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Sample records for 4-year-old italian children

  1. False belief understanding and “cool” inhibitory control in 3-and 4-years-old Italian children

    PubMed Central

    Bellagamba, Francesca; Addessi, Elsa; Focaroli, Valentina; Pecora, Giulia; Maggiorelli, Valentina; Pace, Beatrice; Paglieri, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    During preschool years, major developments occur in both executive function and theory of mind (ToM), and several studies have demonstrated a correlation between these processes. Research on the development of inhibitory control (IC) has distinguished between more cognitive, “cool” aspects of self-control, measured by conflict tasks, that require inhibiting an habitual response to generate an arbitrary one, and “hot,” affective aspects, such as affective decision making, measured by delay tasks, that require inhibition of a prepotent response. The aim of this study was to investigate the relations between 3- and 4-year-olds’ performance on a task measuring false belief understanding, the most widely used index of ToM in preschoolers, and three tasks measuring cognitive versus affective aspects of IC. To this end, we tested 101 Italian preschool children in four tasks: (a) the Unexpected Content False Belief task, (b) the Conflict task (a simplified version of the Day–Night Stroop task), (c) the Delay task, and (d) the Delay Choice task. Children’s receptive vocabulary was assessed by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary test. Children’s performance in the False Belief task was significantly related only to performance in the Conflict task, controlling for vocabulary and age. Importantly, children’s performance in the Conflict task did not significantly correlate with their performance in the Delay task or in the Delay Choice task, suggesting that these tasks measure different components of IC. The dissociation between the Conflict and the Delay tasks may indicate that monitoring and regulating a cool process (as flexible categorization) may involve different abilities than monitoring and regulating a hot process (not touching an available and highly attractive stimulus or choosing between a smaller immediate option and a larger delayed one). Moreover, our findings support the view that “cool” aspects of IC and ToM are interrelated, extending to an

  2. Dynamics of hand preference in 4 year-old children.

    PubMed

    Rostoft, M S; Sigmundsson, H; Whiting, H T A; Ingvaldsen, R P

    2002-04-15

    Hand preference in groups of 4 year-old children towards either end of the skill continuum (as determined by the Movement ABC test) was explored by means of a catching task in which the 'direction of approach of the ball' was used as a control parameter within a dynamical systems framework. In Condition 1, the ball direction was systematically scaled in degrees from the right side of the subject to the left and vice versa. In Condition 2, the spatial location of the ball direction was varied randomly, rather than systematically, over the same range as for Condition 1. In both conditions, the two groups of children were shown to switch between hands (from left to right and vice versa) at well-defined positions on the scale. The different scale values obtained when ball direction was scaled from left to right compared with right to left were used to define hysteresis areas. These areas were more extensive and located more to the left of the midline for the group towards the less skilled end of the continuum than for those towards the more skilled end. Additionally, the less-skilled children were shown to use the right hand more to catch the balls delivered to the left side than did the more skilled children. In Condition 3, objects were placed on the table of the ball-delivery apparatus in order to make the catching action more complicated. The less skilled group were shown to use the right hand more than the left hand in all catching positions whereas the more skilled group showed an equal usage of both catching regimes.

  3. A Gender Comparison of the Cooperation of 4-Year-Old Children in Classroom Activity Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Genan T.; Hilton, Sterling C.; Wouden-Miller, Melissa

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the proportion of cooperative play in 4-year-old children across centers (housekeeping, block, manipulative, and computer) and gender in a natural classroom setting. Eighty-four white, middle-income children (41 boys and 43 girls, mean age = 55 months) were videotaped during free-play for 30 minutes per day for four weeks in…

  4. Effects of a Full-Day Preschool Program on 4-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herry, Yves; Maltais, Claire; Thompson, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the effects of a full-day preschool program on 4-year-old children. The study compared the development of a group of children (N = 403) who attended the preschool program on a half-day basis during the 1999-2000 school year (the last year the half-day program was in place) with the development of a group of children (N = 418)…

  5. Predictive indicators for adjustment in 4-year-old children whose mothers used amphetamine during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Billing, L; Eriksson, M; Steneroth, G; Zetterström, R

    1988-01-01

    Psychosocial factors that could be used as predictive indicators for adjustment of 4-year-old children whose mothers had used amphetamine during pregnancy were studied by means of simple and multivariate correlation analyses. The following statistically significant correlations were found: Length of maternal alcohol and drug abuse during pregnancy was correlated negatively with the child's adjustment as were numbers of paternal criminal convictions, number of stress factors of the mother, and number of earlier children born to the mother. Paternal criminality was associated with the outcome, regardless of amount of contact between father and child.

  6. Total Body Fat Content versus BMI in 4-Year-Old Healthy Swedish Children

    PubMed Central

    Forsum, Elisabet; Flinke Carlsson, Eva; Henriksson, Hanna; Henriksson, Pontus; Löf, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity, a worldwide problem, is generally identified using BMI (body mass index). However, this application of BMI has been little investigated in children below 5 years of age due to a lack of appropriate methods to assess body composition. Therefore, we used air displacement plethysmography (ADP) to study 4.4-year old boys and girls since this method is accurate in young children if they accept the requirements of the measurement. The purpose was to analyze the relationship between BMI and body fat in these children. Body composition was assessed in 76 (43 boys, 33 girls) of the 84 children brought to the measurement session. Boys and girls contained 25.2 ± 4.7 and 26.8 ± 4.0% body fat, respectively. BMI-based cut-offs for overweight could not effectively identify children with a high body fat content. There was a significant (P < 0.001) but weak (r = 0.39) correlation between BMI and body fat (%). In conclusion, requirements associated with a successful assessment of body composition by means of ADP were accepted by most 4-year-olds. Furthermore, BMI-based cut-offs for overweight did not effectively identify children with a high body fatness and BMI explained only a small proportion of the variation in body fat (%) in this age group. PMID:23606949

  7. Traffic-related air pollution is related to interrupter resistance in 4-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Eenhuizen, Esther; Gehring, Ulrike; Wijga, Alet H; Smit, Henriette A; Fischer, Paul H; Brauer, Michael; Koppelman, Gerard H; Kerkhof, Marjan; de Jongste, Johan C; Brunekreef, Bert; Hoek, Gerard

    2013-06-01

    Outdoor air pollution has been associated with decrements in lung function and growth of lung function in school-age children. Lung function effects have not been examined in preschoolers, with the exception of one study on minute ventilation in newborns. Our goal was to assess the relationship between long- and short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and interrupter resistance in 4-year-old children. Lung function was measured using the interrupter resistance method in children participating in a Dutch birth cohort study. Long-term average air pollution concentrations of fine particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide and soot at the residential address at birth were assessed using land-use regression models. Daily average air pollution concentrations on the day of clinical examination were obtained from the Dutch National Air Quality Monitoring Network. Significant associations were found between long-term average air pollution concentrations and interrupter resistance. Interrupter resistance increased by 0.04 kPa·s·L(-1) (95% CI 0.01-0.07) per interquartile range increase (3.3 μg·m(-3)) in fine particle concentration. Short-term exposure was not associated with interrupter resistance. Long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution was associated with increased interrupter resistance in 4-year-old children, supporting previous birth cohort studies reporting effects of air pollution on subjectively reported respiratory symptoms in preschool children.

  8. Phonological awareness and phonemic perception in 4-year-old children with delayed expressive phonology skills.

    PubMed

    Rvachew, Susan; Ohberg, Alyssa; Grawburg, Meghann; Heyding, Joan

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the phonological awareness abilities of 2 groups of 4-year-old children: one with normally developing speech and language skills and the other with moderately or severely delayed expressive phonological skills but age-appropriate receptive vocabulary skills. Each group received tests of articulation, receptive vocabulary, phonemic perception, early literacy, and phonological awareness skills. The groups were matched for receptive language skills, age, socioeconomic status, and emergent literacy knowledge. The children with expressive phonological delays demonstrated significantly poorer phonemic perception and phonological awareness skills than their normally developing peers. The results suggest that preschool children with delayed expressive phonological abilities should be screened for their phonological awareness skills even when their language skills are otherwise normally developing. PMID:14658998

  9. Children's Spatial Representations: 3- and 4-Year-Olds are Affected by Irrelevant Peripheral References.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Markus; Jahn, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Children as young as 3 years can remember an object's location within an arrangement and can retrieve it from a novel viewpoint (Nardini et al., 2006). However, this ability is impaired if the arrangement is rotated to compensate for the novel viewpoint, or, if the arrangement is rotated and children stand still. There are two dominant explanations for this phenomenon: self-motion induces an automatic spatial updating process which is beneficial if children move around the arrangement, but misleading if the children's movement is matched by the arrangement and not activated if children stand still and only the arrangement is moved (see spatial updating; Simons and Wang, 1998). Another explanation concerns reference frames: spatial representations might depend on peripheral spatial relations concerning the surrounding room instead on proximal relations within the arrangement, even if these proximal relations are sufficient or more informative. To evaluate these possibilities, we rotated children (N = 120) aged between 3 and 6 years with an occluded arrangement. When the arrangement was in misalignment to the surrounding room, 3- and 4-year-olds' spatial memory was impaired and 5-year-olds' was lightly impaired suggesting that they relied on peripheral references of the surrounding room for retrieval. In contrast, 6-years-olds' spatial representation seemed robust against misalignment indicating a successful integration of spatial representations. PMID:26617537

  10. Visual access trumps gender in 3- and 4-year-old children's endorsement of testimony.

    PubMed

    Terrier, Nathalie; Bernard, Stéphane; Mercier, Hugo; Clément, Fabrice

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have investigated how preschoolers weigh social cues against epistemic cues when taking testimony into account. For instance, one study showed that 4- and 5-year-olds preferred to endorse the testimony of an informant who had the same gender as the children; by contrast, when the gender cue conflicted with an epistemic cue--past reliability--the latter trumped the former. None of the previous studies, however, has shown that 3-year-olds can prioritize an epistemic cue over a social cue. In Experiment 1, we offer the first demonstration that 3-year-olds favor testimony from a same-gender informant in the absence of other cues. In Experiments 2 and 3, an epistemic cue-visual access--was introduced. In those experiments, 3- and 4-year-olds endorsed the testimony of the informant with visual access regardless of whether it was a same-gender informant (Experiment 3) or a different-gender informant (Experiment 2). These results demonstrate that 3-year-olds are able to give more weight to an epistemic cue than to a social cue when evaluating testimony.

  11. Maternal child-feeding practices and dietary inadequacy of 4-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Durão, Catarina; Andreozzi, Valeska; Oliveira, Andreia; Moreira, Pedro; Guerra, António; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the association between maternal perceived responsibility and child-feeding practices and dietary inadequacy of 4-year-old children. We studied 4122 mothers and children enrolled in the population-based birth cohort - Generation XXI (Porto, Portugal). Mothers self-completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire and a scale on covert and overt control, and answered to a food frequency questionnaire in face-to-face interviews. Using dietary guidelines for preschool children, adequacy intervals were defined: fruit and vegetables (F&V) 4-7 times/day; dairy 3-5 times/day; meat and eggs 5-10 times/week; fish 2-4 times/week. Inadequacy was considered as below or above these cut-points. For energy-dense micronutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDF), a tolerable limit was defined (<6 times/week). Associations between maternal perceived responsibility and child-feeding practices (restriction, monitoring, pressure to eat, overt and covert control) and children's diet were examined by logistic regression models. After adjustment for maternal BMI, education, and diet, and children's characteristics (sex, BMI z-scores), restriction, monitoring, overt and covert control were associated with 11-18% lower odds of F&V consumption below the interval defined as adequate. Overt control was also associated with 24% higher odds of their consumption above it. Higher perceived responsibility was associated with higher odds of children consuming F&V and dairy above recommendations. Pressure to eat was positively associated with consumption of dairy above the adequate interval. Except for pressure to eat, maternal practices were associated with 14-27% lower odds of inadequate consumption of EDF. In conclusion, children whose mothers had higher levels of covert control, monitoring, and restriction were less likely to consume F&V below recommendations and EDF above tolerable limits. Higher overt control and pressure to eat were associated, respectively, with higher

  12. Effectiveness of a Fundamental Motor Skill Intervention for 4-Year-Old Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremer, Emily; Balogh, Robert; Lloyd, Meghann

    2015-01-01

    A wait-list control experimental design was employed to investigate the effectiveness of a fundamental motor skill intervention at improving the motor skills, adaptive behavior, and social skills of 4-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (experimental n?=?5, control n?=?4); the impact of intervention intensity was also explored. The…

  13. Fathers' challenging parenting behavior prevents social anxiety development in their 4-year-old children: a longitudinal observational study.

    PubMed

    Majdandžić, Mirjana; Möller, Eline L; de Vente, Wieke; Bögels, Susan M; van den Boom, Dymphna C

    2014-02-01

    Recent models on parenting propose different roles for fathers and mothers in the development of child anxiety. Specifically, it is suggested that fathers' challenging parenting behavior, in which the child is playfully encouraged to push her limits, buffers against child anxiety. In this longitudinal study, we explored whether the effect of challenging parenting on children's social anxiety differed between fathers and mothers. Fathers and mothers from 94 families were separately observed with their two children (44 % girls), aged 2 and 4 years at Time 1, in three structured situations involving one puzzle task and two games. Overinvolved and challenging parenting behavior were coded. Child social anxiety was measured by observing the child's response to a stranger at Time 1, and half a year later at Time 2, and by parental ratings. In line with predictions, father's challenging parenting behavior predicted less subsequent observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. Mothers' challenging behavior, however, predicted more observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old. Parents' overinvolvement at Time 1 did not predict change in observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. For the 2-year-old child, maternal and paternal parenting behavior did not predict subsequent social anxiety, but early social anxiety marginally did. Parent-rated social anxiety was predicted by previous parental ratings of social anxiety, and not by parenting behavior. Challenging parenting behavior appears to have favorable effects on observed 4-year-old's social anxiety when displayed by the father. Challenging parenting behavior emerges as an important focus for future research and interventions.

  14. Fathers' challenging parenting behavior prevents social anxiety development in their 4-year-old children: a longitudinal observational study.

    PubMed

    Majdandžić, Mirjana; Möller, Eline L; de Vente, Wieke; Bögels, Susan M; van den Boom, Dymphna C

    2014-02-01

    Recent models on parenting propose different roles for fathers and mothers in the development of child anxiety. Specifically, it is suggested that fathers' challenging parenting behavior, in which the child is playfully encouraged to push her limits, buffers against child anxiety. In this longitudinal study, we explored whether the effect of challenging parenting on children's social anxiety differed between fathers and mothers. Fathers and mothers from 94 families were separately observed with their two children (44 % girls), aged 2 and 4 years at Time 1, in three structured situations involving one puzzle task and two games. Overinvolved and challenging parenting behavior were coded. Child social anxiety was measured by observing the child's response to a stranger at Time 1, and half a year later at Time 2, and by parental ratings. In line with predictions, father's challenging parenting behavior predicted less subsequent observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. Mothers' challenging behavior, however, predicted more observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old. Parents' overinvolvement at Time 1 did not predict change in observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. For the 2-year-old child, maternal and paternal parenting behavior did not predict subsequent social anxiety, but early social anxiety marginally did. Parent-rated social anxiety was predicted by previous parental ratings of social anxiety, and not by parenting behavior. Challenging parenting behavior appears to have favorable effects on observed 4-year-old's social anxiety when displayed by the father. Challenging parenting behavior emerges as an important focus for future research and interventions. PMID:23812638

  15. Taxometric Analyses of Specific Language Impairment in 3- And 4-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollaghan, Christine A.

    2004-01-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI), like many diagnostic labels for complex behavioral conditions, is often assumed to define a category of children who differ not only in degree but also in kind from children developing language normally. Although this assumption has important implications for theoretical models and clinical approaches, its…

  16. A Measure of Inspection Time in 4-Year-Old Children: The Benny Bee IT Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Sarah E.; Turley, Christopher; Nettelbeck, Ted; Burns, Nicholas R.

    2009-01-01

    Inspection time (IT) measures speed of information processing without the confounding influence of motor speed. While IT has been found to relate to cognitive abilities in adults and older children, no measure of IT has been validated for use with children younger than 6 years. This study examined the validity of a new measure of IT for preschool…

  17. Magnesium metabolism in 4-year-old to 8-year-old children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Magnesium (Mg) is a key factor in bone health, but few studies have evaluated Mg intake or absorption and their relationship with bone mineral content (BMC) or bone mineral density (BMD) in children. We measured Mg intake, absorption, and urinary excretion in a group of children 4 to 8 years of age....

  18. Intelligibility of 4-Year-Old Children with and without Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustad, Katherine C.; Schueler, Brynn; Schultz, Laurel; DuHadway, Caitlin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examined speech intelligibility in typically developing (TD) children and 3 groups of children with cerebral palsy (CP) who were classified into speech/language profile groups following Hustad, Gorton, and Lee (2010). Questions addressed differences in transcription intelligibility scores among groups, the effects of utterance…

  19. Intelligibility of 4 year old children with and without cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Hustad, Katherine C.; Schueler, Brynn; Schultz, Laurel; DuHadway, Caitlin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We examined speech intelligibility in typically developing (TD) children and three groups of children with cerebral palsy (CP) who were classified into speech / language profile groups following Hustad et al. (2010). Questions addressed differences in transcription intelligibility scores among groups, the effects of utterance length on intelligibility, the relationship between ordinal ratings of intelligibility and orthographic transcription intelligibility scores, and the difference between parent and naïve listener ordinal ratings. Method Speech samples varying in length from 1–7 words were elicited from 23 children with CP (mean age 54.3 months) and 20 typically developing children (mean age 55.1 months). 215 naïve listeners made orthographic transcriptions and ordinal ratings of intelligibility. Parent ordinal ratings of intelligibility were obtained from a previous study (Hustad et al., 2010). Results Intelligibility varied with speech / language profile group and utterance length, with different patterns observed by profile group. Ratings of intelligibility by parents and naïve listeners did not differ and were both highly correlated with transcription intelligibility scores. Conclusions Intelligibility was reduced for all groups of children with CP relative to TD children, suggesting the importance of speech-language intervention and the need for research investigating variables associated with changes in intelligibility in children. PMID:22232403

  20. Magnesium metabolism in 4-year-old to 8-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Steven A; Chen, Zhensheng; Hawthorne, Keli M

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is a key factor in bone health, but few studies have evaluated Mg intake or absorption and their relationship with bone mineral content (BMC) or bone mineral density (BMD) in children. We measured Mg intake, absorption, and urinary excretion in a group of children 4 to 8 years of age. Mg absorption was determined using a dual-tracer stable isotope technique, with (25) Mg given intravenously and (26) Mg given orally. We found a small, but significantly greater Mg absorption efficiency (percentage absorption) in males than females (67% ± 12% versus 60% ± 8%, p = 0.02) but no difference in estimated net Mg retention (average of 37 mg/d in both males and females). Relating dietary Mg intake to estimated Mg retention showed that an intake of 133 mg/d, slightly above the current estimated average requirement (EAR) of 110 mg/d, led to a net average retention of 10 mg/d, the likely minimum growth-related need for this age group. Covariate analysis showed that Mg intake and total Mg absorption, but not calcium intake or total absorption were significantly associated with both total body BMC and BMD. These results suggest that usual Mg intakes in small children in the United States meet dietary requirements in most but not all children. Within the usual range of children's diets in the United States, dietary Mg intake and absorption may be important, relatively unrecognized factors in bone health.

  1. [MusicPlayTherapy--a parent-child psychotherapy for children 0-4 years old].

    PubMed

    Stumptner, Katrin; Thomsen, Cornelia

    2005-10-01

    The early stage of building up the parent-child relationship is especially important. It is the basis for the child's development of the ability to relate to others and his or her further emotional, social and cognitive development. In this important early phase various risk factors may alienate parents from their intuitive parental competence towards their children. Such interaction problems indicate an intervention in the form of parent-children psychotherapy. This constitutes an entry point for the concept of MusicPlayTherapy (MPT): The early relationship is characterized mainly by complex communication sequences that address the senses at all levels. Therefore, the MPT concept integrates music as medium to communicate and opens up a playing space for play that allows emotions and experiences to be expressed. The components of music such as rhythm, sound, and melody stimulate babies and toddlers to express, play, and communicate preverbally. We work with the child and a parent in the MusicPlayTherapy sessions. Parents learn again to play and thereby learn to reach their children emotionally and to communicate with them. We complement the therapy sessions by counselling sessions with both parents.

  2. Occlusal relationships and spacing or crowding of teeth in the dentitions of 3-4-year-old Nigerian children.

    PubMed

    Otuyemi, O D; Sote, E O; Isiekwe, M C; Jones, S P

    1997-09-01

    A study of 525 3-4-year-old children in nursery schools and day-care centres was carried out to assess occlusal relationships and the presence of spacing or crowding of teeth. No significant differences in occlusal relationships were found between boys and girls (P > 0.05). Bilateral straight terminal planes of molars and class 1 canine relationship were the most prevalent features (74.5% and 73.3% respectively). Most of the children had 'normal' vertical and transverse occlusal relationships. The most common sites of spacing were mesial to maxillary canines and distal to mandibular canines. 32% of the children were found to have generalized anterior segment spacing, 4% showed exclusively anthropoid spaces, and 18% had either contact between all the teeth or crowding in the anterior region.

  3. Gait parameters associated with balance in healthy 2- to 4-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Guffey, Keegan; Regier, Michael; Mancinelli, Corrie; Pergami, Paola

    2016-01-01

    The use of validated measurements of gait and balance are crucial to establish baseline function and assess effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. Gait in children changes with motor development requiring frequent observations to effectively track progress. Standardized baseline spatiotemporal measurements and a greater understanding of the relationship between gait and balance would provide important feedback to clinicians regarding the effectiveness of rehabilitation and guide treatment modifications. 84 subjects (2.0-4.9 years) walked along the GAITRite(®), a walkway that records spatiotemporal parameters. The Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS) was administered to assess balance. Comparison of spatiotemporal parameter means between age groups showed trends associated with motor development similar to the ones described in the literature such as decreased cadence and increased step/stride length with increasing age. However, no significant differences in normalized spatiotemporal parameters were found between age groups. Age, leg length, cadence, step/stride length, step/stance time, and single/double support time showed significant correlation with balance scores. When the parameters were grouped into spatial, temporal, and age-related components using principal components analysis and included in a multiple regression model, they significantly predicted 51% of the balance score variance. Age-related components most strongly predicted balance outcomes. We suggest that balance can potentially be evaluated by assessment of spatial, temporal, and age-related characteristics of gait such as step length, cadence, and leg length. This suggests the possibility of developing new gait measurement technology that could provide functional assessment and track improvements during rehabilitation regimens. If the same model can be applied to monitor treatment efficacy in children with gait abnormalities remains to be addressed.

  4. Effectiveness of a fundamental motor skill intervention for 4-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bremer, Emily; Balogh, Robert; Lloyd, Meghann

    2015-11-01

    A wait-list control experimental design was employed to investigate the effectiveness of a fundamental motor skill intervention at improving the motor skills, adaptive behavior, and social skills of 4-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (experimental n = 5, control n = 4); the impact of intervention intensity was also explored. The experimental group significantly improved their object manipulation and overall motor scores from pre- to post-intervention. The wait-list control design revealed no group-by-time interactions; however, with the groups combined time was a significant factor for all motor variables. There were no significant changes in adaptive behavior and social skills. These preliminary findings suggest that a fundamental motor skill intervention may benefit young children with autism spectrum disorder. Future research with larger samples is warranted.

  5. The effect of verbal reminders on memory reactivation in 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Imuta, Kana; Scarf, Damian; Hayne, Harlene

    2013-06-01

    For adults, verbal reminders provide a powerful key to unlock our memories. For example, a simple question, such as "Do you remember your wedding day?" can reactivate rich memories of the past, allowing us to recall experiences that may have occurred days, weeks, and even decades earlier. The ability to use another person's language to access our memory of a prior experience is considered to be one of the hallmarks in human memory development, but surprisingly, little is known about the ontogeny of this fundamental ability. Prior research has shown that by 4 years of age, children can use a simple verbal reminder (e.g., "Do you remember coming here before?") to reactivate an otherwise inaccessible memory of a unique visual stimulus. Given that language comprehension precedes production, it has been hypothesized that the ability to use verbal reminders may emerge well before 4 years of age. In the present experiment, we tested this hypothesis by examining whether a verbal reminder reactivated memory in 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old children who were tested using the visual-paired comparison (VPC) paradigm. Our findings showed that the ability to exploit a simple verbal reminder emerges by at least 2 years of age. PMID:22822936

  6. Calibration and Validation of a Wrist- and Hip-Worn Actigraph Accelerometer in 4-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Elin; Larisch, Lisa-Marie; Marcus, Claude; Hagströmer, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To determine time spent at different physical activity intensities, accelerometers need calibration. The aim of this study was to develop and cross-validate intensity thresholds for the Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer for wrist and hip placement in four-year-old children. Methods In total 30 children (49 months, SD 3.7) were recruited from five preschools in Stockholm. Equipped with an accelerometer on the wrist and another on the hip, children performed three indoor activities and one free-play session while being video recorded. Subsequently, physical activity intensity levels were coded every 5th second according to the Children’s Activity Rating Scale. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves was used to develop wrist and hip intensity thresholds, the upper threshold for sedentary, and lower threshold for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), for the vertical axis (VA) and for the vector magnitude (VM). A leave-one-out method was used to cross-validate the thresholds. Results Intensity thresholds for wrist placement were ≤ 178 (VA) and ≤ 328 (VM) for sedentary and ≥ 871 (VA) and ≥ 1393 (VM) counts/5 seconds for MVPA. The corresponding thresholds for hip placement were ≤ 43 (VA) and ≤ 105 (VM) for sedentary and ≥ 290 (VA) and ≥ 512 (VM) for MVPA. The quadratic weighted Kappa was 0.92 (95% CI 0.91–0.93) (VA) and 0.95 (95% CI 0.94–0.96) (VM) for the wrist-worn accelerometer and 0.76 (98% CI 0.74–0.77) and 0.86 (95% CI 0.85–0.87) for the hip-worn. Conclusion Using wrist placement and the VM when measuring physical activity with accelerometry in 4-year-old children is recommended. PMID:27617962

  7. Looking but Not Seeing: Atypical Visual Scanning and Recognition of Faces in 2 and 4-Year-Old Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chawarska, Katarzyna; Shic, Frederick

    2009-01-01

    This study used eye-tracking to examine visual scanning and recognition of faces by 2- and 4-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (N = 44) and typically developing (TD) controls (N = 30). TD toddlers at both age levels scanned and recognized faces similarly. Toddlers with ASD looked increasingly away from faces with age,…

  8. An Investigation of Four Hypotheses Concerning the Order by Which 4-Year-Old Children Learn the Alphabet Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justice, Laura M.; Pence, Khara; Bowles, Ryan B.; Wiggins, Alice

    2006-01-01

    This study tested four complementary hypotheses to characterize intrinsic and extrinsic influences on the order with which preschool children learn the names of individual alphabet letters. The hypotheses included: (a) "own-name advantage," which states that children learn those letters earlier which occur in their own names, (b) the "letter-order…

  9. A Prosodically Controlled Word and Nonword Repetition Task for 2- To 4-Year-Olds: Evidence from Typically Developing Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Penny; Chiat, Shula

    2004-01-01

    An association has been found between nonword repetition and language skills in school-age children with both typical and atypical language development (C. Dollaghan & T. F. Campbell, 1998; S. Ellis Weismer et al., 2000; S. E. Gathercole & A. D. Baddeley, 1990; J. W. Montgomery, 2002). This raises the possibility that younger children's repetition…

  10. Classification of Speech and Language Profiles in 4-Year-Old Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Prospective Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustad, Katherine C.; Gorton, Kristin; Lee, Jimin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors proposed and tested a preliminary speech and language classification system for children with cerebral palsy. Method: Speech and language assessment data were collected in a laboratory setting from 34 children with cerebral palsy (CP; 18 male, 16 female) with a mean age of 54 months (SD = 1.8). Measures of…

  11. Subtypes of Severe Speech and Language Impairments: Psychometric Evidence from 4-Year-Old Children in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Daal, John; Verhoeven, Ludo; van Balkom, Hans

    2004-01-01

    Most, if not all, of the studies of subtypes of children with language impairments have been conducted with English-speaking children. The possibility and validity of identified subtypes for non-English clinical populations are, as yet, unknown. This study was designed to provide cross-linguistic evidence of language subtypes. A broad battery of…

  12. Imitation as a mechanism in cognitive development: a cross-cultural investigation of 4-year-old children's rule learning.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhidan; Williamson, Rebecca A; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    Children learn about the social and physical world by observing other people's acts. This experiment tests both Chinese and American children's learning of a rule. For theoretical reasons we chose the rule of categorizing objects by the weight. Children, age 4 years, saw an adult heft four visually-identical objects and sort them into two bins based on an invisible property-the object's weight. Children who saw this categorization behavior were more likely to sort those objects by weight than were children who saw control actions using the same objects and the same bins. Crucially, children also generalized to a novel set of objects with no further demonstration, suggesting rule learning. We also report that high-fidelity imitation of the adult's "hefting" acts may give children crucial experience with the objects' weights, which could then be used to infer the more abstract rule. The connection of perception, action, and cognition was found in children from both cultures, which leads to broad implications for how the imitation of adults' acts functions as a lever in cognitive development.

  13. Gains in Fluid Intelligence after Training Non-Verbal Reasoning in 4-Year-Old Children: A Controlled, Randomized Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman Nutley, Sissela; Soderqvist, Stina; Bryde, Sara; Thorell, Lisa B.; Humphreys, Keith; Klingberg, Torkel

    2011-01-01

    Fluid intelligence (Gf) predicts performance on a wide range of cognitive activities, and children with impaired Gf often experience academic difficulties. Previous attempts to improve Gf have been hampered by poor control conditions and single outcome measures. It is thus still an open question whether Gf can be improved by training. This study…

  14. The Effect of Plausible versus Implausible Balance Scale Feedback on the Expectancies of 3- to 4-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrauf, Cornelia; Call, Josep; Pauen, Sabina

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies (Case, 1985; Siegler, 1981) have shown that children under the age of 5 years have little understanding of balance scales when required to encode the influence of weight or distance from the fulcrum. More recently, however, Halford, Andrews, Dalton, Boag, and Zielinski (2002) noted that an understanding based on weight alone is…

  15. Identification of an obese eating style in 4-year-old children born at high and low risk for obesity.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, Robert I; Moore, Renee' H; Faith, Myles S; Stallings, Virginia A; Kral, Tanja V E; Stunkard, Albert J

    2010-03-01

    This study tested whether children's eating behavior and parental feeding prompts during a laboratory test meal differ among children born at high risk (HR) or low risk (LR) for obesity and are associated with excess child weight gain. At 4 years of age, 32 HR children (mean maternal prepregnancy BMI = 30.4 kg/m(2)) and 29 LR children (maternal BMI = 19.6 kg/m(2)) consumed a test meal in which their eating behavior was assessed, including rate of caloric consumption, mouthfuls/min, and requests for food. Parental prompts for the child to eat also were measured at year 4, and child body composition was measured at ages 4 and 6 years. T-tests, and logistic and multiple regression analyses tested study aims. Results indicated that HR and LR children did not differ in eating rate or parental feeding prompts. Greater maternal BMI, child mouthfuls of food/min, and total caloric intake/min during the test meal predicted an increased risk of being overweight or obese at age 6, whereas greater active mealtime was associated with a reduced risk of being overweight or obese. Regression analyses indicated that only mouthfuls of food/min predicted changes in BMI from 4 to 6 years, and mouthfuls of food/min and gender predicted 2-year changes in sum of skinfolds and total body fat. Thus, a rapid eating style, characterized by increased mouthfuls of food/min, may be a behavioral marker for the development of childhood obesity. PMID:19779474

  16. Can items used in 4-year-old well-child visits predict children's health and school outcomes?

    PubMed

    Smithers, Lisa G; Chittleborough, Catherine R; Stocks, Nigel; Sawyer, Michael G; Lynch, John W

    2014-08-01

    To examine whether items comprising a preschool well-child check for use by family doctors in Australia with 4-5-year old children predicts health and academic outcomes at 6-7 years. The well-child check includes mandatory (anthropometry, eye/vision, ear/hearing, dental, toileting, allergy problems) and non-mandatory (processed food consumption, low physical activity, motor, behaviour/mood problems) items. The predictive validity of mandatory and non-mandatory items measured at 4-5 years was examined using data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Outcomes at 6-7 years included overweight/obesity, asthma, health care/medication needs, general health, mental health problems, quality of life, teacher-reported mathematics and literacy ability (n = 2,280-2,787). Weight or height >90th centile at 4-5 years predicted overweight/obesity at 6-7 years with 60% sensitivity, 79% specificity and 40% positive predictive value (PPV). Mood/behaviour problems at 4-5 predicted mental health problems at 6-7 years with 86% sensitivity, 40% specificity and 8% PPV. Non-mandatory items improved the discrimination between children with and without mental health problems at 6-7 years (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.75 compared with 0.69 for mandatory items only), but was weak for most outcomes. Items used in a well-child health check were moderate predictors of overweight/obesity and mental health problems at 6-7 years, but poor predictors of other health and academic outcomes.

  17. Mother's Perception of General Family Functioning and Sugar Consumption of 3- and 4-Year-Old Children: The East London Family Study.

    PubMed

    Nanjappa, Sucharita; Hector, Mark; Marcenes, Wagner

    2015-01-01

    Frequent consumption of sugary foods is a common risk factor for chronic diseases such as dental caries and obesity. Dietary patterns are acquired at home during early life and form a blueprint for dietary behaviours in later life. A favourable family environment can provide a supportive context that enhances the adoption of healthy dietary habits. The aim of this study was to identify the contribution of general family functioning towards the frequent consumption of sugary foods by 3- and 4-year-old children in Outer North East London. The research question was explored with data from the East London Family study, which collected data through home visits from a representative sample of adults and children living in Outer North East London in 2008-2010. This study analysed data from 3- and 4-year-old children (n = 698) and their mothers and included logistic regression, conceptual hierarchical modelling and mediation analysis. The results showed that 17% of the sample consumed sugary foods more than 4 times per day, and that effective general family functioning may help reducing frequent consumption of sugary foods. There was a 67% reduction in children's frequent consumption of sugary foods with every unit increase in the general family functioning score. Mother's higher education may also help reduce the frequent consumption of sugary foods by children. The negative impact of mother's lower education was buffered by the effect of effective general family functioning. The study findings underscore the prospect of identifying factors that contribute to the acquisition of good dietary behaviours. PMID:26304625

  18. Does the Age and Familiarity of the Informant Group Influence the Tendency of 3- and 4-year-old Children to Conform?

    PubMed

    McGuigan, Nicola; Stevenson, Amy

    2016-01-01

    The authors' aim was to explore whether the age and the familiarity of the individuals comprising a group majority influenced the tendency of 3- and 4-year-old children to conform. Participants were presented with 2 variants of a novel task in which they were required to judge which of 3 line-drawn tigers had the greatest number of stripes. The participants made their judgments in 2 contexts, first after viewing 5 informants perform the task incorrectly, and second without viewing the responses of other individuals. The informants comprised a group of familiar children, a group of unfamiliar children, a group of familiar adults, or a group of unfamiliar adults. The results showed that the children displayed selective conformity with respect to informant age, readily adopting the incorrect response when it was indicated by an adult majority, but failing to do so when the same incorrect response was indicated by a majority of children. In contrast the familiarity of the individuals comprising the majority had little influence on the tendency of children to conform. These results suggest that children are not blanket conformists, rather they respond selectively depending on characteristics of the individuals comprising the group majority. PMID:27341477

  19. Children's Comprehension of Sentences with Focus Particles and the Role of Cognitive Control: An Eye Tracking Study with German-Learning 4-Year-Olds.

    PubMed

    Höhle, Barbara; Fritzsche, Tom; Müller, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Children's interpretations of sentences containing focus particles do not seem adult-like until school age. This study investigates how German 4-year-old children comprehend sentences with the focus particle 'nur' (only) by using different tasks and controlling for the impact of general cognitive abilities on performance measures. Two sentence types with 'only' in either pre-subject or pre-object position were presented. Eye gaze data and verbal responses were collected via the visual world paradigm combined with a sentence-picture verification task. While the eye tracking data revealed an adult-like pattern of focus particle processing, the sentence-picture verification replicated previous findings of poor comprehension, especially for 'only' in pre-subject position. A second study focused on the impact of general cognitive abilities on the outcomes of the verification task. Working memory was related to children's performance in both sentence types whereas inhibitory control was selectively related to the number of errors for sentences with 'only' in pre-subject position. These results suggest that children at the age of 4 years have the linguistic competence to correctly interpret sentences with focus particles, which--depending on specific task demands--may be masked by immature general cognitive abilities. PMID:26930286

  20. Children's Comprehension of Sentences with Focus Particles and the Role of Cognitive Control: An Eye Tracking Study with German-Learning 4-Year-Olds.

    PubMed

    Höhle, Barbara; Fritzsche, Tom; Müller, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Children's interpretations of sentences containing focus particles do not seem adult-like until school age. This study investigates how German 4-year-old children comprehend sentences with the focus particle 'nur' (only) by using different tasks and controlling for the impact of general cognitive abilities on performance measures. Two sentence types with 'only' in either pre-subject or pre-object position were presented. Eye gaze data and verbal responses were collected via the visual world paradigm combined with a sentence-picture verification task. While the eye tracking data revealed an adult-like pattern of focus particle processing, the sentence-picture verification replicated previous findings of poor comprehension, especially for 'only' in pre-subject position. A second study focused on the impact of general cognitive abilities on the outcomes of the verification task. Working memory was related to children's performance in both sentence types whereas inhibitory control was selectively related to the number of errors for sentences with 'only' in pre-subject position. These results suggest that children at the age of 4 years have the linguistic competence to correctly interpret sentences with focus particles, which--depending on specific task demands--may be masked by immature general cognitive abilities.

  1. Safety and immunogenicity of Vi conjugate vaccines for typhoid fever in adults, teenagers, and 2- to 4-year-old children in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Kossaczka, Z; Lin, F Y; Ho, V A; Thuy, N T; Van Bay, P; Thanh, T C; Khiem, H B; Trach, D D; Karpas, A; Hunt, S; Bryla, D A; Schneerson, R; Robbins, J B; Szu, S C

    1999-11-01

    The capsular polysaccharide of Salmonella typhi, Vi, is an essential virulence factor and a protective vaccine for people older than 5 years. The safety and immunogenicity of two investigational Vi conjugate vaccines were evaluated in adults, 5- to 14-year-old children, and 2- to 4-year-old children in Vietnam. The conjugates were prepared with Pseudomonas aeruginosa recombinant exoprotein A (rEPA) as the carrier, using either N-succinimidyl-3-(2-pyridyldithio)-propionate (SPDP; Vi-rEPA(1)) or adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH; Vi-rEPA(2)) as linkers. None of the recipients experienced a temperature of >38.5 degrees C or significant local reactions. One injection of Vi-rEPA(2) into adults elicited a geometric mean (GM) increase in anti-Vi immunoglobulin G (IgG) from 9.62 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay units/ml (EU) to 465 EU at 6 weeks; this level fell to 119 EU after 26 weeks. In the 5- to 14-year-old children, anti-Vi IgG levels at 6 weeks elicited by Vi-rEPA(2), Vi-rEPA(1), and Vi were 169, 22.8, and 18.9 EU, respectively (P = 0.0001 for Vi-rEPA(1) and Vi with respect to Vi-rEPA(2)). At 26 weeks, the anti-Vi IgG levels for recipients of Vi-rEPA(2), Vi-rEPA(1), and Vi were 30.0, 10.8, and 13.4 EU, respectively (P < 0.001 for Vi-rEPA(1) and Vi with respect to Vi-rEPA(2)); all were higher than the preinjection levels (P = 0. 0001). Vi-rEPA(2) also elicited the highest anti-Vi IgM and IgA levels of the three vaccines. In the 2- to 4-year-old children at 6 weeks following the first injection, Vi-rEPA(2) elicited an anti-Vi IgG level of 69.9 EU compared to 28.9 EU for Vi-rEPA(1) (P = 0.0001). Reinjection increased Vi antibody levels from 69.9 to 95.4 EU for Vi-rEPA(2) and from 28.9 to 83.0 EU for Vi-rEPA(1). At 26 weeks, anti-Vi IgG levels remained higher than those at preinjection (30.6 versus 0.18 for Vi-rEPA(2) and 12.8 versus 0.33 for Vi-rEPA(1); P = 0.0001 for both). Vi vaccine is recommended for individuals of 5 years of age or older. In the present study, the GM

  2. Reading faces: differential lateral gaze bias in processing canine and human facial expressions in dogs and 4-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Racca, Anaïs; Guo, Kun; Meints, Kerstin; Mills, Daniel S

    2012-01-01

    Sensitivity to the emotions of others provides clear biological advantages. However, in the case of heterospecific relationships, such as that existing between dogs and humans, there are additional challenges since some elements of the expression of emotions are species-specific. Given that faces provide important visual cues for communicating emotional state in both humans and dogs, and that processing of emotions is subject to brain lateralisation, we investigated lateral gaze bias in adult dogs when presented with pictures of expressive human and dog faces. Our analysis revealed clear differences in laterality of eye movements in dogs towards conspecific faces according to the emotional valence of the expressions. Differences were also found towards human faces, but to a lesser extent. For comparative purpose, a similar experiment was also run with 4-year-old children and it was observed that they showed differential processing of facial expressions compared to dogs, suggesting a species-dependent engagement of the right or left hemisphere in processing emotions.

  3. Reading faces: differential lateral gaze bias in processing canine and human facial expressions in dogs and 4-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Racca, Anaïs; Guo, Kun; Meints, Kerstin; Mills, Daniel S

    2012-01-01

    Sensitivity to the emotions of others provides clear biological advantages. However, in the case of heterospecific relationships, such as that existing between dogs and humans, there are additional challenges since some elements of the expression of emotions are species-specific. Given that faces provide important visual cues for communicating emotional state in both humans and dogs, and that processing of emotions is subject to brain lateralisation, we investigated lateral gaze bias in adult dogs when presented with pictures of expressive human and dog faces. Our analysis revealed clear differences in laterality of eye movements in dogs towards conspecific faces according to the emotional valence of the expressions. Differences were also found towards human faces, but to a lesser extent. For comparative purpose, a similar experiment was also run with 4-year-old children and it was observed that they showed differential processing of facial expressions compared to dogs, suggesting a species-dependent engagement of the right or left hemisphere in processing emotions. PMID:22558335

  4. Sources of dietary fluoride intake in 4-year-old children residing in low, medium and high fluoride areas in Iran.

    PubMed

    Zohouri, F V; Rugg-Gunn, A J

    2000-09-01

    Accurate estimation of fluoride dietary intake is desirable for optimising caries prevention. Little is known about the dietary fluoride intake of children aged 4 years, an age when many permanent teeth are forming. This study was undertaken in Fars Province, Iran, in 1995-1996, where there are big differences in temperature between winter and summer. The aims were to determine: (a) the relative contributions of different components of the diet to fluoride intake, (b) the effect of variation in fluoride concentration in drinking water, and (c) the effect of climate temperature. Temperature varied between +40 degrees C in summer to -5 degrees C in winter. The mean fluoride concentrations in drinking water in the three areas were 0.3, 0.6 and 4.0 mgF/L. Dietary information was obtained by two 3-day diet diaries with interview, validated with reference to international standards. The fluoride content of foods was measured using the silicon-facilitated diffusion method. One hundred and three 4-year-old children completed the study. The mean (and 95% confidence interval) dietary fluoride intakes in each of the three areas, respectively, were 413 (+/- 21), 698 (+/- 89) and 3472 (+/- 557) micrograms/day. Drinks provided 72 to 87% of dietary fluoride--this proportion increased with increasing water fluoride concentration and increasing climate temperature. Tea (infusion) was an important source of dietary fluoride, providing 31 to 38% of total dietary intake. Tap water was a more important source of fluoride than soft drinks. Cooked rice and bread were the most important food source of fluoride and the amount of fluoride they contributed increased as water fluoride concentration increased. The results of this first such survey in the Middle East showed (a) that water (as a drink) and tea were by far the most important contributors to dietary fluoride intake, (b) substantial increases in fluoride intake with increasing water fluoride concentrations, and (c) substantially

  5. Parental modelling and prompting effects on acceptance of a novel fruit in 2-4-year-old children are dependent on children's food responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Blissett, Jackie; Bennett, Carmel; Fogel, Anna; Harris, Gillian; Higgs, Suzanne

    2016-02-14

    Few children consume the recommended portions of fruit or vegetables. This study examined the effects of parental physical prompting and parental modelling in children's acceptance of a novel fruit (NF) and examined the role of children's food-approach and food-avoidance traits on NF engagement and consumption. A total of 120 caregiver-child dyads (fifty-four girls, sixty-six boys) participated in this study. Dyads were allocated to one of the following three conditions: physical prompting but no modelling, physical prompting and modelling or a modelling only control condition. Dyads ate a standardised meal containing a portion of a fruit new to the child. Parents completed measures of children's food approach and avoidance. Willingness to try the NF was observed, and the amount of the NF consumed was measured. Physical prompting but no modelling resulted in greater physical refusal of the NF. There were main effects of enjoyment of food and food fussiness on acceptance. Food responsiveness interacted with condition such that children who were more food responsive had greater NF acceptance in the prompting and modelling conditions in comparison with the modelling only condition. In contrast, children with low food responsiveness had greater acceptance in the modelling control condition than in the prompting but no modelling condition. Physical prompting in the absence of modelling is likely to be detrimental to NF acceptance. Parental use of physical prompting strategies, in combination with modelling of NF intake, may facilitate acceptance of NF, but only in food-responsive children. Modelling consumption best promotes acceptance in children with low food responsiveness.

  6. Emerging Understanding of Patterning in 4-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Fyfe, Emily R.; McLean, Laura E.; McEldoon, Katherine L.

    2013-01-01

    Young children have an impressive amount of mathematics knowledge, but past psychological research has focused primarily on their number knowledge. Preschoolers also spontaneously engage in a form of early algebraic thinking-patterning. In the current study, we assessed 4-year-old children's knowledge of repeating patterns on two occasions…

  7. Parental Roles in the Acquisition of Primary Level Skills: An Exploratory View on the Low-Income Hispanic-American Families with 3 and 4-Year Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaman, Ahmed

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the nature and extent of Primary Learning Skill (PLS) that the Hispanic young children acquire who do not attend any early educational institutions. Literature reviewed for this paper indicated that Hispanic children were the poorest and the fastest growing group who often did not receive formal educational exposure due to…

  8. Moving ahead in language: observations on a report of precocious language development in 3-4 year old children with spinal muscular atrophy type II.

    PubMed

    Sieratzki, Jechil S; Woll, Bencie

    2005-01-01

    Benony and Benony in a recent issue of this Journal have presented new data on the precocity of language acquisition in children with type II spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), at age 36-47 months. They refer to our interim report of advanced early language development in these motor-impaired children, which covers the age period 18-35 months. Here, we provide more details of our findings and discuss them in relation to their report and our theory of the role of the procedural system in language learning.

