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Sample records for 4-year-old italian children

  1. False belief understanding and "cool" inhibitory control in 3-and 4-years-old Italian children.

    PubMed

    Bellagamba, Francesca; Addessi, Elsa; Focaroli, Valentina; Pecora, Giulia; Maggiorelli, Valentina; Pace, Beatrice; Paglieri, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    During preschool years, major developments occur in both executive function and theory of mind (ToM), and several studies have demonstrated a correlation between these processes. Research on the development of inhibitory control (IC) has distinguished between more cognitive, "cool" aspects of self-control, measured by conflict tasks, that require inhibiting an habitual response to generate an arbitrary one, and "hot," affective aspects, such as affective decision making, measured by delay tasks, that require inhibition of a prepotent response. The aim of this study was to investigate the relations between 3- and 4-year-olds' performance on a task measuring false belief understanding, the most widely used index of ToM in preschoolers, and three tasks measuring cognitive versus affective aspects of IC. To this end, we tested 101 Italian preschool children in four tasks: (a) the Unexpected Content False Belief task, (b) the Conflict task (a simplified version of the Day-Night Stroop task), (c) the Delay task, and (d) the Delay Choice task. Children's receptive vocabulary was assessed by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary test. Children's performance in the False Belief task was significantly related only to performance in the Conflict task, controlling for vocabulary and age. Importantly, children's performance in the Conflict task did not significantly correlate with their performance in the Delay task or in the Delay Choice task, suggesting that these tasks measure different components of IC. The dissociation between the Conflict and the Delay tasks may indicate that monitoring and regulating a cool process (as flexible categorization) may involve different abilities than monitoring and regulating a hot process (not touching an available and highly attractive stimulus or choosing between a smaller immediate option and a larger delayed one). Moreover, our findings support the view that "cool" aspects of IC and ToM are interrelated, extending to an Italian sample of

  2. False belief understanding and “cool” inhibitory control in 3-and 4-years-old Italian children

    PubMed Central

    Bellagamba, Francesca; Addessi, Elsa; Focaroli, Valentina; Pecora, Giulia; Maggiorelli, Valentina; Pace, Beatrice; Paglieri, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    During preschool years, major developments occur in both executive function and theory of mind (ToM), and several studies have demonstrated a correlation between these processes. Research on the development of inhibitory control (IC) has distinguished between more cognitive, “cool” aspects of self-control, measured by conflict tasks, that require inhibiting an habitual response to generate an arbitrary one, and “hot,” affective aspects, such as affective decision making, measured by delay tasks, that require inhibition of a prepotent response. The aim of this study was to investigate the relations between 3- and 4-year-olds’ performance on a task measuring false belief understanding, the most widely used index of ToM in preschoolers, and three tasks measuring cognitive versus affective aspects of IC. To this end, we tested 101 Italian preschool children in four tasks: (a) the Unexpected Content False Belief task, (b) the Conflict task (a simplified version of the Day–Night Stroop task), (c) the Delay task, and (d) the Delay Choice task. Children’s receptive vocabulary was assessed by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary test. Children’s performance in the False Belief task was significantly related only to performance in the Conflict task, controlling for vocabulary and age. Importantly, children’s performance in the Conflict task did not significantly correlate with their performance in the Delay task or in the Delay Choice task, suggesting that these tasks measure different components of IC. The dissociation between the Conflict and the Delay tasks may indicate that monitoring and regulating a cool process (as flexible categorization) may involve different abilities than monitoring and regulating a hot process (not touching an available and highly attractive stimulus or choosing between a smaller immediate option and a larger delayed one). Moreover, our findings support the view that “cool” aspects of IC and ToM are interrelated, extending to an

  3. Cognitive Socialisation of 4-Year-Old Children in Nursery School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, H. F.; Wilkinson, J. E.

    Using a test-observe-test design with a sample of 29 4-year-old children, this study examined the relationship between children's activity choices in a typical progressive nursery school and their intellectual performance, socioeconomic status (SES), and sex. An attempt was made to identify those experiential factors associated with changes in…

  4. Effects of a Full-Day Preschool Program on 4-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herry, Yves; Maltais, Claire; Thompson, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the effects of a full-day preschool program on 4-year-old children. The study compared the development of a group of children (N = 403) who attended the preschool program on a half-day basis during the 1999-2000 school year (the last year the half-day program was in place) with the development of a group of children (N = 418)…

  5. Total body fat content versus BMI in 4-year-old healthy Swedish children.

    PubMed

    Forsum, Elisabet; Flinke Carlsson, Eva; Henriksson, Hanna; Henriksson, Pontus; Löf, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity, a worldwide problem, is generally identified using BMI (body mass index). However, this application of BMI has been little investigated in children below 5 years of age due to a lack of appropriate methods to assess body composition. Therefore, we used air displacement plethysmography (ADP) to study 4.4-year old boys and girls since this method is accurate in young children if they accept the requirements of the measurement. The purpose was to analyze the relationship between BMI and body fat in these children. Body composition was assessed in 76 (43 boys, 33 girls) of the 84 children brought to the measurement session. Boys and girls contained 25.2 ± 4.7 and 26.8 ± 4.0% body fat, respectively. BMI-based cut-offs for overweight could not effectively identify children with a high body fat content. There was a significant (P < 0.001) but weak (r = 0.39) correlation between BMI and body fat (%). In conclusion, requirements associated with a successful assessment of body composition by means of ADP were accepted by most 4-year-olds. Furthermore, BMI-based cut-offs for overweight did not effectively identify children with a high body fatness and BMI explained only a small proportion of the variation in body fat (%) in this age group.

  6. Traffic-related air pollution is related to interrupter resistance in 4-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Eenhuizen, Esther; Gehring, Ulrike; Wijga, Alet H; Smit, Henriette A; Fischer, Paul H; Brauer, Michael; Koppelman, Gerard H; Kerkhof, Marjan; de Jongste, Johan C; Brunekreef, Bert; Hoek, Gerard

    2013-06-01

    Outdoor air pollution has been associated with decrements in lung function and growth of lung function in school-age children. Lung function effects have not been examined in preschoolers, with the exception of one study on minute ventilation in newborns. Our goal was to assess the relationship between long- and short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and interrupter resistance in 4-year-old children. Lung function was measured using the interrupter resistance method in children participating in a Dutch birth cohort study. Long-term average air pollution concentrations of fine particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide and soot at the residential address at birth were assessed using land-use regression models. Daily average air pollution concentrations on the day of clinical examination were obtained from the Dutch National Air Quality Monitoring Network. Significant associations were found between long-term average air pollution concentrations and interrupter resistance. Interrupter resistance increased by 0.04 kPa·s·L(-1) (95% CI 0.01-0.07) per interquartile range increase (3.3 μg·m(-3)) in fine particle concentration. Short-term exposure was not associated with interrupter resistance. Long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution was associated with increased interrupter resistance in 4-year-old children, supporting previous birth cohort studies reporting effects of air pollution on subjectively reported respiratory symptoms in preschool children.

  7. Experience with headwear influences the other-race effect in 4-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Suhrke, Janina; Freitag, Claudia; Lamm, Bettina; Teiser, Johanna; Poloczek, Sonja; Fassbender, Ina; Teubert, Manuel; Voehringer, Isabel; Keller, Heidi; Knopf, Monika; Lohaus, Arnold; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2015-09-01

    The other-race effect (ORE) implies the better recognition of faces of one's own race compared with faces of a different race. It demonstrates that face recognition is shaped by daily experience with human faces. Such experience mainly includes structural information of own-race faces and also information on the way faces are usually seen, as a whole or partly covered by scarves or other headwear. In two experiments, we investigated how this mode of presentation is related to the occurrence of the ORE during childhood. In Experiment 1, 4-year-old German children (N = 104), accustomed to seeing faces without headwear in daily life, were asked to recognize female Caucasian or African faces, presented either as a whole or wearing a woolen hat, in a forced choice paradigm. In Experiment 2, 4-year-olds from rural Cameroon (N = 70), accustomed to seeing faces with and without headwear in daily life, participated in the same task. In both groups, the ORE was present in the familiar mode of presentation, that is, in whole faces in German children and in whole and partly covered faces in Cameroonian children. The results are discussed in relation to the role of experience for face recognition processes.

  8. Cooperation, but not competition, improves 4-year-old children's reasoning about others' diverse desires.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xinyi; Li, Pengchao; He, Jie; Shen, Mowei

    2017-05-01

    Three experiments examined whether cooperation or competition affects 4-year-old children's reasoning about other people's desires-which differed from their own-in a gift selection task. Experiment 1 (N=72) found that children's performance in selecting an adult-preferred gift for an adult experimenter was enhanced by a short period of preceding cooperative, but not competitive or individualistic, play with the experimenter. Experiment 2 (N=24) ruled out the alternative explanation that children resisted satisfying their opponent after competition. Experiment 3 (N=48) replicated the cooperation advantage in selecting a gift for someone else, indicating that children's understanding of diverse desires was generally improved by cooperation but not competition. These findings support the constructivist view of social development and highlight the advantage of cooperation.

  9. Visual access trumps gender in 3- and 4-year-old children's endorsement of testimony.

    PubMed

    Terrier, Nathalie; Bernard, Stéphane; Mercier, Hugo; Clément, Fabrice

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have investigated how preschoolers weigh social cues against epistemic cues when taking testimony into account. For instance, one study showed that 4- and 5-year-olds preferred to endorse the testimony of an informant who had the same gender as the children; by contrast, when the gender cue conflicted with an epistemic cue--past reliability--the latter trumped the former. None of the previous studies, however, has shown that 3-year-olds can prioritize an epistemic cue over a social cue. In Experiment 1, we offer the first demonstration that 3-year-olds favor testimony from a same-gender informant in the absence of other cues. In Experiments 2 and 3, an epistemic cue-visual access--was introduced. In those experiments, 3- and 4-year-olds endorsed the testimony of the informant with visual access regardless of whether it was a same-gender informant (Experiment 3) or a different-gender informant (Experiment 2). These results demonstrate that 3-year-olds are able to give more weight to an epistemic cue than to a social cue when evaluating testimony.

  10. Somatosensory Evoked Field in Response to Visuotactile Stimulation in 3- to 4-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Remijn, Gerard B.; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Shitamichi, Kiyomi; Ueno, Sanae; Yoshimura, Yuko; Nagao, Kikuko; Tsubokawa, Tsunehisa; Kojima, Haruyuki; Higashida, Haruhiro; Minabe, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    A child-customized magnetoencephalography system was used to investigate somatosensory evoked field (SEF) in 3- to 4-year-old children. Three stimulus conditions were used in which the children received tactile-only stimulation to their left index finger or visuotactile stimulation. In the two visuotactile conditions, the children received tactile stimulation to their finger while they watched a video of tactile stimulation applied either to someone else’s finger (the finger-touch condition) or to someone else’s toe (the toe-touch condition). The latencies and source strengths of equivalent current dipoles (ECDs) over contralateral (right) somatosensory cortex were analyzed. In the preschoolers who provided valid ECDs, the stimulus conditions induced an early-latency ECD occurring between 60 and 68 ms mainly with an anterior direction. We further identified a middle-latency ECD between 97 and 104 ms, which predominantly had a posterior direction. Finally, initial evidence was found for a late-latency ECD at about 139–151 ms again more often with an anterior direction. Differences were found in the source strengths of the middle-latency ECDs among the stimulus conditions. For the paired comparisons that could be formed, ECD source strength was more pronounced in the finger-touch condition than in the tactile-only and the toe-touch conditions. Although more research is necessary to expand the data set, this suggests that visual information modulated preschool SEF. The finding that ECD source strength was higher when seen and felt touch occurred to the same body part, as compared to a different body part, might further indicate that connectivity between visual and tactile information is indexed in preschool somatosensory cortical activity, already in a somatotopic way. PMID:24715860

  11. Maternal child-feeding practices and dietary inadequacy of 4-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Durão, Catarina; Andreozzi, Valeska; Oliveira, Andreia; Moreira, Pedro; Guerra, António; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the association between maternal perceived responsibility and child-feeding practices and dietary inadequacy of 4-year-old children. We studied 4122 mothers and children enrolled in the population-based birth cohort - Generation XXI (Porto, Portugal). Mothers self-completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire and a scale on covert and overt control, and answered to a food frequency questionnaire in face-to-face interviews. Using dietary guidelines for preschool children, adequacy intervals were defined: fruit and vegetables (F&V) 4-7 times/day; dairy 3-5 times/day; meat and eggs 5-10 times/week; fish 2-4 times/week. Inadequacy was considered as below or above these cut-points. For energy-dense micronutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDF), a tolerable limit was defined (<6 times/week). Associations between maternal perceived responsibility and child-feeding practices (restriction, monitoring, pressure to eat, overt and covert control) and children's diet were examined by logistic regression models. After adjustment for maternal BMI, education, and diet, and children's characteristics (sex, BMI z-scores), restriction, monitoring, overt and covert control were associated with 11-18% lower odds of F&V consumption below the interval defined as adequate. Overt control was also associated with 24% higher odds of their consumption above it. Higher perceived responsibility was associated with higher odds of children consuming F&V and dairy above recommendations. Pressure to eat was positively associated with consumption of dairy above the adequate interval. Except for pressure to eat, maternal practices were associated with 14-27% lower odds of inadequate consumption of EDF. In conclusion, children whose mothers had higher levels of covert control, monitoring, and restriction were less likely to consume F&V below recommendations and EDF above tolerable limits. Higher overt control and pressure to eat were associated, respectively, with higher

  12. Syntactic Priming in 3- and 4-Year-Old Children: Evidence for Abstract Representations of Transitive and Dative Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimpi, Priya M.; Gamez, Perla B.; Huttenlocher, Janellen; Vasilyeva, Marina

    2007-01-01

    The current studies used a syntactic priming paradigm with 3- and 4-year-old children. In Experiment 1, children were asked to describe a series of drawings depicting transitive and dative relations to establish baseline production levels. In Experiment 2, an experimenter described a similar series of drawings using one of two syntactic forms…

  13. Sensitive Perception of a Person's Direction of Walking by 4-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Wurnitsch, Nicole; Gopnik, Alison; Whitney, David

    2013-01-01

    Watch any crowded intersection, and you will see how adept people are at reading the subtle movements of one another. While adults can readily discriminate small differences in the direction of a moving person, it is unclear if this sensitivity is in place early in development. Here, we present evidence that 4-year-old children are sensitive to…

  14. Perception of synthetic vowel exemplars of 4-year-old children and estimation of their corresponding vocal tract shapes.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Richard S

    2006-11-01

    Formant scalings for vowel exemplars of American 4 year olds who were imitating adult production were used along with published data of American adult male vowel production to synthesize /a, ae, u, i/. Other vowel exemplars were also synthesized. Adult listeners were asked to categorize these synthetic vowels in a forced choice task. With some exceptions, the formant frequencies preferred for the vowels /a, ae, u, i/ were close to the published data. In order to gain insight on children's articulation during imitation of vowels /a, ae, u, i/, a five-tube model was used in an algorithm to infer vocal tract shape from the first three formant frequencies of the adult productions, the formant frequencies derived for 4 year olds by scaling, and formant frequencies for 4 year olds derived based on the listening experiments. It was found that the rear tube length for the children, in proportionate terms, was nearly always greater than that of the adult. The rear tube length was proportionately twice as long in children compared to adults for the vowel /u/. Tongue root flexibility and the oblique angle between the pharynx and mouth may be more important than pharynx length in determining formant scalings for 4 year old children.

  15. Effectiveness of a Fundamental Motor Skill Intervention for 4-Year-Old Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremer, Emily; Balogh, Robert; Lloyd, Meghann

    2015-01-01

    A wait-list control experimental design was employed to investigate the effectiveness of a fundamental motor skill intervention at improving the motor skills, adaptive behavior, and social skills of 4-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (experimental n?=?5, control n?=?4); the impact of intervention intensity was also explored. The…

  16. Three- and 4-year-old children's response tendencies to various interviewers.

    PubMed

    Okanda, Mako; Kanda, Takayuki; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Itakura, Shoji

    2013-09-01

    Unlike young preschoolers, older preschoolers may exhibit a response bias under social pressure from authoritative interviewers. To examine this, 3- and 4-year-old preschoolers were asked yes-no questions about familiar and unfamiliar objects in three conditions. In one condition an adult asked them questions in a live interaction, in a second condition an adult asked questions via video, and in a third condition a robot asked questions via video. The 3-year-olds exhibited a yes bias-a tendency to say "yes"-in nearly all conditions. The only exception was when they were asked questions about unfamiliar objects by the human interviewer via video, where they did not respond in a biased manner. The 4-year-olds exhibited a yes bias in only one condition-when they were questioned by a live human interviewer about both objects. They also exhibited a nay-saying bias when asked questions about unfamiliar objects in both video conditions, and they did not show any response bias in other conditions. The results suggest that the social pressure from an authoritative adult in a live interaction is problematic.

  17. Fathers' challenging parenting behavior prevents social anxiety development in their 4-year-old children: a longitudinal observational study.

    PubMed

    Majdandžić, Mirjana; Möller, Eline L; de Vente, Wieke; Bögels, Susan M; van den Boom, Dymphna C

    2014-02-01

    Recent models on parenting propose different roles for fathers and mothers in the development of child anxiety. Specifically, it is suggested that fathers' challenging parenting behavior, in which the child is playfully encouraged to push her limits, buffers against child anxiety. In this longitudinal study, we explored whether the effect of challenging parenting on children's social anxiety differed between fathers and mothers. Fathers and mothers from 94 families were separately observed with their two children (44 % girls), aged 2 and 4 years at Time 1, in three structured situations involving one puzzle task and two games. Overinvolved and challenging parenting behavior were coded. Child social anxiety was measured by observing the child's response to a stranger at Time 1, and half a year later at Time 2, and by parental ratings. In line with predictions, father's challenging parenting behavior predicted less subsequent observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. Mothers' challenging behavior, however, predicted more observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old. Parents' overinvolvement at Time 1 did not predict change in observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. For the 2-year-old child, maternal and paternal parenting behavior did not predict subsequent social anxiety, but early social anxiety marginally did. Parent-rated social anxiety was predicted by previous parental ratings of social anxiety, and not by parenting behavior. Challenging parenting behavior appears to have favorable effects on observed 4-year-old's social anxiety when displayed by the father. Challenging parenting behavior emerges as an important focus for future research and interventions.

  18. A Measure of Inspection Time in 4-Year-Old Children: The Benny Bee IT Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Sarah E.; Turley, Christopher; Nettelbeck, Ted; Burns, Nicholas R.

    2009-01-01

    Inspection time (IT) measures speed of information processing without the confounding influence of motor speed. While IT has been found to relate to cognitive abilities in adults and older children, no measure of IT has been validated for use with children younger than 6 years. This study examined the validity of a new measure of IT for preschool…

  19. Intelligibility of 4-Year-Old Children with and without Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustad, Katherine C.; Schueler, Brynn; Schultz, Laurel; DuHadway, Caitlin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examined speech intelligibility in typically developing (TD) children and 3 groups of children with cerebral palsy (CP) who were classified into speech/language profile groups following Hustad, Gorton, and Lee (2010). Questions addressed differences in transcription intelligibility scores among groups, the effects of utterance…

  20. Magnesium metabolism in 4-year-old to 8-year-old children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Magnesium (Mg) is a key factor in bone health, but few studies have evaluated Mg intake or absorption and their relationship with bone mineral content (BMC) or bone mineral density (BMD) in children. We measured Mg intake, absorption, and urinary excretion in a group of children 4 to 8 years of age....

  1. [MusicPlayTherapy--a parent-child psychotherapy for children 0-4 years old].

    PubMed

    Stumptner, Katrin; Thomsen, Cornelia

    2005-10-01

    The early stage of building up the parent-child relationship is especially important. It is the basis for the child's development of the ability to relate to others and his or her further emotional, social and cognitive development. In this important early phase various risk factors may alienate parents from their intuitive parental competence towards their children. Such interaction problems indicate an intervention in the form of parent-children psychotherapy. This constitutes an entry point for the concept of MusicPlayTherapy (MPT): The early relationship is characterized mainly by complex communication sequences that address the senses at all levels. Therefore, the MPT concept integrates music as medium to communicate and opens up a playing space for play that allows emotions and experiences to be expressed. The components of music such as rhythm, sound, and melody stimulate babies and toddlers to express, play, and communicate preverbally. We work with the child and a parent in the MusicPlayTherapy sessions. Parents learn again to play and thereby learn to reach their children emotionally and to communicate with them. We complement the therapy sessions by counselling sessions with both parents.

  2. Detecting language disorders in 4-year-old French children. An application of the ERTL-4.

    PubMed

    Maeder, C; Roy, B

    2000-03-01

    This paper discusses the development of the ERTL-4 (Epreuve de repérage des troubles du langage lors du bilan medical de l'enfant de quatre ans), a measure developed in Nancy, France specifically for the purpose of identifying children with language difficulties in the 3.9-4.6 years age range. The test has been designed to identify 10-15% of the population and allows the assessing primary care doctor to ascertain whether difficulties occur in language, voice, fluency, hearing or perception on the basis of a 5-min assessment.

  3. Gait parameters associated with balance in healthy 2- to 4-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Guffey, Keegan; Regier, Michael; Mancinelli, Corrie; Pergami, Paola

    2016-01-01

    The use of validated measurements of gait and balance are crucial to establish baseline function and assess effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. Gait in children changes with motor development requiring frequent observations to effectively track progress. Standardized baseline spatiotemporal measurements and a greater understanding of the relationship between gait and balance would provide important feedback to clinicians regarding the effectiveness of rehabilitation and guide treatment modifications. 84 subjects (2.0-4.9 years) walked along the GAITRite(®), a walkway that records spatiotemporal parameters. The Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS) was administered to assess balance. Comparison of spatiotemporal parameter means between age groups showed trends associated with motor development similar to the ones described in the literature such as decreased cadence and increased step/stride length with increasing age. However, no significant differences in normalized spatiotemporal parameters were found between age groups. Age, leg length, cadence, step/stride length, step/stance time, and single/double support time showed significant correlation with balance scores. When the parameters were grouped into spatial, temporal, and age-related components using principal components analysis and included in a multiple regression model, they significantly predicted 51% of the balance score variance. Age-related components most strongly predicted balance outcomes. We suggest that balance can potentially be evaluated by assessment of spatial, temporal, and age-related characteristics of gait such as step length, cadence, and leg length. This suggests the possibility of developing new gait measurement technology that could provide functional assessment and track improvements during rehabilitation regimens. If the same model can be applied to monitor treatment efficacy in children with gait abnormalities remains to be addressed.

  4. Effectiveness of a fundamental motor skill intervention for 4-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bremer, Emily; Balogh, Robert; Lloyd, Meghann

    2015-11-01

    A wait-list control experimental design was employed to investigate the effectiveness of a fundamental motor skill intervention at improving the motor skills, adaptive behavior, and social skills of 4-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (experimental n = 5, control n = 4); the impact of intervention intensity was also explored. The experimental group significantly improved their object manipulation and overall motor scores from pre- to post-intervention. The wait-list control design revealed no group-by-time interactions; however, with the groups combined time was a significant factor for all motor variables. There were no significant changes in adaptive behavior and social skills. These preliminary findings suggest that a fundamental motor skill intervention may benefit young children with autism spectrum disorder. Future research with larger samples is warranted.

  5. Portion size variably affects food intake of 6-year-old and 4-year-old children in Kunming, China.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lindsey; Conroy, Katharine; Wen, Hongmei; Rui, Li; Humphries, Debbie

    2013-10-01

    Age and portion size have been found to influence food intake in American children but have not been examined in an international context. This study evaluated the association between age and the effects of portion size on the food intake of kindergarteners in Kunming, China. Using a within-subjects crossover design in a classroom setting, 173 children in two age groups, mean age 4.2 years and 6.1 years, were served a predefined reference, small (-30%) and large (+30%) portion of rice, vegetables, and a protein source during lunchtime over three consecutive days. Each portion was weighed before and after the meal to determine amount of food consumed. Linear mixed modeling, controlling for repeated measures and clustering by classroom, was used to compare food intake under small and large portion size conditions to the reference portion. Children ate significantly less food when served small portions. When served a large portion, 6-year-old children increased food intake while 4-year-old children decreased food intake in comparison to the reference portion. Findings indicate that portion size affects food intake in Chinese children 4-6-years old. Older children show larger increases in food intake with increased portion size than do younger children.

  6. Correlates of home and neighbourhood-based physical activity in UK 3–4-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Hesketh, Kathryn R.; van Sluijs, Esther M.F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Identifying context-specific correlates of home- and neighbourhood-based physical activity in preschool-aged children may help improve intervention program development for these settings. Methods: A total of 153 3–4-year-old children were recruited through preschool settings in Cambridgeshire (January–July 2013). Children wore Actiheart accelerometers for ≤7 days to assess their sedentary time (ST), light-(LPA) and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). A parent-completed questionnaire assessed correlates across the ecological model and the child’s preschool attendance during the measurement week. Only accelerometer data for times when children were at home were used. Multilevel models (Level 1: days; Level 2: child) examined associations between maternal-reported exposure variables and each outcome (children’s home- and neighbourhood-based ST, LPA and MVPA) (main analysis). Further analyses included the subsample of children with complete paternal correlates data (father analysis). Results: In the main analyses, children with older siblings engaged in less ST. Children whose mothers reported being ‘moderately inactive’ or ‘active’ (vs. inactive) engaged in less LPA, while children whose mothers worked >35 h week−1 engaged in less MVPA. More equipment at home was associated with lower LPA but greater MVPA. In the father analysis, father’s television viewing before 6 pm was associated with greater ST and less MVPA in children; the negative association between mother’s activity and children’s LPA was retained. Conclusion: Family demographics and parental behaviours appear to have the strongest association with children’s home- and neighbourhood-based ST, LPA and MVPA. This study further highlights the importance of examining both maternal and paternal behaviours. PMID:27175002

  7. Calibration and Validation of a Wrist- and Hip-Worn Actigraph Accelerometer in 4-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Elin; Larisch, Lisa-Marie; Marcus, Claude; Hagströmer, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To determine time spent at different physical activity intensities, accelerometers need calibration. The aim of this study was to develop and cross-validate intensity thresholds for the Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer for wrist and hip placement in four-year-old children. Methods In total 30 children (49 months, SD 3.7) were recruited from five preschools in Stockholm. Equipped with an accelerometer on the wrist and another on the hip, children performed three indoor activities and one free-play session while being video recorded. Subsequently, physical activity intensity levels were coded every 5th second according to the Children’s Activity Rating Scale. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves was used to develop wrist and hip intensity thresholds, the upper threshold for sedentary, and lower threshold for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), for the vertical axis (VA) and for the vector magnitude (VM). A leave-one-out method was used to cross-validate the thresholds. Results Intensity thresholds for wrist placement were ≤ 178 (VA) and ≤ 328 (VM) for sedentary and ≥ 871 (VA) and ≥ 1393 (VM) counts/5 seconds for MVPA. The corresponding thresholds for hip placement were ≤ 43 (VA) and ≤ 105 (VM) for sedentary and ≥ 290 (VA) and ≥ 512 (VM) for MVPA. The quadratic weighted Kappa was 0.92 (95% CI 0.91–0.93) (VA) and 0.95 (95% CI 0.94–0.96) (VM) for the wrist-worn accelerometer and 0.76 (98% CI 0.74–0.77) and 0.86 (95% CI 0.85–0.87) for the hip-worn. Conclusion Using wrist placement and the VM when measuring physical activity with accelerometry in 4-year-old children is recommended. PMID:27617962

  8. The Everyday Mathematical Experiences and Understandings of Three, 4-Year-Old, African-American Children from Working-Class Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benigno, Grace Marie R.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the everyday mathematical experiences and understandings of three, 4-year-old, African-American children from working-class backgrounds. The study drew on Street, Baker, and Tomlin's (2005) broad, ideological model of mathematics as "social" and their analytic concepts of mathematical events (units of…

  9. Looking but Not Seeing: Atypical Visual Scanning and Recognition of Faces in 2 and 4-Year-Old Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chawarska, Katarzyna; Shic, Frederick

    2009-01-01

    This study used eye-tracking to examine visual scanning and recognition of faces by 2- and 4-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (N = 44) and typically developing (TD) controls (N = 30). TD toddlers at both age levels scanned and recognized faces similarly. Toddlers with ASD looked increasingly away from faces with age,…

  10. Imitation as a mechanism in cognitive development: a cross-cultural investigation of 4-year-old children's rule learning.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhidan; Williamson, Rebecca A; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    Children learn about the social and physical world by observing other people's acts. This experiment tests both Chinese and American children's learning of a rule. For theoretical reasons we chose the rule of categorizing objects by the weight. Children, age 4 years, saw an adult heft four visually-identical objects and sort them into two bins based on an invisible property-the object's weight. Children who saw this categorization behavior were more likely to sort those objects by weight than were children who saw control actions using the same objects and the same bins. Crucially, children also generalized to a novel set of objects with no further demonstration, suggesting rule learning. We also report that high-fidelity imitation of the adult's "hefting" acts may give children crucial experience with the objects' weights, which could then be used to infer the more abstract rule. The connection of perception, action, and cognition was found in children from both cultures, which leads to broad implications for how the imitation of adults' acts functions as a lever in cognitive development.

  11. Classification of Speech and Language Profiles in 4-Year-Old Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Prospective Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustad, Katherine C.; Gorton, Kristin; Lee, Jimin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors proposed and tested a preliminary speech and language classification system for children with cerebral palsy. Method: Speech and language assessment data were collected in a laboratory setting from 34 children with cerebral palsy (CP; 18 male, 16 female) with a mean age of 54 months (SD = 1.8). Measures of…

  12. Subtypes of Severe Speech and Language Impairments: Psychometric Evidence from 4-Year-Old Children in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Daal, John; Verhoeven, Ludo; van Balkom, Hans

    2004-01-01

    Most, if not all, of the studies of subtypes of children with language impairments have been conducted with English-speaking children. The possibility and validity of identified subtypes for non-English clinical populations are, as yet, unknown. This study was designed to provide cross-linguistic evidence of language subtypes. A broad battery of…

  13. [Social inequalities in health in 4 year-old children in the Hauts-de-Seine (France)].

    PubMed

    Bois, C; Guillemot, G

    2013-06-01

    The social effects on health described in France on newborn and 5- to 6-year-old children suggest the existence of a social gradient among the youngest children. The favoured, though unequal, social situation of the department of the Hauts-de-Seine (France), makes it particularly adapted to this study. A survey, conducted in 2010 by the departmental service of maternal and infantile protection (PMI) on a representative sample of 1227 children, who received check-ups in their first or second year of nursery school, reveals a significant increase of overweight (from 4.6 to 16.5%), of language disorders (from 8.3 to 25.3%), of the orientations to specialized consultations (from 20.6 to 36.6%), according to the socioprofessional category of the father or the social affiliation of the children in the following subgroups: children speaking or understanding a foreign language (36.6% of the sample), children schooled in priority educational zones (equivalent to education achievement zones in UK, 13.6%), children with limited social health coverage (13.4%). In contrast, the BCG and hepatitis B vaccinal coverage is systematically higher in these various groups. The multivariate analysis investigates for each health problem its links with these various subgroups, and with previous child care experiences, and PMI medical consultations. This study suggests therefore further prospects for different actions according to health problems or regarding vaccinal strategy. The development of such routine indicators of disadvantage should allow territorial health services to target their actions towards the decrease of social disparities in health and to check a posteriori the efficiency of the public systems, which have been implemented.

  14. Identification of an obese eating style in 4-year-old children born at high and low risk for obesity.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, Robert I; Moore, Renee' H; Faith, Myles S; Stallings, Virginia A; Kral, Tanja V E; Stunkard, Albert J

    2010-03-01

    This study tested whether children's eating behavior and parental feeding prompts during a laboratory test meal differ among children born at high risk (HR) or low risk (LR) for obesity and are associated with excess child weight gain. At 4 years of age, 32 HR children (mean maternal prepregnancy BMI = 30.4 kg/m(2)) and 29 LR children (maternal BMI = 19.6 kg/m(2)) consumed a test meal in which their eating behavior was assessed, including rate of caloric consumption, mouthfuls/min, and requests for food. Parental prompts for the child to eat also were measured at year 4, and child body composition was measured at ages 4 and 6 years. T-tests, and logistic and multiple regression analyses tested study aims. Results indicated that HR and LR children did not differ in eating rate or parental feeding prompts. Greater maternal BMI, child mouthfuls of food/min, and total caloric intake/min during the test meal predicted an increased risk of being overweight or obese at age 6, whereas greater active mealtime was associated with a reduced risk of being overweight or obese. Regression analyses indicated that only mouthfuls of food/min predicted changes in BMI from 4 to 6 years, and mouthfuls of food/min and gender predicted 2-year changes in sum of skinfolds and total body fat. Thus, a rapid eating style, characterized by increased mouthfuls of food/min, may be a behavioral marker for the development of childhood obesity.

  15. Identification of an Obese Eating Style in 4-year-old Children Born at High and Low Risk for Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Berkowitz, Robert I.; Moore, Renee’ H.; Faith, Myles S.; Stallings, Virginia A.; Kral, Tanja V.E.; Stunkard, Albert J.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested whether children’s eating behavior and parental feeding prompts during a laboratory test meal differ among children born at high risk (HR) or low risk (LR) for obesity and are associated with excess child weight gain. At 4 years of age, 32 HR children (mean maternal prepregnancy BMI = 30.4 kg/m2) and 29 LR children (maternal BMI = 19.6 kg/m2) consumed a test meal in which their eating behavior was assessed, including rate of caloric consumption, mouthfuls/min, and requests for food. Parental prompts for the child to eat also were measured at year 4, and child body composition was measured at ages 4 and 6 years. T-tests, and logistic and multiple regression analyses tested study aims. Results indicated that HR and LR children did not differ in eating rate or parental feeding prompts. Greater maternal BMI, child mouthfuls of food/min, and total caloric intake/min during the test meal predicted an increased risk of being overweight or obese at age 6, whereas greater active mealtime was associated with a reduced risk of being overweight or obese. Regression analyses indicated that only mouthfuls of food/min predicted changes in BMI from 4 to 6 years, and mouthfuls of food/min and gender predicted 2-year changes in sum of skinfolds and total body fat. Thus, a rapid eating style, characterized by increased mouthfuls of food/min, may be a behavioral marker for the development of childhood obesity. PMID:19779474

  16. T-cell responses before and after the fifth consecutive acellular pertussis vaccination in 4-year-old Dutch children.

    PubMed

    Schure, Rose-Minke; Hendrikx, Lotte H; de Rond, Lia G H; Oztürk, Kemal; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Berbers, Guy A M; Buisman, Anne-Marie

    2012-11-01

    Immunization with acellular pertussis vaccine (aP) induces higher specific antibody levels and fewer adverse reactions than does immunization with the whole-cell vaccine (wP). However, antibody levels in infants induced by both types of pertussis vaccines wane already after 1 year. Therefore, long-term T-cell responses upon vaccination might play a role in protection against pertussis. In a cross-sectional study (ISRCTN65428640), we investigated T-helper (Th) cell immune responses in wP- or aP-vaccinated children before and after an aP low-dose or high-dose preschool booster at 4 years of age in The Netherlands. T cells were stimulated with pertussis vaccine antigens. The numbers of gamma interferon-producing cells and Th1, Th2, Th17, and interleukin-10 (IL-10) cytokine concentrations were determined. In addition, pertussis-specific IgE levels were measured in plasma. Children being vaccinated with aP vaccinations at 2, 3, 4, and 11 months of age still showed higher pertussis-specific T-cell responses at 4 years of age than did wP-vaccinated children. These T-cell responses failed to show a typical increase in cytokine production after a fifth aP vaccination but remained high after a low-dose booster and seemed to decline even after a high-dose booster. Importantly, elevated IgE levels were induced after this booster vaccination. In contrast, wP-vaccinated children had only low prebooster T-cell responses, and these children showed a clear postbooster T-cell memory response even after a low-dose booster vaccine. Four high-dose aP vaccinations in infancy induce high T-cell responses still present even 3 years after vaccination and enhanced IgE responses after preschool booster vaccination. Therefore, studies of changes in vaccine dosage, timing of pertussis (booster) vaccinations, and the possible association with local side effects are necessary.

  17. Associations between grip strength of parents and their 4-year-old children: findings from the Southampton Women's Survey.

    PubMed

    Inskip, Hazel; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Kapasi, Tasneem; Robinson, Siân; Godfrey, Keith; Cooper, Cyrus; Harvey, Nicholas; Sayer, Avan Aihie

    2012-01-01

    Relationships between birthweight and grip strength throughout the life course suggest that early influences on the growth and development of muscle are important for long-term muscle function. However, little is known about parental influences on children's grip strength. We have explored this in the Southampton Women's Survey, a prospective general population cohort study from before conception through childhood. Grip strength was measured using a Jamar handgrip dynamometer in the mother at 19 weeks' gestation and her partner, and in the child at age 4 years. Pre-pregnancy heights and weights were measured in the mothers; reported weights and measured heights were available for the fathers. Complete data on parents and children were available for 444 trios. In univariable analyses, both parents' grip strengths were significantly associated with that of the child (r = 0.17, P < 0.001 for mothers; r = 0.15, P = 0.002 for fathers). These correlations were similar to that between the grip strength of the mothers and the fathers (r = 0.17, P < 0.001). In the multivariable model, after adjustment for child's height and physical activity, the correlations with the child's grip strength were attenuated, being 0.10 (P = 0.02) and 0.11 (P = 0.01) for mothers' and fathers' grip strength respectively. The findings show that grip strength of each parent is associated with that of the child, indicating that heritable influences and the shared family environment influence the development of muscle strength. This contributes to our understanding of the role of heritable and environmental factors on early muscle growth and development, which are important for muscle function across the life course.

  18. Associations between grip strength of parents and their 4 year old children: findings from the Southampton Women’s Survey

    PubMed Central

    Inskip, Hazel; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Kapasi, Tasneem; Robinson, Siân; Godfrey, Keith; Cooper, Cyrus; Harvey, Nicholas; Sayer, Avan Aihie

    2013-01-01

    Summary Relationships between birthweight and grip strength throughout the lifecourse suggest that early influences on the growth and development of muscle are important for long-term muscle function. However, little is known about parental influences on children’s grip strength. We have explored this in the Southampton Women’s Survey, a prospective general population cohort study from before conception through childhood. Grip strength was measured using a Jamar handgrip dynamometer in the mother at 19 weeks’ gestation and her partner, and in the child at age four years. Pre-pregnancy heights and weights were measured in the mothers; reported weights and measured heights were available for the fathers. Complete data on parents and children were available for 444 trios. In univariate analyses, both parents’ grip strengths were significantly associated with that of the child (r=0.17, p<0.001 for mothers, r=0.15, p=0.002 for fathers). These correlations were similar to that between the grip strength of the mothers and the father (r=0.17, P<0.001). In the multivariate model, after adjustment for child’s height and physical activity, the correlations with the child’s grip strength were attenuated, being 0.10 (P=0.02) and 0.11 (P=0.01) for mothers’ and fathers’ grip strength respectively. The findings show that grip strength of both parents is associated with that of their child, indicating that heritable influences and the shared family environment influence the development of muscle strength. This contributes to our understanding of the role of heritable and environmental factors on early muscle growth and development, which are important for muscle function across the lifecourse. PMID:22150705

  19. Does the Age and Familiarity of the Informant Group Influence the Tendency of 3- and 4-year-old Children to Conform?

    PubMed

    McGuigan, Nicola; Stevenson, Amy

    2016-01-01

    The authors' aim was to explore whether the age and the familiarity of the individuals comprising a group majority influenced the tendency of 3- and 4-year-old children to conform. Participants were presented with 2 variants of a novel task in which they were required to judge which of 3 line-drawn tigers had the greatest number of stripes. The participants made their judgments in 2 contexts, first after viewing 5 informants perform the task incorrectly, and second without viewing the responses of other individuals. The informants comprised a group of familiar children, a group of unfamiliar children, a group of familiar adults, or a group of unfamiliar adults. The results showed that the children displayed selective conformity with respect to informant age, readily adopting the incorrect response when it was indicated by an adult majority, but failing to do so when the same incorrect response was indicated by a majority of children. In contrast the familiarity of the individuals comprising the majority had little influence on the tendency of children to conform. These results suggest that children are not blanket conformists, rather they respond selectively depending on characteristics of the individuals comprising the group majority.

  20. Children's Comprehension of Sentences with Focus Particles and the Role of Cognitive Control: An Eye Tracking Study with German-Learning 4-Year-Olds.

    PubMed

    Höhle, Barbara; Fritzsche, Tom; Müller, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Children's interpretations of sentences containing focus particles do not seem adult-like until school age. This study investigates how German 4-year-old children comprehend sentences with the focus particle 'nur' (only) by using different tasks and controlling for the impact of general cognitive abilities on performance measures. Two sentence types with 'only' in either pre-subject or pre-object position were presented. Eye gaze data and verbal responses were collected via the visual world paradigm combined with a sentence-picture verification task. While the eye tracking data revealed an adult-like pattern of focus particle processing, the sentence-picture verification replicated previous findings of poor comprehension, especially for 'only' in pre-subject position. A second study focused on the impact of general cognitive abilities on the outcomes of the verification task. Working memory was related to children's performance in both sentence types whereas inhibitory control was selectively related to the number of errors for sentences with 'only' in pre-subject position. These results suggest that children at the age of 4 years have the linguistic competence to correctly interpret sentences with focus particles, which--depending on specific task demands--may be masked by immature general cognitive abilities.

  1. Too cool? Symbolic but not iconic stimuli impair 4-year-old children's performance on the delay-of-gratification choice paradigm.

    PubMed

    Labuschagne, Lisa G; Cox, Taylor-Jane; Brown, Kaitlyn; Scarf, Damian

    2017-02-01

    A common method of improving the performance of children and non-human primates on the delay-of-gratification maintenance paradigm and measures of executive function (e.g., the Less is More task) is to represent the rewards subjects can acquire symbolically. This method, known as symbolic distancing, is thought to lower activation of the "hot" impulsive system and allow the "cool" rational system to dominate processing. Surprisingly, in contrast to its impact on the measures noted above, recent developmental and comparative studies have reported that symbolic distancing has a null or negative impact on performance on the delay-of-gratification choice paradigm. Here, we add to this literature by demonstrating that 4-year-old children's performance on the choice paradigm is impaired when symbolic stimuli, but not iconic stimuli (i.e., pictures of the rewards), are used to represent rewards. These data add to a growing body of comparative work demonstrating task manipulations have a similar impact on children and non-human primates and also support other research suggesting different decision making processes may underlie performance on the delay-of-gratification choice and maintenance paradigms.

  2. Behavioral Assessment of Hearing in 2 to 4 Year-old Children: A Two-interval, Observer-based Procedure Using Conditioned Play-based Responses

    PubMed Central

    Bonino, Angela Yarnell; Leibold, Lori J.

    2017-01-01

    Collecting reliable behavioral data from toddlers and preschoolers is challenging. As a result, there are significant gaps in our understanding of human auditory development for these age groups. This paper describes an observer-based procedure for measuring hearing sensitivity with a two-interval, two-alternative forced-choice paradigm. Young children are trained to perform a play-based, motor response (e.g., putting a block in a bucket) whenever they hear a target signal. An experimenter observes the child's behavior and makes a judgment about whether the signal was presented during the first or second observation interval; the experimenter is blinded to the true signal interval, so this judgment is based solely on the child's behavior. These procedures were used to test 2 to 4 year-olds (n = 33) with no known hearing problems. The signal was a 1,000 Hz warble tone presented in quiet, and the signal level was adjusted to estimate a threshold corresponding to 71%-correct detection. A valid threshold was obtained for 82% of children. These results indicate that the two-interval procedure is both feasible and reliable for use with toddlers and preschoolers. The two-interval, observer-based procedure described in this paper is a powerful tool for evaluating hearing in young children because it guards against response bias on the part of the experimenter. PMID:28190058

  3. The cortisol awakening response (CAR) in 2- to 4-year-old children: effects of acute nighttime sleep restriction, wake time, and daytime napping.

    PubMed

    Gribbin, Colleen E; Watamura, Sarah Enos; Cairns, Alyssa; Harsh, John R; Lebourgeois, Monique K

    2012-05-01

    The cortisol awakening response (CAR) is presumed critically important for healthy adaptation. The current literature, however, is hampered by systematic measurement difficulties relative to awakening, especially with young children. While reports suggest the CAR is smaller in children than adults, well-controlled research in early childhood is scarce. We examined whether robust CARs exist in 2- to 4-year-old children and if sleep restriction, wake timing, and napping influence the CAR (n = 7). During a 25-day in-home protocol, researchers collected four salivary cortisol samples (0, 15, 30, 45 min post-wake) following five polysomnographic sleep recordings on nonconsecutive days after 4 hr (morning nap), 7 hr (afternoon nap), 10 hr (evening nap), 13 hr (baseline night), and 16 hr (sleep restriction night) of wakefulness (20 samples/child). The CAR was robust after nighttime sleep, diminished after sleep restriction, and smaller but distinct after morning and afternoon (not evening) naps. Cortisol remained elevated 45 min after morning and afternoon naps. .

  4. Denver Developmental Test Findings and their Relationship with Sociodemographic Variables in a Large Community Sample of 0–4-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    ÇELİKKIRAN, Seyhan; BOZKURT, Hasan; COŞKUN, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of developmental problems and relationship with sociodemographic variables in a community sample of young children. Methods Participants included 1000 children (558 males, 442 females, age range 1–48 months, mean 18.4 months, SD 7.8 months). Children were referred generally by their parents for developmental evaluation and consultation in response to a public announcement in a district area in Istanbul, Turkey. An interview form and the Denver Developmental Screening Test II (DDST) were used for sociodemographic data and developmental evaluation. The χ2 test and Pearson’s correlation test were used for data analysis. Results Seven hundred forty-one out of 1000 children (74.1%) had normal, 140 (14%) had risky, and 119 (11.9%) had abnormal findings on the DDST results. The probability of abnormal findings on the DDST results was significantly higher in males (p=0.003), the 2–4-year-old group (p<0.05), families with more than one child (p=0.001), consanguineous marriages (p<0.01), low parental educational levels and low household income (p<0.01), and in children without a history of breastfeeding (p=0.000). Immigration status and delivery mode did not have a significant effect on the probability of abnormal findings on the DDST results (p>0.05). Conclusion Sociodemographic factors have a noteworthy impact on development. Determining these factors is important especially during the first years of life.

  5. Influence of social factors on sugary products behavior in 4-year-old children with regard to dental caries experience and information at child health centers.

    PubMed

    Kinnby, C G; Lanke, J; Lindén, A L; Widenheim, J; Granath, L

    1995-04-01

    The aim was to analyze the steering effects of 15 social factors on sugary products behavior at 4 years of age in 177 children. The parents had in most cases received information on dental health care at child health centers, with due respect to the level of caries among the children, who were classified as 'healthy' (no caries experience) (n = 83) or 'diseased' (caries experience) (n = 84). The parents filled in a mailed diet history form. Only sugary products unsuitable from a cariologic point of view were considered. The products were given scores reflecting the frequency of intake. The social factors were social background, family, information, and conceptual factors. By means of multiple regression analysis, explanatory values of the social variables for sugary products behavior were estimated. For the total material, 13% of the variance was explained by all variables combined. Among the social background factors, 'parents' age' was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Among family factors, 'day-care mainly at home' and 'oldest child' were the most important. All information factors proved to be nonsignificant. Of the conceptual factors, only 'importance of genetic factors' was statistically significant. For the healthy group 26% of the variance was explained by all variables. 'Mother's age', 'importance of genetic factors', and 'oldest child' were statistically significant. For the diseased group all variables were nonsignificant. Explanatory values were negligible. The important conclusions were that very few traditionally conceived social variables seem to influence 4-year-old children's sugar behavior. Parents of children with caries appear to be a heterogeneous group with an irrational behavior.

  6. Sources of dietary fluoride intake in 4-year-old children residing in low, medium and high fluoride areas in Iran.

    PubMed

    Zohouri, F V; Rugg-Gunn, A J

    2000-09-01

    Accurate estimation of fluoride dietary intake is desirable for optimising caries prevention. Little is known about the dietary fluoride intake of children aged 4 years, an age when many permanent teeth are forming. This study was undertaken in Fars Province, Iran, in 1995-1996, where there are big differences in temperature between winter and summer. The aims were to determine: (a) the relative contributions of different components of the diet to fluoride intake, (b) the effect of variation in fluoride concentration in drinking water, and (c) the effect of climate temperature. Temperature varied between +40 degrees C in summer to -5 degrees C in winter. The mean fluoride concentrations in drinking water in the three areas were 0.3, 0.6 and 4.0 mgF/L. Dietary information was obtained by two 3-day diet diaries with interview, validated with reference to international standards. The fluoride content of foods was measured using the silicon-facilitated diffusion method. One hundred and three 4-year-old children completed the study. The mean (and 95% confidence interval) dietary fluoride intakes in each of the three areas, respectively, were 413 (+/- 21), 698 (+/- 89) and 3472 (+/- 557) micrograms/day. Drinks provided 72 to 87% of dietary fluoride--this proportion increased with increasing water fluoride concentration and increasing climate temperature. Tea (infusion) was an important source of dietary fluoride, providing 31 to 38% of total dietary intake. Tap water was a more important source of fluoride than soft drinks. Cooked rice and bread were the most important food source of fluoride and the amount of fluoride they contributed increased as water fluoride concentration increased. The results of this first such survey in the Middle East showed (a) that water (as a drink) and tea were by far the most important contributors to dietary fluoride intake, (b) substantial increases in fluoride intake with increasing water fluoride concentrations, and (c) substantially

  7. Parental modelling and prompting effects on acceptance of a novel fruit in 2-4-year-old children are dependent on children's food responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Blissett, Jackie; Bennett, Carmel; Fogel, Anna; Harris, Gillian; Higgs, Suzanne

    2016-02-14

    Few children consume the recommended portions of fruit or vegetables. This study examined the effects of parental physical prompting and parental modelling in children's acceptance of a novel fruit (NF) and examined the role of children's food-approach and food-avoidance traits on NF engagement and consumption. A total of 120 caregiver-child dyads (fifty-four girls, sixty-six boys) participated in this study. Dyads were allocated to one of the following three conditions: physical prompting but no modelling, physical prompting and modelling or a modelling only control condition. Dyads ate a standardised meal containing a portion of a fruit new to the child. Parents completed measures of children's food approach and avoidance. Willingness to try the NF was observed, and the amount of the NF consumed was measured. Physical prompting but no modelling resulted in greater physical refusal of the NF. There were main effects of enjoyment of food and food fussiness on acceptance. Food responsiveness interacted with condition such that children who were more food responsive had greater NF acceptance in the prompting and modelling conditions in comparison with the modelling only condition. In contrast, children with low food responsiveness had greater acceptance in the modelling control condition than in the prompting but no modelling condition. Physical prompting in the absence of modelling is likely to be detrimental to NF acceptance. Parental use of physical prompting strategies, in combination with modelling of NF intake, may facilitate acceptance of NF, but only in food-responsive children. Modelling consumption best promotes acceptance in children with low food responsiveness.

