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Sample records for 4-year-old boy presented

  1. Acute opercular syndrome in 4-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Pniewska, Anna; Pawłowska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Acute opercular syndrome is a rare described syndrome caused by a sudden damage of the cerebral cortex and subcortical white matter, located around the insula. A rare cause of this syndrome can be an infectious agent, particularly herpes simplex virus. Quick diagnosis and immediate initiation of treatment significantly reduce the risk of neurological consequences and mortality. We present a case of encephalitis of unknown etiology and severe course, with the symptoms of acute opercular syndrome in 4-year-old boy. PMID:27154445

  2. Cerebral candidiasis in a 4-year-old boy after intestinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu-Cheng

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral candidiasis is a devastating disease which contributes to a high mortality. Most of the cerebral candidiasis are never microbiologically or radiologically confirmed. In this case, a 4-year-old boy who developed cerebral candidiasis was successfully rescued and presented. The diagnosis of cerebral candidiasis was established based on both microbiologic and radiologic examinations. The pathogen was revealed to be Candida albicans by cerebrospinal fluid and central venous catheter cultures, and the cerebral involvement was recorded by series head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with an appearance of special encephalitis demonstrated. The imaging studies played a critical role throughout the diagnosis and treatment. Familiarity with the imaging findings in the appropriate clinical setting may result in a heightened level of awareness of this infection and, consequently, in earlier diagnosis and treatment.

  3. Ameloblastic Fibro-Odontoma in a 4-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Ghandehari-Motlagh, Mehdi; Khosravi, Zahra; Meighani, Ghasem; Baradaran-Nakhjavani, Yahya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma (AFO) is defined as a benign odontogenic tumor with slow growing behavior. Its prevalence is rare. AFO is characterized by histologic features of ameloblastic fibroma (AF) with the formation of enamel and dentine. Case Presentation This is a case report of AFO accompanied with a number of impacted deciduous teeth and its management in a 4-year old boy. Examination of oral cavity revealed an extensive swelling from midline to left deciduous maxillary first molar, covered with normal mucosa. Radiographic examination showed a well-defined mixed radiolucent-radiopaque lesion that extended horizontally from midline to mesial border of the left maxillary primary first molar and vertically from alveolar crest to the floor of nose. The differential diagnosis was odontoma (ameloblastic fibro-odontoma, complex odontoma). Surgical enucleation and curettage was performed under general anesthesia. Histopathologic sections show bone trabeculae in marrow spaces. There was myxoid matrix in some spaces which contained odontogenic epithelial cells. These findings led to diagnosis of AFO. No sign of recurrence has been observed during the 12-month follow-up period. Conclusion Although AFO is a rare tumor, it is more prevalent in childrenʼs jaw. Conservative surgical treatment allowed the normal development of teeth. PMID:27307963

  4. [Awake Nasotracheal Intubation for a 4-Year-old Boy with an Oral Penetrating Toothbrush Injury].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Naoya; Ando, Kokichi; Saito, Kazutomo; Toyama, Hiroaki; Fudeta, Hiroto; Yamauchi, Masanori

    2015-09-01

    We report a case of an oral penetrating injury caused by a toothbrush in a 4-year-old 17-kg boy. The toothbrush was lodged in the right cervical region through the oral cavity, and emergency surgery for removal was planned under general anesthesia. Although mask ventilation was not possible because of the protruding toothbrush handle, awake nasotracheal intubation was successfully performed with a fiber-scope and intravenous fentanyl 25 μg. We conclude that appropriate analgesics could facilitate awake intubation in pediatric patients.

  5. Traumatic hip dislocation with incomplete reduction due to soft-tissue interposition in a 4-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Burgos, J; Gonzalez-Herranz, P; Ocete, G

    1995-01-01

    The case of a traumatic dislocation of the left hip in a 4-year-old boy is presented. After an initial attempt at reduction under general anesthesia, a permanent deformity in the flexion of the hip remained, and there was radiographic evidence of a nonconcentric reduction. Computed tomography (CT) showed interposition in the posterior part of the joint. Under general anesthesia, the mobilization of the hip reduced the dislocation correctly, removing the necessity of open treatment. This case stresses the need for early diagnosis of this serious complication and closed reduction of the joint, avoiding the poor results of open and deferred treatments.

  6. Severe digital necrosis in a 4-year-old boy: primary Raynaud’s or jellyfish sting

    PubMed Central

    Binnetoglu, Fatih Koksal; Kizildag, Betul; Topaloglu, Naci; Kasapcopur, Ozgur

    2013-01-01

    Raynaud's phenomena is a common disorder which may be primary or secondary to some connective tissue disorders such as systemic sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Jellyfish sting is a rare but life-threatening cause of Raynaud's phenomena. Digital gangrene is reported in 3% of children with secondary Raynaud's phenomena but does not occur in children with primary Raynaud's phenomena. We report a case of a 4-year-old boy who initially presented with episodes of pain and bluish to blackish discolouration and necrosis affecting the fingers on both hands after a jellyfish sting without any sign of connective tissue disorder. PMID:24248320

  7. A Case of a 4-Year-Old Boy with a Mesenteric Chylous Cyst Infected with Histoplasma capsulatum

    PubMed Central

    Apiyo, Mirraim; Olika, Biratu

    2016-01-01

    Mesenteric cysts are uncommon entities and chyle- (lymph-) containing cysts are the rarest of this group. This is a case report of a 4-year-old boy with a mesenteric chylous cyst who was later found to have Histoplasma capsulatum infection. PMID:26881169

  8. No aggression in a 4-year-old boy with an androgen-producing tumour: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    De la Marche, Wouter; Prinsen, Karin; Boot, Annemieke M; Ferdinand, Robert F

    2005-01-01

    Background The androgen testosterone plays a critical role in many aspects of sexual differentiation. Also, it is thought to induce aggressive behaviours or to play a role in social dominance. Case presentation In this case report a 4-year-old boy is described whose testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) levels were raised to pubertal levels due to a testosterone producing testis tumour. This provided the unique opportunity to examine the effects of elevated levels of androgens on levels of aggression or on social dominance before the onset of puberty. Conclusion The present case report does not support the hypothesis of a causal relationship between testosterone and aggression or between testosterone and social dominance in young children. PMID:16202122

  9. [Primary adrenal insufficiency as the form of onset of adrenoleukodystrophy in a 4-year-old boy].

    PubMed

    Tornero Patricio, Sebastián; de la Vega, José Antonio Bermúdez; Nehme Alvarez, Daniel; Gentil González, Francisco Javier; Lluch Fernández, María Dolores; González Hachero, José

    2009-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is an inherited metabolic disease caused by the accumulation of saturated very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA). Given that the form of presentation can be primary adrenal insufficiency, diagnosis in affected males is important. Patient was a 4-year-old boy with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, cutaneous-mucosal hyperpigmentation, and dehydration with hyponatremia and hyperpotassemia was diagnosed with adrenoleukodystrophy presenting as primary adrenal insufficiency. Antiadrenal antibodies: negative. Plasma VLCFA: C(26:0)=1.25mg/ml (0.18-0.48), C(24:0)/C(22:0) =1.53 (< 1), and C(26:0)/ C(22:0)=0.04 (< 0.02). Abdominal computed tomography: small adrenal glands. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging and evoked potentials: normal at diagnosis and with signs of white matter demyelination after 2 years of follow-up. Testing for an autoimmune etiology and adrenoleukodystrophy is important in boys with primary adrenal insufficiency before Addison's disease is diagnosed.

  10. Hematogones With Lambda Light Chain Restriction in a 4-Year-Old Boy With Burkitt Lymphoma: A Potential Diagnostic Pitfall

    PubMed Central

    Guillory, Tesha; Li, Shiyong; Bergsagel, Daniel J.; Weinzierl, Elizabeth; Bunting, Silvia T.

    2016-01-01

    Hematogones are immature normal B cell precursors with a characteristic immunophenotype profile on flow cytometry that typically do not express surface immunoglobulin light chains. In this report, we describe a case in which the hematogones exhibit light chain restriction. Our patient was a 4-year-old boy with a complicated medical history involving treatment for a presumed bilateral Wilms tumor of the kidney that on later resection was diagnosed as Burkitt lymphoma. Flow cytometry analysis of his bone marrow revealed a small distinct population of cells expressing dim cluster of differentiation (CD)10, CD19, CD22, CD38, dim CD58, human leukocyte antigen–D related (HLA-DR), and dim CD45, which are characteristic of hematogones. These cells, however, demonstrated dim surface immunoglobulin lambda light-chain restriction. Molecular study results for immunoglobulin heavy and kappa light-chain gene rearrangements were negative. We present this case to raise awareness of the potential pitfalls of working up bone marrow for involvement by B cell lymphoproliferative disorder. PMID:27069035

  11. Anticoagulant and vasodilator therapy for Nicolau syndrome following intramuscular benzathine penicillin injection in a 4 year old boy.

    PubMed

    Alkan Bozkaya, Tijen; Demirel, Gamze; Ormeci, Tugrul; Al, Serdar; Çakar, Engin; Tastekin, Ayhan; Turkoglu, Halil

    2016-06-01

    Nicolau syndrome (NS) is a rare complication of intramuscular, intraarticular or subcutaneous injection of particular drugs leading to ischemic necrosis of the surrounding skin, soft tissue and muscular tissue. Benzathine penicilin one of the most widely used antibiotic for upper respiratory tract infections and has been rarely reported to cause NS. Here we describe a 4 year old boy with diagnosis of NS after the injection of benzathine penicillin who was successfuly treated with unfractionized heparin (enoxaparine) and pentoxifylline. The practitioners should pay attention for unnecessary use of benzathine penicillin to avoid from probable complications.

  12. [YEL-AND meningoencephalitis in a 4-year-old boy consecutive to a yellow-fever vaccine].

    PubMed

    Gerin, M; Wroblewski, I; Bost-Bru, C; N'guyen, M-A; Debillon, T

    2014-04-01

    Yellow fever is a vector-borne disease transmitted by an endemic mosquito in sub-Saharan Africa and tropical South America. It causes fever and possibly liver and renal failure with hemorrhagic signs, which may be fatal. The yellow-fever vaccine is an attenuated vaccine that is recommended for all travelers over the age of 9 months in high-risk areas. Adverse effects have been reported: minor symptoms (such as viral syndrome), hypersensitivity reactions, and major symptoms such as viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) and neurotropic disease (YEL-AND). The yellow-fever vaccine-associated autoimmune disease with central nervous system involvement (such as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis) associates fever and headaches, neurologic dysfunction, seizures, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis, and elevated protein, with neuroimaging consistent with multifocal areas of demyelization. The presence of antibodies or virus in CSF, within 1-30 days following vaccination, and the exclusion of other causes is necessary for diagnosis. We describe herein the case of a 4-year-old child who presented with severe encephalitis consecutive to a yellow-fever vaccine, with favorable progression. Diagnosis is based on the chronology of clinical and paraclinical signs and the presence of yellow-fever-specific antibodies in CSF. The treatment consists of symptomatic treatment and immunoglobulin injection.

  13. Vertebral Osteomyelitis and Acinetobacter Spp. Paravertebral Soft Tissue Infection in a 4-Year-Old Boy With X-Linked Chronic Granulomatous Disease.

    PubMed

    Vignesh, Pandiarajan; Bhattad, Sagar; Shandilya, Jitendra-Kumar; Vyas, Sameer; Garg, Rashi; Rawat, Amit

    2016-09-01

    Vertebral osteomyelitis is known to occur in chronic granulomatous disease, a phagocytic disorder and the etiology is usually a fungus. Indolent spread of fungal infection from lungs to adjacent ribs and vertebra often results in persistent pneumonia and vertebral deformities. We report a 4-year-old boy with chronic cough and kyphosis, who had a fungal vertebral osteomyelitis and Acinetobacter spp. paravertebral soft tissue infection related to X-linked chronic granulomatous disease.

  14. Video Training of Alternatives to Cross-Gender Identity Behaviors in a 4-Year-Old Boy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowrick, Peter W.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses case in which four-year-old boy displaying extreme girl-stereotyped mannerisms and playing behaviors extended his repertoire of alternative behaviors through self and peer modeling in which the subject observed brief edited videotapes of himself and another boy engaged in playing behaviors that were not girl-stereotyped. (CMG)

  15. Dorsal resection of a thoracic hemivertebra in a 4-year-old boy with endochondral gigantism. A case report.

    PubMed

    Zarghooni, Kourosh; Sobotrke, Rolf; Schmidt, Heinrich; Rollinghoff, Marc; Siewe, Jan; Eysel, Peer

    2010-10-01

    The authors present what appears to be the first case of congenital kyphosis due to a T12 hemivertebra in a four-year-old boy with endochondral gigantism syndrome of unknown origin. Because of his overgrowth, the patient had severe medical and orthopaedic problems and was almost immobile. Prior to surgery, he experienced a rapidly progressive thoracolumbar kyphosis to 600 (T10-L2). MRI of the brain and spine showed critical protraction of the spinal cord and myelopathy from compression at T12. Single-stage posterior resection of the hemivertebra with spinal shortening and dorsal transpedicular instrumentation of T10-L2 was performed. Although the bone tissue was cartilaginous and dysplastic, 420 (30%) correction was achieved along with decompression of the spinal canal. The patient experienced no neurological impairment post-operatively. At follow-up examination 1.5 year after surgery, the patient's movement disorder had improved markedly and he was able to stand and walk. This very rare case demonstrates that single-stage posterior hemivertebra resection and transpedicular instrumentation for correction of congenital kyphosis can be a safe and effective procedure even in a very challenging case.

  16. Emergency coronary artery bypass grafting for cardiogenic shock due to left main coronary artery obstruction caused by Kawasaki disease in a 4-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Wataru; Tsuda, Etsuko; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Junjiro; Shiono, Junko

    2014-04-01

    We describe the case of a 4-year-old boy whose clinical course after Kawasaki disease resulted in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) causing cardiogenic shock. He had developed an ischemic cardiomyopathy due to severe localized stenosis of the left main coronary artery (LCA) and went into cardiogenic shock due to AMI on the day before a scheduled operation. He underwent successful emergency CABG within 4 h of MI. Postoperatively his neurological status was intact. This is the first report of a successful emergency CABG in a small child with cardiogenic shock due to LCA occlusion. CABG should be undertaken in small patients when appropriate indications exist, if bodyweight is >10 kg.

  17. A Gender Comparison of the Cooperation of 4-Year-Old Children in Classroom Activity Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Genan T.; Hilton, Sterling C.; Wouden-Miller, Melissa

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the proportion of cooperative play in 4-year-old children across centers (housekeeping, block, manipulative, and computer) and gender in a natural classroom setting. Eighty-four white, middle-income children (41 boys and 43 girls, mean age = 55 months) were videotaped during free-play for 30 minutes per day for four weeks in…

  18. Measuring Implicit Attitudes of 4-Year-Olds: The Preschool Implicit Association Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cvencek, Dario; Greenwald, Anthony G.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2011-01-01

    The Preschool Implicit Association Test (PSIAT) is an adaptation of an established social cognition measure (IAT) for use with preschool children. Two studies with 4-year-olds found that the PSIAT was effective in evaluating (a) attitudes toward commonly liked objects ("flowers"="good") and (b) gender attitudes ("girl"="good" or "boy"="good"). The…

  19. Multifocal tumoral calcinosis in a 4-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Sayar, Ilyas; Peker, Kemal; Kapısız, Alparslan; Bostancı, Isıl Esen; Gürbüzel, Mehmet; Isik, Arda; Peker, Necla Aydın

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Female, 4 Final Diagnosis: Tumoral calcinosis Symptoms: Hard immobile mass Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Surgery Objective: Congenital defects Background: Tumoral calcinosis is an uncommon condition associated with the deposition of painless calcific masses. It is more common in childhood or early adolescence of African-American females. Case Report: We present a case of a 4-year-old girl with tumoral calcinosis treated surgically. The case is rather rare in terms of the age of the patient and the localization of the masses (gluteal site). In our patient, the biochemical findings were normal, except for hyperphosphatemia and elevated alkaline phosphatase. Conclusions: Total excision appears to lead to a good clinical outcome and a low incidence of local relapse. PMID:24644527

  20. Emerging Understanding of Patterning in 4-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Fyfe, Emily R.; McLean, Laura E.; McEldoon, Katherine L.

    2013-01-01

    Young children have an impressive amount of mathematics knowledge, but past psychological research has focused primarily on their number knowledge. Preschoolers also spontaneously engage in a form of early algebraic thinking-patterning. In the current study, we assessed 4-year-old children's knowledge of repeating patterns on two occasions…

  1. Total Body Fat Content versus BMI in 4-Year-Old Healthy Swedish Children

    PubMed Central

    Forsum, Elisabet; Flinke Carlsson, Eva; Henriksson, Hanna; Henriksson, Pontus; Löf, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity, a worldwide problem, is generally identified using BMI (body mass index). However, this application of BMI has been little investigated in children below 5 years of age due to a lack of appropriate methods to assess body composition. Therefore, we used air displacement plethysmography (ADP) to study 4.4-year old boys and girls since this method is accurate in young children if they accept the requirements of the measurement. The purpose was to analyze the relationship between BMI and body fat in these children. Body composition was assessed in 76 (43 boys, 33 girls) of the 84 children brought to the measurement session. Boys and girls contained 25.2 ± 4.7 and 26.8 ± 4.0% body fat, respectively. BMI-based cut-offs for overweight could not effectively identify children with a high body fat content. There was a significant (P < 0.001) but weak (r = 0.39) correlation between BMI and body fat (%). In conclusion, requirements associated with a successful assessment of body composition by means of ADP were accepted by most 4-year-olds. Furthermore, BMI-based cut-offs for overweight did not effectively identify children with a high body fatness and BMI explained only a small proportion of the variation in body fat (%) in this age group. PMID:23606949

  2. Conjunctival lymphangioma in a 4-year-old girl revealed tuberous sclerosis complex

    PubMed Central

    Freiberg, Florentina Joyce; Kunstmann, Erdmute; König, Thomas; Matlach, Juliane; Kampik, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background: To present a case of conjunctival lymphangioma in a 4-year-old girl with tuberous sclerosis complex. Methods/results: A 4-year-old girl presented with a relapsing cystic lesion of the bulbar conjunctiva in the right eye with string-of-pearl-like dilation of lymphatic vessels and right-sided facial swelling with mild pain. Best-corrected vision was not impaired. Examination of the skin revealed three hypomelanotic macules and a lumbal Shagreen patch. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings displayed minimal enhancement of buccal fat on the right side. Cranial and orbital MRI showed signal enhancement in the right cortical and subcortical areas. Genetic analysis revealed a heterozygous deletion encompassing exon 1 and 2 of the TSC1 gene (tuberous sclerosis complex 1 gene), confirming the diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis complex. Conclusion: In conjunctival lymphangioma, tuberous sclerosis complex should be considered as the primary disease. PMID:27703871

  3. Dynamics of hand preference in 4 year-old children.

    PubMed

    Rostoft, M S; Sigmundsson, H; Whiting, H T A; Ingvaldsen, R P

    2002-04-15

    Hand preference in groups of 4 year-old children towards either end of the skill continuum (as determined by the Movement ABC test) was explored by means of a catching task in which the 'direction of approach of the ball' was used as a control parameter within a dynamical systems framework. In Condition 1, the ball direction was systematically scaled in degrees from the right side of the subject to the left and vice versa. In Condition 2, the spatial location of the ball direction was varied randomly, rather than systematically, over the same range as for Condition 1. In both conditions, the two groups of children were shown to switch between hands (from left to right and vice versa) at well-defined positions on the scale. The different scale values obtained when ball direction was scaled from left to right compared with right to left were used to define hysteresis areas. These areas were more extensive and located more to the left of the midline for the group towards the less skilled end of the continuum than for those towards the more skilled end. Additionally, the less-skilled children were shown to use the right hand more to catch the balls delivered to the left side than did the more skilled children. In Condition 3, objects were placed on the table of the ball-delivery apparatus in order to make the catching action more complicated. The less skilled group were shown to use the right hand more than the left hand in all catching positions whereas the more skilled group showed an equal usage of both catching regimes.

  4. Measuring implicit attitudes of 4-year-olds: the preschool implicit association test.

    PubMed

    Cvencek, Dario; Greenwald, Anthony G; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2011-06-01

    The Preschool Implicit Association Test (PSIAT) is an adaptation of an established social cognition measure (IAT) for use with preschool children. Two studies with 4-year-olds found that the PSIAT was effective in evaluating (a) attitudes toward commonly liked objects (flowers=good) and (b) gender attitudes (girl=good or boy=good). The gender attitude PSIAT was positively correlated with corresponding explicit attitude measures and also children's actual sex. The new implicit and explicit measures of gender attitudes demonstrated discriminant validity; each predicted variance in children's gendered play activities beyond that predicted by the other. Discussion describes potential uses of the PSIAT to investigate development of societally significant attitudes and stereotypes at younger ages than are achievable with currently available methods.

  5. Where there's smoke there's fire--ear candling in a 4-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Hornibrook, Jeremy

    2012-12-14

    It is estimated that one-third of the United States population subscribes to alternative medical therapies (Eisenberg et al, NEJM 1993;328:246-252). Ear candles are popular products promoted by alternative health practitioners, and sold by health shops and even over the Internet. They have been promoted for ear and sinus discomfort, rhinitis, sinusitis, glue ear, colds, flu, migraine, tinnitus, but particularly for removal of ear wax (cerumen). In this case report, a 4-year-old girl in New Zealand presents with otitis media and during the course of the ear examination white deposits were noticed on her eardrum; this was confirmed as being caused by ear candling.

  6. Changes in Early Childhood: Public School Programs for 4-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, S. Dianne; Boals, Beverly M.

    Education programs for 4-year-olds may offer unique opportunities for the growth of services for young children. Currently, the role of state departments of education in preschool instruction is evolving; no single approach to public school programming for 4-year-olds exists. Approximately two-thirds of the 28 state and District of Columbia early…

  7. [A 4-year-old girl with diarrhoea, paresis and mutism].

    PubMed

    Engan, Mette; Bjørlykke, John Asle; Moen, Gunnar; Lund, Kjetil Børve; Njølstad, Gro

    2016-09-01

    BACKGROUND Rotavirus is a common cause of gastroenteritis in children. Neurological manifestations associated with rotavirus infections are well described and range from benign afebrile convulsions to lethal encephalopathy or encephalitis.CASE PRESENTATION We present an uncommon neurological manifestation in a Caucasian child in the course of a rotavirus infection. A 4-year old girl presented with mutism, hypotonia and reduced consciousness. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffusion abnormalities in the splenium corpus callosum and bilaterally in the nuclei dentate in the cerebellum. She was diagnosed with rotavirus cerebellitis.INTERPRETATION Her clinical symptoms and the magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities were uncommon and previously described in only a few Caucasian children. The outcome has varied, and some children have shown long term neurological sequela. Treatment with immunoglobulins and corticosteroids has been used in similar cases, but there is no established treatment for this condition.

  8. [A 4-year-old girl with diarrhoea, paresis and mutism].

    PubMed

    Engan, Mette; Bjørlykke, John Asle; Moen, Gunnar; Lund, Kjetil Børve; Njølstad, Gro

    2016-09-01

    BACKGROUND Rotavirus is a common cause of gastroenteritis in children. Neurological manifestations associated with rotavirus infections are well described and range from benign afebrile convulsions to lethal encephalopathy or encephalitis.CASE PRESENTATION We present an uncommon neurological manifestation in a Caucasian child in the course of a rotavirus infection. A 4-year old girl presented with mutism, hypotonia and reduced consciousness. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffusion abnormalities in the splenium corpus callosum and bilaterally in the nuclei dentate in the cerebellum. She was diagnosed with rotavirus cerebellitis.INTERPRETATION Her clinical symptoms and the magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities were uncommon and previously described in only a few Caucasian children. The outcome has varied, and some children have shown long term neurological sequela. Treatment with immunoglobulins and corticosteroids has been used in similar cases, but there is no established treatment for this condition. PMID:27686206

  9. Nocardia brasiliensis infection mimicking juvenile idiopathic arthritis in a 4-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Kapur, Nitin; Adib, Navid; Grimwood, Keith

    2013-11-01

    Nocardia are ubiquitous environmental saprophytes that cause pneumonia and disseminated disease in immunocompromised patients. They can also cause localized cutaneous and soft tissue infections in healthy people after direct percutaneous inoculation. Nocardia arthritis is rare in both forms of the disease. Here we present the first published case of a child with septic arthritis caused by N brasiliensis. Importantly, this otherwise well 4-year-old girl had no known history of trauma but presented with transient cutaneous lesions and a 6-week history of arthritis involving the right fourth digit proximal interphalangeal joint without accompanying fever or raised systemic inflammatory markers. She received a diagnosis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis and underwent antiinflammatory and immunosuppressant therapy. After 2 months she developed frank septic arthritis, which necessitated a surgical joint washout, from which an intraoperative swab grew N brasiliensis. The patient received 6 months of high-dose trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and remains well more than 4 years after treatment. This unusual case highlights the importance of considering an indolent infection from slow-growing organisms, including Nocardia, when diagnosing the oligoarthritis subtype of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. This is especially relevant when a single joint is involved and response to antiinflammatory therapy is suboptimal because antiinflammatory agents may mask evolving signs of infection.

  10. Occlusal relationships and spacing or crowding of teeth in the dentitions of 3-4-year-old Nigerian children.

    PubMed

    Otuyemi, O D; Sote, E O; Isiekwe, M C; Jones, S P

    1997-09-01

    A study of 525 3-4-year-old children in nursery schools and day-care centres was carried out to assess occlusal relationships and the presence of spacing or crowding of teeth. No significant differences in occlusal relationships were found between boys and girls (P > 0.05). Bilateral straight terminal planes of molars and class 1 canine relationship were the most prevalent features (74.5% and 73.3% respectively). Most of the children had 'normal' vertical and transverse occlusal relationships. The most common sites of spacing were mesial to maxillary canines and distal to mandibular canines. 32% of the children were found to have generalized anterior segment spacing, 4% showed exclusively anthropoid spaces, and 18% had either contact between all the teeth or crowding in the anterior region.

  11. My Body. Developing an Early Interest in Science: A Preschool Science Curriculum. (4-Year-Olds).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summer, Gail L.; Giovannini, Kathleen

    This teaching guide on the body for 4-year-olds is based on a modification of the "Plan, Do, Review" approach to education devised by High Scope in Ypsilanti, Michigan. First implemented as an outreach early childhood program in North Carolina, the science activities described in this guide can be adapted to various early childhood environments.…

  12. Social Context Effects in 2- and 4-Year-Olds' Selective versus Faithful Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Yue; Kushnir, Tamar

    2014-01-01

    This study asked whether children's tendency to imitate selectively (ignore causally unnecessary actions) versus faithfully ("overimitate" causally unnecessary actions) varies across ages and social contexts. In the first experiment, 2-year-olds and 4-year-olds were randomly assigned to play 1 of 3 prior games with a demonstrator: a…

  13. Through Another's Eyes: Elements in the Eyes of a 4-Year-Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Xuan

    2004-01-01

    My husband, who is a scientist, often brings home different scientific journals and magazines to read, and my 4-year-old son, Nicholas J. Hu, likes to flip through them. A recent issue of Chemical and Engineering News (September, 2003) caught his interest more than usual because there were stories of different elements. Nicholas has been able to…

  14. Creppy Crawlies. Developing an Early Interest in Science: A Preschool Science Curriculum. (4-Year-Olds).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summer, Gail L.; Giovannini, Kathleen

    This science teaching guide on insects and animals for 4-year-old children is based on a modification of the "Plan, Do, Review" approach to education devised by High Scope in Ypsilanti, Michigan. First implemented as an outreach early childhood program in North Carolina, the science activities described in this guide can be adapted to various…

  15. Collaboration between 3- and 4-Year-Olds in Self-Initiated Play on Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on a study of collaborative music-making on instruments among 3- and 4-year-old children. An area equipped with musical instruments was provided as a free-choice play option in an early childhood setting and a fixed camera recorded the children's play continuously during a number of visits. From the total 17 h of data five…

  16. [Multiloculated mesenteric and retroperitoneal tumour - lymphatic malformation - in a 4-year-old girl].

    PubMed

    Obuchowicz, Anna; Łoboda, Magdalena; Madziara, Wojciech; Jarecka, Beata

    2015-01-01

    Mesenteric cysts are rare and mostly benign abdominal tumours in children. Majority of them are lymphangiomas (lymphatic malformations). We diagnosed a broad, multiloculated mesenteric and retroperitoneal cyst, associated with intensive inflammation, in a 4-year-old girl. Surgical therapy was fully successful.

  17. Markers for Persistent Specific Expressive Language Delay in 3-4-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everitt, Andrea; Hannaford, Philip; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Background: Identifying 3-4-year-olds who are most at risk of persisting language difficulties, and possibly specific language impairment (SLI), is difficult due to the natural variation of language in young children. In older children, markers for SLI have been identified that differentiate between children with and without SLI. It is not known…

  18. Perforation of Meckel’s diverticulum by a wood splinter in a 4-year-old child: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Anyfantakis, D; Kastanakis, M; Papadomichelakis, A; Kokinos, I; Katsougris, N; Petrakis, G; Karona, P; Bobolakis, E

    2013-01-01

    Perforation of Meckel's diverticulum by a foreign body represents an unusual and serious clinical occurrence. We present a case of a 4-year-old male who was admitted with symptoms of abdominal pain in the right iliac fossa, raising the suspicion of acute appendicitis. Exploratory laparotomy disclosed normal appendix and perforation of Meckel's diverticulum caused by a wood splinter. Meckel's diverticulectomy was performed and the child had an uneventful postoperative course. Preoperative diagnosis of perforated Meckel’s diverticulum remains a challenging issue. Diagnosis should be considered in the presence of a right lower quadrant abdominal pain or a positive history of ingestion of a sharp foreign body PMID:23976900

  19. Effects of a Full-Day Preschool Program on 4-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herry, Yves; Maltais, Claire; Thompson, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the effects of a full-day preschool program on 4-year-old children. The study compared the development of a group of children (N = 403) who attended the preschool program on a half-day basis during the 1999-2000 school year (the last year the half-day program was in place) with the development of a group of children (N = 418)…

  20. Ventriculo-bipleural shunt as last resort in a 4-year-old child in whom a VP and VA shunt failed.

    PubMed

    Ratliff, Miriam; Unterberg, Andreas; Bächli, Heidi

    2016-03-01

    The authors present the unusual case of a 4-year-old boy who had a complex history of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus and who underwent more than 40 surgeries related to this condition. In the course of trying to treat his condition, ventriculoperitoneal, ventriculoatrial, and ventriculopleural shunts were inserted and failed. The child presented with a dysfunction of his shunt system. A ventriculopleural shunt was inserted, but within days the patient developed dyspnea as a clinical symptom of pleural effusion that required repeated thoracentesis. A bipleural drainage system was inserted, and no relevant pleural effusions developed during the follow-up period. Although the authors' experience is based on a single case, they do suggest bipleural drainage in patients with clinically relevant pleural effusions when the more common alternatives are not a good choice. Bipleural drainage might particularly be an option in children, who are prone to pleural effusion because of the smaller absorbing pleural surface. The authors reviewed the English-language literature on PubMed dating back to 1952. To their knowledge, this is the only published case in which a patient was treated with a ventriculo-bipleural shunt.

  1. Giant ductal aneurysm in an asymptomatic 4-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Ritu; Smith, Clinton; Greenberg, Bruce S; Jaquiss, Robert D B

    2009-03-01

    Ductal aneurysm is a rare but potentially fatal condition. We report the case of an asymptomatic 4-year-old girl who was noted to have a murmur and with further evaluation by echocardiography and computed tomographic angiography was diagnosed with a giant ductal aneurysm. The aneurysm occupied a large space in the mediastinum, compressed the pulmonary arteries, and was in close proximity to the sternum. At surgery, the aneurysm was successfully resected after careful separation from adjacent structures. Because the anterolateral wall of the ascending aorta was noted to be extraordinarily thinned-out, it was replaced with a patch.

  2. Case Report: Traumatic anterior cerebral artery aneurysm in a 4-year old child

    PubMed Central

    Munakomi, Sunil; Tamrakar, Karuna; Chaudhary, Pramod; Bhattarai, Binod; Cherian, Iype

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic intracranial aneurysm in the proximal part of the anterior cerebral artery in the pediatric population has not been documented so far. Here we report the case of a 4 year-old child who developed a pseudo-aneurysm after minor head trauma and was managed successfully with trapping of the aneurysm. A ventriculo-peritoneal shunt was placed as the child became dependent on extraventricular drain during the post-operative period. The patient made excellent recovery in neurological status within 1 month of post-operative clinical follow up.

  3. Idiopathic myelofibrosis with generalized periostitis in a 4-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Walia, Mandeep; Mehta, Rajesh; Paul, Premila; Saluja, Sumita; Kapoor, Sujala; Sharma, Monika

    2005-05-01

    Idiopathic myelofibrosis, a chronic myeloproliferative disorder of unknown origin, is characterized by splenomegaly, extramedullary hematopoiesis, leukoerythroblastosis, teardrop erythrocytes, and myelofibrosis. It is a rare disorder in childhood. The authors describe a 4-year-old girl with features consistent with idiopathic myelofibrosis, who also had generalized solid laminated periosteal reaction involving all long bones. The presence of thrombocytopenia at the onset and lack of leukocytosis were in contrast to the reported features seen in children. Recent case reports describe a relatively indolent course in children. Spontaneous remissions have also been described in pediatric cases. The fulminant course of this patient without any features of malignant transformation was noteworthy in this regard.

  4. Case Report: Traumatic anterior cerebral artery aneurysm in a 4-year old child

    PubMed Central

    Munakomi, Sunil; Tamrakar, Karuna; Chaudhary, Pramod; Bhattarai, Binod; Cherian, Iype

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic intracranial aneurysm in the proximal part of the anterior cerebral artery in the pediatric population has not been documented so far. Here we report the case of a 4 year-old child who developed a pseudo-aneurysm after minor head trauma and was managed successfully with trapping of the aneurysm. A ventriculo-peritoneal shunt was placed as the child became dependent on extraventricular drain during the post-operative period. The patient made excellent recovery in neurological status within 1 month of post-operative clinical follow up. PMID:27635218

  5. Crown fracture of the mandibular second primary molars in a 4-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Anshula; Patel, Jalark; Sujan, Sunanda Gul; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-01-01

    Dental traumas are highly prevalent lesions in primary teeth, but crown root fractures are rare. Mostly anterior tooth segment is more commonly involved. Posterior crown root fractures are very rare. A 4-year-old girl reported to our paediatric dentistry department with a 10-day history of severe pain and discomfort in both right and left posterior teeth region. The child was suffering from severe and continuous pain and was unable to chew food. After an examination a fracture was noticed in intraoral periapical radiograph and treatment plan was decided to preserve the affected teeth. PMID:23780765

  6. Predictive indicators for adjustment in 4-year-old children whose mothers used amphetamine during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Billing, L; Eriksson, M; Steneroth, G; Zetterström, R

    1988-01-01

    Psychosocial factors that could be used as predictive indicators for adjustment of 4-year-old children whose mothers had used amphetamine during pregnancy were studied by means of simple and multivariate correlation analyses. The following statistically significant correlations were found: Length of maternal alcohol and drug abuse during pregnancy was correlated negatively with the child's adjustment as were numbers of paternal criminal convictions, number of stress factors of the mother, and number of earlier children born to the mother. Paternal criminality was associated with the outcome, regardless of amount of contact between father and child.

  7. Multiple salivary mucoceles in a young boy.

    PubMed

    Porter, S R; Scully, C; Kainth, B; Ward-Booth, P

    1998-06-01

    A rare case of multiple mucoceles in a 4-year-old boy is reported. The patients presented with multiple sessile swellings on his lower lip, with no obvious local aetiology. The patient was otherwise well. The lesions were excised surgically and histopathological examination confirmed the lesions to be extravasation-type mucoceles. The article includes a brief review of mucoceles. PMID:9728101

  8. First Pregnancy, Somatic and Psychological Status of a 4-Year-Old Child Born following Annexin V TESA Sperm Separation

    PubMed Central

    Lukaszuk, Krzysztof; Wcislo, Monika; Liss, Joanna; Stachowicz, Anna; Jakiel, Grzegorz; Lukaszuk, Mariusz; Pastuszek, Ewa; Woclawek-Potocka, Izabela; Galvao, Antonio; Bialobrzeska, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sperm DNA integrity is a crucial paternal factor affecting fertilization and pregnancy rates, as well as embryo development. Case The present case report describes the successful pregnancy after testicular sperm aspiration (TESA) combined with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) (TESA-ICSI) in a couple where the male presented high sperm DNA fragmentation. In order to sort damaged sperm presenting DNA fragmentation, magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) with annexin V microbeads (MACS Miltenyi Biotec, Teterow, Germany) was used. Conclusion The authors present the first description of a successful medical case using TESA-ICSI annexin V sperm sorting. Additionally, a follow-up of the child at the age of 4 years old was done. PMID:26495164

  9. Social context effects in 2- and 4-year-olds' selective versus faithful imitation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Kushnir, Tamar

    2014-03-01

    This study asked whether children's tendency to imitate selectively (ignore causally unnecessary actions) versus faithfully (overimitate causally unnecessary actions) varies across ages and social contexts. In the first experiment, 2-year-olds and 4-year-olds were randomly assigned to play 1 of 3 prior games with a demonstrator: a mimicry game, an instrumental game, or a noninteractive control game. They then participated in a puzzle-box imitation task in which the demonstrator performed 1 causally necessary and 1 unnecessary action to retrieve an object. Whereas 4-year-olds imitated faithfully across all conditions, 2-year-olds were more likely to imitate faithfully after a mimicry game and to imitate selectively after an instrumental game. Experiment 2 showed no effect of playing a mimicry game with a different experimenter prior to the imitation trials, thus ruling out 2-year-olds' faithful imitation being the result of motor priming or training effects. The results are discussed in terms of children's social affiliation and social-cognitive inferences.

  10. Traffic-related air pollution is related to interrupter resistance in 4-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Eenhuizen, Esther; Gehring, Ulrike; Wijga, Alet H; Smit, Henriette A; Fischer, Paul H; Brauer, Michael; Koppelman, Gerard H; Kerkhof, Marjan; de Jongste, Johan C; Brunekreef, Bert; Hoek, Gerard

    2013-06-01

    Outdoor air pollution has been associated with decrements in lung function and growth of lung function in school-age children. Lung function effects have not been examined in preschoolers, with the exception of one study on minute ventilation in newborns. Our goal was to assess the relationship between long- and short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and interrupter resistance in 4-year-old children. Lung function was measured using the interrupter resistance method in children participating in a Dutch birth cohort study. Long-term average air pollution concentrations of fine particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide and soot at the residential address at birth were assessed using land-use regression models. Daily average air pollution concentrations on the day of clinical examination were obtained from the Dutch National Air Quality Monitoring Network. Significant associations were found between long-term average air pollution concentrations and interrupter resistance. Interrupter resistance increased by 0.04 kPa·s·L(-1) (95% CI 0.01-0.07) per interquartile range increase (3.3 μg·m(-3)) in fine particle concentration. Short-term exposure was not associated with interrupter resistance. Long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution was associated with increased interrupter resistance in 4-year-old children, supporting previous birth cohort studies reporting effects of air pollution on subjectively reported respiratory symptoms in preschool children.

  11. Social context effects in 2- and 4-year-olds' selective versus faithful imitation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Kushnir, Tamar

    2014-03-01

    This study asked whether children's tendency to imitate selectively (ignore causally unnecessary actions) versus faithfully (overimitate causally unnecessary actions) varies across ages and social contexts. In the first experiment, 2-year-olds and 4-year-olds were randomly assigned to play 1 of 3 prior games with a demonstrator: a mimicry game, an instrumental game, or a noninteractive control game. They then participated in a puzzle-box imitation task in which the demonstrator performed 1 causally necessary and 1 unnecessary action to retrieve an object. Whereas 4-year-olds imitated faithfully across all conditions, 2-year-olds were more likely to imitate faithfully after a mimicry game and to imitate selectively after an instrumental game. Experiment 2 showed no effect of playing a mimicry game with a different experimenter prior to the imitation trials, thus ruling out 2-year-olds' faithful imitation being the result of motor priming or training effects. The results are discussed in terms of children's social affiliation and social-cognitive inferences. PMID:23978298

  12. Learning to perceive English /d/ versus /edh/: A comparison of French, English, and English-French bilingual 4-year-olds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundara, Megha; Polka, Linda; Campisi, Lisa; Genesee, Fred; Marcoux, Caroline

    2002-05-01

    Recent findings show that discrimination of the English /d-edh/ does not differ for English and French infants (6-8-month-olds and 10-12-month-olds), although English adults clearly outperform French adults on this contrast, which is not phonemic in French. With respect to age effects, English listeners' perception of /d-edh/ improves between infancy and adulthood, whereas French listeners' perception remains unchanged [Polka et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 109, 2190-2200 (2001)]. In the present study, we tested monolingual English, monolingual French, and early English-French bilingual 4-year-olds on the same contrast using the same stimuli and procedures to clarify when facilitative effects of language experience emerge and whether they are affected by bilingualism. Four findings are reported. First, a language effect (English>French) is evident by 4 years of age. Second, among native (English) listeners facilitative effects are evident by 4-years of age (infants<4-year-olds4-year-olds=adults). Fourth, bilingual 4-year-olds' performance is virtually identical to that of their French-speaking peers, revealing a strong effect of bilingualism on the perception of this contrast. Several factors contributing to these findings will be discussed.

  13. [Lineage switch - conversion of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia to acute myeloid leukaemia in 4 years old girl].

    PubMed

    Szpecht, Dawid; Derwich, Katarzyna; Wachowiak, Jacek; Konatkowska, Benigna; Dworacki, Grzegorz

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of a 4-year-old girl with diagnosed proB acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with co-expression CD33 antigen, treated according to Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia Intercontinental - Berlin Frankfurt Münster 2002 (ALL-IC BFM 2002) protocol for standard risk group. Haematological remission was obtained on day 33 of induction treatment (on time). During induction and consolidation therapy there were no early serious adverse effects. The late isolated bone marrow relapse of acute myeloid leukaemia, type 7 was noted in our patient. We recognized this case as a lineage switch acute lymphoblastic leukaemia to acute myeloid leukaemia. In spite of Ida Flag regimen and following Acute Myeloid Leukaemia - Berlin Frankfurt Münster 2004 (AML-BFM 2004) protocol were administered, the clinical and haematological remission was not achieved and the patient died because of disease progression (circulatory and respiratory insufficiency).

  14. [Noma in a 4 year-old girl: a case report from Chad].

    PubMed

    Cocquempot, K; Javaudin, O; Lerasle, P; Aigle, L

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes a 4-year-old girl in Chad with noma, also called cancrum oris. This acute gangrenous stomatitis has a combined morbidity-mortality rate that can reach 70%. It occurs worldwide but is most common in sub-Saharan Africa in children aged 2 to 16 years. Its pathogenesis is uncertain, but several bacteria including Fusobacterium necrophorum, Prevotella intermedia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa may be responsible for the development of noma, which develops over the oral lesions these bacteria cause. Poverty is its most important risk factor. Due to its rapid course and high lethality, it requires emergency treatment with antibiotics, daily dressing of the lesion, and nutritional rehabilitation. Surgical removal of the remaining necrotic tissue can be followed by reconstructive procedures. Physical and speech therapy should be initiated to prevent functional complications. PMID:24736219

  15. [Preclinical management of accidental methadone intoxication of a 4-year-old girl. Antagonist or intubation?].

    PubMed

    Hainer, C; Bernhard, M; Gries, A

    2004-10-01

    We report on the preclinical management of a 4-year-old child who was found in a comatose condition with respiratory failure after accidental ingestion of methadone. Emergency airway management was carried out with endotracheal intubation instead of administering the antagonist naloxone. The child could be extubated 12 h later and was released from hospital after 3 days with no neurological symptoms. The authors attempt to formulate an algorithm for the preclinical management of opioid intoxication with reference to the literature and own experience. Endotracheal intubation seems to be superior to the use of the antagonist naloxone, especially in a critical situation. This is the only way to ensure a rapid oxygenation with adequate airway protection and with the simultaneous avoidance of the side-effects of naloxone. A restrictive and critical administration of the opioid antagonist naloxone is recommended when there is suspicion of opioid ingestion but no signs of intoxication. PMID:15278196

  16. [Noma in a 4 year-old girl: a case report from Chad].

    PubMed

    Cocquempot, K; Javaudin, O; Lerasle, P; Aigle, L

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes a 4-year-old girl in Chad with noma, also called cancrum oris. This acute gangrenous stomatitis has a combined morbidity-mortality rate that can reach 70%. It occurs worldwide but is most common in sub-Saharan Africa in children aged 2 to 16 years. Its pathogenesis is uncertain, but several bacteria including Fusobacterium necrophorum, Prevotella intermedia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa may be responsible for the development of noma, which develops over the oral lesions these bacteria cause. Poverty is its most important risk factor. Due to its rapid course and high lethality, it requires emergency treatment with antibiotics, daily dressing of the lesion, and nutritional rehabilitation. Surgical removal of the remaining necrotic tissue can be followed by reconstructive procedures. Physical and speech therapy should be initiated to prevent functional complications.