  9. Developing a General Outcome Measure of Growth in the Cognitive Abilities of Children 1 to 4 Years Old: The Early Problem-Solving Indicator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Charles R.; Walker, Dale; Carta, Judith J.; Higgins, Susan K.

    2006-01-01

    Proficiency in problem solving is an important outcome in early childhood necessary for cognitive and emotional development. The development of an individual growth and development indicator of problem solving for children 1 to 4 years of age is described. Based on the general outcome measurement approach (Deno, 1997), the measure is intended for…

  10. Relations among the Frequency of Shared Reading and 4-Year-Old Children's Vocabulary, Morphological and Syntax Comprehension, and Narrative Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senechal, Monique; Pagan, Stephanie; Lever, Rosemary; Ouellette, Gene P.

    2008-01-01

    Books can be a rich source of learning for children and adults alike. In the present study, the contribution of shared reading and parent literacy to a variety of child outcomes was tested. Child outcomes included measures of expressive vocabulary, morphological and syntax comprehension, and narrative ability (story grammar, cohesion, and language…

  11. Relationship between Stereoscopic Vision, Visual Perception, and Microstructure Changes of Corpus Callosum and Occipital White Matter in the 4-Year-Old Very Low Birth Weight Children

    PubMed Central

    Kwinta, Przemko; Herman-Sucharska, Izabela; Leśniak, Anna; Klimek, Małgorzata; Karcz, Paulina; Durlak, Wojciech; Nitecka, Magdalena; Dutkowska, Grażyna; Kubatko-Zielińska, Anna; Romanowska-Dixon, Bożena; Pietrzyk, Jacek Józef

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To assess the relationship between stereoscopic vision, visual perception, and microstructure of the corpus callosum (CC) and occipital white matter, 61 children born with a mean birth weight of 1024 g (SD 270 g) were subjected to detailed ophthalmologic evaluation, Developmental Test of Visual Perception (DTVP-3), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at the age of 4. Results. Abnormal stereoscopic vision was detected in 16 children. Children with abnormal stereoscopic vision had smaller CC (CC length: 53 ± 6 mm versus 61 ± 4 mm; p < 0.01; estimated CC area: 314 ± 106 mm2 versus 446 ± 79 mm2; p < 0.01) and lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in CC (FA value of rostrum/genu: 0.7 ± 0.09 versus 0.79 ± 0.07; p < 0.01; FA value of CC body: 0.74 ± 0.13 versus 0.82 ± 0.09; p = 0.03). We found a significant correlation between DTVP-3 scores, CC size, and FA values in rostrum and body. This correlation was unrelated to retinopathy of prematurity. Conclusions. Visual perceptive dysfunction in ex-preterm children without major sequelae of prematurity depends on more subtle changes in the brain microstructure, including CC. Role of interhemispheric connections in visual perception might be more complex than previously anticipated. PMID:26451381

  12. Prenatal Exposure to Alcohol, Caffeine, Tobacco, and Aspirin: Effects on Fine and Gross Motor Preformance in 4-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Helen M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Multiple regression analyses of data from 449 children indicated statistically significant relationships between moderate levels of prenatal alcohol exposure and increased errors, increased latency, and increased total time on the Wisconsin Fine Motor Steadiness Battery and poorer balance on the Gross Motor Scale. (RH)

  13. Associations of Fat Mass and Fat-Free Mass with Physical Fitness in 4-Year-Old Children: Results from the MINISTOP Trial.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Pontus; Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina; Leppänen, Marja H; Delisle Nyström, Christine; Ortega, Francisco B; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Physical fitness is a powerful marker of health in youth. Studies in adolescents and adults suggest that higher fat mass is related to worse physical fitness. However, there is limited knowledge whether fat mass and fat-free mass are associated with physical fitness already in preschoolers. Baseline data from the MINISTOP (Mobile-based INtervention Intended to STop Obesity in Preschoolers) trial was utilized for this cross-sectional analysis. Body composition was assessed using air-displacement plethysmography. Fat mass index [fat mass (kg)/height² (m)] and fat-free mass index [fat-free mass (kg)/height² (m)] were used to provide height-adjusted measures of body composition. Physical fitness was measured using the PREFIT (FITness testing in PREschool children) battery, which assesses cardiorespiratory fitness, upper-body and lower-body muscular strength as well as motor fitness. In total, this study included 303 children (168 boys and 135 girls), who were on average 4.48 ± 0.15 years old. Higher fat mass index was associated with worse cardiorespiratory fitness (standardized β = -0.17, p = 0.002), lower-body muscular strength (β = -0.17, p = 0.003) and motor fitness (β = -0.21, p < 0.001) in regression analyses adjusted for age, sex and mutually adjusted for fat-mass index and fat-free mass index. Conversely, higher fat-free mass index was associated with better cardiorespiratory fitness (β = 0.18, p = 0.002), upper-body muscular strength (β = 0.39, p < 0.001), lower-body muscular strength (β = 0.22, p < 0.001) and motor fitness (β = 0.17, p = 0.004). Thus, fat mass and fat-free mass in preschoolers appear to have joint but opposite associations with physical fitness, an important marker for current and future health. PMID:27483320

  14. Associations of Fat Mass and Fat-Free Mass with Physical Fitness in 4-Year-Old Children: Results from the MINISTOP Trial.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Pontus; Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina; Leppänen, Marja H; Delisle Nyström, Christine; Ortega, Francisco B; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Löf, Marie

    2016-07-30

    Physical fitness is a powerful marker of health in youth. Studies in adolescents and adults suggest that higher fat mass is related to worse physical fitness. However, there is limited knowledge whether fat mass and fat-free mass are associated with physical fitness already in preschoolers. Baseline data from the MINISTOP (Mobile-based INtervention Intended to STop Obesity in Preschoolers) trial was utilized for this cross-sectional analysis. Body composition was assessed using air-displacement plethysmography. Fat mass index [fat mass (kg)/height² (m)] and fat-free mass index [fat-free mass (kg)/height² (m)] were used to provide height-adjusted measures of body composition. Physical fitness was measured using the PREFIT (FITness testing in PREschool children) battery, which assesses cardiorespiratory fitness, upper-body and lower-body muscular strength as well as motor fitness. In total, this study included 303 children (168 boys and 135 girls), who were on average 4.48 ± 0.15 years old. Higher fat mass index was associated with worse cardiorespiratory fitness (standardized β = -0.17, p = 0.002), lower-body muscular strength (β = -0.17, p = 0.003) and motor fitness (β = -0.21, p < 0.001) in regression analyses adjusted for age, sex and mutually adjusted for fat-mass index and fat-free mass index. Conversely, higher fat-free mass index was associated with better cardiorespiratory fitness (β = 0.18, p = 0.002), upper-body muscular strength (β = 0.39, p < 0.001), lower-body muscular strength (β = 0.22, p < 0.001) and motor fitness (β = 0.17, p = 0.004). Thus, fat mass and fat-free mass in preschoolers appear to have joint but opposite associations with physical fitness, an important marker for current and future health.

  15. Associations of Fat Mass and Fat-Free Mass with Physical Fitness in 4-Year-Old Children: Results from the MINISTOP Trial

    PubMed Central

    Henriksson, Pontus; Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina; Leppänen, Marja H.; Delisle Nyström, Christine; Ortega, Francisco B.; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Physical fitness is a powerful marker of health in youth. Studies in adolescents and adults suggest that higher fat mass is related to worse physical fitness. However, there is limited knowledge whether fat mass and fat-free mass are associated with physical fitness already in preschoolers. Baseline data from the MINISTOP (Mobile-based INtervention Intended to STop Obesity in Preschoolers) trial was utilized for this cross-sectional analysis. Body composition was assessed using air-displacement plethysmography. Fat mass index [fat mass (kg)/height2 (m)] and fat-free mass index [fat-free mass (kg)/height2 (m)] were used to provide height-adjusted measures of body composition. Physical fitness was measured using the PREFIT (FITness testing in PREschool children) battery, which assesses cardiorespiratory fitness, upper-body and lower-body muscular strength as well as motor fitness. In total, this study included 303 children (168 boys and 135 girls), who were on average 4.48 ± 0.15 years old. Higher fat mass index was associated with worse cardiorespiratory fitness (standardized β = −0.17, p = 0.002), lower-body muscular strength (β = −0.17, p = 0.003) and motor fitness (β = −0.21, p < 0.001) in regression analyses adjusted for age, sex and mutually adjusted for fat-mass index and fat-free mass index. Conversely, higher fat-free mass index was associated with better cardiorespiratory fitness (β = 0.18, p = 0.002), upper-body muscular strength (β = 0.39, p < 0.001), lower-body muscular strength (β = 0.22, p < 0.001) and motor fitness (β = 0.17, p = 0.004). Thus, fat mass and fat-free mass in preschoolers appear to have joint but opposite associations with physical fitness, an important marker for current and future health. PMID:27483320

  16. Phase 1 and phase 2 studies of Salmonella enterica serovar paratyphi A O-specific polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugates in adults, teenagers, and 2- to 4-year-old children in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Konadu, E Y; Lin, F Y; Hó, V A; Thuy, N T; Van Bay, P; Thanh, T C; Khiem, H B; Trach, D D; Karpas, A B; Li, J; Bryla, D A; Robbins, J B; Szu, S C

    2000-03-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A O-specific polysaccharide (O-SP) was activated with 1-cyano-4-dimethylaminopyridinium tetrafluoroborate (CDAP) and bound to tetanus toxoid (TT) with adipic acid dihydrazide as a linker (SPA-TT(1)) or directly (SPA-TT(2)). In mice, these two conjugates elicited high levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in serum with bactericidal activity (E. Konadu, J. Shiloach, D. A. Bryla, J. B. Robbins, and S. C. Szu, Infect. Immun. 64:2709-2715, 1996). The safety and immunogenicity of the two conjugates were then evaluated sequentially in Vietnamese adults, teenagers, and 2- to 4-year-old children. None of the vaccinees experienced significant side effects, and all had preexisting LPS antibodies. At 4 weeks after injection, there were significant increases of the geometric mean IgG and IgM anti-LPS levels in the adults and teenagers: both conjugates elicited a greater than fourfold rise in the IgG anti-LPS level in serum in >/=80% of the volunteers. SPA-TT(2) elicited slightly higher, though not statistically significantly, levels of IgG anti-LPS than did SPA-TT(1) in these age groups. Accordingly, only SPA-TT(2) was evaluated in the 2- to 4-year-old children. On a random basis, one or two injections were administered 6 weeks apart to the children. No significant side effects were observed, and the levels of preexisting anti-LPS in serum were similar in children of all ages. A significant rise in the IgG anti-LPS titer was elicited by the first injection (P = 0.0001); a second injection did not elicit a booster response. Representative sera from all groups had bactericidal activity that could be adsorbed by S. enterica serovar Paratyphi A LPS. PMID:10678970

  17. Changes in Early Childhood: Public School Programs for 4-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, S. Dianne; Boals, Beverly M.

    Education programs for 4-year-olds may offer unique opportunities for the growth of services for young children. Currently, the role of state departments of education in preschool instruction is evolving; no single approach to public school programming for 4-year-olds exists. Approximately two-thirds of the 28 state and District of Columbia early…

  18. Pressure to eat and restriction are associated with child eating behaviours and maternal concern about child weight, but not child body mass index, in 2- to 4-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Jane E; Paxton, Susan J; Brozovic, Anna M

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore relationships between maternal concern about child under- and overweight, the use of maternal feeding practices (pressure to eat and restriction, monitoring and modelling of healthy eating), child eating behaviours (fussiness and food responsiveness) and child body mass index. The sample consisted of 183 mothers of 2- to 4-year-old children who completed questionnaires about their feeding practices, concern about their child's weight, their child's eating behaviours, height and weight. Correlation analyses found that pressure to eat was positively associated with concern about child underweight, while restriction was positively associated with concern about child overweight. Monitoring and modelling were not independently associated with concern about child weight. Regression analysis revealed that child food fussiness positively predicted maternal pressure to eat, and this relationship was partially mediated by concern about child underweight. Child food responsiveness positively predicted restriction, and this relationship was partially mediated by concern about child overweight. Child BMI did not independently predict maternal feeding practices. The findings provide a useful contribution to the literature on determinants of maternal feeding practices, but further research is necessary to gain an understanding of the impact of these behaviours on child eating behaviour and weight.

  19. “Pre-schoolers in the playground” an outdoor physical activity intervention for children aged 18 months to 4 years old: study protocol for a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The pre-school years are considered critical for establishing healthy lifestyle behaviours such as physical activity. Levels of physical activity track through childhood into adulthood, thus establishing habitual physical activity early in life is vital. Time spent outdoors is associated with greater physical activity and playground interventions have been shown to increase physical activity in school aged children. There are few pre-school, playground-based interventions, and evaluations of these have found mixed results. A recent report published by the UK Chief Medical Officer (CMO) highlighted that new interventions to promote movement in the early years (0–5 years old) are needed. The aim of this study is to undertake a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) of an outdoor playground-based physical activity intervention for parents and their children aged 18 months to 4 years old (“Pre-schoolers in the Playground”; PiP) and to assess the feasibility of conducting a full scale cluster RCT. The PiP intervention is grounded in behavioural theory (Social Cognitive Theory), and is in accordance with the CMO guidance for physical activity in the early years. It is informed by existing literature and data collected from focus groups with parents. Methods/Design One hundred and fifty pre-school children affiliated to 10 primary schools will be recruited. Schools will be randomised to either the PiP intervention arm or the control arm (usual practice). Children in the intervention arm will be invited to attend three 30 minute outdoor play sessions per week for 30 weeks (3 school terms) at the school. Feasibility will be assessed by examining recruitment rates, attendance, attrition, acceptability of the trial and of the PiP intervention to parents, fidelity of intervention implementation, capability and capacity for schools to deliver the intervention. Health outcomes and the feasibility of outcome measurement tools will be assessed. These

  20. Markers for Persistent Specific Expressive Language Delay in 3-4-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everitt, Andrea; Hannaford, Philip; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Background: Identifying 3-4-year-olds who are most at risk of persisting language difficulties, and possibly specific language impairment (SLI), is difficult due to the natural variation of language in young children. In older children, markers for SLI have been identified that differentiate between children with and without SLI. It is not known…

  1. Collaboration between 3- and 4-Year-Olds in Self-Initiated Play on Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on a study of collaborative music-making on instruments among 3- and 4-year-old children. An area equipped with musical instruments was provided as a free-choice play option in an early childhood setting and a fixed camera recorded the children's play continuously during a number of visits. From the total 17 h of data five…

  2. Social Context Effects in 2- and 4-Year-Olds' Selective versus Faithful Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Yue; Kushnir, Tamar

    2014-01-01

    This study asked whether children's tendency to imitate selectively (ignore causally unnecessary actions) versus faithfully ("overimitate" causally unnecessary actions) varies across ages and social contexts. In the first experiment, 2-year-olds and 4-year-olds were randomly assigned to play 1 of 3 prior games with a demonstrator: a…

  3. Creppy Crawlies. Developing an Early Interest in Science: A Preschool Science Curriculum. (4-Year-Olds).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summer, Gail L.; Giovannini, Kathleen

    This science teaching guide on insects and animals for 4-year-old children is based on a modification of the "Plan, Do, Review" approach to education devised by High Scope in Ypsilanti, Michigan. First implemented as an outreach early childhood program in North Carolina, the science activities described in this guide can be adapted to various…

  4. Measuring Implicit Attitudes of 4-Year-Olds: The Preschool Implicit Association Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cvencek, Dario; Greenwald, Anthony G.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2011-01-01

    The Preschool Implicit Association Test (PSIAT) is an adaptation of an established social cognition measure (IAT) for use with preschool children. Two studies with 4-year-olds found that the PSIAT was effective in evaluating (a) attitudes toward commonly liked objects ("flowers"="good") and (b) gender attitudes ("girl"="good" or "boy"="good"). The…

  5. [Multiloculated mesenteric and retroperitoneal tumour - lymphatic malformation - in a 4-year-old girl].

    PubMed

    Obuchowicz, Anna; Łoboda, Magdalena; Madziara, Wojciech; Jarecka, Beata

    2015-01-01

    Mesenteric cysts are rare and mostly benign abdominal tumours in children. Majority of them are lymphangiomas (lymphatic malformations). We diagnosed a broad, multiloculated mesenteric and retroperitoneal cyst, associated with intensive inflammation, in a 4-year-old girl. Surgical therapy was fully successful.

  6. Acute opercular syndrome in 4-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Pniewska, Anna; Pawłowska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Acute opercular syndrome is a rare described syndrome caused by a sudden damage of the cerebral cortex and subcortical white matter, located around the insula. A rare cause of this syndrome can be an infectious agent, particularly herpes simplex virus. Quick diagnosis and immediate initiation of treatment significantly reduce the risk of neurological consequences and mortality. We present a case of encephalitis of unknown etiology and severe course, with the symptoms of acute opercular syndrome in 4-year-old boy. PMID:27154445

  7. The Executive Demands of Strategic Reasoning are Modified by the Way in which Children are Prompted to Think About the Task: Evidence from 3- to 4-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Daniel J.; Apperly, Ian A.; Riggs, Kevin J.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated a test of strategic reasoning (the Windows task) that in different studies has yielded contrasting pictures of young children's executive abilities [Russell, J., Mauthner, N., Sharpe, S., & Tidswell, T. (1991). "The 'windows task' as a measure of strategic deception in preschoolers and autistic subjects." "British Journal of…

  8. Multifocal tumoral calcinosis in a 4-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Sayar, Ilyas; Peker, Kemal; Kapısız, Alparslan; Bostancı, Isıl Esen; Gürbüzel, Mehmet; Isik, Arda; Peker, Necla Aydın

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Female, 4 Final Diagnosis: Tumoral calcinosis Symptoms: Hard immobile mass Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Surgery Objective: Congenital defects Background: Tumoral calcinosis is an uncommon condition associated with the deposition of painless calcific masses. It is more common in childhood or early adolescence of African-American females. Case Report: We present a case of a 4-year-old girl with tumoral calcinosis treated surgically. The case is rather rare in terms of the age of the patient and the localization of the masses (gluteal site). In our patient, the biochemical findings were normal, except for hyperphosphatemia and elevated alkaline phosphatase. Conclusions: Total excision appears to lead to a good clinical outcome and a low incidence of local relapse. PMID:24644527

  9. Idiopathic myelofibrosis with generalized periostitis in a 4-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Walia, Mandeep; Mehta, Rajesh; Paul, Premila; Saluja, Sumita; Kapoor, Sujala; Sharma, Monika

    2005-05-01

    Idiopathic myelofibrosis, a chronic myeloproliferative disorder of unknown origin, is characterized by splenomegaly, extramedullary hematopoiesis, leukoerythroblastosis, teardrop erythrocytes, and myelofibrosis. It is a rare disorder in childhood. The authors describe a 4-year-old girl with features consistent with idiopathic myelofibrosis, who also had generalized solid laminated periosteal reaction involving all long bones. The presence of thrombocytopenia at the onset and lack of leukocytosis were in contrast to the reported features seen in children. Recent case reports describe a relatively indolent course in children. Spontaneous remissions have also been described in pediatric cases. The fulminant course of this patient without any features of malignant transformation was noteworthy in this regard.

  10. Sensitivity of 4-Year-Olds to Featural and Second-Order Relational Changes in Face Distinctiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKone, Elinor; Boyer, Barbara L.

    2006-01-01

    Sensitivity to adult ratings of facial distinctiveness (how much an individual stands out in a crowd) has been demonstrated previously in children age 5 years or older. Experiment 1 extended this result to 4-year-olds using a "choose the more distinctive face" task. Children's patterns of choice across item pairs also correlated well with those of…

  11. The Prevalence of ADHD, ODD, Depression, and Anxiety in a Community Sample of 4-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavigne, John V.; LeBailly, Susan A.; Hopkins, Joyce; Gouze, Karen R.; Binns, Helen J.

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have examined the epidemiology of preschoolers' psychopathology. This study included 796 4-year-old children recruited from schools and pediatric practices in a diverse, urban area. Psychiatric disorder was assessed by a structured interview adapted for preschool children and by questionnaire. The most common disorders were…

  12. Gene × environment effects of serotonin transporter, dopamine receptor D4, and monoamine oxidase A genes with contextual and parenting risk factors on symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder, anxiety, and depression in a community sample of 4-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Lavigne, John V; Herzing, Laura B K; Cook, Edwin H; Lebailly, Susan A; Gouze, Karen R; Hopkins, Joyce; Bryant, Fred B

    2013-05-01

    Genetic factors can play a key role in the multiple level of analyses approach to understanding the development of child psychopathology. The present study examined gene-environment correlations and gene × environment interactions for polymorphisms of three target genes, the serotonin transporter gene, the D4 dopamine receptor gene, and the monoamine oxidase A gene in relation to symptoms of anxiety, depression, and oppositional behavior. Saliva samples were collected from 175 non-Hispanic White, 4-year-old children. Psychosocial risk factors included socioeconomic status, life stress, caretaker depression, parental support, hostility, and scaffolding skills. In comparison with the short forms (s/s, s/l) of the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic repeat, the long form (l/l) was associated with greater increases in symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder in interaction with family stress and with greater increases in symptoms of child depression and anxiety in interaction with caretaker depression, family conflict, and socioeconomic status. In boys, low-activity monoamine oxidase A gene was associated with increases in child anxiety and depression in interaction with caretaker depression, hostility, family conflict, and family stress. The results highlight the important of gene-environment interplay in the development of symptoms of child psychopathology in young children.

  13. Different Executive Functions Support Different Kinds of Cognitive Flexibility: Evidence from 2-, 3-, and 4-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakey, Emma; Visser, Ingmar; Carroll, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Improvements in cognitive flexibility during the preschool years have been linked to developments in both working memory and inhibitory control, though the precise contribution of each remains unclear. In the current study, one hundred and twenty 2-, 3-, and 4-year-olds completed two rule-switching tasks. In one version, children switched rules in…

  14. How Do Symbols Affect 3- to 4-Year-Olds' Executive Function? Evidence from a Reverse-Contingency Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apperly, Ian A.; Carroll, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    In two experiments, 330 3- to 4-year-olds competed for stickers in a game in which the optimal response strategy was to point to an empty box that their opponent would receive in order to obtain a baited box for themselves. When the baited box contained stickers, children showed a strong tendency to point at the baited box and therefore lose the…

  15. Gravity Rules for 2- to 4-Year-Olds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, Bruce M.

    1995-01-01

    Tested children with apparatus that dropped balls through clear or opaque interwoven tubes. Found that older children could solve configurations with greater number of tubes than younger children. Success with clear tubes did not transfer to opaque tubes. Significantly, errors were consistently directed to location directly below ball's last seen…

  16. Social context effects in 2- and 4-year-olds' selective versus faithful imitation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Kushnir, Tamar

    2014-03-01

    This study asked whether children's tendency to imitate selectively (ignore causally unnecessary actions) versus faithfully (overimitate causally unnecessary actions) varies across ages and social contexts. In the first experiment, 2-year-olds and 4-year-olds were randomly assigned to play 1 of 3 prior games with a demonstrator: a mimicry game, an instrumental game, or a noninteractive control game. They then participated in a puzzle-box imitation task in which the demonstrator performed 1 causally necessary and 1 unnecessary action to retrieve an object. Whereas 4-year-olds imitated faithfully across all conditions, 2-year-olds were more likely to imitate faithfully after a mimicry game and to imitate selectively after an instrumental game. Experiment 2 showed no effect of playing a mimicry game with a different experimenter prior to the imitation trials, thus ruling out 2-year-olds' faithful imitation being the result of motor priming or training effects. The results are discussed in terms of children's social affiliation and social-cognitive inferences.

  17. Social context effects in 2- and 4-year-olds' selective versus faithful imitation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Kushnir, Tamar

    2014-03-01

    This study asked whether children's tendency to imitate selectively (ignore causally unnecessary actions) versus faithfully (overimitate causally unnecessary actions) varies across ages and social contexts. In the first experiment, 2-year-olds and 4-year-olds were randomly assigned to play 1 of 3 prior games with a demonstrator: a mimicry game, an instrumental game, or a noninteractive control game. They then participated in a puzzle-box imitation task in which the demonstrator performed 1 causally necessary and 1 unnecessary action to retrieve an object. Whereas 4-year-olds imitated faithfully across all conditions, 2-year-olds were more likely to imitate faithfully after a mimicry game and to imitate selectively after an instrumental game. Experiment 2 showed no effect of playing a mimicry game with a different experimenter prior to the imitation trials, thus ruling out 2-year-olds' faithful imitation being the result of motor priming or training effects. The results are discussed in terms of children's social affiliation and social-cognitive inferences. PMID:23978298

  18. [A 4-year-old girl with diarrhoea, paresis and mutism].

    PubMed

    Engan, Mette; Bjørlykke, John Asle; Moen, Gunnar; Lund, Kjetil Børve; Njølstad, Gro

    2016-09-01

    BACKGROUND Rotavirus is a common cause of gastroenteritis in children. Neurological manifestations associated with rotavirus infections are well described and range from benign afebrile convulsions to lethal encephalopathy or encephalitis.CASE PRESENTATION We present an uncommon neurological manifestation in a Caucasian child in the course of a rotavirus infection. A 4-year old girl presented with mutism, hypotonia and reduced consciousness. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffusion abnormalities in the splenium corpus callosum and bilaterally in the nuclei dentate in the cerebellum. She was diagnosed with rotavirus cerebellitis.INTERPRETATION Her clinical symptoms and the magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities were uncommon and previously described in only a few Caucasian children. The outcome has varied, and some children have shown long term neurological sequela. Treatment with immunoglobulins and corticosteroids has been used in similar cases, but there is no established treatment for this condition.

  19. [A 4-year-old girl with diarrhoea, paresis and mutism].

    PubMed

    Engan, Mette; Bjørlykke, John Asle; Moen, Gunnar; Lund, Kjetil Børve; Njølstad, Gro

    2016-09-01

    BACKGROUND Rotavirus is a common cause of gastroenteritis in children. Neurological manifestations associated with rotavirus infections are well described and range from benign afebrile convulsions to lethal encephalopathy or encephalitis.CASE PRESENTATION We present an uncommon neurological manifestation in a Caucasian child in the course of a rotavirus infection. A 4-year old girl presented with mutism, hypotonia and reduced consciousness. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffusion abnormalities in the splenium corpus callosum and bilaterally in the nuclei dentate in the cerebellum. She was diagnosed with rotavirus cerebellitis.INTERPRETATION Her clinical symptoms and the magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities were uncommon and previously described in only a few Caucasian children. The outcome has varied, and some children have shown long term neurological sequela. Treatment with immunoglobulins and corticosteroids has been used in similar cases, but there is no established treatment for this condition. PMID:27686206

  20. Measuring implicit attitudes of 4-year-olds: the preschool implicit association test.

    PubMed

    Cvencek, Dario; Greenwald, Anthony G; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2011-06-01

    The Preschool Implicit Association Test (PSIAT) is an adaptation of an established social cognition measure (IAT) for use with preschool children. Two studies with 4-year-olds found that the PSIAT was effective in evaluating (a) attitudes toward commonly liked objects (flowers=good) and (b) gender attitudes (girl=good or boy=good). The gender attitude PSIAT was positively correlated with corresponding explicit attitude measures and also children's actual sex. The new implicit and explicit measures of gender attitudes demonstrated discriminant validity; each predicted variance in children's gendered play activities beyond that predicted by the other. Discussion describes potential uses of the PSIAT to investigate development of societally significant attitudes and stereotypes at younger ages than are achievable with currently available methods.

  1. Expanding Schooling Opportunities for 4-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuven, Edwin; Lindahl, Mikael; Oosterbeek, Hessel; Webbink, Dinand

    2010-01-01

    We use a novel quasi-experimental strategy to estimate the effect of expanding early schooling enrollment possibilities on early achievement. It exploits two features of the school system in The Netherlands. The first is rolling admissions; children are allowed to start school immediately after their 4th birthday instead of at the beginning of the…

  2. [Noma in a 4 year-old girl: a case report from Chad].

    PubMed

    Cocquempot, K; Javaudin, O; Lerasle, P; Aigle, L

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes a 4-year-old girl in Chad with noma, also called cancrum oris. This acute gangrenous stomatitis has a combined morbidity-mortality rate that can reach 70%. It occurs worldwide but is most common in sub-Saharan Africa in children aged 2 to 16 years. Its pathogenesis is uncertain, but several bacteria including Fusobacterium necrophorum, Prevotella intermedia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa may be responsible for the development of noma, which develops over the oral lesions these bacteria cause. Poverty is its most important risk factor. Due to its rapid course and high lethality, it requires emergency treatment with antibiotics, daily dressing of the lesion, and nutritional rehabilitation. Surgical removal of the remaining necrotic tissue can be followed by reconstructive procedures. Physical and speech therapy should be initiated to prevent functional complications. PMID:24736219

  3. [Noma in a 4 year-old girl: a case report from Chad].

    PubMed

    Cocquempot, K; Javaudin, O; Lerasle, P; Aigle, L

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes a 4-year-old girl in Chad with noma, also called cancrum oris. This acute gangrenous stomatitis has a combined morbidity-mortality rate that can reach 70%. It occurs worldwide but is most common in sub-Saharan Africa in children aged 2 to 16 years. Its pathogenesis is uncertain, but several bacteria including Fusobacterium necrophorum, Prevotella intermedia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa may be responsible for the development of noma, which develops over the oral lesions these bacteria cause. Poverty is its most important risk factor. Due to its rapid course and high lethality, it requires emergency treatment with antibiotics, daily dressing of the lesion, and nutritional rehabilitation. Surgical removal of the remaining necrotic tissue can be followed by reconstructive procedures. Physical and speech therapy should be initiated to prevent functional complications.

  4. Asthma and asthma medication use among 4-year-old offspring of subfertile couples--association with IVF?

    PubMed

    Kuiper, Derk B; Seggers, Jorien; Schendelaar, Pamela; Haadsma, Maaike L; Roseboom, Tessa J; Heineman, Maas J; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of asthma and asthma medication use in 213 4-year-old singletons followed from birth onwards, including three groups of children born following: (i) controlled ovarian hyperstimulation IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI); (ii) modified natural cycle IVF/ICSI; and (iii) natural conception in subfertile couples. The rate of asthma medication was higher in the ovarian hyperstimulation-IVF/ICSI than in the subfertile group (adjusted odds ratios [aOR]: 1.96 [1.00-3.84]). Time to pregnancy, a proxy for the severity of subfertility, was not associated with asthma and asthma medication. In conclusion, controlled ovarian hyperstimulation-IVF/ICSI is associated with the use of asthma medication in 4-year-old offspring of subfertile couples.

  5. Severe digital necrosis in a 4-year-old boy: primary Raynaud’s or jellyfish sting

    PubMed Central

    Binnetoglu, Fatih Koksal; Kizildag, Betul; Topaloglu, Naci; Kasapcopur, Ozgur

    2013-01-01

    Raynaud's phenomena is a common disorder which may be primary or secondary to some connective tissue disorders such as systemic sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Jellyfish sting is a rare but life-threatening cause of Raynaud's phenomena. Digital gangrene is reported in 3% of children with secondary Raynaud's phenomena but does not occur in children with primary Raynaud's phenomena. We report a case of a 4-year-old boy who initially presented with episodes of pain and bluish to blackish discolouration and necrosis affecting the fingers on both hands after a jellyfish sting without any sign of connective tissue disorder. PMID:24248320

  6. Ameloblastic Fibro-Odontoma in a 4-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Ghandehari-Motlagh, Mehdi; Khosravi, Zahra; Meighani, Ghasem; Baradaran-Nakhjavani, Yahya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma (AFO) is defined as a benign odontogenic tumor with slow growing behavior. Its prevalence is rare. AFO is characterized by histologic features of ameloblastic fibroma (AF) with the formation of enamel and dentine. Case Presentation This is a case report of AFO accompanied with a number of impacted deciduous teeth and its management in a 4-year old boy. Examination of oral cavity revealed an extensive swelling from midline to left deciduous maxillary first molar, covered with normal mucosa. Radiographic examination showed a well-defined mixed radiolucent-radiopaque lesion that extended horizontally from midline to mesial border of the left maxillary primary first molar and vertically from alveolar crest to the floor of nose. The differential diagnosis was odontoma (ameloblastic fibro-odontoma, complex odontoma). Surgical enucleation and curettage was performed under general anesthesia. Histopathologic sections show bone trabeculae in marrow spaces. There was myxoid matrix in some spaces which contained odontogenic epithelial cells. These findings led to diagnosis of AFO. No sign of recurrence has been observed during the 12-month follow-up period. Conclusion Although AFO is a rare tumor, it is more prevalent in childrenʼs jaw. Conservative surgical treatment allowed the normal development of teeth. PMID:27307963

  7. Effects of explicit teacher-implemented phoneme awareness instruction in 4-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Ann A; Osterhouse, Heather; Wickham, Katherine; Mcnutt, Robert; Shao, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether gains would be observed in an integrated group of 4-year-olds when phoneme awareness skills were explicitly taught by trained early childhood educators. In a quasi-experimental design with a delayed treatment approach, one classroom (N = 14) was randomly assigned to receive the instructional program in fall, while a second classroom (N = 10) served as a control and subsequently received the program in spring. Baseline assessment of speech and language skills indicated there were four participants with speech and/or language impairments. The teacher training involved an initial workshop and weekly hour-long mentoring meetings; the program was provided for 20 min a day, 4 d a week, for 10 weeks. Outcome measures of phoneme awareness and letter knowledge skills were obtained from non-standardized tasks administered pre-instruction and post-instruction, at mid-year and end-year points. When each classroom received the phoneme instruction, participants made gains in letter knowledge and phoneme level skills in comparison with group performance under regular instruction. These gains were statistically significant for phoneme blending and letter knowledge. Using an aggregate of all outcome measures, the gain for each classroom when under instruction was statistically significant as compared with when that same classroom was receiving the regular curriculum. Children with speech and/or language impairment responded more variably. Gains in the more difficult phoneme awareness skill of blending suggest the potential for marked change with an intensive, explicit classroom instruction and hold promise for SLPs collaborating with preschool teachers to provide time-efficient PA instruction.

  8. My Body. Developing an Early Interest in Science: A Preschool Science Curriculum. (4-Year-Olds).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summer, Gail L.; Giovannini, Kathleen

    This teaching guide on the body for 4-year-olds is based on a modification of the "Plan, Do, Review" approach to education devised by High Scope in Ypsilanti, Michigan. First implemented as an outreach early childhood program in North Carolina, the science activities described in this guide can be adapted to various early childhood environments.…

  9. Through Another's Eyes: Elements in the Eyes of a 4-Year-Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Xuan

    2004-01-01

    My husband, who is a scientist, often brings home different scientific journals and magazines to read, and my 4-year-old son, Nicholas J. Hu, likes to flip through them. A recent issue of Chemical and Engineering News (September, 2003) caught his interest more than usual because there were stories of different elements. Nicholas has been able to…

  10. Compositionality and Statistics in Adjective Acquisition: 4-Year-Olds Interpret "Tall" and "Short" Based on the Size Distributions of Novel Noun Referents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barner, David; Snedeker, Jesse

    2008-01-01

    Four experiments investigated 4-year-olds' understanding of adjective-noun compositionality and their sensitivity to statistics when interpreting scalar adjectives. In Experiments 1 and 2, children selected "tall" and "short" items from 9 novel objects called "pimwits" (1-9 in. in height) or from this array plus 4 taller or shorter distractor…

  11. Conjunctival lymphangioma in a 4-year-old girl revealed tuberous sclerosis complex

    PubMed Central

    Freiberg, Florentina Joyce; Kunstmann, Erdmute; König, Thomas; Matlach, Juliane; Kampik, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background: To present a case of conjunctival lymphangioma in a 4-year-old girl with tuberous sclerosis complex. Methods/results: A 4-year-old girl presented with a relapsing cystic lesion of the bulbar conjunctiva in the right eye with string-of-pearl-like dilation of lymphatic vessels and right-sided facial swelling with mild pain. Best-corrected vision was not impaired. Examination of the skin revealed three hypomelanotic macules and a lumbal Shagreen patch. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings displayed minimal enhancement of buccal fat on the right side. Cranial and orbital MRI showed signal enhancement in the right cortical and subcortical areas. Genetic analysis revealed a heterozygous deletion encompassing exon 1 and 2 of the TSC1 gene (tuberous sclerosis complex 1 gene), confirming the diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis complex. Conclusion: In conjunctival lymphangioma, tuberous sclerosis complex should be considered as the primary disease. PMID:27703871

  12. No aggression in a 4-year-old boy with an androgen-producing tumour: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    De la Marche, Wouter; Prinsen, Karin; Boot, Annemieke M; Ferdinand, Robert F

    2005-01-01

    Background The androgen testosterone plays a critical role in many aspects of sexual differentiation. Also, it is thought to induce aggressive behaviours or to play a role in social dominance. Case presentation In this case report a 4-year-old boy is described whose testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) levels were raised to pubertal levels due to a testosterone producing testis tumour. This provided the unique opportunity to examine the effects of elevated levels of androgens on levels of aggression or on social dominance before the onset of puberty. Conclusion The present case report does not support the hypothesis of a causal relationship between testosterone and aggression or between testosterone and social dominance in young children. PMID:16202122

  13. Linguistic and Cognitive Skills in Sardinian–Italian Bilingual Children

    PubMed Central

    Garraffa, Maria; Beveridge, Madeleine; Sorace, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of a study which tested receptive Italian grammatical competence and general cognitive abilities in bilingual Italian–Sardinian children and age-matched monolingual Italian children attending the first and second year of primary school in the Nuoro province of Sardinia, where Sardinian is still widely spoken. The results show that across age groups the performance of Sardinian–Italian bilingual children is in most cases indistinguishable from that of monolingual Italian children, in terms of both Italian language skills and general cognitive abilities. However, where there are differences, these emerge gradually over time and are mostly in favor of bilingual children. PMID:26733903

  14. Increase in child behavior problems among urban Brazilian 4-year olds: 1993 and 2004 Pelotas birth cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Matijasevich, Alicia; Murray, Elizabeth; Stein, Alan; Anselmi, Luciana; Menezes, Ana M; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio JD; Gigante, Denise P; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2014-01-01

    Background There are an increasing number of reports on time trends in child and adolescent psychological problems but none from low- and middle-income countries, and very few covering the preschool period. The aim was to investigate changes in preschool behavioral/emotional problems in two birth cohorts from a middle-income country born 11 years apart. Methods We analyzed data from the 1993 and 2004 Pelotas birth cohort studies from Brazil. A subsample of 4-year olds from the 1993 cohort (634) and all 4-year olds from the 2004 cohort (3750) were assessed for behavioral/emotional problems through maternal report using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Response rates in these two population-based cohorts were above 90%. Results We found a significant increase in CBCL total problems, internalizing and externalizing mean scores over the 11-year period. For 1993 and 2004 Pelotas cohorts, respectively, CBCL mean values (SE) total problems scores were 27.9 (0.8) and 34.7 (0.3); for internalizing scores, 5.7 (0.2) and 6.3 (0.1) and for externalizing scores, 12.4 (0.4) and 15.5 (0.1). After adjusting for confounding variables, the largest increase from 1993 to 2004 was identified in the aggressive behavior syndrome score (Cohen's d = .50), followed by the externalizing problem score (Cohen's d = .40) and CBCL total problem score (Cohen's d = .36), respectively. The rise in child psychological problems was more marked in children from families with fewer assets and with less educated mothers. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence for a substantial increase in preschool behavioral problems among children in Brazil over an 11-year period. PMID:24735354

  15. Giant ductal aneurysm in an asymptomatic 4-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Ritu; Smith, Clinton; Greenberg, Bruce S; Jaquiss, Robert D B

    2009-03-01

    Ductal aneurysm is a rare but potentially fatal condition. We report the case of an asymptomatic 4-year-old girl who was noted to have a murmur and with further evaluation by echocardiography and computed tomographic angiography was diagnosed with a giant ductal aneurysm. The aneurysm occupied a large space in the mediastinum, compressed the pulmonary arteries, and was in close proximity to the sternum. At surgery, the aneurysm was successfully resected after careful separation from adjacent structures. Because the anterolateral wall of the ascending aorta was noted to be extraordinarily thinned-out, it was replaced with a patch.

  16. [Awake Nasotracheal Intubation for a 4-Year-old Boy with an Oral Penetrating Toothbrush Injury].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Naoya; Ando, Kokichi; Saito, Kazutomo; Toyama, Hiroaki; Fudeta, Hiroto; Yamauchi, Masanori

    2015-09-01

    We report a case of an oral penetrating injury caused by a toothbrush in a 4-year-old 17-kg boy. The toothbrush was lodged in the right cervical region through the oral cavity, and emergency surgery for removal was planned under general anesthesia. Although mask ventilation was not possible because of the protruding toothbrush handle, awake nasotracheal intubation was successfully performed with a fiber-scope and intravenous fentanyl 25 μg. We conclude that appropriate analgesics could facilitate awake intubation in pediatric patients.

  17. Where there's smoke there's fire--ear candling in a 4-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Hornibrook, Jeremy

    2012-12-14

    It is estimated that one-third of the United States population subscribes to alternative medical therapies (Eisenberg et al, NEJM 1993;328:246-252). Ear candles are popular products promoted by alternative health practitioners, and sold by health shops and even over the Internet. They have been promoted for ear and sinus discomfort, rhinitis, sinusitis, glue ear, colds, flu, migraine, tinnitus, but particularly for removal of ear wax (cerumen). In this case report, a 4-year-old girl in New Zealand presents with otitis media and during the course of the ear examination white deposits were noticed on her eardrum; this was confirmed as being caused by ear candling.

  18. Case Report: Traumatic anterior cerebral artery aneurysm in a 4-year old child

    PubMed Central

    Munakomi, Sunil; Tamrakar, Karuna; Chaudhary, Pramod; Bhattarai, Binod; Cherian, Iype

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic intracranial aneurysm in the proximal part of the anterior cerebral artery in the pediatric population has not been documented so far. Here we report the case of a 4 year-old child who developed a pseudo-aneurysm after minor head trauma and was managed successfully with trapping of the aneurysm. A ventriculo-peritoneal shunt was placed as the child became dependent on extraventricular drain during the post-operative period. The patient made excellent recovery in neurological status within 1 month of post-operative clinical follow up.

  19. Case Report: Traumatic anterior cerebral artery aneurysm in a 4-year old child

    PubMed Central

    Munakomi, Sunil; Tamrakar, Karuna; Chaudhary, Pramod; Bhattarai, Binod; Cherian, Iype

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic intracranial aneurysm in the proximal part of the anterior cerebral artery in the pediatric population has not been documented so far. Here we report the case of a 4 year-old child who developed a pseudo-aneurysm after minor head trauma and was managed successfully with trapping of the aneurysm. A ventriculo-peritoneal shunt was placed as the child became dependent on extraventricular drain during the post-operative period. The patient made excellent recovery in neurological status within 1 month of post-operative clinical follow up. PMID:27635218

  20. Crown fracture of the mandibular second primary molars in a 4-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Anshula; Patel, Jalark; Sujan, Sunanda Gul; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-01-01

    Dental traumas are highly prevalent lesions in primary teeth, but crown root fractures are rare. Mostly anterior tooth segment is more commonly involved. Posterior crown root fractures are very rare. A 4-year-old girl reported to our paediatric dentistry department with a 10-day history of severe pain and discomfort in both right and left posterior teeth region. The child was suffering from severe and continuous pain and was unable to chew food. After an examination a fracture was noticed in intraoral periapical radiograph and treatment plan was decided to preserve the affected teeth. PMID:23780765

  1. Endomyocardial fibrosis and mural thrombus in a 4-year-old girl due to idiopathic hypereosinophilia syndrome described with serial cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Tai, Christiana P; Chung, Taylor; Avasarala, Kishor

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 4-year-old girl with idiopathic hypereosinophilia syndrome, endomyocardial fibrosis, and mural thrombus. This condition is rarely seen in children outside the tropics. Myocardial biopsy is historically the standard for diagnosis. Reports in adult literature, however, have shown the utility of cardiac MRI as a non-invasive tool for diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case with serial cardiac MRI in a child.

  2. [Lineage switch - conversion of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia to acute myeloid leukaemia in 4 years old girl].

    PubMed

    Szpecht, Dawid; Derwich, Katarzyna; Wachowiak, Jacek; Konatkowska, Benigna; Dworacki, Grzegorz

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of a 4-year-old girl with diagnosed proB acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with co-expression CD33 antigen, treated according to Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia Intercontinental - Berlin Frankfurt Münster 2002 (ALL-IC BFM 2002) protocol for standard risk group. Haematological remission was obtained on day 33 of induction treatment (on time). During induction and consolidation therapy there were no early serious adverse effects. The late isolated bone marrow relapse of acute myeloid leukaemia, type 7 was noted in our patient. We recognized this case as a lineage switch acute lymphoblastic leukaemia to acute myeloid leukaemia. In spite of Ida Flag regimen and following Acute Myeloid Leukaemia - Berlin Frankfurt Münster 2004 (AML-BFM 2004) protocol were administered, the clinical and haematological remission was not achieved and the patient died because of disease progression (circulatory and respiratory insufficiency).

  3. [Preclinical management of accidental methadone intoxication of a 4-year-old girl. Antagonist or intubation?].

    PubMed

    Hainer, C; Bernhard, M; Gries, A

    2004-10-01

    We report on the preclinical management of a 4-year-old child who was found in a comatose condition with respiratory failure after accidental ingestion of methadone. Emergency airway management was carried out with endotracheal intubation instead of administering the antagonist naloxone. The child could be extubated 12 h later and was released from hospital after 3 days with no neurological symptoms. The authors attempt to formulate an algorithm for the preclinical management of opioid intoxication with reference to the literature and own experience. Endotracheal intubation seems to be superior to the use of the antagonist naloxone, especially in a critical situation. This is the only way to ensure a rapid oxygenation with adequate airway protection and with the simultaneous avoidance of the side-effects of naloxone. A restrictive and critical administration of the opioid antagonist naloxone is recommended when there is suspicion of opioid ingestion but no signs of intoxication. PMID:15278196

  4. Cerebral candidiasis in a 4-year-old boy after intestinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu-Cheng

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral candidiasis is a devastating disease which contributes to a high mortality. Most of the cerebral candidiasis are never microbiologically or radiologically confirmed. In this case, a 4-year-old boy who developed cerebral candidiasis was successfully rescued and presented. The diagnosis of cerebral candidiasis was established based on both microbiologic and radiologic examinations. The pathogen was revealed to be Candida albicans by cerebrospinal fluid and central venous catheter cultures, and the cerebral involvement was recorded by series head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with an appearance of special encephalitis demonstrated. The imaging studies played a critical role throughout the diagnosis and treatment. Familiarity with the imaging findings in the appropriate clinical setting may result in a heightened level of awareness of this infection and, consequently, in earlier diagnosis and treatment.