  8. Parental Roles in the Acquisition of Primary Level Skills: An Exploratory View on the Low-Income Hispanic-American Families with 3 and 4-Year Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaman, Ahmed

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the nature and extent of Primary Learning Skill (PLS) that the Hispanic young children acquire who do not attend any early educational institutions. Literature reviewed for this paper indicated that Hispanic children were the poorest and the fastest growing group who often did not receive formal educational exposure due to…

  9. Prekindergarten Programs for 3 and 4 Year Old Children at Risk of Academic Failure: 1986-87 School Year. Second Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmich, Edith

    This document summarizes information on the second year of operation of 93 projects participating in the State of Illinois prekindergarten educational grant program for children at-risk due to environmental deficits. Contents provide: (1) background information on the legislation establishing the program, program evaluation schedules, and a…

  10. Developing a General Outcome Measure of Growth in the Cognitive Abilities of Children 1 to 4 Years Old: The Early Problem-Solving Indicator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Charles R.; Walker, Dale; Carta, Judith J.; Higgins, Susan K.

    2006-01-01

    Proficiency in problem solving is an important outcome in early childhood necessary for cognitive and emotional development. The development of an individual growth and development indicator of problem solving for children 1 to 4 years of age is described. Based on the general outcome measurement approach (Deno, 1997), the measure is intended for…

  11. Prenatal Exposure to Alcohol, Caffeine, Tobacco, and Aspirin: Effects on Fine and Gross Motor Preformance in 4-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Helen M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Multiple regression analyses of data from 449 children indicated statistically significant relationships between moderate levels of prenatal alcohol exposure and increased errors, increased latency, and increased total time on the Wisconsin Fine Motor Steadiness Battery and poorer balance on the Gross Motor Scale. (RH)

  12. Effect of oral-transmucosal midazolam sedation on anxiety levels of 3-4 years old children during a Class II restorative procedure

    PubMed Central

    Kapur, Aditi; Chawla, H. S.; Gauba, K.; Goyal, A.; Bhardwaj, N.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: A double-blind randomized control trial was conducted to assess the effect of oral-transmucosal midazolam sedation on changes in anxiety levels of precooperative children during a Class II amalgam restorative procedure. Methodology: A sample of 40 healthy, American Society of Anesthesiologists I, children aged 3-4 years having at least one carious primary mandibular molar requiring a Class II amalgam restoration with no previous dental history were randomly divided into experimental and control groups comprising of 20 children each. The children in the experimental group (Group I) received 0.5 mg/kg body weight of midazolam mixed in strawberry syrup and those in the control group (Group II) received the same syrup mixed in saline, 15 min prior to the restorative procedure. Routine nonpharmacological behavior management techniques were used in both groups. The anxiety levels were recorded using Venham's anxiety scale at the start and end of each procedural step. Results: There was a significant (P < 0.001) reduction in the anxiety levels of children in the experimental group on entry into the operatory compared with the control group. Introduction of each fear evoking stimuli showed a somewhat similar increase in anxiety levels in the two groups. In spite of a similar trend, the anxiety levels remained much lower in Group I than in Group II. Conclusion: Midazolam in conjunction with behavior management is more helpful in relaxing the child initially than behavior management alone, thus increasing the chances of successful and easy accomplishment of further treatment steps. PMID:25191069

  13. Self-efficacy of first aid for home accidents among parents with 0- to 4-year-old children at a metropolitan community health center in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yu-Li; Chen, Li-Li; Li, Tsai-Chung; Ma, Wei-Fen; Peng, Niang-Huei; Huang, Li-Chi

    2013-03-01

    Although accidental injury is the main factor involved in the death of young children in many countries, few studies have focused on parents' competence with regard to self-efficacy of first aid for their children following injuries occurring at home. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate parental self-sufficiency of first aid for home accidents in children aged 0-4 years. The study is a cross-sectional designed. Data from 445 parents recruited were collected by purposive sampling at eight metropolitan community health centers in central Taiwan. Measurements were taken from a self-developed questionnaire that included 37 questions. Logistic regression analysis was applied to explore the associations between factors and parents' self-efficacy of first aid at home accident. Our findings show that parents' overall rate of knowledge of first aid was 72%. The mean score for 100% certainty in parents' self-efficacy of first aid was 26.6%. The lowest scores for self-efficacy were with regard to choking and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). There was a significantly positive correlation between parents' knowledge and self-efficacy of first aid (p<0.01), and thus knowledge of first aid is a predictor of parents' self-efficacy. Knowledge of first aid is also a partly mediator between participants' attending first aid program, participants' first aid information obtained from health personnel and self-efficacy of first aid. Our findings suggest that medical services should provide first aid resources to help manage accidental injuries involving children, particularly information on how to deal with choking and CPR. With an appropriate program provided by health professionals, parents' self-efficacy of first aid for home accidents will be positively enhanced.

  14. Associations of Fat Mass and Fat-Free Mass with Physical Fitness in 4-Year-Old Children: Results from the MINISTOP Trial.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Pontus; Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina; Leppänen, Marja H; Delisle Nyström, Christine; Ortega, Francisco B; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Löf, Marie

    2016-07-30

    Physical fitness is a powerful marker of health in youth. Studies in adolescents and adults suggest that higher fat mass is related to worse physical fitness. However, there is limited knowledge whether fat mass and fat-free mass are associated with physical fitness already in preschoolers. Baseline data from the MINISTOP (Mobile-based INtervention Intended to STop Obesity in Preschoolers) trial was utilized for this cross-sectional analysis. Body composition was assessed using air-displacement plethysmography. Fat mass index [fat mass (kg)/height² (m)] and fat-free mass index [fat-free mass (kg)/height² (m)] were used to provide height-adjusted measures of body composition. Physical fitness was measured using the PREFIT (FITness testing in PREschool children) battery, which assesses cardiorespiratory fitness, upper-body and lower-body muscular strength as well as motor fitness. In total, this study included 303 children (168 boys and 135 girls), who were on average 4.48 ± 0.15 years old. Higher fat mass index was associated with worse cardiorespiratory fitness (standardized β = -0.17, p = 0.002), lower-body muscular strength (β = -0.17, p = 0.003) and motor fitness (β = -0.21, p < 0.001) in regression analyses adjusted for age, sex and mutually adjusted for fat-mass index and fat-free mass index. Conversely, higher fat-free mass index was associated with better cardiorespiratory fitness (β = 0.18, p = 0.002), upper-body muscular strength (β = 0.39, p < 0.001), lower-body muscular strength (β = 0.22, p < 0.001) and motor fitness (β = 0.17, p = 0.004). Thus, fat mass and fat-free mass in preschoolers appear to have joint but opposite associations with physical fitness, an important marker for current and future health.

  15. Markers for Persistent Specific Expressive Language Delay in 3-4-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everitt, Andrea; Hannaford, Philip; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Background: Identifying 3-4-year-olds who are most at risk of persisting language difficulties, and possibly specific language impairment (SLI), is difficult due to the natural variation of language in young children. In older children, markers for SLI have been identified that differentiate between children with and without SLI. It is not known…

  16. Profiles of Social-Emotional Readiness for 4-Year-Old Kindergarten

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Michele M.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2017-01-01

    Children who are viewed as ready for kindergarten and/or first grade typically exhibit high attention, approach, and adaptability coupled with low activity and reactivity. These characteristics tend to be especially valued by teachers and describe a child who is “teachable,” or school ready. Since many children enter formal schooling earlier by attending pre-K for 4-year olds, often called 4-year-old kindergarten, there is a need to examine school readiness earlier than kindergarten, which may look very different developmentally. If we expect children to enter formal schooling at age 4, then it should be clear what we expect of them in order to succeed. We explored which temperament, behavior, and cognitive items teachers of 4-year-old kindergarten (N = 29) rated as highly characteristic versus uncharacteristic of ready 4-year-olds. This teacher-generated data identified five clusters of children who were deemed ready for 4-year-old kindergarten. Teachers noted high cognitive skills and following directions as salient in many of the clusters, which aligns with the readiness expectations for kindergarten and first grade. However, items that distinguished the five clusters from one another referenced differences in activity level, sociability, shyness, enthusiasm, and patience that were not expected based on the previous literature with slightly older children. Given that some of the children teachers identified as especially ready for 4-year-old kindergarten did not fit this static model of a “teachable” child, a single profile of school readiness at an early age may be inappropriate. PMID:28197124

  17. Profiles of Social-Emotional Readiness for 4-Year-Old Kindergarten.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michele M; Goldsmith, H Hill

    2017-01-01

    Children who are viewed as ready for kindergarten and/or first grade typically exhibit high attention, approach, and adaptability coupled with low activity and reactivity. These characteristics tend to be especially valued by teachers and describe a child who is "teachable," or school ready. Since many children enter formal schooling earlier by attending pre-K for 4-year olds, often called 4-year-old kindergarten, there is a need to examine school readiness earlier than kindergarten, which may look very different developmentally. If we expect children to enter formal schooling at age 4, then it should be clear what we expect of them in order to succeed. We explored which temperament, behavior, and cognitive items teachers of 4-year-old kindergarten (N = 29) rated as highly characteristic versus uncharacteristic of ready 4-year-olds. This teacher-generated data identified five clusters of children who were deemed ready for 4-year-old kindergarten. Teachers noted high cognitive skills and following directions as salient in many of the clusters, which aligns with the readiness expectations for kindergarten and first grade. However, items that distinguished the five clusters from one another referenced differences in activity level, sociability, shyness, enthusiasm, and patience that were not expected based on the previous literature with slightly older children. Given that some of the children teachers identified as especially ready for 4-year-old kindergarten did not fit this static model of a "teachable" child, a single profile of school readiness at an early age may be inappropriate.

  18. Preschool Teachers' Shared Beliefs about Appropriate Pedagogy for 4-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joon Sun

    2006-01-01

    The 18 preschool teachers in the study tended to agree that preschool education for 4-year-olds should foremost be fun and engaging, not stressful. Teachers should develop curricula based on children's interests and everyday lives, and allow children to choose their activities and to direct their own play and exploration at their own pace. The…

  19. Collaboration between 3- and 4-Year-Olds in Self-Initiated Play on Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on a study of collaborative music-making on instruments among 3- and 4-year-old children. An area equipped with musical instruments was provided as a free-choice play option in an early childhood setting and a fixed camera recorded the children's play continuously during a number of visits. From the total 17 h of data five…

  20. School Enrollment of 3- and 4-Year-Olds, by Race/Ethnic Category.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Gerald

    Based on data collected by the U.S. Bureau of the Census in its October 1980 Current Population Survey, this report examines school enrollment rates of 3- and 4-year-olds from three major ethnic groups (black, white, and Spanish origin) and relates this information to characteristics of the children's schools and households. Variables covered in…

  1. Fantastic Physics: Developing an Early Interest in Science. A Preschool Science Curriculum.(4 Year Old Curriculum).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summer, Gail L.; Giovannini, Kathleen

    Using hands-on activities and the "Plan, Do, Review" approach, this physics curriculum for 4-year-olds is designed to develop an early interest in and enthusiasm for science and to excite children about learning in general. The curriculum is designed to be implemented biweekly in preschool or child care programs but may also be presented…

  2. Measuring Implicit Attitudes of 4-Year-Olds: The Preschool Implicit Association Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cvencek, Dario; Greenwald, Anthony G.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2011-01-01

    The Preschool Implicit Association Test (PSIAT) is an adaptation of an established social cognition measure (IAT) for use with preschool children. Two studies with 4-year-olds found that the PSIAT was effective in evaluating (a) attitudes toward commonly liked objects ("flowers"="good") and (b) gender attitudes ("girl"="good" or "boy"="good"). The…

  3. Social Context Effects in 2- and 4-Year-Olds' Selective versus Faithful Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Yue; Kushnir, Tamar

    2014-01-01

    This study asked whether children's tendency to imitate selectively (ignore causally unnecessary actions) versus faithfully ("overimitate" causally unnecessary actions) varies across ages and social contexts. In the first experiment, 2-year-olds and 4-year-olds were randomly assigned to play 1 of 3 prior games with a demonstrator: a…

  4. The Executive Demands of Strategic Reasoning are Modified by the Way in which Children are Prompted to Think About the Task: Evidence from 3- to 4-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Daniel J.; Apperly, Ian A.; Riggs, Kevin J.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated a test of strategic reasoning (the Windows task) that in different studies has yielded contrasting pictures of young children's executive abilities [Russell, J., Mauthner, N., Sharpe, S., & Tidswell, T. (1991). "The 'windows task' as a measure of strategic deception in preschoolers and autistic subjects." "British Journal of…

  5. The role of imagination in facilitating deductive reasoning in 2-, 3- and 4-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Richards, C A; Sanderson, J A

    1999-09-30

    When 4- and 6-year-olds are cued to use their imagination, they can overcome the belief bias effect and demonstrate deductive reasoning ability on syllogisms containing contrary-to-fact material. This study tested whether 2- and 3-year-olds could also reason with incongruent syllogisms when encouraged to use their imagination. Eighty-four 2-, 3- and 4-year-olds were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: no cue, word cue, fantasy planet or imagery. Children were then presented with six syllogistic reasoning problems containing incongruent information. In the imagination conditions, 2- and 3-year-olds performed as competently as 4-year-olds. The findings are discussed in relation to other research which suggests that under certain circumstances 2- and 3-year-olds have the capacity for counterfactual thinking.

  6. The Prevalence of ADHD, ODD, Depression, and Anxiety in a Community Sample of 4-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavigne, John V.; LeBailly, Susan A.; Hopkins, Joyce; Gouze, Karen R.; Binns, Helen J.

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have examined the epidemiology of preschoolers' psychopathology. This study included 796 4-year-old children recruited from schools and pediatric practices in a diverse, urban area. Psychiatric disorder was assessed by a structured interview adapted for preschool children and by questionnaire. The most common disorders were…

  7. Sensitivity of 4-Year-Olds to Featural and Second-Order Relational Changes in Face Distinctiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKone, Elinor; Boyer, Barbara L.

    2006-01-01

    Sensitivity to adult ratings of facial distinctiveness (how much an individual stands out in a crowd) has been demonstrated previously in children age 5 years or older. Experiment 1 extended this result to 4-year-olds using a "choose the more distinctive face" task. Children's patterns of choice across item pairs also correlated well with those of…

  8. Gene × environment effects of serotonin transporter, dopamine receptor D4, and monoamine oxidase A genes with contextual and parenting risk factors on symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder, anxiety, and depression in a community sample of 4-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Lavigne, John V; Herzing, Laura B K; Cook, Edwin H; Lebailly, Susan A; Gouze, Karen R; Hopkins, Joyce; Bryant, Fred B

    2013-05-01

    Genetic factors can play a key role in the multiple level of analyses approach to understanding the development of child psychopathology. The present study examined gene-environment correlations and gene × environment interactions for polymorphisms of three target genes, the serotonin transporter gene, the D4 dopamine receptor gene, and the monoamine oxidase A gene in relation to symptoms of anxiety, depression, and oppositional behavior. Saliva samples were collected from 175 non-Hispanic White, 4-year-old children. Psychosocial risk factors included socioeconomic status, life stress, caretaker depression, parental support, hostility, and scaffolding skills. In comparison with the short forms (s/s, s/l) of the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic repeat, the long form (l/l) was associated with greater increases in symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder in interaction with family stress and with greater increases in symptoms of child depression and anxiety in interaction with caretaker depression, family conflict, and socioeconomic status. In boys, low-activity monoamine oxidase A gene was associated with increases in child anxiety and depression in interaction with caretaker depression, hostility, family conflict, and family stress. The results highlight the important of gene-environment interplay in the development of symptoms of child psychopathology in young children.

  9. Different Executive Functions Support Different Kinds of Cognitive Flexibility: Evidence from 2-, 3-, and 4-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakey, Emma; Visser, Ingmar; Carroll, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Improvements in cognitive flexibility during the preschool years have been linked to developments in both working memory and inhibitory control, though the precise contribution of each remains unclear. In the current study, one hundred and twenty 2-, 3-, and 4-year-olds completed two rule-switching tasks. In one version, children switched rules in…

  10. How Do Symbols Affect 3- to 4-Year-Olds' Executive Function? Evidence from a Reverse-Contingency Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apperly, Ian A.; Carroll, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    In two experiments, 330 3- to 4-year-olds competed for stickers in a game in which the optimal response strategy was to point to an empty box that their opponent would receive in order to obtain a baited box for themselves. When the baited box contained stickers, children showed a strong tendency to point at the baited box and therefore lose the…

  11. Phonological Patterns in Normally Developing Spanish-Speaking 3-and 4-Year Olds of Puerto Rican Descent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Brian A.; Iglesias, Aquiles

    1996-01-01

    This study used quantitative and qualitative methodology to examine the phonological patterns of 24 3-year-old and 30 4-year-old Spanish-speaking preschoolers of Puerto Rican descent. The children acquired the sounds of their language at an early age and did not exhibit high percentages of occurrence on targeted phonological processes. (DB)

  12. The Effects of Mode of Presentation and Number of Categories on 4-Year-Olds' Proportion Estimates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Ginsburg, Herbert

    Two experiments investigate the effects of mode of presentation and number of categories on 4-year-olds' proportion estimates. Experiment I compares simultaneous and successive presentations of proportion problems using two categories of elements. The subjects were 40 children chosen randomly and tested individually. Four problems were presented…

  13. Life-Threatening Respiratory Tract Disease with Human Bocavirus-1 Infection in a 4-Year-Old Child

    PubMed Central

    Edner, Niklas; Castillo-Rodas, Paul; Falk, Lars; Hedman, Klaus; Söderlund-Venermo, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The disease spectrum associated with human bocavirus-1 infection remains to be fully defined. We report a case of bocavirus-1-associated bronchiolitis, leading to severe respiratory failure and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in a 4-year-old child, and suggest blood testing for human bocavirus-1 in children with severe respiratory tract infection. PMID:22135260

  14. The phonological skills of Samoan speaking 4-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Elaine; Farao, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    To date there has been little research on the typical developmental patterns for children speaking Samoan. The research outlined in this paper serves to fill this gap by reporting on the phonological development of Samoan speaking children growing up in the English dominant language environment of Auckland New Zealand. In this study 20 children aged between 4;0 and 4;11 were assessed using a picture naming task that probed their knowledge of the Samoan phonemic inventory. The findings presented here give an indication of what children in their fifth year have as speech sounds in their phonetic inventory and the types of errors that they may still produce. These results demonstrate the similarities and differences that Samoan phonological development shares with other languages. In particular the differences that seem "atypical" when compared with studies on English are discussed. It is tentatively concluded that these differences may well be typical for Samoan speech acquisition given language specific factors and the bilingual context in which these children are growing up.

  15. Classroom Age Composition and the School Readiness of 3- and 4-Year-Olds in the Head Start Program.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Arya; Purtell, Kelly; Gershoff, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The federal Head Start program, designed to improve the school readiness of children from low-income families, often serves 3- and 4-year-olds in the same classrooms. Given the developmental differences between 3- and 4-year-olds, it is unknown whether educating them together in the same classrooms benefits one group, both, or neither. Using data from the Family and Child Experiences Survey 2009 cohort, this study used a peer-effects framework to examine the associations between mixed-age classrooms and the school readiness of a nationally representative sample of newly enrolled 3-year-olds (n = 1,644) and 4-year-olds (n = 1,185) in the Head Start program. Results revealed that 4-year-olds displayed fewer gains in academic skills during the preschool year when they were enrolled in classrooms with more 3-year-olds; effect sizes corresponded to 4 to 5 months of academic development. In contrast, classroom age composition was not consistently associated with 3-year-olds' school readiness.

  16. Unusual localization of a choroid plexus papilloma in a 4-year-old female.

    PubMed

    Rostasy, Kevin M; Sponholz, Stefanie; Bahn, Erik; Ludwig, Hans C; Hanefeld, Folker

    2003-01-01

    Choroid plexus papillomas are rare tumors that are confined to areas in which the choroid plexus is normally located. In children, choroid plexus papillomas are predominantly located in the lateral ventricles. Clinically they present with signs of raised intracranial pressure, such as vomiting and increasing head size. Here we report on the clinical, radiologic, and histologic findings of a 4-year-old female who was found to have a tumor in the posterior fossa that had all the histologic hallmarks of a choroid plexus papilloma. This tumor did not originate from the roof of the fourth ventricle as expected but from the ependymal lining covering the median rostral medulla near the pontomedullary junction, a location that so far has not been reported.

  17. [Noma in a 4 year-old girl: a case report from Chad].

    PubMed

    Cocquempot, K; Javaudin, O; Lerasle, P; Aigle, L

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes a 4-year-old girl in Chad with noma, also called cancrum oris. This acute gangrenous stomatitis has a combined morbidity-mortality rate that can reach 70%. It occurs worldwide but is most common in sub-Saharan Africa in children aged 2 to 16 years. Its pathogenesis is uncertain, but several bacteria including Fusobacterium necrophorum, Prevotella intermedia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa may be responsible for the development of noma, which develops over the oral lesions these bacteria cause. Poverty is its most important risk factor. Due to its rapid course and high lethality, it requires emergency treatment with antibiotics, daily dressing of the lesion, and nutritional rehabilitation. Surgical removal of the remaining necrotic tissue can be followed by reconstructive procedures. Physical and speech therapy should be initiated to prevent functional complications.

  18. Situational changes in self-awareness influence 3- and 4-year-olds' self-regulation.

    PubMed

    Ross, J; Anderson, J R; Campbell, R N

    2011-01-01

    In adults, heightened self-awareness leads to adherence to socially valued norms, whereas lowered self-awareness is associated with antinormative behavior. Levels of self-awareness are influenced by environmental cues such as mirrors. Do situational changes in self-awareness also have an impact on preschoolers' self-regulation? Adherence to a socially valued standard was observed under different conditions of self-focus. In Experiment 1 the standard was prescribed ("don't look in the box"), and in Experiment 2 children had the opportunity to be altruistic. Heightened self-focus was induced using a large mirror. In a neutral condition, the nonreflective side of the mirror was shown. To lower self-focus, children wore a disguise. Preschoolers peeked less and showed more altruism when the mirror image was present. As found for adults, it appears that self-awareness leads 3- and 4-year-olds to adhere to salient social standards. These results suggest that self-focus has a socially adaptive regulatory function from an early age.

  19. Delirium due to scopolamine patch in a 4-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yang-Guang; Chen, Po-Hon; Chang, Fang-Yuan; Wu, Li-Te; Liao, Kuo-Yu; Wu, Tzee-Chung

    2011-03-01

    The scopolamine patch is usually used to reduce postoperative nausea and vomiting associated with anesthesia and/or surgery. It is also commonly used for the prevention of motion sickness. Transdermal scopolamine patches have been used for decades and there are few reports in the literature of toxic psychosis associated with the product. Most documented cases of acute psychosis following administration of scopolamine or other anticholinergic agents have been from the adult population. Here we present a 4-year-old boy with deteriorated cognitive function and changed mental status acutely. Besides flushing skin and psychotic behaviors including bizarre actions, hallucinations, aggressive behavior, hyperactivity, and incoherent speech were also noticed. Symptoms and signs were resolved after removal of scopolamine patch and conservative management. This case is possibly one of the youngest patients to exhibit such toxic effects. We hope to relay information about common agents with anticholinergic effects to clinical practitioners and remind that drug-induced psychosis should be considered in children with acute changes in behavior.

  20. Ameloblastic Fibro-Odontoma in a 4-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Ghandehari-Motlagh, Mehdi; Khosravi, Zahra; Meighani, Ghasem; Baradaran-Nakhjavani, Yahya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma (AFO) is defined as a benign odontogenic tumor with slow growing behavior. Its prevalence is rare. AFO is characterized by histologic features of ameloblastic fibroma (AF) with the formation of enamel and dentine. Case Presentation This is a case report of AFO accompanied with a number of impacted deciduous teeth and its management in a 4-year old boy. Examination of oral cavity revealed an extensive swelling from midline to left deciduous maxillary first molar, covered with normal mucosa. Radiographic examination showed a well-defined mixed radiolucent-radiopaque lesion that extended horizontally from midline to mesial border of the left maxillary primary first molar and vertically from alveolar crest to the floor of nose. The differential diagnosis was odontoma (ameloblastic fibro-odontoma, complex odontoma). Surgical enucleation and curettage was performed under general anesthesia. Histopathologic sections show bone trabeculae in marrow spaces. There was myxoid matrix in some spaces which contained odontogenic epithelial cells. These findings led to diagnosis of AFO. No sign of recurrence has been observed during the 12-month follow-up period. Conclusion Although AFO is a rare tumor, it is more prevalent in childrenʼs jaw. Conservative surgical treatment allowed the normal development of teeth. PMID:27307963

  1. [Periodic fever, aphtosus stomatitis, pharyngitis, cervical adenopathy syndrome (PFAPA syndrome) in 4-years old girl--case report].

    PubMed

    Krzywicka, Agnieszka; Rusek-Zychma, Małgorzata; Barć-Czarnecka, Małgorzata; Roszkowska, Dagmara

    2007-01-01

    Characteristic feature of PFAPA syndrome is periodic episodes of fever recurring in 21-28 days in infants and young children. Fever is accompanied by aphtosus stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenopathy. Diagnosis of this syndrome are based on typical clinical manifestations, because there are no characteristic changes in laboratory findings. The reason of this syndrome is unknown. We described a case of 4 years old girl with typical manifestations of this syndrome. We excluded others reasons of periodic fever. PFAPA syndrome passed after 2 years of duration after adenothomy.

  2. Effects of explicit teacher-implemented phoneme awareness instruction in 4-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Ann A; Osterhouse, Heather; Wickham, Katherine; Mcnutt, Robert; Shao, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether gains would be observed in an integrated group of 4-year-olds when phoneme awareness skills were explicitly taught by trained early childhood educators. In a quasi-experimental design with a delayed treatment approach, one classroom (N = 14) was randomly assigned to receive the instructional program in fall, while a second classroom (N = 10) served as a control and subsequently received the program in spring. Baseline assessment of speech and language skills indicated there were four participants with speech and/or language impairments. The teacher training involved an initial workshop and weekly hour-long mentoring meetings; the program was provided for 20 min a day, 4 d a week, for 10 weeks. Outcome measures of phoneme awareness and letter knowledge skills were obtained from non-standardized tasks administered pre-instruction and post-instruction, at mid-year and end-year points. When each classroom received the phoneme instruction, participants made gains in letter knowledge and phoneme level skills in comparison with group performance under regular instruction. These gains were statistically significant for phoneme blending and letter knowledge. Using an aggregate of all outcome measures, the gain for each classroom when under instruction was statistically significant as compared with when that same classroom was receiving the regular curriculum. Children with speech and/or language impairment responded more variably. Gains in the more difficult phoneme awareness skill of blending suggest the potential for marked change with an intensive, explicit classroom instruction and hold promise for SLPs collaborating with preschool teachers to provide time-efficient PA instruction.

  3. Through Another's Eyes: Elements in the Eyes of a 4-Year-Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Xuan

    2004-01-01

    My husband, who is a scientist, often brings home different scientific journals and magazines to read, and my 4-year-old son, Nicholas J. Hu, likes to flip through them. A recent issue of Chemical and Engineering News (September, 2003) caught his interest more than usual because there were stories of different elements. Nicholas has been able to…

  4. My Body. Developing an Early Interest in Science: A Preschool Science Curriculum. (4-Year-Olds).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summer, Gail L.; Giovannini, Kathleen

    This teaching guide on the body for 4-year-olds is based on a modification of the "Plan, Do, Review" approach to education devised by High Scope in Ypsilanti, Michigan. First implemented as an outreach early childhood program in North Carolina, the science activities described in this guide can be adapted to various early childhood environments.…

  5. Earth Science. Developing an Early Interest in Science: A Preschool Science Curriculum. (4-Year-Olds).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summer, Gail L.; Giovannini, Kathleen

    This teaching guide on earth sciences for 4-year-olds is based on a modification of the "Plan, Do, Review" approach to education devised by High Scope in Ypsilanti, Michigan. First implemented as an outreach early childhood program in North Carolina, the science activities described in this guide can be adapted to various early childhood…

  6. Increase in child behavior problems among urban Brazilian 4-year olds: 1993 and 2004 Pelotas birth cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Matijasevich, Alicia; Murray, Elizabeth; Stein, Alan; Anselmi, Luciana; Menezes, Ana M; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio JD; Gigante, Denise P; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2014-01-01

    Background There are an increasing number of reports on time trends in child and adolescent psychological problems but none from low- and middle-income countries, and very few covering the preschool period. The aim was to investigate changes in preschool behavioral/emotional problems in two birth cohorts from a middle-income country born 11 years apart. Methods We analyzed data from the 1993 and 2004 Pelotas birth cohort studies from Brazil. A subsample of 4-year olds from the 1993 cohort (634) and all 4-year olds from the 2004 cohort (3750) were assessed for behavioral/emotional problems through maternal report using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Response rates in these two population-based cohorts were above 90%. Results We found a significant increase in CBCL total problems, internalizing and externalizing mean scores over the 11-year period. For 1993 and 2004 Pelotas cohorts, respectively, CBCL mean values (SE) total problems scores were 27.9 (0.8) and 34.7 (0.3); for internalizing scores, 5.7 (0.2) and 6.3 (0.1) and for externalizing scores, 12.4 (0.4) and 15.5 (0.1). After adjusting for confounding variables, the largest increase from 1993 to 2004 was identified in the aggressive behavior syndrome score (Cohen's d = .50), followed by the externalizing problem score (Cohen's d = .40) and CBCL total problem score (Cohen's d = .36), respectively. The rise in child psychological problems was more marked in children from families with fewer assets and with less educated mothers. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence for a substantial increase in preschool behavioral problems among children in Brazil over an 11-year period. PMID:24735354

  7. Linguistic and Cognitive Skills in Sardinian–Italian Bilingual Children

    PubMed Central

    Garraffa, Maria; Beveridge, Madeleine; Sorace, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of a study which tested receptive Italian grammatical competence and general cognitive abilities in bilingual Italian–Sardinian children and age-matched monolingual Italian children attending the first and second year of primary school in the Nuoro province of Sardinia, where Sardinian is still widely spoken. The results show that across age groups the performance of Sardinian–Italian bilingual children is in most cases indistinguishable from that of monolingual Italian children, in terms of both Italian language skills and general cognitive abilities. However, where there are differences, these emerge gradually over time and are mostly in favor of bilingual children. PMID:26733903

  8. Case Report: Traumatic anterior cerebral artery aneurysm in a 4-year old child

    PubMed Central

    Munakomi, Sunil; Tamrakar, Karuna; Chaudhary, Pramod; Bhattarai, Binod; Cherian, Iype

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic intracranial aneurysm in the proximal part of the anterior cerebral artery in the pediatric population has not been documented so far. Here we report the case of a 4 year-old child who developed a pseudo-aneurysm after minor head trauma and was managed successfully with trapping of the aneurysm. A ventriculo-peritoneal shunt was placed as the child became dependent on extraventricular drain during the post-operative period. The patient made excellent recovery in neurological status within 1 month of post-operative clinical follow up. PMID:27635218

  9. [Awake Nasotracheal Intubation for a 4-Year-old Boy with an Oral Penetrating Toothbrush Injury].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Naoya; Ando, Kokichi; Saito, Kazutomo; Toyama, Hiroaki; Fudeta, Hiroto; Yamauchi, Masanori

    2015-09-01

    We report a case of an oral penetrating injury caused by a toothbrush in a 4-year-old 17-kg boy. The toothbrush was lodged in the right cervical region through the oral cavity, and emergency surgery for removal was planned under general anesthesia. Although mask ventilation was not possible because of the protruding toothbrush handle, awake nasotracheal intubation was successfully performed with a fiber-scope and intravenous fentanyl 25 μg. We conclude that appropriate analgesics could facilitate awake intubation in pediatric patients.

  10. Where there's smoke there's fire--ear candling in a 4-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Hornibrook, Jeremy

    2012-12-14

    It is estimated that one-third of the United States population subscribes to alternative medical therapies (Eisenberg et al, NEJM 1993;328:246-252). Ear candles are popular products promoted by alternative health practitioners, and sold by health shops and even over the Internet. They have been promoted for ear and sinus discomfort, rhinitis, sinusitis, glue ear, colds, flu, migraine, tinnitus, but particularly for removal of ear wax (cerumen). In this case report, a 4-year-old girl in New Zealand presents with otitis media and during the course of the ear examination white deposits were noticed on her eardrum; this was confirmed as being caused by ear candling.

  11. Ingestion of tea tree oil (Melaleuca oil) by a 4-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Morris, Marilyn C; Donoghue, Aaron; Markowitz, Jennifer A; Osterhoudt, Kevin C

    2003-06-01

    A 4-year-old boy ingested a small quantity of tea tree oil. Within 30 minutes, he became ataxic and shortly thereafter progressed to unresponsiveness; he was endotracheally intubated by paramedics. His neurologic status improved gradually over 10 hours, and he remains well on follow-up. Tea tree oil is an increasingly popular topical antiseptic that is available in a wide variety of products, often without warning labels. Healthcare providers should be aware of the common uses of tea tree oil, as well as its potential toxicity.

  12. Growing teratoma syndrome: first case report in a 4-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Daher, Paul; Riachy, Edward; Khoury, Antoine; Raffoul, Lara; Ghorra, Claude; Rehayem, Caline

    2015-02-01

    Growing teratoma syndrome (GTS) consists of germ cell tumors that grow following chemotherapy despite complete eradication of the malignant cells. They can metastasize to any site, particularly the retroperitoneum, mediastinum and cervical region. It typically affects young adults and adolescents. Here we describe the youngest case reported in a 4-year-old girl with an ovarian mixed germ cell tumor who underwent an oophorectomy. Her tumor markers normalized by the end of her chemotherapeutic treatment; however, she developed a retroperitoneal mass that was subsequently resected. Histopathology revealed a mature teratoma, consisting of a GTS. We stress the need for early recognition and treatment of GTS to avoid the subsequent morbidity and mortality associated with it. Although GTS has an excellent prognosis when completely resected, it is essential that the patient be regularly followed-up with serum tumor markers and imaging.

  13. Cerebral candidiasis in a 4-year-old boy after intestinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu-Cheng

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral candidiasis is a devastating disease which contributes to a high mortality. Most of the cerebral candidiasis are never microbiologically or radiologically confirmed. In this case, a 4-year-old boy who developed cerebral candidiasis was successfully rescued and presented. The diagnosis of cerebral candidiasis was established based on both microbiologic and radiologic examinations. The pathogen was revealed to be Candida albicans by cerebrospinal fluid and central venous catheter cultures, and the cerebral involvement was recorded by series head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with an appearance of special encephalitis demonstrated. The imaging studies played a critical role throughout the diagnosis and treatment. Familiarity with the imaging findings in the appropriate clinical setting may result in a heightened level of awareness of this infection and, consequently, in earlier diagnosis and treatment.

  14. Atresia of the Aortic Arch in 4-Year-Old Child: A Clinical Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Nigro Stimato, Vittoria; Didier, Dominique; Beghetti, Maurice; Tissot, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Atresia of the aortic arch is a rare congenital heart defect with a high mortality when associated with other intracardiac defects. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) provides the exact anatomy of the aortic arch and collateral circulation and is useful to diagnose-associated aortic arch anomalies. This report describes the case of a 4-year-old child with atresia of the aortic arch, referred to our institution with the diagnosis of aortic coarctation and bicuspid aortic valve. On clinical exam, the femoral pulses were not palpable and there was a significant differential blood pressure between the upper and lower limbs. The echocardiography showed a severely stenotic bicuspid aortic valve but was limited for the exact description of the aortic arch. CMR showed absence of lumen continuity between the ascending and descending aorta distal to the left subclavian artery, extending over 5 mm, with the presence of a bend in the arch and diverticulum on either side of the zone of discontinuity, suggesting the diagnosis atresia of the aortic arch rather than coarctation or interruption. The patient benefited from a successful surgical commissurotomy of the aortic valve and reconstruction of the aortic arch with a homograft. The post-operative CMR confirmed the good surgical result. This case emphasizes the utility of CMR to provide good anatomical information to establish the exact diagnosis and the operative strategy. PMID:25853109

  15. Limitations in 4-Year-Old Children's Sensitivity to the Spacing among Facial Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondloch, Catherine J.; Thomson, Kendra

    2008-01-01

    Four-year-olds' sensitivity to differences among faces in the spacing of features was tested under 4 task conditions: judging distinctiveness when the external contour was visible and when it was occluded, simultaneous match-to-sample, and recognizing the face of a friend. In each task, the foil differed only in the spacing of features, and…

  16. Pronominal Objects in English-Italian and Spanish-Italian Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serratrice, Ludovica; Sorace, Antonella; Filiaci, Francesca; Baldo, Michela

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the role of typological relatedness, language of the community, and age, in predicting similarities and differences between English-Italian, Spanish-Italian bilingual children and their monolingual child and adult counterparts in the acceptability of pre- and postverbal object pronouns in [[plus or minus]focus] contexts in…

  17. Five-year-olds are willing, but 4-year-olds refuse, to trust informants who offer new and unfamiliar labels for parts of the body.

    PubMed

    Luu, Betty; Rosnay, Marc de; Harris, Paul L

    2013-10-01

    This study employed the selective trust paradigm to examine how children interpret novel labels when compared with labels they already know to be accurate or inaccurate within the biological domain. The participants--3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds (N=144)--were allocated to one of three conditions. In the accurate versus inaccurate condition, one informant labeled body parts correctly, whereas the other labeled them incorrectly (e.g., calling an eye an "arm"). In the accurate versus novel condition, one informant labeled body parts accurately, whereas the other provided novel labels (e.g., calling an eye a "roke"). Finally, in the inaccurate versus novel condition, one informant labeled body parts incorrectly, whereas the other offered novel labels. In subsequent test trials, the two informants provided conflicting labels for unfamiliar internal organs. In the accurate versus inaccurate condition, children sought and endorsed labels from the accurate informant. In the accurate versus novel condition, only 4- and 5-year-olds preferred the accurate informant, whereas 3-year-olds did not selectively prefer either informant. In the inaccurate versus novel condition, only 5-year-olds preferred the novel informant, whereas 3- and 4-year-olds did not demonstrate a selective preference. Results are supportive of previous studies suggesting that 3-year-olds are sensitive to inaccuracy and that 4-year-olds privilege accuracy. However, 3- and 4-year-olds appear to be unsure as to how the novel informant should be construed. In contrast, 5-year-olds appreciate that speakers offering new information are more trustworthy than those offering inaccurate information, but they are cautious in judging such informants as being "better" at providing that information.

  18. Phonological and Lexical Reading in Italian Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsolini, Margherita; Fanari, Rachele; Cerracchio, Sara; Famiglietti, Luisa

    2009-01-01

    In this study we explore the development of phonological and lexical reading in dyslexic children. We tested a group of 14 Italian children who have been diagnosed with dyslexia and whose reading age is end of grade 1. We compared this group with a group of 70 typically developing children who have been tested for reading at the end of grade 1.…

  19. Genetic Influences on Specific versus Nonspecific Language Impairment in 4-Year-Old Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Oliver, Bonamy; Plomin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The present study addresses the distinction between specific (SLI) and nonspecific (NLI) language impairment at an etiological level by estimating the relative genetic and environmental contributions to language impairment in children with SLI and NLI. Drawing on a large longitudinal twin study, we tested a sample of 356 four-and-a-half-year-old…

  20. Phonological devices in poems by English and Italian children.

    PubMed

    Dowker, A; Pinto, G

    1993-10-01

    Poems were elicited from 133 English children between two and six and 171 Italian children between three and seven, using a similar technique, and the results were compared. Both groups produced large numbers of poems. There were great similarities and some differences. The majority of poems in both samples contained phonological devices (mostly rhyme and alliteration) and the proportion was higher (87%) in the Italian sample than in the English sample (59%). The proportion of poems that contained rhyme was close to 45% in each sample, with no consistent age difference in either sample. About one-third of Italian poems and just over a fifth of English poems contained alliteration. The frequency of alliteration declined with age in the English sample but not in the Italian sample. Possible reasons for the differences between the samples are considered. It is argued that the similarities are more important, and their theoretical implications are discussed.

  1. Noma (cancrum oris): case report in a 4-year-old HIV-positive South African child.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, S; Chikte, U M

    2000-12-01

    Cancrum oris (noma) is a gangrenous infection that develops in the mouth and spreads rapidly to other parts of the face. The disease occurs mostly in conditions of poverty, poor hygiene and malnutrition. In sub-Saharan Africa the frequency in several countries is estimated to be 1-7 cases per 1,000 population, and as many as 12 cases per 1,000 in the most affected communities. About 90% of these children die without receiving any care, yet the disease can, and should, be prevented. With increasing numbers of children who are malnourished and who have compromised immune systems (compounded by the HIV pandemic) the prevalence of conditions such as noma is likely to increase. Among the earliest features of noma are excessive salivation, marked fetor oris, facial oedema and a greyish-black discolouration of the skin in the affected area. This devastating gangrenous lesion may involve the cheek, the chin, the infra-orbital margin, palate, nose, antrum and virtually any part of the face. This report describes a 4-year-old HIV-positive African girl, who was abandoned, discharged from the Plastics Unit and now lives in a child care sanctuary. Little is known about her history prior to her arrival at the home a few weeks previously. The clinical examination revealed a delay in growth and physical development equivalent to that of a 2-year-old child. The left cheek had a perforating ulcer in a healing phase. The perforation, about 1 cm in diameter, was surrounded by oedematous tissues showing a mild to moderate erythema. The peripheral oedema extended to the lower palpebral, the upper labial, left labial commissural, mandibular and pre-parotid regions. Submental, submandibular and cervical lymph nodes were mildly painful upon palpation. The child was not pyretic. The intra-oral examination revealed the features of acute necrotising gingivitis (ANG). ANG was generalised and showed classic interdental crater-like ulcers covered with whitish debris. Halitosis was pronounced

  2. Context-Sensitive Rules and Word Naming in Italian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barca, Laura; Ellis, Andrew W.; Burani, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    The present study examines the role of orthographic complexity on Italian children's word reading. Two experiments are reported in which elementary school children (3rd and 5th graders) read aloud words containing simple or contextual letter-sound conversion rules. In Experiment 1, both groups of participants read words containing contextual rules…

  3. Traumatic hip dislocation with incomplete reduction due to soft-tissue interposition in a 4-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Burgos, J; Gonzalez-Herranz, P; Ocete, G

    1995-01-01

    The case of a traumatic dislocation of the left hip in a 4-year-old boy is presented. After an initial attempt at reduction under general anesthesia, a permanent deformity in the flexion of the hip remained, and there was radiographic evidence of a nonconcentric reduction. Computed tomography (CT) showed interposition in the posterior part of the joint. Under general anesthesia, the mobilization of the hip reduced the dislocation correctly, removing the necessity of open treatment. This case stresses the need for early diagnosis of this serious complication and closed reduction of the joint, avoiding the poor results of open and deferred treatments.

  4. Fatal course of pulmonary Absidia sp. infection in a 4-year-old girl undergoing treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Krauze, Agnieszka; Krenke, Katarzyna; Matysiak, Michal; Kulus, Marek

    2005-07-01

    Absidia sp. is a rare etiologic agent responsible for infectious complications in immunosuppressed patients. The authors describe a 4-year-old girl with acute lymphoblastic leukemia complicated with pleuropneumonia caused by an Absidia infection during the induction of remission. A review of the published reports in current literature is included for comparison. To the authors' knowledge only six cases of primary pulmonary absidiomycosis have been published. Despite its uncommon pulmonary presentation, mucormycosis should be considered in patients with an immunosuppressing illness and positive risk factors and when a pulmonary lesion is not responding to appropriate antibiotic therapy.

  5. Anticoagulant and vasodilator therapy for Nicolau syndrome following intramuscular benzathine penicillin injection in a 4 year old boy.

    PubMed

    Alkan Bozkaya, Tijen; Demirel, Gamze; Ormeci, Tugrul; Al, Serdar; Çakar, Engin; Tastekin, Ayhan; Turkoglu, Halil

    2016-06-01

    Nicolau syndrome (NS) is a rare complication of intramuscular, intraarticular or subcutaneous injection of particular drugs leading to ischemic necrosis of the surrounding skin, soft tissue and muscular tissue. Benzathine penicilin one of the most widely used antibiotic for upper respiratory tract infections and has been rarely reported to cause NS. Here we describe a 4 year old boy with diagnosis of NS after the injection of benzathine penicillin who was successfuly treated with unfractionized heparin (enoxaparine) and pentoxifylline. The practitioners should pay attention for unnecessary use of benzathine penicillin to avoid from probable complications.

  6. Content of maternal open-ended questions and statements in reminiscing with their 4-year-olds: links with independence and interdependence orientation in European contexts.

    PubMed

    Tõugu, Pirko; Tulviste, Tiia; Schröder, Lisa; Keller, Heidi; De Geer, Boel

    2012-07-01

    Mother's open-ended questions and elaborative statements during reminiscing were analysed for their content (child agency, co-agency, non-social, and social context) in three cultural contexts. Participants were 115 mothers and their 4-year-old children: 35 dyads from Berlin, Germany, 42 from Stockholm, Sweden, and 38 from Tallinn, Estonia. Across samples the most prominent content was talk about non-social context followed by co-agency and child agency. Tallinn mothers asked the children to talk about themselves, and Berlin mothers asked the children to talk about themselves together with other people, more frequently than they talked about these contents themselves. The content was related to the cultural orientations of mothers assessed through questionnaires: the Berlin mothers whose independence/ interdependence ratio was higher talked less about other people and asked the children fewer questions about other people; the Stockholm mothers with a higher independence/interdependence ratio talked more about child agency. In Tallinn both correlations existed on a trend level. The results are discussed in the light of common conversational practices and mothers' orientation to independence and interdependence in these cultural contexts.

  7. The iPad as a Research Tool for the Understanding of English Plurals by English, Chinese, and Other L1 Speaking 3- and 4-Year-Olds.

    PubMed

    Xu Rattanasone, Nan; Davies, Benjamin; Schembri, Tamara; Andronos, Fabia; Demuth, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Learning about what young children with limited spoken language know about the grammar of their language is extremely challenging. Researchers have traditionally used looking behavior as a measure of language processing and to infer what overt choices children might make. However, these methods are expensive to setup, require specialized training, are time intensive for data analysis and can have considerable dropout rates. For these reasons, we have developed a forced choice task delivered on an iPad based on our eye-tracking studies with English monolinguals (Davies et al., 2016, under review). Using the iPad we investigated 3- and 4-year-olds' understanding of the English plural in preschool centers. The primary aim of the study was to provide evidence for the usefulness of the iPad as a language research tool. We evaluated the usefulness of the iPad with second language (L2) learning children who have limited L2 language skills. Studies with school aged Chinese-speaking children show below native performance on English inflectional morphology despite 5-6 years of immersion (Jia, 2003; Jia and Fuse, 2007; Paradis et al., 2016). However, it is unclear whether this is specific only to children who speak Chinese as their first language (L1) or if younger preschoolers will also show similar challenges. We tested three groups of preschoolers with different L1s (English, Chinese, and other languages). L1 Chinese children's performance was below both English monolinguals and children speaking Other L1 languages, providing evidence that English inflections are specifically challenging for Chinese-speaking children. The results provide further evidence to support previous eye-tracking findings with monolinguals and studies with older bilinguals. The study provides evidence for the usefulness of iPads as research tool for studying language acquisition. Implications for future application of the iPad as a teaching and intervention tool, and limitations for the method, are

  8. Right iliac arterial aneurysm in a 4-year-old girl who does not have a right external iliac artery

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Oh, Chaeyoun; Youn, Joong Kee; Han, Ji-Won; Jung, Sung-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric arterial aneurysm is rare disease. Among them, idiopathic-congenital arterial aneurysm is extremely rare. This is a case report of right common iliac artery idiopathic aneurysm with absence of right external iliac artery. A 4-year-old girl who had been complaining of intermittent abdominal pain since 2 years prior presented with a right lower abdominal mass that had been palpable since 6 months prior. Abdominal CT revealed a 5.2 cm × 4.5 cm × 5.1 cm, right-sided, partially thrombosed, saccular, iliac artery aneurysm. She underwent to operation, aneurismal resection. A pathological examination confirmed that it was a true aneurysm, considering that all layers of the vascular wall were stretched with no deficit. The patient was discharged 3 days after the surgery without any complication. Five months passed since the surgery, and the patient is doing well without any abdominal or leg pain. PMID:27847800

  9. Mechanical Complication with Broviac Repair Kit in a 4-Year-Old Boy with MEN 2a.

    PubMed

    Sesia, Sergio B; Haecker, Frank-Martin; Mayr, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Background. Mechanical complications in the use of indwelling central venous catheters (CVCs) such as the Broviac catheter (BC) include kinking, occlusion, dislocation or leaking. We report on a mechanical complication after using a repair kit for the BC. Method. A 4-year old boy, suffering from multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2a (MEN 2a), intestinal aganglionosis (Hirschsprung's disease), and short bowel syndrome, required a BC for home parenteral nutrition. Result. Due to recurrent leakage of the BC, 5 subsequent repairs were necessary within seven months. During one repair a metallic tube belonging to the repair kit was found to have migrated proximally to the skin entrance level within the BC and requiring surgical removal. Conclusion. To our knowledge, this is the first report focusing on such a serious complication using a BC and its repair kit. The proximal migration of this metallic tube constitutes a distinct theoretical risk of endothoracic foreign body embolization.