  17. Laparoscopic Removal of a Large Gastric Trichobezoar in a 4-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Cintolo, Jessica; Telem, Dana A.; Divino, Celia M.; Chin, Edward H.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Standard treatment of large gastric bezoars not amenable to medical or endoscopic management is surgical removal. The optimal operative approach, laparotomy versus laparoscopy, is a contested subject. Though laparoscopic removal has been described, it remains a relatively new technique for surgical management with outcome literature limited to case reports. In addition, currently described laparoscopic techniques often involve limited midline laparotomy incisions or >3 cm extensions of port sites. Methods: The following describes the case of a 4-year-old girl with a large gastric trichobezoar. Results: The gastric trichobezoar was successfully removed through a 12-mm left lower quadrant trocar incision cosmetically hidden within a skin crease. Conclusion: This case, along with accumulating literature, supports the use of laparoscopy to treat large gastric bezoars. PMID:20202404

  18. Phonological awareness and phonemic perception in 4-year-old children with delayed expressive phonology skills.

    PubMed

    Rvachew, Susan; Ohberg, Alyssa; Grawburg, Meghann; Heyding, Joan

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the phonological awareness abilities of 2 groups of 4-year-old children: one with normally developing speech and language skills and the other with moderately or severely delayed expressive phonological skills but age-appropriate receptive vocabulary skills. Each group received tests of articulation, receptive vocabulary, phonemic perception, early literacy, and phonological awareness skills. The groups were matched for receptive language skills, age, socioeconomic status, and emergent literacy knowledge. The children with expressive phonological delays demonstrated significantly poorer phonemic perception and phonological awareness skills than their normally developing peers. The results suggest that preschool children with delayed expressive phonological abilities should be screened for their phonological awareness skills even when their language skills are otherwise normally developing. PMID:14658998

  19. Visual access trumps gender in 3- and 4-year-old children's endorsement of testimony.

    PubMed

    Terrier, Nathalie; Bernard, Stéphane; Mercier, Hugo; Clément, Fabrice

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have investigated how preschoolers weigh social cues against epistemic cues when taking testimony into account. For instance, one study showed that 4- and 5-year-olds preferred to endorse the testimony of an informant who had the same gender as the children; by contrast, when the gender cue conflicted with an epistemic cue--past reliability--the latter trumped the former. None of the previous studies, however, has shown that 3-year-olds can prioritize an epistemic cue over a social cue. In Experiment 1, we offer the first demonstration that 3-year-olds favor testimony from a same-gender informant in the absence of other cues. In Experiments 2 and 3, an epistemic cue-visual access--was introduced. In those experiments, 3- and 4-year-olds endorsed the testimony of the informant with visual access regardless of whether it was a same-gender informant (Experiment 3) or a different-gender informant (Experiment 2). These results demonstrate that 3-year-olds are able to give more weight to an epistemic cue than to a social cue when evaluating testimony.

  20. Children's Spatial Representations: 3- and 4-Year-Olds are Affected by Irrelevant Peripheral References.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Markus; Jahn, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Children as young as 3 years can remember an object's location within an arrangement and can retrieve it from a novel viewpoint (Nardini et al., 2006). However, this ability is impaired if the arrangement is rotated to compensate for the novel viewpoint, or, if the arrangement is rotated and children stand still. There are two dominant explanations for this phenomenon: self-motion induces an automatic spatial updating process which is beneficial if children move around the arrangement, but misleading if the children's movement is matched by the arrangement and not activated if children stand still and only the arrangement is moved (see spatial updating; Simons and Wang, 1998). Another explanation concerns reference frames: spatial representations might depend on peripheral spatial relations concerning the surrounding room instead on proximal relations within the arrangement, even if these proximal relations are sufficient or more informative. To evaluate these possibilities, we rotated children (N = 120) aged between 3 and 6 years with an occluded arrangement. When the arrangement was in misalignment to the surrounding room, 3- and 4-year-olds' spatial memory was impaired and 5-year-olds' was lightly impaired suggesting that they relied on peripheral references of the surrounding room for retrieval. In contrast, 6-years-olds' spatial representation seemed robust against misalignment indicating a successful integration of spatial representations. PMID:26617537

  1. Atresia of the Aortic Arch in 4-Year-Old Child: A Clinical Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Nigro Stimato, Vittoria; Didier, Dominique; Beghetti, Maurice; Tissot, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Atresia of the aortic arch is a rare congenital heart defect with a high mortality when associated with other intracardiac defects. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) provides the exact anatomy of the aortic arch and collateral circulation and is useful to diagnose-associated aortic arch anomalies. This report describes the case of a 4-year-old child with atresia of the aortic arch, referred to our institution with the diagnosis of aortic coarctation and bicuspid aortic valve. On clinical exam, the femoral pulses were not palpable and there was a significant differential blood pressure between the upper and lower limbs. The echocardiography showed a severely stenotic bicuspid aortic valve but was limited for the exact description of the aortic arch. CMR showed absence of lumen continuity between the ascending and descending aorta distal to the left subclavian artery, extending over 5 mm, with the presence of a bend in the arch and diverticulum on either side of the zone of discontinuity, suggesting the diagnosis atresia of the aortic arch rather than coarctation or interruption. The patient benefited from a successful surgical commissurotomy of the aortic valve and reconstruction of the aortic arch with a homograft. The post-operative CMR confirmed the good surgical result. This case emphasizes the utility of CMR to provide good anatomical information to establish the exact diagnosis and the operative strategy. PMID:25853109

  2. Endomyocardial fibrosis and mural thrombus in a 4-year-old girl due to idiopathic hypereosinophilia syndrome described with serial cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Tai, Christiana P; Chung, Taylor; Avasarala, Kishor

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 4-year-old girl with idiopathic hypereosinophilia syndrome, endomyocardial fibrosis, and mural thrombus. This condition is rarely seen in children outside the tropics. Myocardial biopsy is historically the standard for diagnosis. Reports in adult literature, however, have shown the utility of cardiac MRI as a non-invasive tool for diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case with serial cardiac MRI in a child.

  3. A vesicular variant of pseudoverrucous papules and nodules in the genital area of an incontinent 4-year-old.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Shreya; Scurry, James P; Fischer, Gayle

    2013-11-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis is a common cause of chronic vulvitis in patients wearing diapers and incontinence garments. In most cases the diagnosis is obvious; however, atypical presentations may mimic more serious dermatoses. We present a 4-year-old girl who presented at birth with cloacal atresia corrected surgically and resulting in chronic incontinence requiring full-time diapers. She presented with crops of herpetiform vesicles and bullae on a base that ranged from normal skin to severe erythema and oedema. A histological examination revealed a well-demarcated lesion showing a thickened epidermis with hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis, acanthosis and an abrupt transition to pallor of the upper half. Focal full thickness epidermis necrosis and small areas of spongiosis, acantholysis and apoptotic keratinocytes were seen. Immunofluorescence was negative. The lesions improved with the treatment of secondary infection and minimal topical therapy with an emollient only. This case represents an unusual vesicular variant of pseudoverrucous papules and nodules, which has been reported only once previously. PMID:23043543

  4. Effects of explicit teacher-implemented phoneme awareness instruction in 4-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Ann A; Osterhouse, Heather; Wickham, Katherine; Mcnutt, Robert; Shao, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether gains would be observed in an integrated group of 4-year-olds when phoneme awareness skills were explicitly taught by trained early childhood educators. In a quasi-experimental design with a delayed treatment approach, one classroom (N = 14) was randomly assigned to receive the instructional program in fall, while a second classroom (N = 10) served as a control and subsequently received the program in spring. Baseline assessment of speech and language skills indicated there were four participants with speech and/or language impairments. The teacher training involved an initial workshop and weekly hour-long mentoring meetings; the program was provided for 20 min a day, 4 d a week, for 10 weeks. Outcome measures of phoneme awareness and letter knowledge skills were obtained from non-standardized tasks administered pre-instruction and post-instruction, at mid-year and end-year points. When each classroom received the phoneme instruction, participants made gains in letter knowledge and phoneme level skills in comparison with group performance under regular instruction. These gains were statistically significant for phoneme blending and letter knowledge. Using an aggregate of all outcome measures, the gain for each classroom when under instruction was statistically significant as compared with when that same classroom was receiving the regular curriculum. Children with speech and/or language impairment responded more variably. Gains in the more difficult phoneme awareness skill of blending suggest the potential for marked change with an intensive, explicit classroom instruction and hold promise for SLPs collaborating with preschool teachers to provide time-efficient PA instruction.

  5. The effect of verbal reminders on memory reactivation in 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Imuta, Kana; Scarf, Damian; Hayne, Harlene

    2013-06-01

    For adults, verbal reminders provide a powerful key to unlock our memories. For example, a simple question, such as "Do you remember your wedding day?" can reactivate rich memories of the past, allowing us to recall experiences that may have occurred days, weeks, and even decades earlier. The ability to use another person's language to access our memory of a prior experience is considered to be one of the hallmarks in human memory development, but surprisingly, little is known about the ontogeny of this fundamental ability. Prior research has shown that by 4 years of age, children can use a simple verbal reminder (e.g., "Do you remember coming here before?") to reactivate an otherwise inaccessible memory of a unique visual stimulus. Given that language comprehension precedes production, it has been hypothesized that the ability to use verbal reminders may emerge well before 4 years of age. In the present experiment, we tested this hypothesis by examining whether a verbal reminder reactivated memory in 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old children who were tested using the visual-paired comparison (VPC) paradigm. Our findings showed that the ability to exploit a simple verbal reminder emerges by at least 2 years of age. PMID:22822936

  6. Maternal child-feeding practices and dietary inadequacy of 4-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Durão, Catarina; Andreozzi, Valeska; Oliveira, Andreia; Moreira, Pedro; Guerra, António; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the association between maternal perceived responsibility and child-feeding practices and dietary inadequacy of 4-year-old children. We studied 4122 mothers and children enrolled in the population-based birth cohort - Generation XXI (Porto, Portugal). Mothers self-completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire and a scale on covert and overt control, and answered to a food frequency questionnaire in face-to-face interviews. Using dietary guidelines for preschool children, adequacy intervals were defined: fruit and vegetables (F&V) 4-7 times/day; dairy 3-5 times/day; meat and eggs 5-10 times/week; fish 2-4 times/week. Inadequacy was considered as below or above these cut-points. For energy-dense micronutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDF), a tolerable limit was defined (<6 times/week). Associations between maternal perceived responsibility and child-feeding practices (restriction, monitoring, pressure to eat, overt and covert control) and children's diet were examined by logistic regression models. After adjustment for maternal BMI, education, and diet, and children's characteristics (sex, BMI z-scores), restriction, monitoring, overt and covert control were associated with 11-18% lower odds of F&V consumption below the interval defined as adequate. Overt control was also associated with 24% higher odds of their consumption above it. Higher perceived responsibility was associated with higher odds of children consuming F&V and dairy above recommendations. Pressure to eat was positively associated with consumption of dairy above the adequate interval. Except for pressure to eat, maternal practices were associated with 14-27% lower odds of inadequate consumption of EDF. In conclusion, children whose mothers had higher levels of covert control, monitoring, and restriction were less likely to consume F&V below recommendations and EDF above tolerable limits. Higher overt control and pressure to eat were associated, respectively, with higher

  7. Sensitivity of 4-Year-Olds to Featural and Second-Order Relational Changes in Face Distinctiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKone, Elinor; Boyer, Barbara L.

    2006-01-01

    Sensitivity to adult ratings of facial distinctiveness (how much an individual stands out in a crowd) has been demonstrated previously in children age 5 years or older. Experiment 1 extended this result to 4-year-olds using a "choose the more distinctive face" task. Children's patterns of choice across item pairs also correlated well with those of…

  8. Different Executive Functions Support Different Kinds of Cognitive Flexibility: Evidence from 2-, 3-, and 4-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakey, Emma; Visser, Ingmar; Carroll, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Improvements in cognitive flexibility during the preschool years have been linked to developments in both working memory and inhibitory control, though the precise contribution of each remains unclear. In the current study, one hundred and twenty 2-, 3-, and 4-year-olds completed two rule-switching tasks. In one version, children switched rules in…

  9. How Do Symbols Affect 3- to 4-Year-Olds' Executive Function? Evidence from a Reverse-Contingency Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apperly, Ian A.; Carroll, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    In two experiments, 330 3- to 4-year-olds competed for stickers in a game in which the optimal response strategy was to point to an empty box that their opponent would receive in order to obtain a baited box for themselves. When the baited box contained stickers, children showed a strong tendency to point at the baited box and therefore lose the…

  10. The Prevalence of ADHD, ODD, Depression, and Anxiety in a Community Sample of 4-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavigne, John V.; LeBailly, Susan A.; Hopkins, Joyce; Gouze, Karen R.; Binns, Helen J.

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have examined the epidemiology of preschoolers' psychopathology. This study included 796 4-year-old children recruited from schools and pediatric practices in a diverse, urban area. Psychiatric disorder was assessed by a structured interview adapted for preschool children and by questionnaire. The most common disorders were…

  11. Effectiveness of a Fundamental Motor Skill Intervention for 4-Year-Old Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremer, Emily; Balogh, Robert; Lloyd, Meghann

    2015-01-01

    A wait-list control experimental design was employed to investigate the effectiveness of a fundamental motor skill intervention at improving the motor skills, adaptive behavior, and social skills of 4-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (experimental n?=?5, control n?=?4); the impact of intervention intensity was also explored. The…

  12. Asthma and asthma medication use among 4-year-old offspring of subfertile couples--association with IVF?

    PubMed

    Kuiper, Derk B; Seggers, Jorien; Schendelaar, Pamela; Haadsma, Maaike L; Roseboom, Tessa J; Heineman, Maas J; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of asthma and asthma medication use in 213 4-year-old singletons followed from birth onwards, including three groups of children born following: (i) controlled ovarian hyperstimulation IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI); (ii) modified natural cycle IVF/ICSI; and (iii) natural conception in subfertile couples. The rate of asthma medication was higher in the ovarian hyperstimulation-IVF/ICSI than in the subfertile group (adjusted odds ratios [aOR]: 1.96 [1.00-3.84]). Time to pregnancy, a proxy for the severity of subfertility, was not associated with asthma and asthma medication. In conclusion, controlled ovarian hyperstimulation-IVF/ICSI is associated with the use of asthma medication in 4-year-old offspring of subfertile couples.

  13. Fathers' challenging parenting behavior prevents social anxiety development in their 4-year-old children: a longitudinal observational study.

    PubMed

    Majdandžić, Mirjana; Möller, Eline L; de Vente, Wieke; Bögels, Susan M; van den Boom, Dymphna C

    2014-02-01

    Recent models on parenting propose different roles for fathers and mothers in the development of child anxiety. Specifically, it is suggested that fathers' challenging parenting behavior, in which the child is playfully encouraged to push her limits, buffers against child anxiety. In this longitudinal study, we explored whether the effect of challenging parenting on children's social anxiety differed between fathers and mothers. Fathers and mothers from 94 families were separately observed with their two children (44 % girls), aged 2 and 4 years at Time 1, in three structured situations involving one puzzle task and two games. Overinvolved and challenging parenting behavior were coded. Child social anxiety was measured by observing the child's response to a stranger at Time 1, and half a year later at Time 2, and by parental ratings. In line with predictions, father's challenging parenting behavior predicted less subsequent observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. Mothers' challenging behavior, however, predicted more observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old. Parents' overinvolvement at Time 1 did not predict change in observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. For the 2-year-old child, maternal and paternal parenting behavior did not predict subsequent social anxiety, but early social anxiety marginally did. Parent-rated social anxiety was predicted by previous parental ratings of social anxiety, and not by parenting behavior. Challenging parenting behavior appears to have favorable effects on observed 4-year-old's social anxiety when displayed by the father. Challenging parenting behavior emerges as an important focus for future research and interventions.

  14. Fathers' challenging parenting behavior prevents social anxiety development in their 4-year-old children: a longitudinal observational study.

    PubMed

    Majdandžić, Mirjana; Möller, Eline L; de Vente, Wieke; Bögels, Susan M; van den Boom, Dymphna C

    2014-02-01

    Recent models on parenting propose different roles for fathers and mothers in the development of child anxiety. Specifically, it is suggested that fathers' challenging parenting behavior, in which the child is playfully encouraged to push her limits, buffers against child anxiety. In this longitudinal study, we explored whether the effect of challenging parenting on children's social anxiety differed between fathers and mothers. Fathers and mothers from 94 families were separately observed with their two children (44 % girls), aged 2 and 4 years at Time 1, in three structured situations involving one puzzle task and two games. Overinvolved and challenging parenting behavior were coded. Child social anxiety was measured by observing the child's response to a stranger at Time 1, and half a year later at Time 2, and by parental ratings. In line with predictions, father's challenging parenting behavior predicted less subsequent observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. Mothers' challenging behavior, however, predicted more observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old. Parents' overinvolvement at Time 1 did not predict change in observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. For the 2-year-old child, maternal and paternal parenting behavior did not predict subsequent social anxiety, but early social anxiety marginally did. Parent-rated social anxiety was predicted by previous parental ratings of social anxiety, and not by parenting behavior. Challenging parenting behavior appears to have favorable effects on observed 4-year-old's social anxiety when displayed by the father. Challenging parenting behavior emerges as an important focus for future research and interventions. PMID:23812638

  15. A 4-year-old girl with manifestations of multiple chemical sensitivities.

    PubMed Central

    Woolf, A

    2000-01-01

    Multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS) syndrome, also known as idiopathic environmental intolerance, is a controversial diagnosis that encompasses a wide range of waxing and waning, subjective symptoms referable to more than one body system and provoked by exposure to low levels of chemicals, foods, or other agents in the environment. Although MCS has been studied extensively, a unifying mechanism explaining the illness remains obscure, and clinicians are divided as to whether such a medical entity exists separately from psychosomatic syndromes. MCS is an adult diagnosis; there is little reference to pediatric cases in the scientific literature. In this case from the Pediatric Environmental Health Subspecialty Unit at Boston's Children's Hospital, I present the case of a preschool child who had suffered from milk allergy and poor weight gain as an infant, and then later developed asthma, allergic symptoms, sinusitis, headaches, fatigue, and rashes precipitated by an expanding variety of chemicals, foods, and allergens. I review definitions, mechanisms, diagnostic strategies, and management, and discuss some uniquely pediatric features of MCS as illustrated by this case. PMID:11133405

  16. Bilateral Thalamic and Right Fronto-temporo-parietal Gliomas in a 4 Years Old Child Diagnosed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sharaf, Ahmed Fathy; Hamouda, Ehab Shaban Mahmoud; Teo, Jennifer Gek Choo

    2016-01-01

    We report the neuroimaging findings of a 4-year-old girl with biopsy-proven bilateral thalamic and right fronto-temporo-parietal cortical gliomas, which are uncommon tumours involving the central nervous system. Despite their benignity, the prognosis is usually poor because of involvement of the thalamic nuclei and difficulty in surgical excision. These lesions have limited differential diagnoses that include metabolic, toxic, infective, vascular and neoplastic. Imaging characteristics on conventional Magnetic Resonance (MR), Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) and Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can further narrow the differential diagnosis and also provide additional information regarding the degree of involvement of adjacent brain tissue and white matter tracts around the lesions. PMID:27200150

  17. The use of medicinal leeches in fingertip replantation without venous anastomosis - case report of a 4-year-old patient.

    PubMed

    Streit, L; Dvořák, Z; Novák, O; Stiborová, S; Veselý, J

    2014-01-01

    Replantation of amputated fingertip is a technical challenge to the microsurgeons. The success rate depends directly on the availability and the size of preserved vessels and on the degree of their damage. In distal digital amputations, veins are usually not easily recovered or even absent, and thus high number of replantation procedures fails because of the venous congestion. The use of medicinal leeches is a treatment option for venous congestion of replanted fingers. A case report of a 4-year-old patient after fingertip replantation without venous anastomosis when temporary venous drainage was provided by an application of medicinal leeches is reported together with literature review. We observed an unusually short duration of venous congestion (48 hours) and there was no need of blood transfusion.

  18. Effectiveness of a fundamental motor skill intervention for 4-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bremer, Emily; Balogh, Robert; Lloyd, Meghann

    2015-11-01

    A wait-list control experimental design was employed to investigate the effectiveness of a fundamental motor skill intervention at improving the motor skills, adaptive behavior, and social skills of 4-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (experimental n = 5, control n = 4); the impact of intervention intensity was also explored. The experimental group significantly improved their object manipulation and overall motor scores from pre- to post-intervention. The wait-list control design revealed no group-by-time interactions; however, with the groups combined time was a significant factor for all motor variables. There were no significant changes in adaptive behavior and social skills. These preliminary findings suggest that a fundamental motor skill intervention may benefit young children with autism spectrum disorder. Future research with larger samples is warranted.

  19. Increase in child behavior problems among urban Brazilian 4-year olds: 1993 and 2004 Pelotas birth cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Matijasevich, Alicia; Murray, Elizabeth; Stein, Alan; Anselmi, Luciana; Menezes, Ana M; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio JD; Gigante, Denise P; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2014-01-01

    Background There are an increasing number of reports on time trends in child and adolescent psychological problems but none from low- and middle-income countries, and very few covering the preschool period. The aim was to investigate changes in preschool behavioral/emotional problems in two birth cohorts from a middle-income country born 11 years apart. Methods We analyzed data from the 1993 and 2004 Pelotas birth cohort studies from Brazil. A subsample of 4-year olds from the 1993 cohort (634) and all 4-year olds from the 2004 cohort (3750) were assessed for behavioral/emotional problems through maternal report using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Response rates in these two population-based cohorts were above 90%. Results We found a significant increase in CBCL total problems, internalizing and externalizing mean scores over the 11-year period. For 1993 and 2004 Pelotas cohorts, respectively, CBCL mean values (SE) total problems scores were 27.9 (0.8) and 34.7 (0.3); for internalizing scores, 5.7 (0.2) and 6.3 (0.1) and for externalizing scores, 12.4 (0.4) and 15.5 (0.1). After adjusting for confounding variables, the largest increase from 1993 to 2004 was identified in the aggressive behavior syndrome score (Cohen's d = .50), followed by the externalizing problem score (Cohen's d = .40) and CBCL total problem score (Cohen's d = .36), respectively. The rise in child psychological problems was more marked in children from families with fewer assets and with less educated mothers. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence for a substantial increase in preschool behavioral problems among children in Brazil over an 11-year period. PMID:24735354

  20. Recent (<4 year old) Leaf Litter is Not a Major Source of Microbial Carbon in a Temperate Forest Mineral Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Christiane; Trumbore, Susan E.; Froberg, Mats J.; Cisneros dozal, Luz Maria; Zhang, Dachun; Xu, Xiamei; Santos, Guaciara; Hanson, Paul J

    2010-01-01

    Microbial communities in soil A horizons derive their carbon from several potential sources: organic carbon (C) transported down from overlying litter and organic horizons, root-derived C, or soil organic matter. We took advantage of a multi-year experiment that manipulated the {sup 14}C isotope signature of surface leaf litter inputs in a temperate forest at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee, USA, to quantify the contribution of recent leaf litter C to microbial respiration and biomarkers in the underlying mineral soil. We observed no measurable difference (< {approx}40{per_thousand} given our current analytical methods) in the radiocarbon signatures of microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) isolated from the top 10 cm of mineral soil in plots that experienced 3 years of litterfall that differed in each year by {approx}750{per_thousand} between high-{sup 14}C and low-{sup 14}C treatments. Assuming any difference in {sup 14}C between the high- and low-{sup 14}C plots would reflect C derived from these manipulated litter additions, we estimate that <6% of the microbial C after 4 years was derived from the added 1-4-year-old surface litter. Large contributions of C from litter < 1 year (or >4 years) old (which fell after (or prior to) the manipulation and therefore did not differ between plots) are not supported because the {sup 14}C signatures of the PLFA compounds (averaging 200-220{per_thousand}) is much higher that of the 2004-5 leaf litter (115{per_thousand}) or pre-2000 litter. A mesocosm experiment further demonstrated that C leached from {sup 14}C-enriched surface litter or the O horizon was not a detectable C source in underlying mineral soil microbes during the first eight months after litter addition. Instead a decline in the {sup 14}C of PLFA over the mesocosm experiment likely reflected the loss of a pre-existing substrate not associated with added leaf litter. Measured PLFA {Delta}{sup 14}C signatures were higher than those measured in bulk

  1. Acute VI nerve palsy in a 4 year-old girl with Chiari I malformation and pontomedullary extension of syringomyelia: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Massey, Shavonne L; Buland, Justin; Hauber, Stacey; Piatt, Joseph; Goraya, Jatinder; Faerber, Eric; Valencia, Ignacio

    2011-07-01

    We report the case of a previously healthy 4 year-old African American female who presented to the emergency department with acute onset of unilateral abducens nerve palsy and torticollis. Within 12 h of presentation, the patient's symptoms progressed to include ipsilateral facial nerve palsy and gait ataxia. On exam, the patient demonstrated right cranial nerve VI and VII palsies, ataxic gait with left lateropulsion, spasticity of bilateral lower extremities with clonus, and the presence of bilateral Babinski sign. MRI of the brain and spinal cord revealed severe Chiari I malformation with associated extensive holochord syringomyelia and syringobulbia. The patient underwent successful surgical decompression 72 h after initial presentation. We review the literature on Chiari malformations and syringomyelia, including epidemiology, presentation and neurological manifestations, and treatment recommendations. As our patient had a very acute presentation, we additionally review the previously reported cases of acute and atypical presentation of patients with Chiari I malformation and syringomyelia. The aim of this report is to make practitioners aware of the acuteness with which children with Chiari malformation type I with syringomyelia and syringobulbia can present.

  2. Safety and immunogenicity of Vi conjugate vaccines for typhoid fever in adults, teenagers, and 2- to 4-year-old children in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Kossaczka, Z; Lin, F Y; Ho, V A; Thuy, N T; Van Bay, P; Thanh, T C; Khiem, H B; Trach, D D; Karpas, A; Hunt, S; Bryla, D A; Schneerson, R; Robbins, J B; Szu, S C

    1999-11-01

    The capsular polysaccharide of Salmonella typhi, Vi, is an essential virulence factor and a protective vaccine for people older than 5 years. The safety and immunogenicity of two investigational Vi conjugate vaccines were evaluated in adults, 5- to 14-year-old children, and 2- to 4-year-old children in Vietnam. The conjugates were prepared with Pseudomonas aeruginosa recombinant exoprotein A (rEPA) as the carrier, using either N-succinimidyl-3-(2-pyridyldithio)-propionate (SPDP; Vi-rEPA(1)) or adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH; Vi-rEPA(2)) as linkers. None of the recipients experienced a temperature of >38.5 degrees C or significant local reactions. One injection of Vi-rEPA(2) into adults elicited a geometric mean (GM) increase in anti-Vi immunoglobulin G (IgG) from 9.62 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay units/ml (EU) to 465 EU at 6 weeks; this level fell to 119 EU after 26 weeks. In the 5- to 14-year-old children, anti-Vi IgG levels at 6 weeks elicited by Vi-rEPA(2), Vi-rEPA(1), and Vi were 169, 22.8, and 18.9 EU, respectively (P = 0.0001 for Vi-rEPA(1) and Vi with respect to Vi-rEPA(2)). At 26 weeks, the anti-Vi IgG levels for recipients of Vi-rEPA(2), Vi-rEPA(1), and Vi were 30.0, 10.8, and 13.4 EU, respectively (P < 0.001 for Vi-rEPA(1) and Vi with respect to Vi-rEPA(2)); all were higher than the preinjection levels (P = 0. 0001). Vi-rEPA(2) also elicited the highest anti-Vi IgM and IgA levels of the three vaccines. In the 2- to 4-year-old children at 6 weeks following the first injection, Vi-rEPA(2) elicited an anti-Vi IgG level of 69.9 EU compared to 28.9 EU for Vi-rEPA(1) (P = 0.0001). Reinjection increased Vi antibody levels from 69.9 to 95.4 EU for Vi-rEPA(2) and from 28.9 to 83.0 EU for Vi-rEPA(1). At 26 weeks, anti-Vi IgG levels remained higher than those at preinjection (30.6 versus 0.18 for Vi-rEPA(2) and 12.8 versus 0.33 for Vi-rEPA(1); P = 0.0001 for both). Vi vaccine is recommended for individuals of 5 years of age or older. In the present study, the GM

  3. Calibration and Validation of a Wrist- and Hip-Worn Actigraph Accelerometer in 4-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Elin; Larisch, Lisa-Marie; Marcus, Claude; Hagströmer, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To determine time spent at different physical activity intensities, accelerometers need calibration. The aim of this study was to develop and cross-validate intensity thresholds for the Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer for wrist and hip placement in four-year-old children. Methods In total 30 children (49 months, SD 3.7) were recruited from five preschools in Stockholm. Equipped with an accelerometer on the wrist and another on the hip, children performed three indoor activities and one free-play session while being video recorded. Subsequently, physical activity intensity levels were coded every 5th second according to the Children’s Activity Rating Scale. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves was used to develop wrist and hip intensity thresholds, the upper threshold for sedentary, and lower threshold for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), for the vertical axis (VA) and for the vector magnitude (VM). A leave-one-out method was used to cross-validate the thresholds. Results Intensity thresholds for wrist placement were ≤ 178 (VA) and ≤ 328 (VM) for sedentary and ≥ 871 (VA) and ≥ 1393 (VM) counts/5 seconds for MVPA. The corresponding thresholds for hip placement were ≤ 43 (VA) and ≤ 105 (VM) for sedentary and ≥ 290 (VA) and ≥ 512 (VM) for MVPA. The quadratic weighted Kappa was 0.92 (95% CI 0.91–0.93) (VA) and 0.95 (95% CI 0.94–0.96) (VM) for the wrist-worn accelerometer and 0.76 (98% CI 0.74–0.77) and 0.86 (95% CI 0.85–0.87) for the hip-worn. Conclusion Using wrist placement and the VM when measuring physical activity with accelerometry in 4-year-old children is recommended. PMID:27617962

  4. The successful treatment of rapidly progressive idiopathic membranoproliferative glomerulo-nephritis Type 1 in a 4-year-old male pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Fujinaga, S; Ohtomo, Y; Hirano, D; Nishizaki, N; Someya, T; Ohtsuka, Y; Kaneko, K; Shimizu, T

    2010-10-01

    A multivariate analysis [4] revealed that the presence of crescent formation on initial biopsy irrespective of type of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) was independently associated not only with end-stage renal disease but also with post-transplantation recurrence. In this study, we reported on a 4-year-old male pediatric patient requiring hemodialysis due to rapidly progressive idiopathic MPGN Type 1 with severe nephrotic syndrome and extensive cellular crescent formation on initial biopsy. The patient had been treated intravenously (i.v.) with 9 pulses of methylprednisolone, followed by daily prednisolone, resulting in the withdrawal of dialysis within 1 month. However, since active lesions in the second renal biopsy such as cellular crescents still remained and nephrotic range proteinuria had persisted for more than 2 months, the patient received additional 3 i.v. pulses of methylprednisolone, followed by combinations of alternate-day prednisolone, mizoribine, dipyridamole and warfarin, which lead to complete remission in a short-period of time. The patient has been off the combination therapy for 10 months because the third biopsy prior to the termination of this regimen showed decreased inflammatory activity. There is currently no established protocol for children with crescentic MPGN due to a rarity of its clinicopathological presentation. This case report indicates that early treatment with multiple pulses of methylprednisolone followed by the short-term combination therapy may be of benefit for children with rapidly progressive idiopathic MPGN Type 1, even when both diffuse crescentic changes and nephrotic syndrome are present at onset.

  5. Children's Comprehension of Sentences with Focus Particles and the Role of Cognitive Control: An Eye Tracking Study with German-Learning 4-Year-Olds.

    PubMed

    Höhle, Barbara; Fritzsche, Tom; Müller, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Children's interpretations of sentences containing focus particles do not seem adult-like until school age. This study investigates how German 4-year-old children comprehend sentences with the focus particle 'nur' (only) by using different tasks and controlling for the impact of general cognitive abilities on performance measures. Two sentence types with 'only' in either pre-subject or pre-object position were presented. Eye gaze data and verbal responses were collected via the visual world paradigm combined with a sentence-picture verification task. While the eye tracking data revealed an adult-like pattern of focus particle processing, the sentence-picture verification replicated previous findings of poor comprehension, especially for 'only' in pre-subject position. A second study focused on the impact of general cognitive abilities on the outcomes of the verification task. Working memory was related to children's performance in both sentence types whereas inhibitory control was selectively related to the number of errors for sentences with 'only' in pre-subject position. These results suggest that children at the age of 4 years have the linguistic competence to correctly interpret sentences with focus particles, which--depending on specific task demands--may be masked by immature general cognitive abilities. PMID:26930286

  6. Children’s Comprehension of Sentences with Focus Particles and the Role of Cognitive Control: An Eye Tracking Study with German-Learning 4-Year-Olds

    PubMed Central

    Höhle, Barbara; Fritzsche, Tom; Müller, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Children’s interpretations of sentences containing focus particles do not seem adult-like until school age. This study investigates how German 4-year-old children comprehend sentences with the focus particle ‘nur’ (only) by using different tasks and controlling for the impact of general cognitive abilities on performance measures. Two sentence types with ‘only’ in either pre-subject or pre-object position were presented. Eye gaze data and verbal responses were collected via the visual world paradigm combined with a sentence-picture verification task. While the eye tracking data revealed an adult-like pattern of focus particle processing, the sentence-picture verification replicated previous findings of poor comprehension, especially for ‘only’ in pre-subject position. A second study focused on the impact of general cognitive abilities on the outcomes of the verification task. Working memory was related to children’s performance in both sentence types whereas inhibitory control was selectively related to the number of errors for sentences with ‘only’ in pre-subject position. These results suggest that children at the age of 4 years have the linguistic competence to correctly interpret sentences with focus particles, which–depending on specific task demands–may be masked by immature general cognitive abilities. PMID:26930286

  7. Reading faces: differential lateral gaze bias in processing canine and human facial expressions in dogs and 4-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Racca, Anaïs; Guo, Kun; Meints, Kerstin; Mills, Daniel S

    2012-01-01

    Sensitivity to the emotions of others provides clear biological advantages. However, in the case of heterospecific relationships, such as that existing between dogs and humans, there are additional challenges since some elements of the expression of emotions are species-specific. Given that faces provide important visual cues for communicating emotional state in both humans and dogs, and that processing of emotions is subject to brain lateralisation, we investigated lateral gaze bias in adult dogs when presented with pictures of expressive human and dog faces. Our analysis revealed clear differences in laterality of eye movements in dogs towards conspecific faces according to the emotional valence of the expressions. Differences were also found towards human faces, but to a lesser extent. For comparative purpose, a similar experiment was also run with 4-year-old children and it was observed that they showed differential processing of facial expressions compared to dogs, suggesting a species-dependent engagement of the right or left hemisphere in processing emotions.

  8. Reading faces: differential lateral gaze bias in processing canine and human facial expressions in dogs and 4-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Racca, Anaïs; Guo, Kun; Meints, Kerstin; Mills, Daniel S

    2012-01-01

    Sensitivity to the emotions of others provides clear biological advantages. However, in the case of heterospecific relationships, such as that existing between dogs and humans, there are additional challenges since some elements of the expression of emotions are species-specific. Given that faces provide important visual cues for communicating emotional state in both humans and dogs, and that processing of emotions is subject to brain lateralisation, we investigated lateral gaze bias in adult dogs when presented with pictures of expressive human and dog faces. Our analysis revealed clear differences in laterality of eye movements in dogs towards conspecific faces according to the emotional valence of the expressions. Differences were also found towards human faces, but to a lesser extent. For comparative purpose, a similar experiment was also run with 4-year-old children and it was observed that they showed differential processing of facial expressions compared to dogs, suggesting a species-dependent engagement of the right or left hemisphere in processing emotions. PMID:22558335

  9. Children's Comprehension of Sentences with Focus Particles and the Role of Cognitive Control: An Eye Tracking Study with German-Learning 4-Year-Olds.

    PubMed

    Höhle, Barbara; Fritzsche, Tom; Müller, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Children's interpretations of sentences containing focus particles do not seem adult-like until school age. This study investigates how German 4-year-old children comprehend sentences with the focus particle 'nur' (only) by using different tasks and controlling for the impact of general cognitive abilities on performance measures. Two sentence types with 'only' in either pre-subject or pre-object position were presented. Eye gaze data and verbal responses were collected via the visual world paradigm combined with a sentence-picture verification task. While the eye tracking data revealed an adult-like pattern of focus particle processing, the sentence-picture verification replicated previous findings of poor comprehension, especially for 'only' in pre-subject position. A second study focused on the impact of general cognitive abilities on the outcomes of the verification task. Working memory was related to children's performance in both sentence types whereas inhibitory control was selectively related to the number of errors for sentences with 'only' in pre-subject position. These results suggest that children at the age of 4 years have the linguistic competence to correctly interpret sentences with focus particles, which--depending on specific task demands--may be masked by immature general cognitive abilities.

  10. Does the Age and Familiarity of the Informant Group Influence the Tendency of 3- and 4-year-old Children to Conform?

    PubMed

    McGuigan, Nicola; Stevenson, Amy

    2016-01-01

    The authors' aim was to explore whether the age and the familiarity of the individuals comprising a group majority influenced the tendency of 3- and 4-year-old children to conform. Participants were presented with 2 variants of a novel task in which they were required to judge which of 3 line-drawn tigers had the greatest number of stripes. The participants made their judgments in 2 contexts, first after viewing 5 informants perform the task incorrectly, and second without viewing the responses of other individuals. The informants comprised a group of familiar children, a group of unfamiliar children, a group of familiar adults, or a group of unfamiliar adults. The results showed that the children displayed selective conformity with respect to informant age, readily adopting the incorrect response when it was indicated by an adult majority, but failing to do so when the same incorrect response was indicated by a majority of children. In contrast the familiarity of the individuals comprising the majority had little influence on the tendency of children to conform. These results suggest that children are not blanket conformists, rather they respond selectively depending on characteristics of the individuals comprising the group majority. PMID:27341477

  11. Unusual presentation of a retained foreign body in a child.

    PubMed

    Almuallem, Sultan; Yousef, Yasmin A M; Suhail, Abdulmalik

    2015-01-01

    A 4-year-old boy, not known to have any medical illness, presented to several medical facilities reporting right upper quadrant and right flank pain, intermittent fever and chills for 3 months. A CT of the abdomen showed that a swallowed 'bobby pin' had pierced through the right kidney. This finding explained the boy's symptoms. The pin was removed by laparotomy without any subsequent complication. The patient had an uneventful postoperative recovery. PMID:26542687

  12. Looking but Not Seeing: Atypical Visual Scanning and Recognition of Faces in 2 and 4-Year-Old Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chawarska, Katarzyna; Shic, Frederick

    2009-01-01

    This study used eye-tracking to examine visual scanning and recognition of faces by 2- and 4-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (N = 44) and typically developing (TD) controls (N = 30). TD toddlers at both age levels scanned and recognized faces similarly. Toddlers with ASD looked increasingly away from faces with age,…

  13. Compositionality and Statistics in Adjective Acquisition: 4-Year-Olds Interpret "Tall" and "Short" Based on the Size Distributions of Novel Noun Referents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barner, David; Snedeker, Jesse

    2008-01-01

    Four experiments investigated 4-year-olds' understanding of adjective-noun compositionality and their sensitivity to statistics when interpreting scalar adjectives. In Experiments 1 and 2, children selected "tall" and "short" items from 9 novel objects called "pimwits" (1-9 in. in height) or from this array plus 4 taller or shorter distractor…

  14. Gene × environment effects of serotonin transporter, dopamine receptor D4, and monoamine oxidase A genes with contextual and parenting risk factors on symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder, anxiety, and depression in a community sample of 4-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Lavigne, John V; Herzing, Laura B K; Cook, Edwin H; Lebailly, Susan A; Gouze, Karen R; Hopkins, Joyce; Bryant, Fred B

    2013-05-01

    Genetic factors can play a key role in the multiple level of analyses approach to understanding the development of child psychopathology. The present study examined gene-environment correlations and gene × environment interactions for polymorphisms of three target genes, the serotonin transporter gene, the D4 dopamine receptor gene, and the monoamine oxidase A gene in relation to symptoms of anxiety, depression, and oppositional behavior. Saliva samples were collected from 175 non-Hispanic White, 4-year-old children. Psychosocial risk factors included socioeconomic status, life stress, caretaker depression, parental support, hostility, and scaffolding skills. In comparison with the short forms (s/s, s/l) of the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic repeat, the long form (l/l) was associated with greater increases in symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder in interaction with family stress and with greater increases in symptoms of child depression and anxiety in interaction with caretaker depression, family conflict, and socioeconomic status. In boys, low-activity monoamine oxidase A gene was associated with increases in child anxiety and depression in interaction with caretaker depression, hostility, family conflict, and family stress. The results highlight the important of gene-environment interplay in the development of symptoms of child psychopathology in young children.

  15. Five-year-olds are willing, but 4-year-olds refuse, to trust informants who offer new and unfamiliar labels for parts of the body.

    PubMed

    Luu, Betty; Rosnay, Marc de; Harris, Paul L

    2013-10-01

    This study employed the selective trust paradigm to examine how children interpret novel labels when compared with labels they already know to be accurate or inaccurate within the biological domain. The participants--3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds (N=144)--were allocated to one of three conditions. In the accurate versus inaccurate condition, one informant labeled body parts correctly, whereas the other labeled them incorrectly (e.g., calling an eye an "arm"). In the accurate versus novel condition, one informant labeled body parts accurately, whereas the other provided novel labels (e.g., calling an eye a "roke"). Finally, in the inaccurate versus novel condition, one informant labeled body parts incorrectly, whereas the other offered novel labels. In subsequent test trials, the two informants provided conflicting labels for unfamiliar internal organs. In the accurate versus inaccurate condition, children sought and endorsed labels from the accurate informant. In the accurate versus novel condition, only 4- and 5-year-olds preferred the accurate informant, whereas 3-year-olds did not selectively prefer either informant. In the inaccurate versus novel condition, only 5-year-olds preferred the novel informant, whereas 3- and 4-year-olds did not demonstrate a selective preference. Results are supportive of previous studies suggesting that 3-year-olds are sensitive to inaccuracy and that 4-year-olds privilege accuracy. However, 3- and 4-year-olds appear to be unsure as to how the novel informant should be construed. In contrast, 5-year-olds appreciate that speakers offering new information are more trustworthy than those offering inaccurate information, but they are cautious in judging such informants as being "better" at providing that information.

  16. A Multi-Domain Model of Risk Factors for ODD Symptoms in a Community Sample of 4-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavigne, John V.; Gouze, Karen R.; Hopkins, Joyce; Bryant, Fred B.; LeBailly, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have been designed to assess the pathways by which risk factors are associated with symptoms of psychopathology across multiple domains, including contextual factors, parental depression, parenting, and child characteristics. The present study examines a cross-sectional model of risk factors for symptoms of Oppositional Defiant…

  17. Case Report: "Purely" Psychiatric Presentation of Multiple Sclerosis in an Adolescent Boy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treadwell-Deering, Diane; Evankovich, Karen; Lotze, Tim

    2007-01-01

    We present the case of a 14-year-old Hispanic boy with a 6-month history of a psychotic disorder necessitating several hospitalizations who was incidentally found to have multiple sclerosis with no physical findings. Neuropsychological assessment has revealed impairments in word-finding, bilateral fine motor skills, and attention. Imaging and…

  18. Transient Fanconi syndrome with severe polyuria and polydipsia in a 4-year old Shih Tzu fed chicken jerky treats.

    PubMed

    Major, A; Schweighauser, A; Hinden, S E; Francey, T

    2014-12-01

    Acquired Fanconi syndrome is characterized by inappropriate urinary loss of amino acids, bicarbonate, electrolytes, and water. It has recently been described in dogs fed chicken jerky treats from China, a new differential diagnosis to the classical inciting infectious diseases (e.g. leptospirosis, pyelonephritis) and toxins. A dog fed exclusively chicken jerky treats purchased in Switzerland was presented to our clinic with severe polyuria, polydipsia and profound electrolyte and acid base disturbances. Other inciting causes of Fanconi syndrome were ruled out. The requirement of a very intensive supportive treatment in this dog stands in contrast to treatment of chronic forms of Fanconi syndrome as described in the Basenji. This intensive therapy and the associated monitoring can be a real challenge and a limiting factor for the prognosis of acquired Fanconi syndrome. Veterinarians should be aware of the risk of excessive feeding of chicken jerky treats. PMID:25497565

  19. Mother's Perception of General Family Functioning and Sugar Consumption of 3- and 4-Year-Old Children: The East London Family Study.

