found that stream flow and temperature had strong effects on brook trout demography. Some effects, such as reduction in survival associated with low stream flow and high temperature during the summer season, were consistent across sites and age classes, suggesting that they may serve as robust indicators of vulnerability to environmental change. Other survival effects varied across ages, sites and seasons, indicating that flow and temperature may not be the primary drivers of survival in those cases. Flow and temperature also affected body growth rates; these responses were consistent across sites but differed dramatically between age classes and seasons. Finally, we found that tributary and mainstem sites responded differently to variation in flow and temperature. Annual survival (combination of survival and body growth across seasons) was insensitive to body growth and was most sensitive to flow (positive) and temperature (negative

  17. Estimating movement and survival rates of a small saltwater fish using autonomous antenna receiver arrays and passive integrated transponder tags

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rudershausen, Paul J.; Buckel, Jeffery A.; Dubreuil, Todd; O'Donnell, Matthew J.; Hightower, Joseph E.; Poland, Steven J.; Letcher, Benjamin H.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of small (12.5 mm long) passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and custom detection antennas for obtaining fine-scale movement and demographic data of mummichog Fundulus heteroclitus in a salt marsh creek. Apparent survival and detection probability were estimated using a Cormack Jolly Seber (CJS) model fitted to detection data collected by an array of 3 vertical antennas from November 2010 to March 2011 and by a single horizontal antenna from April to August 2011. Movement of mummichogs was monitored during the period when the array of vertical antennas was used. Antenna performance was examined in situ using tags placed in wooden dowels (drones) and in live mummichogs. Of the 44 tagged fish, 42 were resighted over the 9 mo monitoring period. The in situ detection probabilities of the drone and live mummichogs were high (~80-100%) when the ambient water depth was less than ~0.8 m. Upstream and downstream movement of mummichogs was related to hourly water depth and direction of tidal current in a way that maximized time periods over which mummichogs utilized the intertidal vegetated marsh. Apparent survival was lower during periods of colder water temperatures in December 2010 and early January 2011 (median estimate of daily apparent survival = 0.979) than during other periods of the study (median estimate of daily apparent survival = 0.992). During late fall and winter, temperature had a positive effect on the CJS detection probability of a tagged mummichog, likely due to greater fish activity over warmer periods. During the spring and summer, this pattern reversed possibly due to mummichogs having reduced activity during the hottest periods. This study demonstrates the utility of PIT tags and continuously operating autonomous detection systems for tracking fish at fine temporal scales, and improving estimates of demographic parameters in salt marsh creeks that are difficult or impractical to sample with active fishing gear.

  18. Genotypic variation in spike fertility traits and ovary size as determinants of floret and grain survival rate in wheat.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zifeng; Slafer, Gustavo A; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2016-07-01

    Spike fertility traits are critical attributes for grain yield in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Here, we examine the genotypic variation in three important traits: maximum number of floret primordia, number of fertile florets, and number of grains. We determine their relationship in determining spike fertility in 30 genotypes grown under two contrasting conditions: field and greenhouse. The maximum number of floret primordia per spikelet (MFS), fertile florets per spikelet (FFS), and number of grains per spikelet (GS) not only exhibited large genotypic variation in both growth conditions and across all spikelet positions studied, but also displayed moderate levels of heritability. FFS was closely associated with floret survival and only weakly related to MFS. We also found that the post-anthesis process of grain set/abortion was important in determining genotypic variation in GS; an increase in GS was mainly associated with improved grain survival. Ovary size at anthesis was associated with both floret survival (pre-anthesis) and grain survival (post-anthesis), and was thus believed to 'connect' the two traits. In this work, proximal florets (i.e. the first three florets from the base of a spikelet: F1, F2, and F3) produced fertile florets and set grains in most cases. The ovary size of more distal florets (F4 and beyond) seemed to act as a decisive factor for grain setting and effectively reflected pre-anthesis floret development. In both growth conditions, GS positively correlated with ovary size of florets in the distal position (F4), suggesting that assimilates allocated to distal florets may play a critical role in regulating grain set. PMID:27279276

  19. Impact of competitor species composition on predicting diameter growth and survival rates of Douglas-fir trees in southwestern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bravo, Felipe; Hann, D.W.; Maguire, Douglas A.

    2001-01-01

    Mixed conifer and hardwood stands in southwestern Oregon were studied to explore the hypothesis that competition effects on individual-tree growth and survival will differ according to the species comprising the competition measure. Likewise, it was hypothesized that competition measures should extrapolate best if crown-based surrogates are given preference over diameter-based (basal area based) surrogates. Diameter growth and probability of survival were modeled for individual Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees growing in pure stands. Alternative models expressing one-sided and two-sided competition as a function of either basal area or crown structure were then applied to other plots in which Douglas-fir was mixed with other conifers and (or) hardwood species. Crown-based variables outperformed basal area based variables as surrogates for one-sided competition in both diameter growth and survival probability, regardless of species composition. In contrast, two-sided competition was best represented by total basal area of competing trees. Surrogates reflecting differences in crown morphology among species relate more closely to the mechanics of competition for light and, hence, facilitate extrapolation to species combinations for which no observations are available.

  20. A flexible cure rate model for spatially correlated survival data based on generalized extreme value distribution and Gaussian process priors.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Wang, Xia; Dey, Dipak K

    2016-09-01

    Our present work proposes a new survival model in a Bayesian context to analyze right-censored survival data for populations with a surviving fraction, assuming that the log failure time follows a generalized extreme value distribution. Many applications require a more flexible modeling of covariate information than a simple linear or parametric form for all covariate effects. It is also necessary to include the spatial variation in the model, since it is sometimes unexplained by the covariates considered in the analysis. Therefore, the nonlinear covariate effects and the spatial effects are incorporated into the systematic component of our model. Gaussian processes (GPs) provide a natural framework for modeling potentially nonlinear relationship and have recently become extremely powerful in nonlinear regression. Our proposed model adopts a semiparametric Bayesian approach by imposing a GP prior on the nonlinear structure of continuous covariate. With the consideration of data availability and computational complexity, the conditionally autoregressive distribution is placed on the region-specific frailties to handle spatial correlation. The flexibility and gains of our proposed model are illustrated through analyses of simulated data examples as well as a dataset involving a colon cancer clinical trial from the state of Iowa. PMID:27225466

  1. A flexible cure rate model for spatially correlated survival data based on generalized extreme value distribution and Gaussian process priors.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Wang, Xia; Dey, Dipak K

    2016-09-01

    Our present work proposes a new survival model in a Bayesian context to analyze right-censored survival data for populations with a surviving fraction, assuming that the log failure time follows a generalized extreme value distribution. Many applications require a more flexible modeling of covariate information than a simple linear or parametric form for all covariate effects. It is also necessary to include the spatial variation in the model, since it is sometimes unexplained by the covariates considered in the analysis. Therefore, the nonlinear covariate effects and the spatial effects are incorporated into the systematic component of our model. Gaussian processes (GPs) provide a natural framework for modeling potentially nonlinear relationship and have recently become extremely powerful in nonlinear regression. Our proposed model adopts a semiparametric Bayesian approach by imposing a GP prior on the nonlinear structure of continuous covariate. With the consideration of data availability and computational complexity, the conditionally autoregressive distribution is placed on the region-specific frailties to handle spatial correlation. The flexibility and gains of our proposed model are illustrated through analyses of simulated data examples as well as a dataset involving a colon cancer clinical trial from the state of Iowa.

  2. Increased interleukin-10 associated with low IL-6 concentration correlated with greater survival rates in mice infected by rabies virus vaccinated against it and immunomodulated with P. acnes.

    PubMed

    Megid, J; Kaneno, R; Nozaki, C N; Brito, C J C; Almeida, M F

    2004-11-01

    Macrophage activity, cytokines serum concentration, serum neutralizing antibodies and lethality by rabies were evaluated in swiss mice experimentally infected with street rabies virus and submitted or not to antirabies vaccination and immunomodulation with P. acnes. Animals were killed at different times and serum was collected in order to evaluate cytokines concentration; peritonial and splenic macrophages were collected for macrophage activity evaluation. Greater survival rates higher IL-10 and low IL-6 serum concentration were observed in vaccinated animals treated using P. acnes.

  3. Dynamics of hand preference in 4 year-old children.

    PubMed

    Rostoft, M S; Sigmundsson, H; Whiting, H T A; Ingvaldsen, R P

    2002-04-15

    Hand preference in groups of 4 year-old children towards either end of the skill continuum (as determined by the Movement ABC test) was explored by means of a catching task in which the 'direction of approach of the ball' was used as a control parameter within a dynamical systems framework. In Condition 1, the ball direction was systematically scaled in degrees from the right side of the subject to the left and vice versa. In Condition 2, the spatial location of the ball direction was varied randomly, rather than systematically, over the same range as for Condition 1. In both conditions, the two groups of children were shown to switch between hands (from left to right and vice versa) at well-defined positions on the scale. The different scale values obtained when ball direction was scaled from left to right compared with right to left were used to define hysteresis areas. These areas were more extensive and located more to the left of the midline for the group towards the less skilled end of the continuum than for those towards the more skilled end. Additionally, the less-skilled children were shown to use the right hand more to catch the balls delivered to the left side than did the more skilled children. In Condition 3, objects were placed on the table of the ball-delivery apparatus in order to make the catching action more complicated. The less skilled group were shown to use the right hand more than the left hand in all catching positions whereas the more skilled group showed an equal usage of both catching regimes.

  4. The effects of different routes of inulin administration on gut microbiota and survival rate of Indian white shrimp post-larvae (Fenneropenaeus indicus)

    PubMed Central

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Zare, Parviz; Kolangi Miandare, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects of different routes of inulin administration as prebiotic on gut microbiota and survival rate of Indian white shrimp post-larvae. Four hundred and fifty Indian white shrimp post-larvae (PL1) were stocked in nine tanks. The tanks were assigned into three treatments: feeding with inulin-treated (110 mg L-1) Artemia nauplii (I-T), feeding with inulin-enriched (110 mg L-1) Artemia nauplii (I-E) and control which repeated triplicates. Feeding trial was performed until PL11 stage and then gut microbiota was studied using culture based method. Also, survival rate was calculated at the end of feeding trial. Our results showed that feeding on inulin enriched or treated Artemia nauplii had no significant effect on total viable culturable autochthonous bacteria and Vibrio spp. levels of the gut microbiota (p > 0.05). However, a remarkable increase of lactic acid bacteria levels (LAB) was observed in I-E treatment (p < 0.05). Administration of inulin enriched Artemia nauplii significantly elevated survival rates of Indian white shrimp post-larvae (p < 0.05). These results encourage administration of prebiotic-enriched Artemia nauplii in post larval stage of Indian white shrimp but determination the mode of action of prebiotic on various aspects of shrimp larviculture merit further research. PMID:26973770

  5. The effects of different routes of inulin administration on gut microbiota and survival rate of Indian white shrimp post-larvae (Fenneropenaeus indicus).

    PubMed

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Zare, Parviz; Kolangi Miandare, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects of different routes of inulin administration as prebiotic on gut microbiota and survival rate of Indian white shrimp post-larvae. Four hundred and fifty Indian white shrimp post-larvae (PL1) were stocked in nine tanks. The tanks were assigned into three treatments: feeding with inulin-treated (110 mg L(-1)) Artemia nauplii (I-T), feeding with inulin-enriched (110 mg L(-1)) Artemia nauplii (I-E) and control which repeated triplicates. Feeding trial was performed until PL11 stage and then gut microbiota was studied using culture based method. Also, survival rate was calculated at the end of feeding trial. Our results showed that feeding on inulin enriched or treated Artemia nauplii had no significant effect on total viable culturable autochthonous bacteria and Vibrio spp. levels of the gut microbiota (p > 0.05). However, a remarkable increase of lactic acid bacteria levels (LAB) was observed in I-E treatment (p < 0.05). Administration of inulin enriched Artemia nauplii significantly elevated survival rates of Indian white shrimp post-larvae (p < 0.05). These results encourage administration of prebiotic-enriched Artemia nauplii in post larval stage of Indian white shrimp but determination the mode of action of prebiotic on various aspects of shrimp larviculture merit further research. PMID:26973770

  6. Retrospective Study of Adjuvant Chemotherapy Effects on Survival Rate after Three-Field Lymph Node Dissection for Stage IIA Esophageal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hua-Xia; Wang, Zhou

    2015-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel plus cisplatin (Taxol+DDP, TP therapy) for stage IIA esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and to investigate the expression of RUNX3 in lymph node metastasis-negative esophageal cancer and its relationship with medical prognosis, a retrospective summary of clinical treatment of 143 cases of stage IIA esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients was made. The patients were divided into two groups, a surgery alone control group (52 patients) and a chemotherapy group that received postoperative TP therapy (91 patients). The disease-free and 5 year survival rates were compared between the groups and a multivariate analysis of prognostic factors was performed. The same analysis was performed for cases classified as RUNX3 positive and negative, with post-operative specimens assessed by immunohistochemistry. Although the disease-free and 5 year survival rates in control and chemotherapy groups did not significantly differ and there was no significance in RUNX3 negative cases, postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in the chemotherapy group was shown to improve disease-free and 5 year survival rate compared to the control group in RUNX3 positive cases. On Cox regression multivariate analysis, postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy (P<0.01) was an independent prognostic factor for RUNX3 positive cases, suggesting that postoperative TP may be effective as adjuvant chemotherapy for stage IIA esophageal cancer patients with RUNX3 positive lesions. PMID:26225648

  7. Self-rated health in the last 12 years of life compared to matched surviving controls: the Health and Retirement Study.

    PubMed

    Stenholm, Sari; Pentti, Jaana; Kawachi, Ichiro; Westerlund, Hugo; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2014-01-01

    Self-rated health (SRH) is a valid measure of health status and associated with mortality. Based on individual-level biannual repeat data on SRH we sought to characterize the natural history of poor SRH during the 12 years prior to death in men and women in different age groups. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the Health and Retirement Study participants who died between 1998 and 2010 and had at least two SRH measurements in the 12 years prior to death. We used a nested case-control design to compare SRH trajectories of deceased men and women aged 30-64, 65-79 and 80 years versus surviving participants. The cases comprised 3,350 deceased participants who were matched to surviving controls (n = 8,127). SRH was dichotomized into good vs. poor health. Men and women dying at age 65-79 and ≥ 80 years had 1.5 to 3 times higher prevalence of poor SRH already 11-12 years prior to death compared to surviving controls. The risk estimates remained statistically significant even after adjusting for life-style related risk factors and diagnosed diseases. Prevalence of poor SRH before death was lowest among those aged ≥ 80 years and highest in 30-64 year-olds. In conclusion, men and women who subsequently die perceive their health worse already 11-12 years prior to death compared to their surviving controls.

  8. Comparison of migration rate and survival between radio-tagged and PIT-tagged migrant yearling chinook salmon in the Snake and Columbia rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hockersmith, E.E.; Muir, W.D.; Smith, S.G.; Sandford, B.P.; Perry, R.W.; Adams, N.S.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare the travel times, detection probabilities, and survival of migrant hatchery-reared yearling chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha tagged with either gastrically or surgically implanted sham radio tags (with an imbedded passive integrated transponder [PIT] tag) with those of their cohorts tagged only with PIT tags in the Snake and Columbia rivers. Juvenile chinook salmon with gastrically implanted radio tags migrated significantly faster than either surgically radio-tagged or PIT-tagged fish, while migration rates were similar among surgically radio-tagged and PIT-tagged fish. The probabilities of PIT tag detection at downstream dams varied by less than 5% and were not significantly different among the three groups. Survival was similar among treatments for median travel times of less than approximately 6 d (migration distance of 106 km). However, for both gastrically and surgically radio-tagged fish, survival was significantly less than for PIT-tagged fish, for which median travel times exceeded approximately 10 d (migration distance of 225 km). The results of this study support the use of radio tags to estimate the survival of juvenile chinook salmon having a median fork length of approximately 150 mm (range, 127-285 mm) and a median travel time of migration of less than approximately 6 d.

  9. Prognostic heterogeneity of diastolic abnormalities along left ventricular remodeling continuum according to survival rates and laser polarimetry of blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boychuk, T. M.; Ivashchuk, O. I.; Kolomoiets, M. Y.; Mikhaliev, K. O.; Chursina, T. Y.

    2011-09-01

    The results of examination of 35 arterial hypertension and coronary heart disease patients are presented. The clinical, paraclinical and echocardiographic examinations were performed, and the parameters of prognosis (survival) according to Seattle Heart Failure Model, as well as the optical (polarimetric) properties of erythrocytic suspension were determined. The group of patients under examination was stratified by patterns of remodeling of left ventricle (LV). It was determined that increasing of anisotropy of erythrocytic suspension along LV remodeling patterns continuum correlates with aggravation of structural and functional state of LV and is associated with unfavorable prognosis.

  10. Prognostic heterogeneity of diastolic abnormalities along left ventricular remodeling continuum according to survival rates and laser polarimetry of blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boychuk, T. M.; Ivashchuk, O. I.; Kolomoiets, M. Y.; Mikhaliev, K. O.; Chursina, T. Y.

    2012-01-01

    The results of examination of 35 arterial hypertension and coronary heart disease patients are presented. The clinical, paraclinical and echocardiographic examinations were performed, and the parameters of prognosis (survival) according to Seattle Heart Failure Model, as well as the optical (polarimetric) properties of erythrocytic suspension were determined. The group of patients under examination was stratified by patterns of remodeling of left ventricle (LV). It was determined that increasing of anisotropy of erythrocytic suspension along LV remodeling patterns continuum correlates with aggravation of structural and functional state of LV and is associated with unfavorable prognosis.

  11. Adoptive and Nonadoptive Mother–Child Behavioral Interaction: A Comparative Study at 4 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Padilla, Christina M.; Yuen, Cynthia X.; Horn, E. Parham; Bradley, Alexandra L.; Putnick, Diane L.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2016-01-01

    Comparable samples of low-risk adopted and nonadopted children and mothers were observed during 3 tasks at age 4 years. Quality of mother-child interactions, child level of functioning in 4 domains, and maternal parenting satisfaction and social support were assessed. Adopted children were as competent as nonadopted children on measures of developmental functioning. Both groups of mothers expressed high satisfaction and support as parents. However, ratings of child, maternal, and dyadic behavior when interacting were all lower for adoptive dyads than for nonadoptive dyads, and adoptive dyads with boys accounted for the maternal and dyadic group differences. PMID:27134518

  12. Comparative Survival Rate Study (CSS) of Hatchery PIT-tagged Chinook; Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Jonasson, Brian

    2004-02-01

    We PIT-tagged juvenile spring chinook salmon reared at Lookingglass Hatchery in October 2002 as part of the Comparative Survival Rate Study (CSS) for migratory year (MY) 2003. We tagged 20,950 Imnaha stock spring chinook salmon, and after mortality and tag loss, we allowed the remaining 20,904 fish to leave the acclimation pond at our Imnaha River satellite facility beginning 1 April 2003 to begin their seaward migration. The fish remaining in the pond were forced out on 15 April 2003. We tagged 20,820 Catherine Creek stock captive and conventional brood progeny spring chinook salmon, and after mortality and tag loss, we allowed the remaining 20,628 fish to leave the acclimation ponds at our Catherine Creek satellite facility beginning during two acclimation periods. The volitional release for the early acclimation group began 12 March 2003, and all remaining fish were forced out of the ponds on 23 March 2003. The volitional release for the late acclimation group began 31 March 2003, and all remaining fish were forced out of the ponds on 14 April 2003. We estimated survival rates, from release to Lower Granite Dam in MY 2003, for three stocks of hatchery spring chinook salmon tagged at Lookingglass Hatchery to determine their relative migration performance. Survival rates for the Imnaha River, Lostine River, and Catherine Creek stocks were 0.714, 0.557, and 0.350, respectively. We PIT-tagged 20,944 BY 2002 Imnaha River stock and 20,980 BY 2002 Catherine Creek stock captive and conventional brood progeny in October and November 2003 as part of the CSS for MY 2004. From tagging to January 28, 2004, the rates of mortality and tag loss for Imnaha River stock were 0.16% and 0.04%, respectively. Catherine Creek stock, during the same period, had rates of mortality and tag loss of 0.19% and 0.06%, respectively.

  13. Contributions of unfrozen fraction and of salt concentration to the survival of slowly frozen human erythrocytes: influence of warming rate

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, P.; Rigopoulos, N.

    1983-01-01

    The general belief is that slow freezing injury is either the result of exposure to high salt concentrations or the result of excessive cell shrinkage. Ordinarily, salt concentration and the amount of liquid in the unfrozen channels are reciprocally related; but they can be separated within limits by varying the total concentration of solutes in the suspending medium while holding the mass ratio of additive to salt constant, and by then slowly freezing samples to various subzero temperatures. The authors have recently reported that when human red cells are frozen under these conditions and thawed rapidly, survival is more dependent on the unfrozen water fraction than it is on the salt concentration in that fraction. The present work compares these results with those obtained with slow thawing. While the general conclusion remains unaltered, slowly thawed cells were able to survive the freezing of a higher fraction of extracellular water than were rapidly thawed cells. Calculations were made of the changes in cell volume during the equilibration with glycerol and the subsequent freezing involved in these experiments.

  14. Effects of environmental pH and temperature on embryonic survival capacity and metabolic rates in the smallmouth salamander, Ambystoma texanum

    SciTech Connect

    Punzo, F.

    1983-10-01

    Although the deleterious effects of acid precipitation on forest ecosystems and fisheries have been documented, relatively little information is available on the effects of environmental pH in combination with temperature on the survival capacity and/or physiology of amphibians. Increased acidity resulting from acid precipitation common to the northwestern United States, can lead to increased mortality in the spotted salamander, Ambystoma maculatum. In view of the potentially significant deleterious effects of stressful pH conditions on amphibian survivorship and the relative paucity of data on this subject, the present study was conducted in order to ascertain the combined effects of temperature and pH on embryonic metabolic rates and survival capacity in the smallmouth salamander, Ambystoma texanum Mathes. No previous data on these parameters are available for this species.

  15. Effects of High-Flow Experiments from Glen Canyon Dam on Abundance, Growth, and Survival Rates of Early Life Stages of Rainbow Trout in the Lees Ferry Reach of the Colorado River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korman, Josh; Kaplinski, Matthew; Melis, Theodore S.

    2010-01-01

    abundance was eightfold greater in 2008. We speculate that the 60-hour-long 2008 HFE (with peak magnitude about twice that of the annual peak flow during the previous 4 years) increased interstitial spaces in the gravel bed substrate and food availability or quality, leading to higher early survival of recently emerged trout and better growth of these fish through summer and fall. Abundance in 2009 was more than twofold higher than expected, given the estimated number of viable eggs deposited in that year, perhaps indicating that the effect of the 2008 HFE on early life stages was somewhat persistent. In a 3-week interval that spanned the November 2004 HFE, abundance of age-0 trout that were approximately 7 months old from hatch experienced about a threefold decline, compared to the approximately twofold decrease observed between November and December 2008. Abundance of age-0 trout that were approximately 10 months old from hatch was very similar across sampling trips that spanned the March 2008 HFE. It is uncertain whether the decline in abundance after the November 2004 HFE was the result of higher flow-induced mortality or higher flow-induced downstream dispersal. A focused monitoring effort in Marble Canyon (the reach immediately downstream of the Lees Ferry tailwater) before and after future HFEs is recommended to resolve this uncertainty. Relatively detailed monitoring of early life stages-such as the program described in this study-is essential to establish linkages between Glen Canyon Dam operations, or possibly other factors, and trends in the abundance of important nonnative and native fish populations living downstream within Grand Canyon National Park.

  16. Screening for developmental delay among children aged 1-4 years: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Rachel; Kenny, Meghan; Bennett, Teresa; Fitzpatrick-Lewis, Donna; Ali, Muhammad Usman; Sherifali, Diana; Raina, Parminder

    2016-01-01

    Background: Existing guidelines on screening children less than 5 years of age for developmental delay vary. In this systematic review, we synthesized the literature on the effectiveness and harms of screening for developmental delay in asymptomatic children aged 1-4 years. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Embase and PsychINFO for relevant articles published to June 16, 2015. We identified studies that included children aged 1-4 years who were not at high risk of developmental delay, screened in a primary care setting. Randomized trials and controlled cohort studies were considered for benefits (cognitive, academic and functional outcomes); no restrictions on study design were imposed for the review of harms. Results: Two studies were included. One used the Ages and Stages Questionnaire II for screening and reported significantly more referrals to early intervention in the intervention groups than in the control group (relative risk [RR] 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49-2.54, in the intervention group with office support and RR 1.71, 95% CI 1.30-2.25, in the intervention group without office support). The time to referral was 70% shorter in the intervention group with office support (rate ratio 0.30, 95% CI 0.19-0.48) and 64% shorter in the intervention group without office support (rate ratio 0.36, 95% CI 0.23-0.59), compared with the control group. The other study used the VroegTijdige Onderkenning Ontwikkelingsstoornissen Language Screening instrument to screen children aged 15 months at enrolment for language delay. It reported no differences between groups in academic performance outcomes at age 8 years. Interpretation: The evidence on screening for developmental delay in asymptomatic children aged 1-4 years is inconclusive. Further research with longer-term outcomes is needed to inform decisions about screening and screening intervals. PMID:27226967

  17. [Establishment of full-sib families of Branchiostoma japonicum and the relationship between early development patterns and larvae survival rates].

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Ye; Wang, Yi-Quan

    2013-10-01

    One general requirement of individual laboratory animals is that they have known genetic backgrounds. However, ensuring such genetic similarity is difficult, and can be facilitated by breeding a full strain for experimentation. To this end, the authors bred 34 full-sib families of amphioxus larvae/embryos. Due to the high mortality of the embryos and larvae, only seven full-sib families of juvenile amphioxus Branchiostoma japonicum were obtained. Among them, the highest and lowest survival ratios were 32.4% and 1.67%, respectively, whereas the shortest metamorphosis and longest larva duration were 24 d and 42 d, respectively. These results demonstrate the feasibility of establishing full-sib families of amphioxus, and provide fundamental data needed for the future breeding of amphioxus strains.

  18. [Mid-term outcomes and survival rates in patients with radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) under current Czech healthcare system].

    PubMed

    Safarík, L; Bílek, R; Vísek, J A; Novák, K; Tuíková, J; Pesl, M; Stolz, J; Dvorácek, J

    2009-01-01

    The mid-term results (5 yr) after radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) are outlined and compared with pre- and postoperative parameters of patients. While 5 years survival could be expected in as many as 92.4%, relatively higher age (majority over 65) brings a higher risk of complications with it, though fully comparable with international standards. No perioperative mortality was recorded (0%), obstructive symptoms post-operatively developed in 13.4% patients, who were subsequently managed successfully endoscopically. Continence with maximum one pad per 24 hours was recorded in 77.2%, the severe incontinence was only in 3.3%. Spontaneous erection was reported in 4.3%, but except for higher age, the other objective factors were involved.

  19. [Establishment of full-sib families of Branchiostoma japonicum and the relationship between early development patterns and larvae survival rates].