  5. Laparoscopic Removal of a Large Gastric Trichobezoar in a 4-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Cintolo, Jessica; Telem, Dana A.; Divino, Celia M.; Chin, Edward H.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Standard treatment of large gastric bezoars not amenable to medical or endoscopic management is surgical removal. The optimal operative approach, laparotomy versus laparoscopy, is a contested subject. Though laparoscopic removal has been described, it remains a relatively new technique for surgical management with outcome literature limited to case reports. In addition, currently described laparoscopic techniques often involve limited midline laparotomy incisions or >3 cm extensions of port sites. Methods: The following describes the case of a 4-year-old girl with a large gastric trichobezoar. Results: The gastric trichobezoar was successfully removed through a 12-mm left lower quadrant trocar incision cosmetically hidden within a skin crease. Conclusion: This case, along with accumulating literature, supports the use of laparoscopy to treat large gastric bezoars. PMID:20202404

  6. Nocardia brasiliensis infection mimicking juvenile idiopathic arthritis in a 4-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Kapur, Nitin; Adib, Navid; Grimwood, Keith

    2013-11-01

    Nocardia are ubiquitous environmental saprophytes that cause pneumonia and disseminated disease in immunocompromised patients. They can also cause localized cutaneous and soft tissue infections in healthy people after direct percutaneous inoculation. Nocardia arthritis is rare in both forms of the disease. Here we present the first published case of a child with septic arthritis caused by N brasiliensis. Importantly, this otherwise well 4-year-old girl had no known history of trauma but presented with transient cutaneous lesions and a 6-week history of arthritis involving the right fourth digit proximal interphalangeal joint without accompanying fever or raised systemic inflammatory markers. She received a diagnosis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis and underwent antiinflammatory and immunosuppressant therapy. After 2 months she developed frank septic arthritis, which necessitated a surgical joint washout, from which an intraoperative swab grew N brasiliensis. The patient received 6 months of high-dose trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and remains well more than 4 years after treatment. This unusual case highlights the importance of considering an indolent infection from slow-growing organisms, including Nocardia, when diagnosing the oligoarthritis subtype of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. This is especially relevant when a single joint is involved and response to antiinflammatory therapy is suboptimal because antiinflammatory agents may mask evolving signs of infection.

  7. Atresia of the Aortic Arch in 4-Year-Old Child: A Clinical Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Nigro Stimato, Vittoria; Didier, Dominique; Beghetti, Maurice; Tissot, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Atresia of the aortic arch is a rare congenital heart defect with a high mortality when associated with other intracardiac defects. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) provides the exact anatomy of the aortic arch and collateral circulation and is useful to diagnose-associated aortic arch anomalies. This report describes the case of a 4-year-old child with atresia of the aortic arch, referred to our institution with the diagnosis of aortic coarctation and bicuspid aortic valve. On clinical exam, the femoral pulses were not palpable and there was a significant differential blood pressure between the upper and lower limbs. The echocardiography showed a severely stenotic bicuspid aortic valve but was limited for the exact description of the aortic arch. CMR showed absence of lumen continuity between the ascending and descending aorta distal to the left subclavian artery, extending over 5 mm, with the presence of a bend in the arch and diverticulum on either side of the zone of discontinuity, suggesting the diagnosis atresia of the aortic arch rather than coarctation or interruption. The patient benefited from a successful surgical commissurotomy of the aortic valve and reconstruction of the aortic arch with a homograft. The post-operative CMR confirmed the good surgical result. This case emphasizes the utility of CMR to provide good anatomical information to establish the exact diagnosis and the operative strategy. PMID:25853109

  8. Pronominal Objects in English-Italian and Spanish-Italian Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serratrice, Ludovica; Sorace, Antonella; Filiaci, Francesca; Baldo, Michela

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the role of typological relatedness, language of the community, and age, in predicting similarities and differences between English-Italian, Spanish-Italian bilingual children and their monolingual child and adult counterparts in the acceptability of pre- and postverbal object pronouns in [[plus or minus]focus] contexts in…

  9. Five-year-olds are willing, but 4-year-olds refuse, to trust informants who offer new and unfamiliar labels for parts of the body.

    PubMed

    Luu, Betty; Rosnay, Marc de; Harris, Paul L

    2013-10-01

    This study employed the selective trust paradigm to examine how children interpret novel labels when compared with labels they already know to be accurate or inaccurate within the biological domain. The participants--3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds (N=144)--were allocated to one of three conditions. In the accurate versus inaccurate condition, one informant labeled body parts correctly, whereas the other labeled them incorrectly (e.g., calling an eye an "arm"). In the accurate versus novel condition, one informant labeled body parts accurately, whereas the other provided novel labels (e.g., calling an eye a "roke"). Finally, in the inaccurate versus novel condition, one informant labeled body parts incorrectly, whereas the other offered novel labels. In subsequent test trials, the two informants provided conflicting labels for unfamiliar internal organs. In the accurate versus inaccurate condition, children sought and endorsed labels from the accurate informant. In the accurate versus novel condition, only 4- and 5-year-olds preferred the accurate informant, whereas 3-year-olds did not selectively prefer either informant. In the inaccurate versus novel condition, only 5-year-olds preferred the novel informant, whereas 3- and 4-year-olds did not demonstrate a selective preference. Results are supportive of previous studies suggesting that 3-year-olds are sensitive to inaccuracy and that 4-year-olds privilege accuracy. However, 3- and 4-year-olds appear to be unsure as to how the novel informant should be construed. In contrast, 5-year-olds appreciate that speakers offering new information are more trustworthy than those offering inaccurate information, but they are cautious in judging such informants as being "better" at providing that information.

  10. A Case of a 4-Year-Old Boy with a Mesenteric Chylous Cyst Infected with Histoplasma capsulatum

    PubMed Central

    Apiyo, Mirraim; Olika, Biratu

    2016-01-01

    Mesenteric cysts are uncommon entities and chyle- (lymph-) containing cysts are the rarest of this group. This is a case report of a 4-year-old boy with a mesenteric chylous cyst who was later found to have Histoplasma capsulatum infection. PMID:26881169

  11. Word Order and Information Structure in Czech 3- and 4-Year-Olds' Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolík, Filip

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on an experiment that examined the comprehension of transitive sentences in Czech children and its relationship to case marking, word order and information structure. A total of 107 Czech children aged 2;9-4;5 were tested for comprehension of noun-verb-noun sentences in which word order and given-new status of individual nouns…

  12. Fighting Obesity in 4-Year-Olds--"Move to Improve/Catch the Energy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, Kristine

    2007-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, research indicates that today's children are not getting enough physical activity. One solution to this problem is to integrate other subjects into physical education. This article describes a successful physical education program for Pre-K children implemented at the Sheboygan Area…

  13. Phonological and Lexical Reading in Italian Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsolini, Margherita; Fanari, Rachele; Cerracchio, Sara; Famiglietti, Luisa

    2009-01-01

    In this study we explore the development of phonological and lexical reading in dyslexic children. We tested a group of 14 Italian children who have been diagnosed with dyslexia and whose reading age is end of grade 1. We compared this group with a group of 70 typically developing children who have been tested for reading at the end of grade 1.…

  14. Context-Sensitive Rules and Word Naming in Italian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barca, Laura; Ellis, Andrew W.; Burani, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    The present study examines the role of orthographic complexity on Italian children's word reading. Two experiments are reported in which elementary school children (3rd and 5th graders) read aloud words containing simple or contextual letter-sound conversion rules. In Experiment 1, both groups of participants read words containing contextual rules…

  15. A 4-year-old girl with manifestations of multiple chemical sensitivities.

    PubMed Central

    Woolf, A

    2000-01-01

    Multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS) syndrome, also known as idiopathic environmental intolerance, is a controversial diagnosis that encompasses a wide range of waxing and waning, subjective symptoms referable to more than one body system and provoked by exposure to low levels of chemicals, foods, or other agents in the environment. Although MCS has been studied extensively, a unifying mechanism explaining the illness remains obscure, and clinicians are divided as to whether such a medical entity exists separately from psychosomatic syndromes. MCS is an adult diagnosis; there is little reference to pediatric cases in the scientific literature. In this case from the Pediatric Environmental Health Subspecialty Unit at Boston's Children's Hospital, I present the case of a preschool child who had suffered from milk allergy and poor weight gain as an infant, and then later developed asthma, allergic symptoms, sinusitis, headaches, fatigue, and rashes precipitated by an expanding variety of chemicals, foods, and allergens. I review definitions, mechanisms, diagnostic strategies, and management, and discuss some uniquely pediatric features of MCS as illustrated by this case. PMID:11133405

  16. Perforation of Meckel’s diverticulum by a wood splinter in a 4-year-old child: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Anyfantakis, D; Kastanakis, M; Papadomichelakis, A; Kokinos, I; Katsougris, N; Petrakis, G; Karona, P; Bobolakis, E

    2013-01-01

    Perforation of Meckel's diverticulum by a foreign body represents an unusual and serious clinical occurrence. We present a case of a 4-year-old male who was admitted with symptoms of abdominal pain in the right iliac fossa, raising the suspicion of acute appendicitis. Exploratory laparotomy disclosed normal appendix and perforation of Meckel's diverticulum caused by a wood splinter. Meckel's diverticulectomy was performed and the child had an uneventful postoperative course. Preoperative diagnosis of perforated Meckel’s diverticulum remains a challenging issue. Diagnosis should be considered in the presence of a right lower quadrant abdominal pain or a positive history of ingestion of a sharp foreign body PMID:23976900

  17. Anticoagulant and vasodilator therapy for Nicolau syndrome following intramuscular benzathine penicillin injection in a 4 year old boy.

    PubMed

    Alkan Bozkaya, Tijen; Demirel, Gamze; Ormeci, Tugrul; Al, Serdar; Çakar, Engin; Tastekin, Ayhan; Turkoglu, Halil

    2016-06-01

    Nicolau syndrome (NS) is a rare complication of intramuscular, intraarticular or subcutaneous injection of particular drugs leading to ischemic necrosis of the surrounding skin, soft tissue and muscular tissue. Benzathine penicilin one of the most widely used antibiotic for upper respiratory tract infections and has been rarely reported to cause NS. Here we describe a 4 year old boy with diagnosis of NS after the injection of benzathine penicillin who was successfuly treated with unfractionized heparin (enoxaparine) and pentoxifylline. The practitioners should pay attention for unnecessary use of benzathine penicillin to avoid from probable complications.

  18. Traumatic hip dislocation with incomplete reduction due to soft-tissue interposition in a 4-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Burgos, J; Gonzalez-Herranz, P; Ocete, G

    1995-01-01

    The case of a traumatic dislocation of the left hip in a 4-year-old boy is presented. After an initial attempt at reduction under general anesthesia, a permanent deformity in the flexion of the hip remained, and there was radiographic evidence of a nonconcentric reduction. Computed tomography (CT) showed interposition in the posterior part of the joint. Under general anesthesia, the mobilization of the hip reduced the dislocation correctly, removing the necessity of open treatment. This case stresses the need for early diagnosis of this serious complication and closed reduction of the joint, avoiding the poor results of open and deferred treatments.

  19. Compensation for a lip-tube perturbation in 4-year-olds: Articulatory, acoustic, and perceptual data analyzed in comparison with adults.

    PubMed

    Ménard, Lucie; Perrier, Pascal; Aubin, Jérôme

    2016-05-01

    The nature of the speech goal in children was investigated in a study of compensation strategies for a lip-tube perturbation. Acoustic, articulatory, and perceptual analyses of the vowels /y/ and /u/ produced by ten 4-year-old French speakers and ten adult French speakers were conducted under two conditions: normal and with a large tube inserted between the lips. Ultrasound and acoustic recordings of isolated vowels were made in the normal condition before any perturbation, for each of the trials in the perturbed condition, and in the normal condition after the perturbed trials. Data revealed that adult participants moved their tongues in the perturbed condition more than children did. The perturbation was generally at least partly compensated for during the perturbed trials in adults, but children did not show a typical learning effect. In particular, unsystematic improvements were observed during the sequence of perturbed trials, and after-effects were not clear in the articulatory domain. This suggests that children may establish associative links between multisensory phonemic representations and articulatory maneuvers, but those links may mainly rely on trial-to-trial, error-based feedback correction mechanisms rather than on the internal model of the speech production apparatus, as they are in adults. PMID:27250147

  20. Compensation for a lip-tube perturbation in 4-year-olds: Articulatory, acoustic, and perceptual data analyzed in comparison with adults.

    PubMed

    Ménard, Lucie; Perrier, Pascal; Aubin, Jérôme

    2016-05-01

    The nature of the speech goal in children was investigated in a study of compensation strategies for a lip-tube perturbation. Acoustic, articulatory, and perceptual analyses of the vowels /y/ and /u/ produced by ten 4-year-old French speakers and ten adult French speakers were conducted under two conditions: normal and with a large tube inserted between the lips. Ultrasound and acoustic recordings of isolated vowels were made in the normal condition before any perturbation, for each of the trials in the perturbed condition, and in the normal condition after the perturbed trials. Data revealed that adult participants moved their tongues in the perturbed condition more than children did. The perturbation was generally at least partly compensated for during the perturbed trials in adults, but children did not show a typical learning effect. In particular, unsystematic improvements were observed during the sequence of perturbed trials, and after-effects were not clear in the articulatory domain. This suggests that children may establish associative links between multisensory phonemic representations and articulatory maneuvers, but those links may mainly rely on trial-to-trial, error-based feedback correction mechanisms rather than on the internal model of the speech production apparatus, as they are in adults.

  1. First Pregnancy, Somatic and Psychological Status of a 4-Year-Old Child Born following Annexin V TESA Sperm Separation

    PubMed Central

    Lukaszuk, Krzysztof; Wcislo, Monika; Liss, Joanna; Stachowicz, Anna; Jakiel, Grzegorz; Lukaszuk, Mariusz; Pastuszek, Ewa; Woclawek-Potocka, Izabela; Galvao, Antonio; Bialobrzeska, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sperm DNA integrity is a crucial paternal factor affecting fertilization and pregnancy rates, as well as embryo development. Case The present case report describes the successful pregnancy after testicular sperm aspiration (TESA) combined with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) (TESA-ICSI) in a couple where the male presented high sperm DNA fragmentation. In order to sort damaged sperm presenting DNA fragmentation, magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) with annexin V microbeads (MACS Miltenyi Biotec, Teterow, Germany) was used. Conclusion The authors present the first description of a successful medical case using TESA-ICSI annexin V sperm sorting. Additionally, a follow-up of the child at the age of 4 years old was done. PMID:26495164

  2. Bilateral Thalamic and Right Fronto-temporo-parietal Gliomas in a 4 Years Old Child Diagnosed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sharaf, Ahmed Fathy; Hamouda, Ehab Shaban Mahmoud; Teo, Jennifer Gek Choo

    2016-01-01

    We report the neuroimaging findings of a 4-year-old girl with biopsy-proven bilateral thalamic and right fronto-temporo-parietal cortical gliomas, which are uncommon tumours involving the central nervous system. Despite their benignity, the prognosis is usually poor because of involvement of the thalamic nuclei and difficulty in surgical excision. These lesions have limited differential diagnoses that include metabolic, toxic, infective, vascular and neoplastic. Imaging characteristics on conventional Magnetic Resonance (MR), Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) and Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can further narrow the differential diagnosis and also provide additional information regarding the degree of involvement of adjacent brain tissue and white matter tracts around the lesions. PMID:27200150

  3. The use of medicinal leeches in fingertip replantation without venous anastomosis - case report of a 4-year-old patient.

    PubMed

    Streit, L; Dvořák, Z; Novák, O; Stiborová, S; Veselý, J

    2014-01-01

    Replantation of amputated fingertip is a technical challenge to the microsurgeons. The success rate depends directly on the availability and the size of preserved vessels and on the degree of their damage. In distal digital amputations, veins are usually not easily recovered or even absent, and thus high number of replantation procedures fails because of the venous congestion. The use of medicinal leeches is a treatment option for venous congestion of replanted fingers. A case report of a 4-year-old patient after fingertip replantation without venous anastomosis when temporary venous drainage was provided by an application of medicinal leeches is reported together with literature review. We observed an unusually short duration of venous congestion (48 hours) and there was no need of blood transfusion.

  4. The successful treatment of rapidly progressive idiopathic membranoproliferative glomerulo-nephritis Type 1 in a 4-year-old male pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Fujinaga, S; Ohtomo, Y; Hirano, D; Nishizaki, N; Someya, T; Ohtsuka, Y; Kaneko, K; Shimizu, T

    2010-10-01

    A multivariate analysis [4] revealed that the presence of crescent formation on initial biopsy irrespective of type of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) was independently associated not only with end-stage renal disease but also with post-transplantation recurrence. In this study, we reported on a 4-year-old male pediatric patient requiring hemodialysis due to rapidly progressive idiopathic MPGN Type 1 with severe nephrotic syndrome and extensive cellular crescent formation on initial biopsy. The patient had been treated intravenously (i.v.) with 9 pulses of methylprednisolone, followed by daily prednisolone, resulting in the withdrawal of dialysis within 1 month. However, since active lesions in the second renal biopsy such as cellular crescents still remained and nephrotic range proteinuria had persisted for more than 2 months, the patient received additional 3 i.v. pulses of methylprednisolone, followed by combinations of alternate-day prednisolone, mizoribine, dipyridamole and warfarin, which lead to complete remission in a short-period of time. The patient has been off the combination therapy for 10 months because the third biopsy prior to the termination of this regimen showed decreased inflammatory activity. There is currently no established protocol for children with crescentic MPGN due to a rarity of its clinicopathological presentation. This case report indicates that early treatment with multiple pulses of methylprednisolone followed by the short-term combination therapy may be of benefit for children with rapidly progressive idiopathic MPGN Type 1, even when both diffuse crescentic changes and nephrotic syndrome are present at onset.

  5. Children’s Comprehension of Sentences with Focus Particles and the Role of Cognitive Control: An Eye Tracking Study with German-Learning 4-Year-Olds

    PubMed Central

    Höhle, Barbara; Fritzsche, Tom; Müller, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Children’s interpretations of sentences containing focus particles do not seem adult-like until school age. This study investigates how German 4-year-old children comprehend sentences with the focus particle ‘nur’ (only) by using different tasks and controlling for the impact of general cognitive abilities on performance measures. Two sentence types with ‘only’ in either pre-subject or pre-object position were presented. Eye gaze data and verbal responses were collected via the visual world paradigm combined with a sentence-picture verification task. While the eye tracking data revealed an adult-like pattern of focus particle processing, the sentence-picture verification replicated previous findings of poor comprehension, especially for ‘only’ in pre-subject position. A second study focused on the impact of general cognitive abilities on the outcomes of the verification task. Working memory was related to children’s performance in both sentence types whereas inhibitory control was selectively related to the number of errors for sentences with ‘only’ in pre-subject position. These results suggest that children at the age of 4 years have the linguistic competence to correctly interpret sentences with focus particles, which–depending on specific task demands–may be masked by immature general cognitive abilities. PMID:26930286

  6. The Educational Expectations of Italian Children: The Role of Social Interactions with the Children of Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minello, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate to what extent the growing presence of children with immigrant background in the Italian school system has an impact on the educational expectations of Italian students in eighth grade. Educational expectations are individuals' plans for their future educational career, adjusted to the subjectively estimated…

  7. Recent (<4 year old) Leaf Litter is Not a Major Source of Microbial Carbon in a Temperate Forest Mineral Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Christiane; Trumbore, Susan E.; Froberg, Mats J.; Cisneros dozal, Luz Maria; Zhang, Dachun; Xu, Xiamei; Santos, Guaciara; Hanson, Paul J

    2010-01-01

    Microbial communities in soil A horizons derive their carbon from several potential sources: organic carbon (C) transported down from overlying litter and organic horizons, root-derived C, or soil organic matter. We took advantage of a multi-year experiment that manipulated the {sup 14}C isotope signature of surface leaf litter inputs in a temperate forest at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee, USA, to quantify the contribution of recent leaf litter C to microbial respiration and biomarkers in the underlying mineral soil. We observed no measurable difference (< {approx}40{per_thousand} given our current analytical methods) in the radiocarbon signatures of microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) isolated from the top 10 cm of mineral soil in plots that experienced 3 years of litterfall that differed in each year by {approx}750{per_thousand} between high-{sup 14}C and low-{sup 14}C treatments. Assuming any difference in {sup 14}C between the high- and low-{sup 14}C plots would reflect C derived from these manipulated litter additions, we estimate that <6% of the microbial C after 4 years was derived from the added 1-4-year-old surface litter. Large contributions of C from litter < 1 year (or >4 years) old (which fell after (or prior to) the manipulation and therefore did not differ between plots) are not supported because the {sup 14}C signatures of the PLFA compounds (averaging 200-220{per_thousand}) is much higher that of the 2004-5 leaf litter (115{per_thousand}) or pre-2000 litter. A mesocosm experiment further demonstrated that C leached from {sup 14}C-enriched surface litter or the O horizon was not a detectable C source in underlying mineral soil microbes during the first eight months after litter addition. Instead a decline in the {sup 14}C of PLFA over the mesocosm experiment likely reflected the loss of a pre-existing substrate not associated with added leaf litter. Measured PLFA {Delta}{sup 14}C signatures were higher than those measured in bulk

  8. [YEL-AND meningoencephalitis in a 4-year-old boy consecutive to a yellow-fever vaccine].

    PubMed

    Gerin, M; Wroblewski, I; Bost-Bru, C; N'guyen, M-A; Debillon, T

    2014-04-01

    Yellow fever is a vector-borne disease transmitted by an endemic mosquito in sub-Saharan Africa and tropical South America. It causes fever and possibly liver and renal failure with hemorrhagic signs, which may be fatal. The yellow-fever vaccine is an attenuated vaccine that is recommended for all travelers over the age of 9 months in high-risk areas. Adverse effects have been reported: minor symptoms (such as viral syndrome), hypersensitivity reactions, and major symptoms such as viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) and neurotropic disease (YEL-AND). The yellow-fever vaccine-associated autoimmune disease with central nervous system involvement (such as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis) associates fever and headaches, neurologic dysfunction, seizures, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis, and elevated protein, with neuroimaging consistent with multifocal areas of demyelization. The presence of antibodies or virus in CSF, within 1-30 days following vaccination, and the exclusion of other causes is necessary for diagnosis. We describe herein the case of a 4-year-old child who presented with severe encephalitis consecutive to a yellow-fever vaccine, with favorable progression. Diagnosis is based on the chronology of clinical and paraclinical signs and the presence of yellow-fever-specific antibodies in CSF. The treatment consists of symptomatic treatment and immunoglobulin injection.

  9. [Primary adrenal insufficiency as the form of onset of adrenoleukodystrophy in a 4-year-old boy].

    PubMed

    Tornero Patricio, Sebastián; de la Vega, José Antonio Bermúdez; Nehme Alvarez, Daniel; Gentil González, Francisco Javier; Lluch Fernández, María Dolores; González Hachero, José

    2009-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is an inherited metabolic disease caused by the accumulation of saturated very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA). Given that the form of presentation can be primary adrenal insufficiency, diagnosis in affected males is important. Patient was a 4-year-old boy with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, cutaneous-mucosal hyperpigmentation, and dehydration with hyponatremia and hyperpotassemia was diagnosed with adrenoleukodystrophy presenting as primary adrenal insufficiency. Antiadrenal antibodies: negative. Plasma VLCFA: C(26:0)=1.25mg/ml (0.18-0.48), C(24:0)/C(22:0) =1.53 (< 1), and C(26:0)/ C(22:0)=0.04 (< 0.02). Abdominal computed tomography: small adrenal glands. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging and evoked potentials: normal at diagnosis and with signs of white matter demyelination after 2 years of follow-up. Testing for an autoimmune etiology and adrenoleukodystrophy is important in boys with primary adrenal insufficiency before Addison's disease is diagnosed.

  10. A vesicular variant of pseudoverrucous papules and nodules in the genital area of an incontinent 4-year-old.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Shreya; Scurry, James P; Fischer, Gayle

    2013-11-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis is a common cause of chronic vulvitis in patients wearing diapers and incontinence garments. In most cases the diagnosis is obvious; however, atypical presentations may mimic more serious dermatoses. We present a 4-year-old girl who presented at birth with cloacal atresia corrected surgically and resulting in chronic incontinence requiring full-time diapers. She presented with crops of herpetiform vesicles and bullae on a base that ranged from normal skin to severe erythema and oedema. A histological examination revealed a well-demarcated lesion showing a thickened epidermis with hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis, acanthosis and an abrupt transition to pallor of the upper half. Focal full thickness epidermis necrosis and small areas of spongiosis, acantholysis and apoptotic keratinocytes were seen. Immunofluorescence was negative. The lesions improved with the treatment of secondary infection and minimal topical therapy with an emollient only. This case represents an unusual vesicular variant of pseudoverrucous papules and nodules, which has been reported only once previously. PMID:23043543

  11. Hematogones With Lambda Light Chain Restriction in a 4-Year-Old Boy With Burkitt Lymphoma: A Potential Diagnostic Pitfall

    PubMed Central

    Guillory, Tesha; Li, Shiyong; Bergsagel, Daniel J.; Weinzierl, Elizabeth; Bunting, Silvia T.

    2016-01-01

    Hematogones are immature normal B cell precursors with a characteristic immunophenotype profile on flow cytometry that typically do not express surface immunoglobulin light chains. In this report, we describe a case in which the hematogones exhibit light chain restriction. Our patient was a 4-year-old boy with a complicated medical history involving treatment for a presumed bilateral Wilms tumor of the kidney that on later resection was diagnosed as Burkitt lymphoma. Flow cytometry analysis of his bone marrow revealed a small distinct population of cells expressing dim cluster of differentiation (CD)10, CD19, CD22, CD38, dim CD58, human leukocyte antigen–D related (HLA-DR), and dim CD45, which are characteristic of hematogones. These cells, however, demonstrated dim surface immunoglobulin lambda light-chain restriction. Molecular study results for immunoglobulin heavy and kappa light-chain gene rearrangements were negative. We present this case to raise awareness of the potential pitfalls of working up bone marrow for involvement by B cell lymphoproliferative disorder. PMID:27069035

  12. Ventriculo-bipleural shunt as last resort in a 4-year-old child in whom a VP and VA shunt failed.

    PubMed

    Ratliff, Miriam; Unterberg, Andreas; Bächli, Heidi

    2016-03-01

    The authors present the unusual case of a 4-year-old boy who had a complex history of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus and who underwent more than 40 surgeries related to this condition. In the course of trying to treat his condition, ventriculoperitoneal, ventriculoatrial, and ventriculopleural shunts were inserted and failed. The child presented with a dysfunction of his shunt system. A ventriculopleural shunt was inserted, but within days the patient developed dyspnea as a clinical symptom of pleural effusion that required repeated thoracentesis. A bipleural drainage system was inserted, and no relevant pleural effusions developed during the follow-up period. Although the authors' experience is based on a single case, they do suggest bipleural drainage in patients with clinically relevant pleural effusions when the more common alternatives are not a good choice. Bipleural drainage might particularly be an option in children, who are prone to pleural effusion because of the smaller absorbing pleural surface. The authors reviewed the English-language literature on PubMed dating back to 1952. To their knowledge, this is the only published case in which a patient was treated with a ventriculo-bipleural shunt.

  13. Acute VI nerve palsy in a 4 year-old girl with Chiari I malformation and pontomedullary extension of syringomyelia: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Massey, Shavonne L; Buland, Justin; Hauber, Stacey; Piatt, Joseph; Goraya, Jatinder; Faerber, Eric; Valencia, Ignacio

    2011-07-01

    We report the case of a previously healthy 4 year-old African American female who presented to the emergency department with acute onset of unilateral abducens nerve palsy and torticollis. Within 12 h of presentation, the patient's symptoms progressed to include ipsilateral facial nerve palsy and gait ataxia. On exam, the patient demonstrated right cranial nerve VI and VII palsies, ataxic gait with left lateropulsion, spasticity of bilateral lower extremities with clonus, and the presence of bilateral Babinski sign. MRI of the brain and spinal cord revealed severe Chiari I malformation with associated extensive holochord syringomyelia and syringobulbia. The patient underwent successful surgical decompression 72 h after initial presentation. We review the literature on Chiari malformations and syringomyelia, including epidemiology, presentation and neurological manifestations, and treatment recommendations. As our patient had a very acute presentation, we additionally review the previously reported cases of acute and atypical presentation of patients with Chiari I malformation and syringomyelia. The aim of this report is to make practitioners aware of the acuteness with which children with Chiari malformation type I with syringomyelia and syringobulbia can present.

  14. [Speech perception test in Italian language for profoundly deaf children].

    PubMed

    Genovese, E; Orzan, E; Turrini, M; Babighian, G; Arslan, E

    1995-10-01

    Speech perception tests are an important part of procedures for diagnosing pre-verbal hearing loss. Merely establishing a child's hearing threshold with and without a hearing aid is not sufficient to ensure an adequate evaluation with a view to selecting cases suitable for cochlear implants because it fails to indicate the real benefit obtained from using a conventional hearing aid reliably. Speech perception tests have proved useful not only for patient selection, but also for subsequent evaluation of the efficacy of new hearing aids, such as tactile devices and cochlear implants. In clinical practice, the tests most commonly adopted with small children are: The Auditory Comprehension Test (ACT), Discrimination after Training (DAT), Monosyllable, Trochee, Spondee tests (MTS), Glendonald Auditory Screening Priocedure (GASP), Early Speech Perception Test (ESP), Rather than considering specific results achieved in individual cases, reference is generally made to the four speech perception classes proposed by Moog and Geers of the CID of St. Louis. The purpose of this classification, made on the results obtained with suitably differentiated tests according to the child's age and language ability, is to detect differences in perception of a spoken message in ideal listening conditions. To date, no italian language speech perception test has been designed to establish the assessment of speech perception level in children with profound hearing impairment. We attempted, therefore, to adapt the existing English tests to the Italian language taking into consideration the differences between the two languages. Our attention focused on the ESP test since it can be applied to even very small children (2 years old). The ESP is proposed in a standard version for hearing-impaired children over the age of 6 years and in a simplified version for younger children. The rationale we used for selecting Italian words reflect the rationale established for the original version, but the

  15. Subclinical hypothyroidism in atopic South Italian children

    PubMed Central

    Pedullà, Marcella; Fierro, Vincenzo; Marzuillo, Pierluigi; Del Tufo, Ester; Grandone, Anna; Perrone, Laura; Miraglia del Giudice, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    AIM To verify if subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) could be associated to atopy in children. METHODS Seven hundred and thirty-two Caucasian children from South Italy presenting symptoms of allergic disease were enrolled and submitted to atopy, obesity, chronic low grade inflammation, and SCH work up. RESULTS Four hundred and forty-five out of 705 (63.12%) children affected by allergic disease were diagnosed as atopic and 260 (36.88%) as not atopic. The SCH prevalence was 6.3%. Significant higher prevalence of SCH among atopic children with average (group 2) and high (group 3) low grade chronic inflammation compared to atopic children with mild (group 1) low grade chronic inflammation was present. Moreover, group 1 and group 2 presented an OR to show SCH of 2.57 (95%CI: 1.55-6.26) and 2.96 (95%CI: 1.01-8.65), respectively. Both in atopic and not atopic children we found C3 serum levels significantly higher in group 3 respect to group 2 and group 1. Noteworthy, among atopic patients, also total immunoglobulin E (IgE) serum levels, were significantly higher in group 3 compared to group 2 and group 1 children. In atopic children, C3 and total IgE serum values increased in parallel with the increase of C-reactive protein values, while in not atopic children this phenomenon was not evident. CONCLUSION The possibility exists that an increasing atopic inflammation contributes to SCH occurrence. So far this is the first report in literature showing an association between SCH and atopy but further studies are needed to confirm our data. PMID:27610347

  16. Subclinical hypothyroidism in atopic South Italian children

    PubMed Central

    Pedullà, Marcella; Fierro, Vincenzo; Marzuillo, Pierluigi; Del Tufo, Ester; Grandone, Anna; Perrone, Laura; Miraglia del Giudice, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    AIM To verify if subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) could be associated to atopy in children. METHODS Seven hundred and thirty-two Caucasian children from South Italy presenting symptoms of allergic disease were enrolled and submitted to atopy, obesity, chronic low grade inflammation, and SCH work up. RESULTS Four hundred and forty-five out of 705 (63.12%) children affected by allergic disease were diagnosed as atopic and 260 (36.88%) as not atopic. The SCH prevalence was 6.3%. Significant higher prevalence of SCH among atopic children with average (group 2) and high (group 3) low grade chronic inflammation compared to atopic children with mild (group 1) low grade chronic inflammation was present. Moreover, group 1 and group 2 presented an OR to show SCH of 2.57 (95%CI: 1.55-6.26) and 2.96 (95%CI: 1.01-8.65), respectively. Both in atopic and not atopic children we found C3 serum levels significantly higher in group 3 respect to group 2 and group 1. Noteworthy, among atopic patients, also total immunoglobulin E (IgE) serum levels, were significantly higher in group 3 compared to group 2 and group 1 children. In atopic children, C3 and total IgE serum values increased in parallel with the increase of C-reactive protein values, while in not atopic children this phenomenon was not evident. CONCLUSION The possibility exists that an increasing atopic inflammation contributes to SCH occurrence. So far this is the first report in literature showing an association between SCH and atopy but further studies are needed to confirm our data.

  17. L2 Spelling Errors in Italian Children with Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Palladino, Paola; Cismondo, Dhebora; Ferrari, Marcella; Ballagamba, Isabella; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2016-05-01

    The present study aimed to investigate L2 spelling skills in Italian children by administering an English word dictation task to 13 children with dyslexia (CD), 13 control children (comparable in age, gender, schooling and IQ) and a group of 10 children with an English learning difficulty, but no L1 learning disorder. Patterns of difficulties were examined for accuracy and type of errors, in spelling dictated short and long words (i.e. disyllables and three syllables). Notably, CD were poor in spelling English words. Furthermore, their errors were mainly related with phonological representation of words, as they made more 'phonologically' implausible errors than controls. In addition, CD errors were more frequent for short than long words. Conversely, the three groups did not differ in the number of plausible ('non-phonological') errors, that is, words that were incorrectly written, but whose reading could correspond to the dictated word via either Italian or English rules. Error analysis also showed syllable position differences in the spelling patterns of CD, children with and English learning difficulty and control children. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26892314

  18. L2 Spelling Errors in Italian Children with Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Palladino, Paola; Cismondo, Dhebora; Ferrari, Marcella; Ballagamba, Isabella; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2016-05-01

    The present study aimed to investigate L2 spelling skills in Italian children by administering an English word dictation task to 13 children with dyslexia (CD), 13 control children (comparable in age, gender, schooling and IQ) and a group of 10 children with an English learning difficulty, but no L1 learning disorder. Patterns of difficulties were examined for accuracy and type of errors, in spelling dictated short and long words (i.e. disyllables and three syllables). Notably, CD were poor in spelling English words. Furthermore, their errors were mainly related with phonological representation of words, as they made more 'phonologically' implausible errors than controls. In addition, CD errors were more frequent for short than long words. Conversely, the three groups did not differ in the number of plausible ('non-phonological') errors, that is, words that were incorrectly written, but whose reading could correspond to the dictated word via either Italian or English rules. Error analysis also showed syllable position differences in the spelling patterns of CD, children with and English learning difficulty and control children. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. The Effect of Verbal Reminders on Memory Reactivation in 2-, 3-, and 4-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imuta, Kana; Scarf, Damian; Hayne, Harlene

    2013-01-01

    For adults, verbal reminders provide a powerful key to unlock our memories. For example, a simple question, such as "Do you remember your wedding day?" can reactivate rich memories of the past, allowing us to recall experiences that may have occurred days, weeks, and even decades earlier. The ability to use another person's language to access our…

  20. Neuropsychological Characteristics of Italian Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Aragón, Alfredo S.; Coriale, Giovanna; Fiorentino, Daniela; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Buckley, David; Gossage, J. Phillip; Ceccanti, Mauro; Mitchell, Elisha R.; May, Philip A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) display many problems ranging from deficits in intelligence to behavioral difficulties. Thus, many studies have aimed to better define the neuropsychological characteristics of children with FASD. The current article describes the neuropsychological characteristics of Italian children with severe diagnosis within FASD and compares them with controls. It was expected that intellectual functioning, language comprehension, academic skills, and inattention/hyperactivity would discriminate children with FASD from randomly-selected peers without FASD. Methods This paper presents data from a second cohort of children examined in 2005 as part of an in-school epidemiological study of FASD in Italy. Eighty children, 23 diagnosed with a FASD, and 57 randomly-selected control children from the same 1st grade classes, participated. After screening for FASD via growth and dysmorphology, the children were administered a test of general intelligence (WISC-R) as well as tests of nonverbal reasoning (Raven Colored Progressive Matrices), language comprehension (Rustioni), academic achievement (IPDA), and problem behavior (Disruptive Behavior Disorder Rating Scale). Results Children diagnosed with a FASD achieved lower scores than control children on Verbal, Performance, and Full Scale IQ. Profile analysis of the WISC-R indicates overall differences between the groups. However, some intact functioning within the FASD group was found, as the Similarities and Vocabulary subtests were similar to the controls. After an alpha adjustment to .004, the Block Design, Object Assembly, and Mazes subtests were significantly different from controls. On tests of nonverbal reasoning, language comprehension, and academic achievement, the children with a FASD scored significantly lower. Moreover, teachers rated children with a severe diagnosis within FASD as showing more inattentive symptoms than controls, while hyperactive

  1. Vocabulary Development in Italian Children: A Longitudinal Evaluation of Quantitative and Qualitative Aspects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Odorico, Laura; Carubbi, Stefania; Salerni, Nicoletta; Calvo, Vicenzo

    2001-01-01

    Vocabulary development of a sample of 42 Italian children was evaluated through monthly administration of the Italian version of the CDI. Data collection started at age one for 32 children and a few moths later for the remaining subjects and continued until children's vocabulary reached 200 words. At fixed stages of vocabulary size, individual…

  2. Learning to perceive English /d/ versus /edh/: A comparison of French, English, and English-French bilingual 4-year-olds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundara, Megha; Polka, Linda; Campisi, Lisa; Genesee, Fred; Marcoux, Caroline

    2002-05-01

    Recent findings show that discrimination of the English /d-edh/ does not differ for English and French infants (6-8-month-olds and 10-12-month-olds), although English adults clearly outperform French adults on this contrast, which is not phonemic in French. With respect to age effects, English listeners' perception of /d-edh/ improves between infancy and adulthood, whereas French listeners' perception remains unchanged [Polka et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 109, 2190-2200 (2001)]. In the present study, we tested monolingual English, monolingual French, and early English-French bilingual 4-year-olds on the same contrast using the same stimuli and procedures to clarify when facilitative effects of language experience emerge and whether they are affected by bilingualism. Four findings are reported. First, a language effect (English>French) is evident by 4 years of age. Second, among native (English) listeners facilitative effects are evident by 4-years of age (infants<4-year-olds4-year-olds=adults). Fourth, bilingual 4-year-olds' performance is virtually identical to that of their French-speaking peers, revealing a strong effect of bilingualism on the perception of this contrast. Several factors contributing to these findings will be discussed.

  3. Poverty as a Predictor of 4-Year-Olds' Executive Function: New Perspectives on Models of Differential Susceptibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raver, C. Cybele; Blair, Clancy; Willoughby, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In a predominantly low-income, population-based longitudinal sample of 1,259 children followed from birth, results suggest that chronic exposure to poverty and the strains of financial hardship were each uniquely predictive of young children's performance on measures of executive functioning. Results suggest that temperament-based vulnerability…

  4. Vertebral Osteomyelitis and Acinetobacter Spp. Paravertebral Soft Tissue Infection in a 4-Year-Old Boy With X-Linked Chronic Granulomatous Disease.

    PubMed

    Vignesh, Pandiarajan; Bhattad, Sagar; Shandilya, Jitendra-Kumar; Vyas, Sameer; Garg, Rashi; Rawat, Amit

    2016-09-01

    Vertebral osteomyelitis is known to occur in chronic granulomatous disease, a phagocytic disorder and the etiology is usually a fungus. Indolent spread of fungal infection from lungs to adjacent ribs and vertebra often results in persistent pneumonia and vertebral deformities. We report a 4-year-old boy with chronic cough and kyphosis, who had a fungal vertebral osteomyelitis and Acinetobacter spp. paravertebral soft tissue infection related to X-linked chronic granulomatous disease.

  5. Accidental Ingestion and Uneventful Retrieval of an Endodontic File in a 4 Year Old Child: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Bondarde, Prashant; Naik, Anishri; Patil, Sudha; Shah, Parth H

    2015-01-01

    The majority of foreign body ingestions occur in the pediatric population, with a peak incidence between the ages of 6 months and 6 years. Safety during dental treatment of children cannot be overemphasized. Uncooperative, mentally and physically handicapped children are more prone to ingestion or aspiration of dental instruments than other populations. In any event, it is recommended that dental practitioners examine their instrument before use, as a safeguard against any slippage, breakage. Treatment with any endodontic device requires the use of proper isolation such as rubber dam. PMID:26668487

  6. Accidental Ingestion and Uneventful Retrieval of an Endodontic File in a 4 Year Old Child: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Bondarde, Prashant; Naik, Anishri; Patil, Sudha; Shah, Parth H

    2015-01-01

    The majority of foreign body ingestions occur in the pediatric population, with a peak incidence between the ages of 6 months and 6 years. Safety during dental treatment of children cannot be overemphasized. Uncooperative, mentally and physically handicapped children are more prone to ingestion or aspiration of dental instruments than other populations. In any event, it is recommended that dental practitioners examine their instrument before use, as a safeguard against any slippage, breakage. Treatment with any endodontic device requires the use of proper isolation such as rubber dam.

  7. Adults' and Children's Language in Different Situational Contexts in Italian Nursery and Infant Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majorano, Marinella; Cigala, Ada; Corsano, Paola

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to analyse, through direct observations, the communicative competence of children's caregivers and children's language development in different situational contexts in Italian nursery schools (for children aged between six and 36 months, i.e. creches) and infant schools (for children aged between 38 and 72 months,…

  8. Schooltime subjective sleepiness and performance in Italian primary school children.

    PubMed

    Cerasuolo, Mariangela; Giganti, Fiorenza; Conte, Francesca; Costanzo, Lucia Maria; Della Monica, Ciro; Arzilli, Cinzia; Marchesano, Rosa; Perrella, Arianna; Ficca, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Despite its clinical importance, the issue of the diurnal time course of sleepiness and performance in children remains largely unexplored. The objective of this study is to draw a profile of daytime subjective sleepiness and performance, at simple and complex tasks, in a cohort of Italian primary school children.To this aim, a sample of 316 children (age range: 5-11 years; mean 8.2 ± 1.5) was recruited and sub-divided into three groups, according to age: Group 1 (5-7 years; N = 127), Group 2 (8-9 years; N = 108), Group 3 (10-11 years; N = 81). Subjective sleepiness and simple performance were evaluated, respectively, through the Pictorial Sleepiness Scale and the Simple Reaction Time Task. Executive functions were addressed by means of the "Go/No-Go Task." Measurements were made in the children's class three times a day, one day a week over a 3-week period in order to reliably reflect the habitual time course of sleepiness and performance, within the following time intervals: a) 8:30 am-10:30 am; b) 11 am-1 pm; c) 2 pm-4 pm.For the global sample, a significant increase of subjective sleepiness was found at the end of school day (2-4 pm), although at relatively low levels. No significant differences were observed in reaction times across the day, whereas a significant worsening was detected in performance at complex task already since mid-morning. Significant correlations were found between subjective sleepiness and complex performance at all points.Slight age-related differences were found in the time courses of subjective sleepiness: in fact, a significant overday reduction of vigilance levels, from mid-morning onwards, was observed in children aged 5-9 years, but not in the older children (10-11 years). However, the daily time course of both simple and complex performances did not differ among children of the three age groups. Our results show changes in vigilance and cognitive functions across a typical school day in childhood, as well as age

  9. Children's Collective Activities and Peer Culture in Early Literacy in American and Italian Preschools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsaro, William A.; Nelson, Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    Examines American and Italian children's early literacy awareness and activities in preschools. Reveals that children take literacy activities and knowledge from formal lessons and then use, refine, and extend these activites with peers. Considers implications of these findings for theoretical work on children's peer cultures and development of…

  10. Relation of Occupational Knowledge to Career Interests and Competence Perceptions in Italian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohlfing, Jessica E.; Nota, Laura; Ferrari, Lea; Soresi, Salvatore; Tracey, Terence J. G.

    2012-01-01

    The relations of differential occupational knowledge with interests and competence perceptions in children as well as how these relations were moderated by gender and grade were examined in this study using an Italian sample. Data were collected from samples of elementary school and middle school children (N = 539). The Inventory of Children's…

  11. Voices of Children and Parents from Elsewhere: A Glance at Integration in Italian Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dusi, Paola; Steinbach, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    This study involves 35 research participants: 20 immigrant parents (primarily mothers from South America, North Africa, Eastern Europe and the Middle East) and 15 primary school children, aged 10-11. These children were born outside Italy and primary school was their first encounter with the Italian educational system. We observed their processes…

  12. Correspondence of Children's Anticipated Vocations, Perceived Competencies, and Interests: Results from an Italian Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prime, Dominic R.; Nota, Laura; Ferrari, Lea; Schultheiss, Donna E. Palladino; Soresi, Salvatore; Tracey, Terence J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Relations among anticipated vocations, self-assessments of competence, and interests in sample of 190 Italian children were examined. Children were asked what activities they liked, those they thought they were good at, and what job they expected when they grew up. The responses were coded into RIASEC Holland codes and agreement across the three…

  13. Emergency coronary artery bypass grafting for cardiogenic shock due to left main coronary artery obstruction caused by Kawasaki disease in a 4-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Wataru; Tsuda, Etsuko; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Junjiro; Shiono, Junko

    2014-04-01

    We describe the case of a 4-year-old boy whose clinical course after Kawasaki disease resulted in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) causing cardiogenic shock. He had developed an ischemic cardiomyopathy due to severe localized stenosis of the left main coronary artery (LCA) and went into cardiogenic shock due to AMI on the day before a scheduled operation. He underwent successful emergency CABG within 4 h of MI. Postoperatively his neurological status was intact. This is the first report of a successful emergency CABG in a small child with cardiogenic shock due to LCA occlusion. CABG should be undertaken in small patients when appropriate indications exist, if bodyweight is >10 kg.