    PubMed

    Nanjappa, Sucharita; Hector, Mark; Marcenes, Wagner

    2015-01-01

    Frequent consumption of sugary foods is a common risk factor for chronic diseases such as dental caries and obesity. Dietary patterns are acquired at home during early life and form a blueprint for dietary behaviours in later life. A favourable family environment can provide a supportive context that enhances the adoption of healthy dietary habits. The aim of this study was to identify the contribution of general family functioning towards the frequent consumption of sugary foods by 3- and 4-year-old children in Outer North East London. The research question was explored with data from the East London Family study, which collected data through home visits from a representative sample of adults and children living in Outer North East London in 2008-2010. This study analysed data from 3- and 4-year-old children (n = 698) and their mothers and included logistic regression, conceptual hierarchical modelling and mediation analysis. The results showed that 17% of the sample consumed sugary foods more than 4 times per day, and that effective general family functioning may help reducing frequent consumption of sugary foods. There was a 67% reduction in children's frequent consumption of sugary foods with every unit increase in the general family functioning score. Mother's higher education may also help reduce the frequent consumption of sugary foods by children. The negative impact of mother's lower education was buffered by the effect of effective general family functioning. The study findings underscore the prospect of identifying factors that contribute to the acquisition of good dietary behaviours. PMID:26304625

  20. Gastric adenocarcinoma presenting with thromboembolism in a 13-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Wendy L M

    2015-03-01

    Abdominal pain is a frequent complaint in the pediatric emergency department. A 13-year-old boy presented with complaints of abdominal pain, hematemesis, headache, and leg pain. Further investigation revealed an advanced-stage gastric adenocarcinoma with multiple thromboembolism including the greater saphenous vein and nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis. This case points out the challenges of diagnosing this rare condition and treating the primary tumor and thromboembolism in the setting of both hypercoagulable state and gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:25738239

  1. Wilson disease with hepatic presentation in an eight-month-old boy.

    PubMed

    Abuduxikuer, Kuerbanjiang; Li, Li-Ting; Qiu, Yi-Ling; Wang, Neng-Li; Wang, Jian-She

    2015-08-01

    Wilson disease is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism that can cause fatal neurological and hepatic disease if not diagnosed and treated. The youngest child with normal liver function reported so far is an 8-mo-old Japanese boy with low ceruloplasmin levels, and the youngest child with elevated aminotransferase ever reported so far is a 9-mo-old Korean boy with confirmed by genetic testing. Here we report an 8-mo-old Chinese boy presented with elevated liver enzymes, and low serum ceruloplasmin level. Genetic analysis of ATP7B gene detected two heterozygous disease causing mutations (c.2621C>T/p.A874V and c.3809A>G/p.N1270S), and parental origins were determined. Persistent elevation of serum aminotransferase in this infant was normalized after zinc therapy. To our best knowledge, this is the youngest patient with elevated liver enzymes ever reported worldwide. We hope that this will raise awareness among pediatricians, leading to earlier diagnosis, timely treatment, and better clinical outcome.

  2. [Identification processes in the analysis of a child. Treatment of a boy presenting with tics].

    PubMed

    Klaniczay, S

    1987-01-01

    A child of eight is in analysis for tics which started a year ago. He is very tense. Enuresis and sleeping and eating difficulties also occur from time to time. The clinical material presented concerns chiefly the initial phase of the treatment in which intense castration anxiety appeared under different forms. Interpretation was based on the fact that this boy, nine years old, still regularly crept into this parents' bed at night. Certain types of identification processes play an important role in the treatment of this child.

  3. [Loeys-Dietz syndrome (TGFβR2 mutation) in a 4-year-old child with thoracic aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    De Potter, M-J; Edouard, T; Amadieu, R; Plaisancié, J; Julia, S; Hadeed, K; Hascoët, S; Acar, P; Dulac, Y

    2016-05-01

    Loeys-Dietz syndrome is a rare form of connective tissue disorder, whose clinical features can resemble those of Marfan syndrome, but with a more unpolished appearance. Recently brought out, this pathology remains little known; however, its consequences may be dramatic. We report on the case of a 4-year-old girl followed for a congenital hip dislocation, in which a systematic exam found increased cutaneous elasticity and a bifid uvula, suggesting a connective tissue disorder. Symptoms were unpolished, as the child's height was normal, without any positive cardiac, rheumatological, or ophthalmological family history. Cardiovascular tests found a thoracic aortic aneurysm at the Valsalva sinus (26mm, Z-score=+4.24). A genetic investigation found a TGFβR2 gene mutation, leading to the diagnosis of Loeys-Dietz syndrome type 2. Skeletal damage associated with bifid uvula and/or hypertelorism and an aneurysm of the ascending aorta should guide the genetic investigation to the search for TGF-β vasculopathy such as Loeys-Dietz syndrome.

  4. Chronic Candida albicans Meningitis in a 4-Year-Old Girl with a Homozygous Mutation in the CARD9 Gene (Q295X).

    PubMed

    Herbst, Martin; Gazendam, Roel; Reimnitz, Denise; Sawalle-Belohradsky, Julie; Groll, Andreas; Schlegel, Paul-Gerhardt; Belohradsky, Bernd; Renner, Ellen; Klepper, Jörg; Grimbacher, Bodo; Kuijpers, Taco; Liese, Johannes

    2015-09-01

    A 4-year-old Turkish girl of consanguineous parents was hospitalized for the evaluation of headaches and recurrent febrile episodes of unknown origin. Her medical history was unremarkable except for a few episodes of uncomplicated oral thrush. Meningitis was diagnosed, and Candida albicans was the only pathogen identified by polymerase chain reaction and culture. Despite systemic antifungal multidrug therapy, a prolonged course of 16 months of therapy was necessary to clear C. albicans from the cerebrospinal fluid. Molecular genetic analysis revealed a homozygous caspase recruitment domain 9 (CARD9) mutation (Q295X), which was reported to predispose to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. Immunologic workup excluded predisposing B-cell and T-cell defects. In addition, T cells producing interleukin-17 were repeatedly measured within the normal range. Analyses of neutrophils demonstrated normal nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity in response to various stimuli including Staphylococcus aureus and C. albicans. Additional neutrophilic functional testing, however, showed a decreased cytotoxicity to nonopsonized C. albicans, indicating an impaired killing mechanism against Candida spp. independent from the production of reactive oxygen species by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase system. Because this defect was only demonstrated in the absence of opsonins, it might especially predispose to chronic C. albicans infections in the central nervous system where opsonin concentrations are usually low. We, therefore, suggest that due to an additional neutrophil dependent defect CARD9 deficiency predisposes not only to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, but also to invasive chronic Candida infections, especially of the central nervous system.

  5. Compensation for a lip-tube perturbation in 4-year-olds: Articulatory, acoustic, and perceptual data analyzed in comparison with adults.

    PubMed

    Ménard, Lucie; Perrier, Pascal; Aubin, Jérôme

    2016-05-01

    The nature of the speech goal in children was investigated in a study of compensation strategies for a lip-tube perturbation. Acoustic, articulatory, and perceptual analyses of the vowels /y/ and /u/ produced by ten 4-year-old French speakers and ten adult French speakers were conducted under two conditions: normal and with a large tube inserted between the lips. Ultrasound and acoustic recordings of isolated vowels were made in the normal condition before any perturbation, for each of the trials in the perturbed condition, and in the normal condition after the perturbed trials. Data revealed that adult participants moved their tongues in the perturbed condition more than children did. The perturbation was generally at least partly compensated for during the perturbed trials in adults, but children did not show a typical learning effect. In particular, unsystematic improvements were observed during the sequence of perturbed trials, and after-effects were not clear in the articulatory domain. This suggests that children may establish associative links between multisensory phonemic representations and articulatory maneuvers, but those links may mainly rely on trial-to-trial, error-based feedback correction mechanisms rather than on the internal model of the speech production apparatus, as they are in adults. PMID:27250147

  6. Compensation for a lip-tube perturbation in 4-year-olds: Articulatory, acoustic, and perceptual data analyzed in comparison with adults.

    PubMed

    Ménard, Lucie; Perrier, Pascal; Aubin, Jérôme

    2016-05-01

    The nature of the speech goal in children was investigated in a study of compensation strategies for a lip-tube perturbation. Acoustic, articulatory, and perceptual analyses of the vowels /y/ and /u/ produced by ten 4-year-old French speakers and ten adult French speakers were conducted under two conditions: normal and with a large tube inserted between the lips. Ultrasound and acoustic recordings of isolated vowels were made in the normal condition before any perturbation, for each of the trials in the perturbed condition, and in the normal condition after the perturbed trials. Data revealed that adult participants moved their tongues in the perturbed condition more than children did. The perturbation was generally at least partly compensated for during the perturbed trials in adults, but children did not show a typical learning effect. In particular, unsystematic improvements were observed during the sequence of perturbed trials, and after-effects were not clear in the articulatory domain. This suggests that children may establish associative links between multisensory phonemic representations and articulatory maneuvers, but those links may mainly rely on trial-to-trial, error-based feedback correction mechanisms rather than on the internal model of the speech production apparatus, as they are in adults.

  7. Sources of dietary fluoride intake in 4-year-old children residing in low, medium and high fluoride areas in Iran.

    PubMed

    Zohouri, F V; Rugg-Gunn, A J

    2000-09-01

    Accurate estimation of fluoride dietary intake is desirable for optimising caries prevention. Little is known about the dietary fluoride intake of children aged 4 years, an age when many permanent teeth are forming. This study was undertaken in Fars Province, Iran, in 1995-1996, where there are big differences in temperature between winter and summer. The aims were to determine: (a) the relative contributions of different components of the diet to fluoride intake, (b) the effect of variation in fluoride concentration in drinking water, and (c) the effect of climate temperature. Temperature varied between +40 degrees C in summer to -5 degrees C in winter. The mean fluoride concentrations in drinking water in the three areas were 0.3, 0.6 and 4.0 mgF/L. Dietary information was obtained by two 3-day diet diaries with interview, validated with reference to international standards. The fluoride content of foods was measured using the silicon-facilitated diffusion method. One hundred and three 4-year-old children completed the study. The mean (and 95% confidence interval) dietary fluoride intakes in each of the three areas, respectively, were 413 (+/- 21), 698 (+/- 89) and 3472 (+/- 557) micrograms/day. Drinks provided 72 to 87% of dietary fluoride--this proportion increased with increasing water fluoride concentration and increasing climate temperature. Tea (infusion) was an important source of dietary fluoride, providing 31 to 38% of total dietary intake. Tap water was a more important source of fluoride than soft drinks. Cooked rice and bread were the most important food source of fluoride and the amount of fluoride they contributed increased as water fluoride concentration increased. The results of this first such survey in the Middle East showed (a) that water (as a drink) and tea were by far the most important contributors to dietary fluoride intake, (b) substantial increases in fluoride intake with increasing water fluoride concentrations, and (c) substantially

  8. Necrotizing pneumonia and acute purulent pericarditis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A in a healthy 4-year-old girl after one catch-up dose of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shay; Tsai, Jeng-Dau; Tsao, Ten-Fu; Liao, Pei-Fen; Sheu, Ji-Nan

    2016-08-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common cause of infectious diseases in children that may lead to life-threatening complications. Acute purulent pericarditis is an uncommon complication of S. pneumoniae in the antibiotic era. A healthy 4-year-old girl was admitted with pneumonia and pleural effusion. She had received one catch-up dose of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine at 2 years of age. She rapidly developed necrotizing pneumonia, complicated by bronchopleural fistula presenting as subcutaneous emphysema and pneumothorax and acute purulent pericarditis. S. pneumoniae serotype 19A was subsequently identified from blood, empyema and pericardial fluid cultures. After appropriate antibiotic therapy and a right lower lobectomy, her condition stabilized and she promptly recovered. This case highlights two rare potential clinical complications of pneumococcal disease in a child: necrotizing pneumonia and acute purulent pericarditis. This is the first report of a child who received just one catch-up dose of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine at 2 years of age, as per the United States' Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice's recommendations, but who still developed severe invasive pneumococcal disease with life-threatening complications caused by S. pneumoniae serotype 19A.

  9. Observed Paternal Behavior and the Intellectual Functioning of Preschool Boys and Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radin, Norma; Epstein, Ann

    To assess the relationship between paternal behavior and the intellectual functioning of preschool boys and girls, 180 white fathers from middle, working, and lower classes (as defined by the Hollingshead-Redlich Scale) were observed at home interacting with their 4-year-olds (99 boys and 81 girls). Sessions were tape-recorded. The number of…

  10. Decreasing expulsions by a child with a feeding disorder: using a brush to present and re-present food.

    PubMed

    Girolami, Peter A; Boscoe, James H; Roscoe, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that extinction in the form of re-presentation of expelled bites is an effective intervention for treating food expulsion. The current study compared the effectiveness of re-presenting expulsions with a spoon to re-presenting with a Nuk brush for a 4-year-old boy with a feeding disorder. Fewer expulsions were observed when using the brush for re-presentation, and further reductions were observed when the brush was also used for initial presentations. PMID:18189111

  11. The present status of geography education in boys' intermediate schools of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Gahtany, Abdulrahman Mohammed

    The purpose of this study was to describe the present status of geography education in boys' intermediate schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia as perceived by geography teachers and supervisors; that is, to investigate the objectives, content, methods of teaching, tools and resources that are available and used in classrooms, evaluation techniques, and problems encountered in the teaching of geography. To collect data from this representative sample population, a questionnaire was developed by the researcher specifically for this study. Questionnaire data was collected from 19 social studies supervisors and 213 geography teachers. Percentages, frequencies, means, and standard deviations were computed for each questionnaire item. Chi Square tests were applied to determine if any significant differences could be identified between the observed and expected responses of supervisors and teachers. Major findings of the study indicated that both supervisors and teachers tend to strongly support the identified geography objectives. Most teachers and supervisors also indicated that the current geography curriculum contains enough information about Saudi Arabia, the Arabic world, and the Islamic world. In addition, the also indicated that geography content promotes a sense of patriotism and cultural pride. Responses indicated that educators see deficiencies in the content: it does not focus sufficiently on current events nor on developing student skills such as research and technical skills like drawing maps. Lecture and discussion are the most commonly used strategies in the teaching of geography. Field trips, role-playing, scientific competitions, scientific games, solving problems, and individual learning are less commonly used. Teaching tools most commonly used are wall maps and earth globes, whereas the use of geographical transparencies, models, and instruments is not common. Most of the teachers do lot use computers in their teaching. Evaluation techniques depend

  12. [Circumscript myositis ossificans in a four-year-old boy].

    PubMed

    Cabello García, D; Rodríguez Fernández, A; Gómez Río, M; Moreno, M J; Rebollo Aguirre, A C; Martín Castro, A; Llamas Elvira, J M

    2008-01-01

    We present the case of a 4 year old boy with no previous personal or family history of interest, who attended the Paediatric Department of our hospital after a physical examination revealed a painful induration in the left arm which had increased in size; imaging tests were consistent with a calcified mass in soft tissues, without cortical involvement, suspected of being malignant. Two-phase bone scintigraphy was requested in which a soft tissue lesion, not suggestive of malignancy, was detected. The biopsy was negative for malignant cells. However, in view of the progressive increase in size of the lesion, FDG positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) was performed, showing a hypermetabolic mass consistent with malignancy in the left arm, for which the patient underwent surgery for suspected possible parosteal osteosarcoma. PMID:18817666

  13. DOCK8 deficiency in a boy who presented with a giant aortic aneurysm between aortic root and iliac bifurcation.

    PubMed

    Patıroğlu, Türkan; Akar, Himmet Haluk; Doğan, Mehmet Sait; Üzüm, Kazım

    2016-06-01

    Dedicator of cytokinesis 8 protein (DOCK8) deficiency is an autosomal recessive, inherited form of hyper-immunoglobulin E (hyper-IgE) syndrome, characterized by persistent cutaneous viral infections, elevated IgE, eosinophilia, and allergic manifestations. The case of a 10-year-old boy who presented with giant aortic aneurysm between the aortic root and iliac bifurcation is described in the present report. Aortic aneurysm of this size has not yet been reported. PMID:27372622

  14. Parental modelling and prompting effects on acceptance of a novel fruit in 2-4-year-old children are dependent on children's food responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Blissett, Jackie; Bennett, Carmel; Fogel, Anna; Harris, Gillian; Higgs, Suzanne

    2016-02-14

    Few children consume the recommended portions of fruit or vegetables. This study examined the effects of parental physical prompting and parental modelling in children's acceptance of a novel fruit (NF) and examined the role of children's food-approach and food-avoidance traits on NF engagement and consumption. A total of 120 caregiver-child dyads (fifty-four girls, sixty-six boys) participated in this study. Dyads were allocated to one of the following three conditions: physical prompting but no modelling, physical prompting and modelling or a modelling only control condition. Dyads ate a standardised meal containing a portion of a fruit new to the child. Parents completed measures of children's food approach and avoidance. Willingness to try the NF was observed, and the amount of the NF consumed was measured. Physical prompting but no modelling resulted in greater physical refusal of the NF. There were main effects of enjoyment of food and food fussiness on acceptance. Food responsiveness interacted with condition such that children who were more food responsive had greater NF acceptance in the prompting and modelling conditions in comparison with the modelling only condition. In contrast, children with low food responsiveness had greater acceptance in the modelling control condition than in the prompting but no modelling condition. Physical prompting in the absence of modelling is likely to be detrimental to NF acceptance. Parental use of physical prompting strategies, in combination with modelling of NF intake, may facilitate acceptance of NF, but only in food-responsive children. Modelling consumption best promotes acceptance in children with low food responsiveness.

  15. Associations of Fat Mass and Fat-Free Mass with Physical Fitness in 4-Year-Old Children: Results from the MINISTOP Trial.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Pontus; Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina; Leppänen, Marja H; Delisle Nyström, Christine; Ortega, Francisco B; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Physical fitness is a powerful marker of health in youth. Studies in adolescents and adults suggest that higher fat mass is related to worse physical fitness. However, there is limited knowledge whether fat mass and fat-free mass are associated with physical fitness already in preschoolers. Baseline data from the MINISTOP (Mobile-based INtervention Intended to STop Obesity in Preschoolers) trial was utilized for this cross-sectional analysis. Body composition was assessed using air-displacement plethysmography. Fat mass index [fat mass (kg)/height² (m)] and fat-free mass index [fat-free mass (kg)/height² (m)] were used to provide height-adjusted measures of body composition. Physical fitness was measured using the PREFIT (FITness testing in PREschool children) battery, which assesses cardiorespiratory fitness, upper-body and lower-body muscular strength as well as motor fitness. In total, this study included 303 children (168 boys and 135 girls), who were on average 4.48 ± 0.15 years old. Higher fat mass index was associated with worse cardiorespiratory fitness (standardized β = -0.17, p = 0.002), lower-body muscular strength (β = -0.17, p = 0.003) and motor fitness (β = -0.21, p < 0.001) in regression analyses adjusted for age, sex and mutually adjusted for fat-mass index and fat-free mass index. Conversely, higher fat-free mass index was associated with better cardiorespiratory fitness (β = 0.18, p = 0.002), upper-body muscular strength (β = 0.39, p < 0.001), lower-body muscular strength (β = 0.22, p < 0.001) and motor fitness (β = 0.17, p = 0.004). Thus, fat mass and fat-free mass in preschoolers appear to have joint but opposite associations with physical fitness, an important marker for current and future health. PMID:27483320

  16. Associations of Fat Mass and Fat-Free Mass with Physical Fitness in 4-Year-Old Children: Results from the MINISTOP Trial.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Pontus; Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina; Leppänen, Marja H; Delisle Nyström, Christine; Ortega, Francisco B; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Löf, Marie

    2016-07-30

    Physical fitness is a powerful marker of health in youth. Studies in adolescents and adults suggest that higher fat mass is related to worse physical fitness. However, there is limited knowledge whether fat mass and fat-free mass are associated with physical fitness already in preschoolers. Baseline data from the MINISTOP (Mobile-based INtervention Intended to STop Obesity in Preschoolers) trial was utilized for this cross-sectional analysis. Body composition was assessed using air-displacement plethysmography. Fat mass index [fat mass (kg)/height² (m)] and fat-free mass index [fat-free mass (kg)/height² (m)] were used to provide height-adjusted measures of body composition. Physical fitness was measured using the PREFIT (FITness testing in PREschool children) battery, which assesses cardiorespiratory fitness, upper-body and lower-body muscular strength as well as motor fitness. In total, this study included 303 children (168 boys and 135 girls), who were on average 4.48 ± 0.15 years old. Higher fat mass index was associated with worse cardiorespiratory fitness (standardized β = -0.17, p = 0.002), lower-body muscular strength (β = -0.17, p = 0.003) and motor fitness (β = -0.21, p < 0.001) in regression analyses adjusted for age, sex and mutually adjusted for fat-mass index and fat-free mass index. Conversely, higher fat-free mass index was associated with better cardiorespiratory fitness (β = 0.18, p = 0.002), upper-body muscular strength (β = 0.39, p < 0.001), lower-body muscular strength (β = 0.22, p < 0.001) and motor fitness (β = 0.17, p = 0.004). Thus, fat mass and fat-free mass in preschoolers appear to have joint but opposite associations with physical fitness, an important marker for current and future health.

  17. Associations of Fat Mass and Fat-Free Mass with Physical Fitness in 4-Year-Old Children: Results from the MINISTOP Trial

    PubMed Central

    Henriksson, Pontus; Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina; Leppänen, Marja H.; Delisle Nyström, Christine; Ortega, Francisco B.; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Physical fitness is a powerful marker of health in youth. Studies in adolescents and adults suggest that higher fat mass is related to worse physical fitness. However, there is limited knowledge whether fat mass and fat-free mass are associated with physical fitness already in preschoolers. Baseline data from the MINISTOP (Mobile-based INtervention Intended to STop Obesity in Preschoolers) trial was utilized for this cross-sectional analysis. Body composition was assessed using air-displacement plethysmography. Fat mass index [fat mass (kg)/height2 (m)] and fat-free mass index [fat-free mass (kg)/height2 (m)] were used to provide height-adjusted measures of body composition. Physical fitness was measured using the PREFIT (FITness testing in PREschool children) battery, which assesses cardiorespiratory fitness, upper-body and lower-body muscular strength as well as motor fitness. In total, this study included 303 children (168 boys and 135 girls), who were on average 4.48 ± 0.15 years old. Higher fat mass index was associated with worse cardiorespiratory fitness (standardized β = −0.17, p = 0.002), lower-body muscular strength (β = −0.17, p = 0.003) and motor fitness (β = −0.21, p < 0.001) in regression analyses adjusted for age, sex and mutually adjusted for fat-mass index and fat-free mass index. Conversely, higher fat-free mass index was associated with better cardiorespiratory fitness (β = 0.18, p = 0.002), upper-body muscular strength (β = 0.39, p < 0.001), lower-body muscular strength (β = 0.22, p < 0.001) and motor fitness (β = 0.17, p = 0.004). Thus, fat mass and fat-free mass in preschoolers appear to have joint but opposite associations with physical fitness, an important marker for current and future health. PMID:27483320

  18. Relations among the Frequency of Shared Reading and 4-Year-Old Children's Vocabulary, Morphological and Syntax Comprehension, and Narrative Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senechal, Monique; Pagan, Stephanie; Lever, Rosemary; Ouellette, Gene P.

    2008-01-01

    Books can be a rich source of learning for children and adults alike. In the present study, the contribution of shared reading and parent literacy to a variety of child outcomes was tested. Child outcomes included measures of expressive vocabulary, morphological and syntax comprehension, and narrative ability (story grammar, cohesion, and language…

  19. Moving ahead in language: observations on a report of precocious language development in 3-4 year old children with spinal muscular atrophy type II.

    PubMed

    Sieratzki, Jechil S; Woll, Bencie

    2005-01-01

    Benony and Benony in a recent issue of this Journal have presented new data on the precocity of language acquisition in children with type II spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), at age 36-47 months. They refer to our interim report of advanced early language development in these motor-impaired children, which covers the age period 18-35 months. Here, we provide more details of our findings and discuss them in relation to their report and our theory of the role of the procedural system in language learning.

  20. A comparison of proficiency levels in 4-year-old monolingual and trilingual speakers of Afrikaans, isiXhosa and South African English across SES boundaries, using LITMUS-CLT.

    PubMed

    Perold Potgieter, Anneke; Southwood, Frenette

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated how trilinguals fare on the cross-linguistic lexical tasks (CLT)-Afrikaans, -isiXhosa and -South African English (SAE) (cf. Haman et al., 2015) compared to monolingual controls, and whether the CLT-Afrikaans renders comparable results across socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. The LITMUS-CLTs were administered to 41 low SES 4-year-olds (11 trilinguals; 10 monolingual speakers of Afrikaans, isiXhosa and SAE) and the LITMUS-CLT-Afrikaans to 11 mid-SES 4-year-old monolinguals. Results (a) indicate that trilinguals' proficiency in their exposure-dominant language did not differ significantly from monolinguals' proficiency, but their proficiency in their additional two languages was significantly lower than monolinguals' proficiency; (b) reflect the extent, but not current amount, of exposure trilinguals had had over time to each of their languages; and (c) show that low and mid-SES monolinguals differed significantly on noun-related, but not verb-related, CLT measures. Possible reasons for and the clinical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:26785940

  1. Giant spheno-ethmoidal osteoma in a 14-year boy presenting with visual impairment and facial deformity: Short review

    PubMed Central

    Satyarthee, Guru Dutta; Suri, Ashish; Mahapatra, Ashok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Osteoma located in the paranasal sinus is a slow growing benign tumor. It commonly occurs in frontal, ethmoid and maxillary sinuses in the order of frequency. Giant osteoma is very rare in the pediatric population, and only nine cases of giant osteoma are reported till date in the form of isolated case reports. Authors report a giant spheno-ethmoidal osteoma in a 14-year-old boy, who presented with progressive visual impairment and proptosis of the left eye for last 1-year. Total excision was carried out using transcranial extradural approach. The postoperative recovery was uneventful and showed remarkable visual recovery along with cosmesis. PMID:25878745

  2. Burkitt's lymphoma in a young Brazilian boy.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Cláudio M; Lopes, Ana Paula M; Meneghini, Alexandre J; Silva, Geisa B L; Monteiro, Mariana C; Botelho, Tessa de L

    2010-06-01

    Burkitt's lymphoma is not an uncommon malignancy in the paediatric population. It is a high-grade non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma which may present as endemic, sporadic and human immunodeficiency-associated subtypes. The African, or endemic, variant usually involves the maxilla and other facial bones while head and neck manifestations in sporadic Burkitt's lymphoma are rare. We described a case of oral Burkitt's lymphoma involving the right jaw in a 4-year-old boy. The patient presented with a rapidly-enlarging swelling of one month duration, toothache-like pain and radiographical appearance of 'floating teeth' in the right mandible. Incisional biopsy revealed small round tumour cells with scarce cytoplasm and multiple small nuclei interspersed by phagocytic macrophages. The tumour cells were immunopositivity for CD20 and CD10, expressed weak positivity for CD3, negative for CD5 and showed > 90% positivity for Ki-67. Tumour remission was achieved with six cycles of chemotherapy with the CHOP regime. PMID:20614728

  3. Phase 1 and phase 2 studies of Salmonella enterica serovar paratyphi A O-specific polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugates in adults, teenagers, and 2- to 4-year-old children in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Konadu, E Y; Lin, F Y; Hó, V A; Thuy, N T; Van Bay, P; Thanh, T C; Khiem, H B; Trach, D D; Karpas, A B; Li, J; Bryla, D A; Robbins, J B; Szu, S C

    2000-03-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A O-specific polysaccharide (O-SP) was activated with 1-cyano-4-dimethylaminopyridinium tetrafluoroborate (CDAP) and bound to tetanus toxoid (TT) with adipic acid dihydrazide as a linker (SPA-TT(1)) or directly (SPA-TT(2)). In mice, these two conjugates elicited high levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in serum with bactericidal activity (E. Konadu, J. Shiloach, D. A. Bryla, J. B. Robbins, and S. C. Szu, Infect. Immun. 64:2709-2715, 1996). The safety and immunogenicity of the two conjugates were then evaluated sequentially in Vietnamese adults, teenagers, and 2- to 4-year-old children. None of the vaccinees experienced significant side effects, and all had preexisting LPS antibodies. At 4 weeks after injection, there were significant increases of the geometric mean IgG and IgM anti-LPS levels in the adults and teenagers: both conjugates elicited a greater than fourfold rise in the IgG anti-LPS level in serum in >/=80% of the volunteers. SPA-TT(2) elicited slightly higher, though not statistically significantly, levels of IgG anti-LPS than did SPA-TT(1) in these age groups. Accordingly, only SPA-TT(2) was evaluated in the 2- to 4-year-old children. On a random basis, one or two injections were administered 6 weeks apart to the children. No significant side effects were observed, and the levels of preexisting anti-LPS in serum were similar in children of all ages. A significant rise in the IgG anti-LPS titer was elicited by the first injection (P = 0.0001); a second injection did not elicit a booster response. Representative sera from all groups had bactericidal activity that could be adsorbed by S. enterica serovar Paratyphi A LPS. PMID:10678970

  4. Parent-Implemented Mand Training: Acquisition of Framed Manding in a Young Boy with Partial Hemispherectomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingvarsson, Einar T.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of parent-implemented mand training on the acquisition of framed manding in a 4-year-old boy who had undergone partial hemispherectomy. Framed manding became the predominant mand form when and only when the intervention was implemented with each preferred toy, but minimal generalization to untrained toys …

  5. Traumatic penile amputation in a 15-year-old boy presenting late in northwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Musa, Muhammad Ujudud; Abdulmajid, Umar Farouk; Mashi, Sharfuddeen Abbas; Yunusa, Bashir

    2016-08-01

    Traumatic penile amputation is a serious urological emergency, although rare whenever it happens, there is a need to refer the patient early to urologist within 24 h, with the stump wrapped in saline; unfortunately, our patient presented late and as such could not benefit from penile reimplantation. PMID:27525085

  6. Brachytelephalangic chondrodysplasia punctata caused by new small hemizygous deletion in a boy presenting with hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Vrečar, Irena; Rudolf, Gorazd; Peterlin, Borut; Lovrecic, Luca

    2015-01-01

    X-linked recessive type chondrodysplasia punctata (CDPX1) is a congenital disorder of cartilage and bone development with typical findings of stippled epyphises, nasomaxillary hypoplasia and short distal phalanges in a male patient. Disease is caused due to the loss of arylsulfatase E activity and only 55 patients with genetically confirmed disease have been reported so far. In 60-75 % of all patients the mutation in ARSE gene is detected by sequence analysis and in further 25 % of patients Xp deletions or rearrangements are causative and may be identified by classical chromosome studies. We report on a male patient refered to clinical geneticist for congenital hearing loss and mild dysplastic signs, both phenotypic features being relatively unspecific and non suggestive of CDPX1 in first instance. Array comparative genomic hybridisation showed approximatelly 3 kb big deletion, spaning intron and exon 7 of arylsulfatase E gene located in Xp22.33. This explained the cause of hearing loss, being present in 26-89 % od CDPX1 patients, as well as additional non prominent skeletal characteristics described by geneticist in our patient - mild midface hypoplasia and mild brachytelephalangy. Reported case introduces different presenting clinical phenotype for CDPX1, emphasizing different expressivity in this disorder. PMID:26526591

  7. Pressure to eat and restriction are associated with child eating behaviours and maternal concern about child weight, but not child body mass index, in 2- to 4-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Jane E; Paxton, Susan J; Brozovic, Anna M

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore relationships between maternal concern about child under- and overweight, the use of maternal feeding practices (pressure to eat and restriction, monitoring and modelling of healthy eating), child eating behaviours (fussiness and food responsiveness) and child body mass index. The sample consisted of 183 mothers of 2- to 4-year-old children who completed questionnaires about their feeding practices, concern about their child's weight, their child's eating behaviours, height and weight. Correlation analyses found that pressure to eat was positively associated with concern about child underweight, while restriction was positively associated with concern about child overweight. Monitoring and modelling were not independently associated with concern about child weight. Regression analysis revealed that child food fussiness positively predicted maternal pressure to eat, and this relationship was partially mediated by concern about child underweight. Child food responsiveness positively predicted restriction, and this relationship was partially mediated by concern about child overweight. Child BMI did not independently predict maternal feeding practices. The findings provide a useful contribution to the literature on determinants of maternal feeding practices, but further research is necessary to gain an understanding of the impact of these behaviours on child eating behaviour and weight.

  8. Mixed nutcracker syndrome with left renal vein duplication: A severe and exceptional presentation in an 18-year-old boy

    PubMed Central

    Mallat, Faouzi; Hmida, Wissem; Othmen, Mouna Ben; Mosbah, Faouzi

    2015-01-01

    The nutcracker syndrome (NCS) is rare and often misdiagnosed because it embraces an extended non-pathognomonic spectrum of symptoms that imply a difficult diagnosis. Ultimately it may be associated with substantial morbidity and even life-threatening events. Mixed NCS with renal vein duplication is an exceptional variety, have previously been reported to the best of our knowledge. We report a rare case of an 18-year-old boy who presented with a long history of abdominal, pelvic and left flank pain, fatigue and higher bilateral varicocele. Computed tomographic angiography, Doppler ultrasonography and venography were performed revealed left renal vein duplication with dilated retroaortic and preaortic branchs, entrapped respectively between the aorta and the vertebral column and in the aortico-mesenteric space, with extensive and complex varices of the deep pelvic venous plexus; promoting the mixed renal NCS. Auto transplantation of the left kidney was suggested, but refused by the patient; and only the varicocele was managed. The patient is still suffering from his severe initial symptoms. Diagnosis is difficult and should be considered in patients with inexplicable flank or abdominal pain. Our purpose is to raise clinician's awareness for this condition so that they will be more likely to diagnose it. This will facilitate prompt diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25836700

  9. Unsuspected glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency presenting as symptomatic methemoglobinemia with severe hemolysis after fava bean ingestion in a 6-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Odièvre, Marie-Hélène; Danékova, Névéna; Mesples, Bettina; Chemouny, Myriam; Couque, Nathalie; Parez, Nathalie; Ducrocq, Rolande; Elion, Jacques

    2011-05-01

    We report the occurrence of symptomatic methemoglobinemia in a previously healthy boy, who presented with severe acute hemolysis after fava bean ingestion. The methemoglobinemia revealed a previously unrecognized glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. We discuss the pathophysiology of severe methemoglobinemia when associated with acute hemolysis, favism, and the common African G6PD A-variant [G6PD, VAL68MET, ASN126ASP]. In conclusion, screening for G6PD deficiency must be considered in symptomatic methemoglobinemia, especially in young boys, when associated with intravascular hemolysis.

  10. Unsuspected glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency presenting as symptomatic methemoglobinemia with severe hemolysis after fava bean ingestion in a 6-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Odièvre, Marie-Hélène; Danékova, Névéna; Mesples, Bettina; Chemouny, Myriam; Couque, Nathalie; Parez, Nathalie; Ducrocq, Rolande; Elion, Jacques

    2011-05-01

    We report the occurrence of symptomatic methemoglobinemia in a previously healthy boy, who presented with severe acute hemolysis after fava bean ingestion. The methemoglobinemia revealed a previously unrecognized glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. We discuss the pathophysiology of severe methemoglobinemia when associated with acute hemolysis, favism, and the common African G6PD A-variant [G6PD, VAL68MET, ASN126ASP]. In conclusion, screening for G6PD deficiency must be considered in symptomatic methemoglobinemia, especially in young boys, when associated with intravascular hemolysis. PMID:21479984

  11. “Pre-schoolers in the playground” an outdoor physical activity intervention for children aged 18 months to 4 years old: study protocol for a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The pre-school years are considered critical for establishing healthy lifestyle behaviours such as physical activity. Levels of physical activity track through childhood into adulthood, thus establishing habitual physical activity early in life is vital. Time spent outdoors is associated with greater physical activity and playground interventions have been shown to increase physical activity in school aged children. There are few pre-school, playground-based interventions, and evaluations of these have found mixed results. A recent report published by the UK Chief Medical Officer (CMO) highlighted that new interventions to promote movement in the early years (0–5 years old) are needed. The aim of this study is to undertake a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) of an outdoor playground-based physical activity intervention for parents and their children aged 18 months to 4 years old (“Pre-schoolers in the Playground”; PiP) and to assess the feasibility of conducting a full scale cluster RCT. The PiP intervention is grounded in behavioural theory (Social Cognitive Theory), and is in accordance with the CMO guidance for physical activity in the early years. It is informed by existing literature and data collected from focus groups with parents. Methods/Design One hundred and fifty pre-school children affiliated to 10 primary schools will be recruited. Schools will be randomised to either the PiP intervention arm or the control arm (usual practice). Children in the intervention arm will be invited to attend three 30 minute outdoor play sessions per week for 30 weeks (3 school terms) at the school. Feasibility will be assessed by examining recruitment rates, attendance, attrition, acceptability of the trial and of the PiP intervention to parents, fidelity of intervention implementation, capability and capacity for schools to deliver the intervention. Health outcomes and the feasibility of outcome measurement tools will be assessed. These

  12. Birt-Hogg-Dubé Syndrome Presenting as a Nevus Comedonicus-Like Lesion in an 8-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Sprague, Jessica; Landau, Joseph W

    2016-09-01

    Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome is an uncommon genodermatosis characterized by hair follicle hamartomas and an increased risk of pneumothorax and renal cell carcinoma. Recognition of cutaneous manifestations is essential because it allows for early screening and management of systemic complications. We present the case of an 8-year-old boy with a recently described cystic and comedonal variant of the classic fibrofolliculoma, which had been present since birth.

  13. Pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia: a novel GNAS mutation in a Brazilian boy presenting with an early primary hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Alves, Cresio; Sampaio, Silvana; Barbieri, Anna Maria; Mantovani, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    Pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia (PHP Ia) is a rare disease characterized by an elevated parathyroid hormone due to the resistance to its action in target tissues. We report a new GNAS mutation causing PHP Ia and an atypical early-onset primary hypothyroidism. A 3-year-old boy was diagnosed with obesity, delayed pyschomotor development, and round face. The laboratory evaluation at the age of 1 year showed primary hypothyroidism, hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, elevated alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone. These data led to the diagnosis of PHP Ia. Molecular analysis revealed a novel missense mutation in GNAS exon 1 (TCG→CGC, Cys3→Arg) in both the child and his mother. Although previously reported cases described delayed subclinical hypothyroidism as the more common thyroid abnormality, we report a not previously described GNAS mutation associated with an atypical early-onset primary hypothyroidism. These observations broaden the clinical spectrum of PHP Ia and its associated mutations. PMID:23412865

  14. Boys and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores key gender differences in motivation from a quantitative perspective and presents findings from a qualitative study into boys' perceptions of motivating teachers and motivating pedagogy. Data collected from 3773 high school students suggest that girls score significantly higher than boys in their belief in the value of school,…

  15. Parent-implemented mand training: acquisition of framed manding in a young boy with partial hemispherectomy.

    PubMed

    Ingvarsson, Einar T

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of parent-implemented mand training on the acquisition of framed manding in a 4-year-old boy who had undergone partial hemispherectomy. Framed manding became the predominant mand form when and only when the intervention was implemented with each preferred toy, but minimal generalization to untrained toys nevertheless occurred. A pure mand test suggested that manding was controlled by the relevant motivating operation. PMID:21541111

  16. Barrio Boy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galarza, Ernesto

    An autobiography, "Barrio Boy" is the story of Little Ernie, a boy born in the tiny mountain village of Jalcocotan in the State of Nayarit, Mexico. Divided into 5 parts, the book offers vivid descriptions of the author's early life--his family, his friends, his surroundings, as well as events in the journey from Jalcocotan that eventually ended in…

  17. Case report: Neuronal migration disorder associated with chromosome 15q13.3 duplication in a boy with autism and seizures.

    PubMed

    Beal, Jules C

    2014-12-01

    Neuronal migration disorders are a group of disorders that cause structural brain abnormalities and varying degrees of neurocognitive impairment, resulting from abnormal neuronal migration during brain development. There are several mutations that have been associated with these disorders. Here the case of a 4-year-old autistic boy is presented, who was found to have evidence of a neuronal migration disorder on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during a workup for seizures. Genetic testing did not reveal any of the gene mutations known to be associated with neuronal migration disorders but did reveal a microduplication at chromosome 15q13.3, a locus that has been previously associated with autism, cognitive impairment, and seizures. Although the concurrent presence of the genetic and structural abnormalities does not necessarily imply causality, the simultaneous independent occurrence of both conditions is certainly unusual. It is possible that there may be an association between this duplication syndrome and aberrant neuronal migration.

  18. Proptosis as the presenting sign of giant prolactinoma in a prepubertal boy: successful resolution of hydrocephalus by use of medical therapy.

    PubMed

    Cackett, Peter; Eunson, Graeme; Bath, Louise; Mulvihill, Alan

    2012-12-01

    We report the case of a 13-year-old prepubertal boy who presented with a left-sided proptosis, bilateral papilloedema and hydrocephalus who was subsequently diagnosed with a giant prolactinoma invading the left orbit. He was commenced on dopamine receptor agonists in the form of quinagolide and cabergoline, and made an excellent response to medical therapy alone, with resolution of hydrocephalus, restoration of normal vision and a 98% reduction in serum prolactin. The rapid improvement achieved negated the requirement for surgery and this highlights the efficacy of the dopamine agonists in the management of giant prolactinomas, even in the presence of neurological symptoms.

  19. An immunohistochemical study in a fatal case of acute interstitial pneumonitis (Hamman-Rich syndrome) in a 15-year-old boy presenting as sudden death.

    PubMed

    Turillazzi, Emanuela; Di Donato, Sabina; Neri, Margherita; Riezzo, Irene; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2007-11-15

    Acute interstitial pneumonitis (AIP), also known as Hamman-Rich syndrome, is a distinct type of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia affecting patients of both genders without pre-existing lung diseases. We describe the case of a fulminant form of AIP and discuss the pathophysiological mechanisms of AIP with reference to the histological pattern. A 15-year-previously-healthy male boy presented to the Hospital with a 6-day history of malaise, fever and cough. The clinical prodromes were followed by the acute onset of increasing shortness of breath rapidly progressing in acute respiratory failure. Chest X-ray demonstrated bilateral diffuse airspace opacification; the high resolution CT confirmed the presence of bilateral, symmetric diffuse ground-glass attenuation. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit, but died after few hours. An autopsy was performed within 24h. The histological examination of lung specimens showed a pattern of diffuse alveolar damage. immunohistochemical, microbiological and toxicological tests were also carried out. The clinical presentation, the histological findings and the exclusion of infective, traumatic, toxic and metabolic causes of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) allowed us to conclude that the boy was affected by AIP. In conclusion, AIP is a diagnosis of exclusion. It has a mortality rate ranging about 50%, despite mechanical ventilation. In fatal cases of AIP diagnosis can be based on clinical presentation, radiological, histological and microbiological findings and can be further confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis.

  20. Successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a boy with X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis deficiency presenting with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ming-Yan; Guo, Xia; Sun, Shu-Wen; Li, Qiang; Zhu, Yi-Ping

    2016-01-01

    X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) deficiency, also known as X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome type 2 (XLP2), is a rare inherited primary immunodeficiency resulting from the XIAP (also known as BIRC4) mutation. XIAP deficiency is mainly associated with familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) phenotypes, and genetic testing is crucial in diagnosing this syndrome. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is currently the only successful strategy for the treatment of this disease; however, a limited number of studies has been published concerning the outcomes of allogeneic HSCT in patients with XIAP deficiency. The present study reported a successful allogeneic HSCT performed to treat XIAP deficiency in a Chinese boy presenting with HLH. Polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing were performed to confirm the diagnosis of XIAP deficiency, and allogeneic HSCT was performed. Genetic tests revealed a two-nucleotide deletion (c.1021_1022delAA) in the patient, which was inherited from his mother, and resulted in frameshift mutation and premature stop codon (p.N341fsX348); this is considered to be a disease-causing mutation. The XIAP deficiency patient underwent allogeneic HSCT, receiving busulfan-containing reduced intensity myeloablative conditioning regimen, with a good intermediate follow-up result obtained. Therefore, genetic testing is essential to confirm the diagnosis of XIAP deficiency and detect the carrier of mutation. The present case study may promote the investigation of allogeneic HSCT in patients with XIAP deficiency.