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Ye; Wang, Yi-Quan

    2013-10-01

    One general requirement of individual laboratory animals is that they have known genetic backgrounds. However, ensuring such genetic similarity is difficult, and can be facilitated by breeding a full strain for experimentation. To this end, the authors bred 34 full-sib families of amphioxus larvae/embryos. Due to the high mortality of the embryos and larvae, only seven full-sib families of juvenile amphioxus Branchiostoma japonicum were obtained. Among them, the highest and lowest survival ratios were 32.4% and 1.67%, respectively, whereas the shortest metamorphosis and longest larva duration were 24 d and 42 d, respectively. These results demonstrate the feasibility of establishing full-sib families of amphioxus, and provide fundamental data needed for the future breeding of amphioxus strains. PMID:24115654

  20. Effects of fluctuating flows and a controlled flood on incubation success and early survival rates and growth of age-0 rainbow trout in a large regulated river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korman, Josh; Kaplinski, Matthew; Melis, Theodore S.

    2011-01-01

    Hourly fluctuations in flow from Glen Canyon Dam were increased in an attempt to limit the population of nonnative rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in the Colorado River, Arizona, due to concerns about negative effects of nonnative trout on endangered native fishes. Controlled floods have also been conducted to enhance native fish habitat. We estimated that rainbow trout incubation mortality rates resulting from greater fluctuations in flow were 23-49% (2003 and 2004) compared with 5-11% under normal flow fluctuations (2006-2010). Effects of this mortality were apparent in redd excavations but were not seen in hatch date distributions or in the abundance of the age-0 population. Multiple lines of evidence indicated that a controlled flood in March 2008, which was intended to enhance native fish habitat, resulted in a large increase in early survival rates of age-0 rainbow trout. Age-0 abundance in July 2008 was over fourfold higher than expected given the number of viable eggs that produced these fish. A hatch date analysis indicated that early survival rates were much higher for cohorts that hatched about 1 month after the controlled flood (~April 15) relative to those that hatched before this date. The cohorts that were fertilized after the flood were not exposed to high flows and emerged into better-quality habitat with elevated food availability. Interannual differences in age-0 rainbow trout growth based on otolith microstructure supported this hypothesis. It is likely that strong compensation in survival rates shortly after emergence mitigated the impact of incubation losses caused by increases in flow fluctuations. Control of nonnative fish populations will be most effective when additional mortality is applied to older life stages after the majority of density-dependent mortality has occurred. Our study highlights the need to rigorously assess instream flow decisions through the evaluation of population-level responses.

  1. Survival rate and neurodevelopmental outcome of extremely premature babies: an 8-year experience of an Italian single neonatal tertiary care center.

    PubMed

    Uccella, Sara; De Carli, Agnese; Sirgiovanni, Ida; Schiavolin, Paola; Damiano, Giuseppe; Ghirardi, Beatrice; Maglioli Carpano, Francesca; Bassi, Laura; Gangi, Silvana; Picciolini, Odoardo; Fumagalli, Monica; Mosca, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Extremely preterm babies are at major risk for adverse neurodevelopmental outcome, being the gestational age (GA) the main determinant for a good-quality survival. Aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the neurodevelopmental outcome in a population of extremely preterm babies admitted to a single neonatal tertiary care unit over an 8-year period. All babies born between 23+0 and 25+6 weeks of GA from January 2003 until December 2010 were retrospectively enrolled. Perinatal and neonatal variables were recorded. Motor and cognitive development was assessed using the neurofunctional scale (NFS) and the Griffith's scales at 2 years. Fifty-five out of 122 infants survived to discharge. Survival rates doubled for each additional gestational week from 23 to 25: 16%, 38% and 74% at 23, 24 and 25 weeks GA respectively. Forty-six infants were evaluated at 2 years. A poor cognitive and motor outcome was observed in all babies born at 23 weeks. Griffith's general quotient (GQ) was ≥76 in 62% and ≥88 in 33% of babies born between 24 and 25 weeks. No severe motor disabilities were found in 81% of babies born between 24 and 25 weeks. Preterm premature rupture of membranes, absence of prenatal steroids, intrauterine growth restriction, male, lower GA and major brain abnormalities at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were significantly associated with worse NFS and lower mean GQ at 2 years of age. GA, gender and abnormal MRI findings remained significantly associated with impaired NFS at the multivariate analysis. Survival rates and neurodevelopmental outcome improved with each week of GA. These results are relevant for clinicians counselling families facing an unavoidable extremely preterm birth. PMID:26714779

  2. Antiviral therapy improves the survival rate and decreases recurrences and fatalities in liver cancer patients following curative resection: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, HAO; ZHOU, YUCHEN; YUAN, GUOSHENG; ZHOU, GUANGYAO; YANG, DINGHUA; ZHOU, YUANPING

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the impact of postoperative antiviral treatment on tumor recurrence, fatalities and survival of patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection-related primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A systematic meta-analysis was performed. All the studies comparing nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) versus placebo or no treatment were considered. The results were expressed as relative ratio (RR) for 1-, 3- and 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS), recurrence HCC and fatalities with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using STATA 11.0. In total, 15 trials with 7,619 patients were included. There were significant improvements for 1-, 3- and 5-year RFS (RR, 1.09; P=0.003; RR, 1.202; P<0.001; and RR, 1.219; P=0.02; respectively) and in 3- and 5-year OS (RR, 1.087, P=0.006; and RR, 1.186; P<0.001) in the NAs group compared with the control group. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of the results. In addition, the significantly high rate of recurrence HCC and fatalities existed in the control group (RR, 1.301; P=0.002; and RR, 1.816, P<0.001). One study was for an entecavir (ETV)-treated group compared with an adefovir (ADV)-treated group and lamivudine (LAM)-treated group. The 3-year disease-free survival rate for the ETV group was significantly better compared with the ADV and LAM groups [hazard ratio (HR), 0.810; P=0.049; and HR, 0.737; P=0.007]. The present study demonstrated the beneficial effects of NAs therapy following curative treatment of HBV-related HCC. ETV may be the superior choice compared to ADV or LAM for the antiviral treatment. PMID:26807227

  3. Better management of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest increases survival rate and improves neurological outcome in the Swiss Canton Ticino

    PubMed Central

    Mauri, Romano; Burkart, Roman; Benvenuti, Claudio; Caputo, Maria Luce; Moccetti, Tiziano; Del Bufalo, Alessandro; Gallino, Augusto; Casso, Carlo; Anselmi, Luciano; Cassina, Tiziano; Klersy, Catherine; Auricchio, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Aim To determine the incidence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) fulfilling Utstein criteria in the Canton Ticino, Switzerland, the survival rate of OHCA patients and their neurological outcome. Methods and results All OHCAs treated in Canton Ticino between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2014 were followed until either death or hospital discharge. The survival and neurological outcome of those OHCA fulfilling Utstein criteria are reported. A total of 3367 OHCAs occurred in the Canton Ticino over a 10-year period. Resuscitation was attempted in 2298 patients; of those 1492 (65%) were of presumed cardiac origin, 454 fulfilling the Utstein comparator criteria. About 69% [95% confidence interval (CI), 66.6–71.4%] of the patients had a bystander-witnessed arrest; a dispatched cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) steadily and significantly increased from 2005 to 2014. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest occurred prevalently home (67%), in men (71%) of a mean age of 71 ± 13 years. There were no statistically significant differences either in demographic characteristics of OHCA victims over these years or in presenting rhythm. There was a progressive increase in the survival at discharge from 15% in 2005 to 55% in 2014; overall 96% (95% CI, 93.3–99.9%) of the survivors had a good neurological outcome. Conclusion The significant increase in Utstein comparator survival rates and improved neurological outcome in OHCA victims in Canton Ticino are the result of an effective OHCA management programme which includes large-scale public education, a coordinated fast EMS response, high density of external defibrillators, and advances in clinical interventions for OHCAs. PMID:26346920

  4. Overall Response Rate, Progression-Free Survival, and Overall Survival With Targeted and Standard Therapies in Advanced Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer: US Food and Drug Administration Trial-Level and Patient-Level Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, Gideon M.; Karuri, Stella W.; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Lijun; Khozin, Sean; Kazandjian, Dickran; Tang, Shenghui; Sridhara, Rajeshwari; Keegan, Patricia; Pazdur, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To conduct analyses exploring trial-level and patient-level associations between overall response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) in advanced non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) trials. Methods We identified 14 trials (N = 12,567) submitted to US Food and Drug Administration since 2003 of treatments for advanced NSCLC. Only randomized, active-controlled trials with more than 150 patients were included. Associations between trial-level PFS hazard ratio (HR), OS HR, and ORR odds ratio were analyzed using a weighted linear regression model. Patient-level responder analyses comparing PFS and OS between patients with and without an objective response were performed using pooled data from all studies. Results In the trial-level analysis, the association between PFS and ORR was strong (R2 = 0.89; 95% CI, 0.80 to 0.98). There was no association between OS and ORR (R2 = 0.09; 95% CI, 0 to 0.33) and OS and PFS (R2 = 0.08; 95% CI, 0 to 0.31). In the patient-level responder analyses, patients who achieved a response had better PFS and OS compared with nonresponders (PFS: HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.42; OS: HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.43). Conclusion On a trial level, there is a strong association between ORR and PFS. An association between ORR and OS and between PFS and OS was not established, possibly because of cross-over and longer survival after progression in the targeted therapy and first-line trials. The patient-level analysis showed that responders have a better PFS and OS compared with nonresponders. A therapy in advanced NSCLC with a large magnitude of effect on ORR may have a large PFS effect. PMID:25667291

  5. The influence of “conical plus octagonal” internal connection on implant survival and success rate: a retrospective study of 66 fixtures.

    PubMed

    Lopez, M A; Andreasi Bassi, M; Confalone, L; Gaudio, R M; Lombardo, L; Lauritano, D

    2016-01-01

    Implant oral rehabilitation has become one of the most successful dentistry techniques over the last 30 years. However, peri-implantitis is the most important complication in implant dentistry. Peri-implantits can be caused by inadequate implant-abutment connections (IAC). The aim of our study is to evaluate the influence of “conical plus octagonal” (i.e. I-Fix connection) on implant survival and success rate. All the implants included in this study were of a completely new type (I-Fix implants and abutments by FMD Falappa Medical Devices S.p.A. Rome, Italy). Sixty-six implants were inserted in males and females. The implants were of different diameters and lengths, inserted both in the mandible and in the maxilla with immediate or delayed loading, with guided bone regeneration (GBR), and post-extractive surgery. All implants were provided with I-Fix connection, 64 abutments using passing screws and 2 using full screws. None of the 66 implants were lost (i.e. survival rate - SVR = 100%). Cox-regression analysis demonstrated that diabetes (p=0.0074), GBR (p=0.0115), maxilla (p=0.0117) and smoking (p=0.0194) have a statistical significant impact on clinical outcome (i.e. greater bone resorption around implant neck). Our data show that I-Fix connection did not influence SVR. This finding demonstrates that I-Fix design seemed to significantly affect the survival rate of the implants in a recent meta-analysis. In spite of the limits of our study, I-Fix connection has been demonstrated to be efficient in closing the gap between implant and abutment and maintaining a good connection over time.

  6. Sensitivity of 4-Year-Olds to Featural and Second-Order Relational Changes in Face Distinctiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKone, Elinor; Boyer, Barbara L.

    2006-01-01

    Sensitivity to adult ratings of facial distinctiveness (how much an individual stands out in a crowd) has been demonstrated previously in children age 5 years or older. Experiment 1 extended this result to 4-year-olds using a "choose the more distinctive face" task. Children's patterns of choice across item pairs also correlated well with those of…

  7. Decreasing salinity of seawater moderates immune response and increases survival rate of giant groupers post betanodavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tz-Shiang; Wu, Yu-Chi; Chi, Shau-Chi

    2016-10-01

    Giant groupers (Epinephelus lanceolatus), an important aquaculture fish in Asia, are attacked by nervous necrosis virus (NNV), belonging to betanodavirus. Environmental salinity can affect fish immunity and physiology. We examined whether decreasing salinity from 30 to 15 ppt during acclimation of groupers could affect survival with NNV infection and the associated factors. Although NNV infection decreased muscle moisture, up-regulated the gene expression of Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter isoform 2, and elevated plasma cortisol level in groupers, these factors were not related to the higher mortality of groupers reared at 30-ppt salinity (S30-groupers), compared to 15-ppt reared groupers (S15-groupers). Infected S30-groupers exhibited high leukocyte count and innate immune gene expression level. Moreover, NNV-infected dead S30-groupers showed high IL-1β gene expression level but low NNV load in the brain. The high or excess IL-1β gene expression levels in the brain of NNV-infected S30-groupers may be the factor in high mortality. PMID:27569983

  8. Very low survival rates after non-traumatic lower limb amputation in a consecutive series: what to do?

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Morten Tange; Holm, Gitte; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus; Krasheninnikoff, Michael; Gebuhr, Peter

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate factors potentially influencing short- and long-term mortality in patients who had a non-traumatic lower limb amputation in a university hospital. A consecutive series of 93 amputations (16% toe/foot, 33% trans-tibial, 9% through knee and 42% trans-femoral) were studied. Their mean age was 75.8 years; 21 (23%) were admitted from a nursing home and 87 (92%) were amputated due to a vascular disease and/or diabetes. Thirty days and 1-year mortality were 30 and 54%, respectively. Cox regression analysis demonstrated that the 30-day mortality was associated with older age (P = 0.01), and the number of co-morbidities (P = 0.04), when adjusted for gender, previous amputations, cause of and amputation level, and residential status. Thus, a patient with 4 or 5 co-morbidities (n = 20) was seven times more likely to die within 30 days, compared with a patient with 1 co-morbidity (n = 16). Further, the risk of not surviving increased with 7% per each additional year the patient got older. Of concern, almost one-third of patients died within 1 month. This may be unavoidable, but a multidisciplinary, optimized, multimodal pre- and postoperative programme should be instituted, trying to improve the outcome.

  9. Decreasing salinity of seawater moderates immune response and increases survival rate of giant groupers post betanodavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tz-Shiang; Wu, Yu-Chi; Chi, Shau-Chi

    2016-10-01

    Giant groupers (Epinephelus lanceolatus), an important aquaculture fish in Asia, are attacked by nervous necrosis virus (NNV), belonging to betanodavirus. Environmental salinity can affect fish immunity and physiology. We examined whether decreasing salinity from 30 to 15 ppt during acclimation of groupers could affect survival with NNV infection and the associated factors. Although NNV infection decreased muscle moisture, up-regulated the gene expression of Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter isoform 2, and elevated plasma cortisol level in groupers, these factors were not related to the higher mortality of groupers reared at 30-ppt salinity (S30-groupers), compared to 15-ppt reared groupers (S15-groupers). Infected S30-groupers exhibited high leukocyte count and innate immune gene expression level. Moreover, NNV-infected dead S30-groupers showed high IL-1β gene expression level but low NNV load in the brain. The high or excess IL-1β gene expression levels in the brain of NNV-infected S30-groupers may be the factor in high mortality.

  10. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the influence of peritoneal dialysis catheter type on complication rate and catheter survival.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Sander M; Lafranca, Jeffrey A; IJzermans, Jan N M; Dor, Frank J M F

    2014-04-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is an effective treatment for end-stage renal disease. There are several configurations of PD catheter design that may impact catheter function, such as the shape of the intraperitoneal segment, the number of cuffs, and the subcutaneous configuration. This review and meta-analysis was carried out to determine whether there is a clinical advantage for one of the catheter types or configurations. Comprehensive searches were conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, and CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library 2012, issue 10). The methodology was in accordance with the Cochrane Handbook for Interventional Systematic Reviews and written based on the PRISMA statement. The initial search yielded 682 hits from which 13 randomized controlled trials were identified. Outcomes of interest were as follows: catheter survival, drainage dysfunction, migration, leakage, exit-site infections, peritonitis, and catheter removal. Comparing straight vs. swan neck and single vs. double-cuffed catheters, no differences were found when results were pooled. Comparison of straight vs. coiled-tip catheters demonstrated that survival was significantly different in favor of straight catheters (hazard ratio 2.05; confidence interval 1.10-3.79, P=0.02). For surgically inserted catheters, the removal rate and survival at 1 year after insertion were significantly in favor of straight catheters. Our meta-analysis clearly demonstrates benefits for catheters with a straight intraperitoneal segment. PMID:24088961

  11. Combination therapy of molecular hydrogen and hyperoxia improves survival rate and organ damage in a zymosan-induced generalized inflammation model

    PubMed Central

    HONG, YUNCHUAN; SUN, LI; SUN, RUIQIANG; CHEN, HONGGUANG; YU, YONGHAO; XIE, KELIANG

    2016-01-01

    Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is a leading cause of mortality in critically ill patients. Hyperoxia treatment may be beneficial to critically ill patients. However, the clinical use of hyperoxia is hindered as it may exacerbate organ injury by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hydrogen gas (H2) exerts a therapeutic antioxidative effect by selectively reducing ROS. Combination therapy of H2 and hyperoxia has previously been shown to significantly improve survival rate and organ damage extent in mice with polymicrobial sepsis. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether combination therapy with H2 and hyperoxia could improve survival rate and organ damage in a zymosan (ZY)-induced generalized inflammation model. The results showed that the inhalation of H2 (2%) or hyperoxia (98%) alone improved the 14-day survival rate of ZY-challenged mice from 20 to 70 or 60%, respectively. However, combination therapy with H2 and hyperoxia could increase the 14-day survival rate of ZY-challenged mice to 100%. Furthermore, ZY-challenged mice showed significant multiple organ damage characterized by increased serum levels of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, as well as lung, liver and kidney histopathological scores at 24 h after ZY injection. These symptoms where attenuated by H2 or hyperoxia alone; however, combination therapy with H2 and hyperoxia had a more marked beneficial effect against lung, liver and kidney damage in ZY-challenged mice. In addition, the beneficial effects of this combination therapy on ZY-induced organ damage were associated with decreased serum levels of the oxidative product 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α, increased activity of superoxide dismutase and reduced levels of the proinflammatory cytokines high-mobility group box 1 and tumor necrosis factor-α. In conclusion, combination therapy with H2 and hyperoxia provides enhanced therapeutic efficacy against multiple organ damage in

  12. Comparison of Survival Rate in Primary Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Among Elderly Patients Treated With Radiofrequency Ablation, Surgery, or Chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Heon; Jin, Gong Yong Han, Young Min; Chung, Gyung Ho; Lee, Yong Chul; Kwon, Keun Sang; Lynch, David

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: We retrospectively compared the survival rate in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with radiofrequency ablation (RFA), surgery, or chemotherapy according to lung cancer staging. Materials and Methods: From 2000 to 2004, 77 NSCLC patients, all of whom had WHO performance status 0-2 and were >60 years old, were enrolled in a cancer registry and retrospectively evaluated. RFA was performed on patients who had medical contraindications to surgery/unsuitability for surgery, such as advanced lung cancer or refusal of surgery. In the RFA group, 40 patients with inoperable NSCLC underwent RFA under computed tomography (CT) guidance. These included 16 patients with stage I to II cancer and 24 patients with stage III to IV cancer who underwent RFA in an adjuvant setting. In the comparison group (n = 37), 13 patients with stage I to II cancer underwent surgery; 18 patients with stage III to IV cancer underwent chemotherapy; and 6 patients with stage III to IV cancer were not actively treated. The survival curves for RFA, surgery, and chemotherapy in these patients were calculated using Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Median survival times for patients treated with (1) surgery alone and (2) RFA alone for stage I to II lung cancer were 33.8 and 28.2 months, respectively (P = 0.426). Median survival times for patients treated with (1) chemotherapy alone and (2) RFA with chemotherapy for stage III to IV cancer were 29 and 42 months, respectively (P = 0.03). Conclusion: RFA can be used as an alternative treatment to surgery for older NSCLC patients with stage I to II inoperable cancer and can play a role as adjuvant therapy with chemotherapy for patients with stage III to IV lung cancer.

  13. Local Response and Impact on Survival After Local Ablation of Liver Metastases From Colorectal Carcinoma by Computed Tomography-Guided High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ricke, Jens; Mohnike, Konrad; Pech, Maciej; Seidensticker, Max; Ruehl, Ricarda; Wieners, Gero; Gaffke, Gunnar; Kropf, Siegfried; Felix, Roland; Wust, Peter

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: To determine local tumor control after CT-guided brachytherapy at various dose levels and the prognostic impact of extensive cytoreduction in colorectal liver metastases. Methods and Materials: Seventy-three patients were treated on a single-center prospective trial that was initially designed to be randomized to three dose levels of 15 Gy, 20 Gy, or 25 Gy per lesion, delivered in a single fraction. However, because there was a high rate of cross-over of subjects from higher to lower dose levels, this study is better understood as a prospective trial with three dose levels. No upper size limit for the metastases was applied. We assessed time to local progression, progression-free survival, and overall survival. Results: According to safety constraints cross-over was performed. The final assignment was n = 98, n = 68, and n = 33 in the 15-Gy, 20-Gy, and 25-Gy groups, respectively. Median diameter of the largest tumor lesion in each patient was 5 cm (range, 1-13.5 cm). Estimated mean local recurrence-free survival for all lesions was 34 months (median not reached). The group assigned to 15 Gy after cross-over displayed 34 local recurrences out of 98 lesions; 20 Gy, 15 out of 68 lesions; 25 Gy, 1 out of 33 lesions. The difference between the 25-Gy and the 20-Gy or 15-Gy group was significant (p < 0.05). Repeated local tumor ablations were the most prominent factor for increased survival and dominated additional systemic antitumor treatments. Conclusions: Local tumor control after CT-guided brachytherapy of colorectal liver metastases demonstrated a strong dose dependency. The role of extensive minimally invasive tumor ablation in metastatic colorectal cancer needs to be further established.

  14. Effect of cooling rate on the survival of cryopreserved rooster sperm: Comparison of different distances in the vapor above the surface of the liquid nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Madeddu, M; Mosca, F; Abdel Sayed, A; Zaniboni, L; Mangiagalli, M G; Colombo, E; Cerolini, S

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present trial was to study the effect of different freezing rates on the survival of cryopreserved rooster semen packaged in straws. Slow and fast freezing rates were obtained keeping straws at different distances in the vapor above the surface of the nitrogen during freezing. Adult Lohmann roosters (n=27) were used. Two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, semen was packaged in straws and frozen comparing the distances of 1, 3 and 5cm in nitrogen vapor above the surface of the liquid nitrogen. In Experiment 2, the distances of 3, 7 and 10cm above the surfaces of the liquid nitrogen were compared. Sperm viability, motility and progressive motility and the kinetic variables were assessed in fresh and cryopreserved semen samples. The recovery rates after freezing/thawing were also calculated. In Experiment 1, there were no significant differences among treatments for all semen quality variables. In Experiment 2, the percentage of viable (46%) and motile (22%) sperm in cryopreserved semen was greater when semen was placed 3cm compared with 7 and 10cm in the vapor above the surface of the liquid nitrogen. The recovery rate of progressive motile sperm after thawing was also greater when semen was stored 3cm in the vapor above the surface of the liquid nitrogen. More rapid freezing rates are required to improve the survival of rooster sperm after cryopreservation and a range of distances from 1 to 5cm in nitrogen vapor above the surface of the liquid nitrogen is recommended for optimal sperm viability. PMID:27349144

  15. Insights Gained From 4 Years of EOSDIS User Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnke, J.; Boquist, C. L.

    2007-12-01

    The Earth Observation System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is a large, complex data system currently supporting over 18 operational NASA satellite missions including the flagship EOS missions: Terra, Aqua, and Aura. A critical underpinning for management of EOSDIS is developing a thorough knowledge of the EOSDIS user community and how they use the EOSDIS products in their research. It is important to know whether the system is meeting the users' needs and expectations. Thus, in 2004 NASA commissioned a comprehensive survey to determine user satisfaction using the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) approach. NASA has continued to survey users yearly since. Users continue to rate EOSDIS systems and services highly as the EOSDIS ACSI score has outperformed both the averages for U.S. companies and for Federal Agencies. In addition, users' comments have provided valuable insight into the effect of data center processes on users' experiences. Although their satisfaction has remained high, their preferences have changed with the rapid advances in web-based services. We now have four years of data on user satisfaction from these surveys. The results of each survey highlight areas that, if improved, could lead to increased user satisfaction, including overall product quality, product documentation, and product selection and ordering processes. This paper will present the survey results and how they compare from year to year.

  16. Does Prison Crowding Predict Higher Rates of Substance Use Related Parole Violations? A Recurrent Events Multi-Level Survival Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ruderman, Michael A.; Wilson, Deirdra F.; Reid, Savanna

    2015-01-01

    Objective This administrative data-linkage cohort study examines the association between prison crowding and the rate of post-release parole violations in a random sample of prisoners released with parole conditions in California, for an observation period of two years (January 2003 through December 2004). Background Crowding overextends prison resources needed to adequately protect inmates and provide drug rehabilitation services. Violence and lack of access to treatment are known risk factors for drug use and substance use disorders. These and other psychosocial effects of crowding may lead to higher rates of recidivism in California parolees. Methods Rates of parole violation for parolees exposed to high and medium levels of prison crowding were compared to parolees with low prison crowding exposure. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a Cox model for recurrent events. Our dataset included 13070 parolees in California, combining individual level parolee data with aggregate level crowding data for multilevel analysis. Results Comparing parolees exposed to high crowding with those exposed to low crowding, the effect sizes from greatest to least were absconding violations (HR 3.56 95% CI: 3.05–4.17), drug violations (HR 2.44 95% CI: 2.00–2.98), non-violent violations (HR 2.14 95% CI: 1.73–2.64), violent and serious violations (HR 1.88 95% CI: 1.45–2.43), and technical violations (HR 1.86 95% CI: 1.37–2.53). Conclusions Prison crowding predicted higher rates of parole violations after release from prison. The effect was magnitude-dependent and particularly strong for drug charges. Further research into whether adverse prison experiences, such as crowding, are associated with recidivism and drug use in particular may be warranted. PMID:26492490

  17. ENSO, nest predation risk, food abundance, and male status fail to explain annual variations in the apparent survival rate of a migratory songbird.

    PubMed

    Vernouillet, Alizée; Villard, Marc-André; Haché, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Adult mortality can be a major driver of population decline in species whose productivity is relatively low. Yet, little is known about the factors influencing adult survival rates in migratory bird species, nor do we know much about the longer-term effects of habitat disturbance on the fitness of individuals. The Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla) is one of the vertebrate species most sensitive to forest management, yet it is still common and widespread. We monitored the fate of 330 colour-banded Ovenbird males in four pairs of 25-ha plots during 9 successive breeding seasons. One plot of each pair was treated through selection harvesting (30-40% basal area removed) during the first winter. We tested the following hypotheses: (1) higher physiological costs in harvested plots as a result of lower food abundance will reduce apparent survival rate (ASR) relative to controls; (2) lower ASR following years with low nest survival and higher probability of renesting; (3) fluctuations in ASR reflecting El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO); and (4) higher ASR in returning males than in recruits (unbanded immigrants) owing to greater site familiarity in the former. We tested the relative importance of these hypotheses, or combinations thereof, by generating 23 models explaining variation in ASR. The year-dependent model received the most support, showing a 41% decrease in ASR from 2007 to 2014. The important year-to-year variation we observed in ASR (Σw(i) = 0.99) was not explained by variation in nest predation risk nor by ENSO. There was also little evidence for an effect of selection harvesting on ASR of Ovenbird males, despite a slight reduction in lifespan relative to males from control plots (2.7 vs 2.9 years). An avenue worth exploring to explain this intriguing pattern would be to determine whether conditions at migratory stopover sites or in the wintering area of our focal population have gradually worsened over the past decade.