  10. Right iliac arterial aneurysm in a 4-year-old girl who does not have a right external iliac artery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Oh, Chaeyoun; Youn, Joong Kee; Han, Ji-Won; Kim, Hyun-Young; Jung, Sung-Eun

    2016-11-01

    Pediatric arterial aneurysm is rare disease. Among them, idiopathic-congenital arterial aneurysm is extremely rare. This is a case report of right common iliac artery idiopathic aneurysm with absence of right external iliac artery. A 4-year-old girl who had been complaining of intermittent abdominal pain since 2 years prior presented with a right lower abdominal mass that had been palpable since 6 months prior. Abdominal CT revealed a 5.2 cm × 4.5 cm × 5.1 cm, right-sided, partially thrombosed, saccular, iliac artery aneurysm. She underwent to operation, aneurismal resection. A pathological examination confirmed that it was a true aneurysm, considering that all layers of the vascular wall were stretched with no deficit. The patient was discharged 3 days after the surgery without any complication. Five months passed since the surgery, and the patient is doing well without any abdominal or leg pain.

  11. Children’s Comprehension of Sentences with Focus Particles and the Role of Cognitive Control: An Eye Tracking Study with German-Learning 4-Year-Olds

    PubMed Central

    Höhle, Barbara; Fritzsche, Tom; Müller, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Children’s interpretations of sentences containing focus particles do not seem adult-like until school age. This study investigates how German 4-year-old children comprehend sentences with the focus particle ‘nur’ (only) by using different tasks and controlling for the impact of general cognitive abilities on performance measures. Two sentence types with ‘only’ in either pre-subject or pre-object position were presented. Eye gaze data and verbal responses were collected via the visual world paradigm combined with a sentence-picture verification task. While the eye tracking data revealed an adult-like pattern of focus particle processing, the sentence-picture verification replicated previous findings of poor comprehension, especially for ‘only’ in pre-subject position. A second study focused on the impact of general cognitive abilities on the outcomes of the verification task. Working memory was related to children’s performance in both sentence types whereas inhibitory control was selectively related to the number of errors for sentences with ‘only’ in pre-subject position. These results suggest that children at the age of 4 years have the linguistic competence to correctly interpret sentences with focus particles, which–depending on specific task demands–may be masked by immature general cognitive abilities. PMID:26930286

  12. Do Italian Dyslexic Children Use the Lexical Reading Route Efficiently? An Orthographic Judgment Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinelli, Chiara Valeria; Angelelli, Paola; Notarnicola, Alessandra; Luzzatti, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    The study uses an orthographic judgment task to evaluate the efficiency of the lexical reading route in Italian dyslexic children. It has been suggested that Italian dyslexic children rely prevalently on the sub-word-level routine for reading. However, it is not easy to test the lexical reading route in Italian directly because of the lack of…

  13. The Educational Expectations of Italian Children: The Role of Social Interactions with the Children of Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minello, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate to what extent the growing presence of children with immigrant background in the Italian school system has an impact on the educational expectations of Italian students in eighth grade. Educational expectations are individuals' plans for their future educational career, adjusted to the subjectively estimated…

  14. 'The Italian job?': comparing theory of mind performance in British and Italian children.

    PubMed

    Lecce, Serena; Hughes, Claire

    2010-11-01

    Cross-cultural research on theory of mind is relatively recent and largely restricted to comparisons of children from Western versus non-Western samples; much less is known about variation within Western cultures. This study compared 5- to 6-year-olds from Britain and Italy (matched for age, verbal age, gender, and maternal education; N = 140), on tests tapping children's understanding of 1st and 2nd order false belief and mixed emotions. Overall, British children outperformed Italian children; group differences were clearest for tests of false-belief understanding. These results are discussed in relation to contrasts in family talk about mental states, schooling, language comprehension, and cultural factors in Britain and Italy.

  15. Recent (<4 year old) Leaf Litter is Not a Major Source of Microbial Carbon in a Temperate Forest Mineral Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Christiane; Trumbore, Susan E.; Froberg, Mats J.; Cisneros dozal, Luz Maria; Zhang, Dachun; Xu, Xiamei; Santos, Guaciara; Hanson, Paul J

    2010-01-01

    Microbial communities in soil A horizons derive their carbon from several potential sources: organic carbon (C) transported down from overlying litter and organic horizons, root-derived C, or soil organic matter. We took advantage of a multi-year experiment that manipulated the {sup 14}C isotope signature of surface leaf litter inputs in a temperate forest at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee, USA, to quantify the contribution of recent leaf litter C to microbial respiration and biomarkers in the underlying mineral soil. We observed no measurable difference (< {approx}40{per_thousand} given our current analytical methods) in the radiocarbon signatures of microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) isolated from the top 10 cm of mineral soil in plots that experienced 3 years of litterfall that differed in each year by {approx}750{per_thousand} between high-{sup 14}C and low-{sup 14}C treatments. Assuming any difference in {sup 14}C between the high- and low-{sup 14}C plots would reflect C derived from these manipulated litter additions, we estimate that <6% of the microbial C after 4 years was derived from the added 1-4-year-old surface litter. Large contributions of C from litter < 1 year (or >4 years) old (which fell after (or prior to) the manipulation and therefore did not differ between plots) are not supported because the {sup 14}C signatures of the PLFA compounds (averaging 200-220{per_thousand}) is much higher that of the 2004-5 leaf litter (115{per_thousand}) or pre-2000 litter. A mesocosm experiment further demonstrated that C leached from {sup 14}C-enriched surface litter or the O horizon was not a detectable C source in underlying mineral soil microbes during the first eight months after litter addition. Instead a decline in the {sup 14}C of PLFA over the mesocosm experiment likely reflected the loss of a pre-existing substrate not associated with added leaf litter. Measured PLFA {Delta}{sup 14}C signatures were higher than those measured in bulk

  16. Hematogones With Lambda Light Chain Restriction in a 4-Year-Old Boy With Burkitt Lymphoma: A Potential Diagnostic Pitfall.

    PubMed

    Guillory, Tesha; Li, Shiyong; Bergsagel, Daniel J; Weinzierl, Elizabeth; Bunting, Silvia T

    2016-05-01

    Hematogones are immature normal B cell precursors with a characteristic immunophenotype profile on flow cytometry that typically do not express surface immunoglobulin light chains. In this report, we describe a case in which the hematogones exhibit light chain restriction. Our patient was a 4-year-old boy with a complicated medical history involving treatment for a presumed bilateral Wilms tumor of the kidney that on later resection was diagnosed as Burkitt lymphoma. Flow cytometry analysis of his bone marrow revealed a small distinct population of cells expressing dim cluster of differentiation (CD)10, CD19, CD22, CD38, dim CD58, human leukocyte antigen-D related (HLA-DR), and dim CD45, which are characteristic of hematogones. These cells, however, demonstrated dim surface immunoglobulin lambda light-chain restriction. Molecular study results for immunoglobulin heavy and kappa light-chain gene rearrangements were negative. We present this case to raise awareness of the potential pitfalls of working up bone marrow for involvement by B cell lymphoproliferative disorder.

  17. [YEL-AND meningoencephalitis in a 4-year-old boy consecutive to a yellow-fever vaccine].

    PubMed

    Gerin, M; Wroblewski, I; Bost-Bru, C; N'guyen, M-A; Debillon, T

    2014-04-01

    Yellow fever is a vector-borne disease transmitted by an endemic mosquito in sub-Saharan Africa and tropical South America. It causes fever and possibly liver and renal failure with hemorrhagic signs, which may be fatal. The yellow-fever vaccine is an attenuated vaccine that is recommended for all travelers over the age of 9 months in high-risk areas. Adverse effects have been reported: minor symptoms (such as viral syndrome), hypersensitivity reactions, and major symptoms such as viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) and neurotropic disease (YEL-AND). The yellow-fever vaccine-associated autoimmune disease with central nervous system involvement (such as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis) associates fever and headaches, neurologic dysfunction, seizures, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis, and elevated protein, with neuroimaging consistent with multifocal areas of demyelization. The presence of antibodies or virus in CSF, within 1-30 days following vaccination, and the exclusion of other causes is necessary for diagnosis. We describe herein the case of a 4-year-old child who presented with severe encephalitis consecutive to a yellow-fever vaccine, with favorable progression. Diagnosis is based on the chronology of clinical and paraclinical signs and the presence of yellow-fever-specific antibodies in CSF. The treatment consists of symptomatic treatment and immunoglobulin injection.

  18. A vesicular variant of pseudoverrucous papules and nodules in the genital area of an incontinent 4-year-old.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Shreya; Scurry, James P; Fischer, Gayle

    2013-11-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis is a common cause of chronic vulvitis in patients wearing diapers and incontinence garments. In most cases the diagnosis is obvious; however, atypical presentations may mimic more serious dermatoses. We present a 4-year-old girl who presented at birth with cloacal atresia corrected surgically and resulting in chronic incontinence requiring full-time diapers. She presented with crops of herpetiform vesicles and bullae on a base that ranged from normal skin to severe erythema and oedema. A histological examination revealed a well-demarcated lesion showing a thickened epidermis with hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis, acanthosis and an abrupt transition to pallor of the upper half. Focal full thickness epidermis necrosis and small areas of spongiosis, acantholysis and apoptotic keratinocytes were seen. Immunofluorescence was negative. The lesions improved with the treatment of secondary infection and minimal topical therapy with an emollient only. This case represents an unusual vesicular variant of pseudoverrucous papules and nodules, which has been reported only once previously.

  19. L2 Spelling Errors in Italian Children with Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Palladino, Paola; Cismondo, Dhebora; Ferrari, Marcella; Ballagamba, Isabella; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2016-05-01

    The present study aimed to investigate L2 spelling skills in Italian children by administering an English word dictation task to 13 children with dyslexia (CD), 13 control children (comparable in age, gender, schooling and IQ) and a group of 10 children with an English learning difficulty, but no L1 learning disorder. Patterns of difficulties were examined for accuracy and type of errors, in spelling dictated short and long words (i.e. disyllables and three syllables). Notably, CD were poor in spelling English words. Furthermore, their errors were mainly related with phonological representation of words, as they made more 'phonologically' implausible errors than controls. In addition, CD errors were more frequent for short than long words. Conversely, the three groups did not differ in the number of plausible ('non-phonological') errors, that is, words that were incorrectly written, but whose reading could correspond to the dictated word via either Italian or English rules. Error analysis also showed syllable position differences in the spelling patterns of CD, children with and English learning difficulty and control children. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Autoimmune haematological disorders in two Italian children with Kabuki syndrome.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Paola; Lassandro, Giuseppe; Sangerardi, Maria; Faienza, Maria Felicia; Valente, Federica; Martire, Baldassarre

    2014-01-25

    Kabuki syndrome (also called Niikawa-Kuroki syndrome) is a rare genetic disease described for the first time in Japan, characterised by anomalies in multiple organ systems and often associated with autoimmune disorders and impaired immune response. We herein report the clinical history, the therapeutic approach and the outcome of two children with Kabuki syndrome who developed autoimmune haematological disorders (haemolytic anaemia and immune thrombocytopenia). Factors regarding differential diagnosis and interventions in better management of this syndrome and its complications are discussed. This is the first report of Italian children with autoimmune haematological disorders complicating Kabuki syndrome.

  1. The Effect of Verbal Reminders on Memory Reactivation in 2-, 3-, and 4-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imuta, Kana; Scarf, Damian; Hayne, Harlene

    2013-01-01

    For adults, verbal reminders provide a powerful key to unlock our memories. For example, a simple question, such as "Do you remember your wedding day?" can reactivate rich memories of the past, allowing us to recall experiences that may have occurred days, weeks, and even decades earlier. The ability to use another person's language to…

  2. Communication Attitude of Italian Children Who Do and Do Not Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardini, Simona; Vanryckeghem, Martine; Brutten, Gene J.; Cocco, Luisella; Zmarich, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this factorial study was to establish normative data for the Italian version of the Communication Attitude Test (CAT) in order to determine whether or not the speech-associated attitude reported by Italian children who stutter (CWS) differs significantly from that of their nonstuttering peers (CWNS). Toward this end, the Italian CAT…

  3. Neuropsychological Characteristics of Italian Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Aragón, Alfredo S.; Coriale, Giovanna; Fiorentino, Daniela; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Buckley, David; Gossage, J. Phillip; Ceccanti, Mauro; Mitchell, Elisha R.; May, Philip A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) display many problems ranging from deficits in intelligence to behavioral difficulties. Thus, many studies have aimed to better define the neuropsychological characteristics of children with FASD. The current article describes the neuropsychological characteristics of Italian children with severe diagnosis within FASD and compares them with controls. It was expected that intellectual functioning, language comprehension, academic skills, and inattention/hyperactivity would discriminate children with FASD from randomly-selected peers without FASD. Methods This paper presents data from a second cohort of children examined in 2005 as part of an in-school epidemiological study of FASD in Italy. Eighty children, 23 diagnosed with a FASD, and 57 randomly-selected control children from the same 1st grade classes, participated. After screening for FASD via growth and dysmorphology, the children were administered a test of general intelligence (WISC-R) as well as tests of nonverbal reasoning (Raven Colored Progressive Matrices), language comprehension (Rustioni), academic achievement (IPDA), and problem behavior (Disruptive Behavior Disorder Rating Scale). Results Children diagnosed with a FASD achieved lower scores than control children on Verbal, Performance, and Full Scale IQ. Profile analysis of the WISC-R indicates overall differences between the groups. However, some intact functioning within the FASD group was found, as the Similarities and Vocabulary subtests were similar to the controls. After an alpha adjustment to .004, the Block Design, Object Assembly, and Mazes subtests were significantly different from controls. On tests of nonverbal reasoning, language comprehension, and academic achievement, the children with a FASD scored significantly lower. Moreover, teachers rated children with a severe diagnosis within FASD as showing more inattentive symptoms than controls, while hyperactive

  4. Vocabulary Development in Italian Children: A Longitudinal Evaluation of Quantitative and Qualitative Aspects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Odorico, Laura; Carubbi, Stefania; Salerni, Nicoletta; Calvo, Vicenzo

    2001-01-01

    Vocabulary development of a sample of 42 Italian children was evaluated through monthly administration of the Italian version of the CDI. Data collection started at age one for 32 children and a few moths later for the remaining subjects and continued until children's vocabulary reached 200 words. At fixed stages of vocabulary size, individual…

  5. Parental feeding practices and associations with child weight status. Swedish validation of the Child Feeding Questionnaire finds parents of 4-year-olds less restrictive.

    PubMed

    Nowicka, Paulina; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Flodmark, Carl-Erik; Faith, Myles S

    2014-10-01

    The Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) assesses parental feeding attitudes, beliefs and practices concerned with child feeding and obesity proneness. The questionnaire has been developed in the U.S., and validation studies in other countries are limited. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the CFQ in Sweden and the associations between parenting practices and children's weight status. Based on records from the Swedish population register, all mothers of 4-year-olds (n = 3007) from the third largest city in Sweden, Malmö, were contacted by mail. Those who returned the CFQ together with a background questionnaire (n = 876) received the CFQ again to enable test-retest evaluation; 564 mothers completed the CFQ twice. We used confirmatory factor analysis to test whether the original 7-factor model was supported. Good fit (CFI = 0.94, TLI = 0.95, RMSEA = 0.04, SRMR = 0.05) was obtained after minor modifications such as dropping 2 items on restriction and adding 3 error covariances. The internal reliability and the 2-week test-retest reliability were good. The scores on restriction were the lowest ever reported. When the influence of parenting practices on child BMI (dependent variable) was examined in a structural equation model (SEM), child BMI had a positive association with restriction and a negative association with pressure to eat. Restriction was positively influenced by concern about child weight. The second SEM treated parenting practices as dependent variables. Parental foreign origin and child BMI had direct effects on restriction, while pressure to eat was also influenced by parental education. While the results of the study support the usefulness of the CFQ in Sweden, carefully designed cross-cultural comparisons are needed to explain why the levels of restrictive feeding in Swedish families are the lowest reported.

  6. Dietary fats and cholesterol in italian infants and children.

    PubMed

    Agostoni, C; Riva, E; Scaglioni, S; Marangoni, F; Radaelli, G; Giovannini, M

    2000-11-01

    The fat intake of Italian infants has peculiar characteristics that begin quite early because their mothers' milk has a monounsaturated fat content (45%) at the upper limit of the values found in Europe. Comparison studies in breast-fed and formula-fed infants were conducted to evaluate growth and developmental correlates and differences in fat intakes in the early months of life. Breast-fed infants have higher blood lipid concentrations at 4 mo of age than do formula-fed infants. The addition of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) and cholesterol to formulas for term infants may affect concentrations of circulating blood lipids as well as the LCPUFA composition of the lipids during the breast-feeding period. The addition of LCPUFAs does not seem to affect the growth rate of formula-fed infants. Although an initial benefit of LCPUFA feeding on eye-hand coordination was observed, this effect was not sustained; by 24 mo, different feeding groups had similar developmental scores. Other peculiarities of the Italian experience are presented, including body weights from infancy to early childhood in 147 children, the nutrient densities of different diets in Italian schoolchildren, and the effects of nutritional education on dietary intakes. The diets of these children were high in animal protein and supplied approximately 30-35% of energy from fats throughout childhood. Both the dietary protein intakes at 1 y of age and parental body mass indexes were associated with 5-y body mass index values. Classroom education may be useful to lower the plasma lipid concentrations in healthy, primary school-age children. It is not known whether this early modification can be maintained and whether it influences the later development of cardiovascular disorders.

  7. Learning to perceive English /d/ versus /edh/: A comparison of French, English, and English-French bilingual 4-year-olds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundara, Megha; Polka, Linda; Campisi, Lisa; Genesee, Fred; Marcoux, Caroline

    2002-05-01

    Recent findings show that discrimination of the English /d-edh/ does not differ for English and French infants (6-8-month-olds and 10-12-month-olds), although English adults clearly outperform French adults on this contrast, which is not phonemic in French. With respect to age effects, English listeners' perception of /d-edh/ improves between infancy and adulthood, whereas French listeners' perception remains unchanged [Polka et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 109, 2190-2200 (2001)]. In the present study, we tested monolingual English, monolingual French, and early English-French bilingual 4-year-olds on the same contrast using the same stimuli and procedures to clarify when facilitative effects of language experience emerge and whether they are affected by bilingualism. Four findings are reported. First, a language effect (English>French) is evident by 4 years of age. Second, among native (English) listeners facilitative effects are evident by 4-years of age (infants<4-year-olds4-year-olds=adults). Fourth, bilingual 4-year-olds' performance is virtually identical to that of their French-speaking peers, revealing a strong effect of bilingualism on the perception of this contrast. Several factors contributing to these findings will be discussed.

  8. Brief Report: An Evaluation of TAGteach Components to Decrease Toe-Walking in a 4-Year-Old Child with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persicke, Angela; Jackson, Marianne; Adams, Amanda N.

    2014-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effectiveness of using a modified "TAGteach"™ procedure and correction to decrease toe-walking in a 4-year-old boy with autism. Two conditions were analyzed: correction alone and correction with an audible conditioned reinforcing stimulus. Correction alone produced minimal and inconsistent decreases in…

  9. Progressive cubitus varus due to a bony physeal bar in a 4-year-old girl following a supracondylar fracture: a case report.

    PubMed

    Theruvil, Bipin; Kapoor, Vikas; Fairhurst, Jo; Taylor, Graeme R

    2005-10-01

    We report a case of progressive cubitus varus deformity caused by a physeal bar following a supracondylar humeral fracture in a 4-year-old girl. Malreduction is thought to be the commonest cause of this deformity, which is nonprogressive. A corrective osteotomy in cases like ours should be deferred until skeletal maturity.

  10. Tracking of weight status and body fatness in Italian children.

    PubMed

    Toselli, Stefania; Brasili, Patricia; Di Michele, Rocco

    2013-12-01

    The prevalence of weight disorders among school-aged children is an increasing phenomenon and it is of great importance to identify the characteristics of individuals at risk of gaining or retaining weight. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of weight disorders and their tracking over a 3-year period in a sample of Italian children. Body mass, body height and selected skinfold thicknesses were assessed in 355 children at the age of 7 and 10 years. Tracking of body mass index (BMI), inverted BMI (iBMI) and skinfold-based body fat were analyzed and the relationships between changes in BMI and body fat were examined. Children presenting with overweight or obesity at 7 years old showed a trend toward lower weight categories at 10 years old. Conversely, a trend to become overweight was observed among normal weight boys, and a trend to become underweight was observed among normal weight girls. BMI, iBMI and body fat showed good levels of tracking, with high correlations between measurements performed at 7 and 10 years of age. Furthermore, BMI and iBMI changes were correlated to body fatness changes. The present study shows the importance of carefully following children's development over time because weight disorders may appear even in previously normal weight children.

  11. Body Mass Index (BMI) and child temperament: ethnic and gender differences among 3 and 4 year olds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited early research suggests that children with a more difficult temperament (i.e., withdrawing, high intensity, predominate negative mood) by ages 4-5 are more likely to have excessive weight gain by ages 8-9 compared with children with opposite temperaments. We examined this relationship among ...

  12. Poverty as a Predictor of 4-Year-Olds' Executive Function: New Perspectives on Models of Differential Susceptibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raver, C. Cybele; Blair, Clancy; Willoughby, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In a predominantly low-income, population-based longitudinal sample of 1,259 children followed from birth, results suggest that chronic exposure to poverty and the strains of financial hardship were each uniquely predictive of young children's performance on measures of executive functioning. Results suggest that temperament-based vulnerability…

  13. Children’s Spatial Representations: 3- and 4-Year-Olds are Affected by Irrelevant Peripheral References

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Markus; Jahn, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Children as young as 3 years can remember an object’s location within an arrangement and can retrieve it from a novel viewpoint (Nardini et al., 2006). However, this ability is impaired if the arrangement is rotated to compensate for the novel viewpoint, or, if the arrangement is rotated and children stand still. There are two dominant explanations for this phenomenon: self-motion induces an automatic spatial updating process which is beneficial if children move around the arrangement, but misleading if the children’s movement is matched by the arrangement and not activated if children stand still and only the arrangement is moved (see spatial updating; Simons and Wang, 1998). Another explanation concerns reference frames: spatial representations might depend on peripheral spatial relations concerning the surrounding room instead on proximal relations within the arrangement, even if these proximal relations are sufficient or more informative. To evaluate these possibilities, we rotated children (N = 120) aged between 3 and 6 years with an occluded arrangement. When the arrangement was in misalignment to the surrounding room, 3- and 4-year-olds’ spatial memory was impaired and 5-year-olds’ was lightly impaired suggesting that they relied on peripheral references of the surrounding room for retrieval. In contrast, 6-years-olds’ spatial representation seemed robust against misalignment indicating a successful integration of spatial representations. PMID:26617537

  14. Development of the time course for processing conflict: an event-related potentials study with 4 year olds and adults

    PubMed Central

    Rueda, M Rosario; Posner, Michael I; Rothbart, Mary K; Davis-Stober, Clintin P

    2004-01-01

    Background Tasks involving conflict are widely used to study executive attention. In the flanker task, a target stimulus is surrounded by distracting information that can be congruent or incongruent with the correct response. Developmental differences in the time course of brain activations involved in conflict processing were examined for 22 four year old children and 18 adults. Subjects performed a child-friendly flanker task while their brain activity was registered using a high-density electroencephalography system. Results General differences were found in the amplitude and time course of event-related potentials (ERPs) between children and adults that are consistent with their differences in reaction time. In addition, the congruency of flankers affected both the amplitude and latency of some of the ERP components. These effects were delayed and sustained for longer periods of time in the children compared to the adults. Conclusions These differences constitute neural correlates of children's greater difficulty in monitoring and resolving conflict in this and similar tasks. PMID:15500693

  15. Perception of fattening foods in Italian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Toselli, Stefania; Brasili, Patricia; Di Michele, Rocco; Spiga, Federico

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to analyze, in Italian children and adolescents, the beliefs about which foods are fattening, the appreciation of fattening foods, and the perception of some socio-cultural attributes of them. 244 children (F: 125, M: 119, aged 8-11) and 305 adolescents (F: 153; M: 152, aged 11-14) from Bologna, Northern Italy, were asked to indicate five fattening foods. For each of the indicated foods, a yes-no answer was required to the question: "is this food special for you?", and to six questions concerning socio-cultural attributes of the food, which were modelled using a latent variable with two classes named "traditional" and "modern". Pearson's chi square tests revealed, both in boys and girls, significant associations between the age class and the foods indicated as fattening: lean meat, condiments, non-sweet fruit and vegetables were more often indicated as fattening by children than by adolescents. Overall, boys showed higher appreciation and perception of fashionability of fattening foods. Girls appreciated less bread and pasta, and indicated more often than boys these foods as fattening. The different food perception of between age classes and sexes can be respectively explained by a better dietary awareness of adolescents, and by girls worrying about their look more than boys.

  16. Bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation for refractory total body dystonia secondary to metabolic autopallidotomy in a 4-year-old boy with infantile methylmalonic acidemia: case report.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, Santo; Hasegawa, Harutomo; Lumsden, Daniel E; Ali, Wisam; Kaminska, Margaret; Lin, Jean-Pierre; Ashkan, Keyoumars

    2013-10-01

    The methylmalonic acidemias (MMAs) are a group of inborn errors of metabolism resulting in the accumulation of methylmalonic acid in body tissues and fluids. A recognized complication of MMA is bilateral liquefaction of the globus pallidi, resulting in a fulminant total body dystonia of childhood often refractory to medical treatment. This case of total body dystonia due to MMA in a 4-year-old boy had been medically refractory for 15 months. Complete metabolic destructive liquefaction of the pallidi, that is, autopallidotomy, necessitated an alternative, bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) with a marked improvement in dystonia and reduction in pain. The case illustrates the efficacy of STN DBS in this condition and the technical challenges in targeting the STN in a small child.

  17. Voices of Children and Parents from Elsewhere: A Glance at Integration in Italian Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dusi, Paola; Steinbach, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    This study involves 35 research participants: 20 immigrant parents (primarily mothers from South America, North Africa, Eastern Europe and the Middle East) and 15 primary school children, aged 10-11. These children were born outside Italy and primary school was their first encounter with the Italian educational system. We observed their processes…

  18. Assessing Measurement Invariance of the Children's Depression Inventory in Chinese and Italian Primary School Student Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Wenfeng; Lu, Yongbiao; Tan, Furong; Yao, Shuqiao; Steca, Patrizia; Abela, John R. Z.; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the measurement invariance of Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and compared its factorial variance/covariance and latent means among Chinese and Italian children. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis of the original five factors identified by Kovacs revealed that full measurement invariance did not hold. Further analysis…

  19. Cognitive Profiles of Italian Children with Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobia, Valentina; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate verbal and nonverbal cognitive deficits in Italian students with developmental dyslexia. The performances of 32 dyslexic students, 64 age-matched typically reading controls, and 64 reading age-matched controls were compared on tests of lexical knowledge, phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming,…

  20. The effect of morphology on spelling and reading accuracy: a study on Italian children.

    PubMed

    Angelelli, Paola; Marinelli, Chiara Valeria; Burani, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    In opaque orthographies knowledge of morphological information helps in achieving reading and spelling accuracy. In transparent orthographies with regular print-to-sound correspondences, such as Italian, the mappings of orthography onto phonology and phonology onto orthography are in principle sufficient to read and spell most words. The present study aimed to investigate the role of morphology in the reading and spelling accuracy of Italian children as a function of school experience to determine whether morphological facilitation was present in children learning a transparent orthography. The reading and spelling performances of 15 third-grade and 15 fifth-grade typically developing children were analyzed. Children read aloud and spelled both low-frequency words and pseudowords. Low-frequency words were manipulated for the presence of morphological structure (morphemic words vs. non-derived words). Morphemic words could also vary for the frequency (high vs. low) of roots and suffixes. Pseudo-words were made up of either a real root and a real derivational suffix in a combination that does not exist in the Italian language or had no morphological constituents. Results showed that, in Italian, morphological information is a useful resource for both reading and spelling. Typically developing children benefitted from the presence of morphological structure when they read and spelled pseudowords; however, in processing low-frequency words, morphology facilitated reading but not spelling. These findings are discussed in terms of morpho-lexical access and successful cooperation between lexical and sublexical processes in reading and spelling.

  1. The effect of morphology on spelling and reading accuracy: a study on Italian children

    PubMed Central

    Angelelli, Paola; Marinelli, Chiara Valeria; Burani, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    In opaque orthographies knowledge of morphological information helps in achieving reading and spelling accuracy. In transparent orthographies with regular print-to-sound correspondences, such as Italian, the mappings of orthography onto phonology and phonology onto orthography are in principle sufficient to read and spell most words. The present study aimed to investigate the role of morphology in the reading and spelling accuracy of Italian children as a function of school experience to determine whether morphological facilitation was present in children learning a transparent orthography. The reading and spelling performances of 15 third-grade and 15 fifth-grade typically developing children were analyzed. Children read aloud and spelled both low-frequency words and pseudowords. Low-frequency words were manipulated for the presence of morphological structure (morphemic words vs. non-derived words). Morphemic words could also vary for the frequency (high vs. low) of roots and suffixes. Pseudo-words were made up of either a real root and a real derivational suffix in a combination that does not exist in the Italian language or had no morphological constituents. Results showed that, in Italian, morphological information is a useful resource for both reading and spelling. Typically developing children benefitted from the presence of morphological structure when they read and spelled pseudowords; however, in processing low-frequency words, morphology facilitated reading but not spelling. These findings are discussed in terms of morpho-lexical access and successful cooperation between lexical and sublexical processes in reading and spelling. PMID:25477855

  2. Initial diagnosis of the congenital disorder of glycosylation PMM2-CDG (CDG1a) in a 4-year-old girl after neurosurgical intervention for cerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Stefanits, Harald; Konstantopoulou, Vassiliki; Kuess, Magnus; Milenkovic, Ivan; Matula, Christian

    2014-11-01

    The congenital disorder of glycosylation characterized by a deficiency of phosphomannomutase 2 (PMM2-CDG) is the most common variant of congenital disorders of glycosylation. Besides typical clinical features, such as dysmorphism and abnormal body fat distribution, coagulation abnormities often lead to thromboembolic and hemorrhagic events in these patients. However, only 2 cases of intracerebral bleeding in patients with PMM2-CDG have been described so far. A 4-year-old girl who initially presented with symptoms resulting from raised intracranial pressure underwent acute neurosurgical intervention for intracranial hemorrhage. The differential diagnoses after MRI included arteriovenous malformation and intraparenchymal brain tumor. However, clinical investigations promoted the diagnosis of PMM2-CDG, which was supported further by neuropathological findings and finally confirmed by isoelectric focusing and mutational analysis. No major complications or neurological deficits were evident after surgery, and the patient was able to attend an integrated kindergarten. Unexplained intracranial hemorrhage should raise suspicion of a metabolic disorder and should be discussed with specialists to rule out an orphan disease such as PMM2-CDG.

  3. Necrotizing pneumonia and acute purulent pericarditis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A in a healthy 4-year-old girl after one catch-up dose of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shay; Tsai, Jeng-Dau; Tsao, Ten-Fu; Liao, Pei-Fen; Sheu, Ji-Nan

    2016-08-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common cause of infectious diseases in children that may lead to life-threatening complications. Acute purulent pericarditis is an uncommon complication of S. pneumoniae in the antibiotic era. A healthy 4-year-old girl was admitted with pneumonia and pleural effusion. She had received one catch-up dose of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine at 2 years of age. She rapidly developed necrotizing pneumonia, complicated by bronchopleural fistula presenting as subcutaneous emphysema and pneumothorax and acute purulent pericarditis. S. pneumoniae serotype 19A was subsequently identified from blood, empyema and pericardial fluid cultures. After appropriate antibiotic therapy and a right lower lobectomy, her condition stabilized and she promptly recovered. This case highlights two rare potential clinical complications of pneumococcal disease in a child: necrotizing pneumonia and acute purulent pericarditis. This is the first report of a child who received just one catch-up dose of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine at 2 years of age, as per the United States' Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice's recommendations, but who still developed severe invasive pneumococcal disease with life-threatening complications caused by S. pneumoniae serotype 19A.

  4. Necrotizing pneumonia and acute purulent pericarditis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A in a healthy 4-year-old girl after one catch-up dose of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shay; Tsai, Jeng-Dau; Tsao, Ten-Fu; Liao, Pei-Fen; Sheu, Ji-Nan

    2016-01-29

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common cause of infectious diseases in children that may lead to life-threatening complications. Acute purulent pericarditis is an uncommon complication of S. pneumoniae in the antibiotic era. A healthy 4-year-old girl was admitted with pneumonia and pleural effusion. She had received one catch-up dose of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine at 2 years of age. She rapidly developed necrotizing pneumonia, complicated by bronchopleural fistula presenting as subcutaneous emphysema and pneumothorax and acute purulent pericarditis. S. pneumoniae serotype 19A was subsequently identified from blood, empyema and pericardial fluid cultures. After appropriate antibiotic therapy and a right lower lobectomy, her condition stabilized and she promptly recovered. This case highlights two rare potential clinical complications of pneumococcal disease in a child: necrotizing pneumonia and acute purulent pericarditis. This is the first report of a child who received just one catch-up dose of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine at 2 years of age, as per the United States' Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice's recommendations, but who still developed severe invasive pneumococcal disease with life-threatening complications caused by S. pneumoniae serotype 19A.

  5. Disambiguating Information and Memory Resources in Children's Processing of Italian Relative Clauses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arosio, Fabrizio; Guasti, Maria Teresa; Stucchi, Natale

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the role of number agreement on verb and of animacy in the comprehension of subject and object relative clauses in 51 monolingual Italian-speaking children, mean age 9:33, tested through a self-paced listening experiment with a final comprehension question. A "digit span test" and a "listening span test" were…

  6. Context and Linguistic Politeness in 7- and 9-Year-Old Italian Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axia, Giovanna; Argenti, Emanuela

    The development of linguistic politeness in 7- and 9-year-old Italian children was examined. A total of 80 subjects, 40 males and 40 females, produced requests according to different contexts which were graphically presented. Factors considered for such contexts were: sex of the speaker; sex of the addressee; status of the addressee, either peer…

  7. Pediatric Tuberculosis in Italian Children: Epidemiological and Clinical Data from the Italian Register of Pediatric Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Galli, Luisa; Lancella, Laura; Tersigni, Chiara; Venturini, Elisabetta; Chiappini, Elena; Bergamini, Barbara Maria; Codifava, Margherita; Venturelli, Cristina; Tosetti, Giulia; Marabotto, Caterina; Cursi, Laura; Boccuzzi, Elena; Garazzino, Silvia; Tovo, Pier Angelo; Pinon, Michele; Le Serre, Daniele; Castiglioni, Laura; Lo Vecchio, Andrea; Guarino, Alfredo; Bruzzese, Eugenia; Losurdo, Giuseppe; Castagnola, Elio; Bossi, Grazia; Marseglia, Gian Luigi; Esposito, Susanna; Bosis, Samantha; Grandolfo, Rita; Fiorito, Valentina; Valentini, Piero; Buonsenso, Danilo; Domenici, Raffaele; Montesanti, Marco; Salvini, Filippo Maria; Riva, Enrica; Dodi, Icilio; Maschio, Francesca; Abbagnato, Luisa; Fiumana, Elisa; Fornabaio, Chiara; Ballista, Patrizia; Portelli, Vincenzo; Bottone, Gabriella; Palladino, Nicola; Valenzise, Mariella; Vecchi, Barbara; Di Gangi, Maria; Lupi, Carla; Villani, Alberto; de Martino, Maurizio

    2016-06-17

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Over the last decades, TB has also emerged in the pediatric population. Epidemiologic data of childhood TB are still limited and there is an urgent need of more data on very large cohorts. A multicenter study was conducted in 27 pediatric hospitals, pediatric wards, and public health centers in Italy using a standardized form, covering the period of time between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2012. Children with active TB, latent TB, and those recently exposed to TB or recently adopted/immigrated from a high TB incidence country were enrolled. Overall, 4234 children were included; 554 (13.1%) children had active TB, 594 (14.0%) latent TB and 3086 (72.9%) were uninfected. Among children with active TB, 481 (86.8%) patients had pulmonary TB. The treatment of active TB cases was known for 96.4% (n = 534) of the cases. Overall, 210 (39.3%) out of these 534 children were treated with three and 216 (40.4%) with four first-line drugs. Second-line drugs where used in 87 (16.3%) children with active TB. Drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were reported in 39 (7%) children. Improving the surveillance of childhood TB is important for public health care workers and pediatricians. A non-negligible proportion of children had drug-resistant TB and was treated with second-line drugs, most of which are off-label in the pediatric age. Future efforts should concentrate on improving active surveillance, diagnostic tools, and the availability of antitubercular pediatric formulations, also in low-endemic countries.

  8. Pediatric Tuberculosis in Italian Children: Epidemiological and Clinical Data from the Italian Register of Pediatric Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Galli, Luisa; Lancella, Laura; Tersigni, Chiara; Venturini, Elisabetta; Chiappini, Elena; Bergamini, Barbara Maria; Codifava, Margherita; Venturelli, Cristina; Tosetti, Giulia; Marabotto, Caterina; Cursi, Laura; Boccuzzi, Elena; Garazzino, Silvia; Tovo, Pier Angelo; Pinon, Michele; Le Serre, Daniele; Castiglioni, Laura; Lo Vecchio, Andrea; Guarino, Alfredo; Bruzzese, Eugenia; Losurdo, Giuseppe; Castagnola, Elio; Bossi, Grazia; Marseglia, Gian Luigi; Esposito, Susanna; Bosis, Samantha; Grandolfo, Rita; Fiorito, Valentina; Valentini, Piero; Buonsenso, Danilo; Domenici, Raffaele; Montesanti, Marco; Salvini, Filippo Maria; Riva, Enrica; Dodi, Icilio; Maschio, Francesca; Abbagnato, Luisa; Fiumana, Elisa; Fornabaio, Chiara; Ballista, Patrizia; Portelli, Vincenzo; Bottone, Gabriella; Palladino, Nicola; Valenzise, Mariella; Vecchi, Barbara; Di Gangi, Maria; Lupi, Carla; Villani, Alberto; de Martino, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Over the last decades, TB has also emerged in the pediatric population. Epidemiologic data of childhood TB are still limited and there is an urgent need of more data on very large cohorts. A multicenter study was conducted in 27 pediatric hospitals, pediatric wards, and public health centers in Italy using a standardized form, covering the period of time between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2012. Children with active TB, latent TB, and those recently exposed to TB or recently adopted/immigrated from a high TB incidence country were enrolled. Overall, 4234 children were included; 554 (13.1%) children had active TB, 594 (14.0%) latent TB and 3086 (72.9%) were uninfected. Among children with active TB, 481 (86.8%) patients had pulmonary TB. The treatment of active TB cases was known for 96.4% (n = 534) of the cases. Overall, 210 (39.3%) out of these 534 children were treated with three and 216 (40.4%) with four first-line drugs. Second-line drugs where used in 87 (16.3%) children with active TB. Drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were reported in 39 (7%) children. Improving the surveillance of childhood TB is important for public health care workers and pediatricians. A non-negligible proportion of children had drug-resistant TB and was treated with second-line drugs, most of which are off-label in the pediatric age. Future efforts should concentrate on improving active surveillance, diagnostic tools, and the availability of antitubercular pediatric formulations, also in low-endemic countries. PMID:27322255

  9. The Italian Job?: Comparing Theory of Mind Performance in British and Italian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lecce, Serena; Hughes, Claire

    2010-01-01

    Cross-cultural research on theory of mind is relatively recent and largely restricted to comparisons of children from Western versus non-Western samples; much less is known about variation within Western cultures. This study compared 5- to 6-year-olds from Britain and Italy (matched for age, verbal age, gender, and maternal education; N=140), on…

  10. Cognitive profiles in bilingual children born to immigrant parents and Italian monolingual native children with specific learning disorders

    PubMed Central

    Riva, Anna; Nacinovich, Renata; Bertuletti, Nadia; Montrasi, Valentina; Marchetti, Sara; Neri, Francesca; Bomba, Monica

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to compare the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children® – fourth edition IV (WISC IV) intellectual profile of two groups of children with specific learning disorder, a group of bilingual children and a group of monolingual Italian children, in order to identify possible significant differences between them. Patients and methods A group of 48 bilingual children and a group of 48 Italian monolingual children were included in this study. A preliminary comparison showed the homogeneity of the two groups regarding learning disorder typology and sociodemographic characteristics (age at WISC IV assessment, sex and years of education in Italy) with the exception of socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic status was then used as a covariate in the analysis. Results Even if the two groups were comparable in specific learning disorder severity and, in particular, in the text comprehension performance, our findings showed that the WISC IV performances of the bilingual group were significantly worse than the Italian group in Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (P=0.03), in General Ability Index (P=0.03), in Working Memory Index (P=0.009) and in some subtests and clusters requiring advanced linguistic abilities. Conclusion These results support the hypothesis of a weakness in metalinguistic abilities in bilingual children with specific learning disorders than monolinguals. If confirmed, this result must be considered in the rehabilitation treatment. PMID:28115851

  11. Communication attitude of Italian children who do and do not stutter.

    PubMed

    Bernardini, Simona; Vanryckeghem, Martine; Brutten, Gene J; Cocco, Luisella; Zmarich, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this factorial study was to establish normative data for the Italian version of the Communication Attitude Test (CAT) in order to determine whether or not the speech-associated attitude reported by Italian children who stutter (CWS) differs significantly from that of their nonstuttering peers (CWNS). Toward this end, the Italian CAT was administered to 149 CWS and 148 CWNS between the ages of 6 and 14. The results showed that the mean CAT score of the CWS sampled is higher, to a statistically significant extent, than that of their nonstuttering peers. Moreover, age and gender did not differentially affect this result. Together, these findings and the large between-group effect size suggest that the CAT is a useful clinical aid in evaluating the attitude of Italian children whose fluency is problematic. It can serve well to determine if a child's speech-associated belief system needs to be addressed in therapy and, if so, whether or not the cognitive change tactics employed have been effective.

  12. Characteristics of Phonological Development as a Risk Factor for Language Development in Italian-Speaking Pre-Term Children: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Odorico, Laura; Majorano, Marinella; Fasolo, Mirco; Salerni, Nicoletta; Suttora, Chiara

    2011-01-01

    This study analysed the early linguistic development of Italian pre-term children. Samples of spontaneous pre-linguistic and verbal production were recorded at 12 and 18 months of age from two groups of children: 24 pre-term children and 15 full-term children. The Italian version of the MacArthur-Bates Questionnaire was administered at 24 months…

  13. Real-Word and Nonword Repetition in Italian-Speaking Children with Specific Language Impairment: A Study of Diagnostic Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dispaldro, Marco; Leonard, Laurence B.; Deevy, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Using 2 different scoring methods, the authors examined the diagnostic accuracy of both real-word and nonword repetition in identifying Italian-speaking children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Method: A total of 34 children ages 3;11-5;8 (years;months) participated--17 children with SLI and 17 typically developing…

  14. Skin disease and thyroid autoimmunity in atopic South Italian children

    PubMed Central

    Pedullà, Marcella; Fierro, Vincenzo; Marzuillo, Pierluigi; Capuano, Francesco; Miraglia del Giudice, Emanuele; Ruocco, Eleonora

    2016-01-01

    AIM To verify the prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity (TA) and the possible association between atopy and TA in children affected by skin disease. METHODS Three hundred and twenty-four children consecutively referred due to skin disease symptoms to our Pediatric Department were enrolled. One hundred and eighty-seven were diagnosed with atopic dermatitis (AD), 95 with acute urticaria, 40 with chronic urticaria (CU), and 2 with alopecia areata (AA). According to the work-up for atopy, the children were divided into two groups: Atopics and non-atopics. TA was diagnosed by serum thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies and/or thyroglobulin autoantibodies levels more than twice normal values over a period of two months by immunoassay. RESULTS In all children with skin disease, a significant prevalence of TA in atopics compared with non-atopics (13.67% vs 2.67%, P = 0.0016) and a significant association between TA and atopy (OR = 5.76, 95%CI: 1.71-19.35) were observed. These findings were confirmed as significant in children with AD: TA in atopics was 11.5%, while TA in non-atopics was 2.7% (P = 0.03, OR = 4.68, 95%CI: 1.02-21.38). In addition, atopics with CU showed a significantly higher prevalence of TA (26.9%), but none of the non-atopics showed CU (P = 0.0326). On the other hand, atopics with AA showed a 100% (2 out of 2) prevalence of TA, compared with none of the non-atopics. CONCLUSION In children with skin disease, atopy seems to be associated with an increased risk of TA. PMID:27610344

  15. Career Exploration and Occupational Knowledge in Italian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Lea; Ginevra, Maria Cristina; Santilli, Sara; Nota, Laura; Sgaramella, Teresa Maria; Soresi, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    We explored the perception and actual occupational knowledge of jobs on career exploration across Holland's categories in 60 elementary and 60 middle school students. Results showed a closer relationship between career exploration and actual knowledge than children's perception of knowledge. We found higher levels of actual knowledge and…

  16. Educator Abroad: Teaching ("Insegnare") and Learning ("Imparare") with Italian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veltri, Barbara Torre

    2012-01-01

    Over her 30-year career as a certified teacher, researcher, and university teacher educator, the author has planned, facilitated and refined educational experiences for children from pre-kindergarten through adolescence, as well as for adults who teach (or were preparing to teach) in New York, Connecticut, Texas, and Arizona. During the summer of…

  17. How Do Alternative Ways of Responding Influence 3- and 4-Year-Olds' Performance on Tests of Executive Function and Theory of Mind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Daniel J.; Riggs, Kevin J.; Apperly, Ian A.; Graham, Kate; Geoghegan, Ceara

    2012-01-01

    A total of 69 preschool children were tested on measures of false belief understanding (the Unexpected Transfer task), inhibitory control (the Grass/Snow task), and strategic reasoning (the Windows task). For each task, children indicated their response either by pointing with their index finger or by using a nonstandard response mode (pointing…

  18. Imitation as a mechanism in cognitive development: a cross-cultural investigation of 4-year-old children’s rule learning

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhidan; Williamson, Rebecca A.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2015-01-01

    Children learn about the social and physical world by observing other people’s acts. This experiment tests both Chinese and American children’s learning of a rule. For theoretical reasons we chose the rule of categorizing objects by the weight. Children, age 4 years, saw an adult heft four visually-identical objects and sort them into two bins based on an invisible property—the object’s weight. Children who saw this categorization behavior were more likely to sort those objects by weight than were children who saw control actions using the same objects and the same bins. Crucially, children also generalized to a novel set of objects with no further demonstration, suggesting rule learning. We also report that high-fidelity imitation of the adult’s “hefting” acts may give children crucial experience with the objects’ weights, which could then be used to infer the more abstract rule. The connection of perception, action, and cognition was found in children from both cultures, which leads to broad implications for how the imitation of adults’ acts functions as a lever in cognitive development. PMID:26029132

  19. A Multicenter Retrospective Survey regarding Diabetic Ketoacidosis Management in Italian Children with Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zucchini, Stefano; Scaramuzza, Andrea E; Bonfanti, Riccardo; Buono, Pietro; Cardella, Francesca; Cauvin, Vittoria; Cherubini, Valentino; Chiari, Giovanni; d'Annunzio, Giuseppe; Frongia, Anna Paola; Iafusco, Dario; Maltoni, Giulio; Patera, Ippolita Patrizia; Toni, Sonia; Tumini, Stefano; Rabbone, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective survey in pediatric centers belonging to the Italian Society for Pediatric Diabetology and Endocrinology. The following data were collected for all new-onset diabetes patients aged 0-18 years: DKA (pH < 7.30), severe DKA (pH < 7.1), DKA in preschool children, DKA treatment according to ISPAD protocol, type of rehydrating solution used, bicarbonates use, and amount of insulin infused. Records (n = 2453) of children with newly diagnosed diabetes were collected from 68/77 centers (87%), 39 of which are tertiary referral centers, the majority of whom (n = 1536, 89.4%) were diagnosed in the tertiary referral centers. DKA was observed in 38.5% and severe DKA in 10.3%. Considering preschool children, DKA was observed in 72%, and severe DKA in 16.7%. Cerebral edema following DKA treatment was observed in 5 (0.5%). DKA treatment according to ISPAD guidelines was adopted in 68% of the centers. In the first 2 hours, rehydration was started with normal saline in all centers, but with different amount. Bicarbonate was quite never been used. Insulin was infused starting from third hour at the rate of 0.05-0.1 U/kg/h in 72% of centers. Despite prevention campaign, DKA is still observed in Italian children at onset, with significant variability in DKA treatment, underlying the need to share guidelines among centers.