  1. Successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a boy with X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis deficiency presenting with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ming-Yan; Guo, Xia; Sun, Shu-Wen; Li, Qiang; Zhu, Yi-Ping

    2016-01-01

    X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) deficiency, also known as X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome type 2 (XLP2), is a rare inherited primary immunodeficiency resulting from the XIAP (also known as BIRC4) mutation. XIAP deficiency is mainly associated with familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) phenotypes, and genetic testing is crucial in diagnosing this syndrome. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is currently the only successful strategy for the treatment of this disease; however, a limited number of studies has been published concerning the outcomes of allogeneic HSCT in patients with XIAP deficiency. The present study reported a successful allogeneic HSCT performed to treat XIAP deficiency in a Chinese boy presenting with HLH. Polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing were performed to confirm the diagnosis of XIAP deficiency, and allogeneic HSCT was performed. Genetic tests revealed a two-nucleotide deletion (c.1021_1022delAA) in the patient, which was inherited from his mother, and resulted in frameshift mutation and premature stop codon (p.N341fsX348); this is considered to be a disease-causing mutation. The XIAP deficiency patient underwent allogeneic HSCT, receiving busulfan-containing reduced intensity myeloablative conditioning regimen, with a good intermediate follow-up result obtained. Therefore, genetic testing is essential to confirm the diagnosis of XIAP deficiency and detect the carrier of mutation. The present case study may promote the investigation of allogeneic HSCT in patients with XIAP deficiency. PMID:27602064

  2. Priming of Abstract Logical Representations in 4-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viau, Joshua; Lidz, Jeffrey; Musolino, Julien

    2010-01-01

    Though preschoolers in certain experimental contexts strongly prefer to interpret ambiguous sentences containing quantified NPs and negation on the basis of surface syntax (e.g., Musolino's 1998 "observation of isomorphism"), contextual manipulations can lead to more adult-like behavior. But is isomorphism a "purely" pragmatic phenomenon, as…

  3. Expanding Schooling Opportunities for 4-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuven, Edwin; Lindahl, Mikael; Oosterbeek, Hessel; Webbink, Dinand

    2010-01-01

    We use a novel quasi-experimental strategy to estimate the effect of expanding early schooling enrollment possibilities on early achievement. It exploits two features of the school system in The Netherlands. The first is rolling admissions; children are allowed to start school immediately after their 4th birthday instead of at the beginning of the…

  4. Gravity Rules for 2- to 4-Year-Olds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, Bruce M.

    1995-01-01

    Tested children with apparatus that dropped balls through clear or opaque interwoven tubes. Found that older children could solve configurations with greater number of tubes than younger children. Success with clear tubes did not transfer to opaque tubes. Significantly, errors were consistently directed to location directly below ball's last seen…

  5. Car Hits Boy on Bicycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we present the fascinating reconstruction of an accident where a car hit a boy riding his bicycle. The boy dramatically flew several metres through the air after the collision and was injured, but made a swift and complete recovery from the accident with no long-term after-effects. Students are challenged to determine the speed of…

  6. Boys Will Be "Boys": Variability in Boys' Experiences of Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokal, Laura; Katz, Herb; Adkins, Matthew; Gladu, Andrea; Jackson-Davis, Khalie; Kussin, Brian

    2005-01-01

    Sixty-nine grade 2 boys participated in a study of the effects of book genre and sex of reading model on boys' (a) view of reading as feminine, (b) intrinsic motivation toward reading, (c) interest in reading, and (d) attitude to reading. Differential effects occurred in boys based on whether they liked or disliked reading and whether they viewed…

  7. Groin Swelling in a Four-Year-Old Boy: Primary Great Saphenous Vein Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Çiçek, Mustafa Cüneyt; Çiçek, Ömer Faruk; Yalçınkaya, Adnan; Taşoğlu, İrfan

    2015-11-01

    Primary venous aneurysm, especially in pediatric population, is a very rare clinical entity. We report a case of primary great saphenous vein aneurysm in a 4-year-old boy. He was initially suspected of suffering from inguinal hernia because the soft mass was detected at the inguinal region when the patient was in the standing position, but color Doppler ultrasonography demonstrated the swelling to be a great saphenous vein aneurysm. We decided that surgery was the best option because of potential risk for thromboembolism.

  8. Operation Sun Beam, Shot Small Boy. Project Officer's report - Project 6. 9. Correlation of present and previous electric-field measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Reno; Fowles, H.M.

    1985-09-01

    On most previous nuclear detonations, signatures and quantitative measurements of the electric-field signals associated with the detonations was obtained at distances such that normal radiation field characteristics apply. On Small Boy, measurements were made from stations located much closer in, such as to be inside, on the boundary of and just outside the limits of the ionized sphere created by the nuclear burst. The electric-field characteristics in these regions were unknown. In the hope of providing continuity from the region of the unknown into the reasonably well-understood region of the radiation field, this project was requested to make the typical radiation-field type of measurement that had been made on previous detonations. This report covers the signature characteristics and quantitative measurements of the electric-field signal from Small Boy as seen from outside the immediate region of theoretical generating mechanism.

  9. [Precocious puberty in boys].

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Szkróbka, Witold; Kowalska, Beata; Okopień, Bogusław

    2014-01-01

    Precocious puberty in boys is defined as the onset of puberty before the age of 9 years. It is divided into two categories: central precocious puberty, characterized by the premature activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and peripheral precocious puberty presents when premature sexual development is dependent on steroid production regardless of gonadotropin secretion. Although precocious puberty occurs more frequently in girls, in the case of boys it is more often associated with identifiable organic disorders of the central nervous system, adrenal glands or testes. The diagnosis should include detailed anamnesis and clinical examination, measurement of pituitary and sex hormones, assessment of bone age, and imaging of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, adrenal glands and testes. Indications for treatment are based on the type of precocious puberty and its progression rate, advancement of bone age, predicted adult height and psychological evaluation. The purpose of this article was to discuss the etiopathogenesis of precocious puberty in boys and to provide the approach to its diagnosis, differentiation and treatment.

  10. The Wolf Boy

    PubMed Central

    Leckman, James F.; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2005-01-01

    An adolescent boy presented with episodic wolf-like aggressive behaviors, for which his rural community planned an exorcism. Admission to a tertiary care hospital revealed an adolescent suffering an array of severe psychiatric symptoms, which best fit the diagnosis of reactive attachment disorder (RAD). The differential diagnosis included delusional disorder, mood problems, anxiety, schizophrenia, and “feral child” syndrome. Nosology and pathophysiology as well as pharmacological and psychosocial treatments are discussed. We highlight the importance of early life events in determining mental health risk and resiliency. PMID:21120097

  11. The Mythical "Boy Crisis"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husain, Muna; Millimet, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    The popular press has put forth the idea that the US educational system is experiencing a "boy crisis," where boys are losing ground to girls across multiple dimensions. Here, we analyze these claims in the context of math and reading achievement during early primary school. We reach two conclusions. First, white boys outperform white girls in…

  12. Supporting Boys as Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serafini, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The challenges associated with boys and reading are focused on such factors as society's lack of focus on literacy skills, parents failings to inspire reading in boys, and internal motivational factors rather than looking at the environments created for reading in and out of school. In this column, several ideas for helping boys develop a…

  13. Bring Back the Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr-Chellman, Alison

    2012-01-01

    Boy culture is out of sync with school culture. There are several reasons for this, including zero tolerance policies that are too often taken to extremes, the lack of male teachers, and the compression of the curriculum. What's more, boy culture is not socially accepted, and boys quickly come to feel that they are not good at school. For many…

  14. Do We Really Have a "Boy Crisis"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins-Gough, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the findings of "The Evidence Suggests Otherwise: The Truth About Boys and Girls," a report conducted by Education Sector senior policy analyst Sara Mead. This report examines trends in achievement and education attainment and concludes that the recent surge of concern about boys' academic performance has been…

  15. Turn Your Boys into Readers!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allyn, Pam

    2011-01-01

    Girls outscore boys in reading proficiency levels; the gender gap is startling and concerning. The myth that boys won't read or that it's not "cool" for boys to love reading plays a big part in how these low levels come to be. Low expectations from teachers, and an assumption that boys prefer physical activity, mean that boys often don't find…

  16. Boys and Girls Apart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahood, Ramona M.; Orr, Donald R.

    This paper reports on a study to see whether girls in middle school who took tests separately from boys did better than when they were tested together. A mathematics attitude and anxiety instrument was administered as part of the study to determine if either had any effect on test performance. Results indicate that boys were more anxious than…

  17. National Boy Scout Jamboree

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This video looks at a NASA sponsored exhibit at the National Boy Scout Jamboree in Fredricksburg, VA. Boy Scouts are shown interacting with NASA researchers and astronauts and touring mockups of Space Station Freedom and Apollo 11. NASA's program to encourage the researchers of tomorrow is detailed.

  18. Eskimo Boy Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Byron

    "Eskimo Boy Today" provides the reader with an account of what it is like to be a young Eskimo boy living in Barrow, Alaska, today. Accounts of his life at school depict the typical curriculum and learning activities, while accounts of his home life depict typical foods, clothing, and housing. The natural resources and their relationship to the…

  19. Boy Trouble: Rhetorical Framing of Boys' Underachievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titus, Jordan J.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines discourse in the United States used to socially construct an "underachieving boys" moral panic. Employing discourse analysis I examine the adversarial rhetoric of claims-makers and the frames they deploy to undermine alternative and conflicting accounts (of females as disadvantaged) and to forestall any challenges to the…

  20. Rocky Boy's Elementary School (Rocky Boy, Montana).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, James

    Describing the development of Rocky Boy Reservation's American Indian controlled elementary school, this paper addresses the following: Background (the Bureau of Indian Affairs day school era prior to 1960 and the transition in 1970 to a tribally controlled elementary school); Philosophy (equal emphasis on Chippewa-Cree and U.S. culture; parental,…

  1. Cardiorespiratory fitness of obese boys.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Satipati; Chatterjee, Pratima; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2005-01-01

    Childhood obesity is increasing worldwide and may be linked to coronary heart diseases that appear later in life but its risk related behaviour patterns are evident during childhood and adolescence. The present study aimed to evaluate the cardiorespiratory fitness in terms of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) in obese boys of West Bengal, India. Obese boys (N = 49) in the age range of 10-16 years were separated from their non-obese counterparts (N = 70) according to international age-wise cut off points of body mass index (BMI) and VO2max was evaluated by Queen's College Step Test (QCT). Lean body mass (LBM) was measured by skinfold method. Absolute VO2max was significantly higher (P<0.001) among obese boys because of higher values of body mass and LBM, which in turn exhibited significant correlation (r = 0.82 and r = 0.93, respectively; P<0.001) with VO2max. But VO2max per kg of body mass was significantly higher among non-obese boys but the VO2max per unit of body surface area was significantly higher (P<0.001) in obese group. VO2max is largely dependent on body mass and LBM whereas excessive fat mass imposes unfavourable burden on cardiac function and oxygen uptake by working muscles. This indicates that reduced oxygen utilization by adipose tissue during exercise reduces the overall VO2max.

  2. Sex Differences in Language Across Early Childhood: Family Socioeconomic Status does not Impact Boys and Girls Equally.

    PubMed

    Barbu, Stéphanie; Nardy, Aurélie; Chevrot, Jean-Pierre; Guellaï, Bahia; Glas, Ludivine; Juhel, Jacques; Lemasson, Alban

    2015-01-01

    Child sex and family socioeconomic status (SES) have been repeatedly identified as a source of inter-individual variation in language development; yet their interactions have rarely been explored. While sex differences are the focus of a renewed interest concerning emerging language skills, data remain scarce and are not consistent across preschool years. The questions of whether family SES impacts boys and girls equally, as well as of the consistency of these differences throughout early childhood, remain open. We evaluated consistency of sex differences across SES and age by focusing on how children (N = 262), from 2;6 to 6;4 years old, from two contrasting social backgrounds, acquire a frequent phonological alternation in French - the liaison. By using a picture naming task eliciting the production of obligatory liaisons, we found evidence of sex differences over the preschool years in low-SES children, but not between high-SES boys and girls whose performances were very similar. Low-SES boys' performances were the poorest whereas low-SES girls' performances were intermediate, that is, lower than those of high-SES children of both sexes but higher than those of low-SES boys. Although all children's mastery of obligatory liaisons progressed with age, our findings showed a significant impeding effect of low-SES, especially for boys.

  3. Teaching Boys: A Relational Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raider-Roth, Miriam B.; Albert, Marta K.; Bircann-Barkey, Ingrid; Gidseg, Eric; Murray, Terry

    2008-01-01

    Focus of Study: This article investigates how teachers' relationships with boys can be central in bolstering boys' resilience and connection to their work in schools. Specifically, we examine how teachers understand the ways that their relationships with boys shape their teaching practice as well as their understandings of boys' learning in…

  4. Little Boy replication: justification and construction

    SciTech Connect

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    A reconstruction of the Little Boy weapon allowed experiments to evaluate yield, leakage measurements for comparison with calculations, and phenomenological measurements to evaluate various in-situ dosimeters. The reconstructed weapon was operated at sustained delayed critical at the Los Alamos Critical Assembly Facility. The present experiments provide a wealth of information to benchmark calculations and demonstrate that the 1965 measurements on the Ichiban assembly (a spherical mockup of Little Boy) were in error. 5 references, 2 figures.

  5. Little Boy replication: justification and construction

    SciTech Connect

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    A reconstruction of the Little Boy weapon allowed experiments to evaluate yield, leakage measurements for comparison with calculations, and phenomenological measurements to evaluate various in-situ dosimeters. The reconstructed weapon was operated at sustained delayed critical at the Los Alamos Critical Assembly Facility. The present experiments provide a wealth of information to benchmark calculations and demonstrate that the 1965 measurements on the Ichiban assembly (a spherical mockup of Little Boy) were in error.

  6. Challenging Underachievement in Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Geoff; Muijs, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Background: Underachievement among boys and particular ethnic groups is a major challenge to the education system. Purpose: This paper reports on one local education authority's attempts to address this concern by investigating the characteristics of its schools demonstrating success with the groups causing most concern: black Caribbean, black…

  7. Of Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warburton, Edward C.

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, much has been written about threats to boys' and girls' healthy participation in dance. This Viewpoints essay considers some of the causes and proposed remedies, which focus almost exclusively on the roles and responsibilities of dance educators and administrators. I suggest that what is missing from recent research,…

  8. Parents' and boys' perceptions of boys' body size for average and high BMI boys.

    PubMed

    Brann, Lynn S

    2011-07-01

    A study on 49 preadolescent boys and their parents was performed to determine if differences existed in boys' body esteem and body size perceptions and to determine how accurately parents perceive their sons' body size. The boys were grouped by their body mass index (BMI) into average and high BMI groups. The boys completed the Body Esteem Scale; the boys and the parents rated the boys' body size perceptions. No differences were found in the boys' body esteem. The boys in the high BMI group perceived themselves as bigger than the boys in the average BMI group, and the parents of the boys with a high BMI perceived their sons as bigger. The boys in the high BMI group rated their current figure as heavier than their ideal figure. The results supported that the boys and the parents were aware of the boys' current body size. However, the parents of the boys with high BMI were more accepting of a larger ideal body figure. PMID:21689273

  9. Elevated VGKC-complex antibodies in a boy with fever-induced refractory epileptic encephalopathy in school-age children (FIRES).

    PubMed

    Illingworth, Marjorie A; Hanrahan, Donncha; Anderson, Claire E; O'Kane, Kathryn; Anderson, Jennifer; Casey, Maureen; de Sousa, Carlos; Cross, J Helen; Wright, Sukvhir; Dale, Russell C; Vincent, Angela; Kurian, Manju A

    2011-11-01

    Fever-induced refractory epileptic encephalopathy in school-age children (FIRES) is a clinically recognized epileptic encephalopathy of unknown aetiology. Presentation in previously healthy children is characterized by febrile status epilepticus. A pharmacoresistant epilepsy ensues, occurring in parallel with dramatic cognitive decline and behavioural difficulties. We describe a case of FIRES in a 4-year-old boy that was associated with elevated voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex antibodies and a significant clinical and immunological response to immunomodulation. This case, therefore, potentially expands the clinical phenotype of VGKC antibody-associated disease to include that of FIRES. Prior to immunomodulation, neuropsychology assessment highlighted significant attention, memory, and word-finding difficulties. The UK version of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence assessment indicated particular difficulties with verbal skills (9th centile). Immunomodulation was initially administered as intravenous methylprednisolone (followed by maintenance oral prednisolone) and later in the disease course as regular monthly intravenous immunoglobulin infusions and low-dose azathioprine. Now aged 6 years, the seizure burden in this child is much reduced, although increased seizure frequency is observed in the few days before his monthly immunoglobulin infusions. Formal IQ assessment has not been repeated but there is no clinical suggestion of further cognitive regression. VGKC complex antibodies have been reported in a range of central and peripheral neurological disorders (predominantly presenting in adulthood), and the identification of elevated VGKC complex antibodies, combined with the response to immunotherapies in this child, supports an autoimmune pathogenesis in FIRES with potential diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

  10. Sex Differences in Language Across Early Childhood: Family Socioeconomic Status does not Impact Boys and Girls Equally

    PubMed Central

    Barbu, Stéphanie; Nardy, Aurélie; Chevrot, Jean-Pierre; Guellaï, Bahia; Glas, Ludivine; Juhel, Jacques; Lemasson, Alban

    2015-01-01

    Child sex and family socioeconomic status (SES) have been repeatedly identified as a source of inter-individual variation in language development; yet their interactions have rarely been explored. While sex differences are the focus of a renewed interest concerning emerging language skills, data remain scarce and are not consistent across preschool years. The questions of whether family SES impacts boys and girls equally, as well as of the consistency of these differences throughout early childhood, remain open. We evaluated consistency of sex differences across SES and age by focusing on how children (N = 262), from 2;6 to 6;4 years old, from two contrasting social backgrounds, acquire a frequent phonological alternation in French – the liaison. By using a picture naming task eliciting the production of obligatory liaisons, we found evidence of sex differences over the preschool years in low-SES children, but not between high-SES boys and girls whose performances were very similar. Low-SES boys’ performances were the poorest whereas low-SES girls’ performances were intermediate, that is, lower than those of high-SES children of both sexes but higher than those of low-SES boys. Although all children’s mastery of obligatory liaisons progressed with age, our findings showed a significant impeding effect of low-SES, especially for boys. PMID:26696938

  11. Griscelli syndrome type 2: A rare and fatal syndrome in a South Indian boy.

    PubMed

    Rajyalakshmi, R; Chakrapani, R N B

    2016-01-01

    Griscelli syndrome (GS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutation in the MYO5A (GS1), RAB27A (GS2), and MLPH (GS3) genes, characterized by a common feature, partial albinism. The common variant of three, GS type 2, in addition, shows primary immunodeficiency which leads to recurrent infections and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. We, herewith, describe a case of GS type 2, in a 4-year-old male child who presented with chronic and recurrent fever, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and secondary neurological deterioration; highlighting the cytological and histopathological features of lymph nodes. Hair shaft examination of the child confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:26960655

  12. Adrenoleukodystrophy in a Chinese boy.

    PubMed

    Wong, V

    1992-07-01

    We report the first Chinese boy with adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) who presented with hyperpigmentation, behavioral change and demyelination shown in magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. ALD was confirmed by the elevation of very long chain fatty acid in the serum and biochemical evidence of adrenal insufficiency. A trial of special diet with restriction of very long chain fatty acid and addition of glyceryl trierucate/glycerol trioleate oil (GTEO or Lorenzo's oil) failed to prevent clinical deterioration. The child had progressive visual loss and spastic tetraparesis despite dietary manipulation, adrenal steroid replacement and intravenous gammaglobulin treatment.

  13. Boys' Bodies in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Murray

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on qualitative research data from a project investigating early childhood boys' constructions of masculinities in relation to sport, health and the body. The focus group data, with 33 boys, has been collected in each of the boys' first three years at school. It is part of the data that will be collected over eight years with…

  14. Raising Boys' Achievement in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Kevan, Ed.

    This book offers insights into the range of strategies and good practice being used to raise the achievement of boys. Case studies by school-based practitioners suggest ideas and measures to address the issue of achievement by boys. The contributions are: (1) "Why the Likely Lads Lag Behind" (Kevan Bleach); (2) "Helping Boys Do Better in Their…

  15. Leadership in Boys' Education: 16 Case Studies from Public and Private, Rural and Urban, Primary and Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Richard, Ed.; Hartman, Deborah, Ed.; Browne, Rollo, Ed.

    Concern about boys' education in Australia and New Zealand led to the Leadership in Boys' Education Conference in May 1999. This book contains edited conference presentations focusing on boys' educational needs. The book also presents case studies related to academic achievement, school structure, discipline and bullying, broadening boys' options,…

  16. An Interview with Alex Sanchez, Author of "Rainbow Boys."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emert, Toby

    2002-01-01

    Presents an interview with Alex Sanchez. Notes that his book "Rainbow Boys" has been called the "best gay youth book of the year." Notes that "Rainbow Boys" chronicles the lives of three high school seniors who struggle to manage their issues about sexual identity and coming out to themselves, to each other, and to the world. (SG)

  17. Motor Competence in 11-Year-Old Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedul-Kjelsås, Vigdis; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin; Sigmundsson, Hermundur

    2013-01-01

    By using the Movement Assessment Battery (MABC), the present study investigated possible gender differences in several tasks of motor competence in children. The sample included 67 Norwegian sixth-grade children (Girls N?=?29; Boys?=?39). Boys' performance exceeds that of girls in ball skills and in one of the balance skills. No differences…

  18. Disaffiliated Boys: Perspectives on Friendship and School Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Mary Jackman; Bishop, Penny A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the perceptions of disaffiliated white middle school boys in a rural setting. In this article, the authors discuss the results and implications of a qualitative research study, examining how these boys perceive school as responding, or not responding, to their needs. Five critical needs of students are…

  19. Psychophysiological Correlates of Developmental Changes in Healthy and Autistic Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weismüller, Benjamin; Thienel, Renate; Youlden, Anne-Marie; Fulham, Ross; Koch, Michael; Schall, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated neurodevelopmental changes in sound processing by recording mismatch negativity (MMN) in response to various degrees of sound complexity in 18 mildly to moderately autistic versus 15 healthy boys aged between 6 and 15 years. Autistic boys presented with lower IQ and poor performance on a range of executive and social…

  20. Empathy in Boys with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wied, Minet; Goudena, Paul P.; Matthys, Walter

    2005-01-01

    Background: The present study examined empathy in 8- to 12-year-old clinically referred boys with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) (n = 25) and age-matched normal controls (n = 24). Method: Situational empathy was assessed by children's emotional and cognitive responses to six empathy-inducing vignettes (displaying sadness, anger or happiness).…

  1. The Politics of Policy in Boys' Education: Getting Boys "Right"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver-Hightower, Marcus B.

    2008-01-01

    This book explores boy-focused education policy and how different educators struggle to implement or resist it in their schools. Weaver-Hightower examines masculinity politics in Australia and the United States, mapping how these politics create panic over raising and educating boys the "Right" way. Contextualizing this policy with movements for…

  2. Cognitive Imitation in Typically-Developing 3- and 4-Year Olds and Individuals with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subiaul, Francys; Lurie, Herbert; Romansky, Kathryn; Klein, Tovah; Holmes, David; Terrace, Herbert

    2007-01-01

    Individuals diagnosed with autism suffer from numerous social, affective and linguistic impairments. It has also been suggested that they have a global imitation deficit. That hypothesis, however, is compromised by the fact that individuals with autism suffer from various motor impairments. Here we describe an experiment on cognitive imitation, a…

  3. Taxometric Analyses of Specific Language Impairment in 3- And 4-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollaghan, Christine A.

    2004-01-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI), like many diagnostic labels for complex behavioral conditions, is often assumed to define a category of children who differ not only in degree but also in kind from children developing language normally. Although this assumption has important implications for theoretical models and clinical approaches, its…

  4. Word Order and Information Structure in Czech 3- and 4-Year-Olds' Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolík, Filip

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on an experiment that examined the comprehension of transitive sentences in Czech children and its relationship to case marking, word order and information structure. A total of 107 Czech children aged 2;9-4;5 were tested for comprehension of noun-verb-noun sentences in which word order and given-new status of individual nouns…

  5. A Measure of Inspection Time in 4-Year-Old Children: The Benny Bee IT Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Sarah E.; Turley, Christopher; Nettelbeck, Ted; Burns, Nicholas R.

    2009-01-01

    Inspection time (IT) measures speed of information processing without the confounding influence of motor speed. While IT has been found to relate to cognitive abilities in adults and older children, no measure of IT has been validated for use with children younger than 6 years. This study examined the validity of a new measure of IT for preschool…

  6. Fighting Obesity in 4-Year-Olds--"Move to Improve/Catch the Energy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, Kristine

    2007-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, research indicates that today's children are not getting enough physical activity. One solution to this problem is to integrate other subjects into physical education. This article describes a successful physical education program for Pre-K children implemented at the Sheboygan Area…

  7. Vegetation changes and partitioning of selenium in 4-year-old constructed wetlands treating agricultural drainage.

    PubMed

    Lin, Z Q; Terry, N; Gao, S; Mohamed, S; Ye, Z H

    2010-03-01

    The knowledge of selenium (Se) partitioning in treatment wetlands and wetland vegetation management are essential for long-term effective operation of constructed wetlands treating Se-laden agricultural tile-drainage in central California. In this field study, samples from different compartments of treatment wetlands were collected and the vegetation change in each wetland cell was examined four years after the wetland's inception. The results showed that saltgrass (Distichlis spicata) and rabbitfoot grass (Polypogon monspeliensis) were less competitive than cattail (Typha latifolia) and saltmarsh bulrush (Scirpus robustus). Over 90% of the wetland cell originally vegetated with saltgrass or rabbitfoot grass was occupied by invasive plants--i.e., when invasive species were not controlled in the wetlands. More Se was likely found in sediments from vegetated regions, compared to the unvegetated areas of the wetland cell. Particularly, rhizosphere sediments accumulated about 4-fold more Se than non-rhizosphere sediments. Among the total Se retained in the wetland 90% of the total Se was partitioned in the top 10-cm layer of sediment. The Se accumulation in plant materials accounted for about 2% of the total Se mass retained in each wetland cell. This field study demonstrated that wetland plants play significant roles in the treatment of Se-laden agricultural drainage.

  8. Investigation of 4-year-old stabilised/solidified and accelerated carbonated contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Antemir, A; Hills, C D; Carey, P J; Magnié, M-C; Polettini, A

    2010-09-15

    The investigation of the pilot-scale application of two different stabilisation/solidification (S/S) techniques was carried out at a former fireworks and low explosives manufacturing site in SE England. Cores and granular samples were recovered from uncovered accelerated carbonated (ACT) and cement-treated soils (S/S) after 4 years to evaluate field-performance with time. Samples were prepared for microstructural examination and leaching testing. The results indicated that the cement-treated soil was progressively carbonated over time, whereas the mineralogy of the carbonated soil remained essentially unchanged. Distinct microstructures were developed in the two soils. Although Pb, Zn and Cu leached less from the carbonated soil, these metals were adequately immobilised by both treatments. Geochemical modeling of pH-dependent leaching data suggested that the retention of trace metals resulted from different immobilisation mechanisms operating in the two soils examined. PMID:20579807

  9. Situational Changes in Self-Awareness Influence 3- and 4-Year-Olds' Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, J.; Anderson, J. R.; Campbell, R. N.

    2011-01-01

    In adults, heightened self-awareness leads to adherence to socially valued norms, whereas lowered self-awareness is associated with antinormative behavior. Levels of self-awareness are influenced by environmental cues such as mirrors. Do situational changes in self-awareness also have an impact on preschoolers' self-regulation? Adherence to a…

  10. [MusicPlayTherapy--a parent-child psychotherapy for children 0-4 years old].

    PubMed

    Stumptner, Katrin; Thomsen, Cornelia

    2005-10-01

    The early stage of building up the parent-child relationship is especially important. It is the basis for the child's development of the ability to relate to others and his or her further emotional, social and cognitive development. In this important early phase various risk factors may alienate parents from their intuitive parental competence towards their children. Such interaction problems indicate an intervention in the form of parent-children psychotherapy. This constitutes an entry point for the concept of MusicPlayTherapy (MPT): The early relationship is characterized mainly by complex communication sequences that address the senses at all levels. Therefore, the MPT concept integrates music as medium to communicate and opens up a playing space for play that allows emotions and experiences to be expressed. The components of music such as rhythm, sound, and melody stimulate babies and toddlers to express, play, and communicate preverbally. We work with the child and a parent in the MusicPlayTherapy sessions. Parents learn again to play and thereby learn to reach their children emotionally and to communicate with them. We complement the therapy sessions by counselling sessions with both parents.

  11. Investigation of 4-year-old stabilised/solidified and accelerated carbonated contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Antemir, A; Hills, C D; Carey, P J; Magnié, M-C; Polettini, A

    2010-09-15

    The investigation of the pilot-scale application of two different stabilisation/solidification (S/S) techniques was carried out at a former fireworks and low explosives manufacturing site in SE England. Cores and granular samples were recovered from uncovered accelerated carbonated (ACT) and cement-treated soils (S/S) after 4 years to evaluate field-performance with time. Samples were prepared for microstructural examination and leaching testing. The results indicated that the cement-treated soil was progressively carbonated over time, whereas the mineralogy of the carbonated soil remained essentially unchanged. Distinct microstructures were developed in the two soils. Although Pb, Zn and Cu leached less from the carbonated soil, these metals were adequately immobilised by both treatments. Geochemical modeling of pH-dependent leaching data suggested that the retention of trace metals resulted from different immobilisation mechanisms operating in the two soils examined.

  12. Magnesium metabolism in 4-year-old to 8-year-old children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Magnesium (Mg) is a key factor in bone health, but few studies have evaluated Mg intake or absorption and their relationship with bone mineral content (BMC) or bone mineral density (BMD) in children. We measured Mg intake, absorption, and urinary excretion in a group of children 4 to 8 years of age....

  13. Gait parameters associated with balance in healthy 2- to 4-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Guffey, Keegan; Regier, Michael; Mancinelli, Corrie; Pergami, Paola

    2016-01-01

    The use of validated measurements of gait and balance are crucial to establish baseline function and assess effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. Gait in children changes with motor development requiring frequent observations to effectively track progress. Standardized baseline spatiotemporal measurements and a greater understanding of the relationship between gait and balance would provide important feedback to clinicians regarding the effectiveness of rehabilitation and guide treatment modifications. 84 subjects (2.0-4.9 years) walked along the GAITRite(®), a walkway that records spatiotemporal parameters. The Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS) was administered to assess balance. Comparison of spatiotemporal parameter means between age groups showed trends associated with motor development similar to the ones described in the literature such as decreased cadence and increased step/stride length with increasing age. However, no significant differences in normalized spatiotemporal parameters were found between age groups. Age, leg length, cadence, step/stride length, step/stance time, and single/double support time showed significant correlation with balance scores. When the parameters were grouped into spatial, temporal, and age-related components using principal components analysis and included in a multiple regression model, they significantly predicted 51% of the balance score variance. Age-related components most strongly predicted balance outcomes. We suggest that balance can potentially be evaluated by assessment of spatial, temporal, and age-related characteristics of gait such as step length, cadence, and leg length. This suggests the possibility of developing new gait measurement technology that could provide functional assessment and track improvements during rehabilitation regimens. If the same model can be applied to monitor treatment efficacy in children with gait abnormalities remains to be addressed.

  14. Intelligibility of 4-Year-Old Children with and without Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustad, Katherine C.; Schueler, Brynn; Schultz, Laurel; DuHadway, Caitlin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examined speech intelligibility in typically developing (TD) children and 3 groups of children with cerebral palsy (CP) who were classified into speech/language profile groups following Hustad, Gorton, and Lee (2010). Questions addressed differences in transcription intelligibility scores among groups, the effects of utterance…

  15. Intelligibility of 4 year old children with and without cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Hustad, Katherine C.; Schueler, Brynn; Schultz, Laurel; DuHadway, Caitlin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We examined speech intelligibility in typically developing (TD) children and three groups of children with cerebral palsy (CP) who were classified into speech / language profile groups following Hustad et al. (2010). Questions addressed differences in transcription intelligibility scores among groups, the effects of utterance length on intelligibility, the relationship between ordinal ratings of intelligibility and orthographic transcription intelligibility scores, and the difference between parent and naïve listener ordinal ratings. Method Speech samples varying in length from 1–7 words were elicited from 23 children with CP (mean age 54.3 months) and 20 typically developing children (mean age 55.1 months). 215 naïve listeners made orthographic transcriptions and ordinal ratings of intelligibility. Parent ordinal ratings of intelligibility were obtained from a previous study (Hustad et al., 2010). Results Intelligibility varied with speech / language profile group and utterance length, with different patterns observed by profile group. Ratings of intelligibility by parents and naïve listeners did not differ and were both highly correlated with transcription intelligibility scores. Conclusions Intelligibility was reduced for all groups of children with CP relative to TD children, suggesting the importance of speech-language intervention and the need for research investigating variables associated with changes in intelligibility in children. PMID:22232403

  16. Magnesium metabolism in 4-year-old to 8-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Steven A; Chen, Zhensheng; Hawthorne, Keli M

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is a key factor in bone health, but few studies have evaluated Mg intake or absorption and their relationship with bone mineral content (BMC) or bone mineral density (BMD) in children. We measured Mg intake, absorption, and urinary excretion in a group of children 4 to 8 years of age. Mg absorption was determined using a dual-tracer stable isotope technique, with (25) Mg given intravenously and (26) Mg given orally. We found a small, but significantly greater Mg absorption efficiency (percentage absorption) in males than females (67% ± 12% versus 60% ± 8%, p = 0.02) but no difference in estimated net Mg retention (average of 37 mg/d in both males and females). Relating dietary Mg intake to estimated Mg retention showed that an intake of 133 mg/d, slightly above the current estimated average requirement (EAR) of 110 mg/d, led to a net average retention of 10 mg/d, the likely minimum growth-related need for this age group. Covariate analysis showed that Mg intake and total Mg absorption, but not calcium intake or total absorption were significantly associated with both total body BMC and BMD. These results suggest that usual Mg intakes in small children in the United States meet dietary requirements in most but not all children. Within the usual range of children's diets in the United States, dietary Mg intake and absorption may be important, relatively unrecognized factors in bone health.

  17. Gender Context of the School and Study Culture, or How the Presence of Girls Affects the Achievement of Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtte, Mieke Van

    2004-01-01

    This paper builds on my previous research, explaining the differential achievement of boys and girls in secondary education by the fact that boys' culture is less study orientated than girls' culture. The central question of the present paper is whether the presence of girls at school affects the boys' study culture and, by consequence, boys'…

  18. Teenage Boys, Spirituality and Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engebretson, Kath

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on a pilot study concerning adolescent boys and spirituality, and specifically on data gathered from interviews with 20 boys of 15-17 years. The data from these interviews will inform the development of a questionnaire to be used more widely in the next stage of the research. The paper also explains and justifies the analytical…

  19. Serving Boys through Readers' Advisory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Based on more than twenty years' experience working to get boys interested in reading, the author now offers his first readers' advisory volume. With an emphasis on nonfiction and the boy-friendly categories of genre fiction, the work offers a wealth of material including: (1) Suggestions for how to booktalk one-on-one as well as in large groups;…

  20. Are Girls Behaving like Boys?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnott, Rosie

    2008-01-01

    This article explores some of the issues that have given rise to the perception of an increase in aggressive behaviour by females. It asserts that merely comparing girls' behaviour with that of boys, especially the claim that "girls are behaving like boys", trivialises the very real issues associated with females and aggression. This paper will…

  1. Bridges to Literacy for Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brozo, William G.

    2006-01-01

    Evidence dating back to the 1930s and receiving increased attention today shows that boys tend to lag behind girls in reading achievement. The author asserts that we can help boys become thoughtful, accomplished readers, if we view their existing competencies, interests, and personal experiences as assets rather than as impediments to achievement.…

  2. The psychoeducational profile of boys with Klinefelter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rovet, J; Netley, C; Keenan, M; Bailey, J; Stewart, D

    1996-03-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) affects about 1 in 900 males due to an extra X chromosome. Although there are no obvious physical features associated with childhood KS, many boys demonstrate a cognitive deficit in verbal processing. The first section of this article integrates the extant literature on intelligence and achievement outcomes in boys with KS. The second section presents our findings from a 20-year study involving one of the largest unselected cohorts of boys with KS. We followed 36 boys with KS and 33 sibling controls from 6 until 20 years of age. Boys with KS are shown to demonstrate a verbal cognitive deficit and significant underachievement in reading and spelling, as well as in arithmetic. These problems, which are evident from early school years, increase with age such that by late adolescence, boys with KS are four to five grade levels behind. In addition, we also found that they were most likely to have a generalized type of learning disability, with very few boys indicating a pure reading or pure arithmetic problem. They also showed deficits in written language skills and acquisition of knowledge-based subject material were also problematic. Despite significant underachievement and frequent grade failure, many boys with KS had completed high school, and a few were also pursuing postsecondary educations. The discussion section examines how their language-based disability affects comprehension and learning, leading to underachievement. PMID:8820203

  3. Pseudoadrenal mass: unusual presentation of bronchogenic cyst.

    PubMed

    Swanson, S J; Skoog, S J; Garcia, V; Wahl, R C

    1991-12-01

    Isolated abdominal bronchogenic cysts are extremely rare. We report the fourth such case in an asymptomatic 4-year-old girl who initially presented for evaluation of urinary tract infection and new-onset urinary incontinence. Ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging findings were consistent with an adrenal mass. At exploration, the patient was found to have a mass in the area of the gastroesophageal junction and a normal left adrenal gland. The final pathology confirmed the diagnosis of a bronchogenic cyst. Abdominal bronchogenic cysts, although rare, should be considered in the diagnosis of a retroperitoneal mass.

  4. Questioning Masculinities: Interrogating Boys' Capacities for Self-Problematization in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehler, Michael; Martino, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    In drawing on selected interviews with adolescent boys from both Australia and North America, we present an analysis of boys' own capacities for interrogating gender normalisation in their school lives. We set this analysis against a critique of the public media debates about boys' education, which continue to be fuelled by a moral panic about the…

  5. Getting Clued In: Inferential Processing and Comprehension Monitoring in Boys with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthiaume, Kristen S.; Lorch, Elizabeth P.; Milich, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present study examines the ability of children with ADHD to make inferences and monitor ongoing understanding of texts, to shed light on their academic difficulties. Method: A total of 29 boys with ADHD and 41 comparison boys between the ages of 7 and 12 participated. Three tasks measure how boys create and evaluate inferences,…

  6. Boys' and Girls' Motivations for Refraining from Prompting Friends to Talk about Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Amanda J.; Swenson, Lance P.; Robert, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Girls' and boys' peer relationships are thought to have unique strengths and weaknesses. However, developmentalists have done a better job of identifying strengths of girls' friendships than boys' friendships. The present research was aimed at better understanding boys' friendship strengths. The study focused on the frequency with which youth (N =…

  7. Understanding boys': thinking through boys, masculinity and suicide.

    PubMed

    Mac An Ghaill, Mairtin; Haywood, Chris

    2012-02-01

    In the UK, the media are reporting increasing rates of childhood suicide, while highlighting that increasing numbers of pre-adolescent boys (in relation to girls) are diagnosed as mentally ill. In response, academic, professional and political commentators are explaining this as a consequence of gender. One way of doing this has been to apply adult defined understandings of men and masculinities to the attitudes and behaviours of pre-adolescent boys. As a consequence, explanations of these trends point to either 'too much' masculinity, such as an inability to express feelings and seek help, or 'not enough' masculinity that results in isolation and rejection from significant others, such as peer groups. Using a discourse analysis of semi-structured interviews with 28 children aged 9-13 (12 male, 16 females) and 12 school staff at a school in North East England, this article questions the viability of using normative models of masculinity as an explanatory tool for explaining boys' behaviours and suggests that researchers in the field of gender and suicide consider how boys' genders may be constituted differently. We develop this argument in three ways. First, it is argued that studies that use masculinity tend to reduce the formation of gender to the articulation of power across and between men and other men and women. Second, we argue that approaches to understanding boys' behaviours are simplistically grafting masculinity as a conceptual frame onto boy's attitudes and behaviours. In response, we suggest that it is important to re-think how we gender younger boys. The final section focuses specifically on the ways that boys engage in friendships. The significance of this section is that we need to question how notions of communication, integration and isolation, key features of suicide behaviours, are framed through the local production of friendships.

  8. Variations in the Pattern of Pubertal Changes in Boys

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, W. A.; Tanner, J. M.

    1970-01-01

    Mixed longitudinal data on the physical changes at puberty in 228 normal boys are presented together with normal standards for stages of genital and pubic hair development. The genitalia began to develop between the ages 9½ years and 13½ years in 95% of boys (mean = 11.6 ± 0.09) and reached maturity at ages varying between 13 and 17 (mean = 14.9 ± 1.10). The age at which pubic hair first appeared was not accurately determined, but its development through the later stages was studied. It reached the equivalent of an adult female distribution at a mean age of 15.2 ± 0.01 years. On average the genitalia reached the adult stage 3.0 years after they first began to develop; but some boys completed this development in as little as 1.8 years while others took as much as 4.7 years. Some boys complete the whole process in less time than others take to go from Stage G2 to Stage G3. The genitalia begin to develop before pubic hair is visible in photographs in practically all boys. The 41 boys in whom it could be studied reached their maximum rate of growth (peak height velocity) at a mean age of 14.1 ± 0.14 years. Very few boys (about 5%) reached peak height velocity before their genitalia were in Stage 4 and over 20% did not do so until their genitalia were adult. Peak height velocity is reached, on the average, nearly 2 years later in boys than in girls, but the boys' genitalia begin to develop only about 6 months later than the girls' breasts. Pubic hair appears about 1½ years later in boys than in girls. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:5440182

  9. Gamma-ray dosimetry measurements of the Little Boy replica

    SciTech Connect

    Plassmann, E.A.; Pederson, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    We present the current status of our gamma-ray dosimetry results for the Little Boy replica. Both Geiger-Mueller and thermoluminescent detectors were used in the measurements. Future work is needed to test assumptions made in data analysis.

  10. Concerns Boys Have about Puberty

    MedlinePlus

    ... a normal part of the growth process. Wet Dreams Boys may wake up in the morning to ... in their pajama pants and sheets. These " wet dreams ," or nocturnal emissions, are caused by an ejaculation, ...

  11. Empathy in Boys with Gender Identity Disorder: A Comparison to Externalizing Clinical Control Boys and Community Control Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen-Anderson, Allison F. H.; Jenkins, Jennifer M.; Bradley, Susan J.; Zucker, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The construct of empathy was examined in 20 boys with gender identity disorder (GID), 20 clinical control boys with externalizing disorders (ECC), 20 community control boys (NCB), and 20 community control girls (NCG). The mean age of the children was 6.86 years (range = 4-8 years). It was hypothesized that boys with GID would show…

  12. Microduplication of chromosome Xq25 encompassing STAG2 gene in a boy with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Yingjun, Xie; Wen, Tang; Yujian, Liang; Lingling, Xu; Huimin, Huang; Qun, Fang; Junhong, Chen

    2015-02-01

    Whole-genome microarray analysis is proven to be useful in the identification of submicroscopic copy number imbalances in families with intellectual disabilities. The first case of Xq25 duplication was identified using genome-wide array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) in a 24-year-old patient with a syndromic intellectual disability. We report a 4-year-old boy with a de novo 591 kb duplication at Xq25. The duplication was first detected by a CytoScan HD array platform (Affymetrix, USA) and was confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) of the STAG2 gene, and by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The patient had clinical features partially consistent with published cases, including an intellectual disability and speech delay. The identification of this additional patient and a detailed analysis of duplications identified in other patient cohorts and absent in normal individuals support the existence of a rare pathological microduplication at Xq25 that encompasses STAG2.

  13. Body Talk for Boys Growing Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Margaret L.

    This pamphlet, targeted to boys, discusses issues surrounding puberty. The introduction describes the reaction of parents' to their children's process of growing up, as well as the reaction of other boys and girls to the physical changes of puberty. Physical changes that happen during puberty for girls and boys are listed. Books for boys on…

  14. Getting Prepared: Nonformal Education in Boy Scouts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinfeld, Judith; Shinkwin, Anne

    An intensive study of boys' experiences in two Boy Scout groups shows that scout programs provide important educational functions that schools and homes do not. Detailed field notes were taken on 75 events of the 2 groups, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 boys and their parents to explore what parents and boys felt they were…

  15. Gender typing of game choices and qualities of boys' play behavior.

    PubMed

    Klein, A R; Bates, J E

    1980-06-01

    Relationships between gender choices and both movement patterns and social behavior were studied in first- and second-grade boys. Three-child, structured play groups were each composed of a boy whose mother saw him as high masculine in play preference on the Games Inventory, one seen as average, and one low masculine. Behaviors rated from videotapes included gender presentation variables, (e.g., leg separation), indicators of dominance and personal comfort (e.g., range of movements), and indicators of social skill and peer response (e.g., interaction initiations). The low masculine boys were found to be the most feminine in their gender presentation, least dominant and aggressive, and the lest socially successful of the boys. The greatest difference was between the low and the high masculine boys. The average masculine boys' scores were generally intermediate, but more similar to the low masculine boys on some variables and more similar to the high masculine boys on others. These conclusions apply to a grou interaction play task, but not to an initial noninteractive play task. A secondary study in which girls played with low and average masculine boys is also reported. Here it was found that low masculine boys were generally intermediate between average boys and girls on gender presentation and dominance variables, but lowest of the groups on social interaction variables. PMID:7400465

  16. Gender identity disorder in a five-year-old boy.

    PubMed Central

    Herman, S. P.

    1983-01-01

    Markedly effeminate behavior in a young boy is a source of concern and confusion for parents, teachers, and the child. It also represents a therapeutic dilemma for the child psychiatrist. The case of a five-year-old boy with gender identity disorder of childhood is presented and the literature on hypotheses of etiology, treatment, and long-term follow-up is reviewed. The ethical and philosophical questions posed by such a case are discussed. PMID:6880245

  17. Where the Boys Were

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortenson, Thomas G.