  18. ENSO, Nest Predation Risk, Food Abundance, and Male Status Fail to Explain Annual Variations in the Apparent Survival Rate of a Migratory Songbird

    PubMed Central

    Vernouillet, Alizée; Villard, Marc-André; Haché, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Adult mortality can be a major driver of population decline in species whose productivity is relatively low. Yet, little is known about the factors influencing adult survival rates in migratory bird species, nor do we know much about the longer-term effects of habitat disturbance on the fitness of individuals. The Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla) is one of the vertebrate species most sensitive to forest management, yet it is still common and widespread. We monitored the fate of 330 colour-banded Ovenbird males in four pairs of 25-ha plots during 9 successive breeding seasons. One plot of each pair was treated through selection harvesting (30–40% basal area removed) during the first winter. We tested the following hypotheses: (1) higher physiological costs in harvested plots as a result of lower food abundance will reduce apparent survival rate (ASR) relative to controls; (2) lower ASR following years with low nest survival and higher probability of renesting; (3) fluctuations in ASR reflecting El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO); and (4) higher ASR in returning males than in recruits (unbanded immigrants) owing to greater site familiarity in the former. We tested the relative importance of these hypotheses, or combinations thereof, by generating 23 models explaining variation in ASR. The year-dependent model received the most support, showing a 41% decrease in ASR from 2007 to 2014. The important year-to-year variation we observed in ASR (Σwi = 0.99) was not explained by variation in nest predation risk nor by ENSO. There was also little evidence for an effect of selection harvesting on ASR of Ovenbird males, despite a slight reduction in lifespan relative to males from control plots (2.7 vs 2.9 years). An avenue worth exploring to explain this intriguing pattern would be to determine whether conditions at migratory stopover sites or in the wintering area of our focal population have gradually worsened over the past decade. PMID:25419839

  19. A 4-year investigation into phonetic inventory development in young cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Serry, T A; Blamey, P J

    1999-02-01

    Phonetic inventories of 9 children with profoundly impaired hearing who used the 22-electrode cochlear implant (Cochlear Limited) were monitored before implantation and during the first 4 years of implant use. All children were 5 years old or younger at the time of implant. Spontaneous speech samples were collected at regular intervals for each child and analyzed to investigate phone acquisition over the post-implant period. Acquisition was measured using two different criteria. The "targetless" criterion required the child to produce a phonetically recognizable sound spontaneously, and the "target" criterion required the child to produce the phone correctly at least 50% of the time in meaningful words. At 4 years post-implant, 40 out of 44 phones (91 %) had reached the targetless criterion, and 29 phones (66%) had reached the target criterion for 5 or more of the children. Over the time of the study 100% of monophthongs, 63% of diphthongs, and 54% of consonants reached the target criterion. The average time taken for a phone to progress from the targetless to target criterion was 15 months. Overall, the data suggest trends in the order of phone acquisition similar to those of normally hearing children, although the process of acquisition occurred at a slower rate.

  20. Intellectual Disability in a Birth Cohort: Prevalence, Etiology, and Determinants at the Age of 4 Years

    PubMed Central

    Karam, Simone M.; Barros, Aluísio J.D.; Matijasevich, Alícia; dos Santos, Iná S.; Anselmi, Luciana; Barros, Fernando; Leistner-Segal, Sandra; Félix, Têmis M.; Riegel, Mariluce; Maluf, Sharbel W.; Giugliani, Roberto; Black, Maureen M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Intellectual disability (ID), characterized by impairments in intellectual function and adaptive behavior, affects 1-3% of the population. Many studies investigated its etiology, but few are cohort studies in middle-income countries. Aims To estimate prevalence, etiology, and factors related to ID among children prospectively followed since birth in a Southern Brazilian city (Pelotas). Methods In 2004, maternity hospitals were visited daily and births were identified. Live-born infants (n = 4,231) whose family lived in the urban area have been followed for several years. At the age of 2 and 4 years, performances in development and intelligence tests were evaluated using the Battelle Developmental Inventory and Wechsler Intelligence Scale, respectively. Children considered as having developmental delay were invited to attend a genetic evaluation. Results At 4 years of age, the prevalence of ID was 4.5%, and the etiology was classified into 5 groups: environmental (44.4%), genetic (20.5%), idiopathic (12.6%), neonatal sequelae (13.2%), other diseases (9.3%). Most children presented impairment in two or more areas of adaptive behavior. There was no difference in prenatal care attendance or maternal schooling among the groups. Conclusion For about 40% of children, ID was attributed to nonbiological factors, suggesting that the rate may be reduced with appropriate interventions early in life. PMID:27595410

  1. Nanomedical strategy to prolong survival period, heighten cure rate, and lower systemic toxicity of S180 mice treated with MTX/MIT

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ning; Zhao, Ming; Wang, Yuji; Hu, Xi; Wu, Jianhui; Jiang, Xueyun; Li, Shan; Cui, Chunying; Peng, Shiqi

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the usual combination form of methotrexate (MTX)/mitoxantrone (MIT) and various complex combination regimens of MTX/MIT with other anticancer drugs, the survival period, cure rate, and systemic toxicity still need to be improved. For this purpose, a nanostructured amino group-modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNN)−MTX/MIT was designed. In the preparation, the surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) was modified with amino groups to form MSNN. The covalent modification of the amino groups on the surface of MSNN with MTX resulted in MSNN−MTX. The loading of MIT into the surface pores of MSNN−MTX produced nanostructured MSNN−MTX/MIT. Compared with the usual combination form (MTX/MIT), nanostructured MSNN−MTX/MIT increased the survival period greatly, heightened the cure rate to a great extent, and lowered the systemic toxicity of the treated S180 mice, significantly. These superior in vivo properties of nanostructured MSNN−MTX/MIT over the usual combination form (MTX/MIT) were correlated with the former selectively releasing MTX and MIT in tumor tissue and inside cancer cells in vitro. The chemical structure and the nanostructure of MSNN−MTX/MIT were characterized using infrared and differential scanning calorimeter spectra as well as transmission electron microscope images, respectively. PMID:27621591

  2. Nanomedical strategy to prolong survival period, heighten cure rate, and lower systemic toxicity of S180 mice treated with MTX/MIT

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ning; Zhao, Ming; Wang, Yuji; Hu, Xi; Wu, Jianhui; Jiang, Xueyun; Li, Shan; Cui, Chunying; Peng, Shiqi

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the usual combination form of methotrexate (MTX)/mitoxantrone (MIT) and various complex combination regimens of MTX/MIT with other anticancer drugs, the survival period, cure rate, and systemic toxicity still need to be improved. For this purpose, a nanostructured amino group-modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNN)−MTX/MIT was designed. In the preparation, the surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) was modified with amino groups to form MSNN. The covalent modification of the amino groups on the surface of MSNN with MTX resulted in MSNN−MTX. The loading of MIT into the surface pores of MSNN−MTX produced nanostructured MSNN−MTX/MIT. Compared with the usual combination form (MTX/MIT), nanostructured MSNN−MTX/MIT increased the survival period greatly, heightened the cure rate to a great extent, and lowered the systemic toxicity of the treated S180 mice, significantly. These superior in vivo properties of nanostructured MSNN−MTX/MIT over the usual combination form (MTX/MIT) were correlated with the former selectively releasing MTX and MIT in tumor tissue and inside cancer cells in vitro. The chemical structure and the nanostructure of MSNN−MTX/MIT were characterized using infrared and differential scanning calorimeter spectra as well as transmission electron microscope images, respectively.

  3. Nanomedical strategy to prolong survival period, heighten cure rate, and lower systemic toxicity of S180 mice treated with MTX/MIT.

    PubMed

    Song, Ning; Zhao, Ming; Wang, Yuji; Hu, Xi; Wu, Jianhui; Jiang, Xueyun; Li, Shan; Cui, Chunying; Peng, Shiqi

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the usual combination form of methotrexate (MTX)/mitoxantrone (MIT) and various complex combination regimens of MTX/MIT with other anticancer drugs, the survival period, cure rate, and systemic toxicity still need to be improved. For this purpose, a nanostructured amino group-modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNN)-MTX/MIT was designed. In the preparation, the surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) was modified with amino groups to form MSNN. The covalent modification of the amino groups on the surface of MSNN with MTX resulted in MSNN-MTX. The loading of MIT into the surface pores of MSNN-MTX produced nanostructured MSNN-MTX/MIT. Compared with the usual combination form (MTX/MIT), nanostructured MSNN-MTX/MIT increased the survival period greatly, heightened the cure rate to a great extent, and lowered the systemic toxicity of the treated S180 mice, significantly. These superior in vivo properties of nanostructured MSNN-MTX/MIT over the usual combination form (MTX/MIT) were correlated with the former selectively releasing MTX and MIT in tumor tissue and inside cancer cells in vitro. The chemical structure and the nanostructure of MSNN-MTX/MIT were characterized using infrared and differential scanning calorimeter spectra as well as transmission electron microscope images, respectively. PMID:27621591

  4. Microbial survival rates of Escherichia coli and Deinococcus radiodurans under low temperature, low pressure, and UV-Irradiation conditions, and their relevance to possible Martian life.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Benjamin; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2006-04-01

    Viability rates were determined for microbial populations of Escherichia coli and Deinococcus radiodurans under the environmental stresses of low temperature (-35 degrees C), low-pressure conditions (83.3 kPa), and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (37 W/m(2)). During the stress tests the organisms were suspended in saltwater soil and freshwater soil media, at variable burial depths, and in seawater. Microbial populations of both organisms were most susceptible to dehydration stress associated with low-pressure conditions, and to UV irradiation. However, suspension in a liquid water medium and burial at larger depths (5 cm) improved survival rates markedly. Our results indicate that planetary surfaces that possess little to no atmosphere and have low water availability do not constitute a favorable environment for terrestrial microorganisms.

  5. Microbial Survival Rates of Escherichia coli and Deinococcus radiodurans Under Low Temperature, Low Pressure, and UV-Irradiation Conditions, and Their Relevance to Possible Martian Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Benjamin; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2006-04-01

    Viability rates were determined for microbial populations of Escherichia coli and Deinococcus radiodurans under the environmental stresses of low temperature (-35°C), low-pressure conditions (83.3 kPa), and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (37 W/m2). During the stress tests the organisms were suspended in saltwater soil and freshwater soil media, at variable burial depths, and in seawater. Microbial populations of both organisms were most susceptible to dehydration stress associated with low-pressure conditions, and to UV irradiation. However, suspension in a liquid water medium and burial at larger depths (5 cm) improved survival rates markedly. Our results indicate that planetary surfaces that possess little to no atmosphere and have low water availability do not constitute a favorable environment for terrestrial microorganisms.

  6. The Relationship of a Combination of Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells and Frozen Fat with the Survival Rate of Transplanted Fat

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ki-Young; Park, Hojin; Park, Seung-Ha; Lee, Byung-Il; Ji, Yi-Hwa; Kim, Tae-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Background The survival rate of grafted fat is difficult to predict, and repeated procedures are frequently required. In this study, the effects of the freezing period of harvested adipose tissue and the addition of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) on the process of fat absorption were studied. Methods Adipose tissue was obtained from patients who underwent a lipoaspirated fat graft. The fat tissue was cryopreserved at -20℃ in a domestic refrigerator. A total of 40 nude mice were used. The mice in the experimental group received three different subcutaneous injections in the back: an injection of fresh fat and ASCs, an injection of fat that had been frozen for one month and ASCs, and an injection of fat that had been frozen for two months and ASCs. The control mice received fat grafts without ASCs. The mice were sacrificed at four or eight weeks after the procedure, and the grafted fat tissues were harvested. The extracted fat was evaluated using photographic analysis, volume measurements, and histological examination. Results In the control group, the fat resorption rates four weeks after transplantation in the grafts of fresh fat, fat that had been frozen for one month, and fat that had been frozen for two months were 21.14%, 22.46%, and 42.56%, respectively. In the experimental group, the corresponding resorption rates were 6.68%, 13.0%, and 33.9%, respectively. Conclusions ASCs can increase the fat graft survival rate. The use of ASCs in fat grafting can reduce the need for repeated fat grafts and provide good long term results. PMID:26618113

  7. Changes in soil chemical and microbiological properties during 4 years of application of various organic residues.

    PubMed

    Odlare, M; Pell, M; Svensson, K

    2008-01-01

    A 4-year field trial was established in eastern Sweden to evaluate the effects of organic waste on soil chemical and microbiological variables. A simple crop rotation with barley and oats was treated with either compost from household waste, biogas residue from household waste, anaerobically treated sewage sludge, pig manure, cow manure or mineral fertilizer. All fertilizers were amended in rates corresponding to 100kgNha(-1)year(-1). The effects of the different types of organic waste were evaluated by subjecting soil samples, taken each autumn 4 weeks after harvest, to an extensive set of soil chemical (pH, Org-C, Tot-N, Tot-P, Tot-S, P-AL, P-Olsen, K-AL, and some metals) and microbiological (B-resp, SIR, microSIR active and dormant microorganisms, PDA, microPDA, PAO, Alk-P and N-min) analyses. Results show that compost increased pH, and that compost as well as sewage sludge increased plant available phosphorus; however, the chemical analysis showed few clear trends over the 4 years and few clear relations to plant yield or soil quality. Biogas residues increased substrate induced respiration (SIR) and, compared to the untreated control amendment of biogas residues as well as compost, led to a higher proportion of active microorganisms. In addition, biogas residues increased potential ammonia oxidation rate (PAO), nitrogen mineralization capacity (N-min) as well as the specific growth rate constant of denitrifiers (microPDA). Despite rather large concentrations of heavy metals in some of the waste products, no negative effects could be seen on either chemical or microbiological soil properties. Changes in soil microbial properties appeared to occur more rapidly than most chemical properties. This suggests that soil microbial processes can function as more sensitive indicators of short-term changes in soil properties due to amendment of organic wastes. PMID:17697770

  8. Laboratory-derived temperature preference and effect on the feeding rate and survival of juvenile Hemimysis anomala

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sun, Jennifer; Rudstam, Lars S.; Boscarino, Brent T.; Walsh, Maureen G.; Lantry, Brian F.

    2013-01-01

    Hemimysis anomala is a warm-water mysid that invaded the Great Lakes region in 2006 and has since rapidly spread throughout the basin. We conducted three laboratory experiments to better define the temperature preference, tolerance limits, and temperature effects on feeding rates of juvenile Hemimysis, using individuals acclimated to mid (16 °C) and upper (22 °C) preferred temperature values previously reported for the species. For temperature preference, we fit a two-parameter Gaussian (μ, σ) function to the experimental data, and found that the peak values (μ, interpreted as the preference temperature) were 22.0 °C (SE 0.25) when acclimated to 16 and 21.9 °C (SE 0.38) when acclimated to 22 °C, with the σ-values of the curves at 2.6 and 2.5 °C, respectively. No mysids were observed in temperatures below 10 or above 28 °C in these preference experiments. In short-term tolerance experiments for temperatures between 4 and 32 °C, all mysids died within 8 h at 30.2 °C for 16 °C acclimated mysids, and at 31.8 °C for 22 °C acclimated mysids. No lower lethal limit was found. Feeding rates increased with temperature from an average of 4 Bosmina eaten per hour at 5 °C to 19 Bosmina eaten per hour at 27 °C. The results of our experiments indicate an optimal temperature for Hemimysis between 21 and 27 °C, which corresponds with temperatures during periods of high population growth in the field. These results contribute a better understanding of this species' biological response to temperature that will help guide field studies and inform bioenergetics modeling.

  9. [Noma in a 4 year-old girl: a case report from Chad].

    PubMed

    Cocquempot, K; Javaudin, O; Lerasle, P; Aigle, L

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes a 4-year-old girl in Chad with noma, also called cancrum oris. This acute gangrenous stomatitis has a combined morbidity-mortality rate that can reach 70%. It occurs worldwide but is most common in sub-Saharan Africa in children aged 2 to 16 years. Its pathogenesis is uncertain, but several bacteria including Fusobacterium necrophorum, Prevotella intermedia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa may be responsible for the development of noma, which develops over the oral lesions these bacteria cause. Poverty is its most important risk factor. Due to its rapid course and high lethality, it requires emergency treatment with antibiotics, daily dressing of the lesion, and nutritional rehabilitation. Surgical removal of the remaining necrotic tissue can be followed by reconstructive procedures. Physical and speech therapy should be initiated to prevent functional complications. PMID:24736219

  10. The outcome status of chronic pain patients 4 years after multidisciplinary care.

    PubMed

    Tyre, T E; Walworth, D E; Tyre, E M

    1994-01-01

    Thirty-three patients previously treated for a variety of chronic pain syndromes (largely non-surgical back problems) were selected for study on the basis of 2 years or greater post-discharge status. A patient profile was developed revealing an 86% successful return-to-work rate and minimal use of narcotics 4 years after discharge. In addition, there was relatively low use of either inpatient or outpatient medical services after treatment. These patient behaviors were specific goals of the pain management program in which these patients had participated. Interesting data were also collected on medication use after treatment and methods of pain control used most successfully. Selected outcome variables were also studied across specific diagnostic categories (surgical v non-surgical back problems, amputee pain, reflex sympathetic dystrophy, and others) for this group. In general, rather compelling positive outcomes are shown for the long-term effects of multi-disciplinary pain management.

  11. [Noma in a 4 year-old girl: a case report from Chad].

    PubMed

    Cocquempot, K; Javaudin, O; Lerasle, P; Aigle, L

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes a 4-year-old girl in Chad with noma, also called cancrum oris. This acute gangrenous stomatitis has a combined morbidity-mortality rate that can reach 70%. It occurs worldwide but is most common in sub-Saharan Africa in children aged 2 to 16 years. Its pathogenesis is uncertain, but several bacteria including Fusobacterium necrophorum, Prevotella intermedia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa may be responsible for the development of noma, which develops over the oral lesions these bacteria cause. Poverty is its most important risk factor. Due to its rapid course and high lethality, it requires emergency treatment with antibiotics, daily dressing of the lesion, and nutritional rehabilitation. Surgical removal of the remaining necrotic tissue can be followed by reconstructive procedures. Physical and speech therapy should be initiated to prevent functional complications.

  12. Tropical tree rings reveal preferential survival of fast-growing juveniles and increased juvenile growth rates over time.

    PubMed

    Rozendaal, Danaë M A; Brienen, Roel J W; Soliz-Gamboa, Claudia C; Zuidema, Pieter A

    2010-02-01

    Long-term juvenile growth patterns of tropical trees were studied to test two hypotheses: fast-growing juvenile trees have a higher chance of reaching the canopy ('juvenile selection effect'); and tree growth has increased over time ('historical growth increase'). Tree-ring analysis was applied to test these hypotheses for five tree species from three moist forest sites in Bolivia, using samples from 459 individuals. Basal area increment was calculated from ring widths, for trees < 30 cm in diameter. For three out of five species, a juvenile selection effect was found in rings formed by small juveniles. Thus, extant adult trees in these species have had higher juvenile growth rates than extant juvenile trees. By contrast, rings formed by somewhat larger juveniles in four species showed the opposite pattern: a historical growth increase. For most size classes of > 10 cm diameter none of the patterns was found. Fast juvenile growth may be essential to enable tropical trees to reach the forest canopy, especially for small juvenile trees in the dark forest understorey. The historical growth increase requires cautious interpretation, but may be partially attributable to CO(2) fertilization.

  13. Improved survival rate in primary intracranial lymphoma treated by high-dose radiation and systemic vincristine-doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide-prednisolone chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Shibamoto, Y; Tsutsui, K; Dodo, Y; Yamabe, H; Shima, N; Abe, M

    1990-05-01

    Thirty patients with histologically proven primary intracranial non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were treated at Kyoto University. Ten of them were treated prospectively with a radiation-chemotherapy protocol. All but four specimens were recently reexamined and classified according to the Working Formulation system. The predominant histologic types were diffuse large cell type, large cell immunoblastic type, and diffuse mixed small and large cell type, seen in 38%, 21%, and 21% of cases, respectively. Before 1980, 16 patients were treated with postoperative radiation without definite chemotherapy, and only one has survived more than 5 years. Local recurrence was the most common cause of failure. In 1981, the authors started a protocol in which four to six courses of systemic chemotherapy with vincristine, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and prednisolone (VEPA) was given after whole brain radiation (30-40 Gy) with a local boost up to 50 to 60 Gy. Eight patients completed this protocol, and all of them are alive at 16 to 100 months after diagnosis, with three patients surviving more than 5 years. Only one patient developed recurrence. On the other hand, six patients who did not complete or receive chemotherapy after 1981 are dead or alive with recurrence. Correlation between the Working Formulation subtype and prognosis was not clear because of the variety of treatment. Two patients receiving chemotherapy developed brain necrosis, which was fatal in one case, and the other two patients treated with the protocol are in a poor state without signs of recurrence. Chemotherapy may enhance the radiation effect on normal brain tissue as well as tumor. Combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy can improve the survival rate, but the optimal dosage needs to be investigated further.

  14. Fathers' challenging parenting behavior prevents social anxiety development in their 4-year-old children: a longitudinal observational study.

    PubMed

    Majdandžić, Mirjana; Möller, Eline L; de Vente, Wieke; Bögels, Susan M; van den Boom, Dymphna C

    2014-02-01

    Recent models on parenting propose different roles for fathers and mothers in the development of child anxiety. Specifically, it is suggested that fathers' challenging parenting behavior, in which the child is playfully encouraged to push her limits, buffers against child anxiety. In this longitudinal study, we explored whether the effect of challenging parenting on children's social anxiety differed between fathers and mothers. Fathers and mothers from 94 families were separately observed with their two children (44 % girls), aged 2 and 4 years at Time 1, in three structured situations involving one puzzle task and two games. Overinvolved and challenging parenting behavior were coded. Child social anxiety was measured by observing the child's response to a stranger at Time 1, and half a year later at Time 2, and by parental ratings. In line with predictions, father's challenging parenting behavior predicted less subsequent observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. Mothers' challenging behavior, however, predicted more observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old. Parents' overinvolvement at Time 1 did not predict change in observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. For the 2-year-old child, maternal and paternal parenting behavior did not predict subsequent social anxiety, but early social anxiety marginally did. Parent-rated social anxiety was predicted by previous parental ratings of social anxiety, and not by parenting behavior. Challenging parenting behavior appears to have favorable effects on observed 4-year-old's social anxiety when displayed by the father. Challenging parenting behavior emerges as an important focus for future research and interventions.

  15. Fathers' challenging parenting behavior prevents social anxiety development in their 4-year-old children: a longitudinal observational study.

    PubMed

    Majdandžić, Mirjana; Möller, Eline L; de Vente, Wieke; Bögels, Susan M; van den Boom, Dymphna C

    2014-02-01

    Recent models on parenting propose different roles for fathers and mothers in the development of child anxiety. Specifically, it is suggested that fathers' challenging parenting behavior, in which the child is playfully encouraged to push her limits, buffers against child anxiety. In this longitudinal study, we explored whether the effect of challenging parenting on children's social anxiety differed between fathers and mothers. Fathers and mothers from 94 families were separately observed with their two children (44 % girls), aged 2 and 4 years at Time 1, in three structured situations involving one puzzle task and two games. Overinvolved and challenging parenting behavior were coded. Child social anxiety was measured by observing the child's response to a stranger at Time 1, and half a year later at Time 2, and by parental ratings. In line with predictions, father's challenging parenting behavior predicted less subsequent observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. Mothers' challenging behavior, however, predicted more observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old. Parents' overinvolvement at Time 1 did not predict change in observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. For the 2-year-old child, maternal and paternal parenting behavior did not predict subsequent social anxiety, but early social anxiety marginally did. Parent-rated social anxiety was predicted by previous parental ratings of social anxiety, and not by parenting behavior. Challenging parenting behavior appears to have favorable effects on observed 4-year-old's social anxiety when displayed by the father. Challenging parenting behavior emerges as an important focus for future research and interventions. PMID:23812638

  16. Chinese Herbal Medicine Treatment Improves the Overall Survival Rate of Individuals with Hypertension among Type 2 Diabetes Patients and Modulates In Vitro Smooth Muscle Cell Contractility

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Yi-Chun; Cheng, Chi-Fung; Shiao, Yi-Tzone; Wang, Chang-Bi; Chien, Wen-Kuei; Chen, Jin-Hua; Liu, Xiang; Tsang, Hsinyi; Lin, Ting-Hsu; Liao, Chiu-Chu; Huang, Shao-Mei; Li, Ju-Pi; Lin, Cheng-Wen; Pang, Hao-Yu; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Lan, Yu-Ching; Liu, Yu-Huei; Chen, Shih-Yin; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Liang, Wen-Miin

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a chronic, multifactorial, and metabolic disorder accounting for 90% diabetes cases worldwide. Among them, almost half of T2D have hypertension, which is responsible for cardiovascular disease, morbidity, and mortality in these patients. The Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) prescription patterns of hypertension individuals among T2D patients have yet to be characterized. This study, therefore, aimed to determine their prescription patterns and evaluate the CHM effect. A cohort of one million randomly sampled cases from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) was used to investigate the overall survival rate of CHM users, and prescription patterns. After matching CHM and non-CHM users for age, gender and date of diagnosis of hypertension, 980 subjects for each group were selected. The CHM users were characterized with slightly longer duration time from diabetes to hypertension, and more cases for hyperlipidaemia. The cumulative survival probabilities were higher in CHM users than in non-CHM users. Among these top 12 herbs, Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San, Dan-Shen, and Ge-Gen were the most common herbs and inhibited in vitro smooth muscle cell contractility. Our study also provides a CHM comprehensive list that may be useful in future investigation of the safety and efficacy for individuals with hypertension among type 2 diabetes patients. PMID:26699542

  17. Shock experiments in support of the Lithopanspermia theory: The influence of host rock composition, temperature, and shock pressure on the survival rate of endolithic and epilithic microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Cornelia; Fritz, Jörg; Misgaiski, Martin; Stäffler, Dieter; Artemieva, Natalia A.; Hornemann, Ulrich; Moeller, Ralf; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Cockell, Charles; Horneck, Gerda; Ott, Sieglinde; Rabbow, Elke

    2011-05-01

    Shock recovery experiments were performed with an explosive set-up in which three types of microorganisms embedded in various types of host rocks were exposed to strong shock waves with pressure pulse lengths of lower than 0.5 μs: spores of the bacterium Bacillus subtilis, Xanthoria elegans lichens, and cells of the cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis sp. 029. In these experiments, three fundamental parameters were systematically varied (1) shock pressures ranging from 5 to 50 GPa, (2) preshock ambient temperature of 293, 233 and 193 K, and (3) the type of host rock, including nonporous igneous rocks (gabbro and dunite as analogs for the Martian shergottites and chassignites, respectively), porous sandstone, rock salt (halite), and a clay-rich mineral mixture as porous analogs for dry and water-saturated Martian regolith. The results show that the three parameters have a strong influence on the survival rates of the microorganisms. The most favorable conditions for the impact ejection from Mars for microorganisms would be (1) low porosity host rocks, (2) pressures <10-20 GPa, and (3) low ambient temperature of target rocks during impact. All tested microorganisms were capable of surviving to a certain extent impact ejection in different geological materials under distinct conditions.