  20. A Multicenter Retrospective Survey regarding Diabetic Ketoacidosis Management in Italian Children with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zucchini, Stefano; Scaramuzza, Andrea E.; Bonfanti, Riccardo; Buono, Pietro; Cardella, Francesca; Cauvin, Vittoria; Cherubini, Valentino; Chiari, Giovanni; d'Annunzio, Giuseppe; Frongia, Anna Paola; Iafusco, Dario; Maltoni, Giulio; Patera, Ippolita Patrizia; Toni, Sonia; Tumini, Stefano; Rabbone, Ivana; Diabetes Study Group of the Italian Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology (ISPED)

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective survey in pediatric centers belonging to the Italian Society for Pediatric Diabetology and Endocrinology. The following data were collected for all new-onset diabetes patients aged 0–18 years: DKA (pH < 7.30), severe DKA (pH < 7.1), DKA in preschool children, DKA treatment according to ISPAD protocol, type of rehydrating solution used, bicarbonates use, and amount of insulin infused. Records (n = 2453) of children with newly diagnosed diabetes were collected from 68/77 centers (87%), 39 of which are tertiary referral centers, the majority of whom (n = 1536, 89.4%) were diagnosed in the tertiary referral centers. DKA was observed in 38.5% and severe DKA in 10.3%. Considering preschool children, DKA was observed in 72%, and severe DKA in 16.7%. Cerebral edema following DKA treatment was observed in 5 (0.5%). DKA treatment according to ISPAD guidelines was adopted in 68% of the centers. In the first 2 hours, rehydration was started with normal saline in all centers, but with different amount. Bicarbonate was quite never been used. Insulin was infused starting from third hour at the rate of 0.05–0.1 U/kg/h in 72% of centers. Despite prevention campaign, DKA is still observed in Italian children at onset, with significant variability in DKA treatment, underlying the need to share guidelines among centers. PMID:26649321

  1. The iPad as a Research Tool for the Understanding of English Plurals by English, Chinese, and Other L1 Speaking 3- and 4-Year-Olds

    PubMed Central

    Xu Rattanasone, Nan; Davies, Benjamin; Schembri, Tamara; Andronos, Fabia; Demuth, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Learning about what young children with limited spoken language know about the grammar of their language is extremely challenging. Researchers have traditionally used looking behavior as a measure of language processing and to infer what overt choices children might make. However, these methods are expensive to setup, require specialized training, are time intensive for data analysis and can have considerable dropout rates. For these reasons, we have developed a forced choice task delivered on an iPad based on our eye-tracking studies with English monolinguals (Davies et al., 2016, under review). Using the iPad we investigated 3- and 4-year-olds’ understanding of the English plural in preschool centers. The primary aim of the study was to provide evidence for the usefulness of the iPad as a language research tool. We evaluated the usefulness of the iPad with second language (L2) learning children who have limited L2 language skills. Studies with school aged Chinese-speaking children show below native performance on English inflectional morphology despite 5–6 years of immersion (Jia, 2003; Jia and Fuse, 2007; Paradis et al., 2016). However, it is unclear whether this is specific only to children who speak Chinese as their first language (L1) or if younger preschoolers will also show similar challenges. We tested three groups of preschoolers with different L1s (English, Chinese, and other languages). L1 Chinese children’s performance was below both English monolinguals and children speaking Other L1 languages, providing evidence that English inflections are specifically challenging for Chinese-speaking children. The results provide further evidence to support previous eye-tracking findings with monolinguals and studies with older bilinguals. The study provides evidence for the usefulness of iPads as research tool for studying language acquisition. Implications for future application of the iPad as a teaching and intervention tool, and limitations for the method

  2. Tracing Back to the Onset of Abnormal Head Circumference Growth in Italian Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muratori, Filippo; Calderoni, Sara; Apicella, Fabio; Filippi, Tiziana; Santocchi, Elisa; Calugi, Simona; Cosenza, Angela; Tancredi, Raffaella; Narzisi, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This retrospective study aims to describe head circumference (HC) developmental course during the first year of life in 50 Italian children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and in a control group of 100 typically developing children (TD). To this end, we use anthropometric measurements (HC, body height, body weight) obtained at birth (T0), 1-2…

  3. Shyness, Child-Teacher Relationships, and Socio-Emotional Adjustment in a Sample of Italian Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sette, Stefania; Baumgartner, Emma; Schneider, Barry H.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the moderating role of child-teacher relationship quality (i.e., closeness, conflict, and dependence) in the association between children's shyness and indices of socio-emotional adjustment and maladjustment. The participants were Italian preschool children (63 boys; 66 girls) and two lead teachers…

  4. Morpheme-based Reading and Spelling in Italian Children with Developmental Dyslexia and Dysorthography.

    PubMed

    Angelelli, Paola; Marinelli, Chiara Valeria; De Salvatore, Marinella; Burani, Cristina

    2017-02-08

    Italian sixth graders, with and without dyslexia, read pseudowords and low-frequency words that include high-frequency morphemes better than stimuli not including any morpheme. The present study assessed whether morphemes affect (1) younger children, with and without dyslexia; (2) spelling as well as reading; and (3) words with low-frequency morphemes. Two groups of third graders (16 children with dyslexia and dysorthography and 16 age-matched typically developing children) read aloud and spelt to dictation pseudowords and words. Pseudowords included (1) root + suffix in not existing combinations (e.g. lampadista, formed by lampad-, 'lamp', and -ista, '-ist') and (2) orthographic sequences not corresponding to any Italian root or suffix (e.g. livonosto). Words had low frequency and included: (1) root + suffix, both of high frequency (e.g. bestiale, 'beastly'); (2) root + suffix, both of low frequency (e.g. asprigno, 'rather sour'); and (3) simple words (e.g. insulso, 'vapid'). Children with dyslexia and dysorthography were less accurate than typically developing children. Root + suffix pseudowords were read and spelt more accurately than non-morphological pseudowords by both groups. Morphologically complex (root + suffix) words were read and spelt better than simple words. However, task interacted with morphology: reading was not facilitated by low-frequency morphemes. We conclude that children acquiring a transparent orthography exploit morpheme-based reading and spelling to face difficulties in processing long unfamiliar stimuli. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Food consumption and nutrient intake in Italian school children: results of the ZOOM8 study.

    PubMed

    Martone, Deborah; Roccaldo, Romana; Censi, Laura; Toti, Elisabetta; Catasta, Giovina; D'Addesa, Dina; Carletti, Claudia

    2013-09-01

    The food consumption and food habits of Italian third-class-primary-school children were assessed and their energy and nutrient intakes were compared with requirements. The study involved 1740 subjects (900 males and 840 females) aged 8-9 years, from the north, centre and south of Italy. Body weight and height were measured. Parents filled in a semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire for their child. The results showed that the diet of Italian children is unbalanced in terms of macronutrients and deficient in fiber. The average daily intakes of fruit (234 g/d), vegetables (134 g/d) and legumes (17 g/d), were lower than the nationally recommended ones. The percentages of energy intake from fats (41%) and from carbohydrates (45%) were higher and lower respectively than recommended. Low intakes of fiber (13.5 g/d) were reported. A national nutrition policy in Italy should focus on nutrition education programs in schools and for parents.

  6. How early L2 children perform on Italian clinical markers of SLI: A study of clitic production and nonword repetition.

    PubMed

    Vender, Maria; Garraffa, Maria; Sorace, Antonella; Guasti, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Early second language (EL2) learners generally perform more poorly than monolinguals in specific language domains, presenting similarities with children affected by specific language impairment (SLI). As a consequence, it can be difficult to correctly diagnose this disorder in EL2 children. The current study investigated the performance of 120 EL2 and 40 age-matched monolingual children in object clitic production and nonword repetition, which are two sensitive clinical markers of SLI in Italian. Results show that EL2 children underperform in comparison to monolinguals in the clitic task. However, in contrast to what is reported on Italian-speaking children with SLI, EL2 children tend not to omit clitics but instead produce the incorrect form, committing agreement errors. No differences are found between EL2 and monolingual children on nonword repetition. These results suggest that, at least in Italian, EL2 children only superficially resemble children with SLI and, on closer inspection, present a qualitatively and quantitatively different linguistic profile.

  7. Putative risk factors in developmental dyslexia: a case-control study of Italian children.

    PubMed

    Mascheretti, Sara; Marino, Cecilia; Simone, Daniela; Quadrelli, Ermanno; Riva, Valentina; Cellino, Maria Rosaria; Maziade, Michel; Brombin, Chiara; Battaglia, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Although dyslexia runs in families, several putative risk factors that cannot be immediately identified as genetic predict reading disability. Published studies analyzed one or a few risk factors at a time, with relatively inconsistent results. To assess the contribution of several putative risk factors to the development of dyslexia, we conducted a case-control study of 403 Italian children, 155 with dyslexia, by implementing a stepwise logistic regression applied to the entire sample, and then to boys and girls separately. Younger parental age at child's birth, lower parental education, and risk of miscarriage significantly increased the odds of belonging to the dyslexia group (19.5% of the variation). These associations were confirmed in the analyses conducted separately by sex, except for parental education, which significantly affected only males. These findings support reading disabilities as a multifactorial disorder and may bear some importance for the prevention and/or early detection of children at heightened risk for dyslexia.

  8. Behavioral and neurobiological correlates of childhood apraxia of speech in Italian children.

    PubMed

    Chilosi, Anna Maria; Lorenzini, Irene; Fiori, Simona; Graziosi, Valentina; Rossi, Giuseppe; Pasquariello, Rosa; Cipriani, Paola; Cioni, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is a neurogenic Speech Sound Disorder whose etiology and neurobiological correlates are still unclear. In the present study, 32 Italian children with idiopathic CAS underwent a comprehensive speech and language, genetic and neuroradiological investigation aimed to gather information on the possible behavioral and neurobiological markers of the disorder. The results revealed four main aggregations of behavioral symptoms that indicate a multi-deficit disorder involving both motor-speech and language competence. Six children presented with chromosomal alterations. The familial aggregation rate for speech and language difficulties and the male to female ratio were both very high in the whole sample, supporting the hypothesis that genetic factors make substantial contribution to the risk of CAS. As expected in accordance with the diagnosis of idiopathic CAS, conventional MRI did not reveal macrostructural pathogenic neuroanatomical abnormalities, suggesting that CAS may be due to brain microstructural alterations.

  9. Slow intestinal transit contributes to elevate urinary p-cresol level in Italian autistic children.

    PubMed

    Gabriele, Stefano; Sacco, Roberto; Altieri, Laura; Neri, Cristina; Urbani, Andrea; Bravaccio, Carmela; Riccio, Maria Pia; Iovene, Maria Rosaria; Bombace, Francesca; De Magistris, Laura; Persico, Antonio M

    2016-07-01

    The uremic toxin p-cresol (4-methylphenol) is either of environmental origin or can be synthetized from tyrosine by cresol-producing bacteria present in the gut lumen. Elevated p-cresol amounts have been previously found in the urines of Italian and French autism spectrum disorder (ASD) children up until 8 years of age, and may be associated with autism severity or with the intensity of abnormal behaviors. This study aims to investigate the mechanism producing elevated urinary p-cresol in ASD. Urinary p-cresol levels were thus measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography in a sample of 53 Italian ASD children assessed for (a) presence of Clostridium spp. strains in the gut by means of an in vitro fecal stool test and of Clostridium difficile-derived toxin A/B in the feces, (b) intestinal permeability using the lactulose/mannitol (LA/MA) test, (c) frequent use of antibiotics due to recurrent infections during the first 2 years of postnatal life, and (d) stool habits with the Bristol Stool Form Scale. Chronic constipation was the only variable significantly associated with total urinary p-cresol concentration (P < 0.05). No association was found with presence of Clostridium spp. in the gut flora (P = 0.92), augmented intestinal permeability (P = 0.18), or frequent use of antibiotics in early infancy (P = 0.47). No ASD child was found to carry C. difficile in the gut or to release toxin A/B in the feces. In conclusion, urinary p-cresol levels are elevated in young ASD children with increased intestinal transit time and chronic constipation. Autism Res 2016, 9: 752-759. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Predictive and Concurrent Relations between Literacy Skills in Grades 1 and 3: A Longitudinal Study of Italian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desimoni, Marta; Scalisi, Teresa Gloria; Orsolini, Margherita

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 170 Italian children was assessed for reading accuracy, reading speed, text comprehension and spelling in Grades 1 and 3 in order to investigate the concurrent and longitudinal relationships among literacy skills. Main results from multivariate analyses (regression, discriminant and path analyses) indicated that reading speed was the…

  11. Italian Children with Dyslexia Are Also Poor in Reading English Words, but Accurate in Reading English Pseudowords

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palladino, Paola; Bellagamba, Isabella; Ferrari, Marcella; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2013-01-01

    It has been argued that children with dyslexia (DC) are poor at learning a foreign language (L2) and, in particular, reading foreign words. This assumption is so general that an Italian law (law 170, October, 2010) has established that DC may be completely exempted from foreign language learning and, in any case, should not be engaged in tuition…

  12. Foreign language learning difficulties in Italian children: are they associated with other learning difficulties?

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Marcella; Palladino, Paola

    2007-01-01

    A group of seventh- and eighth-grade Italian students with low achievement (LA) in learning English as a foreign language (FL) was selected and compared to a group with high achievement (HA) in FL learning. The two groups were matched for age and nonverbal intelligence. Two experiments were conducted to examine the participants' verbal and nonverbal learning skills, such as native language reading accuracy, speed and comprehension, calculation, and attention and self-regulation. Both experiments showed that the LA group seemed at risk for reading comprehension difficulties, but its reading speed and accuracy were within the average range according to Italian norms. The results also excluded the possibility that FL learning difficulties of LA participants could be associated with a deficit in calculation. Furthermore, according to teachers' ratings, children with LA appeared at risk for attention-deficit disorder (ADD). The pattern of learning difficulties of seventh- and eighth-grade participants with LA appeared to be not completely comparable with that of high school students at risk of FL learning difficulties as described in the literature.

  13. A comparison of proficiency levels in 4-year-old monolingual and trilingual speakers of Afrikaans, isiXhosa and South African English across SES boundaries, using LITMUS-CLT.

    PubMed

    Perold Potgieter, Anneke; Southwood, Frenette

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated how trilinguals fare on the cross-linguistic lexical tasks (CLT)-Afrikaans, -isiXhosa and -South African English (SAE) (cf. Haman et al., 2015) compared to monolingual controls, and whether the CLT-Afrikaans renders comparable results across socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. The LITMUS-CLTs were administered to 41 low SES 4-year-olds (11 trilinguals; 10 monolingual speakers of Afrikaans, isiXhosa and SAE) and the LITMUS-CLT-Afrikaans to 11 mid-SES 4-year-old monolinguals. Results (a) indicate that trilinguals' proficiency in their exposure-dominant language did not differ significantly from monolinguals' proficiency, but their proficiency in their additional two languages was significantly lower than monolinguals' proficiency; (b) reflect the extent, but not current amount, of exposure trilinguals had had over time to each of their languages; and (c) show that low and mid-SES monolinguals differed significantly on noun-related, but not verb-related, CLT measures. Possible reasons for and the clinical implications of these results are discussed.

  14. Symptom Checklist-90-Revised scores in adult children exposed to alienating behaviors: an Italian sample.

    PubMed

    Bernet, William; Baker, Amy J L; Verrocchio, Maria C

    2015-03-01

    This study addresses a particular form of child psychological maltreatment, exposing a child to alienating behaviors in the context of a high degree of conflict between the parents. The objective of this research was to identify retrospectively the alienating behaviors that occurred in an Italian sample of children and the reported associated psychosocial symptoms. Seven hundred and thirty-nine adults in Chieti, Italy, completed an anonymous and confidential survey regarding their childhood exposure to parental alienating behaviors and measures of current symptomatology. About 75% of the sample reported some exposure to parental alienating behaviors; 15% of the sample endorsed the item, "tried to turn me against the other parent." The results revealed strong and statistically significant associations between reported exposure to parental alienating behaviors and reports of current symptomatology.

  15. Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis of U.S. and Italian Children's Performance on the PASS Theory of Intelligence as Measured by the Cognitive Assessment System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naglieri, Jack A.; Taddei, Stefano; Williams, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined Italian and U.S. children's performance on the English and Italian versions, respectively, of the Cognitive Assessment System (CAS; Naglieri & Conway, 2009; Naglieri & Das, 1997), a test based on a neurocognitive theory of intelligence entitled PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive; Naglieri & Das,…

  16. Predictors of virtual radial arm maze performance in adolescent Italian children

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Joe M.; Lucchini, Roberto; Bellinger, David; Hoffman, Elaine; Nazzaro, Marco; Smith, Donald R.; Wright, Robert O.

    2012-01-01

    Background Comparisons between animal and human neurotoxicology studies are a foundation of risk assessment, but are hindered by differences in measured behaviors. The Radial Arm Maze (RAM), a rodent visuospatial learning and memory task, has a computerized version for use in children, which may help improve comparisons between animal and human studies. Objective To describe the characteristics and correlates of the Virtual Radial Arm Maze (VRAM) in 255 children age 10–15 years from Italy. Methods We administered the VRAM using a laptop computer and measured children’s performance using the latency, distance, and working/reference memory errors during eight trials. Using generalized linear mixed models, we described VRAM performance in relation to demographic factors, child activities, and several standard neuropsychologic tests (Italian translations), including the Conners Parent Rating Scales-Short Version (CPRS), California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children, finger tapping speed, reaction time, and motor skills. Results Children’s VRAM performance tended to improve between trials 1–6 and then plateaued between trials 6–8. Males finished the task 14 seconds faster (95% Confidence Interval [CI]:-20, -9) than females. Children who played 2+ hours of video games per day finished 16 seconds faster (CI:-26, -6) and with 34% (CI:5, 54%) fewer working memory errors than children who reported not playing video games. Higher IQ and better CVLT scores were associated with better VRAM performance. Higher Cognitive/Inattention CPRS scores were associated with more working (11%; CI:1, 22) and reference memory errors (7%; CI:1, 12). Conclusions Consistent with animal studies, VRAM performance improved over the course of test trials and males performed better than females. Better VRAM performance was related to higher IQ, fewer inattentive behaviors, and better verbal memory. The VRAM may help improve the integration and comparison

  17. Bullying and Victimization in Overweight and Obese Outpatient Children and Adolescents: An Italian Multicentric Study

    PubMed Central

    Garrasi, Alessandra; Corciulo, Nicola; Driul, Daniela; Tanas, Rita; Fiumani, Perla Maria; Di Pietro, Elena; Pesce, Sabino; Crinò, Antonino; Maltoni, Giulio; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Sartorio, Alessandro; Deiana, Manuela; Lombardi, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Objective Being overweight or obese is one of the most common reasons that children and adolescents are teased at school. We carried out a study in order to investigate: i) the relation between weight status and school bullying and ii) the relation between weight status categories and types of victimization and bullying in an outpatient sample of Italian children and adolescents with different degrees of overweight from minimal overweight up to severe obesity. Participants/Methods Nine-hundred-forty-seven outpatient children and adolescents (age range 6.0–14.0 years) were recruited in 14 hospitals distributed over the country of Italy. The participants were classified as normal-weight (N = 129), overweight (N = 126), moderately obese (N = 568), and severely obese (N = 124). The nature and extent of verbal, physical and relational bullying and victimization were assessed with an adapted version of the revised Olweus bully-victim questionnaire. Each participant was coded as bully, victim, bully-victim, or not involved. Results Normal-weight and overweight participants were less involved in bullying than obese participants; severely obese males were more involved in the double role of bully and victim. Severely obese children and adolescents suffered not only from verbal victimization but also from physical victimization and exclusion from group activities. Weight status categories were not directly related to bullying behaviour; however severely obese males perpetrated more bullying behaviour compared to severely obese females. Conclusions Obesity and bullying among children and adolescents are of ongoing concern worldwide and may be closely related. Common strategies of intervention are needed to cope with these two social health challenges. PMID:26606393

  18. Single or dual orthographic representations for reading and spelling? A study of Italian dyslexic-dysgraphic and normal children.

    PubMed

    Angelelli, Paola; Marinelli, Chiara Valeria; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi

    2010-01-01

    Italian children with surface dyslexia and dysgraphia show defective orthographic lexical processing in both reading and spelling. It is unclear whether this parallelism is due to impairment of separate orthographic input and output lexicons or to a unique defective lexicon. The main aim of the present study was to compare the single- versus dual-lexicon accounts in dyslexic/dysgraphic children (and in normal but younger children). In the first experiment, 9 Italian children with surface dyslexia and dysgraphia judged the orthographic correctness (input lexicon) of their phonologically plausible misspellings (output lexicon) and of phonologically plausible spellings experimentally introduced for words they consistently spelt correctly. The children were generally impaired in recognizing phonologically plausible misspellings. Parallel deficits in reading and spelling also emerged: Children were more impaired in judging items they consistently misspelt and more accurate in judging items they always spelt correctly. In a second experiment, younger normal children with reading/spelling ability similar to that of the dyslexic/dysgraphic children in the first experiment (but younger) were examined. The results confirmed a close parallelism between the orthographic lexical representations used for reading and spelling. Overall, findings support the hypothesis that a single orthographic lexicon is responsible for reading and spelling performance in both dyslexic/dysgraphic and normal (but younger) children.

  19. Real-Word and Nonword Repetition in Italian-Speaking Children with Specific Language Impairment: A Study of Diagnostic Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Dispaldro, Marco; Leonard, Laurence B.; Deevy, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Using two different scoring methods, we examined the diagnostic accuracy of both real-word and nonword repetition in identifying Italian-speaking children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Method: A total of 34 children aged 3;11 to 5;8 participated – 17 children with SLI and 17 typically developing children matched for age (TD-A children). Children completed real-word and nonword repetition tasks. The capacity of real-word and nonword repetition tasks to discriminate children with SLI from TD-A was examined through binary logistic regression and response operating characteristics curves. Results: Both real-word and nonword repetition showed good (or excellent) sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing children with SLI from their typically developing peers. Conclusions: Nonword repetition appears to be a useful diagnostic indicator for Italian, as in other languages. In addition, real-word repetition also holds promise. The contributions of each type of measure are discussed. PMID:22761319

  20. Autoimmune hematological diseases after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children: an Italian multicenter experience.

    PubMed

    Faraci, Maura; Zecca, Marco; Pillon, Marta; Rovelli, Attilio; Menconi, Maria Cristina; Ripaldi, Mimmo; Fagioli, Franca; Rabusin, Marco; Ziino, Ottavio; Lanino, Edoardo; Locatelli, Franco; Daikeler, Thomas; Prete, Arcangelo

    2014-02-01

    Autoimmune hematological diseases (AHDs) may occur after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), but reports on these complications in large cohorts of pediatric patients are lacking. Between 1998 and 2011, 1574 consecutive children underwent allogeneic HSCT in 9 Italian centers. Thirty-three children (2.1%) developed AHDs: 15 autoimmune hemolytic anemia (45%), 10 immune thrombocytopenia (30%), 5 Evans' syndrome (15%), 2 pure red cell aplasia (6%), and 1 immune neutropenia (3%). The 10-year cumulative incidence of AHDs was 2.5% (95% confidence interval, 1.7 to 3.6). In a multivariate analysis, the use of alternative donor and nonmalignant disease was statistically associated with AHDs. Most patients with AHDs (64%) did not respond to steroids. Sustained complete remission was achieved in 87% of cases with the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (rituximab). Four patients (9%) (1 autoimmune hemolytic anemia, 1 Evans' syndrome, 2 immune thrombocytopenia) died at a median of 87 days after AHD diagnosis as a direct or indirect consequence of their disorder. Our data suggest that AHDs are a relatively rare complication occurring after HSCT that usually respond to treatment with rituximab.

  1. The Bender-Gestalt test: Koppitz's Developmental Scoring System administered to two samples of Italian preschool and primary school children.

    PubMed

    Mazzeschi, C; Lis, A

    1999-06-01

    The purpose of this paper was to extend research on Koppitz's Developmental Scoring System to Italian samples. Specific attention has been given to the study of errors for the single designs to assess the relationship of these errors with total errors and to assess the designs' varying difficulty. A second purpose was to study possible cultural influences between different Italian regions. According to Koppitz (1975) research findings support that the rate of development in visuomotor perception differs among children of various ethnic groups. Subjects were 538 boys and 527 girls enrolled in the regular kindergarten and elementary schools in Italy. Detailed analyses were carried out on total mean errors and mean errors for each design. Mean errors decrease across age groups; that is, perceptuomotor integration is improved for older children. No significant differences were found between Northern and Southern Italy.

  2. Italian children with dyslexia are also poor in reading English words, but accurate in reading English pseudowords.

    PubMed

    Palladino, Paola; Bellagamba, Isabella; Ferrari, Marcella; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2013-08-01

    It has been argued that children with dyslexia (DC) are poor at learning a foreign language (L2) and, in particular, reading foreign words. This assumption is so general that an Italian law (law 170, October, 2010) has established that DC may be completely exempted from foreign language learning and, in any case, should not be engaged in tuition via written material. However, evidence of L2 difficulties of DC is scarce and, in particular, absent for Italian children learning English. This absence of data is problematic, as it precludes information on the pattern of weaknesses and strengths, which could be found in DC. The present paper assessed these issues by administering an English word and pseudoword reading test to 23 DC and to 23 control children, matched for age, gender, schooling and IQ. The patterns of difficulties were examined individually for accuracy and speed, and the role of measures of native (L1) competence in L2 difficulties was also taken into account. Results confirmed that Italian DC are also poor in reading English words. However, they are accurate in reading pseudowords, suggesting that they have assimilated English pronunciation rules. Difficulties in L2 were, to some extent, but not completely, explained by difficulties in reading in L1.

  3. Parenting Practices and Child Misbehavior: A Mixed Method Study of Italian Mothers and Children

    PubMed Central

    Bombi, Anna Silvia; Di Norcia, Anna; Di Giunta, Laura; Pastorelli, Concetta; Lansford, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study uses a mixed qualitative and quantitative method to examine three main research questions: What are the practices that mothers report they use when trying to correct their children’s misbehaviors? Are there common patterns of these practices? Are the patterns that emerge related to children’s well-being? Design Italian mother-child dyads (N=103) participated in the study (when children were 8 years of age). At Time 1 (T1), mothers answered open-ended questions about discipline; in addition, measures of maternal physical discipline and rejection and child aggression were assessed in mothers and children at T1, one year later (T2), and two years later (T3). Results Mothers’ answers to open-ended questions about what they would do in three disciplinary situations were classified in six categories: physical or psychological punishment, control, mix of force and reasoning, reasoning, listening, and permissiveness. Cluster analysis yielded 3 clusters: Group 1, Induction (predominant use of reasoning and listening; 74%); Group 2, Punishment (punitive practices and no reasoning; 16%); Group 3, Mixed practices (combination of reasoning and punishment, as well as high control and no listening; 10%). Multiple-group latent growth curves of maternal physical discipline, maternal rejection, and child aggression were implemented to evaluate possible differences in the developmental trends from T1 to T3, as a function of cluster. Conclusions Qualitative data deepen understanding of parenting because they shed light on what parents think about themselves; their self-descriptions, in turn, help to identify ways of parenting that may have long-lasting consequences for children’s adjustment. PMID:26877716

  4. Clinical practice recommendations for allergen-specific immunotherapy in children: the Italian consensus report.

    PubMed

    Pajno, Giovanni Battista; Bernardini, Roberto; Peroni, Diego; Arasi, Stefania; Martelli, Alberto; Landi, Massimo; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Muraro, Antonella; La Grutta, Stefania; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Indinnimeo, Luciana; Caffarelli, Carlo; Calamelli, Elisabetta; Comberiati, Pasquale; Duse, Marzia

    2017-01-23

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is currently recognized as a clinically effective treatment for allergic diseases, with a unique disease-modifying effect. AIT was introduced in clinical practice one century ago, and performed in the early years with allergenic extracts of poor quality and definition. After the mechanism of allergic reaction were recognized, the practice of AIT was refined, leading to remarkable improvement in the efficacy and safety profile of the treatment. Currently AIT is accepted and routinely prescribed worldwide for respiratory allergies and hymenoptera venom allergy. Both the subcutaneous (SCIT) and sublingual (SLIT) routes of administration are used in the pediatric population.AIT is recommended in allergic rhinitis/conjunctivitis with/without allergic asthma, with an evidence of specific IgE-sensitization towards clinically relevant inhalant allergens. Long-term studies provided evidence that AIT can also prevent the onset of asthma and of new sensitizations. The favorable response to AIT is strictly linked to adherence to treatment, that lasts 3-5 years. Therefore, several factors should be carefully evaluated before starting this intervention, including the severity of symptoms, pharmacotherapy requirements and children and caregivers' preference and compliance.In recent years, there have been increasing interest in the role of AIT for the treatment of IgE-associated food allergy and extrinsic atopic dermatitis. A growing body of evidence shows that oral immunotherapy represents a promising treatment option for IgE-associated food allergy. On the contrary, there are still controversies on the effectiveness of AIT for patients with atopic dermatitis.This consensus document was promoted by the Italian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (SIAIP) to provide evidence-based recommendations on AIT in order to implement and optimize current prescription practices of this treatment for allergic children.

  5. Physical activity practice, body image and visual impairment: a comparison between Brazilian and Italian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Greguol, Márcia; Gobbi, Erica; Carraro, Attilio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the physical activity and body image of children and adolescents with visual impairment (VI) in Brazil and Italy. For this, 41 children and adolescents with VI (19 Brazilian and 22 Italian) aged 10.22 ± 2.19 years old (18 girls and 23 boys) answered the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children (PAQ-C), the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire (OSIQ), and an instrument with information about the disability, body weight and height. We analyzed the relationship between data from PAQ-C and OSIQ, as well as the gender, level of disability (blindness or low vision) and country using independent Mann-Whitney test. Body mass index (BMI) values were higher for Brazilian youths, with more than half of them classified as overweight and obese. Italian youths exhibited values of body image that were more positive and only 27% presented overweight or obesity. Blind children and adolescents were less active than those with low vision, but no differences were found between countries or genders. In Brazil, we detected significant correlations (p>0.05) between physical activity, body image and BMI, which more active youths presenting lower values of BMI and a better perception of body image. Physical activity seems to have a positive influence on body image and BMI for children and adolescents with VI, thus it should be encouraged especially for those with higher disability degrees.

  6. High Sodium and Low Potassium Intake among Italian Children: Relationship with Age, Body Mass and Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Campanozzi, Angelo; Avallone, Sonia; Barbato, Antonio; Iacone, Roberto; Russo, Ornella; De Filippo, Gianpaolo; D’Angelo, Giuseppina; Pensabene, Licia; Malamisura, Basilio; Cecere, Gaetano; Micillo, Maria; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Tetro, Anna; Lombardi, Giuliano; Tonelli, Lisa; Castellucci, Giuseppe; Ferraro, Luigi; Di Biase, Rita; Lezo, Antonella; Salvatore, Silvia; Paoletti, Silvia; Siani, Alfonso; Galeone, Daniela; Strazzullo, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension is the leading cause of death in developed countries and reduction of salt intake is recommended as a key preventive measure. Objective To assess the dietary sodium and potassium intakes in a national sample of Italian children and adolescents and to examine their relationships with BMI and blood pressure (BP) in the framework of the MINISAL survey, a program supported by the Italian Ministry of Health. Population and Methods The study population included 1424 healthy subjects (766 boys, 658 girls) aged 6-18 years (mean age: 10.1±2.9) who were consecutively recruited in participating National Health Service centers in 10 Italian regions. Electrolyte intake was estimated from 24 hour urine collections tested for completeness by the concomitant measurement of creatinine content. Anthropometric indices and BP were measured with standardized procedures. Results The average estimated sodium intake was 129 mmol (7.4 g of salt) per day among boys and 117 mmol (6.7 g of salt) among girls. Ninety-three percent of the boys and 89% of the girls had a consumption higher than the recommended age-specific standard dietary target. The estimated average daily potassium intakes were 39 mmol (1.53 g) and 36 mmol (1.40 g), respectively, over 96% of the boys and 98% of the girls having a potassium intake lower than the recommended adequate intake. The mean sodium/potassium ratio was similar among boys and girls (3.5 and 3.4, respectively) and over 3-fold greater than the desirable level. Sodium intake was directly related to age, body mass and BP in the whole population. Conclusions The Italian pediatric population is characterized by excessive sodium and deficient potassium intake. These data suggest that future campaigns should focus on children and adolescents as a major target in the framework of a population strategy of cardiovascular prevention. PMID:25853242

  7. Preschool Children's Performance on Profiling Elements of Prosody in Speech-Communication (PEPS-C)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbon, Fiona E.; Smyth, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Profiling Elements of Prosody in Speech-Communication (PEPS-C) has not been used widely to assess prosodic abilities of preschool children. This study was therefore aimed at investigating typically developing 4-year-olds' performance on PEPS-C. PEPS-C was presented to 30 typically developing 4-year-olds recruited in southern Ireland. Children were…

  8. Antibiotic Prescriptions and Prophylaxis in Italian Children. Is It Time to Change? Data from the ARPEC Project

    PubMed Central

    Montagnani, Carlotta; Lo Vecchio, Andrea; Romanengo, Marta; Tagliabue, Claudia; Centenari, Chiara; D’Argenio, Patrizia; Lundin, Rebecca; Giaquinto, Carlo; Galli, Luisa; Guarino, Alfredo; Esposito, Susanna; Sharland, Mike; Versporten, Ann; Goossens, Herman; Nicolini, Giangiacomo

    2016-01-01

    Background Antimicrobials are the most commonly prescribed drugs. Many studies have evaluated antibiotic prescriptions in the paediatric outpatient but few studies describing the real antibiotic consumption in Italian children’s hospitals have been published. Point-prevalence survey (PPS) has been shown to be a simple, feasible and reliable standardized method for antimicrobials surveillance in children and neonates admitted to the hospital. In this paper, we presented data from a PPS on antimicrobial prescriptions carried out in 7 large Italian paediatric institutions. Methods A 1-day PPS on antibiotic use in hospitalized neonates and children was performed in Italy between October and December 2012 as part of the Antibiotic Resistance and Prescribing in European Children project (ARPEC). Seven institutions in seven Italian cities were involved. The survey included all admitted patients less than 18 years of age present in the ward at 8:00 am on the day of the survey, who had at least one on-going antibiotic prescription. For all patients data about age, weight, underlying disease, antimicrobial agent, dose and indication for treatment were collected. Results The PPS was performed in 61 wards within 7 Italian institutions. A total of 899 patients were eligible and 349 (38.9%) had an on-going prescription for one or more antibiotics, with variable rates among the hospitals (25.7% - 53.8%). We describe antibiotic prescriptions separately in neonates (<30 days old) and children (> = 30 days to <18 years old). In the neonatal cohort, 62.8% received antibiotics for prophylaxis and only 37.2% on those on antibiotics were treated for infection. Penicillins and aminoglycosides were the most prescribed antibiotic classes. In the paediatric cohort, 64.4% of patients were receiving antibiotics for treatment of infections and 35.5% for prophylaxis. Third generation cephalosporins and penicillin plus inhibitors were the top two antibiotic classes. The main reason for

  9. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis of U.S. and Italian children's performance on the PASS theory of intelligence as measured by the Cognitive Assessment System.

    PubMed

    Naglieri, Jack A; Taddei, Stefano; Williams, Kevin M

    2013-03-01

    This study examined Italian and U.S. children's performance on the English and Italian versions, respectively, of the Cognitive Assessment System (CAS; Naglieri & Conway, 2009; Naglieri & Das, 1997), a test based on a neurocognitive theory of intelligence entitled PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive; Naglieri & Das, 1997; Naglieri & Otero, 2011). CAS subtest, PASS scales, and Full Scale scores for Italian (N=809) and U.S. (N=1,174) samples, matched by age and gender, were examined. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis results supported the configural invariance of the CAS factor structure between Italians and Americans for the 5- to 7-year-old (root-mean-square error of approximation [RMSEA]=.038; 90% confidence interval [CI]=.033, .043; comparative fit index [CFI]=.96) and 8- to 18-year-old (RMSEA=.036; 90% CI=.028, .043; CFI=.97) age groups. The Full Scale standard scores (using the U.S. norms) for the Italian (100.9) and U.S. (100.5) samples were nearly identical. The scores between the samples for the PASS scales were very similar, except for the Attention Scale (d=0.26), where the Italian sample's mean score was slightly higher. Negligible mean differences were found for 9 of the 13 subtest scores, 3 showed small d-ratios (2 in favor of the Italian sample), and 1 was large (in favor of the U.S. sample), but some differences in subtest variances were found. These findings suggest that the PASS theory, as measured by CAS, yields similar mean scores and showed factorial invariance for these samples of Italian and American children, who differ on cultural and linguistic characteristics.

  10. Stress Priming and Statistical Learning in Italian Nonword Reading: Evidence from Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colombo, Lucia; Deguchi, Chizuru; Boureux, Magali

    2014-01-01

    Italian has regular spelling-sound correspondences; however, assignment of lexical stress is unpredictable. Sensitivity to stress neighborhood information was investigated by constructing three types of three-syllabic nonwords: nonwords with word-endings characterized by a strong neighborhood of dominant stress words (dominant), nonwords with…

  11. Foreign Language Learning Difficulties in Italian Children: Are They Associated with Other Learning Difficulties?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Marcella; Palladino, Paola

    2007-01-01

    A group of seventh- and eighth-grade Italian students with low achievement (LA) in learning English as a foreign language (FL) was selected and compared to a group with high achievement (HA) in FL learning. The two groups were matched for age and nonverbal intelligence. Two experiments were conducted to examine the participants' verbal and…

  12. Extra-Linguistic Influences on Sentence Comprehension in Italian-Speaking Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Pettenati, P.; Benassi, E.; Deevy, P.; Leonard, L.B.; Caselli, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) have deficits in sentence comprehension. These deficits are usually attributed to limitations in the children’s understanding of syntax or the lexical items contained in the sentences. In this study, we examine the role that extra-linguistic factors can play in these children’s sentence comprehension. Aims In this study, extra-linguistic demands on sentence comprehension were manipulated directly by varying the nature of the materials used. Methods & Procedure Forty-five Italian-speaking children participated: 15 with SLI (M age = 4;5), 15 typically developing children matched for age (TD-A, M age = 4;5), and 15 younger typically developing children matched according to language comprehension test scores (TD-Y, M age = 3;9). The children responded to sentence comprehension items that varied in their length and/or in the number and type of foils that competed with the target picture. Outcome & Results The TD-A children were more accurate than the TD-Y children and the children with SLI, but, for all groups, accuracy declined when task demands increased. In particular, sentences containing superfluous adjectives (e.g., Il topo bello copre l’uccello allegro “The nice mouse covers the happy bird” where all depicted mice were nice and all birds were happy) yielded higher scores than similar sentences in which each adjective had to be associated with the proper character (e.g., Il cane giallo lava il maiale bianco “The yellow dog washes the white pig” where foils included a yellow dog washing a pink pig, and a brown dog washing a white pig). Many errors reflected recency effects, probably influenced by the fact that adjectives modifying the object appear at the end of the sentence in Italian. Conclusions & Implications Differences between conditions were observed even when lexical content, syntactic structure, and sentence length were controlled. This finding suggests the need for great care

  13. A Case Study of Bi-Literacy Development among Children Enrolled in an Italian-English Dual Language Program in Southern California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montanari, Simona

    2014-01-01

    This study examines bi-literacy development among 60 children enrolled in an Italian-English dual language (DL) program in Southern California. Using a variety of measures including (1) oral reading fluency (ORF), (2) accuracy scores, and (3) standardized test for the assessment of reading (STAR) test's estimates of reading ability for English,…

  14. Effects of Age and Language on Co-Speech Gesture Production: An Investigation of French, American, and Italian Children's Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colletta, Jean-Marc; Guidetti, Michele; Capirci, Olga; Cristilli, Carla; Demir, Ozlem Ece; Kunene-Nicolas, Ramona N.; Levine, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare speech and co-speech gestures observed during a narrative retelling task in five- and ten-year-old children from three different linguistic groups, French, American, and Italian, in order to better understand the role of age and language in the development of multimodal monologue discourse abilities. We asked 98…

  15. Characteristics of phonological development as a risk factor for language development in Italian-speaking pre-term children: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    D'Odorico, Laura; Majorano, Marinella; Fasolo, Mirco; Salerni, Nicoletta; Suttora, Chiara

    2011-01-01

    This study analysed the early linguistic development of Italian pre-term children. Samples of spontaneous pre-linguistic and verbal production were recorded at 12 and 18 months of age from two groups of children: 24 pre-term children and 15 full-term children. The Italian version of the MacArthur-Bates Questionnaire was administered at 24 months of age. Comparisons between these two groups reveal differences in many aspects of phonetic and phonological development, such as consonantal inventory at 12 and 18 months of age and syllabic babbling complexity at 18 months of age. Results evidenced that birth weight was related with phonological skills exhibited at 18 months of age, and these skills in turn are related with vocabulary size at 24 months of age. Data are discussed within a theoretical framework that hypothesizes that early phonetic abilities have long-lasting effects on the process of language acquisition.

  16. From an imbalance to a new imbalance: Italian-style gluten-free diet alters the salivary microbiota and metabolome of African celiac children

    PubMed Central

    Ercolini, Danilo; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Vannini, Lucia; De Filippis, Francesca; Capriati, Teresa; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Iacono, Giuseppe; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Fourteen Saharawi celiac children following an African-style gluten-free diet for at least two years were subjected to a change of diet to an Italian-style gluten-free diet for 60 days. Significant differences were identified in the salivary microbiota and metabolome when Saharawi celiac children switched from African- to Italian-style dietary habits. An Italian-style gluten-free diet caused increases in the abundance of Granulicatella, Porphyromonas and Neisseria and decreases in Clostridium, Prevotella and Veillonella, altering the ‘salivary type’ of the individuals. Furthermore, operational taxonomic unit co-occurrence/exclusion patterns indicated that the initial equilibrium of co-occurring microbial species was perturbed by a change in diet: the microbial diversity was reduced, with a few species out-competing the previously established microbiota and becoming dominant. Analysis of predicted metagenomes revealed a remarkable change in the metabolic potential of the microbiota following the diet change, with increased potential for amino acid, vitamin and co-factor metabolism. High concentrations of acetone and 2-butanone during treatment with the Italian-style gluten-free diet suggested metabolic dysfunction in the Saharawi celiac children. The findings of this study support the need for a translational medicine pipeline to examine interactions between food and microbiota when evaluating human development, nutritional needs and the impact and consequences of westernisation. PMID:26681599

  17. Socio-Economic and Environmental Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity in Children Aged 6–8 Years Living in Five Italian Cities (the MAPEC_LIFE Cohort)

    PubMed Central

    Grassi, Tiziana; De Donno, Antonella; Bagordo, Francesco; Serio, Francesca; Piscitelli, Prisco; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Zani, Claudia; Viola, Gaia C. V.; Villarini, Milena; Moretti, Massimo; Levorato, Sara; Carducci, Annalaura; Verani, Marco; Donzelli, Gabriele; Bonetta, Sara; Bonetta, Silvia; Carraro, Elisabetta; Bonizzoni, Silvia; Bonetti, Alberto; Gelatti, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity among Italian children has reached such alarming levels as to require detailed studies of the causes of the phenomenon. A cross-sectional study was carried out in order to assess the weight status of 1164 Italian children aged 6–8 years (the Monitoring Air Pollution Effects on Children for Supporting Public Health Policy (MAPEC_LIFE) cohort) and to identify any associations between selected socio-economic and environmental factors and overweight/obesity. The data were obtained by means of a questionnaire given to parents, and any associations were examined by binomial logistic regression analyses. Overweight was found to be positively associated with male gender, parents of non-Italian origin, and parents who smoke, and negatively associated with the parents’ level of education and employment. In addition, the frequency of overweight varied in relation to the geographical area of residence, with a greater prevalence of overweight children in the cities of central-southern Italy. This study highlights the need to implement appropriate obesity prevention programs in Italy, which should include educational measures concerning lifestyle for parents from the earliest stages of their child’s life. PMID:27727193

  18. Socio-Economic and Environmental Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity in Children Aged 6-8 Years Living in Five Italian Cities (the MAPEC_LIFE Cohort).

    PubMed

    Grassi, Tiziana; De Donno, Antonella; Bagordo, Francesco; Serio, Francesca; Piscitelli, Prisco; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Zani, Claudia; Viola, Gaia C V; Villarini, Milena; Moretti, Massimo; Levorato, Sara; Carducci, Annalaura; Verani, Marco; Donzelli, Gabriele; Bonetta, Sara; Bonetta, Silvia; Carraro, Elisabetta; Bonizzoni, Silvia; Bonetti, Alberto; Gelatti, Umberto

    2016-10-11

    The prevalence of obesity among Italian children has reached such alarming levels as to require detailed studies of the causes of the phenomenon. A cross-sectional study was carried out in order to assess the weight status of 1164 Italian children aged 6-8 years (the Monitoring Air Pollution Effects on Children for Supporting Public Health Policy (MAPEC_LIFE) cohort) and to identify any associations between selected socio-economic and environmental factors and overweight/obesity. The data were obtained by means of a questionnaire given to parents, and any associations were examined by binomial logistic regression analyses. Overweight was found to be positively associated with male gender, parents of non-Italian origin, and parents who smoke, and negatively associated with the parents' level of education and employment. In addition, the frequency of overweight varied in relation to the geographical area of residence, with a greater prevalence of overweight children in the cities of central-southern Italy. This study highlights the need to implement appropriate obesity prevention programs in Italy, which should include educational measures concerning lifestyle for parents from the earliest stages of their child's life.

  19. Adiponectin profile and Irisin expression in Italian obese children: Association with insulin-resistance.

    PubMed

    Nigro, Ersilia; Scudiero, Olga; Ludovica Monaco, Maria; Polito, Rita; Schettino, Pietro; Grandone, Anna; Perrone, Laura; Miraglia Del Giudice, Emanuele; Daniele, Aurora

    2017-04-03

    Adiponectin (Acrp30), its high molecular weight (HMW) oligomers, and Irisin are molecules involved in several metabolic processes. To investigate if these cytokines could represent new metabolic markers, we evaluated the expression of Acrp30 and Irisin in serum of obese children from South Italy affected by different degrees of insulin resistance (IR). The anthropometric and metabolic features were evaluated in 27 obese children versus 13 age-matched controls. The expression of Acrp30, its pattern and Irisin were investigated by ELISA, western blotting and fast protein liquid chromatography. The HOMA index was significantly higher in obese children versus controls, and metabolic syndrome was more prevalent in obese children with elevated IR versus those with normal HOMA (38% vs 16%). Total Acrp30 and HMW oligomers were significantly lower in obese than in control children, and the difference was more pronounced in children with HOMA >3.4. In control and obese children, total Acrp30 and HMW oligomers were inversely related to HOMA (r-0.38, p 0.02; r-0.35, p 0.03). Irisin was significantly higher in obese than in control children, and was inversely correlated with Acrp30 and HMW (r-0.32, p 0.04; r-0.39, p 0.01). The inverse correlation of Acpr30 and HMW oligomers with HOMA indicates that Acpr30 is directly involved in IR status. Moreover, the inverse correlation between Irisin and Acrp30 and, more significantly, between Irisin and HMW oligomers suggests that the two cytokines are closely connected. The use of Acrp30, HMW oligomers and Irisin as predictive factors of IR in obese children remains to be further elucidated.

  20. Biologic monitoring of exposure to organophosphorus pesticides in 195 Italian children.

    PubMed

    Aprea, C; Strambi, M; Novelli, M T; Lunghini, L; Bozzi, N

    2000-06-01

    One hundred ninety-five 6- to 7-year-old children who lived in the municipality of Siena (Tuscany, Italy), underwent biologic monitoring to evaluate urinary excretion of several alkylphosphates that are metabolites of organophosphorus pesticides. We evaluated dimethylphosphate (DMP), dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP), dimethyldithiophosphate (DMDTP), diethylphosphate (DEP), diethylthiophosphate (DETP), and diethyldithiophosphate (DEDTP). We obtained urine samples taken in the children's schools, and each sample was accompanied by a questionnaire about lifestyle and dietary habits. We found DMP and DMTP in detectable concentrations in the greatest number of samples (96 and 94%, respectively). The DMP values were geometric mean (GM) 116.7, [geometric standard deviation (GSD) 2.5], and a range of 7.4-1,471.5 nmol/g creatinine. The corresponding DMTP values were GM 104.3 (GSD 2.8) and a range of 4.0-1,526.0 nmol/g creatinine. DMDTP, DEP, DETP, and DEDTP concentrations were GM 14.1, (GSD 3.0), and a range of 3.3-754.6 nmol/g creatinine in 34% of the children; GM 33.2, (GSD 2.4), and a range of 5.1-360.1 nmol/g creatinine in 75% of the children; GM 16.0, (GSD 2.9), and a range of 3.1-284.7 in 48% of the children; and GM 7.7, (GSD 2.1), and a range of 2.3-140.1 in 12% of the children, respectively. The significant variable for urinary excretion of these metabolites in children was pest control operations performed inside or outside the house in the preceding month; however, the presence of a vegetable garden near the house rarely emerged. The urinary excretion of alkylphosphates in children was significantly higher than in a group of the adult population resident in the same province.

  1. The Parent-Version of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS-P) in Chinese and Italian Community Samples: Validation and Cross-Cultural Comparison.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Bin; Delvecchio, Elisa; Di Riso, Daniela; Nie, Yan-Gang; Lis, Adriana

    2016-06-01

    The current study aimed to validate the parent-version of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS-P) among Chinese and Italian community adolescents and to compare adolescents' anxiety symptoms in these two countries. Chinese (N = 456) and Italian (N = 452) adolescents and their parents participated in the study. Results showed that: (1) the six correlated-factor structure was demonstrated and invariant across countries. (2) The reliability of the total scale was good in both samples, whereas reliabilities of subscales were acceptable and moderate in Chinese and Italian samples, respectively. (3) The SCAS-P showed good convergent and divergent validity. (4) Adolescent-parent agreement was from low to medium while mother-father agreement ranged from medium to high. (5) There were cultural and gender differences in levels of parent-report anxiety symptoms. In conclusion, SCAS-P seems to be a promising parent-report instrument to assess Chinese and Italian adolescents' anxiety symptoms.