  14. Cognitive Profiles of Italian Children with Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobia, Valentina; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate verbal and nonverbal cognitive deficits in Italian students with developmental dyslexia. The performances of 32 dyslexic students, 64 age-matched typically reading controls, and 64 reading age-matched controls were compared on tests of lexical knowledge, phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming,…

  15. Uses of past forms in the social pretend play of Italian children.

    PubMed

    Musatti, T; Orsolini, M

    1993-10-01

    In different languages children have been found to use past verb forms to express the meaning of 'unreality' during social pretend play. In this study, the verb forms used by 14 four-year-old Italian children in their pretend play were investigated. Results show that different Italian past verb forms tend to co-occur with different play activities. The imperfect occurs mainly when children plan and negotiate their pretend activities and marks the transition from a real to a pretend frame of reference. The present perfect occurs mainly when children implement their plans and communicate within a pretend frame that has already been established. Results of this study are discussed in comparison with findings on the pretend language of children speaking other languages.

  16. The effect of morphology on spelling and reading accuracy: a study on Italian children

    PubMed Central

    Angelelli, Paola; Marinelli, Chiara Valeria; Burani, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    In opaque orthographies knowledge of morphological information helps in achieving reading and spelling accuracy. In transparent orthographies with regular print-to-sound correspondences, such as Italian, the mappings of orthography onto phonology and phonology onto orthography are in principle sufficient to read and spell most words. The present study aimed to investigate the role of morphology in the reading and spelling accuracy of Italian children as a function of school experience to determine whether morphological facilitation was present in children learning a transparent orthography. The reading and spelling performances of 15 third-grade and 15 fifth-grade typically developing children were analyzed. Children read aloud and spelled both low-frequency words and pseudowords. Low-frequency words were manipulated for the presence of morphological structure (morphemic words vs. non-derived words). Morphemic words could also vary for the frequency (high vs. low) of roots and suffixes. Pseudo-words were made up of either a real root and a real derivational suffix in a combination that does not exist in the Italian language or had no morphological constituents. Results showed that, in Italian, morphological information is a useful resource for both reading and spelling. Typically developing children benefitted from the presence of morphological structure when they read and spelled pseudowords; however, in processing low-frequency words, morphology facilitated reading but not spelling. These findings are discussed in terms of morpho-lexical access and successful cooperation between lexical and sublexical processes in reading and spelling. PMID:25477855

  17. [Loeys-Dietz syndrome (TGFβR2 mutation) in a 4-year-old child with thoracic aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    De Potter, M-J; Edouard, T; Amadieu, R; Plaisancié, J; Julia, S; Hadeed, K; Hascoët, S; Acar, P; Dulac, Y

    2016-05-01

    Loeys-Dietz syndrome is a rare form of connective tissue disorder, whose clinical features can resemble those of Marfan syndrome, but with a more unpolished appearance. Recently brought out, this pathology remains little known; however, its consequences may be dramatic. We report on the case of a 4-year-old girl followed for a congenital hip dislocation, in which a systematic exam found increased cutaneous elasticity and a bifid uvula, suggesting a connective tissue disorder. Symptoms were unpolished, as the child's height was normal, without any positive cardiac, rheumatological, or ophthalmological family history. Cardiovascular tests found a thoracic aortic aneurysm at the Valsalva sinus (26mm, Z-score=+4.24). A genetic investigation found a TGFβR2 gene mutation, leading to the diagnosis of Loeys-Dietz syndrome type 2. Skeletal damage associated with bifid uvula and/or hypertelorism and an aneurysm of the ascending aorta should guide the genetic investigation to the search for TGF-β vasculopathy such as Loeys-Dietz syndrome.

  18. Chronic Candida albicans Meningitis in a 4-Year-Old Girl with a Homozygous Mutation in the CARD9 Gene (Q295X).

    PubMed

    Herbst, Martin; Gazendam, Roel; Reimnitz, Denise; Sawalle-Belohradsky, Julie; Groll, Andreas; Schlegel, Paul-Gerhardt; Belohradsky, Bernd; Renner, Ellen; Klepper, Jörg; Grimbacher, Bodo; Kuijpers, Taco; Liese, Johannes

    2015-09-01

    A 4-year-old Turkish girl of consanguineous parents was hospitalized for the evaluation of headaches and recurrent febrile episodes of unknown origin. Her medical history was unremarkable except for a few episodes of uncomplicated oral thrush. Meningitis was diagnosed, and Candida albicans was the only pathogen identified by polymerase chain reaction and culture. Despite systemic antifungal multidrug therapy, a prolonged course of 16 months of therapy was necessary to clear C. albicans from the cerebrospinal fluid. Molecular genetic analysis revealed a homozygous caspase recruitment domain 9 (CARD9) mutation (Q295X), which was reported to predispose to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. Immunologic workup excluded predisposing B-cell and T-cell defects. In addition, T cells producing interleukin-17 were repeatedly measured within the normal range. Analyses of neutrophils demonstrated normal nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity in response to various stimuli including Staphylococcus aureus and C. albicans. Additional neutrophilic functional testing, however, showed a decreased cytotoxicity to nonopsonized C. albicans, indicating an impaired killing mechanism against Candida spp. independent from the production of reactive oxygen species by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase system. Because this defect was only demonstrated in the absence of opsonins, it might especially predispose to chronic C. albicans infections in the central nervous system where opsonin concentrations are usually low. We, therefore, suggest that due to an additional neutrophil dependent defect CARD9 deficiency predisposes not only to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, but also to invasive chronic Candida infections, especially of the central nervous system.

  19. Necrotizing pneumonia and acute purulent pericarditis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A in a healthy 4-year-old girl after one catch-up dose of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shay; Tsai, Jeng-Dau; Tsao, Ten-Fu; Liao, Pei-Fen; Sheu, Ji-Nan

    2016-08-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common cause of infectious diseases in children that may lead to life-threatening complications. Acute purulent pericarditis is an uncommon complication of S. pneumoniae in the antibiotic era. A healthy 4-year-old girl was admitted with pneumonia and pleural effusion. She had received one catch-up dose of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine at 2 years of age. She rapidly developed necrotizing pneumonia, complicated by bronchopleural fistula presenting as subcutaneous emphysema and pneumothorax and acute purulent pericarditis. S. pneumoniae serotype 19A was subsequently identified from blood, empyema and pericardial fluid cultures. After appropriate antibiotic therapy and a right lower lobectomy, her condition stabilized and she promptly recovered. This case highlights two rare potential clinical complications of pneumococcal disease in a child: necrotizing pneumonia and acute purulent pericarditis. This is the first report of a child who received just one catch-up dose of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine at 2 years of age, as per the United States' Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice's recommendations, but who still developed severe invasive pneumococcal disease with life-threatening complications caused by S. pneumoniae serotype 19A.

  20. Disambiguating Information and Memory Resources in Children's Processing of Italian Relative Clauses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arosio, Fabrizio; Guasti, Maria Teresa; Stucchi, Natale

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the role of number agreement on verb and of animacy in the comprehension of subject and object relative clauses in 51 monolingual Italian-speaking children, mean age 9:33, tested through a self-paced listening experiment with a final comprehension question. A "digit span test" and a "listening span test" were also administered to…

  1. Aspects of Social Reputation and Peer Relationships in Italian Children: A Cross-Cultural Perspective."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casiglia, Amedeo C.; Lo Coco, Alida; Zappulla, Carla

    1998-01-01

    Administered Revised Class Play to Italian children to explore cross-cultural differences from North American studies on social reputation. Administered sociometric nominations to examine association between social reputation and peer acceptance-rejection. Found that original Leadership-Sociability factor was split into separate dimensions. Also…

  2. Gender and Mathematics: Attitudes and Stereotype Threat Susceptibility in Italian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muzzatti, Barbara; Agnoli, Franca

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the development of attitudes toward mathematics and stereotype threat susceptibility in Italian children. Experiment 1 involved 476 elementary school boys and girls and produced evidence of gender differences in self-confidence in one's own mathematical ability and in gender stereotyping of mathematics during…

  3. Pediatric Tuberculosis in Italian Children: Epidemiological and Clinical Data from the Italian Register of Pediatric Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Galli, Luisa; Lancella, Laura; Tersigni, Chiara; Venturini, Elisabetta; Chiappini, Elena; Bergamini, Barbara Maria; Codifava, Margherita; Venturelli, Cristina; Tosetti, Giulia; Marabotto, Caterina; Cursi, Laura; Boccuzzi, Elena; Garazzino, Silvia; Tovo, Pier Angelo; Pinon, Michele; Le Serre, Daniele; Castiglioni, Laura; Lo Vecchio, Andrea; Guarino, Alfredo; Bruzzese, Eugenia; Losurdo, Giuseppe; Castagnola, Elio; Bossi, Grazia; Marseglia, Gian Luigi; Esposito, Susanna; Bosis, Samantha; Grandolfo, Rita; Fiorito, Valentina; Valentini, Piero; Buonsenso, Danilo; Domenici, Raffaele; Montesanti, Marco; Salvini, Filippo Maria; Riva, Enrica; Dodi, Icilio; Maschio, Francesca; Abbagnato, Luisa; Fiumana, Elisa; Fornabaio, Chiara; Ballista, Patrizia; Portelli, Vincenzo; Bottone, Gabriella; Palladino, Nicola; Valenzise, Mariella; Vecchi, Barbara; Di Gangi, Maria; Lupi, Carla; Villani, Alberto; de Martino, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Over the last decades, TB has also emerged in the pediatric population. Epidemiologic data of childhood TB are still limited and there is an urgent need of more data on very large cohorts. A multicenter study was conducted in 27 pediatric hospitals, pediatric wards, and public health centers in Italy using a standardized form, covering the period of time between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2012. Children with active TB, latent TB, and those recently exposed to TB or recently adopted/immigrated from a high TB incidence country were enrolled. Overall, 4234 children were included; 554 (13.1%) children had active TB, 594 (14.0%) latent TB and 3086 (72.9%) were uninfected. Among children with active TB, 481 (86.8%) patients had pulmonary TB. The treatment of active TB cases was known for 96.4% (n = 534) of the cases. Overall, 210 (39.3%) out of these 534 children were treated with three and 216 (40.4%) with four first-line drugs. Second-line drugs where used in 87 (16.3%) children with active TB. Drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were reported in 39 (7%) children. Improving the surveillance of childhood TB is important for public health care workers and pediatricians. A non-negligible proportion of children had drug-resistant TB and was treated with second-line drugs, most of which are off-label in the pediatric age. Future efforts should concentrate on improving active surveillance, diagnostic tools, and the availability of antitubercular pediatric formulations, also in low-endemic countries. PMID:27322255

  4. Pediatric Tuberculosis in Italian Children: Epidemiological and Clinical Data from the Italian Register of Pediatric Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Galli, Luisa; Lancella, Laura; Tersigni, Chiara; Venturini, Elisabetta; Chiappini, Elena; Bergamini, Barbara Maria; Codifava, Margherita; Venturelli, Cristina; Tosetti, Giulia; Marabotto, Caterina; Cursi, Laura; Boccuzzi, Elena; Garazzino, Silvia; Tovo, Pier Angelo; Pinon, Michele; Le Serre, Daniele; Castiglioni, Laura; Lo Vecchio, Andrea; Guarino, Alfredo; Bruzzese, Eugenia; Losurdo, Giuseppe; Castagnola, Elio; Bossi, Grazia; Marseglia, Gian Luigi; Esposito, Susanna; Bosis, Samantha; Grandolfo, Rita; Fiorito, Valentina; Valentini, Piero; Buonsenso, Danilo; Domenici, Raffaele; Montesanti, Marco; Salvini, Filippo Maria; Riva, Enrica; Dodi, Icilio; Maschio, Francesca; Abbagnato, Luisa; Fiumana, Elisa; Fornabaio, Chiara; Ballista, Patrizia; Portelli, Vincenzo; Bottone, Gabriella; Palladino, Nicola; Valenzise, Mariella; Vecchi, Barbara; Di Gangi, Maria; Lupi, Carla; Villani, Alberto; de Martino, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Over the last decades, TB has also emerged in the pediatric population. Epidemiologic data of childhood TB are still limited and there is an urgent need of more data on very large cohorts. A multicenter study was conducted in 27 pediatric hospitals, pediatric wards, and public health centers in Italy using a standardized form, covering the period of time between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2012. Children with active TB, latent TB, and those recently exposed to TB or recently adopted/immigrated from a high TB incidence country were enrolled. Overall, 4234 children were included; 554 (13.1%) children had active TB, 594 (14.0%) latent TB and 3086 (72.9%) were uninfected. Among children with active TB, 481 (86.8%) patients had pulmonary TB. The treatment of active TB cases was known for 96.4% (n = 534) of the cases. Overall, 210 (39.3%) out of these 534 children were treated with three and 216 (40.4%) with four first-line drugs. Second-line drugs where used in 87 (16.3%) children with active TB. Drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were reported in 39 (7%) children. Improving the surveillance of childhood TB is important for public health care workers and pediatricians. A non-negligible proportion of children had drug-resistant TB and was treated with second-line drugs, most of which are off-label in the pediatric age. Future efforts should concentrate on improving active surveillance, diagnostic tools, and the availability of antitubercular pediatric formulations, also in low-endemic countries. PMID:27322255

  5. Determiners in Bilingual German-Italian Children: What They Tell Us about the Relation between Language Influence and Language Dominance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupisch, Tanja

    2007-01-01

    This study addresses the question of whether language dominance and cross-linguistic influence are related by investigating the acquisition of determiner omission in four bilingual German-Italian children. The study begins by showing that monolingual Italian learners omit determiners less extensively than monolingual German learners. If bilingual…

  6. The Italian Job?: Comparing Theory of Mind Performance in British and Italian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lecce, Serena; Hughes, Claire

    2010-01-01

    Cross-cultural research on theory of mind is relatively recent and largely restricted to comparisons of children from Western versus non-Western samples; much less is known about variation within Western cultures. This study compared 5- to 6-year-olds from Britain and Italy (matched for age, verbal age, gender, and maternal education; N=140), on…

  7. Explaining Variance in Long-Term Recall in 3- and 4-Year-Old Children: The Importance of Post-Encoding Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Larkina, Marina; Doydum, Ayzit O.

    2012-01-01

    Long-term recall is influenced by what originally was encoded as well as by the efficacy of retrieval processes. The possible explanatory role of post-encoding processes by which initially labile memory traces are stabilized and integrated into long-term memory (i.e., consolidated) has received relatively less research attention. In the current…

  8. Characteristics of Phonological Development as a Risk Factor for Language Development in Italian-Speaking Pre-Term Children: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Odorico, Laura; Majorano, Marinella; Fasolo, Mirco; Salerni, Nicoletta; Suttora, Chiara

    2011-01-01

    This study analysed the early linguistic development of Italian pre-term children. Samples of spontaneous pre-linguistic and verbal production were recorded at 12 and 18 months of age from two groups of children: 24 pre-term children and 15 full-term children. The Italian version of the MacArthur-Bates Questionnaire was administered at 24 months…

  9. Cosleeping and sleep behavior in Italian school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Cortesi, Flavia; Giannotti, Flavia; Sebastiani, Teresa; Vagnoni, Cristina

    2004-02-01

    The prevalence and predictors of cosleeping were investigated in 901 healthy school-aged children. Parent reports on the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire and Child Behavior Checklist were used to assess children's sleep and behavioral problems. Regular, long-lasting cosleeping was present in 5% of our sample. Cosleepers rated higher on the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire total score and Bedtime Resistance, Sleep Anxiety, Nightwakings, and Parasomnias subscales than solitary sleepers. No significant behavioral problems were found in cosleepers. Regression results showed that low socioeconomic status, one parent who is a shiftworker, one-parent families, one parent who coslept as a child, prolonged breastfeeding, and previous and current sleep problems significantly predicted cosleeping. The high incidence of parents reporting having coslept as a child also suggested a lifestyle choice. Thus, cosleeping seems to reflect a parent's way to cope with sleep problems, and the long persistence of this practice may be related to the lifestyle of families.

  10. Real-Word and Nonword Repetition in Italian-Speaking Children with Specific Language Impairment: A Study of Diagnostic Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dispaldro, Marco; Leonard, Laurence B.; Deevy, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Using 2 different scoring methods, the authors examined the diagnostic accuracy of both real-word and nonword repetition in identifying Italian-speaking children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Method: A total of 34 children ages 3;11-5;8 (years;months) participated--17 children with SLI and 17 typically developing…

  11. Grammatical Morphology and the Role of Weak Syllables in the Speech of Italian-Speaking Children with Specific Language Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Laurence B.; Bortolini, Umberta

    1998-01-01

    Twenty-five Italian-speaking children (ages 4 to 7) with specific language impairments were compared to younger control children in their use of auxiliary verbs, pronominal clitics, infinitives, present-tense verbal inflections, and articles. Differences favoring the control children were found for those morphemes that required the production of…

  12. Skin disease and thyroid autoimmunity in atopic South Italian children

    PubMed Central

    Pedullà, Marcella; Fierro, Vincenzo; Marzuillo, Pierluigi; Capuano, Francesco; Miraglia del Giudice, Emanuele; Ruocco, Eleonora

    2016-01-01

    AIM To verify the prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity (TA) and the possible association between atopy and TA in children affected by skin disease. METHODS Three hundred and twenty-four children consecutively referred due to skin disease symptoms to our Pediatric Department were enrolled. One hundred and eighty-seven were diagnosed with atopic dermatitis (AD), 95 with acute urticaria, 40 with chronic urticaria (CU), and 2 with alopecia areata (AA). According to the work-up for atopy, the children were divided into two groups: Atopics and non-atopics. TA was diagnosed by serum thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies and/or thyroglobulin autoantibodies levels more than twice normal values over a period of two months by immunoassay. RESULTS In all children with skin disease, a significant prevalence of TA in atopics compared with non-atopics (13.67% vs 2.67%, P = 0.0016) and a significant association between TA and atopy (OR = 5.76, 95%CI: 1.71-19.35) were observed. These findings were confirmed as significant in children with AD: TA in atopics was 11.5%, while TA in non-atopics was 2.7% (P = 0.03, OR = 4.68, 95%CI: 1.02-21.38). In addition, atopics with CU showed a significantly higher prevalence of TA (26.9%), but none of the non-atopics showed CU (P = 0.0326). On the other hand, atopics with AA showed a 100% (2 out of 2) prevalence of TA, compared with none of the non-atopics. CONCLUSION In children with skin disease, atopy seems to be associated with an increased risk of TA.

  13. Skin disease and thyroid autoimmunity in atopic South Italian children

    PubMed Central

    Pedullà, Marcella; Fierro, Vincenzo; Marzuillo, Pierluigi; Capuano, Francesco; Miraglia del Giudice, Emanuele; Ruocco, Eleonora

    2016-01-01

    AIM To verify the prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity (TA) and the possible association between atopy and TA in children affected by skin disease. METHODS Three hundred and twenty-four children consecutively referred due to skin disease symptoms to our Pediatric Department were enrolled. One hundred and eighty-seven were diagnosed with atopic dermatitis (AD), 95 with acute urticaria, 40 with chronic urticaria (CU), and 2 with alopecia areata (AA). According to the work-up for atopy, the children were divided into two groups: Atopics and non-atopics. TA was diagnosed by serum thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies and/or thyroglobulin autoantibodies levels more than twice normal values over a period of two months by immunoassay. RESULTS In all children with skin disease, a significant prevalence of TA in atopics compared with non-atopics (13.67% vs 2.67%, P = 0.0016) and a significant association between TA and atopy (OR = 5.76, 95%CI: 1.71-19.35) were observed. These findings were confirmed as significant in children with AD: TA in atopics was 11.5%, while TA in non-atopics was 2.7% (P = 0.03, OR = 4.68, 95%CI: 1.02-21.38). In addition, atopics with CU showed a significantly higher prevalence of TA (26.9%), but none of the non-atopics showed CU (P = 0.0326). On the other hand, atopics with AA showed a 100% (2 out of 2) prevalence of TA, compared with none of the non-atopics. CONCLUSION In children with skin disease, atopy seems to be associated with an increased risk of TA. PMID:27610344

  14. Educator Abroad: Teaching ("Insegnare") and Learning ("Imparare") with Italian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veltri, Barbara Torre

    2012-01-01

    Over her 30-year career as a certified teacher, researcher, and university teacher educator, the author has planned, facilitated and refined educational experiences for children from pre-kindergarten through adolescence, as well as for adults who teach (or were preparing to teach) in New York, Connecticut, Texas, and Arizona. During the summer of…

  15. Career Exploration and Occupational Knowledge in Italian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Lea; Ginevra, Maria Cristina; Santilli, Sara; Nota, Laura; Sgaramella, Teresa Maria; Soresi, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    We explored the perception and actual occupational knowledge of jobs on career exploration across Holland's categories in 60 elementary and 60 middle school students. Results showed a closer relationship between career exploration and actual knowledge than children's perception of knowledge. We found higher levels of actual knowledge and…

  16. Individual dose and exposure of Italian children to ultrafine particles.

    PubMed

    Buonanno, G; Marini, S; Morawska, L; Fuoco, F C

    2012-11-01

    Time-activity patterns and the airborne pollutant concentrations encountered by children each day are an important determinant of individual exposure to airborne particles. This is demonstrated in this work by using hand-held devices to measure the real-time individual exposure of more than 100 children aged 8-11 years to particle number concentrations and average particle diameter, as well as alveolar and tracheobronchial deposited surface area concentration. A GPS-logger and activity diaries were also used to give explanation to the measurement results. Children were divided in three sample groups: two groups comprised of urban schools (school time from 8:30 am to 1:30 pm) with lunch and dinner at home, and the third group of a rural school with only dinner at home. The mean individual exposure to particle number concentration was found to differ between the three groups, ranging from 6.2 × 10(4)part.cm(-3) for children attending one urban school to 1.6 × 10(4)part.cm(-3) for the rural school. The corresponding daily alveolar deposited surface area dose varied from about 1.7 × 10(3)mm(2) for urban schools to 6.0 × 10(2)mm(2) for the rural school. For all of the children monitored, the lowest particle number concentrations are found during sleeping time and the highest were found during eating time. With regard to alveolar deposited surface area dose, a child's home was the major contributor (about 70%), with school contributing about 17% for urban schools and 27% for the rural school. An important contribution arises from the cooking/eating time spent at home, which accounted for approximately 20% of overall exposure, corresponding to more than 200 mm(2). These activities represent the highest dose received per time unit, with very high values also encountered by children with a fireplace at home, as well as those that spend considerable time stuck in traffic jams.

  17. Individual dose and exposure of Italian children to ultrafine particles.

    PubMed

    Buonanno, G; Marini, S; Morawska, L; Fuoco, F C

    2012-11-01

    Time-activity patterns and the airborne pollutant concentrations encountered by children each day are an important determinant of individual exposure to airborne particles. This is demonstrated in this work by using hand-held devices to measure the real-time individual exposure of more than 100 children aged 8-11 years to particle number concentrations and average particle diameter, as well as alveolar and tracheobronchial deposited surface area concentration. A GPS-logger and activity diaries were also used to give explanation to the measurement results. Children were divided in three sample groups: two groups comprised of urban schools (school time from 8:30 am to 1:30 pm) with lunch and dinner at home, and the third group of a rural school with only dinner at home. The mean individual exposure to particle number concentration was found to differ between the three groups, ranging from 6.2 × 10(4)part.cm(-3) for children attending one urban school to 1.6 × 10(4)part.cm(-3) for the rural school. The corresponding daily alveolar deposited surface area dose varied from about 1.7 × 10(3)mm(2) for urban schools to 6.0 × 10(2)mm(2) for the rural school. For all of the children monitored, the lowest particle number concentrations are found during sleeping time and the highest were found during eating time. With regard to alveolar deposited surface area dose, a child's home was the major contributor (about 70%), with school contributing about 17% for urban schools and 27% for the rural school. An important contribution arises from the cooking/eating time spent at home, which accounted for approximately 20% of overall exposure, corresponding to more than 200 mm(2). These activities represent the highest dose received per time unit, with very high values also encountered by children with a fireplace at home, as well as those that spend considerable time stuck in traffic jams. PMID:23000716

  18. How Do Alternative Ways of Responding Influence 3- and 4-Year-Olds' Performance on Tests of Executive Function and Theory of Mind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Daniel J.; Riggs, Kevin J.; Apperly, Ian A.; Graham, Kate; Geoghegan, Ceara

    2012-01-01

    A total of 69 preschool children were tested on measures of false belief understanding (the Unexpected Transfer task), inhibitory control (the Grass/Snow task), and strategic reasoning (the Windows task). For each task, children indicated their response either by pointing with their index finger or by using a nonstandard response mode (pointing…

  19. Imitation as a mechanism in cognitive development: a cross-cultural investigation of 4-year-old children’s rule learning

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhidan; Williamson, Rebecca A.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2015-01-01

    Children learn about the social and physical world by observing other people’s acts. This experiment tests both Chinese and American children’s learning of a rule. For theoretical reasons we chose the rule of categorizing objects by the weight. Children, age 4 years, saw an adult heft four visually-identical objects and sort them into two bins based on an invisible property—the object’s weight. Children who saw this categorization behavior were more likely to sort those objects by weight than were children who saw control actions using the same objects and the same bins. Crucially, children also generalized to a novel set of objects with no further demonstration, suggesting rule learning. We also report that high-fidelity imitation of the adult’s “hefting” acts may give children crucial experience with the objects’ weights, which could then be used to infer the more abstract rule. The connection of perception, action, and cognition was found in children from both cultures, which leads to broad implications for how the imitation of adults’ acts functions as a lever in cognitive development. PMID:26029132

  20. A Multicenter Retrospective Survey regarding Diabetic Ketoacidosis Management in Italian Children with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zucchini, Stefano; Scaramuzza, Andrea E.; Bonfanti, Riccardo; Buono, Pietro; Cardella, Francesca; Cauvin, Vittoria; Cherubini, Valentino; Chiari, Giovanni; d'Annunzio, Giuseppe; Frongia, Anna Paola; Iafusco, Dario; Maltoni, Giulio; Patera, Ippolita Patrizia; Toni, Sonia; Tumini, Stefano; Rabbone, Ivana; Diabetes Study Group of the Italian Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology (ISPED)

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective survey in pediatric centers belonging to the Italian Society for Pediatric Diabetology and Endocrinology. The following data were collected for all new-onset diabetes patients aged 0–18 years: DKA (pH < 7.30), severe DKA (pH < 7.1), DKA in preschool children, DKA treatment according to ISPAD protocol, type of rehydrating solution used, bicarbonates use, and amount of insulin infused. Records (n = 2453) of children with newly diagnosed diabetes were collected from 68/77 centers (87%), 39 of which are tertiary referral centers, the majority of whom (n = 1536, 89.4%) were diagnosed in the tertiary referral centers. DKA was observed in 38.5% and severe DKA in 10.3%. Considering preschool children, DKA was observed in 72%, and severe DKA in 16.7%. Cerebral edema following DKA treatment was observed in 5 (0.5%). DKA treatment according to ISPAD guidelines was adopted in 68% of the centers. In the first 2 hours, rehydration was started with normal saline in all centers, but with different amount. Bicarbonate was quite never been used. Insulin was infused starting from third hour at the rate of 0.05–0.1 U/kg/h in 72% of centers. Despite prevention campaign, DKA is still observed in Italian children at onset, with significant variability in DKA treatment, underlying the need to share guidelines among centers. PMID:26649321

  1. A Multicenter Retrospective Survey regarding Diabetic Ketoacidosis Management in Italian Children with Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zucchini, Stefano; Scaramuzza, Andrea E; Bonfanti, Riccardo; Buono, Pietro; Cardella, Francesca; Cauvin, Vittoria; Cherubini, Valentino; Chiari, Giovanni; d'Annunzio, Giuseppe; Frongia, Anna Paola; Iafusco, Dario; Maltoni, Giulio; Patera, Ippolita Patrizia; Toni, Sonia; Tumini, Stefano; Rabbone, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective survey in pediatric centers belonging to the Italian Society for Pediatric Diabetology and Endocrinology. The following data were collected for all new-onset diabetes patients aged 0-18 years: DKA (pH < 7.30), severe DKA (pH < 7.1), DKA in preschool children, DKA treatment according to ISPAD protocol, type of rehydrating solution used, bicarbonates use, and amount of insulin infused. Records (n = 2453) of children with newly diagnosed diabetes were collected from 68/77 centers (87%), 39 of which are tertiary referral centers, the majority of whom (n = 1536, 89.4%) were diagnosed in the tertiary referral centers. DKA was observed in 38.5% and severe DKA in 10.3%. Considering preschool children, DKA was observed in 72%, and severe DKA in 16.7%. Cerebral edema following DKA treatment was observed in 5 (0.5%). DKA treatment according to ISPAD guidelines was adopted in 68% of the centers. In the first 2 hours, rehydration was started with normal saline in all centers, but with different amount. Bicarbonate was quite never been used. Insulin was infused starting from third hour at the rate of 0.05-0.1 U/kg/h in 72% of centers. Despite prevention campaign, DKA is still observed in Italian children at onset, with significant variability in DKA treatment, underlying the need to share guidelines among centers. PMID:26649321

  2. A Multicenter Retrospective Survey regarding Diabetic Ketoacidosis Management in Italian Children with Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zucchini, Stefano; Scaramuzza, Andrea E; Bonfanti, Riccardo; Buono, Pietro; Cardella, Francesca; Cauvin, Vittoria; Cherubini, Valentino; Chiari, Giovanni; d'Annunzio, Giuseppe; Frongia, Anna Paola; Iafusco, Dario; Maltoni, Giulio; Patera, Ippolita Patrizia; Toni, Sonia; Tumini, Stefano; Rabbone, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective survey in pediatric centers belonging to the Italian Society for Pediatric Diabetology and Endocrinology. The following data were collected for all new-onset diabetes patients aged 0-18 years: DKA (pH < 7.30), severe DKA (pH < 7.1), DKA in preschool children, DKA treatment according to ISPAD protocol, type of rehydrating solution used, bicarbonates use, and amount of insulin infused. Records (n = 2453) of children with newly diagnosed diabetes were collected from 68/77 centers (87%), 39 of which are tertiary referral centers, the majority of whom (n = 1536, 89.4%) were diagnosed in the tertiary referral centers. DKA was observed in 38.5% and severe DKA in 10.3%. Considering preschool children, DKA was observed in 72%, and severe DKA in 16.7%. Cerebral edema following DKA treatment was observed in 5 (0.5%). DKA treatment according to ISPAD guidelines was adopted in 68% of the centers. In the first 2 hours, rehydration was started with normal saline in all centers, but with different amount. Bicarbonate was quite never been used. Insulin was infused starting from third hour at the rate of 0.05-0.1 U/kg/h in 72% of centers. Despite prevention campaign, DKA is still observed in Italian children at onset, with significant variability in DKA treatment, underlying the need to share guidelines among centers.

  3. Tracing Back to the Onset of Abnormal Head Circumference Growth in Italian Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muratori, Filippo; Calderoni, Sara; Apicella, Fabio; Filippi, Tiziana; Santocchi, Elisa; Calugi, Simona; Cosenza, Angela; Tancredi, Raffaella; Narzisi, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This retrospective study aims to describe head circumference (HC) developmental course during the first year of life in 50 Italian children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and in a control group of 100 typically developing children (TD). To this end, we use anthropometric measurements (HC, body height, body weight) obtained at birth (T0), 1-2…

  4. Two New Rating Scales for Assessment of ADHD Symptoms in Italian Preschool Children: A Comparison between Parent and Teacher Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Re, Anna Maria; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Two new rating scales are presented for the assessment of ADHD symptoms in Italian preschool children, and the agreement between parents and teachers on the presence of an ADHD profile is examined. Method: The scales were administered to parents and teachers of 180 children with a mean age of 5 years and 9 months, attending final year…

  5. Self-Perceptions of Competence in Brazilian, Canadian, Chinese and Italian Children: Relations with Social and School Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xinyin; Zappulla, Carla; Coco, Alida Lo; Schneider, Barry; Kaspar, Violet; De Oliveira, Ana Maria; He, Yunfeng; Li, Dan; Li, Boshu; Bergeron, Natasha; Tse, Hennis Chi-Hang; DeSouza, Amanda

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine relations between self-perceptions of competence and social, behavioural, and school adjustment in Brazilian, Canadian, Chinese, and Italian children. Self-perception data were collected through children's self-reports. Information about social behaviours, peer acceptance, and school achievement was…

  6. Behavioral and neurobiological correlates of childhood apraxia of speech in Italian children.

    PubMed

    Chilosi, Anna Maria; Lorenzini, Irene; Fiori, Simona; Graziosi, Valentina; Rossi, Giuseppe; Pasquariello, Rosa; Cipriani, Paola; Cioni, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is a neurogenic Speech Sound Disorder whose etiology and neurobiological correlates are still unclear. In the present study, 32 Italian children with idiopathic CAS underwent a comprehensive speech and language, genetic and neuroradiological investigation aimed to gather information on the possible behavioral and neurobiological markers of the disorder. The results revealed four main aggregations of behavioral symptoms that indicate a multi-deficit disorder involving both motor-speech and language competence. Six children presented with chromosomal alterations. The familial aggregation rate for speech and language difficulties and the male to female ratio were both very high in the whole sample, supporting the hypothesis that genetic factors make substantial contribution to the risk of CAS. As expected in accordance with the diagnosis of idiopathic CAS, conventional MRI did not reveal macrostructural pathogenic neuroanatomical abnormalities, suggesting that CAS may be due to brain microstructural alterations. PMID:26552038

  7. Behavioral and neurobiological correlates of childhood apraxia of speech in Italian children.

    PubMed

    Chilosi, Anna Maria; Lorenzini, Irene; Fiori, Simona; Graziosi, Valentina; Rossi, Giuseppe; Pasquariello, Rosa; Cipriani, Paola; Cioni, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is a neurogenic Speech Sound Disorder whose etiology and neurobiological correlates are still unclear. In the present study, 32 Italian children with idiopathic CAS underwent a comprehensive speech and language, genetic and neuroradiological investigation aimed to gather information on the possible behavioral and neurobiological markers of the disorder. The results revealed four main aggregations of behavioral symptoms that indicate a multi-deficit disorder involving both motor-speech and language competence. Six children presented with chromosomal alterations. The familial aggregation rate for speech and language difficulties and the male to female ratio were both very high in the whole sample, supporting the hypothesis that genetic factors make substantial contribution to the risk of CAS. As expected in accordance with the diagnosis of idiopathic CAS, conventional MRI did not reveal macrostructural pathogenic neuroanatomical abnormalities, suggesting that CAS may be due to brain microstructural alterations.

  8. Italian deprivation index and dental caries in 12-year-old children: a multilevel Bayesian analysis.

    PubMed

    Matranga, Domenica; Campus, Guglielmo; Castiglia, Paolo; Strohmenger, Laura; Solinas, Giuliana

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from the literature has shown that people with a lower socioeconomic status enjoy less good health than people with a higher socioeconomic status. The Italian deprivation index (DI) was used with the aim to evaluate the association between the DMFT index and risk factors for dental caries, including city population and DI. The study included 4,305 12-year-old children living in 38 cities classified by demographic size as small, midsize and large. Zero-inflated negative binomial multilevel regression models were used to assess risk factors for DMFT and to address excess of zero DMFT and overdispersion through a Bayesian approach. The difference in the average level of DMFT among children living in cities with different DI quintile was not statistically significant (p = 0.578). The DI and ln(population), included as city-level fixed effects in the two-level variance components model, were not statistically significant. Consuming sweet drinks on average increased the mean DMFT of a susceptible child, while having a highly educated mother reduced it. Unobserved heterogeneity among cities was detected for the probability to be non-susceptible to caries (city-level variance = 0.26 with 95% credibility interval 0.09-0.57), while no territorial effect was found for the mean DMFT of the susceptible children. Our results suggest that the DI and city population did not play a role in explaining between-city variability. Interventions against social deprivation can be influential on the perception of oral health in Italian 12-year-old children to the extent that they can also affect individual level factors. PMID:25073937

  9. Slow intestinal transit contributes to elevate urinary p-cresol level in Italian autistic children.

    PubMed

    Gabriele, Stefano; Sacco, Roberto; Altieri, Laura; Neri, Cristina; Urbani, Andrea; Bravaccio, Carmela; Riccio, Maria Pia; Iovene, Maria Rosaria; Bombace, Francesca; De Magistris, Laura; Persico, Antonio M

    2016-07-01

    The uremic toxin p-cresol (4-methylphenol) is either of environmental origin or can be synthetized from tyrosine by cresol-producing bacteria present in the gut lumen. Elevated p-cresol amounts have been previously found in the urines of Italian and French autism spectrum disorder (ASD) children up until 8 years of age, and may be associated with autism severity or with the intensity of abnormal behaviors. This study aims to investigate the mechanism producing elevated urinary p-cresol in ASD. Urinary p-cresol levels were thus measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography in a sample of 53 Italian ASD children assessed for (a) presence of Clostridium spp. strains in the gut by means of an in vitro fecal stool test and of Clostridium difficile-derived toxin A/B in the feces, (b) intestinal permeability using the lactulose/mannitol (LA/MA) test, (c) frequent use of antibiotics due to recurrent infections during the first 2 years of postnatal life, and (d) stool habits with the Bristol Stool Form Scale. Chronic constipation was the only variable significantly associated with total urinary p-cresol concentration (P < 0.05). No association was found with presence of Clostridium spp. in the gut flora (P = 0.92), augmented intestinal permeability (P = 0.18), or frequent use of antibiotics in early infancy (P = 0.47). No ASD child was found to carry C. difficile in the gut or to release toxin A/B in the feces. In conclusion, urinary p-cresol levels are elevated in young ASD children with increased intestinal transit time and chronic constipation. Autism Res 2016, 9: 752-759. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Predictive and Concurrent Relations between Literacy Skills in Grades 1 and 3: A Longitudinal Study of Italian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desimoni, Marta; Scalisi, Teresa Gloria; Orsolini, Margherita

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 170 Italian children was assessed for reading accuracy, reading speed, text comprehension and spelling in Grades 1 and 3 in order to investigate the concurrent and longitudinal relationships among literacy skills. Main results from multivariate analyses (regression, discriminant and path analyses) indicated that reading speed was the…

  11. Italian Children with Dyslexia Are Also Poor in Reading English Words, but Accurate in Reading English Pseudowords

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palladino, Paola; Bellagamba, Isabella; Ferrari, Marcella; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2013-01-01

    It has been argued that children with dyslexia (DC) are poor at learning a foreign language (L2) and, in particular, reading foreign words. This assumption is so general that an Italian law (law 170, October, 2010) has established that DC may be completely exempted from foreign language learning and, in any case, should not be engaged in tuition…

  12. Foreign language learning difficulties in Italian children: are they associated with other learning difficulties?

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Marcella; Palladino, Paola

    2007-01-01

    A group of seventh- and eighth-grade Italian students with low achievement (LA) in learning English as a foreign language (FL) was selected and compared to a group with high achievement (HA) in FL learning. The two groups were matched for age and nonverbal intelligence. Two experiments were conducted to examine the participants' verbal and nonverbal learning skills, such as native language reading accuracy, speed and comprehension, calculation, and attention and self-regulation. Both experiments showed that the LA group seemed at risk for reading comprehension difficulties, but its reading speed and accuracy were within the average range according to Italian norms. The results also excluded the possibility that FL learning difficulties of LA participants could be associated with a deficit in calculation. Furthermore, according to teachers' ratings, children with LA appeared at risk for attention-deficit disorder (ADD). The pattern of learning difficulties of seventh- and eighth-grade participants with LA appeared to be not completely comparable with that of high school students at risk of FL learning difficulties as described in the literature.

  13. A comparison of proficiency levels in 4-year-old monolingual and trilingual speakers of Afrikaans, isiXhosa and South African English across SES boundaries, using LITMUS-CLT.

    PubMed

    Perold Potgieter, Anneke; Southwood, Frenette

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated how trilinguals fare on the cross-linguistic lexical tasks (CLT)-Afrikaans, -isiXhosa and -South African English (SAE) (cf. Haman et al., 2015) compared to monolingual controls, and whether the CLT-Afrikaans renders comparable results across socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. The LITMUS-CLTs were administered to 41 low SES 4-year-olds (11 trilinguals; 10 monolingual speakers of Afrikaans, isiXhosa and SAE) and the LITMUS-CLT-Afrikaans to 11 mid-SES 4-year-old monolinguals. Results (a) indicate that trilinguals' proficiency in their exposure-dominant language did not differ significantly from monolinguals' proficiency, but their proficiency in their additional two languages was significantly lower than monolinguals' proficiency; (b) reflect the extent, but not current amount, of exposure trilinguals had had over time to each of their languages; and (c) show that low and mid-SES monolinguals differed significantly on noun-related, but not verb-related, CLT measures. Possible reasons for and the clinical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:26785940

  14. Symptom Checklist-90-Revised scores in adult children exposed to alienating behaviors: an Italian sample.

    PubMed

    Bernet, William; Baker, Amy J L; Verrocchio, Maria C

    2015-03-01

    This study addresses a particular form of child psychological maltreatment, exposing a child to alienating behaviors in the context of a high degree of conflict between the parents. The objective of this research was to identify retrospectively the alienating behaviors that occurred in an Italian sample of children and the reported associated psychosocial symptoms. Seven hundred and thirty-nine adults in Chieti, Italy, completed an anonymous and confidential survey regarding their childhood exposure to parental alienating behaviors and measures of current symptomatology. About 75% of the sample reported some exposure to parental alienating behaviors; 15% of the sample endorsed the item, "tried to turn me against the other parent." The results revealed strong and statistically significant associations between reported exposure to parental alienating behaviors and reports of current symptomatology.

  15. Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis of U.S. and Italian Children's Performance on the PASS Theory of Intelligence as Measured by the Cognitive Assessment System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naglieri, Jack A.; Taddei, Stefano; Williams, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined Italian and U.S. children's performance on the English and Italian versions, respectively, of the Cognitive Assessment System (CAS; Naglieri & Conway, 2009; Naglieri & Das, 1997), a test based on a neurocognitive theory of intelligence entitled PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive; Naglieri & Das, 1997;…

  16. Predictors of virtual radial arm maze performance in adolescent Italian children

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Joe M.; Lucchini, Roberto; Bellinger, David; Hoffman, Elaine; Nazzaro, Marco; Smith, Donald R.; Wright, Robert O.

    2012-01-01

    Background Comparisons between animal and human neurotoxicology studies are a foundation of risk assessment, but are hindered by differences in measured behaviors. The Radial Arm Maze (RAM), a rodent visuospatial learning and memory task, has a computerized version for use in children, which may help improve comparisons between animal and human studies. Objective To describe the characteristics and correlates of the Virtual Radial Arm Maze (VRAM) in 255 children age 10–15 years from Italy. Methods We administered the VRAM using a laptop computer and measured children’s performance using the latency, distance, and working/reference memory errors during eight trials. Using generalized linear mixed models, we described VRAM performance in relation to demographic factors, child activities, and several standard neuropsychologic tests (Italian translations), including the Conners Parent Rating Scales-Short Version (CPRS), California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children, finger tapping speed, reaction time, and motor skills. Results Children’s VRAM performance tended to improve between trials 1–6 and then plateaued between trials 6–8. Males finished the task 14 seconds faster (95% Confidence Interval [CI]:-20, -9) than females. Children who played 2+ hours of video games per day finished 16 seconds faster (CI:-26, -6) and with 34% (CI:5, 54%) fewer working memory errors than children who reported not playing video games. Higher IQ and better CVLT scores were associated with better VRAM performance. Higher Cognitive/Inattention CPRS scores were associated with more working (11%; CI:1, 22) and reference memory errors (7%; CI:1, 12). Conclusions Consistent with animal studies, VRAM performance improved over the course of test trials and males performed better than females. Better VRAM performance was related to higher IQ, fewer inattentive behaviors, and better verbal memory. The VRAM may help improve the integration and comparison

  17. Bullying and Victimization in Overweight and Obese Outpatient Children and Adolescents: An Italian Multicentric Study

    PubMed Central

    Garrasi, Alessandra; Corciulo, Nicola; Driul, Daniela; Tanas, Rita; Fiumani, Perla Maria; Di Pietro, Elena; Pesce, Sabino; Crinò, Antonino; Maltoni, Giulio; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Sartorio, Alessandro; Deiana, Manuela; Lombardi, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Objective Being overweight or obese is one of the most common reasons that children and adolescents are teased at school. We carried out a study in order to investigate: i) the relation between weight status and school bullying and ii) the relation between weight status categories and types of victimization and bullying in an outpatient sample of Italian children and adolescents with different degrees of overweight from minimal overweight up to severe obesity. Participants/Methods Nine-hundred-forty-seven outpatient children and adolescents (age range 6.0–14.0 years) were recruited in 14 hospitals distributed over the country of Italy. The participants were classified as normal-weight (N = 129), overweight (N = 126), moderately obese (N = 568), and severely obese (N = 124). The nature and extent of verbal, physical and relational bullying and victimization were assessed with an adapted version of the revised Olweus bully-victim questionnaire. Each participant was coded as bully, victim, bully-victim, or not involved. Results Normal-weight and overweight participants were less involved in bullying than obese participants; severely obese males were more involved in the double role of bully and victim. Severely obese children and adolescents suffered not only from verbal victimization but also from physical victimization and exclusion from group activities. Weight status categories were not directly related to bullying behaviour; however severely obese males perpetrated more bullying behaviour compared to severely obese females. Conclusions Obesity and bullying among children and adolescents are of ongoing concern worldwide and may be closely related. Common strategies of intervention are needed to cope with these two social health challenges. PMID:26606393

  18. Real-Word and Nonword Repetition in Italian-Speaking Children with Specific Language Impairment: A Study of Diagnostic Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Dispaldro, Marco; Leonard, Laurence B.; Deevy, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Using two different scoring methods, we examined the diagnostic accuracy of both real-word and nonword repetition in identifying Italian-speaking children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Method: A total of 34 children aged 3;11 to 5;8 participated – 17 children with SLI and 17 typically developing children matched for age (TD-A children). Children completed real-word and nonword repetition tasks. The capacity of real-word and nonword repetition tasks to discriminate children with SLI from TD-A was examined through binary logistic regression and response operating characteristics curves. Results: Both real-word and nonword repetition showed good (or excellent) sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing children with SLI from their typically developing peers. Conclusions: Nonword repetition appears to be a useful diagnostic indicator for Italian, as in other languages. In addition, real-word repetition also holds promise. The contributions of each type of measure are discussed. PMID:22761319

  19. The Bender-Gestalt test: Koppitz's Developmental Scoring System administered to two samples of Italian preschool and primary school children.

    PubMed

    Mazzeschi, C; Lis, A

    1999-06-01

    The purpose of this paper was to extend research on Koppitz's Developmental Scoring System to Italian samples. Specific attention has been given to the study of errors for the single designs to assess the relationship of these errors with total errors and to assess the designs' varying difficulty. A second purpose was to study possible cultural influences between different Italian regions. According to Koppitz (1975) research findings support that the rate of development in visuomotor perception differs among children of various ethnic groups. Subjects were 538 boys and 527 girls enrolled in the regular kindergarten and elementary schools in Italy. Detailed analyses were carried out on total mean errors and mean errors for each design. Mean errors decrease across age groups; that is, perceptuomotor integration is improved for older children. No significant differences were found between Northern and Southern Italy.

