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Sample records for 40-42 tollised paneeltelerid

  1. 22 CFR 40.42-40.49 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 40.42-40.49 Section 40.42-40.49 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Public Charge §§ 40.42-40.49...

  2. 22 CFR 40.42-40.49 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 40.42-40.49 Section 40.42-40.49 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Public Charge §§ 40.42-40.49...

  3. 22 CFR 40.42-40.49 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false 40.42-40.49 Section 40.42-40.49 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Public Charge §§ 40.42-40.49...

  4. 22 CFR 40.42-40.49 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 40.42-40.49 Section 40.42-40.49 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Public Charge §§ 40.42-40.49...

  5. 22 CFR 40.42-40.49 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 40.42-40.49 Section 40.42-40.49 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Public Charge §§ 40.42-40.49...

  6. Characterization of Radionuclides in Waste Sludges from High Level Waste Tanks 40, 42, and 51

    SciTech Connect

    O'Bryant, R.F.

    2000-06-28

    This document will develop a radionuclide distribution for the sludge fraction of sludge-contaminated waste stored in High Level Waste Tanks 40, 42 and 51 in accordance with the methodology outlined in WAC 2.02 (Rev. 4). A single, comprehensive characterization for supernate has been developed previously (Reference 5). This distribution is based on the assumption that sludge-contaminated waste from tanks 40, 42 and 51 may be co-mingled, and the actual contamination present on waste in a series of containers from these tanks will be representative of the mean radionuclide distribution. This document also describes the methodology for application of radionuclide distributions representative of the sludge and supernate fractions of sludge-contaminated waste to individual waste packages.

  7. Truncated Amyloid-β(11–40/42) from Alzheimer Disease Binds Cu2+ with a Femtomolar Affinity and Influences Fiber Assembly*

    PubMed Central

    Barritt, Joseph D.; Viles, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer disease coincides with the formation of extracellular amyloid plaques composed of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide. Aβ is typically 40 residues long (Aβ(1–40)) but can have variable C and N termini. Naturally occurring N-terminally truncated Aβ(11–40/42) is found in the cerebrospinal fluid and has a similar abundance to Aβ(1–42), constituting one-fifth of the plaque load. Based on its specific N-terminal sequence we hypothesized that truncated Aβ(11–40/42) would have an elevated affinity for Cu2+. Various spectroscopic techniques, complemented with transmission electron microscopy, were used to determine the properties of the Cu2+-Aβ(11–40/42) interaction and how Cu2+ influences amyloid fiber formation. We show that Cu2+-Aβ(11–40) forms a tetragonal complex with a 34 ± 5 fm dissociation constant at pH 7.4. This affinity is 3 orders of magnitude tighter than Cu2+ binding to Aβ(1–40/42) and more than an order of magnitude tighter than that of serum albumin, the extracellular Cu2+ transport protein. Furthermore, Aβ(11–40/42) forms fibers twice as fast as Aβ(1–40) with a very different morphology, forming bundles of very short amyloid rods. Substoichiometric Cu2+ drastically perturbs Aβ(11–40/42) assembly, stabilizing much longer fibers. The very tight fm affinity of Cu2+ for Aβ(11–40/42) explains the high levels of Cu2+ observed in Alzheimer disease plaques. PMID:26408196

  8. Truncated Amyloid-β(11-40/42) from Alzheimer Disease Binds Cu2+ with a Femtomolar Affinity and Influences Fiber Assembly.

    PubMed

    Barritt, Joseph D; Viles, John H

    2015-11-13

    Alzheimer disease coincides with the formation of extracellular amyloid plaques composed of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide. Aβ is typically 40 residues long (Aβ(1-40)) but can have variable C and N termini. Naturally occurring N-terminally truncated Aβ(11-40/42) is found in the cerebrospinal fluid and has a similar abundance to Aβ(1-42), constituting one-fifth of the plaque load. Based on its specific N-terminal sequence we hypothesized that truncated Aβ(11-40/42) would have an elevated affinity for Cu(2+). Various spectroscopic techniques, complemented with transmission electron microscopy, were used to determine the properties of the Cu(2+)-Aβ(11-40/42) interaction and how Cu(2+) influences amyloid fiber formation. We show that Cu(2+)-Aβ(11-40) forms a tetragonal complex with a 34 ± 5 fm dissociation constant at pH 7.4. This affinity is 3 orders of magnitude tighter than Cu(2+) binding to Aβ(1-40/42) and more than an order of magnitude tighter than that of serum albumin, the extracellular Cu(2+) transport protein. Furthermore, Aβ(11-40/42) forms fibers twice as fast as Aβ(1-40) with a very different morphology, forming bundles of very short amyloid rods. Substoichiometric Cu(2+) drastically perturbs Aβ(11-40/42) assembly, stabilizing much longer fibers. The very tight fm affinity of Cu(2+) for Aβ(11-40/42) explains the high levels of Cu(2+) observed in Alzheimer disease plaques. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. The effect of a rise or fall of serum estradiol the day before oocyte retrieval in women aged 40-42 with diminished egg reserve.

    PubMed

    Check, J H; Amui, J; Choe, J K; Cohen, R

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effect of a drop in serum estradiol the day after injection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) cycles in women aged 40-42 with diminished oocyte reserve. Retrospective study with further requirement that the female partner had a day 3 serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) of ≥ 12 miU/mL and ≥ five antral follicles. A drop in serum estradiol the day after hCG injection is not associated with a lower chance of pregnancy compared to those women whose serum estradiol increases. However, their chances of releasing the oocyte before retrieval is significantly higher. A drop in serum estradiol in women of advanced reproductive age with diminished oocyte reserve should not signal the need to cancel the retrieval.

  10. Isotope shift of 40,42,44,48Ca in the 4s 2S1/2 → 4p 2P3/2 transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorges, C.; Blaum, K.; Frömmgen, N.; Geppert, Ch; Hammen, M.; Kaufmann, S.; Krämer, J.; Krieger, A.; Neugart, R.; Sánchez, R.; Nörtershäuser, W.

    2015-12-01

    We report on improved isotope shift measurements of the isotopes {}{40,42,{44,48}}Ca in the 4{{s}}{ }2{{{S}}}1/2\\to 4{{p}}{ }2{{{P}}}3/2 (D2) transition using collinear laser spectroscopy. Accurately known isotope shifts in the 4{{s}}{ }2{{{S}}}1/2\\to 4{{p}}{ }2{{{P}}}1/2(D1) transition were used to calibrate the ion beam energy with an uncertainty of {{Δ }}U≈ +/- 0.25 {{V}}. The accuracy in the D2 transition was improved by a factor of 5-10. A King-plot analysis of the two transitions revealed that the field shift factor in the D2 line is about 1.8(13)% larger than in the D1 transition which is ascribed to relativistic contributions of the 4{{{p}}}1/2 wave function.

  11. Brain Insulin Signaling Is Increased in Insulin-Resistant States and Decreases in FOXOs and PGC-1α and Increases in Aβ1-40/42 and Phospho-Tau May Abet Alzheimer Development.

    PubMed

    Sajan, Mini; Hansen, Barbara; Ivey, Robert; Sajan, Joshua; Ari, Csilla; Song, Shijie; Braun, Ursula; Leitges, Michael; Farese-Higgs, Margaret; Farese, Robert V

    2016-07-01

    Increased coexistence of Alzheimer disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) suggests that insulin resistance abets neurodegenerative processes, but linkage mechanisms are obscure. Here, we examined insulin signaling factors in brains of insulin-resistant high-fat-fed mice, ob/ob mice, mice with genetically impaired muscle glucose transport, and monkeys with diet-dependent long-standing obesity/T2DM. In each model, the resting/basal activities of insulin-regulated brain protein kinases, Akt and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC), were maximally increased. Moreover, Akt hyperactivation was accompanied by hyperphosphorylation of substrates glycogen synthase kinase-3β and mammalian target of rapamycin and FOXO proteins FOXO1, FOXO3A, and FOXO4 and decreased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) expression. Akt hyperactivation was confirmed in individual neurons of anterocortical and hippocampal regions that house cognition/memory centers. Remarkably, β-amyloid (Aβ1-40/42) peptide levels were as follows: increased in the short term by insulin in normal mice, increased basally in insulin-resistant mice and monkeys, and accompanied by diminished amyloid precursor protein in monkeys. Phosphorylated tau levels were increased in ob/ob mice and T2DM monkeys. Importantly, with correction of hyperinsulinemia by inhibition of hepatic aPKC and improvement in systemic insulin resistance, brain insulin signaling normalized. As FOXOs and PGC-1α are essential for memory and long-term neuronal function and regeneration and as Aβ1-40/42 and phospho-tau may increase interneuronal plaques and intraneuronal tangles, presently observed aberrations in hyperinsulinemic states may participate in linking insulin resistance to AD. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  12. Neutron single-particle strengths at N=40 , 42: Neutron knockout from Ni68,70 ground and isomeric states

    DOE PAGES

    Recchia, F.; Weisshaar, D.; Gade, A.; ...

    2016-11-28

    The distribution of single-particle strength in 67,69Ni was characterized with one-neutron knockout reactions from intermediate-energy 68,70Ni secondary beams, selectively populating neutron-hole configurations at N = 39 and 41, respectively. The spectroscopic strengths deduced from the measured partial cross sections to the individual final states, as tagged by their γ-ray decays, is used to identify and quantify neutron configurations in the wave functions. While 69Ni compares well to shell-model predictions, the results for 67Ni challenge the validity of current effective shell-model Hamiltonians by revealing discrepancies that cannot be explained so far. Furthermore, these results suggest that our understanding of the low-lyingmore » states in the neutron-rich, semi-magic Ni isotopes may be incomplete and requires further investigation on both the experimental and theoretical sides.« less

  13. Concentrations of antibodies against β-amyloid 40/42 monomer and oligomers in Chinese intravenous immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Ye, Shengliang; Zeng, Renyong; Jiang, Peng; Hou, Mingxia; Liu, Fengjuan; Wang, Zongkui; Du, Xi; Yuan, Jing; Chen, Yunhua; Cao, Haijun; Ma, Li; Li, Changqing

    2017-02-17

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) preparations are being investigated as a potential agent for treatment or prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Antibodies towards soluble β-amyloid (Aβ) contained in IVIg were considered to be the major component contributing to the beneficial effect of the preparations in pilot studies. This study compared the antibody concentrations against Aβ in Octagam(®) IVIg (Octapharma) and 9 IVIg preparations from different Chinese manufacturers by ELISA, using Aβ40 monomer, Aβ40 soluble oligomers, Aβ42 monomer and Aβ42 soluble oligomers as the antigens. The results showed that each preparation contained different antibody levels against the four Aβ forms. The median values of the four antibody concentrations in Chinese IVIg preparations were 16.53, 8.47, 24.36 and 33.25μg/mL, which were remarkably higher than that in Octagam(®) IVIg (1.66, 2.07, 4.61 and 4.64μg/mL). Moreover, the anti-Aβ42 oligomer antibody levels in almost all IVIg preparations were higher than the anti-Aβ42 monomer antibody, and the concentrations of anti-Aβ42 antibodies in most of the IVIg preparations were significantly higher than that of anti-Aβ40 antibodies. These findings will contribute to an increased understanding of the uniqueness of Chinese IVIg preparations, and could provide support for a trial of a Chinese IVIg product in AD patients.

  14. 10 CFR 40.42 - Expiration and termination of licenses and decommissioning of sites and separate buildings or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... could result in significantly greater airborne concentrations of radioactive materials than are present during operation; or (iv) Procedures could result in significantly greater releases of radioactive... allowing short-lived radionuclides to decay; (4) Whether a significant reduction in radiation exposure...

  15. 10 CFR 40.42 - Expiration and termination of licenses and decommissioning of sites and separate buildings or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... could result in significantly greater airborne concentrations of radioactive materials than are present during operation; or (iv) Procedures could result in significantly greater releases of radioactive... allowing short-lived radionuclides to decay; (4) Whether a significant reduction in radiation exposure...

  16. 10 CFR 40.42 - Expiration and termination of licenses and decommissioning of sites and separate buildings or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... could result in significantly greater airborne concentrations of radioactive materials than are present during operation; or (iv) Procedures could result in significantly greater releases of radioactive... allowing short-lived radionuclides to decay; (4) Whether a significant reduction in radiation exposure...

  17. 10 CFR 40.42 - Expiration and termination of licenses and decommissioning of sites and separate buildings or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... could result in significantly greater airborne concentrations of radioactive materials than are present during operation; or (iv) Procedures could result in significantly greater releases of radioactive... allowing short-lived radionuclides to decay; (4) Whether a significant reduction in radiation exposure...

  18. 10 CFR 40.42 - Expiration and termination of licenses and decommissioning of sites and separate buildings or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... could result in significantly greater airborne concentrations of radioactive materials than are present during operation; or (iv) Procedures could result in significantly greater releases of radioactive... allowing short-lived radionuclides to decay; (4) Whether a significant reduction in radiation exposure...

  19. Neutron single-particle strengths at N =40 , 42: Neutron knockout from Ni,7068 ground and isomeric states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recchia, F.; Weisshaar, D.; Gade, A.; Tostevin, J. A.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Albers, M.; Bader, V. M.; Baugher, T.; Bazin, D.; Berryman, J. S.; Brown, B. A.; Campbell, C. M.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chen, J.; Chiara, C. J.; Crawford, H. L.; Hoffman, C. R.; Kondev, F. G.; Korichi, A.; Langer, C.; Lauritsen, T.; Liddick, S. N.; Lunderberg, E.; Noji, S.; Prokop, C.; Stroberg, S. R.; Suchyta, S.; Wimmer, K.; Zhu, S.

    2016-11-01

    The distribution of single-particle strength in Ni,6967 was characterized with one-neutron knockout reactions from intermediate-energy Ni,7068 secondary beams, selectively populating neutron-hole configurations at N =39 and 41, respectively. The spectroscopic strengths deduced from the measured partial cross sections to the individual final states, as tagged by their γ -ray decays, are used to identify and quantify neutron configurations in the wave functions. While 69Ni compares well with shell-model predictions, the results for 67Ni challenge the validity of current effective shell-model Hamiltonians by revealing discrepancies that cannot be explained so far. These results suggest that our understanding of the low-lying states in the neutron-rich, semimagic Ni isotopes may be incomplete and requires further investigation on both the experimental and theoretical sides.

  20. Familial Alzheimer's disease Osaka mutant (ΔE22) β-barrels suggest an explanation for the different Aβ1-40/42 preferred conformational states observed by experiment.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyunbum; Arce, Fernando Teran; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Kagan, Bruce L; Lal, Ratnesh; Nussinov, Ruth

    2013-10-03

    An unusual ΔE693 mutation in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) producing a β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide lacking glutamic acid at position 22 (Glu22) was recently discovered, and dabbed the Osaka mutant (ΔE22). Previously, several point mutations in the Aβ peptide involving Glu22 substitutions were identified and implicated in the early onset of familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD). Despite the absence of Glu22, the Osaka mutant is also associated with FAD, showing a recessive inheritance in families affected by the disease. To see whether this aggregation-prone Aβ mutant could directly relate to the Aβ ion channel-mediated mechanism as observed for the wild type (WT) Aβ peptide in AD pathology, we modeled Osaka mutant β-barrels in a lipid bilayer. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, two conformer ΔE22 barrels with the U-shaped monomer conformation derived from NMR-based WT Aβ fibrils were simulated in explicit lipid environment. Here, we show that the ΔE22 barrels obtain the lipid-relaxed β-sheet channel topology, indistinguishable from the WT Aβ1-42 barrels, as do the outer and pore dimensions of octadecameric (18-mer) ΔE22 barrels. Although the ΔE22 barrels lose the cationic binding site in the pore which is normally provided by the negatively charged Glu22 side chains, the mutant pores gain a new cationic binding site by Glu11 at the lower bilayer leaflet, and exhibit ion fluctuations similar to the WT barrels. Of particular interest, this deletion mutant suggests that toxic WT Aβ1-42 would preferentially adopt a less C-terminal turn similar to that observed for Aβ17-42, and explains why the solid state NMR data for Aβ1-40 point to a more C-terminal turn conformation. The observed ΔE22 barrels conformational preferences also suggest an explanation for the lower neurotoxicity in rat primary neurons as compared to WT Aβ1-42.

  1. PyroGlu-Aβ and Glutaminyl Cyclase are Co-Localized with Aβ in Secretory Vesicles and Undergo Activity-Dependent Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Cynis, Holger; Funkelstein, Lydiane; Toneff, Thomas; Mosier, Charles; Ziegler, Michael; Koch, Britta; Demuth, Hans-Ulrich; Hook, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims N-truncated pGlu-Aβ(3-40/42) peptides are key components that promote Aβ peptide accumulation, leading to neurodegeneration and memory loss in Alzheimer’s disease. Because Aβ deposition in brain occurs in an activity-dependent manner, it is important to define the subcellular organelle for pGlu-Aβ(3-40/42) production by glutaminyl cyclase, and their localization with full-length Aβ(1-40/42) peptides for regulated secretion. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that pGlu-Aβ and glutaminyl cyclase (QC) are co-localized with Aβ in secretory vesicles (DCSV) for activity-dependent secretion with neurotransmitters. Methods Purified DCSV was assessed for pGlu-Aβ(3-40/42), Aβ(1-40/42), QC, and neurotransmitters. Neuronal-like chromaffin cells were analyzed for co-secretion of pGlu-Aβ, QC, Aβ, and neuropeptides. Cells were treated with a QC inhibitor and pGlu-Aβ was measured. Human neuroblastoma cells were also examined for pGlu-Aβ and QC. Results Isolated DCSV contain pGlu-Aβ(3-40/42), QC, and Aβ(1-40/42) with neuropeptide and catecholamine neurotransmitters. Cellular pGlu-Aβ(3-40/42) and QC undergo activity-dependent co-secretion with Aβ(1-40/42) and enkephalin and galanin neurotransmitters. A QC inhibitor decreased levels of pGlu-Aβ. Human neuroblastoma cells displayed regulated secretion of pGlu-Aβ that is co-localized with QC. Conclusions PyroGlu-Aβ and QC are present with Aβ in DCSV, and undergo activity-dependent, regulated co-secretion with neurotransmitters. PMID:24943989

  2. An Analytic Framework for the War of Ideas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    Poonen, B., & Poonen, G. (1997). How to spread rumors fast. Mathematics Magazine, 70(1), 40-42. Goffman , W., & Newill, V. (1964). Generalization...of epidemic theory: An application to the transmission of ideas. Nature, 204, 225-228. Goffman , W., & Newill, V. A. (1967). Communication and

  3. 78 FR 24677 - Safety Zone; XA The Experimental Agency Fireworks, Pier 34, East River, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... Pier 34, Manhattan, NY. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect spectators and vessels from... navigable waters of the East River, in the vicinity of Pier 34, Manhattan, NY. All persons and vessels shall... position 40 42'28.5'' N, 073 59'9.9'' W, approximately 182 yards south east of Pier 34, Manhattan, NY. (b...

  4. 9 CFR 147.15 - Laboratory procedure recommended for the bacteriological examination of mycoplasma reactors. 12

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Chairman, Charles H. Domermuth, H. Graham Purchase, James E. Williams.) 1980, pp. 40-42, Creative Printing... discarding as negative. When growth is first observed or if no growth occurs by the 4th or 5th day of... Scientific Company. (4) Mycoplasma Broth Base, dextrose, phenol red, and cysteine hydrochloride are added...

  5. Lightweight Portable Plasma Medical Device - Plasma Engineering Research Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    quantum numbers of electronic...considering the low rotational level of the OH radicals OH (A-X) and small rotational quantum numbers J. 15, 40-42 The Boltzmann plot of the rotational...2004 – 05. Scientific Consultant, ASI Technology Corporation. (June 2003 - June 2004).  Designed and developed a novel plasma stealth

  6. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 46-A-1). Public works Navy Yard Mare Island California "remodeling building 36, 40, 42, and 48 for pipe and copper shop, general plan building 46;" November 13, 1931. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Smithery, California Avenue, west side at California Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  7. Chemical-Material Compatibility Study With Initial Decon Green Formulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-01

    Scientific M17A2 /24 /25A1 mask faceblank 9 Polyphenylene oxide (thermoplastic) PPO Harbor City Plastics M40/42 mask canister component 10...Activation of Hydrogen Peroxide: Oxidation of Sulfides by Peroxymonocarbonates,” J. Am. Chem. Soc., Vol. 122, pp 1729 – 1740, 2000. 4. Shuely, Wendel J

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Neurospora crassa Strain FGSC 73

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Scott E.; Schackwitz, Wendy; Lipzen, Anna; Martin, Joel; Haridas, Sajeet; LaButti, Kurt; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Simmons, Blake A.; McCluskey, Kevin

    2015-03-05

    We report the elucidation of the complete genome of the Neurospora crassa (Shear and Dodge) strain FGSC 73, a mat-a, trp-3 mutant strain. The genome sequence around the idiotypic mating type locus represents the only publicly available sequence for a mat-a strain. 40.42 Megabases are assembled into 358 scaffolds carrying 11,978 gene models.

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Neurospora crassa Strain FGSC 73

    DOE PAGES

    Baker, Scott E.; Schackwitz, Wendy; Lipzen, Anna; ...

    2015-04-02

    We report the elucidation of the complete genome of the Neurospora crassa (Shear and Dodge) strain FGSC 73, a mat-a, trp-3 mutant strain. The genome sequence around the idiotypic mating type locus represents the only publicly available sequence for a mat-a strain. 40.42 Megabases are assembled into 358 scaffolds carrying 11,978 gene models.

  10. People Crossing Borders: An Analysis of U.S. Border Protection Policies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-13

    Publications, 2010). 41 See footnote 40. 42 This layering is sometimes referred to as a “Swiss Cheese Model” (see footnote 40). 43 Two assumptions...the strong conclusions ringing from academic circles on the ineffectiveness of the current border protection approach, analysis of open source data

  11. 40 CFR 52.220 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Rules 40, 42, 43, and 44. (5) Ventura County Air Pollution Control District. (i) Previously approved on... (“State Statutes and other Legal Documents Pertinent to Air Pollution Control in California”) to chapter 7. (13) El Dorado County Air Pollution Control District. (i) Previously approved on May 31, 1972...

  12. 40 CFR 52.220 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Rules 40, 42, 43, and 44. (5) Ventura County Air Pollution Control District. (i) Previously approved on... contained in appendix II (“State Statutes and other Legal Documents Pertinent to Air Pollution Control in California”) to chapter 7. (13) El Dorado County Air Pollution Control District. (i) Previously approved...

  13. Brain pyroglutamate amyloid-β is produced by cathepsin B and is reduced by the cysteine protease inhibitor E64d, representing a potential Alzheimer's disease therapeutic.

    PubMed

    Hook, Gregory; Yu, Jin; Toneff, Thomas; Kindy, Mark; Hook, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    Pyroglutamate amyloid-β peptides (pGlu-Aβ) are particularly pernicious forms of amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) present in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains. pGlu-Aβ peptides are N-terminally truncated forms of full-length Aβ peptides (flAβ(1-40/42)) in which the N-terminal glutamate is cyclized to pyroglutamate to generate pGlu-Aβ(3-40/42). β-secretase cleavage of amyloid-β precursor protein (AβPP) produces flAβ(1-40/42), but it is not yet known whether the β-secretase BACE1 or the alternative β-secretase cathepsin B (CatB) participate in the production of pGlu-Aβ. Therefore, this study examined the effects of gene knockout of these proteases on brain pGlu-Aβ levels in transgenic AβPPLon mice, which express AβPP isoform 695 and have the wild-type (wt) β-secretase activity found in most AD patients. Knockout or overexpression of the CatB gene reduced or increased, respectively, pGlu-Aβ(3-40/42), flAβ(1-40/42), and pGlu-Aβ plaque load, but knockout of the BACE1 gene had no effect on those parameters in the transgenic mice. Treatment of AβPPLon mice with E64d, a cysteine protease inhibitor of CatB, also reduced brain pGlu-Aβ(3-42), flAβ(1-40/42), and pGlu-Aβ plaque load. Treatment of neuronal-like chromaffin cells with CA074Me, an inhibitor of CatB, resulted in reduced levels of pGlu-Aβ(3-40) released from the activity-dependent, regulated secretory pathway. Moreover, CatB knockout and E64d treatment has been previously shown to improve memory deficits in the AβPPLon mice. These data illustrate the role of CatB in producing pGlu-Aβ and flAβ that participate as key factors in the development of AD. The advantages of CatB inhibitors, especially E64d and its derivatives, as alternatives to BACE1 inhibitors in treating AD patients are discussed.

  14. Application of relativistic mean field and effective field theory densities to scattering observables for Ca isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Bhuyan, M.; Panda, R. N.; Routray, T. R.; Patra, S. K.

    2010-12-15

    In the framework of relativistic mean field (RMF) theory, we have calculated the density distribution of protons and neutrons for {sup 40,42,44,48}Ca with NL3 and G2 parameter sets. The microscopic proton-nucleus optical potentials for p+{sup 40,42,44,48}Ca systems are evaluated from the Dirac nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitude and the density of the target nucleus using relativistic-Love-Franey and McNeil-Ray-Wallace parametrizations. We have estimated the scattering observables, such as the elastic differential scattering cross section, analyzing power and the spin observables with the relativistic impulse approximation (RIA). The results have been compared with the experimental data for a few selective cases and we find that the use of density as well as the scattering matrix parametrizations are crucial for the theoretical prediction.

  15. Turbine blade platform seal

    SciTech Connect

    Zagar, Thomas W.; Schiavo, Anthony L.

    2001-01-01

    A rotating blade group 90 for a turbo-machine having an improved device for sealing the gap 110 between the edges 112,114 of adjacent blade platforms 96,104. The gap 110 between adjacent blades 92,100 is sealed by a seal pin 20 its central portion 110 and by a seal plate 58,60 at each of the front 54 and rear 56 portions. The seal plates 58,60 are inserted into corresponding grooves 62,64 formed in the adjacent edges 112,114 of adjoining blades 92,100 and held in place by end plates 40,42. The end of the seal plates 58,60 may be chamfered 78,80 to improve the seal against the end plate 40,42. The seal pin 20 provides the required damping between the blades 92,100 and the seal plates 58,60 provide improved sealing effectiveness.

  16. Radiation source for helium magnetometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slocum, Robert E. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A radiation source (12) for optical magnetometers (10) which use helium isotopes as the resonance element (30) includes an electronically pumped semiconductor laser (12) which produces a single narrow line of radiation which is frequency stabilized to the center frequency of the helium resonance line to be optically pumped. The frequency stabilization is accomplished using electronic feedback (34, 40, 42, 44) to control a current sources (20) thus eliminating the need for mechanical frequency tuning.

  17. Discrete Molecular Dynamics Study of Oligomer Formation by N-Terminally Truncated Amyloid β-Protein

    PubMed Central

    Meral, Derya; Urbanc, Brigita

    2013-01-01

    In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), amyloid β-protein (Aβ) self–assembles into toxic oligomers. Of the two predominant Aβ alloforms, Aβ1–40 and Aβ1–42, the latter is particularly strongly linked to AD. N-terminally truncated and pyroglutamated Aβ peptides were recently shown to seed Aβ aggregation and contribute significantly to Aβ–mediated toxicity, yet their folding and assembly were not explored computationally. Discrete molecular dynamics (DMD) approach previously captured in vitro–derived distinct Aβ1–40 and Aβ1–42 oligomer size distributions and predicted that the more toxic Aβ1–42 oligomers had more flexible and solvent exposed N-termini than Aβ1–40 oligomers. Here, we examined oligomer formation of Aβ3–40, Aβ3–42, Aβ11–40, and Aβ11–42 by the DMD approach. The four N-terminally truncated peptides showed increased oligomerization propensity relative to the full–length peptides, consistent with in vitro findings. Conformations formed by Aβ3–40/42 had significantly more flexible and solvent–exposed N-termini than Aβ1–40/42 conformations. In contrast, in Aβ11–40/42 conformations the N-termini formed more contacts and were less accessible to the solvent. The compactness of the Aβ11–40/42 conformations was in part facilitated by Val12. Two single amino acid substitutions that reduced and abolished hydrophobicity at position 12, respectively, resulted in a proportionally increased structural variability. Our results suggest that Aβ11–40 and Aβ11–42 oligomers might be less toxic than Aβ1–40 and Aβ1–42 oligomers and offer a plausible explanation for the experimentally–observed increased toxicity of Aβ3–40 and Aβ3–42 and their pyroglutamated forms. PMID:23500806

  18. An optimized efficient dual junction InGaN/CIGS solar cell: A numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhadi, Bita; Naseri, Mosayeb

    2016-08-01

    The photovoltaic performance of an efficient double junction InGaN/CIGS solar cell including a CdS antireflector top cover layer is studied using Silvaco ATLAS software. In this study, to gain a desired structure, the different design parameters, including the CIGS various band gaps, the doping concentration and the thickness of CdS layer are optimized. The simulation indicates that under current matching condition, an optimum efficiency of 40.42% is achieved.

  19. Chemical-milling solution for invar alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batiuk, W.

    1980-01-01

    Excellent surface finishes and tolerances are achieved using two formulations. Solution A gives finish of 3.17 micrometers after milling at 57 to 63 deg C. Constituents of A are: Hydrofluoric acid (70%), 5,8 oz/gal; nitric acid (40-42) degrees Baume), 40 oz/gal. Alternative solution gives 2.16 micrometer finish, and differs from A by addition of 7% phosphoric acid. Formulations eliminate channeling at root fillets, dishing, island formation, and overhangs.

  20. Modulation of the humoral and cellular immune response in Abeta immunotherapy by the adjuvants monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and E. coli enterotoxin LT(R192G).

    PubMed

    Maier, Marcel; Seabrook, Timothy J; Lemere, Cynthia A

    2005-10-25

    Abeta vaccination or passive transfer of human-specific anti-Abeta antibodies are approaches under investigation to prevent and/or treat Alzheimer's disease (AD). Successful active Abeta vaccination requires a strong and safe adjuvant to induce anti-Abeta antibody formation. We compared the adjuvants monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL)/trehalose dicorynomycolate (TDM), cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin LT(R192G) for their ability to induce a humoral and cellular immune reaction, using fibrillar Abeta1-40/42 as a common immunogen in wildtype B6D2F1 mice. Subcutaneous (s.c.) administration with MPL/TDM resulted in anti-Abeta antibodies levels up to four times higher compared to s.c. LT(R192G). Using MPL/TDM, the anti-Abeta antibodies induced were mainly IgG2b, IgG1 and lower levels of IgG2a and IgM, with a moderate splenocyte proliferation and IFN-gamma production in vitro upon stimulation with Abeta1-40/42. LT(R192G), previously shown by us to induce robust titers of anti-Abeta antibodies, generated predominantly IgG2b and IgG1 anti-Abeta antibodies with very low splenocyte proliferation and IFN-gamma production. Weekly intranasal (i.n.) administration over 11 weeks of Abeta40/42 with CTB induced only moderate levels of antibodies. All immunogens generated antibodies that recognized mainly the Abeta1-7 epitope and specifically detected amyloid plaques on AD brain sections. In conclusion, MPL/TDM, in addition to LT(R192G), is an effective adjuvant when combined with Abeta40/42 and may aid in the design of Abeta immunotherapy.

  1. Structural Uncertainties in Numerical Induction Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping MAUT: Multi-Attribute Utility Theory MCDM: Multi-Criteria Decision Making MOE: Measure of Effectiveness OWA...these decision theoretics can be found in texts such as [1,31,33,40,42,45,62,87,94,100]. 6.4.1 Multi-Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT) This is a...Neumann and Morganstern [89] axiomatised expected utility theory and thus laid the foundations of MAUT, as applied to econometrics. Accordingly, the

  2. Management Engineering Team Application of Officer Grade Requirements Method.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    SERVICE AUVK W/o L0 2/1-t E31 Cet 013 USAFSO0 L W/o Eo 0 /Lt 02 (40 42) AFRES 0M SEX 2lLt 031 (check one) Hq USAF 0N Li 1 AFDAA 0 0...Military Justice Division, AF Missile Test Center LEVEL 2 SpcL ial Services Officer, Air Base Gp Phim acy Officer, USAF Hospital St~ Ch(laplain

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Neurospora crassa Strain FGSC 73

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Scott E.; Schackwitz, Wendy; Lipzen, Anna; Martin, Joel; Haridas, Sajeet; LaButti, Kurt; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Simmons, Blake A.; McCluskey, Kevin

    2015-04-02

    We report the elucidation of the complete genome of the Neurospora crassa (Shear and Dodge) strain FGSC 73, a mat-a, trp-3 mutant strain. The genome sequence around the idiotypic mating type locus represents the only publicly available sequence for a mat-a strain. 40.42 Megabases are assembled into 358 scaffolds carrying 11,978 gene models.

  4. Modification of catalase by chondroitin sulfate.

    PubMed

    Maksimenko, A V; Tischenko, E G

    1997-10-01

    Catalase was chemically modified by sodium chondroitin sulfate using the benzoquinone binding method. Thus, 40-42% of the catalase preparation was modified. Treatment of catalase and superoxide dismutase with benzoquinone-activated chondroitin sulfate results in a bienzymic conjugate with electrophoretically heterogenous composition. The yield of the products and their residual catalytic activity indicate that the method can be used for the preparation of modified catalase and the bienzymic conjugate to study their efficiency in vivo.

  5. Comparative studies on temperature threshold for heat shock protein 70 induction in young and adult Murrah buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Haque, N; Ludri, A; Hossain, S A; Ashutosh, M

    2012-10-01

    To know the temperature threshold for heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) induction in lymphocytes and to assess physiological changes, if any, in relation to HSP70 induction in young and adult Murrah buffaloes, this study was divided into two parts: I. In vivo study: where assay of HSP70 was performed in blood samples collected from acutely exposed young and adult Murrah buffaloes (n = 6) inside a climatic chamber at 40, 42 and 45 °C for 4 h and thermoneutral temperature (22 °C). Physiological parameters viz., rectal temperature, respiratory rate, pulse rate and skin temperature of different body parts were monitored to assess magnitude of stress in the animals owing to thermal exposure II. For in vitro study, equal numbers of lymphocyte cells were separated from blood collected from young and adult buffaloes and were subjected to four temperature treatments (38, 40, 42 and 45 °C) for 4 h. A significant increase (p < 0.05) in all the physiological parameters in both young and adult buffaloes was observed after exposure to 40, 42 and 45 °C for 4 h as compared to 38 °C. The average plasma HSP70 concentrations (ng/ml) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) at 40, 42 and 45 °C as compared to 38 °C in both young and adult and were higher in young than adult buffaloes at 38 and 45 °C. Heat shock protein 70 level in lymphocyte lysate showed highest concentration after 3-h exposure to all temperatures (40, 42 and 45 °C) in both young and adult buffaloes. The intensity of changes of all physiological parameters was more in young animals than in the adults indicating the greater susceptibility of younger animals to heat stress and was found to be changed at around 40 °C when animals were exposed to different temperatures, indicating the possibility that HSP70 production may be initiated at this temperature which is 2 or 3 °C higher than core body temperature. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Gram-negative bacterial molecules associate with Alzheimer disease pathology

    PubMed Central

    Stamova, Boryana; Jin, Lee-Way; DeCarli, Charles; Phinney, Brett; Sharp, Frank R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We determined whether Gram-negative bacterial molecules are associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) neuropathology given that previous studies demonstrate Gram-negative Escherichia coli bacteria can form extracellular amyloid and Gram-negative bacteria have been reported as the predominant bacteria found in normal human brains. Methods: Brain samples from gray and white matter were studied from patients with AD (n = 24) and age-matched controls (n = 18). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and E coli K99 pili protein were evaluated by Western blots and immunocytochemistry. Human brain samples were assessed for E coli DNA followed by DNA sequencing. Results: LPS and E coli K99 were detected immunocytochemically in brain parenchyma and vessels in all AD and control brains. K99 levels measured using Western blots were greater in AD compared to control brains (p < 0.01) and K99 was localized to neuron-like cells in AD but not control brains. LPS levels were also greater in AD compared to control brain. LPS colocalized with Aβ1-40/42 in amyloid plaques and with Aβ1-40/42 around vessels in AD brains. DNA sequencing confirmed E coli DNA in human control and AD brains. Conclusions: E coli K99 and LPS levels were greater in AD compared to control brains. LPS colocalized with Aβ1-40/42 in amyloid plaques and around vessels in AD brain. The data show that Gram-negative bacterial molecules are associated with AD neuropathology. They are consistent with our LPS-ischemia-hypoxia rat model that produces myelin aggregates that colocalize with Aβ and resemble amyloid-like plaques. PMID:27784770

  7. Key aromatic/hydrophobic amino acids controlling a cross-amyloid peptide interaction versus amyloid self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Bakou, Maria; Hille, Kathleen; Kracklauer, Michael; Spanopoulou, Anna; Frost, Christina V; Malideli, Eleni; Yan, Li-Mei; Caporale, Andrea; Zacharias, Martin; Kapurniotu, Aphrodite

    2017-09-01

    The interaction of the intrinsically disordered polypeptide islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), which is associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), with the Alzheimer's disease amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide modulates their self-assembly into amyloid fibrils and may link the pathogeneses of these two cell-degenerative diseases. However, the molecular determinants of this interaction remain elusive. Using a systematic alanine scan approach, fluorescence spectroscopy, and other biophysical methods, including heterocomplex pulldown assays, far-UV CD spectroscopy, the thioflavin T binding assay, transmission EM, and molecular dynamics simulations, here we identified single aromatic/hydrophobic residues within the amyloid core IAPP region as hot spots or key residues of its cross-interaction with Aβ40(42) peptide. Importantly, we also find that none of these residues in isolation plays a key role in IAPP self-assembly, whereas simultaneous substitution of four aromatic/hydrophobic residues with Ala dramatically impairs both IAPP self-assembly and hetero-assembly with Aβ40(42). Furthermore, our experiments yielded several novel IAPP analogs, whose sequences are highly similar to that of IAPP but have distinct amyloid self- or cross-interaction potentials. The identified similarities and major differences controlling IAPP cross-peptide interaction with Aβ40(42) versus its amyloid self-assembly offer a molecular basis for understanding the underlying mechanisms. We propose that these insights will aid in designing intervention strategies and novel IAPP analogs for the management of type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, or other diseases related to IAPP dysfunction or cross-amyloid interactions. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Differences in GABA-induced chloride ion influx in brain of inbred mouse strains

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, O.; Chiu, T.H.; Rosenberg, H.C.

    1986-03-01

    Audiogenic seizure-susceptible (AS) mice (DBA2J) are a widely used model of epilepsy. The precise pathophysiology of this mouse strain is not fully understood. One of the proposed mechanisms was a difference in GABA/BZ receptor affinity and population from that of audiogenic seizure resistant (ASR) mice. This study attempted to determine the difference in function of GABA/BZ receptor between DBA2J (AS) and C57BL6J (ASR) mice by directly measuring the GABA-induced chloride ion (/sup 36/Cl/sup -/) influx in twice washed crude brain homogenates. /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ influx was terminated by ice-cold buffer and collected by filtration. A concentration range of 2-1000 ..mu..M GABA and two age-matched groups (20-22 days and 40-42 days) were used. GABA-induced /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ influx was dose-dependent, and brain homogenates from DBA2J mice (20-22 days) were less sensitive to GABA-induced Cl/sup -/ ion influx than C57BL6J mice at both age groups. However, in older DBA2J mice (40-42 days), the sensitivity to GABA was intermediate between that of the younger AS mice and the control ASR mice. No significant difference in basal influx of Cl/sup -/ was observed between age groups and mouse strains, nor was there any significant difference between 20-22 days old and 40-42 days old C57BL6J mice. In conclusion, this study had demonstrated a malfunction may recover with age.