  2. The Submerged Dyslexia Iceberg: How Many School Children Are Not Diagnosed? Results from an Italian Study

    PubMed Central

    Barbiero, Chiara; Lonciari, Isabella; Montico, Marcella; Monasta, Lorenzo; Penge, Roberta; Vio, Claudio; Tressoldi, Patrizio Emanuele; Ferluga, Valentina; Bigoni, Anna; Tullio, Alessia; Carrozzi, Marco; Ronfani, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Background Although dyslexia is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders affecting children, prevalence is uncertain and available data are scanty and dated. The objective of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of dyslexia in an unselected school population using clearly defined and rigorous diagnostic criteria and methods. Methods Cross sectional study. We selected a random cluster sample of 94 fourth grade elementary school classes of Friuli Venezia Giulia, a Region of North Eastern Italy. We carried out three consecutive levels of screening: the first two at school and the last at the Neuropsychiatry Unit of a third level Mother and Child Hospital. The main outcome measure was the prevalence of dyslexia, defined as the number of children positive to the third level of screening divided by the total number of children enrolled. Results We recruited 1774 children aged 8–10 years, of which 1528 received parents’ consent to participate. After applying exclusion criteria, 1357 pupils constituted the final working sample. The prevalence of dyslexia in the enrolled population ranged from 3.1% (95% CI 2.2–4.1%) to 3.2% (95% CI 2.4–4.3%) depending on different criteria adopted. In two out of three children with dyslexia the disorder had not been previously diagnosed. Conclusions This study shows that dyslexia is largely underestimated in Italy and underlines the need for reliable information on prevalence, in order to better allocate resources both to Health Services and Schools. PMID:23118930

  3. Trait Emotional Intelligence and the Big Five: A Study on Italian Children and Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Paolo Maria; Mancini, Giacomo; Trombini, Elena; Baldaro, Bruno; Mavroveli, Stella; Petrides, K. V.

    2012-01-01

    Trait emotional intelligence (EI) is a constellation of emotion-related self-perceptions located at the lower levels of personality hierarchies. This article examines the validity of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Child Form and investigates its relationships with Big Five factors and cognitive ability. A total of 690 children (317…

  4. Intellectual Pursuits of Young Children through Picture Book Literacy, Focusing on Italian Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltchenko, Laura

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I will examine the use of picture books as a means of supporting the intellectual pursuits of young children. Theoretical frameworks will be discussed as they pertain to the integration of these books in the Municipal Infant Toddler Centers and Preschools of Reggio Emilia and Pistoia, Italy. The pedagogical framework of these…

  5. Phonology and Language Development in Italian Children: An Analysis of Production and Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanobini, Mirella; Viterbori, Paola; Saraceno, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The principal aims of this study were to detect phonetic measures (consonant inventory, intelligibility, frequency, and types of phonological errors) associated with lexical and morphosyntactic ability and to analyze the types of phonological processes in children with different language skills. Method: The sample was composed of 30…

  6. Anti-brain antibodies are associated with more severe cognitive and behavioral profiles in Italian children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Piras, I S; Haapanen, L; Napolioni, V; Sacco, R; Van de Water, J; Persico, A M

    2014-05-01

    Circulating 45 and 62kDa antibodies targeting the cerebellum were previously associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), lower adaptive/cognitive function and aberrant behaviors. Moreover, 37, 39 and 73kDa maternal antibodies (mAb) targeting the fetal brain were previously correlated with broad autism spectrum, irritability, abnormal brain enlargement and impaired expressive language. The present study aims towards clinically characterizing individuals with brain-targeted IgG and/or exposed to maternal antibrain antibodies in a large sample of Italian autistic children (N=355), their unaffected siblings (N=142) and mothers (N=333). The presence of patient- and mother-produced anti-brain antibodies does not confer increased risk of autism within the same sibship. However, the 45 and 62kDa antibodies are correlated with autism severity: the 45kDa Ab is associated with cognitive impairment and lower scores at the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, the 62kDa Ab with motor stereotypies, while both correlate with larger head circumference (all P<0.05). On the other hand, maternal 37, 39 and 73kDa antibrain antibodies, either alone or in combination, are correlated with impaired verbal and non-verbal language development, neurodevelopmental delay and sleep/wake cycle disturbances in their autistic children (P<0.05). Presence of the 62kDa autoAb in the child is significantly associated with presence of the 39 and/or 73kDa antibodies in his/her mother. Our results confirm and extend previous observations in an ethnically distinct sample, providing further evidence of a pathomorphic role for anti-brain antibodies in autism while demonstrating their familial clustering.

  7. A case-control study of Salmonella gastrointestinal infection in Italian children.

    PubMed

    Borgnolo, G; Barbone, F; Scornavacca, G; Franco, D; Vinci, A; Iuculano, F

    1996-07-01

    A case-control study of 85 cases with non-typhoid Salmonella gastroenteritis, 85 outpatient controls and 79 inpatient controls was conducted among children in Monfalcone, north-east Italy, between June 1989 and June 1994. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect of demographic and socio-economic characteristics, duration of breastfeeding, history of intestinal illnesses and household diarrhoea, and the recent use of antimicrobials. Breastfeeding was the single most important factor associated with a 5-fold decreased risk of Salmonella infection. In addition, children who were treated with antimicrobials before onset of gastroenteritis had a 3-fold increased risk. Low social class and history of other chronic non-infectious intestinal diseases were also directly associated with illness.

  8. Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Universal Routine Vaccination on Pneumococcal Disease in Italian Children

    PubMed Central

    Fortunato, Francesca; Martinelli, Domenico; Cappelli, Maria Giovanna; Cozza, Vanessa; Prato, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    In Italy, the effectiveness of pneumococcal universal vaccination in preventing vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in the PCV7/PCV13 shifting period was estimated to be 84.3% (95% CI: 84.0–84.6%) in children <5 years. This study aims at corroborating the estimation of both the effectiveness (VE) of PCVs and its impact in reducing pneumococcal diseases. A 1 : 3 matched-case-control study was conducted among children <5 years old hospitalized for IPD or pneumococcal pneumonia (PP) between 2006 and 2012 in the Puglia region. Moreover, hospitalizations for pneumococcal outcomes in the pre- and postvaccination period and the hospitalization risk ratios (HRRs) with 95% CIs were computed in Italy and in the first eight regions that introduced PCVs in 2006. The overall effectiveness of PCVs was 75% (95% CI: 61%–84%); it was 69% (95% CI: 30%–88%) against IPD and 77% (95% CI: 61%–87%) against PP. PCVs showed a significant impact on IPD and acute otitis media either at a national level or in those regions with a longer vaccination history, with a nearly 40% reduction of hospitalizations for both outcomes. Our findings provide further evidence of the effectiveness of PCVs against pneumococcal diseases and its impact on nasopharyngeal carriage in children <5 years, indicating the importance of maintaining high immunization coverage. PMID:26351644

  9. Circumcision with Glubran® 2 in children: experience of Italian Center

    PubMed Central

    Cerchia, Elisa; Molinaro, Francesco; Bulotta, Anna Lavinia; Ferrara, Francesco; Bindi, Edoardo; Messina, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Background Circumcision is one of the most common surgical procedures in the world. Despite it is known its wide prevalence for religious and medical reasons in children, it remains a controversial practice in paediatric age. To date, there is no described the gold standard technique to circumcise paediatric patients. We started to use glue for circumcision about 2 years ago. We designed this prospective study with the aim to compare two surgical techniques, which were used in our hospital to perform circumcision in children. The implication for practice was the understanding if there were differences between these approaches related to patient’s and parents benefits to manage this condition and benefits for surgeon and hospital in term of saving money and time. Methods This is a randomized, single-blind one-center study. It was conducted at the Department of Paediatric Surgery of Siena. Data were collected between March 2011 and December 2012. Study’s population involved all patients who required circumcision. Two randomizes groups: group one which involved patients who underwent circumcision using sutures and group two, which involved patients who underwent circumcision using surgical glue (Glubran® 2). Two exclusion criteria were used: the redo-circumcision and the allergy or hyper-sensibility to cyanoacrylate (main component of glue). Results We report 99 patients who underwent circumcision with Glubran® 2 in comparison with a group of children circumcised with sutures (vycril rapide). We measured three outcomes (operating time, postoperative pain and assessment of cosmetic), which, even if not all statistically significant, allowed us to draw any conclusions about the use of glue in circumcision. Conclusions Traditional circumcision is performed using a standard sleeve technique with sutures for the approximation of the skin edges. However, since some years a tissue adhesive as N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) (Glubran® 2) is used in many centers to

  10. The methodology of the Italian HBSC 2010 study (Health Behaviour in School-aged Children).

    PubMed

    Lazzeri, G; Giacchi, M V; Dalmasso, P; Vieno, A; Nardone, P; Lamberti, A; Spinelli, A; Cavallo, F

    2013-01-01

    Italy has participated in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study since 2000. These surveys collect data every four years on the well-being and health behaviour of boys and girls aged 11, 13 and 15. Until 2007, the coordination group of the University of Turin, Siena and Padua directly sent the questionnaires to each sampled school to collect the data. The sample of about 4500 students was nationally representative. In 2008 the HBSC became part of the project "Surveys on behavioral risks in children aged 6-17 years", coordinated by the National Institute of Health (ISS) and promoted by the Ministry of Health, in collaboration with the Ministry of Education, University and Research. For the first time, in 2010, the survey was conducted by health workers in collaboration with teachers in all regions with a representative sample, not just at the national level, but also at regional level. In the 2,504 sampled schools, 77,113 students (25,079 eleven-year-old, 26,048 thirteen-year-old and 25,986 fifteen-year-old) completed an anonymous questionnaire. Knowledge of the health-related behaviour of school-aged adolescents may help monitoring and enable policies for young people to be formulated and implemented.

  11. Children's Conceptions about the Origin of Species: A Study of Italian Children's Conceptions with and without Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berti, Anna Emilia; Toneatti, Laura; Rosati, Veronica

    2010-01-01

    Investigations of people's understanding of the evolution of species have focused mainly on secondary school and university students. Very few investigations have taken into consideration younger students, and none have related children's ideas about the origin of species to formal instruction on this topic. To help fill this gap, the present…

  12. Priming of Abstract Logical Representations in 4-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viau, Joshua; Lidz, Jeffrey; Musolino, Julien

    2010-01-01

    Though preschoolers in certain experimental contexts strongly prefer to interpret ambiguous sentences containing quantified NPs and negation on the basis of surface syntax (e.g., Musolino's 1998 "observation of isomorphism"), contextual manipulations can lead to more adult-like behavior. But is isomorphism a "purely" pragmatic phenomenon, as…

  13. A 4-year-old Nigerian boy with cerebral palsy?

    PubMed

    Bodensteiner, John B

    2014-06-01

    A four year old with a diagnosis of congenital infection leading to cerebral palsy is presented. The patient instead has a condition called Leukoencephalopathy with bilateral temporal lobe cysts which can be differentiated from congenital CMV by the clinical and MRI findings.

  14. Helping Young Children Develop Higher Order Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Mary Jane; Jarvis, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    Describes how preschool teachers guided 4-year-olds in a classroom project that integrated constructing with wire, drawing, and storytelling. Notes that children monitored and directed their work and responded to learning challenges. Shows how teachers supported learning of individual children as children began to influence each other's learning.…

  15. Can Preschool Children Really Learn to Conserve?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Dorothy

    Two studies explored the possibility of inducing conservation understanding in intellectually normal preschoolers and mildly mentally retarded children of comparable mental age. Retarded children, MA 3-10 to 5-0, received Verbal Rule instruction. Three- and 4-year-old children were given Verbal Rule training in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design…

  16. Determinants of Vitamin D Levels in Italian Children and Adolescents: A Longitudinal Evaluation of Cholecalciferol Supplementation versus the Improvement of Factors Influencing 25(OH)D Status

    PubMed Central

    Stagi, Stefano; Pelosi, Paola; Strano, Massimo; Poggi, Giovanni; Manoni, Cristina; de Martino, Maurizio; Seminara, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This paper aims to assess 25(OH)D levels in Italian children and adolescents identifying risk factors for 25(OH)D deficiency and to evaluate whether a normal 25(OH)D value can be restored in 25(OH)D-deficient patients. Methods. We evaluated 25(OH)D levels in 679 Italian children and adolescents (≤10, 11–20, 21–30, and >30 ng/mL were defined as severe deficiency, deficiency, insufficiency, and sufficiency, resp.). Of these, 365 25(OH)D-deficient were followed up for 1 year; 205 were treated with cholecalciferol (Arm A: 400 I.U.) and 160 by improving the environmental variables influencing 25(OH)D levels (Arm B). Results. At cross-sectional evaluation, 11.3% showed sufficiency, 30.0% insufficiency, and 58.7% 25(OH)D deficiency. Mean 25(OH)D was 19.08 ± 8.44 ng/mL. At the enrollment time (T0), no difference was found between Arms A and B with respect to distribution and 25(OH)D levels. At end time (T1) 26.0% (29.7% in Arm A versus 20.6% in Arm B) showed sufficiency, 38.4% (42.0% versus 34.4%) insufficiency, and 35.6% (28.3% versus 45.0%) 25(OH)D deficiency. Mean 25(OH)D level was 23.71 ± 6.83 ng/mL. Conclusions. Neither changes of lifestyle nor 400 I.U. cholecalciferol supplementation alone appears to be sufficient to restore adequate 25(OH)D levels. PMID:25435877

  17. High frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in Italian children: a nationwide longitudinal study, 2004-2013.

    PubMed

    Cherubini, Valentino; Skrami, Edlira; Ferrito, Lucia; Zucchini, Stefano; Scaramuzza, Andrea; Bonfanti, Riccardo; Buono, Pietro; Cardella, Francesca; Cauvin, Vittoria; Chiari, Giovanni; D Annunzio, Giuseppe; Frongia, Anna Paola; Iafusco, Dario; Patera, Ippolita Patrizia; Toni, Sonia; Tumini, Stefano; Rabbone, Ivana; Lombardo, Fortunato; Carle, Flavia; Gesuita, Rosaria

    2016-12-19

    This longitudinal population-based study analyses the frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at type 1 diabetes diagnosis in Italian children under 15 years of age, during 2004-2013. DKA was defined as absent (pH ≥ 7.30), mild/moderate (7.1 ≤ pH < 7.30) and severe (pH < 7.1). Two multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the time trend of DKA frequency considered as present versus absent and severe versus absent, adjusted for gender, age group and geographical area of residence at diagnosis. Overall, 9,040 cases were ascertained. DKA frequency was 40.3% (95%CI: 39.3-41.4%), with 29.1% and 11.2% for mild/moderate and severe DKA, respectively. Severe DKA increased significantly during the period (OR = 1.03, 95%CI: 1.003-1.05). Younger-age children and children living in Southern Italy compared to Central Italy were at significantly higher risk of DKA and severe DKA. Family history of type 1 diabetes and residence in Sardinia compared to Central Italy were significantly associated with a lower probability of DKA and severe DKA. The high frequency of ketoacidosis in Italy over time and high variability among age groups and geographical area of residence, strongly suggests a continuing need for nationwide healthcare strategies to increase awareness of early detection of diabetes.

  18. High frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in Italian children: a nationwide longitudinal study, 2004–2013

    PubMed Central

    Cherubini, Valentino; Skrami, Edlira; Ferrito, Lucia; Zucchini, Stefano; Scaramuzza, Andrea; Bonfanti, Riccardo; Buono, Pietro; Cardella, Francesca; Cauvin, Vittoria; Chiari, Giovanni; d′Annunzio, Giuseppe; Frongia, Anna Paola; Iafusco, Dario; Patera, Ippolita Patrizia; Toni, Sonia; Tumini, Stefano; Rabbone, Ivana; Lombardo, Fortunato; Carle, Flavia; Gesuita, Rosaria; Lera, Riccardo; De Luna, Livia; Gualtieri, Antonella; Zecchino, Clara; Piccinno, Elvira; Reinstadler, Petra; Prandi, Elena; Gallo, Francesco; Morganti, Gianfranco; Ripoli, Carlo; La Loggia, Alfonso; Scanu, Piera; Cardinale, Giuliana; Tomaselli, Letizia Grazia; Citriniti, Felice; Lazzaro, Nicola; De Donno, Valeria; Mainetti, Benedetta; Coccioli, Maria Susanna; Maccioni, Rosella; Marongiu, Ugo; Bruzzese, Mariella; Iannilli, Antonio; Pardi, Daniela; Confetto, Santino; Zanfardino, Angela; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Franzese, Adriana; Cadario, Francesco; Milia, Anna Franca; Piredda, Gavina; Soro, Miriam; Correddu, Antonella; Galderisi, Alfonso; De Berardinis, Fiorella; Federico, Giovanni; Zanette, Giorgio; Suprani, Tosca; Pedini, Annalisa; Bitti, Maria Luisa Manca; Delvecchio, Maurizio; Trada, Michela; Meloni, Gianfranco; Gaiero, Alberto; Bulciolu, Pasquale; Guerraggio, Lucia; Faleschini, Elena; Zanatta, Manuela; Salvatoni, Alessandro; Maffeis, Claudio; Arnaldi, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal population-based study analyses the frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at type 1 diabetes diagnosis in Italian children under 15 years of age, during 2004–2013. DKA was defined as absent (pH ≥ 7.30), mild/moderate (7.1 ≤ pH < 7.30) and severe (pH < 7.1). Two multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the time trend of DKA frequency considered as present versus absent and severe versus absent, adjusted for gender, age group and geographical area of residence at diagnosis. Overall, 9,040 cases were ascertained. DKA frequency was 40.3% (95%CI: 39.3–41.4%), with 29.1% and 11.2% for mild/moderate and severe DKA, respectively. Severe DKA increased significantly during the period (OR = 1.03, 95%CI: 1.003–1.05). Younger-age children and children living in Southern Italy compared to Central Italy were at significantly higher risk of DKA and severe DKA. Family history of type 1 diabetes and residence in Sardinia compared to Central Italy were significantly associated with a lower probability of DKA and severe DKA. The high frequency of ketoacidosis in Italy over time and high variability among age groups and geographical area of residence, strongly suggests a continuing need for nationwide healthcare strategies to increase awareness of early detection of diabetes. PMID:27991500

  19. Extra-Linguistic Influences on Sentence Comprehension in Italian-Speaking Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettenati, P.; Benassi, E.; Deevy, P.; Leonard, L. B.; Caselli, M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) in sentence comprehension. These deficits are usually attributed to limitations in the children's understanding of syntax or the lexical items contained in the sentences. This study examines the role that extra-linguistic factors can play in these children's sentence comprehension.…

  20. Peer Interaction Does Not Always Improve Children’s Mental State Talk Production in Oral Narratives. A Study in 6- to 10-Year-Old Italian Children

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Giuliana; Tarchi, Christian; Bigozzi, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Joint narratives are a mean through which children develop and practice their Theory of Mind (ToM), thus they represent an ideal means to explore children’s use and development of mental state talk. However, creating a learning environment for storytelling based on peer interaction, does not necessarily mean that students will automatically exploit it by engaging in productive collaboration, thus it is important to explore under what conditions peer interaction promotes children’s ToM. This study extends our understanding of social aspects of ToM, focusing on the effect of joint narratives on school-age children’s mental state talk. Fifty-six Italian primary school children participated in the study (19 females and 37 males). Children created a story in two different experimental conditions (individually and with a partner randomly assigned). Each story told by the children, as well as their dialogs were recorded and transcribed. Transcriptions of narratives were coded in terms of text quality and mental state talk, whereas transcriptions of dialogs were coded in terms of quality of interaction. The results from this study confirmed that peer interaction does not always improve children’s mental state talk performances in oral narratives, but certain conditions need to be satisfied. Peer interaction was more effective on mental state talk with lower individual levels and productive interactions, particularly in terms of capacity to regulate the interactions. When children were able to focus on the interaction, as well as the product, they were also exposed to each other’s reasoning behind their viewpoint. This level of intersubjectivity, in turn, allowed them to take more in consideration the contribution of mental states to the narrative. PMID:27826283

  1. Behavior Modification of Retarded Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Kaoru

    1977-01-01

    In a study of behavior modification two Down's syndrome preschool children, the first a 5-year-old boy with autistic behavior patterns and the second a 4-year-old girl whose behavior problem was to reject other children, were examined. The first S was engaged in ball catching activities with a teacher with positive reinforcement (playing the S's…

  2. Young Children's Trust in Overtly Misleading Advice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyman, Gail D.; Sritanyaratana, Lalida; Vanderbilt, Kimberly E.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of 3- and 4-year-old children to disregard advice from an overtly misleading informant was investigated across five studies (total "n" =212). Previous studies have documented limitations in young children's ability to reject misleading advice. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that these limitations are primarily…

  3. Children at Play: Learning Gender in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This captivating book illuminates our understanding of how young children develop gender identities. A two year longitudinal research project on children's own understandings of gender casts new light on how 3 and 4 year old newcomers in early years classes learn rules for gendered behaviour from older children, in their imaginative and…

  4. Observing Young Children's Creative Thinking: Engagement, Involvement and Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Sue; Rowe, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at young children's creative thinking as inferred through observations of their activities. A total of 52 episodes of child-initiated and adult-initiated activities in 3- to 4-year-olds in an English Children's Centre were analysed using the Analysing Children's Creative Thinking (ACCT) Framework. Results showed that activities…

  5. Sometimes Children Are as Good as Adults: The Pragmatic Use of Prosody in Children's On-Line Sentence Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Peng; Crain, Stephen; Zhan, Likan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined 4-year-old Mandarin-speaking children's sensitivity to prosodic cues in resolving speech act ambiguities, using eye-movement recordings. Most previous on-line studies have focused on children's use of prosody in resolving structural ambiguities. Although children have been found to be sensitive to prosodic information, they use…

  6. The Gilles De La Tourette Syndrome-Quality of Life Scale for Children and Adolescents (C&A-GTS-QOL): Development and Validation of the Italian Version

    PubMed Central

    Cavanna, Andrea E.; Luoni, Chiara; Selvini, Claudia; Blangiardo, Rosanna; Eddy, Clare M.; Silvestri, Paola R.; Calì, Paola V.; Seri, Stefano; Balottin, Umberto; Cardona, Francesco; Rizzo, Renata; Termine, Cristiano

    2013-01-01

    Background: Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a chronic childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorder with a significant impact on patients’ health-related quality of life (HR-QOL). Cavanna et al. (Neurology 2008; 71: 1410–1416) developed and validated the first disease-specific HR-QOL assessment tool for adults with GTS (Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome-Quality of Life Scale, GTS-QOL). This paper presents the translation, adaptation and validation of the GTS-QOL for young Italian patients with GTS. Methods: A three-stage process involving 75 patients with GTS recruited through three Departments of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry in Italy led to the development of a 27-item instrument (Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome-Quality of Life Scale in children and adolescents, C&A-GTS-QOL) for the assessment of HR-QOL through a clinician-rated interview for 6–12 year-olds and a self-report questionnaire for 13–18 year-olds. Results: The C&A-GTS-QOL demonstrated satisfactory scaling assumptions and acceptability. Internal consistency reliability was high (Cronbach’s alpha > 0.7) and validity was supported by interscale correlations (range 0.4–0.7), principal-component factor analysis and correlations with other rating scales and clinical variables. Conclusions: The present version of the C&A-GTS-QOL is the first disease-specific HR-QOL tool for Italian young patients with GTS, satisfying criteria for acceptability, reliability and validity. PMID:23598902

  7. Divergent Thinking in Italian Students with and without Reading Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Pinto, Giuliana; Donfrancesco, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have explored the relationship between dyslexia and creativity, but results have been rather mixed. This study examines whether Italian dyslexic children are more creative than their peers without a reading impairment. One hundred ninety Italian children aged between 9 and 13 participated in this study, divided into two groups:…

  8. Applying Theory to Practice: Using Developmentally Appropriate Strategies To Help Children Draw.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Loretta I.

    2001-01-01

    Describes how one teacher helped preschool children draw. Shows how she guided a 4-year-old to use stencils to draw fish independently, helped children use their knowledge of shapes to guide their drawing of animals, and guided children to draw what was important to them. Asserts that helping children to express their ideas independently in…

  9. Oats in the diet of children with celiac disease: preliminary results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled multicenter Italian study.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Simona; Caporelli, Nicole; Galeazzi, Tiziana; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Barbato, Maria; Roggero, Paola; Malamisura, Basilio; Iacono, Giuseppe; Budelli, Andrea; Gesuita, Rosaria; Catassi, Carlo; Lionetti, Elena

    2013-11-20

    A gluten-free diet (GFD) is currently the only available treatment for patients with celiac disease (CD). Several clinical trials have demonstrated that most celiac patients can tolerate a medium-high quantity of oats without any negative clinical effects; however, the inclusion of oats in GFD is still a matter of debate. In this study, Italian children with CD were enrolled in a 15-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial. Participants were randomized in two groups following either A-B treatment (6 months of diet "A", 3 months of standard GFD, 6 months of diet "B"), or B-A treatment (6 months of diet "B", 3 months of standard GFD, 6 months of diet "A"). A and B diets included gluten-free (GF) products (flour, pasta, biscuits, cakes and crisp toasts) with either purified oats or placebo. Clinical data (Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rate Scale [GSRS] score) and intestinal permeability tests (IPT), were measured through the study period. Although the study is still blinded, no significant differences were found in GSRS score or the urinary lactulose/mannitol (L/M) ratio between the two groups after 6 months of treatment. These preliminary results suggest that the addition of non-contaminated oats from selected varieties in the treatment of children with CD does not determine changes in intestinal permeability and gastrointestinal symptoms.

  10. Spelling Impairments in Italian Dyslexic Children with and without a History of Early Language Delay. Are There Any Differences?

    PubMed Central

    Angelelli, Paola; Marinelli, Chiara V.; Iaia, Marika; Putzolu, Anna; Gasperini, Filippo; Brizzolara, Daniela; Chilosi, Anna M.

    2016-01-01

    Language delay is considered a frequent antecedent of literacy problems and both may be linked to phonological impairment. However, while several studies have examined the relationship between language delay and reading impairment, relatively few have focused on spelling. In this study, spelling performance of 28 children with developmental dyslexia (DD), 14 children with a history of language delay (LD), and 14 children without (NoLD) and 28 control participants were examined. Spelling was investigated by a writing to dictation task that included orthographically regular stimuli (word and non-words), as well as words with unpredictable transcription. Results indicated that all dyslexic participants underperformed compared to controls on both regular and unpredictable transcription stimuli, but LD performance was generally the worst. Moreover, spelling impairment assumed different characteristics in LD and NoLD children. LD children were more sensitive to acoustic-to-phonological variables, showing relevant failure especially on stimuli containing geminate consonants but also on polysyllabic stimuli and those containing non-continuant consonants. Error analysis confirmed these results, with LD children producing a higher rate of phonological errors respect to NoLD children and controls. Results were coherent with the hypothesis that among dyslexic children, those with previous language delay have more severe spelling deficit, suffering from defective orthographic lexical acquisition together with long-lasting phonological difficulties. PMID:27148135

  11. Spelling Impairments in Italian Dyslexic Children with and without a History of Early Language Delay. Are There Any Differences?

    PubMed

    Angelelli, Paola; Marinelli, Chiara V; Iaia, Marika; Putzolu, Anna; Gasperini, Filippo; Brizzolara, Daniela; Chilosi, Anna M

    2016-01-01

    Language delay is considered a frequent antecedent of literacy problems and both may be linked to phonological impairment. However, while several studies have examined the relationship between language delay and reading impairment, relatively few have focused on spelling. In this study, spelling performance of 28 children with developmental dyslexia (DD), 14 children with a history of language delay (LD), and 14 children without (NoLD) and 28 control participants were examined. Spelling was investigated by a writing to dictation task that included orthographically regular stimuli (word and non-words), as well as words with unpredictable transcription. Results indicated that all dyslexic participants underperformed compared to controls on both regular and unpredictable transcription stimuli, but LD performance was generally the worst. Moreover, spelling impairment assumed different characteristics in LD and NoLD children. LD children were more sensitive to acoustic-to-phonological variables, showing relevant failure especially on stimuli containing geminate consonants but also on polysyllabic stimuli and those containing non-continuant consonants. Error analysis confirmed these results, with LD children producing a higher rate of phonological errors respect to NoLD children and controls. Results were coherent with the hypothesis that among dyslexic children, those with previous language delay have more severe spelling deficit, suffering from defective orthographic lexical acquisition together with long-lasting phonological difficulties.

  12. Cross-Linguistic Analysis of Vocabulary in Young Children: Spanish, Dutch, French, Hebrew, Italian, Korean, and American English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Cote, Linda R.; Maital, Sharone; Painter, Kathleen; Park, Sung-Yun; Pascual, Liliana; Pecheux,Marie-Germaine; Ruel, Josette; Venuti, Paola; Vyt, Andre

    2004-01-01

    The composition of young children's vocabularies in 7 contrasting linguistic communities was investigated. Mothers of 269 twenty-month-olds in Argentina, Belgium, France, Israel, Italy, the Republic of Korea, and the United States completed comparable vocabulary checklists for their children. In each language and vocabulary size grouping (except…

  13. Children's understanding of speaker reliability between lexical and syntactic knowledge.

    PubMed

    Sobel, David M; Macris, Deanna M

    2013-03-01

    Many studies suggest that preschoolers rely on individuals' histories of generating accurate lexical information when learning novel lexical information from them. The present study examined whether children used a speaker's accuracy about one kind of linguistic knowledge to make inferences about another kind of linguistic knowledge, focusing specifically on syntax and the lexicon. In Experiment 1, we presented children with 2 live speakers who were lexically accurate, but differed in their appropriate use of subject-verb agreement. Older 4-year-olds, but not younger 4-year-olds, relied on the accurate speaker to learn new labels for novel objects. We suggest only the older 4-year-olds might have registered that the inaccurate speaker was an unreliable source of novel linguistic information. In Experiment 2, 4-year-olds observed 2 speakers whose utterances were syntactically accurate, but differed in lexical accuracy. All 4-year-olds used the speakers' accuracy to guide how they learned novel lexical information and novel irregular plurals, but not how they learned novel irregular past tense forms that children often regularize. These results suggest that when learning novel syntactic information, reliability information might interact with underlying linguistic regularity.

  14. Spelling Acquisition in English and Italian: A Cross-Linguistic Study.

    PubMed

    Marinelli, Chiara V; Romani, Cristina; Burani, Cristina; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi

    2015-01-01

    We examined the spelling acquisition in children up to late primary school of a consistent orthography (Italian) and an inconsistent orthography (English). The effects of frequency, lexicality, length, and regularity in modulating spelling performance of the two groups were examined. English and Italian children were matched for both chronological age and number of years of schooling. Two-hundred and seven Italian children and 79 English children took part in the study. We found greater accuracy in spelling in Italian than English children: Italian children were very accurate after only 2 years of schooling, while in English children the spelling performance was still poor after 5 years of schooling. Cross-linguistic differences in spelling accuracy proved to be more persistent than the corresponding ones in reading accuracy. Orthographic consistency produced not only quantitative, but also qualitative differences, with larger frequency and regularity effects in English than in Italian children.

  15. Mould/dampness exposure at home is associated with respiratory disorders in Italian children and adolescents: the SIDRIA-2 Study

    PubMed Central

    Simoni, M; Lombardi, E; Berti, G; Rusconi, F; La Grutta, S; Piffer, S; Petronio, M; Galassi, C; Forastiere, F; Viegi, G; the, S

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To report on the relation between home mould and/or dampness exposure and respiratory disorders in a large sample of children and adolescents in Italy, accounting for age at time of exposure. Methods: 20 016 children (mean age 7 years) and 13 266 adolescents (mean age 13 years) completed questionnaires on indoor exposures and respiratory symptoms/diseases. Statistical analyses were adjusted for sex, age, questionnaire's compiler, area of residence, season of interview, parental educational status, family history of asthma, rhinitis, eczema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, presence of gas water heaters, passive smoking, pets, and active smoking (only for adolescents). Population attributable risk % (PAR) was also computed. Results: Asthma was more strongly related to only early than to only current exposure, both in children (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.41 to 2.30) and adolescents (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.38 to 2.59). The same result was found for rhino-conjunctivitis (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.82), in children, and for wheeze among adolescents (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.11). In children, wheeze (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.47 to 2.66) and eczema (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.91) were more strongly related to mould/dampness when exposed both early and currently; the same occurred in adolescents for rhino-conjunctivitis (1.78, 95% CI 1.30 to 2.45). Although persistent cough/phlegm was significantly related to mould/dampness exposure in children, regardless of exposure timing, no significant association between mould/dampness exposure and eczema or cough/phlegm was found among adolescents. PAR estimates were higher for only early than only current exposures. Avoiding early only exposure would abate wheeze by 6%, asthma or cough/phlegm by 7%, rhino-conjunctivitis in children by 4%, and in adolescents, asthma by 6%, and wheeze by 4%. Conclusions: Respiratory disorders such as wheeze and asthma can often be explained by exposure to home mould/dampness, especially early in life. The

  16. Teaching Business Italian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trivelli, Remo J.

    The University of Rhode Island's business Italian course is an advanced language course whose focus is the Italian business world and its reflection of values, customs, and traditions. The course begins with presentations on salient features of contemporary Italian, such as syntactical simplification and nominalization, and how the social,…

  17. Why Study Italian?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Charles

    1978-01-01

    One studies Italian for the same reason one studies any language--to become educated. Even more than for art and music, Italian is necessary for literature. Dante must be read, and in the original. Further, we study Italian to know our cultural roots and heritage. (AMH)

  18. How Children Use Examples to Make Conditional Predictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalish, Charles W.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments explored children's and adults' use of examples to make conditional predictions. In Experiment 1 adults (N = 20) but not 4-year-olds (N = 21) or 8-year-olds (N =1 8) distinguished predictable from unpredictable features when features were partially correlated (e.g., necessary but not sufficient). Children did make reliable…

  19. Children's Causal Inferences from Conflicting Testimony and Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgers, Sophie; Buchsbaum, Daphna; Seiver, Elizabeth; Griffiths, Thomas L.; Gopnik, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Preschoolers use both direct observation of statistical data and informant testimony to learn causal relationships. Can children integrate information from these sources, especially when source reliability is uncertain? We investigate how children handle a conflict between what they hear and what they see. In Experiment 1, 4-year-olds were…

  20. Children's Eyewitness Memory: Effects of Participation and Forensic Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobey, Ann E.; Goodman, Gail S.

    1992-01-01

    This study, with 39 4-year-olds, found that children had better free recall accuracy and lowered suggestibility when they participated with a "babysitter" rather than observed a babysitter and child. Addition of forensic context (by a policeman prior to questioning) increased error in free recall but did not affect children's accuracy in…

  1. Challenging the Notion of a Thematic Preference in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waxman, Sandra R.; Namy, Laura L.

    1997-01-01

    Two- to 4-year-olds were presented with pictures of a target item (for example, carrot), a thematic alternative (rabbit), and an taxonomic alternative (tomato). The target was identified and children were asked to choose one of the alternatives. Children revealed no preference for either alternative. (BC)

  2. Young Children's Spontaneous Use of Geometry in Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shusterman, Anna; Lee, Sang Ah; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments tested whether 4-year-old children extract and use geometric information in simple maps without task instruction or feedback. Children saw maps depicting an arrangement of three containers and were asked to place an object into a container designated on the map. In Experiment 1, one of the three locations on the map and the array…

  3. The Emergence of Flexible Spatial Strategies in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waismeyer, Anna S.; Jacobs, Lucia F.

    2013-01-01

    The development of spatial navigation in children depends not only on remembering which landmarks lead to a goal location but also on developing strategies to deal with changes in the environment or imperfections in memory. Using cue combination methods, the authors examined 3- and 4-year-old children's memory for different types of spatial cues…

  4. Perceiving Children's Behavior and Reaching Limits in a Risk Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordovil, Rita; Santos, Carlos; Barreiros, Joao

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of parents' perception of children's reaching limits in a risk scenario. A sample of 68 parents of 1- to 4-year-olds were asked to make a prior estimate of their children's behavior and action limits in a task that involved retrieving a toy out of the water. The action modes used for…

  5. New Jersey Kids Count 2008: The State of Our Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traini, Cecilia

    2008-01-01

    New Jersey children are in some important ways better off than five years ago. More 3- and 4-year-olds are enrolled in high-quality, publicly funded preschool, for example. On some other measures, children are worse off. The proportion with no health insurance has risen, despite increased enrollment in government-subsidized insurance programs. But…

  6. Child and Informant Influences on Behavioral Ratings of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Beth M.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated relationships among teacher, parent, and observer behavioral ratings of 3- and 4-year-old children using intra-class correlations and analysis of variance. Comparisons within and across children from middle-income (MI; N = 166; mean age = 54.25 months, standard deviation [SD] = 8.74) and low-income (LI; N = 199; mean age =…

  7. "Just" Counting: Young Children's Oral Counting and Enumeration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Threlfall, John; Bruce, Bob

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on the specific skills and abilities of young children in oral counting and enumeration. Responses to an oral counting task and an enumeration task by a sample (n=93) of 3- and 4-year old children attending a range of pre-five establishments in an urban district of northern England are described. The findings, whilst providing…

  8. How Fantasy Benefits Young Children's Understanding of Pretense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobel, David M.

    2006-01-01

    Sobel and Lillard (2001 ) demonstrated that 4-year-olds' understanding of the role that the mind plays in pretending improved when children were asked questions in a fantasy context. The present study investigated whether this fantasy effect was motivated by children recognizing that fantasy contains violations of real-world causal structure. In…

  9. Neurodevelopmental Correlates of Theory of Mind in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabbagh, Mark A.; Bowman, Lindsay C.; Evraire, Lyndsay E.; Ito, Jennie M. B.

    2009-01-01

    Baseline electroencephalogram (EEG) data were collected from twenty-nine 4-year-old children who also completed batteries of representational theory-of-mind (RTM) tasks and executive functioning (EF) tasks. Neural sources of children's EEG alpha (6-9 Hz) were estimated and analyzed to determine whether individual differences in regional EEG alpha…

  10. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground

    PubMed Central

    Tortella, Patrizia; Haga, Monika; Loras, Håvard

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s) appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens. PMID:27462985

  11. Investing in Our Children: A Plan to Expand Access to Preschool and Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Cynthia G.; Cooper, Donna; Herman, Juliana; Lazarín, Melissa; Linden, Michael; Post, Sasha; Tanden, Neera

    2013-01-01

    This issue brief presents a plan to expand educational opportunities and care for children ages 0-5 years old by investing significant federal dollars to: (1) Make high-quality preschool universally accessible to all 3- and 4-year-old children; and (2) Enable more lower-income families to afford child care for children ages 0-3 years old. These…

  12. Minimal Groups Increase Young Children's Motivation and Learning on Group-Relevant Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Master, Allison; Walton, Gregory M.

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments ("N" = 130) used a minimal group manipulation to show that just perceived membership in a social group boosts young children's motivation for and learning from group-relevant tasks. In Experiment 1, 4-year-old children assigned to a minimal "puzzles group" persisted longer on a challenging puzzle than children identified as the…

  13. Inappropriate Word Extensions in the Speech of Young Language-Disordered Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Kathy; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The frequency and type of inappropriate word extensions (i.e., use of ball for moon) in the spontaneous speech of nine young language disordered children (2.8 to 3.4 years old) were studied. The percentage of inappropriate word extensions of these children was comparable to that of normal children at the same level of linguistic development.…

  14. Responding to Children's Everyday Transgressions in Chinese Working-Class Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xiao-lei; Bernas, Ronan; Eberhard, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how working-class mothers in the People's Republic of China respond to their young children's transgressions in everyday contexts. Twenty 4-year-old children and their mothers in a working-class neighbourhood were observed in their daily routines at home. When addressing children's transgressions and socialising desirable…

  15. Preschool Quality and the Development of Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Nirmala

    2010-01-01

    Research Findings: The influence of preschool quality on the development of 67 4-year-old children from poor and rural families in South India was examined. Children's developmental status was assessed using a modified version of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities and through physician ratings. Preschool quality was assessed through…

  16. Test sample selection by preschool children: honoring diversity.

    PubMed

    Shipley, Elizabeth F; Shepperson, Barbara

    2006-10-01

    In a test of an inductive inference, preschool children's selection of objects was examined. In Experiment 1, 4-year-olds selected diverse objects first in sequential selections; in Experiment 2, adults and 4-year-olds, but not 3-year-olds, made similar selections under the same conditions. A defective object led subjects in all age groups to test a similar object. In Experiment 3, 4-year-olds chose to test a pair of dissimilar objects rather than a pair of similar objects, but 3-year-olds did not. Three-year-olds' selections were independent of diversity. In Experiment 4, we attempted to emphasize the diversity of objects for 3-year-olds. Their first task was to select an object that was the same as or different from a target object. The subjects responded correctly in this task but did not prefer to test diverse objects. Experiment 5 showed that neither 3- nor 4-year-olds have a bias to select nondiverse objects in a nontest context. The findings indicate that children as young as 4 years old value diverse evidence in induction.

  17. A focus on recent cases of suicides among Italian children and adolescents and a review of literature

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal behaviors are among the leading causes of death worldwide. The large spread of suicide suggests that educational programs and literature to parents or guardians should include information about the potential risks and potential consequences of the onset of the idea of suicide in children. We identified 55 cases of suicide among children and young adults <18-year-old occurring in Italy between 1st January, 2011 and 31st December, 2013. The results point to the need to increase our understanding of the dramatic rise in suicidal behaviors during childhood/adolescence and of the causal pathways linking these behaviors to child-adolescent mental disorders. During routine care visits, pediatricians should be skilled to recognize risk factors for adolescent suicide in order to intervene appropriately. PMID:25022200

  18. Young Maltese Children's Ideas about Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatt, Suzanne; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Borg, Kurtsten; Lautier, Katya

    2007-01-01

    Fifty Maltese children, 25 in the second year of pre-school (4 years olds) and 25 in the first year of compulsory education (5 years old), were interviewed about their knowledge of plants. Analysis showed that they had a restricted understanding of the term, meaning something small, with a thin stalk, leaves and a flower. Trees, cacti and nettles…

  19. Children's Interpretation of Generic Noun Phrases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollander, Michelle A.; Gelman, Susan A.; Star, Jon

    2002-01-01

    Two studies used a comprehension task and an elicited production task to examine whether preschool children and adults appreciated the semantic properties of generic utterances. Findings indicated that in both tasks, 4-year-olds and adults treated generics ("bears live in caves") as distinct from both indefinites ("some") and universal quantifiers…

  20. Self-Concept Enhancement of Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, Richard G.; Pardew, E. Michelle

    This study investigated whether a self-concept enhancement program would effect significant change in the self-concepts of 4-year-old middle class preschoolers as compared with classmates not in the program. All participating children (N=52) were pre- and posttested using the Thomas Self-Concept Values Test and the Developmental Profile. The…

  1. Children's Use of Geometry for Reorientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sang Ah; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2008-01-01

    Research on navigation has shown that humans and laboratory animals recover their sense of orientation primarily by detecting geometric properties of large-scale surface layouts (e.g. room shape), but the reasons for the primacy of layout geometry have not been clarified. In four experiments, we tested whether 4-year-old children reorient by the…

  2. Italian Developmental Dyslexic and Proficient Readers: Where Are the Differences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barca, Laura; Burani, Cristina; Di Filippo, Gloria; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi

    2006-01-01

    Italian dyslexic children are characterized by a pervasive reading speed deficit, with relatively preserved accuracy. This pattern has been associated with predominant use of the nonlexical reading procedure. However, there is no evidence of a deficit in the lexical route of Italian dyslexics. We investigated both lexical and nonlexical reading…

  3. Comparison of the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of four odontological methods for age evaluation in Italian children at the age threshold of 14 years using ROC curves.

    PubMed

    Pinchi, Vilma; Pradella, Francesco; Vitale, Giulia; Rugo, Dario; Nieri, Michele; Norelli, Gian-Aristide

    2016-01-01

    The age threshold of 14 years is relevant in Italy as the minimum age for criminal responsibility. It is of utmost importance to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of every odontological method for age evaluation considering the sensitivity, or the ability to estimate the true positive cases, and the specificity, or the ability to estimate the true negative cases. The research aims to compare the specificity and sensitivity of four commonly adopted methods of dental age estimation - Demirjian, Haavikko, Willems and Cameriere - in a sample of Italian children aged between 11 and 16 years, with an age threshold of 14 years, using receiver operating characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUC). In addition, new decision criteria are developed to increase the accuracy of the methods. Among the four odontological methods for age estimation adopted in the research, the Cameriere method showed the highest AUC in both female and male cohorts. The Cameriere method shows a high degree of accuracy at the age threshold of 14 years. To adopt the Cameriere method to estimate the 14-year age threshold more accurately, however, it is suggested - according to the Youden index - that the decision criterion be set at the lower value of 12.928 for females and 13.258 years for males, obtaining a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 88% in females, and a sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 92% in males. If a specificity level >90% is needed, the cut-off point should be set at 12.959 years (82% sensitivity) for females.

  4. Young Children's Knowledge of the Representational Function of Pictorial Symbols: Development across the Preschool Years in Three Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callaghan, Tara C.; Rochat, Philippe; Corbit, John

    2012-01-01

    Three- to 5-year-old children's knowledge that pictures have a representational function for others was investigated using a pictorial false-belief task. In Study 1, children passed the task at around 4 years old, and performance was correlated with standard false-belief and pictorial symbol tasks. In Study 2, the performance of children from two…

  5. Does the Brown Banana Have a Beak? Preschool Children's Phonological Awareness as a Function of Parents' Talk about Speech Sounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Elaine; Robertson, Sarah-Jane; Divers, Sarah; Schaughency, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Children's phonological awareness develops rapidly in the preschool years and is an important contributor to later reading skill. This study addresses the role of parents' talk in preschool children's phonological awareness development. A community sample of 27 parents and their 3- to 4-year-old children participated in a new "Sound…

  6. Raynaud's phenomenon in children.

    PubMed

    Ortega Vicente, Elena; Garrido Redondo, Mercedes

    Raynaud's Phenomenon is caused by spasm of the small arteries and arterioles of the fingers. It is triggered by various stimuli including exposure to cold or a stressful event. It may be symmetrical or wrap one end. The appearance of this entity in children is rare. We report the case of a 4 year old male consultation health center by episodes of coldness, pallor and pain in both feet.

  7. Detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae and identification of pneumococcal serotypes by real-time polymerase chain reaction using blood samples from Italian children ≤ 5 years of age with community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Marchese, Anna; Esposito, Susanna; Coppo, Erika; Rossi, Giovanni A; Tozzi, Alberto; Romano, Mariateresa; Da Dalt, Liviana; Schito, Gian Carlo; Principi, Nicola

    2011-09-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of severe life-threatening infections. Laboratory identification and serotyping of this pathogens is desirable to monitor vaccine impact and coverage; however, especially in pediatric patients, the yield of traditional microbiological diagnostic procedures can be very low. The aim of this study was to develop real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays to be performed directly on blood samples to identify the most common capsular serotypes causing pneumonia in Italian children (≤ 5 years of ages) after the introduction of the 7-valent conjugate vaccine. Our real-time PCR-based assays showed high sensitivity (at least 35 fg of pneumococcal DNA), and they were validated with 49 well-characterized pneumococcal isolates, 8 nonpneumococcal isolates, 13 simulated blood clinical samples loaded with S. pneumoniae of known serotypes, and 46 blood clinical samples. All the strains tested and the simulated blood clinical samples were correctly typed by the technique. Real-time PCR allowed serotyping in 37/46 children ≤ 5 years of age (80.4%) in whom pneumonia was diagnosed in four Italian hospitals. Non-PCV7 serotypes accounted for at least 47.8% (22/46) of cases, serotype 19A being the most common (34.7%, 16/46). Although, it is not known at present whether the incidence of 19A serotype is attributable to the use of PCV7 only, expanding pneumococcal serotype coverage has clearly the potential to prevent a larger number of pneumonias in Italian children less than ≤ 5 years of age. Molecular methods are of increasing importance in the diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia and in monitoring serotype distribution and replacement.