  20. Italian children with dyslexia are also poor in reading English words, but accurate in reading English pseudowords.

    PubMed

    Palladino, Paola; Bellagamba, Isabella; Ferrari, Marcella; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2013-08-01

    It has been argued that children with dyslexia (DC) are poor at learning a foreign language (L2) and, in particular, reading foreign words. This assumption is so general that an Italian law (law 170, October, 2010) has established that DC may be completely exempted from foreign language learning and, in any case, should not be engaged in tuition via written material. However, evidence of L2 difficulties of DC is scarce and, in particular, absent for Italian children learning English. This absence of data is problematic, as it precludes information on the pattern of weaknesses and strengths, which could be found in DC. The present paper assessed these issues by administering an English word and pseudoword reading test to 23 DC and to 23 control children, matched for age, gender, schooling and IQ. The patterns of difficulties were examined individually for accuracy and speed, and the role of measures of native (L1) competence in L2 difficulties was also taken into account. Results confirmed that Italian DC are also poor in reading English words. However, they are accurate in reading pseudowords, suggesting that they have assimilated English pronunciation rules. Difficulties in L2 were, to some extent, but not completely, explained by difficulties in reading in L1.

  1. Age-Related Changes in Children's Use of External Representations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelazo, Philip David; Sommerville, Jessica A.; Nichols, Shana

    1999-01-01

    Three experiments explored 3- and 4-year olds' use of external representations. Results indicated that 4-year olds outperformed 3-year olds on self-recognition task; children performed better with photographs than drawings; a delay had no effect. Results suggested that assessments of self and other understanding may reflect children's ability to…

  2. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet in Italian school children (The ZOOM8 Study).

    PubMed

    Roccaldo, Romana; Censi, Laura; D'Addezio, Laura; Toti, Elisabetta; Martone, Deborah; D'Addesa, Dina; Cernigliaro, Achille

    2014-08-01

    The adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) of 1740 Italian 8-9-year-olds was evaluated using the KIDMED index and a descriptive analysis of it by socio-demographic and lifestyle factors was performed. Only 5.0% of the children resulted "high" adherers of MD (62.2% "average" and 32.8% "poor"). This scarce adherence was due to a low consumption of fruit, vegetables, legumes, dairy products and a high intake of commercially baked goods for breakfast and sweets. Hindrances to fruit, vegetables and pulses consumption were reported for one-third of the sample. The adherence rates did not differ significantly with BMI and gender. Adherence improved with: having lunch at school; liking lunch at school; breakfast with family; no free access to food; availability of fruit and pulses; liking vegetables; higher maternal education; lower child screen time; population size of place of residence. The results show it is important to improve family food habits and dietary knowledge. PMID:24527679

  3. Parenting Practices and Child Misbehavior: A Mixed Method Study of Italian Mothers and Children

    PubMed Central

    Bombi, Anna Silvia; Di Norcia, Anna; Di Giunta, Laura; Pastorelli, Concetta; Lansford, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study uses a mixed qualitative and quantitative method to examine three main research questions: What are the practices that mothers report they use when trying to correct their children’s misbehaviors? Are there common patterns of these practices? Are the patterns that emerge related to children’s well-being? Design Italian mother-child dyads (N=103) participated in the study (when children were 8 years of age). At Time 1 (T1), mothers answered open-ended questions about discipline; in addition, measures of maternal physical discipline and rejection and child aggression were assessed in mothers and children at T1, one year later (T2), and two years later (T3). Results Mothers’ answers to open-ended questions about what they would do in three disciplinary situations were classified in six categories: physical or psychological punishment, control, mix of force and reasoning, reasoning, listening, and permissiveness. Cluster analysis yielded 3 clusters: Group 1, Induction (predominant use of reasoning and listening; 74%); Group 2, Punishment (punitive practices and no reasoning; 16%); Group 3, Mixed practices (combination of reasoning and punishment, as well as high control and no listening; 10%). Multiple-group latent growth curves of maternal physical discipline, maternal rejection, and child aggression were implemented to evaluate possible differences in the developmental trends from T1 to T3, as a function of cluster. Conclusions Qualitative data deepen understanding of parenting because they shed light on what parents think about themselves; their self-descriptions, in turn, help to identify ways of parenting that may have long-lasting consequences for children’s adjustment. PMID:26877716

  4. Italian survey on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and gastrointestinal bleeding in children

    PubMed Central

    Cardile, Sabrina; Martinelli, Massimo; Barabino, Arrigo; Gandullia, Paolo; Oliva, Salvatore; Di Nardo, Giovanni; Dall'Oglio, Luigi; Rea, Francesca; de' Angelis, Gian Luigi; Bizzarri, Barbara; Guariso, Graziella; Masci, Enzo; Staiano, Annamaria; Miele, Erasmo; Romano, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate gastrointestinal complications associated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) use in children. METHODS: A retrospective, multicenter study was conducted between January 2005 and January 2013, with the participation of 8 Italian pediatric gastroenterology centers. We collected all the cases of patients who refer to emergency room for suspected gastrointestinal bleeding following NSAIDs consumption, and underwent endoscopic evaluation. Previous medical history, associated risk factors, symptoms and signs at presentation, diagnostic procedures, severity of bleeding and management of gastrointestinal bleeding were collected. In addition, data regarding type of drug used, indication, dose, duration of treatment and prescriber (physician or self-medication) were examined. RESULTS: Fifty-one patients, including 34 males, were enrolled (median age: 7.8 years). Ibuprofen was the most used NSAID [35/51 patients (68.6%)]. Pain was the most frequent indication for NSAIDs use [29/51 patients (56.9%)]. Seven patients had positive family history of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection or peptic ulcer, and 12 had associated comorbidities. Twenty-four (47%) out of 51 patients used medication inappropriately. Hematemesis was the most frequent symptom (33.3%). Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed gastric lesions in 32/51 (62%) patients, duodenal lesions in 17 (33%) and esophageal lesions in 8 (15%). In 10/51 (19.6%) patients, a diagnosis of H. pylori gastritis was made. Forty-eight (94%) patients underwent medical therapy, with spontaneous bleeding resolution, while in 3/51 (6%) patients, an endoscopic hemostasis was needed. CONCLUSION: The data collected in this study confirms that adverse events with the involvement of the gastrointestinal tract secondary to NSAID use are also common in children PMID:26855547

  5. Physical activity practice, body image and visual impairment: a comparison between Brazilian and Italian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Greguol, Márcia; Gobbi, Erica; Carraro, Attilio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the physical activity and body image of children and adolescents with visual impairment (VI) in Brazil and Italy. For this, 41 children and adolescents with VI (19 Brazilian and 22 Italian) aged 10.22 ± 2.19 years old (18 girls and 23 boys) answered the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children (PAQ-C), the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire (OSIQ), and an instrument with information about the disability, body weight and height. We analyzed the relationship between data from PAQ-C and OSIQ, as well as the gender, level of disability (blindness or low vision) and country using independent Mann-Whitney test. Body mass index (BMI) values were higher for Brazilian youths, with more than half of them classified as overweight and obese. Italian youths exhibited values of body image that were more positive and only 27% presented overweight or obesity. Blind children and adolescents were less active than those with low vision, but no differences were found between countries or genders. In Brazil, we detected significant correlations (p>0.05) between physical activity, body image and BMI, which more active youths presenting lower values of BMI and a better perception of body image. Physical activity seems to have a positive influence on body image and BMI for children and adolescents with VI, thus it should be encouraged especially for those with higher disability degrees.

  6. High Sodium and Low Potassium Intake among Italian Children: Relationship with Age, Body Mass and Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Campanozzi, Angelo; Avallone, Sonia; Barbato, Antonio; Iacone, Roberto; Russo, Ornella; De Filippo, Gianpaolo; D’Angelo, Giuseppina; Pensabene, Licia; Malamisura, Basilio; Cecere, Gaetano; Micillo, Maria; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Tetro, Anna; Lombardi, Giuliano; Tonelli, Lisa; Castellucci, Giuseppe; Ferraro, Luigi; Di Biase, Rita; Lezo, Antonella; Salvatore, Silvia; Paoletti, Silvia; Siani, Alfonso; Galeone, Daniela; Strazzullo, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension is the leading cause of death in developed countries and reduction of salt intake is recommended as a key preventive measure. Objective To assess the dietary sodium and potassium intakes in a national sample of Italian children and adolescents and to examine their relationships with BMI and blood pressure (BP) in the framework of the MINISAL survey, a program supported by the Italian Ministry of Health. Population and Methods The study population included 1424 healthy subjects (766 boys, 658 girls) aged 6-18 years (mean age: 10.1±2.9) who were consecutively recruited in participating National Health Service centers in 10 Italian regions. Electrolyte intake was estimated from 24 hour urine collections tested for completeness by the concomitant measurement of creatinine content. Anthropometric indices and BP were measured with standardized procedures. Results The average estimated sodium intake was 129 mmol (7.4 g of salt) per day among boys and 117 mmol (6.7 g of salt) among girls. Ninety-three percent of the boys and 89% of the girls had a consumption higher than the recommended age-specific standard dietary target. The estimated average daily potassium intakes were 39 mmol (1.53 g) and 36 mmol (1.40 g), respectively, over 96% of the boys and 98% of the girls having a potassium intake lower than the recommended adequate intake. The mean sodium/potassium ratio was similar among boys and girls (3.5 and 3.4, respectively) and over 3-fold greater than the desirable level. Sodium intake was directly related to age, body mass and BP in the whole population. Conclusions The Italian pediatric population is characterized by excessive sodium and deficient potassium intake. These data suggest that future campaigns should focus on children and adolescents as a major target in the framework of a population strategy of cardiovascular prevention. PMID:25853242

  7. Preschool Children's Performance on Profiling Elements of Prosody in Speech-Communication (PEPS-C)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbon, Fiona E.; Smyth, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Profiling Elements of Prosody in Speech-Communication (PEPS-C) has not been used widely to assess prosodic abilities of preschool children. This study was therefore aimed at investigating typically developing 4-year-olds' performance on PEPS-C. PEPS-C was presented to 30 typically developing 4-year-olds recruited in southern Ireland. Children were…

  8. English Speech Sound Development in Preschool-Aged Children from Bilingual English-Spanish Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gildersleeve-Neumann, Christina E.; Kester, Ellen S.; Davis, Barbara L.; Pena, Elizabeth D.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: English speech acquisition by typically developing 3- to 4-year-old children with monolingual English was compared to English speech acquisition by typically developing 3- to 4-year-old children with bilingual English-Spanish backgrounds. We predicted that exposure to Spanish would not affect the English phonetic inventory but would…

  9. Clinical delineation of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in Italian children: comparison and contrast with other racial/ethnic groups and implications for diagnosis and prevention.

    PubMed

    Ceccanti, Mauro; Alessandra Spagnolo, Primavera; Tarani, Luigi; Luisa Attilia, Maria; Chessa, Luciana; Mancinelli, Rosanna; Stegagno, Michele; Francesco Sasso, Guido; Romeo, Marina; Jones, Kenneth L; Robinson, Luther K; Del Campo, Miguel; Phillip Gossage, J; May, Philip A; Eugene Hoyme, H

    2007-01-01

    In Italy, little is known about the spectrum of adverse fetal effects related to maternal alcohol use during pregnancy. In this paper, we report on the phenotype of Italian children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). These data were gathered as part of a field study assessing the prevalence of FASD in children in an in-school study in a rural area near Rome. The purposes of this paper are: (1) to completely characterize the clinical phenotype of a large cohort of Italian children with FASD; (2) to correlate and contrast the phenotype of this population with that observed in other populations and reported in the medical literature; (3) to discuss the drinking habits of Italian women, before, during and after pregnancy; and (4) to suggest mechanisms for intervention and prevention of FASD based on data gathered from this study.

  10. Een Serie Experimenten Over Het Uitkijkgedrag van Kleuters (A Series of Experiments of Kindergarten Children Looking Out for Traffic Standing at the Curb).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinje, Marja

    In a series of experiments, kindergarten children were to look out for traffic while standing at a curb and to tell the experimenter when they could cross the street. In trials without oncoming traffic clear differences were found between 4-year-old children and older kindergarten children. The 4-year-olds most often looked in one direction only.…

  11. Antibiotic Prescriptions and Prophylaxis in Italian Children. Is It Time to Change? Data from the ARPEC Project

    PubMed Central

    Montagnani, Carlotta; Lo Vecchio, Andrea; Romanengo, Marta; Tagliabue, Claudia; Centenari, Chiara; D’Argenio, Patrizia; Lundin, Rebecca; Giaquinto, Carlo; Galli, Luisa; Guarino, Alfredo; Esposito, Susanna; Sharland, Mike; Versporten, Ann; Goossens, Herman; Nicolini, Giangiacomo

    2016-01-01

    Background Antimicrobials are the most commonly prescribed drugs. Many studies have evaluated antibiotic prescriptions in the paediatric outpatient but few studies describing the real antibiotic consumption in Italian children’s hospitals have been published. Point-prevalence survey (PPS) has been shown to be a simple, feasible and reliable standardized method for antimicrobials surveillance in children and neonates admitted to the hospital. In this paper, we presented data from a PPS on antimicrobial prescriptions carried out in 7 large Italian paediatric institutions. Methods A 1-day PPS on antibiotic use in hospitalized neonates and children was performed in Italy between October and December 2012 as part of the Antibiotic Resistance and Prescribing in European Children project (ARPEC). Seven institutions in seven Italian cities were involved. The survey included all admitted patients less than 18 years of age present in the ward at 8:00 am on the day of the survey, who had at least one on-going antibiotic prescription. For all patients data about age, weight, underlying disease, antimicrobial agent, dose and indication for treatment were collected. Results The PPS was performed in 61 wards within 7 Italian institutions. A total of 899 patients were eligible and 349 (38.9%) had an on-going prescription for one or more antibiotics, with variable rates among the hospitals (25.7% - 53.8%). We describe antibiotic prescriptions separately in neonates (<30 days old) and children (> = 30 days to <18 years old). In the neonatal cohort, 62.8% received antibiotics for prophylaxis and only 37.2% on those on antibiotics were treated for infection. Penicillins and aminoglycosides were the most prescribed antibiotic classes. In the paediatric cohort, 64.4% of patients were receiving antibiotics for treatment of infections and 35.5% for prophylaxis. Third generation cephalosporins and penicillin plus inhibitors were the top two antibiotic classes. The main reason for

  12. Stress Priming and Statistical Learning in Italian Nonword Reading: Evidence from Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colombo, Lucia; Deguchi, Chizuru; Boureux, Magali

    2014-01-01

    Italian has regular spelling-sound correspondences; however, assignment of lexical stress is unpredictable. Sensitivity to stress neighborhood information was investigated by constructing three types of three-syllabic nonwords: nonwords with word-endings characterized by a strong neighborhood of dominant stress words (dominant), nonwords with…

  13. Foreign Language Learning Difficulties in Italian Children: Are They Associated with Other Learning Difficulties?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Marcella; Palladino, Paola

    2007-01-01

    A group of seventh- and eighth-grade Italian students with low achievement (LA) in learning English as a foreign language (FL) was selected and compared to a group with high achievement (HA) in FL learning. The two groups were matched for age and nonverbal intelligence. Two experiments were conducted to examine the participants' verbal and…

  14. Extra-Linguistic Influences on Sentence Comprehension in Italian-Speaking Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Pettenati, P.; Benassi, E.; Deevy, P.; Leonard, L.B.; Caselli, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) have deficits in sentence comprehension. These deficits are usually attributed to limitations in the children’s understanding of syntax or the lexical items contained in the sentences. In this study, we examine the role that extra-linguistic factors can play in these children’s sentence comprehension. Aims In this study, extra-linguistic demands on sentence comprehension were manipulated directly by varying the nature of the materials used. Methods & Procedure Forty-five Italian-speaking children participated: 15 with SLI (M age = 4;5), 15 typically developing children matched for age (TD-A, M age = 4;5), and 15 younger typically developing children matched according to language comprehension test scores (TD-Y, M age = 3;9). The children responded to sentence comprehension items that varied in their length and/or in the number and type of foils that competed with the target picture. Outcome & Results The TD-A children were more accurate than the TD-Y children and the children with SLI, but, for all groups, accuracy declined when task demands increased. In particular, sentences containing superfluous adjectives (e.g., Il topo bello copre l’uccello allegro “The nice mouse covers the happy bird” where all depicted mice were nice and all birds were happy) yielded higher scores than similar sentences in which each adjective had to be associated with the proper character (e.g., Il cane giallo lava il maiale bianco “The yellow dog washes the white pig” where foils included a yellow dog washing a pink pig, and a brown dog washing a white pig). Many errors reflected recency effects, probably influenced by the fact that adjectives modifying the object appear at the end of the sentence in Italian. Conclusions & Implications Differences between conditions were observed even when lexical content, syntactic structure, and sentence length were controlled. This finding suggests the need for great care

  15. Children's Acquisition of Nouns and Verbs in Italian: Contrasting the Roles of Frequency and Positional Salience in Maternal Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longobardi, Emiddia; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia; Spataro, Pietro; Putnick, Diane L.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2015-01-01

    Because of its structural characteristics, specifically the prevalence of verb types in infant-directed speech and frequent pronoun-dropping, the Italian language offers an attractive opportunity to investigate the predictive effects of input frequency and positional salience on children's acquisition of nouns and verbs. We examined this…

  16. A Case Study of Bi-Literacy Development among Children Enrolled in an Italian-English Dual Language Program in Southern California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montanari, Simona

    2014-01-01

    This study examines bi-literacy development among 60 children enrolled in an Italian-English dual language (DL) program in Southern California. Using a variety of measures including (1) oral reading fluency (ORF), (2) accuracy scores, and (3) standardized test for the assessment of reading (STAR) test's estimates of reading ability for…

  17. Effects of Age and Language on Co-Speech Gesture Production: An Investigation of French, American, and Italian Children's Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colletta, Jean-Marc; Guidetti, Michele; Capirci, Olga; Cristilli, Carla; Demir, Ozlem Ece; Kunene-Nicolas, Ramona N.; Levine, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare speech and co-speech gestures observed during a narrative retelling task in five- and ten-year-old children from three different linguistic groups, French, American, and Italian, in order to better understand the role of age and language in the development of multimodal monologue discourse abilities. We asked 98…

  18. Preschool Children's Difficulty Understanding the Types of Information Obtained through the Five Senses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Daniela K.; Chong, Selena C. F.

    2001-01-01

    Explored in 2 studies 3- and 4-year-olds' understanding that the 5 senses can each lead to different types of knowledge. Found that 3-year-olds performed significantly poorer than 4-year-olds on all tasks, suggesting a marked transition in children's ability to recognize the origin of their modality-specific knowledge between 3 and 4 years.…

  19. From an imbalance to a new imbalance: Italian-style gluten-free diet alters the salivary microbiota and metabolome of African celiac children.

    PubMed

    Ercolini, Danilo; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Vannini, Lucia; De Filippis, Francesca; Capriati, Teresa; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Iacono, Giuseppe; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Fourteen Saharawi celiac children following an African-style gluten-free diet for at least two years were subjected to a change of diet to an Italian-style gluten-free diet for 60 days. Significant differences were identified in the salivary microbiota and metabolome when Saharawi celiac children switched from African- to Italian-style dietary habits. An Italian-style gluten-free diet caused increases in the abundance of Granulicatella, Porphyromonas and Neisseria and decreases in Clostridium, Prevotella and Veillonella, altering the 'salivary type' of the individuals. Furthermore, operational taxonomic unit co-occurrence/exclusion patterns indicated that the initial equilibrium of co-occurring microbial species was perturbed by a change in diet: the microbial diversity was reduced, with a few species out-competing the previously established microbiota and becoming dominant. Analysis of predicted metagenomes revealed a remarkable change in the metabolic potential of the microbiota following the diet change, with increased potential for amino acid, vitamin and co-factor metabolism. High concentrations of acetone and 2-butanone during treatment with the Italian-style gluten-free diet suggested metabolic dysfunction in the Saharawi celiac children. The findings of this study support the need for a translational medicine pipeline to examine interactions between food and microbiota when evaluating human development, nutritional needs and the impact and consequences of westernisation. PMID:26681599

  20. From an imbalance to a new imbalance: Italian-style gluten-free diet alters the salivary microbiota and metabolome of African celiac children

    PubMed Central

    Ercolini, Danilo; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Vannini, Lucia; De Filippis, Francesca; Capriati, Teresa; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Iacono, Giuseppe; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Fourteen Saharawi celiac children following an African-style gluten-free diet for at least two years were subjected to a change of diet to an Italian-style gluten-free diet for 60 days. Significant differences were identified in the salivary microbiota and metabolome when Saharawi celiac children switched from African- to Italian-style dietary habits. An Italian-style gluten-free diet caused increases in the abundance of Granulicatella, Porphyromonas and Neisseria and decreases in Clostridium, Prevotella and Veillonella, altering the ‘salivary type’ of the individuals. Furthermore, operational taxonomic unit co-occurrence/exclusion patterns indicated that the initial equilibrium of co-occurring microbial species was perturbed by a change in diet: the microbial diversity was reduced, with a few species out-competing the previously established microbiota and becoming dominant. Analysis of predicted metagenomes revealed a remarkable change in the metabolic potential of the microbiota following the diet change, with increased potential for amino acid, vitamin and co-factor metabolism. High concentrations of acetone and 2-butanone during treatment with the Italian-style gluten-free diet suggested metabolic dysfunction in the Saharawi celiac children. The findings of this study support the need for a translational medicine pipeline to examine interactions between food and microbiota when evaluating human development, nutritional needs and the impact and consequences of westernisation. PMID:26681599

  1. Research Currents: Peer Culture among American and Italian Nursery School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsaro, William A.

    1986-01-01

    Presents findings of ethnographic research on children's talk and behavior, specifically routines in spontaneous peer play and verbal routines in structured activities. Concludes that instructional strategies should incorporate some of the features of children's play routines and peer culture. (SRT)

  2. Routines in the Peer Culture of American and Italian Nursery School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsaro, William A.

    1988-01-01

    Reports on a comparative study of nursery school children in the United States and Italy. Identifies and discusses the importance of basic routines in the peer culture of young children for the development of communication skills and social knowledge. Explores the possibilities of universal features in young children's peer cultures and develops…

  3. Increasing burden, younger age at onset and worst metabolic control in migrant than in Italian children with type 1 diabetes: an emerging problem in pediatric clinics.

    PubMed

    Cadario, Francesco; Cerutti, Franco; Savastio, Silvia; Rabbone, Ivana; Tumini, Stefano; Bruno, Graziella

    2014-04-01

    To assess burden and clinical features of type 1 diabetes in migrant with respect to Italian children. Prevalent children with type 1 diabetes were identified through a multicenter study, including 46 pediatric outpatients diabetic clinics. A nested case-control study was also performed, comparing features at diabetes onset and after 1 year of insulin treatment in 84 migrants and 75 Italian children with onset in 2011, matched for age and sex. Out of 7,812 children cared for by pediatric diabetologists, 761 (10%) were migrant and 548 of them were born in Italy. Age at diagnosis was lower in migrants born in Italy (5.1 years, interquartile range (IQR) 2.2-7.7) than in those born in their original countries (7.8 years, IQR 5.3-10.3) and in Italians (9.8 years, IQR 5.9-13.0, p < 0.001). At diabetes onset, migrants had lower frequencies of positivities of markers of β-cell autoimmunity (96 vs. 99.5%, p < 0.01), higher values of weight loss (11 vs. 7%, p < 0.01), HbA1c (70 vs. 58 mmol/mol, p < 0.001), and insulin requirement (0.70 ± 0.03 vs. 0.63 ± 0.10 UI/kg/die, p = 0.05) and lower levels of 25-OH vitamin D3 (15.0 ± 2.8 vs. 20.8 ± 1.3, p = 0.03). Moreover, they experienced higher frequencies of hospitalizations during the first year of disease (19.2 vs. 2.7%, p < 0.001). Burden of type 1 diabetes in migrant children is increasing in Italy, with younger age at onset and different clinical features than in Italian children. Higher hospitalization rates and poorer glycemic control over the first year underline that approach to diabetes care in migrants needs to be improved. PMID:24065151

  4. Socio-Economic and Environmental Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity in Children Aged 6–8 Years Living in Five Italian Cities (the MAPEC_LIFE Cohort)

    PubMed Central

    Grassi, Tiziana; De Donno, Antonella; Bagordo, Francesco; Serio, Francesca; Piscitelli, Prisco; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Zani, Claudia; Viola, Gaia C. V.; Villarini, Milena; Moretti, Massimo; Levorato, Sara; Carducci, Annalaura; Verani, Marco; Donzelli, Gabriele; Bonetta, Sara; Bonetta, Silvia; Carraro, Elisabetta; Bonizzoni, Silvia; Bonetti, Alberto; Gelatti, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity among Italian children has reached such alarming levels as to require detailed studies of the causes of the phenomenon. A cross-sectional study was carried out in order to assess the weight status of 1164 Italian children aged 6–8 years (the Monitoring Air Pollution Effects on Children for Supporting Public Health Policy (MAPEC_LIFE) cohort) and to identify any associations between selected socio-economic and environmental factors and overweight/obesity. The data were obtained by means of a questionnaire given to parents, and any associations were examined by binomial logistic regression analyses. Overweight was found to be positively associated with male gender, parents of non-Italian origin, and parents who smoke, and negatively associated with the parents’ level of education and employment. In addition, the frequency of overweight varied in relation to the geographical area of residence, with a greater prevalence of overweight children in the cities of central-southern Italy. This study highlights the need to implement appropriate obesity prevention programs in Italy, which should include educational measures concerning lifestyle for parents from the earliest stages of their child’s life. PMID:27727193

  5. Individual differences in the prevalence of words and gestures in the second year of life: developmental trends in Italian children.

    PubMed

    Longobardi, Emiddia; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia; Spataro, Pietro

    2012-12-01

    This longitudinal study investigated individual differences in the relationship between words and representational gestures in a sample of 104 Italian children between 12 and 23 months of age, using two parent-report questionnaires. Multivariate analyses reached three main conclusions. First, a high gesture frequency did not enhance language development when word production was equated and children showing a prevalence of words over gestures outperformed those showing a prevalence of gestures over words at all ages. Second, an early predominance of gestures at 12 months did not hamper the acquisition of verbal abilities, while the persistence of a gestural advantage at 16 and 20 months was related to a slower language development at 23 months. Finally, for infants with small gestural repertoires at 12 months, a high frequency of gesture use benefitted the process of lexical learning. These findings support the hypothesis that representational gestures bridge the transition from pre-linguistic to symbolic communication. However, they also suggest that the role of representational gestures might be less critical than previously proposed, being mostly evident in the earlier phases of the second year of life. PMID:22982286

  6. Detection of antibodies to human herpesvirus 8 in Italian children: evidence for horizontal transmission

    PubMed Central

    Whitby, D; Luppi, M; Sabin, C; Barozzi, P; Biase, A R Di; Balli, F; Cucci, F; Weiss, R A; Boshoff, C; Torelli, G

    2000-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV), has been shown to be the causative agent for Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and to be more prevalent in populations or risk groups at increased risk for KS. HHV-8 infection is rare in children from the US and the UK, but has been reported in African children. In this study we examine HHV-8 infection in children from Italy, a country with an elevated prevalence of HHV-8 in adults and high socio-economic conditions. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10682685

  7. Immunization coverage and timeliness of vaccination in Italian children with chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Pandolfi, E; Carloni, E; Marino, M G; Ciofi degli Atti, M L; Gesualdo, F; Romano, M; Giannattasio, A; Guarino, A; Carloni, R; Borgia, P; Volpe, E; Perrelli, F; Pizzuti, R; Tozzi, A E

    2012-07-20

    Since children with chronic diseases represent a primary target for immunization strategies, it is important that their immunization coverage and timeliness of vaccines is optimal. We performed a study to measure immunization coverage and timeliness of vaccines in children with type 1 diabetes, HIV infection, Down syndrome, cystic fibrosis, and neurological diseases. A total of 275 children aged 6 months-18 years were included in the study. Coverage for diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP), polio (Pol), and hepatitis B (HBV) vaccines approximated 85% at 24 months, while measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) coverage was 62%. Immunization coverage for seasonal influenza was 59%. The analysis of timeliness revealed that there was heterogeneity among children with different chronic diseases. A proportional hazard model showed that children with HIV infection had the longest time to complete three doses of DTP, Pol, and HBV, and those with neurological diseases received the first dose of MMR later than the other categories. Causes of missing or delayed vaccination mostly included a concurrent acute disease. Children with chronic diseases should be strictly monitored for routine and recommended vaccinations, and health care providers and families should be properly informed to avoid false contraindications.

  8. Italian Clippings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Nigel J.

    1999-01-01

    Many languages use vast numbers of words borrowed from English, and modified (clipped) to use the first part of the word only. The paper provides examples, mainly from Italian, examining the linguistic reasons for such clipped forms and presents several clipped Italian terms used in English, noting that the same thing can happen in reverse. (SMN)

  9. Phonology and Language Development in Italian Children: An Analysis of Production and Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanobini, Mirella; Viterbori, Paola; Saraceno, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The principal aims of this study were to detect phonetic measures (consonant inventory, intelligibility, frequency, and types of phonological errors) associated with lexical and morphosyntactic ability and to analyze the types of phonological processes in children with different language skills. Method: The sample was composed of 30…

  10. Policy and Practice in Italian Children's Transition from Preschool to Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsaro, William A.; Molinari, Luisa

    2008-01-01

    This article considers educational policy and practice in a preschool and an elementary school in Modena, Italy in terms of their effects on children's transition to and progress in elementary school. The study is based on a six-year longitudinal ethnographic study that involved direct observation of teacher-student and peer interactions. The…

  11. Intellectual Pursuits of Young Children through Picture Book Literacy, Focusing on Italian Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltchenko, Laura

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I will examine the use of picture books as a means of supporting the intellectual pursuits of young children. Theoretical frameworks will be discussed as they pertain to the integration of these books in the Municipal Infant Toddler Centers and Preschools of Reggio Emilia and Pistoia, Italy. The pedagogical framework of these…

  12. Trait Emotional Intelligence and the Big Five: A Study on Italian Children and Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Paolo Maria; Mancini, Giacomo; Trombini, Elena; Baldaro, Bruno; Mavroveli, Stella; Petrides, K. V.

    2012-01-01

    Trait emotional intelligence (EI) is a constellation of emotion-related self-perceptions located at the lower levels of personality hierarchies. This article examines the validity of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Child Form and investigates its relationships with Big Five factors and cognitive ability. A total of 690 children (317…

  13. Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Universal Routine Vaccination on Pneumococcal Disease in Italian Children

    PubMed Central

    Fortunato, Francesca; Martinelli, Domenico; Cappelli, Maria Giovanna; Cozza, Vanessa; Prato, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    In Italy, the effectiveness of pneumococcal universal vaccination in preventing vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in the PCV7/PCV13 shifting period was estimated to be 84.3% (95% CI: 84.0–84.6%) in children <5 years. This study aims at corroborating the estimation of both the effectiveness (VE) of PCVs and its impact in reducing pneumococcal diseases. A 1 : 3 matched-case-control study was conducted among children <5 years old hospitalized for IPD or pneumococcal pneumonia (PP) between 2006 and 2012 in the Puglia region. Moreover, hospitalizations for pneumococcal outcomes in the pre- and postvaccination period and the hospitalization risk ratios (HRRs) with 95% CIs were computed in Italy and in the first eight regions that introduced PCVs in 2006. The overall effectiveness of PCVs was 75% (95% CI: 61%–84%); it was 69% (95% CI: 30%–88%) against IPD and 77% (95% CI: 61%–87%) against PP. PCVs showed a significant impact on IPD and acute otitis media either at a national level or in those regions with a longer vaccination history, with a nearly 40% reduction of hospitalizations for both outcomes. Our findings provide further evidence of the effectiveness of PCVs against pneumococcal diseases and its impact on nasopharyngeal carriage in children <5 years, indicating the importance of maintaining high immunization coverage. PMID:26351644

  14. Body image, perceived physical ability, and motor performance in nonoverweight and overweight Italian children.

    PubMed

    Colella, Dario; Morano, Milena; Robazza, Claudio; Bortoli, Laura

    2009-02-01

    The purpose was to examine body image, perceived physical ability, and motor performance in nonoverweight (n=105, 53 boys and 52 girls) and overweight (n=105, 52 boys and 53 girls) children, ranging in age from 8 to 10 years and attending elementary schools in southeastern Italy. Body image was measured on Collins' Child Figure Drawings, while self-efficacy was assessed by the Perceived Physical Ability Scale for Children. Age-appropriate field-based tests of standing long jump, 1-kg medicine-ball throw, basketball throw, and 10-m and 20-m sprint from a standing position were also administered to gauge motor performance. Univariate analyses of variance [2 (group) x 2 (sex) x 3 (8, 9, 10 yr.)] showed that overweight children reported larger body-dissatisfaction scores, lower self-efficacy scores, and poorer performance on weight-bearing tasks than nonoverweight peers. In addition, boys had higher mean scores on physical self-efficacy and better performance on all motor tests. The correlation between Body Mass Index and body dissatisfaction was positive for boys and girls.

  15. Circumcision with Glubran® 2 in children: experience of Italian Center

    PubMed Central

    Cerchia, Elisa; Molinaro, Francesco; Bulotta, Anna Lavinia; Ferrara, Francesco; Bindi, Edoardo; Messina, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Background Circumcision is one of the most common surgical procedures in the world. Despite it is known its wide prevalence for religious and medical reasons in children, it remains a controversial practice in paediatric age. To date, there is no described the gold standard technique to circumcise paediatric patients. We started to use glue for circumcision about 2 years ago. We designed this prospective study with the aim to compare two surgical techniques, which were used in our hospital to perform circumcision in children. The implication for practice was the understanding if there were differences between these approaches related to patient’s and parents benefits to manage this condition and benefits for surgeon and hospital in term of saving money and time. Methods This is a randomized, single-blind one-center study. It was conducted at the Department of Paediatric Surgery of Siena. Data were collected between March 2011 and December 2012. Study’s population involved all patients who required circumcision. Two randomizes groups: group one which involved patients who underwent circumcision using sutures and group two, which involved patients who underwent circumcision using surgical glue (Glubran® 2). Two exclusion criteria were used: the redo-circumcision and the allergy or hyper-sensibility to cyanoacrylate (main component of glue). Results We report 99 patients who underwent circumcision with Glubran® 2 in comparison with a group of children circumcised with sutures (vycril rapide). We measured three outcomes (operating time, postoperative pain and assessment of cosmetic), which, even if not all statistically significant, allowed us to draw any conclusions about the use of glue in circumcision. Conclusions Traditional circumcision is performed using a standard sleeve technique with sutures for the approximation of the skin edges. However, since some years a tissue adhesive as N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) (Glubran® 2) is used in many centers to

  16. A new procedure to measure children's reading speed and accuracy in Italian.

    PubMed

    Morlini, Isabella; Stella, Giacomo; Scorza, Maristella

    2014-02-01

    Impaired readers in primary school should be early recognized, in order to asses a targeted intervention within the school and to start a teaching that respects the difficulties in learning to read, to write and to perform calculations. Screening procedures, inside the primary schools aimed at detecting children with difficulties in reading, are of fundamental importance for guaranteeing an early identification of dyslexic children and reducing both the primary negative effects--on learning--and the secondary negative effects--on the development of the personality--of this disturbance. In this study, we propose a new screening procedure measuring reading speed and accuracy. This procedure is very fast (it is exactly 1 min long), simple, cheap and can be provided by teachers without technical knowledge. On the contrary, most of the currently used diagnostic tests are about 10 min long and must be provided by experts. These two major flaws prevent the widespread use of these tests. On the basis of the results obtained in a survey on about 1500 students attending primary school in Italy, we investigate the relationships between variables used in the screening procedure and variables measuring speed and accuracy in the currently used diagnostic tests in Italy. Then, we analyse the validity of the screening procedure from a statistical point of view, and with an explorative factor analysis, we show that reading speed and accuracy seem to be two separate symptoms of the dyslexia phenomenon.

  17. The methodology of the Italian HBSC 2010 study (Health Behaviour in School-aged Children).

    PubMed

    Lazzeri, G; Giacchi, M V; Dalmasso, P; Vieno, A; Nardone, P; Lamberti, A; Spinelli, A; Cavallo, F

    2013-01-01

    Italy has participated in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study since 2000. These surveys collect data every four years on the well-being and health behaviour of boys and girls aged 11, 13 and 15. Until 2007, the coordination group of the University of Turin, Siena and Padua directly sent the questionnaires to each sampled school to collect the data. The sample of about 4500 students was nationally representative. In 2008 the HBSC became part of the project "Surveys on behavioral risks in children aged 6-17 years", coordinated by the National Institute of Health (ISS) and promoted by the Ministry of Health, in collaboration with the Ministry of Education, University and Research. For the first time, in 2010, the survey was conducted by health workers in collaboration with teachers in all regions with a representative sample, not just at the national level, but also at regional level. In the 2,504 sampled schools, 77,113 students (25,079 eleven-year-old, 26,048 thirteen-year-old and 25,986 fifteen-year-old) completed an anonymous questionnaire. Knowledge of the health-related behaviour of school-aged adolescents may help monitoring and enable policies for young people to be formulated and implemented.

  18. Children's Conceptions about the Origin of Species: A Study of Italian Children's Conceptions with and without Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berti, Anna Emilia; Toneatti, Laura; Rosati, Veronica

    2010-01-01

    Investigations of people's understanding of the evolution of species have focused mainly on secondary school and university students. Very few investigations have taken into consideration younger students, and none have related children's ideas about the origin of species to formal instruction on this topic. To help fill this gap, the present…

  19. [Ultrasound bone densitometry in children and adolescents; Italian refence curves with multi-site device (Omnisense)].

    PubMed

    Pedrotti, L; Mora, R; Bertani, B; Tuvo, G; Galli, G B; Pazzano, S; Quattrini, F; Crivellari, I

    2007-01-01

    The values of bone density represent one of the best parameters for the prediction of the risk of fracture in the adult. Since the peak of bone mass depends over that on genetic factors also on modifiable environmental factors, the evaluation of the state of bone health in paediatric populations has assumed great importance; the ultrasound techniques seem to represent a potential alternative to DXA and QTC. Using Omnisense device (Omnisense, Sunlight Ultrasound Technologies) we have evaluated the bone strength in a champion of 652 children and teen-agers aged 6-18 (328 females, 324 males). The measurements have been made at the distal third of the radius and midshaft tibia. The purpose has been to record the values of SOS in a healthy paediatric population, building a normal database and to find a correlation between the SOS values and anthropometric data, dietary factors and physical activity. The comparison with an analogous study conducted by other Authors prompted us to conclude that in the paediatric population the construction of proper curves of reference, with which to compare the data of the patients, is essential to avoid errors in the evaluation of bone density, in agreement with how much already underlined in literature. Besides a correct interpretation of the data obtained with ultrasounds systems asks for a change of the thresholds values established by the OMS for the diagnosis of osteopenia/osteoporosis with the DXA. As already happened for the adult population in children also it will be therefore necessary to compare a great number of pathological subjects with the normal database, establishing so the new values of Z-Score and giving a clinical meaning to the effected measurements.

  20. Evaluating the Predictive Impact of an Emergent Literacy Model on Dyslexia in Italian Children: A Four-Year Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Pezzica, Sara; Pinto, Giuliana

    2016-01-01

    The strong differences in manifestation, prevalence, and incidence in dyslexia across languages invite studies in specific writing systems. In particular, the question of the role played by emergent literacy in opaque and transparent writing systems remains a fraught one. This research project tested, through a 4-year prospective cohort study, an emergent literacy model for the analysis of the characteristics of future dyslexic children and normally reading peers in Italian, a transparent writing system. A cohort of 450 children was followed from the last year of kindergarten to the third grade in their reading acquisition process. Dyslexic children were individuated (Grade 3), and their performances in kindergarten in textual competence, phonological awareness, and conceptual knowledge of the writing system were compared with a matched group of normally reading peers. Results showed the predictive relevance of the conceptual knowledge of the writing system. The study's implications are discussed.

  1. Priming of Abstract Logical Representations in 4-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viau, Joshua; Lidz, Jeffrey; Musolino, Julien

    2010-01-01

    Though preschoolers in certain experimental contexts strongly prefer to interpret ambiguous sentences containing quantified NPs and negation on the basis of surface syntax (e.g., Musolino's 1998 "observation of isomorphism"), contextual manipulations can lead to more adult-like behavior. But is isomorphism a "purely" pragmatic phenomenon, as…

  2. Italian Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Annibale, Bruno; Carabotti, Marilia; Cuomo, Rosario

    2016-10-01

    Diverticular disease (DD) is a widespread condition, however limited evidences are available about its management and complications. In the last years, an Italian Consensus Conference promoted by GRIMAD (Gruppo Italiano Malattia Diverticolare, Italian Group on Diverticular Diseases) and a Guideline, by Italian Society of Colorectal Surgery (SICCR) were published. The aim of the Consensus was to provide clinical recommendation for appropriate definition, diagnosis, and management of DD, in particular 4 areas of interest were identified, namely: (i) definition and epidemiology, (ii) pathophysiology, (iii) diagnosis, and (iv) medical and surgical treatment. A total of 55 statements graded according to different level of evidence and strength of recommendation were approved. However, if we consider the grade of recommendation, their strength remains suboptimal, with only 3 statements with grade of evidence A in the area of diagnosis. The Clinical guidelines by SICCR focus mainly on acute diverticulitis, and surgical treatment of complicated DD. One of the main topic analyzed, is represented by the management of the acute uncomplicated diverticulitis, in particular about the use of antibiotics and need of hospitalization. Despite the presence of many recent European and western country guidelines, there is a lack of robust data on epidemiology, risk factors, and medical and surgical management of DD, calling the need of further studies aimed to obtain an evidence-based approach in this condition. PMID:27622363

  3. Long-term results of high-dose imatinib in children and adolescents with chronic myeloid leukaemia in chronic phase: the Italian experience.

    PubMed

    Giona, Fiorina; Putti, Maria C; Micalizzi, Concetta; Menna, Giuseppe; Moleti, Maria L; Santoro, Nicola; Iaria, Grazia; Ladogana, Saverio; Burnelli, Roberta; Consarino, Caterina; Varotto, Stefania; Tucci, Francesca; Messina, Chiara; Nanni, Mauro; Diverio, Daniela; Biondi, Andrea; Pession, Andrea; Locatelli, Franco; Piciocchi, Alfonso; Gottardi, Enrico; Saglio, Giuseppe; Foà, Robin

    2015-08-01

    Imatinib mesylate (IM) is used for the management of childhood chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). The most effective dosage of IM and its long-term efficacy in children are not well defined. The purpose of this multicentre study is to report on the long-term results of high-dose IM (340 mg/m2 /d) in CML patients in chronic phase (CP-CML) aged <18 years at diagnosis. A total of 47 CP-CML patients with a median age at diagnosis of 11 years 9 months were enrolled in nine Italian centres. Complete cytogenetic response was achieved in 91.5% of the evaluable patients at a median time of 6 months. BCR-ABL1 International Scale ≤ 0.1% (major molecular response; MMR) and ≤0.01% (molecular response; MR) at 12 months were 66.6% and 33%, respectively. During follow-up, MMR and MR were achieved in 78.6% and 61% of children, respectively. IM was safely discontinued in 3 long-term treated children with a durable MR. Twelve patients (eight cytogenetic/molecular responders) underwent stem cell transplantation. The progression-free survival probabilities at 96 months for responding patients who continued IM and for those transplanted were 60% and 50%, respectively. After a median follow-up of 52 months (range 3-146), all patients are alive. High-dose IM is a long-term effective therapy in children and adolescents with CP-CML.

  4. Determinants of Vitamin D Levels in Italian Children and Adolescents: A Longitudinal Evaluation of Cholecalciferol Supplementation versus the Improvement of Factors Influencing 25(OH)D Status.

    PubMed

    Stagi, Stefano; Pelosi, Paola; Strano, Massimo; Poggi, Giovanni; Manoni, Cristina; de Martino, Maurizio; Seminara, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This paper aims to assess 25(OH)D levels in Italian children and adolescents identifying risk factors for 25(OH)D deficiency and to evaluate whether a normal 25(OH)D value can be restored in 25(OH)D-deficient patients. Methods. We evaluated 25(OH)D levels in 679 Italian children and adolescents (≤10, 11-20, 21-30, and >30 ng/mL were defined as severe deficiency, deficiency, insufficiency, and sufficiency, resp.). Of these, 365 25(OH)D-deficient were followed up for 1 year; 205 were treated with cholecalciferol (Arm A: 400 I.U.) and 160 by improving the environmental variables influencing 25(OH)D levels (Arm B). Results. At cross-sectional evaluation, 11.3% showed sufficiency, 30.0% insufficiency, and 58.7% 25(OH)D deficiency. Mean 25(OH)D was 19.08 ± 8.44 ng/mL. At the enrollment time (T 0), no difference was found between Arms A and B with respect to distribution and 25(OH)D levels. At end time (T 1) 26.0% (29.7% in Arm A versus 20.6% in Arm B) showed sufficiency, 38.4% (42.0% versus 34.4%) insufficiency, and 35.6% (28.3% versus 45.0%) 25(OH)D deficiency. Mean 25(OH)D level was 23.71 ± 6.83 ng/mL. Conclusions. Neither changes of lifestyle nor 400 I.U. cholecalciferol supplementation alone appears to be sufficient to restore adequate 25(OH)D levels.