  9. Gram-negative bacterial molecules associate with Alzheimer disease pathology.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xinhua; Stamova, Boryana; Jin, Lee-Way; DeCarli, Charles; Phinney, Brett; Sharp, Frank R

    2016-11-29

    We determined whether Gram-negative bacterial molecules are associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) neuropathology given that previous studies demonstrate Gram-negative Escherichia coli bacteria can form extracellular amyloid and Gram-negative bacteria have been reported as the predominant bacteria found in normal human brains. Brain samples from gray and white matter were studied from patients with AD (n = 24) and age-matched controls (n = 18). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and E coli K99 pili protein were evaluated by Western blots and immunocytochemistry. Human brain samples were assessed for E coli DNA followed by DNA sequencing. LPS and E coli K99 were detected immunocytochemically in brain parenchyma and vessels in all AD and control brains. K99 levels measured using Western blots were greater in AD compared to control brains (p < 0.01) and K99 was localized to neuron-like cells in AD but not control brains. LPS levels were also greater in AD compared to control brain. LPS colocalized with Aβ1-40/42 in amyloid plaques and with Aβ1-40/42 around vessels in AD brains. DNA sequencing confirmed E coli DNA in human control and AD brains. E coli K99 and LPS levels were greater in AD compared to control brains. LPS colocalized with Aβ1-40/42 in amyloid plaques and around vessels in AD brain. The data show that Gram-negative bacterial molecules are associated with AD neuropathology. They are consistent with our LPS-ischemia-hypoxia rat model that produces myelin aggregates that colocalize with Aβ and resemble amyloid-like plaques. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  10. Study of Wireless Transmission Protocol Technology for Use in Flight Line Environment to Assist the Data Loading and Downloading on Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    AGM-45 Shrike and the AGM-88A HARM, and like the Block 25, it can carry the AGM-65 Maverick . Block 40/42 (F-16CG/DG) gained capabilities for... Malaysia (Malaya) on the 9th of August 1965. Initially, air defense responsibilities fell on the shoulders of the Royal Air Force (RAF) with assets...consisting of Singapore, Malaysia , Australia, New 56 Zealand and the UK, being set up in early 1971, the SADC was ready to take over the reins of

  11. A perfect liftoff of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - Framed between the branches of a tree, Space Shuttle Endeavour is hurtled into space on mission STS-100. Liftoff of Endeavour on the ninth flight to the International Space Station occurred at 2:40:42 p.m. EDT. The 11- day mission will deliver and integrate the Spacelab Logistics Pallet/Launch Deployment Assembly, which includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator System and the UHF Antenna. The mission includes two planned spacewalks for installation of the SSRMS on the Station. Also onboard is the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, carrying resupply stowage racks and resupply/return stowage platforms.

  12. A perfect liftoff of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - Trailing a plume of smoke, Space Shuttle Endeavour pierces a small cloud, briefly lighting it from within, during launch on mission STS-100. Liftoff of the ninth flight to the International Space Station occurred at 2:40:42 p.m. EDT. The 11-day mission will deliver and integrate the Spacelab Logistics Pallet/Launch Deployment Assembly, which includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator System and the UHF Antenna. The mission includes two planned spacewalks for installation of the SSRMS on the Station. Also onboard is the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, carrying resupply stowage racks and resupply/return stowage platforms.

  13. A perfect liftoff of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - The brilliant exhaust of Space Shuttle Endeavour as it lifts off Launch Pad 39A reflects in the nearby water. Liftoff of STS-100 on the ninth flight to the International Space Station occurred at 2:40:42 p.m. EDT. The 11- day mission will deliver and integrate the Spacelab Logistics Pallet/Launch Deployment Assembly, which includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator System and the UHF Antenna. The mission includes two planned spacewalks for installation of the SSRMS on the Station. Also onboard is the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, carrying resupply stowage racks and resupply/return stowage platforms.

  14. A perfect liftoff of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - Space Shuttle Endeavour races into space, springing forth from clouds of smoke and steam, on mission STS-100. Liftoff of the ninth flight to the International Space Station occurred at 2:40:42 p.m. EDT. The 11-day mission will deliver and integrate the Spacelab Logistics Pallet/Launch Deployment Assembly, which includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator System and the UHF Antenna. The mission includes two planned spacewalks for installation of the SSRMS on the Station. Also onboard is the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, carrying resupply stowage racks and resupply/return stowage platforms.

  15. A perfect liftoff of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - Space Shuttle Endeavour leaps from Launch Pad 39A amid billows of smoke and steam as it races into space on mission STS-100. Liftoff of Endeavour on the ninth flight to the International Space Station occurred at 2:40:42 p.m. EDT. The 11-day mission will deliver and integrate the Spacelab Logistics Pallet/Launch Deployment Assembly, which includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator System and the UHF Antenna. The mission includes two planned spacewalks for installation of the SSRMS on the Station. Also onboard is the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, carrying resupply stowage racks and resupply/return stowage platforms.

  16. A perfect liftoff of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - Space Shuttle Endeavour lifts off amid streaming jets of water and steam on mission STS-100. In the background is the Atlantic Ocean. Liftoff of Endeavour on the ninth flight to the International Space Station occurred at 2:40:42 p.m. EDT. The 11-day mission will deliver and integrate the Spacelab Logistics Pallet/Launch Deployment Assembly, which includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator System and the UHF Antenna. The mission includes two planned spacewalks for installation of the SSRMS on the Station. Also onboard is the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, carrying resupply stowage racks and resupply/return stowage platforms.

  17. A perfect liftoff of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - Flames from Space Shuttle Endeavour light up the clouds as the Shuttle races into space on mission STS-100. Liftoff of Endeavour on the ninth flight to the International Space Station occurred at 2:40:42 p.m. EDT. The 11- day mission will deliver and integrate the Spacelab Logistics Pallet/Launch Deployment Assembly, which includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator System and the UHF Antenna. The mission includes two planned spacewalks for installation of the SSRMS on the Station. Also onboard is the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, carrying resupply stowage racks and resupply/return stowage platforms.

  18. A perfect liftoff of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - Spring leaves frame Space Shuttle Endeavour as the water captures the launch of mission STS-100. Liftoff of Endeavour on the ninth flight to the International Space Station occurred at 2:40:42 p.m. EDT. The 11-day mission will deliver and integrate the Spacelab Logistics Pallet/Launch Deployment Assembly, which includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator System and the UHF Antenna. The mission includes two planned spacewalks for installation of the SSRMS on the Station. Also onboard is the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, carrying resupply stowage racks and resupply/return stowage platforms.

  19. Modulation Response of Twin Optically Coupled Diode Lasers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-27

    the past year and a half. I would also like to thank Dr . Kovanis and Maj. Niday for their wisdom and guidance. v Table of Contents Page Abstract...set of subscripts to arrive at dR dt̂ = N̂R (40) dθ dt̂ = −αN̂ (41) T dN̂ dt̂ = P̂ − N̂ − (1 + 2N̂)R2. (42) To find the infinitesimal modulation...response Equations (40-42) are linearized about their steady state values. The steady state values are found by equating dR dt in Equa- tion (40) to zero

  20. A perfect liftoff of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - Flames from Space Shuttle Endeavour light up the clouds as the Shuttle races into space on mission STS-100. Liftoff of Endeavour on the ninth flight to the International Space Station occurred at 2:40:42 p.m. EDT. The 11- day mission will deliver and integrate the Spacelab Logistics Pallet/Launch Deployment Assembly, which includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator System and the UHF Antenna. The mission includes two planned spacewalks for installation of the SSRMS on the Station. Also onboard is the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, carrying resupply stowage racks and resupply/return stowage platforms.

  1. A perfect liftoff of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - Space Shuttle Endeavour leaps from Launch Pad 39A amid billows of smoke and steam as it races into space on mission STS-100. Liftoff of Endeavour on the ninth flight to the International Space Station occurred at 2:40:42 p.m. EDT. The 11-day mission will deliver and integrate the Spacelab Logistics Pallet/Launch Deployment Assembly, which includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator System and the UHF Antenna. The mission includes two planned spacewalks for installation of the SSRMS on the Station. Also onboard is the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, carrying resupply stowage racks and resupply/return stowage platforms.

  2. KSC01PP0829

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-04-19

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Space Shuttle Endeavour leaps from Launch Pad 39A amid billows of smoke and steam as it races into space on mission STS-100. Liftoff of Endeavour on the ninth flight to the International Space Station occurred at 2:40:42 p.m. EDT. The 11-day mission will deliver and integrate the Spacelab Logistics Pallet/Launch Deployment Assembly, which includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator System and the UHF Antenna. The mission includes two planned spacewalks for installation of the SSRMS on the Station. Also onboard is the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, carrying resupply stowage racks and resupply/return stowage platforms

  3. A perfect liftoff of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - Space Shuttle Endeavour races into space, springing forth from clouds of smoke and steam, on mission STS-100. Liftoff of the ninth flight to the International Space Station occurred at 2:40:42 p.m. EDT. The 11-day mission will deliver and integrate the Spacelab Logistics Pallet/Launch Deployment Assembly, which includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator System and the UHF Antenna. The mission includes two planned spacewalks for installation of the SSRMS on the Station. Also onboard is the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, carrying resupply stowage racks and resupply/return stowage platforms.

  4. KSC01pp0828

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-04-19

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Flames from Space Shuttle Endeavour light up the clouds as the Shuttle races into space on mission STS-100. Liftoff of Endeavour on the ninth flight to the International Space Station occurred at 2:40:42 p.m. EDT. The 11-day mission will deliver and integrate the Spacelab Logistics Pallet/Launch Deployment Assembly, which includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator System and the UHF Antenna. The mission includes two planned spacewalks for installation of the SSRMS on the Station. Also onboard is the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, carrying resupply stowage racks and resupply/return stowage platforms

  5. KSC01pp0825

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-04-19

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Space Shuttle Endeavour races into space, springing forth from clouds of smoke and steam, on mission STS-100. Liftoff of the ninth flight to the International Space Station occurred at 2:40:42 p.m. EDT. The 11-day mission will deliver and integrate the Spacelab Logistics Pallet/Launch Deployment Assembly, which includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator System and the UHF Antenna. The mission includes two planned spacewalks for installation of the SSRMS on the Station. Also onboard is the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, carrying resupply stowage racks and resupply/return stowage platforms

  6. Method and apparatus for producing durationally short ultraviolet or X-ray laser pulses

    DOEpatents

    MacGowan, Brian J.; Matthews, Dennis L.; Trebes, James E.

    1988-01-01

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for producing ultraviolet or X-ray laser pulses of short duration (32). An ultraviolet or X-ray laser pulse of long duration (12) is progressively refracted, across the surface of an opaque barrier (28), by a streaming plasma (22) that is produced by illuminating a solid target (16, 18) with a pulse of conventional line focused high power laser radiation (20). The short pulse of ultraviolet or X-ray laser radiation (32), which may be amplified to high power (40, 42), is separated out by passage through a slit aperture (30) in the opaque barrier (28).

  7. Efficient synthesis of 2,3-disubstituted-2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-ones catalyzed by dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid in aqueous media under ultrasound irradiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bao-Hua; Li, Ji-Tai; Chen, Guo-Feng

    2015-03-01

    Synthesis of 2,3-disubstituted-2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-one derivatives catalyzed by dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid was carried out in 80-92% yields at 40-42 °C within 1-2 h in aqueous media via one-pot three-component condensation of isatoic anhydride, aromatic aldehyde and amine under ultrasound irradiation. Convenient work-up procedures, mild reaction conditions, avoiding the use of organic solvents, and friendly to environment are the salient features of this protocol.

  8. Maintenance Plan for Historic Buildings within the Presidio of San Francisco Historic Landmark District.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-10

    Asphalt Shingles 7.3.2 Slate Shingles 7.3.3 Clay Tiles 7.3.4 Tin Roofing 40 40 42 V, ftftflfl .V.vV. «v-v .- ! J *.*. .--v?y?x^-.-.v...1 . . • . " - ’ f . • • --r"^ *-- ’-• ".- V ".’.V. .•_-." ^.ff. .’. .’. -’. f. •-. ’ -> - - 7.3 ROOFING 7.3.1 ASPHALT SHINGLES ...considered a high priority and accomplished by using shingles of the same variey, color and configuration as the others on the roof. - DO NOT USE asphalt

  9. 47 CFR 73.698 - Tables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 30-33, 37-40 34, 36 42, 28 49, 21 50, 20 36 44, 28 31-34, 38-41 35, 37 43, 29 50, 22 51, 21 37 45, 29 32-35, 39-42 36, 38 44, 30 51, 23 52, 22 38 46, 30 33-36, 40-43 37, 39 45, 31 52, 24 53, 23 39 47, 31... 36-39, 43-46 40, 42 48, 34 55, 27 56, 26 42 50, 34 37-40, 44-47 41, 43 49, 35 56, 28 57, 27 43 51,...

  10. 47 CFR 73.698 - Tables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 30-33, 37-40 34, 36 42, 28 49, 21 50, 20 36 44, 28 31-34, 38-41 35, 37 43, 29 50, 22 51, 21 37 45, 29 32-35, 39-42 36, 38 44, 30 51, 23 52, 22 38 46, 30 33-36, 40-43 37, 39 45, 31 52, 24 53, 23 39 47, 31... 36-39, 43-46 40, 42 48, 34 55, 27 56, 26 42 50, 34 37-40, 44-47 41, 43 49, 35 56, 28 57, 27 43 51,...

  11. A-ring modification of SCH 900229 and related chromene sulfone γ-secretase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Lian; Sasikumar, Thavalakulamgara K; Domalski, Martin S; Qiang, Li; Burnett, Duane A; Clader, John; Greenlee, William J; Chan, Tze-Ming; Lee, Julie; Zhang, Lili

    2013-02-01

    Attempts to block metabolism by incorporating a 9-fluoro substituent at the A-ring of compound 1 (SCH 900229) using electrophilic Selectfluor™ led to an unexpected oxidation of the A-ring to give difluoroquinone analog 1a. Oxidation of other related chromene γ-secretase inhibitors 2-8 resulted in similar difluoroquinone analogs 2a-8a, respectively. These quinone products exhibited comparable in vitro potency in a γ-scretase membrane assay, but were several fold less potent in a cell-based assay in lowering Aβ40-42, compared to their parent compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Method and apparatus for transferring and injecting rf energy from a generator to a resonant load

    DOEpatents

    Hoffert, William J.

    1987-01-01

    Improved apparatus and method are provided for the coherent amplification and injection of radio-frequency (rf) energy into a load cavity using a plurality of amplifier tubes. A plurality of strip line cavities (30, 32, 34, 36, 40, 42, 44) are laterally joined to define a continuous closed cavity (48), with an amplifier tube (50, 52, 54, 56, 58, 60, 62, 64) mounted within each resonant strip cavity. Rf energy is injected into the continuous cavity (48) from a single input (70) for coherent coupling to all of the amplifier tubes for amplification and injection into the load cavity (76).

  13. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 213 - Maximum Allowable Curving Speeds

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 59 61 62 64 3°45′ 39 41 44 46 48 50 52 53 55 57 59 60 62 4°00′ 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 53 55 57 58 60... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maximum Allowable Curving Speeds A Appendix A to... 31/2 4 41/2 5 51/2 6 (12) Maximum allowable operating speed (mph) 0°30′ 93 100 107 113 120 125...

  14. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 213 - Maximum Allowable Curving Speeds

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 59 61 62 64 3°45′ 39 41 44 46 48 50 52 53 55 57 59 60 62 4°00′ 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 53 55 57 58 60... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum Allowable Curving Speeds A Appendix A to... 31/2 4 41/2 5 51/2 6 (12) Maximum allowable operating speed (mph) 0°30′ 93 100 107 113 120 125...

  15. (S)-N-(5-Chlorothiophene-2-sulfonyl)-beta,beta-diethylalaninol a Notch-1-sparing gamma-secretase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Cole, Derek C; Stock, Joseph R; Kreft, Anthony F; Antane, Madelene; Aschmies, Suzan H; Atchison, Kevin P; Casebier, David S; Comery, Thomas A; Diamantidis, George; Ellingboe, John W; Harrison, Boyd L; Hu, Yun; Jin, Mei; Kubrak, Dennis M; Lu, Peimin; Mann, Charles W; Martone, Robert L; Moore, William J; Oganesian, Aram; Riddell, David R; Sonnenberg-Reines, June; Sun, Shaiu-Ching; Wagner, Erik; Wang, Zheng; Woller, Kevin R; Xu, Zheng; Zhou, Hua; Jacobsen, J Steven

    2009-02-01

    Accumulation of beta-amyloid (Abeta), produced by the proteolytic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by beta- and gamma-secretase, is widely believed to be associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Research around the high-throughput screening hit (S)-4-chlorophenylsulfonyl isoleucinol led to the identification of the Notch-1-sparing (9.5-fold) gamma-secretase inhibitor (S)-N-(5-chlorothiophene-2-sulfonyl)-beta,beta-diethylalaninol 7.b.2 (Abeta(40/42) EC(50)=28 nM), which is efficacious in reduction of Abeta production in vivo.

  16. Study on finned pipe performance as a ground heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Qinglong; Ma, Jinghui; Shi, Lei

    2017-08-01

    The GHEs (ground heat exchangers) is an important element that determines the thermal efficiency of the entire ground-source heat-pump system. The aim of the present study is to clarify thermal performance of a new type GHE pipe, which consists straight fins of uniform cross sectional area. In this paper, GHE model is introduced and an analytical model of new type GHE pipe is developed. The heat exchange rate of BHEs utilizing finned pips is 40.42 W/m, which is 16.3% higher than normal BHEs, based on simulation analyses.

  17. Thermographic study on the preservability of heat effects of footbath with salt.

    PubMed

    Harada, Toshihide; Iwakawa, Yuuki; Ikeda, Hiromi; Ishizaki, Fumiko; Aoi, Satomi; Nitta, Yumiko; Yoshida, Akira; Tamura, Noriko; Iida, Tadayuki; Shiokawa, Mitsuhisa; Nitta, Kohsaku

    2014-09-01

    Infrared thermography provides a non-invasive and dynamic measure of heat. The thermal preservability effects of a salt footbath were evaluated by the infrared thermography technique. The subjects were 23 healthy college students. Feet were soaked for 10 min in a 40-42 degrees C normal footbath. Room temperature was set at 26.5-28 degrees C. At the same time on another day within 3 days of the normal footbath experiment, the same feet were soaked for 10 min in a 40-42 degrees C salt footbath. We measured blood pressure, heart rate and temperatures of the feet, second toes, hands and middle fingers, just before and after immersion and at 10-min intervals thereafter. Mean blood pressure changes showed no difference between the normal and the salt footbath. Mean heart rate changes were higher during the normal footbath than at 0, 15 and 20 min during the salt footbath, respectively (p < 0.05). Mean thermal preservability of the feet tended to be lower after the normal footbath than at 20 and 30 min, respectively, after the salt footbath, but these differences did not reach a statistical significance. Mean thermal preservability of the hands and middle fingers was significantly lower after the normal footbath than at 20 and 30 min, respectively, after the salt footbath (p < 0.05). The results suggest that stimulation by a salt footbath affects surface skin temperature, and that stimulation aimed at increasing skin thermal preservability shows a significant difference between normal and salt footbaths.

  18. Plasma protein denaturation with graded heat exposure.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, R; Larson, D F

    2013-11-01

    During cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), perfusion at tepid temperatures (33-35 °C) is recommended to avoid high temperature cerebral hyperthermia during and after the operation. However, the ideal temperature for uncomplicated adult cardiac surgery is an unsettled question. Typically, the heat exchanger maximum temperature is monitored between 40-42 °C to prevent denaturation of plasma proteins, but studies have not been performed to make these conclusions. Therefore, our hypothesis was to determine the temperature in which blood plasma protein degradation occurs after 2 hours of heat exposure. As a result, blood plasma proteins were exposed to heat in the 37-50 °C range for 2 hours. Plasma protein samples were loaded onto an 8-12% gradient gel for SDS-PAGE and low molecular weight plasma protein degradation was detected with graded heat exposure. Protein degradation was first detected between 43-45 °C of heat exposure. This study supports the practice of monitoring the heat exchanger between 40-42 °C to prevent denaturation of plasma proteins.

  19. Immunological characterization of rice tungro spherical virus coat proteins and differentiation of isolates from the Philippines and India.

    PubMed

    Druka, A; Burns, T; Zhang, S; Hull, R

    1996-08-01

    Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV) has an RNA genome of more than 12 kb with various features which classify it as a plant picornavirus. The capsid comprises three coat protein (CP) species, CP1, CP2 and CP3, with predicted molecular masses of 22.5, 22.0 and 33 kDa, respectively, which are cleaved from a polyprotein. In order to obtain information on the properties of these proteins, each was expressed in E. coli, purified as a fusion to the maltose-binding protein and used for raising a polyclonal antiserum. CP1, CP2 and CP3 with the expected molecular masses were detected specifically in virus preparations. CP3 is probably the major antigenic determinant on the surface of RTSV particles, as was shown by ELISA, Western blotting and immunogold electron microscopy using antisera obtained against whole virus particles and to each CP separately. In some cases, especially in crude extracts, CP3 antiserum detected several other proteins (40-42 kDa), which could be products of CP3 post-translational modification. No serological differences were detected between the three CPs from isolates from the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia and India. The CP3-related 40-42 kDa proteins of the Indian RTSV isolate have a slightly higher electrophoretic mobility (42-44 kDa) and a different response to cellulolytic enzyme preparations, which allows them to be differentiated from south-east Asian isolates.

  20. Amyloid precursor protein expression and processing are differentially regulated during cortical neuron differentiation.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Petra; Agholme, Lotta; Nazir, Faisal Hayat; Satir, Tugce Munise; Toombs, Jamie; Wellington, Henrietta; Strandberg, Joakim; Bontell, Thomas Olsson; Kvartsberg, Hlin; Holmström, Maria; Boreström, Cecilia; Simonsson, Stina; Kunath, Tilo; Lindahl, Anders; Blennow, Kaj; Hanse, Eric; Portelius, Erik; Wray, Selina; Zetterberg, Henrik

    2016-07-07

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its cleavage product amyloid β (Aβ) have been thoroughly studied in Alzheimer's disease. However, APP also appears to be important for neuronal development. Differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) towards cortical neurons enables in vitro mechanistic studies on human neuronal development. Here, we investigated expression and proteolytic processing of APP during differentiation of human iPSCs towards cortical neurons over a 100-day period. APP expression remained stable during neuronal differentiation, whereas APP processing changed. α-Cleaved soluble APP (sAPPα) was secreted early during differentiation, from neuronal progenitors, while β-cleaved soluble APP (sAPPβ) was first secreted after deep-layer neurons had formed. Short Aβ peptides, including Aβ1-15/16, peaked during the progenitor stage, while processing shifted towards longer peptides, such as Aβ1-40/42, when post-mitotic neurons appeared. This indicates that APP processing is regulated throughout differentiation of cortical neurons and that amyloidogenic APP processing, as reflected by Aβ1-40/42, is associated with mature neuronal phenotypes.

  1. Amyloid precursor protein expression and processing are differentially regulated during cortical neuron differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Bergström, Petra; Agholme, Lotta; Nazir, Faisal Hayat; Satir, Tugce Munise; Toombs, Jamie; Wellington, Henrietta; Strandberg, Joakim; Bontell, Thomas Olsson; Kvartsberg, Hlin; Holmström, Maria; Boreström, Cecilia; Simonsson, Stina; Kunath, Tilo; Lindahl, Anders; Blennow, Kaj; Hanse, Eric; Portelius, Erik; Wray, Selina; Zetterberg, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its cleavage product amyloid β (Aβ) have been thoroughly studied in Alzheimer’s disease. However, APP also appears to be important for neuronal development. Differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) towards cortical neurons enables in vitro mechanistic studies on human neuronal development. Here, we investigated expression and proteolytic processing of APP during differentiation of human iPSCs towards cortical neurons over a 100-day period. APP expression remained stable during neuronal differentiation, whereas APP processing changed. α-Cleaved soluble APP (sAPPα) was secreted early during differentiation, from neuronal progenitors, while β-cleaved soluble APP (sAPPβ) was first secreted after deep-layer neurons had formed. Short Aβ peptides, including Aβ1-15/16, peaked during the progenitor stage, while processing shifted towards longer peptides, such as Aβ1-40/42, when post-mitotic neurons appeared. This indicates that APP processing is regulated throughout differentiation of cortical neurons and that amyloidogenic APP processing, as reflected by Aβ1-40/42, is associated with mature neuronal phenotypes. PMID:27383650

  2. {alpha} cluster states in {sup 44,46,52}Ti

    SciTech Connect

    Fukada, M.; Takimoto, M. K.; Ogino, K.; Ohkubo, S.

    2009-12-15

    {alpha} decaying states of {sup 44,46,52}Ti were investigated with angular correlation functions between t and {alpha} with the {sup 40,42,48}Ca({sup 7}Li,t{alpha}){sup 40,42,48}Ca reactions at E=26.0 MeV. Many {alpha} cluster states were newly observed in the 10-15 MeV excitation energy of {sup 44}Ti and their spin-parities were assigned, in which J{sup {pi}}=7{sup -} state was found at 11.95 MeV as a candidate for the member of the K=0{sub 1}{sup -} negative parity band. In {sup 46}Ti many {alpha} cluster states were also found in the 11-17 MeV excitation energy with the {sup 42}Ca({sup 7}Li,t{alpha}){sup 42}Ca reaction, though its strength is weak compared with {sup 44}Ti. No {alpha} cluster states were detected for the {sup 48}Ca({sup 7}Li,t{alpha}){sup 48}Ca reaction, in which the number of coincidence events decaying from {sup 48}Ca was very small.

  3. A perfect liftoff of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - Through a cloud-brushed blue sky, Space Shuttle Endeavour is hurled into space on mission STS-100. Photographers crowd the bank of the turn basin near the flag pole to capture the image on film and video. Liftoff occurred at 2:40:42 p.m. EDT on the ninth flight to the International Space Station. The 11-day mission will deliver and integrate the Spacelab Logistics Pallet/Launch Deployment Assembly, which includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator System and the UHF Antenna. The mission includes two planned spacewalks for installation of the SSRMS on the Station. Also onboard is the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, carrying resupply stowage racks and resupply/return stowage platforms.

  4. A perfect liftoff of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - Looking like a bird with its tail is on fire, Space Shuttle Endeavour, atop solid rocket boosters and an external tank, soars into a Florida blue sky as it heads for space on mission STS-100. Liftoff of Endeavour on the ninth flight to the International Space Station occurred at 2:40:42 p.m. EDT. The 11-day mission will deliver and integrate the Spacelab Logistics Pallet/Launch Deployment Assembly, which includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator System and the UHF Antenna. The mission includes two planned spacewalks for installation of the SSRMS on the Station. Also onboard is the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, carrying resupply stowage racks and resupply/return stowage platforms.

  5. Observations on the female reproductive cycle of captive giant tortoises (Geochelone spp.) using ultrasound scanning.

    PubMed

    Casares, M; Rübel, A; Honegger, R E

    1997-09-01

    The reproductive activities of one adult female Galápagos tortoise (Geochelone nigra) and three adult female Aldabra tortoises (Geochelone gigantea) were monitored over 2 yr using ultrasound scanning. A nonrestraining technique of tactile stimulation was used for all examinations. Developing, preovulatory, and atretic ovarian follicles, as well as eggs at various stages of shell deposition, were identified and measured. In G. nigra, follicles became preovulatory at a diameter of 40-42 mm and eggs were laid 34-84 days (mean = 55.6, n = 5) after the thin-shelled eggs were first detected in the oviducts. Geochelone nigra was capable of retaining eggs, with the shell already formed, until the next breeding season. No eggs have been produced by G. gigantea during their stay in Zürich Zoo although follicles of 38-40 mm have been observed frequently in two animals.

  6. Pulsed particle beam vacuum-to-air interface

    DOEpatents

    Cruz, Gilbert E.; Edwards, William F.

    1988-01-01

    A vacuum-to-air interface (10) is provided for a high-powered, pulsed particle beam accelerator. The interface comprises a pneumatic high speed gate valve (18), from which extends a vacuum-tight duct (26), that termintes in an aperture (28). Means (32, 34, 36, 38, 40, 42, 44, 46, 48) are provided for periodically advancing a foil strip (30) across the aperture (28) at the repetition rate of the particle pulses. A pneumatically operated hollow sealing band (62) urges foil strip (30), when stationary, against and into the aperture (28). Gas pressure means (68, 70) periodically lift off and separate foil strip (30) from aperture (28), so that it may be readily advanced.

  7. CSS100217:102913+404220 a Luminous SN or Tidal Disruption Event?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, A. J.; Mahabal, A. A.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Graham, M. J.; Williams, R.; Mohan, V.; Ravindranath, S.; Prieto, J.; Ho, L. C.; Kewley, L.; Myers, A.; Catelan, M.; Christensen, E.; Beshore, E. C.; Larson, S. M.

    2010-04-01

    We report the discovery and follow-up of an extremely luminous optical transient discovered by the Catalina Real-time Transient Survey (CRTS) on Feb 17.3UT.

    IDDisc. DateRADecDisc. Mag Redshift
    CSS100217:102913+404220 2010-02-17T07:16:31 10:29:12.56 40:42:20.0 16.2 0.148
    The SDSS spectrum shows strong emission lines of with width 450km/s at redshift z=0.15.

  8. Use of Simulation to Enhance Learning in a Pediatric Elective

    PubMed Central

    Benner, Kim W.; Worthington, Mary A.; Zinkan, Lynn; White, Marjorie Lee

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To assess the impact on learning of adding a pediatric human patient simulation to a pharmacy course. Design Pharmacy students enrolled in a pediatric elective participated in 1 inpatient and 1 outpatient scenario using a pediatric patient simulator. Immediately following each case, reflective debriefing occurred. Assessment Forty-two students participated in the simulation activity over 2 academic years. A pretest and posttest study design was used, with average scores 4.1 ± 1.2 out of 9 on pretest and average 7.0 ± 1.5 out of 9 on posttest (p < 0.0001). Ninety-five percent (40/42) of students' scores improved. Students felt the learning experiences were positive and realistic. Conclusions Pharmacy students' knowledge and application skills improved through use of pediatric simulation exercises. PMID:20414434

  9. Performance of 26 Meter Diameter Ringsail Parachute in a Simulated Martian Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, Charles H.; Bendura, Richard J.; Cotrane, Lucille C.

    1967-01-01

    Inflation, drag, and stability characteristics of an 85.3-foot (26-meter) nominal diameter ringsail parachute deployed at a Mach number of 1.15 and at an altitude of 132,600 feet (40.42 kilometers) were obtained from the first flight test of the Planetary Entry Parachute Program. After deployment, the parachute inflated to the reefed condition. However, the canopy was unstable and produced low drag in the reefed condition. Upon disreefing and opening to full inflation, a slight instability in the canopy mouth was observed initially. After a short time, the fluctuations diminished and a stable configuration was attained. Results indicate a loss in drag during the fluctuation period prior to stable inflation. During descent, stability characteristics of the system were such that the average pitch-yaw angle from the local vertical was less than 10 degrees. Rolling motion between the payload and parachute canopy quickly damped to small amplitude.

  10. Dynamics of oxygen supply and consumption during mainstream large-scale composting in China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jianfei; Shen, Xiuli; Han, Lujia; Huang, Guangqun

    2016-11-01

    This study characterized some physicochemical and biological parameters to systematically evaluate the dynamics of oxygen supply and consumption during large-scale trough composting in China. The results showed that long active phases, low maximum temperatures, low organic matter losses and high pore methane concentrations were observed in different composting layers. Pore oxygen concentrations in the top, middle and bottom layers maintained <5vol.% for 40, 42 and 45days, respectively, which accounted for more than 89% of the whole period. After each mechanical turning, oxygen was consumed at a stable respiration rate to a concentration of 5vol.% in no more than 99min and remained anaerobic in the subsequent static condition. The daily percentage of time under aerobic condition was no more than 14% of a single day. Therefore, improving FAS, adjusting aeration interval or combining turning with forced aeration was suggested to provide sufficient oxygen during composting.

  11. KSC01padig205

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-04-19

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Even in the middle of the day, the launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour from launch Pad 39A creates a flaming brilliance. Clouds of smoke and steam spew over the surrounding landscape, almost touching the cactus growing in the foreground. Liftoff of the ninth flight to the International Space Station occurred at 2:40:42 p.m. EDT. The 11-day mission will deliver and integrate the Spacelab Logistics Pallet/Launch Deployment Assembly, which includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator System and the UHF Antenna. The mission includes two planned spacewalks for installation of the SSRMS on the Station. Also onboard is the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, carrying resupply stowage racks and resupply/return stowage platforms

  12. Role of hypofractionated radiotherapy in breast locoregional radiation.

    PubMed

    Caudrelier, J-M; Truong, P T

    2015-06-01

    Long-term results of randomised trials have confirmed the safety and efficacy of hypofractionated radiotherapy using approximately 2.6 Gy per fraction to lower total doses of 40-42.6 Gy delivered over 3 weeks, for postoperative treatment of early breast cancer. In these trials, hypofractionated radiotherapy was predominantly used for breast only treatment, while there are fewer trials that specifically examined hypofractionated radiotherapy to the breast plus regional nodes. Hypofractionated locoregional radiation is considered a standard of care in the United Kingdom and in some parts of Canada. We aim to review the radiobiology and normal tissue effects of hypofractionated locoregional radiation and to summarize available published clinical experiences using this treatment strategy as adjuvant therapy after breast conserving surgery or mastectomy for women with early breast cancer.

  13. Effects of niobium on thermal stability and corrosion behavior of glassy Cu Zr Al Nb alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, M. K.; Pang, S. J.; Shek, C. H.

    2006-04-01

    The corrosion behavior of Cu95-xZrxAl5 (x=40, 42.5 and 45 at.%) in 1 N HCl, 3 mass% NaCl and 1 N H2SO4 solutions was studied. As Zr content increases, the corrosion resistance is slightly enhanced. In order to improve the corrosion resistance of the Cu Zr Al glassy alloy, Nb was selected to substitute Cu. Although the supercooled liquid region ΔTx of the Cu Zr Al glassy alloys decreases with increasing Nb content, the alloys still retain high glass-forming ability and bulk glassy samples with 1.5 mm diameter can be obtained when up to 5 at.% Nb was added. It is found that the addition of Nb results in improvement of the corrosion resistance of the glassy Cu Zr Al alloys.

  14. Space ultra-vacuum facility and method of operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A wake shield space processing facility (10) for maintaining ultra-high levels of vacuum is described. The wake shield (12) is a truncated hemispherical section having a convex side (14) and a concave side (24). Material samples (68) to be processed are located on the convex side of the shield, which faces in the wake direction in operation in orbit. Necessary processing fixtures (20) and (22) are also located on the convex side. Support equipment including power supplies (40, 42), CMG package (46) and electronic control package (44) are located on the convex side (24) of the shield facing the ram direction. Prior to operation in orbit the wake shield is oriented in reverse with the convex side facing the ram direction to provide cleaning by exposure to ambient atomic oxygen. The shield is then baked-out by being pointed directed at the sun to obtain heating for a suitable period.

  15. Performance of 26 Meter Diameter Ringsail Parachute in a Simulated Martian Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, Charles H.; Bendura, Richard J.; Cotrane, Lucille C.

    1967-01-01

    Inflation, drag, and stability characteristics of an 85.3-foot (26-meter) nominal diameter ringsail parachute deployed at a Mach number of 1.15 and at an altitude of 132,600 feet (40.42 kilometers) were obtained from the first flight test of the Planetary Entry Parachute Program. After deployment, the parachute inflated to the reefed condition. However, the canopy was unstable and produced low drag in the reefed condition. Upon disreefing and opening to full inflation, a slight instability in the canopy mouth was observed initially. After a short time, the fluctuations diminished and a stable configuration was attained. Results indicate a loss in drag during the fluctuation period prior to stable inflation. During descent, stability characteristics of the system were such that the average pitch-yaw angle from the local vertical was less than 10 degrees. Rolling motion between the payload and parachute canopy quickly damped to small amplitude.

  16. Assessing the impact of scaling-up bednet coverage through agricultural loan programmes: evidence from a cluster randomised controlled trial in Katete, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Fink, Günther; Masiye, Felix

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of scaling-up existing bednet distribution campaigns, a randomised controlled trial with 516 farming households in Katete District, a rural area with highly endemic malaria in Zambia's Eastern Province, was evaluated. In the trial, selected farmers were assigned to bednet programmes that allowed them to obtain additional bednets for free or at subsidised prices through agricultural loan programmes. On average, 2.4 nets were distributed in the free distribution group and 0.9 in the net loan group. The marginal health impact of additional nets appears large, reducing the odds of self-reported all-cause morbidity by 40-42% and the odds of self-reported confirmed malaria by 53-60%. Copyright © 2012 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Shape coexistence in 67Co, 66,68,70,72Ni, and 71Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, W. B.; Chiara, C. J.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Weisshaar, D.; Otsuka, T.; Tsunoda, Y.; Recchia, F.; Gade, A.; Harker, J. L.; Albers, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bader, V. M.; Baugher, T.; Bazin, D.; Berryman, J. S.; Bertone, P. F.; Campbell, C. M.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chen, J.; Crawford, H. L.; David, H. M.; Doherty, D. T.; Hoffman, C. R.; Honma, M.; Kondev, F. G.; Korichi, A.; Langer, C.; Larson, N.; Lauritsen, T.; Liddick, S. N.; Lunderberg, E.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Noji, S.; Prokop, C.; Rogers, A. M.; Seweryniak, D.; Shimizu, N.; Stroberg, S. R.; Suchyta, S.; Utsuno, Y.; Williams, S. J.; Wimmer, K.; Zhu, S.

    2015-10-01

    Analyses of data from both deep inelastic reactions at Argonne National Laboratory and single- and multiple-particle knockout reactions at Michigan State University revealed new γ-ray transitions in even-even 66,68,70,72Ni38,40,42,44 and in 67Co40 that provide strong evidence for multiple shape coexistence at N = 38 and 40 and deep prolate minima in 70Ni42 and isotonic 71Cu42. A new transition at 642 keV is proposed for 66Ni as the prolate 2+ to 0+ transition. Two new transitions in 72Ni at 915 and 1225 keV were identified in the knock-out reaction study and could represent de-population of prolate states. Taken together with recent theoretical work using the Monte Carlo shell model, a well defined region of shape coexistence can be seen existing precisely between 38 ≤ N ≤44 for Co, Ni, and Cu nuclei.

  18. Variability in fatty acid and triacylglycerol composition of the oil of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) hybrids and their parentals.

    PubMed

    Laureles, Lucita R; Rodriguez, Felicito M; Reaño, Consorcia E; Santos, Gerardo A; Laurena, Antonio C; Mendoza, Evelyn Mae Tecson

    2002-03-13

    The fatty acid profiles and triacylglycerol (TAG) compositions of oils from the solid endosperm of different Philippine coconut hybrids and their parentals were determined by using gas chromatography (GC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In general, varietal differences in fatty acid composition were observed. Lauric acid (C12) content was significantly higher in the hybrids PCA 15-8 (50.45%) and PCA 15-9 (50.26%) by about 3.16% points as compared to other hybrids, and higher in Tacunan Green Dwarf (50.50%) among the parentals. Among the fatty acids, lauric acid exhibited the least variation. In general, none of the hybrids had higher fatty acid content than their parentals. The HPLC chromatogram of triacylglycerols (TAG) showed 8 major peaks which differ in carbon number (CN) by two: identified as TAG CN 30, 32, 34, 36, 38, 40, 42, and 44. TAGs CN 30 (4.08%) and CN 34 (19.20%) were found to be significantly higher in PCA 15-9 than in the other hybrids. CN 36 was highest (21.94-23.66%) in all hybrids and parentals. The TAG CNs varied significantly among hybrids and parents, i.e., in CN 30, 32, and 34, which are high in medium chain triacylglycerols (MCTs), and in CN 30 (for parentals only), 40, 42, and 44 (the latter two for parentals only), and none in CN 36. MCTs calculated for two hybrids and their parents ranged from 13.81% to 20.55%.