  8. An Evaluation of a Program to Increase Physical Activity for Young Children in Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Marco, Allison C.; Zeisel, Susan; Odom, Samuel L.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: In the past 20 years, obesity rates among U.S. children have skyrocketed. In fact, 15.4% of 2- to 4-year-olds in North Carolina, where this study takes place, are obese, making it the 5th worst obesity rate in the nation. Research indicates that young children in preschool settings largely engage in sedentary activities,…

  9. Young Children Follow Pointing over Words in Interpreting Acts of Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grassmann, Susanne; Tomasello, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Adults refer young children's attention to things in two basic ways: through the use of pointing (and other deictic gestures) and words (and other linguistic conventions). In the current studies, we referred young children (2- and 4-year-olds) to things in conflicting ways, that is, by pointing to one object while indicating linguistically (in…

  10. The Relationship of Day Care Quality to Children's Free Play Behavior and Social Problem Solving Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Susan D.; Reichhart-Erickson, Marina

    A total of 55 children attending 15 day care centers and nursery schools participated in an investigation of the relationship of day care quality to 4-year-old children's activities during free play and to their knowledge of social problem solving. The study also considered the extent to which social class mediated relationships between variables.…

  11. Effects of a Narrative Intervention on Story Retelling in At-Risk Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jennifer A.; Garzarek, Jessica E.; Donegan, Katharine L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this multiple baseline study across participants was to examine a narrative retell intervention with guided self-monitoring on narrative macrostructure skills in low-income African American young children at risk for language disorders. Three target 4-year-old children in a mixed-age kindergarten class of nine students participated…

  12. The Designing Mind: Children's Reasoning about Intended Function and Artifact Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelemen, Deborah; Seston, Rebecca; Saint Georges, Laure

    2012-01-01

    There is currently debate about the emergence of children's ability to reason about artifacts by reference to their intended design. We present two studies demonstrating that, while 3-year-olds have emerging insights, 4-year-old children display an explicit, well-rounded, adult-like understanding of the way design constrains an artifact's physical…

  13. The Relation between Gender Labelling and Gender Constancy in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Kenneth J.; Yoannidis, Tom

    The relationship between preschool children's level of gender understanding and their ability to identify gender-linked attributes was examined. Participants were 26 3-year-old and 30 4-year-old children who were administered a single-cue gender labelling task, Slaby and Frey's (1975) gender constancy test, and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test.…

  14. Children's Use of Social Categories in Thinking about People and Social Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shutts, Kristin; Pemberton Roben, Caroline K.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2013-01-01

    A series of studies investigated White U.S. 3- and 4-year-old children's use of gender and race information to reason about their own and others’ relationships and attributes. Three-year-old children used gender- but not race-based similarity between themselves and others to decide with whom they wanted to be friends, as well as to determine which…

  15. Individual Differences in Children's and Parents' Generic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelman, Susan A.; Ware, Elizabeth A.; Kleinberg, Felicia; Manczak, Erika M.; Stilwell, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Generics ("'Dogs' bark") convey important information about categories and facilitate children's learning. Two studies with parents and their 2- or 4-year-old children (N = 104 dyads) examined whether individual differences in generic language use are as follows: (a) stable over time, contexts, and domains, and (b) linked…

  16. Linking Language and Events: Spatiotemporal Cues Drive Children's Expectations about the Meanings of Novel Transitive Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Melissa; Snedeker, Jesse; Schulz, Laura

    2017-01-01

    How do children map linguistic representations onto the conceptual structures that they encode? In the present studies, we provided 3-4-year-old children with minimal-pair scene contrasts in order to determine the effect of particular event properties on novel verb learning. Specifically, we tested whether spatiotemporal cues to causation also…

  17. Child-Care Subsidies: Do They Impact the Quality of Care Children Experience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Anna D.; Ryan, Rebecca M.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    The federal child-care subsidy program represents one of the government's largest investments in early care and education, but little is known about whether it increases low-income children's access to higher quality child care. This study used newly available nationally representative data on 4-year-old children (N = 750) to investigate whether…

  18. Training Mothers to Help Their Children Solve Real-Life Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shure, Myrna B.; Spivack, George

    An experiment was performed to determine whether the mothers of 20 inner-city black preschoolers could successfully train their children in interpersonal problem-solving skills. The skills acquired by the mother-trained children were compared with those of 113 teacher-trained and 106 non-trained 4-year-olds, equated on initial IQ scores and school…

  19. The Relation between the Teaching Strategies of Parents and the Cognitive Style of Their Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Nathan; And Others

    This study examined concurrent and long-term effects of parents' teaching strategies on their children's cognitive styles. A total of 83 mothers and 74 fathers helped their 4-year-old sons or daughters with 4 problem-solving tasks. The interactions between parents and children were observed and evaluated. Two measures of field…

  20. Maternal Elaborative Reminiscing Increases Low-Income Children's Narrative Skills Relative to Dialogic Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Elaine; Leyva, Diana; Sparks, Alison; Grolnick, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    Research Findings: This study compared the unique effects of training low-income mothers in dialogic reading versus elaborative reminiscing on children's oral language and emergent literacy. Thirty-three low-income parents of 4-year-old children attending Head Start were randomly assigned to either dialogic reading, elaborative reminiscing, or a…

  1. Young Children's Learning and Transfer of Biological Information from Picture Books to Real Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganea, Patricia A.; Ma, Lili; DeLoache, Judy S.

    2011-01-01

    Preschool children (N = 104) read a book that described and illustrated color camouflage in animals (frogs and lizards). Children were then asked to indicate and explain which of 2 novel animals would be more likely to fall prey to a predatory bird. In Experiment 1, 3- and 4-year-olds were tested with pictures depicting animals in camouflage and…

  2. The Seuss Boost: Rhyme Helps Children Retain Words from Shared Storybook Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Kirsten; Macauley, Megan; Furay, Erin

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the potential benefits of rhyme on young children's word retention during shared reading. In two experiments, 2- to 4-year-old children heard their parent read either a rhymed or non-rhymed version of the same animal story, and were then tested on how many animal names they subsequently recognized from the story in Experiment 1…

  3. Using Scaffolding Strategies to Promote Young Children's Scientific Understandings of Floating and Sinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsin, Ching-Ting; Wu, Hsin-Kai

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study are to examine young children's explanations of floating and sinking and to investigate how scaffolding strategies provided by a tutor could promote their scientific understandings. Fifteen 4-year-olds and fifteen 5-year-olds from a public kindergarten in northern Taiwan participated in this study. The children were…

  4. Developing Basic Mathematical Skills of Pre-School Children by Using Plasticized Clay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chumark, Charung; Puncreobutr, Vichian

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to study the development of basic mathematical skills in preschool children by using plasticized clay. A pre-test and post-test design was adopted for the study to compare the difference before and after the art activity. The experimental group of 15 preschool children of 3-4 years old, attending…

  5. "That Ain't No Ninja Turtles": The Prevalence and Influence of Popular Culture in the Talk and Writing of Prekindergarten Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissel, Brian T.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how 2 classrooms of 4-year-old children incorporated popular media (cartoons, television shows, video games, movies, and music) into their conversations with peers during writing. The findings assert that (a) children naturally incorporate popular culture into their writing, (b) children include popular culture in their…

  6. Italian 102 Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazzarino, Graziana

    This workbook was prepared as a supplement to "Basic Italian" by C. Speroni and C. L. Golino, lessons 20-35. It reflects a typical second-semester program at the University of Colorado. Although each lesson deals with the specific grammar, vocabulary and subject matter used in the respective lessons of "Basic Italian," the workbook can be used…

  7. Classification and Attention Training Curricula for Head Start Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earhart, Eileen M.

    The needs and capabilities of 4-year-old Head Start children were considered in development of classification and attention training curricula, including: (1) sensory exploration through object manipulation, (2) variety of high-interest materials, (3) change of pace during the lesson, (4) presentation of learning activities as games, (5) relating…

  8. Infantile Accountability: When Big Data Meet Small Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrigley, Terry; Wormwell, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This article examines a government attempt to impose testing of 4-year-olds as a baseline against which to "hold primary schools accountable" for children's subsequent progress. It examines the various forms of baseline testing in this experiment and analyses the misleading claims made for the "predictive validity" of baseline…

  9. Reciprocity of Prosocial Behavior in Japanese Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujisawa, Keiko K.; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the reciprocity of prosocial behavior among 3- and 4-year-old Japanese preschool children during free-play time. Matrix correlation tests revealed positive correlations between the frequencies of object offering given and received within dyads and between the frequencies of helping given and received within dyads. These…

  10. Young Children Discriminate Improbable from Impossible Events in Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisberg, Deena Skolnick; Sobel, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Can young children discriminate impossible events, which cannot happen in reality, from improbable events, which are unfamiliar but could possibly happen in reality? When asked explicitly to categorize these types of events, 4-year-olds (N = 54) tended to report that improbable events were impossible, consistent with prior results (Shtulman &…

  11. Developmental Changes and Individual Differences in Young Children's Moral Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Judith G.; Rote, Wendy M.; Jambon, Marc; Tasopoulos-Chan, Marina; Villalobos, Myriam; Comer, Jessamy

    2012-01-01

    Developmental trajectories and individual differences in 70 American middle-income 2.5- to 4-year olds' moral judgments were examined 3 times across 1 year using latent growth modeling. At Wave 1, children distinguished hypothetical moral from conventional transgressions on all criteria, but only older preschoolers did so when rating deserved…

  12. Children's Task-Switching Efficiency: Missing Our Cue?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Anna E.; Deák, Gedeon

    2015-01-01

    In simple rule-switching tests, 3- and 4-year-olds can follow each of two sorting rules but sometimes make perseverative errors when switching. Older children make few errors but respond slowly when switching. These age-related changes might reflect the maturation of executive functions (e.g., inhibition). However, they might also reflect…

  13. Corpus Callosum Morphometrics in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boger-Megiddo, Inbal; Shaw, Dennis W. W.; Friedman, Seth D.; Sparks, Bobbi F.; Artru, Alan A.; Giedd, Jay N.; Dawson, Geraldine; Dager, Stephen R.

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed digital corpus callosum cross sectional areas in 3-4 year olds with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to typically developing (TD) and developmentally delayed (DD) children. Though not different in absolute size compared to TD, ASD callosums were disproportionately small adjusted for increased ASD cerebral volume. ASD…

  14. Children's Knowledge of the Relation between Intentional Action and Pretending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobel, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments investigated preschoolers' understanding of the relation between pretending and intentional action. In Experiment 1, both 3- and 4-year olds recognized that characters whose actions were intended as pretense were pretending. However, children also judged that characters whose actions gave them the appearance of an entity…

  15. Metaphors as Second Labels: Difficult for Preschool Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubio-Fernández, Paula; Grassmann, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the development of two cognitive abilities that are involved in metaphor comprehension: implicit analogical reasoning and assigning an unconventional label to a familiar entity (as in Romeo's "Juliet is the sun"). We presented 3- and 4-year-old children with literal object-requests in a pretense setting (e.g.,…

  16. Nutritional management and follow up of infants and children with food allergy: Italian Society of Pediatric Nutrition/Italian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Task Force Position Statement.

    PubMed

    Giovannini, Marcello; D'Auria, Enza; Caffarelli, Carlo; Verduci, Elvira; Barberi, Salvatore; Indinnimeo, Luciana; Iacono, Iride Dello; Martelli, Alberto; Riva, Enrica; Bernardini, Roberto

    2014-01-03

    Although the guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of food allergy recognize the role of nutrition, there is few literature on the practical issues concerning the nutritional management of children with food allergies. This Consensus Position Statement focuses on the nutritional management and follow-up of infants and children with food allergy.It provides practical advices for the management of children on exclusion diet and it represents an evidence-based consensus on nutritional intervention and follow-up of infants and children with food allergy. Children with food allergies have poor growth compared to non-affected subjects directly proportional to the quantity of foods excluded and the duration of the diet. Nutritional intervention, if properly planned and properly monitored, has proven to be an effective mean to substantiate a recovery in growth. Nutritional intervention depends on the subject's nutritional status at the time of the diagnosis. The assessment of the nutritional status of children with food allergies should follow a diagnostic pathway that involves a series of successive steps, beginning from the collection of a detailed diet-history. It is essential that children following an exclusion diet are followed up regularly. The periodic re-evaluation of the child is needed to assess the nutritional needs, changing with the age, and the compliance to the diet. The follow- up plan should be established on the basis of the age of the child and following the growth pattern.

  17. When Seeing Is Knowing: The Role of Visual Cues in the Dissociation between Children's Rule Knowledge and Rule Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buss, Aaron T.; Spencer, John P.

    2012-01-01

    The Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS) task requires children to switch from sorting cards based on shape or color to sorting based on the other dimension. Typically, 3-year-olds perseverate, whereas 4-year-olds flexibly sort by different dimensions. Zelazo and colleagues (1996, Cognitive Development, 11, 37-63) asked children questions about the…

  18. Preschool Teachers' Beliefs about Appropriate Early Literacy and Mathematics Education for Low- and Middle-Socioeconomic Status Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joon Sun; Ginsburg, Herbert P.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored preschool teachers' beliefs about the appropriateness of early literacy and mathematics education. In all, 60 teachers of 4-year-olds, half working with low-socioeconomic status (SES) children at publicly funded preschools and the other half with middle-SES children at private preschools, were randomly assigned to read either…

  19. Mother-Child Book-Sharing and Children's Storytelling Skills in Ethnically Diverse, Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Rufan; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Kuchirko, Yana; Ng, Florrie F.; Liang, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined book-sharing interactions between mothers and their 4-year-old children from African American (n?=?62), Dominican (n?=?67), Mexican (n?=?59) and Chinese (n?=?82) low-income U.S. families, and children's independent storytelling skills one year later. Mothers' book-sharing style was analysed in terms of…

  20. From the External to the Internal: Behavior Clarifications Facilitate Theory of Mind (ToM) Development in Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yanchun; Wang, Yijie; Luo, Rufan; Su, Yanjie

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated how Chinese children develop theory of mind (ToM) in a language environment with limited mental state talk that is rich in behavior discourse. In Study 1, 60 mothers shared a wordless storybook with their 3-4-year-olds. The children completed two false-belief tasks and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised at…

  1. Communication and Academic Challenges in Early Adolescence for Children Who Have Been Adopted from the Former Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beverly, Brenda L.; McGuinness, Teena M.; Blanton, Debra J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This was a Time II survey of outcomes for children, now ages 9 to 13 years, who were almost 4 years old on average when they were adopted from the former Soviet Union. Method: As part of a larger study (see T. McGuinness, R. Ryan, & C. Broadus Robinson, 2005), parents of 55 children (M age = 11 years) were surveyed regarding their…

  2. Children's Readiness Gains in Publically Funded, Community-Based Pre-Kindergarten Programs for 4 Year Olds and Preschool for 3 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Peggy; Warde, Beverly; Peluso, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Many states provide public funding to facilitate school readiness for community-based pre-K and preschool programs for 4 year old children and "at risk" 3 year old children. Little research exists on the school readiness gains of children participating in these "garden variety" community-based programs. Objective:…

  3. The Italian activist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catanzaro, Michele

    2012-02-01

    Italian theoretical physicist Giorgio Parisi has been an outspoken critic of Silvio Berlusconi's lack of support for science. He talks about how physics may fare under the new administration led by the economist Mario Monti.

  4. Preadolescent Anxiety: An Epidemiological Study Concerning an Italian Sample of 3,479 Nine-Year-Old Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nacinovich, Renata; Gadda, Stefania; Maserati, Elisa; Bomba, Monica; Neri, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    The epidemiology of anxiety traits was examined in a large sample of Italian preadolescent children, and 3,479 Italian nine-year-old subjects were enrolled. Anxious traits were observed in 10.5% of children. No significant gender differences were found, but children of separated couples presented a relative risk for anxious traits that was 50%…

  5. Does the Child's Actual Participation Make a Difference? Positive and Negative Emotion States Mentioned by Mothers of Young Children during Narrative Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landau, Rivka; Yanay, Niza; Eshel, Yohanan; Ben-Aaron, Miriam

    2006-01-01

    The study examined the rate that mothers mentioned positive and negative emotion states and emotion calls during narrative construction from a text-free children's picture book illustrating happy and emotionally charged situations. Ninety-three mothers of 3- to 4-year-old kibbutz children were divided into three groups: (1) the child was not…

  6. Drawing Insight from Pictures: The Development of Concepts of False Drawing and False Belief in Children with Deafness, Normal Hearing, and Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.

    2002-01-01

    Three studies examined theory-of-mind concepts among children ages 6-13 years with deafness or autism, and 4-year-olds with normal development. Findings indicated that while the children with deafness or autism scored significantly lower on standard tests of false belief understanding, they scored higher on even the most challenging drawing-based…

  7. The Role of Previous Mother-Child Scaffolding in Head Start Children's Structuring of Problem-Solving Tasks with a Peer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustedt, Jason T.

    2015-01-01

    This study further extends scaffolding research to mother-child dyads (N = 51) in poverty, examining relationships between maternal scaffolding and 4-year-old Head Start children's own later scaffolding behaviors. At Time 1, experimental group children received maternal scaffolding during problem-solving tasks, whereas control group children…

  8. Japanese Children's and Adults' Reasoning about the Consequences of Psychogenic Bodily Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toyama, Noriko

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted with Japanese children and adult participants to assess their awareness of the effectiveness of biological and psychological treatments for psychogenic bodily reactions. Study 1 had 116 participants, composed of 4-year-olds (17), 5-year-olds (20), 7-year-olds (24), 10-year-olds (20), and college students (35). The…

  9. If It's an Animal It Has Axons: Experience and Culture in Preschool Children's Reasoning about Animates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarlowski, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    To claim that young children's biological thought is anthropocentric or that their induction depends on similarity rather than categories is to overlook the role of experience in reasoning. We tested four groups of 4-year-olds differing in two aspects of exposure to biological information: (a) their direct experience with nature (urban versus…

  10. Children's Knowledge of Ellipsis Constructions in Mandarin Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Peng

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated 4-year-old children's knowledge of the structural constraints on ellipsis constructions in Mandarin Chinese, focusing on the structural difference between verb phrase (VP) ellipsis and null object constructions. In Mandarin Chinese, if the antecedent clause of a VP-ellipsis structure contains an adverbial modifier,…

  11. Age-Related Differences in Reaction Time Task Performance in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiselev, Sergey; Espy, Kimberlay Andrews; Sheffield, Tiffany

    2009-01-01

    Performance of reaction time (RT) tasks was investigated in young children and adults to test the hypothesis that age-related differences in processing speed supersede a "global" mechanism and are a function of specific differences in task demands and processing requirements. The sample consisted of 54 4-year-olds, 53 5-year-olds, 59…

  12. The Independent Effects of Phonotactic Probability and Neighbourhood Density on Lexical Acquisition by Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storkel, Holly L.; Lee, Su-Yeon

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research was to disentangle effects of phonotactic probability, the likelihood of occurrence of a sound sequence, and neighbourhood density, the number of phonologically similar words, in lexical acquisition. Two-word learning experiments were conducted with 4-year-old children. Experiment 1 manipulated phonotactic probability…

  13. Intellectual Assessment of 111 Four-Year-Old Children with Phenylketonuria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, James C.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Available from: Arthur Retlaw and Associates, Inc., Suite 2080, 1603 Orrington Avenue, Evanston, Illinois 60201. A sample of 4-year-old children (n=111) with PKU (phenylketonuria) who were placed on dietary therapy between 3 and 92 days of age were assigned to two treatment groups based on "moderate" and "low" serum…

  14. Inducing Conservation of Number, Weight, Volume, Area, and Mass in Pre-School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Beverly S.

    The major question this study attempted to answer was, "Can conservation of number, area, weight, mass, and volume to be induced and retained by 3- and 4-year-old children by structured instruction with a multivariate approach? Three nursery schools in Iowa City supplied subjects for this study. The Institute of Child Behavior and Development…

  15. Interpersonal Problem-Solving Capacity and Behavioral Adjustment in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Kay Colby

    This investigation attempts to replicate previous studies by Spivak and Shure regarding the relationship between cognitive interpersonal problem-solving capacity and behavioral adjustment in 4-year-old children. Although Spivack and Shure's only measure of behavioral adjustment was teacher ratings (with the teachers aware of the purpose of the…

  16. Number Words in Young Children's Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Addition, Subtraction and Inversion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canobi, Katherine H.; Bethune, Narelle E.

    2008-01-01

    Three studies addressed children's arithmetic. First, 50 3- to 5-year-olds judged physical demonstrations of addition, subtraction and inversion, with and without number words. Second, 20 3- to 4-year-olds made equivalence judgments of additions and subtractions. Third, 60 4- to 6-year-olds solved addition, subtraction and inversion problems that…

  17. Providing Education to Child Care Instructors: Matching Children's Learning Activities to Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desjardins, Margaret M.

    Child care instructors and their aides at the Good Shepherd Day Care Center, Punta Gorda, Florida, were taught skills needed to develop classroom activities matching the cognitive development of 3- and 4-year-old children. Through a program of in-service activity in child growth and development, instruction was provided to enable teachers to more…

  18. The Effects of Novel Stimulation on Arousal Level in Young Children Alone and with a Friend.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, J. Conrad

    To assess the effects of familiar social stimuli on arousal in a novel and mildly stressful environment, skin conductance was measured in 4-year-old nursery school children who experienced this environment under two conditions: (a) alone, and (b) in the presence of a close friend. The study was intended to test Zajonc's (1965) social facilitation…

  19. Four Year Old Children's Acquisition of Print Knowledge during Electronic Storybook Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gong, Zhiyu; Levy, Betty Ann

    2009-01-01

    The experiment reported here explored the importance of engaging 4-year-old children's interest in the print itself during storybook reading. We explored the effect of computer animation of the print in order to draw the child's attention to each word as it was read. We also investigated the influence of illustrating that not all visual displays…

  20. The Relation between Event Apprehension and Utterance Formulation in Children: Evidence from Linguistic Omissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunger, Ann; Trueswell, John C.; Papafragou, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The relation between event apprehension and utterance formulation was examined in children and adults. English-speaking adults and 4-year-olds viewed motion events while their eye movements were monitored. Half of the participants in each age group described each event (Linguistic task), whereas the other half studied the events for an upcoming…

  1. "Who Is Worthy of My Generosity?" Recipient Characteristics and the Development of Children's Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malti, Tina; Gummerum, Michaela; Ongley, Sophia; Chaparro, Maria; Nola, Marta; Bae, Na Young

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the majority of 8-year-old children share valuable resources equally with others, whereas 4-year-olds are more likely to favor themselves in their sharing allocations. In this study, we examine whether these patterns of sharing behavior are affected by the needs of the recipient or by the recipient's previous moral…

  2. The Effects of Marital Violence on Children's Relationships with Parents, Peers, and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Mari L.; And Others

    This study examined the effects of marital violence on children's relationships with parents, peers, and teachers. Forty-eight 4-year-olds and their parents participated in two laboratory sessions: one with all three family members and one with the child alone with several unfamiliar peers. Half of the marital couples were physically violent,…

  3. Communicative Interactions, Knowledge of a Second Language, and Theory of Mind in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berguno, George; Bowler, Dermot M.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the authors explored the effect that particular patterns of communicative interactions may have on young children's understanding of representations and the link between knowledge of a 2nd language and theory of mind. The authors tested 140 single language users and 57 dual language users (aged 3-4 years old) on a deceptive task…

  4. Differentiating Cantonese-Speaking Preschool Children with and without SLI Using MLU and Lexical Diversity (D)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Klee, Thomas; Stokes, Stephanie F.; Fletcher, Paul; Leonard, Laurence B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors examined the diagnostic accuracy of a composite clinical assessment measure based on mean length of utterance (MLU), lexical diversity (D), and age (Klee, Stokes, Wong, Fletcher, & Gavin, 2004) in a second, independent sample of 4-year-old Cantonese-speaking children with and without specific language impairment…

  5. Are Behavior Problems in Preschool Children Related to Big-Five Markers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Roy P.

    This study investigated whether the "Big-5" structure (a 5-factor model used to capture variance in adult personality) can be obtained from parental ratings of 4-year-old children using traditional markers of this structure that are derived primarily from research on adult personality. The study also examined whether Big-5 markers can be…

  6. The Role of External Sources of Information in Children's Evaluative Food Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Simone P.

    2012-01-01

    Evaluative food categories are value-laden assessments, which reflect the healthfulness and palatability of foods (e.g. healthy/unhealthy, yummy/yucky). In a series of three studies, this research examines how 3- to 4-year-old children (N?=?147) form evaluative food categories based on input from external sources of information. The results…

  7. Learning to Map: Strategy Discovery and Strategy Change in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zhe

    2007-01-01

    A series of microgenetic experiments was conducted to examine the role of experience on 2.5- to 5-year-old children's discovery of spatial mapping strategies. With experience, 3- to 4-year-olds discovered a strategy for mapping corresponding locations that shared both featural and spatial similarities. When featural and spatial correspondences…

  8. Children's Capacity to Remember a Novel Problem and to Secure Its Future Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suddendorf, Thomas; Nielsen, Mark; von Gehlen, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Much of humans' success rests on foresight, the ability to predict what will happen or what is needed in the future. Surprisingly little is known about how this faculty develops. In three experiments (N = 170), 3- and 4-year-old children were presented with simple puzzles. Fifteen minutes later in a different room they were given the opportunity…

  9. Finding the Cause: Verbal Framing Helps Children Extract Causal Evidence Embedded in a Complex Scene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Lucas P.; Markman, Ellen M.

    2012-01-01

    In making causal inferences, children must both identify a causal problem and selectively attend to meaningful evidence. Four experiments demonstrate that verbally framing an event ("Which animals make Lion laugh?") helps 4-year-olds extract evidence from a complex scene to make accurate causal inferences. Whereas framing was unnecessary when…

  10. Older Children's Misunderstanding of Uncertain Belief after Passing the False Belief Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Ting; Zheng, Xueru; Zhang, Li; Sha, Wenju; Deak, Gedeon; Li, Hong

    2010-01-01

    A four-location belief task was designed to examine children's understanding of another's uncertain belief after passing a false belief (FB) task. In Experiment 1, after passing the FB task, participants were asked what a puppet would do after he failed to find his toy at the falsely believed location. Most 4-year-olds and half of 6-year-olds…

  11. Sensitivity to Spacing Changes in Faces and Nonface Objects in Preschool-Aged Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassia, Viola Macchi; Turati, Chiara; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2011-01-01

    Sensitivity to variations in the spacing of features in faces and a class of nonface objects (i.e., frontal images of cars) was tested in 3- and 4-year-old children and adults using a delayed or simultaneous two-alternative forced choice matching-to-sample task. In the adults, detection of spacing information was robust against exemplar…

  12. Tell Me a Story: How Children's Developing Domain Knowledge Affects Their Story Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobel, David M.; Weisberg, Deena Skolnick

    2014-01-01

    Young children distinguish between the physical and biological domains of knowledge. The current study examines how this distinction is expressed in a story construction task. Three- and 4-year-olds were shown pairs of pictures, one that depicted a normal event and one that depicted an event that violated either physical or biological causal…

  13. New Technologies, New Multimodal Literacy Practices and Young Children's Metacognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Sylvia; Flewitt, Rosie

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses concepts of learning through "collaborative multimodal dialogue". It draws on an ESRC-funded study (RES-000-22-2451) investigating 3- and 4-year-old children's encounters with literacy as they engage with a range of printed and digital technologies at home and in a nursery. The study goes beyond analysis of spoken language,…

  14. Classifying Prosocial Behavior: Children's Responses to Instrumental Need, Emotional Distress, and Material Desire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunfield, Kristen A.; Kuhlmeier, Valerie A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the diversity of early prosocial behavior by examining the ability of ninety-five 2- to 4-year-olds to provide aid to an adult experimenter displaying instrumental need, emotional distress, and material desire. Children provided appropriate aid in response to each of these cues with high consistency over multiple trials. In…

  15. Children's Cortisol and the Quality of Teacher-Child Relationships in Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisonbee, Jared A.; Mize, Jacquelyn; Payne, Amie Lapp; Granger, Douglas A.

    2008-01-01

    Teacher-child relationships were examined as predictors of cortisol change in preschool children. Saliva for assays was collected from one hundred and ninety-one 4-year-olds (101 boys) in the mornings and afternoons on 2 days at child care, and before and after a series of challenging tasks and a teacher-child interaction session outside the…

  16. Abraham Lincoln and Harry Potter: Children's Differentiation between Historical and Fantasy Characters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corriveau, Kathleen H.; Kim, Angie L.; Schwalen, Courtney E.; Harris, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    Based on the testimony of others, children learn about a variety of figures that they never meet. We ask when and how they are able to differentiate between the historical figures that they learn about (e.g., Abraham Lincoln) and fantasy characters (e.g., Harry Potter). Experiment 1 showed that both younger (3- and 4-year-olds) and older children…

  17. The emergence of flexible spatial strategies in young children.

    PubMed

    Waismeyer, Anna S; Jacobs, Lucia F

    2013-02-01

    The development of spatial navigation in children depends not only on remembering which landmarks lead to a goal location but also on developing strategies to deal with changes in the environment or imperfections in memory. Using cue combination methods, the authors examined 3- and 4-year-old children's memory for different types of spatial cues and the spatial strategies that they use when those cues are in conflict. Children were taught to search for a toy in 1 of 4 possible hiding locations. Children were then tested on transformations of the array of locations. The transformations dissociated the different types of cues by putting them in conflict with one another. The authors were especially interested in the use of a majority strategy, by which children choose to search in the location indicated by the greatest number of cue types rather than relying on a preferred cue type. Children's memory for spatial cues and their strategies varied both by age and by experimental setup. In Experiment 1, both 3- and 4-year-old children preferred to use the distinct landmarks coincident with the hiding locations over any other types of cues and showed no use of a majority strategy. However, in Experiment 2, when the coincident landmarks were moved adjacent to the hiding locations, both 3- and 4-year-old children preferred to search in the position of the hiding location relative to the array. Furthermore, 4-year-old children in Experiment 2 showed better memory for individual types of cues and the emergence of a majority strategy.

  18. Italian in the Modern World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adorno, Elvira, Ed.

    This booklet of 15 reprinted letters sent in response to a query concerning the actual use of Italian in the United States designates various areas of professional application. Some reference to current Italian publications is included. It is hoped that these letters will help promote the study of Italian in American schools. (RL)

  19. I Can Speak Italian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    The guide presents content and techniques for teaching conversational Italian in the elementary grades. It contains an introductory section and 20 units for classroom instruction. The introduction includes notes on the overall objectives of the course, general guidelines on classroom procedure, and specific techniques for use of the materials…

  20. Know Your Laws. Italian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.

    This Italian language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult students with law they will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three…

  1. Thematic Issue: Italian Theatre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Michael, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    In 1964, when the "living" theatre appeared to be dying in New York, theater in Italy began changing from an author-oriented to a performance-oriented, nonliterary form. The articles in this document trace the historical development of Italian theatre and analyze current dramas which demonstrate the diversity of approaches and the energy…

  2. Input that Contradicts Young Children's Strategy for Mapping Novel Words Affects Their Phonological and Semantic Interpretation of Other Novel Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Lorna Hernandez; Merriman, William E.; Barnett, Michelle; Hanba, Jessica; Van Haitsma, Kylee S.

    2004-01-01

    Children tend to choose an entity they cannot already label, rather than one they can, as the likely referent of a novel noun. The effect of input that contradicts this strategy on the interpretation of other novel nouns was investigated. In pre- and posttests, 4-year-olds were asked to judge whether novel nouns referred to "name-similar" familiar…

  3. Effects of Toys on the Play Quality of Preschool Children: Influence of Gender, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trawick-Smith, Jeffrey; Wolff, Jennifer; Koschel, Marley; Vallarelli, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of nine toys on the play of 60 3- and 4-year-old children in culturally diverse preschool classrooms. The toys, which varied in their features and intended uses, were selected from a list of those that were nominated by teachers and parents as being developmentally beneficial. Each toy was video recorded for 240 h…

  4. Activity Settings and Daily Routines in Preschool Classrooms: Diverse Experiences in Early Learning Settings for Low-Income Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuligni, Allison Sidle; Howes, Carollee; Huang, Yiching; Hong, Sandra Soliday; Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines activity settings and daily classroom routines experienced by 3- and 4-year-old low-income children in public center-based preschool programs, private center-based programs, and family child care homes. Two daily routine profiles were identified using a time-sampling coding procedure: a High Free-Choice pattern in which…

  5. The Role of Feature Type and Causal Status in 4-5-Year-Old Children's Biological Categorizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meunier, Benjamin; Cordier, Francoise

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of the causal status of features and feature type in biological categorizations by young children. Study 1 showed that 5-year-olds are more strongly influenced by causal features than effect features; 4-year-olds exhibit no such tendency. There therefore appears to be a conceptual change between the ages of…

  6. A Question of Quality: Do Children from Disadvantaged Backgrounds Receive Lower Quality Early Childhood Education and Care?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambaro, Ludovica; Stewart, Kitty; Waldfogel, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how the quality of early childhood education and care accessed by 3- and 4-year-olds in England varies by children's background. Focusing on the free entitlement to early education, the analysis combines information from three administrative datasets for 2010-2011, the Early Years Census, the Schools Census and the Ofsted…

  7. Children's and Mothers' Contribution to Joint Reminiscing in Different Sociocultural Contexts: Who Speaks and What Is Said

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulviste, Tiia; Tõugu, Pirko; Keller, Heidi; Schröder, Lisa; De Geer, Boel

    2016-01-01

    The study compares mothers' conversation with their 4-year-old children about two past events in two autonomy-oriented (35 German and 42 Swedish families), one relatedness-oriented (22 Cameroonian Nso families) and one autonomy-relatedness oriented (38 Estonian families) contexts. German mothers were rather similar to Swedish mothers in talking a…

  8. A Multidimensional Study of Gender Typing in Preschool Children and Their Parents: Personality, Attitudes, Preferences, Behavior, and Cultural Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Patricia J.; Gervai, Judit

    1995-01-01

    Examined the nature and extent of parental influences on gender differentiation in 161 4-year olds from Hungary and England. Found that certain aspects of parental gender typing were associated with individual differences in children's behavior and gender typing. Association was related to sex of parent and of child, context, and aspect of gender…

  9. Young Chinese Children's Anger and Distress: Emotion Category and Intensity Identified by the Time Course of Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Jie; Qiu, Peihua; Park, Ka Young; Xu, Qinmei; Potegal, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A hierarchical cluster analysis of the time course of the videotaped reactions of 75 Chinese 2-4-year olds to mothers' toy-removal identified Distress, Low Anger, and High Anger behavior clusters. Anger often begins at low intensity; some children then escalate. The face-validity of Low and High Anger-cluster classifications was supported in that…

  10. Different Forms of Bullying and Their Association to Smoking and Drinking Behavior in Italian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieno, Alessio; Gini, Gianluca; Santinello, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Background: Using data from the 2006 Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey, the prevalence of 6 forms of bullying (physical, verbal, relational, sexual, cyber, and racist), and the role of smoking and drinking in bullying was examined among Italian adolescents for this study. Methods: The sample was composed of 2667 Italian middle…

  11. Word Order, Referential Expression, and Case Cues to the Acquisition of Transitive Sentences in Italian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbot-Smith, Kirsten; Serratrice, Ludovica

    2015-01-01

    In Study 1 we analyzed Italian child-directed-speech (CDS) and selected the three most frequent active transitive sentence frames used with overt subjects. In Study 2 we experimentally investigated how Italian-speaking children aged 2;6, 3;6, and 4;6 comprehended these orders with novel verbs when the cues of animacy, gender, and subject-verb…

  12. Oral Tradition of Italian-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Lucia Chiavola

    The assimilation of Italians into American culture led to the loss of the Italian language, and an oral tradition of Italian peasants in which Italian feminist philosophy was grounded. The legends, parables, and proverbs told by these Italian women challenged the teachings of Catholicism, perpetuating an underground religious tradition which…

  13. Poor health-related quality of life and abnormal psychosocial adjustment in Italian children with perinatal HIV infection receiving highly active antiretroviral treatment.

    PubMed

    Bomba, Monica; Nacinovich, Renata; Oggiano, Silvia; Cassani, Morena; Baushi, Liliana; Bertulli, Cristina; Longhi, Daniela; Coppini, Simonetta; Parrinello, Giovanni; Plebani, Alessandro; Badolato, Raffaele

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQL), social competence, and behavioral problems in children with perinatal HIV infection receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), a cross-sectional study was performed at the Department of Pediatrics, University of Brescia. We evaluated HRQL, social competence, and behavioral problems in 27 HIV-infected children compared with age and sex-matched control subjects using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), respectively. On the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scale, HIV-infected subjects displayed significantly reduced physical (p=0.043) and psychosocial health (p=0.021) functioning, particularly at school (p=0.000), compared with healthy subjects, resulting in a significantly reduced total score (p=0.013). Assessment of social competence and the behavioral features of HIV-infected children by means of the CBCL revealed severe limitations of functioning in HIV-infected children who had impaired social ability. Children with HIV-RNA above the threshold level of 50 had higher scores on the CBCL delinquent behavior (p=0.021) and school competence (p=0.025) subsets. Although the introduction of HAART regimens has prolonged the survival of HIV-infected children, other factors, including disease morbidity and familial and environmental conditions, negatively affect their quality of life, thereby contributing to increased risk for behavioral problems.

  14. Investigation of 4-year-old stabilised/solidified and accelerated carbonated contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Antemir, A; Hills, C D; Carey, P J; Magnié, M-C; Polettini, A

    2010-09-15

    The investigation of the pilot-scale application of two different stabilisation/solidification (S/S) techniques was carried out at a former fireworks and low explosives manufacturing site in SE England. Cores and granular samples were recovered from uncovered accelerated carbonated (ACT) and cement-treated soils (S/S) after 4 years to evaluate field-performance with time. Samples were prepared for microstructural examination and leaching testing. The results indicated that the cement-treated soil was progressively carbonated over time, whereas the mineralogy of the carbonated soil remained essentially unchanged. Distinct microstructures were developed in the two soils. Although Pb, Zn and Cu leached less from the carbonated soil, these metals were adequately immobilised by both treatments. Geochemical modeling of pH-dependent leaching data suggested that the retention of trace metals resulted from different immobilisation mechanisms operating in the two soils examined.

  15. Cognitive Imitation in Typically-Developing 3- and 4-Year Olds and Individuals with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subiaul, Francys; Lurie, Herbert; Romansky, Kathryn; Klein, Tovah; Holmes, David; Terrace, Herbert

    2007-01-01

    Individuals diagnosed with autism suffer from numerous social, affective and linguistic impairments. It has also been suggested that they have a global imitation deficit. That hypothesis, however, is compromised by the fact that individuals with autism suffer from various motor impairments. Here we describe an experiment on cognitive imitation, a…

  16. Situational Changes in Self-Awareness Influence 3- and 4-Year-Olds' Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, J.; Anderson, J. R.; Campbell, R. N.

    2011-01-01

    In adults, heightened self-awareness leads to adherence to socially valued norms, whereas lowered self-awareness is associated with antinormative behavior. Levels of self-awareness are influenced by environmental cues such as mirrors. Do situational changes in self-awareness also have an impact on preschoolers' self-regulation? Adherence to a…

  17. Children's Intellectual and Emotional-Behavioral Adjustment at 4 Years as a Function of Cocaine Exposure, Maternal Characteristics, and Environmental Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, David S.; Bendersky, Margaret; Lewis, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Examined 4-year-olds for effects on IQ of prenatal cocaine exposure, exposure to other substances, risk factors, and neonatal medical problems. Found that maternal verbal IQ and low environmental risk predicted child IQ. Cocaine exposure negatively predicted children's overall IQ and verbal reasoning scores for boys only. Maternal harsh…

  18. Early Childhood and Education Services for Indigenous Children Prior to Starting School. Resource Sheet No. 7 for the Closing the Gap Clearinghouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    The National Partnership Agreement for Indigenous Early Childhood Development (COAG 2008a) aims to halve the gap in mortality rates for Indigenous children under five within a decade, halve the gap for Indigenous students in reading, writing and numeracy within a decade, and ensure all Indigenous 4-year-olds have access to quality early childhood…

  19. Head Start Evaluation and Research Center. Progress Report of Research Studies 1966 to 1967. Document 3, an Experimental Approach to Studying Non-Verbal Representation in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Margery; Cobb, Judith

    A current exploratory research project is directed toward developing means for gathering systematic data on nonverbal representation in young children. Tasks involving nonverbal representational functioning have been developed, evaluated in preliminary work with fifteen 4-year-old subjects, and revised. The revised series of tasks consists of four…

  20. Threshold Analysis of Association between Child Care Quality and Child Outcomes for Low-Income Children in Pre-Kindergarten Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burchinal, Margaret; Vandergrift, Nathan; Pianta, Robert; Mashburn, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Over the past five decades, the federal government and most states have invested heavily in providing publicly-funded child care and early education opportunities for 3- and 4-year-old children from low-income families. Policy makers and parents want to identify "the level" or "threshold" in quality of teacher-child interaction…

  1. Focus Particles in Children's Language: Production and Comprehension of "Auch" "Also" in German Learners from 1 Year to 4 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohle, Barbara; Berger, Frauke; Muller, Anja; Schmitz, Michaela; Weissenborn, Jurgen

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the acquisition of the focus particle "auch" "also" by German-learning children. We report data from spontaneous and elicited production of utterances with the focus particle "auch" by 1- to 4-year-olds complementing earlier findings of a delayed production of the unaccented "auch" compared to the accented one. But in…

  2. Children's Teleological Intuitions: What Kind of Explanations Do 7-8 Year Olds Give for the Features of Organisms, Artifacts and Natural Objects?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampourakis, Kostas; Pavlidi, Vasiliki; Papadopoulou, Maria; Palaiokrassa, Eirini

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that children usually provide teleological explanations for the features of organisms from a very early age (3-4 years old). However, it is not clear if teleology is applied selectively for organisms, or if it is generally applied to other objects as well (artifacts and non-living natural objects). The present study examined…

  3. Inhibitory Control and Harsh Discipline as Predictors of Externalizing Problems in Young Children: A Comparative Study of U.S., Chinese, and Japanese Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Sheryl L.; Tardif, Twila Z.; Miller, Alison; Felt, Barbara; Grabell, Adam S.; Kessler, Daniel; Wang, Li; Karasawa, Mayumi; Hirabayashi, Hidemi

    2011-01-01

    We examined associations between child inhibitory control, harsh parental discipline and externalizing problems in 120 4 year-old boys and girls in the US, China, and Japan. Individual differences in children's inhibitory control abilities, assessed using behavioral tasks and maternal ratings, were related to child externalizing problems reported…

  4. WISC-IV Intellectual Profiles in Italian Children With Specific Learning Disorder and Related Impairments in Reading, Written Expression, and Mathematics.

    PubMed

    Poletti, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The fifth edition of theDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disordersgrouped specific learning disabilities in the single diagnostic category of specific learning disorder (SLD), with specifiers for impairments in reading, written expression, and mathematics. This study aimed at investigating the intellectual profile, assessed with the fourth edition of theWechsler Intelligence Scale for Children(WISC-IV), of 172 children with a diagnosis of SLD, compared to 74 clinical referral controls. WISC-IV intellectual functioning in children with SLD was characterized by a significant discrepancy between general ability and cognitive proficiency (General Ability Index [GAI] > Cognitive Proficiency Index [CPI]), and worse performances on the Similarities, Digit Span, Letter-Number Sequencing, and Coding subtests, supporting models of multiple cognitive deficits at the basis of neurodevelopmental disorders as SLD. GAI was the best and more conservative measure provided by the WISC-IV to identify intellectual functioning in children with SLD, and the intellectual discrepancy between GAI and CPI could be considered a "cognitive sign" for the presence of SLD in a single diagnostic category. Cognitive deficits differed in subtypes of impairment (reading, written expression, and mathematics), supporting their distinction for empirical, educational, and rehabilitative purposes. These findings need further replication in larger samples and in comparison to typically developing children.

  5. The Development of Locative Expressions in English, Italian, Serbo-Croatian and Turkish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Judith R.; Slobin, Dan I.

    1979-01-01

    The ability of children between the ages of two years and four years, eight months, to produce locative pre- or postpositions was investigated in English, Italian, Serbocroatian, and Turkish to discover universals of conceptual and communicative development. (Author/AM)

  6. Effectiveness of Picture Books for Italian Instruction at Japanese Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yomo, Minoru; Uni, Kazuhito; Moore, Danièle; Kiyose, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the use of children's picture books to teach English has been increasing in Japan. An advantage of these books is the high proportion of basic vocabulary they include. Can picture books also be useful for teaching Japanese students Italian and increasing their motivation? The present study analyses the effectiveness of employing a…

  7. Italian Polar Metadata System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, S.; Nativi, S.; Leone, C.; Migliorini, S.; Mazari Villanova, L.

    2012-04-01

    Italian Polar Metadata System C.Leone, S.Longo, S.Migliorini, L.Mazari Villanova, S. Nativi The Italian Antarctic Research Programme (PNRA) is a government initiative funding and coordinating scientific research activities in polar regions. PNRA manages two scientific Stations in Antarctica - Concordia (Dome C), jointly operated with the French Polar Institute "Paul Emile Victor", and Mario Zucchelli (Terra Nova Bay, Southern Victoria Land). In addition National Research Council of Italy (CNR) manages one scientific Station in the Arctic Circle (Ny-Alesund-Svalbard Islands), named Dirigibile Italia. PNRA started in 1985 with the first Italian Expedition in Antarctica. Since then each research group has collected data regarding biology and medicine, geodetic observatory, geophysics, geology, glaciology, physics and atmospheric chemistry, earth-sun relationships and astrophysics, oceanography and marine environment, chemistry contamination, law and geographic science, technology, multi and inter disciplinary researches, autonomously with different formats. In 2010 the Italian Ministry of Research assigned the scientific coordination of the Programme to CNR, which is in charge of the management and sharing of the scientific results carried out in the framework of the PNRA. Therefore, CNR is establishing a new distributed cyber(e)-infrastructure to collect, manage, publish and share polar research results. This is a service-based infrastructure building on Web technologies to implement resources (i.e. data, services and documents) discovery, access and visualization; in addition, semantic-enabled functionalities will be provided. The architecture applies the "System of Systems" principles to build incrementally on the existing systems by supplementing but not supplanting their mandates and governance arrangements. This allows to keep the existing capacities as autonomous as possible. This cyber(e)-infrastructure implements multi-disciplinary interoperability following

  8. Executive function and magnitude skills in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Prager, Emily O; Sera, Maria D; Carlson, Stephanie M

    2016-07-01

    Executive function (EF) has been highlighted as a potentially important factor for mathematical understanding. The relation has been well established in school-aged children but has been less explored at younger ages. The current study investigated the relation between EF and mathematics in preschool-aged children. Participants were 142 typically developing 3- and 4-year-olds. Controlling for verbal ability, a significant positive correlation was found between EF and general math abilities in this age group. Importantly, we further examined this relation causally by varying the EF load on a magnitude comparison task. Results suggested a developmental pattern where 3-year-olds' performance on the magnitude comparison task was worst when EF was taxed the most. Conversely, 4-year-olds performed well on the magnitude task despite varying EF demands, suggesting that EF might play a critical role in the development of math concepts.

  9. Children with convulsive epileptic seizures presenting to padua pediatric emergency department: the first retrospective population-based descriptive study in an Italian Health District.

    PubMed

    Bergamo, Silvia; Parata, Francesca; Nosadini, Margherita; Boniver, Clementina; Toldo, Irene; Suppiej, Agnese; Vecchi, Marilena; Amigoni, Angela; Da Dalt, Liviana; Zanconato, Stefania; Perilongo, Giorgio; Sartori, Stefano

    2015-03-01

    Convulsive epileptic seizures in children represent a common cause of admission to pediatric emergency department. Data about incidence, etiology, and outcome are still lacking in literature. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of children presenting to our pediatric emergency department with convulsive seizures during a 12-month period and collected their diagnoses over the following year. In all, 182 children met the inclusion criteria, for a total of 214 visits (1.2% of all attendances, n = 24 864). Seizures lasted less than 5 minutes in 76%, 5 to 30 minutes in 20%, 30 to 60 minutes in 2%, and over 60 minutes in 2% visits ("early," "established," "refractory," convulsive status epilepticus, respectively). Incidence of "early" (seizure lasting 5-30 minutes) and "established" (seizure lasting 30-60 minutes) status epilepticus was 52/100 000/year and 7/100 000/year respectively. Most common causes were febrile seizures (56%) and remote symptomatic seizures (19%). Knowing the epidemiology of convulsive seizures in children is important to guide appropriate management and individualized follow-up.

  10. The Languages of Italian Canadians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vizmuller-Zocco, Jana

    1995-01-01

    Examines the transplantation of dialects of Italian abroad, particularly to Canada. Argues that any discussion of the language of immigrants from Italy has to start from the premise that they brought their dialect, not Italian, to their new home. Conclusions indicate that "Italo-Canadian" shares many linguistic characteristics with…

  11. Parallels between Action-Object Mapping and Word-Object Mapping in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Kevin J.; Mather, Emily; Hyde, Grace; Simpson, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Across a series of four experiments with 3- to 4-year-olds we demonstrate how cognitive mechanisms supporting noun learning extend to the mapping of actions to objects. In Experiment 1 (n = 61) the demonstration of a novel action led children to select a novel, rather than a familiar object. In Experiment 2 (n = 78) children exhibited long-term…

  12. Italian families and family interventions.

    PubMed

    Casacchia, Massimo; Roncone, Rita

    2014-06-01

    In Italy, as in many countries, relatives are closely involved in caring for persons with physical and mental disorders. The Italian scenario lends itself to routine involvement of family members in psychiatric treatment because, despite becoming smaller and smaller, Italian families keep close ties, and men and women do not leave the parental home until relatively late. The authors describe the impact of international family psychosocial research on the Italian mental health services (MHSs) and the main psychosocial interventions currently in use, including family psychoeducational interventions and the "Milan family therapy approach." They also highlight the contribution Italian researchers have given to the study of important variables in integrated mental disorder care, such as family burden of care, relatives' attitudes, family functioning, and satisfaction with the MHSs. Finally, they discuss the difficulties of implementing and disseminating family interventions within the Italian MHS, despite the growing evidence of their effectiveness.

  13. A Comparison of Pronouns and Anaphors in Italian and English Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Cecile

    1992-01-01

    Four experiments on the acquisition of binding are compared, two conducted with Italian-speaking children and two with English-speaking children. English-speaking children's mastery of pronominal binding is found to lag behind their mastery of binding for anaphors and R-expressions. (61 references) (Author/LB)

  14. Non-Standard Italian Dialect Heritage Speakers' Acquisition of Clitic Placement in Standard Italian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation examines the acquisition of object clitic placement in Standard Italian by heritage speakers (HSs) of non-standard Italian dialects. It compares two different groups of Standard Italian learners--Northern Italian dialect HSs and Southern Italian dialect HSs--whose heritage dialects contrast with each other in clitic word order.…

  15. Italian Volcano Supersites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglisi, G.

    2011-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions are among the geohazards that may have a substantial economic and social impact, even at worldwide scale. Large populated regions are prone to volcanic hazards worldwide. Even local phenomena may affect largely populated areas and in some cases even megacities, producing severe economic losses. On a regional or global perspective, large volcanic eruptions may affect the climate for years with potentially huge economic impacts, but even relatively small eruptions may inject large amounts of volcanic ash in the atmosphere and severely affect air traffic over entire continents. One of main challenges of the volcanological community is to continuously monitor and understand the internal processes leading to an eruption, in order to give substantial contributions to the risk reduction. Italian active volcanoes constitute natural laboratories and ideal sites where to apply the cutting-edge volcano observation systems, implement new monitoring systems and to test and improve the most advanced models and methods for investigate the volcanic processes. That's because of the long tradition of volcanological studies resulting into long-term data sets, both in-situ and from satellite systems, among the most complete and accurate worldwide, and the large spectrum of the threatening volcanic phenomena producing high local/regional/continental risks. This contribution aims at presenting the compound monitoring systems operating on the Italian active volcanoes, the main improvements achieved during the recent studies direct toward volcanic hazard forecast and risk reductions and the guidelines for a wide coordinated project aimed at applying the ideas of the GEO Supersites Initiative at Mt. Etna and Campi Flegrei / Vesuvius areas.