  5. What Makes Children Fearful and Anxious

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling; Miller, Susan A.; Church, Ellen Booth

    2007-01-01

    This article explains the causes of children's fears and anxieties in the following age brackets: (1) 0-2 years old; (2) 3-4 years old; and (3) 5-6 years old. It presents situations wherein children develop fears and anxious feelings. It also discusses how to deal and manage these fears and anxieties and enumerates what can be done to make…

  6. Young Children's Trust in Overtly Misleading Advice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyman, Gail D.; Sritanyaratana, Lalida; Vanderbilt, Kimberly E.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of 3- and 4-year-old children to disregard advice from an overtly misleading informant was investigated across five studies (total "n" =212). Previous studies have documented limitations in young children's ability to reject misleading advice. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that these limitations are primarily due to an…

  7. Patterns for Designing Children's Centers. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osmon, Fred Linn

    This book summarizes the issues involved in the design of a children's center. A children's center is defined as an away from home, group child care program for 2-4 year olds. The material is organized into 35 chapters or "patterns." A pattern is a package of design requirements whose solution is focused on a distinct part of the physical…

  8. Children at Play: Learning Gender in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This captivating book illuminates our understanding of how young children develop gender identities. A two year longitudinal research project on children's own understandings of gender casts new light on how 3 and 4 year old newcomers in early years classes learn rules for gendered behaviour from older children, in their imaginative and…

  9. Observing Young Children's Creative Thinking: Engagement, Involvement and Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Sue; Rowe, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at young children's creative thinking as inferred through observations of their activities. A total of 52 episodes of child-initiated and adult-initiated activities in 3- to 4-year-olds in an English Children's Centre were analysed using the Analysing Children's Creative Thinking (ACCT) Framework. Results showed that activities…

  10. Loneliness and Social Adaptation in Brazilian, Canadian, Chinese and Italian Children: A Multi-National Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xinyin; He, Yunfeng; De Oliveira, Ana Maria; Coco, Alida Lo; Zappulla, Carla; Kaspar, Violet; Schneider, Barry; Valdivia, Ibis Alvarez; Tse, Hennis Chi-Hang; DeSouza, Amanda

    2004-01-01

    Background: Research on children's loneliness has been conducted mostly in Western, especially North American, cultures. The purpose of the study was to examine relations between loneliness and social adaptation among children and adolescents in four different societies. Methods: A total of 2263 children from grade 3 to grade 6, aged 9 to 12…

  11. Extra-Linguistic Influences on Sentence Comprehension in Italian-Speaking Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettenati, P.; Benassi, E.; Deevy, P.; Leonard, L. B.; Caselli, M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) in sentence comprehension. These deficits are usually attributed to limitations in the children's understanding of syntax or the lexical items contained in the sentences. This study examines the role that extra-linguistic factors can play in these children's sentence comprehension.…

  12. Sometimes Children Are as Good as Adults: The Pragmatic Use of Prosody in Children's On-Line Sentence Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Peng; Crain, Stephen; Zhan, Likan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined 4-year-old Mandarin-speaking children's sensitivity to prosodic cues in resolving speech act ambiguities, using eye-movement recordings. Most previous on-line studies have focused on children's use of prosody in resolving structural ambiguities. Although children have been found to be sensitive to prosodic information, they use…

  13. Applying Theory to Practice: Using Developmentally Appropriate Strategies To Help Children Draw.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Loretta I.

    2001-01-01

    Describes how one teacher helped preschool children draw. Shows how she guided a 4-year-old to use stencils to draw fish independently, helped children use their knowledge of shapes to guide their drawing of animals, and guided children to draw what was important to them. Asserts that helping children to express their ideas independently in…

  14. Just Pretend: Participation in Symbolic Talk by Children with Histories of Early Corrective Heart Surgery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ovadia, Rebecca; Hemphill, Lowry; Winner, Kendra; Bellinger, David

    2000-01-01

    Examined parent-child play in 30 4-year-old children with early corrective heart surgery (ECHS) and 30 typically-developing children. Children were compared on basic language measures and proportions of symbolic and nonsymbolic talk. Children with ECHS focused on concrete "here and now" talk and produced less symbolic talk; only one third of the…

  15. Oats in the diet of children with celiac disease: preliminary results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled multicenter Italian study.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Simona; Caporelli, Nicole; Galeazzi, Tiziana; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Barbato, Maria; Roggero, Paola; Malamisura, Basilio; Iacono, Giuseppe; Budelli, Andrea; Gesuita, Rosaria; Catassi, Carlo; Lionetti, Elena

    2013-11-01

    A gluten-free diet (GFD) is currently the only available treatment for patients with celiac disease (CD). Several clinical trials have demonstrated that most celiac patients can tolerate a medium-high quantity of oats without any negative clinical effects; however, the inclusion of oats in GFD is still a matter of debate. In this study, Italian children with CD were enrolled in a 15-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial. Participants were randomized in two groups following either A-B treatment (6 months of diet "A", 3 months of standard GFD, 6 months of diet "B"), or B-A treatment (6 months of diet "B", 3 months of standard GFD, 6 months of diet "A"). A and B diets included gluten-free (GF) products (flour, pasta, biscuits, cakes and crisp toasts) with either purified oats or placebo. Clinical data (Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rate Scale [GSRS] score) and intestinal permeability tests (IPT), were measured through the study period. Although the study is still blinded, no significant differences were found in GSRS score or the urinary lactulose/mannitol (L/M) ratio between the two groups after 6 months of treatment. These preliminary results suggest that the addition of non-contaminated oats from selected varieties in the treatment of children with CD does not determine changes in intestinal permeability and gastrointestinal symptoms.

  16. Divergent Thinking in Italian Students with and without Reading Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Pinto, Giuliana; Donfrancesco, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have explored the relationship between dyslexia and creativity, but results have been rather mixed. This study examines whether Italian dyslexic children are more creative than their peers without a reading impairment. One hundred ninety Italian children aged between 9 and 13 participated in this study, divided into two groups:…

  17. Spelling Impairments in Italian Dyslexic Children with and without a History of Early Language Delay. Are There Any Differences?

    PubMed Central

    Angelelli, Paola; Marinelli, Chiara V.; Iaia, Marika; Putzolu, Anna; Gasperini, Filippo; Brizzolara, Daniela; Chilosi, Anna M.

    2016-01-01

    Language delay is considered a frequent antecedent of literacy problems and both may be linked to phonological impairment. However, while several studies have examined the relationship between language delay and reading impairment, relatively few have focused on spelling. In this study, spelling performance of 28 children with developmental dyslexia (DD), 14 children with a history of language delay (LD), and 14 children without (NoLD) and 28 control participants were examined. Spelling was investigated by a writing to dictation task that included orthographically regular stimuli (word and non-words), as well as words with unpredictable transcription. Results indicated that all dyslexic participants underperformed compared to controls on both regular and unpredictable transcription stimuli, but LD performance was generally the worst. Moreover, spelling impairment assumed different characteristics in LD and NoLD children. LD children were more sensitive to acoustic-to-phonological variables, showing relevant failure especially on stimuli containing geminate consonants but also on polysyllabic stimuli and those containing non-continuant consonants. Error analysis confirmed these results, with LD children producing a higher rate of phonological errors respect to NoLD children and controls. Results were coherent with the hypothesis that among dyslexic children, those with previous language delay have more severe spelling deficit, suffering from defective orthographic lexical acquisition together with long-lasting phonological difficulties. PMID:27148135

  18. Spelling Impairments in Italian Dyslexic Children with and without a History of Early Language Delay. Are There Any Differences?

    PubMed

    Angelelli, Paola; Marinelli, Chiara V; Iaia, Marika; Putzolu, Anna; Gasperini, Filippo; Brizzolara, Daniela; Chilosi, Anna M

    2016-01-01

    Language delay is considered a frequent antecedent of literacy problems and both may be linked to phonological impairment. However, while several studies have examined the relationship between language delay and reading impairment, relatively few have focused on spelling. In this study, spelling performance of 28 children with developmental dyslexia (DD), 14 children with a history of language delay (LD), and 14 children without (NoLD) and 28 control participants were examined. Spelling was investigated by a writing to dictation task that included orthographically regular stimuli (word and non-words), as well as words with unpredictable transcription. Results indicated that all dyslexic participants underperformed compared to controls on both regular and unpredictable transcription stimuli, but LD performance was generally the worst. Moreover, spelling impairment assumed different characteristics in LD and NoLD children. LD children were more sensitive to acoustic-to-phonological variables, showing relevant failure especially on stimuli containing geminate consonants but also on polysyllabic stimuli and those containing non-continuant consonants. Error analysis confirmed these results, with LD children producing a higher rate of phonological errors respect to NoLD children and controls. Results were coherent with the hypothesis that among dyslexic children, those with previous language delay have more severe spelling deficit, suffering from defective orthographic lexical acquisition together with long-lasting phonological difficulties.

  19. Young Children's Ability to Match Facial Features Typical of Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacoste, Ronald J.

    This study examined (1) the ability of 3- and 4-year-old children to racially classify Negro and Caucasian facial features in the absence of skin color as a racial cue; and (2) the relative value attached to the facial features of Negro and Caucasian races. Subjects were 21 middle income, Caucasian children from a privately owned nursery school in…

  20. Children's Causal Inferences from Conflicting Testimony and Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgers, Sophie; Buchsbaum, Daphna; Seiver, Elizabeth; Griffiths, Thomas L.; Gopnik, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Preschoolers use both direct observation of statistical data and informant testimony to learn causal relationships. Can children integrate information from these sources, especially when source reliability is uncertain? We investigate how children handle a conflict between what they hear and what they see. In Experiment 1, 4-year-olds were…

  1. Perceiving Children's Behavior and Reaching Limits in a Risk Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordovil, Rita; Santos, Carlos; Barreiros, Joao

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of parents' perception of children's reaching limits in a risk scenario. A sample of 68 parents of 1- to 4-year-olds were asked to make a prior estimate of their children's behavior and action limits in a task that involved retrieving a toy out of the water. The action modes used for…

  2. Challenging the Notion of a Thematic Preference in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waxman, Sandra R.; Namy, Laura L.

    1997-01-01

    Two- to 4-year-olds were presented with pictures of a target item (for example, carrot), a thematic alternative (rabbit), and an taxonomic alternative (tomato). The target was identified and children were asked to choose one of the alternatives. Children revealed no preference for either alternative. (BC)

  3. Young Children's Spontaneous Use of Geometry in Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shusterman, Anna; Lee, Sang Ah; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments tested whether 4-year-old children extract and use geometric information in simple maps without task instruction or feedback. Children saw maps depicting an arrangement of three containers and were asked to place an object into a container designated on the map. In Experiment 1, one of the three locations on the map and the array…

  4. Communicatively Inhibiting Behaviors of Mothers with Language Disordered Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardee, W. Paul

    Four mothers and their language handicapped children (2-4 years old) were compared with four mothers and their normal language children. Mother-child interactions were tape recorded and analyzed for semantic, syntactic, and morphologic complexity. The normal language group had more sophisticated semantic, syntactic, and morphologic abilities than…

  5. How Children Use Examples to Make Conditional Predictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalish, Charles W.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments explored children's and adults' use of examples to make conditional predictions. In Experiment 1 adults (N = 20) but not 4-year-olds (N = 21) or 8-year-olds (N =1 8) distinguished predictable from unpredictable features when features were partially correlated (e.g., necessary but not sufficient). Children did make reliable…

  6. New Jersey Kids Count 2008: The State of Our Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traini, Cecilia

    2008-01-01

    New Jersey children are in some important ways better off than five years ago. More 3- and 4-year-olds are enrolled in high-quality, publicly funded preschool, for example. On some other measures, children are worse off. The proportion with no health insurance has risen, despite increased enrollment in government-subsidized insurance programs. But…

  7. Child and Informant Influences on Behavioral Ratings of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Beth M.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated relationships among teacher, parent, and observer behavioral ratings of 3- and 4-year-old children using intra-class correlations and analysis of variance. Comparisons within and across children from middle-income (MI; N = 166; mean age = 54.25 months, standard deviation [SD] = 8.74) and low-income (LI; N = 199; mean age =…

  8. Children's Eyewitness Memory: Effects of Participation and Forensic Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobey, Ann E.; Goodman, Gail S.

    1992-01-01

    This study, with 39 4-year-olds, found that children had better free recall accuracy and lowered suggestibility when they participated with a "babysitter" rather than observed a babysitter and child. Addition of forensic context (by a policeman prior to questioning) increased error in free recall but did not affect children's accuracy in answering…

  9. The Role of Gesture in Children's Learning To Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Theresa A.

    1999-01-01

    Examined role of spontaneous gesture in 2- to 4-year-olds' counting and assessment of counting accuracy. Found that correspondence of children's speech and gesture varied systematically across age. Children adhered to one-to-one correspondence principle in gesture prior to speech. Counting accuracy related to correspondence of speech and gesture,…

  10. Apples on Train Tracks: Observing Young Children Reenvision Their Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissel, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Kissel focuses on 4-year-olds reenvisioning their writing in discussing his observations of pre-K children's writing during a two-year study. In a writers' workshop each day, children started with a clean sheet of paper. The teacher read aloud, then offered a minilesson, crafting a written piece--always with a picture--in front of the class. As…

  11. Neurodevelopmental Correlates of Theory of Mind in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabbagh, Mark A.; Bowman, Lindsay C.; Evraire, Lyndsay E.; Ito, Jennie M. B.

    2009-01-01

    Baseline electroencephalogram (EEG) data were collected from twenty-nine 4-year-old children who also completed batteries of representational theory-of-mind (RTM) tasks and executive functioning (EF) tasks. Neural sources of children's EEG alpha (6-9 Hz) were estimated and analyzed to determine whether individual differences in regional EEG alpha…

  12. The Relationship between Children's Gaze Reporting and Theory of Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Entremont, Barbara; Seamans, Elizabeth; Boudreau, Elyse

    2012-01-01

    Seventy-nine 3- and 4-year-old children were tested on gaze-reporting ability and Wellman and Liu's (2004) continuous measure of theory of mind (ToM). Children were better able to report where someone was looking when eye and head direction were provided as a cue compared with when only eye direction cues were provided. With the exception of…

  13. Minimal Groups Increase Young Children's Motivation and Learning on Group-Relevant Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Master, Allison; Walton, Gregory M.

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments ("N" = 130) used a minimal group manipulation to show that just perceived membership in a social group boosts young children's motivation for and learning from group-relevant tasks. In Experiment 1, 4-year-old children assigned to a minimal "puzzles group" persisted longer on a challenging puzzle than children identified as the…

  14. Responding to Children's Everyday Transgressions in Chinese Working-Class Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xiao-lei; Bernas, Ronan; Eberhard, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how working-class mothers in the People's Republic of China respond to their young children's transgressions in everyday contexts. Twenty 4-year-old children and their mothers in a working-class neighbourhood were observed in their daily routines at home. When addressing children's transgressions and socialising desirable…

  15. Investing in Our Children: A Plan to Expand Access to Preschool and Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Cynthia G.; Cooper, Donna; Herman, Juliana; Lazarín, Melissa; Linden, Michael; Post, Sasha; Tanden, Neera

    2013-01-01

    This issue brief presents a plan to expand educational opportunities and care for children ages 0-5 years old by investing significant federal dollars to: (1) Make high-quality preschool universally accessible to all 3- and 4-year-old children; and (2) Enable more lower-income families to afford child care for children ages 0-3 years old. These…

  16. Ideas that Work With Young Children. Learning Self-Esteem and Self-Discipline through Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Polly

    1989-01-01

    Describes learning that takes place during children's play. Scenarios involve a 15-month-old who tries to work keys into a sideboard, a 2 1/2-year-old who takes a truck from other children, and a 4-year-old who plays with blocks with other children. (RJC)

  17. Maternal Labor Supply and Children's Cognitive Development. NBER Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Francine D.; Grossberg, Adam J.

    This study used a sample of 3- and 4-year-old children of female respondents from the 1986 National Longitudinal Surveys Youth Cohort to analyze the relationship between maternal labor supply and children's cognitive development. Respondents were 21 to 29 years old in 1986. Thus, the sample consisted of children of relatively young mothers.…

  18. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground.

    PubMed

    Tortella, Patrizia; Haga, Monika; Loras, Håvard; Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Fumagalli, Guido

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s) appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens.

  19. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground.

    PubMed

    Tortella, Patrizia; Haga, Monika; Loras, Håvard; Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Fumagalli, Guido

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s) appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens. PMID:27462985

  20. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground

    PubMed Central

    Tortella, Patrizia; Haga, Monika; Loras, Håvard

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s) appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens. PMID:27462985

  1. Children's Perception of Continuous and Discontinuous Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melkman, Rachel; Rabinovitch, Liora

    1998-01-01

    Examined object concept development in 2- to 4-year olds with a partial replication of a study by Spelke and Kestenbaum (1986). Found that children judged identical entering and exiting figures as involving one object and different figures as involving two objects. Continuity of movement failed to affect judgments of numerical identity. Findings…

  2. Young Maltese Children's Ideas about Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatt, Suzanne; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Borg, Kurtsten; Lautier, Katya

    2007-01-01

    Fifty Maltese children, 25 in the second year of pre-school (4 years olds) and 25 in the first year of compulsory education (5 years old), were interviewed about their knowledge of plants. Analysis showed that they had a restricted understanding of the term, meaning something small, with a thin stalk, leaves and a flower. Trees, cacti and nettles…

  3. If -Then Contingencies in Children's Sibling Conflicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Michal; Ross, Hildy S.

    2005-01-01

    Two-step (if -then) behavioral contingencies in the naturally occurring conflicts of 2- and 4-year-old siblings were identified and described. Children's crying, compliance, ignoring, opposition, power, and reasoning strategies were examined to determine how they were used immediately following opposition, power, and reasoning from siblings and…

  4. Children's Interpretation of Generic Noun Phrases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollander, Michelle A.; Gelman, Susan A.; Star, Jon

    2002-01-01

    Two studies used a comprehension task and an elicited production task to examine whether preschool children and adults appreciated the semantic properties of generic utterances. Findings indicated that in both tasks, 4-year-olds and adults treated generics ("bears live in caves") as distinct from both indefinites ("some") and universal quantifiers…

  5. Examining Young Children's Perceptions of Handicaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlow, Barbara L.

    The purposes of this study were to assess the attitudes of preschoolers toward two types of handicapping conditions (mental retardation and physical disabilities), and to explore the underlying social reasoning used by young children to formulate/support their perceptions. Sixteen 3- and 4-year-old boys and girls were presented with two 8-1/2" x…

  6. Teaching Business Italian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trivelli, Remo J.

    The University of Rhode Island's business Italian course is an advanced language course whose focus is the Italian business world and its reflection of values, customs, and traditions. The course begins with presentations on salient features of contemporary Italian, such as syntactical simplification and nominalization, and how the social,…

  7. Why Study Italian?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Charles

    1978-01-01

    One studies Italian for the same reason one studies any language--to become educated. Even more than for art and music, Italian is necessary for literature. Dante must be read, and in the original. Further, we study Italian to know our cultural roots and heritage. (AMH)

  8. A focus on recent cases of suicides among Italian children and adolescents and a review of literature

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal behaviors are among the leading causes of death worldwide. The large spread of suicide suggests that educational programs and literature to parents or guardians should include information about the potential risks and potential consequences of the onset of the idea of suicide in children. We identified 55 cases of suicide among children and young adults <18-year-old occurring in Italy between 1st January, 2011 and 31st December, 2013. The results point to the need to increase our understanding of the dramatic rise in suicidal behaviors during childhood/adolescence and of the causal pathways linking these behaviors to child-adolescent mental disorders. During routine care visits, pediatricians should be skilled to recognize risk factors for adolescent suicide in order to intervene appropriately. PMID:25022200

  9. Children left unattended in parked vehicles: a focus on recent italian cases and a review of literature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Every year a lot of children die from heat stroke and hyperthermia because they have been left unattended in closed automobiles. These fatalities have augmented slightly in the past decade, but they are a poor recognized type of vehicle injury and little research has been done to discover the circumstances surrounding the fatal event. Two factors make children more prone to hyperthermia than adults: children have a greater surface area body mass ratio than adults and their thermoregulation is less efficient than adults. A scientific explanation about how it can happen that a parent leaves his child unattended in the car could be related to the Working Memory (WM): stress increases interference from irrelevant information, impairing selective attention and WM and influencing behavior. In the last two years in Italy 16 cases of child hyperthermia due to abandonment in motor vehicle were identified. These findings suggest that educational programs and literature for parents regarding automobile safety should include information about the potential dangers of heat stress, in fact, as these events are mostly unintentional, legislative efforts may be vain. PMID:24195780

  10. Does the Brown Banana Have a Beak? Preschool Children's Phonological Awareness as a Function of Parents' Talk about Speech Sounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Elaine; Robertson, Sarah-Jane; Divers, Sarah; Schaughency, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Children's phonological awareness develops rapidly in the preschool years and is an important contributor to later reading skill. This study addresses the role of parents' talk in preschool children's phonological awareness development. A community sample of 27 parents and their 3- to 4-year-old children participated in a new "Sound…

  11. Young Children's Knowledge of the Representational Function of Pictorial Symbols: Development across the Preschool Years in Three Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callaghan, Tara C.; Rochat, Philippe; Corbit, John

    2012-01-01

    Three- to 5-year-old children's knowledge that pictures have a representational function for others was investigated using a pictorial false-belief task. In Study 1, children passed the task at around 4 years old, and performance was correlated with standard false-belief and pictorial symbol tasks. In Study 2, the performance of children from two…

  12. Social Support Networks of African-American Children Attending Head Start: A Longitudinal Investigation of Structural and Supportive Network Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bost, Kelly K.; Vaughn, Brian E.; Boston, Ada L.; Kazura, Kerry L.; O'Neal, Colleen

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the stability and coherence of African-American children's social support networks. Participants included a total of 106 3- to 4-year-old children attending Head Start centers located in the southeast. Children completed a social network interview in two consecutive years at the Head Start centers. These interviews tapped…

  13. Community-Acquired Rotavirus Gastroenteritis Compared with Adenovirus and Norovirus Gastroenteritis in Italian Children: A Pedianet Study

    PubMed Central

    Donà, D.; Mozzo, E.; Scamarcia, A.; Picelli, G.; Villa, M.; Cantarutti, L.; Giaquinto, C.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Rotavirus (RV) is the commonest pathogen in the hospital and primary care settings, followed by Adenovirus (AV) and Norovirus (NV). Only few studies that assess the burden of RV gastroenteritis at the community level have been carried out. Objectives. To estimate incidence, disease characteristics, seasonal distribution, and working days lost by parents of RV, AV, and NV gastroenteritis leading to a family pediatrician (FP) visit among children < 5 years. Methods. 12-month, observational, prospective, FP-based study has been carried out using Pedianet database. Results. RVGE incidence was 1.04 per 100 person-years with the highest incidence in the first 2 years of life. Incidences of AVGEs (1.74) and NVGEs (1.51) were slightly higher with similar characteristics regarding age distribution and symptoms. Risk of hospitalisation, access to emergency room (ER), and workdays lost from parents were not significantly different in RVGEs compared to the other viral infections. Conclusions. Features of RVGE in terms of hospitalisation length and indirect cost are lower than those reported in previous studies. Results of the present study reflect the large variability of data present in the literature. This observation underlines the utility of primary care networks for AGE surveillance and further studies on community-acquired gastroenteritis in children. PMID:26884770

  14. Comparison of the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of four odontological methods for age evaluation in Italian children at the age threshold of 14 years using ROC curves.

    PubMed

    Pinchi, Vilma; Pradella, Francesco; Vitale, Giulia; Rugo, Dario; Nieri, Michele; Norelli, Gian-Aristide

    2016-01-01

    The age threshold of 14 years is relevant in Italy as the minimum age for criminal responsibility. It is of utmost importance to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of every odontological method for age evaluation considering the sensitivity, or the ability to estimate the true positive cases, and the specificity, or the ability to estimate the true negative cases. The research aims to compare the specificity and sensitivity of four commonly adopted methods of dental age estimation - Demirjian, Haavikko, Willems and Cameriere - in a sample of Italian children aged between 11 and 16 years, with an age threshold of 14 years, using receiver operating characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUC). In addition, new decision criteria are developed to increase the accuracy of the methods. Among the four odontological methods for age estimation adopted in the research, the Cameriere method showed the highest AUC in both female and male cohorts. The Cameriere method shows a high degree of accuracy at the age threshold of 14 years. To adopt the Cameriere method to estimate the 14-year age threshold more accurately, however, it is suggested - according to the Youden index - that the decision criterion be set at the lower value of 12.928 for females and 13.258 years for males, obtaining a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 88% in females, and a sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 92% in males. If a specificity level >90% is needed, the cut-off point should be set at 12.959 years (82% sensitivity) for females.

  15. Italian Developmental Dyslexic and Proficient Readers: Where Are the Differences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barca, Laura; Burani, Cristina; Di Filippo, Gloria; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi

    2006-01-01

    Italian dyslexic children are characterized by a pervasive reading speed deficit, with relatively preserved accuracy. This pattern has been associated with predominant use of the nonlexical reading procedure. However, there is no evidence of a deficit in the lexical route of Italian dyslexics. We investigated both lexical and nonlexical reading…

  16. Rufinamide efficacy and safety as adjunctive treatment in children with focal drug resistant epilepsy: the first Italian prospective study.

    PubMed

    Moavero, Romina; Cusmai, Raffaella; Specchio, Nicola; Fusco, Lucia; Capuano, Alessandro; Curatolo, Paolo; Vigevano, Federico

    2012-11-01

    Rufinamide is a new antiepileptic drug approved as add-on treatment in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome from the age of 4 years, and for the treatment of focal seizures in adults and adolescents. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of add-on Rufinamide in the treatment of childhood focal drug resistant epilepsy. We recruited 70 patients for a prospective, add-on, open-label study. Inclusion criteria were: 3 years of age or more; focal drug resistant epilepsy despite the use of three previous AEDs; use of at least one other AED, but no more than three at baseline; more than one seizure per month in the previous 6 months. Rufinamide efficacy was observed up to 12 months of follow-up, with a total responder rate of 38.57%. We found the best results in focal epilepsies due to structural/metabolic etiology (42.6%). The responder rate was similar for focal seizures with secondary generalization, simple focal seizures other than myoclonic jerks, and complex partial seizures. Response to Rufinamide was not related to the age. Our experience suggests that Rufinamide can be effective in reducing focal seizure frequency in children with drug resistant epilepsy, and that it can be considered as a safe drug. PMID:22677424

  17. Contextual Effects of Prekindergarten Classrooms for Disadvantaged Children on Cognitive Development: The Case of Chapter 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Valerie E.; Loeb, Susanna; Lubeck, Sally

    1998-01-01

    Used hierarchical linear modeling to explore the effects of the social context of Chapter 1 prekindergarten classrooms on 4-year-olds' learning. Found that children made smaller gains on the Preschool Inventory over the preschool year in classrooms with higher concentrations of minorities, children with special needs, recent immigrants, and…

  18. Current Status of Differential Diagnosis for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.

    2007-01-01

    Early intervention for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has proven to be a successful strategy for remediating many difficulties experienced by these children. As a result, accurate diagnoses of children with this range of disorders has become more critical. Additionally, while current training programs are for 3-4 year olds, in efforts to start…

  19. The Designing Mind: Children's Reasoning about Intended Function and Artifact Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelemen, Deborah; Seston, Rebecca; Saint Georges, Laure

    2012-01-01

    There is currently debate about the emergence of children's ability to reason about artifacts by reference to their intended design. We present two studies demonstrating that, while 3-year-olds have emerging insights, 4-year-old children display an explicit, well-rounded, adult-like understanding of the way design constrains an artifact's physical…

  20. Young Children's Knowledge Building and Literacy Development through Knowledge Forum[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Janette; Reeve, Richard; Halewood, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    This study examined how the use of Knowledge Forum (KF)[R], a networked, Internet-based learning environment, was related to the literacy development of 4-year-old children in a laboratory school affiliated with the University of Toronto. Over the course of the year, children participated in a longitudinal photo journal project. With adult…

  1. Individual Differences in Children's and Parents' Generic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelman, Susan A.; Ware, Elizabeth A.; Kleinberg, Felicia; Manczak, Erika M.; Stilwell, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Generics ("'Dogs' bark") convey important information about categories and facilitate children's learning. Two studies with parents and their 2- or 4-year-old children (N = 104 dyads) examined whether individual differences in generic language use are as follows: (a) stable over time, contexts, and domains, and (b) linked…

  2. The Seuss Boost: Rhyme Helps Children Retain Words from Shared Storybook Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Kirsten; Macauley, Megan; Furay, Erin

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the potential benefits of rhyme on young children's word retention during shared reading. In two experiments, 2- to 4-year-old children heard their parent read either a rhymed or non-rhymed version of the same animal story, and were then tested on how many animal names they subsequently recognized from the story in Experiment 1…

  3. Young Children's Learning and Transfer of Biological Information from Picture Books to Real Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganea, Patricia A.; Ma, Lili; DeLoache, Judy S.

    2011-01-01

    Preschool children (N = 104) read a book that described and illustrated color camouflage in animals (frogs and lizards). Children were then asked to indicate and explain which of 2 novel animals would be more likely to fall prey to a predatory bird. In Experiment 1, 3- and 4-year-olds were tested with pictures depicting animals in camouflage and…

  4. Children's Developing Understanding of Differences between Their Own Intentional Action and Passive Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Derek E.; Lightner, Melisa

    2004-01-01

    Four studies examined 3- and 4-year-olds' ability to judge accurately whether they acted intentionally. Children self-initiated action to attain an outcome, or their arm was moved by the experimenter to create an outcome. In Experiment 3, children in both age groups accurately claimed they were agents of self-guided action but not of passive…

  5. Developmental Changes in Young Children's Spatial Memory and Language in Relation to Landmarks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hund, Alycia M.; Naroleski, Amber R.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments investigated how young children and adults understand whether objects are "by" a landmark and remember their locations. Three- and 4-year-old children and adults were asked to judge whether several blocks were "by" a landmark. The blocks were arranged so that their absolute and relative distances from the landmark varied. Later,…

  6. Effects of PECS Phase III Application Training on Independent Mands in Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Jessica June

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of PECS phase III application training on independent mands in young children with autism. Participants were five children with autism ranging from ages 2 to 4 years old. A multiple baseline across participants was used to evaluate acquisition of independent correct mands across baseline and…

  7. Effects of a Narrative Intervention on Story Retelling in At-Risk Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jennifer A.; Garzarek, Jessica E.; Donegan, Katharine L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this multiple baseline study across participants was to examine a narrative retell intervention with guided self-monitoring on narrative macrostructure skills in low-income African American young children at risk for language disorders. Three target 4-year-old children in a mixed-age kindergarten class of nine students participated…

  8. An Evaluation of a Program to Increase Physical Activity for Young Children in Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Marco, Allison C.; Zeisel, Susan; Odom, Samuel L.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: In the past 20 years, obesity rates among U.S. children have skyrocketed. In fact, 15.4% of 2- to 4-year-olds in North Carolina, where this study takes place, are obese, making it the 5th worst obesity rate in the nation. Research indicates that young children in preschool settings largely engage in sedentary activities,…

  9. Child-Care Subsidies: Do They Impact the Quality of Care Children Experience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Anna D.; Ryan, Rebecca M.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    The federal child-care subsidy program represents one of the government's largest investments in early care and education, but little is known about whether it increases low-income children's access to higher quality child care. This study used newly available nationally representative data on 4-year-old children (N = 750) to investigate whether…

  10. The Effects of Role Strain on Single, Working, Black Mothers' Perceptions of Their Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Aurora P.

    1994-01-01

    Examined data from 111 single, black, employed mothers concerning their perceptions of their 3- and 4-year-old children. Results revealed that mothers with some postsecondary education/training maintained more positive views of their children, regardless of child gender. Boys were perceived more negatively than girls by mothers who were high in…

  11. Children's Use of Geometry and Landmarks To Reorient in an Open Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gouteux, Stephane; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2001-01-01

    Eight experiments examined abilities of 3- to 4-year-olds to reorient themselves and locate a hidden object in an open circular space furnished with landmark objects. Findings showed that children failed to use geometric configuration of objects to reorient themselves. Children successfully located the object in relation to a geometric…

  12. Enhancing Phonological Awareness and Letter Knowledge in Preschool Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Bysterveldt, Anne K.; Gillon, Gail T.; Moran, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a phonological awareness intervention for 4-year-old children with Down syndrome. Seven children with Down syndrome who attended an early intervention centre participated in the intervention. Their performance on measures of phonological awareness (initial phoneme identity), letter name and sound…

  13. The Relation between the Teaching Strategies of Parents and the Cognitive Style of Their Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Nathan; And Others

    This study examined concurrent and long-term effects of parents' teaching strategies on their children's cognitive styles. A total of 83 mothers and 74 fathers helped their 4-year-old sons or daughters with 4 problem-solving tasks. The interactions between parents and children were observed and evaluated. Two measures of field…

  14. Reciprocal Associations between Young Children's Developing Moral Judgments and Theory of Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Judith G.; Jambon, Marc; Conry-Murray, Clare; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.

    2012-01-01

    Associations between young children's developing theory of mind (ToM) and judgments of prototypical moral transgressions were examined 3 times across 1 year in 70 American middle class 2.5- to 4-year-olds. Separate path models controlling for cross-time stability in judgments, within-time associations, and children's age at Wave 1 indicated that…

  15. Forecasting Friendship: How Marital Quality, Maternal Mood, and Attachment Security Are Linked to Children's Peer Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas-Thompson, Rachel; Clarke-Stewart, K. Alison

    2007-01-01

    Mothers' perceptions of marital quality and depressed mood and children's attachment security and friendship quality were assessed in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. One month after their birth and again when the children were 3 and 4 years old and in first and third…

  16. Investigating the Relationship between Social Behaviors and Phonological Awareness in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girard, Lisa-Christine; Girolametto, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the longitudinal effects of social behaviors in predicting phonological awareness outcomes in 4-year-old children. Method: One hundred two children (52 boys, 50 girls) were recruited from 11 schools serving low-income neighborhoods in a large metropolitan city and were assessed at the beginning and end of the preschool…

  17. Developing Basic Mathematical Skills of Pre-School Children by Using Plasticized Clay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chumark, Charung; Puncreobutr, Vichian

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to study the development of basic mathematical skills in preschool children by using plasticized clay. A pre-test and post-test design was adopted for the study to compare the difference before and after the art activity. The experimental group of 15 preschool children of 3-4 years old, attending…

  18. ERP Evidence of Atypical Face Processing in Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Sara J.; Dawson, Geraldine; Bernier, Raphael; Panagiotides, Heracles

    2006-01-01

    Autism involves a basic impairment in social cognition. This study investigated early stage face processing in young children with autism by examining the face-sensitive early negative event-related brain potential component in 3-4 year old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), typical development, and developmental delay. Results…

  19. The Intention-to-CAUSE Bias: Evidence from Children's Causal Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muentener, Paul; Lakusta, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The current study explored causal language in 3.5- to 4-year-old children by manipulating the type of agent (human acting intentionally or unintentionally, or inanimate object) and the type of effect (motion or state change) in causal events. Experiment 1 found that the type of agent, but not the type of effect, influenced children's production of…

  20. Children's Use of Social Categories in Thinking about People and Social Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shutts, Kristin; Pemberton Roben, Caroline K.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2013-01-01

    A series of studies investigated White U.S. 3- and 4-year-old children's use of gender and race information to reason about their own and others’ relationships and attributes. Three-year-old children used gender- but not race-based similarity between themselves and others to decide with whom they wanted to be friends, as well as to determine which…

  1. Young Children Follow Pointing over Words in Interpreting Acts of Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grassmann, Susanne; Tomasello, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Adults refer young children's attention to things in two basic ways: through the use of pointing (and other deictic gestures) and words (and other linguistic conventions). In the current studies, we referred young children (2- and 4-year-olds) to things in conflicting ways, that is, by pointing to one object while indicating linguistically (in…

  2. Using Scaffolding Strategies to Promote Young Children's Scientific Understandings of Floating and Sinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsin, Ching-Ting; Wu, Hsin-Kai

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study are to examine young children's explanations of floating and sinking and to investigate how scaffolding strategies provided by a tutor could promote their scientific understandings. Fifteen 4-year-olds and fifteen 5-year-olds from a public kindergarten in northern Taiwan participated in this study. The children were…

  3. The Relation between Gender Labelling and Gender Constancy in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Kenneth J.; Yoannidis, Tom

    The relationship between preschool children's level of gender understanding and their ability to identify gender-linked attributes was examined. Participants were 26 3-year-old and 30 4-year-old children who were administered a single-cue gender labelling task, Slaby and Frey's (1975) gender constancy test, and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test.…

  4. Problem Behaviors of Low-Income Children with Language Delays: An Observation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Cathy Huaqing; Kaiser, Ann P.

    2004-01-01

    Children from low-income families are at increased risk for significant behavioral and language problems. Early identification of these problems is essential for effective intervention. The purpose of the present study was to use multiple behavioral assessments to examine the behavioral profiles of sixty 3- and 4-year-old children from low-income…

  5. Helping Children Enter into Another's Experiences: The Look and Feel of It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Mary Ann; Ratner, Hilary H.; Gentes, Emily

    2010-01-01

    The role of focusing 4-year-olds' attention on "feeling" or "looking" was examined in three experiments by testing predictions about children's memory for their interactions with an adult partner as they engaged in a collaborative task. Children made collages with an adult partner, and they were later asked to remember who placed the pieces on the…

  6. A Tale of Two Representations: The Misinformation Effect and Children's Developing Theory of Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templeton, Leslie M.; Wilcox, Sharon A.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated children's representational ability as a cognitive factor underlying the suggestibility of their eyewitness memory. Found that the eyewitness memory of children lacking multirepresentational abilities or sufficient general memory abilities (most 3- and 4-year-olds) was less accurate than eyewitness memory of those with…

  7. "That Ain't No Ninja Turtles": The Prevalence and Influence of Popular Culture in the Talk and Writing of Prekindergarten Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissel, Brian T.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how 2 classrooms of 4-year-old children incorporated popular media (cartoons, television shows, video games, movies, and music) into their conversations with peers during writing. The findings assert that (a) children naturally incorporate popular culture into their writing, (b) children include popular culture in their…

  8. Infantile Accountability: When Big Data Meet Small Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrigley, Terry; Wormwell, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This article examines a government attempt to impose testing of 4-year-olds as a baseline against which to "hold primary schools accountable" for children's subsequent progress. It examines the various forms of baseline testing in this experiment and analyses the misleading claims made for the "predictive validity" of baseline…

  9. Metaphors as Second Labels: Difficult for Preschool Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubio-Fernández, Paula; Grassmann, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the development of two cognitive abilities that are involved in metaphor comprehension: implicit analogical reasoning and assigning an unconventional label to a familiar entity (as in Romeo's "Juliet is the sun"). We presented 3- and 4-year-old children with literal object-requests in a pretense setting (e.g.,…

  10. Children's Task-Switching Efficiency: Missing Our Cue?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Anna E.; Deák, Gedeon

    2015-01-01

    In simple rule-switching tests, 3- and 4-year-olds can follow each of two sorting rules but sometimes make perseverative errors when switching. Older children make few errors but respond slowly when switching. These age-related changes might reflect the maturation of executive functions (e.g., inhibition). However, they might also reflect…

  11. Young Children Discriminate Improbable from Impossible Events in Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisberg, Deena Skolnick; Sobel, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Can young children discriminate impossible events, which cannot happen in reality, from improbable events, which are unfamiliar but could possibly happen in reality? When asked explicitly to categorize these types of events, 4-year-olds (N = 54) tended to report that improbable events were impossible, consistent with prior results (Shtulman &…

  12. Reciprocity of Prosocial Behavior in Japanese Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujisawa, Keiko K.; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the reciprocity of prosocial behavior among 3- and 4-year-old Japanese preschool children during free-play time. Matrix correlation tests revealed positive correlations between the frequencies of object offering given and received within dyads and between the frequencies of helping given and received within dyads. These…

  13. Corpus Callosum Morphometrics in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boger-Megiddo, Inbal; Shaw, Dennis W. W.; Friedman, Seth D.; Sparks, Bobbi F.; Artru, Alan A.; Giedd, Jay N.; Dawson, Geraldine; Dager, Stephen R.

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed digital corpus callosum cross sectional areas in 3-4 year olds with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to typically developing (TD) and developmentally delayed (DD) children. Though not different in absolute size compared to TD, ASD callosums were disproportionately small adjusted for increased ASD cerebral volume. ASD…

  14. Developmental Changes and Individual Differences in Young Children's Moral Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Judith G.; Rote, Wendy M.; Jambon, Marc; Tasopoulos-Chan, Marina; Villalobos, Myriam; Comer, Jessamy

    2012-01-01

    Developmental trajectories and individual differences in 70 American middle-income 2.5- to 4-year olds' moral judgments were examined 3 times across 1 year using latent growth modeling. At Wave 1, children distinguished hypothetical moral from conventional transgressions on all criteria, but only older preschoolers did so when rating deserved…

  15. Essentialism in Brazilian Children's Extensions of Animal Names.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diesendruck, Gil

    2001-01-01

    Investigated whether Brazilian 4-year-olds held essentialist beliefs about animal categories. Found that middle class and poor children were equally likely to interpret labels as referring to mutually exclusive animal categories, and more likely to accept a common label for animals sharing internal properties than superficial properties,…

  16. The Italian Restaurant Project: Lessons of Restructuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Mary Ellen

    1995-01-01

    Project learning, with community and school staff assistance, helped a fifth-grade class transform the school lunchroom and their own behavior. A $2,500 Alcoa grant spearheaded an Italian restaurant project. Children served on five committees: public relations and advertising, management, art and design, planning and budgeting, and research. The…

  17. Children and Television: A Study of New TV Programs for Children Based on the Pilot of an Animated Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiyama, Takashiro; Kodaira, Sachiko Imaizumi

    Reactions of 50 2-year-old and 46 4-year-old Japanese children to selected experimental television programs were examined in two studies. The child was placed with his or her mother in a room where the experimental program was shown on one television and a fast-moving animation without sound was shown on a second television as a distractor. The…

  18. Italienischunterricht (Italian Instruction).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moine, Virgile; And Others

    1965-01-01

    This issue of "Schulpraxis," a Swiss journal for language teaching, is devoted to Italian instruction in Switzerland. It includes: (1) an interpretation of the poem "Le morte chitarre" by Salvatore Quasimodo, conducted in a girls' school in German Switzerland, (2) a presentation of principles for an Italian textbook to be based on modern…

  19. From the External to the Internal: Behavior Clarifications Facilitate Theory of Mind (ToM) Development in Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yanchun; Wang, Yijie; Luo, Rufan; Su, Yanjie

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated how Chinese children develop theory of mind (ToM) in a language environment with limited mental state talk that is rich in behavior discourse. In Study 1, 60 mothers shared a wordless storybook with their 3-4-year-olds. The children completed two false-belief tasks and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised at…

  20. Mother-Child Book-Sharing and Children's Storytelling Skills in Ethnically Diverse, Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Rufan; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Kuchirko, Yana; Ng, Florrie F.; Liang, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined book-sharing interactions between mothers and their 4-year-old children from African American (n?=?62), Dominican (n?=?67), Mexican (n?=?59) and Chinese (n?=?82) low-income U.S. families, and children's independent storytelling skills one year later. Mothers' book-sharing style was analysed in terms of…

  1. When Seeing Is Knowing: The Role of Visual Cues in the Dissociation between Children's Rule Knowledge and Rule Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buss, Aaron T.; Spencer, John P.

    2012-01-01

    The Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS) task requires children to switch from sorting cards based on shape or color to sorting based on the other dimension. Typically, 3-year-olds perseverate, whereas 4-year-olds flexibly sort by different dimensions. Zelazo and colleagues (1996, Cognitive Development, 11, 37-63) asked children questions about the…

  2. Bananas Can't Talk: Young Children Judging the Reality of Big Bird, Bugs and the Banana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Susan

    1996-01-01

    Used a Piagetian model to examine five 4-year-olds' perceptions of the reality of television characters. Found that children understand that television images are representations with varying degrees of relationship to reality and that children used a number of strategies for judging the extent to which characters were "real," such as the presence…

  3. Referential Communication Accuracy of Mother-Child Pairs and Children's Later Scholastic Achievement: A Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDevitt, Teresa M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between the referential communication accuracy of mothers and their 4-year-old children and the children's achievement in vocabulary and mathematics at age 12 was examined in 47 American and 44 Japanese mother-child pairs. Positive correlations were found in both cultures. (Author/BN)

  4. Reciprocal Relations between Student-Teacher Relationship and Children's Behavioral Problems: Moderation by Child-Care Group Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skalická, Vera; Belsky, Jay; Stenseng, Frode; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2015-01-01

    In this Norwegian study, bidirectional relations between children's behavior problems and child-teacher conflict and closeness were examined, and the possibility of moderation of these associations by child-care group size was tested. Eight hundred and nineteen 4-year-old children were followed up in first grade. Results revealed reciprocal…

  5. Infant-Toddler Early Learning Guidelines: The Content that States Have Addressed and Implications for Programs Serving Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott-Little, Catherine; Kagan, Sharon Lynn; Frelow, Victoria Stebbins; Reid, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Early learning guidelines (ELGs)--documents that describe the skills, characteristics, and dispositions adults seek to foster in young children--are increasingly common. Although less prevalent than ELGs for 3- and 4-year-old children, ELGs for infants and toddlers have been developed in more than half of the 50 states. Given this momentum, a…

  6. What Are Men Afraid Of: The Whys and Hows of Helping Men Become Active Caretakers of Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Brent A.

    Participants in the Dad's Day at the Center for Young Children program meet on Saturday mornings for a series of 12 sessions which combine play and discussion group activities. The first hour of each session is structured so that fathers and their 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old children can spend time together experiencing new toys, foods, arts, and games…

  7. Communication and Academic Challenges in Early Adolescence for Children Who Have Been Adopted from the Former Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beverly, Brenda L.; McGuinness, Teena M.; Blanton, Debra J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This was a Time II survey of outcomes for children, now ages 9 to 13 years, who were almost 4 years old on average when they were adopted from the former Soviet Union. Method: As part of a larger study (see T. McGuinness, R. Ryan, & C. Broadus Robinson, 2005), parents of 55 children (M age = 11 years) were surveyed regarding their…

  8. Nutritional management and follow up of infants and children with food allergy: Italian Society of Pediatric Nutrition/Italian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Task Force Position Statement.

    PubMed

    Giovannini, Marcello; D'Auria, Enza; Caffarelli, Carlo; Verduci, Elvira; Barberi, Salvatore; Indinnimeo, Luciana; Iacono, Iride Dello; Martelli, Alberto; Riva, Enrica; Bernardini, Roberto

    2014-01-03

    Although the guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of food allergy recognize the role of nutrition, there is few literature on the practical issues concerning the nutritional management of children with food allergies. This Consensus Position Statement focuses on the nutritional management and follow-up of infants and children with food allergy.It provides practical advices for the management of children on exclusion diet and it represents an evidence-based consensus on nutritional intervention and follow-up of infants and children with food allergy. Children with food allergies have poor growth compared to non-affected subjects directly proportional to the quantity of foods excluded and the duration of the diet. Nutritional intervention, if properly planned and properly monitored, has proven to be an effective mean to substantiate a recovery in growth. Nutritional intervention depends on the subject's nutritional status at the time of the diagnosis. The assessment of the nutritional status of children with food allergies should follow a diagnostic pathway that involves a series of successive steps, beginning from the collection of a detailed diet-history. It is essential that children following an exclusion diet are followed up regularly. The periodic re-evaluation of the child is needed to assess the nutritional needs, changing with the age, and the compliance to the diet. The follow- up plan should be established on the basis of the age of the child and following the growth pattern.

  9. Nutritional management and follow up of infants and children with food allergy: Italian Society of Pediatric Nutrition/Italian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Task Force Position Statement.