  18. RNAi-Mediated Knockdown of Catalase Causes Cell Cycle Arrest in SL-1 Cells and Results in Low Survival Rate of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius)

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Meiying; Chen, Shaohua; Muhammad, Rizwan-ul-Haq; Dong, Xiaolin; Gong, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Deregulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production can lead to the disruption of structural and functional integrity of cells as a consequence of reactive interaction between ROS and various biological components. Catalase (CAT) is a common enzyme existing in nearly all organisms exposed to oxygen, which decomposes harmful hydrogen peroxide, into water and oxygen. In this study, the full length sequence that encodes CAT-like protein from Spodoptera litura named siltCAT (GenBank accession number: JQ_663444) was cloned and characterized. Amino acid sequence alignment showed siltCAT shared relatively high conservation with other insect, especially the conserved residues which defined heme and NADPH orientation. Expression pattern analysis showed that siltCAT mRNA was mainly expressed in the fat body, midgut, cuticle and malpighian tube, and as well as over last instar larvae, pupa and adult stages. RNA interference was used to silence CAT gene in SL-1 cells and the fourth-instar stage of S. litura larvae respectively. Our results provided evidence that CAT knockdown induced ROS generation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in SL-1 cells. It also confirmed the decrease in survival rate because of increased ROS production in experimental groups injected with double-stranded RNA of CAT (dsCAT). This study implied that ROS scavenging by CAT is important for S. litura survival. PMID:23555693

  19. Upregulation of MALAT-1 and its association with survival rate and the effect on cell cycle and migration in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yao, Wenjian; Bai, Yu; Li, Yan; Guo, Ling; Zeng, Ping; Wang, Yonglian; Qi, Bo; Liu, Shangguo; Qin, Xiuguang; Li, Yongzhen; Zhao, Baosheng

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT-1) can be used as a potential therapy target for human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. MALAT-1 expression levels were detected in 137 paired EC samples and adjacent nonneoplastic tissues. Human esophageal carcinoma cell lines EC9706 and KYSE150 were transfected with MALAT-1 small interference RNA. Cell proliferation, migration/invasion ability, cell cycle, and apoptosis were assessed. MALAT-1 expressed higher levels in esophageal cancer tissues when compared with paired adjacent normal tissues. This high expression was associated with a decreased survival rate. MALAT-1 knockdown induced a decrease in proliferation-enhanced apoptosis, inhibited migration/invasion, and reduced colony formation and led to cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. These data indicates that MALAT-1 could be exploited for therapeutic benefit.

  20. Long-term trends in survival of a declining population: the case of the little owl (Athene noctua) in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Le Gouar, Pascaline J; Schekkerman, Hans; van der Jeugd, Henk P; Boele, Arjan; van Harxen, Ronald; Fuchs, Piet; Stroeken, Pascal; van Noordwijk, Arie J

    2011-06-01

    The little owl (Athene noctua) has declined significantly in many parts of Europe, including the Netherlands. To understand the demographic mechanisms underlying their decline, we analysed all available Dutch little owl ringing data. The data set spanned 35 years, and included more than 24,000 ringed owls, allowing detailed estimation of survival rates through multi-state capture-recapture modelling taking dispersal into account. We investigated geographical and temporal variation in age-specific survival rates and linked annual survival estimates to population growth rate in corresponding years, as well as to environmental covariates. The best model for estimating survival assumed time effects on both juvenile and adult survival rates, with average annual survival estimated at 0.258 (SE = 0.047) and 0.753 (SE = 0.019), respectively. Juvenile survival rates decreased with time whereas adult survival rates fluctuated regularly among years, low survival occurring about every 4 years. Years when the population declined were associated with low juvenile survival. More than 60% of the variation in juvenile survival was explained by the increase in road traffic intensity or in average temperature in spring, but these correlations rather reflect a gradual decrease in juvenile survival coinciding with long-term global change than direct causal effects. Surprisingly, vole dynamics did not explain the cyclic dynamics of adult survival rate. Instead, dry and cold years led to low adult survival rates. Low juvenile survival rates, that limit recruitment of first-year breeders, and the regular occurrence of years with poor adult survival, were the most important determinants of the population decline of the little owl.

  1. Two-part survival models applied to administrative data for determining rate of and predictors for maternal-child transmission of HIV.

    PubMed

    Hauck, W W; McKee, L J; Turner, B J

    1997-08-15

    In analysing maternal-child HIV transmission from Medicaid claims data, we must deal with follow-up that is sometimes so short that we cannot claim that an apparently uninfected infant is actually uninfected as opposed to not yet exhibiting HIV-associated symptoms. To overcome this, we have been using analyses of 'time-to-diagnosis' of HIV infection to estimate transmission rates and predictors of transmission. Such analyses mix the event of transmission with that of our ability to diagnose HIV infection from coded claims data. We would like to separate these two pieces. Also, due to incomplete follow-up, Kaplan-Meier analyses will underestimate transmission rates. In econometrics and biostatistics there are two-part (mixture) models that can serve the goal of separating transmission from the process of diagnosing HIV infection in the newborn. Farewell describes a model that combines a logistic regression for the yes/no event (in our case, HIV transmission) and a Weibull regression model for the survival analysis portion (in our case, time-to-diagnosis). We use this approach to fit models that have potentially separate covariates for transmission and for time-to-diagnosis. The results allow us to identify predictors of transmission and estimate transmission rates with reduced concern for adequacy of follow-up.

  2. Density and survival rate of Culex quinquefasciatus at Parque Ecológico do Tietê, São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Laporta, Gabriel Z; Sallum, Maria Anice M

    2008-03-01

    Parity rate, gonotrophic cycle length, and density of a Culex quinquefasciatus female population was estimated at the Parque Ecológico do Tietê (PET), São Paulo, Brazil. Adult Cx. quinquefasciatus females were collected from vegetation along the edges of a polluted drainage canal with the use of a battery-powered backpack aspirator from September to November 2005 and from February to April 2006. We examined 255 Cx. quinquefasciatus ovaries to establish the parity rate of 0.22 and determined the gonotrophic cycle length under laboratory conditions to be 3 and 4 days. From these data, we calculated the Cx. quinquefasciatus survival rate to be 0.60 and 0.68 per day. Density of the Cx. quinquefasciatus female (5.71 females per m2) was estimated based on a population size of 28,810 individuals divided by the sampled area of 5,040 m2. Results of all experiments indicate medium survivorship and high density of the Cx. quinquefasciatus female population. This species is epidemiologically relevant in the PET area and should be a target of the vector control program of São Paulo municipality.

  3. Outdoor transmission measurement at 26 GHz: Results of a 4 year trial in Prague

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorvaldsen, Per; Henne, Ingvar

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents the results from a field trial that was performed during a 4 year period on a 5.5 km long radio link path operating at 26 GHz in Prague. The purpose was to investigate the amount of attenuation due to precipitation and its yearly variations. The attenuation of the radio link signal and the rain rate were measured. The measured attenuation results are compared to the models given by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). The propagation measurements show large yearly variations due to variability in rain rate from one year to another. The measured results are in agreement with the ITU long-term statistical rain attenuation model if the measured rain rate for the individual year is used. For the worst year the number of fades, the fade duration, the fade speed, the worst month statistics, and the polarization correlation are presented. The measurements presented will add to the current knowledge of fading due to precipitation, and some of the results, such as the fade duration distributions, are new knowledge.

  4. Adaptive Significance of Quorum Sensing-Dependent Regulation of Rhamnolipids by Integration of Growth Rate in Burkholderia glumae: A Trade-Off between Survival and Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Nickzad, Arvin; Déziel, Eric

    2016-01-01

    promoting the chances of survival, even if the cell density might not be high enough for an otherwise efficient production of rhamnolipids. In conclusion, we propose that the adaptive significance of growth rate-dependent functionality of QS in biosynthesis of costly public goods lies within providing a regulatory mechanism for selecting the optimal trade-off between survival and efficiency. PMID:27540372

  5. Adaptive Significance of Quorum Sensing-Dependent Regulation of Rhamnolipids by Integration of Growth Rate in Burkholderia glumae: A Trade-Off between Survival and Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Nickzad, Arvin; Déziel, Eric

    2016-01-01

    motility, thus promoting the chances of survival, even if the cell density might not be high enough for an otherwise efficient production of rhamnolipids. In conclusion, we propose that the adaptive significance of growth rate-dependent functionality of QS in biosynthesis of costly public goods lies within providing a regulatory mechanism for selecting the optimal trade-off between survival and efficiency. PMID:27540372

  6. Galaxy Disks Do Not Need to Survive in the ΛCDM Paradigm: The Galaxy Merger Rate Out to z ~ 1.5 from Morpho-kinematic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puech, M.; Hammer, F.; Hopkins, P. F.; Athanassoula, E.; Flores, H.; Rodrigues, M.; Wang, J. L.; Yang, Y. B.

    2012-07-01

    About two-thirds of present-day, large galaxies are spirals such as the Milky Way or Andromeda, but the way their thin rotating disks formed remains uncertain. Observations have revealed that half of their progenitors, six billion years ago, had peculiar morphologies and/or kinematics, which exclude them from the Hubble sequence. Major mergers, i.e., fusions between galaxies of similar mass, are found to be the likeliest driver for such strong peculiarities. However, thin disks are fragile and easily destroyed by such violent collisions, which creates a critical tension between the observed fraction of thin disks and their survival within the ΛCDM paradigm. Here, we show that the observed high occurrence of mergers among their progenitors is only apparent and is resolved when using morpho-kinematic observations that are sensitive to all the phases of the merging process. This provides an original way of narrowing down observational estimates of the galaxy merger rate and leads to a perfect match with predictions by state-of-the-art ΛCDM semi-empirical models with no particular fine-tuning needed. These results imply that half of local thin disks do not survive but are actually rebuilt after a gas-rich major merger occurring in the past nine billion years, i.e., two-thirds of the lifetime of the universe. This emphasizes the need to study how thin disks can form in halos with a more active merger history than previously considered and to investigate what is the origin of the gas reservoir from which local disks would reform.

  7. Survival rates and causes of revision in cemented primary total knee replacement: a report from the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register 1994-2009.

    PubMed

    Gøthesen, O; Espehaug, B; Havelin, L; Petursson, G; Lygre, S; Ellison, P; Hallan, G; Furnes, O

    2013-05-01

    We evaluated the rates of survival and cause of revision of seven different brands of cemented primary total knee replacement (TKR) in the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register during the years 1994 to 2009. Revision for any cause, including resurfacing of the patella, was the primary endpoint. Specific causes of revision were secondary outcomes. Three posterior cruciate-retaining (PCR) fixed modular-bearing TKRs, two fixed non-modular bearing PCR TKRs and two mobile-bearing posterior cruciate-sacrificing TKRs were investigated in a total of 17 782 primary TKRs. The median follow-up for the implants ranged from 1.8 to 6.9 years. Kaplan-Meier 10-year survival ranged from 89.5% to 95.3%. Cox's relative risk (RR) was calculated relative to the fixed modular-bearing Profix knee (the most frequently used TKR in Norway), and ranged from 1.1 to 2.6. The risk of revision for aseptic tibial loosening was higher in the mobile-bearing LCS Classic (RR 6.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.8 to 12.1)), the LCS Complete (RR 7.7 (95% CI 4.1 to 14.4)), the fixed modular-bearing Duracon (RR 4.5 (95% CI 1.8 to 11.1)) and the fixed non-modular bearing AGC Universal TKR (RR 2.5 (95% CI 1.3 to 5.1)), compared with the Profix. These implants (except AGC Universal) also had an increased risk of revision for femoral loosening (RR 2.3 (95% CI 1.1 to 4.8), RR 3.7 (95% CI 1.6 to 8.9), and RR 3.4 (95% CI 1.1 to 11.0), respectively). These results suggest that aseptic loosening is related to design in TKR. PMID:23632673

  8. Step to college. Moving from the high school career academy through the 4-year university.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, N L

    2001-12-01

    This study addresses the question "Do school-to-work programs, as embodied by career academies, facilitate postsecondary education?" The author conceptualizes postsecondary education as a series of steps through the university and examines the high school career academy's influence on entrance into, route through, and outcomes from a 4-year university. Data are drawn from applicant and student records at a comprehensive, urban university for all individuals originating from a single district's high schools. The findings suggest that students from career academies have higher academic achievement upon leaving high school, less need for remediation in English at the university, and a 4-percentage-point increase in graduation from the university than students who are not from academies. These findings suggest that school-to-work programs could facilitate positive outcomes in postsecondary education. However, the continued high rates of remediation and the low rates of graduation, even for students from career academics, suggest that their influence might not be enough to ensure success in postsecondary education. This analysis therefore suggests that further research should identify program components that increase postsecondary education and determine how these components can be institutionalized and built on in subsequent reforms.

  9. Association between energy-dense food consumption at 2 years of age and diet quality at 4 years of age.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Sofia; Oliveira, Andreia; Ramos, Elisabete; Moreira, Pedro; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla

    2014-04-14

    The present study aimed to evaluate the association between the consumption of energy-dense foods at 2 years of age and the consumption of foods and diet quality at 4 years of age. The sample included 705 children evaluated at 2 and 4 years of age, as part of the population-based birth cohort Generation XXI (Porto, Portugal). Data on sociodemographic and lifestyle factors of both children and mothers were collected by face-to-face interviews. The weight and height of children were measured by trained professionals. Based on FFQ, four energy-dense food groups were defined: soft drinks; sweets; cakes; salty snacks. A healthy eating index was developed using the WHO dietary recommendations for children (2006) aged 4 years. The associations were evaluated through Poisson regression models. After adjustment for maternal age and education, child's carer, child's siblings and child's BMI, higher consumption of energy-dense foods at 2 years of age was found to be associated with higher consumption of the same foods 2 years later. An inverse association was found between the intake (≥ median) of soft drinks (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.74, 95% CI 0.58, 0.95), salty snacks (IRR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.65, 1.00) and sweets (IRR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.58, 0.91) at 2 years of age and the consumption of fruit and vegetables at 4 years of age (≥ 5 times/d). Weekly and daily consumption of energy-dense foods at 2 years of age was associated with a lower healthy eating score at 4 years of age (IRR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.58, 0.96; IRR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.41, 0.77, respectively). The consumption of energy-dense foods at young ages is negatively associated with the diet quality of children a few years later.

  10. 26 CFR 1.702-3T - 4-Year spread (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false 4-Year spread (temporary). 1.702-3T Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Partners and Partnerships § 1.702-3T 4-Year spread (temporary). (a... taxable year for the first taxable year beginning after December 31, 1986 (partnership's year of...

  11. 26 CFR 1.702-3T - 4-Year spread (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 4-Year spread (temporary). 1.702-3T Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Partners and Partnerships § 1.702-3T 4-Year spread (temporary). (a... taxable year for the first taxable year beginning after December 31, 1986 (partnership's year of...

  12. 26 CFR 1.702-3T - 4-Year spread (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 4-Year spread (temporary). 1.702-3T Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Partners and Partnerships § 1.702-3T 4-Year spread (temporary). (a) Applicability... year for the first taxable year beginning after December 31, 1986 (partnership's year of change);...

  13. 26 CFR 1.702-3T - 4-Year spread (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 4-Year spread (temporary). 1.702-3T Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Partners and Partnerships § 1.702-3T 4-Year spread (temporary). (a... taxable year for the first taxable year beginning after December 31, 1986 (partnership's year of...

  14. Changes in Early Childhood: Public School Programs for 4-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, S. Dianne; Boals, Beverly M.

    Education programs for 4-year-olds may offer unique opportunities for the growth of services for young children. Currently, the role of state departments of education in preschool instruction is evolving; no single approach to public school programming for 4-year-olds exists. Approximately two-thirds of the 28 state and District of Columbia early…

  15. Should Community College Students Earn an Associate Degree before Transferring to a 4-Year Institution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopko, Elizabeth M.; Crosta, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Using data on over 41,000 students in one state who entered community college before transferring to a 4-year institution, this study examines the following question: Are community college students who earn an associate degree before transferring to a 4-year college more likely to earn a bachelor's degree? Due to the causal nature surrounding this…

  16. 42 CFR 414.42 - Adjustment for first 4 years of practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjustment for first 4 years of practice. 414.42 Section 414.42 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Other Practitioners § 414.42 Adjustment for first 4 years of practice. (a) General rule. For...

  17. 42 CFR 414.42 - Adjustment for first 4 years of practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjustment for first 4 years of practice. 414.42 Section 414.42 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Other Practitioners § 414.42 Adjustment for first 4 years of practice. (a) General rule. For...

  18. Institutional Characteristics Contributing to the Effectiveness of 4-Year Business Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Book-Ellard, Tracy Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Over $8 billion is spent yearly, on college education in one Southern U.S. state, yet the employment effectiveness of public and private 4-year undergraduate business degrees (effectiveness defined as obtaining employment or entering into a degree program requiring a 4-year business degree by the end of Year 1 and remaining employed or in a degree…

  19. Annual recapture and survival rates of two non-breeding adult populations of Roseate Terns Stema dougallii captured on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, and estimates of their population sizes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neill, P.; Minton, C.D.T.; Nisbet, I.C.T.; Hines, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    Capture-recapture data from two disparate breeding populations of Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii) captured together as non-breeding individuals from 2002 to 2007 in the southern Great Barrier Reef. Australia were analyzed for both survival rate and recapture rate. The average annual survival rate for the birds from the Asian population (S. d. bangsi) (0.901) is higher than that of the other population of unknown breeding origin (0.819). There was large variability in survival in both populations among years, but the average survival rate of 0.85 is similar to estimates for the same species in North America. The Cormack-Jolly-Seber models used in program MARK to estimate survival rates also produced estimated of recapture probabilities and population sizes. These estimates of population size were 29,000 for S. D. bangsi and 8,300 for the study area and much larger than the documented numbers in the likely breeding areas, suggesting that many breeding sites are currently unknown.

  20. Survival rate of wine-related yeasts during alcoholic fermentation assessed by direct live/dead staining combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Branco, Patrícia; Monteiro, Margarida; Moura, Patrícia; Albergaria, Helena

    2012-08-01

    Real-time detection of microorganisms involved in complex microbial process, such as wine fermentations, and evaluation of their physiological state is crucial to predict whether or not those microbial species will be able to impact the final product. In the present work we used a direct live/dead staining (LDS) procedure combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to simultaneously assess the identity and viability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc) and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii (Hg) during fermentations performed with single and mixed cultures. The population evolution of both yeasts was determined by plating and by LDS combined with species-specific FISH-probes labeled with Fluorescein. Since the FISH method involves the permeabilization of the cell membrane prior to hybridization and that it may influence the free diffusion of PI in and out of the cells, we optimized the concentration of this dye (0.5 μg of PI per 10(6) cells) for minimal diffusion (less than 2%). Fluorescent cells were enumerated by hemocytometry and flow cytometry. Results showed that the survival rate of Sc during mixed cultures was high throughout the entire process (60% of viable cells at the 9th day), while Hg began to die off at the 2nd day, exhibited 98% of dead cells at the 3rd day (45 g/l of ethanol) and became completely unculturable at the 4th day. However, under single culture fermentation the survival rate and culturability of Hg decreased at a much slower pace, exhibiting at the 7th day (67 g/l of ethanol) 8.7×10(4) CFU/ml and 85% of dead cells. Thus, our work demonstrated that the LDS-FISH method is able to simultaneously assess the viability and identity of these wine-related yeast species during alcoholic fermentation in a fast and reliable way. In order to validate PI-staining as a viability marker during alcoholic fermentation, we evaluated the effect of ethanol on the membrane permeability of Sc and Hg cells, as well as their capacity to recover membrane

  1. Survival rate and expression of Heat-shock protein 70 and Frost genes after temperature stress in Drosophila melanogaster lines that are selected for recovery time from temperature coma.

    PubMed

    Udaka, Hiroko; Ueda, Chiaki; Goto, Shin G

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the physiological mechanisms underlying temperature tolerance using Drosophila melanogaster lines with rapid, intermediate, or slow recovery from heat or chill coma that were established by artificial selection or by free recombination without selection. Specifically, we focused on the relationships among their recovery from heat or chill coma, survival after severe heat or cold, and survival enhanced by rapid cold hardening (RCH) or heat hardening. The recovery time from heat coma was not related to the survival rate after severe heat. The line with rapid recovery from chill coma showed a higher survival rate after severe cold exposure, and therefore the same mechanisms are likely to underlie these phenotypes. The recovery time from chill coma and survival rate after severe cold were unrelated to RCH-enhanced survival. We also examined the expression of two genes, Heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and Frost, in these lines to understand the contribution of these stress-inducible genes to intraspecific variation in recovery from temperature coma. The line showing rapid recovery from heat coma did not exhibit higher expression of Hsp70 and Frost. In addition, Hsp70 and Frost transcription levels were not correlated with the recovery time from chill coma. Thus, Hsp70 and Frost transcriptional regulation was not involved in the intraspecific variation in recovery from temperature coma.

  2. Zirconia Implants in Esthetic Areas: 4-Year Follow-Up Evaluation Study

    PubMed Central

    Borgonovo, Andrea Enrico; Censi, Rachele; Vavassori, Virna; Arnaboldi, Oscar; Maiorana, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The aim is to evaluate the survival and success rates, as well as the marginal bone loss (MBL) and periodontal indexes of zirconia implants positioned in the esthetic jaw areas. Materials and Method. 13 patients were selected and 20 one-piece zirconia implants were used for the rehabilitation of single tooth or partially edentulous ridge in the esthetic jaw areas. Six months after surgery and then once a year, a clinical-radiographic evaluation was performed in order to estimate peri-implant tissue health and marginal bone loss. Results. The survival and success rates were 100%. The average marginal bone loss from baseline to 48 months after surgery was +2.1 mm. Four years after surgery, the median and the mode for visible Plaque Index and Bleeding On Probing resulted 1 whereas Probing Pocket Depth amounted to 3 mm (SD = ±0.49 mm). Conclusion. One-piece zirconia dental implants are characterized by high biocompatibility, low plaque adhesion, and absence of microgap that can be related to the clinical success of these implants even in the esthetic areas. PMID:26124836

  3. Asthma and asthma medication use among 4-year-old offspring of subfertile couples--association with IVF?

    PubMed

    Kuiper, Derk B; Seggers, Jorien; Schendelaar, Pamela; Haadsma, Maaike L; Roseboom, Tessa J; Heineman, Maas J; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of asthma and asthma medication use in 213 4-year-old singletons followed from birth onwards, including three groups of children born following: (i) controlled ovarian hyperstimulation IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI); (ii) modified natural cycle IVF/ICSI; and (iii) natural conception in subfertile couples. The rate of asthma medication was higher in the ovarian hyperstimulation-IVF/ICSI than in the subfertile group (adjusted odds ratios [aOR]: 1.96 [1.00-3.84]). Time to pregnancy, a proxy for the severity of subfertility, was not associated with asthma and asthma medication. In conclusion, controlled ovarian hyperstimulation-IVF/ICSI is associated with the use of asthma medication in 4-year-old offspring of subfertile couples.

  4. TNFR-Fc fusion protein expressed by in vivo electroporation improves survival rates and myocardial injury in coxsackievirus induced murine myocarditis

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jong-Mook; Lim, Byung-Kwan; Ho, Seong-Hyun; Yun, Soo-Hyeon; Shin, Jae-Ok; Park, Eun-Min; Kim, Duk-Kyung; Kim, Sunyoung; Jeon, Eun-Seok . E-mail: esjeon@smc.samsung.co.kr

    2006-06-09

    Tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) is one of the major cytokines that modulate the immune response in viral myocarditis, but its role has not yet been thoroughly evaluated. We antagonized TNF-{alpha} using the expressed soluble p75 TNF receptor linked to the Fc portion of the human IgG1 gene (sTNFR:Fc) by in vivo electroporation, and evaluated its effects on experimental coxsackieviral B3 (CVB3) myocarditis. A plasmid DNA encoding sTNFR:Fc (15 {mu}g/mouse) was injected into the gastrocnemius muscles of Balb/C male mice followed by electroporation (day -1). Control mice were injected with an empty vector. One day after electroporation, mice were infected with CVB3 (day 0). Serum levels of sTNFR:Fc increased from day 2 and peaked at day 5 following electroporation. The heart virus titers of sTNFR:Fc mice were higher than those of controls at day 3. However, subsequent to day 12, the survival rates of the sTNFR:Fc mice were significantly higher than those of the controls (36% versus 0% at day 27, P < 0.01). Histopathological examination indicated that inflammation and myocardial fibrosis were significantly decreased in sTNFR:Fc mice at day 12. The expressed sTNFR:Fc could modulate the inflammatory process during the post-viremic phase of viral myocarditis.

  5. Predicting survival in heart failure case and control subjects by use of fully automated methods for deriving nonlinear and conventional indices of heart rate dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, K. K.; Moody, G. B.; Peng, C. K.; Mietus, J. E.; Larson, M. G.; Levy, D.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite much recent interest in quantification of heart rate variability (HRV), the prognostic value of conventional measures of HRV and of newer indices based on nonlinear dynamics is not universally accepted. METHODS AND RESULTS: We have designed algorithms for analyzing ambulatory ECG recordings and measuring HRV without human intervention, using robust methods for obtaining time-domain measures (mean and SD of heart rate), frequency-domain measures (power in the bands of 0.001 to 0.01 Hz [VLF], 0.01 to 0.15 Hz [LF], and 0.15 to 0.5 Hz [HF] and total spectral power [TP] over all three of these bands), and measures based on nonlinear dynamics (approximate entropy [ApEn], a measure of complexity, and detrended fluctuation analysis [DFA], a measure of long-term correlations). The study population consisted of chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) case patients and sex- and age-matched control subjects in the Framingham Heart Study. After exclusion of technically inadequate studies and those with atrial fibrillation, we used these algorithms to study HRV in 2-hour ambulatory ECG recordings of 69 participants (mean age, 71.7+/-8.1 years). By use of separate Cox proportional-hazards models, the conventional measures SD (P<.01), LF (P<.01), VLF (P<.05), and TP (P<.01) and the nonlinear measure DFA (P<.05) were predictors of survival over a mean follow-up period of 1.9 years; other measures, including ApEn (P>.3), were not. In multivariable models, DFA was of borderline predictive significance (P=.06) after adjustment for the diagnosis of CHF and SD. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that HRV analysis of ambulatory ECG recordings based on fully automated methods can have prognostic value in a population-based study and that nonlinear HRV indices may contribute prognostic value to complement traditional HRV measures.

  6. Changes in conception rate, calving performance, and calf health and survival from the use of crossbred Jersey x Holstein sires as mates for Holstein dams.

    PubMed

    Maltecca, C; Khatib, H; Schutzkus, V R; Hoffman, P C; Weigel, K A

    2006-07-01

    Differences in conception rates in matings of Holstein sires or F1 Jersey x Holstein sires to Holstein dams in the University of Wisconsin-Madison experimental herd were evaluated, as were differences in birth weight, dystocia, serum protein, serum IgG, fecal consistency, respiratory disease, and perinatal and pre-weaning mortality among the resulting calves. When mated to randomly chosen, lactating Holstein cows, Holstein sires (n = 74) and crossbred sires (n = 7) did not differ in male fertility. Calves from Holstein sires and multiparous Holstein dams (n = 99) were 1.9 kg heavier than calves from crossbred sires and multiparous Holstein dams (n = 211), leading to greater likelihood (odds ratio of 1.24) of dystocia. Furthermore, calves from crossbred sires and multiparous Holstein dams had higher serum protein and serum IgG levels between 24 and 72 h of age, as well as lower rates of perinatal and preweaning morality than calves from Holstein sires and multiparous or primiparous Holstein dams. Mean fecal consistency scores from birth to 7 d of age and number of days with scours also tended to be lower among calves from crossbred sires, compared with calves from Holstein sires. No differences were observed in the incidence or severity of respiratory disease. Results of this study suggest that introduction of Jersey genes via crossbreeding may lead to a reduction in dystocia and improvements in calf health and survival in Holstein herds. Future studies should address other traits related to dairy farm profitability, including milk composition, female fertility, longevity, feed efficiency, and resistance to infectious and metabolic diseases.