    2008-01-01

    The recent release of "Where the Girls Are: The Facts About Gender Equity in Education", by the American Association of University Women, presents an opportunity to review the extraordinary success of women in education over the last four decades. The release also presents an opportunity to review the failure of the entire education system--from…

  18. The pursuit of muscularity among adolescent boys in Fiji and Tonga.

    PubMed

    Ricciardelli, Lina A; McCabe, Marita P; Mavoa, Helen; Fotu, Kalesita; Goundar, Ramneek; Schultz, Jimaima; Waqa, Gade; Swinburn, Boyd A

    2007-12-01

    The desire for muscularity is tied to Western views of the male gender role, which prescribe that men be strong, physically fit and athletically successful. Although, these ideals have been primarily studied among Western adolescent boys, there is emerging evidence that the same ideals are valued and promoted among males from the Pacific Islands. The aim of the present study was to examine body image concerns associated with muscularity and the reasons for these concerns among Fijian and Tongan adolescent boys. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 Indigenous Fijian, 24 Indo-Fijian, and 24 Tongan boys aged between 13 and 20 years. A thematic analysis of boys' narratives showed that the pursuit of muscularity was a dominant theme for many boys. Boys' reasons for pursing muscularity included the attainment of strength and fitness, sporting performance, physical work, dominance, and health. These findings are examined in relation to previous research with Western adolescent boys. PMID:18089282

  19. Visual diagnosis: 12-month-old boy with persistent rash and lymphadenopathy.

    PubMed

    Sears, William; Hodge, Bethany; Jones, Brooke; Thompson, Matthew; Vidwan, Navjyot

    2014-10-01

    Gianotti-Crosti syndrome (GCS) is a self-limiting, papular or papulovesicular, symmetric, acral exanthem that typically presents subsequent to viral infection, bacterial infection, or immunization in a child 1 to 4 years old. The rash can persist for 2 to 10 weeks. Recent infection with Epstein-Barr virus is the most common serologic finding in patients who have developed GCS. The diagnosis is often made after the child has been unsuccessfully treated for a more common cause of an acral rash (eg, scabies). There are no pathognomonic laboratory or histopathologic findings. GCS, therefore, is still a clinical diagnosis of exclusion. The rash is self-limited, and treatment is usually not necessary. However, topical corticosteroids are anecdotally reported to reduce duration of rash. Oral antihistamines can be used to treat pruritus. Parents should be assured that resolution is almost always complete, scarring seldom occurs, and recurrence is rare. PMID:25274975

  20. Neutron dosimetry of the Little Boy device

    SciTech Connect

    Pederson, R.A.; Plassmann, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    Neutron dose rates at several angular locations and at distances out to 0.5 mile have been measured during critical operation of the Little Boy replica. We used modified remmetes and thermoluminescent dosimetry techniques for the measurements. The present status of our analysis is presented including estimates of the neutron-dose-relaxation length in air and the variation of the neutron-to-gamma-ray dose ratio with distance from the replica. These results are preliminary and are subject to detector calibration measurements.

  1. The Trouble with "Rainbow Boys"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Few pieces of GLBTQ fiction have received the popular and scholarly acclaim awarded to Alex Sanchez's "Rainbow Boys" series. Although "problem novels" are rarely taken seriously as literature, the books--the first novel in particular--have joined the few pieces of GLBTQ literature incorporated into educational discourse and curriculum. In this…

  2. Boys & Girls Clubs of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Silicon Valley youth awarded $145,000 in college scholarships, organization’s highest honor representing four million kids and teens MORE» Boys & Girls Clubs of America and the University of Wisconsin-Madison to Provide Full Tuition Scholarships for Multicultural Arts Program Two full-tuition ...

  3. "Good Morning Boys and Girls"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2005-01-01

    It happens every day across the nation: Teachers welcome their students to class by saying, "Good morning, boys and girls." It is one of countless ways teachers highlight gender with their speech and behavior. Unfortunately, teachers' use of gender to label students and organize the classroom can have negative consequences. New research in the…

  4. Toys for Boys and Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Karen

    1994-01-01

    Many people in our society distinguish between girls and boys toys. A physical science toy collector shares her experience at a fast food restaurant when she was asked "Do you want a girl toy?" Her response was, "What's the difference?" (ZWH)

  5. Physical Development of Hyperactive Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Rob; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Anthropometric data collected on groups of 7-year-old New Zealand boys, identified as hyperactive-only, aggressive-hyperactive, aggressive-only and nonaggressive/nonhyperactive did not confirm the hypothesis that hyperactive-only Ss would show delayed maturation. However, hyperactive-only Ss were significantly more lean than Ss in other groups.…

  6. Turning Our Backs on Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushweller, Kevin

    1994-01-01

    Statistics indicate that young males are far more likely than young females to suffer from self-destructive behavior, commit suicide, and be in special education programs. Some schools are aggressively recruiting male teachers; others have found that all-male classes can help hold boys' interest. Some maintain the schools have short-changed girls…

  7. PE is not for me: when boys' masculinities are threatened.

    PubMed

    Tischler, Amy; McCaughtry, Nate

    2011-03-01

    This study used hegemonic masculinity theory to examine the intersection of masculinities and school physical education from the perspectives of boys who embodied masculinities that were marginalized. Over a 13-week period using present-focused, student-centered, qualitative methodological approaches, we observed, interviewed, and worked in small groups with 5 middle school boys from two schools. We identified three significant themes that merge the stories and experiences of masculinity hierarchies in sport-based physical education. First, we found that four social practices (content, pedagogies, teacher-student relationships, and peer cultures) in these physical education settings privileged some masculinities over others. Second, we examined the role that embodiment played, both in how the boys wore their oppression and in how their bodies resisted marginalizing situations. Third, we describe the contrasts these boys drew between physical activities experienced in sport-based physical education and physical activity experiences in other areas of their lives. We used Connell and Messerschmidt's (2005) reconceptualization of the theory of hegemonic masculinity for understanding how competitive sport-based physical education functioned to oppress boys with masculinities that were deemed abnormal. Additionally, we introduce feminist poststructuralism as a possible theoretical lens for interpreting boys' bodies as also being active agents in social practices rather than being only passive objects who are oppressed and dominated.

  8. Color naming by boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Machen, V

    2002-02-01

    The present study describes a field experiment conducted to test the hypothesis that color naming varies for 56 adolescent boys and 39 girls. No standard color chart such as Munsell, Pantone, or Crayola was used. Instead, subjects identified 15 computer-generated color samples assigned a score based on thescale devised by Rich in 1977 of four color descriptor categories. Findings differed from those of most previous studies, in which women aged over 16 years showed a more elaborate color vocabulary than men. Among the 14- to 16-yr.-old subjects, there was no significant difference in color naming. PMID:11883586

  9. Achievement in Boys' Schools 2010-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wylie, Cathy; Berg, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    This report explores the achievement of school leavers from state and state-integrated boys' schools. The analysis from 2010 to 2012 shows school leavers from state boys' schools had higher qualifications than their male counterparts who attended state co-educational schools. The research was carried out for the Association of Boys' Schools of New…

  10. Putting the "Boy Crisis" in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadowski, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Girls have been posting higher reading scores than boys for decades, but other trends suggest they may also have surpassed boys in overall academic performance. Girls have higher high school grade-point averages, are more widely represented as school valedictorians, and attend and graduate from college in greater numbers than boys. All this has…

  11. Exploring the "Boy Crisis" in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappon, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The issue of the "boy gap" or "boy crisis" in education has been the subject of increasing attention across a number of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Given the importance of this issue and the need to better understand the situation in boys' education, this report draws on material and data from a review…

  12. Little boy black and blue.

    PubMed

    Greene, Amanda E; Roosevelt, Genie E; Grubenhoff, Joseph A; Klein, Ulrich

    2011-08-01

    Tooth decay is common in US children, especially for children in low-income families. More than half of second-grade children have cavities. Therefore, root canal procedures are becoming more common in children. We report a case of a 2-year-old boy with a rare complication of a root canal procedure secondary to sodium hypochlorite toxicity. Sodium hypochlorite, a commonly used root canal irrigant, and its toxicity are reviewed. PMID:21822090

  13. Synovial sarcoma of kidney in a child: A rare presentation

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, Venkatraman; Dhanushkodi, Manikandan; Narayanswamy, Kathiresan; Raja, Anand; Sundersingh, Shirley; Sagar, Tenali

    2016-01-01

    There are no reported cases in the literature of primary renal synovial sarcoma in pediatric patients. The management of renal synovial sarcoma has been extrapolated from the management of soft tissue sarcomas at other sites. We present a 4-year-old female who was suspected to have Wilms’ tumor. The patient underwent guided biopsy as she did not respond to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for Wilms’ tumor. The biopsy was consistent with primary renal synovial sarcoma. The child was treated with change in her neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen and surgery. The diagnosis of synovial sarcoma was confirmed by demonstrating the t (X, 18) translocation using polymerase chain reaction. PMID:27046979

  14. The Absent Father: Gender Identity Considerations for Art Therapists Working with Adolescent Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haeseler, Martha

    1996-01-01

    Recent research has shown that boys from father-absent homes exhibit greater feminine role identification, delinquency, mental disorders, poor academic performance, and poor self-esteem. This article presents case studies that demonstrate crises of masculine identification for adolescent boys whose lives lack either a present father or male…

  15. Bilateral optic neuritis in a boy - More than the eyes.

    PubMed

    Loh, M A; Alex Khoo, P C; Chong, M F

    2016-04-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a rare disorder in children with variable presentation. We report a 7-year-old boy who presented with bilateral retrobulbar optic neuritis and responded very well to treatment. He was also positive for aquaporin 4 (AQP4) antibodies, which is part of an emerging endophenotype within autoimmune neurological disorders in childhood. PMID:27326949

  16. CHILD syndrome in a boy

    SciTech Connect

    Happle, R.; Effendy, I., Megahed, M.; Orlow, S.J.; Kuester, W. |

    1996-03-15

    CHILD syndrome (congential hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform nevus and limb defects) occurs, as a rule, exclusively in girls because of the underlying X-linked gene exerts a lethal effect on male embryos. In this report the characteristic manifestations of CHILD syndrome are described in a 2-year-old boy with a normal chromosome constitution 46,XY. This exceptional case is best explained by the assumption of an early somatic mutation and thus compatible with the concept of X-linked dominant male-lethal inheritance of this trait. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Aggression, academic behaviors, and popularity perceptions among boys of color during the transition to middle school.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hongling; Dawes, Molly; Wurster, Tabitha J; Shi, Bing

    2013-01-01

    The transition to middle school often presents behavioral and academic challenges to youths. Boys of color (i.e., African American and Hispanic in this study) may be especially vulnerable. In this study, peer nominations of aggressive and academic behaviors as well as youths' perceptions of how these behaviors were related to popularity in peer networks were obtained from the spring semester of fifth grade through the spring semester of seventh grade, with the transition occurring as the students entered the sixth grade. The sample included 188 boys (71 Caucasian, 90 African American, and 27 Hispanic) from an urban school district in the northeastern United States. Trajectory analyses showed that African American boys scored lower in studentship and higher in rule-breaking and aggressive (both physical and social) behaviors prior to the transition, and such differences among ethnic groups were largely maintained during the transition. Hispanic boys displayed decreases in their studentship during the transition. African American boys' perception of how studentship affects popularity was more positive than other boys prior to the transition, but it decreased during the transition. African American boys also endorsed rule breaking and physical and social aggression more positively for popularity prior to the transition, whereas Caucasian and Hispanic boys' endorsement increased during the transition and eventually caught up with those of African American boys in seventh grade. A positive within-individual association was found between youths' popularity perception and their behavior for studentship, rule breaking, and physical aggression, which did not differ by ethnicity.

  18. Developmental Trajectories of Boys' Driven Exercise and Fasting During the Middle School Years.

    PubMed

    Davis, Heather A; Guller, Leila; Smith, Gregory T

    2016-10-01

    Boys appear to engage in eating disorder behavior, particularly nonpurging compensatory behaviors such as driven exercise and fasting, at higher rates than previously thought. Little is known about the development of these behaviors in adolescent boys. In a sample of 631 non-binge eating and non-purging boys studied once in 5th grade and 6 times over the 3 years of middle school (grades 6 through 8), we found that (a) for some youth, driven exercise and fasting were present from grade 6; (b) different boys progressed along different trajectories of engagement in driven exercise and fasting, with some boys engaging in no driven exercise or fasting (65.8 % and 83.5 %, respectively), some boys engaging in driven exercise and fasting throughout middle school (25.2 % and 16.5 %, respectively), and other boys discontinuing engagement in driven exercise (9 %); (c) 5th grade depression, eating expectancies, and thinness expectancies predicted subsequent trajectory group membership; and (d) boys engaging in driven exercise and fasting in 8th grade remained distressed. Boys' engagement in driven exercise and fasting behavior merits the attention of researchers and clinicians.

  19. Alchemy and Aberrant Behaviour: A Jungian Approach to Working with Boys with Behaviour Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dea, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Alchemy is an ancient philosophy on which the two modern day sciences of chemistry and analytical psychology are grounded. In education in New South Wales (NSW) at the present time, the behaviour of boys is of increasing concern to schools, to teachers, to parents and to society at large as evidenced by the over-representation of boys in school…

  20. Streetsmart Schoolsmart: Urban Poverty and the Education of Adolescent Boys. Multicultural Education Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conchas, Gilberto Q.; Vigil, James Diego

    2012-01-01

    In "Streetsmart Schoolsmart", two respected scholars present original research on youth gangs and school success to explain why some boys become disengaged and join gangs while others do not. Chapters vividly describe how urban boys from different ethnic backgrounds (Asian, African American, and Latino) approach schooling and identify the…

  1. The Experience and Expression of Homesickness in Preadolescent and Adolescent Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurber, Christopher A.

    1995-01-01

    Investigated homesickness in boys ages 8 through 16. Results indicated that homesickness was prevalent and varied in intensity, was experienced as a combination of depression and anxiety, was presented most often as internalizing behavior, and was more typical for younger boys. The most-homesick became increasingly so during the separation,…

  2. Boys and Girls Learn Differently! A Guide for Teachers and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurian, Michael; Henley, Patricia

    This book focuses on brain-based research to explore why boys and girls learn differently and how educators and parents can use that information to create the ultimate early childhood, elementary, or secondary classroom for both boys and girls. Part 1 of the book presents research findings from three primary points of view: (1) neurological and…

  3. Emotional Intelligence and Social Responsibility of Boy Students in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid; Jabari, Kamran; K, Rajeswari

    2014-01-01

    The present study has been undertaken to know the relationship between emotional intelligence and social responsibility of boy students in middle school using correlation. Survey method was adopted for the study. Data were collected from 100 boy students studying in Miandoab City of Iran during the academic year, 2012-13 who were selected…

  4. [Giant intracranial aneurysm in three years old boy: case report].

    PubMed

    de Tella, Osvaldo Inácio; Crosera, João Francisco; Herculano, Marco Antonio; de Paiva Neto, Manoel Antonio

    2006-06-01

    Cerebral aneurysms are rare in the pediatric age group and differ from adults' aneurysms in size, localization and incidence. We report a 3-year-old boy with giant middle cerebral artery aneurysms who presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. The patient was submitted to surgical treatment and the postoperative period was uneventful.

  5. Establishing Five Derived Mands in Three Adolescent Boys with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Carol; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2010-01-01

    Three 14-year-old boys with diagnoses of autism learned to mand for the delivery or removal of tokens by presenting nonsense syllables (A[subscript 1-5], respectively). A match-to-sample procedure was used t o establish conditional discriminations between the 5 A stimuli and 5 B stimuli and between the B stimuli and 5 C stimuli. Subsequently, each…

  6. Oceanography. Boy Scouts of America Merit Badge Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boy Scouts of America, Irving, TX.

    Presented are various activities and projects intended to help Boy Scouts earn a merit badge in oceanography. Each project and/or activity is related to a requirement (objective) found in a list at the beginning of the booklet. Topic areas and/or related activities and projects include: (1) nature of oceanography (naming oceanography branches,…

  7. Teaching Boys: Towards a Theory of Gender-Relevant Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bristol, Travis J.

    2015-01-01

    This article calls attention to the social and educational challenges facing boys and men around the world. Next, it highlights how the outcomes for males of African descent across the Americas, in particular the USA, are especially troubling. Moreover, a critique is presented about the recruitment campaigns that see increasing the number of Black…

  8. Differences between Boys and Girls in Extracurricular Learning Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batz, Katrin; Wittler, Sebastian; Wilde, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Only few psychological differences between the sexes can be proven empirically. Presented here is a study about learning in the extracurricular environment of a zoological garden during a school excursion with particular regard to the differences between boys and girls. In the main focus are, hereby, motivational and cognitive levels of the…

  9. Theory of Mind, Attention, and Executive Function in Kindergarten Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlamery, Mary Elizabeth; Ball, Steven E.; Henley, Tracy B.; Besozzi, Megan

    2007-01-01

    The present study explored the relationship between theory of mind (ToM), attention, and executive function in 66 kindergarten boys drawn from four rural school districts. Three stories designed to test understanding of first and second order mental states were administered. Executive function and attention were assessed, respectively, by scores…

  10. Osteosarcoma in a sixteen-month old boy.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, S; Sundari, M N; Masir, N

    1999-06-01

    We report a case of a sixteen-month old boy with osteosarcoma of the left humerus. To the best of our knowledge this is the youngest case reported in Malaysia. This case illustrates that osteosarcoma although rare does occur in a very young child. The child died six weeks after presentation due to disseminated disease. PMID:10972039

  11. Boys and Girls Clubs in Public Housing. Final Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Carl E.; And Others

    This report presents findings and recommendations resulting from the evaluation of programs implemented in 15 cities by the Boys and Girls Clubs of America. These programs were implemented to distribute variations on the "Weed and Seed" program and its provision of crime and drug prevention programs. The overall goal of Weed and Seed was to form…

  12. PE Is Not for Me: When Boys' Masculinities Are Threatened

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tischler, Amy; McCaughtry, Nate

    2011-01-01

    This study used hegemonic masculinity theory to examine the intersection of masculinities and school physical education from the perspectives of boys who embodied masculinities that were marginalized. Over a 13-week period using present-focused, student-centered, qualitative methodological approaches, we observed, interviewed, and worked in small…

  13. Framing black boys: parent, teacher, and student narratives of the academic lives of black boys.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Stephanie J; Ross, Latisha; Lozada, Fantasy T; Williams, Amber; Gale, Adrian; Kurtz-Costes, Beth

    2014-01-01

    The discourse on Black boys tends to suggest that Black boys are in complete peril. We begin with evidence that Black boys are excelling in certain contexts (i.e., in certain states, in certain schools, and in certain courses). We then discuss the ways in which the narratives used by parents, teachers, and Black boys themselves may serve to further reinforce views that Black boys are beyond hope. Research on Black parents suggests that they tend to view their sons as vulnerable and have lower expectations for sons than for daughters. Studies of teachers show that they tend to view Black boys as unteachable, as social problems, and as scary. Research on Black boys shows that they are sometimes complicit in supporting these narratives by engaging in negative or ste reotypical behavior. We also include recent research that includes counter-narratives of Black boys. We end with suggestions for future research.

  14. Framing black boys: parent, teacher, and student narratives of the academic lives of black boys.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Stephanie J; Ross, Latisha; Lozada, Fantasy T; Williams, Amber; Gale, Adrian; Kurtz-Costes, Beth

    2014-01-01

    The discourse on Black boys tends to suggest that Black boys are in complete peril. We begin with evidence that Black boys are excelling in certain contexts (i.e., in certain states, in certain schools, and in certain courses). We then discuss the ways in which the narratives used by parents, teachers, and Black boys themselves may serve to further reinforce views that Black boys are beyond hope. Research on Black parents suggests that they tend to view their sons as vulnerable and have lower expectations for sons than for daughters. Studies of teachers show that they tend to view Black boys as unteachable, as social problems, and as scary. Research on Black boys shows that they are sometimes complicit in supporting these narratives by engaging in negative or ste reotypical behavior. We also include recent research that includes counter-narratives of Black boys. We end with suggestions for future research. PMID:25345000

  15. Boys' Music? School Context and Middle-School Boys' Musical Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennetts, Kathleen Scott

    2013-01-01

    This article focusses primarily on the findings relating to the musical participation of boys in one Melbourne school. As part of a project that investigated boys' attitudes and participation at fifty-one schools, several contextual features were identified that set "Balton Boys" High School' apart from other participating…

  16. To Be a Boy, To Be a Reader: Engaging Teen and Preteen Boys in Active Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brozo, William G.

    When it comes to reading, teen and preteen boys are the most difficult students. This book addresses the growing concern among middle and high school teachers about boys' lack of literacy growth and independent reading. The book makes the case that boys are in the greatest need of help with literacy instruction and stresses the importance of…

  17. Growing Boys: Implementing a Boys' Empowerment Group in an Afterschool Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Georgia; Charmaraman, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The process of establishing a healthy male identity can be difficult for many boys. The limited definitions of masculinity available to boys and men are generally characterized by competition, repression of fear and emotion, and physical and emotional strength. Boys of color and those of lower economic status tend to encounter even fewer healthy…

  18. "In the Eye of the Beholder...": Girls', Boys' and Teachers' Perceptions of Boys' Aggression to Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Laurence; Shute, Rosalyn; Slee, Phillip

    2005-01-01

    Because children and young teenagers usually associate in same-sex groups, psychological research concerned with adolescent aggression has often concentrated on within-sex relationships. However, during adolescence, boys and girls increasingly interact socially. This paper reports a study of boy-to-girl aggression as perceived by girls, boys and…

  19. Circumcision for the prevention of significant bacteriuria in boys.

    PubMed

    Nayir, A

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether circumcision affects significant bacteriuria in boys. During a 60-month prospective study, 100 boys with microbiologically confirmed symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) were evaluated. Twelve patients with abnormal ultrasonography findings were excluded from the study. Eighteen of the boys had not been circumcised due to parental choice. The remaining 70 boys with normal renal ultrasonography were randomly allocated into two groups. In the first group 35 boys ranging in age from 6 months to 10 years (mean 33.2+/-30.9 months) were observed for 6 months and urinary cultures were taken monthly. When they had a positive urine culture (with or without any symptoms), they received antibiotic treatment. After 6 months they were circumcised and then observed for another 6-month period. Group 2 comprised 35 boys aged from 3 months to 9 years (mean 29.1+/-36.7 months). They were circumcised immediately after the first UTI and were followed for 6 months. Urine samples were obtained by the bag technique in infants and by the mid-stream technique in older patients. In the uncircumcised group, the rate of significant bacteriuria per patient did not change in two 6-month follow-up periods (3.46+/-0.91 and 3.33+/-0.97 episodes). In group 1, the rate of positive urine cultures dropped from 3.57+/-1.11 to 0.14+/-0.35 episodes after circumcision (P<0.001). In the second group, the rate of significant bacteriuria was 0.17+/-0.38 episodes after circumcision. Among the uncircumcised patients, symptomatic UTI was observed in 6 cases (3 cases in the first period of group 1, 1 case in the first and 2 cases in the second period of the uncircumcised group), whereas after circumcision no patient had symptomatic UTI. The mean age at circumcision was 42.7+/-28.4 months. No complication due to circumcision occurred in any patient. UTI may also occur in boys after the 1st year of life. The present study indicated that circumcision in boys

  20. Girls and Boys Like to Read and Write Different Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merisuo-Storm, Tuula

    2006-01-01

    This study explored girls' and boys' (aged 10-11) attitudes towards reading and writing. Girls enjoyed reading significantly more than boys. Boys liked mostly comics and humorous books; adventure books were girls' favourites. Poetry did not appeal to pupils. Many boys did not enjoy typical school texts. Most pupils, especially boys, did not like…

  1. Body Talk for Parents of Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Margaret L.

    This pamphlet, targeted to boys' parents, discusses issues surrounding puberty. The introduction discusses education about menstruation and girls' and boys' attitudes towards it. Suggestions are offered for discussing menstruation with one's son. Suggestions focus on timing of introducing the topic; which parent takes responsibility for menstrual…

  2. More Boys Wanted in Upstate New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Matt

    2010-01-01

    In spite of the popularity of TV shows like "American Idol" and "Glee," it can still be hard to convince boys that singing is cool. Therefore, choir directors who would like more boys to join their groups have their work cut out for them. Erin Belanger, music teacher at Stockbridge Valley central School in Munnsville, New York is a case in point.…

  3. Using Special Education to Destroy Black Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    Asks whether special education is designed to keep African-American boys out of the mainstream of education and also looks at questions of a passive conspiracy to destroy African-American males and the role of racism. Discusses special education legislation, and argues that African-American boys are not being adequately educated. (JB)

  4. Misreading Masculinity: Boys, Literacy, and Popular Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newkirk, Thomas

    This book takes an up-close and personal look at elementary school boys and their relationship to sports, movies, video games, and other avenues of popular culture. The book views these media not as enemies of literacy, but as resources "for" literacy. It contains a series of interviews with young boys and girls who describe the pleasure they take…

  5. Examining Executive Functioning in Boys with ADHD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Codding, Robin S.; Lewandowski, Lawrence; Gordon, Michael

    This study examined executive functioning (EF) in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) boys ages 6-12 on a parent-report measure from Barkley's model. Mothers of 40 boys (20 with ADHD-HI or ADHD-C, and 20 without ADHD) completed the ADHD Symptom Checklist (ADHD-SC4), Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL-P), School-Home Information Profile…

  6. Sexual Abuse of Boys: Current Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Terryann

    1983-01-01

    Reviews literature regarding the sexual abuse of boys. Although boys may be equally at risk for sexual victimization as girls, they are a unique clinical group whose needs have not been addressed significantly. Awareness and prevention components in community education and media can raise public awarness. (JAC)

  7. Role Calls for Boys & Girls Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Allesandro, Lou

    2013-01-01

    The New Hampshire Alliance of Boys & Girls Clubs has come a long way since the inception of the state's first Club in Manchester more than 100 years ago. The goal of the Boys & Girls Clubs of America is to provide youth with programs and services that allow them to realize their full potential as productive members of society. State and federal…

  8. Are Boys Discriminated in Swedish High Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinnerich, Bjorn Tyrefors; Hoglin, Erik; Johannesson, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Girls typically have higher grades than boys in school and recent research suggests that part of this gender difference may be due to discrimination of boys in grading. We rigorously test this in a field experiment where a random sample of the same tests in the Swedish language is subject to blind and non-blind grading. The non-blind test score is…

  9. Evolution and Development of Boys' Social Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geary, David C.; Byrd-Craven, Jennifer; Hoard, Mary K.; Vigil, Jacob; Numtee, Chattavee

    2003-01-01

    An evolutionary analysis of the dynamics of one-on-one and coalitional male-male competition provides a theoretical frame for conceptualizing the evolved functions and proximate developmental forms of the social behavior of boys, and for appreciating why the behavior of boys differs from that of girls. We propose the accompanying selection…

  10. Boy Scouts, School Policies and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    2001-01-01

    The Boy Scouts of America's anti-gay and anti-atheist youth policies are forcing school districts to reconsider sponsoring troops and allowing meetings on campus. To most school boards, banning Boy Scouts organizations seems unthinkable. The meeting-space question boils down to existence of anti-discrimination policies. (MLH)

  11. [There is something coming out of the anus of my child].

    PubMed

    Kuiper, Rosalie J L; de Jong, Justin R; Kneepkens, C M Frank

    2011-01-01

    The diagnosis of anal protrusions in children may be difficult, because the protrusion often occurs only after defaecation, and is usually invisible during the consultation. We present three cases of children with rectal prolapse (4-year-old boy), polyp (4-year-old boy), and external haemorrhoids (3-year-old boy), respectively. In each case, the diagnosis could be made after parents had sent a picture of the phenomenon. The first patient recovered after laxative therapy, the second after polypectomy, and in the third patient, the haemorrhoid persisted, despite laxative therapy and physiotherapy. PMID:21291582

  12. Self-Perceived Weight and Anabolic Steroid Misuse Among US Adolescent Boys

    PubMed Central

    Jampel, Jonathan D.; Murray, Stuart B.; Griffiths, Scott; Blashill, Aaron J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Anabolic steroid misuse is a growing concern among adolescent boys, and chronic misuse is associated with multisystemic health consequences. However, little is known about weight related predictors of anabolic steroid misuse. We examined the prediction of lifetime anabolic steroid misuse as a function of self-perceived weight status among US adolescent boys. Methods Analysis was undertaken using the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative data set sampling public and private high school students throughout the United States. Data from a total of 6,000 US adolescent boys were used in the present study. Results The prevalence of ever misusing anabolic androgenic steroids was 12.6% among boys who viewed themselves as very underweight, 11.9% for boys who viewed themselves as very overweight, compared with 3.8% for boys who viewed themselves as about the right weight. Compared to boys who viewed themselves as about the right weight, boys who self-perceived themselves as very underweight (adjusted odds ratio = 6.9, 95% confidence interval: 2.7–17.7, p < .001) and very overweight (adjusted odds ratio = 3.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.8–7.7, p < .001) were significantly associated with increased risk of anabolic androgenic steroid misuse. Conclusions Large effect size estimates were revealed, suggesting that anabolic androgenic steroid misuse is not solely a function of boys desiring increased mass; boys who desire leanness are also likely to misuse anabolic androgenic steroids. Future prevention efforts should target not only boys who view themselves as underweight but also those who perceive themselves as overweight. PMID:26598061

  13. Can items used in 4-year-old well-child visits predict children's health and school outcomes?

    PubMed

    Smithers, Lisa G; Chittleborough, Catherine R; Stocks, Nigel; Sawyer, Michael G; Lynch, John W

    2014-08-01

    To examine whether items comprising a preschool well-child check for use by family doctors in Australia with 4-5-year old children predicts health and academic outcomes at 6-7 years. The well-child check includes mandatory (anthropometry, eye/vision, ear/hearing, dental, toileting, allergy problems) and non-mandatory (processed food consumption, low physical activity, motor, behaviour/mood problems) items. The predictive validity of mandatory and non-mandatory items measured at 4-5 years was examined using data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Outcomes at 6-7 years included overweight/obesity, asthma, health care/medication needs, general health, mental health problems, quality of life, teacher-reported mathematics and literacy ability (n = 2,280-2,787). Weight or height >90th centile at 4-5 years predicted overweight/obesity at 6-7 years with 60% sensitivity, 79% specificity and 40% positive predictive value (PPV). Mood/behaviour problems at 4-5 predicted mental health problems at 6-7 years with 86% sensitivity, 40% specificity and 8% PPV. Non-mandatory items improved the discrimination between children with and without mental health problems at 6-7 years (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.75 compared with 0.69 for mandatory items only), but was weak for most outcomes. Items used in a well-child health check were moderate predictors of overweight/obesity and mental health problems at 6-7 years, but poor predictors of other health and academic outcomes.

  14. Identification of an obese eating style in 4-year-old children born at high and low risk for obesity.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, Robert I; Moore, Renee' H; Faith, Myles S; Stallings, Virginia A; Kral, Tanja V E; Stunkard, Albert J

    2010-03-01

    This study tested whether children's eating behavior and parental feeding prompts during a laboratory test meal differ among children born at high risk (HR) or low risk (LR) for obesity and are associated with excess child weight gain. At 4 years of age, 32 HR children (mean maternal prepregnancy BMI = 30.4 kg/m(2)) and 29 LR children (maternal BMI = 19.6 kg/m(2)) consumed a test meal in which their eating behavior was assessed, including rate of caloric consumption, mouthfuls/min, and requests for food. Parental prompts for the child to eat also were measured at year 4, and child body composition was measured at ages 4 and 6 years. T-tests, and logistic and multiple regression analyses tested study aims. Results indicated that HR and LR children did not differ in eating rate or parental feeding prompts. Greater maternal BMI, child mouthfuls of food/min, and total caloric intake/min during the test meal predicted an increased risk of being overweight or obese at age 6, whereas greater active mealtime was associated with a reduced risk of being overweight or obese. Regression analyses indicated that only mouthfuls of food/min predicted changes in BMI from 4 to 6 years, and mouthfuls of food/min and gender predicted 2-year changes in sum of skinfolds and total body fat. Thus, a rapid eating style, characterized by increased mouthfuls of food/min, may be a behavioral marker for the development of childhood obesity. PMID:19779474

  15. Accidental Ingestion and Uneventful Retrieval of an Endodontic File in a 4 Year Old Child: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Bondarde, Prashant; Naik, Anishri; Patil, Sudha; Shah, Parth H

    2015-01-01

    The majority of foreign body ingestions occur in the pediatric population, with a peak incidence between the ages of 6 months and 6 years. Safety during dental treatment of children cannot be overemphasized. Uncooperative, mentally and physically handicapped children are more prone to ingestion or aspiration of dental instruments than other populations. In any event, it is recommended that dental practitioners examine their instrument before use, as a safeguard against any slippage, breakage. Treatment with any endodontic device requires the use of proper isolation such as rubber dam. PMID:26668487

  16. Accidental Ingestion and Uneventful Retrieval of an Endodontic File in a 4 Year Old Child: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Bondarde, Prashant; Naik, Anishri; Patil, Sudha; Shah, Parth H

    2015-01-01

    The majority of foreign body ingestions occur in the pediatric population, with a peak incidence between the ages of 6 months and 6 years. Safety during dental treatment of children cannot be overemphasized. Uncooperative, mentally and physically handicapped children are more prone to ingestion or aspiration of dental instruments than other populations. In any event, it is recommended that dental practitioners examine their instrument before use, as a safeguard against any slippage, breakage. Treatment with any endodontic device requires the use of proper isolation such as rubber dam.

  17. Gains in Fluid Intelligence after Training Non-Verbal Reasoning in 4-Year-Old Children: A Controlled, Randomized Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman Nutley, Sissela; Soderqvist, Stina; Bryde, Sara; Thorell, Lisa B.; Humphreys, Keith; Klingberg, Torkel

    2011-01-01

    Fluid intelligence (Gf) predicts performance on a wide range of cognitive activities, and children with impaired Gf often experience academic difficulties. Previous attempts to improve Gf have been hampered by poor control conditions and single outcome measures. It is thus still an open question whether Gf can be improved by training. This study…

  18. An Investigation of Four Hypotheses Concerning the Order by Which 4-Year-Old Children Learn the Alphabet Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justice, Laura M.; Pence, Khara; Bowles, Ryan B.; Wiggins, Alice

    2006-01-01

    This study tested four complementary hypotheses to characterize intrinsic and extrinsic influences on the order with which preschool children learn the names of individual alphabet letters. The hypotheses included: (a) "own-name advantage," which states that children learn those letters earlier which occur in their own names, (b) the "letter-order…

  19. Words Are Not Merely Features: Only Consistently Applied Nouns Guide 4-Year-Olds' Inferences about Object Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Susan A.; Booth, Amy E.; Waxman, Sandra R.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is considerable evidence that nouns highlight category-based commonalities, including both those that are perceptually available and those that reflect underlying conceptual similarity, some have claimed that words function merely as features of objects. Here, we directly test these alternative accounts. Four-year-olds (n = 140)…

  20. The Effect of Plausible versus Implausible Balance Scale Feedback on the Expectancies of 3- to 4-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrauf, Cornelia; Call, Josep; Pauen, Sabina

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies (Case, 1985; Siegler, 1981) have shown that children under the age of 5 years have little understanding of balance scales when required to encode the influence of weight or distance from the fulcrum. More recently, however, Halford, Andrews, Dalton, Boag, and Zielinski (2002) noted that an understanding based on weight alone is…

  1. The Effect of Verbal Reminders on Memory Reactivation in 2-, 3-, and 4-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imuta, Kana; Scarf, Damian; Hayne, Harlene

    2013-01-01

    For adults, verbal reminders provide a powerful key to unlock our memories. For example, a simple question, such as "Do you remember your wedding day?" can reactivate rich memories of the past, allowing us to recall experiences that may have occurred days, weeks, and even decades earlier. The ability to use another person's language to access our…

  2. A Prosodically Controlled Word and Nonword Repetition Task for 2- To 4-Year-Olds: Evidence from Typically Developing Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Penny; Chiat, Shula

    2004-01-01

    An association has been found between nonword repetition and language skills in school-age children with both typical and atypical language development (C. Dollaghan & T. F. Campbell, 1998; S. Ellis Weismer et al., 2000; S. E. Gathercole & A. D. Baddeley, 1990; J. W. Montgomery, 2002). This raises the possibility that younger children's repetition…

  3. Classification of Speech and Language Profiles in 4-Year-Old Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Prospective Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustad, Katherine C.; Gorton, Kristin; Lee, Jimin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors proposed and tested a preliminary speech and language classification system for children with cerebral palsy. Method: Speech and language assessment data were collected in a laboratory setting from 34 children with cerebral palsy (CP; 18 male, 16 female) with a mean age of 54 months (SD = 1.8). Measures of…

  4. False belief understanding and “cool” inhibitory control in 3-and 4-years-old Italian children

    PubMed Central

    Bellagamba, Francesca; Addessi, Elsa; Focaroli, Valentina; Pecora, Giulia; Maggiorelli, Valentina; Pace, Beatrice; Paglieri, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    During preschool years, major developments occur in both executive function and theory of mind (ToM), and several studies have demonstrated a correlation between these processes. Research on the development of inhibitory control (IC) has distinguished between more cognitive, “cool” aspects of self-control, measured by conflict tasks, that require inhibiting an habitual response to generate an arbitrary one, and “hot,” affective aspects, such as affective decision making, measured by delay tasks, that require inhibition of a prepotent response. The aim of this study was to investigate the relations between 3- and 4-year-olds’ performance on a task measuring false belief understanding, the most widely used index of ToM in preschoolers, and three tasks measuring cognitive versus affective aspects of IC. To this end, we tested 101 Italian preschool children in four tasks: (a) the Unexpected Content False Belief task, (b) the Conflict task (a simplified version of the Day–Night Stroop task), (c) the Delay task, and (d) the Delay Choice task. Children’s receptive vocabulary was assessed by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary test. Children’s performance in the False Belief task was significantly related only to performance in the Conflict task, controlling for vocabulary and age. Importantly, children’s performance in the Conflict task did not significantly correlate with their performance in the Delay task or in the Delay Choice task, suggesting that these tasks measure different components of IC. The dissociation between the Conflict and the Delay tasks may indicate that monitoring and regulating a cool process (as flexible categorization) may involve different abilities than monitoring and regulating a hot process (not touching an available and highly attractive stimulus or choosing between a smaller immediate option and a larger delayed one). Moreover, our findings support the view that “cool” aspects of IC and ToM are interrelated, extending to an Italian sample of children previous findings on an association between self-control and ToM. PMID:26175700

  5. Poverty as a Predictor of 4-Year-Olds' Executive Function: New Perspectives on Models of Differential Susceptibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raver, C. Cybele; Blair, Clancy; Willoughby, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In a predominantly low-income, population-based longitudinal sample of 1,259 children followed from birth, results suggest that chronic exposure to poverty and the strains of financial hardship were each uniquely predictive of young children's performance on measures of executive functioning. Results suggest that temperament-based vulnerability…

  6. Subtypes of Severe Speech and Language Impairments: Psychometric Evidence from 4-Year-Old Children in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Daal, John; Verhoeven, Ludo; van Balkom, Hans

    2004-01-01

    Most, if not all, of the studies of subtypes of children with language impairments have been conducted with English-speaking children. The possibility and validity of identified subtypes for non-English clinical populations are, as yet, unknown. This study was designed to provide cross-linguistic evidence of language subtypes. A broad battery of…

  7. Imitation as a mechanism in cognitive development: a cross-cultural investigation of 4-year-old children's rule learning.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhidan; Williamson, Rebecca A; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    Children learn about the social and physical world by observing other people's acts. This experiment tests both Chinese and American children's learning of a rule. For theoretical reasons we chose the rule of categorizing objects by the weight. Children, age 4 years, saw an adult heft four visually-identical objects and sort them into two bins based on an invisible property-the object's weight. Children who saw this categorization behavior were more likely to sort those objects by weight than were children who saw control actions using the same objects and the same bins. Crucially, children also generalized to a novel set of objects with no further demonstration, suggesting rule learning. We also report that high-fidelity imitation of the adult's "hefting" acts may give children crucial experience with the objects' weights, which could then be used to infer the more abstract rule. The connection of perception, action, and cognition was found in children from both cultures, which leads to broad implications for how the imitation of adults' acts functions as a lever in cognitive development.

  8. Psychiatric Symptoms in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome: A Comparison with Nonsyndromic Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Thurman, Angela John; McDuffie, Andrea; Hagerman, Randi; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the profile of psychiatric symptoms in boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS) using a parent report instrument. In addition, by comparing boys with FXS to boys with nonsyndromic autism spectrum disorder (ASD) utilizing multiple matching strategies, we examined between-group differences in the types of psychiatric symptoms observed and in the strength of their concurrent associations. Across all matching strategies, symptoms of manic/hyperactive behaviors and general anxiety were more frequently reported for boys with FXS than for boys with nonsyndromic ASD. Results also indicated a positive association between social avoidance and general anxiety in FXS that was stronger than that observed in nonsyndromic ASD across all matching strategies. Theoretical and treatment implications are discussed. PMID:24629733

  9. Effects of sucrose ingestion on the behavior of hyperactive boys.

    PubMed

    Wolraich, M; Milich, R; Stumbo, P; Schultz, F

    1985-04-01

    A challenge design was used in two separate studies to investigate the effects of sucrose ingestion on the behavior and learning of hyperactive boys. In both studies, 16 boys were admitted to a clinical research center for 3 successive days, on each of which they were given a sucrose-free diet. On day 1, baseline levels on the learning tasks were established; on days 2 and 3 a challenge drink of either sucrose 1.75 gm/kg or a placebo (aspartame in equivalent sweetness) was presented, in a counterbalanced order. In the first study the challenge drink was administered 1 hour after lunch; in the second study it was given in the morning after an overnight fast. On days 2 and 3 of both studies, 37 behavioral (playroom observation and examiner ratings) and cognitive (learning and memory tasks) measures were collected, starting 1/2 hour after ingestion of the drink. The results of both studies revealed no differences between the boys' performance on the two challenge days. These findings undermine the hypothesis that sucrose plays a major role in accounting for the inappropriate behavior of hyperactive boys.

  10. Pyogenic granuloma underlying cutaneous horn in a young boy

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Pragya A.; Kota, Rahul Krishna S.; Pilani, Abhisheik P.

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous horn is an elongated, keratinous projection that usually occurs over the sun-exposed areas. It is a clinical diagnosis and may overlie any benign, premalignant, or malignant conditions. Treatment includes wide surgical excision with careful histological examination to exclude a focus of malignancy. An unusual case of a pyogenic granuloma presenting as cutaneous horn on the lower lip in an 11-year-old boy is presented here. PMID:27057494

  11. Boy preference in Korea: a review of empirical studies related to boy preference.

    PubMed

    Kong, C J; Cha, J H

    1974-01-01

    Findings related to 20 empirical studies relating to boy preference in Korea during the past 10 years are summarized under 5 headings: 1) boy preference in the familial values; 2) boy preference in the ideal number of children; 3) boy preference in family planning behavior; 4) relationship between boy preference attitude and fertility behavior; and 5) social-psychological characteristics associated with boy preference attitude. Studies made at the turn of the 1960s were descriptive and viewed boy preference only as a dependent variable; since the late 1960s, boy preference began to receive attention as a factor contributing to fertility behavior. A son was regarded as important for support in old age and family lineage. Until the 1960s, the ideal number of sons had always exceeded that of daughters by 1 person. In the 1970s, the difference was reduced to .5. Several studies showed that sex composition of children affects the rate of contraceptive practice: the greater the number of living sons, the higher the likelihood of women using contraceptives. The same was not true for living daughters. Mothers with more sons than daughters have a stronger boy preference attitude than mothers of girl-skewed or balanced families. Boy preference attitude was positively related to the number of living children and the number of pregnancies.

  12. Efficacy of "talking books" for a group of reading disabled boys.

    PubMed

    Abelson, A G; Petersen, M

    1983-10-01

    No significant differences in proficiency of reading-listening comprehension among 24 reading-disabled boys in Grades 4, 5, and 6 were noted after hearing "talking book," taped stories, and teacher-read presentations. PMID:6634340

  13. Patterns of Lower Limb Muscle Activity in Young Boys During a One Foot Static Balance Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layne, Charles S.; Abraham, Lawrence D.

    1987-01-01

    This study of 10 seven- to nine-year-old boys was undertaken to determine the electromyographic activity of four muscles in the supporting leg during one foot static balancing. Results are presented and analyzed. (Author/MT)

  14. Giant Omphalocele in an Adolescent Boy.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Tanveer; Alladi, Anand; Siddappa, O S

    2015-04-01

    Omphalocele is a congenital abdominal wall defect that permits herniation of abdominal viscera into the umbilical cord. We here report a case of a giant omphalocele in an adolescent boy that has not been reported at this age before.