    PubMed

    Giovannini, Marcello; D'Auria, Enza; Caffarelli, Carlo; Verduci, Elvira; Barberi, Salvatore; Indinnimeo, Luciana; Iacono, Iride Dello; Martelli, Alberto; Riva, Enrica; Bernardini, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Although the guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of food allergy recognize the role of nutrition, there is few literature on the practical issues concerning the nutritional management of children with food allergies. This Consensus Position Statement focuses on the nutritional management and follow-up of infants and children with food allergy.It provides practical advices for the management of children on exclusion diet and it represents an evidence-based consensus on nutritional intervention and follow-up of infants and children with food allergy. Children with food allergies have poor growth compared to non-affected subjects directly proportional to the quantity of foods excluded and the duration of the diet. Nutritional intervention, if properly planned and properly monitored, has proven to be an effective mean to substantiate a recovery in growth. Nutritional intervention depends on the subject's nutritional status at the time of the diagnosis. The assessment of the nutritional status of children with food allergies should follow a diagnostic pathway that involves a series of successive steps, beginning from the collection of a detailed diet-history. It is essential that children following an exclusion diet are followed up regularly. The periodic re-evaluation of the child is needed to assess the nutritional needs, changing with the age, and the compliance to the diet. The follow- up plan should be established on the basis of the age of the child and following the growth pattern. PMID:24386882

  10. Children's Readiness Gains in Publically Funded, Community-Based Pre-Kindergarten Programs for 4 Year Olds and Preschool for 3 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Peggy; Warde, Beverly; Peluso, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Many states provide public funding to facilitate school readiness for community-based pre-K and preschool programs for 4 year old children and "at risk" 3 year old children. Little research exists on the school readiness gains of children participating in these "garden variety" community-based programs. Objective:…

  11. Repetition of the same pair of surnames in marriages in Albanian Italians, Greek Italians, and the Italian population of Campobasso Province.

    PubMed

    Biondi, G; Raspe, P; Mascie-Taylor, C G; Lasker, G W

    1996-08-01

    The isolation of a population as a result of any boundary leads to a kinship mating pattern, the extent of which can be measured by the frequency of repeated pairs of surnames in actual marriages compared with that in random pairings. The repeated pairs within surname lineages (RPw) method can be used to assess random repetitions and the endogamous or exogamous behavior of a population. The RPw method was applied to data from grandparent surnames of children living in 45 Albanian Italian and 13 Greek Italian villages of southern Italy and Sicily and in 22 Italian villages of Campobasso Province (central Italy). The total mean RPw was 0.02782 in Albanian Italians, 0.01993 in Greek Italians, and 0.03427 in the Italian-speaking population. When RPw was subdivided into its components and compared with random and marital isonymy, the low level of inbreeding shown by the two southern Italian ethnic minorities and by the Italian population of Campobasso Province could be accounted for by the subdivision of the populations. PMID:8754263

  12. A Punitive Environment Fosters Children's Dishonesty: A Natural Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talwar, Victoria; Lee, Kang

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the lie-telling behavior of 3- and 4-year-old West African children (N = 84) from either a punitive or a nonpunitive school. Children were told not to peek at a toy when left alone in a room. Most children could not resist the temptation and peeked at the toy. When the experimenter asked them if they had peeked, the…

  13. Strong and Clitic Pronouns in Monolingual and Bilingual Acquisition of French and Italian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Katrin; Muller, Natascha

    2008-01-01

    The present article investigates the acquisition of the pronominal systems by French and Italian monolingual children and by bilingual German-French and German-Italian children, demonstrating a stable asymmetry: object and reflexive clitics are acquired later than nominative clitics and strong subject and object pronouns. We will widen the scope…

  14. Through the Eyes of Children: A Comparative Study of Children's Perceptions of Parental Roles According to Three Types of Family Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelley, Ena M.; And Others

    A pictorial interview with indirect questioning techniques was used to examine the effects of family structure on children's perceptions of parental roles. A total of 121 4-year-olds participated. Interviews focused on caregiving, companionship, and housekeeping, and compared families headed by single custodial mothers, single custodial fathers,…

  15. The Italian activist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catanzaro, Michele

    2012-02-01

    Italian theoretical physicist Giorgio Parisi has been an outspoken critic of Silvio Berlusconi's lack of support for science. He talks about how physics may fare under the new administration led by the economist Mario Monti.

  16. Italian protesters win concessions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2008-12-01

    Thousands of researchers and students who have taken to the streets in protest at reforms of Italian universities and public research institutes have won some limited concessions from the government. The protesters had argued that the reforms, which include significant budget cuts, would further weaken a research base that is already short of resources. The Italian government maintains that its reforms are necessary to modernize a university system that is corrupt and inefficient, but has reversed some of the cuts.

  17. Does the Child's Actual Participation Make a Difference? Positive and Negative Emotion States Mentioned by Mothers of Young Children during Narrative Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landau, Rivka; Yanay, Niza; Eshel, Yohanan; Ben-Aaron, Miriam

    2006-01-01

    The study examined the rate that mothers mentioned positive and negative emotion states and emotion calls during narrative construction from a text-free children's picture book illustrating happy and emotionally charged situations. Ninety-three mothers of 3- to 4-year-old kibbutz children were divided into three groups: (1) the child was not…

  18. The Role of Previous Mother-Child Scaffolding in Head Start Children's Structuring of Problem-Solving Tasks with a Peer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustedt, Jason T.

    2015-01-01

    This study further extends scaffolding research to mother-child dyads (N = 51) in poverty, examining relationships between maternal scaffolding and 4-year-old Head Start children's own later scaffolding behaviors. At Time 1, experimental group children received maternal scaffolding during problem-solving tasks, whereas control group children…

  19. Drawing Insight from Pictures: The Development of Concepts of False Drawing and False Belief in Children with Deafness, Normal Hearing, and Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.

    2002-01-01

    Three studies examined theory-of-mind concepts among children ages 6-13 years with deafness or autism, and 4-year-olds with normal development. Findings indicated that while the children with deafness or autism scored significantly lower on standard tests of false belief understanding, they scored higher on even the most challenging drawing-based…

  20. Preadolescent Anxiety: An Epidemiological Study Concerning an Italian Sample of 3,479 Nine-Year-Old Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nacinovich, Renata; Gadda, Stefania; Maserati, Elisa; Bomba, Monica; Neri, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    The epidemiology of anxiety traits was examined in a large sample of Italian preadolescent children, and 3,479 Italian nine-year-old subjects were enrolled. Anxious traits were observed in 10.5% of children. No significant gender differences were found, but children of separated couples presented a relative risk for anxious traits that was 50%…

  1. If It's an Animal It Has Axons: Experience and Culture in Preschool Children's Reasoning about Animates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarlowski, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    To claim that young children's biological thought is anthropocentric or that their induction depends on similarity rather than categories is to overlook the role of experience in reasoning. We tested four groups of 4-year-olds differing in two aspects of exposure to biological information: (a) their direct experience with nature (urban versus…

  2. The Role of Language Games in Children's Understanding of Mental States: A Training Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornaghi, Veronica; Brockmeier, Jens; Grazzani Gavazzi, Ilaria

    2011-01-01

    In this study the authors investigated whether training preschool children in the use of mental state lexicon plays a significant role in bringing about advanced conceptual understanding of mental terms and improved performance on theory-of-mind tasks. A total of 70 participants belonging to two age groups (3 and 4 years old) were randomly…

  3. How Counting Represents Number: What Children Must Learn and When They Learn It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarnecka, Barbara W.; Carey, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This study compared 2- to 4-year-olds who understand how counting works ("cardinal-principle-knowers") to those who do not ("subset-knowers"), in order to better characterize the knowledge itself. New results are that (1) Many children answer the question "how many" with the last word used in counting, despite not understanding how counting works;…

  4. Japanese Children's and Adults' Reasoning about the Consequences of Psychogenic Bodily Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toyama, Noriko

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted with Japanese children and adult participants to assess their awareness of the effectiveness of biological and psychological treatments for psychogenic bodily reactions. Study 1 had 116 participants, composed of 4-year-olds (17), 5-year-olds (20), 7-year-olds (24), 10-year-olds (20), and college students (35). The…

  5. Abraham Lincoln and Harry Potter: Children's Differentiation between Historical and Fantasy Characters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corriveau, Kathleen H.; Kim, Angie L.; Schwalen, Courtney E.; Harris, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    Based on the testimony of others, children learn about a variety of figures that they never meet. We ask when and how they are able to differentiate between the historical figures that they learn about (e.g., Abraham Lincoln) and fantasy characters (e.g., Harry Potter). Experiment 1 showed that both younger (3- and 4-year-olds) and older children…

  6. Reaching Out to Help Low Income Parents Foster Their Young Children's Literacy Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toomey, Derek

    A study examined the effectiveness of the West Heidelberg (Australia) Early Literacy Project (WHELP), which helps low income and working class parents develop the literacy skills of their 4-year-old children by, among other things, reading regularly to them. The project developed through three phases with three different methods of delivering…

  7. "Who Is Worthy of My Generosity?" Recipient Characteristics and the Development of Children's Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malti, Tina; Gummerum, Michaela; Ongley, Sophia; Chaparro, Maria; Nola, Marta; Bae, Na Young

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the majority of 8-year-old children share valuable resources equally with others, whereas 4-year-olds are more likely to favor themselves in their sharing allocations. In this study, we examine whether these patterns of sharing behavior are affected by the needs of the recipient or by the recipient's previous moral…

  8. Providing Education to Child Care Instructors: Matching Children's Learning Activities to Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desjardins, Margaret M.

    Child care instructors and their aides at the Good Shepherd Day Care Center, Punta Gorda, Florida, were taught skills needed to develop classroom activities matching the cognitive development of 3- and 4-year-old children. Through a program of in-service activity in child growth and development, instruction was provided to enable teachers to more…

  9. Children's Cortisol and the Quality of Teacher-Child Relationships in Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisonbee, Jared A.; Mize, Jacquelyn; Payne, Amie Lapp; Granger, Douglas A.

    2008-01-01

    Teacher-child relationships were examined as predictors of cortisol change in preschool children. Saliva for assays was collected from one hundred and ninety-one 4-year-olds (101 boys) in the mornings and afternoons on 2 days at child care, and before and after a series of challenging tasks and a teacher-child interaction session outside the…

  10. Investigating the Measurement Properties of the Social Responsiveness Scale in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duku, Eric; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Szatmari, Peter; Georgiades, Stelios; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Smith, Isabel M.; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Mirenda, Pat; Roberts, Wendy; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Thompson, Ann; Bennett, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the measurement properties of the Social Responsiveness Scale in an accelerated longitudinal sample of 4-year-old preschool children with the complementary approaches of categorical confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch analysis. Measurement models based on the literature and other hypothesized measurement…

  11. Age-Related Differences in Reaction Time Task Performance in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiselev, Sergey; Espy, Kimberlay Andrews; Sheffield, Tiffany

    2009-01-01

    Performance of reaction time (RT) tasks was investigated in young children and adults to test the hypothesis that age-related differences in processing speed supersede a "global" mechanism and are a function of specific differences in task demands and processing requirements. The sample consisted of 54 4-year-olds, 53 5-year-olds, 59 6-year-olds,…

  12. Sensitivity to Spacing Changes in Faces and Nonface Objects in Preschool-Aged Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassia, Viola Macchi; Turati, Chiara; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2011-01-01

    Sensitivity to variations in the spacing of features in faces and a class of nonface objects (i.e., frontal images of cars) was tested in 3- and 4-year-old children and adults using a delayed or simultaneous two-alternative forced choice matching-to-sample task. In the adults, detection of spacing information was robust against exemplar…

  13. The Effects of Novel Stimulation on Arousal Level in Young Children Alone and with a Friend.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, J. Conrad

    To assess the effects of familiar social stimuli on arousal in a novel and mildly stressful environment, skin conductance was measured in 4-year-old nursery school children who experienced this environment under two conditions: (a) alone, and (b) in the presence of a close friend. The study was intended to test Zajonc's (1965) social facilitation…

  14. [Parenting Renewal. Leaflets and Lessons for Parents of Children Birth to Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Cooperative Extension Service.

    Instructional materials on parenting skills for parents of newborn through 4-year-old children are provided, with teaching guides for extension service agents. Organized as a series of nine leaflets followed by nine corresponding lessons, leaflets for parents concern: (1) an overview of the leaflets; (2) readiness: guiding normal development; (3)…

  15. New Technologies, New Multimodal Literacy Practices and Young Children's Metacognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Sylvia; Flewitt, Rosie

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses concepts of learning through "collaborative multimodal dialogue". It draws on an ESRC-funded study (RES-000-22-2451) investigating 3- and 4-year-old children's encounters with literacy as they engage with a range of printed and digital technologies at home and in a nursery. The study goes beyond analysis of spoken language,…

  16. Children's Knowledge of Ellipsis Constructions in Mandarin Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Peng

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated 4-year-old children's knowledge of the structural constraints on ellipsis constructions in Mandarin Chinese, focusing on the structural difference between verb phrase (VP) ellipsis and null object constructions. In Mandarin Chinese, if the antecedent clause of a VP-ellipsis structure contains an adverbial modifier,…

  17. Finding the Cause: Verbal Framing Helps Children Extract Causal Evidence Embedded in a Complex Scene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Lucas P.; Markman, Ellen M.

    2012-01-01

    In making causal inferences, children must both identify a causal problem and selectively attend to meaningful evidence. Four experiments demonstrate that verbally framing an event ("Which animals make Lion laugh?") helps 4-year-olds extract evidence from a complex scene to make accurate causal inferences. Whereas framing was unnecessary when…

  18. Using Domain-General Principles to Explain Children's Causal Reasoning Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, James L.; Thompson, Richard M.

    2007-01-01

    A connectionist model of causal attribution is presented, emphasizing the use of domain-general principles of processing and learning previously employed in models of semantic cognition. The model categorizes objects dependent upon their observed 'causal properties' and is capable of making several types of inferences that 4-year-old children have…

  19. Using a Bad Tool with Good Intention: Young Children's Imitation of Adults' Questionable Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiYanni, Cara; Kelemen, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    We present three studies exploring 2- to 4-year-olds' imitation on witnessing a model whose questionable tool use choices suggested her untrustworthiness. In Study 1, children observed the model accidentally select a physically optimal tool for a task and then intentionally reject it for one that was functionally nonaffordant. When asked to…

  20. Effects of High-Order Rule Instruction on Preschool Children's Understanding of Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawton, Joseph T.; Reddy, P.

    Examined were effects of advance organizer (AO) instruction on acquisition of conservation concepts in 3- and 4-year-olds. Participants were 28 children who were equally divided into experimental and control groups, pretested, and found to be nonconservers. A sequence of two AO lessons and related learning activities was presented to the…

  1. Children's Categorization and Evaluation of Different Types of Lies and Truths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussey, Kay

    1999-01-01

    Investigated 4-, 8-, and 11-year-olds' ability to categorize intentionally false and true statements as lies and truths. Found that older children were more likely to categorize false statements as lies and true statements as truths than were 4-year-olds. Antisocial lies were rated as most serious, and "white lies" as least serious. Anticipated…

  2. Tell Me a Story: How Children's Developing Domain Knowledge Affects Their Story Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobel, David M.; Weisberg, Deena Skolnick

    2014-01-01

    Young children distinguish between the physical and biological domains of knowledge. The current study examines how this distinction is expressed in a story construction task. Three- and 4-year-olds were shown pairs of pictures, one that depicted a normal event and one that depicted an event that violated either physical or biological causal…

  3. Creating a Community Approach to Serving Four-Year-Old Children in Wisconsin. Public Awareness Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landsverk, Ruth Anne

    The Wisconsin Forces for Four-Year-Olds Project promotes the community approach to offering universal access to quality care and learning services for Wisconsin 4-year-olds. Based on the view that quality early education opportunities have life-long benefits for children and the communities in which they live, this public awareness packet…

  4. Vicarious Changes in Children's Preferences: A Reward or a Cognitive Phenomenon?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Barry J.

    This study compared children's dependence on situational cues by a model to their reliance on the general affective valence of the model, in order to assess the role of each in determining vicarious changes in preference. Subjects were forty 4-year-olds attending a day care center. Among five toys used in pilot testing, a box of clothespins was…

  5. Long-Term Stability of Young Children's Eyewitness Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Resistance to Misinformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Elyse Brauch; McKinley, Marcia J.; Thompson, David W.; Leonard, Ann Marie; Liebman, Julie I.; Rothrock, Danielle D.

    2010-01-01

    Forty 4-year-olds and 39 6-year-olds participated in a modified misinformation-effects paradigm. At time 1 they reviewed a story and some of the children were asked questions about it in either recall or recognition format. Three weeks later they were given misinformation about some of the story events. The following week they were asked the…

  6. Four Year Old Children's Acquisition of Print Knowledge during Electronic Storybook Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gong, Zhiyu; Levy, Betty Ann

    2009-01-01

    The experiment reported here explored the importance of engaging 4-year-old children's interest in the print itself during storybook reading. We explored the effect of computer animation of the print in order to draw the child's attention to each word as it was read. We also investigated the influence of illustrating that not all visual displays…

  7. Characterizing Aggressive and Noncompliant Behaviors in a Children's Psychiatric Inpatient Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Cardona, Laurie; Martin, Andres

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate aggression and noncompliance among child psychiatric inpatients in relation to demographic, clinical, and hospitalization characteristics, including the use of restraints and seclusion. Eighty six children (10.8 plus or minus 2.4 years old, 67% male) consecutively admitted to an inpatient psychiatric unit were…

  8. Preschool Children's Views on Emotion Regulation: Functional Associations and Implications for Social-Emotional Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Tracy A.; Kelemen, Deborah A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies show that preschool children view negative emotions as susceptible to intentional control. However, the extent of this understanding and links with child social-emotional adjustment are poorly understood. To examine this, 62 3- and 4-year-olds were presented with puppet scenarios in which characters experienced anger, sadness, and…

  9. The Relation between Event Apprehension and Utterance Formulation in Children: Evidence from Linguistic Omissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunger, Ann; Trueswell, John C.; Papafragou, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The relation between event apprehension and utterance formulation was examined in children and adults. English-speaking adults and 4-year-olds viewed motion events while their eye movements were monitored. Half of the participants in each age group described each event (Linguistic task), whereas the other half studied the events for an upcoming…

  10. Intellectual Assessment of 111 Four-Year-Old Children with Phenylketonuria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, James C.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Available from: Arthur Retlaw and Associates, Inc., Suite 2080, 1603 Orrington Avenue, Evanston, Illinois 60201. A sample of 4-year-old children (n=111) with PKU (phenylketonuria) who were placed on dietary therapy between 3 and 92 days of age were assigned to two treatment groups based on "moderate" and "low" serum phenylalanine levels.…

  11. The Independent Effects of Phonotactic Probability and Neighbourhood Density on Lexical Acquisition by Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storkel, Holly L.; Lee, Su-Yeon

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research was to disentangle effects of phonotactic probability, the likelihood of occurrence of a sound sequence, and neighbourhood density, the number of phonologically similar words, in lexical acquisition. Two-word learning experiments were conducted with 4-year-old children. Experiment 1 manipulated phonotactic probability…

  12. Inducing Conservation of Number, Weight, Volume, Area, and Mass in Pre-School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Beverly S.

    The major question this study attempted to answer was, "Can conservation of number, area, weight, mass, and volume to be induced and retained by 3- and 4-year-old children by structured instruction with a multivariate approach? Three nursery schools in Iowa City supplied subjects for this study. The Institute of Child Behavior and Development…

  13. Number Words in Young Children's Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Addition, Subtraction and Inversion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canobi, Katherine H.; Bethune, Narelle E.

    2008-01-01

    Three studies addressed children's arithmetic. First, 50 3- to 5-year-olds judged physical demonstrations of addition, subtraction and inversion, with and without number words. Second, 20 3- to 4-year-olds made equivalence judgments of additions and subtractions. Third, 60 4- to 6-year-olds solved addition, subtraction and inversion problems that…

  14. Children's Capacity to Remember a Novel Problem and to Secure Its Future Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suddendorf, Thomas; Nielsen, Mark; von Gehlen, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Much of humans' success rests on foresight, the ability to predict what will happen or what is needed in the future. Surprisingly little is known about how this faculty develops. In three experiments (N = 170), 3- and 4-year-old children were presented with simple puzzles. Fifteen minutes later in a different room they were given the opportunity…

  15. Older Children's Misunderstanding of Uncertain Belief after Passing the False Belief Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Ting; Zheng, Xueru; Zhang, Li; Sha, Wenju; Deak, Gedeon; Li, Hong

    2010-01-01

    A four-location belief task was designed to examine children's understanding of another's uncertain belief after passing a false belief (FB) task. In Experiment 1, after passing the FB task, participants were asked what a puppet would do after he failed to find his toy at the falsely believed location. Most 4-year-olds and half of 6-year-olds…

  16. The Role of External Sources of Information in Children's Evaluative Food Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Simone P.

    2012-01-01

    Evaluative food categories are value-laden assessments, which reflect the healthfulness and palatability of foods (e.g. healthy/unhealthy, yummy/yucky). In a series of three studies, this research examines how 3- to 4-year-old children (N?=?147) form evaluative food categories based on input from external sources of information. The results…

  17. Differentiating Cantonese-Speaking Preschool Children with and without SLI Using MLU and Lexical Diversity (D)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Klee, Thomas; Stokes, Stephanie F.; Fletcher, Paul; Leonard, Laurence B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors examined the diagnostic accuracy of a composite clinical assessment measure based on mean length of utterance (MLU), lexical diversity (D), and age (Klee, Stokes, Wong, Fletcher, & Gavin, 2004) in a second, independent sample of 4-year-old Cantonese-speaking children with and without specific language impairment…

  18. Japanese children's understanding of notational systems.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Noboru

    2012-12-01

    This study examined Japanese children's understanding of two Japanese notational systems: hiragana and kanji. In three experiments, 126 3- to 6-year-olds were asked to name words written in hiragana or kanji as they appeared with different pictures. Consistent with Bialystok (Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 2000, Vol. 76, pp. 173-189), 3- and 4-year-olds' identification of written words varied according to the picture with which they appeared, and older children named the words with different pictures more accurately. The 4-year-olds who could read words written in hiragana but could not read words written in kanji named both hiragana words and kanji words with different pictures more accurately than those who could not read hiragana and kanji words. The interrelationship between the symbol-sound relationships and the symbol-referent relationships of notational systems is discussed. PMID:22974468

  19. Italian in the Modern World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adorno, Elvira, Ed.

    This booklet of 15 reprinted letters sent in response to a query concerning the actual use of Italian in the United States designates various areas of professional application. Some reference to current Italian publications is included. It is hoped that these letters will help promote the study of Italian in American schools. (RL)

  20. Effects of Toys on the Play Quality of Preschool Children: Influence of Gender, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trawick-Smith, Jeffrey; Wolff, Jennifer; Koschel, Marley; Vallarelli, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of nine toys on the play of 60 3- and 4-year-old children in culturally diverse preschool classrooms. The toys, which varied in their features and intended uses, were selected from a list of those that were nominated by teachers and parents as being developmentally beneficial. Each toy was video recorded for 240 h…

  1. Magical Thinking in Judgments of Causation: Can Anomalous Phenomena Affect Ontological Causal Beliefs in Children and Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subbotsky, Eugene

    2004-01-01

    In four experiments, 4-, 5-, 6- and 9-year-old children and adults were tested on the entrenchment of their magical beliefs and their beliefs in the universal power of physical causality. In Experiment 1, even 4-year-olds showed some understanding of the difference between ordinary and anomalous (magical) causal events, but only 6-year-olds and…

  2. Input that Contradicts Young Children's Strategy for Mapping Novel Words Affects Their Phonological and Semantic Interpretation of Other Novel Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Lorna Hernandez; Merriman, William E.; Barnett, Michelle; Hanba, Jessica; Van Haitsma, Kylee S.

    2004-01-01

    Children tend to choose an entity they cannot already label, rather than one they can, as the likely referent of a novel noun. The effect of input that contradicts this strategy on the interpretation of other novel nouns was investigated. In pre- and posttests, 4-year-olds were asked to judge whether novel nouns referred to "name-similar" familiar…

  3. Children's and Mothers' Contribution to Joint Reminiscing in Different Sociocultural Contexts: Who Speaks and What Is Said

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulviste, Tiia; Tõugu, Pirko; Keller, Heidi; Schröder, Lisa; De Geer, Boel

    2016-01-01

    The study compares mothers' conversation with their 4-year-old children about two past events in two autonomy-oriented (35 German and 42 Swedish families), one relatedness-oriented (22 Cameroonian Nso families) and one autonomy-relatedness oriented (38 Estonian families) contexts. German mothers were rather similar to Swedish mothers in talking a…

  4. A Multidimensional Study of Gender Typing in Preschool Children and Their Parents: Personality, Attitudes, Preferences, Behavior, and Cultural Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Patricia J.; Gervai, Judit

    1995-01-01

    Examined the nature and extent of parental influences on gender differentiation in 161 4-year olds from Hungary and England. Found that certain aspects of parental gender typing were associated with individual differences in children's behavior and gender typing. Association was related to sex of parent and of child, context, and aspect of gender…

  5. Young Chinese Children's Anger and Distress: Emotion Category and Intensity Identified by the Time Course of Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Jie; Qiu, Peihua; Park, Ka Young; Xu, Qinmei; Potegal, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A hierarchical cluster analysis of the time course of the videotaped reactions of 75 Chinese 2-4-year olds to mothers' toy-removal identified Distress, Low Anger, and High Anger behavior clusters. Anger often begins at low intensity; some children then escalate. The face-validity of Low and High Anger-cluster classifications was supported in…

  6. A Question of Quality: Do Children from Disadvantaged Backgrounds Receive Lower Quality Early Childhood Education and Care?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambaro, Ludovica; Stewart, Kitty; Waldfogel, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how the quality of early childhood education and care accessed by 3- and 4-year-olds in England varies by children's background. Focusing on the free entitlement to early education, the analysis combines information from three administrative datasets for 2010-2011, the Early Years Census, the Schools Census and the Ofsted…

  7. The bowel habit of young children.

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, L T; Steiner, H

    1984-01-01

    The bowel habit of 350 preschool children from a single general practice was studied. Eighty five per cent of 1 to 4 year olds eating a predominantly low fibre diet opened their bowels once or twice a day and 96% of the children fell within the range of three times a day to every other day. At all ages most children produced soft stools of about 25 ml volume. Mean intestinal transit time of 35 (10%) randomly selected children was 33 hours. There is a significant correlation between infrequency of bowel action, longer transit time, hard stools, and the passage of blood. PMID:6087745

  8. Outbreak of pulmonary tuberculosis in children.

    PubMed

    Bosley, A R; George, G; George, M

    1986-05-17

    A case of miliary tuberculosis in a 4-year-old child led to contact tracing, revealing 32 children with evidence of tuberculous infection. 3 adult cases were also identified. The source case was a mother who passed on the infection at two Christmas parties. Limited exposure to the organism caused infection, suggesting a virulent strain and a susceptible subgroup. A range of complications of primary tuberculosis in children was seen. Minor side-effects of the chemotherapeutic agents occurred in most children but only 3 suffered substantial toxic effects. The limited range of agents marketed in a presentation suitable for young children was a serious difficulty.

  9. Know Your Laws. Italian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.

    This Italian language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult students with law they will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three levels of the…

  10. Thematic Issue: Italian Theatre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Michael, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    In 1964, when the "living" theatre appeared to be dying in New York, theater in Italy began changing from an author-oriented to a performance-oriented, nonliterary form. The articles in this document trace the historical development of Italian theatre and analyze current dramas which demonstrate the diversity of approaches and the energy and…

  11. Associations Between Temperament and Social Responsiveness in Young Children.

    PubMed

    Salley, Brenda; Miller, Angela; Bell, Martha Ann

    2013-05-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that social responsiveness (comprised of social awareness, social information processing, reciprocal social communication, social motivation, and repetitive/restricted interests) is continuously distributed within the general population. In the present study, we consider temperament as a co-occurring source of individual differences in social responsiveness in young children. The sample consisted of 62 infants assessed at 2-, 3-, and 4-years-old. Measures of temperament were obtained at each age (Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire, Children's Behavior Questionnaire) and social responsiveness was measured at 4-years-old (Social Responsiveness Scale; SRS). Multivariate patterns of association between components of temperament and social responsiveness were observed at each age, with overall findings in line with the broader literature examining temperament and socio-development associations. Importantly, these results provide support for the usefulness of temperament as a relevant source of variability in social responsiveness, as measured by the SRS, in typically developing young children. PMID:24068881

  12. From Phonological Recoding to Lexical Reading: A Longitudinal Study on Reading Development in Italian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsolini, Margherita; Fanari, Rachele; Tosi, Valeria; De Nigris, Barbara; Carrieri, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    In this longitudinal study we analyse the early phases of reading development in Italian and explore the transition from phonological to lexical reading. A group of 28 Italian children was tested in four phases. Language and cognitive skills were first assessed in the preschool. Reading performance was then tested in three different sessions, in…

  13. Different Forms of Bullying and Their Association to Smoking and Drinking Behavior in Italian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieno, Alessio; Gini, Gianluca; Santinello, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Background: Using data from the 2006 Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey, the prevalence of 6 forms of bullying (physical, verbal, relational, sexual, cyber, and racist), and the role of smoking and drinking in bullying was examined among Italian adolescents for this study. Methods: The sample was composed of 2667 Italian middle…

  14. Italian Preschoolers' Peer-Status Linkages with Sociability and Subtypes of Aggression and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, David A.; Robinson, Clyde C.; Hart, Craig H.; Albano, Anthony D.; Marshall, Shawna J.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the behavior of preschool children belonging to peer sociometric status groups (popular, average, rejected, neglected, and controversial) in cultural contexts outside North America. This study examined the social interactions of Italian preschoolers. The sample consisted of 266 Italian preschoolers (mean age of 64 months).…

  15. Word Order, Referential Expression, and Case Cues to the Acquisition of Transitive Sentences in Italian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbot-Smith, Kirsten; Serratrice, Ludovica

    2015-01-01

    In Study 1 we analyzed Italian child-directed-speech (CDS) and selected the three most frequent active transitive sentence frames used with overt subjects. In Study 2 we experimentally investigated how Italian-speaking children aged 2;6, 3;6, and 4;6 comprehended these orders with novel verbs when the cues of animacy, gender, and subject-verb…

  16. Specific Language Impairment in Italian and English: Evaluating Alternative Accounts of Grammatical Deficits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bortolini, Umberta; Leonard, Laurence B.; Caselli, Maria Cristina

    1998-01-01

    Children with specific language impairments (eight learning Italian, eight learning English as a first language) were studied for grammatical deficits. Italian-speakers used noun inflections, verb inflections, copula forms more than English-speaking counterparts, matched by utterance length. Articles were used similarly. Results were consistent…

  17. An Italian perspective on learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Fabbro, F; Masutto, C

    1994-03-01

    The authors' experience derives from over 10 years of study of the neuropsychological characteristics of children with learning disabilities (LD) who were referred to a public children's hospital. Some sociocultural and linguistic aspects of children with learning disabilities in Italy, and in particular in the northeastern Friuli-Venetia-Julia region, are described. The role of bilingualism and the type of grapheme-phoneme correspondence in "standard" Italian are discussed in relation to learning disabilities. Legislative aspects, the roles of the school, hospitals, public field services, and private institutes, as well as the concern of parents of children with LD, are alos taken into account. According to the authors, Italy's major deficiencies with respect to the question of learning disabilities are (a) lack of a systematic study of the problem in order to increase general knowledge, (b) insufficient training of teachers and rehabilitators, and (c) inadequate legislation.

  18. The cues that children use in acquiring adjectival phrases and compound nouns: evidence from bilingual children.

    PubMed

    Nicoladis, Elena

    2002-01-01

    This study explores the cues used in acquisition of two semantically similar structures that are ordered differently in French and English: adjectival phrases and compound nouns. One possible prediction is that children attend primarily to meaning, so they should order both structures similarly. Another is that children attend primarily to structure, so they should learn these structures independently. Two kinds of data were obtained from eight 4-year old bilinguals: (1) spontaneous production and (2) experimental elicitation. The children were nearly perfect in their ordering of adjectival phrases, but less so in compounds. These results conform to neither prediction, leaving open the question of which cues children use in acquisition.

  19. Inhibitory Control and Harsh Discipline as Predictors of Externalizing Problems in Young Children: A Comparative Study of U.S., Chinese, and Japanese Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Sheryl L.; Tardif, Twila Z.; Miller, Alison; Felt, Barbara; Grabell, Adam S.; Kessler, Daniel; Wang, Li; Karasawa, Mayumi; Hirabayashi, Hidemi

    2011-01-01

    We examined associations between child inhibitory control, harsh parental discipline and externalizing problems in 120 4 year-old boys and girls in the US, China, and Japan. Individual differences in children's inhibitory control abilities, assessed using behavioral tasks and maternal ratings, were related to child externalizing problems reported…

  20. Children's Teleological Intuitions: What Kind of Explanations Do 7-8 Year Olds Give for the Features of Organisms, Artifacts and Natural Objects?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampourakis, Kostas; Pavlidi, Vasiliki; Papadopoulou, Maria; Palaiokrassa, Eirini

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that children usually provide teleological explanations for the features of organisms from a very early age (3-4 years old). However, it is not clear if teleology is applied selectively for organisms, or if it is generally applied to other objects as well (artifacts and non-living natural objects). The present study examined…

  1. Profile of Children Entering Los Angeles Universal Preschool (LAUP), Fall 2007. First 5 LA Universal Preschool Child Outcomes Study (UPCOS). Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., 2009

    2009-01-01

    Los Angeles Universal Preschool (LAUP) is working to make high-quality voluntary preschool universally accessible to every 4-year-old in Los Angeles County by building upon the existing early care and education system. This brief provides a snapshot of children and families participating in LAUP center-based programs in the fall of 2007, at the…

  2. Early Childhood and Education Services for Indigenous Children Prior to Starting School. Resource Sheet No. 7 for the Closing the Gap Clearinghouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    The National Partnership Agreement for Indigenous Early Childhood Development (COAG 2008a) aims to halve the gap in mortality rates for Indigenous children under five within a decade, halve the gap for Indigenous students in reading, writing and numeracy within a decade, and ensure all Indigenous 4-year-olds have access to quality early childhood…

  3. Children's Intellectual and Emotional-Behavioral Adjustment at 4 Years as a Function of Cocaine Exposure, Maternal Characteristics, and Environmental Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, David S.; Bendersky, Margaret; Lewis, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Examined 4-year-olds for effects on IQ of prenatal cocaine exposure, exposure to other substances, risk factors, and neonatal medical problems. Found that maternal verbal IQ and low environmental risk predicted child IQ. Cocaine exposure negatively predicted children's overall IQ and verbal reasoning scores for boys only. Maternal harsh…

  4. Focus Particles in Children's Language: Production and Comprehension of "Auch" "Also" in German Learners from 1 Year to 4 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohle, Barbara; Berger, Frauke; Muller, Anja; Schmitz, Michaela; Weissenborn, Jurgen

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the acquisition of the focus particle "auch" "also" by German-learning children. We report data from spontaneous and elicited production of utterances with the focus particle "auch" by 1- to 4-year-olds complementing earlier findings of a delayed production of the unaccented "auch" compared to the accented one. But in…

  5. Oral Tradition of Italian-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Lucia Chiavola

    The assimilation of Italians into American culture led to the loss of the Italian language, and an oral tradition of Italian peasants in which Italian feminist philosophy was grounded. The legends, parables, and proverbs told by these Italian women challenged the teachings of Catholicism, perpetuating an underground religious tradition which…

  6. Cognitive Imitation in Typically-Developing 3- and 4-Year Olds and Individuals with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subiaul, Francys; Lurie, Herbert; Romansky, Kathryn; Klein, Tovah; Holmes, David; Terrace, Herbert

    2007-01-01

    Individuals diagnosed with autism suffer from numerous social, affective and linguistic impairments. It has also been suggested that they have a global imitation deficit. That hypothesis, however, is compromised by the fact that individuals with autism suffer from various motor impairments. Here we describe an experiment on cognitive imitation, a…

  7. Vegetation changes and partitioning of selenium in 4-year-old constructed wetlands treating agricultural drainage.

    PubMed

    Lin, Z Q; Terry, N; Gao, S; Mohamed, S; Ye, Z H

    2010-03-01

    The knowledge of selenium (Se) partitioning in treatment wetlands and wetland vegetation management are essential for long-term effective operation of constructed wetlands treating Se-laden agricultural tile-drainage in central California. In this field study, samples from different compartments of treatment wetlands were collected and the vegetation change in each wetland cell was examined four years after the wetland's inception. The results showed that saltgrass (Distichlis spicata) and rabbitfoot grass (Polypogon monspeliensis) were less competitive than cattail (Typha latifolia) and saltmarsh bulrush (Scirpus robustus). Over 90% of the wetland cell originally vegetated with saltgrass or rabbitfoot grass was occupied by invasive plants--i.e., when invasive species were not controlled in the wetlands. More Se was likely found in sediments from vegetated regions, compared to the unvegetated areas of the wetland cell. Particularly, rhizosphere sediments accumulated about 4-fold more Se than non-rhizosphere sediments. Among the total Se retained in the wetland 90% of the total Se was partitioned in the top 10-cm layer of sediment. The Se accumulation in plant materials accounted for about 2% of the total Se mass retained in each wetland cell. This field study demonstrated that wetland plants play significant roles in the treatment of Se-laden agricultural drainage.

  8. Investigation of 4-year-old stabilised/solidified and accelerated carbonated contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Antemir, A; Hills, C D; Carey, P J; Magnié, M-C; Polettini, A

    2010-09-15

    The investigation of the pilot-scale application of two different stabilisation/solidification (S/S) techniques was carried out at a former fireworks and low explosives manufacturing site in SE England. Cores and granular samples were recovered from uncovered accelerated carbonated (ACT) and cement-treated soils (S/S) after 4 years to evaluate field-performance with time. Samples were prepared for microstructural examination and leaching testing. The results indicated that the cement-treated soil was progressively carbonated over time, whereas the mineralogy of the carbonated soil remained essentially unchanged. Distinct microstructures were developed in the two soils. Although Pb, Zn and Cu leached less from the carbonated soil, these metals were adequately immobilised by both treatments. Geochemical modeling of pH-dependent leaching data suggested that the retention of trace metals resulted from different immobilisation mechanisms operating in the two soils examined. PMID:20579807

  9. Situational Changes in Self-Awareness Influence 3- and 4-Year-Olds' Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, J.; Anderson, J. R.; Campbell, R. N.

    2011-01-01

    In adults, heightened self-awareness leads to adherence to socially valued norms, whereas lowered self-awareness is associated with antinormative behavior. Levels of self-awareness are influenced by environmental cues such as mirrors. Do situational changes in self-awareness also have an impact on preschoolers' self-regulation? Adherence to a…

  10. Investigation of 4-year-old stabilised/solidified and accelerated carbonated contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Antemir, A; Hills, C D; Carey, P J; Magnié, M-C; Polettini, A

    2010-09-15

    The investigation of the pilot-scale application of two different stabilisation/solidification (S/S) techniques was carried out at a former fireworks and low explosives manufacturing site in SE England. Cores and granular samples were recovered from uncovered accelerated carbonated (ACT) and cement-treated soils (S/S) after 4 years to evaluate field-performance with time. Samples were prepared for microstructural examination and leaching testing. The results indicated that the cement-treated soil was progressively carbonated over time, whereas the mineralogy of the carbonated soil remained essentially unchanged. Distinct microstructures were developed in the two soils. Although Pb, Zn and Cu leached less from the carbonated soil, these metals were adequately immobilised by both treatments. Geochemical modeling of pH-dependent leaching data suggested that the retention of trace metals resulted from different immobilisation mechanisms operating in the two soils examined.

  11. Young children's learning and transfer of biological information from picture books to real animals.

    PubMed

    Ganea, Patricia A; Ma, Lili; Deloache, Judy S

    2011-01-01

    Preschool children (N = 104) read a book that described and illustrated color camouflage in animals (frogs and lizards). Children were then asked to indicate and explain which of 2 novel animals would be more likely to fall prey to a predatory bird. In Experiment 1, 3- and 4-year-olds were tested with pictures depicting animals in camouflage and noncamouflage settings; in Experiment 2, 4-year-olds were tested with real animals. The results show that by 4 years of age, children can learn new biological facts from a picture book. Of particular importance, transfer from books to real animals was found. These findings point to the importance that early book exposure can play in framing and increasing children's knowledge about the world. PMID:21679177

  12. Young children's learning and transfer of biological information from picture books to real animals.

    PubMed

    Ganea, Patricia A; Ma, Lili; Deloache, Judy S

    2011-01-01

    Preschool children (N = 104) read a book that described and illustrated color camouflage in animals (frogs and lizards). Children were then asked to indicate and explain which of 2 novel animals would be more likely to fall prey to a predatory bird. In Experiment 1, 3- and 4-year-olds were tested with pictures depicting animals in camouflage and noncamouflage settings; in Experiment 2, 4-year-olds were tested with real animals. The results show that by 4 years of age, children can learn new biological facts from a picture book. Of particular importance, transfer from books to real animals was found. These findings point to the importance that early book exposure can play in framing and increasing children's knowledge about the world.

  13. WISC-IV Intellectual Profiles in Italian Children With Specific Learning Disorder and Related Impairments in Reading, Written Expression, and Mathematics.

    PubMed

    Poletti, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The fifth edition of theDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disordersgrouped specific learning disabilities in the single diagnostic category of specific learning disorder (SLD), with specifiers for impairments in reading, written expression, and mathematics. This study aimed at investigating the intellectual profile, assessed with the fourth edition of theWechsler Intelligence Scale for Children(WISC-IV), of 172 children with a diagnosis of SLD, compared to 74 clinical referral controls. WISC-IV intellectual functioning in children with SLD was characterized by a significant discrepancy between general ability and cognitive proficiency (General Ability Index [GAI] > Cognitive Proficiency Index [CPI]), and worse performances on the Similarities, Digit Span, Letter-Number Sequencing, and Coding subtests, supporting models of multiple cognitive deficits at the basis of neurodevelopmental disorders as SLD. GAI was the best and more conservative measure provided by the WISC-IV to identify intellectual functioning in children with SLD, and the intellectual discrepancy between GAI and CPI could be considered a "cognitive sign" for the presence of SLD in a single diagnostic category. Cognitive deficits differed in subtypes of impairment (reading, written expression, and mathematics), supporting their distinction for empirical, educational, and rehabilitative purposes. These findings need further replication in larger samples and in comparison to typically developing children.

  14. Associations Between Temperament and Social Responsiveness in Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Salley, Brenda; Miller, Angela; Bell, Martha Ann

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that social responsiveness (comprised of social awareness, social information processing, reciprocal social communication, social motivation, and repetitive/restricted interests) is continuously distributed within the general population. In the present study, we consider temperament as a co-occurring source of individual differences in social responsiveness in young children. The sample consisted of 62 infants assessed at 2-, 3-, and 4-years-old. Measures of temperament were obtained at each age (Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire, Children’s Behavior Questionnaire) and social responsiveness was measured at 4-years-old (Social Responsiveness Scale; SRS). Multivariate patterns of association between components of temperament and social responsiveness were observed at each age, with overall findings in line with the broader literature examining temperament and socio-development associations. Importantly, these results provide support for the usefulness of temperament as a relevant source of variability in social responsiveness, as measured by the SRS, in typically developing young children. PMID:24068881

  15. ESO from an Italian perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosi, M.

    Italy joined the European Southern Observatory (ESO) 30 years ago. This membership has allowed Italian scientists and engineers to exploit the superior facilities provided by ESO and to successfully participate to their development and construction. Some of the effects on Italian astrophysics of these thirty years of membership and collaboration are briefly summarized. A few examples of high impact results obtained by Italians with the ESO telescopes are given for the fields of resolved stellar populations and galaxy evolution.

  16. Handling agents and patients: representational cospeech gestures help children comprehend complex syntactic constructions.

    PubMed

    Theakston, Anna L; Coates, Anna; Holler, Judith

    2014-07-01

    Gesture is an important precursor of children's early language development, for example, in the transition to multiword speech and as a predictor of later language abilities. However, it is unclear whether gestural input can influence children's comprehension of complex grammatical constructions. In Study 1, 3- (M = 3 years 5 months) and 4-year-old (M = 4 years 6 months) children witnessed 2-participant actions described using the infrequent object-cleft-construction (OCC; It was the dog that the cat chased). Half saw an experimenter accompanying her descriptions with gestures representing the 2 participants and indicating the direction of action; the remaining children did not witness gesture. Children who witnessed gestures showed better comprehension of the OCC than those who did not witness gestures, both in and beyond the immediate physical context, but this benefit was restricted to the oldest 4-year-olds. In Study 2, a further group of older 4-year-old children (M = 4 years 7 months) witnessed the same 2-participant actions described by an experimenter and accompanied by gestures, but the gesture represented only the 2 participants and not the direction of the action. Again, a benefit of gesture was observed on subsequent comprehension of the OCC. We interpret these findings as demonstrating that representational cospeech gestures can help children comprehend complex linguistic structures by highlighting the roles played by the participants in the event.

  17. Varicella-zoster virus in children immunized with the varicella vaccine.

    PubMed

    Chesnut, Gregory; McClain, Damon; Galeckas, Kenneth

    2012-09-01

    We present the case of a 4-year-old immunocompetent girl with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) that occurred 45 months after a single dose of the varicella vaccine. Varicella-zoster virus is rare in children, particularly those who have received the varicella vaccine. Our case illustrates the need for a continued high index of suspicion, even among vaccinated children with herpetiform rashes, for varicella reactivation or reinfection.

  18. Italian contributions to Turkish paediatrics during the Ottoman Empire.

    PubMed

    Yurdakok, Murat; Cataldi, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    The Ottoman Empire maintained close relations with the neighbouring Italian city states in the 16th and 17th century. Yacub Pasha (1425-1481), personal physician of Mehmed II the Conqueror, was an Italian Jew who advanced to the title of pasha and vizier. Domenico Hierosolimitano (ca. 1552-1622), the third physician to Sultan Murad III, was a Jerusalemite rabbi. His book is an important source about everyday life and medical practice in Istanbul at the time. Nuh bin Abd al-Mennab (1627-1707), also of Italian stock, was the Chief Physician of the Ottoman Empire, who translated a pharmacopoeia into Turkish. In the same century, two Italians, Israel Conegliano (Conian) and Tobia Cohen became private physicians to leading Ottoman pashas and the Grand Vizier. A. Vuccino (1829-1893) and Antoine Calleja Pasha (1806-1893) taught at the Istanbul Medical School. Italy was a favoured country for medical education during the early period of Ottoman westernisation. Sanizade Mehmet Ataullah Efendi (1771-1826) translated the first medical book printed in the Ottoman Empire from Italian into Turkish. Mustafa Behcet Efendi (1774-1833), chief physician to the Sultan and the founder of the first western medical school in Turkey, translated several medical books from Italian into Turkish. The first printed pharmacopeia in the Ottoman Empire was also originally Italian In the 19th century, Edouard Ottoni and his son Giuseppe Ottoni were well-known military pharmacists, both under the name of Faik Pasha. Probably the most influential physician of Italian origin was Giovanni Battista Violi (1849-1928), who had practiced paediatrics in Turkey for more than fifty years. Violi was the founder of the first children's hospital, the first vaccine institute, and the first paediatric journal in the Ottoman Empire.