  16. An Xrootd Italian Federation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccali, T.; Donvito, G.; Diacono, D.; Marzulli, G.; Pompili, A.; Della Ricca, G.; Mazzoni, E.; Argiro, S.; Gregori, D.; Grandi, C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Lista, L.; Fabozzi, F.; Barone, L. M.; Santocchia, A.; Riahi, H.; Tricomi, A.; Sgaravatto, M.; Maron, G.

    2014-06-01

    The Italian community in CMS has built a geographically distributed network in which all the data stored in the Italian region are available to all the users for their everyday work. This activity involves at different level all the CMS centers: the Tier1 at CNAF, all the four Tier2s (Bari, Rome, Legnaro and Pisa), and few Tier3s (Trieste, Perugia, Torino, Catania, Napoli, ...). The federation uses the new network connections as provided by GARR, our NREN (National Research and Education Network), which provides a minimum of 10 Gbit/s to all the sites via the GARR-X[2] project. The federation is currently based on Xrootd[1] technology, and on a Redirector aimed to seamlessly connect all the sites, giving the logical view of a single entity. A special configuration has been put in place for the Tier1, CNAF, where ad-hoc Xrootd changes have been implemented in order to protect the tape system from excessive stress, by not allowing WAN connections to access tape only files, on a file-by-file basis. In order to improve the overall performance while reading files, both in terms of bandwidth and latency, a hierarchy of xrootd redirectors has been implemented. The solution implemented provides a dedicated Redirector where all the INFN sites are registered, without considering their status (T1, T2, or T3 sites). An interesting use case were able to cover via the federation are disk-less Tier3s. The caching solution allows to operate a local storage with minimal human intervention: transfers are automatically done on a single file basis, and the cache is maintained operational by automatic removal of old files.

  17. Understanding Italian American cultural norms.

    PubMed

    Rozendal, N

    1987-02-01

    The components of Italian American culture in many ways provide a striking contrast to current American beliefs, values, and living habits. The challenge to the psychiatric nurse lies in maximizing the strengths of this culture to enhance the individual's ability to be what he or she can and chooses to be within the Italian culture and within the broader context of contemporary American society. By being culturally well informed and sensitive, and sharing goals and expectations with clients (Louie), the psychiatric nurse will be accepted and trusted to provide the kind of high quality care that will ultimately have a positive impact on the mental health status of Italian Americans.

  18. Respiratory symptoms in children living near busy roads and their relationship to vehicular traffic: results of an Italian multicenter study (SIDRIA 2)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have provided evidence that exposure to vehicular traffic increases the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and may exacerbate pre-existing asthma in children. Self-reported exposure to road traffic has been questioned as a reliable measurement of exposure to air pollutants. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there were specific effects of cars and trucks traffic on current asthma symptoms (i.e. wheezing) and cough or phlegm, and to examine the validity of self-reported traffic exposure. Methods The survey was conducted in 2002 in 12 centers in Northern, Center and Southern Italy, different in size, climate, latitude and level of urbanization. Standardized questionnaires filled in by parents were used to collect information on health outcomes and exposure to traffic among 33,632 6–7 and 13–14 years old children and adolescents. Three questions on traffic exposure were asked: the traffic in the zone of residence, the frequency of truck and of car traffic in the street of residence. The presence of a possible response bias for the self-reported traffic was evaluated using external validation (comparison with measurements of traffic flow in the city of Turin) and internal validations (matching by census block, in the cities of Turin, Milan and Rome). Results Overall traffic density was weakly associated with asthma symptoms but there was a stronger association with cough or phlegm (high traffic density OR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.49). Car and truck traffic were independently associated with cough or phlegm. The results of the external validation did not support the existence of a reporting bias for the observed associations, for all the self-reported traffic indicators examined. The internal validations showed that the observed association between traffic density in the zone of residence and respiratory symptoms did not appear to be explained by an over reporting of traffic by parents of symptomatic subjects

  19. Gesture and Symbolic Representation in Italian and English-Speaking Canadian 2-Year-Olds.

    PubMed

    Marentette, Paula; Pettenati, Paola; Bello, Arianna; Volterra, Virginia

    2016-05-01

    Analyses of elicited pantomime, primarily of English-speaking children, show that preschool-aged children are more likely to symbolically represent an object with gestures depicting an object's form rather than its function. In contrast, anecdotal reports of spontaneous gesture production in younger children suggest that children use multiple representational techniques. This study examined the spontaneous gestures of sixty-four 2-year-old Italian children and English-speaking Canadian children, primarily from middle-class Caucasian families. The Italian children produced twice as many gestures as Canadian children in a picture-naming task but produced a similar range of representational techniques. Two-year-olds were equally likely to produce gestures depicting function as form. These data suggest young children's communicative skills are supported by a symbolic capacity that reflects contextual communicative demands.

  20. Anti-nuclear antibodies as predictor of outcome in a multi-center cohort of Italian children and adolescents with Raynaud's phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Falcini, Fernanda; Rigante, Donato; Candelli, Marcello; Martini, Giorgia; Corona, Fabrizia; Petaccia, Antonella; La Torre, Francesco; Raffaele, Carmela G L; Matucci Cerinic, Marco

    2015-01-01

    A retrospective multi-center data collection of clinical, laboratory, and treatment characteristics of 94 Caucasian children and adolescents with Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) started at a mean age of 12.8 ± 5 years, with variable involvement of hands, feet, and face, was performed for a period of 3 years. Collected data included nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC), lung function tests, and different laboratory tests finalized to characterize an eventual connective tissue disease (CTD), disclosed by RP itself. Twelve patients presented an early-scleroderma pattern at NVC, 1 a late-scleroderma pattern, and 58 a nonspecific pattern. Laboratory data results showed the positivity of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) in 29 % of patients. After this 3-year period of observation, 8 patients had developed a CTD. Our data examined by multivariate analysis, though limited to a multi-center cohort of pediatric patients with RP, strongly suggest that ANA positivity is a significant predictor of progression of RP towards a CTD.

  1. Leukemia risk in children exposed to benzene and PM10 from vehicular traffic: a case-control study in an Italian population.

    PubMed

    Vinceti, Marco; Rothman, Kenneth J; Crespi, Catherine M; Sterni, Antonella; Cherubini, Andrea; Guerra, Luisa; Maffeis, Giuseppe; Ferretti, Enrica; Fabbi, Sara; Teggi, Sergio; Consonni, Dario; De Girolamo, Gianfranco; Meggiato, Alessandro; Palazzi, Giovanni; Paolucci, Paolo; Malagoli, Carlotta

    2012-10-01

    Benzene, a recognized occupational leukemogen in adults, has been hypothesized to also increase the risk of childhood leukemia. We carried out a population-based case-control study in a northern Italy community involving 83 cases with acute childhood leukemia diagnosed in the years 1998-2009 and 332 matched controls. We assessed residential exposure to benzene and to particulate matter ≤10 μm (PM10) from motorized traffic using geocoded residences and detailed emission and dispersion modeling. Exposure to benzene, and to a lesser extent to PM10, appeared to be independently associated with an excess leukemia risk. When we stratified the study population by age and by leukemia subtype, the relative risk associated with benzene exposure was higher among children aged less than 5 years, and despite small numbers this relation appeared to be considerably stronger for acute myeloid leukemia than for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Overall, these findings suggest that exposure to low levels of benzene released from motorized traffic may increase the risk of childhood leukemia, and suggest a possible independent effect of PM10, although unmeasured confounding due to other pollutants cannot be ruled out.

  2. Recommendations for the use of long-term central venous catheter (CVC) in children with hemato-oncological disorders: management of CVC-related occlusion and CVC-related thrombosis. On behalf of the coagulation defects working group and the supportive therapy working group of the Italian Association of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (AIEOP).

    PubMed

    Giordano, Paola; Saracco, Paola; Grassi, Massimo; Luciani, Matteo; Banov, Laura; Carraro, Francesca; Crocoli, Alessandro; Cesaro, Simone; Zanazzo, Giulio Andrea; Molinari, Angelo Claudio

    2015-11-01

    Central venous catheters (CVC), used for the management of children with hemato-oncological disorders, are burdened by a significant incidence of mechanical, infective, or thrombotic complications. These complications favor an increasing risk in prolongation of hospitalization, extra costs of care, and sometimes severe life-threatening events. No guidelines for the management of CVC-related occlusion and CVC-related thrombosis are available for children. To this aim, members of the coagulation defects working group and the supportive therapy working group of the Italian Association of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (AIEOP) reviewed the pediatric and adult literature to propose the first recommendations for the management of CVC-related occlusion and CVC-related thrombosis in children with hemato-oncological disorders.

  3. Children's abilities to distinguish novel languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Z. S.; Stockmal, Verna

    2005-04-01

    When adults hear spoken samples of a language which they do not know, they can often identify it and discriminate between languages even when produced by the same talkers. Children have much less experience making metalinguistic judgments. How do children respond to languages which they do not know? We have conducted three experiments examining the abilities of 4-year old and 8-year old children to discriminate between spoken samples of different languages produced by bilingual talkers. We constructed listening tests from 5-second phrases excerpted from fluent reading provided by the talkers. In the three experiments, we progressively simplified the response mode employed by the children as well as the cognitive load of the task. Even in the simplest version, only a third of the 4-year-olds could do the task while the 8-year old children performed above chance in all three experiments. The younger children tended to respond different more than same, as if their criterion for same was identify.

  4. Enabling conditions and children's understanding of pretense.

    PubMed

    Sobel, David M

    2009-11-01

    Two experiments examined whether preschoolers' difficulties on tasks that required relating pretending and knowledge (e.g., Lillard, A. S. (1993a). Young children's conceptualization of pretense: Action or mental representational state? Child Development, 64, 372-386) were due to children's inability to appreciate the causal mechanism behind enabling conditions. In Experiment 1, 4-year-olds were told about a character who knew about one kind of animal and did not know about another. The character acted in a manner consistent with both animals. Children were asked whether the character was pretending to be the animal of which he was ignorant. The character's knowledge was either represented in a generic manner (as a picture) or in a manner that suggested a particular enabling condition relation that children found accessible (as a battery, which most 4-year-olds recognize is critical for making toys work). Children were more successful at relating knowledge and pretending in the battery condition. This improvement in performance extended to another task in which children had to identify the enabling condition relation between knowledge and identification, in which there were reduced demands on the inhibitory mechanisms necessary for success. Experiment 2 found that the results in Experiment 1 were not due to demands of the procedure used in Experiment 1. These results are discussed in the context of recent theories of theory of mind that focus on the importance of causal relations among mental states.

  5. Can that really happen? Children's knowledge about the reality status of fantastical events in television.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Boguszewski, Katherine; Lillard, Angeline S

    2015-11-01

    Although popular children's cartoons are replete with fantastical events, we know little about whether children understand that these events are fantastical rather than real. In Study 1, 54 children ages 4 to 6 years and 18 adults were shown 10 real and 10 fantastical events portrayed in 4s video clips from a popular cartoon. After viewing each clip, participants were asked to judge the reality status of the event and to explain their judgments. Results indicated that even 4-year-olds have a fairly good understanding of fantastical events in animated cartoons but that they underestimate the reality status of real events in such cartoons. In Study 2, 35 4- to 6-year-olds and 18 adults watched video clips of 10 real and 10 fantastical events performed by real people from a Chinese television show. Once again, 4-year-olds underestimated the reality status of real events shown on television. However, against the "real" backdrop in this study, 4-year-olds also judged nearly half of the fantastical events to be real. The implications for children's reality-fantasy discrimination and their media viewing are discussed.

  6. Breastfeeding Duration and Childhood Overweight Among Low-Income Children in Kansas, 1998–2002

    PubMed Central

    Procter, Sandra B.; Holcomb, Carol Ann

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine whether increased duration of breast-feeding was associated with decreased risk of overweight among 4-year-old children in Kansas families with limited means. Methods. We linked data on Kansas families from the Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System and Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System, 1998 to 2002, to determine breastfeeding duration and weight status at age 4 years. Overweight among 4-year-old children was defined as body mass index–for-age at the 95th percentile and above. Linked analysis included 3692 children. Logistic regression was applied to determine odds of being overweight at each duration of breastfeeding. Results. Breastfeeding duration considered independently showed a significant protective association with childhood overweight at age 4 years for all non-Hispanics (odds ratio [OR]=0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.55, 0.94) and for Whites only (OR=0.68; CI=0.50, 0.92). When we controlled for other significant risk factors for childhood overweight, the association diminished and was not statistically significant. Conclusions. Although breastfeeding for longer duration appeared to be protective against overweight among 4-year-old non-Hispanic children, cultural and environmental factors may override this protective benefit. PMID:18048788

  7. Preschool Italian in Melbourne

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannan, Siobhan

    2010-01-01

    Kindergarten in Victoria, Australia is the preschool year, attended by children who are four going on five, and who will go onto primary school the following year. These are part-time programs, run over a small number of sessions per week, typically for 3-5 hours per session for 10-12 hours per week. North West Brunswick Kindergarten, in the…

  8. Sex Categorization among Preschool Children: Increasing Utilization of Sexually Dimorphic Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kerri L.; Lurye, Leah E.; Tassinary, Louis G.

    2010-01-01

    Two studies examined how children between ages 4 and 6 use body shape (i.e., the waist-to-hip-ratio [WHR]) for sex categorization. In Study 1 (N = 73), 5- and 6-year-olds, but not 4-year-olds, selected bodies with increasingly discrepant WHRs to be "most like a man" and "most like a woman." Similarly, sex category judgments made by 5- and…

  9. Morpheme-Based Reading Aloud: Evidence from Dyslexic and Skilled Italian Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burani, Cristina; Marcolini, Stefania; De Luca, Maria; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi

    2008-01-01

    The role of morphology in reading aloud was examined measuring naming latencies to pseudowords and words composed of morphemes (roots and derivational suffixes) and corresponding simple pseudowords and words. Three groups of Italian children of different ages and reading abilities, including dyslexic children, as well as one group of adult readers…

  10. The Development of Reading Speed in Italians with Dyslexia: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tressoldi, Patrizio E.; Stella, Giacomo; Faggella, Marzia

    2001-01-01

    Development of reading speed in Italian children with dyslexia was estimated using individualized growth curves for 38 children with dyslexia tested longitudinally from 2nd-8th grade and compared with controls. Their reading speed development followed a linear trend of .3 syllables per second per grade, half the increment observed in controls.…

  11. Una ricerca sul bilinguismo precoce italo-inglese (Research on Early Italian-English Bilingualism).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taeschner, Traute; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to attempt to verify the theory of Taeschner and Volterra (1976) that bilingual children pass through three distinct phases while becoming perfectly bilingual. The 12 subjects were English-Italian bilingual children between the ages of 1.6 and 4.6. (CFM)

  12. [Italian Thesaurus of Bioethics, TIB].

    PubMed

    Navarini, Claudia; Poltronieri, Elisabetta

    2004-01-01

    The article aims at illustrating the characteristics and functions of a monolingual thesaurus, focusing on the Italian Thesaurus of Bioethics (Thesaurus Italiano di Bioetica, TIB) the controlled vocabulary used to index and retrieve documents within SIBIL (Italian Online Bioethics Information System). TIB includes controlled terms (descriptors) translated from the Bioethics Thesaurus adopted by the Kennedy Institute of Ethics of the Georgetown University of Washington and revised according to the Italian context of study and scientific debate in the field of bioethics. The overall amount of TIB terms consists in over 1600 headings. Methods to link thesaurus terms hierarchically, by association and by showing synonyms as recommended in ISO standards are applied with reference to descriptors drawn from TIB. Future plans to make the English version of TIB available online within European networks are also illustrated, aiming at spreading information relating to bioethics at an international level.

  13. Italian/Italiano. Resource Guides for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Jenny

    This resource guide, intended for current prospective teachers of Italian, is designed as a source of information and inspiration for Italian instructors at all educational levels. The first of the guide's 11 chapters provides a brief general introduction to this book. Chapter 2 looks at the status of and rationale for Italian language instruction…

  14. Italian neurology: past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    Federico, Antonio

    Summary This short history of the Italian Society of Neurology focuses on its founders and leading personalities. The article also considers the present and the future of Italian neurology, emphasising in particular the scientific impact of Italian neurological research on the main international journals and the activities undertaken to increase the role of neurologists. PMID:21729588

  15. Use of social information in the problem solving of orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) and human children (Homo sapiens).

    PubMed

    Call, J; Tomasello, M

    1995-09-01

    Fourteen juvenile and adult orangutans and 24 3- and 4-year-old children participated in 4 studies on imitative learning in a problem-solving situation. In all studies a simple to operate apparatus was used, but its internal mechanism was hidden from subjects to prevent individual learning. In the 1st study, orangutans observed a human demonstrator perform 1 of 4 actions on the apparatus and obtain a reward; they subsequently showed no signs of imitative learning. Similar results were obtained in a 2nd study in which orangutan demonstrators were used. Similar results were also obtained in a 3rd study in which a human encouraged imitation from an orangutan that had previously been taught to mimic arbitrary human actions. In a 4th study, human 3- and 4-year-old children learned the task by means of imitation.

  16. Remote sensing of Italian volcanos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bianchi, R.; Casacchia, R.; Coradini, A.; Duncan, A. M.; Guest, J. E.; Kahle, A.; Lanciano, P.; Pieri, D. C.; Poscolieri, M.

    1990-01-01

    The results of a July 1986 remote sensing campaign of Italian volcanoes are reviewed. The equipment and techniques used to acquire the data are described and the results obtained for Campi Flegrei and Mount Etna are reviewed and evaluated for their usefulness for the study of active and recently active volcanoes.

  17. Nonverbal Communication among Italian Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferri-Bernardoni, Joseph M.

    Participant observation and author introspection were used to collect data in this study of nonverbal communication among Italian Americans in three large American cities. Discussion is given to kinesics (gestures and signs), haptics (touch), proxemics (interiors of homes, exteriors of homes, and spatial arrangements at a wedding dinner), and…

  18. Education and Italian Regional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Liberto, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study the connection between growth and human capital in a convergence regression for the panel of Italian regions. We include measures of average primary, secondary and tertiary education. We find that increased education seems to contribute to growth only in the South. Decomposing total schooling into its three constituent…

  19. GENERATIVE RULES FOR ITALIAN PHONOLOGY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DI PIETRO, ROBERT J.

    TWO MODELS OF DESCRIPTION, GENERATIVE AND NONGENERATIVE, ARE APPLIED TO THE PHONOLOGY OF ITALIAN TO DETERMINE WHICH OF THE TWO OFFERS A SIMPLER YET MORE COMPREHENSIVE STATEMENT. THE NONGENERATIVE MODEL IS GIVEN IN A LISTING OF PHONEMES AND A BRIEF STATEMENT OF THE PHONOTACTICS AND ALLOPHONICS. THE GENERATIVE MODEL STATES THE FACTS IN 11 REWRITE…

  20. Access to paediatric emergency departments in Italy: a comparison between immigrant and Italian patients

    PubMed Central

    Grassino, Erica Clara; Guidi, Carla; Monzani, Alice; Di Pietro, Pasquale; Bona, Gianni

    2009-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to investigate whether access to paediatric emergency departments differed between foreign and Italian patients. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study between January-December 2007 to analyse attendance's characteristics in the paediatric emergency departments of ten Italian public hospitals. The study population included each foreign patient and the following Italian patient admitted to the same emergency department. All causes of admission of these subjects were evaluated, together with the child's age, gender, country of birth, parents' nationality, time of admission, severity code and discharge-related circumstances. Results We enrolled 4874 patients, 2437 foreign (M:F = 1409:1028) and 2437 Italian ones (M:F = 1368:1069). Most of foreign and Italian patients' admissions were sorted as green (72.5% and 87.8%, respectively) or white codes (25.2% and 9.8%, respectively). The most frequent causes for attendance concerned respiratory tract diseases, followed by gastroenteric ones and injuries in both groups. Conclusion In our survey immigrants didn't access to emergency departments more than Italian children. Both of them referred to emergency departments mainly for semi-urgent or non-urgent problems. Foreign and Italian patients suffered from the same pathologies. Infectious diseases traditionally thought to be a potential problem in immigrant populations actually seem to be quite infrequent. PMID:19490660

  1. Children's Growth and Classroom Experiences in Georgia's Pre-K Program: Findings from the 2011-2012 Evaluation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen; Schaaf, Jennifer; LaForett, Dore

    2013-01-01

    Georgia has one of the few state-funded universal pre-kindergarten programs in the United States, with the aim of providing pre-k services to all 4-year-olds whose families want their children to participate in the program, regardless of family income level. In the 2011-2012 school year, Georgia's Pre-K Program served a total of over 94,000…

  2. Measuring Cultural Socialization Attitudes and Behaviors of Mexican-Origin Mothers With Young Children: A Longitudinal Investigation.

    PubMed

    Derlan, Chelsea L; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Toomey, Russell B; Jahromi, Laudan B; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2016-07-01

    We describe the development and psychometric testing of the Cultural Socialization Behaviors Measure (CSBM) and the Cultural Socialization Attitudes Measure (CSAM). The CSBM assesses cultural socialization behaviors that parents use with young children, and the CSAM assesses the attitudes that parents have regarding the importance of socializing their young children about their culture. Both measures demonstrated strong reliability, validity, and cross-language equivalence (i.e., Spanish and English) among a sample of 204 Mexican-origin young mothers (Mage = 20.94 years, SD = 1.01) with 4-year-old children. In addition, the measures demonstrated longitudinal equivalence when children were 4 and 5 years of age.

  3. The Astronomy Olympiad italian experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandrelli, S.; Giacomini, L.

    2011-10-01

    The International Astronomy Olympiad (IAO) is an internationally annual astronomy scientific-educating event, born in 1996, which includes an intellectual competition between students aged between 14 and 17. In Italy, the Olympiad is coorganized since 2007 by INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica) and SAiT (Società Astronomica Italiana) becoming every year a more visible and global event in the italian scenario (in 2011, INAF institutes participating to the local activities were 13). Unluckily, the Italian Committee of the Olympiads cannot involve directly nor rely on schools, since astronomy is no longer part of the scholastic programs. For this reason, the Committee needed to develop in the last years a non traditional mediatic approach that allowed in 2011 to reach a participation of more than 500 teenagers to the Olympics. We will give an overview of the Astronomy Olympics project in Italy and of this non conventional mediatic approach.

  4. Driving forces push Italian exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Steven, R.R.

    1982-03-01

    The Italian offshore is one of the most active in Europe. Although it cannot be compared with the North Sea in terms of hydrocarbon production or potential, Italy is expending a great deal of effort in order to reduce imported oil and gas from the current level of around 90% of total domestic consumption of 147 million tons of oil equivalent a year. The drilling program, major targets, and development of new oil fields are discussed briefly. (JMT)

  5. New Italian device registration requirements.

    PubMed

    Donawa, Maria

    2008-01-01

    A medical device manufacturer located outside Europe was informed by an Italian distributor that the European Authorised Representative must designate the distributor as the authorised entity when registering the manufacturer's devices in Italy in a new online data bank. This is incorrect. This article discusses the new requirements for registering medical devices in Italy, together with the steps in the registration process and common problems encountered.

  6. Somatotype of elite Italian gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Massidda, Myosotis; Toselli, Stefania; Brasili, Patricia; Calò, Carla M

    2013-09-01

    The somatotyping method is especially helpful in sports in which the body could directly influence the biomechanics of movements and the performance's results. The purpose of this study was to determine the somatotype of elite Italian gymnasts and to compare it in terms of competition levels. The sample comprised 64 elite gymnasts (42 females (F), somatotype 1.4-4.4-3.2; and 22 males (M), somatotype 1.6-6.3-2.1) belonging to the Italian National Artistic Gymnastic Team (2007) at different competition levels: Allieve, Junior, and Senior. Mean whole somatotypes, by competition levels, were not significantly different in both sexes (Female gymnasts: Allieve, 1.3-4.6-3.3; Junior, 1.3-4.2-3.6; Senior, 1.7-4.2-2.7; Male gymnasts: Junior, 1.5-6.3-2.5; Senior, 1.7-6.3-1.6). Male Junior gymnasts exhibited greater ectomorphy than Senior athletes (F1,20 = 7.75, p < 0.01). Compared to other elite athletes male and female gymnasts tend to be less endomorphic and more mesomorphic. This study highlighted the peculiarities of the somatotype of Italian elite gymnasts and their strong homogeneity, evident also from the low values of somatotype attitudinal mean (SAM). The results emphasize the need for a specific somatotype to reach an elite level in sport and the need to integrate the somatotype analysis between the scientific instruments for selecting talent also in artistic gymnastics.

  7. Survey on attitudes of Italian pediatricians toward cough

    PubMed Central

    Zanasi, Alessandro; Morcaldi, Luigi; Cazzato, Salvatore; Mazzolini, Massimiliano; Lecchi, Marzia; Morselli-Labate, Antonio Maria; Mastroroberto, Marianna; Dal Negro, Roberto W

    2017-01-01

    Context Children’s cough is a daily concern for most pediatricians. The management of both acute and chronic cough requires a systematic and comprehensive approach. Despite the approved protocols for management, the pediatric assessment of cough and the corresponding prescribing attitude frequently do not fit these protocols, which can be affected by parental suggestions – sometimes substantially. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate both the perception and the behavior of a representative sample of Italian pediatricians toward cough in real life. Methods A specific questionnaire consisting of 18 questions was prepared. The questionnaire was completed by 300 pediatricians (all members of PAIDOSS: Italian National Observatory on Health of Childhood and Adolescence) who represented ~300,000 children. Results A vast majority of children have cough throughout the year (99.3% of respondents have cough during autumn/winter and 64.7% in spring/summer). Allergic disease is the most frequent suspected cause of chronic cough in children (53%), and this is supported by the high demand for consultations: 73% seek the opinion of allergologists, 62% of otorhinolaryngologists and only 33% of pulmonologists. The majority of pediatricians (92%) reported that they prescribe therapy in acute cough regardless of cough guidelines. Moreover, the survey pointed out the abuse of aerosol therapy (26% in acute cough and 38% in chronic cough) and of antibiotics prescription (22% in acute cough and 42% in chronic cough). Conclusion Our survey suggests that some Italian pediatricians’ therapeutic attitudes should be substantially improved in order to achieve better management of cough in children and to minimize the burden of cough. PMID:28352199

  8. Language Policy and Planning: The Case of Italian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geraci, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Italian Sign Language (LIS) is the name of the language used by the Italian Deaf community. The acronym LIS derives from Lingua italiana dei segni ("Italian language of signs"), although nowadays Italians refers to LIS as Lingua dei segni italiana, reflecting the more appropriate phrasing "Italian sign language." Historically,…

  9. Children's Growth and Classroom Experiences in Georgia's Pre-K Program: Findings from the 2011-2012 Evaluation Study. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen; Schaaf, Jennifer; LaForett, Dore

    2013-01-01

    Georgia has one of the few state-funded universal pre-kindergarten programs in the United States, with the aim of providing pre-k services to all 4-year-olds whose families want their children to participate in the program, regardless of family income level. In the 2011-2012 school year, Georgia's Pre-K Program served a total of over 94,000…

  10. Opera in the Italian Language Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno, Salvatore

    1989-01-01

    Describes class activities for incorporating and teaching about opera into the Italian language instruction classroom, focusing on the enhancement of cultural knowledge and understanding that opera offers. (CB)

  11. Graphic jokes and children's mind: an unusual way to approach children's representational activity.

    PubMed

    Puche-Navarro, Rebeca

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the development of representational activity through the comprehension of graphic jokes in 2, 3 and 4-year-old children. In experiment 1 we worked with three kinds of jokes, specifically mentalistic jokes, jokes based on substitution and complex jokes. We found differentiated performances on each kind of joke, as had been expected based on the semiological analysis of the jokes prior to the experiment. The earliest comprehension, at 3 years old, occurred with mentalistic jokes where more than 70% of the total sample was successful. The substitution jokes reached 47% in the three-year-old subjects, and the latest kind of joke to be understood by this group were the complex jokes, with only 31% comprehension. In experiment 2 we wanted to specify the cognitive functioning that was taking place in the comprehension of mentalistic jokes. We found similar successful performances in two mentalistic jokes with both the 3 and 4 year-olds in the study. Children's performances were analyzed from the point of view of processes of redescription which were involved in the understanding of the jokes. We conclude that humor tasks are appropriate instruments to examine development of children's representational abilities.

  12. Health Information in Italian (italiano): MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → Italian (italiano) URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/italian.html Health Information in Italian (italiano) To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  13. Somatotype in 6-11-year-old Italian and Estonian schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Ventrella, A R; Semproli, S; Jürimäe, J; Toselli, S; Claessens, A L; Jürimäe, T; Brasili, P

    2008-01-01

    The study of somatotypes can contribute to the understanding of variability in human body build. The aim of this study was to compare the somatotypes of Italian and Estonian schoolchildren in order to evaluate factors that might lead to variability in somatotypes. The sample consisted of 762 Italian and 366 Estonian children aged 6-11 years. They were somatotyped by the Heath-Carter anthropometric method. Data on organised extra-curricular physical activity and hours of weekly training were also collected. One-way ANOVA was used to evaluate country-related variations of somatotype in each age/sex group, while factorial ANOVA was used to test the influence of country and organised physical activity on the variability of the anthropometric characteristics and somatotype components. There are significant differences in mean somatotypes between the Italian and Estonian children in many age classes and a different constitutional trend in children from the two different countries is observed. The Italian children are more endomorphic and less mesomorphic and ectomorphic than the Estonian children. On the other hand, it emerges from factorial ANOVA, that the somatotype components do not present significant variations related to organised physical activity and to the interaction between the country of origin and sport practice. Moreover, the results of the forward stepwise discriminant analyses show that mesomorphy is the best discriminator between the two countries, followed by ectomorphy. Our findings suggest that the observed differences between Italian and Estonian children could be related mainly to country rather than to the practice of organised physical activity in the two countries.

  14. The Italian National Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelini, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The Italian National Seismic Network is composed by about 400 stations, mainly broadband, installed in the Country and in the surrounding regions. About 110 stations feature also collocated strong motion instruments. The Centro Nazionale Terremoti, (National Earthquake Center), CNT, has installed and operates most of these stations, although a considerable number of stations contributing to the INGV surveillance has been installed and is maintained by other INGV sections (Napoli, Catania, Bologna, Milano) or even other Italian or European Institutions. The important technological upgrades carried out in the last years has allowed for significant improvements of the seismic monitoring of Italy and of the Euro-Mediterranean Countries. The adopted data transmission systems include satellite, wireless connections and wired lines. The Seedlink protocol has been adopted for data transmission. INGV is a primary node of EIDA (European Integrated Data Archive) for archiving and distributing, continuous, quality checked data. The data acquisition system was designed to accomplish, in near-real-time, automatic earthquake detection and hypocenter and magnitude determination (moment tensors, shake maps, etc.). Database archiving of all parametric results are closely linked to the existing procedures of the INGV seismic monitoring environment. Overall, the Italian earthquake surveillance service provides, in quasi real-time, hypocenter parameters which are then revised routinely by the analysts of the Bollettino Sismico Nazionale. The results are published on the web page http://cnt.rm.ingv.it/ and are publicly available to both the scientific community and the the general public. This presentation will describe the various activities and resulting products of the Centro Nazionale Terremoti. spanning from data acquisition to archiving, distribution and specialised products.

  15. The Determinants of Teacher Mobility: Evidence Using Italian Teachers' Transfer Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbieri, Gianna; Rossetti, Claudio; Sestito, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Of particular importance for education policy-makers is the possibility that teacher mobility adversely affects the quality of teaching in schools serving mainly disadvantaged and minority children. This paper examines the main drivers of the mobility of Italian teachers by using applications-to-transfer data. We find that teachers systematically…

  16. Italian Teachers' Knowledge and Perception of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frigerio, Alessandra; Montali, Lorenzo; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2014-01-01

    Teachers' perceptions of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can influence the diagnostic rates of the disorder and the management of children in schools. This study investigated the knowledge and perceptions of ADHD in a sample of 589 Italian primary school teachers using a self-report questionnaire that included the ADHD perceptions…

  17. Working Memory Performance of Italian Students with Foreign Language Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palladino, Paola; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that the ability to learn a foreign language is related to working memory. However, there is no clear evidence about which component of working memory may be involved. Two experiments investigated working memory problems in groups of seventh and eighth grade Italian children with difficulties in learning English as a second…

  18. Word Frequency Modulates Morpheme-Based Reading in Poor and Skilled Italian Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcolini, Stefania; Traficante, Daniela; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi; Burani, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    A previous study reported that, similar to young and adult skilled readers, Italian developmental dyslexics read pseudowords made up of a root and a derivational suffix faster and more accurately than simple pseudowords. Unlike skilled readers, only dyslexic and reading-matched younger children benefited from morphological structure in reading…

  19. The Transmission of Cultural Heritages: The Case of the Irish and the Italians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeley, Andrew J.; McCready, William

    This paper begins with a very simple theoretical question: Do the cultural heritages of the Old World persist among children and grandchildren of the immigrants from the various European countries? Two ethnic groups--the Irish Catholics and the Italians--about whose country of origin there exists something of an anthropological and sociological…

  20. Parental Variation in the Transmission of Ethnicity Among Italian-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Colleen L.

    This research project on the Italian-American family examines the differential role of the mother and father in the transmission of ethnic identity to the children. Ethnicity is conceptualized here, in part, as a system of rules or norms which define acceptable behavior and which distinguishes one's own kind from others. One of the most prominent…

  1. Getting Your Teeth into It...: Describing a Language Task in an Italian Bilingual Unit of Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferragina, Anna Maria; Mustica, Giuseppina

    2006-01-01

    International Grammar School was founded twenty years ago on the belief in the benefits of immersion language learning for children. It offers immersion second language learning in German, Italian, French, and Japanese which continues through kindergarten into the high school years. With language as the medium and not the object of learning,…

  2. Private School Enrollment in an Italian Region after Implementing a Change in the Voucher Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Barbieri, Gianna; Murtinu, Samuele

    2015-01-01

    This article estimates the effect of an administrative change in a voucher policy implemented by an Italian Regional government. The voucher was initiated in 2000, and is intended to help families that want to enroll their children in private schools. In 2008, the policy was changed, making the administrative procedure required for obtaining the…

  3. Alcuni Aspetti dello Sviluppo Morfosintattico in Italiano (Some Aspects of the Development of Morphology and Syntax in Italian).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilosi, A; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Discusses research that gathered language samples via videotape recordings from 2 Italian children (one upper class, the other lower class) from the age of 18 months to 36 months, and then analyzes the data to determine the development of morphology and syntax in these children. (19 references) (CFM)

  4. Communities in Italian corporate networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccardi, Carlo; Calatroni, Lisa; Bertoni, Fabio

    2010-11-01

    The community structure of two real-world financial networks, namely the board network and the ownership network of the firms of the Italian Stock Exchange, is analyzed by means of the maximum modularity approach. The main result is that both networks exhibit a strong community structure and, moreover, that the two structures overlap significantly. This is due to a number of reasons, including the existence of pyramidal groups and directors serving in several boards. Overall, this means that the “small world” of listed companies is actually split into well identifiable “continents” (i.e., the communities).

  5. Lexical and grammatical abilities in deaf Italian preschoolers: the role of duration of formal language experience.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Pasquale; Caselli, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated language development in deaf Italian preschoolers with hearing parents, taking into account the duration of formal language experience (i.e., the time elapsed since wearing a hearing aid and beginning language education) and different methods of language education. Twenty deaf children were matched with 20 hearing children for age and with another 20 hearing children for duration of experience. Deaf children showed a significant delay in both vocabulary and grammar when compared to same-age hearing children yet a similar development compared to hearing children matched for duration of formal language experience. The delay in linguistic development could be attributable to shorter formal language experience and not to deafness itself. Deaf children exposed to spoken language accompanied by signs tended to understand and produce more words than children exposed only to spoken language. We suggest that deaf children be evaluated based on their linguistic experience and cognitive and communicative potential.

  6. INTRAUTERINE EXPOSURE TO POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER AND EARLY WHEEZE. PROSPECTIVE BIRTH COHORT STUDY IN 4-YEAR OLDS

    PubMed Central

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw A.; Perera, Frederica P.; Maugeri, Umberto; Mrozek-Budzyn, Dorota; Mroz, Elzbieta; Klimaszewska-Rembiasz, Maria; Flak, Elzbieta; Edwards, Susan; Spengler, John; Jacek, Ryszard; Sowa, Agata

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of the study was to determine the relationship between prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) measured by PAH-DNA adducts in umbilical cord blood and early wheeze. The level of PAH-DNA adducts in the cord blood is assumed to reflect the cumulative dose of PAHs absorbed by the fetus over the prenatal period. The effect of prenatal PAH exposure on respiratory health measured by the incidence rate ratio (IRR) for the number of wheezing days in the subsequent four year follow-up was adjusted for potential confounding factors such as personal prenatal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5), environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), gender of child, maternal characteristics (age, education and atopy), parity, and mold/dampness in the home. The study sample includes 339 newborns of non-smoking mothers 18-35 years of age and free from chronic diseases, who were recruited from ambulatory prenatal clinics in the first or second trimester of pregnancy. The number of wheezing days during the first two years of life was positively associated with prenatal level of PAH-DNA adducts (IRR = 1.69, 95%CI = 1.52 – 1.88), prenatal particulate matter (PM2.5) level dichotomized by the median (IRR = 1.38; 95%CI: 1.25 – 1.51), maternal atopy (IRR = 1.43; 95%CI: 1.29 – 1.58), moldy/damp house (IRR = 1.43; 95%CI: 1.27 – 1.61). The level of maternal education and maternal age at delivery were inversely associated with the IRRs for wheeze. The significant association between frequency of wheeze and the level of prenatal environmental hazards (PAHs and PM2.5) was not observed at ages 3 or 4 years. Although the frequency of wheezing at ages 3 or 4 years was no longer associated with prenatal exposure to PAHs and PM2.5, its occurrence depended on the presence of wheezing in the first two years of life, which nearly tripled the risk of wheezing in later life. In conclusion, the findings may suggest that driving force for early wheezing (<24 months of age) are different to those leading to later onset of wheeze. As we reported no synergistic effects between prenatal PAH (measured by PAH-DNA adducts) and PM2.5 exposures on early wheeze, this suggests the two exposures may exert independent effects via different biological mechanism on wheeze. PMID:20444151

  7. Words Are Not Merely Features: Only Consistently Applied Nouns Guide 4-Year-Olds' Inferences about Object Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Susan A.; Booth, Amy E.; Waxman, Sandra R.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is considerable evidence that nouns highlight category-based commonalities, including both those that are perceptually available and those that reflect underlying conceptual similarity, some have claimed that words function merely as features of objects. Here, we directly test these alternative accounts. Four-year-olds (n = 140)…

  8. Dorsal resection of a thoracic hemivertebra in a 4-year-old boy with endochondral gigantism. A case report.

    PubMed

    Zarghooni, Kourosh; Sobotrke, Rolf; Schmidt, Heinrich; Rollinghoff, Marc; Siewe, Jan; Eysel, Peer

    2010-10-01

    The authors present what appears to be the first case of congenital kyphosis due to a T12 hemivertebra in a four-year-old boy with endochondral gigantism syndrome of unknown origin. Because of his overgrowth, the patient had severe medical and orthopaedic problems and was almost immobile. Prior to surgery, he experienced a rapidly progressive thoracolumbar kyphosis to 600 (T10-L2). MRI of the brain and spine showed critical protraction of the spinal cord and myelopathy from compression at T12. Single-stage posterior resection of the hemivertebra with spinal shortening and dorsal transpedicular instrumentation of T10-L2 was performed. Although the bone tissue was cartilaginous and dysplastic, 420 (30%) correction was achieved along with decompression of the spinal canal. The patient experienced no neurological impairment post-operatively. At follow-up examination 1.5 year after surgery, the patient's movement disorder had improved markedly and he was able to stand and walk. This very rare case demonstrates that single-stage posterior hemivertebra resection and transpedicular instrumentation for correction of congenital kyphosis can be a safe and effective procedure even in a very challenging case.

  9. A Multi-Domain Model of Risk Factors for ODD Symptoms in a Community Sample of 4-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavigne, John V.; Gouze, Karen R.; Hopkins, Joyce; Bryant, Fred B.; LeBailly, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have been designed to assess the pathways by which risk factors are associated with symptoms of psychopathology across multiple domains, including contextual factors, parental depression, parenting, and child characteristics. The present study examines a cross-sectional model of risk factors for symptoms of Oppositional Defiant…

  10. Syllabic Effects in Italian Lexical Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tagliapietra, Lara; Fanari, R.; Collina, S.; Tabossi, P.

    2009-01-01

    Two cross-modal priming experiments tested whether lexical access is constrained by syllabic structure in Italian. Results extend the available Italian data on the processing of stressed syllables showing that syllabic information restricts the set of candidates to those structurally consistent with the intended word (Experiment 1). Lexical…

  11. Slavic and Italian Canadian Attitudes towards Authority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Michael G.

    Predicting that Italian Canadians would hold attitudes of greater hostility and anxiety toward authority than Slavic Canadians, this study, using 58 part-time summer students (29 Italians and 29 Slavs) at three universities in Canada, analyzed the subjects' responses to the five-response option Likert type scale. Results confirmed the early…

  12. Secondary Predicates in Italian and English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merlo, Paola

    An analysis of the nature of secondary predicates takes a comparative approach, using Italian and English. Distributional properties and extraction facts are accounted for, and an explanation for the fact that resultatives are not allowed in Romance languages is sought on the basis of Italian evidence. It is argued that the semantic distinction…

  13. Assessing the Cost Efficiency of Italian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Salerno, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    This study uses Data Envelopment Analysis to evaluate the cost efficiency of 52 Italian public universities. In addition to being one of the first such cost studies of the Italian system, it explicitly takes into account the internal cost structure of institutions' education programs; a task not prevalent in past Data Envelopment Analysis studies…

  14. Mood congruity and episodic memory in young children.

    PubMed

    Christodoulou, Joan; Burke, Deborah M

    2016-02-01

    Although mood congruity effects on episodic memory have been reported extensively in adults, they have not been reported for children younger than 10 years. The current research investigated mood congruity effects in story recall using an embodied approach to mood induction involving a facial manipulation task with 3- and 4-year-old children. Participants held a chopstick or a popsicle stick in their mouths in a way to either produce or inhibit a smile while they listened to a story featuring happy events for a happy character and sad events for a sad character. Children's mood ratings before and after mood induction indicated that mood became more positive in the smile condition, with no change in the no smile condition. Children in the smile condition, but not in the no smile condition, remembered more about the happy character than the sad character in the story. These results extend mood congruity effects to 3- and 4-year olds, suggesting that at this age representations of emotion interact with basic memory processes. Moreover, the efficacy of reenactment of sensorimotor components of emotion in modifying mood is consistent with embodied representation of emotion during early childhood.

  15. Somatotype of Italian rugby players.

    PubMed

    Casagrande, G; Viviani, F

    1993-03-01

    Our aim was to collect lacking first-hand data on Italian rugby players. The Heath/Carter anthropometric somatotype method was applied to 28 "A" League performers (RP) aged 25 +/- 3.9 years of age. Their somatotypes and dimensions were compared with those found in previous studies on athletes involved in the same sporting activity, with data collected on 25 "sedentary" young Italians, and with Bailey et al.'s study on Canadians (1982). On average, the RP group resulted as being endomorphic mesomorphs (3.1 +/- 1.1 - 5.6 +/- 1.3 - 1.4 +/- 1.1), a result that is congruent with international data. They differed significantly from the balanced mesomorph CG (2.3 +/- 1.0 - 4.5 +/- 1.2 - 2.5 +/- 1.4) for all the measurements taken, apart from bi-epycondylar width. The peculiar somatotype scores found are congruent with the needs of rugby, an aerobic-anaerobic discipline which requires performers with great muscular power associated with a capacity to furnish energy, mainly through the anaerobic metabolism.

  16. Italian Rett database and biobank.

    PubMed

    Sampieri, Katia; Meloni, Ilaria; Scala, Elisa; Ariani, Francesca; Caselli, Rossella; Pescucci, Chiara; Longo, Ilaria; Artuso, Rosangela; Bruttini, Mirella; Mencarelli, Maria Antonietta; Speciale, Caterina; Causarano, Vincenza; Hayek, Giuseppe; Zappella, Michele; Renieri, Alessandra; Mari, Francesca

    2007-04-01

    Rett syndrome is the second most common cause of severe mental retardation in females, with an incidence of approximately 1 out of 10,000 live female births. In addition to the classic form, a number of Rett variants have been described. MECP2 gene mutations are responsible for about 90% of classic cases and for a lower percentage of variant cases. Recently, CDKL5 mutations have been identified in the early onset seizures variant and other atypical Rett patients. While the high percentage of MECP2 mutations in classic patients supports the hypothesis of a single disease gene, the low frequency of mutated variant cases suggests genetic heterogeneity. Since 1998, we have performed clinical evaluation and molecular analysis of a large number of Italian Rett patients. The Italian Rett Syndrome (RTT) database has been developed to share data and samples of our RTT collection with the scientific community (http://www.biobank.unisi.it). This is the first RTT database that has been connected with a biobank. It allows the user to immediately visualize the list of available RTT samples and, using the "Search by" tool, to rapidly select those with specific clinical and molecular features. By contacting bank curators, users can request the samples of interest for their studies. This database encourages collaboration projects with clinicians and researchers from around the world and provides important resources that will help to better define the pathogenic mechanisms underlying Rett syndrome.

  17. Epilepsy and vaccinations: Italian guidelines.

    PubMed

    Pruna, Dario; Balestri, Paolo; Zamponi, Nelia; Grosso, Salvatore; Gobbi, Giuseppe; Romeo, Antonino; Franzoni, Emilio; Osti, Maria; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Longhi, Riccardo; Verrotti, Alberto

    2013-10-01

    Reports of childhood epilepsies in temporal association with vaccination have had a great impact on the acceptance of vaccination programs by health care providers, but little is known about this possible temporal association and about the types of seizures following vaccinations. For these reasons the Italian League Against Epilepsy (LICE), in collaboration with other Italian scientific societies, has decided to generate Guidelines on Vaccinations and Epilepsy. The aim of Guidelines on Vaccinations and Epilepsy is to present recent unequivocal evidence from published reports on the possible relationship between vaccines and epilepsy in order to provide information about contraindications and risks of vaccinations in patients with epilepsy. The following main issues have been addressed: (1) whether contraindications to vaccinations exist in patients with febrile convulsions, epilepsy, and/or epileptic encephalopathies; and (2) whether any vaccinations can cause febrile seizures, epilepsy, and/or epileptic encephalopathies. Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination (MMR) increase significantly the risk of febrile seizures. Recent observations and data about the relationships between vaccination and epileptic encephalopathy show that some cases of apparent vaccine-induced encephalopathy could in fact be caused by an inherent genetic defect with no causal relationship with vaccination.

  18. Mothers' responses to children's negative emotions and child emotion regulation: the moderating role of vagal suppression.

    PubMed

    Perry, Nicole B; Calkins, Susan D; Nelson, Jackie A; Leerkes, Esther M; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2012-07-01

    The current study examined the moderating effect of children's cardiac vagal suppression on the association between maternal socialization of negative emotions (supportive and nonsupportive responses) and children's emotion regulation behaviors. One hundred and ninety-seven 4-year-olds and their mothers participated. Mothers reported on their reactions to children's negative emotions and children's regulatory behaviors. Observed distraction, an adaptive self-regulatory strategy, and vagal suppression were assessed during a laboratory task designed to elicit frustration. Results indicated that children's vagal suppression moderated the association between mothers' nonsupportive emotion socialization and children's emotion regulation behaviors such that nonsupportive reactions to negative emotions predicted lower observed distraction and lower reported emotion regulation behaviors when children displayed lower levels of vagal suppression. No interaction was found between supportive maternal emotion socialization and vagal suppression for children's emotion regulation behaviors. Results suggest physiological regulation may serve as a buffer against nonsupportive emotion socialization.

  19. Parenting quality: Confirmation of a higher-order latent construct with mothers of Head Start children

    PubMed Central

    Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Page, Melanie C.; Huey, Erron L.; Starost, Huei-Juang; Culp, Anne McDonald; Culp, Rex E.; Harper, M. Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    We proposed a higher order latent construct of parenting young children, parenting quality. This higher-order latent construct comprises five component constructs: demographic protection, psychological distress, psychosocial maturity, moral and cognitive reflectivity, and parenting attitudes and beliefs. We evaluated this model with data provided by 199 mothers of 4-year-old children enrolled in Head Start. The model was confirmed with only one adjustment suggested by modification indices. Final RMSEA was .05, CFI .96, and NNFI .94, indicating good model fit. Results were interpreted as emphasizing the interdependence of psychological and environmental demands on parenting. Implications of the model for teachers, early interventionists, and public policy are discussed. PMID:19629192

  20. Factors affecting computer mouse use for young children: implications for AAC.

    PubMed

    Costigan, F Aileen; Light, Janice C; Newell, Karl M

    2012-06-01

    More than 12% of preschoolers receiving special education services have complex communication needs, including increasing numbers of children who do not have significant motor impairments (e.g., children with autism spectrum disorders, Down syndrome, etc.). In order to meet their diverse communication needs (e.g., face-to-face, written, Internet, telecommunication), these children may use mainstream technologies accessed via the mouse, yet little is known about factors that affect the mouse performance of young children. This study used a mixed factorial design to investigate the effects of age, target size, and angle of approach on accuracy and time required for accurate target selection with a mouse for 20 3-year-old and 20 4-year-old children. The 4-year-olds were generally more accurate and faster than the 3-year-olds. Target size and angle mediated differences in performance within age groups. The 3-year-olds were more accurate and faster in selecting the medium and large targets relative to the small target, were faster in selecting the large relative to the medium target, and were faster in selecting targets along the vertical relative to the diagonal angle. The 4-year-olds were faster in selecting the medium and large targets relative to the small target. Implications for improving access to AAC include the preliminary suggestion of age-related threshold target sizes that support sufficient accuracy, the possibility of efficiency benefits when target size is increased up to an age-related threshold, and identification of the potential utility of the vertical angle as a context for training navigational input device use.