  15. Investigation of gender role behaviors in boys with hypospadias: comparative study with unaffected boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Sung, Ji Yean; Han, Sang Won; Chung, Kyong-Mee; Lee, Hyeyoung; Cho, Sang Hee

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the study was (1) to investigate gender role behaviors of boys with hypospadias compared with groups of unaffected boys and girls using parental reports and direct observations; and (2) to directly observe effects of socialization (mothers' presence) on children's gender role behaviors. Ages of 19 children with hypospadias ranged from 3 to 7 years, and each of them were matched to controls of unaffected boys and girls by age. All the children participated with their mothers. Children's gender role behaviors and their mothers' behaviors were evaluated using an observation coding system. Mothers also completed questionnaires regarding their children's gender role behaviors. Results indicated no atypical gender role behavior for the boys with hypospadias and no direct effects of socialization on their gender role behaviors. However, differences were found in negative communicative behaviors between boys with hypospadias and unaffected boys, suggesting a possible role of socialization.

  16. Boys and Girls: Join the Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Allesandro, Lou; Wool, Michael; McKenzie, Mary Alice

    2012-01-01

    Boys & Girls Clubs of America count 4,000 community-based clubs serving more than 4 million young people through membership and community outreach. They provide a safe place to spend time during non-school hours and the summer as an alternative to the streets or being home alone--a place to play, have fun and learn. Boys & Girls Clubs began in New…

  17. [Klinefelter syndrome in a boy with symptoms of precocious puberty].

    PubMed

    Bieniasz, Jolanta; Wikiera, Beata; Głąb, Ewa; Noczyńska, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome is one of the most frequent sex chromosomal aberration. It is usually not recognized before puberty and many patients remain never diagnosed. Delayed puberty and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism are typical in this syndrome. Early diagnosis and therapy with androgens is important for patients. We present case of 8-year old boy with Klinefelter syndrome who was admitted to our department because of precocious puberty.

  18. Man-boy friendships on trial: on the shift in the discourse on boy love in the early twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Maasen, T

    1990-01-01

    Ideas on man-boy friendships prevailing in early 20th century Germany are analyzed in this paper. The friendships based on the concept of pedagogical Eros, as propagated by Gustav Wyneken (1875-1964) in his Wickersdorf Free School Community, are presented as an example. Wyneken's conviction in 1921 for acts of vice with minors and the diverse reactions in the homosexual and youth movements and the popular press shed light on the viewpoints then held regarding these friendships. As a result of this confrontation, the Platonic model was superseded by the medico-sexological model which has continued to dominate thought on man-boy friendships up to the present day. PMID:2086639

  19. Finiteness Marking in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Audra M.; Rice, Mabel L.; Warren, Steven F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The current study investigated finiteness marking (e.g., he walk "s", he walk "ed") in boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS); the boys were grouped based on receptive vocabulary (i.e., borderline, impaired). Method: Twenty-one boys with the full mutation of fragile X, between the ages of 8 and 16 years participated. The boys completed probes…

  20. Issues in Quality Child Care: A Boys Town Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, Tom, Ed.; Herron, Ron, Ed.; Hyland, Terry, Ed.; Sterba, Michael, Ed.

    For more than 80 years, Boys Town's mission has been to change the way America cares for its at-risk children. This collection of articles describes how Boys Town carries out its mission via the Boys Town Teaching Model. The essence of the Boys Town teaching model is two-fold: building relationships with children and teaching skills to youth. To…

  1. Relational Strategies to Engage Boys: The Need for Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichert, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Some boys thrive in school; many do not. There is a growing consensus that many boys' scholastic performance is failing to keep up with the new knowledge economy. As troubling as this trend in boys' scholastic performance may be generally, school troubles are neither universal nor normative. The intriguing fact is that some boys in most schools…

  2. The appeal of violent video games to lower educated aggressive adolescent boys from two countries.

    PubMed

    Lemmens, Jeroen S; Bushman, Brad J; Konijn, Elly A

    2006-10-01

    The objective of this study was to test the effect of individual differences on appeal and use of video games. Participants were 299 adolescent boys from lower and higher secondary schools in the Netherlands and Belgium. In general, boys were most attracted to violent video games. Boys that scored higher in trait aggressiveness and lower in empathy were especially attracted to violent games and spent more time playing video games than did boys lower in trait aggressiveness. Lower educated boys showed more appreciation for both violent and nonviolent games and spent more time playing them than did higher educated boys. The present study showed that aggressive and less empathic boys were most attracted to violent games. The fact that heavy users of violent games show less empathy and higher aggressiveness suggests the possibility of desensitization. Other studies have shown that playing violent games increases aggressiveness and decreases empathy. These results combined suggest the possibility of a violence cycle. Aggressive individuals are attracted to violent games. Playing violent games increases aggressiveness and decreases empathy, which in turn leads to increased appreciation and use of violent games.

  3. Participation in leisure activities among boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Shimoni, Ma'ayan; Engel-Yeger, Batya; Tirosh, Emanuel

    2010-01-01

    ADHD is a neural developmental disorder expressed in various life settings. Yet, previous studies have focused mainly on children's function in school and academic achievement. The purpose of the present study was, therefore, to examine participation patterns in outside formal school activities among boys with ADHD compared to typical boys. Participants included 25 boys aged 8-11 years with ADHD and 25 age-matched typical boys. All participants completed the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE). Several aspects of participation were examined: diversity, intensity, enjoyment, place, and partners in 49 extra curricular activities. The findings indicate that boys with ADHD reported significant lower intensity rates of participation in most activity domains. Furthermore, boys with ADHD also reported higher diversity scores and lower enjoyment in 'formal' activities. Yet, no significant differences were found with regard to activity place and partners. These findings enhance the importance of providing therapy that refers to after school activities. Accordingly, CAPE can be useful for assessing boys with ADHD and planning appropriate intervention programs. PMID:20705424

  4. [Urethral meatal stenosis in boys easily overlooked].

    PubMed

    Sijstermans, K; Hack, W W M; Bos, S D; van der Horst, H J R

    2005-12-10

    Three boys aged 8, 5, 3 and 9 years, respectively, appeared to have urethral meatal stenosis. In the first patient this appeared during a check-up following treatment for balanitis. Patient history revealed that his micturition duration was longer than before. In the second patient, who underwent surgical correction for hypospadia, it was discovered because he took longer to urinate than his brother. In the third patient stenosis was observed during an appointment for a retracted testicle; he had been circumcised earlier for cultural reasons. Meatomy was performed under anaesthesia in all 3 patients, after which the micturition duration and stream velocity were normal. The third patient continued to have an extremely large bladder capacity and residual volume. Meatal stenosis may lead to obstructive uropathy, urinary tract infection and eventually damage to renal parenchyma. Symptomatic presentation can be late. Diagnostic tests include urine analysis and culture, and uroflowmetry. Visual inspection by spreading the meatal dimple to visualise a pinhole urethra cannot be overemphasised.

  5. Acquired cryptorchidism in a boy with disorder of sex development.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Fumi; Yamauchi, Katsuji; Matsui, Futoshi; Shimada, Kenji; Ida, Shinobu

    2012-01-01

    Recently, it has been reported that boys with severe hypospadias are at increased risk for acquired cryptorchidism. The reports suggested that prenatal and postnatal androgen disruption might be correlated with this condition. We experienced a case of ovotesticular disorder of sex development (DSD), which was ultimately diagnosed at surgery for acquired cryptorchidism. Ascent of the scrotal contents of the left side was detected in a 7-yr-old boy with the 46, XX karyotype, who had a history of perineal hypospadias repair. Intraoperative findings revealed the left gonad consisted of 2 segments, and this was histologically diagnosed as ovotestis by biopsy specimen. Resection of the ovarian segment was performed simultaneously. Exploration of the contralateral gonad showed the same findings. This is the first report of acquired cryptorchidism observed in a patient with DSD presenting with ambiguous genitalia.

  6. Two Boy Scout Troops: The Impact of the Troop Culture on What Boys Learn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinkwin, Anne; Kleinfeld, Judith

    Troop ideology as defined by the scoutmaster and other involved adults radically altered the learning experiences of boys in two Boy Scout troops, even though both adhered to the official program. Using observation and interviews, researchers studied all aspects of the troops over 7 months. One troop, whose scoutmaster was benevolent and…

  7. Boys Only: One Co-Educational Primary School's Experience of a Classroom for Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Christopher D.

    2011-01-01

    Concern over retention of boys as well as poor academic performance and behaviour, in a New Zealand co-educational primary school, led the school to trial, a "boys-only class". This case study reports interview and questionnaire commentary obtained at the beginning and end of the year from the principal, the teacher, pupils and parents, to…

  8. Successful Boys and Literacy: Are "Literate Boys" Challenging or Repackaging Hegemonic Masculinity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, Christine; Francis, Becky

    2011-01-01

    The National Assessment of Educational Progress statistics show that boys are underachieving in literacy compared to girls. Attempts to redress the problem in various Global North countries and particularly Australia and the United Kingdom have failed to make any impact. However, there are boys who are doing well in literacy. The aim of this…

  9. Genital injuries in boys and abuse

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, C J; Osman, J

    2007-01-01

    Aims To describe a cohort of boys with genital injuries in whom child abuse was suspected. Methods Boys with genital injury (penile and/or scrotal) and referred to paediatricians in Leeds, population 750 000, with concerns regarding possible abuse from 1983 to 2003 were identified from medical reports. Results 86 boys (average age 62.7 months, median age 48 months) were referred between 1983 and 2003. The injury was judged inflicted in 63, unexplained, suspicious or inconsistent with the history given in 17 and accidental in six. The number of discrete injuries ranged from one in 57, two in 15, three in 12, to more than three in two cases. Genital injuries included burns in seven boys, bruises in 27, incised wounds, lacerations or scars in 39, and other traumatic lesions in 27. Non‐genital findings included anal findings in 28, >10 bruises in 17, fractures in three, burns in 12, mouth injuries in four, brain and retinal haemorrhages in one, and poor nourishment or underweight in 14. The categories of abuse were physical (eight), sexual (19), both physical and sexual (eight), physical and neglect (four), and physical, sexual and neglect (one). The category of abuse was unspecified in 39 children. Conclusions Genital injury in boys may be the result of abuse which may be physical or sexual in nature. PMID:17376938

  10. Rare bilateral presentation of morning glory disc anomaly.

    PubMed

    Dedhia, Chintan Jethalal; Gogri, Pratik Yeshwant; Rani, Padmaja Kumari

    2016-01-01

    A 4-year-old girl presented with a history of poor vision and oscillation of both eyes since infancy. Ocular examination revealed the best corrected visual acuity of 2/60 in right eye and 3/60 in left eye. Horizontal pendular nystagmus was present in both eyes. Fundus examination revealed morning glory disc anomaly (MGDA) bilaterally. Radiographic imaging of the brain revealed central nervous system anomalies. The guarded visual prognosis was explained and the patient referred for low vision rehabilitation and advised yearly follow-up. MGDA is very rarely bilateral. We aim to highlight the distinguishing features of bilateral MGDA from other excavated optic nerve head anomalies which could also present bilaterally but vary in their associations, management and prognosis. PMID:27571914

  11. Reducing Aggressive Behavior in Boys with a Social Cognitive Group Treatment: Results of a Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Manen, Teun G.; Prins, Pier J.M.; Emmelkamp, Paul M.G.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a social cognitive intervention program for Dutch aggressive boys and to compare it with a social skills training and a waitlist control group. Method: A randomized, controlled treatment outcome study with 97 aggressive boys (aged 9-13 years) was presented. An 11 session group treatment, a social…

  12. Changes in At-Risk Boys' Intrinsic Motivation toward Physical Activity: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jiling; Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron E.; Su, Xiaoxia; Juzaily, Nasnoor

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation (IM) is an important predictor of children's physical activity participation. The present 3-year longitudinal study examined changes in IM toward physical activity among a group of at-risk boys (N = 92) at a summer sports camp. Results showed the boys were intrinsically motivated in their first camp year, but their IM levels…

  13. Association of a Monoamine Oxidase-A Gene Promoter Polymorphism with ADHD and Anxiety in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roohi, Jasmin; DeVincent, Carla J.; Hatchwell, Eli; Gadow, Kenneth D.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the association between a variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the MAO-A gene and severity of ADHD and anxiety in boys with ASD. Parents and teachers completed a DSM-IV-referenced rating scale for 5- to 14-year-old boys with ASD (n = 43). Planned…

  14. Cardiocutaneous syndrome (Naxos disease) in a Bangladeshi boy

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md. Toufiqur; Chowdhury, Abu Hana

    2016-01-01

    Naxos disease is a rare autosomal recessive form of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) with woolly hair and palmoplantar keratoderma. The cardiomyopathy presents by adolescence with syncope, ventricular tachycardia (VT) of left bundle branch block (LBBB) morphology, and/or ventricular fibrillation. The diagnosis and management of ARVC are at present in evolution; the recently published modified Task Force Criteria for diagnosis and International Task Force consensus statement for treatment of ARVC will hopefully bring about uniformity in recognition and management of Naxos disease as well. Here, typical phenotype and diagnostic work up have been presented in a Bangladeshi boy with the Cardiocutaneous syndrome. PMID:27747171

  15. Testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys: a worthwhile minor surgical procedure?

    PubMed

    Faure, Alice; Bouty, Aurore; O'Brien, Mike; Thorup, Jorgen; Hutson, John; Heloury, Yves

    2016-03-01

    No consensus exists regarding the precise role of testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys, although it is considered useful for assessing the potential consequences of undescended testes on fertility. Current scientific knowledge indicates that surgeons should broaden indications for this procedure. For example, the use of immunohistochemical markers such as OCT/3-4, TSPY, Kit ligand (SCF) and ALPP (PLAP) has considerably facilitated the detection of germ cell tumour precursors, such as carcinoma in situ and/or gonadoblastoma. These markers are very important for evaluating malignancy risk in undervirilized patients with 46,XY disorders of sexual development. Testicular histology is also of considerable value in the prediction of both fertility potential and risk of cancer in individuals with undescended testes, particularly those with intraabdominal undescended testes. New possibilities for the preservation of fertility after gonadotoxic chemotherapy - even for prepubertal boys - are emerging. Cryopreservation of testicular tissue samples for the preservation of fertility - although still an experimental method at present - is appealing in this context. In our opinion, testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys is a minor procedure that can provide valuable information for predicting the risk of malignancy and fertility, and might be useful in fertility preservation in the near future. PMID:26787392

  16. Color associations to mood stories in first grade boys.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois-Bailetti, A M; Cerbus, G

    1977-12-01

    Choices of color crayons to portray mood stories were studied in a sample of first grade boys. The total sample (180) was divided into three treatment groups (60 subjects in each) who were told either the "Angry Boy" story, the "Happy Boy" story, or the "Sad Boy" story. Each subject selected one of six color crayons (red, yellow, green, blue, brown, or purple) to color the boy "to look" angry, happy, or sad. Racial, socioeconomic, and within-group differences were not significant, but significant differences were found between groups given angry and sad stories (x2 equal to 22.23, df equal to 5, p is less than .01). red was significantly associated with the angry boy when compared with the sad boy, while brown was significantly more often preferred for the sad boy than for the happy boy. By the age of first grade consequently the general preference for red by children is already significantly altered. PMID:604879

  17. Syntactic Complexity during Conversation of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome and Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Johanna R.; Roberts, Joanne E.; Hennon, Elizabeth A.; Berni, Mary C.; Anderson, Kathleen L.; Sideris, John

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study compared the syntax of boys who have fragile X syndrome (FXS) with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with that of (a) boys who have Down syndrome (DS) and (b) typically developing (TD) boys. Method: Thirty-five boys with FXS only, 36 boys with FXS with ASD, 31 boys with DS, and 46 TD boys participated. Conversational…

  18. Parents' choices in banking boys' testicular tissue.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2010-12-01

    Researchers are working to derive sperm from banked testicular tissue taken from pre-pubertal boys who face therapies or injuries that destroy sperm production. Success in deriving sperm from this tissue will help to preserve the option for these boys to have genetically related children later in life. For the twin moral reasons of preserving access and equity in regard to having such children, clinicians and researchers are justified in offering the option to the parents of all affected boys. However, some parents may wish to decline the option to bank tissue from their boys because the technique may seem too unfamiliar or unusual, but over time people may become more comfortable with the technique as they have done with other novel assisted reproductive treatments (ARTs). Other parents may wish to decline the option because of moral or religious reasons. A prominent natural law theory holds, for example, that the ARTs that would be involved in using sperm derived from banked tissue to produce a child are morally objectionable. Some parents might not want to bank tissue in order to shield their son from using ARTs they see as objectionable. Clinicians and researchers should respect parents who wish to decline banking tissue, but parents should ordinarily embrace choices that protect the possible interests their sons may have as adult men, including the wish to have genetically related children.

  19. Dr. von Braun Visits Huntsville Boys Club

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    Dr. von Braun, Director of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and chairman of this year's United Givers Fund (UGF) drive at MSFC, takes time out from the problems of sending a man to the Moon to talk baseball with 11-year-old Randy Smith at the Huntsville Boys Club.

  20. A Boy's Alternative to Bodice-Rippers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucher, Katherine T.; Manning, M. Lee

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the genre of fantasy novels, noting its popularity with adolescent readers (especially boys). Notes sources helpful to teachers and school librarians, and lists a few personal favorite fantasy novels. Offers a brief note on whether the Harry Potter books can be considered young adult literature. (SR)

  1. TEACHERS' INTERACTIONS WITH BOYS AND WITH GIRLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FELDMAN, DAVID H.; SEARS, PAULINE S.

    AN EXAMINATION WAS MADE OF THE TEACHERS' PART IN THE DEVELOPMENTAL TASKS OF CHILDREN IN ADOPTING AND MAINTAINING A SEX-ROLE THAT WILL HELP THEM REACH A SENSE OF REAL IDENTITY. ANSWERS WERE SOUGHT FOR TWO QUESTIONS--(1) DO TEACHERS REACT DIFFERENTLY TO BOYS AND GIRLS, AND (2) IF SO, WHAT EFFECT MAY THIS HAVE ON THE INTELLECTUAL AND SOCIAL…

  2. "Mama's Boy; Preacher's Son": A Memoir

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Reta Ugena

    2010-01-01

    "Mama's Boy; Preacher's Son" is Kevin Jennings's autobiographical account of growing up gay in the Southern United States. In his memoir, Jennings shares formative experiences relating to his impoverished childhood and his career as teacher and social activist. His rich description of the influence of family relationships on his personal and…

  3. With Boys and Girls in Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurian, Michael; Stevens, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    New positron emission tomography (PET) and MRI technologies, which allow looking inside the brains, show that the brains of boys and girls differ both structurally and functionally that profoundly affect the human learning. These gender differences in the brain are corroborated in males and females throughout the world and do not differ…

  4. Gene Therapy for "Bubble Boy" Disease.

    PubMed

    Hoggatt, Jonathan

    2016-07-14

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency results in the accumulation of toxic metabolites that destroy the immune system, causing severe combined immunodeficiency (ADA-SCID), often referred to as the "bubble boy" disease. Strimvelis is a European Medicines Agency approved gene therapy for ADA-SCID patients without a suitable bone marrow donor.

  5. Language in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Yonata; Gottesman, Riki; Borochowitz, Zvi; Frydman, Moshe; Sagi, Michal

    2006-01-01

    The current paper reports of language production in 15 Hebrew-speaking boys, aged 9;0-13;0, with fully methylated, non-mosaic fragile X syndrome and no concomitant diagnosis of autism. Contrary to expectations, seven children were non-verbal. Language production in the verbal children was studied in free conversations and in context-bound speech.…

  6. Interpersonal Coping among Boys with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampel, Petra; Manhal, Simone; Roos, Thomas; Desman, Christiane

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigate self-reported coping with interpersonal stressors among boys with and without ADHD in two studies and provide initial evidence for effects of different subgroups of ADHD on coping in Study 2. Method: In Study 1, 20 Austrian adolescents with ADHD were compared to 20 healthy controls. In Study 2, 44 German children…

  7. Preadolescent Girls' and Boys' Virtual MUD Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Sandra L.; Strouse, Gabrielle A.; Strong, Bonnie L.; Huffaker, David A.; Lai, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Same and opposite-sex pairs of preadolescents interacted twice in a MUD, a virtual domain where they created characters known as avatars and socially interacted with one another. Boys interacted primarily through rapid scene shifts and playful exchanges; girls interacted with one another through written dialogue. Opposite-sex pairs lagged behind…

  8. Manifestations of Namibian Boy's Underachievement in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimba, Roderick F.

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of the 2012 grade 10 and grade 12 Namibian examination data indicate that girls received higher grades than boys across the then 13 education regions (Educational Management Information System, EMIS, 2012). University of Namibia graduation statistics for the period of 2002 to 2012 revealed that the institution consistently produced…

  9. A Young Boy Grows Away from Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spoladore, Ana

    2013-01-01

    This article illustrates a little boy's journey from autistic-like symptoms into more adaptive ways of coping with trauma and separation. Drawing from the psychoanalytic literature on autism and trauma, it discusses how traumatic events in the first two years of life may cause a child to withdraw from social relationships and cause developmental…

  10. Boy-lovers and their influence on boys: distorted research and anecdotal observations.

    PubMed

    Brongersma, E

    1990-01-01

    A wide experience with boy-lovers has convinced the author that one can often learn more about them from reading some excellent novels than from so-called scientific studies. All too often research is unreliable because (1) it assumes pedosexual activity is a positive indicator of pedophilia; (2) no distinction is drawn between pseudo-pedophiles and real pedophiles; (3) no difference is recognized between boys and girls as partners; and (4) it is highly distorted by bias. Representative samples for research cannot be drawn from members of boy-love organizations. The incidence of violence is very low in pedophile contacts with boys. The influence can be strong in lasting relationships; it can be either wholesome or unwholesome. Within a relationship, sex is usually only a secondary element, although it can be important in sexual instruction and education. The impact of the law, the hostility of parents and the problem of the partners' inequality are discussed.

  11. [The acoustic changes of the voice in the singing boys during the permutation period].

    PubMed

    Chernobel'sky, S I

    2016-01-01

    The present study was based on the assumption that the determination of the fundamental frequency (Fo) of the speech by means of computer-assisted acoustic analysis makes it possible to detect the onset of vocal mutation in the singing boys. A total of 30 singing boys were available for the examination. They were allocated to two groups. Group 1 was comprised of 15 boys at the age between 11 years 10 months and 12 years 4 months. Group 2 consisted of 15 boys aged between 12 years 10 months and 13 years 2 months. All the participants of the study underwent an acoustic test in combination with indirect laryngoscopy. It was shown that fundamental frequency of the speech in the boys of group 2 was significantly lower than in group 1. The difference amounted to two half-tones and could be regarded as the onset of vocal pre-mutation. It is concluded that the acoustic analysis of the speech should be employed to determine the time of vocal pre-mutation in the singing boys. The singing teachers can use this method all by themselves. PMID:27213658

  12. Boys May Be Boys, but Do They Have to Read and Write that Way?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Bronwyn T.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author, a mother of twin boys in middle school, shares excerpts from her sons' writings which she thinks are too violent and action oriented. She marvels at their knack for pacing, detail, and metaphor, but in the back of her mind she wonders what the content will make readers think of them as a boy and of her as a parent. She…

  13. Research in Review. Kindness and Compassion: Convincing the Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRosa, Bill

    1988-01-01

    Discusses research which states that girls' attitudes about animals are generally more humane than boys'. Suggests practical implications from the research. Lists resources which may be helpful to boys. (CW)

  14. Pregnancy Problems More Likely with Baby Boys, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... that nourishes the developing fetus, is different in boys and girls. "The placenta is critical for pregnancy success, and ... vary based on whether they are carrying a boy or a girl, the researchers said. The study was published online ...

  15. Complex translocation in a boy with trichorhinophalangeal syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, L M; Labarta, J D; De Negrotti, T C; Migliorini, A M

    1985-01-01

    We report a boy with a trichorhinophalangeal syndrome (TRP syndrome), severe mental retardation, and transient megacephaly, whose karyotype showed complex, apparently balanced, translocations with breakpoints in bands 3q13, 8p22, 8q13, 11p12, and 11q21. The fact that cases presenting with phenotypes corresponding to the TRP II syndrome and deletions of the long arm of chromosome 8 have been recently reported prompted us to report this case to help in the clarification of the possible relation between 8q chromosomal mutation and the aetiology of TRP syndromes. Images PMID:4045963

  16. Reduced platelet aggregation in a boy with scurvy.

    PubMed

    Dey, F; Möller, A; Kemkes-Matthes, B; Wilbrand, J-F; Krombach, G A; Neubauer, B; Hahn, A

    2012-11-01

    Pediatric scurvy is a rare condition characterized by perifollicular petechiae and bruising, hemorrhagic gingivitis and musculoskeletal symptoms, all assumed to be predominantly related to abnormal collagen structure. We report on a 9-year-old autistic boy with vitamin C deficiency due to a highly limited food range presenting with multiple petechiae, gum bleeding and debilitating bone pain, in whom platelet aggregometry revealed a distinctly reduced thrombocyte aggregation, normalizing after vitamin C supplementation. This observation indicates that platelet dysfunction may additionally contribute to the hemorrhagic diathesis in scurvy, and demonstrates that ascorbic acid deficiency should be considered in children with an otherwise unexplained acquired thrombocytopathy. PMID:23070864

  17. Reduced platelet aggregation in a boy with scurvy.

    PubMed

    Dey, F; Möller, A; Kemkes-Matthes, B; Wilbrand, J-F; Krombach, G A; Neubauer, B; Hahn, A

    2012-11-01

    Pediatric scurvy is a rare condition characterized by perifollicular petechiae and bruising, hemorrhagic gingivitis and musculoskeletal symptoms, all assumed to be predominantly related to abnormal collagen structure. We report on a 9-year-old autistic boy with vitamin C deficiency due to a highly limited food range presenting with multiple petechiae, gum bleeding and debilitating bone pain, in whom platelet aggregometry revealed a distinctly reduced thrombocyte aggregation, normalizing after vitamin C supplementation. This observation indicates that platelet dysfunction may additionally contribute to the hemorrhagic diathesis in scurvy, and demonstrates that ascorbic acid deficiency should be considered in children with an otherwise unexplained acquired thrombocytopathy.

  18. Systematized contact dermatitis and montelukast in an atopic boy.

    PubMed

    Castanedo-Tardan, Mari Paz; González, Mercedes E; Connelly, Elizabeth A; Giordano, Kelly; Jacob, Sharon E

    2009-01-01

    Upon ingestion, the artificial sweetener, aspartame is metabolized to formaldehyde in the body and has been reportedly associated with systemic contact dermatitis in patients exquisitely sensitive to formaldehyde. We present a case of a 9-year-old Caucasian boy with a history of mild atopic dermatitis that experienced severe systematized dermatitis after being started on montelukast chewable tablets containing aspartame. Patch testing revealed multiple chemical sensitivities which included a positive reaction to formaldehyde. Notably, resolution of his systemic dermatitis only occurred with discontinuation of the montelukast chewables.

  19. Pineal anlage tumor in a 5-month-old boy.

    PubMed

    Olaya, Joffre E; Raghavan, Ravi; Totaro, Laura; Zouros, Alexander

    2010-06-01

    Pineal tumors are rare neoplasms that are categorized into pineoblastomas, pineocytomas, and pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation. Pineal anlage tumors are primary pineal tumors with neuroepithelial and ectomesenchymal differentiation and without endodermal differentiation. The authors review the literature and report the case of a 5-month-old boy with a pineal anlage tumor. This is only the sixth case of a pineal anlage tumor reported in the English-language literature adding to the understanding of this tumor's presentation, immunomorphological and molecular characteristics, embryological origin, radiological appearance, treatment outcome, and prognosis.

  20. Memory for Object Locations in Boys with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reck, Sarah G.; Hund, Alycia M.; Landau, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether 7- to 12-year-old boys with ADHD, relative to non-ADHD age-mates, exhibit greater difficulty learning and remembering object locations. The second purpose was to examine the functional utility of mnemonic strategies, specifically speech-to-self, used by boys with and without ADHD. Method: Boys with and without ADHD…

  1. Flanagan's Island: How Boys Town Rescues Troubled Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jendryka, Brian

    1994-01-01

    Describes Boys Town, founded in 1917, as a model for foster care and an attractive alternative to a welfare system that undermines parental responsibility. Boys Town now operates satellite facilities for boys and girls in nine communities, as well as seven emergency shelters, a hospital, and a national hotline. (SLD)

  2. Gendered Practices in the Education of Gifted Girls and Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Barbara A.; Vuyk, M. Alexandra; Rea, Chistopher

    2012-01-01

    Gifted girls and gifted boys are more alike than they are different, although researchers remain fascinated with sex differences. Small differences between gifted boys and girls in achievements, interests, careers, and relationships can become exaggerated through gendered educational practices. Kindergarten "red-shirting" of boys and the denial of…

  3. A Stereotype Threat Account of Boys' Academic Underachievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Bonny L.; Sutton, Robbie M.

    2013-01-01

    Three studies examined the role of stereotype threat in boys' academic underachievement. Study 1 (children aged 4-10, n = 238) showed that girls from age 4 years and boys from age 7 years believed, and thought adults believed, that boys are academically inferior to girls. Study 2 manipulated stereotype threat, informing children aged…

  4. What Does a "Boy-Oriented" Teacher Look Like?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Nancy Marie; Gehringer, Jean

    This paper, one in a series of four describing a boy-oriented program for elementary school children, addresses the problem of staffing an elementary school with teachers who will be able to effectively teach boys as well as girls. It suggests that empathy toward both boys and girls, personal warmth and security in the classroom, a high degree of…

  5. Boys' Friendships during Adolescence: Intimacy, Desire, and Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Way, Niobe

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal, mixed method research on friendships, conducted over the past two decades with Black, Latino, Asian, and European American boys, reveals three themes: (1) the importance for boys of being able to share their secrets with their close friends; (2) the importance of close friendships for boys' mental health; and (3) the loss of but…

  6. "Boys Don't Do Dance, Do They?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdsworth, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    In 2005, the Warwick Arts Centre launched the "Boys Dancing" project through the formation of the West Midlands Boys Dance Alliance. Aimed exclusively at boys and young men, the project has offered a range of performance-making opportunities with male professionals including Liam Steel (DV8, Stan Won't Dance) and David McKenna (Beingfrank Physical…

  7. The Mutilated Boy and the Press: A Rumor Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lee

    Responsible editors avoid printing falsehoods, but the public sometimes demands that rumors be covered in the press. One example of such rumors and the way editors deal with them is the "Mutilated Boy." The "Mutilated Boy" rumor has been circulating for decades and involves a brutal attack upon a small boy in a public rest room. The "crime" is…

  8. Relationships Play Primary Role in Boys' Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichert. Michael; Hawley. Richard

    2013-01-01

    There is a pantheon of literature and popular panic pointing toward the academic ascent of girls and the decline of boys. On the contrary, the reality is different: Boys are learning and succeeding in many places. Two studies find that the places where boys excel have several common characteristics, including teachers who relate to the boys…

  9. Cellular neurothekeoma of the eyelid in a 6-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Gray, Michael E; Palileo, Coleen M; Sheridan, Rachel M

    2016-08-01

    We report the case of a 6-year-old boy who presented with an 18-month history of a left lower eyelid lesion that was refractory to medical management. The lesion was excised, and microscopic examination and immunohistochemistry revealed a cellular neurothekeoma. Clinical presentation of such lesions is similar to a chalazion or epidermal inclusion cyst. Cellular neurothekeoma is benign and has a low risk of recurrence after excision with clear margins. Cellular neurothekeoma of the eyelid is extremely rare, with only 5 previously reported cases. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of cellular neurothekeoma of the eyelid presenting in a boy.

  10. Neurologic Melioidosis: Case Report of a Rare Cause of Acute Flaccid Paralysis.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Erik W; Mackay, Mark T; Ryan, Monique M

    2016-03-01

    Acute flaccid paralysis is associated with inflammation, infection, or tumors in the spinal cord or peripheral nerves. Melioidosis (Burkholderia pseudomallei infection) can rarely cause this presentation. We describe a case of spinal melioidosis in a 4-year-old boy presenting with flaccid paralysis, and review the literature on this rare disease. PMID:26778096

  11. The Effects of a Modified Treatment Package with and without Feeder Modeling on One Child's Acceptance of Novel Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiverling, Laura; Harclerode, Whitney; Williams, Keith

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if sequential presentation with feeder modeling would lead to an increase in bites accepted of new foods compared to sequential presentation without feeder modeling in a typically developing 4-year-old boy with food selectivity. The participant's acceptance of novel foods increased both in the modeling and…

  12. Astronomy at Torquay Boys' Grammar School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, David; Lintott, Chris

    1996-10-01

    TBGS Observatory is owned and run by Torquay Boys' Grammar School in South Devon. The school itself encompasses a wide curriculum from sports to academic studies, ranging from the arts to humanities and science. Due to a high interest from pupils and staff the school has a special focus upon Astronomy. Resulting from this TBGS owns one of the largest, best equipped school observatories in the UK. It is now a minor centre for research and studies at GCSE and higher levels.

  13. The Boy Problem: Many Boys Think School Is Stupid and Reading Stinks--Is There a Remedy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sax, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    The gender issue is relevant to classroom learning in more ways than one. Increasingly in the United States, young boys are saying that school is stupid and they do not like to read. This phenomenon cuts across all demographic groups: it affects affluent white boys in the suburbs no less than it affects black boys in low-income neighborhoods. In…

  14. Raising Boys: Why Boys Are Different and How To Help Them Become Happy and Well-Balanced Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biddulph, Steve

    Noting that by 15 years of age, boys are three times more likely than girls to die from all causes combined, but especially from accidents, violence, and suicide, this book suggests that boys have special needs and offers suggestions for effective parenting. Chapter 1, "What Is It with Boys?," provides an overview. Chapter 2, "The Three Stages of…

  15. Receptive Vocabulary, Expressive Vocabulary, and Speech Production of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome in Comparison to Boys with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Joanne; Price, Johanna; Barnes, Elizabeth; Nelson, Lauren; Burchinal, Margaret; Hennon, Elizabeth A.; Moskowitz, Lauren; Edwards, Anne; Malkin, Cheryl; Anderson, Kathleen; Misenheimer, Jan; Hooper, Stephen R.

    2007-01-01

    Boys with fragile X syndrome with (n = 49) and without (n = 33) characteristics of autism spectrum disorder, boys with Down syndrome (39), and typically developing boys (n = 41) were compared on standardized measures of receptive vocabulary, expressive vocabulary, and speech administered annually over 4 years. Three major findings emerged. Boys…

  16. A stereotype threat account of boys' academic underachievement.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Bonny L; Sutton, Robbie M

    2013-01-01

    Three studies examined the role of stereotype threat in boys' academic underachievement. Study 1 (children aged 4-10, n = 238) showed that girls from age 4 years and boys from age 7 years believed, and thought adults believed, that boys are academically inferior to girls. Study 2 manipulated stereotype threat, informing children aged 7-8 years (n = 162) that boys tend to do worse than girls at school. This manipulation hindered boys' performance on a reading, writing, and math test, but did not affect girls' performance. Study 3 counteracted stereotype threat, informing children aged 6-9 years (n = 184) that boys and girls were expected to perform similarly. This improved the performance of boys and did not affect that of girls. PMID:23402479

  17. Anthropometric measurements of Saudi boys aged 6-14 years.

    PubMed

    al-Hazzaa, H M

    1990-01-01

    Anthropometric measurements of 1169 Saudi school boys between the ages of 6 and 14 years are reported. The boys were randomly selected from primary schools in the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Measurements of height, weight, grip strength, chest, triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses as well as biacromial, chest, bi-iliac, knee, and elbow breadths were taken. Saudi boys have slightly lower values for body weight and height than American boys (NCHS standards). Values of skinfold measurements increased with age up to age 11 where they plateaued and took then a sharp increase by age 14. Means of triceps and subscapular skinfolds of the Saudi boys are also lower than some standards from U.S.A. throughout age 13. At age 14, however, the Saudi boys have higher means than the U.S.A. boys.

  18. A stereotype threat account of boys' academic underachievement.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Bonny L; Sutton, Robbie M

    2013-01-01

    Three studies examined the role of stereotype threat in boys' academic underachievement. Study 1 (children aged 4-10, n = 238) showed that girls from age 4 years and boys from age 7 years believed, and thought adults believed, that boys are academically inferior to girls. Study 2 manipulated stereotype threat, informing children aged 7-8 years (n = 162) that boys tend to do worse than girls at school. This manipulation hindered boys' performance on a reading, writing, and math test, but did not affect girls' performance. Study 3 counteracted stereotype threat, informing children aged 6-9 years (n = 184) that boys and girls were expected to perform similarly. This improved the performance of boys and did not affect that of girls.

  19. Treating verbal working memory in a boy with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Orsolini, Margherita; Melogno, Sergio; Latini, Nausica; Penge, Roberta; Conforti, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The present case study investigates the effects of a cognitive training of verbal working memory that was proposed for Davide, a 14-year-old boy diagnosed with mild intellectual disability. The program stimulated attention, inhibition, switching, and the ability to engage either in verbal dual tasks or in producing inferences after the content of a short passage had been encoded in episodic memory. Key elements in our program included (1) core training of target cognitive mechanisms; (2) guided practice emphasizing concrete strategies to engage in exercises; and (3) a variable amount of adult support. The study explored whether such a complex program produced "near transfer" effects on an untrained dual task assessing verbal working memory and whether effects on this and other target cognitive mechanisms (i.e., attention, inhibition, and switching) were long-lasting and produced "far transfer" effects on cognitive flexibility. The effects of the intervention program were investigated with a research design consisting of four subsequent phases lasting 8 or 10 weeks, each preceded and followed by testing. There was a control condition (phase 1) in which the boy received, at home, a stimulation focused on the visuospatial domain. Subsequently, there were three experimental training phases, in which stimulation in the verbal domain was first focused on attention and inhibition (phase 2a), then on switching and simple working memory tasks (phase 2b), then on complex working memory tasks (phase 3). A battery of neuropsychological tests was administered before and after each training phase and 7 months after the conclusion of the intervention. The main finding was that Davide changed from being incapable of addressing the dual task request of the listening span test in the initial assessment to performing close to the normal limits of a 13-year-old boy in the follow-up assessment with this test, when he was 15 years old.

  20. Treating verbal working memory in a boy with intellectual disability

    PubMed Central

    Orsolini, Margherita; Melogno, Sergio; Latini, Nausica; Penge, Roberta; Conforti, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The present case study investigates the effects of a cognitive training of verbal working memory that was proposed for Davide, a 14-year-old boy diagnosed with mild intellectual disability. The program stimulated attention, inhibition, switching, and the ability to engage either in verbal dual tasks or in producing inferences after the content of a short passage had been encoded in episodic memory. Key elements in our program included (1) core training of target cognitive mechanisms; (2) guided practice emphasizing concrete strategies to engage in exercises; and (3) a variable amount of adult support. The study explored whether such a complex program produced “near transfer” effects on an untrained dual task assessing verbal working memory and whether effects on this and other target cognitive mechanisms (i.e., attention, inhibition, and switching) were long-lasting and produced “far transfer” effects on cognitive flexibility. The effects of the intervention program were investigated with a research design consisting of four subsequent phases lasting 8 or 10 weeks, each preceded and followed by testing. There was a control condition (phase 1) in which the boy received, at home, a stimulation focused on the visuospatial domain. Subsequently, there were three experimental training phases, in which stimulation in the verbal domain was first focused on attention and inhibition (phase 2a), then on switching and simple working memory tasks (phase 2b), then on complex working memory tasks (phase 3). A battery of neuropsychological tests was administered before and after each training phase and 7 months after the conclusion of the intervention. The main finding was that Davide changed from being incapable of addressing the dual task request of the listening span test in the initial assessment to performing close to the normal limits of a 13-year-old boy in the follow-up assessment with this test, when he was 15 years old. PMID:26284014

  1. Assessment of pulmonary functions in obese adolescent boys

    PubMed Central

    Paralikar, Swapnil J.; Kathrotia, Rajesh G.; Pathak, Narendra R.; Jani, Madhusudan B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Obesity is rapidly escalating in India in all age groups. School-based data indicate a prevalence rate between 5.6% and 24% in children and adolescents. Adolescent obesity is associated with a greater long-term risk of hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. However, studies investigating pulmonary functions in obese adolescents are few. The present study assesses pulmonary functions in obese adolescent boys from a school in Baroda city, Gujarat. Aims: (i) To assess the dynamic lung functions in obese adolescent boys. (ii) To determine the predominant lung function impairment associated with obesity in adolescence. Materials and Methods: Dynamic lung functions were measured in 30 obese adolescent boys and an equal number of age-matched controls using MEDI:SPIRO software (Maestros Mediline Systems Ltd., Navi Mumbai, India). Results: Forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) were significantly decreased in the obese group (P < 0.001). Pulmonary functions in the study population correlated negatively with various indices of obesity, viz. weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio. The strongest negative correlation was between BMI and FEV1/FVC (P < 0.001) and between BMI, MVV, and Forced Expiratory Flow (FEF25–75%) (P < 0.001). Waist-to-hip ratio in the study population correlated negatively with MVV (P < 0.01), but not with FEV1/FVC. Conclusions: Lung function impairment, particularly decreased MVV and reduced FEV1/FVC ratio, is associated with obesity in adolescence. In addition, pulmonary functions deteriorate with increasing obesity in adolescence and correlate negatively with various indices of obesity, viz. weight, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio. This study reveals another health hazard associated with obesity and highlights the need to aggressively reduce weight at a

  2. Antiretroviral treatment induced catatonia in 16-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Lingeswaran, Anand

    2014-01-01

    We present a 16-year-old boy, who had presented to us with catatonic features of mutism, withdrawal, passive negativism, grimacing, gesturing, echopraxia, and excitement of 5 days duration while taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) for a period of 2 years. He had history of birth asphyxia and acquired HIV infection from his father when the same syringe and needle was used on both of them in a medical setting where the father and son had consulted for treatment of pyrexia of unknown origin. He was the eldest of a three children family in which the biologic father had acquired HIV through extramarital sexual contact with HIV-infected sex workers but was unaware of his HIV positive status till our patient, the 16-year-old was admitted and treated for pulmonary tuberculosis at 14 years of age. The boy's mother had only acquired HIV after having three children with the HIV-positive husband, thus leaving the other two children HIV negative. The catatonia completely resolved within 2 days after the ART was withheld, and risperidone 1 mg twice a day was prescribed. This case highlights the risks of ART and breach of universal precautions.

  3. Plummer-Vinson syndrome in a 15-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Dinler, Gönül; Tander, Burak; Kalayci, Ayhan Gazi; Rizalar, Riza

    2009-01-01

    Plummer-Vinson syndrome presents as a classical triad of dysphagia, iron deficiency anemia and upper esophageal web(s). The syndrome usually occurs in adults, and is rare in childhood. We report a case of this syndrome occurring in a 15-year-old boy. He presented with dysphagia and anemia. Radiological examination showed the presence of webs at the cervical esophagus. The boy was treated with endoscopic balloon dilation and iron supplementation and remains in good general condition six months after the treatment.

  4. Why, Mrs. Robinson? The seduction of teenage boys by women in classic films.

    PubMed

    Colarusso, Calvin A

    2014-09-01

    Utilizing three classic films, and psychoanalytic developmental theory, this paper explores the conscious and unconscious reasons why older women become sexually involved with teenage boys. After a presentation of aspects of young adult and midlife female development and a psychodynamic explanation for the developmental similarities between adolescence and menopause, each of the three films is summarized. The dynamics behind the women's behavior, as presented in the films, are discussed. The third section of the paper discusses similarities and differences among the three women and the negative effects on the boys' development.

  5. Histology of Testicular Biopsies Obtained for an Experimental Fertility Preservation Protocol in Boys with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pietzak, Eugene J.; Tasian, Gregory E.; Tasian, Sarah K.; Brinster, Ralph L.; Carlson, Claire; Ginsberg, Jill P.; Kolon, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cryopreservation of testicular tissue with subsequent re-implantation after therapy has fertility perseveration potential for pre-pubertal boys with childhood cancer. We present the histology and the feasibility of testicular tissue procurement for this novel approach. Patients and Methods We performed a prospective cohort study of boys at significant risk for treatment-associated gonadotoxicity who were eligible for an experimental research protocol between 2008 and 2011. Open testicular biopsy was performed while they were anesthetized for another treatment related procedure. Half of the specimen was reserved for cryopreservation, while the other half was used for research purposes. Semi-thin sections of the biopsy specimens were evaluated for histological features and compared to age-adjusted reference values. Results Of the 34 boys who underwent biopsy between March 2008 and October 2011, 29 had solid tumors and 5 underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for benign disease. Of these, 27 had adequate tissue for histologic analysis. The median age of the boys was 8.7 years (IQR=2.2 – 11.5 years). All children had either normal (81.5%) or increased (18.5%) numbers of normal germ cells per tubules for their age. However, 18.5% (5/27) of boys had no evidence of Adult dark (Ad) spermatogonia, and 56% (9/16) of boys had no evidence of primary spermatocytes on biopsy, that would be expected for their age norms. These findings are suggestive of abnormal germ cell maturation. Conclusion The preliminary histologic findings of abnormal spermatogenesis maturation in testes of pre-pubertal boys with cancer warrants further investigation. PMID:26032139

  6. HIV risks among gay- and non-gay-identified migrant money boys in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Wong, F Y; Huang, Z J; He, N; Smith, B D; Ding, Y; Fu, C; Young, D

    2008-02-01

    Men having sex with men (MSM) now account for 7% of all HIV/AIDS cases in China and there is growing awareness that internal rural-to-urban migration might shift the HIV epidemic within China by broadening social and sexual mixing. About 70% of HIV/AIDS infections are among rural residents, of whom 80% are males and 60% aged 16-29. This young, male, rural-to-urban migrant population has been identified as the 'tipping point' for the AIDS epidemic in China. A subgroup of these migrants is the 'money boy' population, i.e. those who engage in same-sex transactional sex for economic survival. However, the literature addressing money boys is very limited. The present study aims to elucidate factors for preventing substance abuse and HIV among two types of money boys 'gay-identified' and 'non-gay-identified' living in the Shanghai metropolitan area. This work is conceptually underpinned by Chng et al.'s (2003) tripartite model, which postulates that risk behaviors (e.g. substance abuse) engaged in by transient or non-native individuals are often shaped and regulated by factors in the home environment, migration experience and current environment. Results reveal gay and non-gay money boys were not significantly different in age, income, marriage status and education. Both groups shared similar patterns of substance use. Both groups had high self-reported depressive symptoms and low HIV knowledge. However, sexual orientation differentially predicted HIV testing, with gay money boys more likely to be tested for HIV. Non-gay money boys showed fewer sexual risks. HIV prevention targeting MSM (including money boys) within rapidly changing China is discussed, as are methodologies and outreach strategies most effective for particular subgroups of MSM.