  19. Research on Using Computers with Preschool-age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vartuli, Sue; And Others

    Twenty-two 3-year-olds, 36 4-year-olds, and eight 5-year-olds were given the option of using two computers with selected, sequenced software games as one of their free-choice or work time activities. During the last half of the 33-week long study, children were also introduced to a floor turtle robot, a standing robot, and to Logo activities.…

  20. Italian Polar Metadata System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, S.; Nativi, S.; Leone, C.; Migliorini, S.; Mazari Villanova, L.

    2012-04-01

    Italian Polar Metadata System C.Leone, S.Longo, S.Migliorini, L.Mazari Villanova, S. Nativi The Italian Antarctic Research Programme (PNRA) is a government initiative funding and coordinating scientific research activities in polar regions. PNRA manages two scientific Stations in Antarctica - Concordia (Dome C), jointly operated with the French Polar Institute "Paul Emile Victor", and Mario Zucchelli (Terra Nova Bay, Southern Victoria Land). In addition National Research Council of Italy (CNR) manages one scientific Station in the Arctic Circle (Ny-Alesund-Svalbard Islands), named Dirigibile Italia. PNRA started in 1985 with the first Italian Expedition in Antarctica. Since then each research group has collected data regarding biology and medicine, geodetic observatory, geophysics, geology, glaciology, physics and atmospheric chemistry, earth-sun relationships and astrophysics, oceanography and marine environment, chemistry contamination, law and geographic science, technology, multi and inter disciplinary researches, autonomously with different formats. In 2010 the Italian Ministry of Research assigned the scientific coordination of the Programme to CNR, which is in charge of the management and sharing of the scientific results carried out in the framework of the PNRA. Therefore, CNR is establishing a new distributed cyber(e)-infrastructure to collect, manage, publish and share polar research results. This is a service-based infrastructure building on Web technologies to implement resources (i.e. data, services and documents) discovery, access and visualization; in addition, semantic-enabled functionalities will be provided. The architecture applies the "System of Systems" principles to build incrementally on the existing systems by supplementing but not supplanting their mandates and governance arrangements. This allows to keep the existing capacities as autonomous as possible. This cyber(e)-infrastructure implements multi-disciplinary interoperability following

  1. Research on the New Nursery School. Part II: A Report on the Use of Typewriters and Related Equipment with Three- and Four-Year-Old Children at the New Nursery School. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimnicht, Glen; And Others

    In an attempt to improve the readiness of 3- and 4-year-old disadvantaged Mexican-American children, the New Nursery School was developed in Greeley, Colorado. The activities are autotelic; that is, the child does something for its own sake rather than for the sake of obtaining rewards or avoiding punishments that have no inherent connection with…

  2. Differential effect of age, gender and puberty on bone formation rate assessed by measurement of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase in healthy Italian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mora, Stefano; Cafarelli, Laura; Erba, Paola; Puzzovio, Maria; Zamproni, Ilaria; Giacomet, Vania; Viganò, Alessandra

    2009-01-01

    Bones undergo intensive modeling during growth, a process involving both formation and resorption processes. Bone formation can be accurately monitored by measurements of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) in serum. The lack of appropriate reference values has hampered the use of BAP in pediatric subjects. The purposes of the present study were to verify the effect of age, gender, and puberty on BAP concentration in healthy children, and to generate reference curves. Morning blood samples were collected from 239 healthy children and adolescents (113 boys), aged 4.5-20.9 years. Anthropometric measurements and pubertal stage were recorded. Blood samples were also obtained from 37 healthy young adults (13 men), aged 21.5-30.2 years. BAP concentration varied significantly with age, showing a peak at age 10-12 years in girls and 12-14 years in boys. Prepubertal concentration of BAP was six- to sevenfold higher than in healthy adults. We observed significantly higher BAP values at the beginning of puberty (stage II) compared to prepubertal stage in both sexes. The effect of puberty was independent from age and gender. We demonstrated that BAP serum concentration varies with age in children and adolescents, and we provided equations to calculate reference values. Because BAP concentrations vary markedly according to the pubertal stage, the values of BAP obtained in single patients should be compared to reference considering not only age and sex, but also the stage of pubertal development.

  3. A "Quiz" on Italian Civilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Giuseppe Antonio

    1940-01-01

    The cultural achievements of Italy are utilized to spur interest in the study of Italian. A weekly, multiple-choice type quiz posted on the Italian bulletin board questions curious passers-by in the areas of fine arts, literature, science, geography, history, and miscellaneous items. Sample items of this motivational device follow a description of…

  4. Phonologic processes in children with cleft palate.

    PubMed

    Chapman, K L

    1993-01-01

    This study examined the phonologic process usage of 3-, 4- and 5-year-old children with cleft palate. Sixty children served as subjects: 30 children with cleft palate (with or without cleft lip) and 30 noncleft palate children. The children's whole word productions were analyzed for frequency and type of phonologic process usage. Results indicated that the 3- and 4-year old children with cleft palate exhibited more instances of process usage, compared to their noncleft peers. The 5-year-old cleft and noncleft groups were similar in total instances of process usage. Further, the children with cleft palate employed common phonologic processes; however, some processes were noted more frequently in the speech of the 3-year-old children with cleft palate.

  5. Incidence and clinical relevance of TEL/AML1 fusion genes in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia enrolled in the German and Italian multicenter therapy trials. Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica and the Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster Study Group.

    PubMed

    Borkhardt, A; Cazzaniga, G; Viehmann, S; Valsecchi, M G; Ludwig, W D; Burci, L; Mangioni, S; Schrappe, M; Riehm, H; Lampert, F; Basso, G; Masera, G; Harbott, J; Biondi, A

    1997-07-15

    The molecular approach for the analysis of leukemia associated chromosomal translocations has led to the identification of prognostic relevant subgroups. In pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the most common translocations, t(9;22) and t(4;11), have been associated with a poorer clinical outcome. Recently the TEL gene at chromosome 12p13 and the AML1 gene at chromosome 21q22 were found to be involved in the translocation t(12;21)(p13;q22). By conventional cytogenetics, however, this chromosomal abnormality is barely detectable and occurs in less than 0.05% of childhood ALL. To investigate the frequency of the molecular equivalent of the t(12;21), the TEL/AML1 gene fusion, we have undertaken a prospective screening in the running German Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (BFM) and Italian Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP) multicenter ALL therapy trials. We have analyzed 334 unselected cases of pediatric ALL patients consecutively referred over a period of 5 and 9 months, respectively. The overall incidence of the t(12;21) in pediatric ALL is 18.9%. The 63 cases positive for the TEL/AML1 chimeric products ranged in age between 1 and 12 years, and all but one showed CD10 and pre-B immunophenotype. Interestingly, one case displayed a pre-pre-B immunophenotype. Among the B-lineage subgroup, the t(12;21) occurs in 22.0% of the cases. Fifteen of 61 (24.6%) cases coexpressed at least two myeloid antigens (CD13, CD33, or CDw65) in more than 20% of the gated blast cells. DNA index was available for 59 of the 63 TEL/AML1 positive cases; a hyperdiploid DNA content (> or = 1.16) was detected in only four patients, being nonhyperdiploid in the remaining 55. Based on this prospective analysis, we retrospectively evaluated the impact of TEL/AML1 in prognosis by identifying the subset of B-lineage ALL children enrolled in the closed German ALL-BFM-90 and Italian ALL-AIEOP-91 protocols who had sufficient material for analysis. A total of 342 children

  6. Non-Standard Italian Dialect Heritage Speakers' Acquisition of Clitic Placement in Standard Italian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation examines the acquisition of object clitic placement in Standard Italian by heritage speakers (HSs) of non-standard Italian dialects. It compares two different groups of Standard Italian learners--Northern Italian dialect HSs and Southern Italian dialect HSs--whose heritage dialects contrast with each other in clitic word order.…

  7. An Xrootd Italian Federation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccali, T.; Donvito, G.; Diacono, D.; Marzulli, G.; Pompili, A.; Della Ricca, G.; Mazzoni, E.; Argiro, S.; Gregori, D.; Grandi, C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Lista, L.; Fabozzi, F.; Barone, L. M.; Santocchia, A.; Riahi, H.; Tricomi, A.; Sgaravatto, M.; Maron, G.

    2014-06-01

    The Italian community in CMS has built a geographically distributed network in which all the data stored in the Italian region are available to all the users for their everyday work. This activity involves at different level all the CMS centers: the Tier1 at CNAF, all the four Tier2s (Bari, Rome, Legnaro and Pisa), and few Tier3s (Trieste, Perugia, Torino, Catania, Napoli, ...). The federation uses the new network connections as provided by GARR, our NREN (National Research and Education Network), which provides a minimum of 10 Gbit/s to all the sites via the GARR-X[2] project. The federation is currently based on Xrootd[1] technology, and on a Redirector aimed to seamlessly connect all the sites, giving the logical view of a single entity. A special configuration has been put in place for the Tier1, CNAF, where ad-hoc Xrootd changes have been implemented in order to protect the tape system from excessive stress, by not allowing WAN connections to access tape only files, on a file-by-file basis. In order to improve the overall performance while reading files, both in terms of bandwidth and latency, a hierarchy of xrootd redirectors has been implemented. The solution implemented provides a dedicated Redirector where all the INFN sites are registered, without considering their status (T1, T2, or T3 sites). An interesting use case were able to cover via the federation are disk-less Tier3s. The caching solution allows to operate a local storage with minimal human intervention: transfers are automatically done on a single file basis, and the cache is maintained operational by automatic removal of old files.

  8. ACROSTUDY: the Italian experience.

    PubMed

    Grottoli, S; Maffei, P; Bogazzi, F; Cannavò, S; Colao, A; Ghigo, E; Gomez, R; Graziano, E; Monterubbianesi, M; Jonsson, P; De Marinis, L

    2015-02-01

    ACROSTUDY is a world-wide non-interventional, post marketing surveillance study performed to monitor the safety and outcomes of pegvisomant (PEG) in clinical practice. We report data from acromegaly patients who have been included in the Italian ACROSTUDY registry. The data of 341 acromegaly patients (171 males) were available for analysis using data freeze (12/9/2012). Patients were enrolled in 25 Italian endocrine centres. Before and during PEG treatment IGF-I, liver enzymes, metabolic parameters, and pituitary MRI were assessed. Before PEG, 54.3% patients had been treated with medical therapy and surgery, 22.9% medical therapy only, and 15.8% medical plus radiation and surgical therapy. 199 adverse events were reported in 98 patients (28.7%). Serious adverse events were documented in 29 patients (8.5%). 71.1% of patients had no significant change in tumor volume. Central MRI reading was performed in 34 patients; in 7 patients, an increase in tumor volume was found. Hormonal efficacy progressively increased since the start of PEG. After 6 years, normal IGF-I levels were found in 70.9% of patients (mean daily dose 18.1 mg). 87.1% of patients were treated with daily PEG although in 8.8% of patients, it was administered 2-6 times per week and in 3.8% with weekly injections. 74.8% received a PEG dose 10-15 mg/daily. PEG is a drug with a favorable safety profile which is efficacious also considering that in Italy it is currently available as third-line therapy. PMID:25150035

  9. Children's abilities to distinguish novel languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Z. S.; Stockmal, Verna

    2005-04-01

    When adults hear spoken samples of a language which they do not know, they can often identify it and discriminate between languages even when produced by the same talkers. Children have much less experience making metalinguistic judgments. How do children respond to languages which they do not know? We have conducted three experiments examining the abilities of 4-year old and 8-year old children to discriminate between spoken samples of different languages produced by bilingual talkers. We constructed listening tests from 5-second phrases excerpted from fluent reading provided by the talkers. In the three experiments, we progressively simplified the response mode employed by the children as well as the cognitive load of the task. Even in the simplest version, only a third of the 4-year-olds could do the task while the 8-year old children performed above chance in all three experiments. The younger children tended to respond different more than same, as if their criterion for same was identify.

  10. Recommendations for the use of long-term central venous catheter (CVC) in children with hemato-oncological disorders: management of CVC-related occlusion and CVC-related thrombosis. On behalf of the coagulation defects working group and the supportive therapy working group of the Italian Association of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (AIEOP).

    PubMed

    Giordano, Paola; Saracco, Paola; Grassi, Massimo; Luciani, Matteo; Banov, Laura; Carraro, Francesca; Crocoli, Alessandro; Cesaro, Simone; Zanazzo, Giulio Andrea; Molinari, Angelo Claudio

    2015-11-01

    Central venous catheters (CVC), used for the management of children with hemato-oncological disorders, are burdened by a significant incidence of mechanical, infective, or thrombotic complications. These complications favor an increasing risk in prolongation of hospitalization, extra costs of care, and sometimes severe life-threatening events. No guidelines for the management of CVC-related occlusion and CVC-related thrombosis are available for children. To this aim, members of the coagulation defects working group and the supportive therapy working group of the Italian Association of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (AIEOP) reviewed the pediatric and adult literature to propose the first recommendations for the management of CVC-related occlusion and CVC-related thrombosis in children with hemato-oncological disorders.

  11. Can that really happen? Children's knowledge about the reality status of fantastical events in television.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Boguszewski, Katherine; Lillard, Angeline S

    2015-11-01

    Although popular children's cartoons are replete with fantastical events, we know little about whether children understand that these events are fantastical rather than real. In Study 1, 54 children ages 4 to 6 years and 18 adults were shown 10 real and 10 fantastical events portrayed in 4s video clips from a popular cartoon. After viewing each clip, participants were asked to judge the reality status of the event and to explain their judgments. Results indicated that even 4-year-olds have a fairly good understanding of fantastical events in animated cartoons but that they underestimate the reality status of real events in such cartoons. In Study 2, 35 4- to 6-year-olds and 18 adults watched video clips of 10 real and 10 fantastical events performed by real people from a Chinese television show. Once again, 4-year-olds underestimated the reality status of real events shown on television. However, against the "real" backdrop in this study, 4-year-olds also judged nearly half of the fantastical events to be real. The implications for children's reality-fantasy discrimination and their media viewing are discussed.

  12. Can that really happen? Children's knowledge about the reality status of fantastical events in television.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Boguszewski, Katherine; Lillard, Angeline S

    2015-11-01

    Although popular children's cartoons are replete with fantastical events, we know little about whether children understand that these events are fantastical rather than real. In Study 1, 54 children ages 4 to 6 years and 18 adults were shown 10 real and 10 fantastical events portrayed in 4s video clips from a popular cartoon. After viewing each clip, participants were asked to judge the reality status of the event and to explain their judgments. Results indicated that even 4-year-olds have a fairly good understanding of fantastical events in animated cartoons but that they underestimate the reality status of real events in such cartoons. In Study 2, 35 4- to 6-year-olds and 18 adults watched video clips of 10 real and 10 fantastical events performed by real people from a Chinese television show. Once again, 4-year-olds underestimated the reality status of real events shown on television. However, against the "real" backdrop in this study, 4-year-olds also judged nearly half of the fantastical events to be real. The implications for children's reality-fantasy discrimination and their media viewing are discussed. PMID:26094241

  13. The Role of Prosody and Long-Term Phonological Knowledge in Japanese Children's Nonword Repetition Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuzawa, Miki; Saito, Satoru

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of association values and the influences of prosodic information on Japanese children's repetition of nonwords with varying association values and with or without pitch accent. Fifteen 3- and 4-year-olds (mean age = 4.42 years, range: 3.9-4.9) and nineteen 5- and 6-year-olds (mean age = 5.71 years, range:…

  14. Children's Use of Syntactic and Pragmatic Knowledge in the Interpretation of Novel Adjectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diesendruck, Gil; Hall, D. Geoffrey; Graham, Susan A.

    2006-01-01

    In Study 1, English-speaking 3- and 4-year-olds heard a novel adjective used to label one of two objects and were asked for the referent of a different novel adjective. Children were more likely to select the unlabeled object if the two adjectives appeared prenominally (e.g., "a very DAXY dog") than as predicates (e.g., "a dog that is very DAXY").…

  15. Sex Categorization among Preschool Children: Increasing Utilization of Sexually Dimorphic Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kerri L.; Lurye, Leah E.; Tassinary, Louis G.

    2010-01-01

    Two studies examined how children between ages 4 and 6 use body shape (i.e., the waist-to-hip-ratio [WHR]) for sex categorization. In Study 1 (N = 73), 5- and 6-year-olds, but not 4-year-olds, selected bodies with increasingly discrepant WHRs to be "most like a man" and "most like a woman." Similarly, sex category judgments made by 5- and…

  16. Una ricerca sul bilinguismo precoce italo-inglese (Research on Early Italian-English Bilingualism).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taeschner, Traute; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to attempt to verify the theory of Taeschner and Volterra (1976) that bilingual children pass through three distinct phases while becoming perfectly bilingual. The 12 subjects were English-Italian bilingual children between the ages of 1.6 and 4.6. (CFM)

  17. Lexical and Grammatical Abilities in Deaf Italian Preschoolers: The Role of Duration of Formal Language Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinaldi, Pasquale; Caselli, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated language development in deaf Italian preschoolers with hearing parents, taking into account the duration of formal language experience (i.e., the time elapsed since wearing a hearing aid and beginning language education) and different methods of language education. Twenty deaf children were matched with 20 hearing children for age and…

  18. Preschool Italian in Melbourne

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannan, Siobhan

    2010-01-01

    Kindergarten in Victoria, Australia is the preschool year, attended by children who are four going on five, and who will go onto primary school the following year. These are part-time programs, run over a small number of sessions per week, typically for 3-5 hours per session for 10-12 hours per week. North West Brunswick Kindergarten, in the…

  19. [Italian Thesaurus of Bioethics, TIB].

    PubMed

    Navarini, Claudia; Poltronieri, Elisabetta

    2004-01-01

    The article aims at illustrating the characteristics and functions of a monolingual thesaurus, focusing on the Italian Thesaurus of Bioethics (Thesaurus Italiano di Bioetica, TIB) the controlled vocabulary used to index and retrieve documents within SIBIL (Italian Online Bioethics Information System). TIB includes controlled terms (descriptors) translated from the Bioethics Thesaurus adopted by the Kennedy Institute of Ethics of the Georgetown University of Washington and revised according to the Italian context of study and scientific debate in the field of bioethics. The overall amount of TIB terms consists in over 1600 headings. Methods to link thesaurus terms hierarchically, by association and by showing synonyms as recommended in ISO standards are applied with reference to descriptors drawn from TIB. Future plans to make the English version of TIB available online within European networks are also illustrated, aiming at spreading information relating to bioethics at an international level.

  20. Types of Bullying among Italian School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldry, Anna C.; Farrington, David P.

    1999-01-01

    Research investigated prevalence of bullies and victims, and types and places of bullying. A questionnaire was completed by 238 middle school students in Rome. Over half had bullied other in the previous three months, and nearly half had been bullied. Boys bullied more than girls, and were more likely to suffer direct bullying such as being…

  1. The Teacher of Italian and the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallock, Ann H.

    This paper presents a case-study of the successful nine-month plan with which Tulane University guaranteed the growth and continuation of its Italian program. The paper provides a blueprint for the teacher of Italian on any campus who wishes to strengthen the position of his Italian program in this era when dwindling federal, state and university…

  2. Children's Growth and Classroom Experiences in Georgia's Pre-K Program: Findings from the 2011-2012 Evaluation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen; Schaaf, Jennifer; LaForett, Dore

    2013-01-01

    Georgia has one of the few state-funded universal pre-kindergarten programs in the United States, with the aim of providing pre-k services to all 4-year-olds whose families want their children to participate in the program, regardless of family income level. In the 2011-2012 school year, Georgia's Pre-K Program served a total of over 94,000…

  3. Head Start Evaluation and Research Center, University of Kansas. Report No. IX, Development of "Matching" Abstractions in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, James A.

    Two 4-year-old children were shown the use of an apparatus whereby they could obtain toys and candy by making certain responses. The apparatus was a matching-to-sample device on which were arranged five response buttons in a circle and one in the middle. Each response button had a display window for the stimulus. Four of the five windows on the…

  4. Children's working understanding of the knowledge gained from seeing and feeling.

    PubMed

    Robinson, E J; Haigh, S N; Pendle, J E C

    2008-03-01

    In three experiments (N = 48 3- to 4-year olds; 100 3- to 5-year olds; 54 4-year-olds), children who could see or feel a target toy, recognized when they had sufficient information to answer 'Which one is it?' and when they needed additional access. They were weaker at taking the informative modality of access when the choice was between seeing more of a partially visible toy and feeling it; at doing so when the target was completely hidden; and at reporting seeing or feeling as their source of knowledge of the target's identity having experienced both. Working understanding of the knowledge gained from seeing and feeling (identifying the target efficiently) was not necessarily in advance of explicit understanding (reporting the informative source). PMID:18333983

  5. Education and Italian Regional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Liberto, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study the connection between growth and human capital in a convergence regression for the panel of Italian regions. We include measures of average primary, secondary and tertiary education. We find that increased education seems to contribute to growth only in the South. Decomposing total schooling into its three constituent…

  6. Nonverbal Communication among Italian Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferri-Bernardoni, Joseph M.

    Participant observation and author introspection were used to collect data in this study of nonverbal communication among Italian Americans in three large American cities. Discussion is given to kinesics (gestures and signs), haptics (touch), proxemics (interiors of homes, exteriors of homes, and spatial arrangements at a wedding dinner), and…

  7. Autistic children's use of semantic common sense and theory of mind: a comparison with typical and mentally retarded children.

    PubMed

    Naito, Mika; Nagayama, Kikuo

    2004-10-01

    To compare Japanese autistic children's use of semantic knowledge and theory of mind with mentally retarded and typically developing children's, they were tested on their comprehension of active and passive sentences and false belief understanding. Autistic children were sensitive to plausibility levels of semantic bias as were 4-year-olds with typical development when comprehending sentences, although impaired in belief understanding as compared with mentally retarded children and typically developing 5-year-olds. Children's sentence comprehension had no association with belief understanding. Results suggest that autistic children with certain verbal intelligence can utilize semantic common sense to comprehend sentences as can typically developing children and that the ability to comprehend sentences is relatively independent of theory of mind.

  8. Autistic children's use of semantic common sense and theory of mind: a comparison with typical and mentally retarded children.

    PubMed

    Naito, Mika; Nagayama, Kikuo

    2004-10-01

    To compare Japanese autistic children's use of semantic knowledge and theory of mind with mentally retarded and typically developing children's, they were tested on their comprehension of active and passive sentences and false belief understanding. Autistic children were sensitive to plausibility levels of semantic bias as were 4-year-olds with typical development when comprehending sentences, although impaired in belief understanding as compared with mentally retarded children and typically developing 5-year-olds. Children's sentence comprehension had no association with belief understanding. Results suggest that autistic children with certain verbal intelligence can utilize semantic common sense to comprehend sentences as can typically developing children and that the ability to comprehend sentences is relatively independent of theory of mind. PMID:15628605

  9. Children's Growth and Classroom Experiences in Georgia's Pre-K Program: Findings from the 2011-2012 Evaluation Study. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen; Schaaf, Jennifer; LaForett, Dore

    2013-01-01

    Georgia has one of the few state-funded universal pre-kindergarten programs in the United States, with the aim of providing pre-k services to all 4-year-olds whose families want their children to participate in the program, regardless of family income level. In the 2011-2012 school year, Georgia's Pre-K Program served a total of over 94,000…

  10. Accuracy trumps accent in children's endorsement of object labels.

    PubMed

    Corriveau, Kathleen H; Kinzler, Katherine D; Harris, Paul L

    2013-03-01

    Past research provides evidence that children use at least 2 potentially competing strategies when choosing informants: they attend to informants' past accuracy and to their social identity (e.g., their status as native- vs. foreign-accented speakers). We explore how children reconcile these 2 strategies when they are put in conflict and whether children's response changes across development. In Experiment 1 (N = 61), 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children watched a native- and a foreign-accented English speaker label novel objects with novel names. All 3 age groups preferred the names provided by the native speaker. Next, 1 of the 2 speakers named familiar objects accurately, whereas the other speaker named them inaccurately. In a subsequent series of test trials, again with novel objects, 4- and 5-year-olds, but not 3-year-olds, were likely to endorse the names provided by the accurate speaker, regardless of her accent. In Experiment 2 (N = 72) 4-year-olds first watched a native- and a foreign-accented speaker name familiar objects, but the relative accuracy of the 2 speakers varied across conditions (100% vs. 0% correct; 75% vs. 25% correct). Subsequently, the 2 speakers provided novel names for novel objects. In each condition, 4-year-olds endorsed the names provided by the more accurate speaker, regardless of her accent. We propose that during the preschool years, children increasingly rely on past reliability when selecting informants. PMID:23231692

  11. The Astronomy Olympiad italian experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandrelli, S.; Giacomini, L.

    2011-10-01

    The International Astronomy Olympiad (IAO) is an internationally annual astronomy scientific-educating event, born in 1996, which includes an intellectual competition between students aged between 14 and 17. In Italy, the Olympiad is coorganized since 2007 by INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica) and SAiT (Società Astronomica Italiana) becoming every year a more visible and global event in the italian scenario (in 2011, INAF institutes participating to the local activities were 13). Unluckily, the Italian Committee of the Olympiads cannot involve directly nor rely on schools, since astronomy is no longer part of the scholastic programs. For this reason, the Committee needed to develop in the last years a non traditional mediatic approach that allowed in 2011 to reach a participation of more than 500 teenagers to the Olympics. We will give an overview of the Astronomy Olympics project in Italy and of this non conventional mediatic approach.

  12. Driving forces push Italian exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Steven, R.R.

    1982-03-01

    The Italian offshore is one of the most active in Europe. Although it cannot be compared with the North Sea in terms of hydrocarbon production or potential, Italy is expending a great deal of effort in order to reduce imported oil and gas from the current level of around 90% of total domestic consumption of 147 million tons of oil equivalent a year. The drilling program, major targets, and development of new oil fields are discussed briefly. (JMT)

  13. Language Policy and Planning: The Case of Italian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geraci, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Italian Sign Language (LIS) is the name of the language used by the Italian Deaf community. The acronym LIS derives from Lingua italiana dei segni ("Italian language of signs"), although nowadays Italians refers to LIS as Lingua dei segni italiana, reflecting the more appropriate phrasing "Italian sign language." Historically, Italy's linguistic…

  14. Graphic jokes and children's mind: an unusual way to approach children's representational activity.

    PubMed

    Puche-Navarro, Rebeca

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the development of representational activity through the comprehension of graphic jokes in 2, 3 and 4-year-old children. In experiment 1 we worked with three kinds of jokes, specifically mentalistic jokes, jokes based on substitution and complex jokes. We found differentiated performances on each kind of joke, as had been expected based on the semiological analysis of the jokes prior to the experiment. The earliest comprehension, at 3 years old, occurred with mentalistic jokes where more than 70% of the total sample was successful. The substitution jokes reached 47% in the three-year-old subjects, and the latest kind of joke to be understood by this group were the complex jokes, with only 31% comprehension. In experiment 2 we wanted to specify the cognitive functioning that was taking place in the comprehension of mentalistic jokes. We found similar successful performances in two mentalistic jokes with both the 3 and 4 year-olds in the study. Children's performances were analyzed from the point of view of processes of redescription which were involved in the understanding of the jokes. We conclude that humor tasks are appropriate instruments to examine development of children's representational abilities.

  15. Somatotype of elite Italian gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Massidda, Myosotis; Toselli, Stefania; Brasili, Patricia; Calò, Carla M

    2013-09-01

    The somatotyping method is especially helpful in sports in which the body could directly influence the biomechanics of movements and the performance's results. The purpose of this study was to determine the somatotype of elite Italian gymnasts and to compare it in terms of competition levels. The sample comprised 64 elite gymnasts (42 females (F), somatotype 1.4-4.4-3.2; and 22 males (M), somatotype 1.6-6.3-2.1) belonging to the Italian National Artistic Gymnastic Team (2007) at different competition levels: Allieve, Junior, and Senior. Mean whole somatotypes, by competition levels, were not significantly different in both sexes (Female gymnasts: Allieve, 1.3-4.6-3.3; Junior, 1.3-4.2-3.6; Senior, 1.7-4.2-2.7; Male gymnasts: Junior, 1.5-6.3-2.5; Senior, 1.7-6.3-1.6). Male Junior gymnasts exhibited greater ectomorphy than Senior athletes (F1,20 = 7.75, p < 0.01). Compared to other elite athletes male and female gymnasts tend to be less endomorphic and more mesomorphic. This study highlighted the peculiarities of the somatotype of Italian elite gymnasts and their strong homogeneity, evident also from the low values of somatotype attitudinal mean (SAM). The results emphasize the need for a specific somatotype to reach an elite level in sport and the need to integrate the somatotype analysis between the scientific instruments for selecting talent also in artistic gymnastics. PMID:24308228

  16. Top-down influence in young children's linguistic ambiguity resolution.

    PubMed

    Rabagliati, Hugh; Pylkkänen, Liina; Marcus, Gary F

    2013-06-01

    Language is rife with ambiguity. Do children and adults meet this challenge in similar ways? Recent work suggests that while adults resolve syntactic ambiguities by integrating a variety of cues, children are less sensitive to top-down evidence. We test whether this top-down insensitivity is specific to syntax or a general feature of children's linguistic ambiguity resolution by evaluating whether children rely largely or completely on lexical associations to resolve lexical ambiguities (e.g., the word swing primes the baseball meaning of bat) or additionally integrate top-down global plausibility. Using a picture choice task, we compared 4-year-olds' ability to resolve polysemes and homophones with a Bayesian algorithm reliant purely on lexical associations and found that the algorithm's power to predict children's choices was limited. A 2nd experiment confirmed that children override associations and integrate top-down plausibility. We discuss this with regard to models of psycholinguistic development. PMID:22229852

  17. Top-down influence in young children's linguistic ambiguity resolution.

    PubMed

    Rabagliati, Hugh; Pylkkänen, Liina; Marcus, Gary F

    2013-06-01

    Language is rife with ambiguity. Do children and adults meet this challenge in similar ways? Recent work suggests that while adults resolve syntactic ambiguities by integrating a variety of cues, children are less sensitive to top-down evidence. We test whether this top-down insensitivity is specific to syntax or a general feature of children's linguistic ambiguity resolution by evaluating whether children rely largely or completely on lexical associations to resolve lexical ambiguities (e.g., the word swing primes the baseball meaning of bat) or additionally integrate top-down global plausibility. Using a picture choice task, we compared 4-year-olds' ability to resolve polysemes and homophones with a Bayesian algorithm reliant purely on lexical associations and found that the algorithm's power to predict children's choices was limited. A 2nd experiment confirmed that children override associations and integrate top-down plausibility. We discuss this with regard to models of psycholinguistic development.

  18. Gender in Italian-German Bilinguals: A Comparison with German L2 Learners of Italian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianchi, Giulia

    2013-01-01

    This study compares mastery of gender assignment and agreement in Italian by adult Italian-German bilinguals who have acquired two languages simultaneously (2L1), and by adult German highly proficient second language learners (L2ers) of Italian. Our data show that incompleteness in bilingual acquisition and in second language (L2) acquisition…

  19. Somatotype in 6-11-year-old Italian and Estonian schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Ventrella, A R; Semproli, S; Jürimäe, J; Toselli, S; Claessens, A L; Jürimäe, T; Brasili, P

    2008-01-01

    The study of somatotypes can contribute to the understanding of variability in human body build. The aim of this study was to compare the somatotypes of Italian and Estonian schoolchildren in order to evaluate factors that might lead to variability in somatotypes. The sample consisted of 762 Italian and 366 Estonian children aged 6-11 years. They were somatotyped by the Heath-Carter anthropometric method. Data on organised extra-curricular physical activity and hours of weekly training were also collected. One-way ANOVA was used to evaluate country-related variations of somatotype in each age/sex group, while factorial ANOVA was used to test the influence of country and organised physical activity on the variability of the anthropometric characteristics and somatotype components. There are significant differences in mean somatotypes between the Italian and Estonian children in many age classes and a different constitutional trend in children from the two different countries is observed. The Italian children are more endomorphic and less mesomorphic and ectomorphic than the Estonian children. On the other hand, it emerges from factorial ANOVA, that the somatotype components do not present significant variations related to organised physical activity and to the interaction between the country of origin and sport practice. Moreover, the results of the forward stepwise discriminant analyses show that mesomorphy is the best discriminator between the two countries, followed by ectomorphy. Our findings suggest that the observed differences between Italian and Estonian children could be related mainly to country rather than to the practice of organised physical activity in the two countries.

  20. Optical Flow Structure Effects in Children's Postural Control.

    PubMed

    Godoi, Daniela; Barela, José A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of distance and optic flow structure on visual information and body sway coupling in children and young adults. Thirty children (from 4 to 12 years of age) and 10 young adults stood upright inside of a moving room oscillating at 0.2 Hz, at 0.25 and 1.5 m from the front wall, and under three optical flow conditions (global, central, and peripheral). Effect of distance and optic flow structure on the coupling of visual information and body sway is age-dependent, with 4-year-olds being more affected at 0.25 m distance than older children and adults are. No such difference was observed at 1.5 m from the front wall. Moreover, 4-year-olds' sway was larger and displayed higher variability. These results suggest that despite being able to accommodate change resulting from varying optic flow conditions, young children have difficulty in dodging stronger visual stimuli. Lastly, difference in sway performance may be due to immature inter-modality sensory reweighting. PMID:27352305

  1. Private School Enrollment in an Italian Region after Implementing a Change in the Voucher Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Barbieri, Gianna; Murtinu, Samuele

    2015-01-01

    This article estimates the effect of an administrative change in a voucher policy implemented by an Italian Regional government. The voucher was initiated in 2000, and is intended to help families that want to enroll their children in private schools. In 2008, the policy was changed, making the administrative procedure required for obtaining the…

  2. Psychometric Properties of the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task: An Italian Multicentre Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barone, Lavinia; Del Giudice, Marco; Fossati, Andrea; Manaresi, Francesca; Perinetti, Barbara Actis; Colle, Livia; Veglia, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes a multicentre study of the psychometric properties of the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task in a sample of 230 Italian children aged 4 to 8 years. The task's internal consistency and inter-rater reliability were investigated; in addition, multiple discriminant analysis was used to explore the contribution of individual…

  3. Getting Your Teeth into It...: Describing a Language Task in an Italian Bilingual Unit of Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferragina, Anna Maria; Mustica, Giuseppina

    2006-01-01

    International Grammar School was founded twenty years ago on the belief in the benefits of immersion language learning for children. It offers immersion second language learning in German, Italian, French, and Japanese which continues through kindergarten into the high school years. With language as the medium and not the object of learning,…

  4. From Phonetics to Phonology: The Emergence of First Words in Italian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keren-Portnoy, Tamar; Majorano, Marinella; Vihman, Marilyn M.

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses the extent of phonetic continuity between babble and words in four Italian children followed longitudinally from 0;9 or 0;10 to 2;0--two with relatively rapid and two with slower lexical growth. Prelinguistic phonetic characteristics, including both (a) consistent use of specific consonants and (b) age of onset and extent of…

  5. Italian Teachers' Knowledge and Perception of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frigerio, Alessandra; Montali, Lorenzo; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2014-01-01

    Teachers' perceptions of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can influence the diagnostic rates of the disorder and the management of children in schools. This study investigated the knowledge and perceptions of ADHD in a sample of 589 Italian primary school teachers using a self-report questionnaire that included the ADHD perceptions…

  6. Working Memory Performance of Italian Students with Foreign Language Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palladino, Paola; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that the ability to learn a foreign language is related to working memory. However, there is no clear evidence about which component of working memory may be involved. Two experiments investigated working memory problems in groups of seventh and eighth grade Italian children with difficulties in learning English as a second…

  7. Young children separate multiple pretend worlds.

    PubMed

    Weisberg, Deena Skolnick; Bloom, Paul

    2009-09-01

    Each fictional world that adults create has its own distinct properties, separating it from other fictional worlds. Here we explore whether this separation also exists for young children's pretend game worlds. Studies 1 and 1A set up two simultaneous games and encouraged children to create appropriate pretend identities for coloured blocks. When prompted with a situation that required the use of a Game 1 object in Game 2, 3- and 4-year-olds were reluctant to move pretend objects between games, even when the alternative-world object was explicitly highlighted as a possible choice. Study 2 found the same effect when the two game worlds were presented sequentially. This suggests that, even for young children, multiple pretend game worlds are kept psychologically separate.

  8. Lexical and grammatical abilities in deaf Italian preschoolers: the role of duration of formal language experience.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Pasquale; Caselli, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated language development in deaf Italian preschoolers with hearing parents, taking into account the duration of formal language experience (i.e., the time elapsed since wearing a hearing aid and beginning language education) and different methods of language education. Twenty deaf children were matched with 20 hearing children for age and with another 20 hearing children for duration of experience. Deaf children showed a significant delay in both vocabulary and grammar when compared to same-age hearing children yet a similar development compared to hearing children matched for duration of formal language experience. The delay in linguistic development could be attributable to shorter formal language experience and not to deafness itself. Deaf children exposed to spoken language accompanied by signs tended to understand and produce more words than children exposed only to spoken language. We suggest that deaf children be evaluated based on their linguistic experience and cognitive and communicative potential.

  9. The Italian National Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelini, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The Italian National Seismic Network is composed by about 400 stations, mainly broadband, installed in the Country and in the surrounding regions. About 110 stations feature also collocated strong motion instruments. The Centro Nazionale Terremoti, (National Earthquake Center), CNT, has installed and operates most of these stations, although a considerable number of stations contributing to the INGV surveillance has been installed and is maintained by other INGV sections (Napoli, Catania, Bologna, Milano) or even other Italian or European Institutions. The important technological upgrades carried out in the last years has allowed for significant improvements of the seismic monitoring of Italy and of the Euro-Mediterranean Countries. The adopted data transmission systems include satellite, wireless connections and wired lines. The Seedlink protocol has been adopted for data transmission. INGV is a primary node of EIDA (European Integrated Data Archive) for archiving and distributing, continuous, quality checked data. The data acquisition system was designed to accomplish, in near-real-time, automatic earthquake detection and hypocenter and magnitude determination (moment tensors, shake maps, etc.). Database archiving of all parametric results are closely linked to the existing procedures of the INGV seismic monitoring environment. Overall, the Italian earthquake surveillance service provides, in quasi real-time, hypocenter parameters which are then revised routinely by the analysts of the Bollettino Sismico Nazionale. The results are published on the web page http://cnt.rm.ingv.it/ and are publicly available to both the scientific community and the the general public. This presentation will describe the various activities and resulting products of the Centro Nazionale Terremoti. spanning from data acquisition to archiving, distribution and specialised products.

  10. Mothers' responses to children's negative emotions and child emotion regulation: the moderating role of vagal suppression.

    PubMed

    Perry, Nicole B; Calkins, Susan D; Nelson, Jackie A; Leerkes, Esther M; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2012-07-01

    The current study examined the moderating effect of children's cardiac vagal suppression on the association between maternal socialization of negative emotions (supportive and nonsupportive responses) and children's emotion regulation behaviors. One hundred and ninety-seven 4-year-olds and their mothers participated. Mothers reported on their reactions to children's negative emotions and children's regulatory behaviors. Observed distraction, an adaptive self-regulatory strategy, and vagal suppression were assessed during a laboratory task designed to elicit frustration. Results indicated that children's vagal suppression moderated the association between mothers' nonsupportive emotion socialization and children's emotion regulation behaviors such that nonsupportive reactions to negative emotions predicted lower observed distraction and lower reported emotion regulation behaviors when children displayed lower levels of vagal suppression. No interaction was found between supportive maternal emotion socialization and vagal suppression for children's emotion regulation behaviors. Results suggest physiological regulation may serve as a buffer against nonsupportive emotion socialization.

  11. Video Training of Alternatives to Cross-Gender Identity Behaviors in a 4-Year-Old Boy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowrick, Peter W.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses case in which four-year-old boy displaying extreme girl-stereotyped mannerisms and playing behaviors extended his repertoire of alternative behaviors through self and peer modeling in which the subject observed brief edited videotapes of himself and another boy engaged in playing behaviors that were not girl-stereotyped. (CMG)

  12. Words Are Not Merely Features: Only Consistently Applied Nouns Guide 4-Year-Olds' Inferences about Object Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Susan A.; Booth, Amy E.; Waxman, Sandra R.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is considerable evidence that nouns highlight category-based commonalities, including both those that are perceptually available and those that reflect underlying conceptual similarity, some have claimed that words function merely as features of objects. Here, we directly test these alternative accounts. Four-year-olds (n = 140)…

  13. Transient Fanconi syndrome with severe polyuria and polydipsia in a 4-year old Shih Tzu fed chicken jerky treats.

    PubMed

    Major, A; Schweighauser, A; Hinden, S E; Francey, T

    2014-12-01

    Acquired Fanconi syndrome is characterized by inappropriate urinary loss of amino acids, bicarbonate, electrolytes, and water. It has recently been described in dogs fed chicken jerky treats from China, a new differential diagnosis to the classical inciting infectious diseases (e.g. leptospirosis, pyelonephritis) and toxins. A dog fed exclusively chicken jerky treats purchased in Switzerland was presented to our clinic with severe polyuria, polydipsia and profound electrolyte and acid base disturbances. Other inciting causes of Fanconi syndrome were ruled out. The requirement of a very intensive supportive treatment in this dog stands in contrast to treatment of chronic forms of Fanconi syndrome as described in the Basenji. This intensive therapy and the associated monitoring can be a real challenge and a limiting factor for the prognosis of acquired Fanconi syndrome. Veterinarians should be aware of the risk of excessive feeding of chicken jerky treats. PMID:25497565

  14. A Multi-Domain Model of Risk Factors for ODD Symptoms in a Community Sample of 4-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavigne, John V.; Gouze, Karen R.; Hopkins, Joyce; Bryant, Fred B.; LeBailly, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have been designed to assess the pathways by which risk factors are associated with symptoms of psychopathology across multiple domains, including contextual factors, parental depression, parenting, and child characteristics. The present study examines a cross-sectional model of risk factors for symptoms of Oppositional Defiant…

  15. Dorsal resection of a thoracic hemivertebra in a 4-year-old boy with endochondral gigantism. A case report.

    PubMed

    Zarghooni, Kourosh; Sobotrke, Rolf; Schmidt, Heinrich; Rollinghoff, Marc; Siewe, Jan; Eysel, Peer

    2010-10-01

    The authors present what appears to be the first case of congenital kyphosis due to a T12 hemivertebra in a four-year-old boy with endochondral gigantism syndrome of unknown origin. Because of his overgrowth, the patient had severe medical and orthopaedic problems and was almost immobile. Prior to surgery, he experienced a rapidly progressive thoracolumbar kyphosis to 600 (T10-L2). MRI of the brain and spine showed critical protraction of the spinal cord and myelopathy from compression at T12. Single-stage posterior resection of the hemivertebra with spinal shortening and dorsal transpedicular instrumentation of T10-L2 was performed. Although the bone tissue was cartilaginous and dysplastic, 420 (30%) correction was achieved along with decompression of the spinal canal. The patient experienced no neurological impairment post-operatively. At follow-up examination 1.5 year after surgery, the patient's movement disorder had improved markedly and he was able to stand and walk. This very rare case demonstrates that single-stage posterior hemivertebra resection and transpedicular instrumentation for correction of congenital kyphosis can be a safe and effective procedure even in a very challenging case.

  16. Communities in Italian corporate networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccardi, Carlo; Calatroni, Lisa; Bertoni, Fabio

    2010-11-01

    The community structure of two real-world financial networks, namely the board network and the ownership network of the firms of the Italian Stock Exchange, is analyzed by means of the maximum modularity approach. The main result is that both networks exhibit a strong community structure and, moreover, that the two structures overlap significantly. This is due to a number of reasons, including the existence of pyramidal groups and directors serving in several boards. Overall, this means that the “small world” of listed companies is actually split into well identifiable “continents” (i.e., the communities).

  17. Parenting quality: Confirmation of a higher-order latent construct with mothers of Head Start children

    PubMed Central

    Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Page, Melanie C.; Huey, Erron L.; Starost, Huei-Juang; Culp, Anne McDonald; Culp, Rex E.; Harper, M. Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    We proposed a higher order latent construct of parenting young children, parenting quality. This higher-order latent construct comprises five component constructs: demographic protection, psychological distress, psychosocial maturity, moral and cognitive reflectivity, and parenting attitudes and beliefs. We evaluated this model with data provided by 199 mothers of 4-year-old children enrolled in Head Start. The model was confirmed with only one adjustment suggested by modification indices. Final RMSEA was .05, CFI .96, and NNFI .94, indicating good model fit. Results were interpreted as emphasizing the interdependence of psychological and environmental demands on parenting. Implications of the model for teachers, early interventionists, and public policy are discussed. PMID:19629192

  18. Children use nonverbal cues to make inferences about social power.

    PubMed

    Brey, Elizabeth; Shutts, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Four studies (N = 192) tested whether young children use nonverbal information to make inferences about differences in social power. Five- and six-year-old children were able to determine which of two adults was "in charge" in dynamic videotaped conversations (Study 1) and in static photographs (Study 4) using only nonverbal cues. Younger children (3-4 years) were not successful in Study 1 or Study 4. Removing irrelevant linguistic information from conversations did not improve the performance of 3- to 4-year-old children (Study 3), but including relevant linguistic cues did (Study 2). Thus, at least by 5 years of age, children show sensitivity to some of the same nonverbal cues adults use to determine other people's social roles.

  19. Individual differences in children's and parents' generic language.

    PubMed

    Gelman, Susan A; Ware, Elizabeth A; Kleinberg, Felicia; Manczak, Erika M; Stilwell, Sarah M

    2014-01-01

    Generics ("Dogs bark") convey important information about categories and facilitate children's learning. Two studies with parents and their 2- or 4-year-old children (N = 104 dyads) examined whether individual differences in generic language use are as follows: (a) stable over time, contexts, and domains, and (b) linked to conceptual factors. For both children and parents, individual differences in rate of generic production were stable across time, contexts, and domains, and parents' generic usage significantly correlated with that of their own children. Furthermore, parents' essentialist beliefs correlated with their own and their children's rates of generic frequency. These results indicate that generic language use exhibits substantial stability and may reflect individual differences in speakers' conceptual attitudes toward categories.

  20. Children's eyewitness memory: effects of participation and forensic context.

    PubMed

    Tobey, A E; Goodman, G S

    1992-01-01

    We examined effects of participation and forensic context on 4-year-old children's testimony. Children in "participant" and "police" conditions actively participated in games with a "babysitter"; each child in the "observer" condition watched a videotape of a child and the babysitter playing. Eleven days later, children were individually questioned about the event. Before the interview began, children in the police condition talked to a police officer who said the babysitter might have done something bad. Comparison of participant- and observer-condition performance indicated that participation increased free-recall accuracy concerning actions that took place and lowered suggestibility. Comparison of participant- and police-condition performance indicated that forensic context led to increased error in free recall and additional comments to misleading questions. However, forensic context also resulted in higher accuracy on an age-identification task and did not affect children's accuracy in answering abuse-related questions.