  7. The Prognostic Value of the Tumor Shrinkage Rate for Progression-Free Survival in Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Receiving Gefitinib

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Il; Kim, Sun Young; Kim, Ju Ock; Jung, Sung Soo; Park, Hee Sun; Moon, Jae Young; Chung, Chae Uk; Kim, Song Soo; Seo, Jae Hee

    2015-01-01

    Background The efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) therapy can be measured based on the rate of treatment response, based on the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria or progression-free survival (PFS). However, there are some patients harboring sensitive EGFR mutations who responded poorly to EGFR-TKI therapy. In addition, there is variability in the PFS after EGFR-TKI treatment. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of the medical records of 85 patients with non-small cell lung cancer, who had achieved a stable disease or better response at the first evaluation of treatment response, after receiving a 2-month course of gefitinib. We calculated the tumor shrinkage rate (TSR) by measuring the longest and perpendicular diameter of the main mass on computed tomography before, and 2 months after, gefitinib therapy. Results There was a significant positive correlation between the TSR and PFS (R=0.373, p=0.010). In addition, a simple linear regression analysis showed that the TSR might be an indicator for the PFS (B±standard error, 244.54±66.79; p=0.001). On univariate analysis, the sex, histologic type, smoking history and the number of prior chemotherapy regimens, were significant prognostic factors. On multivariate regression analysis, both the TSR (β=0.257, p=0.029) and adenocarcinoma (β=0.323, p=0.005) were independent prognostic factors for PFS. Conclusion Our results showed that the TSR might be an early prognostic indicator for PFS in patients receiving EGFR-TKI therapy. PMID:26508917

  8. Prostate-specific antigen nadir after high-dose-rate brachytherapy predicts long-term survival outcomes in high-risk prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Takefumi; Ishiyama, Hiromichi; Tabata, Ken-ichi; Komori, Shouko; Sekiguchi, Akane; Ikeda, Masaomi; Kurosaka, Shinji; Fujita, Tetsuo; Kitano, Masashi; Hayakawa, Kazushige; Iwamura, Masatsugu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the prognostic value of prostate-specific antigen nadir (nPSA) after high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy in clinically non-metastatic high-risk prostate cancer patients. Material and methods Data from 216 patients with high-risk or locally advanced prostate cancer who underwent HDR brachytherapy and external beam radiation therapy with long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) between 2003 and 2008 were analyzed. The median prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level at diagnosis was 24 ng/ml (range: 3-338 ng/ml). The clinical stage was T1c-2a in 55 cases (26%), T2b-2c in 48 (22%), T3a in 75 (35%), and T3b-4 in 38 (17%). The mean dose to 90% of the planning target volume was 6.3 Gy/fraction of HDR brachytherapy. After 5 fractions, external beam radiation therapy with 10 fractions of 3 Gy was administered. All patients initially underwent neoadjuvant ADT for at least 6 months, and adjuvant ADT was continued for 36 months. The median follow-up was 7 years from the start of radiotherapy. Results The 7-year PSA relapse-free rate among patients with a post-radiotherapy nPSA level of ≤ 0.02 ng/ml was 94%, compared with 23% for patients with higher nPSA values (HR = 28.57; 95% CI: 12.04-66.66; p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that the nPSA value after radiotherapy was a significant independent predictor of biochemical failure, whereas pretreatment predictive values for worse biochemical control including higher level of initial PSA, Gleason score ≥ 8, positive biopsy core rate ≥ 67%, and T3b-T4, failed to reach independent predictor status. The 7-year cancer-specific survival rate among patients with a post-radiotherapy nPSA level of ≤ 0.02 ng/ml was 99%, compared with 82% for patients with higher nPSA values (HR = 32.25; 95% CI: 3.401-333.3; p = 0.002). Conclusions A post-radiotherapy nPSA value of ≤ 0.02 ng/ml was associated with better long-term biochemical tumor control even if patients had pretreatment predictive values for worse

  9. A 4-year follow-up study of a rural community with endemic Chagas' disease*

    PubMed Central

    Puigbó, J. J.; Rhode, J. R. Nava; Barrios, H. García; Yépez, C. Gil

    1968-01-01

    The paper reports on a 4-year follow-up study that represents the continuation of a previous cross-sectional study on Chagas' disease carried out in a rural community (Belén) in Venezuela. The earlier study included 1210 persons all over 5 years of age out of a total of 1656 inhabitants and demonstrated a high prevalence of Chagas' infection (47.3%) and a high rate of Chagas' disease seropositivity among those with chronic myocardial heart disease (84.8%); heart disease was found in 17.3% of persons studied. The follow-up study was based on 812 persons and established that in the sample the frequency of Chagas' infection was 16.3% and that of heart disease 2.2%. Clinical, electrocardiographic and radiological analyses were made on patients with previous heart disease as well as on new patients. Different evolutive electrocardiographic patterns have been found, including variations ranging from normal to definitively abnormal. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2 PMID:4974002

  10. Modified Cisplatin/Interferon α-2b/Doxorubicin/Fluorouracil (PIAF) chemotherapy in patients with no hepatitis or cirrhosis is associated with improved response rate, resectability and survival of initially unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kaseb, Ahmed O.; Shindoh, Junichi; Patt, Yehuda Z.; Roses, Robert E.; Zimmitti, Giuseppe; Lozano, Richard D.; Hassan, Manal M.; Hassabo, Hesham M.; Curley, Steven A.; Aloia, Thomas A.; Abbruzzese, James L.; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purposes of this study was to evaluate the factors associated with response rate, resectability, and survival after cisplatin/interferon α-2b/doxorubicin/5-flurouracil (PIAF) combination therapy in patients with initially unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patients and Methods The study included two groups of patients treated with conventional high-dose PIAF (n=84) between 1994 and 2003 and those without hepatitis or cirrhosis treated with modified PIAF (n=33) between 2003 and 2012. Tolerance of chemotherapy, best radiographic response, rate of conversion to curative surgery, and overall survival were analyzed and compared between the two groups, and multivariate and logistic regression analyses were applied to identify predictors of response and survival. Results The modified PIAF group had a higher median number of PIAF cycles (4 vs. 2, P = .049), higher objective response rate (36% vs. 15%, P = .013), higher rate of conversion to curative surgery (33% vs. 10%, P = .004), and longer median overall survival (21.3 vs. 10.6 months, P = .002). Multivariate analyses confirmed that positive hepatitis B serology (hazard ratio [HR], 1.68; 95% CI, 1.08 to 2.59) and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status ≥2 (HR, 1.75; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.93) were associated with worse survival while curative surgical resection after PIAF treatment (HR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.35) was associated with improved survival. Conclusions In patients with initially unresectable HCC, the modified PIAF regimen in patients with no hepatitis or cirrhosis is associated with improved response, resectability, and survival. PMID:23821538

  11. Treatment and survival among 1594 patients with ATL.

    PubMed

    Katsuya, Hiroo; Ishitsuka, Kenji; Utsunomiya, Atae; Hanada, Shuichi; Eto, Tetsuya; Moriuchi, Yukiyoshi; Saburi, Yoshio; Miyahara, Masaharu; Sueoka, Eisaburo; Uike, Naokuni; Yoshida, Shinichiro; Yamashita, Kiyoshi; Tsukasaki, Kunihiro; Suzushima, Hitoshi; Ohno, Yuju; Matsuoka, Hitoshi; Jo, Tatsuro; Amano, Masahiro; Hino, Ryosuke; Shimokawa, Mototsugu; Kawai, Kazuhiro; Suzumiya, Junji; Tamura, Kazuo

    2015-12-10

    Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a malignancy of mature T lymphocytes caused by human T-lymphotropic virus type I. Intensive combination chemotherapy and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have been introduced since the previous Japanese nationwide survey was performed in the late 1980s. In this study, we delineated the current features and management of ATL in Japan. The clinical data were collected retrospectively from the medical records of patients diagnosed with ATL between 2000 and 2009, and a total of 1665 patients' records were submitted to the central office from 84 institutions in Japan. Seventy-one patients were excluded; 895, 355, 187, and 157 patients with acute, lymphoma, chronic, and smoldering types, respectively, remained. The median survival times were 8.3, 10.6, 31.5, and 55.0 months, and 4-year overall survival (OS) rates were 11%, 16%, 36%, and 52%, respectively, for acute, lymphoma, chronic, and smoldering types. The number of patients with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was 227, and their median survival time and OS at 4 years after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was 5.9 months and 26%, respectively. This study revealed that the prognoses of the patients with acute and lymphoma types were still unsatisfactory, despite the recent progress in treatment modalities, but an improvement of 4-year OS was observed in comparison with the previous survey. Of note, one-quarter of patients who could undergo transplantation experienced long survival. It is also noted that the prognosis of the smoldering type was worse than expected. PMID:26361794

  12. Gender Differences in the Self-Rated Health-Mortality Association: Is It Poor Self-Rated Health that Predicts Mortality or Excellent Self-Rated Health that Predicts Survival?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benyamini, Yael; Blumstein, Tzvia; Lusky, Ayala; Modan, Baruch

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates gender differences in the association between self-rated health (SRH) and mortality. This association has been well-documented, but findings regarding gender differences are inconsistent. The specific objectives were (a) to examine these differences in a short and a long time frame, (b) to examine these differences…

  13. Prostate-Specific Antigen at 4 to 5 Years After Low-Dose-Rate Prostate Brachytherapy Is a Strong Predictor of Disease-Free Survival

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, Andrea C.; Morris, W. James; Lapointe, Vincent; Hamm, Jeremy; Keyes, Mira; Pickles, Tom; McKenzie, Michael; Spadinger, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine (1) the prognostic utility of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration at 45 to 60 months (48mPSA) after low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy (LDR-PB); (2) the predictors of 48mPSA; and (3) the prognostic utility of directional trends between PSA levels at 24, 36, and 48 months after LDR-PB. Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2008, 2223 patients with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer received LDR-PB monotherapy. A cohort of 1434 of these patients was identified with a documented 48mPSA and no evidence of disease relapse prior to the 48mPSA. In addition, a subset of this cohort (n=585) was identified with ≥72 months of follow-up and documented PSA values at both 24 and 36 months after implantation. Results: Median follow-up time was 76 months. Eight-year Kaplan-Meier disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 100% vs 73.4% for patients with 48mPSA ≤0.2 vs those with >0.2 ng/mL; 99.1% versus 53.8% for a 48mPSA threshold of ≤0.4 versus >0.4 ng/mL, respectively; and 97.3% versus 0% for a threshold of ≤1.0 versus >1.0 ng/mL, respectively. On multivariate analysis, the only factor predictive of DFS was 48mPSA (P<.0001). On subset analysis (n=585), 29 patients had a PSA rise (defined as >0.2 ng/mL) between 24 and 36 months, 24 patients had a rise between 36 and 48 months, and 11 patients had rises over both intervals. Failure rates in these patients were 52%, 79%, and 100%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, initial PSA, androgen deprivation therapy, and dose to 90% of the prostate significantly correlated with 48mPSA but together accounted for only ∼5% of its total variance. Conclusions: The 48mPSA after LDR-PB is highly predictive of long-term DFS. Patients with 48mPSA ≤0.4 ng/mL had a <1% risk of disease relapse at 8 years, whereas all patients with 48mPSA >1.0 ng/mL relapsed. Consecutive PSA rises of >0.2 ng/mL from 24 to 36 months and from 36 to 48 months were also highly predictive of subsequent failure.

  14. Anticancer compound ABT-263 accelerates apoptosis in virus-infected cells and imbalances cytokine production and lowers survival rates of infected mice.

    PubMed

    Kakkola, L; Denisova, O V; Tynell, J; Viiliäinen, J; Ysenbaert, T; Matos, R C; Nagaraj, A; Ohman, T; Kuivanen, S; Paavilainen, H; Feng, L; Yadav, B; Julkunen, I; Vapalahti, O; Hukkanen, V; Stenman, J; Aittokallio, T; Verschuren, E W; Ojala, P M; Nyman, T; Saelens, X; Dzeyk, K; Kainov, D E

    2013-01-01

    ABT-263 and its structural analogues ABT-199 and ABT-737 inhibit B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), BCL2L1 long isoform (Bcl-xL) and BCL2L2 (Bcl-w) proteins and promote cancer cell death. Here, we show that at non-cytotoxic concentrations, these small molecules accelerate the deaths of non-cancerous cells infected with influenza A virus (IAV) or other viruses. In particular, we demonstrate that ABT-263 altered Bcl-xL interactions with Bcl-2 antagonist of cell death (Bad), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), uveal autoantigen with coiled-coil domains and ankyrin repeats protein (UACA). ABT-263 thereby activated the caspase-9-mediated mitochondria-initiated apoptosis pathway, which, together with the IAV-initiated caspase-8-mediated apoptosis pathway, triggered the deaths of IAV-infected cells. Our results also indicate that Bcl-xL, Bcl-2 and Bcl-w interact with pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that sense virus constituents to regulate cellular apoptosis. Importantly, premature killing of IAV-infected cells by ABT-263 attenuated the production of key pro-inflammatory and antiviral cytokines. The imbalance in cytokine production was also observed in ABT-263-treated IAV-infected mice, which resulted in an inability of the immune system to clear the virus and eventually lowered the survival rates of infected animals. Thus, the results suggest that the chemical inhibition of Bcl-xL, Bcl-2 and Bcl-w could potentially be hazardous for cancer patients with viral infections. PMID:23887633

  15. Hydrophobic Surfaces of Spacecraft Components Enhance the Aggregation of Microorganisms and May Lead to Higher Survival Rates of Bacteria on Mars Landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuerger, Andrew C.; Kern, Roger G.

    2004-01-01

    In order to minimize the forward contamination of Mars, spacecraft are assembled under cleanroom conditions that require several procedures to clean and sterilize components. Surface characteristics of spacecraft materials may contribute to microbial survival on the surface of Mars by protecting spores from sterilizing agents, including UV irradiation. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of surface characteristics of several spacecraft materials on the survival of Bacillus subtilis spores under simulated Martian conditions.

  16. Preoperative [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Standardized Uptake Value of Neck Lymph Nodes Predicts Neck Cancer Control and Survival Rates in Patients With Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Pathologically Positive Lymph Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, C.-T.; Chang, J.T.-C.; Wang, H.-M.; Ng, S.-H.; Hsueh, C.; Lee, L.-Y.; Lin, C.-H.; Chen, I-H.; Huang, S.-F.

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: Survival in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) depends heavily on locoregional control. In this prospective study, we sought to investigate whether preoperative maximum standardized uptake value of the neck lymph nodes (SUVnodal-max) may predict prognosis in OSCC patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 120 OSCC patients with pathologically positive lymph nodes were investigated. All subjects underwent a [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) scan within 2 weeks before radical surgery and neck dissection. All patients were followed up for at least 24 months after surgery or until death. Postoperative adjuvant therapy was performed in the presence of pathologic risk factors. Optimal cutoff values of SUVnodal-max were chosen based on 5-year disease-free survival (DFS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and overall survival (OS). Independent prognosticators were identified by Cox regression analysis. Results: The median follow-up for surviving patients was 41 months. The optimal cutoff value for SUVnodal-max was 5.7. Multivariate analyses identified the following independent predictors of poor outcome: SUVnodal-max {>=}5.7 for the 5-year neck cancer control rate, distant metastatic rate, DFS, DSS, and extracapsular spread (ECS) for the 5-year DSS and OS. Among ECS patients, the presence of a SUVnodal-max {>=}5.7 identified patients with the worst prognosis. Conclusion: A SUVnodal-max of 5.7, either alone or in combination with ECS, is an independent prognosticator for 5-year neck cancer control and survival rates in OSCC patients with pathologically positive lymph nodes.

  17. Melatonin treatment of embryo donor and recipient ewes during anestrus affects their endocrine status, but not ovulation rate, embryo survival or pregnancy.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, T G; Robinson, J J; Aitken, R P; Robertson, I S

    1998-04-01

    Thirty-two Border Leicester x Scottish Blackface ewes that lambed in March were individually penned with their lambs from April 16th and given daily an oral dose of 3 mg melatonin at 1500 h (Group M). A further 32 acted as controls (Group C). Within each group half were used as embryo donors (Group D) following superovulation and half received embryos (Group R) following an induced estrus. Prior to weaning on 21 May ewes received ad libitum a complete diet providing 9 megajoules (MJ) of metabolizable energy and 125 g/kg crude protein. Thereafter each received 1.6 kg of the diet daily. In early June each ewe received an intravaginal device (300 mg progesterone) inserted for 12 d. Donors were superovulated with 4 i.m. injections of porcine FSH 12 h apart, commencing 24 h before progesterone withdrawal. Ovulation in recipients was induced with 800 IU PMSG injected i.m. at progesterone removal. Donor ewes were inseminated 52 h after progesterone withdrawal. Embryos were collected 4 d later and transferred to recipients. Melatonin suppressed plasma prolactin (P < 0.001) and advanced estrus (P < 0.05) and timing of the LH peak (P < 0.05). These events also occurred earlier in donors than in recipients (P < 0.01). Mean (+/- SEM) ovulation rates for melatonin-treated and control donors were 5.5 +/- 0.71 and 4.7 +/- 0.66, respectively (NS). Corresponding recipient values were 3.3 +/- 0.40 and 3.4 +/- 0.39 (NS). Mean (+/- SEM) embryo yields were 2.9 +/- 0.64 and 2.6 +/- 0.73 for melatonin-treated (n = 15) and control (n = 16) donors, respectively, and for the 12 ewes per treatment that supplied embryos, corresponding numbers classified as viable were 2.7 +/- 0.47 and 2.3 +/- 0.61 (NS). Following transfer, 57% of embryos developed to lambs when both donor and recipient received melatonin, 86% when only the donor received melatonin, 91% when only the recipient received melatonin, and 67% when neither received melatonin (NS). Thus, embryo survival following transfer was not

  18. High-dose total-body irradiation and autologous marrow reconstitution in dogs: dose-rate-related acute toxicity and fractionation-dependent long-term survival

    SciTech Connect

    Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.; Weiden, P.L.; Schumacher, D.; Shulman, H.; Graham, T.; Thomas, E.D.

    1981-11-01

    Beagle dogs treated by total-body irradiation (TBI) were given autologous marrow grafts in order to avoid death from marrow toxicity. Acute and delayed non-marrow toxicities of high single-dose (27 dogs) and fractionated TBI (20 dogs) delivered at 0.05 or 0.1 Gy/min were compared. Fractionated TBI was given in increments of 2 Gy every 6 hr for three increments per day. Acute toxicity and early mortality (<1 month) at identical total irradiation doses were comparable for dogs given fractionated or single-dose TBI. With single-dose TBI, 14, 16, and 18 Gy, respectively, given at 0.05 Gy/min, 0/5, 5/5, and 2/2 dogs died from acute toxicity; with 10, 12, and 14 Gy, respectively, given at 0.1 Gy/min, 1/5, 4/5, and 5/5 dogs died acutely. With fractionated TBI, 14 and 16 Gy, respectively, given at 0.1 Gy/min, 1/5, 4/5, and 2/2 dogs died auctely. Early deaths were due to radiation enteritis with or without associated septicemia (29 dogs; less than or equal to Day 10). Three dogs given 10 Gy of TBI at 0.1 Gy/min died from bacterial pneumonia; one (Day 18) had been given fractionated and two (Days 14, 22) single-dose TBI. Fifteen dogs survived beyond 1 month; eight of these had single-dose TBI (10-14 Gy) and all died within 7 months of irradiation from a syndrome consisting of hepatic damage, pancreatic fibrosis, malnutrition, wasting, and anemia. Seven of the 15 had fractionated TBI, and only one (14 Gy) died on Day 33 from hepatic failure, whereas 6 (10-14 Gy) are alive and well 250 to 500 days after irradiation. In conclusion, fractionated TBI did not offer advantages over single-dose TBI with regard to acute toxicity and early mortality; rather, these were dependent upon the total dose of TBI. The total acutely tolerated dose was dependent upon the exposure rate; however, only dogs given fractionated TBI became healthy long-term survivors.

  19. Universal SAT® Policy Boosts 4-Year College Enrollment. Info to Go™ 2015-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurwitz, Michael; Smith, Jonathan; Niu, Sunny; Howell, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Maine replaced its existing high school statewide assessment with the SAT® and administered the exam to almost all public high school juniors. A primary goal of this policy change was to increase 4-year college enrollment by public school students in Maine. This brief report provides an overview of the data, research methodology employed, as well…

  20. My Body. Developing an Early Interest in Science: A Preschool Science Curriculum. (4-Year-Olds).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summer, Gail L.; Giovannini, Kathleen

    This teaching guide on the body for 4-year-olds is based on a modification of the "Plan, Do, Review" approach to education devised by High Scope in Ypsilanti, Michigan. First implemented as an outreach early childhood program in North Carolina, the science activities described in this guide can be adapted to various early childhood environments.…

  1. Social Context Effects in 2- and 4-Year-Olds' Selective versus Faithful Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Yue; Kushnir, Tamar

    2014-01-01

    This study asked whether children's tendency to imitate selectively (ignore causally unnecessary actions) versus faithfully ("overimitate" causally unnecessary actions) varies across ages and social contexts. In the first experiment, 2-year-olds and 4-year-olds were randomly assigned to play 1 of 3 prior games with a demonstrator: a…

  2. Relations of Television Viewing and Reading: Findings from a 4-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennemoser, Marco; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored the long-term effects of television viewing on the development of children's reading competencies. Among 2 cohorts of German children (N[subscript 1] = 165, N[subscript 2] = 167), measures of television viewing were collected over 4 years, and tests of reading speed and reading comprehension were administered…

  3. Institutional Characteristics and Student Retention in Public 4-Year Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relative importance of specific student and institutional factors and characteristics on the retention of students at public, 4-year colleges and universities in the United States based on aggregate student cohort and institutional data. The overriding goal of this research was to identify any…

  4. Transfer between Community Colleges and 4-Year Colleges: The All-American Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagedorn, Linda Serra; Moon, Hye Sun; Cypers, Scott; Maxwell, William E.; Lester, Jaime

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors introduce a novel way, using the metaphor of a baseball game, to evaluate and measure community college student progress for those whose stated goal is to transfer to a 4-year institution and, ultimately, earn a bachelor's degree. The proposed framework of "the Transfer Game" is an outgrowth of the Transfer and…

  5. Through Another's Eyes: Elements in the Eyes of a 4-Year-Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Xuan

    2004-01-01

    My husband, who is a scientist, often brings home different scientific journals and magazines to read, and my 4-year-old son, Nicholas J. Hu, likes to flip through them. A recent issue of Chemical and Engineering News (September, 2003) caught his interest more than usual because there were stories of different elements. Nicholas has been able to…

  6. Creppy Crawlies. Developing an Early Interest in Science: A Preschool Science Curriculum. (4-Year-Olds).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summer, Gail L.; Giovannini, Kathleen

    This science teaching guide on insects and animals for 4-year-old children is based on a modification of the "Plan, Do, Review" approach to education devised by High Scope in Ypsilanti, Michigan. First implemented as an outreach early childhood program in North Carolina, the science activities described in this guide can be adapted to various…

  7. Vowel Confusion Patterns in Adults during Initial 4 Years of Implant Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaalimaa, Taina T.; Sorri, Martti J.; Laitakari, Jaakko; Sivonen, Ville; Muhli, Arto

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated adult cochlear implant users' (n == 39) vowel recognition and confusions by an open-set syllable test during 4 years of implant use, in a prospective repeated-measures design. Subjects' responses were coded for phoneme errors and estimated by the generalized mixed model. Improvement in overall vowel recognition was highest…

  8. Predictors of Funded Scholarly Activity at 4-Year, Non-Doctoral Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Maria Montoro

    2010-01-01

    This study seeks to develop a model of institutional supports necessary for faculty to succeed as funded scholars at 4-year non-doctoral colleges and universities. Research was conducted using secondary data analysis on a pre-existing, cross-sectional database from the 2004 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty. Expectancy theory was used as the…

  9. A Gender Comparison of the Cooperation of 4-Year-Old Children in Classroom Activity Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Genan T.; Hilton, Sterling C.; Wouden-Miller, Melissa

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the proportion of cooperative play in 4-year-old children across centers (housekeeping, block, manipulative, and computer) and gender in a natural classroom setting. Eighty-four white, middle-income children (41 boys and 43 girls, mean age = 55 months) were videotaped during free-play for 30 minutes per day for four weeks in…

  10. Measuring Implicit Attitudes of 4-Year-Olds: The Preschool Implicit Association Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cvencek, Dario; Greenwald, Anthony G.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2011-01-01

    The Preschool Implicit Association Test (PSIAT) is an adaptation of an established social cognition measure (IAT) for use with preschool children. Two studies with 4-year-olds found that the PSIAT was effective in evaluating (a) attitudes toward commonly liked objects ("flowers"="good") and (b) gender attitudes ("girl"="good" or "boy"="good"). The…

  11. Preventing and Responding to Bullying: An Elementary School's 4-Year Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormac, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Bullying continues to be a pervasive problem in schools and requires a schoolwide approach. This article describes the action research process used to examine the impact of a 4-year, K-5 school bullying prevention and intervention. The school counselors collaborated with students, staff, and parents to implement the program, and collected and…

  12. Collaboration between 3- and 4-Year-Olds in Self-Initiated Play on Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on a study of collaborative music-making on instruments among 3- and 4-year-old children. An area equipped with musical instruments was provided as a free-choice play option in an early childhood setting and a fixed camera recorded the children's play continuously during a number of visits. From the total 17 h of data five…

  13. Examining the Role of Advanced Placement[R] Exam Participation in 4-Year College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chajewski, Michael; Mattern, Krista D.; Shaw, Emily J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between Advanced Placement (AP) exam participation and enrollment in a 4-year postsecondary institution. A positive relationship was expected given that the primary purpose of offering AP courses is to allow students to engage in college-level academic work while in high school, and…

  14. [Multiloculated mesenteric and retroperitoneal tumour - lymphatic malformation - in a 4-year-old girl].

    PubMed

    Obuchowicz, Anna; Łoboda, Magdalena; Madziara, Wojciech; Jarecka, Beata

    2015-01-01

    Mesenteric cysts are rare and mostly benign abdominal tumours in children. Majority of them are lymphangiomas (lymphatic malformations). We diagnosed a broad, multiloculated mesenteric and retroperitoneal cyst, associated with intensive inflammation, in a 4-year-old girl. Surgical therapy was fully successful.

  15. Overweight among Low-Income Texas Preschoolers Aged 2 to 4 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kayan L.; Castrucci, Brian C.; Gossman, Ginger; Mirchandani, Gita; Sayegh, M. Aaron; Moehlman, Clint; Van Eck, Mary; Petrilli, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Determine child/maternal factors associated with overweight among 2- to 4-year-olds enrolled in the Texas Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Design: Matched child and maternal data collected by self-report of the mother during WIC certification. These data were extracted from existing…

  16. Preparing the Workforce: Early Childhood Teacher Preparation at 2- and 4-year Institutions of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early, Diane M.; Winton, Pamela J.