  19. Transcutaneous β-amyloid immunization reduces cerebral β-amyloid deposits without T cell infiltration and microhemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Nikolic, William V.; Bai, Yun; Obregon, Demian; Hou, Huayan; Mori, Takashi; Zeng, Jin; Ehrhart, Jared; Shytle, R. Douglas; Giunta, Brian; Morgan, Dave; Town, Terrence; Tan, Jun

    2007-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) immunotherapy accomplished by vaccination with β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide has proved efficacious in AD mouse models. However, “active” Aβ vaccination strategies for the treatment of cerebral amyloidosis without concurrent induction of detrimental side effects are lacking. We have developed a transcutaneous (t.c.) Aβ vaccination approach and evaluated efficacy and monitored for deleterious side effects, including meningoencephalitis and microhemorrhage, in WT mice and a transgenic mouse model of AD. We demonstrate that t.c. immunization of WT mice with aggregated Aβ1–42 plus the adjuvant cholera toxin (CT) results in high-titer Aβ antibodies (mainly of the Ig G1 class) and Aβ1–42-specific splenocyte immune responses. Confocal microscopy of the t.c. immunization site revealed Langerhans cells in areas of the skin containing the Aβ1–42 immunogen, suggesting that these unique innate immune cells participate in Aβ1–42 antigen processing. To evaluate the efficacy of t.c. immunization in reducing cerebral amyloidosis, transgenic PSAPP (APPsw, PSEN1dE9) mice were immunized with aggregated Aβ1–42 peptide plus CT. Similar to WT mice, PSAPP mice showed high Aβ antibody titers. Most importantly, t.c. immunization with Aβ1–42 plus CT resulted in significant decreases in cerebral Aβ1–40,42 levels coincident with increased circulating levels of Aβ1–40,42, suggesting brain-to-blood efflux of Aβ. Reduction in cerebral amyloidosis was not associated with deleterious side effects, including brain T cell infiltration or cerebral microhemorrhage. Together, these data suggest that t.c. immunization constitutes an effective and potentially safe treatment strategy for AD. PMID:17264212

  20. Curcumin mediates presenilin-1 activity to reduce β-amyloid production in a model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Zhang; Hongmei, Zhang; Lu, Si; Yu, Li

    2011-01-01

    Curcumin has been reported to inhibit the generation of Aβ, but the underlying mechanisms by which this occurs remain unknown. Aβ is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The amyloid hypothesis argues that aggregates of Aβ trigger a complex pathological cascade that leads to neurodegeneration. Aβ is generated by the processing of APP (amyloid precursor protein) by β- and γ-secretases. Presenilin 1 (PS1) is central to γ-secretase activity and is a substrate for GSK-3β, both of which are implicated in the pathogenesis of AD. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of curcumin on the generation of Aβ in cultured neuroblastoma cells and on the in vitro expression of PS1 and GSK-3β. To stimulate Aβ production, a plasmid expressing APP was transfected into human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. The transfected cells were then treated with curcumin at 0-20 μM for 24 h or with 5 μM curcumin for 0-48 h, and the extracellular levels of Aβ(40/42) were determined by ELISA. The levels of PS1 and GSK-3β mRNA were measured by RT-PCR, and the expression of the PS1 and GSK-3β proteins (including the phosphorylated form of GSK-3β, p-GSK-3β-Ser9) were evaluated by western blotting. Curcumin treatment was found to markedly reduce the production of Aβ(40/42). Treatment with curcumin also decreased both PS1 and GSK-3β mRNA and protein levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, curcumin increased the inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK-3β protein at Ser9. Therefore, we propose that curcumin decreases Aβ production by inhibiting GSK-3β-mediated PS1 activation.

  1. IgG-assisted age-dependent clearance of Alzheimer's amyloid beta peptide by the blood-brain barrier neonatal Fc receptor.

    PubMed

    Deane, Rashid; Sagare, Abhay; Hamm, Katie; Parisi, Margaret; LaRue, Barbra; Guo, Huang; Wu, Zhenhua; Holtzman, David M; Zlokovic, Berislav V

    2005-12-14

    The role of blood-brain barrier (BBB) transport in clearance of amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) by Abeta immunotherapy is not fully understood. To address this issue, we studied the effects of peripherally and centrally administered Abeta-specific IgG on BBB influx of circulating Abeta and efflux of brain-derived Abeta in APPsw(+/-) mice, a model that develops Alzheimer's disease-like amyloid pathology, and wild-type mice. Our data show that anti-Abeta IgG blocks the BBB influx of circulating Abeta in APPsw(+/-) mice and penetrates into the brain to sequester brain Abeta. In young mice, Abeta-anti-Abeta complexes were cleared from brain to blood by transcytosis across the BBB via the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) and the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP), whereas in older mice, there was an age-dependent increase in FcRn-mediated IgG-assisted Abeta BBB efflux and a decrease in LRP-mediated clearance of Abeta-anti-Abeta complexes. Inhibition of the FcRn pathway in older APPsw(+/-) mice blocked clearance of endogenous Abeta40/42 by centrally administered Abeta immunotherapy. Moreover, deletion of the FcRn gene in wild-type mice inhibited clearance of endogenous mouse Abeta40/42 by systemically administered anti-Abeta. Our data suggest that the FcRn pathway at the BBB plays a crucial role in IgG-assisted Abeta removal from the aging brain.

  2. Coupled-Channel Computation of Direct Neutron Capture on Non-Spherical Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbanas, Goran; Thompson, Ian; Escher, Jutta; Nunes, Filomena; Elster, Charlotte; Zhang, Shi-Sheng

    2014-09-01

    Models of direct neutron capture of neutrons have so far accounted for the effects of non-spherical nuclei either in the incoming wave functions (via non-spherical optical model potentials), or in the final bound states (via non-spherical real potential wells), but not in both. Since it is known that spherical optical potentials do not give a good reproduction of low energy neutron-scattering observables of deformed nuclei, we have performed calculations in which the initial and final states are both treated in a self-consistent, non-spherical-nucleus picture. We have done this in the coupled-channels model of nuclear reactions implemented in the FRESCO code by using the same deformation-length for the couplings to the rotational-band states in the incoming and the final state configurations. We compute direct capture using this method for even-mass calcium isotopes 40 , 42 , 44 , 46 , 48Ca to study the effect across the two closed neutron shells, for neutron-rich even-mass tin isotopes relevant to models of astrophysical nucleosynthesis, and for 56Fe that is an important structural material used in nuclear applications. Models of direct neutron capture of neutrons have so far accounted for the effects of non-spherical nuclei either in the incoming wave functions (via non-spherical optical model potentials), or in the final bound states (via non-spherical real potential wells), but not in both. Since it is known that spherical optical potentials do not give a good reproduction of low energy neutron-scattering observables of deformed nuclei, we have performed calculations in which the initial and final states are both treated in a self-consistent, non-spherical-nucleus picture. We have done this in the coupled-channels model of nuclear reactions implemented in the FRESCO code by using the same deformation-length for the couplings to the rotational-band states in the incoming and the final state configurations. We compute direct capture using this method for even

  3. Abnormal Intracellular Accumulation and Extracellular Aβ Deposition in Idiopathic and Dup15q11.2-q13 Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wegiel, Jerzy; Frackowiak, Janusz; Mazur-Kolecka, Bozena; Schanen, N. Carolyn; Cook, Edwin H.; Sigman, Marian; Brown, W. Ted; Kuchna, Izabela; Wegiel, Jarek; Nowicki, Krzysztof; Imaki, Humi; Ma, Shuang Yong; Chauhan, Abha; Chauhan, Ved; Miller, David L.; Mehta, Pankaj D.; Flory, Michael; Cohen, Ira L.; London, Eric; Reisberg, Barry; de Leon, Mony J.; Wisniewski, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background It has been shown that amyloid ß (Aβ), a product of proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid β precursor protein (APP), accumulates in neuronal cytoplasm in non-affected individuals in a cell type–specific amount. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we found that the percentage of amyloid-positive neurons increases in subjects diagnosed with idiopathic autism and subjects diagnosed with duplication 15q11.2-q13 (dup15) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In spite of interindividual differences within each examined group, levels of intraneuronal Aβ load were significantly greater in the dup(15) autism group than in either the control or the idiopathic autism group in 11 of 12 examined regions (p<0.0001 for all comparisons; Kruskall-Wallis test). In eight regions, intraneuronal Aβ load differed significantly between idiopathic autism and control groups (p<0.0001). The intraneuronal Aβ was mainly N-terminally truncated. Increased intraneuronal accumulation of Aβ17–40/42 in children and adults suggests a life-long enhancement of APP processing with α-secretase in autistic subjects. Aβ accumulation in neuronal endosomes, autophagic vacuoles, Lamp1-positive lysosomes and lipofuscin, as revealed by confocal microscopy, indicates that products of enhanced α-secretase processing accumulate in organelles involved in proteolysis and storage of metabolic remnants. Diffuse plaques containing Aβ1–40/42 detected in three subjects with ASD, 39 to 52 years of age, suggest that there is an age-associated risk of alterations of APP processing with an intraneuronal accumulation of a short form of Aβ and an extracellular deposition of full-length Aβ in nonfibrillar plaques. Conclusions/Significance The higher prevalence of excessive Aβ accumulation in neurons in individuals with early onset of intractable seizures, and with a high risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy in autistic subjects with dup(15) compared to subjects with idiopathic

  4. Anti-PrPC monoclonal antibody infusion as a novel treatment for cognitive deficits in an alzheimer's disease model mouse

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the most common of the conformational neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the conversion of a normal biological protein into a β-sheet-rich pathological isoform. In AD the normal soluble Aβ (sAβ) forms oligomers and fibrils which assemble into neuritic plaques. The most toxic form of Aβ is thought to be oligomeric. A recent study reveals the cellular prion protein, PrPC, to be a receptor for Aβ oligomers. Aβ oligomers suppress LTP signal in murine hippocampal slices but activity remains when pretreated with the PrP monoclonal anti-PrP antibody, 6D11. We hypothesized that targeting of PrPC to prevent Aβ oligomer-related cognitive deficits is a potentially novel therapeutic approach. APP/PS1 transgenic mice aged 8 months were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with 1 mg 6D11 for 5 days/week for 2 weeks. Two wild-type control groups were given either the same 6D11 injections or vehicle solution. Additional groups of APP/PS1 transgenic mice were given either i.p. injections of vehicle solution or the same dose of mouse IgG over the same period. The mice were then subjected to cognitive behavioral testing using a radial arm maze, over a period of 10 days. At the conclusion of behavioral testing, animals were sacrificed and brain tissue was analyzed biochemically or immunohistochemically for the levels of amyloid plaques, PrPC, synaptophysin, Aβ40/42 and Aβ oligomers. Results Behavioral testing showed a marked decrease in errors in 6D11 treated APP/PS1 Tg mice compared with the non-6D11 treated Tg groups (p < 0.0001). 6D11 treated APP/PS1 Tg mice behaved the same as wild-type controls indicating a recovery in cognitive learning, even after this short term 6D11 treatment. Brain tissue analysis from both treated and vehicle treated APP/PS1 groups indicate no significant differences in amyloid plaque burden, Aβ40/42, PrPC or Aβ oligomer levels. 6D11 treated APP/PS1 Tg mice had significantly greater synaptophysin

  5. Plasma antibodies to Abeta40 and Abeta42 in patients with Alzheimer's disease and normal controls.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wuhua; Kawarabayashi, Takeshi; Matsubara, Etsuro; Deguchi, Kentaro; Murakami, Tetsuro; Harigaya, Yasuo; Ikeda, Masaki; Amari, Masakuni; Kuwano, Ryozo; Abe, Koji; Shoji, Mikio

    2008-07-11

    Antibodies to amyloid beta protein (Abeta) are present naturally or after Abeta vaccine therapy in human plasma. To clarify their clinical role, we examined plasma samples from 113 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 205 normal controls using the tissue amyloid plaque immunoreactivity (TAPIR) assay. A high positive rate of TAPIR was revealed in AD (45.1%) and age-matched controls (41.2%), however, no significance was observed. No significant difference was observed in the MMS score or disease duration between TAPIR-positive and negative samples. TAPIR-positive plasma reacted with the Abeta40 monomer and dimer, and the Abeta42 monomer weakly, but not with the Abeta42 dimer. TAPIR was even detected in samples from young normal subjects and young Tg2576 transgenic mice. Although the Abeta40 level and Abeta40/42 ratio increased, and Abeta42 was significantly decreased in plasma from AD groups when compared to controls, no significant correlations were revealed between plasma Abeta levels and TAPIR grading. Thus an immune response to Abeta40 and immune tolerance to Abeta42 occurred naturally in humans without a close relationship to the Abeta burden in the brain. Clarification of the mechanism of the immune response to Abeta42 is necessary for realization of an immunotherapy for AD.

  6. Effects of Varieties, Producing Areas, Ears, and Ear Positions of Single Maize Kernels on Near-Infrared Spectra for Identification and Traceability

    PubMed Central

    An, Dong; Cui, Yongjin; Liu, Xu; Jia, Shiqiang; Zheng, Shuyun; Che, Xiaoping; Liu, Zhe; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhu, Dehai; Li, Shaoming

    2016-01-01

    The effects of varieties, producing areas, ears, and ear positions of maize on near-infrared (NIR) spectra were investigated to determine the factors causing the differences in NIR fingerprints of maize varieties. A total of 130 inbred lines were grown in two regions in China, and 12,350 kernel samples were analyzed through NIR spectroscopy. Spectral differences among varieties, producing areas, ears, and ear positions were determined and compared on the basis of pretreated spectra. The bands at 1300–1470, 1768–1949, 2010–2064, and 2235–2311 nm were mainly affected by the producing area. Band selection and principal component analysis were applied to improve the influence of variety on NIR spectra by processing the pretreated spectra. The degrees of the influence of varieties, producing areas, ears, and ear positions were calculated, and the percentages of the influence of varieties, producing areas, ears, and ear positions were 45.40%, 42.66%, 8.22%, and 3.72%, respectively. Therefore, genetic differences among maize inbred lines are the main factors accounted for NIR spectral differences. Producing area is a secondary factor. These results could provide a reference for researchers who authenticate varieties, perform geographical origin traceabilities, and conduct maize seed breeding. PMID:27598344

  7. Cadmium activates a mitogen-activated protein kinase gene and MBP kinases in rice.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chuan-Ming; Hsiao, Lin-June; Huang, Hao-Jen

    2004-09-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are modules involved in the transduction of extracellular signals to intracellular targets in all eukaryotes. In plants, it has been evidenced that MAPKs play a role in the signaling of biotic and abiotic stresses, plant hormones, and cell cycle cues. However, the effect of heavy metals on plant MAPKs has not been well examined. The Northern blot analysis of OsMAPK mRNA levels has shown that only OsMAPK2, but not OsMAPK3 and OsMAPK4, expressed in suspension-cultured cells in response to 100-400 microM Cd treatments. The OsMAPK2 transcripts increased within 12 h upon 400 microM Cd treatment. In addition, we found that 42- and 50-kDa MBP kinases were significantly activated by Cd treatment in rice suspension-cultured cells. And 40-, 42-, 50- and 64-kDa MBP kinases were activated in rice roots. Furthermore, GSH inhibits Cd-induced 40-kDa MBP kinase activation. By immunoblot analysis and immunoprecipitation followed by in-gel kinase assay, we confirmed that Cd-activated 42-kDa MBP kinase is a MAP kinase. Our results suggest that a MAP kinase cascade may function in the Cd-signalling pathway in rice.

  8. Aerodynamic Shape Optimization of Complex Aircraft Configurations via an Adjoint Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuther, James; Jameson, Antony; Farmer, James; Martinelli, Luigi; Saunders, David

    1996-01-01

    This work describes the implementation of optimization techniques based on control theory for complex aircraft configurations. Here control theory is employed to derive the adjoint differential equations, the solution of which allows for a drastic reduction in computational costs over previous design methods (13, 12, 43, 38). In our earlier studies (19, 20, 22, 23, 39, 25, 40, 41, 42) it was shown that this method could be used to devise effective optimization procedures for airfoils, wings and wing-bodies subject to either analytic or arbitrary meshes. Design formulations for both potential flows and flows governed by the Euler equations have been demonstrated, showing that such methods can be devised for various governing equations (39, 25). In our most recent works (40, 42) the method was extended to treat wing-body configurations with a large number of mesh points, verifying that significant computational savings can be gained for practical design problems. In this paper the method is extended for the Euler equations to treat complete aircraft configurations via a new multiblock implementation. New elements include a multiblock-multigrid flow solver, a multiblock-multigrid adjoint solver, and a multiblock mesh perturbation scheme. Two design examples are presented in which the new method is used for the wing redesign of a transonic business jet.

  9. γ-Secretase Catalyzes Sequential Cleavages of the AβPP Transmembrane Domain

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xuemin

    2009-01-01

    The biogenesis of the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) is a central issue in Alzheimer's disease (AD) research. Aβ is produced by β- and γ-secretases from the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP). These proteases are targets for the development of therapeutic compounds to downregulate Aβ production. γ-secretase has received more attention 1) because it generates the C-terminus of Aβ, which is important in the pathogenesis of AD because the longer Aβ species are more amyloidogenic, and 2) because it cleaves AβPP within its transmembrane domain. In the understanding the mechanism of γ-secretase cleavage, three major cleavage sites have been identified, namely, γ-cleavage site at Aβ40/42, ζ-cleavage site at Aβ46, and ε-cleavage site at Aβ49. Moreover, the novel finding that some of the known γ-secretase inhibitors inhibit the formation of secreted Aβ40 and Aβ42, but cause an intracellular accumulation of long Aβ46, provided information extremely important for the development of strategies aimed at the design of γ-secretase inhibitors to prevent and treat AD. In addition, it has been established that the C-terminus of Aβ is generated by a series of sequential cleavages: first, ε-cleavage, followed by ζ-cleavage and finally by γ-cleavage, commencing from the membrane boundary to the middle of the AβPP membrane domain. PMID:19221413

  10. Cloning and activation of the bullfrog apelin receptor: Gi/o coupling and high affinity for [Pro1]apelin-13.

    PubMed

    Moon, Mi Jin; Oh, Da Young; Moon, Jung Sun; Kim, Dong-Ki; Hwang, Jong-Ik; Lee, Ju Yeon; Kim, Jae Il; Cho, Sehyung; Kwon, Hyuk Bang; Seong, Jae Young

    2007-10-15

    In mammals, apelin and its G protein-coupled receptor, APJ, regulate blood pressure, intake of food and water, and cardiac contractility. In this study, we report the cloning and functional characterization of APJ in the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana. Bullfrog APJ (bfAPJ) cDNA contains an open reading frame of 1083 nucleotides encoding a protein of 360 amino acid residues. Sequence alignment reveals 75% amino acid identity with Xenopus, 63% identity with zebrafish and 40-42% identity with mammalian APJs. RT-PCR analysis and tissue binding assay reveal high expression of bfAPJ mRNA in the brain, particularly in the hypothalamus, and moderate expression in the pituitary, testis, adrenal gland and lung. Whereas [pGlu(1)]apelin-13 did not induce CRE-luc (protein kinase A-specific reporter) and SRE-luc (protein kinase C-specific reporter) activity in cells expressing bfAPJ, this apelin-13 decreased forskolin-induced CRE-luc activity and cAMP accumulation in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner. This study indicates that bfAPJ may couple to G(i/o). [Pro(1)]apelin-13, a synthetic apelin based on the sequence of the putative apelin gene from many non-mammalian species, activates bfAPJ with 5-10-fold greater sensitivity/affinity than mammalian apelin-13. Collectively, this study expands our understanding of the physiological roles of this receptor system in non-mammalian species.

  11. Energy landscapes of the monomer and dimer of the Alzheimer's peptide A β (1 -28 )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xiao; Chen, Wei; Mousseau, Normand; Derreumaux, Philippe

    2008-03-01

    The cytoxicity of Alzheimer's disease has been linked to the self-assembly of the 40 /42 amino acid of the amyloid-β (A β ) peptide into oligomers. To understand the assembly process, it is important to characterize the very first steps of aggregation at an atomic level of detail. Here, we focus on the N-terminal fragment 1-28, known to form fibrils in vitro. Circular dichroism and NMR experiments indicate that the monomer of A β (1 -28 ) is α -helical in a membranelike environment and random coil in aqueous solution. Using the activation-relaxation technique coupled with the OPEP coarse grained force field, we determine the structures of the monomer and of the dimer of A β (1 -28 ) . In agreement with experiments, we find that the monomer is predominantly random coil in character, but displays a non-negligible β -strand probability in the N-terminal region. Dimerization impacts the structure of each chain and leads to an ensemble of intertwined conformations with little β -strand content in the region Leu17-Ala21. All these structural characteristics are inconsistent with the amyloid fibril structure and indicate that the dimer has to undergo significant rearrangement en route to fibril formation.

  12. Adherence to clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of candidemia at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Ashong, Chester N; Hunter, Andrew S; Mansouri, M David; Cadle, Richard M; Hamill, Richard J; Musher, Daniel M

    2017-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine the appropriateness of candidemia management at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center as recommended by the 2009 Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guidelines for treatment of Candida infections. A retrospective analysis of 94 adult patients with blood cultures positive for Candida spp. was performed. Patients were stratified by severity of disease into two groups: non-neutropenic, mild-moderate disease (Group 1, n = 54, 56%) and non-neutropenic, moderate-severe disease (Group 2, n = 40, 42%). Adherence to the IDSA recommendations for recommended antifungal drug, dose, and duration of therapy was low in both groups (16.7% in Group 1 and 17.5% in Group 2). Although adherence was not associated with higher clinical resolution of infection (P = 0.111), it was associated with a significantly lower mortality rate (P = 0.001) when compared to variance from the guidelines at 6 weeks. Although adherence to published guidelines for treating patients with candidemia was suboptimal at our institution, patients that were managed based on the guidelines had a statistically lower mortality rate.

  13. Therapeutic effects of remediating autophagy failure in a mouse model of Alzheimer disease by enhancing lysosomal proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dun-Sheng; Stavrides, Philip; Mohan, Panaiyur S; Kaushik, Susmita; Kumar, Asok; Ohno, Masuo; Schmidt, Stephen D; Wesson, Daniel W; Bandyopadhyay, Urmi; Jiang, Ying; Pawlik, Monika; Peterhoff, Corrinne M; Yang, Austin J; Wilson, Donald A; St George-Hyslop, Peter; Westaway, David; Mathews, Paul M; Levy, Efrat; Cuervo, Ana M; Nixon, Ralph A

    2011-07-01

    The extensive autophagic-lysosomal pathology in Alzheimer disease (AD) brain has revealed a major defect: in the proteolytic clearance of autophagy substrates. Autophagy failure contributes on several levels to AD pathogenesis and has become an important therapeutic target for AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. We recently observed broad therapeutic effects of stimulating autophagic-lysosomal proteolysis in the TgCRND8 mouse model of AD that exhibits defective proteolytic clearance of autophagic substrates, robust intralysosomal amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) accumulation, extracellular β-amyloid deposition and cognitive deficits. By genetically deleting the lysosomal cysteine protease inhibitor, cystatin B (CstB), to selectively restore depressed cathepsin activities, we substantially cleared Aβ, ubiquitinated proteins and other autophagic substrates from autolysosomes/lysosomes and rescued autophagic-lysosomal pathology, as well as reduced total Aβ40/42 levels and extracellular amyloid deposition, highlighting the underappreciated importance of the lysosomal system for Aβ clearance. Most importantly, lysosomal remediation prevented the marked learning and memory deficits in TgCRND8 mice. Our findings underscore the pathogenic significance of autophagic-lysosomal dysfunction in AD and demonstrate the value of reversing this dysfunction as an innovative therapeautic strategy for AD.

  14. HPV strain distribution in patients with genital warts in a female population sample

    PubMed Central

    Boda, Daniel; Neagu, Monica; Constantin, Carolina; Voinescu, Razvan Nicolae; Caruntu, Constantin; Zurac, Sabina; Spandidos, Demetrios A.; Drakoulis, Nikolaos; Tsoukalas, Dimitrios; Tsatsakis, Aristides M.

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the human cancer domain is still a subject of intensive study. In this study, we examined cervical swab samples from 713 females with genital warts, and tested the samples for high- and low-risk genital HPV. HPV genotyping was assessed using a Genotyping test that detects HPV by the amplification of target DNA using polymerase chain reaction and nucleic acid hybridization. In total, we detected 37 anogenital HPV DNA genotypes [6, 11, 16, 18, 26, 31, 33, 35, 39, 40, 42, 45, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 58, 59, 61, 62, 64, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73 (MM9), 81, 82 (MM4), 83 (MM7), 84 (MM8), IS39 and CP6108] and investigated the incidence of these genotypes in the patients with genital warts. We found differences in the distribution of high-/low-risk strains and the incidence of high-risk strains was found to occur mainly in females under 35 years of age. The data from our study suggest that a detailed oral, rectal and genital identification of high-risk strains should be performed to visualize the entire pattern of possible triggers of carcinogenesis. PMID:27602111

  15. Chlorella sorokiniana UTEX 2805, a heat and intense, sunlight-tolerant microalga with potential for removing ammonium from wastewater.

    PubMed

    de-Bashan, Luz E; Trejo, Adan; Huss, Volker A R; Hernandez, Juan-Pablo; Bashan, Yoav

    2008-07-01

    In the summer of 2003, a microalga strain was isolated from a massive green microalgae bloom in wastewater stabilization ponds at the treatment facility of La Paz, B.C.S., Mexico. Prevailing environmental conditions were air temperatures over 40 degrees C, water temperature of 37 degrees C, and insolation of up to 2400 micromol m2 s(-1) at midday for several hours at the water surface for four months. The microalga was identified as Chlorella sorokiniana Shih. et Krauss, based on sequencing its entire 18S rRNA gene. In a controlled photo-bioreactor, this strain can grow to high population densities in synthetic wastewater at temperatures of 40-42 degrees C and light intensity of 2500 micromol m2 s(-1) for 5h daily and efficiently remove ammonium from the wastewater under these conditions better than under normal lower temperature (28 degrees C) and lower light intensity (60 micromol m2 s(-1)). When co-immobilized with the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense that promotes growth of microalgae, the population of microalga grew faster and removed even more ammonium. Under exposure to extreme growth conditions, the quantity of four photosynthetic pigments increased in the co-immobilized cultures. This strain of microalga has potential as a wastewater treatment agent under extreme conditions of temperature and light intensity.

  16. Impact evaluation of potential volcanic plumes over Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adame, J. A.; Valentí-Pía, M. D.; Gil-Ojeda, M.

    2015-06-01

    The volcanic ash transport to Spain has been investigated as a part of a broader scale forecast system. Based on a double criterion, distance and eruptive history, four volcanic areas potentially affecting Spain have been investigated: Azores Islands (Portugal), Canary Islands (Spain), Iceland, and southern Italy. The paths of simulated plumes have been computed from daily forward trajectories for the period 2005-2012 using the volcanoes' locations as departure points. The frequency of impact of the hypothetical plumes has been calculated for eight regions in Spain. The probability in all cases is low. Portuguese and Spanish volcanoes present the highest probability in the warm season (~ 3.5%); the volcanic ash from Iceland would be expected to arrive mainly in the cold season (< 1.5%). Italian volcanoes show the lowest probability (< 0.5%). The weather patterns associated to the arrival of volcanic plumes from the four volcanic areas have been identified. The mean times required for the ash plumes to reach Spain from the Canary Islands, Azores Islands, Iceland, and Italy are 40, 42, 57, and 61 h, respectively. The HYSPLIT model has been used to study the volcanic plumes' dispersion and concentration fields in three aviation reference atmospheric layers. Values with high hazard for aviation have been obtained over Spain following the hypothetical eruption of a Canary Islands volcano. Fields of medium hazard would be found over Spain after a Portuguese volcano eruption. The volcanic ash from Icelandic volcanoes shows low hazard, while Italian volcanoes indicate a null hazard in most cases.

  17. Ecophysiological characterization of Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus tubingensis and Aspergillus niger isolated from grapes in Spanish vineyards.

    PubMed

    García-Cela, E; Crespo-Sempere, A; Ramos, A J; Sanchis, V; Marin, S

    2014-03-03

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diversity of black aspergilli isolated from berries from different agroclimatic regions of Spain. Growth characterization (in terms of temperature and water activity requirements) of Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus tubingensis and Aspergillus niger was carried out on synthetic grape medium. A. tubingensis and A. niger showed higher maximum temperatures for growth (>45 °C versus 40-42 °C), and lower minimum aw requirements (0.83 aw versus 0.87 aw) than A. carbonarius. No differences in growth boundaries due to their geographical origin were found within A. niger aggregate isolates. Conversely, A. carbonarius isolates from the hotter and drier region grew and produced OTA at lower aw than other isolates. However, little genetic diversity in A. carbonarius was observed for the microsatellites tested and the same sequence of β-tubulin gene was observed; therefore intraspecific variability did not correlate with the geographical origin of the isolates or with their ability to produce OTA. Climatic change prediction points to drier and hotter climatic scenarios where A. tubingensis and A. niger could be even more prevalent over A. carbonarius, since they are better adapted to extreme high temperature and drier conditions.

  18. Young's modulus of peritubular and intertubular human dentin by nano-indentation tests.

    PubMed

    Ziskind, Daniel; Hasday, Moran; Cohen, Sidney R; Wagner, H Daniel

    2011-04-01

    The local Young modulus of dry dentin viewed as a hierarchical composite was measured by nano-indentation using two types of experiments, both in a continuous stiffness measurement mode. First, tests were performed radially along straight lines running across highly mineralized peritubular dentin sections and through less mineralized intertubular dentin areas. These tests revealed a gradual decrease in Young's modulus from the bulk of the peritubular dentin region where modulus values of up to ∼40-42GPa were observed, down to approximately constant values of ∼17GPa in the intertubular dentin region. A second set of nano-indentation experiments was performed on the facets of an irregular polyhedron specimen cut from the intertubular dentin region, so as to probe the modulus of intertubular dentin specimens at different orientations relative to the tubular direction. The results demonstrated that the intertubular dentin region may be considered to be quasi-isotropic, with a slightly higher modulus value (∼22GPa) when the indenting tip axis is parallel to the tubular direction, compared to the values (∼18GPa) obtained when the indenting tip axis is perpendicular to the tubule direction.

  19. Discriminant analysis of functional optical topography for schizophrenia diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Ching-Cheng; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Pu, Shenghong; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Lee, Chia-Yen; Sun, Chia-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal prefrontal function plays a central role in the cognition deficits of schizophrenic patients; however, the character of the relationship between discriminant analysis and prefrontal activation remains undetermined. Recently, evidence of low prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation in individuals with schizophrenia has also been found during verbal fluency tests (VFT) and other cognitive tests with several neuroimaging methods. The purpose of this study is to assess the hemodynamic changes of the PFC and discriminant analysis between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls during VFT task by utilizing functional optical topography. A total of 99 subjects including 53 schizophrenic patients and 46 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were studied. The results showed that the healthy group had larger activation in the right and left PFC than in the middle PFC. Besides, the schizophrenic group showed weaker task performance and lower activation in the whole PFC than the healthy group. The result of the discriminant analysis showed a significant difference with P value <0.001 in six channels (CH 23, 29, 31, 40, 42, 52) between the schizophrenic and healthy groups. Finally, 68.69% and 71.72% of subjects are correctly classified as being schizophrenic or healthy with all 52 channels and six significantly different channels, respectively. Our findings suggest that the left PFC can be a feature region for discriminant analysis of schizophrenic diagnosis.

  20. Access to medicines among internally displaced and non-displaced people in urban areas in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Rodríguez, Myriam; Wirtz, Veronika J; Idrovo, Alvaro J; Angulo, Mary Lupe

    2012-12-01

    This study analyzes access to medicines among displaced and non-displaced populations in urban areas in Bucaramanga, Colombia. A household survey was carried out to study access to medicines for self-reported and medically diagnosed health conditions. Multiple Poisson regression with robust variance was used to determine factors associated with access to medicines. Two thousand and sixty individuals from 514 families participated. Only 29.1% (95%CI: 22.04-37.08) of the individuals in the sample with prescriptions and 44.3% (95%CI: 40.42-48.25) with self-reported needs for pharmacotherapy were taking medicines. Greater access was associated with the perceived severity of the illness, higher income, having a health center nearby and not perceiving barriers in accessing services. Social security affiliation and being displaced were not related. Social security coverage alone does not have an effect on access to medicines because it does not include essential medicines that correspond to the health needs of this population. Resolving administrative and geographical barriers is likely to improve access to medicines.

  1. Families of Nuclear Receptors in Vertebrate Models: Characteristic and Comparative Toxicological Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yanbin; Zhang, Kun; Giesy, John P.; Hu, Jianying

    2015-02-01

    Various synthetic chemicals are ligands for nuclear receptors (NRs) and can cause adverse effects in vertebrates mediated by NRs. While several model vertebrates, such as mouse, chicken, western clawed frog and zebrafish, are widely used in toxicity testing, few NRs have been well described for most of these classes. In this report, NRs in genomes of 12 vertebrates are characterized via bioinformatics approaches. Although numbers of NRs varied among species, with 40-42 genes in birds to 66-74 genes in teleost fishes, all NRs had clear homologs in human and could be categorized into seven subfamilies defined as NR0B-NR6A. Phylogenetic analysis revealed conservative evolutionary relationships for most NRs, which were consistent with traditional morphology-based systematics, except for some exceptions in Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Evolution of PXR and CAR exhibited unexpected multiple patterns and the existence of CAR possibly being traced back to ancient lobe-finned fishes and tetrapods (Sarcopterygii). Compared to the more conservative DBD of NRs, sequences of LBD were less conserved: Sequences of THRs, RARs and RXRs were >=90% similar to those of the human, ERs, AR, GR, ERRs and PPARs were more variable with similarities of 60%-100% and PXR, CAR, DAX1 and SHP were least conserved among species.

  2. Optimization of pretreatment and fermentation conditions for production of extracellular cellulase complex using sugarcane bagasse

    PubMed Central

    Ashfaque, Mohammad; Solomon, Sushil; Pathak, Neelam

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse (SCB), a lignocellulosic byproduct of juice extraction from sugarcane, is rich in cellulose (40-42%). This could be used as a substrate for the production of cellulase complex. Fermentation conditions were optimized for production of cellulase complex (CMCase, Cellulobiase and FPase) by wild type Trichoderma sp. using sugarcane bagasse as sole carbon source. Alkaline treatment (2% NaOH) of bagasse (AlSCB) was found suitable for the production of reducing sugar over the acidic pretreatment method. After 5 days of incubation period, 5% substrate concentration at pH 5.0 and 400C resulted in maximum production of CMCase (0.622 U), while maximum (3.388 U) production of cellulobiase was obtained at 300C. The CMCase was precipitated and purified to the extent of 59.06 fold by affinity chromatography with 49.09% recovery. On 12% SDS-PAGE, a single band corresponding to 33 kDa was observed. The Km and Vmax for CMCase from Trichoderma was found 507.04 mg/ml and 65.32 mM/min, respectively. The enzyme exhibited maximum activity at 300C at pH-5.0 (0.363 U) and was stable over range of 20-60°C and pH 5.0-7.5. PMID:25489168

  3. Selective Offload for Sea Basing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    188.83 AAAV 48 10 9.10 29.85 3.66 12.00 3.18 10.43 33.31 358.37 28.53 31.38 285.30 313.83 M88A1 1 1 8.21 26.93 3.38 11.09 3.40 11.15 27.75 298.59...the number of each type of vehicle that can be stored on either the 20 ft or 40 ft long storage plate. Vehicle Pallet Size (ft) 20 40 M1A1 0 1 AAAV 0...18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 M1A1 3 28.01 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 AAAV 10

  4. Improvement of aquaponic performance through micro- and macro-nutrient addition.

    PubMed

    Ru, Dongyun; Liu, Jikai; Hu, Zhen; Zou, Yina; Jiang, Liping; Cheng, Xiaodian; Lv, Zhenting

    2017-07-01

    Aquaponics is one of the "zero waste" industry in the twenty-first century, and is considered to be one of the major trends for the future development of agriculture. However, the low nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUE) restricted its widely application. To date, many attempts have been conducted to improve its NUE. In the present study, effect of micro- and macro-nutrient addition on performance of tilapia-pak choi aquaponics was investigated. Results showed that the addition of micro- and macro-nutrients improved the growth of plant directly and facilitated fish physiology indirectly, which subsequently increased NUE of aquaponics from 40.42 to 50.64%. In addition, remarkable lower total phosphorus concentration was obtained in aquaponics with micro- and macro-nutrient addition, which was attributed to the formation of struvite. Most of the added micro-nutrients were enriched in plant root, while macro-nutrients mainly existed in water. Moreover, no enrichment of micro- and macro-nutrients in aquaponic products (i.e., fish and plant leaves) was observed, indicating that it had no influence on food safety. The findings here reported manifest that appropriate addition of micro- and macro-nutrients to aquaponics is necessary, and would improve its economic feasibility.

  5. [Prevalence of dental caries: national pilot study comparing the severity of decay (CAO) vs ICDAS index in Senegal].

    PubMed

    Aidara, A W; Bourgeois, D

    2014-03-01

    This pilot study has for main objective to measure the applicability and the utility of ICDAS index in a context of prevention in developing countries. Dental caries prevalence was evaluated among schoolchildren using DMF (WHO basic method) vs. ICDAS index in Senegal. A representative stratified random cluster sample of 677 primary and college schoolchildren aged 12 and 15 years was examined for caries prevalence. The clinical examination was conducted in two steps for each. The investigator proceeded at first to the inventory of the number of teeth decayed (D), missing (M) or filled (F) according to the WHO basic method. Then, after cleaning and drying all teeth, a two-digit ICDAS code was used to record data at each dental surface. Caries prevalence (96%) was higher than expected in Senegal. ICDAS index provides 43% moreover information than DMF. The need for prevention (ICDAS1: 66%/72% and ICDAS2: 54%/58%) and intercept (ICDAS3: 40%/42% and ICDAS4: 31%/33%) are higher than the need of curative treatment (ICDAS5: 18%/23% and ICDAS6: 27%/33%) respectively among primary and college schoolchildren. Preventive programs are urgently needed in Senegal. It's necessary to lead epidemiological studies in other African countries for determining caries prevalence using the ICDAS criteria to harmonize oral health regional planning.

  6. Glass Formulation for Next Generation Cold Crucible Induction Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Vienna, John D.; Johnson, Fabienne; Marra, James C.; Peeler, David K.; Smith, Gary L.

    2011-12-21

    Transformational melter technologies are being considered to support mission acceleration within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. New glass formulations are required to take full advantage of the next generation melters, for example, the cold crucible induction melter (CCIM). The key advantage of CCIM technology over current reference technologies is its capability to provide higher processing temperatures, which can lead to an increased waste throughput rate by achieving higher waste loadings and by increasing the feed processing rate. Various waste compositions within the DOE complex were evaluated to determine their potential for successfully demonstrating the unique advantages of the CCIM technology. Glass formulations that satisfy a set of constraints for product quality and assumed CCIM processing conditions were developed for two Hanford waste streams, AZ-101 high-level waste (HLW) and AN-105 low-activity waste (LAW). Three glasses selected for AZ-101 HLW have waste loadings of 40, 42.5, and 45 wt%. The 45-wt% waste loading corresponds to a 22% increase from 37 wt%, which is the maximum expected waste loading based on the current reference formulation. One glass selected for AN-105 LAW has a waste loading of 31.3 wt% at 24 wt% Na2O in glass, which is a 14% increase from the current reference formulation maximum of 21 wt% Na2O. These four glasses are planned for scaled melter tests for initial demonstration of the CCIM technologies for Hanford wastes.

  7. A framework for automated contour quality assurance in radiation therapy including adaptive techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altman, M. B.; Kavanaugh, J. A.; Wooten, H. O.; Green, O. L.; DeWees, T. A.; Gay, H.; Thorstad, W. L.; Li, H.; Mutic, S.

    2015-07-01

    Contouring of targets and normal tissues is one of the largest sources of variability in radiation therapy treatment plans. Contours thus require a time intensive and error-prone quality assurance (QA) evaluation, limitations which also impair the facilitation of adaptive radiotherapy (ART). Here, an automated system for contour QA is developed using historical data (the ‘knowledge base’). A pilot study was performed with a knowledge base derived from 9 contours each from 29 head-and-neck treatment plans. Size, shape, relative position, and other clinically-relevant metrics and heuristically derived rules are determined. Metrics are extracted from input patient data and compared against rules determined from the knowledge base; a computer-learning component allows metrics to evolve with more input data, including patient specific data for ART. Nine additional plans containing 42 unique contouring errors were analyzed. 40/42 errors were detected as were 9 false positives. The results of this study imply knowledge-based contour QA could potentially enhance the safety and effectiveness of RT treatment plans as well as increase the efficiency of the treatment planning process, reducing labor and the cost of therapy for patients.