  1. Self-recognition in young children using delayed versus live feedback: evidence of a developmental asynchrony.

    PubMed

    Povinelli, D J; Landau, K R; Perilloux, H K

    1996-08-01

    The ability of young children to recognize themselves in delayed videotapes and recent photographs was investigated using a delayed analog of the mirror mark test, as well as verbal reports. In Experiment 1, 42 2-4-year-old children were videotaped while playing an unusual game. During the game an experimenter covertly placed a large sticker on the child's head. The videotape was played back 3 min later to the children. Older, but not younger, children reached up to remove the sticker when the tape revealed it being placed on their heads. In Experiment 2, a similar procedure was used with 60 3- and 4-year-olds where Polaroid photographs were taken during and after the act of the sticker being placed on the child's head. When allowed to look at the photographs, young 3-year-olds did not reach up to search for the sticker, whereas older 3- and 4-year-olds did. Almost all of the children who did not appear to realize that there was a sticker on their head from the information provided by the photographs did provide a correct verbal label for the image, and reached up to remove the sticker when presented with a mirror. Experiment 3 compared the reaction of 48 2 1/2-3 1/2-year-olds to live versus delayed video feedback and indicated an effect of the temporal aspect of the stimulus. The results are discussed in the context of the different forms of self-conception that may underwrite the 2 manifestations of self-recognition.

  2. Noun versus verb emphasis in Italian mother-to-child speech.

    PubMed

    Camaioni, L; Longobardi, E

    2001-10-01

    This paper examines naturalistic adult-to-child speech produced by 15 Italian middle-class mothers to determine which specific patterns characterize linguistic input to children at 1;4 and 1;8. Since Italian is a pro-drop language, we expect that adult-to-child speech will show a bias towards a more salient semantic and morphological significance of verbs relative to nouns. We expect that verbs will more likely occupy the sentence-initial position, and have more morphological inflections relative to nouns. Mother-to-child speech was coded for type and token frequency, utterance position, and morphological variation of nouns and verbs. The results confirm our predictions. Namely, Italian-speaking mothers produced verb types and tokens more frequently than noun types and tokens, they placed verbs more frequently than nouns in salient utterance position, and they morphologically marked verb stems more than noun stems.

  3. Preschool children's use of cues to generic meaning.

    PubMed

    Cimpian, Andrei; Markman, Ellen M

    2008-04-01

    Sentences that refer to categories - generic sentences (e.g., "Dogs are friendly") - are frequent in speech addressed to young children and constitute an important means of knowledge transmission. However, detecting generic meaning may be challenging for young children, since it requires attention to a multitude of morphosyntactic, semantic, and pragmatic cues. The first three experiments tested whether 3- and 4-year-olds use (a) the immediate linguistic context, (b) their previous knowledge, and (c) the social context to determine whether an utterance with ambiguous scope (e.g., "They are afraid of mice", spoken while pointing to 2 birds) is generic. Four-year-olds were able to take advantage of all the cues provided, but 3-year-olds were sensitive only to the first two. In Experiment 4, we tested the relative strength of linguistic-context cues and previous-knowledge cues by putting them in conflict; in this task, 4-year-olds, but not 3-year-olds, preferred to base their interpretations on the explicit noun phrase cues from the linguistic context. These studies indicate that, from early on, children can use contextual and semantic information to construe sentences as generic, thus taking advantage of the category knowledge conveyed in these sentences.

  4. How fantasy benefits young children's understanding of pretense.

    PubMed

    Sobel, David M

    2006-01-01

    Sobel and Lillard (2001) demonstrated that 4-year-olds' understanding of the role that the mind plays in pretending improved when children were asked questions in a fantasy context. The present study investigated whether this fantasy effect was motivated by children recognizing that fantasy contains violations of real-world causal structure. In Experiment 1, 4-year-olds were shown a fantasy character engaged in ordinary actions or actions that violated causal knowledge. Children were more likely to say that a troll doll who was acting like but ignorant of the character was not pretending to be that character when read the violation story. Experiment 2 suggested that this difference was not caused by a greater interest in the violation story. Experiment 3 demonstrated a similar difference for characters engaged in social and functional violations that were possible in the real world. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that preschoolers use actions and appearance more than mental states to make judgments about pretense, but that those judgments can be influenced by the context in which the questions are presented.

  5. Minimal groups increase young children's motivation and learning on group-relevant tasks.

    PubMed

    Master, Allison; Walton, Gregory M

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments (N = 130) used a minimal group manipulation to show that just perceived membership in a social group boosts young children's motivation for and learning from group-relevant tasks. In Experiment 1, 4-year-old children assigned to a minimal "puzzles group" persisted longer on a challenging puzzle than children identified as the "puzzles child" or children in a control condition. Experiment 2 showed that this boost in motivation occurred only when the group was associated with the task. In Experiment 3, children assigned to a minimal group associated with word learning learned more words than children assigned an analogous individual identity. The studies demonstrate that fostering shared motivations may be a powerful means by which to shape young children's academic outcomes.

  6. Deviant smooth pursuit in preschool children exposed prenatally to methadone or buprenorphine and tobacco affects integrative visuomotor capabilities

    PubMed Central

    Melinder, Annika; Konijnenberg, Carolien; Sarfi, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims Although an increasing number of children are born to mothers in opioid maintenance therapy (OMT), little is known about the long-term effects of these opioids. Previous studies suggest an association between prenatal OMT exposure and difficulties in eye movement control. Also, the effects of tobacco smoking on eye movements have been reported. The present study examined the influence of eye movements, i.e. smooth pursuit, on visuomotor capabilities in children of smoking mothers in OMT. Design The study comprised a 2 (OMT versus contrast group) × 2 (slow versus fast smooth pursuit) between-subject factorial design. Setting The cognitive developmental research unit at the University of Oslo, Norway. Participants Participants were 26 4-year-old children of tobacco-smoking women in OMT and 23 non-exposed 4-year-old children, with non-smoking mothers, matched by gender and age. Measurement Eye movements and smooth pursuit were recorded using a Tobii 1750 eyetracker. Visuomotor functions were examined by Bender test. Findings The OMT group tracked slowly moving objects with smooth pursuit in a similar manner to their non-exposed peers. When fast smooth pursuit was measured, the OMT group of children tracked the object more slowly than the contrast group, P = 0.02, ηp2 = 0.11. A regression analysis showed that fast smooth pursuit predicted children’s performance on a visuomotor task, R2 = 0.37. Conclusion Impaired eye-tracking skills in 4-year-old children exposed to methadone or buprenorphine and tobacco prenatally could inhibit the development of some cognitive functions in later life. PMID:23734878

  7. [Gastrointestinal system tumors in Italian emigrants].

    PubMed

    Balzi, D; Geddes, M; Buiatti, E

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we present the risk of death for stomach, colon, rectum and pancreas cancers in Italian migrants to Canada, Argentina, Australia, France and England and Wales. Estimations of relative risks (RR) in Italian migrants, in residents in Italy and in Southern Italy relative to the local born in the host country are shown. Relative risks in Italian migrants to Australia were analysed also by duration of stay in the host country. The Italian migrants' cancer profile in intermediate between the origin and the host population: a reduction of risk of death for stomach cancer and an increase of risk for colorectal cancers are the main results. The results are discussed taking into account the analysis by duration of residence and the pattern of food prevalent in the different countries considered.

  8. Alomar and Marinetti: Catalan and Italian Futurism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litvak de Perez de la Dehesa, Lil

    1972-01-01

    Suggests that a lecture on Futurism delivered in Catalan at the Ateneo in Barcelona on June 18, 1904, by Gabriel Alomar probably was the greatest influence on F. T. Marinetti and Italian Futurism. (DS)

  9. The history of Italian psychiatry during Fascism.

    PubMed

    Piazzi, Andrea; Testa, Luana; Del Missier, Giovanni; Dario, Mariopaolo; Stocco, Ester

    2011-09-01

    Specific features characterized Italian psychiatry during Fascism (1922-45), distinguishing it from Nazi psychiatry and giving rise to different operational outcomes, so we have investigated the state of Italian psychiatry during this period. We review the historical situation that preceded it and describe the social and health policies that Fascism introduced following new legislative and regulatory acts. We examine the preventive and therapeutic role played by psychiatry (the electric shock was an Italian invention) and, thanks to the Enciclopedia Italiano published during those years, we are able to highlight psychiatry's relationship to psychology, psychoanalysis, philosophy and religion. The shortcomings of Italian psychiatric research and practice are also seen in terms of what the State failed to do rather than what it did.

  10. Do children realize that pretend emotions might be unreal?

    PubMed

    Sidera, Francesc; Serrat, Elisabet; Rostan, Carles; Sanz-Torrent, Mònica

    2011-01-01

    This research is aimed at comparing children's understanding of the distinction between external and internal emotion in deception and pretend play situations. A total of 337 children from 4 to 12 years of age participated in the study. Previous research suggests that in deception situations this understanding is very rudimentary at the age of 4 years, whereas 6-year-olds can articulate it in words. In the present work the children were asked to make this distinction in pretend play or deception tasks. The results show that in pretend play situations children start making this distinction at the age of 6 years, and their performance is better when the simulated emotion is negative rather than positive. These findings suggest that 4-year-olds are not aware that the emotions expressed in pretend play situations might be different from internal emotions.

  11. The "Batman Effect": Improving Perseverance in Young Children.

    PubMed

    White, Rachel E; Prager, Emily O; Schaefer, Catherine; Kross, Ethan; Duckworth, Angela L; Carlson, Stephanie M

    2016-12-16

    This study investigated the benefits of self-distancing (i.e., taking an outsider's view of one's own situation) on young children's perseverance. Four- and 6-year-old children (N = 180) were asked to complete a repetitive task for 10 min while having the option to take breaks by playing an extremely attractive video game. Six-year-olds persevered longer than 4-year-olds. Nonetheless, across both ages, children who impersonated an exemplar other-in this case a character, such as Batman-spent the most time working, followed by children who took a third-person perspective on the self, or finally, a first-person perspective. Alternative explanations, implications, and future research directions are discussed.

  12. [Inhalation of sodium cromoglycate through a spacer device: no effect on symptoms in preschool children with moderate asthma].

    PubMed

    Tasche, M J; De Jongste, J C

    1998-04-11

    Recently a randomised placebo controlled trial in a general practice setting showed that inhaler therapy with a spacer device in 218 1-4 year old children with moderate asthma is feasible, but that treatment with cromoglycate was no more effective than placebo. The lack of benefit from the treatment with cromoglycate may have resulted from several points discussed and refuted in this commentary. Major points are the degree of asthma of the children and uncertainty about the amount of medication that reached the lungs. The results of the trial support the intentions of national and international guidelines to withdraw the recommendation of cromoglycate as the first choice in prophylactic asthma treatment.

  13. Affective forecasting bias in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Shalini; Bulley, Adam; von Hippel, William; Suddendorf, Thomas

    2017-03-10

    Adults are capable of predicting their emotional reactions to possible future events. Nevertheless, they systematically overestimate the intensity of their future emotional reactions relative to how they feel when these events actually occur. The developmental origin of this "intensity bias" has not yet been examined. Two studies were conducted to test the intensity bias in preschool children. In the first study, 5-year-olds (N=30) predicted how they would feel if they won or lost various games. Comparisons with subsequent self-reported feelings indicated that participants overestimated how sad they would feel to lose the games but did not overestimate their happiness from winning. The second study replicated this effect in another sample of 5-year-olds (n=34) and also found evidence of an intensity bias in 4-year-olds (n=30). These findings provide the first evidence of a negative intensity bias in affective forecasting among young children.

  14. Death in the bathtub involving children.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, P; Madea, B

    1995-03-31

    Retrospective analysis of 215 deaths in the bathtub (Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Cologne, 1980-1993) revealed 12 fatalities involving children, seven boys and five girls, aged from 9 months to 13 years. The manner and cause of death was seven accidents (five by drowning, two by scalding burns), two natural deaths (epilepsy, heart failure due to Hurler's syndrome), one homicide (stabbing) and two undetermined cases (one probable seizure, one subdural hematoma associated with signs of maltreatment). Seven children < 4 years old died without exception from accidental drowning or scalding. Three toddlers had been left alone and unattended in the bathtub for a 'short time' (< or = 15 min) and two in the care of elder siblings. The immersion time and the amount of water required to cause lethal drowning are expressed in the terms of pathophysiology.

  15. [A preliminary appraisal of the new Italian immigration law].

    PubMed

    Bonetti, P

    1998-01-01

    Italian Law no. 40, of March 6, 1998, on immigration and foreigners, which entered into force on March 27, 1998, is a complex and detailed document. The objectives of the law were a more efficacious programming of the immigrant labor flow; the increase of prevention and containment of illegal immigration; and the expansion of the measures for effective integration of foreigners with regular permits to stay. The new law also provides annual planning for the immigration flow on the basis of an appropriate quota established by the government. Various types of wages are also determined for menial jobs and every year Italians and foreigners with regular residence permits may apply within the first 60 days from the publication of the annual quota for these jobs. The new law is extremely strict in the matter of prevention and containment of illegal immigration dealing with not only new arrivals at the border, but also with those already illegally in the country. Temporary centers are also set up for their accommodation (but no longer than 30 days) until the expulsions are carried out. The part allowing public security authorities to accompany foreigners to the border for expulsion without prior judiciary review is in violation of the constitutional premise of personal freedom. An illegal alien may also be penalized by immediate expulsion from the country and prohibition of re-entry for at least 5 years. It was estimated that there were 200,000 illegal aliens in Italy in 1998. They are supposed to be expelled within 15 days, although this can be appealed in the case of minors, pregnant women or women with children less than 6 months old, the persecuted, or persons living with Italian citizens. Another new feature is the residency card.

  16. ADAPTIVE BEHAVIORS IN YOUNG CHILDREN: A UNIQUE CULTURAL COMPARISON IN ITALY

    PubMed Central

    Taverna, Livia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Axia, Giovanna

    2010-01-01

    On account of a series of unique historical events, the present-day denizens of South Tyrol inhabit a cultural, political, and linguistic autonomous region that intercalates Italians and Austrian/German Italians. We compared contemporary Italian and Austrian/German Italian girls' and boys' adaptive behaviors in everyday activities in this region. Using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, we first interviewed mothers about their children's communication, daily living, socialization, and motor skills. Main effects of local culture (and no interactions with gender) emerged: Austrian/German Italian children were rated higher than Italian children in both adaptive daily living and socialization skills. Next, we explored ethnic differences in childrearing. Austrian/German Italians reported fostering greater autonomy in their children than Italians, and children's autonomy was associated with their adaptive behavior. Children living in neighboring Italian and Austrian/German Italian cultural niches appear to experience subtle but consequentially different conditions of development that express themselves in terms of differing levels of adaptive behaviors. PMID:21532914

  17. Links Among Italian Preschoolers' Socio-Emotional Competence, Teacher-Child Relationship Quality and Peer Acceptance.

    PubMed

    Sette, Stefania; Spinrad, Tracy; Baumgartner, Emma

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relations of teacher-child relationship quality (close, conflictive, and dependent), children's social behavior, and peer likability in a sample of Italian preschool-aged children (46 boys; 42 girls). Preschool teachers evaluated the quality of the teacher-child relationship and children's social behaviors (i.e., social competence, anger-aggression, and anxiety-withdrawal). Peer-rated likability was measured using a sociometric procedure. Results indicated that conflictual teacher-child relationships were related to high aggressive behavior, and dependent teacher-child relationships were positively associated with children's anxiety-withdrawal. Moreover, we found an indirect association between close teacher-child relationship quality and peer likability through children's social competence. The findings provide evidence that the teacher-child relationship is critical for children's social behaviors, and that social competence was uniquely related to peer likability.

  18. Changing Trends in Asthma Prevalence Among Children

    PubMed Central

    Akinbami, Lara J.; Simon, Alan E.; Rossen, Lauren M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Childhood asthma prevalence doubled from 1980 to 1995 and then increased more slowly from 2001 to 2010. During this second period, racial disparities increased. More recent trends remain to be described. METHODS We analyzed current asthma prevalence using 2001–2013 National Health Interview Survey data for children ages 0 to 17 years. Logistic regression with quadratic terms was used to test for nonlinear patterns in trends. Differences between demographic subgroups were further assessed with multivariate models controlling for gender, age, poverty status, race/ethnicity, urbanicity, and geographic region. RESULTS Overall, childhood asthma prevalence increased from 2001 to 2009 followed by a plateau then a decline in 2013. From 2001 to 2013, multivariate logistic regression showed no change in prevalence among non-Hispanic white and Puerto Rican children and those in the Northeast and West; increasing prevalence among 10- to 17-year-olds, poor children, and those living in the South; increasing then plateauing prevalence among 5- to 9-year-olds, near-poor children, and non-Hispanic black children; and increasing then decreasing prevalence among 0- to 4-year-olds, nonpoor, and Mexican children and those in the Midwest. Non-Hispanic black-white disparities stopped increasing, and Puerto Rican children remained with the highest prevalence. CONCLUSIONS Current asthma prevalence ceased to increase among children in recent years and the non-Hispanic black-white disparity stopped increasing due mainly to plateauing prevalence among non-Hispanic black children. PMID:26712860

  19. Improving children's affective decision making in the Children's Gambling Task.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Glenda; Moussaumai, Jennifer

    2015-11-01

    Affective decision making was examined in 108 children (3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds) using the Children's Gambling Task (CGT). Children completed the CGT and then responded to awareness questions. Children in the binary_experience and binary_experience+awareness (not control) conditions first completed two simpler versions. Children in the binary_experience+awareness condition also responded to questions about relational components of the simpler versions. Experience with simpler versions facilitated decision making in 4- and 5-year-olds, but 3-year-olds' advantageous choices declined across trial blocks in the binary_experience and control conditions. Responding to questions about relational components further benefited the 4- and 5-year-olds. The 3-year-olds' advantageous choices on the final block were at chance level in the binary_experience+awareness condition but were below chance level in the other conditions. Awareness following the CGT was strongly correlated with advantageous choices and with age. Awareness was demonstrated by 5-year-olds (all conditions) and 4-year-olds (binary_experience and binary_experience+awareness) but not by 3-year-olds. The findings demonstrate the importance of complexity and conscious awareness in cognitive development.

  20. Questionable research practices among italian research psychologists

    PubMed Central

    Wicherts, Jelte M.; Veldkamp, Coosje L. S.; Albiero, Paolo; Cubelli, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    A survey in the United States revealed that an alarmingly large percentage of university psychologists admitted having used questionable research practices that can contaminate the research literature with false positive and biased findings. We conducted a replication of this study among Italian research psychologists to investigate whether these findings generalize to other countries. All the original materials were translated into Italian, and members of the Italian Association of Psychology were invited to participate via an online survey. The percentages of Italian psychologists who admitted to having used ten questionable research practices were similar to the results obtained in the United States although there were small but significant differences in self-admission rates for some QRPs. Nearly all researchers (88%) admitted using at least one of the practices, and researchers generally considered a practice possibly defensible if they admitted using it, but Italian researchers were much less likely than US researchers to consider a practice defensible. Participants’ estimates of the percentage of researchers who have used these practices were greater than the self-admission rates, and participants estimated that researchers would be unlikely to admit it. In written responses, participants argued that some of these practices are not questionable and they have used some practices because reviewers and journals demand it. The similarity of results obtained in the United States, this study, and a related study conducted in Germany suggest that adoption of these practices is an international phenomenon and is likely due to systemic features of the international research and publication processes. PMID:28296929

  1. Enculturation to musical pitch structure in young children: evidence from behavioral and electrophysiological methods.

    PubMed

    Corrigall, Kathleen A; Trainor, Laurel J

    2014-01-01

    Children learn the structure of the music of their culture similarly to how they learn the language to which they are exposed in their daily environment. Furthermore, as with language, children acquire this musical knowledge without formal instruction. Two critical aspects of musical pitch structure in Western tonal music are key membership (understanding which notes belong in a key and which do not) and harmony (understanding which notes combine to form chords and which notes and chords tend to follow others). The early developmental trajectory of the acquisition of this knowledge remains unclear, in part because of the difficulty of testing young children. In two experiments, we investigated 4- and 5-year-olds' enculturation to Western musical pitch using a novel age-appropriate and engaging behavioral task (Experiment 1) and electroencephalography (EEG; Experiment 2). In Experiment 1 we found behavioral evidence that 5-year-olds were sensitive to key membership but not to harmony, and no evidence that 4-year-olds were sensitive to either. However, in Experiment 2 we found neurophysiological evidence that 4-year-olds were sensitive to both key membership and harmony. Our results suggest that musical enculturation has a long developmental trajectory, and that children may have some knowledge of key membership and harmony before that knowledge can be expressed through explicit behavioral judgments.

  2. Planning in human children (Homo sapiens) assessed by maze problems on the touch screen.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Hiromitsu; Itakura, Shoji; Fujita, Kazuo

    2009-02-01

    The authors examined how human children perform on maze tasks on the touch screen and whether the children plan the solution of the mazes. In Experiment 1, the authors exposed children around 3 years of age to a maze having an L-shaped line as a barrier that can be solved by moving an illustration of a dog (the target) to that of a bone (the goal) with their fingers. The participants successfully solved the maze by taking efficient routes more frequently than chance, although the authors found no evidence that a preview of the maze before starting to solve the task facilitated their performance. In Experiment 2, using a plus-shaped maze, the authors found that 3- and 4-year-old children plan and adjust their moves while solving the maze, with 4-year-olds showing more advanced and higher-level planning than 3-year-olds. Similarity of these results to what the authors previously found in pigeons tested in the same tasks may suggest an analogy for planning capacity in the behavioral level across taxa and developmental stages.

  3. Auditory working memory and early reading skills in Hebrew-speaking preschool children.

    PubMed

    Banai, Karen; Yifat, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis that different subcomponents of auditory working memory are differentially related to early reading skills was tested in 63 Hebrew speaking 4-year-old children, using a battery of early reading (phonological processing and familiarity with written language) and memory (simple and complex spans) tasks. Complex spans accounted for significant amounts of variance on both facets of early reading even after the contribution of simple spans was accounted for. These findings suggest that the unique contribution of complex working memory to early reading can be identified as early as preschool and that the structure of correlations between reading and memory is similar across ages.

  4. Assessing Social Competence and Behavior Problems in a Sample of Italian Preschoolers Using the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sette, Stefania; Baumgartner, Emma; MacKinnon, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The main goals of this study were to examine the factor validity of the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation (SCBE-30) scale using exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis and to test factor invariance across gender in a sample of Italian preschool-age children (241 boys, 252 girls). The concurrent…

  5. Serial T-SPOT.TB and quantiFERON-TB-Gold In-Tube assays to monitor response to antitubercular treatment in Italian children with active or latent tuberculosis infection.

    PubMed

    Chiappini, Elena; Bonsignori, Francesca; Mangone, Giusi; Galli, Luisa; Mazzantini, Rachele; Sollai, Sara; Azzari, Chiara; de Martino, Maurizio

    2012-09-01

    We performed a prospective study to investigate T-SPOT.TB and QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-G-IT) dynamics during antitubercular treatment in active tuberculosis (TB) or latent TB. Eighteen children with latent TB and 26 with TB were enrolled. At 6 months of follow-up reversion rate was 5.88% (95% CI:0-13.79) for QFT-G-IT; 9.09% (95% CI:0.59-17.58) for T-SPOT.TB (P=0.921) in TB cases. Significant decline in quantitative response was observed exclusively in TB cases. Our results suggest that serial IGRA have limited use in children receiving antitubercular treatment.

  6. Comprehension of iconic gestures by chimpanzees and human children.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Manuel; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Iconic gestures-communicative acts using hand or body movements that resemble their referent-figure prominently in theories of language evolution and development. This study contrasted the abilities of chimpanzees (N=11) and 4-year-old human children (N=24) to comprehend novel iconic gestures. Participants learned to retrieve rewards from apparatuses in two distinct locations, each requiring a different action. In the test, a human adult informed the participant where to go by miming the action needed to obtain the reward. Children used the iconic gestures (more than arbitrary gestures) to locate the reward, whereas chimpanzees did not. Some children also used arbitrary gestures in the same way, but only after they had previously shown comprehension for iconic gestures. Over time, chimpanzees learned to associate iconic gestures with the appropriate location faster than arbitrary gestures, suggesting at least some recognition of the iconicity involved. These results demonstrate the importance of iconicity in referential communication.

  7. Syllables in the processing of spoken Italian.

    PubMed

    Tabossi, P; Collina, S; Mazzetti, M; Zoppello, M

    2000-04-01

    Five experiments explored the role of the syllable in the processing of spoken Italian. According to the syllabic hypothesis, the sublexical unit used by speakers of Romance languages to segment speech and access the lexicon is the syllable. However, languages with different degrees of acoustic-phonetic transparency give rise to syllabic effects that vary in robustness. It follows from this account that speakers of phonologically similar languages should behave in a similar way. By exploiting the similarities between Spanish and Italian, the authors tested this prediction in Experiments 1-4. Indeed, Italian listeners were found to produce syllabic effects similar to those observed in Spanish listeners. In Experiment 5, the predictions of the syllabic hypothesis with respect to lexical access were tested. The results corroborated these predictions. The findings are discussed in relation to current models of speech processing.

  8. Children Increase Their Sensitivity to a Speaker's Nonlinguistic Cues Following a Communicative Breakdown.

    PubMed

    Yow, W Quin; Markman, Ellen M

    2016-01-01

    Bilingual children regularly face communicative challenges when speakers switch languages. To cope with such challenges, children may attempt to discern a speaker's communicative intent, thereby heightening their sensitivity to nonverbal communicative cues. Two studies examined whether such communication breakdowns increase sensitivity to nonverbal cues. English-speaking monolingual (n = 64) and bilingual (n = 54) 3- to 4-year-olds heard instructions in either English only or English mixed with a foreign language. Later, children played a hiding game that relied on nonverbal cues. Hearing a foreign language switch improved both monolingual and bilingual children's use of these cues. Moreover, bilinguals with more prior code-switching exposure outperformed those with less prior code-switching exposure. Children's short-term strategies to repair communication breakdowns may evolve into a more generalizable set of skills.

  9. Young children contrast their behavior to that of out-group members.

    PubMed

    Oostenbroek, Janine; Over, Harriet

    2015-11-01

    The tendency for children to overimitate and conform to unanimous majorities is pervasive. Here we tested whether social factors are powerful enough to lead children to overcome this tendency and contrast their behavior to that of others. In one condition, children were shown a video of three out-group members performing the same action on a novel toy. In this condition, 5-year-olds, but not 4-year-olds, were significantly more likely to produce the contrasting action than the action demonstrated by the group. On the other hand, children who saw the same actions performed by neutral individuals typically matched their actions to those of the group regardless of their age. By demonstrating that 5-year-olds actively contrast their behavior to that of out-group members, these results provide an important comparison with previous research on imitation and conformity and demonstrate the profound influence that social motivations exert over children's copying behavior.

  10. The effects of tempo and familiarity on children's affective interpretation of music.

    PubMed

    Mote, Jasmine

    2011-06-01

    When and how does one learn to associate emotion with music? This study attempted to address this issue by examining whether preschool children use tempo as a cue in determining whether a song is happy or sad. Instrumental versions of children's songs were played at different tempos to adults and children ages 3 to 5 years. Familiar and unfamiliar songs were used to examine whether familiarity affected children's identification of emotion in music. The results indicated that adults, 4 year olds and 5 year olds rated fast songs as significantly happier than slow songs. However, 3 year olds failed to rate fast songs differently than slow songs at above-chance levels. Familiarity did not significantly affect children's identification of happiness and sadness in music.

  11. Narrative discourse in young children with histories of early corrective heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Hemphill, Lowry; Uccelli, Paola; Winner, Kendra; Chang, Chien-ju; Bellinger, David

    2002-04-01

    Narrative attainment was assessed in a group of 76 four-year-old children at risk for brain injury because of histories of early corrective heart surgery. Elicited personal experience narratives were coded for narrative components, evaluative devices, and information adequacy and were contrasted with narratives produced by a comparison group of typically developing 4-year-olds. The production of autonomous narrative discourse was identified as an area of special vulnerability for children with this medical history. Despite considerable heterogeneity in narrative performance, children with early corrective heart surgery produced fewer narrative components than typically developing children. Results suggest that the elaboration of events and contextual information, the expression of subjective evaluation and causality, and clarity and explicitness of information reporting may constitute special challenges for this population of children. Implications of these findings for clinical assessment and possible risks for socioemotional relationships and academic achievement are discussed.

  12. Face Orientations in Reacting to Accusatory Complaints: Italian L1, English L1, and Italian as a Community Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frescura, Marina

    A study investigated the linguistic behavior of three groups of speakers in reacting to accusatory complaints: (1) native speakers of Italian residing in Italy (SI); (2) native speakers of Canadian English residing in Toronto (CE); and (3) speakers of Italian residing in Toronto, first-generation immigrants, defined as speakers of Italian as a…

  13. Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headley, Clea; Campbell, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined primary school teachers' knowledge of anxiety and excessive anxiety symptoms in children. Three hundred and fifteen primary school teachers completed a questionnaire exploring their definitions of anxiety and the indications they associated with excessive anxiety in primary school children. Results showed that teachers had an…

  14. Articulator movement associated with the development of prosodic control in children.

    PubMed

    Grigos, Maria I; Patel, Rupal

    2007-02-01

    This study explored the relationship between articulator movement and prosody in children at different developmental ages. Jaw, lower lip, and upper lip kinematics were examined in 4-, 7-, and 11-year-old children as they produced the declarative and interrogative forms of utterances "Show Bob a bot" and "Show Pop a pot." Articulator movement differences were found between declaratives and interrogatives during the production of vowel and consonant targets. The 7- and 11-year-olds differentiated the duration and displacement of their articulator movements to distinguish between declaratives and interrogatives. Several age-related differences in movement duration between the 4-year-olds and the older participants were associated with the production of these targets. Productions of declaratives and interrogatives were not associated with any significant differences in articulator movement variability, although variability did decrease significantly with maturation. The results suggest that children modify their articulator movements to meet the prosodic and linguistic demands of the task. While 4-year-olds appear to be able to modify lip and jaw movement to mark the declarative-interrogative contrast, refinement of these movements continues throughout childhood.

  15. Abraham Lincoln and Harry Potter: children's differentiation between historical and fantasy characters.

    PubMed

    Corriveau, Kathleen H; Kim, Angie L; Schwalen, Courtney E; Harris, Paul L

    2009-11-01

    Based on the testimony of others, children learn about a variety of figures that they never meet. We ask when and how they are able to differentiate between the historical figures that they learn about (e.g., Abraham Lincoln) and fantasy characters (e.g., Harry Potter). Experiment 1 showed that both younger (3- and 4-year-olds) and older children (5-, 6-, and 7-year-olds) understand the status of familiar figures, correctly judging historical figures to be real and fictional figures to be pretend. However, when presented with information about novel figures embedded in either a realistic narrative or a narrative with obvious fantasy elements, only older children used the narrative to make an appropriate assessment of the status of the protagonist. In Experiment 2, 3-, and 4-year-olds were prompted to judge whether the story events were really possible or not. Those who did so accurately were able to deploy that judgment to correctly assess the status of the protagonist.

  16. Hypermedia in the Teaching of Italian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanne, Signe Marie

    1993-01-01

    Results of a two-year project (L'Italiano interattivo) conducted in collaboration with the Norwegian Computing Centre for the Humanities to produce learner-directed Italian courseware are reported. The SuperCard-developed program allows students to work with video, exercises, grammar, dictionary, or transcripts. (Author/LB)

  17. Informatics Education in Italian Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellettini, Carlo; Lonati, Violetta; Malchiodi, Dario; Monga, Mattia; Morpurgo, Anna; Torelli, Mauro; Zecca, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the state of informatics education in the Italian secondary schools, highlighting how the learning objectives set up by the Ministry of Education are difficult to meet, due to the fact that the subject is often taught by teachers not holding an informatics degree, the lack of suitable teaching material and the expectations…

  18. Written language abilities in deaf Italians.

    PubMed

    Fabbretti, D; Volterra, V; Pontecorvo, C

    1998-01-01

    Written texts produced by 10 Italian deaf native signers in four different writing tasks were analyzed. Data analysis focused on linguistic and orthographic nonstandard forms. The written production of deaf subjects with deaf parents (DD) was compared to the written production in two control groups: a group of 10 hearing subjects with deaf parents (HD) and a group of 10 subjects who have had no contact with deaf people or sign language (HH). The results duplicate findings from previous studies. Deaf subjects display a pattern of selective difficulty with Italian grammatical morphology, especially with free-standing function words. The four different writing tasks used in the present study yield results indicating that text type does influence our assessment of deaf writing abilities. A comparison of the texts written by deaf native signers with those of two hearing groups confirms the view that difficulties in the acquisition of written Italian are best explained by deafness itself, not by the influence of a previously acquired Sign Language, and that the specific difficulties with grammatical morphology displayed by our deaf subjects cannot be attributed solely to their limited experience with written Italian.

  19. Opera: A Natural Component of Italian Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Keith

    1998-01-01

    Presents ideas for a special unit about opera that can be used in high school or college Italian courses. Offers a rationale for using opera, discusses opera in terms of multiple intelligences, explains the integration of an opera unit into regular curriculum, and describes how to develop an opera unit and what concepts to teach. (SM)

  20. Stereotype and Identity: The Italian Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Sorte, Michael A.

    When analyzing the question of ehtnic identity, it is crucial to pay attention to oral history and biographical material: ethnicity is not so much a collective phenomenon as an individual one. For example, much has been written about Italian migration to the United States, but the lives of the ordinary immigrants and the rich detail of their…

  1. Stress Assignment in Reading Italian Polysyllabic Pseudowords

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulpizio, Simone; Arduino, Lisa S.; Paizi, Despina; Burani, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    In 4 naming experiments we investigated how Italian readers assign stress to pseudowords. We assessed whether participants assign stress following distributional information such as stress neighborhood (the proportion and number of existent words sharing orthographic ending and stress pattern) and whether such distributional information affects…

  2. Priming Lexical Stress in Reading Italian Aloud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulpizio, Simone; Job, Remo; Burani, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments using a lexical priming paradigm investigated how stress information is processed in reading Italian words. In both experiments, prime and target words either shared the stress pattern or they had different stress patterns. We expected that lexical activation of the prime would favour the assignment of congruent stress to the…

  3. Lexical Stress Assignment in Italian Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paizi, Despina; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi; Burani, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Stress assignment to Italian polysyllabic words is unpredictable, because stress is neither marked nor predicted by rule. Stress assignment, especially to low frequency words, has been reported to be a function of stress dominance and stress neighbourhood. Two experiments investigate stress assignment in sixth-grade, skilled and dyslexic, readers.…

  4. Self-Employment among Italian Female Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosti, Luisa; Chelli, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the gender impact of tertiary education on the probability of entering and remaining in self-employment. Design/methodology/approach: A data set on labour market flows produced by the Italian National Statistical Office is exploited by interviewing about 62,000 graduate and non-graduate…

  5. Language Access and Theory of Mind Reasoning: Evidence from Deaf Children in Bilingual and Oralist Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meristo, Marek; Falkman, Kerstin W.; Hjelmquist, Erland; Tedoldi, Mariantonia; Surian, Luca; Siegal, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This investigation examined whether access to sign language as a medium for instruction influences theory of mind (ToM) reasoning in deaf children with similar home language environments. Experiment 1 involved 97 deaf Italian children ages 4-12 years: 56 were from deaf families and had LIS (Italian Sign Language) as their native language, and 41…

  6. Children monitor individuals' expertise for word learning.

    PubMed

    Sobel, David M; Corriveau, Kathleen H

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examined preschoolers' ability to learn novel words using others' expertise about objects' nonobvious properties. In Experiment 1, 4-year-olds (n = 24) endorsed individuals' labels for objects based on their differing causal knowledge about those objects. Experiment 2 examined the robustness of this inference and its development. Four-year-olds (n = 40) endorsed labels from confederates who accurately predicted objects' nonobvious internal properties but not nonobvious external properties. Three-year-olds (n = 40) performed at chance levels in both cases and were less likely to recognize the informants' expertise, suggesting that they might be unable to monitor individuals' expertise. These data suggest that children's ability to learn from testimony is necessary for their understanding of the relevance of an individual's expertise.

  7. Nasal foreign body removal in children.

    PubMed

    Kiger, James R; Brenkert, Timothy E; Losek, Joseph D

    2008-11-01

    Nasal foreign bodies in children are often managed in the pediatric emergency department. The child is usually between 2 and 4 years old, and the foreign body is most commonly a plastic toy or bead. Nasal foreign bodies are removed by a number of techniques. Positive-pressure expulsion is accomplished by orally applied pressure via a parent's mouth or an Ambu bag or by nasally applied pressure via a catheter or an oxygen source. The object can be washed out with nasally applied saline. Direct mechanical extraction is possible with a variety of tools, including forceps, hooks, or balloon-tipped catheters. Each method carries its own risks and benefits. Serious complications of nasal foreign bodies include posterior dislodgement and aspiration, trauma caused by the object itself or removal attempts, infection, and choanal stenosis. Magnets and button batteries require emergent removal as they carry the risk of septal perforation or necrosis, which may develop within a relatively short time.

  8. Intersensory Redundancy Hinders Face Discrimination in Preschool Children: Evidence for Visual Facilitation

    PubMed Central

    Bahrick, Lorraine E.; Krogh-Jespersen, Sheila; Argumosa, Melissa A.; Lopez, Hassel

    2014-01-01

    Although infants and children show impressive face processing skills, little research has focused on the conditions that facilitate versus impair face perception. According to the Intersensory Redundancy Hypothesis (IRH), face discrimination, which relies on detection of visual featural information, should be impaired in the context of intersensory redundancy provided by audiovisual speech and enhanced when intersensory redundancy is absent. Evidence of this visual facilitation and intersensory interference was found in a recent study of 2-month-old infants (Bahrick, Lickliter, & Castellanos, in press). The present study is the first to extend tests of this principle of the IRH to children. Using a more difficult face recognition task in the context of a story, results from 4-year old children paralleled those of infants and demonstrate that face discrimination in children is also facilitated by dynamic, visual-only exposure, in the absence of intersensory redundancy. PMID:23795552

  9. [EARLY MOTHER-CHILD BONDING FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CHILDREN OBESITY].

    PubMed

    Vargas Martínez, Gabriela; Cruzat Mandich, Claudia; Díaz Castrillón, Fernanda; Moore Infante, Catalina; Ulloa Jiménez, Valentina

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the experience of a group of mothers with obese children, regarding how early bond affects the relationship that both have with food and this, in turn, impacts on childhood obesity. The present study has a qualitative, exploratory and descriptive design. The sample consists of five chilean women between 22 and 39 years old, with obese children between 2 and 4 years old. In-depth interviews were carried out and open coding strategy was used as method of analysis. Results show a tendency of mothers to establish insecure attachment relations, difficulties of tuning and expression of affection, and a predominance of a permissive parenting style around food. This has important implications for prevention and treatment of obesity, focusing on the attachment bond between mother and child.

  10. Anti-inflammatory therapy for obstructive sleep apnea in children

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Bat-Chen; Goldman, Ran D.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Question A 4-year-old child was diagnosed by polysomnography as experiencing mild obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Despite the child being inattentive and distracted during the day at school, his parents prefer to avoid surgical treatment (adenotonsillectomy). Are there any non-surgical treatments for mild OSA in young children? Answer Obstructive sleep apnea in children is caused mainly by adenotonsillar hypertrophy and can lead to considerable morbidities, including neurocognitive and behavioural disturbances. Surgical removal of the tonsils and adenoids is the treatment of choice. In recent years, however, a new understanding of the inflammatory components of OSA has led to the assumption that anti-inflammatory treatment can reduce adenotonsillar size and improve OSA symptoms. Evidence from a few studies suggests that intranasal steroids and oral leukotriene receptor antagonists have beneficial effects, but data from randomized controlled trials are still lacking. PMID:21841108

  11. Children in Asian cultures say yes to yes-no questions: Common and cultural differences between Vietnamese and Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Okanda, Mako; Itakura, Shoji

    2008-03-01

    We investigated whether children's response tendency toward yes-no questions concerning objects is a common phenomenon regardless of languages and cultures. Vietnamese and Japanese 2- to 5-year-old (N = 108) were investigated. We also examined whether familiarity with the questioning issue has any effect on Asian children's yes bias. As the result, Asian children showed a yes bias to yes-no questions. The children's response tendency changes dramatically with their age: Vietnamese and Japanese 2- and 3-year-olds showed a yes bias, but 5-year-olds did not. However, Asian 4-year-olds also showed a yes bias only in the familiar condition. Also, Asian children showed a stronger yes bias in the familiar condition than the unfamiliar condition. These two findings in Asian children were different from the previous finding investigated North American children (Fritzley & Lee, 2003). Moreover, there was a within-Asian cross-cultural difference. Japanese children showed different response tendencies, which were rarely observed in Vietnamese children. Japanese 2-year-olds and some 3-year-olds showed a "no answer" response: they tended not to respond to an interviewer's questions. Japanese 4- and 5-year-olds also showed an "I don't know" response when they were asked about unfamiliar objects. Japanese children tended to avoid a binary decision. We discussed the cross-cultural differences.

  12. Memory B cell compartment constitution and susceptibility to recurrent lower respiratory tract infections in young children.

    PubMed

    Siebert, Johan N; L'huillier, Arnaud G; Grillet, Stéphane; Delhumeau, Cécile; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Posfay-Barbe, Klara M

    2013-06-01

    A proportion of children have recurrent LRTIs, mostly as a result of Spn, which persist after 2 years of age. Here, we investigate, by flow cytofluorometry, the constitution of the memory B cell compartment in 90 healthy children and 49 children with recurrent LRTIs to determine if an increased susceptibility to recurrent LRTIs results from a delayed or abnormal ontogeny with poor antibody-mediated protection. Total IgA, IgM, IgG, and IgG subclasses were measured by nephelometry, as well as antipneumococcal antibodies by ELISA. Pneumococcal vaccination status was obtained. We show that the memory B cells increase between birth and 2 years of age (1.6% vs. 21.1%, P<0.001) without further significant increase noted per additional years (3-4 years old: 23.3%; 4-5 years old: 22.2%, P>0.40) to reach adult-like values (31.8±11.8%, P=0.08). Proportions of switched and IgM memory B cells were similar in children and adults. Comparatively, LRTI children had no delay in the constitution of their memory B cell compartment (2-3 years old: 26.9%; 3-4 years old: 18.2%; 4-5 years old: 26.8%, P>0.05). Their switched and IgM memory B cells were similar among age categories, and the distribution was overall similar to that of healthy controls. LRTI children had normal total and pneumococcal serotype-specific antibody values but showed a rapid waning of antipneumococcal antibody levels after vaccination. In summary, our results show that the memory B cell compartment is already similarly constituted at 2 years of age in healthy and LRTI children and thus, cannot explain the increased susceptibility to bacterial pneumonia. However, the waning of antibodies might predispose children to recurrent infections in the absence of revaccination.

  13. Syllabic effects in Italian lexical access.

    PubMed

    Tagliapietra, Lara; Fanari, R; Collina, S; Tabossi, P

    2009-12-01

    Two cross-modal priming experiments tested whether lexical access is constrained by syllabic structure in Italian. Results extend the available Italian data on the processing of stressed syllables showing that syllabic information restricts the set of candidates to those structurally consistent with the intended word (Experiment 1). Lexical access, however, takes place as soon as possible and it is not delayed till the incoming input corresponds to the first syllable of the word. And, the initial activated set includes candidates whose syllabic structure does not match the intended word (Experiment 2). The present data challenge the early hypothesis that in Romance languages syllables are the units for lexical access during spoken word recognition. The implications of the results for our understanding of the role of syllabic information in language processing are discussed.

  14. Great landslide events in Italian artificial reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panizzo, A.; de Girolamo, P.; di Risio, M.; Maistri, A.; Petaccia, A.

    2005-09-01

    The empirical formulations to forecast landslide generated water waves, recently defined in the framework of a research program funded by the Italian National Dam Office RID (Registro Italiano Dighe), are here used to study three real cases of subaerial landslides which fell down italian artificial reservoirs. It is well known that impulse water waves generated by landslides constitute a very dangerous menace for human communities living in the shoreline of the artificial basin or downstream the dam. In 1963, the menace became tragedy, when a 270 millions m3 landslide fell down the Vajont reservoir (Italy), generated an impulse wave which destroyed the city of Longarone, and killed 2000 people. The paper is aimed at presenting the very satisfactorily reproduction of the events at hand by using forecasting formulations.

  15. Internet addiction disorder: an Italian study.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Giovanni; Caci, Barbara; D'Amico, Antonella; Di Blasi, Marie

    2007-04-01

    The Italian version of the Young's Internet Addiction Test (IAT) was administered online to a sample of Italian chatters (n = 236) who were different in terms of gender, age, and occupation. Results revealed that young users are more at-risk subjects for Internet addiction than adults, perceiving a compromised social and individual quality of their life that led them to make a compensatory usage of the Internet. Similarly, employed users perceive their social and individual quality of life as more compromised by the Internet than students. Moreover, subjects who declared spending much time online obtained IAT scores higher than others in all the IAT subscales. Finally, nightly users are more at-risk subjects for developing an Internet addiction disorder, diminishing their individual quality of life and disabling their time control.

  16. The Italian Dementia National Plan. Commentary.

    PubMed

    Di Fiandra, Teresa; Canevelli, Marco; Di Pucchio, Alessandra; Vanacore, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The Italian Dementia National Plan was formulated in October 2014 by the Italian Ministry of Health in close cooperation with the regions, the National Institute of Health and the three major national associations of patients and carers. The main purpose of this strategy was to provide directive indications for promoting and improving interventions in the dementia field, not limiting to specialist and therapeutic actions, but particularly focusing on the support of patients and families throughout the pathways of care. Four main objectives are indicated: 1) promote health- and social-care interventions and policies; 2) create/strengthen the integrated network of services for dementia based on an integrated approach; 3) implement strategies for promoting appropriateness and quality of care; and 4) improve the quality of life of persons with dementia and their families by supporting empowerment and stigma reduction. These objectives and the pertaining actions are described in the present paper.

  17. The Italian contribution to the CSES satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, Livio

    2016-04-01

    We present the Italian contribution to the CSES (China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite) mission. The CSES satellite aims at investigating electromagnetic field, plasma and particles in the near-Earth environment in order to study in particular seismic precursors, particles fluxes (from Van Allen belts, cosmic rays, solar wind, etc.), anthropogenic electromagnetic pollution and more in general the atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling mechanisms that can affect the climate changes. The launch of CSES - the first of a series of several satellite missions - is scheduled by the end of 2016. The CSES satellite has been financed by the CNSA (China National Space Agency) and developed by CEA (China Earthquake Administration) together with several Chinese research institutes and private companies such as the DFH (that has developed the CAST2000 satellite platform). Italy participates to the CSES satellite mission with the LIMADOU project funded by ASI (Italian Space Agency) in collaboration with the Universities of Roma Tor Vergata, Uninettuno, Trento, Bologna and Perugia, as well as the INFN (Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics), INGV (Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology) and INAF-IAPS (Italian National Institute of Astrophysics and Planetology). Many analyses have shown that satellite observations of electromagnetic fields, plasma parameters and particle fluxes in low Earth orbit may be useful in order to study the existence of electromagnetic emissions associated with the occurrence of earthquakes of medium and high magnitude. Although the earthquakes forecasting is not possible today, it is certainly a major challenge - and perhaps even a duty - for science in the near future. The claims that the reported anomalies (of electromagnetic, plasma and particle parameters) are seismic precursors are still intensely debated and analyses for confirming claimed correlations are still lacking. In fact, ionospheric currents, plasma

  18. Haemoglobin Hasharon in a north Italian community.

    PubMed Central

    Alberti, R; Mariuzzi, G M; Marinucci, M; Bruni, E; Tenteri, L

    1975-01-01

    A survey of haemoglobin variants undertakin in an Italian community (Polesine) has revealed the presence of haemoglobin Hasharon (alpha2 47 Asp yields His beta2) in 108 subjects from 40 families. The variant accounted for 30 to 40% of the total haemoglobin. In subjects doubly heterozygous for Hb Hasharon and beta thalassaemia, the proportion was 17 to 19%. Though there was some evidence that the variant was unstable in vitro, there was no obvious haemoglobinopathy in vivo. Images PMID:1177281

  19. Residential construction cost: An Italian survey.

    PubMed

    Canesi, Rubina; Marella, Giuliano

    2017-04-01

    This paper reports data describing development projects for new buildings according to construction costs in North-East Italy. A survey was carried out on local companies undertaking new residential development projects in two Italian regions (Veneto and Lombardy). The aim of this survey was to record new real estate construction projects, collecting both technical and socio-economic cost features. It is extremely difficult to collect such data for the Italian real estate construction sector, due to its lack of transparency, so that the novelty for the Italian scenario is the dataset itself. Another interest perspective of this survey is that socio-economic characteristics were also recorded; they are often studied in urban economics, but are usually related to property purchase prices and values, not to construction costs. The data come from an analysis of Canesi and Marella regarding the relationship between the trend of construction costs and the socio-economic conditions of the reference setting, such as the mean years of schooling of the workforce, housing market trends, and average per capita income.

  20. Itineraries and specificities of Italian medical anthropology.

    PubMed

    Seppilli, Tullio

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes the birth (or rebirth) of Italian medical anthropology around the middle of the 1950s, and its subsequent complex development up to the present. During this fairly long process, the author played a role that was probably of some importance, that of both a direct witness and active participant. Here these developments are briefly reviewed, in an attempt to single out some of the stimuli and the most significant occasions that have happened, their theoretical and methodological reference points, the main lines of research that have been tackled along the way, as well as the 'social demand' and the 'social use' that have integrated and oriented the practice of the new discipline within the horizon of some of the more general problems of Italian society. In outlining here the profile of and the various events in Italian medical anthropology, this paper takes into account the fact that, although a medical anthropology with that name and the disciplinary set-up that are now internationally attributed to it began in Italy only in the mid-1950s, important lines of research to which we would today attach that name had been undertaken long ago.