    2001-01-01

    Details investigation of characteristics of early childhood teacher preparation programs at 2- and 4-year institutions through a survey of program chairs or directors. Presents findings on faculty characteristics, including racial makeup; course and practica requirements; comparisons between early childhood programs and the institutions as whole…

  17. Markers for Persistent Specific Expressive Language Delay in 3-4-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everitt, Andrea; Hannaford, Philip; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Background: Identifying 3-4-year-olds who are most at risk of persisting language difficulties, and possibly specific language impairment (SLI), is difficult due to the natural variation of language in young children. In older children, markers for SLI have been identified that differentiate between children with and without SLI. It is not known…

  18. Hepatocellular Carcinoma Incidence, Mortality, and Survival Trends in the United States From 1975 to 2005

    PubMed Central

    Altekruse, Sean F.; McGlynn, Katherine A.; Reichman, Marsha E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Incidence rates are increasing in the United States. Monitoring incidence, survival, and mortality rates within at-risk populations can facilitate control efforts. Methods Age-adjusted incidence trends for HCC were examined in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registries from 1975 to 2005. Age-specific rates were examined for birth cohorts born between 1900 and 1959. Age-adjusted incidence and cause-specific survival rates from 1992 to 2005 were examined in the SEER 13 registries by race/ethnicity, stage, and treatment. United States liver cancer mortality rates were also examined. Results Age-adjusted HCC incidence rates tripled between 1975 and 2005. Incidence rates increased in each 10-year birth cohort from 1900 through the 1950s. Asians/Pacific Islanders had higher incidence and mortality rates than other racial/ethnic groups, but experienced a significant decrease in mortality rates over time. From 2000 to 2005, marked increases in incidence rates occurred among Hispanic, black, and white middle-aged men. Between 1992 and 2004, 2- to 4-year HCC survival rates doubled, as more patients were diagnosed with localized and regional HCC and prognosis improved, particularly for patients with reported treatment. Recent 1-year survival rates remained, however, less than 50%. Conclusion HCC incidence and mortality rates continue to increase, particularly among middle-aged black, Hispanic, and white men. Screening of at-risk groups and treatment of localized-stage tumors may contribute to increasing HCC survival rates in the United States. More progress is needed. PMID:19224838

  19. [The influence of consecutive application of B-190 preparation and interleukin-1beta on survival rate and bone marrow hematopoiesis of irradiated mice].

    PubMed

    Grebeniuk, A N; Zatsepin, V V; Aksenova, N V; Nazarov, V B; Vlasenko, T N

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of research was the experimental estimation of efficiency of consecutive application of a radioprotector B-190 and means of emergency therapy of radiating injury interleukin-1beta at acute irradiation. An estimation of treatment-and-prophylactic action of the given circuit of introduction of preparations carried out by studying 30 day-survival and average life expectancy of the lost animals, research of bone marrow hemopoiesis. It is established, that consecutive application of a radioprotector B-190 in a doze of 50 mg/kg for 15 mines up to an irradiation and interleukin-1beta in a doze of 50 mkg/kg through 15 mines after irradiating increases survival and prevents decrease in quantity of CFU-S9 at the irradiated mice in the greater degree, than their isolated introduction. PMID:20968059

  20. [Comment on the intervention of Traditional Chinese Medicine on survival rates of patients living with human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome].

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Liu, Zhibin; Yang, Jiping; Guo, Huijun; Xu, Liran

    2016-06-01

    Despite many differences between Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and conventional medicine, the use of TCM in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is increasingly recognized and accepted by patients. Recent research findings on the benefits of Chinese herbal medicine on long-term survival in patients with HIV/AIDS are encouraging and hopeful, but inconclusive. More research is needed.

  1. Risk Factors Associated With Complication Rates of Becker-Type Expander Implants in Relation to Implant Survival: Review of 314 Implants in 237 Patients.

    PubMed

    Taboada-Suarez, Antonio; Brea-García, Beatriz; Magán-Muñoz, Fernando; Couto-González, Iván; González-Álvarez, Eduardo

    2015-12-01

    Although autologous tissue reconstruction is the best option for breast reconstruction, using implants is still a reliable and simple method, offering acceptable aesthetic results. Becker-type implants are permanent implants that offer a 1-stage reconstructive option. A retrospective study was carried out in our center reviewing the clinical reports of 237 patients, in whom a total of 314 Becker-type prostheses were implanted. Overall survival was calculated using a Kaplan-Meier estimate. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios. At the end of the study, 214 expanders (68.15%) presented no complications, 40 (12.47%) developed significant capsular contracture, in 27 (8.60%) infection occurred, 24 (7.64%) suffered minor complications, and 9 (2.87%) ruptured. The mean survival time of the expanders was 120.41 months (95% CI: 109.62, 131.19). Radiotherapy, chemotherapy, high Molecular Immunology Borstel, age, mastectomy performed previously to the implant, ductal carcinoma, advanced tumoral stage, experience of the surgeon, and Becker 35-type implants were significantly related to a high number of complications in relation to the survival of the implants. Cox regression analysis revealed that the main risk factors for the survival of expander implants included radiotherapy and surgeon experience. The complication hazard ratio or relative risk caused by these 2 factors was 1.976 and 1.680, respectively. One-stage reconstruction using Becker-type expanders is an appropriate, simple, and reliable option in delayed breast reconstruction in patients who have not received radiotherapy and as long as the procedure is carried out by surgeons skilled in the technique.

  2. Are Gender Differences in the Relationship between Self-Rated Health and Mortality Enduring? Results from Three Birth Cohorts in Melton Mowbray, United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiers, Nicola; Jagger, Carol; Clarke, Michael; Arthur, Antony

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess whether there is an enduring gender difference in the ability of self-rated health to predict mortality and investigate whether self-reported physical health problems account for this difference. Design and Methods: Cox models for 4-year survival were fitted to data from successive cohorts aged…

  3. Prosthetic rehabilitation of a patient with gastroesophageal reflux disease: 4-year followup.

    PubMed

    Okida, Ricardo Coelho; Dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Vechiato Filho, Aljomar José; Andreotti, Agda Marobo; de Medeiros, Rodrigo Antonio; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho

    2014-01-01

    The gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the main causes of dental erosion. The aim of this case presented is to describe the prosthetic rehabilitation of a patient with GERD after 4 years of followup. A 33-year-old male patient complained about tooth sensitivity. The lingual surface of the maxillary anterior teeth and the cusps of the upper and lower posterior teeth presented wear. It was suspected that the feeling of heartburn reported by the patient associated with the intake of sports supplements (isotonics) was causing gastroesophageal changes. The patient was referred to a gastroenterologist and was diagnosed with GERD. Dental treatment was performed with metal-free crowns and porcelain veneers after medical treatment of the disease. With the change in eating habits, the treatment of GERD and lithium disilicate ceramics provided excellent cosmetic results after 4 years and the patient reported satisfaction with the treatment.

  4. Conjunctival lymphangioma in a 4-year-old girl revealed tuberous sclerosis complex

    PubMed Central

    Freiberg, Florentina Joyce; Kunstmann, Erdmute; König, Thomas; Matlach, Juliane; Kampik, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background: To present a case of conjunctival lymphangioma in a 4-year-old girl with tuberous sclerosis complex. Methods/results: A 4-year-old girl presented with a relapsing cystic lesion of the bulbar conjunctiva in the right eye with string-of-pearl-like dilation of lymphatic vessels and right-sided facial swelling with mild pain. Best-corrected vision was not impaired. Examination of the skin revealed three hypomelanotic macules and a lumbal Shagreen patch. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings displayed minimal enhancement of buccal fat on the right side. Cranial and orbital MRI showed signal enhancement in the right cortical and subcortical areas. Genetic analysis revealed a heterozygous deletion encompassing exon 1 and 2 of the TSC1 gene (tuberous sclerosis complex 1 gene), confirming the diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis complex. Conclusion: In conjunctival lymphangioma, tuberous sclerosis complex should be considered as the primary disease. PMID:27703871

  5. Intentional replantation of a maxillary molar. A 4-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, A Y

    1982-12-01

    A 4-year follow-up of a case treated by intentional replantation has been presented. A maxillary molar with a metal core was diagnosed as having acute apical periodontitis, endodontic treatment was determined to be impractical, and the tooth was extracted. Three roots canals which could not be detected roentgenologically were discovered and, after apicoectomy and reversed amalgam filling, the tooth was replanted in its socket. The follow-up reveals periapical repair with no signs of root resorption or ankylosis.

  6. Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years).

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W; Spence, John C

    2012-04-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines are in response to a call from health and health care professionals, child care providers, and fitness practitioners for guidance on sedentary behaviour in the early years. The guideline development process followed the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II framework. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between sedentary behaviour (predominantly screen time) and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged <1 year; toddlers aged 1-2 years; preschoolers aged 3-4 years). Evidence from the review was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The new guidelines include a preamble to provide context, followed by the specific recommendations. The final guidelines benefitted from extensive on-line consultations with input from >900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guidelines state: for healthy growth and development, caregivers should minimize the time infants (aged <1 year), toddlers (aged 1-2 years), and preschoolers (aged 3-4 years) spend being sedentary during waking hours. This includes prolonged sitting or being restrained (e.g., stroller, high chair) for more than 1 h at a time. For those under 2 years, screen time (e.g., TV, computer, electronic games) is not recommended. For children 2-4 years, screen time should be limited to under 1 h per day; less is better.

  7. Effects of a Full-Day Preschool Program on 4-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herry, Yves; Maltais, Claire; Thompson, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the effects of a full-day preschool program on 4-year-old children. The study compared the development of a group of children (N = 403) who attended the preschool program on a half-day basis during the 1999-2000 school year (the last year the half-day program was in place) with the development of a group of children (N = 418)…

  8. ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 increases thaw-survival rates and preserves stemness and differentiation potential of human Wharton's jelly stem cells after cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Gauthaman, Kalamegam; Fong, Chui-Yee; Subramanian, Arjunan; Biswas, Arijit; Bongso, Ariff

    2010-12-01

    The ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 inhibits apoptosis and increases proliferation of frozen-thawed cells. We examined the role of Y-27632 on human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly stem cells (hWJSCs) for (1) thaw-survival (2) proliferation and (3) preservation of stemness and differentiation potential after cryopreservation. hWJSCs were allotted to 4 groups [Gp I: Untreated hWJSC controls; Gp II: Pretreatment with Y-27632 (10 μM) for 24 h before freezing; Gp III: Y-27632 (10 μM) in freezing medium and Gp IV: Pretreatment with Y-27632 (10 μM) for 24 h and inclusion in freezing medium]. All groups were frozen using a rapid freezing method and stored at -196°C in liquid nitrogen for 90 days before evaluation for apoptosis, cell proliferation, stemness and differentiation. After thawing, Groups II, III and IV showed improved cell attachment, increased thaw-survival (live/dead cell counts) and increased cell proliferation (Trypan blue and MTT assay) compared to controls. CD marker stemness profiles, morphology and normal karyotypes were maintained in the treatment groups after thawing and there was no obvious evidence of apoptosis (Annexin V-FITC and TUNEL assays). After thawing, qRT-PCR demonstrated up-regulation of the anti-apoptotic BCL2 gene and down-regulation of the pro-apoptotic BAX gene and cell cycle regulators (P53 and P21) in the treatment groups. Treated frozen-thawed hWJSCs from all groups differentiated into a neuronal phenotype (neuronal morphology and expression of GFAP, β-3 tubulin and SOX2). Increased thaw-survival and retention of stemness and differentiation potential in hWJSCs following cryopreservation is useful for their storage in cord blood banks for future regenerative medicine purposes.

  9. Surface characteristics of spacecraft components affect the aggregation of microorganisms and may lead to different survival rates of bacteria on Mars landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuerger, Andrew C.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Hintze, Paul E.; Kern, Roger G.

    2005-01-01

    Layers of dormant endospores of Bacillus subtilis HA101 were applied to eight different spacecraft materials and exposed to martian conditions of low pressure (8.5 mbar), low temperature (-10 degrees C), and high CO(2) gas composition and irradiated with a Mars-normal ultraviolet (UV-visible- near-infrared spectrum. Bacterial layers were exposed to either 1 min or 1 h of Mars-normal UV irradiation, which simulated clear-sky conditions on equatorial Mars (0.1 tau). When exposed to 1 min of Mars UV irradiation, the numbers of viable endospores of B. subtilis were reduced three to four orders of magnitude for two brands of aluminum (Al), stainless steel, chemfilm-treated Al, clear-anodized Al, and black-anodized Al coupons. In contrast, bacterial survival was reduced only one to two orders of magnitude for endospores on the non-metal materials astroquartz and graphite composite when bacterial endospores were exposed to 1 min of Mars UV irradiation. When bacterial monolayers were exposed to 1 h of Mars UV irradiation, no viable bacteria were recovered from the six metal coupons listed above. In contrast, bacterial survival was reduced only two to three orders of magnitude for spore layers on astroquartz and graphite composite exposed to 1 h of Mars UV irradiation. Scanning electron microscopy images of the bacterial monolayers on all eight spacecraft materials revealed that endospores of B. subtilis formed large aggregates of multilayered spores on astroquartz and graphite composite, but not on the other six spacecraft materials. It is likely that the formation of multilayered aggregates of endospores on astroquartz and graphite composite is responsible for the enhanced survival of bacterial cells on these materials.

  10. Surface Characteristics of Spacecraft Components Affect the Aggregation of Microorganisms and May Lead to Different Survival Rates of Bacteria on Mars Landers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuerger, Andrew W.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Hintze, Paul E.; Kern, Roger G.

    2005-08-01

    Layers of dormant endospores of Bacillus subtilis HA101 were applied to eight different spacecraft materials and exposed to martian conditions of low pressure (8.5 mbar), low temperature (-10°C), and high CO2 gas composition and irradiated with a Mars-normal ultraviolet (UV-visible- near-infrared spectrum. Bacterial layers were exposed to either 1 min or 1 h of Mars-normal UV irradiation, which simulated clear-sky conditions on equatorial Mars (0.1 tau). When exposed to 1 min of Mars UV irradiation, the numbers of viable endospores of B. subtilis were reduced three to four orders of magnitude for two brands of aluminum (Al), stainless steel, chemfilm-treated Al, clear-anodized Al, and black-anodized Al coupons. In contrast, bacterial survival was reduced only one to two orders of magnitude for endospores on the non-metal materials astroquartz and graphite composite when bacterial endospores were exposed to 1 min of Mars UV irradiation. When bacterial monolayers were exposed to 1 h of Mars UV irradiation, no viable bacteria were recovered from the six metal coupons listed above. In contrast, bacterial survival was reduced only two to three orders of magnitude for spore layers on astroquartz and graphite composite exposed to 1 h of Mars UV irradiation. Scanning electron microscopy images of the bacterial monolayers on all eight spacecraft materials revealed that endospores of B. subtilis formed large aggregates of multilayered spores on astroquartz and graphite composite, but not on the other six spacecraft materials. It is likely that the formation of multilayered aggregates of endospores on astroquartz and graphite composite is responsible for the enhanced survival of bacterial cells on these materials.

  11. First Pregnancy, Somatic and Psychological Status of a 4-Year-Old Child Born following Annexin V TESA Sperm Separation

    PubMed Central

    Lukaszuk, Krzysztof; Wcislo, Monika; Liss, Joanna; Stachowicz, Anna; Jakiel, Grzegorz; Lukaszuk, Mariusz; Pastuszek, Ewa; Woclawek-Potocka, Izabela; Galvao, Antonio; Bialobrzeska, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sperm DNA integrity is a crucial paternal factor affecting fertilization and pregnancy rates, as well as embryo development. Case The present case report describes the successful pregnancy after testicular sperm aspiration (TESA) combined with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) (TESA-ICSI) in a couple where the male presented high sperm DNA fragmentation. In order to sort damaged sperm presenting DNA fragmentation, magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) with annexin V microbeads (MACS Miltenyi Biotec, Teterow, Germany) was used. Conclusion The authors present the first description of a successful medical case using TESA-ICSI annexin V sperm sorting. Additionally, a follow-up of the child at the age of 4 years old was done. PMID:26495164

  12. The use of medicinal leeches in fingertip replantation without venous anastomosis - case report of a 4-year-old patient.

    PubMed

    Streit, L; Dvořák, Z; Novák, O; Stiborová, S; Veselý, J

    2014-01-01

    Replantation of amputated fingertip is a technical challenge to the microsurgeons. The success rate depends directly on the availability and the size of preserved vessels and on the degree of their damage. In distal digital amputations, veins are usually not easily recovered or even absent, and thus high number of replantation procedures fails because of the venous congestion. The use of medicinal leeches is a treatment option for venous congestion of replanted fingers. A case report of a 4-year-old patient after fingertip replantation without venous anastomosis when temporary venous drainage was provided by an application of medicinal leeches is reported together with literature review. We observed an unusually short duration of venous congestion (48 hours) and there was no need of blood transfusion.

  13. Mineral trioxide aggregate pulpotomy in autotransplanted immature mandibular third molar with a 4-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Dharmani, Umesh; Jadhav, Ganesh Ranganath; Kaur Dharmani, Charan Kamal; Devi, Takhellambam Premlata

    2016-01-01

    Autotransplantation is the surgical transposition of a tooth from its original site to another, replacing a lost or a compromised tooth by another tooth, usually the third molar in the same individual. This technique is considered a viable method due to its high success rate, well-grounded treatment option, provided the case selection and the procedure followed is within the acceptable limits. Autotransplantation is considered as an alternative approach of oral rehabilitations in a conservative manner mainly in young patients with compromised financial conditions to perform a high cost treatment. It is a fast way to recover function and aesthetic properties without interfering with the orofacial growth. This report describes a successful 4-year follow-up of a case of immediately performed mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) pulpotomy in autotransplantated mandibular left immature third molar to replace the mandibular left first molar that was extracted due to extensive carious lesion. PMID:27217648

  14. Mineral trioxide aggregate pulpotomy in autotransplanted immature mandibular third molar with a 4-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Dharmani, Umesh; Jadhav, Ganesh Ranganath; Kaur Dharmani, Charan Kamal; Devi, Takhellambam Premlata

    2016-01-01

    Autotransplantation is the surgical transposition of a tooth from its original site to another, replacing a lost or a compromised tooth by another tooth, usually the third molar in the same individual. This technique is considered a viable method due to its high success rate, well-grounded treatment option, provided the case selection and the procedure followed is within the acceptable limits. Autotransplantation is considered as an alternative approach of oral rehabilitations in a conservative manner mainly in young patients with compromised financial conditions to perform a high cost treatment. It is a fast way to recover function and aesthetic properties without interfering with the orofacial growth. This report describes a successful 4-year follow-up of a case of immediately performed mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) pulpotomy in autotransplantated mandibular left immature third molar to replace the mandibular left first molar that was extracted due to extensive carious lesion.

  15. Continuous up to 4 Years Entecavir Treatment of HBV-Infected Adolescents – A Longitudinal Study in Real Life

    PubMed Central

    Pawłowska, Małgorzata; Smok, Beata; Rajewski, Paweł; Wietlicka-Piszcz, Magdalena; Halota, Waldemar; Tretyn, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the long-term (up to 4 years) efficacy and safety of entecavir ETV treatment and analysed the significance of baseline and on-treatment factors in long-term ETV outcomes in adolescents with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). We determined the cumulative virological and serological outcomes of 44 adolescents with CHB receiving ETV for up to 4 years. To investigate the dynamics of HBV DNA, ALT activity and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion over time and their associations with the considered factors, generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used. The cumulative rates of undetectable HBV DNA (<20 IU/ml) and HBeAg seroconversion after 4 years were 89.7% and 55.4%, respectively. In the study group, we showed that having undetectable HBV DNA at the 6th or 12th month of therapy predicted the achievement of a sustained response rate (SRR, defined as the loss of HBV DNA, loss of HBeAg and ALT normalization) at year 3 of ETV therapy (P = 0.048, OR = 5.83; P = 0.012; OR = 14.57, respectively). The GEE analysis indicated that of the different factors, the duration of ETV therapy had a strong impact on the achievement of virological suppression, HBeAg seroconversion and SRR in adolescents. Each month after the initiation of therapy, the odds of loss of HBV DNA increased by approximately 5% (OR = 1.05, P<0.0001), on average. Additionally, the GEE analysis revealed that adolescents with an age at infection of ≥10 years had 3 times higher odds of achieving undetectable HBV DNA than patients with a younger infection age (OR = 3.67, P = 0.028). None of the ETV-treated patients reported significant adverse effects. ETV is an effective and safe treatment option for adolescents with CHB. Undetectable HBV DNA in the 6th and/or 12th month of ETV treatment and older age at infection could predict maintained virological suppression. PMID:27685782

  16. Application of a direct fluorescence-based live/dead staining combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization for assessment of survival rate of Bacteroides spp. in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Savichtcheva, Olga; Okayama, Noriko; Ito, Tsukasa; Okabe, Satoshi

    2005-11-01

    To evaluate the viability and survival ability of fecal Bacteroides spp. in environmental waters, a fluorescence-based live/dead staining method using ViaGram Red+ Bacterial gram stain and viability kit was combined with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probe (referred as LDS-FISH). The proposed LDS-FISH was a direct and reliable method to detect fecal Bacteroides cells and their viability at single-cell level in complex microbial communities. The pure culture of Bacteroides fragilis and whole human feces were dispersed in aerobic drinking water and incubated at different water temperatures (4 degrees C, 13 degrees C, 18 degrees C, and 24 degrees C), and then the viability of B. fragilis and fecal Bacteroides spp. were determined by applying the LDS-FISH. The results revealed that temperature and the presence of oxygen have significant effects on the survival ability. Increasing the temperature resulted in a rapid decrease in the viability of both pure cultured B. fragilis cells and fecal Bacteroides spp. The live pure cultured B. fragilis cells could be found at the level of detection in drinking water for 48 h of incubation at 24 degrees C, whereas live fecal Bacteroides spp. could be detected for only 4 h of incubation at 24 degrees C. The proposed LDS-FISH method should provide useful quantitative information on the presence and viability of Bacteroides spp., a potential alternative fecal indicator, in environmental waters.

  17. Beyond Survival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffenson, Dave

    1975-01-01

    The author argues that environmentalists need to realize that the present ecological crisis is essentially a value crisis, not merely a fight for survival alone. He envisions a complete value change for the human population and advocates the incorporation of value strategies into all environmental education programs immediately. (MA)

  18. Coyote removal, understory cover, and survival of white-tailed deer neonates: Coyote Control and Fawn Survival

    SciTech Connect

    Kilgo, John C.; Vukovich, Mark; Ray, H. Scott; Shaw, Christopher E.; Ruth, Charles

    2014-09-01

    Predation by coyotes (Canis latrans) on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) neonates has led to reduced recruitment in many deer populations in southeastern North America. This low recruitment combined with liberal antlerless deer harvest has resulted in declines in some deer populations, and consequently, increased interest in coyote population control. We investigated whether neonate survival increased after coyote removal, whether coyote predation on neonates was additive to other mortality sources, and whether understory vegetation density affected neonate survival. We monitored neonate survival for 4 years prior to (2006–2009) and 3 years during (2010–2012) intensive coyote removal on 3 32-km2 units on the United States Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site, South Carolina. We removed 474 coyotes (1.63 coyotes/km2 per unit per year), reducing coyote abundance by 78% from pre-removal levels. The best model (wi = 0.927) describing survival probability among 216 radio-collared neonates included a within-year quadratic time trend variable, date of birth, removal treatment, and a varying removal year effect. Under this model, survival differed between pre-treatment and removal periods and it differed among years during the removal period, being >100% greater than pre-treatment survival (0.228) during the first removal year (0.513), similar to pre-treatment survival during the second removal year (0.202), and intermediate during the third removal year (0.431). Despite an initial increase, the overall effect of coyote removal on neonate survival was modest. Mortality rate attributable to coyote predation was lowest during the first removal year (0.357) when survival was greatest, but the mortality rate from all other causes did not differ between the pretreatment period and any year during removals, indicating that coyote predation acted as an additive source of mortality. Survival probability was not related to

  19. Survival of captive-reared Puerto Rican Parrots released in the Caribbean National Forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, T.H.; Collazo, J.A.; Vilella, F.J.

    2005-01-01

    We report first-year survival for 34 captive-reared Puerto Rican Parrots (Amazona vittata) released in the Caribbean National Forest, Puerto Rico between 2000 and 2002. The purpose of the releases were to increase population size and the potential number of breeding individuals of the sole extant wild population, and to refine release protocols for eventual reintroduction of a second wild population elsewhere on the island. After extensive prerelease training, we released 10 parrots in 2000, 16 parrots in 2001, and eight parrots in 2002 ranging in age from 1-4 years old. All birds were equipped with radio-transmitters to monitor survival. The overall first-year survival estimate for the 34 parrots was 41% (CI = 22%-61%). Only one parrot died within the first week postrelease, with most (94%) surviving for at least eight weeks after release. Most (54%) documented mortalities were due to raptor predation, which claimed 21% of all released parrots. A captive-reared bird (male, age one), released in 2001, paired with a wild female and fledged two young in 2004. We also calculated survival based on 0% and 50% of observed predation losses and found hypothetical survival rates of 72% and 54%, respectively. Rigorous prerelease training and acclimation was believed to have improved initial postrelease parrot survival, and releasing mixed age-class groups suggests the potential for shortening the time to recruitment. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2005.

  20. Extreme rapid warming yields high functional survivals of vitrified 8-cell mouse embryos even when suspended in a half-strength vitrification solution and cooled at moderate rates to −196°C✰

    PubMed Central

    Seki, Shinsuke; Jin, Bo; Mazu, Peter

    2014-01-01

    To cryopreserve cells, it is essential to avoid intracellular ice formation during cooling and warming. One way to do so is to subject them to procedures that convert cell water into a non-crystalline glass. Current belief is that to achieve this vitrification, cells must be suspended in very high concentrations of glass-inducing solutes (i.e., ≥ 6 molal) and cooled at very high rates (i.e., >> 1,000°C/min). We report here that both these beliefs are incorrect with respect to the vitrification of 8-cell mouse embryos. In this study, precompaction 8-cell embryos were vitrified in several dilutions of EAFS10/10 using various cooling rates and warming rates. Survival was based on morphology, osmotic functionality, and on the ability to develop to expanded blastocysts. With a warming rate of 117,500°C/min, the percentages of embryos vitrified in 1×, 0.75×, and 0.5× EAFS that developed to blastocysts were 93%, 92%, and 86%, respectively. And the percentages of morphological survivors that developed to expanded blastocysts were 100%, 92%, and 97%, respectively. Even when the solute concentration of the EAFS was reduced to 33% of normal, we obtained 40% functional survival of these 8-cell embryos. PMID:24333434

  1. Nutritional status of the opiate dependent persons after 4 years of methadone maintenance treatment.

    PubMed

    Kolarzyk, Emilia; Pach, Dorota; Wojtowicz, Barbara; Szpanowska-Wohn, Agnieszka; Szurkowska, Magdalena

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the nutritional status of opiate dependent patients before and after 4 years of participation in the methadone maintenance treatment. The examinations were performed in 30 opiates addicted persons (7 women and 23 men). The initial examination (exam 1) was done during the patients qualification for the methadone program, preceding methadone administration and final examination (exam 2) after 4 years of the treatment. In order to estimate the nutritional status body mass, the height, the arm circumference and the thickness of the triceps and subscapular fat-skin folds were measured. On the basis of them the BMI and mid arm muscle circumference (MAMC) were counted. The measurements of the body composition (using the bioimpedance method) were performed. The changes between the results of subsequent examination were tested using the t-Student test. In the examination that took place after 4 years of follow-up, body weight loss in the group of women was observed (mean--1.7 kg). It was followed by the decrease of BMI value (from 20.3 to 19.8 kg/m2). In both examinations the percentage of fatty tissue in general body mass was significantly below recommended values (10.7% in both examinations--the recommended values are 20%-22%). In the group of men an increase in body weight (mean--8.8 kg) and BMI value (from 23.3 to 25.9 kg/m2) was noticed. Arm circumference, muscle arm circumference and fat-skin folds values were increased. The analysis of particular body components showed increased fatty body mass (11.9% in the first and 18.5% in the second examination--the recommended values 16-19%) together with the decrease of lean body mass and body water.