  8. The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation on yam (Dioscorea spp.) tuber weights and secondary metabolite content

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Fun-Chi; Wang, Chun-Li

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are widely distributed in nature. They live in the roots of higher plants, in a symbiotic relationship. In this study, five commercial species of yams (Dioscorea spp.) were inoculated with six species of AMF, Glomus clarum, G. etunicatum, G. fasciculatum, Gigaspora sp., G. mosseae, and Acaulospora sp., in field cultivation conditions to investigate the influence of AMF inoculation on tuber weights and secondary metabolite content in yam tubers. The results showed that mycorrhizae formation rates ranged from 63.33% to 90%. G. etunicatum inoculation treatment increased the tube weights of the five species of yam tubers by 39%, 35%, 20%, 56%, and 40% for Tainung 1, Tainung 2, Ercih, Zihyuxieshu, and Tainung 5, respectively. The content of secondary metabolites, such as polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanin, was significantly increased by the AMF treatment in tuber flesh and peel of all the tested yam species. Specifically, the maximums exchange of secondary metabolite contents increased to 40%, 42%, and 106% for polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanin, respectively, in the tuber fresh. This study revealed that different species of yam had varying degrees of affinity with various AMF species; selecting effective AMF species is necessary to facilitate yam growth and improve the quality and quantity of yam tubers. PMID:26421239

  9. Mono-, di- and trimethylated homologues of isoprenoid tetraether lipid cores in archaea and environmental samples: mass spectrometric identification and significance.

    PubMed

    Knappy, Chris; Barillà, Daniela; Chong, James; Hodgson, Dominic; Morgan, Hugh; Suleman, Muhammad; Tan, Christine; Yao, Peng; Keely, Brendan

    2015-12-01

    Higher homologues of widely reported C(86) isoprenoid diglycerol tetraether lipid cores, containing 0-6 cyclopentyl rings, have been identified in (hyper)thermophilic archaea, representing up to 21% of total tetraether lipids in the cells. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry confirms that the additional carbon atoms in the C(87-88) homologues are located in the etherified chains. Structures identified include dialkyl and monoalkyl ('H-shaped') tetraethers containing C(40-42) or C(81-82) hydrocarbons, respectively, many representing novel compounds. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of hydrocarbons released from the lipid cores by ether cleavage suggests that the C(40) chains are biphytanes and the C(41) chains 13-methylbiphytanes. Multiple isomers, having different chain combinations, were recognised among the dialkyl lipids. Methylated tetraethers are produced by Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus in varying proportions depending on growth conditions, suggesting that methylation may be an adaptive mechanism to regulate cellular function. The detection of methylated lipids in Pyrobaculum sp. AQ1.S2 and Sulfolobus acidocaldarius represents the first reported occurrences in Crenarchaeota. Soils and aquatic sediments from geographically distinct mesotemperate environments that were screened for homologues contained monomethylated tetraethers, with di- and trimethylated structures being detected occasionally. The structural diversity and range of occurrences of the C(87-89) tetraethers highlight their potential as complementary biomarkers for archaea in natural environments.

  10. Synergistic tungsten oxide/organic framework hybrid nanofibers for electrochromic device application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulgerbaki, Cigdem; Komur, Ali Ihsan; Nohut Maslakci, Neslihan; Kuralay, Filiz; Uygun Oksuz, Aysegul

    2017-08-01

    We report the first successful applications of tungsten oxide/conducting polymer hybrid nanofiber assemblies in electrochromic devices. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/tungsten oxide (PEDOT/WO3) and polypyrrole/tungsten oxide (PPy/WO3) composites were prepared by an in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of monomers in different ionic liquids; 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIMBF4), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIMPF6), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide (BMIMTFSI) and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide (BMPTFSI). Electrospinning process was used to form hybrid nanofibers from chemically synthesized nanostructures. The electrospun hybrid samples were compared from both morphological and electrochemical perspectives. Importantly, deposition of nanofibers from chemically synthesized hybrids can be achieved homogenously, on nanoscale dimensions. The morphologies of these assemblies were evaluated by SEM, whereas their electroactivity was characterized by cyclic voltammetry. Electrochromic devices made from hybrid nanofiber electrodes exhibited highest chromatic contrast of 37.66% for PEDOT/WO3/BMIMPF6, 40.42% for PPy/WO3/BMIMBF4 and show a strong electrochromic color change from transparent to light brown. Furthermore, the nanofiber devices exhibit outstanding stability when color switching proceeds, which may ensure a versatile platform for color displays, rear-view mirrors and smart windows.

  11. Polyphosphate: A Conserved Modifier of Amyloidogenic Processes.

    PubMed

    Cremers, Claudia M; Knoefler, Daniela; Gates, Stephanie; Martin, Nicholas; Dahl, Jan-Ulrik; Lempart, Justine; Xie, Lihan; Chapman, Matthew R; Galvan, Veronica; Southworth, Daniel R; Jakob, Ursula

    2016-09-01

    Polyphosphate (polyP), a several billion-year-old biopolymer, is produced in every cell, tissue, and organism studied. Structurally extremely simple, polyP consists of long chains of covalently linked inorganic phosphate groups. We report here the surprising discovery that polyP shows a remarkable efficacy in accelerating amyloid fibril formation. We found that polyP serves as an effective nucleation source for various different amyloid proteins, ranging from bacterial CsgA to human α-synuclein, Aβ1-40/42, and Tau. polyP-associated α-synuclein fibrils show distinct differences in seeding behavior, morphology, and fibril stability compared with fibrils formed in the absence of polyP. In vivo, the amyloid-stimulating and fibril-stabilizing effects of polyP have wide-reaching consequences, increasing the rate of biofilm formation in pathogenic bacteria and mitigating amyloid toxicity in differentiated neuroblastoma cells and C. elegans strains that serve as models for human folding diseases. These results suggest that we have discovered a conserved cytoprotective modifier of amyloidogenic processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The cartographic application of ERTS/RBV imagery in polar regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, W. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Experiments have demonstrated the feasibility of revising coastlines on maps of Antarctica, detected gross changes in the northern limits of the three largest ice shelves in the world, and led to the discovery of uncharted mountain ranges. A strip photomosaic compiled at a scale of 1:1,000,000 along the Victoria Land Coast between Cape Adare and Harboard Glacier shows obvious changes in size, shape, and position of such features as glaciers, ice tongues, ice shelves, and fast ice. Similar changes to features in the Thwaites Glacier Tongue area were also discovered. Comparison of existing maps and photographs with ERTS-1 imagery over portions of the Ross and Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelves reveals that their northern limits have advanced about 6 and 15 km respectively in 7 years. Imagery also revealed new and unmapped geographical features, of which some are mountains, in the area of the recently published Australian 1:1,000,000 IMW sheet SS 40-42 and USGS IMW sheet ST 57-60 which is presently in final stages of compilation. Comparison of one ERTS-1 scene with a recently published USGS map disclosed a unique change in the Erebus Glacier Tongue. Indications are that its present position is about the same as it was in 1910.

  13. Intraoral lipomas: Review of literature and report of two clinical cases

    PubMed Central

    Egido-Moreno, Sonia; Lozano-Porras, Ana-Belén; Mishra, Siddharth; Allegue-Allegue, Marcos; Marí-Roig, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background Lipomas are benign mesenchymal tumors composed of mature adipocytes. They are classified according to their histological pattern and their etiology remains unclear. Objectives: To present two cases and review the literature. Material and Methods A search was conducted in the Medline / PubMed and Scielo data bases of the last 10 years (2004-2014) with the keywords “ intraoral lipoma OR oral cavity lipoma”. Results 46 articles with 95 cases (56 women and 39 men) were reviewed. The average age was found to be 52.28 years (52.28 ± 18.55); and most of them occurred between the 4th and 6th decade of life. Lipomas occur mostly in the buccal mucosa (n = 36, 37.9%), followed by the tongue (n = 23, 24.2%) and other locations (n = 36, 37.9%). The most common histologic pattern was simple lipomas (n = 40, 42%), followed by fibrolipomas (n = 18, 18.9%) and other types (n = 37, 39.1%). The average tumor size was 19.77 ± 16.26mm. Conclusions Lipomas are a relatively rare finding in the oral cavity. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice and recurrence is not expected. Key words:Benign oral tumor, oral lipoma, lipoma, oral cavity. PMID:27957277

  14. The Midwest Power PCFB demonstration projects: AHLSTROM PYROFLOW{reg_sign} first and second generation pressurized circulating fluidized bed (PCFB) technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose, S.; Green, C.L.; Dryden, R.; Provol, S.J.

    1993-04-01

    Midwest Power, Dairyland Power Cooperative, Pyropower Corporation (a subsidiary of Ahlstrom Pyropower Inc.), and Black & Veatch, have embarked on the demonstration of Clean Coal Technology (CCT) at Midwest Power`s Des Moines Energy Center (DMEC), in Pleasant Hill, Iowa. The DMEC-1 PCFB Demonstration Project was selected by the US Department of Energy for the demonstration of the First Generation Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed (PCFB) Technology. During Round 5 of the CCT Program, Midwest Power submitted a proposal for a second unit, to be known as DMEC-2. If selected by the DOE, the DMEC-2 unit will demonstrate Ahlstrom Pyropower`s Second Generation (Advanced) PCFB technology which will incorporate a topping combustor fired on coal derived gas generated in a PCFB carbonizer, to raise the firing temperature of the gas turbine and the total net plant efficiency. The First Generation PCFB technology has the capability to achieve 40--42% efficiency, the Second Generation technology can obtain an efficiency in the range of 44--47% net. This paper will provide a comparison of the commercial versions of the First and Second Generation PCFB systems, and the plans for demonstrating these systems for repowering and new plant installations during the late 1990`s and into the next century. A discussion of the DMEC-1 and DMEC-2 projects and their key technical features will be provided together with a projection of the future markets for these advanced clean coal technologies.

  15. The Midwest Power PCFB demonstration projects: AHLSTROM PYROFLOW[reg sign] first and second generation pressurized circulating fluidized bed (PCFB) technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose, S.; Green, C.L.; Dryden, R.; Provol, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    Midwest Power, Dairyland Power Cooperative, Pyropower Corporation (a subsidiary of Ahlstrom Pyropower Inc.), and Black Veatch, have embarked on the demonstration of Clean Coal Technology (CCT) at Midwest Power's Des Moines Energy Center (DMEC), in Pleasant Hill, Iowa. The DMEC-1 PCFB Demonstration Project was selected by the US Department of Energy for the demonstration of the First Generation Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed (PCFB) Technology. During Round 5 of the CCT Program, Midwest Power submitted a proposal for a second unit, to be known as DMEC-2. If selected by the DOE, the DMEC-2 unit will demonstrate Ahlstrom Pyropower's Second Generation (Advanced) PCFB technology which will incorporate a topping combustor fired on coal derived gas generated in a PCFB carbonizer, to raise the firing temperature of the gas turbine and the total net plant efficiency. The First Generation PCFB technology has the capability to achieve 40--42% efficiency, the Second Generation technology can obtain an efficiency in the range of 44--47% net. This paper will provide a comparison of the commercial versions of the First and Second Generation PCFB systems, and the plans for demonstrating these systems for repowering and new plant installations during the late 1990's and into the next century. A discussion of the DMEC-1 and DMEC-2 projects and their key technical features will be provided together with a projection of the future markets for these advanced clean coal technologies.

  16. Mutations in APP have independent effects on Abeta and CTFgamma generation.

    PubMed

    Hecimovic, Silva; Wang, Jun; Dolios, Georgia; Martinez, Maribel; Wang, Rong; Goate, Alison M

    2004-11-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanism of beta-amyloid (Abeta) generation is crucial for Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis as well as for normal APP function. The transmembrane domain (TM) of APP appears to undergo presenilin-dependent gamma-secretase cleavage at two topologically distinct sites: a site in the middle of the TM domain that is crucial for the generation of Abeta-peptides, and a site close to the cytoplasmic border (S3-like/epsilon site) of the TM domain that leads to production of the APP intracellular domain (CTFgamma/AICD). We demonstrate that, in contrast to the unique effect of familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) mutations in APP on Abeta42 production, some but not all FAD mutations also affect CTFgamma generation. Furthermore, changes in total CTFgamma levels do not correlate with either an increase or a decrease of any Abeta species, and inhibition of Abeta-peptide formation starting from position +1 (Abeta1-x) does not affect CTFgamma production. These results suggest that cleavage at the gamma40/42- and the S3-like sites can be dissociated, and that APP signaling and Abeta production are not tightly linked.

  17. Epidemiological survey of canine heartworm disease on the island of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands - Spain) between 2000 and 2008.

    PubMed

    Montoya-Alonso, J A; Carretón, E; Juste, M C; Mellado, I; Morchón, R; Simón, F

    2010-10-11

    Canine cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis caused by Dirofilaria immitis is endemic on the island of Gran Canaria. Epidemiological surveys have shown differences in the prevalence of heartworm disease in the canine population of the island between 1989 and 1998. The aim of the present study was to follow-up the prevalence of D. immitis in both the canine population as a whole and the Canarian Warren Hound population on Gran Canaria between 2000 and 2008. Prevalences observed were always significantly higher in the Canarian Warren Hound population than in the entire canine population. A significant decrease in the prevalence (from 30.19% to 19.36%) in the whole population was observed. In the Canarian Warren Hound the prevalence decreased slightly between 2000 and 2007 (40.42-34.65%), rising in 2008 to values higher than those observed at the beginning of follow-up study (41.6%). These changes are mainly attributed to lack of preventive chemotherapy and the prolonged exposure of the Canarian Warren Hound to mosquito bites. As this breed can act as a natural reservoir in Gran Canaria, regular surveillance is needed to detect changes in the epidemiological picture on this island.

  18. Latitudinal variations in the abundance, biomass, taxonomic composition and estimated production of epipelagic mesozooplankton along the 155°E longitude in the western North Pacific during spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, A.; Matsuno, K.; Abe, Y.; Arima, D.; Imai, I.

    2017-01-01

    A total of 100 mesozooplankton samples collected with NORPAC nets from a 0 to 150-m depth at latitudinal stations (35-44°N) along 155°E each May from 2002 through 2011 were analyzed. The mesozooplankton abundance at each station varied from 39 to 1106 ind. m-3. The mesozooplankton biomass was consistently higher (80-100 mg DM m-3) in the transition domain (40-42°N) than the biomass in the other domains. An empirical metabolic rate-based carbon budget model indicated that production of mesozooplankton suspension feeders was highest (120-175 mg C m-2 d-1) in the transition domain. A comparison between the production of the mesozooplankton suspension feeders and the food requirement of mesozooplankton carnivores indicated that the latter was well fulfilled by the former in the subarctic and transition domains. However, the food requirement of the mesozooplankton carnivores was near equal to or exceeded the production of mesozooplankton suspension feeders in the subtropical domain. As an annual event, the feeding migration of epipelagic fish to the transition and subarctic domains in summer may be interpreted by their utilization of the excess secondary production (production of mesozooplankton suspension feeders).

  19. Novel fabrication method for zirconia restorations: bonding strength of machinable ceramic to zirconia with resin cements.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, Soichi; Terui, Yuichi; Higuchi, Daisuke; Goto, Daisuke; Hotta, Yasuhiro; Manabe, Atsufumi; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    A novel method was developed to fabricate all-ceramic restorations which comprised CAD/CAM-fabricated machinable ceramic bonded to CAD/CAM-fabricated zirconia framework using resin cement. The feasibility of this fabrication method was assessed in this study by investigating the bonding strength of a machinable ceramic to zirconia. A machinable ceramic was bonded to a zirconia plate using three kinds of resin cements: ResiCem (RE), Panavia (PA), and Multilink (ML). Conventional porcelain-fused-to-zirconia specimens were also prepared to serve as control. Shear bond strength test (SBT) and Schwickerath crack initiation test (SCT) were carried out. SBT revealed that PA (40.42 MPa) yielded a significantly higher bonding strength than RE (28.01 MPa) and ML (18.89 MPa). SCT revealed that the bonding strengths of test groups using resin cement were significantly higher than those of Control. Notably, the bonding strengths of RE and ML were above 25 MPa even after 10,000 times of thermal cycling -adequately meeting the ISO 9693 standard for metal-ceramic restorations. These results affirmed the feasibility of the novel fabrication method, in that a CAD/CAM-fabricated machinable ceramic is bonded to a CAD/CAM-fabricated zirconia framework using a resin cement.

  20. Virologic testing in bronchiolitis: does it change management decisions and predict outcomes?

    PubMed

    Stollar, Fabiola; Alcoba, Gabriel; Gervaix, Alain; Argiroffo, Constance Barazzone

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical, therapeutic, laboratory, and radiological differences between respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and non-RSV bronchiolitis in order to assess if the prior knowledge of viral etiology changed management decisions and would be able to predict outcomes. Medical charts of children <1 year admitted to the emergency department with bronchiolitis during two RSV seasons (2010-2012) were reviewed. We analyzed 221 episodes of bronchiolitis. The percentage of exams performed (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.74-2.52), abnormal laboratory and radiological findings (95 % CI 0.53-16.89) did not differ between groups. RSV bronchiolitis had a more severe clinical course. However, virologic testing for RSV had low specificity in identifying at-risk patients for hospitalization, longer hospital length of stay, and need of oxygen therapy and nasogastric tube (44, 40, 42, and 35 %, respectively), and while statistically significant, the positive likelihood ratios were only slightly greater than 1. Although RSV bronchiolitis has a more severe clinical course, virologic testing does not help in management decisions, and at an individual level, as a performance test, it seems insufficient to precisely predict outcomes.

  1. Sublingual apomorphine as a neuroendocrine probe.

    PubMed

    Brunerova, Ludmila; Potockova, Jana; Horacek, Jiri; Koprivova, Helena; Rehula, Milan; Andel, Michal

    2012-07-30

    Subcutaneous apomorphine, a dopaminergic agonist, is used as a neuroendocrine probe for assessing central dopaminergic activity. The aim of our study was to test sublingual apomorphine for the same purpose. We administered sublingual apomorphine in a weight-dependent dose (0.033 mg/kg) to 42 healthy men. Prolactin and growth hormone levels were measured before and after the administration at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min. Subjects filled in Zung's self-assessment scores of anxiety (SAS) and depression (SDS) questionnaires before and after the test. Areas under the curve for prolactin and growth hormone levels were calculated using the trapezoidal rule. All subjects showed decreased prolactin, and 40/42 subjects showed increased growth hormone, in response to sublingual apomorphine. Average peak value for prolactin was -4.6±1.8 μg/l. Average peak value for growth hormone was 8.1±8.5 ng/ml for the whole group, and 9.6±8.1 ng/ml after exclusion of two negative growth hormone responders. Sublingual apomorphine produced no major side effects. Significant decreases in SAS (21.5±5.7 vs. 20.6±5.5) and SDS (9.7±7.8 vs. 7.8±6.8) scores were observed after the test. Sublingually administered apomorphine appears to be well tolerated and useful as a neuroendocrine marker of central dopaminergic activity.

  2. MRI monitoring of intratumoral drug delivery and prediction of the therapeutic effect with a multifunctional thermosensitive liposome.

    PubMed

    Tagami, Tatsuaki; Foltz, Warren D; Ernsting, Mark J; Lee, Carol M; Tannock, Ian F; May, Jonathan P; Li, Shyh-Dar

    2011-09-01

    Non-invasive in vivo imaging of drug distribution enables real-time monitoring and prediction of therapeutic responses to treatment. We have developed a thermosensitive liposomal formulation (HaT: Hyperthermia-activated-cytoToxic) consisting of DPPC and Brij78, a formulation that enhanced drug delivery compared to the lyso-lipid temperature sensitive liposomes (LTSL). Here we report the development of a multifunctional HaT liposome co-encapsulating Gd-DTPA (an MRI probe) and doxorubicin (DOX), which simultaneously releases and reports on drug delivery in a locally heated tumor. The temperature-dependent release profiles of DOX from HaT were closely related to the change in the MR T(1) relaxation time, in which DOX was 100% released at 40-42 °C in 3 min, accompanied by a 60% reduction in T(1). By T(1) relaxometry analysis, no Gd-DTPA leakage was detected in 30 min at 30-37 °C. In the in vivo study, DOX uptake in the tumor was quantitatively correlated with T(1) response (R(2) = 0.98) and the patterns of the T(1) image and the intratumoral DOX uptake were matched, in which both signals were predominantly detected in the highly perfused tumor periphery. Finally, the extent of T(1) relaxation enhancement in the heated tumor successfully predicted the antitumor efficacy in a standard pharmacological response model (R(2) = 0.98). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Western blot technique standardization for specific diagnosis of Chagas disease using excretory-secretory antigens of Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes].

    PubMed

    Escalante, Hermes; Jara, César; Davelois, Kelly; Iglesias, Miguel; Benites, Adderly; Espinoza, Renzo

    2014-01-01

    Evaluate the effectiveness of Western Blot for the specific diagnosis of Chagas disease using excretory-secretory antigens of Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes. Antigens were obtained after twenty hours of incubation in Eagle’s Minimum Essential Medium, which were prepared at a protein concentration of 0.2 ug/uL to be faced with 10 mL pool of serum from patients with Chagas disease and a conjugated anti-IgG labeled with peroxidase. The presence of the following antigens was observed: 10, 12, 14, 15, 19, 20, 23, 26, 30, 33, 36, 40, 42, 46, 58, 63, 69, 91, 100, and 112 kDa; of which antigens of 10, 12, 14, 15, 19, 20, 23, and 26 kDa were considered to be specific using pools of serum from patients with other parasitosis and serum from people with no parasites. The sensitivity of the technique was assessed using individual serum from 65 patients with Chagas disease; and the specificity with serum from 40 patients with other parasitosis, and serums from five people who did not have parasites. The technique has a sensitivity of 95.4% in the detection of one to eight specific bands, a specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 100%, and a negative predictive value of 93.7%. Western Blot technique with excretory-secretory antigens of T. cruzi epimastigotes is effective in the diagnosis of Chagas disease in Peru; therefore, it can be used as a confirmatory test.

  4. Neuroprotective properties of the innate immune system and bone marrow stem cells in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Simard, A R; Rivest, S

    2006-04-01

    The role of innate immunity and microglia in the brain is currently a matter of great debate and controversy. While several studies have provided evidence that they contribute to neurodegeneration in various animal models of brain diseases and traumas, others have shown that their inhibition may in contrast be associated with more damages or less repair. We have recently reported the existence of two different types of microglia, the resident and the newly differentiated microglia that derive from the bone marrow stem cells. Of great interest is the fact that blood-derived microglial cells are associated with amyloid plaques and these cells are able to prevent the formation or eliminate the presence of amyloid deposits in mice that develop the major hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). These newly recruited cells are specifically attracted to the beta-amyloid 40/42 isoforms in vivo and they participate in the elimination of these proteins by phagocytosis. This review presents the mechanisms involved in the control of the innate immune response by microglia and the beneficial properties of such a response in brain diseases, such as AD.

  5. Microwave radiation effects on the thermally driven oxidase of erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Keil, J.L.; Erwin, D.N.

    1986-01-01

    Sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) were labelled with a concanavalin A-luminol-bovine serum albumin conjugate specific for the transmembrane anion transport protein (Band 3) and exposed to 2450-MHz continuous-wave microwave radiation at an average specific absorption rate of 91W/kg for 10 min. The temperature was held constant at 25, 37, 40, 42, or 45C with an airflow heat-exchange system. Following exposure to microwave or air heating, the decrease in residual base-activated chemiluminescence (CL) of the SRBCs was measured as an indication of infield oxidase activity. Air heating resulted in a significant decrease in residual CL at temperatures above 37C (74% decrease at 45C). Microwave radiation inhibited the decline in residual CL above 37C. At 45C the inhibition was 40%. The results suggest microwave radiation either reversibly altered the thermodynamics of oxygen binding to haemoglobin or failed to energize a significant portion of the haemoglobin molecules in each sample to the thermal threshold of haemoglobin autoxidation.

  6. Maladie de Haglund: à propos de trois cas

    PubMed Central

    Adigo, Amégninou Mawuko Yao; Gnakadja, Néille Gbèssi; Dellanh, Yaovi Yanick; Adambounou, Kokou; Djagnikpo, Oni; Agoda-Kousséma, Lama Kegdigoma; Adoko, Abikou Léon; Adjénou, Komlanvi Victor

    2015-01-01

    La maladie de Haglund est une pathologie relativement sous évaluée. Elle est liée à un conflit calcanéo-achilléen. Nous rapportons les cas de patients âgés de 40, 42 et 37 ans, révélés par des œdèmes douloureux de la cheville. Le diagnostic a été confirmé à la radiographie standard de la cheville en charge et à l’échographie chez tous les patients. Un seul patient avait bénéficié d'une exploration IRM. Le traitement, initialement médical dans tous les cas, s'est soldé par une chirurgie de résection de l'angle postéro-supérieur du calcanéum chez un patient. L’évolution a été favorable chez tous les patients. PMID:26664538

  7. Condensation heat transfer and pressure drop of R-134a saturated vapour inside a brazed compact plate fin heat exchanger with serrated fin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramana Murthy, K. V.; Ranganayakulu, C.; Ashok Babu, T. P.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop measured during R-134a saturated vapour condensation inside a small brazed compact plate fin heat exchanger with serrated fin surface. The effects of saturation temperature (pressure), refrigerant mass flux, refrigerant heat flux, effect of fin surface characteristics and fluid properties are investigated. The average condensation heat transfer coefficients and frictional pressure drops were determined experimentally for refrigerant R-134a at five different saturated temperatures (34, 38, 40, 42 and 44 °C). A transition point between gravity controlled and forced convection condensation has been found for a refrigerant mass flux around 22 kg/m2s. In the forced convection condensation region, the heat transfer coefficients show a three times increase and 1.5 times increase in frictional pressure drop for a doubling of the refrigerant mass flux. The heat transfer coefficients show weak sensitivity to saturation temperature (Pressure) and great sensitivity to refrigerant mass flux and fluid properties. The frictional pressure drop shows a linear dependence on the kinetic energy per unit volume of the refrigerant flow. Correlations are provided for the measured heat transfer coefficients and frictional pressure drops.

  8. Teaching psychiatry residents to teach: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Crisp-Han, Holly; Chambliss, R Bryan; Coverdale, John

    2013-01-01

    Because there have been no previously published national surveys on teaching psychiatry residents about how to teach, the authors surveyed United States psychiatry program directors on what and how residents are taught about teaching. All psychiatry training programs across the United States were mailed a semistructured questionnaire; 95 responded (response rate: 53%). The survey included questions on what, if anything, was provided in the way of formal instruction; the number of seminars offered each year; texts and other materials that were used for teaching; and how seminars were evaluated. The majority (N=69, 73%) of all responding programs provided formal instruction to residents about how to teach. Topics most commonly taught included evaluation and feedback (N=57; 60%), lecturing skills (N=43; 45%), small-group skills (N=40; 42%), learning theory (N=37; 39%), and problem-based learning (N=36; 38%). Instructional methods used were predominantly group discussion (N=62; 65%), lecturing (N=59; 62%), reading of relevant literature (N=35; 37%), role-playing (N=33; 35%), and audiovisual instruction (N=32; 34%). There was a heterogeneity of texts and materials used for teaching. Few of the programs utilized formal validated and reliable tools for evaluating their teaching. Although most programs provided formal teaching, there remains a need to further develop teaching programs and to create model ones.

  9. Stability of amyloid-β peptides in plasma and serum.

    PubMed

    Bibl, Mirko; Welge, Volker; Esselmann, Hermann; Wiltfang, Jens

    2012-02-01

    Plasma amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) levels have been suggested as a biomarker candidate for detecting incipient AD. Aβ peptides are known to be sensitive to distinct preanalytical sample handling, which calls for standardised preanalytical procedures. We investigated serum and plasma samples of 19 patients with no clinical signs of dementia for different preanalytical sample handlings. Both serum and plasma were analysed by the one-dimensional Aβ-SDS-PAGE/immunoblot, either immediately or after storage at room temperature for 24 and 48 h, respectively. The panel of Aβ1-37/38/39/40/42 and Aβ2-40 was evaluated. In both analytical matrices, sample storage led to a significant loss of measurable peptide levels. This effect was most pronounced during the first 24 h of storage and stronger in serum than in plasma. There were no significant differences between the distinct analysed Aβ peptide species regarding these results. The ratios of peptides (e.g. Aβ1-42/Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42/Aβ1-38) displayed a higher stability under the influence of storage than each single peptide. In conclusion, plasma may be more appropriate than serum for analysing Aβ peptides for routine application. At least, the analysis should be done within 24 h and peptide ratios should be created to minimise artificial results.

  10. Hearing disabled children--epidemiology and identification.

    PubMed

    Parving, A

    1988-01-01

    An investigation of hearing disabled children was performed in the Copenhagen City and County in order to: evaluate the prevalence and incidence of congenital/early acquired hearing disability and delineate any change in these parameters compared to the 1970'ies; evaluate the time of identification of the hearing impaired child; indicate who first suspects the child's hearing disability. It was demonstrated that the prevalence of hearing aid treated children had been reduced with 40-42%, however, the incidence was unchanged 0.13%. An annual variance of 0.06-0.20% was present. No significant difference in the incidence was found between the two geografical areas. The median age at identification was 15-18 months, and only 32-48% of the hearing disabled children had been identified at the age of 1 year, showing an improvement in comparison to the 15-16% identified at the same age in the 1970'ies. Children, who could be registered as auditory at-risk were not identified earlier than the non-at-risk children. In 57-67% of the children the parents were the first to suspect the hearing disability. On the basis of the investigation it is concluded that the incidence of congenital/early acquired hearing disability in children is unchanged over a 10 year period, and that a delayed identification of these children is present although an improvement in the early identification has taken place.

  11. Performance of 26 Meter Diameter Ringsail Parachute in a Simulated Martian Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    Performance of 26 Meter Diameter Ringsail Parachute in a Simulated Martian Environment. Inflation, drag, and stability characteristics of an 85.3-foot (26-meter) nominal diameter ringsail parachute deployed at a Mach number of 1.15 and at an altitude of 132,600 feet (40.42 kilometers) were obtained from the first flight test of the Planetary Entry Parachute Program. After deployment, the parachute inflated to the reefed condition. However, the canopy was unstable and produced low drag in the reefed condition. Upon disreefing and opening to full inflation, a slight instability in the canopy mouth was observed initially. After a short time, the fluctuations diminished and a stable configuration was attained. Results indicate a loss in drag during the fluctuation period prior to stable inflation. During descent, stability characteristics of the system were such that the average pitch-yaw angle from the local vertical was less than 10 degrees. Rolling motion between the payload and parachute canopy quickly damped to small amplitude. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070031003. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  12. Menarcheal and pubertal development and determining factors among schoolgirls in Kumasi, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Opare-Addo, P M; Stowe, M; Ankobea-Kokroe, F; Zheng, T

    2012-02-01

    To determine menarcheal and pubertal ages and possible factors responsible for current pubertal trends in Kumasi, Ghana, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 720 urban and rural Kumasi 7-17-year-old schoolgirls and their mothers in 2008. Heights and weights were measured and additional information obtained by survey. Mantel-Haenzsel, χ(2), ordered logistic regression and probit analyses were used to analyse the data collected. With 40.42% menarcheal prevalence, median menarcheal ages were significantly different: 12.37 ± 1.48 years urban and 13.41 ± 2.25 years rural; 12.89 ± 1.93 years, overall. Obesity (OR = 2.57; p = 0.033) and high socioeconomic status (OR = 2.12; p = 0.008) were predictors of early menarche, while a younger mother was protective against early menarche (OR = 0.32; p = 0.039). Age at menarche among Kumasi schoolgirls has dropped 0.76 years since it was last determined among similarly aged girls in 1986, declining at a rate of about 0.32 years/decade. The predicting factors provide an important opportunity for intervention through school curricula and targeted education of adolescents.

  13. Preparative enantioseparation of propafenone by counter-current chromatography using di-n-butyl L-tartrate combined with boric acid as the chiral selector.

    PubMed

    Tong, Shengqiang; Shen, Mangmang; Zheng, Ye; Chu, Chu; Li, Xing-Nuo; Yan, Jizhong

    2013-09-01

    This paper extends the research of the utilization of borate coordination complexes in chiral separation by counter-current chromatography (CCC). Racemic propafenone was successfully enantioseparated by CCC with di-n-butyl l-tartrate combined with boric acid as the chiral selector. The two-phase solvent system was composed of chloroform/ 0.05 mol/L acetate buffer pH 3.4 containing 0.10 mol/L boric acid (1:1, v/v), in which 0.10 mol/L di-n-butyl l-tartrate was added in the organic phase. The influence of factors in the enantioseparation of propafenone were investigated and optimized. A total of 92 mg of racemic propafenone was completely enantioseparated using high-speed CCC in a single run, yielding 40-42 mg of (R)- and (S)-propafenone enantiomers with an HPLC purity over 90-95%. The recovery for propafenone enantiomers from fractions of CCC was in the range of 85-90%. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Response pattern of cutaneous postganglionic neurones to the hindlimb on spinal cord heating and cooling in the cat.

    PubMed

    Gregor, M; Jänig, W; Riedel, W

    1976-05-12

    Single postganglionic neurones to hairy skin and hairless skin of the hindleg were investigated on spinal cord heating and spinal cord cooling in chloralose anesthetized cats. 1. Spontaneously active postganglionic neurones which were classified as vasoconstrictor neurones were depressed by spinal cord heating and excited by spinal cord cooling. The overall response to spinal cord cooling was smaller than that to spinal cord heating. 2. Postganglionic neurones to the hairless skin, which had most likely sudomotor function, responded initially to spinal cord heating with a few impulses or not at all. As judged by the skin potentials recorded from the hairless skin the sweat glands were also only weakly activated at the beginning of the heat stimuli. 3. Six silent postganglionic neurones, 3 each to the hairy skin and to the hairless skin, were excited during spinal cord heating. The response of these neurones consisted of a dynamic and a static component and started at the beginning of the heating stimuli with latencies of less than 10S. The neurones could not be excited by any other stimuli and were classified as cutaneous vasodilator neurones. 4. Quantitative analysis of 4 spontaneously active postganglionic (vasoconstrictor) neurones and 3 silent postganglionic (vasodilator) neurones revealed that the threshold of the responses of these neurones to spinal cord heating was 40-42 degrees C (on the dorsal spinal cord) and that the response increase was maximal at the highest temperatures tested (43-44 degrees C).¿

  15. Vaginoscopy compared to traditional hysteroscopy for hysteroscopic sterilization. A randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Chapa, Hector O; Venegas, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    To compare vaginoscopic hysteroscopic sterilization with traditional hysteroscopic approach for differences in pain, bilateral microinsert placement rates, and procedure time. We performed a prospective, randomized, single-blinded study of hysteroscopic sterilization using the Essure System. The study setting was an inner city ObGyn clinic. Ninety patients were randomized to either vaginoscopy or traditional approach. The traditional approach was speculum insertion, paracervical analgesia, and tenaculum. All procedures were done with a 5 mm, 30 degree rigid hysteroscope. Main outcome measures were pain scores (10-point visual analog scale), bilateral placement rates, and procedure times. Vaginoscopy was successful in 42/45 patients (93%). There was no statistically significant difference in pain-scores for microinsert placement between the groups (p = 0.71). First attempt, bilateral microinsert placement rate was 95% (40/42) with vaginoscopy and 95% (43/45) with traditional (p = 0.89). Time for treatment completion was 16 minutes (mean) (range, 13-21) in the traditional group versus vaginoscopy time of 9 minutes (mean) (range, 7-11) (p = 0.03). Hysteroscopic sterilization via vaginoscopy is feasible with bilateral microinsert rates comparable to those of traditional hysteroscopy. Vaginoscopy is associated with less overall discomfort and is faster to perform.

  16. Waterborne cues from crabs induce thicker skeletons, smaller gonads and size-specific changes in growth rate in sea urchins.

    PubMed

    Selden, Rebecca; Johnson, Amy S; Ellers, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    Indirect predator-induced effects on growth, morphology and reproduction have been extensively studied in marine invertebrates but usually without consideration of size-specific effects and not at all in post-metamorphic echinoids. Urchins are an unusually good system, in which, to study size effects because individuals of various ages within one species span four orders of magnitude in weight while retaining a nearly isometric morphology. We tracked growth of urchins, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (0.013-161.385 g), in the presence or absence of waterborne cues from predatory Jonah crabs, Cancer borealis. We ran experiments at ambient temperatures, once for 4 weeks during summer and again, with a second set of urchins, for 22 weeks over winter. We used a scaled, cube-root transformation of weight for measuring size more precisely and for equalizing variance across sizes. Growth rate of the smallest urchins (summer: <17 mm diameter; winter: <7 mm diameter) decreased by 40-42% in response to crab cues. In contrast, growth rate of larger urchins was unaffected in the summer and increased in response to crab scent by 7% in the winter. At the end of the 22-week experiment, additional gonadal and skeletal variables were measured. Cue-exposed urchins developed heavier, thicker skeletons and smaller gonads, but no differences in spine length or jaw size. The differences depended on urchin size, suggesting that there are size-specific shifts in gonadal and somatic investment in urchins.

  17. Shape coexistence in neutron-rich odd-mass S isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijatovic, Tea; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Iwasaki, Hiro; Loelius, Charles; Whitmore, Kenneth; Elder, Robert; Gade, Alexandra; Bazin, Daniel; Weisshaar, Dirk; Bender, Peter; Belarge, Joe; Lunderberg, Eric; Elman, Brandon; Longfellow, Brenden; Dewald, Alfred; Haylett, Thoryn; Mathry, Michael; Heil, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Collective motions in atomic nuclei at low excitation energies have been characterized by the ground-state shape as a single basis. This picture can be altered in exotic nuclei with unusual proton-to-neutron ratios if the nuclear shape can change drastically at low spin. Recently, there has been an increasing interest for shape-coexistence phenomena in neutron-rich S isotopes and studies suggested fairly large collectivity in 40 , 42 , 44S isotopes. We will discuss the search for isomeric or long-lived states in 45S for which no excited states are known in the literature and the pursuit to fully characterize the band structure of the low-lying states in 43,45S, which provide key information to establish a comprehensive picture of the shape coexistence in this region. Direct model-independent measurements of the 43,45S excited states were realized by applying the Recoil Distance Method with the TRIPLEX Plunger in conjunction with GRETINA to fast rare isotope beams at the NSCL.

  18. Deformation in the neutron rich sulfur isotopes {sup 40}S and {sup 42}S

    SciTech Connect

    Glasmacher, T.; Scheit, H.; Brown, B.A.

    1996-12-31

    In the experiment described here radioactive beams of {sup 40,42}S and {sup 44,46}Ar (E{approx}40 MeV/nucl.) were produced in the A1200 fragment separator at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University by fragmenting an 80 MeV/nucleon {sup 48}Ca{sup 13+} beam in a 379 mg/cm{sup 2} {sup 9}Be target. The exotic ions were positively identified by a time of flight measurement before interacting with the secondary gold target (93.5 mg/cm{sup 2} or 184.1 mg/cm{sup 2}). After interacting with the virtual photon field in the gold target, fragments scattered into a lab angle of less than 4.1{degrees} were detected in a fast/slow plastic phoswich detector located downstream from the secondary target. The energy loss - total energy measurement allowed the rejection of events which led to the breakup of the projectile in the target. Photons from the deexcitation of the projectile were measured in coincidence with beam particles. The photons emitted from the excited projectile can be clearly distinguished from photons coming from the target by their Doppler shift and Doppler broadening.