  7. HIV risks among gay- and non-gay-identified migrant money boys in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Wong, F Y; Huang, Z J; He, N; Smith, B D; Ding, Y; Fu, C; Young, D

    2008-02-01

    Men having sex with men (MSM) now account for 7% of all HIV/AIDS cases in China and there is growing awareness that internal rural-to-urban migration might shift the HIV epidemic within China by broadening social and sexual mixing. About 70% of HIV/AIDS infections are among rural residents, of whom 80% are males and 60% aged 16-29. This young, male, rural-to-urban migrant population has been identified as the 'tipping point' for the AIDS epidemic in China. A subgroup of these migrants is the 'money boy' population, i.e. those who engage in same-sex transactional sex for economic survival. However, the literature addressing money boys is very limited. The present study aims to elucidate factors for preventing substance abuse and HIV among two types of money boys 'gay-identified' and 'non-gay-identified' living in the Shanghai metropolitan area. This work is conceptually underpinned by Chng et al.'s (2003) tripartite model, which postulates that risk behaviors (e.g. substance abuse) engaged in by transient or non-native individuals are often shaped and regulated by factors in the home environment, migration experience and current environment. Results reveal gay and non-gay money boys were not significantly different in age, income, marriage status and education. Both groups shared similar patterns of substance use. Both groups had high self-reported depressive symptoms and low HIV knowledge. However, sexual orientation differentially predicted HIV testing, with gay money boys more likely to be tested for HIV. Non-gay money boys showed fewer sexual risks. HIV prevention targeting MSM (including money boys) within rapidly changing China is discussed, as are methodologies and outreach strategies most effective for particular subgroups of MSM. PMID:18293125

  8. Tor: Case Study of a Boy with Autism between the Age of Three and Eight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, C Reuterskiold; Nettelbladt, U.

    2005-01-01

    Longitudinal data are presented on a boy between the ages of three and eight. At age three he received a diagnosis of language impairment and at age six a diagnosis of high-functioning autism. Results are presented from extensive assessments at four points in time, including interviews with his mother and teachers. The results indicate that the…

  9. Acquisition of Mands and Tacts with Concurrent Echoic Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodak, Tiffany; Clements, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have identified a number of effective teaching procedures to increase verbal behavior in individuals with developmental disabilities. However, few studies have evaluated modifications of treatment procedures when children fail to acquire communication skills. In the present investigation, a 4-year-old boy with autism failed to…

  10. Physical Exercise as a Reinforcer to Promote Calmness of an ADHD Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azrin, Nathan H.; Ehle, Christopher T.; Beaumont, Amy L.

    2006-01-01

    Age-appropriate reinforcers have been found to be effective in promoting attentiveness and calmness with children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The present study with a 4-year-old ADHD boy found attentive calmness was substantially increased from a mean of about 3 seconds per trial to the maximum scheduled duration of 60…

  11. Examining Young Children's Perceptions of Handicaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlow, Barbara L.

    The purposes of this study were to assess the attitudes of preschoolers toward two types of handicapping conditions (mental retardation and physical disabilities), and to explore the underlying social reasoning used by young children to formulate/support their perceptions. Sixteen 3- and 4-year-old boys and girls were presented with two 8-1/2" x…

  12. Nutritional adequacy of boys in orphanages.

    PubMed

    Khan, S; Sankhla, A; Dashora, P K

    1996-03-01

    In India, nutritionists gathered information on dietary intake, measured the diet, and calculated nutritional composition of the diet of 118 boys, 4-12 years old, living in all the orphanages in Udaipur, to determine the adequacy of their diet. The orphans consumed inadequate amounts of all food stuffs. For example, the boys consumed 76.2-91.5% of recommended intake for cereals, 30% for pulses, less than 50% for milk, and 30-45% for fats and oils. They consumed almost no leafy vegetables (0/75 g for 4-6 year olds; 1.5/75 g for 7-9 year olds; and 0.8/100 g for 10-12 year olds), but they consumed more than the recommended intake of other vegetables. The orphans were not provided fruits, meat, fish, or eggs. Only those 4-6 years old had adequate intake of protein. Energy and calcium intakes were significantly low in all age groups (p 0.01, except for calcium intake in 4-6 year olds [p 0.05]). In all age groups, phosphorous intake was adequate while iron intake was significantly lower than the recommended daily intake (p 0.01). Beta-carotene intake was insufficient in all age groups (p 0.01). In fact, beta-carotene intake in 7-9 year olds did not even reach 20% of the recommended daily intake. Only the 4-6 year olds had adequate intake of niacin. Vitamin C intake was 30% of recommended levels. These findings show that these school age orphans had inadequate intake of almost all nutrients due to a daily diet limited in cereals, pulses, milk and milk products, leafy vegetable, fats and oils, and sugar. The orphanages should include seasonal green vegetables and other low-cost nutritious foods in the diet of orphan boys. PMID:8772844

  13. HPA axis function predicts development of working memory in boys with FXS.

    PubMed

    Scherr, Jessica F; Hahn, Laura J; Hooper, Stephen R; Hatton, Deborah; Roberts, Jane E

    2016-02-01

    The present study examines verbal working memory over time in boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS) compared to nonverbal mental-age (NVMA) matched, typically developing (TD) boys. Concomitantly, the relationship between cortisol-a physiological marker for stress-and verbal working memory performance over time is examined to understand the role of physiological mechanisms in cognitive development in FXS. Participants were assessed between one and three times over a 2-year time frame using two verbal working memory tests that differ in complexity: memory for words and auditory working memory with salivary cortisol collected at the beginning and end of each assessment. Multilevel modeling results indicate specific deficits over time on the memory for words task in boys with FXS compared to TD controls that is exacerbated by elevated baseline cortisol. Similar increasing rates of growth over time were observed for boys with FXS and TD controls on the more complex auditory working memory task, but only boys with FXS displayed an association of increased baseline cortisol and lower performance. This study highlights the benefit of investigations of how dynamic biological and cognitive factors interact and influence cognitive development over time. PMID:26760450

  14. Prenatal cocaine exposure differentially affects stress responses in girls and boys: Associations with future substance use

    PubMed Central

    CHAPLIN, TARA M.; VISCONTI, KARI JEANNE; MOLFESE, PETER J.; SUSMAN, ELIZABETH J.; KLEIN, LAURA COUSINO; SINHA, RAJITA; MAYES, LINDA C.

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure may affect developing stress response systems in youth, potentially creating risk for substance use in adolescence. Further, pathways from prenatal risk to future substance use may differ for girls versus boys. The present longitudinal study examined multiple biobehavioral measures, including heart rate, blood pressure, emotion, and salivary cortisol and salivary alpha amylase (sAA), in response to a stressor in 193 low-income 14- to 17-year-olds, half of whom were prenatally cocaine exposed (PCE). Youth’s lifetime substance use was assessed with self-report, interview, and urine toxicology/breathalyzer at Time 1 and at Time 2 (6–12 months later). PCExGender interactions were found predicting anxiety, anger, and sadness responses to the stressor, with PCE girls showing heightened responses as compared to PCE boys on these indicators. Stress Response × Gender interactions were found predicting Time 2 substance use in youth (controlling for Time 1 use) for sAA and sadness; for girls, heightened sadness responses predicted substance use, but for boys, dampened sAA responses predicted substance use. Findings suggest distinct biobehavioral stress response risk profiles for boys and girls, with heightened arousal for girls and blunted arousal for boys associated with prenatal risk and future substance use outcomes. PMID:25036298

  15. Prenatal cocaine exposure differentially affects stress responses in girls and boys: associations with future substance use.

    PubMed

    Chaplin, Tara M; Visconti, Kari Jeanne; Molfese, Peter J; Susman, Elizabeth J; Klein, Laura Cousino; Sinha, Rajita; Mayes, Linda C

    2015-02-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure may affect developing stress response systems in youth, potentially creating risk for substance use in adolescence. Further, pathways from prenatal risk to future substance use may differ for girls versus boys. The present longitudinal study examined multiple biobehavioral measures, including heart rate, blood pressure, emotion, and salivary cortisol and salivary alpha amylase (sAA), in response to a stressor in 193 low-income 14- to 17-year-olds, half of whom were prenatally cocaine exposed (PCE). Youth's lifetime substance use was assessed with self-report, interview, and urine toxicology/breathalyzer at Time 1 and at Time 2 (6-12 months later). PCE × Gender interactions were found predicting anxiety, anger, and sadness responses to the stressor, with PCE girls showing heightened responses as compared to PCE boys on these indicators. Stress Response × Gender interactions were found predicting Time 2 substance use in youth (controlling for Time 1 use) for sAA and sadness; for girls, heightened sadness responses predicted substance use, but for boys, dampened sAA responses predicted substance use. Findings suggest distinct biobehavioral stress response risk profiles for boys and girls, with heightened arousal for girls and blunted arousal for boys associated with prenatal risk and future substance use outcomes. PMID:25036298

  16. Media use and school achievement--boys at risk?

    PubMed

    Mössle, Thomas; Kleimann, Matthias; Rehbein, Florian; Pfeiffer, Christian

    2010-09-01

    In work done at the German Criminological Research Institute of Lower Saxony (KFN) various methods have been used to investigate how specific inappropriate media usage patterns affect academic performance in children and adolescents. The findings are paralleled by current international research indicating a negative relationship between these two variables. Based on a cross-sectional survey of 5,529 fourth grade students and a longitudinal panel study with 1,157 primary schoolchildren, a key finding can be demonstrated: the more time students spend on consuming media and the more violent its contents are, the worse are their marks at school, even when controlling for vital factors such as family, educational, or immigrant background. In particular, boys who gender-specifically are better equipped with electronic media devices, who partially have extensive media usage times and who strongly prefer violent media content, are at the risk of showing poor school performance. In fact, a decrease in academic performance of boys can be observed in German school statistics. By presenting first results of a school-based intervention programme, a promising approach to the reduction of detrimental effects of electronic media use on school performance is introduced.

  17. Priapism in teenage boys following depot testosterone.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, James F; Davis, Nikki; Davies, Justin H; Rees, Roland W; Steinbrecher, Henrik A

    2012-01-01

    Priapism is rare in children and may result in erectile dysfunction and sexual aversion behaviours. Testosterone therapy is commonly regarded as safe in children and is widely used in constitutional delay of growth and puberty, hypogonadism, hypospadias and micropenis. We report two cases of priapism in teenage boys with constitutional delay of growth and puberty after a change in the formulation of depot testosterone. One case required surgical intervention and the other was preceded by stuttering priapism. These cases illustrate the importance of patient and/or parent counselling before testosterone administration and consideration of lower doses in at-risk patients.

  18. The Trouble with Boys: Observations about Boys' Post-Secondary Aspirations, Attendance and Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, J. Howard

    2012-01-01

    Boys have a slight advantage in the number of live births in the US (about 101:100), so, all things being equal, it is reasonable to assume that they would populate institutions at about the same rate as girls. However, institutions are social structures, and in social systems all things are almost "never" equal, so, clearly, there are other…

  19. The Boys in Schools Bulletin: Practical Initiatives Addressing Boys' Needs, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Richard, Ed.; Browne, Rollo, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document is comprised of volume 2 of a quarterly bulletin for educators in Australia providing a practical focus to improving boys' schooling. The April 1999 issue focuses on the role of school executives, or administrators, on supporting educational initiatives. This issue includes articles describing the development of a program-based…

  20. Boys, Books, and Boredom: A Case of Three High School Boys and Their Encounters with Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarroub, Loukia K.; Pernicek, Todd

    2016-01-01

    We examine the literacy gender gap through the documented experiences of 3 representative high schools boys and their teacher--how they view themselves as students, their dispositions toward schooling and education, and their engagement with literacy--as a way to further understand how literacy teachers can better work with them. We offer a case…

  1. Boys Growing Up: Understanding Boys' Sexual Health Education and Its Implications for Attitude Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, B. M.; Kushner, S.

    Recent research has begun to examine heterosexual male behavior and the early experiences of masculinity. This pilot research project used naturalistic inquiry methodologies to investigate the experience and education of boys/young men in relation to matters of sexual health and masculinity and to develop an understanding of the relationship among…

  2. "Boys Will Be Boys": What Do Early Childhood Teachers Have to Do with It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhana, Deevia

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the ways in which a selected group of early childhood teachers in grades one and two, located in a predominantly white middle-class context in Durban, South Africa ascribe meaning to young boys they teach. The study finds that early childhood teachers are bearers of masculinity and incorporate taken-for-granted assumptions of…

  3. Both Boys and Girls Are More Scared of Boys Than of Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Leslie R.

    Explored were feelings of envy, warmth, and fear that children experience toward boys and girls engaged in same-gender role, cross-gender role, and gender-role-neutral behaviors. A total of 120 children participated in the study: 60 first and second graders, and 60 fifth and sixth graders, with equal numbers of males and females in each grade.…

  4. When Boys Won't Be Boys: Discussing Gender with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katch, Hannah; Katch, Jane

    2010-01-01

    In this Voices Inside Schools essay, Hannah Katch and Jane Katch reflect on gender roles and how they are enacted in the classroom. When Timothy, a student in Jane's kindergarten class, refuses to count himself as one of the boys during a math lesson, Jane begins a conversation about social constructions of gender with her daughter, Hannah.…

  5. Art, Boys, and the Boy Scout Movement: Lord Baden-Powell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalmers, F. Graeme; Dancer, Andrea A.

    2007-01-01

    Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell (1857-1941), founder of the Boy Scout Movement in 1907, was a British military hero during the Boer War. Within an ethos and era of empire-building, athleticism, soldier-heroes and the pursuit of "manliness," Baden-Powell valued the arts and adapted his artistic skill to his wartime and Scouting activities. His…

  6. Strategies to Engage Men and Boys in Violence Prevention: A Global Organizational Perspective.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Juliana; Casey, Erin; Edleson, Jeffrey L; Tolman, Richard M; Walsh, Tova B; Kimball, Ericka

    2015-11-01

    This study presents descriptive findings from in-depth interviews with 29 representatives of organizations in Africa, Asia, Europe, Oceania, and North and South America that engage men and boys in preventing gender-based violence. In particular, the findings suggest that strategies are responsive to the specific cultural, economic, and contextual concerns of the local community, with nuanced messages and appropriate messengers. In addition, respondents reported key principles informing their organizational strategies to deepen men and boys' engagement. Attention is also paid to respondents' caution about the risks of framing of engagement practices as separate from both women's organizations and women and girls themselves. PMID:26202155

  7. Strategies to Engage Men and Boys in Violence Prevention: A Global Organizational Perspective.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Juliana; Casey, Erin; Edleson, Jeffrey L; Tolman, Richard M; Walsh, Tova B; Kimball, Ericka

    2015-11-01

    This study presents descriptive findings from in-depth interviews with 29 representatives of organizations in Africa, Asia, Europe, Oceania, and North and South America that engage men and boys in preventing gender-based violence. In particular, the findings suggest that strategies are responsive to the specific cultural, economic, and contextual concerns of the local community, with nuanced messages and appropriate messengers. In addition, respondents reported key principles informing their organizational strategies to deepen men and boys' engagement. Attention is also paid to respondents' caution about the risks of framing of engagement practices as separate from both women's organizations and women and girls themselves.

  8. Serum Ferritin Is Inversely Correlated with Testosterone in Boys and Young Male Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Kuo-Ching; Chang, Chun-Chao; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chang, Jung-Su

    2015-01-01

    Objective The transition from childhood to teenaged years is associated with increased testosterone and a decreased iron status. It is not clear whether higher testosterone levels cause the decreased iron status, and to what extent, obesity-related inflammation influences the iron-testosterone relationship. The aim of the present study was to examine relationships of testosterone, iron status, and anti-/proinflammatory cytokines in relation to nutritional status in boys and young adolescent Taiwanese males. Methods In total, 137 boys aged 7~13 yr were included. Parameters for obesity, the iron status, testosterone, and inflammatory markers were evaluated. Results Overweight and obese (ow/obese) boys had higher mean serum testosterone, interleukin (IL)-1β, and nitric oxide (NO) levels compared to their normal-weight counterparts (all p<0.05). Mean serum ferritin was slightly higher in ow/obese boys compared to normal-weight boys, but this did not reach statistical significance. A multiple linear regression showed that serum ferritin (β = -0.7470, p = 0.003) was inversely correlated with testosterone, while serum IL-10 (β = 0.3475, p = 0.009) was positively associated with testosterone after adjusting for covariates. When normal-weight boys were separately assessed from ow/obesity boys, the association between testosterone and serum ferritin became stronger (β = -0.9628, p<0.0001), but the association between testosterone and IL-10 became non-significant (β = 0.1140, p = 0.4065) after adjusting for covariates. In ow/obese boys, only IL-10 was weakly associated with serum testosterone (β = 0.6444, p = 0.051) after adjusting for age. Conclusions Testosterone and serum ferritin are intrinsically interrelated but this relationship is weaker in ow/obese boys after adjusting for age. PMID:26646112

  9. Genetic Polymorphisms Related to Testosterone Metabolism in Intellectually Gifted Boys

    PubMed Central

    Celec, Peter; Tretinárová, Denisa; Minárik, Gabriel; Ficek, Andrej; Szemes, Tomáš; Lakatošová, Silvia; Schmidtová, Eva; Turňa, Ján; Kádaši, Ľudevít; Ostatníková, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Prepubertal testosterone levels are lower in intellectually gifted boys. The aim of this pilot study was to analyze potential genetic factors related to testosterone metabolism in control and gifted boys. Intellectually gifted (IQ>130; n = 95) and control (n = 67) boys were genotyped. Polymorphisms of interests were chosen in genes including androgen and estrogen receptors, 5-alpha reductase, aromatase and sex hormone binding globulin. Significant differences between control and gifted boys in genotype distributions were found for ESR2 (rs928554) and SHBG (rs1799941). A significantly lower number of CAG repeats in the AR gene were found in gifted boys. Our results support the role of genetic factors related to testosterone metabolism in intellectual giftedness. Increased androgen signaling might explain previous results of lower testosterone levels in intellectually gifted boys and add to the understanding of variability in cognitive abilities. PMID:23382957

  10. Genetic polymorphisms related to testosterone metabolism in intellectually gifted boys.

    PubMed

    Celec, Peter; Tretinárová, Denisa; Minárik, Gabriel; Ficek, Andrej; Szemes, Tomáš; Lakatošová, Silvia; Schmidtová, Eva; Turňa, Ján; Kádaši, Ľudevít; Ostatníková, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Prepubertal testosterone levels are lower in intellectually gifted boys. The aim of this pilot study was to analyze potential genetic factors related to testosterone metabolism in control and gifted boys. Intellectually gifted (IQ>130; n = 95) and control (n = 67) boys were genotyped. Polymorphisms of interests were chosen in genes including androgen and estrogen receptors, 5-alpha reductase, aromatase and sex hormone binding globulin. Significant differences between control and gifted boys in genotype distributions were found for ESR2 (rs928554) and SHBG (rs1799941). A significantly lower number of CAG repeats in the AR gene were found in gifted boys. Our results support the role of genetic factors related to testosterone metabolism in intellectual giftedness. Increased androgen signaling might explain previous results of lower testosterone levels in intellectually gifted boys and add to the understanding of variability in cognitive abilities.

  11. Bone Density in Peripubertal Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumeyer, Ann M.; Gates, Amy; Ferrone, Christine; Lee, Hang; Misra, Madhusmita

    2013-01-01

    We determined whether bone mineral density (BMD) is lower in boys with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) than controls, and also assessed variables that may affect BMD in ASD. BMD was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 18 boys with ASD and 19 controls 8-14 years old. Boys with ASD had lower BMD Z-scores at the spine, hip and…

  12. Evaluating Boy Scout Geology Education, A Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hintz, R. S.; Thomson, B.

    2008-12-01

    This study investigated geology knowledge acquisition by Boy Scouts through use of the Boy Scout Geology Merit Handbook. In this study, boys engaged in hands-on interactive learning following the requirements set forth in the Geology Merit Badge Handbook. The purposes of this study were to determine the amount of geology content knowledge engendered in adolescent males through the use of the Geology Merit Badge Handbook published by the Boy Scouts of America; to determine if single sex, activity oriented, free-choice learning programs can be effective in promoting knowledge development in young males; and to determine if boys participating in the Scouting program believed their participation helped them succeed in school. Members of a local Boy Scout Troop between the ages of 11 and 18 were invited to participate in a Geology Merit Badge program. Boys who did not already possess the badge were allowed to self-select participation. The boys' content knowledge of geology, rocks, and minerals was pre- and post-tested. Boys were interviewed about their school and Scouting experiences; whether they believed their Scouting experiences and work in Merit Badges contributed to their success in school. Contributing educational theories included single-sex education, informal education with free-choice learning, learning styles, hands-on activities, and the social cognitive theory concept of self-efficacy. Boys who completed this study seemed to possess a greater knowledge of geology than they obtained in school. If boys who complete the Boy Scout Geology Merit Badge receive additional geological training, their field experiences and knowledge acquired through this learning experience will be beneficial, and a basis for continued scaffolding of geologic knowledge.

  13. Boys to Men: Entertainment Media. Messages about Masculinity: A National Poll of Children, Focus Groups, and Content Analysis of Entertainment Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heintz-Knowles, Katharine; Li-Vollmer, Meredith; Chen, Perry; Harris, Tarana; Haufler, Adrienne; Lapp, Joan; Miller, Patti

    Boys are especially active users of media, and researchers have suggested that the cumulative impact of media, such as television, movies, and music videos, may make them some of the most influential forces in boys' lives. This report presents the findings of a national poll of 1,200 young people (ages 10 to 17) and focus groups in which boys…

  14. Assessing Does Not Mean Threatening: The Purpose of Assessment as a Key Determinant of Girls' and Boys' Performance in a Science Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souchal, Carine; Toczek, Marie-Christine; Darnon, Céline; Smeding, Annique; Butera, Fabrizio; Martinot, Delphine

    2014-01-01

    Background: Is it possible to reach performance equality between boys and girls in a science class? Given the stereotypes targeting their groups in scientific domains, diagnostic contexts generally lower girls' performance and non-diagnostic contexts may harm boys' performance. Aim: The present study tested the effectiveness of a…

  15. A Voice-Detecting Sensor and a Scanning Keyboard Emulator to Support Word Writing by Two Boys with Extensive Motor Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Green, Vanessa; Chiapparino, Claudia; Stasolla, Fabrizio; Oliva, Doretta

    2009-01-01

    The present study assessed the use of a voice-detecting sensor interfaced with a scanning keyboard emulator to allow two boys with extensive motor disabilities to write. Specifically, the study (a) compared the effects of the voice-detecting sensor with those of a familiar pressure sensor on the boys' writing time, (b) checked which of the sensors…

  16. Understanding Phonological Memory Deficits in Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Dissociation of Short-Term Storage and Articulatory Rehearsal Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolden, Jennifer; Rapport, Mark D.; Raiker, Joseph S.; Sarver, Dustin E.; Kofler, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The current study dissociated and examined the two primary components of the phonological working memory subsystem--the short-term store and articulatory rehearsal mechanism--in boys with ADHD (n = 18) relative to typically developing boys (n = 15). Word lists of increasing length (2, 4, and 6 words per trial) were presented to and recalled by…

  17. Gendered Literacy Experiences: The Effects of Expectation and Opportunity for Boys' and Girls' Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    The research reported in this article intends to contribute to an understanding of how out-of-school literacies can influence the present and future learning of adolescents. Evidence suggests that students, boys particularly, are becoming literate in many ways through out-of-school activities (e.g., video games, Internet browsing, chatrooms), but…

  18. Grades Four and Eight Students' and Teachers' Perceptions of Girls' and Boys' Writing Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Shelley

    2000-01-01

    Presents teacher and student responses that show a privileging of girls' writing over boys' writing. Finds that girls' writing was viewed as more detailed, descriptive, and showing greater conformity to writing conventions. Indicates a need for conversations that question an emphasis on conformity in writing and that explore ways to nurture…

  19. Common Sense Parenting of Toddlers and Preschoolers. A Girls and Boys Town Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Bridget A.; York, Steven M.

    Based on the view that parents need to balance nurturing behaviors that demonstrate love and affection with the discipline that children need in order to learn and thrive, this book presents the Common Sense Parenting program from Girls and Boys Town as adapted for parents of toddlers and preschoolers. Offering logical techniques and foundations…

  20. Parenting, Family Loneliness, and Peer Functioning in Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurt, Elizabeth A.; Hoza, Betsy; Pelham, William E., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to consider the associations between family functioning (parenting and family loneliness) and peer functioning in a sample of boys with ADHD (N = 110) and their mothers (N = 108) and fathers (N = 53). Results indicated that higher paternal warmth was associated with more peer acceptance, less peer rejection, and…

  1. Delayed refractory hyperventilation following endoscopic third ventriculostomy in a 5-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Merola, J; Liang, E; Hoskins, J; Balakrishnan, V; Gan, P

    2016-09-01

    We present the case of a 5-year-old boy who developed a delayed onset intractable hyperventilation following endoscopic third ventriculostomy. The proposed aetiology of this exceptionally rare phenomenon is discussed. To our knowledge, previous cases have only been reported in the adult population.

  2. Adolescent Boys' Grooming Product Use and Perceived Health Risks: An Exploration of Parental Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Jeong-Ju; Jacob, John; Baier, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate parental influence on adolescent boys' use and risk-perceptions of using appearance-related products. Design: Using appearance-enhancing products can present a health threat to adolescents, as these products are not only applied to the body, but can also be ingested. Adolescents may look to their parents for information…

  3. Lost Boys. Why Our Sons Turn Violent and How We Can Save Them.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbarino, James

    1999-01-01

    Presents four conclusions about why boys turn violent and how parents and teachers can save them: violence prevention is everybody's business; education for parents and teachers is crucial; child abuse prevention is the cornerstone of preventing lethal youth violence; and detoxifying the social environment of children and youth is essential to…

  4. Surgical excision of hypothalamic hamartoma in a twenty months old boy with precocious puberty

    PubMed Central

    Ghanta, Rajesh K.; Koti, Kalyan; Kongara, Srikanth; Meher, Gautham E.

    2011-01-01

    A twenty months old boy presented to our department with true precocious puberty due to hypothalamic hamartoma. Total surgical excision of pedunculated hypothalamic hamartoma was done successfully by the pterional trans-sylvian approach as he could not afford medical management. Patient had uneventful post-operative course with normalization of serum testosterone levels and regression of secondary sexual characters. PMID:22029036

  5. The Influence of Perinatal Complications and Environmental Adversity on Boys' Antisocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Joy E.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the present study was to test components of Raine's (2002) biosocial model, specifically the interactive effects of perinatal complications, rejecting parenting, and family adversity on the development of early-onset antisocial behavior (ASB). Boys' internalizing problems were also tested to investigate the specificity…

  6. "In Far Cathay": Representations of China in "The Boy's Own Paper", 1879-1914

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shih-Wen

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers how "knowledge" of China was presented for Victorian and Edwardian children in "The Boy's Own Paper" ("BOP") between 1879 and 1914. It considers how genre affects the representation of China in the "BOP" by comparing travel narratives and adventure stories. First, it focuses on non-fiction about China, examining the rhetorical…

  7. Economic, Social and Embodied Cultural Capitals as Shapers and Predictors of Boys' Educational Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockfelt, Shawanda

    2016-01-01

    The author presents the result of a quantitative survey as a part of a larger mixed-methods study conducted across two case study schools in urban Jamaica. It focuses on Black Caribbean boys' levels of educational aspirations in relation to their economic, social, and embodied cultural capital. The study utilizes Bourdieu's notions of capital,…

  8. Understanding Bullying: Using Role-Play with 12-Year-Old Boys in Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaloyirou, Chrystalla; Lindsay, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the use of role-play in order to investigate bullies' intentions, feelings and perceptions through identification and projection. The study was conducted with nine 12-year-old boys that presented high levels of bullying behaviour, according to their teachers and peers, from three state primary schools in Nicosia, Cyprus,…

  9. Language Development in a 3-Year-Old Boy with Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkin, Keith; Lorch, Marjorie Perlman

    2007-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder which has widespread developmental consequences including motor, cognitive and language delay. Previous research on PWS children has focused primarily on phonological development and dysfluency. In the present study, the lexical development of a boy with PWS was investigated in a series of 18 play…

  10. Gendered Subjective Theologies: Dutch Teenage Girls and Boys on the Role of Religion in Their Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ter Avest, Ina; Jozsa, Dan-Paul; Knauth, Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    In this article about the Dutch contribution to the REDCo sub-project on the role of gender, related to religion in/and school, the authors present the characteristics in the answers girls and boys, respectively gave to their questionnaires. Qualitative as well as quantitative methods were used in this research project. The research findings show…

  11. Squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus in a 15-year-old boy

    PubMed Central

    Hedawoo, J. B.; Nagdeve, N. G.; Sarve, G. N.

    2010-01-01

    A 15-year-old boy with well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the lower esophagus is reported because of its rarity. The patient presented with dysphagia for 3 months and weight loss. The case was treated with radical excision, with excellent immediate response. PMID:20975784

  12. [A case of porphyria cutanea tarda in an 11-year-old boy].

    PubMed

    Pindycka-Piaszczyńska, M; Danik, E; Bendkowski, W

    1995-06-01

    A rare case of porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) in an 11-year-old boy is presented. The clinical manifestations were typical. Results of porphyrin analyses of urine and serum with a fluorescence emission maximum around 398 nm revealed a pattern consistent with PCT. PMID:8692611

  13. "'Lad" Research, the Reproduction of Stereotypes? Ethnographic Dilemmas When Researching Boys from Working-Class Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosvall, Per-Åke

    2015-01-01

    Previous research presented in this journal and elsewhere has suggested that vocational education is highly gender segregated and it is the heavy industrial sectors such as industry, vehicle and construction programmes that mainly attract boys with an anti-school attitude who are not interested in academic school work. However, there are good…

  14. Hymenolepis diminuta infection in a young boy from rural part of Northern India.

    PubMed

    Mane, Pratibha; Sangwan, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Hymenolepis diminuta (H. diminuta) is primarily a parasite of rats and mice. Humans are infected by eating meal contaminated with these arthropods. This infection is not seen commonly in Indian population. We present here a case report of infection with H. diminuta in a young boy from a rural area of the North India. PMID:27453865

  15. Patella fracture in a boy with bilateral inferior pole bipartite patellae.

    PubMed

    Peek, A C; Barry, M

    2012-10-01

    We present the case of a 12 year old boy who had bilateral inferior pole fragment (Saupe type 1) bipartite patellae, and who sustained a traumatic separation through the right patella while playing basket ball, the left remaining asymptomatic. We have reviewed and discussed the previously published literature and case reports.

  16. Low AMY1 Gene Copy Number Is Associated with Increased Body Mass Index in Prepubertal Boys

    PubMed Central

    Verginelli, Fabio; De Lellis, Laura; Capelli, Cristian; Verzilli, Delfina; Chiarelli, Francesco; Mohn, Angelika; Cama, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies have identified more than 60 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with Body Mass Index (BMI). Additional genetic variants, such as copy number variations (CNV), have also been investigated in relation to BMI. Recently, the highly polymorphic CNV in the salivary amylase (AMY1) gene, encoding an enzyme implicated in the first step of starch digestion, has been associated with obesity in adults and children. We assessed the potential association between AMY1 copy number and a wide range of BMI in a population of Italian school-children. Methods 744 children (354 boys, 390 girls, mean age (±SD): 8.4±1.4years) underwent anthropometric assessments (height, weight) and collection of saliva samples for DNA extraction. AMY1 copies were evaluated by quantitative PCR. Results A significant increase of BMI z-score by decreasing AMY1 copy number was observed in boys (β: -0.117, p = 0.033), but not in girls. Similarly, waist circumference (β: -0.155, p = 0.003, adjusted for age) was negatively influenced by AMY1 copy number in boys. Boys with 8 or more AMY1 copy numbers presented a significant lower BMI z-score (p = 0.04) and waist circumference (p = 0.01) when compared to boys with less than 8 copy numbers. Conclusions In this pediatric-only, population-based study, a lower AMY1 copy number emerged to be associated with increased BMI in boys. These data confirm previous findings from adult studies and support a potential role of a higher copy number of the salivary AMY1 gene in protecting from excess weight gain. PMID:27149670

  17. Mystery case: a young boy with myoclonic jerks.

    PubMed

    Musleh, Camelia; Marcuse, Lara; Fields, Madeline

    2013-10-29

    A 16-year-old right-handed boy presented for consultation for recent development of seizures. He is the product of a normal pregnancy and delivery without a history of developmental delay, head trauma, or family history of epilepsy. A year and a half prior to our consultation, the patient noted that his hand would suddenly jerk across the page while writing in his morning classes. Stress would exacerbate the jerks. Six months later, after staying up late the previous night, the patient awoke early and began to play on the computer when both of his hands suddenly jerked multiple times. He then fell over and began seizing. His mother witnessed tonic contraction of his body followed by clonic activity. He was brought by ambulance to the nearest hospital where a CT head was reported normal.

  18. An Adolescent Boy with Comorbid Anorexia Nervosa and Hashimoto Thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Pehlivantürk Kızılkan, Melis; Kanbur, Nuray; Akgül, Sinem; Alikaşifoğlu, Ayfer

    2016-01-01

    Low triiodothyronine syndrome is a physiological adaptation encountered in anorexia nervosa (AN) and generally improves with sufficient weight gain. However, when a primary thyroid pathology accompanies AN, both the evaluation of thyroid hormone levels and the management of the co-morbid disease become more challenging. Hashimoto thyroiditis could complicate the management of AN by causing hyper- or hypothyroidism. AN could also negatively affect the treatment of Hashimoto thyroiditis by altering body weight and metabolic rate, as well as by causing drug non-compliance. We present the case of a 15-year-old boy with comorbid AN restrictive sub-type and Hashimoto thyroiditis. In this case report, we aimed to draw attention to the challenges that could be encountered in the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of patients with AN when accompanied by Hashimoto thyroiditis. PMID:26757948

  19. Subepidermal calcified nodule in a 7-month-old boy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yaohui; Petronic-Rosic, Vesna; Stein, Sarah L

    2007-01-01

    A 7-month-old healthy white boy presented for evaluation of a papule on his right ear. His mother reported a small cut-like lesion at this site shortly after birth that had gradually grown over time. The patient was born full term via repeat cesarean section. On physical examination, located on the right superior helix, there was a 5-6 mm, pink, firm papule with a rough scaly surface and peripheral erythema (Figure 1). The lesion was shave excised and sent for histologic analysis. Microscopic examination revealed a defect of the epidermis with underlying fibrin deposits (Figure 2). Subjacent to the ulcer, there was chondroid tissue, granulation tissue with prominent vascularity, and an extensive amount of amorphous calcified material throughout the dermis extending to the base of the specimen (Figure 3). The clinical and pathologic findings were consistent with a subepidermal calcified nodule (SCN), an uncommon idiopathic calcinosis. The lesion was surgically removed with good results.

  20. Mystery case: a young boy with myoclonic jerks.

    PubMed

    Musleh, Camelia; Marcuse, Lara; Fields, Madeline

    2013-10-29

    A 16-year-old right-handed boy presented for consultation for recent development of seizures. He is the product of a normal pregnancy and delivery without a history of developmental delay, head trauma, or family history of epilepsy. A year and a half prior to our consultation, the patient noted that his hand would suddenly jerk across the page while writing in his morning classes. Stress would exacerbate the jerks. Six months later, after staying up late the previous night, the patient awoke early and began to play on the computer when both of his hands suddenly jerked multiple times. He then fell over and began seizing. His mother witnessed tonic contraction of his body followed by clonic activity. He was brought by ambulance to the nearest hospital where a CT head was reported normal. PMID:24166967

  1. Aggressive-antisocial boys develop into physically strong young men

    PubMed Central

    Isen, Joshua D.; McGue, Matthew K.; Iacono, William G.

    2014-01-01

    Young men with superior upper-body strength typically show a greater proclivity for physical aggression. The traditional interpretation is that young men calibrate their attitudes and behaviors to their physical formidability. Physical strength is thus viewed as a causal antecedent of aggressive behavior. The present study is the first to examine this phenomenon within a developmental framework. We demonstrate that males' antisocial tendencies temporally precede their physical formidability. We capitalize on the fact that physical strength is a male secondary sex characteristic. In two longitudinal cohorts of children, we estimate adolescent change in upper-body strength using the “slope” parameter from a latent growth model. Boys, but not girls, with greater antisocial tendencies in childhood attained larger increases in physical strength between the ages of 11 and 17. These results support sexual selection theory, indicating an adaptive congruence between male-typical behavioral dispositions and subsequent physical masculinization during puberty. PMID:25717041

  2. An Adolescent Boy with Comorbid Anorexia Nervosa and Hashimoto Thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Pehlivantürk Kızılkan, Melis; Kanbur, Nuray; Akgül, Sinem; Alikaşifoğlu, Ayfer

    2016-03-01

    Low triiodothyronine syndrome is a physiological adaptation encountered in anorexia nervosa (AN) and generally improves with sufficient weight gain. However, when a primary thyroid pathology accompanies AN, both the evaluation of thyroid hormone levels and the management of the co-morbid disease become more challenging. Hashimoto thyroiditis could complicate the management of AN by causing hyper- or hypothyroidism. AN could also negatively affect the treatment of Hashimoto thyroiditis by altering body weight and metabolic rate, as well as by causing drug non-compliance. We present the case of a 15-year-old boy with comorbid AN restrictive sub-type and Hashimoto thyroiditis. In this case report, we aimed to draw attention to the challenges that could be encountered in the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of patients with AN when accompanied by Hashimoto thyroiditis.

  3. Sciatica in a Five-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Hasankhani, Ebrahim Ghayem; Rafeemanesh, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of back pain during childhood is 50%; in 22% of these cases, a specific diagnosis can be found. Osteoid osteoma is a rare benign tumor that occursonly in 20% of cases and involves the spine. The aim of this report is to explain an atypical case of lumbar osteoid osteoma with significant neurologic deficit at a very young age. A five-year-old boy was presented with refractory pain in the low back and left extremity for approximately one year. Positive clinical findings were antalgic gait, stiff lumbar spine, weak left big toe extension force and a positive straight leg rising test on the left side. Paraclinical studies revealed osteoid osteoma in the left-sided pedicle of the fifth lumbar vertebra. With surgical excision, he recovered immediately. Lumbar osteoid osteoma should be suspected as the cause of low back pain or sciatalgia in any young patient. PMID:24967051

  4. The Prepubertal Boy: Common Genital Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Merens, Teri A

    2016-09-01

    The examination of the newborn is one of the most common yet crucial tasks performed by the pediatrician. The initial hospital visit (immediately after the birth), with the confirmation that an infant is healthy, often sets the tone for the future relationship between the physician and the family. Many routine visits during the first few years also find the parents looking for the same reassurance from their doctor. However, when there is concern for the health of the newborn, toddler, or young child, the physician must balance appropriate medical intervention with words of comfort and consolation. This article delineates the need for when more immediate attention is warranted from those situations where watchful waiting can be advised, with specific attention to the male genitalia of the prepubertal boy. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(9):e311-e313.].

  5. The Boy Scouts of America: Slowly Changing.

    PubMed

    Pynes, Joan E

    2016-01-01

    The Boy Scouts of America National Executive Board (BSA) recently changed its longstanding policy of excluding gay youth up to the age of 18. Gay participants of its coed Venturing program would be allowed to be members until the age of 21. However, lesbians and homosexuals are still not permitted to be troop leaders. This article discusses the evolution of the change in BSA's policy, discusses the timeline of other proposals in regard to BSA's acceptance of gay youth, and suggests that changes in public opinion and the reaction of BSAs stakeholders lead to changes in the BSA policy. The BSA made a change to become more compatible with the environment in which it operates.

  6. The Prepubertal Boy: Common Genital Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Merens, Teri A

    2016-09-01

    The examination of the newborn is one of the most common yet crucial tasks performed by the pediatrician. The initial hospital visit (immediately after the birth), with the confirmation that an infant is healthy, often sets the tone for the future relationship between the physician and the family. Many routine visits during the first few years also find the parents looking for the same reassurance from their doctor. However, when there is concern for the health of the newborn, toddler, or young child, the physician must balance appropriate medical intervention with words of comfort and consolation. This article delineates the need for when more immediate attention is warranted from those situations where watchful waiting can be advised, with specific attention to the male genitalia of the prepubertal boy. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(9):e311-e313.]. PMID:27622912

  7. The Boy Scouts of America: Slowly Changing.

    PubMed

    Pynes, Joan E

    2016-01-01

    The Boy Scouts of America National Executive Board (BSA) recently changed its longstanding policy of excluding gay youth up to the age of 18. Gay participants of its coed Venturing program would be allowed to be members until the age of 21. However, lesbians and homosexuals are still not permitted to be troop leaders. This article discusses the evolution of the change in BSA's policy, discusses the timeline of other proposals in regard to BSA's acceptance of gay youth, and suggests that changes in public opinion and the reaction of BSAs stakeholders lead to changes in the BSA policy. The BSA made a change to become more compatible with the environment in which it operates. PMID:26244484

  8. Collateral Damage and Critical Turning Points: Public Health Implications of HPV Vaccine News Coverage for Boys and Men in 2011.

    PubMed

    Krakow, Melinda; Rogers, Brian

    2016-09-01

    In 2009, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) officially expanded approval of the Gardasil vaccine to include human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for boys and men, and in 2011, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a formal recommendation for routine vaccination for this population. Despite these efforts, HPV vaccination rates for boys and men continue to fall short of public health targets. While news was breaking about the benefits of the HPV vaccine for boys and men, public attention shifted as a result of political debates concerning the vaccine. This study examines a pivotal time period for public health in which the vaccine became officially recommended for boys and men and at the same time became the center of political controversies in the lead-up to the 2012 presidential campaign. The current study extends previous research and presents a content analysis of newspaper articles (N = 154) about the HPV vaccine for the year 2011. Results indicate that the lack of comprehensive coverage of HPV and the HPV vaccine found in previous studies continued in this year. Results shed light on key political events that may have functioned to overshadow the recommendation of the HPV vaccine for boys and men. The implications of this pattern of news coverage can inform public health efforts to address low rates of HPV vaccination uptake among boys and men in present day. PMID:26799666

  9. Collateral Damage and Critical Turning Points: Public Health Implications of HPV Vaccine News Coverage for Boys and Men in 2011.

    PubMed

    Krakow, Melinda; Rogers, Brian

    2016-09-01

    In 2009, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) officially expanded approval of the Gardasil vaccine to include human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for boys and men, and in 2011, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a formal recommendation for routine vaccination for this population. Despite these efforts, HPV vaccination rates for boys and men continue to fall short of public health targets. While news was breaking about the benefits of the HPV vaccine for boys and men, public attention shifted as a result of political debates concerning the vaccine. This study examines a pivotal time period for public health in which the vaccine became officially recommended for boys and men and at the same time became the center of political controversies in the lead-up to the 2012 presidential campaign. The current study extends previous research and presents a content analysis of newspaper articles (N = 154) about the HPV vaccine for the year 2011. Results indicate that the lack of comprehensive coverage of HPV and the HPV vaccine found in previous studies continued in this year. Results shed light on key political events that may have functioned to overshadow the recommendation of the HPV vaccine for boys and men. The implications of this pattern of news coverage can inform public health efforts to address low rates of HPV vaccination uptake among boys and men in present day.