  2. Undergraduate public health at 4-year institutions: it's here to stay.

    PubMed

    Riegelman, Richard K; Albertine, Susan

    2011-02-01

    Undergraduate public health education at 4-year institutions, those with and without graduate public health education, has grown rapidly during the first decade of the 21st century since the IOM recommended that "all undergraduates have access to education in public health." Much of this growth has been guided by the Educated Citizen and Public Health initiative, a collaboration of arts and sciences and public health educators that encourages introductory course work in public health, epidemiology, and global health plus undergraduate minors and majors in public health. The Educated Citizen and Public Health model, as opposed to existing professional models, envisions core public health education based on the Association of American Colleges and Universities' Liberal Education and America's Promise essential learning outcomes that encourage experiential learning, evidence-based thinking, a global and community focus, plus integration and synthesis. Public health education in this model provides solid generalist grounding for graduate education in public health as well as a range of graduate disciplines from the health professions to international affairs and from law to business. In addition, it helps ensure a broad range of college graduates who understand and support public health approaches. The Healthy People 2020 objective to increase the proportion of 4-year colleges and universities that offer minor or major in public health should help propel additional growth, especially in 4-year colleges without graduate public health education. Integrative curricula designed as part of the reform of undergraduate education provide opportunities to make evidence-based public health approaches available to a large number of undergraduates.

  3. Changes in Health Care Spending and Quality 4 Years into Global Payment

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zirui; Rose, Sherri; Safran, Dana G.; Landon, Bruce E.; Day, Matthew P.; Chernew, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Spending and quality under global budgets remain unknown beyond 2 years. We evaluated spending and quality measures during the first 4 years of the Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts Alternative Quality Contract (AQC). METHODS We compared spending and quality among enrollees whose physician organizations entered the AQC from 2009 through 2012 with those among persons in control states. We studied spending changes according to year, category of service, site of care, experience managing risk contracts, and price versus utilization. We evaluated process and outcome quality. RESULTS In the 2009 AQC cohort, medical spending on claims grew an average of $62.21 per enrollee per quarter less than it did in the control cohort over the 4-year period (P<0.001). This amount is equivalent to a 6.8% savings when calculated as a proportion of the average post-AQC spending level in the 2009 AQC cohort. Analogously, the 2010, 2011, and 2012 cohorts had average savings of 8.8% (P<0.001), 9.1% (P<0.001), and 5.8% (P = 0.04), respectively, by the end of 2012. Claims savings were concentrated in the outpatient-facility setting and in procedures, imaging, and tests, explained by both reduced prices and reduced utilization. Claims savings were exceeded by incentive payments to providers during the period from 2009 through 2011 but exceeded incentive payments in 2012, generating net savings. Improvements in quality among AQC cohorts generally exceeded those seen elsewhere in New England and nationally. CONCLUSIONS As compared with similar populations in other states, Massachusetts AQC enrollees had lower spending growth and generally greater quality improvements after 4 years. Although other factors in Massachusetts may have contributed, particularly in the later part of the study period, global budget contracts with quality incentives may encourage changes in practice patterns that help reduce spending and improve quality. (Funded by the Commonwealth Fund and others

  4. Giant ductal aneurysm in an asymptomatic 4-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Ritu; Smith, Clinton; Greenberg, Bruce S; Jaquiss, Robert D B

    2009-03-01

    Ductal aneurysm is a rare but potentially fatal condition. We report the case of an asymptomatic 4-year-old girl who was noted to have a murmur and with further evaluation by echocardiography and computed tomographic angiography was diagnosed with a giant ductal aneurysm. The aneurysm occupied a large space in the mediastinum, compressed the pulmonary arteries, and was in close proximity to the sternum. At surgery, the aneurysm was successfully resected after careful separation from adjacent structures. Because the anterolateral wall of the ascending aorta was noted to be extraordinarily thinned-out, it was replaced with a patch.

  5. [Awake Nasotracheal Intubation for a 4-Year-old Boy with an Oral Penetrating Toothbrush Injury].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Naoya; Ando, Kokichi; Saito, Kazutomo; Toyama, Hiroaki; Fudeta, Hiroto; Yamauchi, Masanori

    2015-09-01

    We report a case of an oral penetrating injury caused by a toothbrush in a 4-year-old 17-kg boy. The toothbrush was lodged in the right cervical region through the oral cavity, and emergency surgery for removal was planned under general anesthesia. Although mask ventilation was not possible because of the protruding toothbrush handle, awake nasotracheal intubation was successfully performed with a fiber-scope and intravenous fentanyl 25 μg. We conclude that appropriate analgesics could facilitate awake intubation in pediatric patients.

  6. Defining and measuring stabilization of patients during 4 years of intensive community support.

    PubMed

    Wright, R G; Heiman, J R; Shupe, J; Olvera, G

    1989-10-01

    The first 4 years of an intensive community support program were evaluated in terms of key variables of patient stabilization. Patients (N = 196) had previously demonstrated an inability to manage themselves without repeated and/or lengthy hospitalizations. During program participation, there were significant reductions in hospital days and events (80%), jail incarcerations and charges, billings per patient, and stressful events. Patients reported increased satisfaction both with their lives and the program. The results support the value of continued multidimensional and multimethod examinations of patient stabilization.

  7. Where there's smoke there's fire--ear candling in a 4-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Hornibrook, Jeremy

    2012-12-14

    It is estimated that one-third of the United States population subscribes to alternative medical therapies (Eisenberg et al, NEJM 1993;328:246-252). Ear candles are popular products promoted by alternative health practitioners, and sold by health shops and even over the Internet. They have been promoted for ear and sinus discomfort, rhinitis, sinusitis, glue ear, colds, flu, migraine, tinnitus, but particularly for removal of ear wax (cerumen). In this case report, a 4-year-old girl in New Zealand presents with otitis media and during the course of the ear examination white deposits were noticed on her eardrum; this was confirmed as being caused by ear candling.

  8. Case Report: Traumatic anterior cerebral artery aneurysm in a 4-year old child

    PubMed Central

    Munakomi, Sunil; Tamrakar, Karuna; Chaudhary, Pramod; Bhattarai, Binod; Cherian, Iype

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic intracranial aneurysm in the proximal part of the anterior cerebral artery in the pediatric population has not been documented so far. Here we report the case of a 4 year-old child who developed a pseudo-aneurysm after minor head trauma and was managed successfully with trapping of the aneurysm. A ventriculo-peritoneal shunt was placed as the child became dependent on extraventricular drain during the post-operative period. The patient made excellent recovery in neurological status within 1 month of post-operative clinical follow up.

  9. Idiopathic myelofibrosis with generalized periostitis in a 4-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Walia, Mandeep; Mehta, Rajesh; Paul, Premila; Saluja, Sumita; Kapoor, Sujala; Sharma, Monika

    2005-05-01

    Idiopathic myelofibrosis, a chronic myeloproliferative disorder of unknown origin, is characterized by splenomegaly, extramedullary hematopoiesis, leukoerythroblastosis, teardrop erythrocytes, and myelofibrosis. It is a rare disorder in childhood. The authors describe a 4-year-old girl with features consistent with idiopathic myelofibrosis, who also had generalized solid laminated periosteal reaction involving all long bones. The presence of thrombocytopenia at the onset and lack of leukocytosis were in contrast to the reported features seen in children. Recent case reports describe a relatively indolent course in children. Spontaneous remissions have also been described in pediatric cases. The fulminant course of this patient without any features of malignant transformation was noteworthy in this regard.

  10. Case Report: Traumatic anterior cerebral artery aneurysm in a 4-year old child

    PubMed Central

    Munakomi, Sunil; Tamrakar, Karuna; Chaudhary, Pramod; Bhattarai, Binod; Cherian, Iype

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic intracranial aneurysm in the proximal part of the anterior cerebral artery in the pediatric population has not been documented so far. Here we report the case of a 4 year-old child who developed a pseudo-aneurysm after minor head trauma and was managed successfully with trapping of the aneurysm. A ventriculo-peritoneal shunt was placed as the child became dependent on extraventricular drain during the post-operative period. The patient made excellent recovery in neurological status within 1 month of post-operative clinical follow up. PMID:27635218

  11. Crown fracture of the mandibular second primary molars in a 4-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Anshula; Patel, Jalark; Sujan, Sunanda Gul; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-01-01

    Dental traumas are highly prevalent lesions in primary teeth, but crown root fractures are rare. Mostly anterior tooth segment is more commonly involved. Posterior crown root fractures are very rare. A 4-year-old girl reported to our paediatric dentistry department with a 10-day history of severe pain and discomfort in both right and left posterior teeth region. The child was suffering from severe and continuous pain and was unable to chew food. After an examination a fracture was noticed in intraoral periapical radiograph and treatment plan was decided to preserve the affected teeth. PMID:23780765

  12. Predictive indicators for adjustment in 4-year-old children whose mothers used amphetamine during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Billing, L; Eriksson, M; Steneroth, G; Zetterström, R

    1988-01-01

    Psychosocial factors that could be used as predictive indicators for adjustment of 4-year-old children whose mothers had used amphetamine during pregnancy were studied by means of simple and multivariate correlation analyses. The following statistically significant correlations were found: Length of maternal alcohol and drug abuse during pregnancy was correlated negatively with the child's adjustment as were numbers of paternal criminal convictions, number of stress factors of the mother, and number of earlier children born to the mother. Paternal criminality was associated with the outcome, regardless of amount of contact between father and child.

  13. Social context effects in 2- and 4-year-olds' selective versus faithful imitation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Kushnir, Tamar

    2014-03-01

    This study asked whether children's tendency to imitate selectively (ignore causally unnecessary actions) versus faithfully (overimitate causally unnecessary actions) varies across ages and social contexts. In the first experiment, 2-year-olds and 4-year-olds were randomly assigned to play 1 of 3 prior games with a demonstrator: a mimicry game, an instrumental game, or a noninteractive control game. They then participated in a puzzle-box imitation task in which the demonstrator performed 1 causally necessary and 1 unnecessary action to retrieve an object. Whereas 4-year-olds imitated faithfully across all conditions, 2-year-olds were more likely to imitate faithfully after a mimicry game and to imitate selectively after an instrumental game. Experiment 2 showed no effect of playing a mimicry game with a different experimenter prior to the imitation trials, thus ruling out 2-year-olds' faithful imitation being the result of motor priming or training effects. The results are discussed in terms of children's social affiliation and social-cognitive inferences.

  14. Traffic-related air pollution is related to interrupter resistance in 4-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Eenhuizen, Esther; Gehring, Ulrike; Wijga, Alet H; Smit, Henriette A; Fischer, Paul H; Brauer, Michael; Koppelman, Gerard H; Kerkhof, Marjan; de Jongste, Johan C; Brunekreef, Bert; Hoek, Gerard

    2013-06-01

    Outdoor air pollution has been associated with decrements in lung function and growth of lung function in school-age children. Lung function effects have not been examined in preschoolers, with the exception of one study on minute ventilation in newborns. Our goal was to assess the relationship between long- and short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and interrupter resistance in 4-year-old children. Lung function was measured using the interrupter resistance method in children participating in a Dutch birth cohort study. Long-term average air pollution concentrations of fine particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide and soot at the residential address at birth were assessed using land-use regression models. Daily average air pollution concentrations on the day of clinical examination were obtained from the Dutch National Air Quality Monitoring Network. Significant associations were found between long-term average air pollution concentrations and interrupter resistance. Interrupter resistance increased by 0.04 kPa·s·L(-1) (95% CI 0.01-0.07) per interquartile range increase (3.3 μg·m(-3)) in fine particle concentration. Short-term exposure was not associated with interrupter resistance. Long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution was associated with increased interrupter resistance in 4-year-old children, supporting previous birth cohort studies reporting effects of air pollution on subjectively reported respiratory symptoms in preschool children.

  15. Nocardia brasiliensis infection mimicking juvenile idiopathic arthritis in a 4-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Kapur, Nitin; Adib, Navid; Grimwood, Keith

    2013-11-01

    Nocardia are ubiquitous environmental saprophytes that cause pneumonia and disseminated disease in immunocompromised patients. They can also cause localized cutaneous and soft tissue infections in healthy people after direct percutaneous inoculation. Nocardia arthritis is rare in both forms of the disease. Here we present the first published case of a child with septic arthritis caused by N brasiliensis. Importantly, this otherwise well 4-year-old girl had no known history of trauma but presented with transient cutaneous lesions and a 6-week history of arthritis involving the right fourth digit proximal interphalangeal joint without accompanying fever or raised systemic inflammatory markers. She received a diagnosis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis and underwent antiinflammatory and immunosuppressant therapy. After 2 months she developed frank septic arthritis, which necessitated a surgical joint washout, from which an intraoperative swab grew N brasiliensis. The patient received 6 months of high-dose trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and remains well more than 4 years after treatment. This unusual case highlights the importance of considering an indolent infection from slow-growing organisms, including Nocardia, when diagnosing the oligoarthritis subtype of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. This is especially relevant when a single joint is involved and response to antiinflammatory therapy is suboptimal because antiinflammatory agents may mask evolving signs of infection.

  16. Total Body Fat Content versus BMI in 4-Year-Old Healthy Swedish Children

    PubMed Central

    Forsum, Elisabet; Flinke Carlsson, Eva; Henriksson, Hanna; Henriksson, Pontus; Löf, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity, a worldwide problem, is generally identified using BMI (body mass index). However, this application of BMI has been little investigated in children below 5 years of age due to a lack of appropriate methods to assess body composition. Therefore, we used air displacement plethysmography (ADP) to study 4.4-year old boys and girls since this method is accurate in young children if they accept the requirements of the measurement. The purpose was to analyze the relationship between BMI and body fat in these children. Body composition was assessed in 76 (43 boys, 33 girls) of the 84 children brought to the measurement session. Boys and girls contained 25.2 ± 4.7 and 26.8 ± 4.0% body fat, respectively. BMI-based cut-offs for overweight could not effectively identify children with a high body fat content. There was a significant (P < 0.001) but weak (r = 0.39) correlation between BMI and body fat (%). In conclusion, requirements associated with a successful assessment of body composition by means of ADP were accepted by most 4-year-olds. Furthermore, BMI-based cut-offs for overweight did not effectively identify children with a high body fatness and BMI explained only a small proportion of the variation in body fat (%) in this age group. PMID:23606949

  17. A longitudinal study of the emerging self from 9 months to the age of 4 years

    PubMed Central

    Kristen-Antonow, Susanne; Sodian, Beate; Perst, Hannah; Licata, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if children’s early responsiveness toward social partners is developmentally related to their growing concept of self, as reflected in their mirror self-recognition (MSR) and delayed self-recognition (DSR). Thus, a longitudinal study assessed infants’ responsiveness (e.g., smiling, gaze) toward social partners during the still-face (SF) task and a social imitation game and related it to their emerging MSR and DSR. Thereby, children were tested at regular time points from 9 months to 4 years of age. Results revealed significant predictive relations between children’s responsiveness toward a social partner in the SF task at 9 months and their MSR at 24 months. Further, interindividual differences in children’s awareness of and responsiveness toward being imitated in a social imitation game at 12 months proved to be the strongest predictor of children’s DSR at 4 years, while some additional variance was explained by MSR at 24 months and verbal intelligence. Overall, findings suggest a developmental link between children’s early awareness of and responsiveness toward the social world and their later ability to form a concept of self. PMID:26113834

  18. Reporting outcome measures of functional constipation in children from 0 to 4 years of age.

    PubMed

    Kuizenga-Wessel, Sophie; Benninga, Marc A; Tabbers, Merit M

    2015-04-01

    Functional constipation (FC) often begins in the first year of life. Although standard definitions and criteria have been formulated to describe FC, these are rarely used in research and clinical practice. The aim of the study is to systematically assess how definitions and outcome measures are defined in therapeutic randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of infants with FC. PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched. Studies were included if it was a (systematic review of) therapeutic RCT, children ≤4 years old, they had FC, a clear definition of constipation was provided, and were written in English. Quality was assessed using the Delphi list. A total of 1115 articles were found; only 5 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Four different definitions were used, of which only 2 used the internationally accepted Rome III criteria. Defecation frequency was used as primary outcome in all included trials and stool consistency in 3 trials. Two trials involving infants investigated new infant formulas, whereas the third RCT evaluated the efficacy of a probiotic strain. The 2 trials including infants up to 4 years of age compared polyethylene glycol without electrolytes (PEG4000) with lactulose and milk of magnesia. All of the trials used nonvalidated parental diaries. Different definitions and outcome measures for FC in infants are used in RCTs. Disappointingly, there is a lack of well-designed therapeutic trials in infants with constipation. To make comparison between future trials possible, standard definitions, core outcomes, and validated instruments are needed.

  19. Social context effects in 2- and 4-year-olds' selective versus faithful imitation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Kushnir, Tamar

    2014-03-01

    This study asked whether children's tendency to imitate selectively (ignore causally unnecessary actions) versus faithfully (overimitate causally unnecessary actions) varies across ages and social contexts. In the first experiment, 2-year-olds and 4-year-olds were randomly assigned to play 1 of 3 prior games with a demonstrator: a mimicry game, an instrumental game, or a noninteractive control game. They then participated in a puzzle-box imitation task in which the demonstrator performed 1 causally necessary and 1 unnecessary action to retrieve an object. Whereas 4-year-olds imitated faithfully across all conditions, 2-year-olds were more likely to imitate faithfully after a mimicry game and to imitate selectively after an instrumental game. Experiment 2 showed no effect of playing a mimicry game with a different experimenter prior to the imitation trials, thus ruling out 2-year-olds' faithful imitation being the result of motor priming or training effects. The results are discussed in terms of children's social affiliation and social-cognitive inferences. PMID:23978298

  20. Increase in child behavior problems among urban Brazilian 4-year olds: 1993 and 2004 Pelotas birth cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Matijasevich, Alicia; Murray, Elizabeth; Stein, Alan; Anselmi, Luciana; Menezes, Ana M; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio JD; Gigante, Denise P; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2014-01-01

    Background There are an increasing number of reports on time trends in child and adolescent psychological problems but none from low- and middle-income countries, and very few covering the preschool period. The aim was to investigate changes in preschool behavioral/emotional problems in two birth cohorts from a middle-income country born 11 years apart. Methods We analyzed data from the 1993 and 2004 Pelotas birth cohort studies from Brazil. A subsample of 4-year olds from the 1993 cohort (634) and all 4-year olds from the 2004 cohort (3750) were assessed for behavioral/emotional problems through maternal report using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Response rates in these two population-based cohorts were above 90%. Results We found a significant increase in CBCL total problems, internalizing and externalizing mean scores over the 11-year period. For 1993 and 2004 Pelotas cohorts, respectively, CBCL mean values (SE) total problems scores were 27.9 (0.8) and 34.7 (0.3); for internalizing scores, 5.7 (0.2) and 6.3 (0.1) and for externalizing scores, 12.4 (0.4) and 15.5 (0.1). After adjusting for confounding variables, the largest increase from 1993 to 2004 was identified in the aggressive behavior syndrome score (Cohen's d = .50), followed by the externalizing problem score (Cohen's d = .40) and CBCL total problem score (Cohen's d = .36), respectively. The rise in child psychological problems was more marked in children from families with fewer assets and with less educated mothers. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence for a substantial increase in preschool behavioral problems among children in Brazil over an 11-year period. PMID:24735354

  1. Survival Rate and Transcriptional Response upon Infection with the Generalist Parasite Beauveria bassiana in a World-Wide Sample of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Paparazzo, Francesco; Tellier, Aurélien; Stephan, Wolfgang; Hutter, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    The ability to cope with infection by a parasite is one of the major challenges for any host species and is a major driver of evolution. Parasite pressure differs between habitats. It is thought to be higher in tropical regions compared to temporal ones. We infected Drosophila melanogaster from two tropical (Malaysia and Zimbabwe) and two temperate populations (the Netherlands and North Carolina) with the generalist entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana to examine if adaptation to local parasite pressures led to differences in resistance. Contrary to previous findings we observed increased survival in temperate populations. This, however, is not due to increased resistance to infection per se, but rather the consequence of a higher general vigor of the temperate populations. We also assessed transcriptional response to infection within these flies eight and 24 hours after infection. Only few genes were induced at the earlier time point, most of which are involved in detoxification. In contrast, we identified more than 4,000 genes that changed their expression state after 24 hours. This response was generally conserved over all populations with only few genes being uniquely regulated in the temperate populations. We furthermore found that the American population was transcriptionally highly diverged from all other populations concerning basal levels of gene expression. This was particularly true for stress and immune response genes, which might be the genetic basis for their elevated vigor. PMID:26154519

  2. Survival Rate and Transcriptional Response upon Infection with the Generalist Parasite Beauveria bassiana in a World-Wide Sample of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Paparazzo, Francesco; Tellier, Aurélien; Stephan, Wolfgang; Hutter, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    The ability to cope with infection by a parasite is one of the major challenges for any host species and is a major driver of evolution. Parasite pressure differs between habitats. It is thought to be higher in tropical regions compared to temporal ones. We infected Drosophila melanogaster from two tropical (Malaysia and Zimbabwe) and two temperate populations (the Netherlands and North Carolina) with the generalist entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana to examine if adaptation to local parasite pressures led to differences in resistance. Contrary to previous findings we observed increased survival in temperate populations. This, however, is not due to increased resistance to infection per se, but rather the consequence of a higher general vigor of the temperate populations. We also assessed transcriptional response to infection within these flies eight and 24 hours after infection. Only few genes were induced at the earlier time point, most of which are involved in detoxification. In contrast, we identified more than 4,000 genes that changed their expression state after 24 hours. This response was generally conserved over all populations with only few genes being uniquely regulated in the temperate populations. We furthermore found that the American population was transcriptionally highly diverged from all other populations concerning basal levels of gene expression. This was particularly true for stress and immune response genes, which might be the genetic basis for their elevated vigor.

  3. Plasticity and rectangularity in survival curves

    PubMed Central

    Weon, Byung Mook; Je, Jung Ho

    2011-01-01

    Living systems inevitably undergo a progressive deterioration of physiological function with age and an increase of vulnerability to disease and death. To maintain health and survival, living systems should optimize survival strategies with adaptive interactions among molecules, cells, organs, individuals, and environments, which arises plasticity in survival curves of living systems. In general, survival dynamics in a population is mathematically depicted by a survival rate, which monotonically changes from 1 to 0 with age. It would be then useful to find an adequate function to describe complicated survival dynamics. Here we describe a flexible survival function, derived from the stretched exponential function by adopting an age-dependent shaping exponent. We note that the exponent is associated with the fractal-like scaling in cumulative mortality rate. The survival function well depicts general features in survival curves; healthy populations exhibit plasticity and evolve towards rectangular-like survival curves, as examples in humans or laboratory animals. PMID:22355622

  4. Early ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences after breast conservation affect survival: An analysis of the National Cancer Institute randomized trial

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Joseph P.; Danforth, David N.; Albert, Paul; Sciuto, Linda C. B.S.N.; Smith, Sharon L.; Camphausen, Kevin A.; Poggi, Matthew M. . E-mail: MMPoggi@Bethesda.med.navy.mil

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of an ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) after breast-conservation therapy (BCT) on survival. Methods and Materials: One hundred twenty-one women were randomized to BCT. Patients with an IBTR were analyzed to determine survival. Analysis was performed with Kaplan-Meier estimates, log-rank tests, and time-dependent covariate Cox models. Results: At a median follow-up of 18.4 years, 27 patients had an IBTR. The median survival time after IBTR was 13.1 years. The 5-year survival rate was 91.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 81.5-100%). The 10-year survival rate was 54.3% (95% CI, 35.8-82.6%). According to a Cox model with time-dependent covariates, the hazard ratio or relative risk of dying for those with an IBTR at <5.3 years after BCT relative to patients without an IBTR after BCT is 1.47 (95% CI, 1.02-2.12%; p = 0.04). The hazard ratio for those who relapse after 5.3 years is 0.59 (95% CI, 0.22-1.61%; p = 0.31). Age at randomization, original tumor size, and the presence of positive regional nodes at initial presentation were not found to be associated with decreased survival. Conclusions: There seems to be a significant association of early IBTR after BCT with decreased survival. Local control should be maximized.

  5. Anti-CD45 Pretargeted Radioimmunotherapy using Bismuth-213: High Rates of Complete Remission and Long-Term Survival in a Mouse Myeloid Leukemia Xenograft Model

    SciTech Connect

    Pagel, John M; Kenoyer, Aimee L; Back, Tom; Hamlin, Donald K; Wilbur, D Scott; Fisher, Darrell R; Park, Steven I; Frayo, Shani; Axtman, Amanda; Orgun, Nural; Orozoco, Johnnie; Shenoi, Jaideep; Lin, Yukang; Gopal, Ajay K; Green, Damian J; Appelbaum, Frederick R; Press, Oliver W

    2011-07-21

    Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT) using an anti-CD45 antibody (Ab)-streptavidin (SA) conjugate and DOTA-biotin labeled with β-emitting radionuclides has been explored as a strategy to decrease relapse and toxicity. α-emitting radionuclides exhibit high cytotoxicity coupled with a short path-length, potentially increasing the therapeutic index and making them an attractive alternative to β-emitting radionuclides for patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). Accordingly, we have used 213Bi in mice with human leukemia xenografts. Results demonstrated excellent localization of 213Bi-DOTA-biotin to tumors with minimal uptake into normal organs. After 10 minutes, 4.5 ± 1.1% of the injected dose of 213Bi was delivered per gram of tumor. α imaging demonstrated uniform radionuclide distribution within tumor tissue 45 minutes after 213Bi-DOTA-biotin injection. Radiation absorbed doses were similar to those observed using a β-emitting radionuclide (90Y) in the same model. We conducted therapy experiments in a xenograft model using a single-dose of 213Bi-DOTA-biotin given 24 hours after anti-CD45 Ab-SA conjugate. Among mice treated with anti-CD45 Ab-SA conjugate followed by 800 μCi of 213Bi- or 90Y-DOTA-biotin, 80% and 20%, respectively, survived leukemia-free for >100 days with minimal toxicity. These data suggest that anti-CD45 PRIT using an α-emitting radionuclide may be highly effective and minimally toxic for treatment of AML.

  6. Microbes in nature are limited by carbon and energy: the starving-survival lifestyle in soil and consequences for estimating microbial rates.