  19. Improvements of surgical techniques in a rat model of an orthotopic single lung transplant

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rats are widely used in modeling orthotopic lung transplantation. Recently the introduction of the cuff technique has greatly facilitated the anastomosing procedure used during the transplant. However, the procedure is still associated with several drawbacks including twisting of blood vessels, tissue injury and the extensive time required for the procedure. This study was performed to optimize the model of rat lung transplantation (LT) with the cuff technique. Methods A total of 42 adult Lewis rats received orthotopic LT with our newly modified procedures. The modified procedures were based on the traditional procedure and incorporated improvements involving orotracheal intubation; a cuff without a tail; conservative dissection in the hilum; preservation of the left lung during anastomosis; successive anatomizing of the bronchus, the pulmonary vein, and the pulmonary artery; and one operator. Results Transplants were performed in 42 rats with a successful rate of 95.23% (40/42). The mean duration for the complete procedure was 82.93 ± 14.56 minutes. All anastomoses were completed in one attempt without vessel laceration, twisting or angulation. In our study, two animals died within three days and one animal died ten days after the operation. All grafts were well inflated with robust blood perfusion and functioned normally as demonstrated by blood gas analysis. Conclusions We have developed a modified orthotopic LT technique that can be easily performed while overcoming major drawbacks. The modified technique has many advantages, such as easy graft implanting, shortened operation time, fewer complications and high reproducibility. PMID:23295132

  20. Treatment of infertility associated with deep endometriosis: definition of therapeutic balances.

    PubMed

    Somigliana, Edgardo; Garcia-Velasco, Juan Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Deep endometriosis is a demanding condition that is associated with infertility. However, evidence supporting a direct link between deep endometriosis and infertility is weak. In fact, infertility in affected patients is more likely to be explained by the strong association between deep endometriosis and adhesions, superficial endometriotic implants, ovarian endometriomas, and adenomyosis. The purported beneficial effects of surgery on infertility are mainly based on the 40%-42% pregnancy rate (PR) after surgery observed in published case series. However, this level of evidence is questionable and overestimates the benefits of the intervention. Even if comparative studies are lacking, IVF may be a valid alternative. The procedure may be less effective in affected women compared with other indications and it is not without additional deep endometriosis-related risks. Some case reports suggest that lesions might progress during IVF causing ureteral or intestinal complications or can decidualize during pregnancy causing intestinal perforation, pneumothorax, and pelvic vessels rupture. Finally, in the decision-making process, physicians should also consider that women with a history of deep endometriosis may face an increased risk of pregnancy complications. In conclusion, clear recommendation for the management of infertile women with deep endometriosis cannot be extrapolated from the literature. The therapeutic decision should be based on a comprehensive evaluation that includes clinical history, instrumental findings, pain symptoms, risks of pregnancy complications, and the woman's wishes. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Relative importance of maternal constitutional factors and glucose intolerance of pregnancy in the development of newborn macrosomia.

    PubMed

    Okun, N; Verma, A; Mitchell, B F; Flowerdew, G

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this case-control study was to determine the relative importance of various predictors of newborn macrosomia, with particular reference to maternal constitutional factors and glucose intolerance of pregnancy. Macrosomia was defined by both absolute birthweight > or = 4,000 g and birthweight > or = 90th centile for gestational age. One thousand mother/newborn pairs [209 macrosomic (cases) and 791 non-macrosomic newborns (controls)] were recruited. Mothers with pre-gestational diabetes mellitus were excluded. Data on pregnancy and pregnancy variables were collected by review of prenatal, labour, and delivery and newborn assessment records and interview with the mother. Predictors that entered the stepwise multiple regression model in order of significance were: previous history of macrosomia, increasing maternal weight, nonsmoking status, multiparity, male newborn gender, gestational age of 40-42 weeks, North American Aboriginal ethnicity, maternal birthweight > 4,000 g, maternal height and maternal age < 17 years. Glucose screen positive/100-g oral glucose tolerance test (GTT) negative status was a significant predictor for macrosomia as defined by birthweight greater than the 90th percentile for gestational age, but not for absolute birthweight over 4,000 g. It was the least significant of all the factors examined. Treated gestational diabetes was not a significant predictor. By multivariate analysis, maternal constitutional factors are more powerful predictors of newborn macrosomia than maternal mild glucose intolerance. Treatment of mothers with GDM may be masking the effect of more pronounced carbohydrate intolerance.

  2. Hypotriglyceridemic and hypoglycemic effects of vescalagin from Pink wax apple [Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merrill and Perry cv. Pink] in high-fructose diet-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Szu-Chuan; Chang, Wen-Chang

    2013-01-15

    Vescalagin, an active component from Pink wax apple [Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merrill and Perry cv. Pink] fruit, with glucose uptake enhancing ability in insulin-resistant FL83B mouse hepatocytes, as shown in our previous study, was further evaluated for its hypotriglyceridemic and hypoglycemic effects in high-fructose diet (HFD)-induced diabetic rats. Wistar rats were fed HFD for 16 weeks and orally administered with vescalagin from Pink wax apple daily during the last 4 weeks. The results of biochemical parameters showed that fasting blood glucose, C-peptide, fructosamine, triglyceride and free fatty acid contents decreased by 44.7%, 46.2%, 4.0%, 42.5%, and 10.8%, respectively, in the HFD-induced diabetic rats administered with vescalagin at 30 mg/kg body weight in comparison with those of control HFD-induced diabetic rats. However, high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol content increased by 14.4% in the HFD rats treated with vescalagin. The present study reveals that vescalagin could have therapeutic value against diabetic progression via its anti-hypertriglyceridemic and anti-hyperglycemic effects.

  3. Nesterenkonia flava sp. nov., isolated from paper-mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hui-Ying; Miao, Li-Hong; Fang, Chengxiang; Yang, Pei-Long; Wang, Ya-Ru; Shi, Peng-Jun; Yao, Bin; Fan, Yun-Liu

    2008-08-01

    A Gram-positive, non-motile, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterium, designated CAAS 251T, was isolated from paper-mill effluent in Wuhan, China. The organism grew optimally at 40-42 degrees C and at pH 9.0-10.0. The major menaquinones were MK-7, MK-8 and MK-9. The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0 (34.78 %), anteiso-C17:0 (25.24 %) and C16:0 (13.37 %). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 65.5 mol%. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain CAAS 251T belongs to the genus Nesterenkonia, having sequence identities ranging from 96.0 to 97.0 % with respect to eight recognized species of the genus Nesterenkonia. Data from DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological and biochemical tests indicated that strain CAAS 251T represents a novel species of the genus Nesterenkonia, for which the name Nesterenkonia flava sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CAAS 251T (=CCTCC AB 207010T=JCM 14814T).

  4. Aggregate blood pressure responses to serial dietary sodium and potassium intervention: defining responses using independent component analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gengsheng; de las Fuentes, Lisa; Gu, Chi C; He, Jiang; Gu, Dongfeng; Kelly, Tanika; Hixson, James; Jacquish, Cashell; Rao, D C; Rice, Treva K

    2015-06-20

    Hypertension is a complex trait that often co-occurs with other conditions such as obesity and is affected by genetic and environmental factors. Aggregate indices such as principal components among these variables and their responses to environmental interventions may represent novel information that is potentially useful for genetic studies. In this study of families participating in the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Salt Sensitivity (GenSalt) Study, blood pressure (BP) responses to dietary sodium interventions are explored. Independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to 20 variables indexing obesity and BP measured at baseline and during low sodium, high sodium and high sodium plus potassium dietary intervention periods. A "heat map" protocol that classifies subjects based on risk for hypertension is used to interpret the extracted components. ICA and heat map suggest four components best describe the data: (1) systolic hypertension, (2) general hypertension, (3) response to sodium intervention and (4) obesity. The largest heritabilities are for the systolic (64%) and general hypertension (56%) components. There is a pattern of higher heritability for the component response to intervention (40-42%) as compared to those for the traditional intervention responses computed as delta scores (24%-40%). In summary, the present study provides intermediate phenotypes that are heritable. Using these derived components may prove useful in gene discovery applications.

  5. Cytotoxic constituents from Brazilian red propolis and their structure-activity relationship.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Awale, Suresh; Tezuka, Yasuhiro; Kadota, Shigetoshi

    2008-05-15

    Several classes of flavonoids [flavanoids (1-10), flavonol (11), isoflavones (12-18), isoflavanones (19-22), isoflavans (23-26), chalcones (27-30), auronol (31), pterocarpans (32-37), 2-arylbenzofuran (38), and neoflavonoid (39)] and lignans (40-42) isolated from the MeOH extract of Brazilian red propolis were investigated for their cytotoxic activity against a panel of six different cancer cell lines including murine colon 26-L5 carcinoma, murine B16-BL6 melanoma, murine Lewis lung carcinoma, human lung A549 adenocarcinoma, human cervix HeLa adenocarcinoma, and human HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cell lines. Based on the observed results, structure-activity relationships were discussed. Among the tested compounds, 7-hydroxy-6-methoxyflavanone (3) exhibited the most potent activity against B16-BL6 (IC(50), 6.66microM), LLC (IC(50), 9.29microM), A549 (IC(50), 8.63microM), and HT-1080 (IC(50), 7.94microM) cancer cell lines, and mucronulatol (26) against LLC (IC(50), 8.38microM) and A549 (IC(50), 9.9microM) cancer cell lines. These activity data were comparable to those of the clinically used anticancer drugs, 5-fluorouracil and doxorubicin, against the tested cell lines, suggesting that 3 and 26 are the good candidates for future anticancer drug development.

  6. Excitation of atoms and molecules in collisions with highly charged ions. [Cyclotron Inst. , Texas A M Univ. , College Station, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    A study of the double ionization of He by high-energy N[sup 7+] ions was extended up in energy to 40 MeV/amu. Coincidence time-of-flight studies of multicharged N[sub 2], O[sub 2], and CO molecular ions produced in collisions with 97-MeV Ar[sup 14+] ions were completed. Analysis of the total kinetic energy distributions and comparison with the available data for CO[sup 2+] and CO[sup 3+] from synchrotron radiation experiments led to the conclusion that ionization by Ar-ion impact populates states having considerably higher excitation energies than those accessed by photoionization. The dissociation fractions for CO[sup 1+] and CO[sup 2+] molecular ions, and the branching ratios for the most prominent charge division channels of CO[sup 2+] through CO[sup 7+] were determined from time-of-flight singles and coincidence data. An experiment designed to investigate the orientation dependence of dissociative multielectron ionization of molecules by heavy ion impact was completed. Measurements of the cross sections for K-shell ionization of intermediate-Z elements by 30-MeV/amu H, N, Ne, and Ar ions were completed. The cross sections were determined for solid targets of Z = 13, 22, 26, 29, 32, 40, 42, 46, and 50 by recording the spectra of K x rays with a Si(Li) spectrometer.

  7. Excitation of atoms and molecules in collisions with highly charged ions. Progress report, January 1, 1990--December 1, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    A study of the double ionization of He by high-energy N{sup 7+} ions was extended up in energy to 40 MeV/amu. Coincidence time-of-flight studies of multicharged N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and CO molecular ions produced in collisions with 97-MeV Ar{sup 14+} ions were completed. Analysis of the total kinetic energy distributions and comparison with the available data for CO{sup 2+} and CO{sup 3+} from synchrotron radiation experiments led to the conclusion that ionization by Ar-ion impact populates states having considerably higher excitation energies than those accessed by photoionization. The dissociation fractions for CO{sup 1+} and CO{sup 2+} molecular ions, and the branching ratios for the most prominent charge division channels of CO{sup 2+} through CO{sup 7+} were determined from time-of-flight singles and coincidence data. An experiment designed to investigate the orientation dependence of dissociative multielectron ionization of molecules by heavy ion impact was completed. Measurements of the cross sections for K-shell ionization of intermediate-Z elements by 30-MeV/amu H, N, Ne, and Ar ions were completed. The cross sections were determined for solid targets of Z = 13, 22, 26, 29, 32, 40, 42, 46, and 50 by recording the spectra of K x rays with a Si(Li) spectrometer.

  8. The crustal structure of Uganda inferred from joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tugume, F. A.; Julia, J.; Nyblade, A.; Adams, A. N.

    2009-12-01

    The crustal structure of Uganda is imaged using joint inversion of teleseismic P wave receiver functions and fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave group velocities. The data used our study were recorded at 10 broadband seismic stations in Uganda. The data collection was done under the first phase of the AfricaArray East Africa seismic experiment, which took place from September 2007 through December 2008. Radial and transverse receiver functions are obtained for teleseimic events in the 300 to 900 epicentral distance range after by deconvolving the vertical component from the corresponding radial and transverse components using an iterative time-domain procedure. The Rayleigh wave group velocities were obtained from an independent tomographic study. Receiver functions are sensitive to shear-wave velocity contrasts and vertical travel times, and surface wave dispersion measurements are sensitive to vertical shear-wave velocity averages. Jointly inverting surface wave dispersion measurements and receiver functions provides integrated models of subsurface shear wave velocity structure that explain the observations better than models obtained from either data set separately. Preliminary results yield Moho depths of approximately 40-42 km for stations on the Archean Tanzania Craton, and 38-40 km for stations in the surrounding Proterozoic mobile belts. Estimates of the Moho depth beneath stations in the Western Branch of the East African rift system could not be reliably obtained because of reverberations in sedimentary layers

  9. [Internal limiting membrane role in primary surgery of the macular hole].

    PubMed

    Brănişteanu, D; Moraru, Andreea

    2013-01-01

    To assess the anatomical result after primary macular hole surgery with or without internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling. To assess the safety and stability results; Prospective, comparative, interventional case study of 47 eyes with stage 3 or 4 macular hole treated by pars-plana vitrectomy between 2006 and 2011. In 19 cases (40.42%) only posterior hyaloid was removed (control group) while in the other 28 cases (59.57%) additional ILM peeling was performed. All cases had gas endotamponade. Postoperatively the cases were followed-up at least 6 months clinically and by OCT. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and Wilcoxon tests. The mean age of patients in the study was 54, 47 +/- 4, 83 years (ranging from 47 to 74 years). In 36 cases (76.59%) the macular hole was idiopathic. After surgery, the macular hole closed in 22 out of 28 cases with ILM peeling (78.57%) as compared to only 13 out of 19 cases from the control group (68.42%). No intraoperative complications were noted. Main postoperative complications were cataract augmentation and macular hole enlargement in 4 out of 12 failed cases (33.33%). No recurrence was noted if macular hole closed after surgery. These results confirm the stability, safety and efficacy of both techniques but with a significant higher success rate if ILM is peeled. The main postoperative complication was macular hole enlargement if surgery failed.

  10. Simulations of monomeric amyloid β-peptide (1-40) with varying solution conditions and oxidation state of Met35: implications for aggregation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Anne M; Lemkul, Justin A; Schaum, Nicholas; Bevan, David R

    2014-03-01

    The amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) is a 40-42 residue peptide that is the principal toxic species in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The oxidation of methionine-35 (Met35) to the sulfoxide form (Met35(ox)) has been identified as potential modulator of Aβ aggregation. The role Met35(ox) plays in Aβ neurotoxicity differs among experimental studies, which may be due to inconsistent solution conditions (pH, buffer, temperature). We applied atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations as a means to probe the dynamics of the monomeric 40-residue alloform of Aβ (Aβ40) containing Met35 or Met35(ox) in an effort to resolve the conflicting experimental results. We found that Met35 oxidation decreases the β-strand content of the C-terminal hydrophobic region (residues 29-40), with a specific effect on the secondary structure of residues 33-35, thus potentially impeding aggregation. Further, there is an important interplay between oxidation state and solution conditions, with pH and salt concentration augmenting the effects of oxidation. The results presented here serve to rationalize the conflicting results seen in experimental studies and provide a fundamental biophysical characterization of monomeric Aβ40 dynamics in both reduced and oxidized forms, providing insight into the biochemical mechanism of Aβ40 and oxidative stress related to AD.

  11. Sulfolane degradation by mixed cultures and a bacterial isolate identified as a Variovorax sp.

    PubMed

    Greene, E A; Beatty, P H; Fedorak, P M

    2000-01-01

    Sulfolane (tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide) is used in the Sulfinol process for natural gas sweetening. At many sour-gas processing plants spills, landfills and leakage from unlined surface storage ponds have contaminated groundwaters with sulfolane. Due to its high water solubility and mobility in aquifers, sulfolane poses a risk for off-site contamination. This study investigated the aerobic biodegradation of sulfolane by two mixed microbial enrichment cultures and by three bacterial isolates. Sulfolane served as the sole C, S and energy source for these cultures. In the two mixed cultures, 60% and 80% of the sulfolane C was recovered as CO2, whereas in cultures of the three isolates only 40-42% of the substrate C was recovered as CO,. In the mixed cultures, 81% and 97% of the sulfolane S was converted to sulfate, and in the pure isolates, 55-90% of the substrate S was converted to sulfate. Thus, the mixed cultures were capable of greater mineralization than the pure isolates. One isolate, strain WP1, was identified using a combination of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, physiological traits and cell morphology. WP1 was determined to be most similar to Varioivorax paradoxus.

  12. Investigating structural details of lipid-cholesterol-A β interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Durgesh; Anunciado, Divina; Heller, William; O'Neill, Hugh; Urban, Volker; Qian, Shuo

    2015-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and is predicted to affect 1 in 85 people around the world by 2050. Amyloid beta (A β) -peptide, a peptide composed of 40- 42 amino acids that is the product of cleavage from the amyloid precursor protein (APP), is regarded to play a major role in the development of AD. In addition, accumulating evidence points to a positive association between cholesterol and AD. Here, we present results from our studies about A β-peptide and cholesterol in bilayer by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) using a combination of dimyristoyl, phosphocholine (DMPC) and partially deuterated cholesterol (cholesterol-d7) with and without A β. We compare the results using grazing incidence and transmission SANS on lipid bilayer films and unilamellar vesicles respectively. The structural details on vesicles and bilayers work in conjunction with the circular dichroism on peptide in solution and oriented circular dichroism in bilayer films. The studies confirm a positive association of A β with the membrane layers. The results from different studies will be compared and contrasted in presentation.

  13. Shapes and structures in the neighborhood of 68Ni: levels in 69Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, William

    2014-03-01

    The study of the level structure of 68Ni40 during the last 15 years has been intense, fueled by the presence of two excited 0+ levels and a single excited 2+ level below 2.6 MeV. Recently, Tsunoda et al., have performed a series of calculations that indicate spherical, oblate, and prolate shapes for the ground, first excited 0+ level at 1604 keV, and second excited 0+ level at 2511 keV. [Y. Tsunoda, T. Otsuka, N. Shimizu, M. Honma, and Y. Utsuno, arXiv:1309.5851v1] One approach to gaining additional insight into these ideas is to examine the structure of 69Cu40 that has a single proton coupled to 68Ni. In this presentation, new levels and transitions will be presented for 69Cu40.42 and discussed in the context of these three proposed shapes. Excited states in these nuclei were populated through multinucleon-transfer reactions using beams provided by the ATLAS facility at Argonne National Laboratory and studied with Gammasphere. From these data, an estimate of the barrier height separating the oblate and prolate shapes will be deduced. This work was supported in part by the US DoE under DEFG02- 94-ER40834 & DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  14. Maysin and Its Flavonoid Derivative from Centipedegrass Attenuates Amyloid Plaques by Inducting Humoral Immune Response with Th2 Skewed Cytokine Response in the Tg (APPswe, PS1dE9) Alzheimer’s Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Il-Hwa; Won, Chung-Kil; Bai, Hyoung-Woo; Lee, Seung Sik; Lee, SungBeom; Chung, Byung Yeoup; Cho, Jae-Hyeon

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a slow, progressive neurodegenerative disease and the most common type of dementia in the elderly. The etiology of AD and its underlying mechanism are still not clear. In a previous study, we found that an ethyl acetate extract of Centipedegrass (CG) (i.e., EA-CG) contained 4 types of Maysin derivatives, including Luteolin, Isoorientin, Rhamnosylisoorientin, and Derhamnosylmaysin, and showed protective effects against Amyloid beta (Aβ) by inhibiting oligomeric Aβ in cellular and in vitro models. Here, we examined the preventative effects of EA-CG treatment on the Aβ burden in the Tg (Mo/Hu APPswe PS1dE9) AD mouse model. We have investigated the EA-CG efficacy as novel anti-AD likely preventing amyloid plaques using immunofluorescence staining to visually analyze Aβ40/42 and fibril formation with Thioflavin-S or 6E10 which are the profile of immunoreactivity against epitope Aβ1–16 or neuritic plaque, the quantitation of humoral immune response against Aβ, and the inflammatory cytokine responses (Th1 and Th2) using ELISA and QRT-PCR. To minimize the toxicity of the extracted CG, we addressed the liver toxicity in response to the CG extract treatment in Tg mice using relevant markers, such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/ alanine aminotransferase (ALT) measurements in serum. The EA-CG extract significantly reduced the Aβ burden, the concentration of soluble Aβ40/42 protein, and fibril formation in the hippocampus and cortex of the Tg mice treated with EA-CG (50 mg/kg BW/day) for 6 months compared with the Tg mice treated with a normal diet. Additionally, the profile of anti-inflammatory cytokines revealed that the levels of Th2 (interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-10 (IL-10)) cytokines are more significantly increased than Th1 (interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-2(IL-2)) in the sera. These results suggest that the EA-CG fraction induces IL-4/IL-10-dependent anti-inflammatory cytokines (Th2) rather than pro

  15. Coffee and caffeine potentiate the antiamyloidogenic activity of melatonin via inhibition of Aβ oligomerization and modulation of the Tau-mediated pathway in N2a/APP cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Fang; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Zhen-Hai; Du, Yan-Hui; He, Zhi-Xu; Cao, Chuanhai; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which has become a public health issue. However, the underlying mechanisms for the pathogenesis of AD are not fully understood, and the current therapeutic drugs cannot produce acceptable efficacy in AD patients. Previous animal studies have shown that coffee (Coff), caffeine (Caff), and melatonin (Mel) have beneficial effects on AD. Disturbed circadian rhythms are observed in AD, and chronotherapy has shown promising effects on AD. In this study, we examined whether a combination of Coff or Caff plus Mel produced a synergistic/additive effect on amyloid-β (Aβ) generation in Neuro-2a (N2a)/amyloid precursor protein (APP) cells and the possible mechanisms involved. Cells were treated with Coff or Caff, with or without combined Mel, with three different chronological regimens. In regimen 1, cells were treated with Coff or Caff for 12 hours in the day, followed by Mel for 12 hours in the night. For regimen 2, cells were treated with Coff or Caff plus Mel for 24 hours, from 7 am to 7 am the next day. In regimen 3, cells were treated with Coff or Caff plus Mel with regimen 1 or 2 for 5 consecutive days. The extracellular Aβ40/42 and Aβ oligomer levels were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. The expression and/or phosphorylation levels of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), Erk1/2, PI3K, Akt, Tau, Wnt3α, β-catenin, and Nrf2 were detected by Western blot assay. The results showed that regimen 1 produced an additive antiamyloidogenic effect with significantly reduced extracellular levels of Aβ40/42 and Aβ42 oligomers. Regimen 2 did not result in remarkable effects, and regimen 3 showed a less antiamyloidogenic effect compared to regimen 1. Coff or Caff, plus Mel reduced oxidative stress in N2a/APP cells via the Nrf2 pathway. Coff or Caff, plus Mel inhibited GSK3β, Akt, PI3K p55, and Tau phosphorylation but enhanced PI3K p85 and Erk1/2 phosphorylation in N2a/APP cells

  16. Coffee and caffeine potentiate the antiamyloidogenic activity of melatonin via inhibition of Aβ oligomerization and modulation of the Tau-mediated pathway in N2a/APP cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li-Fang; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Zhen-Hai; Du, Yan-Hui; He, Zhi-Xu; Cao, Chuanhai; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which has become a public health issue. However, the underlying mechanisms for the pathogenesis of AD are not fully understood, and the current therapeutic drugs cannot produce acceptable efficacy in AD patients. Previous animal studies have shown that coffee (Coff), caffeine (Caff), and melatonin (Mel) have beneficial effects on AD. Disturbed circadian rhythms are observed in AD, and chronotherapy has shown promising effects on AD. In this study, we examined whether a combination of Coff or Caff plus Mel produced a synergistic/additive effect on amyloid-β (Aβ) generation in Neuro-2a (N2a)/amyloid precursor protein (APP) cells and the possible mechanisms involved. Cells were treated with Coff or Caff, with or without combined Mel, with three different chronological regimens. In regimen 1, cells were treated with Coff or Caff for 12 hours in the day, followed by Mel for 12 hours in the night. For regimen 2, cells were treated with Coff or Caff plus Mel for 24 hours, from 7 am to 7 am the next day. In regimen 3, cells were treated with Coff or Caff plus Mel with regimen 1 or 2 for 5 consecutive days. The extracellular Aβ40/42 and Aβ oligomer levels were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. The expression and/or phosphorylation levels of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), Erk1/2, PI3K, Akt, Tau, Wnt3α, β-catenin, and Nrf2 were detected by Western blot assay. The results showed that regimen 1 produced an additive antiamyloidogenic effect with significantly reduced extracellular levels of Aβ40/42 and Aβ42 oligomers. Regimen 2 did not result in remarkable effects, and regimen 3 showed a less antiamyloidogenic effect compared to regimen 1. Coff or Caff, plus Mel reduced oxidative stress in N2a/APP cells via the Nrf2 pathway. Coff or Caff, plus Mel inhibited GSK3β, Akt, PI3K p55, and Tau phosphorylation but enhanced PI3K p85 and Erk1/2 phosphorylation in N2a/APP cells

  17. Characterization of a clinician-scientist cohort in ophthalmology: a demographic analysis of k grant awardees in ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Chao, Daniel L; Schiffman, Joyce C; Gedde, Steven J

    2013-10-01

    To analyze ophthalmologists who are National Institutes of Health (NIH) K grant awardees to characterize clinician-scientists in ophthalmology. Cohort study. Ophthalmologists who have received a K award from 1996 through 2010. K08 and K23 grant awardees were identified through the NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporter database. Information including gender, institution, educational degrees, and success in obtaining an R01 grant was analyzed. Receipt of an R01 grant. One hundred five ophthalmologists were identified who received K08 or K23 grants from the National Eye Institute from 1996 through 2010. Overall, 75% of these were male, although 43% of K awardees were women from 2006 through 2010. Sixty-five percent (68/105) of individuals came from ophthalmology departments that ranked in the top 20 of NIH funding in 2010. The most predominant subspecialties represented were retina (32%), cornea (22%), and glaucoma (15%). Among the K awardees, 40% (42/105) had a doctor of philosophy (PhD) degree in addition to their medical doctor degree. From 1996 through 2000, 61% (23/38) were successful in obtaining an R01 grant, whereas only 13% (5/39) from 2001 through 2005 obtained R01 grants (P<0.001). Gender disparities exist among K awardees in ophthalmology, but these seem to be improving over time. None of the other variables studied-gender, PhD degree, specialty, or funding tier-was associated with obtaining R01 funding. This study helps to characterize the clinician-scientist cohort in ophthalmology and to identify areas to improve the recruitment of these individuals. The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The challenge of change in acute mental health services: measuring staff perceptions of barriers to change and their relationship to job status and satisfaction using a new measure (VOCALISE).

    PubMed

    Laker, Caroline; Callard, Felicity; Flach, Clare; Williams, Paul; Sayer, Jane; Wykes, Til

    2014-02-20

    Health services are subject to frequent changes, yet there has been insufficient research to address how staff working within these services perceive the climate for implementation. Staff perceptions, particularly of barriers to change, may affect successful implementation and the resultant quality of care. This study measures staff perceptions of barriers to change in acute mental healthcare. We identify whether occupational status and job satisfaction are related to these perceptions, as this might indicate a target for intervention that could aid successful implementation. As there were no available instruments capturing staff perceptions of barriers to change, we created a new measure (VOCALISE) to assess this construct. All nursing staff from acute in-patient settings in one large London mental health trust were eligible. Using a participatory method, a nurse researcher interviewed 32 staff to explore perceptions of barriers to change. This generated a measure through thematic analyses and staff feedback (N = 6). Psychometric testing was undertaken according to standard guidelines for measure development (N = 40, 42, 275). Random effects models were used to explore the associations between VOCALISE, occupational status, and job satisfaction (N = 125). VOCALISE was easy to understand and complete, and showed acceptable reliability and validity. The factor analysis revealed three underlying constructs: 'confidence,' 'de-motivation' and 'powerlessness.' Staff with negative perceptions of barriers to change held more junior positions, and had poorer job satisfaction. Qualitatively, nursing assistants expressed a greater sense of organisational unfairness in response to change. VOCALISE can be used to explore staff perceptions of implementation climate and to assess how staff attitudes shape the successful outcomes of planned changes. Negative perceptions were linked with poor job satisfaction and to those occupying more junior roles, indicating a

  19. Characterization of major allergens of royal jelly Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Rosmilah, M; Shahnaz, M; Patel, G; Lock, J; Rahman, D; Masita, A; Noormalin, A

    2008-12-01

    Royal jelly is widely consumed in the community and has perceived benefits ranging from promoting growth in children and improvement of general health status to enhancement of longevity for the elderly. However, royal jelly consumption has been linked to contact dermatitis, acute asthma, anaphylaxis and death. High prevalence of positive skin tests to royal jelly have been reported among atopic populations in countries with a high rate of royal jelly consumption. The present study is aimed to identify the major allergens of royal jelly. Royal jelly extract was separated by sodium dodecyl polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-D). Immunoblotting of the SDS-PAGE and 2-D profiles were performed to identify the allergenic spots. Spots were then excised from the 2-D gel, digested with trypsin and analyzed by mass spectrometry. The SDS-PAGE of royal jelly extract revealed 18 bands between 10 to 167 kD. Western blot of the fractionated proteins detected 15 IgE-binding bands between 14 to 127 kD with seven major allergens of 32, 40, 42, 49, 55, 60 and 67 kD using serum from 53 subjects with royal jelly allergy. The 2-D gel fractionated the royal jelly proteins to more than 50 different protein spots. Out of these, 30 spots demonstrated specific IgE affinity to the sera tested. Eight spots of the major royal jelly allergens were selected for mass-spectrometry analysis. Digested tryptic peptides of the spots were compared to the amino acid sequence search in protein databases which identified the fragments of royal jelly homologus to major royal jelly protein 1 (MRJ1) and major royal jelly protein 2 (MRJ2). In conclusion, the major allergens of royal jelly are MRJ1 and MRJ2 in our patients' population.

  20. Classic and non-classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency can be discriminated from P450 oxidoreductase deficiency in Japanese infants by urinary steroid metabolites.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Yuhei; Homma, Keiko; Fukami, Maki; Miwa, Masayuki; Ikeda, Kazushige; Ogata, Tsutomu; Murata, Mitsuru; Hasegawa, Tomonobu

    2016-04-01

    We previously reported a two-step biochemical diagnosis to discriminate classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency (C21OHD) from P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) by using urinary steroid metabolites: the pregnanetriolone/tetrahydrocortisone ratio (Ptl / the cortisol metabolites 5α- and 5β-tetrahydrocortisone (sum of these metabolites termed THEs), and 11β-hydroxyandrosterone (11OHAn). The objective of this study was to investigate whether both C21OHD and non-classic 21OHD (C+NC21OHD) could be biochemically differentiated from PORD. We recruited 55 infants with C21OHD, 8 with NC21OHD, 16 with PORD, 57 with transient hyper-17α-hydroxyprogesteronemia (TH17OHP), and 2,473 controls. All infants were Japanese with ages between 0-180 d. In addition to Ptl, THEs, and 11OHAn, we measured urinary tetrahydroaldosterone (THAldo) and pregnenediol (PD5). The first step: by Ptl with the age-specific cutoffs 0.06 mg/g creatinine (0-10 d of age) and 0.3 mg/g creatinine (11-180 d of age), we were able to differentiate C+NC21OHD and PORD from TH17OHP and controls (0-10 d of age: 0.065-31 vs. < 0.001-0.052, 11-180 d of age: 0.40-42 vs. < 0.001-0.086) with 100% sensitivity and specificity. The second step: by the 11OHAn/THAldo or 11OHAn/PD5 ratio with a cutoff of 0.80 or 1.0, we were able to discriminate between C+NC21OHD and PORD (1.0-720 vs. 0.021-0.61 or 1.8-160 vs. 0.005-0.32, respectively) with 100% sensitivity and specificity. Ptl, 11OHAn/THAldo, and 11OHAn/PD5 could differentiate between C+NC21OHD and PORD in Japanese infants.

  1. Reduction of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP1) in hippocampal neurons does not proportionately reduce, or otherwise alter, amyloid deposition in APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP1) and its family members have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Multiple susceptibility factors converge to metabolic pathways that involve LRP1, including modulation of the processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the clearance of Aβ peptide. Methods We used the Cre-lox system to lower LRP1 levels in hippocampal neurons of mice that develop Alzheimer-type amyloid by crosses between mice that express Cre recombinase under the transcriptional control of the GFAP promoter, mice that harbor loxp sites in the LRP1 gene, and the APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic model. We compared amyloid plaque numbers in APPswe/PS1dE9 mice lacking LRP1 expression in hippocampus (n = 13) to mice with normal levels of LRP1 (n = 12). Student t-test was used to test whether there were significant differences in plaque numbers and amyloid levels between the groups. A regression model was used to fit two regression lines for these groups, and to compare the rates of Aβ accumulation. Results Immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated efficient elimination of LRP1 expression in the CA fields and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Within hippocampus, we observed no effect on the severity of amyloid deposition, the rate of Aβ40/42 accumulation, or the architecture of amyloid plaques when LRP1 levels were reduced. Conclusions Expression of LRP1 by neurons in proximity to senile amyloid plaques does not appear to play a major role in modulating the formation of these proximal deposits or in the appearance of the associated neuritic pathology. PMID:22537779

  2. Initial evaluation of Sandia National Laboratory-prepared crystalline silico-titanates for cesium recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, L.A.; Carson, K.J.; Elovich, R.J.

    1993-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a study of a new class of inorganic ion exchange materials that selectively extracts cesium (Cs), strontium (Sr), and plutonium (Pu) from alkaline radioactive waste solutions. These materials, identified as crystalline silico-titanates (CST), were developed by scientists at the Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and Texas A&M. This report summarizes preliminary results for the measurement of batch distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) values for the powdered CST materials compared to previously tested ion exchange materials: IONSIV IE-96 (a zeolite produced by UOP), CS-100 (an organic resin produced by Rohm and Haas), and BIB-DJ (a new resorcinol-formaldehyde organic resin produced by Boulder Scientific). Excellent results were obtained for CST inorganic exchangers that could be significant in the development of processes for the near-term pretreatment of Hanford alkaline wastes. The following observations and conclusions resulted from this study: (1) Several CST samples prepared at SNL had a higher capacity to remove Cs from solution as compared to BIB-DJ, IE-96, and CS-100. (2) Cesium distribution results showed that CST samples TAM-40, -42, -43, -70, and -74 had {lambda} values of {approximately}2,200 ({lambda} = Cs K{sub d} {times} {rho}{sub b}; where {lambda} represents the number of exchanger bed volumes of feed that can be loaded on an ion exchange column) at a pH value >14. (3) Cesium distribution values for CST exchangers doubled as the aqueous temperature decreased from 40{degrees} to 10{degrees}C. (4) Crystalline silico-titanates have the capacity to remove Cs as well as Sr and Pu from alkaline wastes unless organic complexants are present. Experimental results indicated that complexed Sr was not removed, and Pu is not expected to be removed.

  3. Early Infant Feeding Practices May Influence the Onset of Symptomatic Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shiv Dayal; Gupta, Rajkumar; Goyal, Alok; Sharma, Aakash

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To study whether breastfeeding and breastfeeding status during gluten introduction influences the age at diagnosis of celiac disease (CD). In addition to study, whether the timing of gluten introduction influences the age at diagnosis of CD. Methods It was a hospital based observational study. Total 198 patients diagnosed with CD as per modified European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (2012) criteria, aged between 6 months to 6 years were included. Detail history taken with special emphasis on breastfeeding and age of gluten introduction. Standard statistical methods used to analyze the data. Results Mean±standard deviation age of onset and diagnosis of CD in breastfed cases was 2.81±1.42 years and 3.68 ±1.55 years respectively as compared to 1.84±1.36 years and 2.70±1.65 years respectively in not breastfed cases (p<0.05). Those who had continued breastfeeding during gluten introduction and of longer duration had significantly delayed onset of disease. The age at onset of CD was under one year in 40.42% of the cases, who had started gluten before 6 months of age compared to only 12.58% of those who had started gluten later (p<0.001). The proposed statistical model showed that two variables, i.e., breast feeding status during gluten introduction and age at gluten introduction positively influencing the age at diagnosis of CD. Conclusion Delayed gluten introduction to infant's diet along with continuing breastfeeding, delays symptomatic CD. However, it is not clear from our study that these infant feeding practices provide permanent protection against the disease or merely delays the symptoms. PMID:28090467

  4. [Influence of air pollution on pregnant women's health and pregnancy outcomes].

    PubMed

    Stanković, Aleksandra; Mitrović, Vladimir; Zivadinović, Radomir

    2011-01-01

    Outdoor and indoor air pollution pollutants can be a potential cause to a lot of negative effects on the health of pregnant women and outcome of pregnancy. The objective of this paper was to estimate the influence of outdoor and indoor air pollution on the health of pregnant women and outcome of pregnancy. The study subjects were the pregnant women, non-smokers, who were not professionally exposed to air pollution. They were divided into the exposed group (n = 189) and control group (n = 178) during the exposure to outdoor air pollution. The data on exposure to sources of indoor air pollution (smoke produced by burning fossil fuels and passive smoking) during pregnancy were obtained from the questionnaire. Data on health condition and outcome of pregnancy were obtained from medical records of tested pregnant women. The research results have shown that the frequency of anemia (OR = 6.76; 95% CI = 1.28-7.72), upper respiratory symptoms (OR = 9.53; 95% CI = 1.32-3.8) and bleeding (OR = 20.5; 95% CI = 2.03-6.97) was significantly higher in pregnant women exposed to outdoor air pollution as compared with the control group. The occurrence of upper respiratory symptoms (OR = 40.42; 95% CI = 2.96-8.91) and bleeding (OR = 53.21; 95% CI = 4.3-15.73) was significantly higher in pregnant women who had been exposed to fossil fuel smoke. Exposure to passive smoking had significant influence on the development of upper respiratory symptoms (OR = 34.58; 95% CI = 3.05-11.66).

  5. Genotype distribution characteristics of multiple human papillomavirus in women from the Taihu River Basin, on the coast of eastern China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing-Fen; Shen, Guo-Rong; Li, Qiong; Chen, Xu; Ma, Chun-Fang; Zhu, Tong-Hua

    2017-03-23

    There is limited data on the genotype distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the Taihu River Basin, home to 1.29 million people on the coast of eastern China. This study evaluated the prevalence and genotypes among different female age groups in this region. Twenty-six HPV strains (low-risk HPV 6, 11, 40, 42, 44, 61, 73 and high-risk HPV 16, 18, 26, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 55, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68, 82, and 83) were detected using Tellgenplex™ HPV technology in samples obtained from three clinical hospitals located in different regions of the Taihu Lake Basin. The results showed that 1855 samples (20.97% of all samples) were found to be HPV-positive. Of these, 1375 samples (15.55% of all samples) were found to have a single HPV infection. Age-specific prevalence showed two peaks, one that corresponded to the group of 21-30 year-old women and the other peak that corresponded to the group of women over 51 years old. The three most prevalent genotypes were HPV52 (19.95%, 370/1855), HPV16 (13.48%, 150/1855), and HPV58 (11.32%, 210/1855). Mixed strains HPV58 + HPV33 and HPV58 + HPV52 were most commonly found in females infected with multiple HPV types. This investigation reveals that HPV infection in the Taihu River Basin varied significantly among different age groups. The most prevalent genotypes are included in the nonavalent vaccine, V503, however this vaccine is not licensed for use in mainland China. The most frequently occurring genotypes should be considered in the development of next-generation HPV vaccines for optimal protection of public health.