  10. Sensory Contributions to Balance in Boys with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deconinck, Frederik J. A.; De Clercq, Dirk; Van Coster, Rudy; Oostra, Ann; Dewitte, Griet; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.; Cambier, Dirk; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2008-01-01

    This study examined and compared the control of posture during bilateral stance in ten boys with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) of 6-8 years old and ten matched typically developing boys in four sensory conditions (with or without vision, on a firm or complaint surface). In all conditions mean postural sway velocity was larger for the…

  11. Parental Behavior Toward Boys and Girls of Preschool Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckhoff, Eva; And Others

    1961-01-01

    Research on the acquisition of sex roles in the United States has indicated a tendency for parents to treat girls less harshly than boys and for fathers to treat girls with more special warmth than they do boys. Eighteen children and their parents were interviewed and observed in Oslo, Norway, as part of a longitudinal study of parental influence…

  12. Reading and Phonological Skills in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klusek, Jessica; Hunt, Anna W.; Mirrett, Penny L.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Hooper, Stephen R.; Roberts, Jane E.; Bailey, Donald B.

    2015-01-01

    Although reading skills are critical for the success of individuals with intellectual disabilities, literacy has received little attention in fragile X syndrome (FXS). This study examined the literacy profile of FXS. Boys with FXS (n = 51; mean age 10.2 years) and mental age-matched boys with typical development (n = 35) participated in…

  13. Crafts, Boys, Ernest Thompson Seton, and the Woodcraft Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalmers, F. Graeme; Dancer, Andrea A.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines early influences on art education for boys (Chalmers & Dancer, 2007) in areas traditionally labeled as crafts. Under review is the work of Ernest Thompson Seton, artist, naturalist, storyteller, author, philosopher, crusader for and supporter of indigenous American Indian ways of knowing, and a co-founder of the Boy Scouts of…

  14. Behavior Woes Hamper Boys More Than Girls in School

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_159512.html Behavior Woes Hamper Boys More Than Girls in School: Study They were more likely to ... When I compared 4- and 5-year-old boys and girls who had the same levels of behavior problems -- ...

  15. Mothering, Fathering, and Externalizing Behavior in Toddler Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, Marjolein; Junger, Marianne; van Aken, Chantal; Dekovic, Maja; van Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of reported maternal and paternal support, psychological control, and spanking on externalizing behavior of toddler boys. Questionnaires were administered to both parents of 104 two-parent families with a 3-year-old son. Both maternal and paternal psychological control was related to boys' externalizing behavior.…

  16. Boy Story: Do You Really Want Guys in Your Library?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Helen

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how to transform a down-on-its-luck library into an irresistible place for boys. She suggests to begin with vision, energy, and a lot of hard work. Based on the author's 30-plus years of experience working with students, she knows boys respond well to a scholarly environment. In fact, it is one of the ways…

  17. Reaching Boys: An International Study of Effective Teaching Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichert, Michael; Hawley, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Despite a continuing stream of concern on the part of researchers, demographers, and cultural pundits about a crisis in boys' social development and schooling, surprisingly little attention has been paid to what is perhaps the richest pool of data: current, observable teaching practices that clearly work with boys. In schools of all types in all…

  18. Superhero Toys and Boys' Physically Active and Imaginative Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Amy; Howe, Nina

    2006-01-01

    The influence of superhero versus nonsuperhero toys on boys' physically active and imaginative play was studied in 29 dyads (n = 58 middle-class preschool boys; M age = 54.95 mos, SD = 5.28 mos). Each dyad participated in two play sessions: 1) superhero toys (media related) and 2) nonsuperhero (nonmedia related) toys. Dyads were observed for the…

  19. Contributions and Implications of the Medford, Oregon, Boys' Growth Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, H. H.

    The overall and long-range purposes of the Medford Boys' Growth Study are: (1) to construct physical and motor growth curves and growth acceleration curves of boys seven to 18 years old; (2) to relate these traits to physiological maturity, physique type, nutritional status, socio-personal adjustment, interests, and scholastic aptitude and…

  20. Critical Literacy Learning through Video Games: Adolescent Boys' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, Kathy; Madill, Leanna

    2007-01-01

    The rapidly growing phenomenon of video games, along with learning that takes place through video game play, have raised concerns about the negative impact such games are reputed to have on youth, particularly boys. However, there is a disconnect between the discourse that suggests that boys are failing in learning literacy skills, and the…

  1. Morphometric Brain Abnormalities in Boys with Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Thomas; Vloet, Timo D.; Marx, Ivo; Konrad, Kerstin; Fink, Gereon R.; Herpertz, Sabine C.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2008-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is associated with antisocial personality behavior that violates the basic rights of others. Results, on examining the structural brain aberrations in boys' CD, show that boys with CD and cormobid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder showed abnormalities in frontolimbic areas that could contribute to antisocial…

  2. Boyz to Men? Teaching to Restore Black Boys' Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladson Billings, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    Many schools see teaching African American boys as a daunting challenge. However, in many schools the primary focus of Black male children's educational experience is maintaining order and discipline rather than student learning and academic achievement. By the time Black boys reach the 3rd or 4th grade their teachers and other school personnel no…

  3. Developmental Trajectories of Girls' and Boys' Delinquency and Associated Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepler, Debra J.; Jiang, Depeng; Craig, Wendy M.; Connolly, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Developmental trajectories in delinquency through adolescence were studied along with family and peer relationship problems. Drawing from eight waves of data over seven years, we conducted trajectory analyses with a sample of 746 students (402 girls; 344 boys). Analyzing girls and boys together, a five-class model emerged: 60% of the adolescents…

  4. Effective Approaches to Motivate and Engage Reluctant Boys in Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to investigate the reasons why elementary-aged boys often lack motivation in literacy and to provide teachers with useful approaches to engage reluctant boys in reading and writing. Following a comprehensive search of multiple university data base search engines, the author critically evaluated 21 peer-reviewed…

  5. Connecting Boys with Books 2: Closing the Reading Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In his hugely successful "Connecting Boys with Books" (2003), the author delved into the problem that reading skills of pre-adolescent boys lag behind those of girls in the same age group. In this companion book, Sullivan digs even deeper, melding his own experiences as an activist with perspectives gleaned from other industry experts to help…

  6. The Problem of Boys' Literacy Underachievement: Raising Some Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Anne; Kehler, Michael; Martino, Wayne

    2010-01-01

    Boys' literacy underachievement continues to garner significant attention and has been identified by journalists, educational policymakers, and scholars in the field as the cause for much concern. It has been established that boys perform less well than girls on literacy benchmark or standardized tests. According to the National Assessment of…

  7. There Is the Hope: Abused Boys Finding God through Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Frank, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The author, a narrative arts educator, was teaching an after-school drama program to 11 abused boys in a residential treatment center. The program promised them the opportunity to tell and stage their own story. The author began by sharing a story about an abused boy he befriended in seminary who ended up killing himself. The following week, he…

  8. Do Boys Need Different Remedial Reading Instruction from Girls?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limbrick, Lisa; Wheldall, Kevin; Madelaine, Alison

    2012-01-01

    Recent inquiries into the underachievement of boys in reading have called into question whether they require different forms of reading instruction from girls. A number of reading programs and initiatives have been developed to address this issue, including programs based on increasing boys' motivation, improving behaviour, embracing the use of…

  9. Boys, Girls, and "Two Cultures" of Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winer, Abby C.; Phillips, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined differences in the quality of child care experienced by toddler boys and girls. Boys were more likely to be in lower-quality child care than girls, assessed with both setting-level measures and observations of caregiver-child interaction. A possible explanatory mechanism for the gender differences is suggested by evidence that…

  10. Closing the Achievement Gap between Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finley, Helen

    2011-01-01

    The critical role of accountability on schools has intensified the need to understand the impact of intervention strategies and best practices on literacy. Of particular concern is the underachievement of boys and identifying the learning differences between boys and girls. Examined in this quantitative study were the strategies and practices…

  11. Gender Identity Conflict in Young Boys following Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sack, William H.

    1985-01-01

    Three boys, aged 4-7, wanted to be feminine and dressed in women's clothes following a difficult divorce with custody and visitation strife. In brief psychotherapy, gender seemed related to issues of loss and aggression. On followup, all three were symptomatically improved. Gender disturbance symptom in boys may come about as regressive reaction…

  12. Boys Booked on Barbershops: A Cutting-Edge Literacy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinson, Sabrina A.

    2007-01-01

    The barbershop is a community institution, one of the most familiar and stable businesses in any neighborhood. Men and boys frequent barbershops, and barbers get to know their customers by name and personality. Boys Booked on Barbershops (B-BOB) is an innovative literacy program designed to make the most of a naturally occurring opportunity: the…

  13. The Relation of Parenting Transitions to Boys' Adjustment Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capaldi, D. M.

    The hypothesis that children are placed at increased risk for adjustment problems when parents divorce and remarry was tested with a sample of 206 boys in the fourth grade. It was also hypothesized that the relation of parenting transitions and boys' adjustment would be mediated by family management practices. Subjects attended schools in…

  14. Helping Muslim Boys Succeed: The Case for History Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Matthew L. N.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research suggests that Muslim boys have become the "New Folk Devils" of British education, who are characterised by resistance to formal education, especially at secondary level, and under-achievement. Since the 1990s, British Muslim boys would appear to have become increasingly alienated from compulsory schooling, especially in…

  15. Stylizing Standard Dutch by Moroccan Boys in Antwerp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaspers, Jurgen

    2006-01-01

    This article examines ethnographic data that show Belgian adolescents of Moroccan descent stylizing Standard Dutch. Analysis addresses the importance of this variety in Belgian-Flemish society and in the school these boys attended, and shows how in interviews with Moroccan boys the hegemonic status of this variety is generally accepted. In…

  16. Science Education in the Boy Scouts of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hintz, Rachel Sterneman

    2009-01-01

    This study of science education in the Boy Scouts of America focused on males with Boy Scout experience. The mixed-methods study topics included: merit badge standards compared with National Science Education Standards, Scout responses to open-ended survey questions, the learning styles of Scouts, a quantitative assessment of science content…

  17. Is Anxiety in Young Boys the New Normal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogel, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    As a psychologist of 35 years, Wendy Mogel discusses what she has discovered to be the new trend behind anxiety in young boys. Through hours of probing and pondering, neither hyperparenting nor early trauma (what one might think were logical causes of a young boy's anxiety) is the key to understanding this new trend. She explains that many…

  18. Do Girls and Boys need Different Electronic Books?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikk, Jaan; Luik, Piret

    2005-01-01

    Many researchers have found differences in the ways in which boys and girls use computers, but there has been no systematic investigation into what types of electronic textbook are good for girls and which are good for boys. This paper describes an experimental investigation in which 35 units from electronic textbooks on mathematics, history,…

  19. Failing Boys! Beyond Crisis, Moral Panic and Limiting Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    For some time now, school boards, Ministries of Education, and the popular media have been expressing concerns about failing boys and how best to meet their needs, framing these concerns in terms of a crisis in which boys are the "new disadvantaged". This perspective does not provide an accurate representation of the problem and, in fact, detracts…

  20. Handbook of Counseling Boys and Adolescent Males: A Practitioner's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Arthur M., Ed.; Kiselica, Mark S., Ed.

    This book serves as both a scholarly and practical guide for teachers, school psychologists, and parents on helping boys and adolescent males grow up. It provides practitioners with a comprehensive handbook on understanding and responding to the developmental, cultural, and special concerns of boys and adolescent males. It attempts to provide…

  1. Rehearsing Masculinity: Challenging the "Boy Code" in Dance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risner, Doug

    2007-01-01

    Dance education experiences of boys and male youth are investigated in terms of dominant constructions of contemporary Western masculinity and the potential limitations these hegemonic discourses may place on male participation. Recent research on boys and male youth in dance, although limited, suggests prevailing social stigma, heteronormative…

  2. Creating developmentally auspicious school environments for African American boys.

    PubMed

    Barbarin, Oscar A; Chinn, Lisa; Wright, Yamanda F

    2014-01-01

    African American (AA) boys face serious barriers to academic success, many of which are uncommon--or absent--in the lives of AA girls, other children of color, and European American children. In this chapter, we identify nine critical challenges to the successful education of AA boys and review possible solutions. In addition, we evaluate one particular reform, public single-sex schooling, as a possible solution to the challenges facing AA boys. Considering the evidence, we argue that recent efforts to expand the existence of public single-sex schools are rarely grounded in empirical findings. Given the lack of compelling evidence and the high stakes for AA boys, we call for more rigorous evaluations of the outcomes of sex-segregated programs that specifically target AA boys. PMID:25345001

  3. Behavioural Differences Between Online Sexual Groomers Approaching Boys and Girls.

    PubMed

    van Gijn-Grosvenor, Evianne L; Lamb, Michael E

    2016-07-01

    This study focused on the behavior of convicted offenders who had approached profiles of boys and girls online for offline sexual encounters. A detailed coding scheme was designed to code and analyze offenders' grooming behaviors in transcripts of conversational interactions between convicted offenders and 52 volunteer workers purporting to be girls and 49 volunteer workers who masqueraded as boys. Behavioral differences and commonalities associated with the gender of the groomed child decoys were examined. Results showed that offenders approaching boys were significantly older and pretended to be younger than offenders approaching girls. When compared to offenders grooming boy decoys, offenders grooming girl decoys typically built more rapport, were less sexually explicit, and approached sexual topics carefully and indirectly. Offenders also used more strategies to conceal contact with girls than with boys. PMID:27472510

  4. Can disruptive boys be helped to become competent?

    PubMed

    Tremblay, R E; McCord, J; Boileau, H; Charlebois, P; Gagnon, C; Le Blanc, M; Larivée, S

    1991-05-01

    The Montréal Longitudinal Study of Disruptive Boys, an experimental study, was designed to understand boys who were considered disruptive in kindergarten. One part of the study involved assessing effects of a preventive treatment program carried out during the boys' early years in primary school. This paper reports on the outcome of the randomized treatment experiment 3 years after treatments ended. Disruptive boys were randomly allocated to a treated group and two nontreated groups. Treatment consisted of parent training and training of boys for social skills, fantasy play and television viewing. Results suggest that the treatment program had some positive effects. Some of the improvements were not evident immediately after treatment ended. PMID:1852848

  5. Physical attractiveness of boys with gender identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Zucker, K J; Wild, J; Bradley, S J; Lowry, C B

    1993-02-01

    University students blind to group status rated boys with gender identity disorder and clinical control boys regarding their physical attractiveness. Ratings were made of the face and upper torso from photographs taken at the time of clinical assessment (mean age, 8.1 years). On all five adjectives (attractive, beautiful, cute, handsome, and pretty), boys with gender identity disorder were judged to be more attractive than were the clinical control boys. Attractiveness correlated with extent of behavioral femininity in the clinical control group, but not in the group of boys with gender identity disorder. The extent to which the group differences in attractiveness were due to objective, structural differences in facial attractiveness vs. socially created, or subjective, processes is discussed.

  6. The Relationship of Repetitive Behavior and Sensory Behavior to Parenting Stress in Mothers of Boys with Autism and Mothers of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Lolita Lisa

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between repetitive behaviors and sensory behavior to the parenting stress of mothers of boys with fragile X syndrome and mothers of boys with autism. Participants consisted of two groups: 51 mothers with boys diagnosed with fragile X syndrome (M = 71.3, SD = 56.5) and 30 mothers with boys diagnosed with…

  7. The development of the effect of peer monitoring on generosity differs among elementary school-age boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Takagishi, Haruto; Fujii, Takayuki; Koizumi, Michiko; Schug, Joanna; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Kameshima, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of peer monitoring on generosity in boys and girls aged 6-12 years. A total of 120 elementary school students played a one-shot dictator game (DG) with and without peer monitoring by classmates. Children decided how to divide 10 chocolates between themselves and a classmate either in a condition in which their allocations were visible to their peers, or in private. While the effect of peer monitoring on the allocation amount in the DG was clearly present in boys, it was not observed in girls. Furthermore, the effect of peer monitoring in boys appeared at the age of 9 years. These results suggest that the motivation to draw peers' attention plays a stronger role for older boys than for girls or younger boys. The potential roles of higher-order theory of mind, social roles, and emergence of secondary sex characteristics on the influence of peer monitoring on generosity shown by boys are discussed.

  8. The development of the effect of peer monitoring on generosity differs among elementary school-age boys and girls

    PubMed Central

    Takagishi, Haruto; Fujii, Takayuki; Koizumi, Michiko; Schug, Joanna; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Kameshima, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of peer monitoring on generosity in boys and girls aged 6–12 years. A total of 120 elementary school students played a one-shot dictator game (DG) with and without peer monitoring by classmates. Children decided how to divide 10 chocolates between themselves and a classmate either in a condition in which their allocations were visible to their peers, or in private. While the effect of peer monitoring on the allocation amount in the DG was clearly present in boys, it was not observed in girls. Furthermore, the effect of peer monitoring in boys appeared at the age of 9 years. These results suggest that the motivation to draw peers’ attention plays a stronger role for older boys than for girls or younger boys. The potential roles of higher-order theory of mind, social roles, and emergence of secondary sex characteristics on the influence of peer monitoring on generosity shown by boys are discussed. PMID:26175707

  9. No Boy Left Behind: The Impact of Boy-Friendly Strategies on the Gender Writing Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Janet Lee

    2012-01-01

    A study of the implementation of boy-friendly strategies for teaching writing was conducted in order to determine if the strategies would improve the writing achievement of fifth grade boys, thereby narrowing the gender achievement gap in writing. The strategies were categorized in four modalities: self-efficacy, perception/attitude, performance,…

  10. Eating disorder examination questionnaire: Norms and clinical reference data from adolescent boys and girls in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Mantilla, Emma Forsén; Birgegård, Andreas

    2016-05-30

    The study investigated norms and clinical reference values for the 14-day time frame version of the Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) specifically developed to suit adolescent populations. The EDE-Q is a self-report instrument measuring problematic eating behaviors and attitudes. A general population sample (N=487, 239 girls and 248 boys) and a clinical sample (N=1051, 989 girls and 62 boys) aged 12-14 years were analyzed. Descriptive statistics for EDE-Q subscales and Global scale, as well as key behaviors, are presented, along with sex differences and diagnostic differences (clinical sample). General population sample sex differences were consistent and medium to large, with some evidence of floor effects for boys. In the clinical sample there was a main effect of gender, with girls scoring higher overall. The covariate age accounted for more variance in EDE-Q subscale scores than did diagnostic group. Results are discussed in terms of the appropriateness of the EDE-Q for boys, and possible denial of illness among patients.

  11. Eating disorder examination questionnaire: Norms and clinical reference data from adolescent boys and girls in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Mantilla, Emma Forsén; Birgegård, Andreas

    2016-05-30

    The study investigated norms and clinical reference values for the 14-day time frame version of the Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) specifically developed to suit adolescent populations. The EDE-Q is a self-report instrument measuring problematic eating behaviors and attitudes. A general population sample (N=487, 239 girls and 248 boys) and a clinical sample (N=1051, 989 girls and 62 boys) aged 12-14 years were analyzed. Descriptive statistics for EDE-Q subscales and Global scale, as well as key behaviors, are presented, along with sex differences and diagnostic differences (clinical sample). General population sample sex differences were consistent and medium to large, with some evidence of floor effects for boys. In the clinical sample there was a main effect of gender, with girls scoring higher overall. The covariate age accounted for more variance in EDE-Q subscale scores than did diagnostic group. Results are discussed in terms of the appropriateness of the EDE-Q for boys, and possible denial of illness among patients. PMID:27137979

  12. Sexual abuse of boys in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: a hospital-based study.

    PubMed

    Collings, Steven J

    2005-01-01

    Objective - The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with child sexual abuse in a total sample of boys referred for medico-legal assessment in a peri-urban area of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Method - A retrospective analysis was undertaken of clinical and social work records for sexually abused boys presenting for medico-legal assessment at the Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Hospital (Phoenix, KwaZulu-Natal) during the period January 2001 to December 2003. Results - In the period reviewed, 131 boys reported an incident of sexual abuse with temporal trends indicating a significant increase in the incidence of reported abuse over the three year period. Most victims fell in the 4-11 year age category, anal penetration constituted the most common form of abuse (86% of cases), and perpetrators were predominantly persons who were known to the child. Conclusion - Study findings indicate that the sexual abuse of boys constitutes a sizeable and emerging problem in peri-urban communities in South Africa. Evidence suggests that increased rates of victimisation are associated with a breakdown in family support networks in the context of rapid urbanisation.

  13. Expressed emotion in mothers of boys with gender identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Owen-Anderson, Allison F H; Bradley, Susan J; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the construct of expressed emotion in mothers of 20 boys with gender identity disorder (GID), 20 clinical control boys with externalizing disorders (ECC), 20 community control boys (NCB), and 20 community control girls (NCG). The mean age of the children was 6.86 years (SD = 1.46, range = 4-8 years). The authors predicted that the mothers of boys with GID would demonstrate (a) higher percentages of expressed emotion, criticism, and emotional overinvolvement compared with normal controls; and (b) higher percentages of only emotional overinvolvement compared with mothers of boys with externalizing difficulties. They used the Five-Minute Speech Sample (Magana-Amato, A., 1986) to assess maternal expressed emotion. A significantly greater percentage of mothers in both clinical groups were classified as high expressed emotion than mothers in the NCB group. When the authors compared the GID group with all other groups combined, they found that the mothers of boys with GID were classified as having higher levels of a combination of both high or borderline emotional overinvolvement and low criticism than were mothers in the other 3 groups. The authors discuss expressed emotion as a maternal characteristic in the genesis and perpetuation of GID in boys.

  14. Pulmonary Aspergillosis in a Previously Healthy 13-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Rayment, Jonathan H.; Narang, Indra

    2016-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare, polygenic primary immunodeficiency. In this case report, we describe a previously healthy 13-year-old boy who presented with multifocal pulmonary aspergillosis and was subsequently diagnosed with an autosomal recessive form of chronic granulomatous disease. CGD has a variable natural history and age of presentation and should be considered when investigating a patient with recurrent or severe infections with catalase-positive organisms. PMID:27445540

  15. Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: a rare disorder presenting with focal convulsions.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Shakeel; Ali, Syed Rehan; Nadeem, Naila; Hamid, Muhammad

    2014-11-01

    Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (VEDS), previously called Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type-IV, is a heterogeneous group of heritable connective tissue disorders characterized by thin, translucent skin, easy bruising, arterial, intestinal, and/or uterine fragility. There is large vessel involvement that leads to arterial rupture often preceded by aneurysm, arteriovenous fistulae, or dissection. Noninvasive imaging studies such as CT angiography and MR angiography are preferred as diagnostic studies for this condition. We are reporting a 4 years old girl who was presented with right sided unilateral convulsions and hypertension. CT angiogram showed stenosis with post-stenotic dilatation of coeliac and superior mesenteric arteries. There were extensive calcified plaques with atherosclerotic changes in the segment of right common iliac artery with aneurysmal dilatation of celiac, superior mesenteric and common iliac artery. Radiological findings were consistent with vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. She was successfully managed with anti-hypertensive and anticonvulsants.

  16. Man-boy lovers: assessment, counseling, and psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    van Naerssen, A

    1990-01-01

    Clinical experiences with 36 males, between the ages of 21 and 60 are described. All of them felt an enduring sexual attraction for boys. Sixteen males were treated for sexual identity conflicts. For eight of them this ended in a positive self-labeling as pedophile, the others had severe problems with accepting sexuality as positive and lustful. Twenty males were treated for identity management problems and counseled how to handle their relationships with boys. Several modalities of interpersonal interaction in man-boy relationships are proposed and the ways conflicts can arise within these frames of reference are explored in counseling and psychotherapy.

  17. Parental Roles in the Acquisition of Primary Level Skills: An Exploratory View on the Low-Income Hispanic-American Families with 3 and 4-Year Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaman, Ahmed

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the nature and extent of Primary Learning Skill (PLS) that the Hispanic young children acquire who do not attend any early educational institutions. Literature reviewed for this paper indicated that Hispanic children were the poorest and the fastest growing group who often did not receive formal educational exposure due to…

  18. Intra-annual changes in biomass, carbon, and nitrogen dynamics at 4-year old switchgrass field trials in West Tennessee, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Garten, Jr, C. T.; Smith, Jeffery L.; Tyler, Donald D.; Amonette, James E.; Bailey, Vanessa L.; Brice, D. J.; Castro, H. F.; Graham, Robin L.; Gunderson, C. A.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Jardine, Philip M.; Jastrow, J. D.; Kerley, M. K.; Matamala, R.; Mayes, M. A.; Metting, F. B.; Miller, R. M.; Moran, K. K.; Post, W. M.; Sands, Ronald D.; Schadt, Christopher W.; Phillips, J. R.; Thomson, Allison M.; Vugteveen, T.; West, T. O.; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2010-02-15

    Switchgrass is a potential bioenergy crop that could promote soil C sequestration in some environments. We compared four cultivars on a well-drained Alfisol to test for differences in biomass, C, and N dynamics during the fourth growing season. There was no difference (P > 0.05) among cultivars and no significant cultivar x time interaction in analyses of dry mass, C stocks, or N stocks in aboveground biomass and surface litter. At the end of the growing season, mean (±SE) aboveground biomass was 2.1±0.13 kg m-2, and surface litter dry mass was approximately 50% of aboveground biomass. Prior to harvest, the live root:shoot biomass ratio was 0.76. There was no difference (P > 0.05) among cultivars for total biomass, C, and N stocks belowground. Total belowground biomass (90-cm soil depth) as well as coarse (greater than or equal to 1 mm diameter) and fine (< 1 mm diameter) live root biomass increased from April to October. Dead roots were less than 7% of live root biomass to a depth of 90 cm. Net production of total belowground biomass (505 ±132 g m-2) occurred in the last half of the growing season. The increase in total live belowground biomass (426 ±139 g m-2) was more or less evenly divided among rhizomes, coarse, and fine roots. The N budget for annual switchgrass production was closely balanced with 6.3 g N m-2 removed by harvest of aboveground biomass and 6.7 g N m-2 supplied by fertilization. At the location of our study in west Tennessee, intra-annual changes in biomass, C, and N stocks belowground were of greater importance to crop management for C sequestration than were differences among cultivars.

  19. How Do Alternative Ways of Responding Influence 3- and 4-Year-Olds' Performance on Tests of Executive Function and Theory of Mind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Daniel J.; Riggs, Kevin J.; Apperly, Ian A.; Graham, Kate; Geoghegan, Ceara

    2012-01-01

    A total of 69 preschool children were tested on measures of false belief understanding (the Unexpected Transfer task), inhibitory control (the Grass/Snow task), and strategic reasoning (the Windows task). For each task, children indicated their response either by pointing with their index finger or by using a nonstandard response mode (pointing…

  20. Explaining Variance in Long-Term Recall in 3- and 4-Year-Old Children: The Importance of Post-Encoding Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Larkina, Marina; Doydum, Ayzit O.

    2012-01-01

    Long-term recall is influenced by what originally was encoded as well as by the efficacy of retrieval processes. The possible explanatory role of post-encoding processes by which initially labile memory traces are stabilized and integrated into long-term memory (i.e., consolidated) has received relatively less research attention. In the current…

  1. Developing a General Outcome Measure of Growth in the Cognitive Abilities of Children 1 to 4 Years Old: The Early Problem-Solving Indicator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Charles R.; Walker, Dale; Carta, Judith J.; Higgins, Susan K.

    2006-01-01

    Proficiency in problem solving is an important outcome in early childhood necessary for cognitive and emotional development. The development of an individual growth and development indicator of problem solving for children 1 to 4 years of age is described. Based on the general outcome measurement approach (Deno, 1997), the measure is intended for…

  2. Imitation as a mechanism in cognitive development: a cross-cultural investigation of 4-year-old children’s rule learning

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhidan; Williamson, Rebecca A.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2015-01-01

    Children learn about the social and physical world by observing other people’s acts. This experiment tests both Chinese and American children’s learning of a rule. For theoretical reasons we chose the rule of categorizing objects by the weight. Children, age 4 years, saw an adult heft four visually-identical objects and sort them into two bins based on an invisible property—the object’s weight. Children who saw this categorization behavior were more likely to sort those objects by weight than were children who saw control actions using the same objects and the same bins. Crucially, children also generalized to a novel set of objects with no further demonstration, suggesting rule learning. We also report that high-fidelity imitation of the adult’s “hefting” acts may give children crucial experience with the objects’ weights, which could then be used to infer the more abstract rule. The connection of perception, action, and cognition was found in children from both cultures, which leads to broad implications for how the imitation of adults’ acts functions as a lever in cognitive development. PMID:26029132

  3. Relationship between Stereoscopic Vision, Visual Perception, and Microstructure Changes of Corpus Callosum and Occipital White Matter in the 4-Year-Old Very Low Birth Weight Children

    PubMed Central

    Kwinta, Przemko; Herman-Sucharska, Izabela; Leśniak, Anna; Klimek, Małgorzata; Karcz, Paulina; Durlak, Wojciech; Nitecka, Magdalena; Dutkowska, Grażyna; Kubatko-Zielińska, Anna; Romanowska-Dixon, Bożena; Pietrzyk, Jacek Józef

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To assess the relationship between stereoscopic vision, visual perception, and microstructure of the corpus callosum (CC) and occipital white matter, 61 children born with a mean birth weight of 1024 g (SD 270 g) were subjected to detailed ophthalmologic evaluation, Developmental Test of Visual Perception (DTVP-3), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at the age of 4. Results. Abnormal stereoscopic vision was detected in 16 children. Children with abnormal stereoscopic vision had smaller CC (CC length: 53 ± 6 mm versus 61 ± 4 mm; p < 0.01; estimated CC area: 314 ± 106 mm2 versus 446 ± 79 mm2; p < 0.01) and lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in CC (FA value of rostrum/genu: 0.7 ± 0.09 versus 0.79 ± 0.07; p < 0.01; FA value of CC body: 0.74 ± 0.13 versus 0.82 ± 0.09; p = 0.03). We found a significant correlation between DTVP-3 scores, CC size, and FA values in rostrum and body. This correlation was unrelated to retinopathy of prematurity. Conclusions. Visual perceptive dysfunction in ex-preterm children without major sequelae of prematurity depends on more subtle changes in the brain microstructure, including CC. Role of interhemispheric connections in visual perception might be more complex than previously anticipated. PMID:26451381

  4. Prenatal Exposure to Alcohol, Caffeine, Tobacco, and Aspirin: Effects on Fine and Gross Motor Preformance in 4-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Helen M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Multiple regression analyses of data from 449 children indicated statistically significant relationships between moderate levels of prenatal alcohol exposure and increased errors, increased latency, and increased total time on the Wisconsin Fine Motor Steadiness Battery and poorer balance on the Gross Motor Scale. (RH)

  5. 'Rules' for boys, 'guidelines' for girls: Gender differences in symptom reporting during childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Maclean, Alice; Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate

    2010-02-01

    The emergence of higher reported morbidity in females compared with males is a feature of adolescent health in a large proportion of the world's industrialised countries. In this paper, qualitative data from twenty-five single-sex focus groups (90 participants in total) conducted with 10-, 13-, and 15-year olds in two Scottish schools is used to explore whether symptom reporting is influenced by perceived societal gender- and age-related expectations and the social context of symptom experiences. The degree to which these factors can help explain quantitative evidence of increases in gender differences in symptom reporting during adolescence is also examined. Accounts suggested gender-related expectations act as strict 'rules' for boys and less prohibitive 'guidelines' for girls. An unexpected finding was the extent of similarity between these 'rules' and 'guidelines'. Both boys and girls presented themselves as pressured to react to symptoms in stoic, controlled and independent ways, particularly when in the company of their peers, and both perceived that boys and girls could incur negative consequences if seen to have physical (e.g. stomach ache) or, especially, psychological symptoms (e.g. feeling like crying). These qualitative findings do not suggest that girls are simply more willing than boys to report their symptoms as they get older, which is one potential explanation for the quantitative evidence of increasing gender differences in symptom reporting in adolescence. Rather, the findings suggest a need to highlight both the potentially damaging effects of gender stereotypes which make boys reluctant to seek help for physical and, particularly, psychological symptoms, and the misconception that girls are not similarly reluctant to report illness. PMID:19931962

  6. Measurements of Heart Rate and Accelerometry to Determine the Physical Activity Level in Boys Playing Paintball

    PubMed Central

    JARVI, MICHELLE; BROWN, GREGORY A; SHAW, BRANDON S.; SHAW, INA

    2013-01-01

    Paintball is a popular recreational sport played by 3.655 million Americans and may be sufficient physical activity to promote health. Paintball has been played as an organized sport since the 1980’s and is essentially a game of tag, except instead of touching an opponent by hand opponents are tagged by shooting them with a paintball that leaves a mark indicating who has been eliminated. A previous evaluation of paintball as physical activity had 13 subjects undergo a VO2max test to develop a heart rate (HR) /oxygen consumption relationship, and it was observed that heart rates during paintball were 68–73% of the measured maximal HR. The present study used accelerometry and HR monitors to evaluate the quantity and intensity of physical activity in boys playing paintball. Eleven boys (12.7 ± 1.0 y, 51.5 ± 11.3 kg, 161.8 ± 10.1 cm) engaged in a VO2max test to develop a HR/oxygen consumption correlation. On a separate day the boys played 7 games of outdoor paintball while wearing a HR monitor and accelerometer. The boys played paintball for 11.5 ± 6.2 minutes/game for a total of 80.6 ± 10.0 minutes of game play. Average HR during paintball play was 129.6 ± 6.6 beats/min, representing 39.9 ± 12.9% VO2max. Based on accelerometry, the boys accumulated 63.2 ± 15.6 minutes of moderate intensity activity and 2.6 ± 2.8 minutes of vigorous activity during paintball. These data suggest that playing paintball may be considered as physical activity that is > 3 METs, and thus health promoting. PMID:27182396

  7. Correlations Between Gene Expression and Mercury Levels in Blood of Boys With and Without Autism

    PubMed Central

    Green, Peter G.; Tian, Yingfang; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Pessah, Isaac N.; Hansen, Robin; Yang, Xiaowei; Teng, Jennifer; Gregg, Jeffrey P.; Ashwood, Paul; Van de Water, Judy; Sharp, Frank R.

    2009-01-01

    Gene expression in blood was correlated with mercury levels in blood of 2- to 5-year-old boys with autism (AU) compared to age-matched typically developing (TD) control boys. This was done to address the possibility that the two groups might metabolize toxicants, such as mercury, differently. RNA was isolated from blood and gene expression assessed on whole genome Affymetrix Human U133 expression microarrays. Mercury levels were measured using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed and partial correlations between gene expression and mercury levels were calculated, after correcting for age and batch effects. To reduce false positives, only genes shared by the ANCOVA models were analyzed. Of the 26 genes that correlated with mercury levels in both AU and TD boys, 11 were significantly different between the groups (P(Diagnosis*Mercury) ≤ 0.05). The expression of a large number of genes (n = 316) correlated with mercury levels in TD but not in AU boys (P ≤ 0.05), the most represented biological functions being cell death and cell morphology. Expression of 189 genes correlated with mercury levels in AU but not in TD boys (P ≤ 0.05), the most represented biological functions being cell morphology, amino acid metabolism, and antigen presentation. These data and those in our companion study on correlation of gene expression and lead levels show that AU and TD children display different correlations between transcript levels and low levels of mercury and lead. These findings might suggest different genetic transcriptional programs associated with mercury in AU compared to TD children. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12640-009-9137-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:19937285

  8. Nodular scabies: a classical case report in an adolescent boy.

    PubMed

    Ramachandra Reddy, Damodara; Ramachandra Reddy, Prathap

    2015-09-01

    This case report presents a classical case of nodular scabies in a 12 year boy who complained of itching for 20-21 days before presentation to the hospital. Application of Betnovate ointment (Betamethasone valerate 0.1 %) before presentation to the hospital had provided only 2-3 days of relief from itching. Dermatological examination revealed skin colored to erythematous papule of 3-4 mm on the body with predilection for web space of fingers and flexural areas and nodules on the scrotum and groin. Based on this, clinical diagnosis of scabies with nodular scabies was made on the child. The scraping obtained from the web-space of the child showed mite under the light microscope, which confirms the diagnosis. Treatment with topical permethrin 5 % lotion resulted in 50-70 % subsidence of itching within a day, and improvement in impetigo lesions of his father in 5 days. However, the scrotal and groin nodular lesion of the child persisted with severe itching. Treatment with topical steroid and tacrolimus 0.1 % ointment did not show much improvement. Intralesional injection of triamcinolone (5 mg/ml) on the nodule resulted in 30-40 % subsidence in itching and 50-60 % reduction in the size of the lesion over 2-3 weeks.

  9. Nodular scabies: a classical case report in an adolescent boy.

    PubMed

    Ramachandra Reddy, Damodara; Ramachandra Reddy, Prathap

    2015-09-01

    This case report presents a classical case of nodular scabies in a 12 year boy who complained of itching for 20-21 days before presentation to the hospital. Application of Betnovate ointment (Betamethasone valerate 0.1 %) before presentation to the hospital had provided only 2-3 days of relief from itching. Dermatological examination revealed skin colored to erythematous papule of 3-4 mm on the body with predilection for web space of fingers and flexural areas and nodules on the scrotum and groin. Based on this, clinical diagnosis of scabies with nodular scabies was made on the child. The scraping obtained from the web-space of the child showed mite under the light microscope, which confirms the diagnosis. Treatment with topical permethrin 5 % lotion resulted in 50-70 % subsidence of itching within a day, and improvement in impetigo lesions of his father in 5 days. However, the scrotal and groin nodular lesion of the child persisted with severe itching. Treatment with topical steroid and tacrolimus 0.1 % ointment did not show much improvement. Intralesional injection of triamcinolone (5 mg/ml) on the nodule resulted in 30-40 % subsidence in itching and 50-60 % reduction in the size of the lesion over 2-3 weeks. PMID:26345076

  10. Testicular microlithiasis in two boys with a chromosomal abnormality.

    PubMed

    Goede, Joery; Hack, W W M; Pierik, F H

    2012-04-01

    A nine and 13-year-old boy, previously diagnosed with 18q syndrome and an 11q deletion, respectively were diagnosed with testicular microlithiasis (TM). Both cases demonstrate that TM occurs in patients with various chromosomal abnormalities.

  11. 21. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS VIEW OF CALCINER VESSEL ON LOW BOY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS VIEW OF CALCINER VESSEL ON LOW BOY EN ROUTE TO FACILITY. INEEL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-60-2487. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. Co-Operative Conflict Resolution in Institutionalised Boy Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Natasa; Krivohlavy, Jaro

    1974-01-01

    In order to test the practicality of non-zero sum games for analyzing children's social behavior, the classic Prisoners' Dilemna Game performance were compared for institutionalized and home-reared boys. (DP)

  13. Reading ability and differential cognitive profiles of girls and boys.

    PubMed

    Kirchner-Nebot, T; Amador-Campos, J A

    1999-12-01

    To compare the differential cognitive and stylistic profiles of Spanish-speaking girls and boys and the relation between these profiles with subjects' reading scores 50 girls and 50 boys, 8 years old, were assessed on a reading test, the Children's Embedded Figures Test, and the Intellectual Test (Escala Diferencial del Rendimiento Intelectual). Analysis showed differential cognitive profiles for the two sexes. While girls used single, essentially verbal strategies for the reading activity, boys with high reading scores used verbal and perceptual strategies. In general, for girls verbal intelligence scores had correlated the highest with reading scores and lowest with independence on the Children's Embedded Figures Test. For boys the two tests contribute to the explained variance of reading scores. Curiously for scores in reading letters, reading strategies of the two groups seemed inverted.

  14. A Little Boy Eats Too Much. Indian Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holthaus, Mary L.

    Part of the Indian Culture Series of the Montana Council for Indian Education, the book is a simple story of a young Alaskan boy who makes oil lamps and his grandmother who sews with a needle. The little boy goes to hunt by the sea because they are hungry. He catches and eats a tomcod, two seals, and a whale, then returns to the igloo having eaten…

  15. Early progressive encephalopathy in boys and MECP2 mutations.

    PubMed

    Kankirawatana, P; Leonard, H; Ellaway, C; Scurlock, J; Mansour, A; Makris, C M; Dure, L S; Friez, M; Lane, J; Kiraly-Borri, C; Fabian, V; Davis, M; Jackson, J; Christodoulou, J; Kaufmann, W E; Ravine, D; Percy, A K

    2006-07-11

    MECP2 mutations mainly occur in females with Rett syndrome. Mutations have been described in 11 boys with progressive encephalopathy: seven of nine with affected sisters and two de novo. The authors report four de novo occurrences: three pathogenic and one potentially pathogenic. Common features include failure to thrive, respiratory insufficiency, microcephaly, and abnormal motor control. MECP2 mutations should be assessed in boys with progressive encephalopathy and one or more of respiratory insufficiency, abnormal movements or tone, and intractable seizures.

  16. Physiological Adaptations to Resistance Training in Prepubertal Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    dos Santos Cunha, Giovani; Sant'anna, Marcelo Morganti; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; de Oliveira, Norton Luis; dos Santos, Cinara Bos; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological adaptations of resistance training (RT) in prepubertal boys. Methods: Eighteen healthy boys were divided into RT (n = 9, M[subscript age] = 10.4 ± 0.5 years) and control (CTR; n = 9, M[subscript age] = 10.9 ± 0.7 years) groups. The RT group underwent a resistance training…

  17. Physiological profiles of young boys training in ballet.

    PubMed Central

    Pekkarinen, H; Litmanen, H; Mahlamäki, S

    1989-01-01

    In order to evaluate physiological characteristics in young male ballet dancers, 27 boys (aged 9 to 16 years) who participated in a boys' dance course during the Kuopio Dance and Music Festival in June 1988 were studied. In general, the boys had started dancing at the age of 8.6 years and had been training for 4.1 years. They had, on average, three dancing sessions per week and the mean time spent on dancing was four hours per week. In the study, some anthropometric measurements were taken, the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) was measured by a cycle ergometer test and the explosive strength and the mechanical power of lower extremities were evaluated by a jumping test. The results indicate that boys who train in ballet are in general moderately lean, have relatively small body size and a high degree of flexibility. The younger boys especially have only moderate aerobic power, but both explosive strength and mechanical power in leg muscles are good in ballet trained boys. PMID:2630002

  18. Type III Guyon Syndrome in 'B Boy' Break-Dancer: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hu, Soo-Young; Choi, Jin-Gyu; Son, Byung-Chul

    2015-10-01

    Although the musculoskeletal injuries associated with break-dancing which is gaining more popularity among adolescent and young people has been reported, the report regarding a peripheral nerve injury associated with breakdance is scarce. We report a rare case of a young amateur break-dancer, 'b-boy' who suffered from a painful paresthesia in his left hand, later diagnosed as type III Guyon's canal syndrome. A 23-year-old, right handed college man presented with a tenderness over the left hypothenar eminence and painful paresthesia over the ring and little fingers of 3 months duration. He trained himself as an amateur 'b boy' break-dancer for the last 10 months. Conservative management under the diagnosis of wrist sprain before presentation did not improve his hand pain. An magnetic resonance imaging and electrodiagnostic study revealed that painful paresthesia was caused by type III Guyon's canal syndrome, and 4 weeks of corticosteroid treatment was given with resolution of pain and paresthesia.

  19. Does Dent disease remain an underrecognized cause for young boys with focal glomerulosclerosis?

    PubMed

    Kubo, Kaori; Aizawa, Tomomi; Watanabe, Shojiro; Tsugawa, Koji; Tsuruga, Kazushi; Ito, Etsuro; Joh, Kensuke; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Focal glomerulosclerosis (FGS) is a histologic entity that causes significant proteinuria in children. Although its etiology varies, recent reports indicated that some young male patients with FGS had underlying Dent disease. We describe the case of a 14-year-old Japanese boy who presented with persistent non-nephrotic range proteinuria, hematuria, and renal insufficiency. The patient was initially diagnosed as having FGS associated with scattered tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Although he had neither nephrocalcinosis nor family history of renal disease including urolithiasis, increased excretion of urinary β2 microglobulin was noted. Genetic analysis for Dent disease indicated a mutation (c.726 + 1G > A) in Chloride Channel, Voltage-Sensitive 5 (CLCN5). Given a recent hypothesis that Dent disease may be underrecognized in children with FGS, a careful diagnostic evaluation for possible underlying Dent disease should be considered in young boys who present with persistent albuminuria associated with high-grade low-molecular-weight proteinuria. PMID:27324082

  20. Mental retardation in a boy with anterior cervical hypertrichosis.

    PubMed

    Corona-Rivera, J Román; González-Abarca, Sergio; Hernández-Rocha, Juan; García-Cruz, Diana; Corona-Rivera, Alfredo

    2005-05-15

    Anterior cervical hypertrichosis (ACH) is a rare form of localized hypertrichosis with 15 previously reported cases. ACH has been considered to be a dominant phenotype, either X-linked or autosomal [OMIM 600457]. ACH was associated with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) in one family, in which the proband also exhibited severe chorioretinal degeneration and optic atrophy, probably as a different entity [OMIM 239840]. A Mexican boy with congenital ACH associated with moderate mental retardation, abnormal EEG, mild microcephaly, hypertrichosis on the back, and hallux valgus is presented here. An equal sex ratio found in 16 reported cases as well as the suggestion of a paternal age effect in one report appear most consistent with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance for this trait. It remains unclear if isolated ACH, ACH-HMSN, or other associated findings reported in patients with ACH, including unusual features found in our case, are part of ACH or fortuitous associations, due to the small number of affected patients and different ascertainment biases present in previous reports. PMID:15800907