    PubMed

    Hobbie, John E; Hobbie, Erik A

    2013-01-01

    Understanding microbial transformations in soils is important for predicting future carbon sequestration and nutrient cycling. This review questions some methods of assessing one key microbial process, the uptake of labile organic compounds. First, soil microbes have a starving-survival life style of dormancy, arrested activity, and low activity. Yet they are very abundant and remain poised to completely take up all substrates that become available. As a result, dilution assays with the addition of labeled substrates cannot be used. When labeled substrates are transformed into (14)CO2, the first part of the biphasic release follows metabolic rules and is not affected by the environment. As a consequence, when identical amounts of isotopically substrates are added to soils from different climate zones, the same percentage of the substrate is respired and the same half-life of the respired (14)CO2 from the labeled substrate is estimated. Second, when soils are sampled by a variety of methods from taking 10 cm diameter cores to millimeter-scale dialysis chambers, amino acids (and other organic compounds) appear to be released by the severing of fine roots and mycorrhizal networks as well as from pressing or centrifuging treatments. As a result of disturbance as well as of natural root release, concentrations of individual amino acids of ~10 μM are measured. This contrasts with concentrations of a few nanomolar found in aquatic systems and raises questions about possible differences in the bacterial strategy between aquatic and soil ecosystems. The small size of the hyphae (2-10 μm diameter) and of the fine roots (0.2-2 mm diameter), make it very difficult to sample any volume of soil without introducing artifacts. Third, when micromolar amounts of labeled amino acids are added to soil, some of the isotope enters plant roots. This may be an artifact of the high micromolar concentrations applied.

  7. [Lineage switch - conversion of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia to acute myeloid leukaemia in 4 years old girl].

    PubMed

    Szpecht, Dawid; Derwich, Katarzyna; Wachowiak, Jacek; Konatkowska, Benigna; Dworacki, Grzegorz

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of a 4-year-old girl with diagnosed proB acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with co-expression CD33 antigen, treated according to Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia Intercontinental - Berlin Frankfurt Münster 2002 (ALL-IC BFM 2002) protocol for standard risk group. Haematological remission was obtained on day 33 of induction treatment (on time). During induction and consolidation therapy there were no early serious adverse effects. The late isolated bone marrow relapse of acute myeloid leukaemia, type 7 was noted in our patient. We recognized this case as a lineage switch acute lymphoblastic leukaemia to acute myeloid leukaemia. In spite of Ida Flag regimen and following Acute Myeloid Leukaemia - Berlin Frankfurt Münster 2004 (AML-BFM 2004) protocol were administered, the clinical and haematological remission was not achieved and the patient died because of disease progression (circulatory and respiratory insufficiency).

  8. From community college to 4-year institutions: Latinas' successful completion of STEM baccalaureate degrees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamudio, Rocio

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the narrative of Latina graduates who successfully navigated through community college and 4-year institutions in the STEM fields. Rather than focus on what these students lack as much of the current research does, the study explored what assets these students bring that supports their success in STEM fields. Utilizing an ethnographic interview approach, participants who attained STEM baccalaureates in California were interviewed. Qualitative findings revealed various experiences, attitudes, and cultural influences that led to successful completion of a STEM degree. First, the study found that successful community college Latina STEM graduates exhibit grit, are resilient, determined, and have positive attitudes about their underrepresentation in STEM. Second, participants sought after peer, faculty, and staff relationships that helped them be successful. Lastly, participants had the support of their families and reported a high level of connectedness to their culture. Implications, recommendations for practice, and directions for future research are discussed.

  9. [A 4-year-old girl with diarrhoea, paresis and mutism].

    PubMed

    Engan, Mette; Bjørlykke, John Asle; Moen, Gunnar; Lund, Kjetil Børve; Njølstad, Gro

    2016-09-01

    BACKGROUND Rotavirus is a common cause of gastroenteritis in children. Neurological manifestations associated with rotavirus infections are well described and range from benign afebrile convulsions to lethal encephalopathy or encephalitis.CASE PRESENTATION We present an uncommon neurological manifestation in a Caucasian child in the course of a rotavirus infection. A 4-year old girl presented with mutism, hypotonia and reduced consciousness. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffusion abnormalities in the splenium corpus callosum and bilaterally in the nuclei dentate in the cerebellum. She was diagnosed with rotavirus cerebellitis.INTERPRETATION Her clinical symptoms and the magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities were uncommon and previously described in only a few Caucasian children. The outcome has varied, and some children have shown long term neurological sequela. Treatment with immunoglobulins and corticosteroids has been used in similar cases, but there is no established treatment for this condition.

  10. Investigation of 4-year-old stabilised/solidified and accelerated carbonated contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Antemir, A; Hills, C D; Carey, P J; Magnié, M-C; Polettini, A

    2010-09-15

    The investigation of the pilot-scale application of two different stabilisation/solidification (S/S) techniques was carried out at a former fireworks and low explosives manufacturing site in SE England. Cores and granular samples were recovered from uncovered accelerated carbonated (ACT) and cement-treated soils (S/S) after 4 years to evaluate field-performance with time. Samples were prepared for microstructural examination and leaching testing. The results indicated that the cement-treated soil was progressively carbonated over time, whereas the mineralogy of the carbonated soil remained essentially unchanged. Distinct microstructures were developed in the two soils. Although Pb, Zn and Cu leached less from the carbonated soil, these metals were adequately immobilised by both treatments. Geochemical modeling of pH-dependent leaching data suggested that the retention of trace metals resulted from different immobilisation mechanisms operating in the two soils examined. PMID:20579807

  11. [Preclinical management of accidental methadone intoxication of a 4-year-old girl. Antagonist or intubation?].

    PubMed

    Hainer, C; Bernhard, M; Gries, A

    2004-10-01

    We report on the preclinical management of a 4-year-old child who was found in a comatose condition with respiratory failure after accidental ingestion of methadone. Emergency airway management was carried out with endotracheal intubation instead of administering the antagonist naloxone. The child could be extubated 12 h later and was released from hospital after 3 days with no neurological symptoms. The authors attempt to formulate an algorithm for the preclinical management of opioid intoxication with reference to the literature and own experience. Endotracheal intubation seems to be superior to the use of the antagonist naloxone, especially in a critical situation. This is the only way to ensure a rapid oxygenation with adequate airway protection and with the simultaneous avoidance of the side-effects of naloxone. A restrictive and critical administration of the opioid antagonist naloxone is recommended when there is suspicion of opioid ingestion but no signs of intoxication. PMID:15278196

  12. [A 4-year-old girl with diarrhoea, paresis and mutism].

    PubMed

    Engan, Mette; Bjørlykke, John Asle; Moen, Gunnar; Lund, Kjetil Børve; Njølstad, Gro

    2016-09-01

    BACKGROUND Rotavirus is a common cause of gastroenteritis in children. Neurological manifestations associated with rotavirus infections are well described and range from benign afebrile convulsions to lethal encephalopathy or encephalitis.CASE PRESENTATION We present an uncommon neurological manifestation in a Caucasian child in the course of a rotavirus infection. A 4-year old girl presented with mutism, hypotonia and reduced consciousness. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffusion abnormalities in the splenium corpus callosum and bilaterally in the nuclei dentate in the cerebellum. She was diagnosed with rotavirus cerebellitis.INTERPRETATION Her clinical symptoms and the magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities were uncommon and previously described in only a few Caucasian children. The outcome has varied, and some children have shown long term neurological sequela. Treatment with immunoglobulins and corticosteroids has been used in similar cases, but there is no established treatment for this condition. PMID:27686206

  13. Investigation of 4-year-old stabilised/solidified and accelerated carbonated contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Antemir, A; Hills, C D; Carey, P J; Magnié, M-C; Polettini, A

    2010-09-15

    The investigation of the pilot-scale application of two different stabilisation/solidification (S/S) techniques was carried out at a former fireworks and low explosives manufacturing site in SE England. Cores and granular samples were recovered from uncovered accelerated carbonated (ACT) and cement-treated soils (S/S) after 4 years to evaluate field-performance with time. Samples were prepared for microstructural examination and leaching testing. The results indicated that the cement-treated soil was progressively carbonated over time, whereas the mineralogy of the carbonated soil remained essentially unchanged. Distinct microstructures were developed in the two soils. Although Pb, Zn and Cu leached less from the carbonated soil, these metals were adequately immobilised by both treatments. Geochemical modeling of pH-dependent leaching data suggested that the retention of trace metals resulted from different immobilisation mechanisms operating in the two soils examined.

  14. Cerebral candidiasis in a 4-year-old boy after intestinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu-Cheng

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral candidiasis is a devastating disease which contributes to a high mortality. Most of the cerebral candidiasis are never microbiologically or radiologically confirmed. In this case, a 4-year-old boy who developed cerebral candidiasis was successfully rescued and presented. The diagnosis of cerebral candidiasis was established based on both microbiologic and radiologic examinations. The pathogen was revealed to be Candida albicans by cerebrospinal fluid and central venous catheter cultures, and the cerebral involvement was recorded by series head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with an appearance of special encephalitis demonstrated. The imaging studies played a critical role throughout the diagnosis and treatment. Familiarity with the imaging findings in the appropriate clinical setting may result in a heightened level of awareness of this infection and, consequently, in earlier diagnosis and treatment.

  15. The dipole observed in the {ital COBE} DMR 4 year data

    SciTech Connect

    Lineweaver, C.H.; Tenorio, L.; Smoot, G.F.; Keegstra, P.

    1996-10-01

    The largest anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is the {approx_equal}3 mK dipole assumed to be due to our velocity with respect to the CMB. Using the 4 year data set from all six channels of the {ital COBE} Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR), we obtain a best-fit dipole amplitude 3.358{plus_minus}0.001{plus_minus}0.023 mK in the direction ({ital l},{ital b})=(264.31{degrees}{plus_minus}0.04{degree}{plus_minus}0.16{degree} +48.05{degrees}{plus_minus}0.02{degree}{plus_minus}0.09{degree}), where the first uncertainties are statistical and the second include calibration and combined systematic uncertainties. This measurement is consistent with previous DMR and FIRAS results. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Astronomical Society.}

  16. Measuring implicit attitudes of 4-year-olds: the preschool implicit association test.

    PubMed

    Cvencek, Dario; Greenwald, Anthony G; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2011-06-01

    The Preschool Implicit Association Test (PSIAT) is an adaptation of an established social cognition measure (IAT) for use with preschool children. Two studies with 4-year-olds found that the PSIAT was effective in evaluating (a) attitudes toward commonly liked objects (flowers=good) and (b) gender attitudes (girl=good or boy=good). The gender attitude PSIAT was positively correlated with corresponding explicit attitude measures and also children's actual sex. The new implicit and explicit measures of gender attitudes demonstrated discriminant validity; each predicted variance in children's gendered play activities beyond that predicted by the other. Discussion describes potential uses of the PSIAT to investigate development of societally significant attitudes and stereotypes at younger ages than are achievable with currently available methods.

  17. Predicting Reading and Spelling Disorders: A 4-Year Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Caudek, Corrado; Pinto, Giuliana

    2016-01-01

    In this 4-year prospective cohort study, children with a reading and spelling disorder, children with a spelling impairment, and children without a reading and/or spelling disorder (control group) in a transparent orthography were identified in third grade, and their emergent literacy performances in kindergarten compared retrospectively. Six hundred and forty-two Italian children participated. This cohort was followed from the last year of kindergarten to third grade. In kindergarten, the children were assessed in phonological awareness, conceptual knowledge of writing systems and textual competence. In third grade, 18 children with a reading and spelling impairment and 13 children with a spelling impairment were identified. Overall, conceptual knowledge of the writing system was the only statistically significant predictor of the clinical samples. No differences were found between the two clinical samples. PMID:27014145

  18. Predicting Reading and Spelling Disorders: A 4-Year Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Caudek, Corrado; Pinto, Giuliana

    2016-01-01

    In this 4-year prospective cohort study, children with a reading and spelling disorder, children with a spelling impairment, and children without a reading and/or spelling disorder (control group) in a transparent orthography were identified in third grade, and their emergent literacy performances in kindergarten compared retrospectively. Six hundred and forty-two Italian children participated. This cohort was followed from the last year of kindergarten to third grade. In kindergarten, the children were assessed in phonological awareness, conceptual knowledge of writing systems and textual competence. In third grade, 18 children with a reading and spelling impairment and 13 children with a spelling impairment were identified. Overall, conceptual knowledge of the writing system was the only statistically significant predictor of the clinical samples. No differences were found between the two clinical samples. PMID:27014145

  19. Laparoscopic Removal of a Large Gastric Trichobezoar in a 4-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Cintolo, Jessica; Telem, Dana A.; Divino, Celia M.; Chin, Edward H.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Standard treatment of large gastric bezoars not amenable to medical or endoscopic management is surgical removal. The optimal operative approach, laparotomy versus laparoscopy, is a contested subject. Though laparoscopic removal has been described, it remains a relatively new technique for surgical management with outcome literature limited to case reports. In addition, currently described laparoscopic techniques often involve limited midline laparotomy incisions or >3 cm extensions of port sites. Methods: The following describes the case of a 4-year-old girl with a large gastric trichobezoar. Results: The gastric trichobezoar was successfully removed through a 12-mm left lower quadrant trocar incision cosmetically hidden within a skin crease. Conclusion: This case, along with accumulating literature, supports the use of laparoscopy to treat large gastric bezoars. PMID:20202404

  20. Phonological awareness and phonemic perception in 4-year-old children with delayed expressive phonology skills.

    PubMed

    Rvachew, Susan; Ohberg, Alyssa; Grawburg, Meghann; Heyding, Joan

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the phonological awareness abilities of 2 groups of 4-year-old children: one with normally developing speech and language skills and the other with moderately or severely delayed expressive phonological skills but age-appropriate receptive vocabulary skills. Each group received tests of articulation, receptive vocabulary, phonemic perception, early literacy, and phonological awareness skills. The groups were matched for receptive language skills, age, socioeconomic status, and emergent literacy knowledge. The children with expressive phonological delays demonstrated significantly poorer phonemic perception and phonological awareness skills than their normally developing peers. The results suggest that preschool children with delayed expressive phonological abilities should be screened for their phonological awareness skills even when their language skills are otherwise normally developing. PMID:14658998

  1. Effect of different cryoprotectants and transfer temperatures on the survival rate of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) cell suspension in deep freezing.

    PubMed

    Jekkel, Z; Heszky, L E; Ali, A H

    1989-01-01

    Adequate cell dehydration is the precipitating element in the successful cryopreservation of plant cells and organs. This could be achieved by using different cooling rates, transfer temperatures and cryoprotectants. Experiments were performed to determine these critical points in the freeze preservation procedure of Cannabis sativa (L.) suspension cultures. The explants were frozen at a cooling rate of 2 degrees C/min, while the transfer temperatures were -10 degrees C, -20 degrees C, -30 degrees C, -40 degrees C and -50 degrees C. The applied cryoprotectants were the DMSO, glycerol, proline and PEG in different concentration. The highest viability (58%) was obtained by using 10% DMSO and at -10 degrees C transfer temperature. The optimum transfer temperature varied remarkably by different cryoprotectant concentrations indicating the importance of their interactions. PMID:2633578

  2. Long-Term Exercise in Older Adults: 4-Year Outcomes of Music-Based Multitask Training

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, François R.; Fielding, Roger A.; Reid, Kieran F.; Rizzoli, René; Trombetti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Prospective controlled evidence supporting the efficacy of long-term exercise to prevent physical decline and reduce falls in old age is lacking. The present study aimed to assess the effects of long-term music-based multitask exercise (i.e., Jaques-Dalcroze eurhythmics) on physical function and fall risk in older adults. A 3-year follow-up extension of a 1-year randomized controlled trial (NCT01107288) was conducted in Geneva (Switzerland), in which 134 community-dwellers aged ≥65 years at increased risk of falls received a 6-month music-based multitask exercise program. Four years following original trial enrolment, 52 subjects (baseline mean ± SD age, 75 ± 8 years) who (i) have maintained exercise program participation through the 4-year follow-up visit (“long-term intervention group”, n = 23) or (ii) have discontinued participation following original trial completion (“control group”, n = 29) were studied. They were reassessed in a blind fashion, using the same procedures as at baseline. At 4 years, linear mixed-effects models showed significant gait (gait speed, P = 0.006) and balance (one-legged stance time, P = 0.015) improvements in the long-term intervention group, compared with the control group. Also, long-term intervention subjects did better on Timed Up & Go, Five-Times-Sit-to-Stand and handgrip strength tests, than controls (P < 0.05, for all comparisons). Furthermore, the exercise program reduced the risk of falling (relative risk, 0.69; 95 % confidence interval, 0.5–0.9; P = 0.008). These findings suggest that long-term maintenance of a music-based multitask exercise program is a promising strategy to prevent age-related physical decline in older adults. They also highlight the efficacy of sustained long-term adherence to exercise for falls prevention. PMID:25148876

  3. Effects of Experimental High Flow Releases and Increased Fluctuations in Flow from Glen Canyon Dam on Abundance, Growth, and Survival Rates of Early Life Stages of Rainbow Trout in the Lee's Ferry Reach of the Colorado River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korman, Josh

    2010-05-01

    The abundance of adult fish populations is controlled by the growth and survival rates of early life stages. Evaluating the effects of flow regimes on early life stages is therefore critical to determine how these regimes affect the abundance of adult populations. Experimental high flow releases from Glen Canyon Dam, primarily intended to conserve fine sediment and improve habitat conditions for native fish in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, AZ, have been conducted in 1996, 2004, and 2008. These flows potentially affect the Lee's Ferry reach rainbow trout population, located immediately downstream of the dam, which supports a highly valued fishery and likely influences the abundance of rainbow trout in Grand Canyon. Due to concerns about negative effects of high trout abundance on endangered native fish, hourly variation in flow from Glen Canyon Dam was experimentally increased between 2003 and 2005 to reduce trout abundance. This study reports on the effects of experimental high flow releases and fluctuating flows on early life stages of rainbow trout in the Lee's Ferry reach based on monthly sampling of redds (egg nests) and the abundance and growth of age-0 trout between 2003 and 2009. Data on spawn timing, spawning elevations, and intergravel temperatures were integrated in a model to estimate the magnitude and seasonal trend in incubation mortality resulting from redd dewatering due to fluctuations in flow. Experimental fluctuations from January through March promoted spawning at higher elevations where the duration of dewatering was longer and intergravel temperatures exceeded lethal thresholds. Flow-dependent incubation mortality rates were 24% (2003) and 50% (2004) in years with higher flow fluctuations, compared to 5-11% under normal operations (2006-2009). Spatial and temporal predictions of mortality were consistent with direct observations of egg mortality determined from the excavation of 125 redds. The amount of variation in backcalculated hatch

  4. College for All? Is There Too Much Emphasis on Getting a 4-Year College Degree? Research Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boesel, David; Fredland, Eric

    Over the years, larger and larger portions of high school graduates have enrolled in 4-year colleges. Although many people view college as essential to success in the labor market, the movement toward 4-year colleges also has its critics. These critics contend that the public has come to believe that almost all high school graduates should go to…

  5. Improved survival rate in children with stage III and IV B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and leukemia using multi-agent chemotherapy: results of a study of 114 children from the French Pediatric Oncology Society.

    PubMed

    Patte, C; Philip, T; Rodary, C; Bernard, A; Zucker, J M; Bernard, J L; Robert, A; Rialland, X; Benz-Lemoine, E; Demeocq, F

    1986-08-01

    Children with B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma who have not relapsed 1 year after diagnosis and treatment are generally cured. We report here the results of treatment in 114 children who all had a minimum follow-up of 20 months. The protocol LMB 0281 from the French Pediatric Oncology Society was used. This nine-drug intensive-pulsed chemotherapy was based on high-dose cyclophosphamide, high-dose methotrexate (HD MTX), and cytosine arabinoside (ara-C) in continuous infusion. CNS prophylaxis was with chemotherapy only. No local irradiation was performed. No debulking surgery was recommended. There were 72 patients with stage III lymphoma and 42 patients with stage IV lymphoma or B cell acute lymphocytic leukemia (B-ALL). Among those 42 patients, seven had CNS involvement alone, 21 had bone marrow alone, and 14 had both; 26 had greater than 25% blast cells in bone marrow, 14 of whom had blast cells in blood. The primary site of involvement was the abdomen in 90 patients, the Waldeyer Ring in nine, and various sites in eight; seven patients presented without tumor. Seventy-seven patients are alive with a median follow-up of 2 years and 8 months. Seven patients died due to initial treatment failure, 11 died from toxicity, and 19 died after relapse. Among the 93 patients without initial CNS involvement, only one isolated relapse in CNS occurred. Survival and disease-free survival rates reached 67% and 64%, respectively, for all patients, 75% and 73% for stage III patients and 54% and 48% for stage IV and B-ALL patients. Bone marrow involvement was not an adverse prognostic factor. Contrary initial CNS involvement indicated a bad prognosis with a disease-free survival rate of 19% compared with 76% without CNS disease. This study showed that CNS prophylaxis and local control of the primary tumor can be achieved by intensive chemotherapy alone, without radiotherapy or debulking surgery. PMID:3525767

  6. Effects of forest management on density, survival, and population growth of wood thrushes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, L.A.; Lang, J.D.; Conroy, M.J.; Krementz, D.G.

    2000-01-01

    Loss and alteration of breeding habitat have been proposed as causes of declines in several Neotropical migrant bird populations. We conducted a 4-year study to determine the effects of winter prescribed burning and forest thinning on breeding wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) populations at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge (PNWR) in Georgia. We estimated density, adult and juvenile survival rates, and apparent annual survival using transect surveys, radiotelemetry, and mist netting. Burning and thinning did not cause lower densities (P = 0.25); wood thrush density ranged from 0.15 to 1.30 pairs/10 ha. No radiomarked male wood thrushes (n = 68) died during the 4 years, but female (n = 63) weekly survival was 0.981 ? 0.014 (SE) for females (n = 63) and 0.976 ? 0.010 for juveniles (n = 38). Apparent annual adult survival was 0.579 (SE = 0.173). Thinning and prescribed burning did not reduce adult or juvenile survival during the breeding season or apparent annual adult survival. Annual population growth (lambda) at PNWR was 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.32--1.63), and the considerable uncertainty in this prediction underscores the need for long term monitoring to effectively manage Neotropical migrants. Population growth increased on experimental compartments after the burn and thin (95% CI before = 0.91--0.97, after = 0.98--1.05), while control compartment declined (before = 0.98--1.05, after = 0.87--0.92). We found no evidence that the current management regime at PNWR, designed to improve red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) habitat, negatively affected wood thrushes.

  7. Efficacy of 4 Years of Octreotide Long-Acting Release Therapy in Patients With Severe Polycystic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Marie C.; Masyuk, Tetyana; Bergstralh, Eric; Li, Bill; Kremers, Walter K.; Vaughan, Lisa E.; Ihrke, Angela; Severson, Amanda L.; Irazabal, Maria V.; Glockner, James; LaRusso, Nicholas F.; Torres, Vicente E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect on total liver volume (TLV) on and off therapy in selected symptomatic patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) or autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease (PLD) who received octreotide long-acting release (OctLAR) for up to 4 years. Patients and Methods Twenty-eight of 42 participants in a prospective 2-year clinical trial of OctLAR (40 mg monthly) consisting of double-blind, randomized (year 1) and open-label treatment (year 2) phases reenrolled in a 2-year open-label extension (OLE) study after being off OctLAR a mean of 8.3 months (original study: July 1, 2007, through June 30, 2013). Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging at baseline, years 1 and 2, reenrollment, and study completion. Primary end point: change in TLV; secondary end points: changes in total kidney volume, glomerular filtration rate, quality of life (QoL), safety, vital signs, and laboratory parameters. Results Twenty-five participants (59.5%) completed the OLE. Off therapy, TLVs increased a mean ± SD of 3.4%±8.2% per year; after resuming therapy, TLVs decreased a mean ± SD of −4.7%±6.1% per year. Despite regrowth off treatment, overall reductions were observed, with a median (interquartile range) TLV of 4047 mL (3107–7402 mL) at baseline and 3477 (2653–7131 mL) at study completion (−13.2%; P<.001) and with improved health-related QoL. Total kidney volumes increased, and glomerular filtration rates declined from 58.2 mL/min to 54.5 mL/min (n=16) in patients with ADPKD on therapy from baseline to study completion. Conclusion Therapy with OctLAR over 4 years in selected patients with symptomatic PLD arrested PLD progression, alleviating symptoms and improving health-related QoL. Discontinuation led to organ regrowth. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00426153. PMID:26166166

  8. Predictors of long time survival after lung cancer surgery: A retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Kjetil; Nilsen, Tom Ivar Lund; Hatlen, Elisabeth; Sørensen, Karina Søvik; Hole, Torstein; Haaverstad, Rune

    2008-01-01

    Background There have been few reports regarding long time survival after lung cancer surgery. The influence of age and pulmonary function on long time survival is still not fully discovered. Some reports suggest that hospitals with a high surgical volume have better results. The aim of this study was to evaluate lung cancer surgery performed in a county hospital in terms of 30 days mortality, complications and predictors of long time survival. Methods All patients operated with non-small cell lung cancer in the period 1993–2006 were reviewed, and 148 patients were included in the study. 30 days mortality and complications were analyzed by univariate analysis. Kaplan Meier plots were performed to display some of the univariate variables. Cox regression analysis was performed to find Hazard Ratios (HR) that predicted long time survival in univariate and multivariate analysis. Results The overall 30 days mortality rate was 2.7%, whereas 36.3% had one or more complications after surgery. The median survival time was 3.4 years. In multivariate Cox regression analysis advanced preoperative stage predicted reduced long time survival with HR (95%CI) 1.63 (0.92, 2.89) and 4.16 (1.92, 9.05) for patients in stage IB and II-IV respectively, when compared to patients in stage IA. Age ≥ 70 years and FEV1<80% predicted reduced long time survival with HR (95%CI) 2.23 (1.41, 3.54) and 1.93 (1.14, 3.28) respectively, compared to age<70 years and FEV1 ≥ 80%. Conclusion Thirty days mortality and complication rate showed that lung cancer surgery can be performed safely in a county hospital with experienced thoracic surgeons. Early preoperative stage, age below 70 years and normal pulmonary function predicted long time survival. PMID:18954454

  9. Cemented and screw-retained implant-supported single-tooth restorations in the molar mandibular region: A retrospective comparison study after an observation period of 1 to 4 years

    PubMed Central

    Peñarrocha-Diago, Miguel; Pradíes, Guillermo; Sola-Ruiz, María-Fernanda; Agustín-Panadero, Rubén

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival and compare the appearance of different mechanical and biological complications, in screw-retained and cemented-retained single-tooth implant-supported restorations localized in the molar mandibular region, over a period of 1 to 4 years. Material and Methods: A retrospective study was carried out with a total of eighty implant-supported restorations, which were placed in eighty patients for prosthetic rehabilitation of a mandibular molar. Forty patients were rehabilitated with a cemented-retained restoration and the other forty with a screw-retained restoration. The presence of the following complications was recorded for both types of prostheses: Fractures of the ceramic veneering, loosening screws, mucositis and peri-implantitis. Debonding of the restoration was analyzed in the cemented-retained restoration group. The clinical survival of crowns was analyzed with a Kaplan-Meier test and the clinical complications were compared, using a Student t test and Log-rank test. Results: 27 patients registered some com