  6. Endothelial damage with two DSAEK insertion techniques performed by a novice corneal surgeon in residency training: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Kamran M; Grewal, Dilraj S; Cervantes, Pedro; Basti, Surendra

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to determine which of 2 commonly used nonfold donor insertion techniques was advantageous for initial Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) cases. This involved an ex vivo, prospective comparative case series of 20 randomized DSAEK lenticule insertions. DSAEK insertions were performed by a single novice corneal surgeon (PGY4 resident) in human cadaver eyes. Ten grafts were inserted using a Sheet glide (Surgical Glide; Beaver-Visitec International Inc, Waltham, MA) and 10 were inserted using an inserter device (EndoSerter; Ocular Systems Inc, Winston-Salem, NC). The grafts were explanted, stained with trypan blue and alizarin red S, and photographed for comparison with 5 control grafts. Endothelial damage was quantitatively evaluated using Adobe Photoshop 10.0 CS3 software (Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA). Endothelial cell loss (ECL) was 7.10% ± 2.27% in controls, 12.31% ± 4.74% in the inserter group, and 13.31% ± 5.46% in the Sheet glide group (P = 0.07). Early cases (cases 1-5) had a greater ECL compared with what later cases had (cases 6-10) for the Sheet glide group. This difference was significant for the Sheet glide group (40.42% reduction for cases 6-10, P = 0.04) but not for the EndoSerter group (32.5% reduction for cases 6-10, P = 0.11). Quantitative analysis revealed no statistically significant difference in the ECL between the 2 methods. With surgeon experience, there was a trend toward less ECL using both methods but especially with the Sheet glide. A novice corneal surgeon may effectively use either of these nonfold methods for initial cases. The cadaver eye model described may be a potentially useful wet-laboratory tool for novice surgeons to practice DSAEK lenticule insertion.

  7. A description of the severity of equestrian-related injuries (ERIs) using clinical parameters and patient-reported outcomes.

    PubMed

    Papachristos, Alexander; Edwards, Elton; Dowrick, Adam; Gosling, Cameron

    2014-09-01

    Despite a number of injury prevention campaigns and interventions, horse riding continues to be a dangerous activity, resulting in more accidents per hour than motorcycling, skiing and football. Injuries are often serious, with one in four patients requiring admission to hospital. This study aims to describe the severity of equestrian-related injuries (ERIs) using both clinical parameters and patient-reported outcomes. A retrospective study of all patients aged ≥18 years admitted to The Alfred Hospital between January 2003 and January 2008 with an ERI was performed. Specific clinical data were extracted from the medical record. In addition, a questionnaire was conducted identifying the details of the accident, the required recovery time and levels of ongoing pain and physical disability. During the study period 172 patients met the inclusion criteria. There were three deaths (2%). Eighty-two patients (48%) suffered head injuries. Forty-one patients (24%) were admitted to the ICU and 31 patients (18%) required mechanical ventilation. On discharge, 41 patients (24%) required transfer to a sub-acute rehabilitation facility. One-hundred-and-twenty-four patients (72%) completed the questionnaire. Thirty-nine respondents (31%) were not wearing a helmet. Among patients injured for more than 6 months, 38 (35%) still experienced moderate or severe pain or disability. Ninety-five patients had returned to work at the time of review, among which 47(50%) required longer than 6 months to recover, and 40 (42%) returned at a reduced capacity. The clinical and patient-reported outcomes of ERIs requiring hospital admission are poor. Persistent pain and disability are common, even up to 5 years post-injury. A large proportion of patients required longer than 6 months to return to work and many return at a reduced capacity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of non-destructive impedance-based monitoring technique for cyclic fatigue evaluation of endodontic nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yau-Zen; Liu, Mou-Chuan; Pai, Che-An; Lin, Chun-Li; Yen, Kuang-I

    2011-06-01

    This study investigates the application of non-destructive testing based on the impedance theory in the cyclic fatigue evaluation of endodontic Ni-Ti rotary instruments. Fifty Ni-Ti ProTaper instruments were divided into five groups (n=10 in Groups A to E). Groups A to D were subjected to cyclic fatigue within an artificial canal (Group E was the control group). The mean value of the total life limit (TLL), defined as the instrument being rotated until fracture occurred was found to be 104 s in Group A. Each rotary instrument in Groups B, C and D were rotated until the tested instruments reached 80% (84 s), 60% (62 s) and 40% (42 s) of the TLL. After fatigue testing, each rotary instrument was mounted onto a custom-developed non-destructive testing device to give the tip of the instrument a progressive sideways bend in four mutually perpendicular directions to measure the corresponding impedance value (including the resistance and the reactance). The results indicated that the impedance value showed the same trend as the resistance, implying that the impedance was primarily affected by the resistance. The impedance value for the instruments in the 80% and 60% TLL groups increased by about 6 mΩ (about 7.5%) more than that of the instruments in the intact and 40% TLL groups. The SEM analysis result showed that crack striations were only found at the tip of the thread on the cracked surface of the instrument, consistent with the impedance measurements that found the impedance value of the cracked surface to be significantly different from those in other surfaces. These findings indicate that the impedance value may represent an effective parameter for evaluating the micro-structural status of Ni-Ti rotary instruments subjected to fatigue loading.

  9. Thermosensitive liposomes for the delivery of gemcitabine and oxaliplatin to tumors.

    PubMed

    May, Jonathan P; Ernsting, Mark J; Undzys, Elijus; Li, Shyh-Dar

    2013-12-02

    The majority of ultrafast temperature sensitive liposome (uTSL) formulations reported in the literature deliver the highly membrane permeable drug, doxorubicin (DOX). Here we report on the study of the uTSL formulation, HaT (Heat activated cytoToxic, composed of the phospholipid DPPC and the surfactant Brij78) loaded with the water-soluble, but poorly membrane permeable anticancer drugs, gemcitabine (GEM) and oxaliplatin (OXA). The HaT formulation displayed ultrafast release of these drugs in response to temperature, whereas attempts with LTSL (Lyso-lipid Temperature Sensitive Liposome, composed of DPPC, MSPC, and DSPE-PEG) were unsuccessful. HaT-GEM and HaT-OXA both released >80% of the encapsulated drug within 2 min at 40-42 °C, with <5% drug leakage at 37 °C after 30 min in serum. The pharmacokinetic profile of both drugs was improved by formulating with HaT relative to the free drug, with clearance reduced by 50-fold for GEM and 3-fold for OXA. HaT-GEM and HaT-OXA both displayed improved drug uptake in the heated tumor relative to the unheated tumor (by 9-fold and 3-fold, respectively). In particular, HaT-GEM showed 25-fold improved delivery to the heated tumor relative to free GEM and significantly enhanced antitumor efficacy with complete tumor regression after a single dose of HaT-GEM. These data suggest that uTSL technology can also be used to deliver nonmembrane permeable drugs via an intravascular ultrafast release mechanism to great effect.

  10. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activities of Amaranthus cruentus L. and Amaranthus hybridus L. Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Nana, Fernand W.; Hilou, Adama; Millogo, Jeanne F.; Nacoulma, Odile G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a preliminary assessment of the nutraceutical value of Amaranthus cruentus (A. cruentus) and Amaranthus hybridus (A. hybridus), two food plant species found in Burkina Faso. Hydroacetonic (HAE), methanolic (ME), and aqueous extracts (AE) from the aerial parts were screened for in vitro antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities. Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins and betalains. Hydroacetonic extracts have shown the most diversity for secondary metabolites. The TLC analyses of flavonoids from HAE extracts showed the presence of rutin and other unidentified compounds. The phenolic compound contents of the HAE, ME and AE extracts were determined using the Folin–Ciocalteu method and ranged from 7.55 to 10.18 mg Gallic acid equivalent GAE/100 mg. Tannins, flavonoids, and flavonols ranged from 2.83 to 10.17 mg tannic acid equivalent (TAE)/100 mg, 0.37 to 7.06 mg quercetin equivalent (QE) /100 mg, and 0.09 to 1.31 mg QE/100 mg, respectively. The betacyanin contents were 40.42 and 6.35 mg Amaranthin Equivalent/100 g aerial parts (dry weight) in A. cruentus and A. hybridus, respectively. Free-radical scavenging activity expressed as IC50 (DPPH method) and iron reducing power (FRAP method) ranged from 56 to 423 µg/mL and from 2.26 to 2.56 mmol AAE/g, respectively. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of extracts of A. cruentus and A. hybridus were 3.18% and 38.22%, respectively. The A. hybridus extract showed the best antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibition activities. The results indicated that the phytochemical contents of the two species justify their traditional uses as nutraceutical food plants. PMID:24281664

  11. Comparison effect of oral propranolol and oxytocin versus oxytocin only on induction of labour in nulliparous women (a double blind randomized trial).

    PubMed

    Moghadam, Ashraf Direkvand; Jaafarpour, Molouk; Khani, Ali

    2013-11-01

    Today, research on new methods for preventing caesarean sections owing to labour induction, have been requested in obstetric practice, because of the increased morbidity related to caesarean section. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the effect of Oral Propranolol and Oxytocin versus Oxytocin only on induction of labour in nulliparous women. A double blind randomized controlled trial was performed at the Ilam Mostafa Hospital, Ilam, Iran, from March 2010 to March 2011 on 146 nulliparous pregnant women who had gestational age of 40-42 weeks of pregnancy and a Bishop score of ≤5. Participants were divided in two groups (with 73 participants in each group). In the first group (placebo plus Oxytocin group = 73), Oxytocin was used for the induction of labour. In the second group (Propranolol plus Oxytocin group = 73 cases), before the use of Oxytocin, 20 mg Propranolol was administrated orally and then the Oxytocin was initiated. Twenty mg Propranolol was repeated after 8 hours if good contraction was not obtained. The mean duration for obtaining good contractions was significantly shorter in the Propranolol group than in the placebo group, on both the first and second day of induction (p<.05). The mean duration of latent phase was shorter in the first in Propranolol group (p<.05). In Propranolol plus Oxytocine group, frequency of cesarean deliveries significantly decreased than in the placebo plus Oxytocin group (21% versus 39.7%). No significant differences in neonate outcome, such as Apgar scores of minutes 1 and 5 and need of admissions to NICU, were found between the groups (p>.05) DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Our study showed that oral Propranolol was effective for labour induction and that it could decrease the frequency of caesarean deliveries without producing any adverse effects on mothers or neonates.

  12. Role of the Fast Kinetics of Pyroglutamate-Modified Amyloid-β Oligomers in Membrane Binding and Membrane Permeability

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Membrane permeability to ions and small molecules is believed to be a critical step in the pathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Interactions of oligomers formed by amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides with the plasma cell membrane are believed to play a fundamental role in the processes leading to membrane permeability. Among the family of Aβs, pyroglutamate (pE)-modified Aβ peptides constitute the most abundant oligomeric species in the brains of AD patients. Although membrane permeability mechanisms have been studied for full-length Aβ1–40/42 peptides, these have not been sufficiently characterized for the more abundant AβpE3–42 fragment. Here we have compared the adsorbed and membrane-inserted oligomeric species of AβpE3–42 and Aβ1–42 peptides. We find lower concentrations and larger dimensions for both species of membrane-associated AβpE3–42 oligomers. The larger dimensions are attributed to the faster self-assembly kinetics of AβpE3–42, and the lower concentrations are attributed to weaker interactions with zwitterionic lipid headgroups. While adsorbed oligomers produced little or no significant membrane structural damage, increased membrane permeabilization to ionic species is understood in terms of enlarged membrane-inserted oligomers. Membrane-inserted AβpE3–42 oligomers were also found to modify the mechanical properties of the membrane. Taken together, our results suggest that membrane-inserted oligomers are the primary species responsible for membrane permeability. PMID:24950761

  13. Temperature stress promotes cell division arrest in Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri.

    PubMed

    Sumares, Júlia A P; Morão, Luana Galvão; Martins, Paula M M; Martins, Daniela A B; Gomes, Eleni; Belasque, José; Ferreira, Henrique

    2016-04-01

    Citrus canker is an economically important disease that affects orange production in some of the most important producing areas around the world. It represents a great threat to the Brazilian and North American citriculture, particularly to the states of São Paulo and Florida, which together correspond to the biggest orange juice producers in the world. The etiological agent of this disease is the Gram-negative bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), which grows optimally in laboratory cultures at ~30 °C. To investigate how temperatures differing from 30 °C influence the development of Xcc, we subjected the bacterium to thermal stresses, and afterward scored its recovery capability. In addition, we analyzed cell morphology and some markers of essential cellular processes that could indicate the extent of the heat-induced damage. We found that the exposure of Xcc to 37 °C for a period of 6 h led to a cell cycle arrest at the division stage. Thermal stress might have also interfered with the DNA replication and/or the chromosome segregation apparatuses, since cells displayed an increased number of sister origins side-by-side within rods. Additionally, Xcc treated at 37 °C was still able to induce citrus canker symptoms, showing that thermal stress did not affect the ability of Xcc to colonize the host citrus. At 40-42 °C, Xcc lost viability and became unable to induce disease symptoms in citrus. Our results provide evidence about essential cellular mechanisms perturbed by temperature, and can be potentially explored as a new method for Xanthomonas citri synchronization in cell cycle studies, as well as for the sanitation of plant material. © 2015 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Spatial variability of fine particle concentrations in three European areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoek, Gerard; Meliefste, Kees; Cyrys, Josef; Lewné, Marie; Bellander, Tom; Brauer, Mike; Fischer, Paul; Gehring, Ulrike; Heinrich, Joachim; van Vliet, Patricia; Brunekreef, Bert

    Epidemiological studies of long-term air pollution effects have been hampered by difficulties in characterizing the spatial variation in air pollution. We conducted a study to assess the risk of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution for the development of inhalant allergy and asthma in children in Stockholm county, Munich and the Netherlands. Exposure to traffic-related air pollution was assessed through a 1-year monitoring program and regression modeling using exposure indicators. This paper documents the performance of the exposure monitoring strategy and the spatial variation of ambient particle concentrations. We measured the ambient concentration of PM2.5 and the reflectance of PM2.5 filters ('soot') at 40-42 sites representative of different exposure conditions of the three study populations. Each site was measured during four 14-day average sampling periods spread over one year (spring 1999 to summer 2000). In each study area, a continuous measurement site was operated to remove potential bias due to temporal variation. The selected approach was an efficient method to characterize spatial differences in annual average concentration between a large number of sites in each study area. Adjustment with data from the continuous measurement site improved the precision of the calculated annual averages, especially for PM2.5. Annual average PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 11 to 20 μg/m 3 in Munich, from 8 to 16 μg/m 3 in Stockholm and from 14 to 26 μg/m 3 in the Netherlands. Larger spatial contrasts were found for the absorption coefficient of PM2.5. PM2.5 concentrations were on average 17-18% higher at traffic sites than at urban background sites, but PM2.5 absorption coefficients at traffic sites were between 31% and 55% increased above background. This suggests that spatial variation of traffic-related air pollution may be underestimated if PM2.5 only is measured.

  15. Lithium-Decorated Borospherene B40: A Promising Hydrogen Storage Medium

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Hui; Bai, Bing; Zhang, Lin; Huang, Wei; Mu, Yue-Wen; Zhai, Hua-Jin; Li, Si-Dian

    2016-01-01

    The recent discovery of borospherene B40 marks the onset of a new kind of boron-based nanostructures akin to the C60 buckyball, offering opportunities to explore materials applications of nanoboron. Here we report on the feasibility of Li-decorated B40 for hydrogen storage using the DFT calculations. The B40 cluster has an overall shape of cube-like cage with six hexagonal and heptagonal holes and eight close-packing B6 triangles. Our computational data show that Lim&B40(1–3) complexes bound up to three H2 molecules per Li site with an adsorption energy (AE) of 0.11–0.25 eV/H2, ideal for reversible hydrogen storage and release. The bonding features charge transfer from Li to B40. The first 18 H2 in Li6&B40(3) possess an AE of 0.11–0.18 eV, corresponding to a gravimetric density of 7.1 wt%. The eight triangular B6 corners are shown as well to be good sites for Li-decoration and H2 adsorption. In a desirable case of Li14&B40-42 H2(8), a total of 42 H2 molecules are adsorbed with an AE of 0.32 eV/H2 for the first 14 H2 and 0.12 eV/H2 for the third 14 H2. A maximum gravimetric density of 13.8 wt% is achieved in 8. The Li-B40-nH2 system differs markedly from the previous Li-C60-nH2 and Ti-B40-nH2 complexes. PMID:27752102

  16. A measure of the broad substrate specificity of enzymes based on 'duplicate' catalytic residues.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sandeep; Ásgeirsson, Bjarni; Rao, Basuthkar J

    2012-01-01

    The ability of an enzyme to select and act upon a specific class of compounds with unerring precision and efficiency is an essential feature of life. Simultaneously, these enzymes often catalyze the reaction of a range of similar substrates of the same class, and also have promiscuous activities on unrelated substrates. Previously, we have established a methodology to quantify promiscuous activities in a wide range of proteins. In the current work, we quantitatively characterize the active site for the ability to catalyze distinct, yet related, substrates (BRASS). A protein with known structure and active site residues provides the framework for computing 'duplicate' residues, each of which results in slightly modified replicas of the active site scaffold. Such spatial congruence is supplemented by Finite difference Poisson Boltzmann analysis which filters out electrostatically unfavorable configurations. The congruent configurations are used to compute an index (BrassIndex), which reflects the broad substrate profile of the active site. We identify an acetylhydrolase and a methyltransferase as having the lowest and highest BrassIndex, respectively, from a set of non-homologous proteins extracted from the Catalytic Site Atlas. The acetylhydrolase, a regulatory enzyme, is known to be highly specific for platelet-activating factor. In the methyltransferase (PDB: 1QAM), various combinations of glycine (Gly38/40/42), asparagine (Asn101/11) and glutamic acid (Glu59/36) residues having similar spatial and electrostatic profiles with the specified scaffold (Gly38, Asn101 and Glu59) exemplifies the broad substrate profile such an active site may provide. 'Duplicate' residues identified by relaxing the spatial and/or electrostatic constraints can be the target of directed evolution methodologies, like saturation mutagenesis, for modulating the substrate specificity of proteins.

  17. Comprehensive analysis of airborne contaminants from recent Spacelab missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matney, M. L.; Boyd, J. F.; Covington, P. A.; Leano, H. J.; Pierson, D. L.; Limero, T. F.; James, J. T.

    1993-01-01

    The Shuttle experiences unique air contamination problems because of microgravity and the closed environment. Contaminant build-up in the closed atmosphere and the lack of a gravitational settling mechanism have produced some concern in previous missions about the amount of solid and volatile airborne contaminants in the Orbiter and Spacelab. Degradation of air quality in the Orbiter/Spacelab environment, through processes such as chemical contamination, high solid-particulate levels, and high microbial levels, may affect crew performance and health. A comprehensive assessment of the Shuttle air quality was undertaken during STS-40 and STS-42 missions, in which a variety of air sampling and monitoring techniques were employed to determine the contaminant load by characterizing and quantitating airborne contaminants. Data were collected on the airborne concentrations of volatile organic compounds, microorganisms, and particulate matter collected on Orbiter/Spacelab air filters. The results showed that STS-40/42 Orbiter/Spacelab air was toxicologically safe to breathe, except during STS-40 when the Orbiter Refrigerator/Freezer unit was releasing noxious gases in the middeck. On STS-40, the levels of airborne bacteria appeared to increase as the mission progressed; however, this trend was not observed for the STS-42 mission. Particulate matter in the Orbiter/Spacelab air filters was chemically analyzed in order to determine the source of particles. Only small amounts of rat hair and food bar (STS-40) and traces of soiless medium (STS-42) were detected in the Spacelab air filters, indicating that containment for Spacelab experiments was effective.

  18. Crystal Structure and Inhibition Studies of Transglutaminase from Streptomyces mobaraense*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming-Te; Chang, Cheng-Hsiang; Wang, Jiou Ming; Wu, Tung Kung; Wang, Yu-Kuo; Chang, Chin-Yuan; Li, TienHsiung Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The crystal structure of the microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) zymogen from Streptomyces mobaraense has been determined at 1.9-Å resolution using the molecular replacement method based on the crystal structure of the mature MTGase. The overall structure of this zymogen is similar to that of the mature form, consisting of a single disk-like domain with a deep active cleft at the edge of the molecule. A major portion of the prosequence (45 additional amino acid residues at the N terminus of the mature transglutaminase) folds into an L-shaped structure, consisting of an extended N-terminal segment linked with a one-turn short helix and a long α-helix. Two key residues in the short helix of the prosequence, Tyr-12 and Tyr-16, are located on top of the catalytic triad (Cys-110, Asp-301, and His-320) to block access of the substrate acyl donors and acceptors. Biochemical characterization of the mature MTGase, using N-α-benzyloxycarbonyl-l-glutaminylglycine as a substrate, revealed apparent Km and kcat/Km values of 52.66 mm and 40.42 mm−1 min−1, respectively. Inhibition studies using the partial prosequence SYAETYR and homologous sequence SQAETYR showed a noncompetitive inhibition mechanism with IC50 values of 0.75 and 0.65 mm, respectively, but no cross-linking product formation. Nevertheless, the prosequence homologous oligopeptide SQAETQR, with Tyr-12 and Tyr-16 each replaced with Gln, exhibited inhibitory activity with the formation of the SQAETQR-monodansylcadaverine fluorophore cross-linking product (SQAETQR-C-DNS). MALDI-TOF tandem MS analysis of SQAETQR-C-DNS revealed molecular masses corresponding to those of NSQAETQC-C-DNS and C-DNS-NQRC sequences, suggesting the incorporation of C-DNS onto the C-terminal Gln residue of the prosequence homologous oligopeptide. These results support the putative functional roles of both Tyr residues in substrate binding and inhibition. PMID:21193394

  19. GPR studies over the tsunami affected Karaikal beach, Tamil Nadu, south India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loveson, V. J.; Gujar, A. R.; Barnwal, R.; Khare, Richa; Rajamanickam, G. V.

    2014-08-01

    In this study, results of GPR profiling related to mapping of subsurface sedimentary layers at tsunami affected Karaikal beach are presented . A 400 MHz antenna was used for profiling along 262 m stretch of transect from beach to backshore areas with penetration of about 2.0 m depth (50 ns two-way travel time). The velocity analysis was carried out to estimate the depth information along the GPR profile. Based on the significant changes in the reflection amplitude, three different zones are marked and the upper zone is noticed with less moisture compared to other two (saturated) zones. The water table is noticed to vary from 0.5 to 0.75 m depth (12-15 ns) as moving away from the coastline. Buried erosional surface is observed at 1.5 m depth (40-42 ns), which represents the limit up to which the extreme event acted upon. In other words, it is the depth to which the tsunami sediments have been piled up to about 1.5 m thickness. Three field test pits were made along the transect and sedimentary sequences were recorded. The sand layers, especially, heavy mineral layers, recorded in the test pits indicate a positive correlation with the amplitude and velocity changes in the GPR profile. Such interpretation seems to be difficult in the middle zone due to its water saturation condition. But it is fairly clear in the lower zone located just below the erosional surface where the strata is comparatively more compact. The inferences from the GPR profile thus provide a lucid insight to the subsurface sediment sequences of the tsunami sediments in the Karaikal beach.

  20. Pre-hospital care in Nigeria: a country without emergency medical services.

    PubMed

    Solagberu, B A; Ofoegbu, C K P; Abdur-Rahman, L O; Adekanye, A O; Udoffa, U S; Taiwo, J

    2009-03-01

    Efficient pre-hospital transport (emergency medical services, EMS) is associated with improved outcomes in road traffic injuries (RTI). This study aims to discover possible interventions in the existing mode of transport. Persons bringing all RTI victims to the Emergency room (ER) over a 4-year period and the injury arrival intervals were noted prospectively. There were 2,624 patients (1,886 males and 738 females); only 2,046 (78%) had clear documentations of three categories of persons bringing victims to ER: Relatives (REL, 1,081, 52.83%); Police/Federal Road Safety Corps (P/F, 827, 40.42%) and Bystanders (BS, 138, 6.74%). No intervention was provided during transport: Within 1 hour, 986 victims (48.2% of 2,046) arrived ERbrought by P/F (448, 21.9%), REL (439, 21.5% of 2,046), and BS (99, 4.8%). These figures, in each instance, represent 40.6 % of total victims brought by REL; 54.2% by P/F and 71.7% by BS. However, after 6 hours, REL were the main active group as they brought 94.5% (359 of 380) patients of this period. In 91 victims (4.4%) the injury arrival time was not captured. This study has identified three groups of persons involved in pre-hospital transport with nearly 50% getting to ER within 1 hour without any intervention or prior notification of ER. Absence of EMS obscures pre-hospital death records. The P/F responsible for only 40% of transport should be trained and equipped to offer basic trauma life support (BTLS). The REL and BS (both responsible for 60% of transport) represent a pool of volunteers for BTLS to be trained.

  1. Calcium-Sensing Receptor Antagonist NPS 2143 Restores Amyloid Precursor Protein Physiological Non-Amyloidogenic Processing in Aβ-Exposed Adult Human Astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Chiarini, Anna; Armato, Ubaldo; Liu, Daisong; Dal Prà, Ilaria

    2017-04-28

    Physiological non-amyloidogenic processing (NAP) of amyloid precursor holoprotein (hAPP) by α-secretases (e.g., ADAM10) extracellularly sheds neurotrophic/neuroprotective soluble (s)APPα and precludes amyloid-β peptides (Aβs) production via β-secretase amyloidogenic processing (AP). Evidence exists that Aβs interact with calcium-sensing receptors (CaSRs) in human astrocytes and neurons, driving the overrelease of toxic Aβ42/Aβ42-os (oligomers), which is completely blocked by CaSR antagonist (calcilytic) NPS 2143. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying NPS 2143 beneficial effects in human astrocytes. Moreover, because Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves neuroinflammation, we examined whether NPS 2143 remained beneficial when both fibrillary (f)Aβ25-35 and a microglial cytokine mixture (CMT) were present. Thus, hAPP NAP prevailed over AP in untreated astrocytes, which extracellularly shed all synthesized sAPPα while secreting basal Aβ40/42 amounts. Conversely, fAβ25-35 alone dramatically reduced sAPPα extracellular shedding while driving Aβ42/Aβ42-os oversecretion that CMT accelerated but not increased, despite a concurring hAPP overexpression. NPS 2143 promoted hAPP and ADAM10 translocation to the plasma membrane, thereby restoring sAPPα extracellular shedding and fully suppressing any Aβ42/Aβ42-os oversecretion, but left hAPP expression unaffected. Therefore, as anti-AD therapeutics calcilytics support neuronal viability by safeguarding astrocytes neurotrophic/neuroprotective sAPPα shedding, suppressing neurons and astrocytes Aβ42/Aβ42-os build-up/secretion, and remaining effective even under AD-typical neuroinflammatory conditions.

  2. Development of a fermented ice-cream as influenced by in situ exopolysaccharide production: Rheological, molecular, microstructural and sensory characterization.

    PubMed

    Dertli, Enes; Toker, Omer S; Durak, M Zeki; Yilmaz, Mustafa T; Tatlısu, Nevruz Berna; Sagdic, Osman; Cankurt, Hasan

    2016-01-20

    This study aimed to investigate the role of in situ exopolysaccharide (EPS) production by EPS(+)Streptococcus thermophilus strains on physicochemical, rheological, molecular, microstructural and sensory properties of ice cream in order to develop a fermented and consequently functional ice-cream in which no stabilizers would be required in ice-cream production. For this purpose, the effect of EPS producing strains (control, strain 1, strain 2 and mixture) and fermentation conditions (fermentation temperature; 32, 37 and 42 °C and time; 2, 3 and 4h) on pH, S. thermophilus count, EPS amount, consistency coefficient (K), and apparent viscosity (η50) were investigated and optimized using single and multiple response optimization tools of response surface methodology. Optimization analyses indicated that functional ice-cream should be fermented with strain 1 or strain mixture at 40-42 °C for 4h in order to produce the most viscous ice-cream with maximum EPS content. Optimization analysis results also revealed that strain specific conditions appeared to be more effective factor on in situ EPS production amount, K and η50 parameters than did fermentation temperature and time. The rheological analysis of the ice-cream produced by EPS(+) strains revealed its high viscous and pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid behavior, which demonstrates potential of S. thermophilus EPS as thickening and gelling agent in dairy industry. FTIR analysis proved that the EPS in ice-cream corresponded to a typical EPS, as revealed by the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl and amide groups with additional α-glycosidic linkages. SEM studies demonstrated that it had a web-like compact microstructure with pores in ice-cream, revealing its application possibility in dairy products to improve their rheological properties.

  3. Simple coil-powering techniques for generating 10KA/m alternating magnetic field at multiple frequencies using 0.5KW RF power for magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piao, Daqing; Sun, Tengfei; Ranjan, Ashish

    2017-02-01

    Alternating magnetic field (AMF) configurable at a range of frequencies is a critical need for optimization of magnetic nanoparticle based hyperthermia, and for their application in targeted drug delivery. Currently, most commercial AMF devices including induction heaters operate at one factory-fixed frequency, thereby limiting customized frequency configuration required for triggered drug release at mild hyperthermia (40-42°C) and ablations (>55°C). Most AMF devices run as an inductor-capacitor resonance network that could allow AMF frequencies to be changed by changing the capacitor bank or the coil looped with it. When developing AMF inhouse, the most expensive component is usually the RF power amplifier, and arguably the most critical step of building a strong AMF field is impedance-matched coupling of RF power to the coolant-cooled AMF coil. AMF devices running at 10KA/m strength are quite common, but generating AMF at that level of field strength using RF power less than 1KW has remained challenging. We practiced a few techniques for building 10KA/m AMFs at different frequencies, by utilizing a 0.5KW 80-800KHz RF power amplifier. Among the techniques indispensable to the functioning of these AMFs, a simple cost-effective technique was the tapping methods for discretely or continuously adjusting the position of an RF-input-tap on a single-layer or the outer-layer of a multi-layer AMF coil for maximum power coupling into the AMF coil. These in-house techniques when combined facilitated 10KA/m AMF at frequencies of 88.8 KHz and higher as allowed by the inventory of capacitors using 0.5KW RF power, for testing heating of 10-15nm size magnetic particles and on-going evaluation of drug-release by low-level temperature-sensitive liposomes loaded with 15nm magnetic nanoparticles.

  4. Control of APP processing and Abeta generation level by BACE1 enzymatic activity and transcription.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Zhou, Weihui; Tong, Yigang; He, Guiqiong; Song, Weihong

    2006-02-01

    Deposition of amyloid beta protein (Abeta) is one of the characteristic features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology. Beta-secretase, a beta-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), is essential for Abeta biosynthesis. Although inhibition of BACE1 is considered a valid therapeutic target for AD, the enzymatic dynamics of BACE1 in regulating APP processing and Abeta generation has not yet been fully defined. To examine this issue, tightly controlled inducible BACE1 gene expression was established in the neuronal cell line N2ABP1 and the non-neuronal cell line E2BP1 using an ecdysone-inducible system. The BACE1 protein level was increased in a time- and dosage-dependent manner in the inducible BACE1 stable cells by treatment with inducer ponasterone A. The generation of APP CTFbeta, the beta-secretase product, increased proportionally with the level of BACE1 protein expression. However, Abeta40/42 production sharply increased to the plateau level with a relatively small increase in BACE1 expression. Although further increasing BACE1 expression increased beta-secretase activity, it had no additional effect on Abeta production. Furthermore, we found that BACE1 mRNA levels and BACE1 promoter activity were significantly lower than APP mRNA levels and APP promoter activity. Our data demonstrate that lower BACE transcription is responsible for the minority of APP undergoing the amyloidogenic pathway and relatively lower Abeta production in the normal conditions, and that a slight increase in BACE1 can induce a dramatic elevation in Abeta production, indicating that the increase in BACE1 can potentially increase neuritic plaque formation in the pathological condition.

  5. Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia-1 Attenuates Amyloid-β Generation and Cognitive Deficits in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice by Reduction of β-Site APP-Cleaving Enzyme 1 Levels.

    PubMed

    Deng, Qing-Shan; Dong, Xing-Yu; Wu, Hao; Wang, Wang; Wang, Zhao-Tao; Zhu, Jian-Wei; Liu, Chun-Feng; Jia, Wei-Qiang; Zhang, Yan; Schachner, Melitta; Ma, Quan-Hong; Xu, Ru-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) is a genetic risk factor for a wide range of major mental disorders, including schizophrenia, major depression, and bipolar disorders. Recent reports suggest a potential role of DISC1 in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), by referring to an interaction between DISC1 and amyloid precursor protein (APP), and to an association of a single-nucleotide polymorphism in a DISC1 intron and late onset of AD. However, the function of DISC1 in AD remains unknown. In this study, decreased levels of DISC1 were observed in the cortex and hippocampus of 8-month-old APP/PS1 transgenic mice, an animal model of AD. Overexpression of DISC1 reduced, whereas knockdown of DISC1 increased protein levels, but not mRNA levels of β-site APP-Cleaving Enzyme 1 (BACE1), a key enzyme in amyloid-β (Aβ) generation. Reduction of BACE1 protein levels by overexpression of DISC1 was accompanied by an accelerating decline rate of BACE1, and was blocked by the lysosomal inhibitor chloroquine, rather than proteasome inhibitor MG-132. Moreover, overexpression of DISC1 in the hippocampus with an adeno-associated virus reduced the levels of BACE1, soluble Aβ40/42, amyloid plaque density, and rescued cognitive deficits of APP/PS1 transgenic mice. These results indicate that DISC1 attenuates Aβ generation and cognitive deficits of APP/PS1 transgenic mice through promoting lysosomal degradation of BACE1. Our findings provide new insights into the role of DISC1 in AD pathogenesis and link a potential function of DISC1 to the psychiatric symptoms of AD.

  6. Dietary flavonoid fisetin regulates aluminium chloride-induced neuronal apoptosis in cortex and hippocampus of mice brain.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Dharmalingam; Sudhandiran, Ganapasam

    2015-12-01

    Dietary flavonoids have been suggested to promote brain health by protecting brain parenchymal cells. Recently, understanding the possible mechanism underlying neuroprotective efficacy of flavonoids is of great interest. Given that fisetin exerts neuroprotection, we have examined the mechanisms underlying fisetin in regulating Aβ aggregation and neuronal apoptosis induced by aluminium chloride (AlCl3) administration in vivo. Male Swiss albino mice were induced orally with AlCl3 (200 mg/kg. b.wt./day/8 weeks). Fisetin (15 mg/Kg. b.wt. orally) was administered for 4 weeks before AlCl3-induction and administered simultaneously for 8 weeks during AlCl3-induction. We found aggregation of Amyloid beta (Aβ 40-42), elevated expressions of Apoptosis stimulating kinase (ASK-1), p-JNK (c-Jun N-terminal Kinase), p53, cytochrome c, caspases-9 and 3, with altered Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in favour of apoptosis in cortex and hippocampus of AlCl3-administered mice. Furthermore, TUNEL and fluoro-jade C staining demonstrate neurodegeneration in cortex and hippocampus. Notably, treatment with fisetin significantly (P<0.05) reduced Aβ aggregation, ASK-1, p-JNK, p53, cytochrome c, caspase-9 and 3 protein expressions and modulated Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. TUNEL-positive and fluoro-jade C stained cells were also significantly reduced upon fisetin treatment. We have identified the involvement of fisetin in regulating ASK-1 and p-JNK as possible mediator of Aβ aggregation and subsequent neuronal apoptosis during AlCl3-induced neurodegeneration. These findings define the possibility that fisetin may slow or prevent neurodegneration and can be utilised as neuroprotective agent against Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Nimotuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody specific for the EGFR, in combination with temozolomide and radiation therapy for newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme: First results in Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Pan, Li; Sheng, Xiao-fang; Chen, Shu; Dai, Jia-zhong

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of nimotuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody specific for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), in combination with temozolomide (TMZ) and radiation therapy (RT) in the treatment of newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM) in Chinese patients. Twenty-six patients with newly diagnosed GBM were enrolled. All patients received standard external beam RT after surgery, with a total dose of 60 Gy in 30 fractions. During RT, concurrent TMZ was given daily at 75 mg/m(2) for 40-42 days, combined with six weekly infusions of nimotuzumab at a 200 mg dose. After a 4-week interval upon completion of RT, six cycles of adjuvant TMZ (150 to 200 mg/m(2) for 5 days in each 28-day cycle) were given. The primary end point was 6-month progression-free survival (PFS) rate. EGFR expression in tumor tissues was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Treatment was well tolerated and no grade III or higher grade toxicity was observed. Median PFS and overall survival (OS) were 10.0 and 15.9 months, respectively, while the 6-month PFS and OS rates were 69.2% and 88.5%, respectively. No correlation between efficacy and EGFR expression was found. Combination of Nimotuzumab with RT plus concomitant and adjuvant TMZ showed favorable safety and tolerability profiles in newly diagnosed GBM in Chinese patients. The survival times were similar to those seen in historical data of standard therapy. © 2014 The Authors. Asia-Pacific Journal of Clincal Oncology; published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. A prospective assessment of racial/ethnic differences in future mammography behavior among women who had early mammography

    PubMed Central

    Kapp, Julie M.; Walker, Rod; Haneuse, Sebastien; Yankaskas, Bonnie C.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND 29% of women aged 30-39 report having had a mammogram though sensitivity and specificity are low. We investigate racial/ethnic differences in future mammography behavior among women who had a baseline screening mammogram prior to age 40. METHODS Using 1994-2008 data from the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC), we identified 29,390 women ages 35-39 with a baseline screening mammogram. We followed this cohort for two outcomes: (1) future BCSC mammography between ages 40-45; and (2) among those, delay in screening mammography until ages 43-45 compared to 40-42. Using adjusted log-linear models, we estimated the relative risk (RR) of these outcomes by race/ethnicity, while also considering the impact of false positive/true negative (FP/TN) baseline mammography results on these outcomes. RESULTS Relative to non-Hispanic white women, Hispanic women had an increased risk of no future BCSC mammography (RR: 1.21, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13-1.30); Asian women had a decreased risk (RR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.61-0.74). Women with a FP, compared to TN, had a decreased risk of no future BCSC mammography (RR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.85-0.95). Among those with future BCSC screening mammography, African American women were more likely to delay the timing (RR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.09-1.45). The interaction between race/ethnicity and FP/TN baseline results was not significant. CONCLUSIONS Race/ethnicity is differentially associated with future BCSC mammography and the timing of screening mammography after age 40. IMPACT These findings introduce the need for research that examines disparities in lifetime mammography use patterns from the initiation of mammography screening. PMID:21242330

  9. Near-infrared reflectance and autofluorescence imaging characteristics of choroidal nevi.

    PubMed

    Vallabh, N A; Sahni, J N; Parkes, C K; Czanner, G; Heimann, H; Damato, B

    2016-12-01

    PurposeTo report near-infrared reflectance (NIR-R), near-infrared autofluorescence (NIR-AF) and blue wave autofluorescence (BW-AF) appearance of choroidal nevi using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO).Patients and methodsNIR-R, NIR-AF and BW-AF images of choroidal nevi were compared with color fundus photos (CF). Images were graded as hyperreflective if reflectance was much greater than background, hyporeflective if less than background, and isoreflective if the same as the background.ResultsForty-two nevi of 39 patients were imaged. When compared with CF, nevi could be identified on 95% (40/42) NIR-R images (95% CI: 83.5-99.3). On NIR-R 71% (30/42) demonstrated hyperreflectance and 24% (10/42) were hyporeflective. Hyperreflectivity was demonstrated in 96% (23/24) of NIR-AF images (95% CI: 79.1-99.9) and 34% (14/41) of BW-AF images (95% CI: 20.0-50.5). On NIR-R, 29/40 (73%) were apparently smaller in comparison with CF and 11/40 (28%) had the same area. A correlation was found between NIR-R and NIR-AF (P=0.02) but not with BW-AF (P=0.15).ConclusionsNevi can be visualized well using NIR-R and NIR-AF imaging modalities, but are less frequently visible using BW-AF. These changes may be related to melanin within the choroid or chronic changes of the overlying retinal pigment epithelium.

  10. A thermosensitive liposome prepared with a Cu²⁺ gradient demonstrates improved pharmacokinetics, drug delivery and antitumor efficacy.

    PubMed

    Tagami, Tatsuaki; May, Jonathan P; Ernsting, Mark J; Li, Shyh-Dar

    2012-07-10

    Here we report the development of an enhanced thermosensitive formulation composed of DPPC and Brij78, loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) using a Cu²⁺ gradient and post-inserted with an additional amount of Brij78. This optimal formulation (HaT-II: Hyperthermia-activated cytoToxic) displayed significantly improved stability in serum at 37 °C, and enhanced drug release rates at 41-42 °C, compared to LTSL (lyso-lipid temperature sensitive liposomes, DPPC/MSPC/DSPE-PEG₂₀₀₀=86/10/4, pH gradient drug loading). HaT-II released 100% DOX within 15-40s at 40-42 °C, with only 5% drug leakage at 37 °C after 30 min in serum, while LTSL lost 30% of its drug content at 37 °C and exhibited ~2-fold decreased release rate constants at 41-42 °C under the same conditions. The pharmacokinetics of DOX was significantly improved in non-heated HaT-II treated healthy mice with 2.5-fold increased area under the curve and 2-fold prolonged circulation half life compared to LTSL. This led to 2-fold improved drug delivery to the heated tumor by HaT-II (~20% injected dose/g tissue), relative to LTSL and significantly enhanced antitumor efficacy with complete inhibition of tumor growth after a single dose of HaT-II. Finally, HaT-II exhibited little toxicity in mice, inducing no body weight loss and no abnormality in the blood chemistry (10 mg DOX/kg). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of Internet Social Networks using Net scoring Tool: A Case Study in Adverse Drug Reaction Mining.

    PubMed

    Katsahian, Sandrine; Simond Moreau, Erica; Leprovost, Damien; Lardon, Jeremy; Bousquet, Cedric; Kerdelhué, Gaétan; Abdellaoui, Redhouane; Texier, Nathalie; Burgun, Anita; Boussadi, Abdelali; Faviez, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Suspected adverse drug reactions (ADR) reported by patients through social media can be a complementary tool to already existing ADRs signal detection processes. However, several studies have shown that the quality of medical information published online varies drastically whatever the health topic addressed. The aim of this study is to use an existing rating tool on a set of social network web sites in order to assess the capabilities of these tools to guide experts for selecting the most adapted social network web site to mine ADRs. First, we reviewed and rated 132 Internet forums and social networks according to three major criteria: the number of visits, the notoriety of the forum and the number of messages posted in relation with health and drug therapy. Second, the pharmacist reviewed the topic-oriented message boards with a small number of drug names to ensure that they were not off topic. Six experts have been chosen to assess the selected internet forums using a French scoring tool: Net scoring. Three different scores and the agreement between experts according to each set of scores using weighted kappa pooled using mean have been computed. Three internet forums were chosen at the end of the selection step. Some criteria get high score (scores 3-4) no matter the website evaluated like accessibility (45-46) or design (34-36), at the opposite some criteria always have bad scores like quantitative (40-42) and ethical aspect (43-44), hyperlinks actualization (30-33). Kappa were positives but very small which corresponds to a weak agreement between experts. The personal opinion of the expert seems to have a major impact, undermining the relevance of the criterion. Our future work is to collect results given by this evaluation grid and proposes a new scoring tool for Internet social networks assessment.

  12. Real-World Usage of Educational Media Does Not Promote Parent-Child Cognitive Stimulation Activities.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jason H; Mendelsohn, Alan L; Weisleder, Adriana; Cates, Carolyn Brockmeyer; Canfield, Caitlin; Seery, Anne; Dreyer, Benard P; Tomopoulos, Suzy

    2017-04-25

    To determine whether educational media as actually used by low-income families promote parent-child cognitive stimulation activities. We performed secondary analysis of the control group of a longitudinal cohort of mother-infant dyads enrolled postpartum in an urban public hospital. Educational media exposure (via a 24-hour recall diary) and parent-child activities that may promote cognitive stimulation in the home (using StimQ) were assessed at 6, 14, 24, and 36 months. Data from 149 mother-child dyads, 93.3% Latino, were analyzed. Mean (standard deviation) educational media exposure at 6, 14, 24, and 36 months was, respectively, 25 (40), 42 (58), 39 (49), and 39 (50) minutes per day. In multilevel model analyses, prior educational media exposure had small positive relationship with subsequent total StimQ scores (β = 0.11, P = .03) but was nonsignificant (β = 0.08, P = .09) after adjusting for confounders (child: age, gender, birth order, noneducational media exposure, language; mother: age, ethnicity, marital status, country of origin, language, depressive symptoms). Educational media did predict small increases in verbal interactions and toy provision (adjusted models, respectively: β = 0.13, P = .02; β = 0.11; P = .03). In contrast, more consistent relationships were seen for models of the relationship between prior StimQ (total, verbal interactions and teaching; adjusted models, respectively: β = 0.20, P = .002; β = 0.15, P = .006; β = 0.20, P = .001) and predicted subsequent educational media. Educational media as used by this sample of low-income families does not promote cognitive stimulation activities important for early child development or activities such as reading and teaching. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Two phase I dose-escalation/pharmacokinetics studies of low temperature liposomal doxorubicin (LTLD) and mild local hyperthermia in heavily pretreated patients with local regionally recurrent breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zagar, Timothy M; Vujaskovic, Zeljko; Formenti, Silvia; Rugo, Hope; Muggia, Franco; O'Connor, Brigid; Myerson, Robert; Stauffer, Paul; Hsu, I-Chow; Diederich, Chris; Straube, William; Boss, Mary-Keara; Boico, Alina; Craciunescu, Oana; Maccarini, Paolo; Needham, David; Borys, Nicholas; Blackwell, Kimberly L; Dewhirst, Mark W

    2014-08-01

    Unresectable chest wall recurrences of breast cancer (CWR) in heavily pretreated patients are especially difficult to treat. We hypothesised that thermally enhanced drug delivery using low temperature liposomal doxorubicin (LTLD), given with mild local hyperthermia (MLHT), will be safe and effective in this population. This paper combines the results of two similarly designed phase I trials. Eligible CWR patients had progressed on the chest wall after prior hormone therapy, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Patients were to get six cycles of LTLD every 21-35 days, followed immediately by chest wall MLHT for 1 hour at 40-42 °C. In the first trial 18 subjects received LTLD at 20, 30, or 40 mg/m2; in the second trial, 11 subjects received LTLD at 40 or 50 mg/m2. The median age of all 29 patients enrolled was 57 years. Thirteen patients (45%) had distant metastases on enrolment. Patients had received a median dose of 256 mg/m2 of prior anthracyclines and a median dose of 61 Gy of prior radiation. The median number of study treatments that subjects completed was four. The maximum tolerated dose was 50 mg/m2, with seven subjects (24%) developing reversible grade 3-4 neutropenia and four (14%) reversible grade 3-4 leucopenia. The rate of overall local response was 48% (14/29, 95% CI: 30-66%), with. five patients (17%) achieving complete local responses and nine patients (31%) having partial local responses. LTLD at 50 mg/m2 and MLHT is safe. This combined therapy produces objective responses in heavily pretreated CWR patients. Future work should test thermally enhanced LTLD delivery in a less advanced patient population.

  14. [Physical methods used to control body temperature].

    PubMed

    Ezquerro Rodríguez, Esther; Montes García, Yolanda; Marín Fernández, Blanca

    2012-10-01

    The physical methods to control body temperature, either to induce hypothermia, or to increase body temperature, can be of two types: physical methods of external heating or cooling and invasive methods that require complex procedures and technology. There are many strategies for the induction of hypothermia, all based on three of the four basic mechanisms of heat transfer, evaporation, convection and conduction. In the hospital environment the external cooling methods or surface (blankets of cold air or water circulation, plates of hydrogel Artic Sun, methods of cooling helmet) are the most widely used for the induction of therapeutic hypothermia. The most non-invasive devices used are blades of hydrogel, which use water conduction high speed between the layers of pads. But there are quicker methods to induce hypothermia; i.e., invasive methods of internal cooling: infusion of intravenous crystalloid; endovascular catheters located in a central vein through which flows saline pumped by a closed circuit; By-pass cardio-pulmonary with extracorporeal circulation; and By-pass percutaneous venous system for continuous hemofiltration. The average physical external heating is based on the patient's ability to produce and retain heat or in the application of heat to the body surface of the patient (hot spring baths with hot water, air blankets, blankets of water). But when the answer to these methods are not sufficient or hypothermia is moderate or severe, other methods of internal heat are suggested: inhalation of oxygen or warm to 40-45 degrees C and wet by facial mask or endotracheal tube; intravenous (IV) infusion with hot solutions; Irrigation of body cavities with warm saline solution to 40-42 degrees C; peritoneal dialysis, haemodialysis and hemofiltration; Continuous reheating arterio-venous or venous-venous; extracorporeal circulation with cardiopulmonary bypass. In this article each of the methods listed above will be described for the induction of hypothermia

  15. SEN1500, a novel oral amyloid-β aggregation inhibitor, attenuates brain pathology in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Brunner, D; Flunkert, S; Neddens, J; Duller, S; Scopes, D I C; Treherne, J M; Hutter-Paier, B

    2017-09-14

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregation is thought to be a major pathogenic event underlying the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The development of new drugs inhibiting the Aβ aggregation process is, therefore, important. SEN1500, an orally bioavailable and CNS-penetrant Aβ aggregation inhibitor, has previously been shown to reduce spatial learning and memory deficits in an APP transgenic mouse model. To verify that the pharmacological properties of SEN1500 are not unique to this model, we investigated brain Aβ pathology, neuroinflammation, as well as memory in a different mouse model of AD expressing the human amyloid precursor protein with Swedish and London mutations (APPSL). APPSL transgenic mice and non-transgenic littermates were treated with SEN1500 via food pellets from three months of age for four months. At the end of the treatment, animals were tested for memory deficits using the contextual fear conditioning test and brain tissue was analyzed for soluble and insoluble amyloid-β1-38, -40, -42, β-amyloid plaques, β-sheet plaque cores, as well as for astrocytosis and activated microglia. SEN1500 treatment lowered insoluble Aβ levels and β-amyloid plaque load in the brain compared with control-treated APPSL mice. Activated microglia were significantly reduced in the cortex but not the hippocampus of SEN1500-treated APPSL mice. Memory deficits of APPSL mice could not be rescued by SEN1500. SEN1500 is not only able to reduce Aβ pathology and activated microglia but also to improve learning and memory as previously shown, making SEN1500 a potential candidate for human AD treatment. This Aβ aggregation inhibitor could be a promising therapeutic agent for the disease-modifying treatment of AD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Chronic conditions, functional limitations, and special health care needs in 10- to 12-year-old children born at 23 to 25 weeks' gestation in the 1990s: a Swedish national prospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Farooqi, Aijaz; Hägglöf, Bruno; Sedin, Gunnar; Gothefors, Leif; Serenius, Fredrik

    2006-11-01

    Children born extremely immature (gestational age < 26 weeks' gestation) increasingly reach school age. Information on their overall functioning and special health care needs is necessary to plan for their medical and educational services. This study was undertaken to examine neurosensory, medical, and developmental conditions together with functional limitations and special health care needs of extremely immature children compared with control subjects born at term. We studied 11-year-old children born before 26 completed weeks of gestation in all of Sweden from 1990 through 1992. All had been evaluated at 36 months' corrected age. Identification of children with chronic conditions lasting > or = 12 months was based on a questionnaire administered to parents. Neurosensory impairments were identified by reviewing health records. Information regarding other specific medical diagnoses and developmental disabilities was obtained by standard parent and teacher questionnaires. Of 89 eligible children, 86 (97%) were studied at a mean age of 11 years. An equal number of children born at term served as controls. Logistic-regression analyses adjusting for social risk factors and gender showed that significantly more extremely immature children than controls had chronic conditions, including functional limitations (64% vs 11%, respectively), compensatory dependency needs (59% vs 25%), and services above those routinely required by children (67% vs 22%). Specific diagnoses or disabilities with higher rates in extremely immature children than in controls included neurosensory impairment (15% vs 2%), asthma (20% vs 6%), poor motor skills of > 2 SDs above the mean (26% vs 3%), poor visual perception of > 2 SDs above the mean (21% vs 4%), poor learning skills of > 2 SDs above the mean (27% vs 3%), poor adaptive functioning with T scores of < 40 (42% vs 9%), and poor academic performance with T score < 40 (49% vs 7%). Children born extremely immature have significantly greater

  17. Disability pension as predictor of later use of benzodiazepines among benzodiazepine users.

    PubMed

    Hartz, Ingeborg; Tverdal, Aage; Skille, Eivind; Skurtveit, Svetlana

    2010-03-01

    The proportion of Norwegians on disability pensions has doubled since the 1980s. The Norwegian Government wants action to stimulate the working capacity in those disability pensioners who have the potential to work. Information on factors that may impair rehabilitation efforts, including the unfavourable use of benzodiazepines, may be useful in this context. A longitudinal design, including data on 40-42 year old participants in Norwegian health surveys (year 1985-1989) linked to a prescription database (year 2004-2006), was used to describe risk of long-term use of benzodiazepines among disability pension recipients. The study population constituted benzodiazepine users at baseline. More than half of those on disability pensions, 57% of all men and 65% of all women, retrieved benzodiazepine prescriptions 20 years later, a span covering a large part of the potential active workforce period. Further, the observed amount of benzodiazepines dispensed over a three-year period indicated more than sporadic use e.g. half of the female disability pensioners were dispensed an amount of benzodiazepines corresponding to the use of a daily dose every second day over a three year period (median 450 daily doses). The majority of those who were dispensed benzodiazepines, were dispensed opioids as well: half of all men and 3 out of four women. And last, being on a disability pension was a predictor of benzodiazepine use 20 years later. Our study suggests that benzodiazepines are extensively and unfavourably used among disability pensioners, and that disability pension may have an independent effect on long-term use. Improved management of benzodiazepine use may be one alternative to get disability pensioners with the potential to work back into employment.

  18. Real-time GPS seismology with a stand-alone receiver: a preliminary feasibility demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colosimo, G.; Crespi, M.; Mazzoni, A.

    2010-12-01

    We show the feasibility of waveforms and coseismic displacements real-time estimation at few centimeters accuracy level by a stand-alone dual-frequency GPS receiver through a variometric approach. This approach is based on the time single-differences of the carrier phase observations collected at high-rate (1Hz or more) by a stand-alone receiver and on the standard GPS broadcast products (orbits, clocks). Time series of epoch-by-epoch displacements are estimated at first; then, they can be summed over the interval (limited to few minutes) when the earthquake occurs, provided the collected observations are continuous. The estimation biases due to mismodeling accumulate over time and display as a trend, which can be considered linear and easily removed thanks to the shortness of the interval. Since the proposed approach does not require any additional technological complexity nor centralized data analysis, in principle it can be embedded into the receiver firmware, providing also a significant contribution to tsunami warning systems. After a preliminary test regarding a simulated example, the effectiveness has been proven over real data. In details, we have analyzed the 1Hz GPS data recorded by the IGS station BREW during the Denali Fault, Alaska earthquake (Mw 7.9, November 3, 2002, 22:12:41 UTC) and the 5 Hz data collected by some stations included into the UNAVCO-Plate Boundary Observatory network and California Real Time Network (CRTN) during the Baja California, Mexico earthquake (Mw 7.2, April 04, 2010, 22:40:42 UTC). The comparisons with results obtained with different strategies show an agreement within few centimeters; examples for Baja California earthquake (waveforms for stations P496 e P744, to be compared with http://www.unavco.org/research_science/science_highlights/2010/M7.2-Baja.html) are shown in Figures 1 and 2. Fig. 1 - P496 Fig. 2 - P744

  19. Crust and upper mantle velocity structure of the southern Rocky Mountains from the Jemez Lineament to the Cheyenne belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levander, Alan; Zelt, Colin; Magnani, Maria Beatrice

    We have interpreted the refraction/wide-angle reflection seismic profile acquired as part of the Continental Dynamics of the Rocky Mountains project. The profile extends ˜955km from northern New Mexico to southern Wyoming, crossing the Tertiary-Quaternary volcanics of the Jemez lineament, the Paleoproterozoic Mazatzal and Yavapai terranes, the Cheyenne belt, and the southern Archean Wyoming Province. We inverted the travel-time data from the 10 shot profile with both a layer based inversion method and a tomographic method. The two techniques yield comparable upper and middle crustal velocity structures. Lower crustal velocities are well constrained in the layer based model but are not in the tomographic model. From the layer based model, velocities in the crystalline crust and the upper mantle are lower than typical for continents and for modern orogens. Lower crustal velocities rarely exceed 7.00 km/s, likely due to the regionally high heat flow. We infer that the low upper mantle velocities beneath the Jemez lineament (7.70-7.76 km/s) are indicative of upper mantle partial melt. Crustal thickness increases from south to north, with thinner crust under the Jemez lineament (40-42 km), and thicker crust under northern Colorado, the Cheyenne belt, and southern Wyoming (51-53 km). Although the Cheyenne belt outcrops as a narrow zone separating Paleoproterozoic and Archean terranes, the seismic model shows broad lateral variation in crustal velocity near the suture, and a thick crust in the northern half of the profile. Part or all of the crustal thickening is likely to have occurred subsequent to continental accretion.

  20. Age-related changes of NGF, BDNF, parvalbumin and neuronal nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity in the mouse hippocampal CA1 sector.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Natsumi; Abe, Manami; Eto, Risa; Kato, Hiroyuki; Araki, Tsutomu

    2008-06-01

    We investigated the age-related alterations in nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), parvalbumin and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) immunoreactivity of the mouse hippocampal CA1 sector. NGF and BDNF immunoreactivity was unchanged in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons from 2 to 50-59 weeks of birth. In contrast, a significant increase in the NGF and BDNF immunoreactivity was observed in glial cells of the hippocampal CA1 sector from 40-42 to 50-59 weeks of birth. On the other hand, the number of parvalbumin- and nNOS-positive interneurons was unchanged in the hippocampal CA1 sector during aging processes, except for a significant decrease of nNOS-positive interneurons 2 weeks of birth. Our results indicate that NGF and BDNF immunoreactivity was unaltered in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons during aging processes. In contrast, a significant increase in the NGF and BDNF immunoreactivity was observed in glial cells of the hippocampal CA1 sector during aging processes. The present study also shows that the number of parvalbumin- and nNOS-positive interneurons was unchanged in the hippocampal CA1 sector during aging processes, except for a significant decrease of nNOS-positive interneurons 2 weeks of birth. These results demonstrate that the expression of glial NGF and BDNF may play a key role for helping survival and maintenance of pyramidal neurons and neuronal functions in the hippocampal CA1 sector during aging processes. Furthermore, our findings suggest that parvalbumin- and nNOS-positive interneurons in the hippocampal CA1 sector are resistant to aging processes. Moreover, our findings suggest that nitric oxide synthesized by the nNOS may play some role for neuronal growth during postnatal development.

  1. Disease-Modifying Effects of M1 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Activation in an Alzheimer's Disease Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Lebois, Evan P; Schroeder, Jason P; Esparza, Thomas J; Bridges, Thomas M; Lindsley, Craig W; Conn, P Jeffrey; Brody, David L; Daniels, J Scott; Levey, Allan I

    2017-03-07

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia worldwide, and currently no disease-modifying therapy is available to slow or prevent AD, underscoring the urgent need for neuroprotective therapies. Selective M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) activation is an attractive mechanism for AD therapy since M1 mediates key effects on memory, cognition, and behavior and has potential for disease-modifying effects on Aβ formation and tau phosphorylation. To validate M1 as a neuroprotective treatment target for AD, the M1-selective agonist, VU0364572, was chronically dosed to 5XFAD mice from a young age preceding Aβ pathology (2 months) to an age where these mice are known to display memory impairments (6 months). Chronic M1 activation prevented mice from becoming memory-impaired, as measured by Morris water maze (MWM) testing at 6 months of age. Additionally, M1 activation significantly reduced levels of soluble and insoluble Aβ40,42 in the cortex and hippocampus of these animals, as measured by ELISA and immunohistochemistry. Moreover, soluble hippocampal Aβ42 levels were strongly correlated with MWM memory impairments and M1 activation with VU0364572 abolished this correlation. Finally, VU0364572 significantly decreased oligomeric (oAβ) levels in the cortex, suggesting one mechanism whereby VU0364572 may be exerting its neuroprotective effects is by reducing the available oAβ pool in the brain. These findings suggest that chronic M1 activation has neuroprotective potential for preventing memory impairments and reducing neuropathology in AD. M1 activation therefore represents a promising avenue for preventative treatment, as well as a promising opportunity to combine symptomatic and disease-modifying effects for early AD treatment.

  2. From brain to food: analysis of phosphatidylcholins, lyso-phosphatidylcholins and phosphatidylcholin-plasmalogens derivates in Alzheimer's disease human post mortem brains and mice model via mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Marcus O W; Grösgen, Sven; Riemenschneider, Matthias; Tanila, Heikki; Grimm, Heike S; Hartmann, Tobias

    2011-10-21

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by extracellular senile plaques mainly consisting of Aβ, a 40-42 amino acid long peptide, and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, accompanied by an excessive loss of synapses. Recently evidence accumulated that nutrition, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids, influences AD pathogenesis. Especially mid-life food habits with the consumption of specific fatty acids (FA) appear to influence the disease risk. The timely separation between food intake and disease makes a direct correlation with detailed analysis of eating habits combined with accurate food analysis nearly unattainable. A possible solution to circumvent these difficulties is to investigate the FA composition in human post mortem brain. In this study we focused on the main phospholipids phosphatidylcholin (PC), phosphatidylcholin-plasmalogen (PC-PL) and lyso-phosphatidylcholin (lyso-PC) in AD brains compared to control brains. Frontal cortices, temporal cortices and cerebellum of 30 AD (mean 78 years) and 14 control aged matched brains (mean 77.4 years) as well as APP transgenic mice compared to control mice were analyzed using an AB Sciex 4000 Qtrap mass spectrometer utilizing a FIA MS/MS method. PC, PC-PL and lyso-PC metabolites were analyzed in respect to saturation level and FA composition. As expected, the majority of the lipid species showed no significant differences, but interestingly a few species revealed a highly significant reduction in AD brains. These FAs are potential candidates for further food analysis in respect to AD pathology. Additionally, we show that the method applied with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) used for this study is suitable for semi quantitative analysis of small amounts (10 μl) of brain tissue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of glucocorticoid treatment given in early or late gestation on growth and development in sheep.

    PubMed

    Li, S; Sloboda, D M; Moss, T J M; Nitsos, I; Polglase, G R; Doherty, D A; Newnham, J P; Challis, J R G; Braun, T

    2013-04-01

    Antenatal corticosteroids are used to augment fetal lung maturity in human pregnancy. Dexamethasone (DEX) is also used to treat congenital adrenal hyperplasia of the fetus in early pregnancy. We previously reported effects of synthetic corticosteroids given to sheep in early or late gestation on pregnancy length and fetal cortisol levels and glucocorticoids alter plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP) concentrations in late pregnancy and reduce fetal weight. The effects of administering DEX in early pregnancy on fetal organ weights and betamethasone (BET) given in late gestation on weights of fetal brain regions or organ development have not been reported. We hypothesized that BET or DEX administration at either stage of pregnancy would have deleterious effects on fetal development and associated hormones. In early pregnancy, DEX was administered as four injections at 12-hourly intervals over 48 h commencing at 40-42 days of gestation (dG). There was no consistent effect on fetal weight, or individual fetal organ weights, except in females at 7 months postnatal age. When BET was administered at 104, 111 and 118 dG, the previously reported reduction in total fetal weight was associated with significant reductions in weights of fetal brain, cerebellum, heart, kidney and liver. Fetal plasma insulin, leptin and triiodothyronine were also reduced at different times in fetal and postnatal life. We conclude that at the amounts given, the sheep fetus is sensitive to maternal administration of synthetic glucocorticoid in late gestation, with effects on growth and metabolic hormones that may persist into postnatal life.

  4. Occurrence of Intestinal and Extraintestinal Virulence Genes in Escherichia coli Isolates from Rainwater Tanks in Southeast Queensland, Australia ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, W.; Hodgers, L.; Masters, N.; Sidhu, J. P. S.; Katouli, M.; Toze, S.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, 200 Escherichia coli isolates from 22 rainwater tank samples in Southeast Queensland, Australia, were tested for the presence of 20 virulence genes (VGs) associated with intestinal and extraintestinal pathotypes. In addition, E. coli isolates were also classified into phylogenetic groups based on the detection of the chuA, yjaA, and TSPE4.C2 genes. Of the 22 rainwater tanks, 8 (36%) and 5 (23%) were positive for the eaeA (belonging to enteropathogenic E. coli [EPEC] and Shiga-toxigenic E. coli [STEC]) and ST1 (belonging to enterotoxigenic E. coli [ETEC]) genes, respectively. VGs (cdtB, cvaC, ibeA, kpsMT allele III, PAI, papAH, and traT) belonging to extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) were detected in 15 (68%) of the 22 rainwater tanks. Of the 22 samples, 17 (77%) and 11 (50%) contained E. coli belonging to phylogenetic groups A and B1, respectively. Similarly, 10 (45%) and 16 (72%) contained E. coli belonging to phylogenetic groups B2 and D, respectively. Of the 96 of the 200 strains from 22 tanks that were VG positive, 40 (42%) were carrying a single VG, 36 (37.5%) were carrying two VGs, 17 (18%) were carrying three VGs, and 3 (3%) had four or more VGs. This study reports the presence of multiple VGs in E. coli strains belonging to the STEC, EPEC, ETEC, and ExPEC pathotypes in rainwater tanks. The public health risks associated with potentially clinically significant E. coli in rainwater tanks should be assessed, as the water is used for drinking and other, nonpotable purposes. It is recommended that rainwater be disinfected using effective treatment procedures such as filtration, UV disinfection, or simply boiling prior to drinking. PMID:21873477

  5. Spatial and temporal variability of zooplankton off New Caledonia (Southwestern Pacific) from acoustics and net measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smeti, Houssem; Pagano, Marc; Menkes, Christophe; Lebourges-Dhaussy, Anne; Hunt, Brian P. V.; Allain, Valerie; Rodier, Martine; de Boissieu, Florian; Kestenare, Elodie; Sammari, Cherif

    2015-04-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of zooplankton off New Caledonia in the eastern Coral Sea was studied during two multidisciplinary cruises in 2011, during the cool and the hot seasons. Acoustic measurements of zooplankton were made using a shipborne acoustic Doppler current profiler (S-ADCP), a scientific echosounder and a Tracor acoustic profiling system (TAPS). Relative backscatter from ADCP was converted to biomass estimates using zooplankton weights from net-samples collected during the cruises. Zooplankton biomass was estimated using four methods: weighing, digital imaging (ZooScan), ADCP and TAPS. Significant correlations were found between the different biomass estimators and between the backscatters of the ADCP and the echosounder. There was a consistent diel pattern in ADCP derived biomass and echosounder backscatter resulting from the diel vertical migration (DVM) of zooplankton. Higher DVM amplitudes were associated with higher abundance of small zooplankton and cold waters to the south of the study area, while lower DVM amplitudes in the north were associated with warmer waters and higher abundance of large organisms. Zooplankton was largely dominated by copepods (71-73%) among which calanoids prevailed (40-42%), with Paracalanus spp. as the dominant species (16-17%). Overall, zooplankton exhibited low abundance and biomass (mean night dry biomass of 4.7 ± 2.2 mg m3 during the cool season and 2.4 ± 0.4 mg m3 during the hot season) but high richness and diversity (Shannon index ˜4). Substantially enhanced biomass and abundance appeared to be episodically associated with mesoscale features contributing to shape a rather patchy zooplankton distribution.

  6. The Curiously Warped Mean Plane of the Kuiper Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volk, Kathryn; Malhotra, Renu

    2017-08-01

    We measured the mean plane of the Kuiper Belt as a function of semimajor axis. For the classical Kuiper Belt as a whole (the nonresonant objects in the semimajor axis range 42-48 au), we find a mean plane of inclination {i}m=1\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} {8}-0\\buildrel{\\circ\\over{.} 4}+0\\buildrel{\\circ\\over{.} 7} and longitude of ascending node {{{Ω }}}m=77{^\\circ }-{14^\\circ }+{18^\\circ } (in the J2000 ecliptic-equinox coordinate system), in accord with theoretical expectations of the secular effects of the known planets. With finer semimajor axis bins, we detect a statistically significant warp in the mean plane near semimajor axes 40-42 au. Linear secular theory predicts a warp near this location due to the {ν }18 nodal secular resonance; however, the measured mean plane for the 40.3-42 au semimajor axis bin (just outside the {ν }18) is inclined ˜ 13^\\circ to the predicted plane, a nearly 3σ discrepancy. For the more distant Kuiper Belt objects of semimajor axes in the range 50-80 au, the expected mean plane is close to the invariable plane of the solar system, but the measured mean plane deviates greatly from this: it has inclination {i}m=9\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} {1}-3\\buildrel{\\circ\\over{.} 8}+6\\buildrel{\\circ\\over{.} 6} and longitude of ascending node {{{Ω }}}m=227{^\\circ }-{44^\\circ }+{18^\\circ }. We estimate this deviation from the expected mean plane to be statistically significant at the ˜97%-99% confidence level. We discuss several possible explanations for this deviation, including the possibility that a relatively close-in (a≲ 100 au), unseen, small planetary-mass object in the outer solar system is responsible for the warping.

  7. High Contributions of Secondary Inorganic Aerosols to PM2.5 under Polluted Levels at a Regional Station in Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Tao, Jun; Zhang, Leiming; Jia, Xiaofang; Wu, Yunfei

    2016-01-01

    Daily PM2.5 samples were collected at Shangdianzi (SDZ) regional site in Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH) region in 2015. Samples were subject to chemical analysis for organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and major water-soluble inorganic ions. The annual average PM2.5 mass concentration was 53 ± 36 μg·m−3 with the highest seasonal average concentration in spring and the lowest in summer. Water-soluble inorganic ions and carbonaceous aerosols accounted for 34% ± 15% and 33% ± 9%, respectively, of PM2.5 mass on annual average. The excellent, good, lightly polluted, moderately polluted, and heavily polluted days based on the Air Quality Index (AQI) of PM2.5 accounted for 40%, 42%, 11%, 4%, and 3%, respectively, of the year. The sum of the average concentration of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium (SNA) increased from 4.2 ± 2.9 μg·m−3 during excellent days to 85.9 ± 22.4 μg·m−3 during heavily polluted days, and their contributions to PM2.5 increased from 15% ± 8% to 49% ± 10% accordingly. In contrast, the average concentration of carbonaceous aerosols increased from 9.2 ± 2.8 μg·m−3 to 51.2 ± 14.1 μg·m−3, and their contributions to PM2.5 decreased from 34% ± 6% to 29% ± 7%. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis revealed that the major sources for high PM2.5 and its dominant chemical components were within the area mainly covering Shandong, Henan, and Hebei provinces. Regional pollutant transport from Shanxi province and Inner Mongolia autonomous region located in the west direction of SDZ was also important during the heating season. PMID:27983711

  8. Extensive fragmentation of the X chromosome in the bed bug Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 (Heteroptera, Cimicidae): a survey across Europe.

    PubMed

    Sadílek, David; Sťáhlavský, František; Vilímová, Jitka; Zima, Jan

    2013-10-03

    Variation in the number of chromosomes was revealed in 61 samples of Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 from the Czech Republic and other European countries, hosted on Myotis Kaup, 1829 (4) and Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 (57). The karyotype of all the specimens of Cimex lectularius analysed contained 26 autosomes and a varying number of the sex chromosomes. The number of sex chromosomes showed extensive variation, and up to 20 fragments were recorded. Altogether, 12 distinct karyotypes were distinguished. The male karyotypes consisted of 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 40, 42 and 47 chromosomes. The females usually exhibited the number of chromosomes which was complementary to the number established in the males from the same sample. However, 11 polymorphic samples were revealed in which the karyotypes of females and males were not complementary each other. The complement with 2n = 26+X1X2Y was found in 44% of the specimens and 57,4% samples of bed bugs studied. The karyotypes with higher chromosome numbers as well as individuals with chromosomal mosaics were usually found within the samples exhibiting particularly extensive variation between individuals, and such complements were not found within samples contaning a few or single specimen. The occurrence of chromosomal mosaics with the karyotype constitution varying between cells of single individual was observed in five specimens (4.3%) from five samples. We assume that polymorphism caused by fragmentation of the X chromosome may result in meiotic problems and non-disjunction can produce unbalanced gametes and result in lowered fitness of individuals carrying higher numbers of the X chromosome fragments. This effect should be apparently enhanced with the increasing number of the fragments and this may be the reason for the observed distribution pattern of individual karyotypes in the studied samples and the rarity of individuals with extremely high chromosome numbers. The assumed lowering of the fitness of

  9. [Analysis of cell morphology and immunophenotypic characteristics in 47 cases of multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Su, Xian-Du; Lin, Rong; Xu, Xiao-Lan; Chen, Xu; Zhan, Wen-Li; Zheng, Jin-Pu; Fan, Chang-Ling

    2015-02-01

    This study was to investigate the cell morphology and cell immune phenotypic characteristics in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). The flow cytometry with multiparametric direct immunofluorescence technique, and CD45/SSC and CD38(+)(+)/CD138(+) gating were used to measure cell markers CD138, CD38, CD56, CD117, CD3, CD13, CD33, CD19, CD7, CD20, CD22, CD34, CD28 in 47 MM patients. At the same time the morphology examination of bone marrow cells was performed. The suspicious myeloma cell ratio in MM patients was 9.42%-74.25% detected by flow cytometry, moreover, the myeloma cell ratio detected by morphology examination was 11.0%-80.6%, there was a good correlation between the two detection methods (r(2) = 0.54, P < 0.001). The ratio of antigen positive expression was as follows: 74.46% for CD138, 100% for CD38, 57.44% for CD56, 40.42% for CD117, 6.38% for CD13, 19.15% for CD33, 8.51% for CD20, 27.66% for CD28, 2.12% for CD22, 4.25% for CD34, 0% for CD3, 0% for CD19, 0% for CD7. CD45/SSC and CD38(+)/CD138(+) gating technique can accurately gate multiple myeloma cell sets which need analysis, the majority of myeloma cells expreses CD138, CD38, CD56 antigens. The immunophenotypic analysis combined with the cell morphology examination more contribute to the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of multiple myeloma.

  10. [Phenotypic features of Ferroplasma acidiphilum strains Yt and Y-2].

    PubMed

    Pivovarova, T A; Kondrat'eva, T F; Batrakov, S G; Esipov, S E; Sheĭchenko, V I; Bykova, S A; Lysenko, A M; Karavaĭko, G I

    2002-01-01

    Earlier, we described a new family of mesophilic, strictly autotrophic Fe(2+)-oxidizing archaebacteria, Ferroplasmaceae, which belongs to the order Thermoplasmales and includes the genus Ferroplasma and species F. acidiphilum (strain YT) [1]. The present work is concerned with a comparative study of phenotypic characteristics of the type strain YT and a new strain, F. acidiphilum Y-2, isolated from dense pulps produced during oxidation of arsenogold concentrates from the Bakyrchikskoe (Kazakhstan) and Olimpiadinskoe (Krasnoyarsk Krai) ore deposits, respectively. The G + C content of DNA from strains YT and Y-2 comprised 35.1 and 35.2 mol%, respectively; the level of DNA-DNA homology between the strains was 84%. Restriction profiles of chromosomal DNA from both strains exhibited a similarity coefficient of 0.87. Genotypic characteristics of these strains indicate their affiliation to the same species. The cells of both strains are polymorphic and lack cell walls. Strains of F. acidiphilum oxidized ferrous oxide and pyrite as the sole source of energy and fixed carbon dioxide as the sole carbon source. Strains required yeast extract as a growth factor. Optimum pH for cell growth ranged from 1.7 to 1.8; the temperature optima for the growth of strains YT and Y-2 were 34-36 and 40-42 degrees C, respectively. Comparative analysis of total lipids revealed their close similarity in the strains; two glycophospholipids comprised 90% of total lipids: lipid I, beta-D-glucopyranosylcaldarchaetidylglycerol (about 55%), and lipid II, trihexosylcaldarchaetidylglycerol (26%), whose isopranyl chains contained no cyclopentane rings. The carbohydrate fraction of lipid I hydrolysate contained only D-glucose, whereas hydrolysate of lipid II contained both D-glucose and D-galactose in a molar ratio of 2:1. Thus, it was established that the intraspecific phylogenetic divergence within F. acidiphilum is manifested in two the strains by different temperature optima against the background

  11. Nucleoside-5'-phosphorothioate analogues are biocompatible antioxidants dissolving efficiently amyloid beta-metal ion aggregates.

    PubMed

    Amir, Aviran; Shmuel, Eran; Zagalsky, Rostislav; Sayer, Alon H; Nadel, Yael; Fischer, Bilha

    2012-07-28

    Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide is known to precipitate and form aggregates with zinc and copper ions in vitro and, in vivo in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Metal-ion-chelation was suggested as therapy for the metal-ion-induced Aβ aggregation, metal-ion overload, and oxidative stress. In a quest for biocompatible metal-ion chelators potentially useful for AD therapy, we tested a series of nucleoside 5'-phosphorothioate derivatives as re-solubilization agents of Cu(+)/Cu(2+)/Zn(2+)-induced Aβ-aggregates, and inhibitors of Fenton reaction in Cu(+) or Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2) system. The most promising chelator in this series was found to be APCPP-γ-S. This nucleotide was found to be more efficient than EDTA in re-solubilization of Aβ(40)-Cu(2+) aggregates as observed by the lower diameter, d(H), (86 vs. 64 nm, respectively) obtained in dynamic light scattering measurements. Likewise, APCPP-γ-S dissolved Aβ(40)-Cu(+) and Aβ(42)-Cu(2+)/Zn(2+) aggregates, as monitored by (1)H-NMR and turbidity assays, respectively. Furthermore, addition of APCPP-γ-S to nine-day old Aβ(40)-Cu(2+)/Zn(2+) aggregates, resulted in size reduction as observed by transition electron microscopy (diameter reduction from 2.5 to 0.1 μm for Aβ(40)-Cu(2+) aggregates). APCPP-γ-S proved to be more efficient than ascorbic acid and GSH in reducing OH radical production in Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2) system (IC(50) values 85, 216 and, 92 μM, respectively). Therefore, we propose APCPP-γ-S as a potential AD therapy capable of both reducing OH radical production and re-solubilization of Aβ(40/42)-M(n+) aggregates.

  12. Controlling charge balance and exciton recombination by bipolar host in single-layer organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Xianfeng; Tao, Youtian; Wang, Qiang; Ma, Dongge; Yang, Chuluo; Wang, Lixiang; Qin, Jingui; Wang, Fosong

    2010-08-01

    Highly efficient single-layer organic light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency roll-off are demonstrated by using a bipolar host material of 2,5-bis(2-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)phenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (o-CzOXD) doped with iridium complexes as the emissive layer. For example, the green single-layer device, employing fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine)iridium Ir(ppy)3 as dopant, shows a peak current efficiency of 45.57 cd A-1, corresponding to external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 12.42%, and still exhibits efficiencies of 45.26 cd A-1 and 40.42 cd A-1 at luminance of 1000 and 10 000 cd m-2, respectively. In addition, the yellow and red single-layer devices, with bis(2-(9,9- diethyl-9H-fluoren-2-yl)-1-phenyl-1H-benzoimidazol-N ,C3)iridium(acetylacetonate) (fbi)2Ir(acac) and bis(1-phenylisoquinolinolato-C2,N)iridium(acetylacetonate) (piq)2Ir(acac) as emitter, also show high EQE of 7.04% and 7.28%, respectively. The transport properties of o-CzOXD film are well investigated by current-voltage measurement, from which both hole and electron mobility are determined. It is found that the o-CzOXD shows appealing bipolar transport character, which is favor for the balanced charge distribution in the whole doped zone. More importantly, the multifunctional role of hole trapping and electron transporting of the iridium complex in o-CzOXD further balances the charge carriers and broadens the recombination zone. As a result, the recombination of electrons and holes is significantly improved and the triplet-triplet annihilation and triplet-polaron quenching processes are effectively suppressed, eventually leading to the high efficiency as well as the reduced efficiency roll-off.

  13. Incidence of mental retardation as compared with other psychiatric disorders and necessary support to persons placed at the Public Institution for Placement of Persons with Mental Disabilities "Drin" Fojnica, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Bjelošević, Edin; Karahmet, Amar; Hadžikapetanović, Halima; Bjelošević, Sonja

    2016-08-01

    Aim To compare the frequency of mental retardation with other psychiatric disorders at the Institute for Mentally Disabled Persons "Drin" Fojnica, Bosnia and Herzegovina, to asses psychosocial condition and necessary support to persons with mental retardation. Methods In this retrospective, descriptive and epidemiologic study neuropsychiatric findings and reports of the Institute's social services of 527 residents (beneficiaries) were analyzed in the period 2013-2014 (age, gender, mobility, years of life spent in the Institute, visits of family members and close relatives, visits to families, mental retardation - degree, required support). Results The research included 213 (40.42%) women and 314 (59.58%) men. The average age was 39.64 years. The average number of years spent in the Institute was 10.42.Fifty-four 25.47%) examinees with mental retardation had occasional visits to their families, while 69 (32.54%) had regular visits. Thirty-four (16.04%) examinees had mild mental retardation, 70 (33.02%) had moderate retardation, 52 (24.52%) were with severe, and 56(26.42%) with profound retardation. It was found that 66 (31.13%)beneficiaries with the diagnosis of mental retardation completely depended on other persons. Conclusion The degree of mental retardation has a direct impact on the process of resocialization. A very small number of people diagnosed with mental retardation had been successfully involved in the process of resocialization. It is necessary work intensively on thecreation of conditions for the realization of the Independent Living Support program, thus making a step forward to deinstitutionalization. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  14. The natural history of inflammatory pseudotumors in asymptomatic patients after metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Almousa, Sulaiman A; Greidanus, Nelson V; Masri, Bassam A; Duncan, Clive P; Garbuz, Donald S

    2013-12-01

    Although pseudotumors have been reported in 32% of asymptomatic metal-on-metal hips, the natural history of asymptomatic pseudotumors is unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess changes over time in asymptomatic pseudotumors and the effect of revision on pseudotumor mass. Followup ultrasound was performed a mean of 25.8 months (range, 21-31 months) after the detection of 15 pseudotumors and five isolated fluid collections in a cohort of 20 asymptomatic patients (13 metal-on-metal, three metal-on-polyethylene, and four hip resurfacings) [42]. Changes in pseudotumors and fluid collections size and nature, and serum ion levels were determined. Among the 15 nonrevised patients, pseudotumors increased in size in six (four solid and two cystic) of 10 patients, three of which had clinically important increases (13-148 cm(3); 28-74 cm(3); 47-104 cm(3)). Three pseudotumors (one solid and two cystic) disappeared completely (the largest measured 31 cm(3)). One solid pseudotumor decreased in size (24 to 18 cm(3)). In five revised patients, pseudotumors completely disappeared in four patients. The fifth patient had two masses that decreased from 437 cm(3) to 262 cm(3) and 43 cm(3) to 25 cm(3). All revision patients had a reduction of chromium (40.42 μ/L to 2.69 μ/L) and cobalt ions (54.19 μ/L to 0.64 μ/L). Of five isolated fluid collections, four completely disappeared (two metal-on-metal and two metal-on-polyethylene) and one (metal-on-metal) increased from 26 cm(3) to 136 cm(3). Our observations suggest pseudotumors frequently increase in size in asymptomatic patients with occasional remission of small masses. Revision resulted in remission of pseudotumors.

  15. A comparative study on the bond strength of porcelain to the millingable Pd-Ag alloy

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jun-Tae

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The porcelain fused to gold has been widely used as a restoration both with the natural esthetics of the porcelain and durability and marginal fit of metal casting. However, recently, due to the continuous rise in the price of gold, an interest towards materials to replace gold alloy is getting higher. This study compared the bond strength of porcelain to millingable palladium-silver (Pd-Ag) alloy, with that of 3 conventionally used metal-ceramic alloys. MATERIALS AND METHODS Four types of metal-ceramic alloys, castable nonprecious nickel-chrome alloy, castable precious metal alloys containing 83% and 32% of gold, and millingable Pd-Ag alloy were used to make metal specimens (n=40). And porcelain was applied on the center area of metal specimen. Three-point bending test was performed with universal testing machine. The bond strength data were analyzed with a one-way ANOVA and post hoc Scheffe's tests (α=.05). RESULTS The 3-point bending test showed the strongest (40.42 ± 5.72 MPa) metal-ceramic bond in the nonprecious Ni-Cr alloy, followed by millingable Pd-Ag alloy (37.71 ± 2.46 MPa), precious metal alloy containing 83% of gold (35.89 ± 1.93 MPa), and precious metal alloy containing 32% of gold (34.59 ± 2.63 MPa). Nonprecious Ni-Cr alloy and precious metal alloy containing 32% of gold showed significant difference (P<.05). CONCLUSION The type of metal-ceramic alloys affects the bond strength of porcelain. Every metal-ceramic alloy used in this study showed clinically applicable bond strength with porcelain (25 MPa). PMID:25352959

  16. Tilt table testing with video EEG monitoring in the evaluation of patients with unexplained loss of consciousness.

    PubMed

    LaRoche, Suzette; Taylor, Denise; Walter, Paul

    2011-07-01

    It is well established that convulsive movements often accompany syncopal events yet many patients with these clinical features are misdiagnosed with seizures and often referred to epilepsy centers because they are refractory to treatment with anticonvulsant medications. Tilt table testing is the gold standard for diagnosing vasodepressor syncope, but it can fail to provide clinical details that help distinguish convulsive syncope from epileptic seizures and psychogenic events. This study evaluates the diagnostic utility of the addition of video and EEG monitoring during tilt table testing for patients with refractory episodes of unexplained loss of consciousness. Retrospective analysis was performed of 40 consecutive patients who were referred to the Emory Epilepsy Center and underwent tilt table testing with concomitant video-EEG between March 1, 2007 and December 1, 2008. EEG was recorded throughout the study in addition to video recording and single channel EKG. Events were classified as vasodepressor syncope, presyncope, or psychogenic. Tilt combined with video EEG was diagnostic in 26/40 (65%) of patients. Vasodepressor syncope was seen in 17/40 (42.5%), 9 of which had associated involuntary movements. Three patients experienced psychogenic non-epileptic events. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) were being prescribed for 17 patients, 7 of which were discontinued as a result of the testing. The majority of patients (38/40) had undergone prior neurological and cardiac evaluation with routine EEG, neuroimaging and/or Holter monitoring. Patients with convulsive syncope are often misdiagnosed and treated with AEDs despite prior neurodiagnostic and cardiac evaluation. Tilt table testing with video-EEG is useful in patients with refractory episodes of unexplained loss of consciousness and can avoid expensive non-diagnostic evaluations as well as ongoing treatment with unnecessary AEDs.

  17. An assessment of genetic counseling services for individuals with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Stephanie; Guimond, Colleen; Butler, Rachel; Dwosh, Emily; Traboulsee, Anthony L; Sadovnick, A Dessa

    2015-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) affects up to 1/500 Canadians. The University of British Columbia MS Clinic (UBC Clinic) is the only MS clinic in Canada (and likely internationally) that routinely offers genetic counseling to patients and their families. A typical session includes the collection of family history and demographic data, discussion of the inheritance of MS, interpretation of family-specific recurrence risks and psychosocial counseling. The aims of this study were to explore patients': 1) expectations of the genetic counseling session; 2) understanding of the etiology of MS (both pre and post-session); and 3) post-session perceptions of genetic counseling. A two-part questionnaire to assess genetic counseling services was distributed before and after sessions to all consenting patients seen during the period October 1, 2008 to February 28, 2009 inclusive. Sixty-two completed questionnaires were analysed. Genetic counseling was found to significantly increase the number of individuals who were able to correctly identify the etiology of MS (p < 0.001). Patient satisfaction with genetic counseling was high, with an average satisfaction score of 32.4/35 (92.6 %). Of those who provided comments (n = 42/60) regarding the usefulness of the genetic counseling session, 95.2 % reported it useful (n = 40/42). Findings suggest that genetic counseling is effective in increasing patients' knowledge of the etiology of MS and is viewed by patients as a useful service. Based on the high level of positive feedback regarding genetic counseling by the study sample, this study suggests that the services provided by genetic counselors may be beneficial for patients with MS seen in other centers.

  18. The Differences in Chemical Composition, Physical Quality Traits and Nutritional Values of Horse Meat as Affected by Various Retail Cut Types

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Pil Nam; Park, Kyoung Mi; Kang, Geun Ho; Cho, Soo Hyun; Park, Beom Young; Chae, Hyun Seok; Van Ba, Hoa

    2016-01-01

    The effects of retail cut type on chemical, quality and nutritional characteristics of horse meat were studied. Jeju female breed horses (n = 9) at 32-mo-old were slaughtered and the carcasses at 24 h post-mortem were fabricated into 10 retail cuts including: tender-loin, loin, strip-loin, shoulder-chuck-roll, shoulder-clod, top-round, outside-round, brisket, short-plate-brisket, and shank. The results revealed that all of parameters (chemical, meat quality and nutritional composition) examined significantly (p<0.05) differed between the cuts. The chemical composition range (minimum to maximum) of cuts was found as such: moisture 65.06% to 71.69%; protein 19.07% to 21.28%; collagen 1.40% to 2.45%; fat 2.56% to 12.14% and cholesterol 55.76 to 79.50 mg/100 g. Shoulder-chuck-roll had the highest pH and water-holding capacity, while top-round had the highest cooking loss. Shear force ranged between the cuts from 2.80 kg/cm2 to 4.98 kg/cm2. The Cu, Fe, and Zn contents ranged between the cuts from 1.52 mg/kg to 2.75 mg/kg, 21.25 mg/kg to 30.85 mg/kg, and 16.51 mg/kg to 40.42 mg/kg, respectively. Additionally, most of the cuts studied showed favorable polyunsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid, n-3/n-6 and essential amino acid/non-essential amino acid ratios. PMID:26732332

  19. Syngenetic inclusions in diamond from the Birim field (Ghana) - a deep peridotitic profile with a history of depletion and re-enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachel, T.; Harris, Jeffrey W.

    Diamonds and their syngenetic mineral inclusions from placer deposits (Akwatia mine) along the Birim River, Ghana were studied, thus providing the first detailed data collection for the West African Craton. Inclusion contents indicate an almost exclusively peridotitic diamond suite, with the vast majority being part of the harzburgitic paragenesis. Chemically the Akwatian diamond inclusions differ from those in our 1100 sample world-wide data base mainly by shifts towards lower Mg/Fe ratios for harzburgitic olivines and orthopyroxenes, extremely high Ni contents in both harzburgitic and lherzolitic olivines, and a higher mean Cr content in chromites. The inconsistency between the low Mg/Fe ratios and the highly refractory compatible trace element signature seems best to be explained by re-fertilisation of a previously depleted source, similar to the metasomatic re-enrichment of deformed, Fe-Ti-rich and hot peridotites discussed by Harte (1983). Geothermometry shows Akwatian inclusions to be 140-190°C hotter than the peridotitic average (1050°C) given by Harris (1992). Since garnet-opx equilibria (1100°C/50kbar to 1370°C/67 kbar) indicate a typical shield geotherm (40-42 mW/m2), these elevated temperatures imply an origin of the Akwatian diamonds unusually deep for a peridotitic suite. This is consistent with the presence of extraordinary amounts of silicate spinel component in chromite inclusions, indicative of crystallisation under higher pressures than recorded for most peridotitic suites. In addition, one garnet showed the highest knorringite component (66.4 mol%) so far observed in an inclusion in diamond. The same garnet also contained a minor enstatite solid-solution component, which indicates crystallisation at pressures just below 80 kbar. Akwatian diamond inclusions, therefore, represent the most complete cross-section through peridotitic subcontinental lithospheric upper mantle so far observed, down to a maximum depth between 200-240km.

  20. Streptomyces alfalfae sp. nov. and comparisons with its closest taxa Streptomyces silaceus, Streptomyces flavofungini and Streptomyces intermedius.

    PubMed

    She, Wenqing; Sun, Zhongfeng; Yi, Lei; Zhao, Shumiao; Liang, Yunxiang

    2016-01-01

    A novel streptomycete strain, designated XY25T, was isolated from the rhizosphere soil in an alfalfa field in Jingyang, Shanxi, China. The isolate showed optimal growth at 37 °C, and was capable of growing at pH 6-10 and in the presence of 0-6 % (w/v) NaCl. Mycelia of strain XY25T appeared spiral and developed into white spore chains with long-rod spores and a smooth surface. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of XY25T was determined and was found to be highly similar to those of species of the genus Streptomyces including Streptomyces silaceus DSM 41861T (99.11 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Streptomyces flavofungini DSM 40366T (98.49 %) and Streptomyces intermedius DSM 40372T (98.43 %), all of which were used for further characterization. Each of the four streptomycetes showed distinctive patterns of carbon usage and fatty acids composition. Analysis of cellular components of strain XY25T revealed ll-diaminopimelic acid as diagnostic diamino acid and xylose as the major sugar, whereas polar lipids were determined as phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, an unknown phospholipid, two unknown phosphatidylinositol mannosides and several unknown lipids. Menaquinones were dominated by MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8), and the main fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0. DNA-DNA hybridization studies indicated that strain XY25T showed relatedness values of 35.2-40.42 % with the closest related species. Based on these results, strain XY25T represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces alfalfae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is XY25T ( = KCTC 39571T = CCTCC AA2015019T).

  1. Development of an inhalable, stimuli-responsive particulate system for delivery to deep lung tissue.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Yasmine; Azzazy, Hassan M E; Tammam, Salma; Lamprecht, Alf; Ali, Mohamed Ehab; Schmidt, Annette; Sollazzo, Silvio; Mathur, Sanjay

    2016-10-01

    Lung cancer, the deadliest solid tumor among all types of cancer, remains difficult to treat. This is a result of unavoidable exposure to carcinogens, poor diagnosis, the lack of targeted drug delivery platforms and limitations associated with delivery of drug to deep lung tissues. Development of a non-invasive, patient-convenient formula for the targeted delivery of chemotherapeutics to cancer in deep lung tissue is the aim of this study. The formulation consisted of inhalable polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/maltodextrin (MD)-based microparticles (MPs) encapsulating chitosan (CS) nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with either drug only or drug and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Drug release from CS NPs was enhanced with the aid of MNPs by a factor of 1.7 in response to external magnetic field. Preferential toxicity by CS NPs was shown towards tumor cells (A549) in comparison to cultured fibroblasts (L929). The prepared spray freeze dried (SFD) powders for CS NPs and CS MNPs were of the same size at ∼6μm. They had a fine particle fraction (FPF≤5.2μm) of 40-42% w/w and mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of 5-6μm as determined by the Next Generation Impactor (NGI). SFD-MPs of CS MNPs possess higher MMAD due to the high density associated with encapsulated MNPs. The developed formulation demonstrates several capabilities including tissue targeting, controlled drug release, and the possible imaging and diagnostic values (due to its MNPs content) and therefore represents an improved therapeutic platform for drug delivery to cancer in deep lung tissue.

  2. The Association of High Risk Human Papillomaviruses in Patients With Cervical Cancer: An Evidence Based Study on Patients With Squamous Cell Dysplasia or Carcinoma for Evaluation of 23 Human Papilloma Virus Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Piroozmand, Ahmad; Mostafavi Zadeh, Seyed Mostafa; Madani, Azita; Soleimani, Reza; Nedaeinia, Reza; Niakan, Mohammad; Avan, Amir; Manian, Mostafa; Moradi, Mohammad; Eftekhar, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in females. Human papilloma virus (HPV) is the major risk factor of cervical cancer. Objectives The aim of the current study was to explore the frequency and role of 23 different HPVs in patients with cervical cancer. Materials and Methods Overall, 117 formalin-fix and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues from cervical cancer patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or dysplasia were collected from Mirza-Kochakkhan-Jangali hospital, Tehran, Iran during year 2013, to investigate the presence of HPV- HPV- 67, 68, 6, 11, 13, 16, 17, 30, 69, 39, 40, 42, 64, 66 and 51 to 59 genotypes. Results The Pap smear report illustrated the presence of malignancy in 71 cases, while 11 cases had no evidence of malignancy. Among the patients, 26 cases had sexually transmitted disease with relative frequency of 0.58. Infection with papilloma virus was observed in 83.6% of SCC patients and 45% of the dysplasia group. The most prevalent HPV genotypes were 18 with 31.62% and 16 with 27.35% of cases. Moreover the relative frequencies of HPV-33, -6, -58, -52, -35 and -51, genotypes were 15.38, 7.69, 5.98, 5.12 and 3.41%, respectively. Among the different genotypes of HPV, 31 had the lowest and 16 had the highest relative frequency. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that HPV-16 and -18 have a higher prevalence in our population than 31 and 51. Further investigations are required to evaluate the role of these genotypes in a larger multicenter setting for establishing their values for early detection of patients, which is useful for screening and vaccination programs of cancerous and precancerous lesions of cervical cancer. PMID:27279992

  3. Site-specific characterization of threonine, serine, and tyrosine glycosylations of amyloid precursor protein/amyloid β-peptides in human cerebrospinal fluid

    PubMed Central

    Halim, Adnan; Brinkmalm, Gunnar; Rüetschi, Ulla; Westman-Brinkmalm, Ann; Portelius, Erik; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Larson, Göran; Nilsson, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    The proteolytic processing of human amyloid precursor protein (APP) into shorter aggregating amyloid β (Aβ)-peptides, e.g., Aβ1-42, is considered a critical step in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Although APP is a well-known membrane glycoprotein carrying both N- and O-glycans, nothing is known about the occurrence of released APP/Aβ glycopeptides in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We used the 6E10 antibody and immunopurified Aβ peptides and glycopeptides from CSF samples and then liquid chromatography—tandem mass spectrometry for structural analysis using collision-induced dissociation and electron capture dissociation. In addition to 33 unglycosylated APP/Aβ peptides, we identified 37 APP/Aβ glycopeptides with sialylated core 1 like O-glycans attached to Thr(−39, −21, −20, and −13), in a series of APP/AβX-15 glycopeptides, where X was −63, −57, −52, and −45, in relation to Asp1 of the Aβ sequence. Unexpectedly, we also identified a series of 27 glycopeptides, the Aβ1-X series, where X was 20 (DAEFRHDSGYEVHHQKLVFF), 19, 18, 17, 16, and 15, which were all uniquely glycosylated on Tyr10. The Tyr10 linked O-glycans were (Neu5Ac)1-2Hex(Neu5Ac)HexNAc-O- structures with the disialylated terminals occasionally O-acetylated or lactonized, indicating a terminal Neu5Acα2,8Neu5Ac linkage. We could not detect any glycosylation of the Aβ1-38/40/42 isoforms. We observed an increase of up to 2.5 times of Tyr10 glycosylated Aβ peptides in CSF in six AD patients compared to seven non-AD patients. APP/Aβ sialylated O-glycans, including that of a Tyr residue, the first in a mammalian protein, may modulate APP processing, inhibiting the amyloidogenic pathway associated with AD. PMID:21712440

  4. Iron and the translation of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and ferritin mRNAs: riboregulation against neural oxidative damage in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Jack T; Bush, Ashley I; Cho, Hyan-Hee; Smith, Deborah H; Thomson, Andrew M; Friedlich, Avi L; Lahiri, Debomoy K; Leedman, Peter J; Huang, Xudong; Cahill, Catherine M

    2008-12-01

    The essential metals iron, zinc and copper deposit near the Abeta (amyloid beta-peptide) plaques in the brain cortex of AD (Alzheimer's disease) patients. Plaque-associated iron and zinc are in neurotoxic excess at 1 mM concentrations. APP (amyloid precursor protein) is a single transmembrane metalloprotein cleaved to generate the 40-42-amino-acid Abetas, which exhibit metal-catalysed neurotoxicity. In health, ubiquitous APP is cleaved in a non-amyloidogenic pathway within its Abeta domain to release the neuroprotective APP ectodomain, APP(s). To adapt and counteract metal-catalysed oxidative stress, as during reperfusion from stroke, iron and cytokines induce the translation of both APP and ferritin (an iron storage protein) by similar mechanisms. We reported that APP was regulated at the translational level by active IL (interleukin)-1 (IL-1-responsive acute box) and IRE (iron-responsive element) RNA stem-loops in the 5' untranslated region of APP mRNA. The APP IRE is homologous with the canonical IRE RNA stem-loop that binds the iron regulatory proteins (IRP1 and IRP2) to control intracellular iron homoeostasis by modulating ferritin mRNA translation and transferrin receptor mRNA stability. The APP IRE interacts with IRP1 (cytoplasmic cis-aconitase), whereas the canonical H-ferritin IRE RNA stem-loop binds to IRP2 in neural cell lines, and in human brain cortex tissue and in human blood lysates. The same constellation of RNA-binding proteins [IRP1/IRP2/poly(C) binding protein] control ferritin and APP translation with implications for the biology of metals in AD.

  5. Single-dose intracerebroventricular administration of galactocerebrosidase improves survival in a mouse model of globoid cell leukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wing C; Tsoi, Yuen K; Troendle, Frederick J; DeLucia, Michael W; Ahmed, Zeshan; Dicky, Chad A; Dickson, Dennis W; Eckman, Christopher B

    2007-08-01

    Globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD), also known as Krabbe disease, is a devastating, degenerative neurological disorder. It is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait caused by loss-of-function mutations in the galactocerebrosidase (GALC) gene. Previously, we have shown that peripheral injection of recombinant GALC, administered every other day, results in a substantial improvement in early clinical phenotype in the twitcher mouse model of GLD. While we did detect active enzyme in the brain following peripheral administration, most of the administered enzyme was localized to the periphery. Given the substantial central nervous system (CNS) involvement in this disease, we were interested in determining whether or not a single-dose administration of the recombinant enzyme directly to the CNS, which could potentially be achieved clinically, would result in any substantial improvement. Following intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of GALC we noted a significant, 16.5%, reduction in the GALC substrate psychosine, the abnormal accumulation of which is believed to play a pivotal role in the CNS pathology observed in this disease. Moreover, recombinant GALC was found not only in periventricular regions but also at sites distant to the injection such as the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Most importantly, animals receiving a single i.c.v. dose of the enzyme at postnatal day 20 survived up to 51 days, which compares favorably to the control twitcher animals, which normally only live to postnatal day 40/42. These results indicate that even a single i.c.v. administration of the recombinant enzyme can have significant clinical impact and suggests that other lysosomal storage disorders with significant CNS involvement may similarly benefit.

  6. Investigating potential light-duty efficiency improvements through simulation of turbo-compounding and waste-heat recovery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Kevin Dean; Wagner, Robert M; Briggs, Thomas E

    2010-01-01

    Modern diesel engines used in light-duty transportation applications have peak brake thermal efficiencies in the range of 40-42% for high-load operation with substantially lower efficiencies at realistic road-load conditions. Thermodynamic energy and exergy analysis reveals that the largest losses from these engines are due to combustion irreversibility and heat loss to the coolant, through the exhaust, and by direct convection and radiation to the environment. Substantial improvement in overall engine efficiency requires reducing or recovering these losses. Unfortunately, much of the heat transfer either occurs at relatively low temperatures resulting in large entropy generation (such as in the air-charge cooler), is transferred to low-exergy flow streams (such as the oil and engine coolant), or is radiated or convected directly to the environment. While there are significant opportunities for recovery from the exhaust and EGR cooler for heavy-duty applications, achieving similar benefits for light-duty applications is complicated by transient, low-load operation at typical driving conditions and competition with the turbocharger and aftertreatment system for the limited thermal resources. We have developed an organic Rankine cycle model using GT-Suite to investigate the potential for efficiency improvement through waste-heat recovery from the exhaust and EGR cooler of a light-duty diesel engine. The model is used to examine the effects of efficiency-improvement strategies such as cylinder deactivation, use of advanced materials and improved insulation to limit ambient heat loss, and turbo-compounding on the steady-state performance of the ORC system and the availability of thermal energy for downstream aftertreatment systems. Results from transient drive-cycle simulations are also presented, and we discuss strategies to address operational difficulties associated with transient drive cycles and balancing the thermal requirements of waste-heat recovery

  7. Extensional Lower Cretaceous volcanism in the Coastal Range (29°20'-30°S), Chile: geochemistry and petrogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morata, D.; Aguirre, L.

    2003-12-01

    Lower Cretaceous volcanism in the Coastal Range (29°20'-30°S) of Chile is mainly represented by highly porphyritic (20-30% phenocrysts) lavas with unzoned Ca-rich plagioclase (An 57-54Ab 40-42Or 3-4), clinopyroxene (Wo 40En 43Fs 17), magnetite, and minor idiomorphic, altered olivines. Geochemically, these lavas are characterized by a relative homogeneity with high Al 2O 3 and low MgO contents, and classified as high-K to shoshonitic basaltic andesites to andesites generated in an intra-arc extensional setting due to oblique subduction. Their isotopic geochemistry is characterized by highly homogeneous low initial Sr ratios (( 87Sr/ 86Sr) 0˜0.7036) and positive ɛNd values ( ɛNd=+2.9 to +4.7 ( 143Nd/ 144Nd) 0˜0.5127) that are very different from those proposed as representative of 'Andean-type' magmatism. A non-Andean modern setting dominated by subduction associated with intra-arc extension is proposed. On a ( 87Sr/ 86Sr) 0 versus ɛNd diagram, these lavas fit a model mixing curve for which the end members are Pacific MORB and Jurassic plutonic rocks from the Coastal Range. Coeval granitoids from the Coastal Range and lavas from the High Andes plot on the same field. Isotopically depleted mafic magmas could be metasomatized by the subducted sediments, which would increase their LILE content, and then partially contaminated by Jurassic plutonic rocks. The genesis of this magmatism may be related to a global low-spreading rate of 5 cm yr -1 in the southeast Pacific during 125-110 Ma.

  8. Replacement of glycaemic carbohydrates by inulin-type fructans from chicory (oligofructose, inulin) reduces the postprandial blood glucose and insulin response to foods: report of two double-blind, randomized, controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Lightowler, Helen; Thondre, Sangeetha; Holz, Anja; Theis, Stephan

    2017-03-03

    Inulin-type fructans are recognized as prebiotic dietary fibres and classified as non-digestible carbohydrates that do not contribute to glycaemia. The aim of the present studies was to investigate the glycaemic response (GR) and insulinaemic response (IR) to foods in which sucrose was partially replaced by inulin or oligofructose from chicory. In a double-blind, randomized, controlled cross-over design, 40-42 healthy adults consumed a yogurt drink containing oligofructose or fruit jelly containing inulin and the respective full-sugar variants. Capillary blood glucose and insulin were measured in fasted participants and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after starting to drink/eat. For each test food, the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for glucose and insulin was calculated and the GR and IR determined. Consumption of a yogurt drink with oligofructose which was 20% reduced in sugars significantly lowered the glycaemic response compared to the full-sugar reference (iAUC120min 31.9 and 37.3 mmol/L/min, respectively; p < 0.05). A fruit jelly made with inulin and containing 30% less sugars than the full-sugar variant likewise resulted in a significantly reduced blood glucose response (iAUC120min 53.7 and 63.7 mmol/L/min, respectively; p < 0.05). In both studies, the postprandial insulin response was lowered in parallel (p < 0.05). The reduction of postprandial glycaemia was positively correlated to the proportion of sugars replaced by inulin-type fructans (p < 0.001). In conclusion, the studies confirmed that substitution of glycaemic sugars by inulin or oligofructose from chicory may be an effective strategy to reduce the postprandial blood glucose response to foods.

  9. Maribacter thermophilus sp. nov., isolated from an algal bloom in an intertidal zone, and emended description of the genus Maribacter.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jing; Yang, Qi-Qi; Ren, Yi; Zhang, Wen-Wu; Zheng, Gang; Sun, Cong; Pan, Jie; Zhu, Xu-Fen; Zhang, Xin-Qi; Wu, Min

    2015-01-01

    A novel facultatively anaerobic, Gram-stain-negative bacterium, designated strain HT7-2(T), was isolated from Ulva prolifera collected from the intertidal zone of Qingdao sea area, China, during its bloom. Cells were rod-shaped (1.9-3.5×0.4-0.6 µm), non-sporulating and motile by gliding. Strain HT7-2(T) was able to grow at 4-50 °C (optimum 40-42 °C), pH 5.5-8.5 (optimum pH 7.0), 0-8 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 2-3 %) and 0.5-10 % (w/v) sea salts (optimum 2.5 %). The genomic DNA G+C content was 38.8 mol%. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain HT7-2(T) belonged to the genus Maribacter with sequence similarity values of 94.5-96.6 %, and was most closely related to Maribacter aestuarii GY20(T) (96.6%). Chemotaxonomic analysis showed that the main isoprenoid quinone was MK-6 and the major fatty acids were iso-C15:0 and unknown equivalent chain-length 13.565. The polar lipids of strain HT7-2(T) consisted of one phosphatidylethanolamine, four unidentified lipids and one unidentified aminolipid. On the basis of the phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain HT7-2(T) ( =CGMCC 1.12207(T) =JCM 18466(T)) is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Maribacter, for which the name Maribacter thermophilus sp. nov. is proposed. An emended description of the genus Maribacter is also proposed.

  10. Cytohistological correlation of endocervical gland involvement with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kir, G; Karabulut, MH; Yilmaz, MS; Topal, CS; Gocmen, A

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diagnosis of endocervical glandular involvement by high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL-EGI) on Papanicolaou (Pap) smears can affect the clinical management of patients. Aim: The cytological criteria for the diagnosis of HSIL-EGI are described and the accuracy of this diagnosis was investigated. Materials and Methods: Seventeen patients diagnosed with HSIL-EGI and 40 patients with diagnosis of HSIL on Pap smears with follow-up cone or loop electrocautery excision procedure (LEEP) biopsies were included in the study. The following criteria were evaluated for the cytological diagnosis of HSIL-EGI: atypical cells with definite features of HSIL, three-dimensional atypical squamous cell clusters (TDCs) with attached benign endocervical epithelium, finger-like TDCs covered with intact epithelium on most sides, which represent the finger-like invaginations of the endocervical glandular area involved by HSIL, and the absence of cytological findings of in situ adenocarcinoma of the cervix. Results: On subsequent histopathological evaluation, 16 of 17 (94.1%) patients with a cytological diagnosis of HSIL-EGI and 17 of 40 (42.5%) patients with HSIL exhibited endocervical glandular involvement (P < 0.001, sensitivity: 48.5%, specificity: 95.8%, positive predictive value: 94.1%, negative predictive value: 57.5% and accuracy: 68.4%). Conclusion: Diagnosis of HSIL-EGI may be possible on Pap smears with a high positive predictive value and specificity but low sensitivity, possibly due to cytological sampling limitations. To clarify the results of the present study, more extensive studies with a particular emphasis on the sampling of the endocervical glandular area for cytological evaluation of the cervix are needed. PMID:22787292

  11. Prospective study of avian influenza H9 infection in commercial poultry farms of Punjab Province and Islamabad Capital Territory, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Mamoona; Ahmad, Maqbool; Rashid, Hamad Bin; Sultan, Bakhat; Chaudhry, Haroon Rashid; Riaz, Aayesha; Shaheen, Muhammad Shabir

    2017-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted from November 2013 to February 2014 to estimate the spatial clustering; cumulative incidence and risk factors associated with avian influenza (AI) subtype H9 infection on commercial poultry farms of Pakistan. A total of 400 farms were enrolled and followed during the study period. Among these, 109 farms submitted samples suspected for AI to the laboratory, and only 47 farms were confirmed positive by hemagglutinin inhibition (HI) test. Data was collected from these 109 farms about their demography, management, and biosecurity practices. The cumulative incidence of H9N2 was 11.75 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) 8.76-15.23). The highest number of cases (40.42 %) was reported in January. One most likely cluster (p = 0.009, radius = 4.61 km) occurred in the Kasur district. Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that the presence of wild birds on the farms (odds ratio (OR) = 16.18; 95 % CI 3.94-66.45) was independently associated with H9N2 infection. Cleaning of cages before delivery on farm (OR = 0.16; 95 % CI = 0.06-0.47), presence of a footbath at the entrance of farm (OR = 0.24; 95 % CI 0.08-0.79), and changing of gloves (OR = 0.33; 95 % CI 0.11-0.99) were protective factors against H9N2 infection. Reducing the exposure to risk factors and adapting biosecurity measures may reduce the risk of AI H9N2 infection on commercial poultry farms in Pakistan.

  12. Characterization of a Clinician-Scientist Cohort in Ophthalmology: A Demographic Analysis of K Grant Awardees in Ophthalmology

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Daniel L.; Schiffman, Joyce C.; Gedde, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze ophthalmologists who are National Institutes of Health (NIH) K grant awardees to characterize clinician-scientists in ophthalmology. Design Cohort study. Participants Ophthalmologists who have received a K award from 1996 to 2010. Methods K08 and K23 grant awardees were identified through the NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporter database. Information including gender, institution, educational degrees, and success in obtaining an R01 grant was analyzed. Main Outcome Measure Receipt of an R01 grant. Results One hundred five ophthalmologists were identified who received K08 or K23 grants from the National Eye Institute from 1996 to 2010. Overall, 75% of these were male, although 43% of K awardees were women from 2006 to 2010. Sixty five percent (68/105) of individuals came from ophthalmology departments that ranked in the top 20 of NIH funding in 2010. The most predominant subspecialties represented were retina (32%), cornea (22%), and glaucoma (15%). Among the K awardees, 40% (42/105) had a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degree in addition to their Medical Doctor (MD) degree. From 1996 to 2000, 61% (23/38) individuals were successful in obtaining an R01 grant, while only 13% (5/39) individuals from 2001 to 2005 have obtained R01 grants (p<0.001). Conclusions Gender disparities exist among K awardees in ophthalmology, but these seem to be improving over time. None of the other variables studied: gender, PhD degree, specialty, or funding tier was associated with obtaining R01 funding. This study helps to characterize the clinician-scientist cohort in ophthalmology and identify areas to improve the recruitment of these individuals. PMID:23631948

  13. BACE1- and BACE2-expressing human cells: characterization of beta-amyloid precursor protein-derived catabolites, design of a novel fluorimetric assay, and identification of new in vitro inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Andrau, David; Dumanchin-Njock, Cecile; Ayral, Erwan; Vizzavona, Jean; Farzan, Mike; Boisbrun, Michel; Fulcrand, Pierre; Hernandez, Jean-Francois; Martinez, Jean; Lefranc-Jullien, Solveig; Checler, Frederic

    2003-07-11

    We have set up stably transfected HEK293 cells overexpressing the beta-secretases BACE1 and BACE2 either alone or in combination with wild-type beta-amyloid precursor protein (betaAPP). The characterization of the betaAPP-derived catabolites indicates that cells expressing BACEs produce less genuine Abeta1- 40/42 but higher amounts of secreted sAPPbeta and N-terminal-truncated Abeta species. This was accompanied by a concomitant modulation of the C-terminal counterpart products C89 and C79 for BACE1 and BACE2, respectively. These cells were used to set up a novel BACE assay based on two quenched fluorimetric substrates mimicking the wild-type (JMV2235) and Swedish-mutated (JMV2236) betaAPP sequences targeted by BACE activities. We show that BACEs activities are enhanced by the Swedish mutation and maximal at pH 4.5. The specificity of this double assay for genuine beta-secretase activity was demonstrated by means of cathepsin D, a "false positive" BACE candidate. Thus, cathepsin D was unable to cleave preferentially the JMV2236-mutated substrate. The selectivity of the assay was also emphasized by the lack of JMV cleavage triggered by other "secretases" candidates such as ADAM10 (A disintegrin and metalloprotease 10), tumor necrosis alpha-converting enzyme, and presenilins 1 and 2. Finally, the assay was used to screen for putative in vitro BACE inhibitors. We identified a series of statine-derived sequences that dose-dependently inhibited BACE1 and BACE2 activities with IC50 in the micromolar range, some of which displaying selectivity for either BACE1 or BACE2.

  14. Melting phase relations of model carbonated peridotite from 2 to 3 GPa in the system CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-CO2 and further indication of possible unmixing between carbonatite and silicate liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novella, Davide; Keshav, Shantanu; Gudfinnsson, Gudmundur H.; Ghosh, Shaunak

    2014-04-01

    Melting phase relations of model carbonated peridotite in the system CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-CO2 from 2 to 3 GPa are reported. Experimentally produced melts, which are model carbonatites, with approximately 36-40 wt % CaO, 12-17 wt % MgO, 0.2-1.5 wt % Al2O3, 1-4 wt % SiO2, and 40-42 wt % CO2 (carbon dioxide) are present at all pressures investigated. At 2.8 and 3 GPa, carbonatitic melts are seen experimentally at temperatures that are very close to the vapor-free (CO2) peridotite solidus and are found in equilibrium with forsterite, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and garnet. Solidus phase relations with isobaric and pressure-temperature invariant points, defining the so-called carbonated peridotite solidus ledge, are also reported from 2.1 to 3 GPa. A divariant region exists from 2 to 2.6 GPa wherein two, compositionally different melts are present. In this region, these two melts, carbonatitic and silicate in composition, coexist with crystalline phase assemblage and free vapor. The silicate liquid has approximately 30-48 wt % SiO2 and approximately 6 to 20 wt % of dissolved CO2. The presence of carbonatitic and silicate liquids is interpreted to be due to liquid immiscibility. On the basis of melting phase relations reported here, we conclude that (a) the ledge is a feature along which model carbonatitic liquids are produced by reaction of silicates and CO2 vapor and (b) alkali-free carbonatites and silicate melts can form through melt unmixing at depths of ~60-80 km in the Earth's mantle.

  15. The change in upper tract urolithiasis composition, surgical treatments and outcomes of para and quadriplegic patients over time.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Marisa M; Gettman, Matthew T; Patterson, David E; Rangel, Laureano; Krambeck, Amy E

    2014-10-01

    Stone disease in patients with spinal cord injury is a source of morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have indicated a decrease in infection-based urolithiasis in recent decades. We aimed to identify changes in stone composition and surgical outcomes in patients with para and quadriplegia over time. A retrospective review of para and quadriplegic patients from 1986 to 2011 who underwent surgical intervention for urolithiasis was performed, identifying 95 patients. The Mantel-Haenszel Chi square test was used to compare change in stone composition over time. The mean patient age was 44.0 years (range 18-88) and treatment included percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) 40 (42.1 %), ureteroscopy 28 (29.5 %), shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) 26 (27.4 %), and nephrectomy 1 (1 %). Overall stone-free status was found in 47.4 % with 19.0 % requiring a repeat procedure. The median hospital stay for patients undergoing SWL was 2.5 days, ureteroscopy 5 days, and PCNL 6 days. Infection-based stone composition was identified in 23 patients (36.5 %). We evaluated the linear change in percent of each stone component over time and identified increasing components of calcium oxalate dihydrate (p = 0.002) and calcium carbonate (p = 0.009). However, over a period of 25 years, the incidence of infection-based stone did not change (p = 0.57). Para and quadriplegic patients with urolithiasis can be difficult to treat surgically with prolonged hospitalizations, low stone-free status, and often require additional procedures. Despite improvements in antibiotic agents and management of neurogenic bladders, infection-based calculi continue to be a significant source of morbidity to this patient population.

  16. The challenge of change in acute mental health services: measuring staff perceptions of barriers to change and their relationship to job status and satisfaction using a new measure (VOCALISE)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health services are subject to frequent changes, yet there has been insufficient research to address how staff working within these services perceive the climate for implementation. Staff perceptions, particularly of barriers to change, may affect successful implementation and the resultant quality of care. This study measures staff perceptions of barriers to change in acute mental healthcare. We identify whether occupational status and job satisfaction are related to these perceptions, as this might indicate a target for intervention that could aid successful implementation. As there were no available instruments capturing staff perceptions of barriers to change, we created a new measure (VOCALISE) to assess this construct. Methods All nursing staff from acute in-patient settings in one large London mental health trust were eligible. Using a participatory method, a nurse researcher interviewed 32 staff to explore perceptions of barriers to change. This generated a measure through thematic analyses and staff feedback (N = 6). Psychometric testing was undertaken according to standard guidelines for measure development (N = 40, 42, 275). Random effects models were used to explore the associations between VOCALISE, occupational status, and job satisfaction (N = 125). Results VOCALISE was easy to understand and complete, and showed acceptable reliability and validity. The factor analysis revealed three underlying constructs: ‘confidence,’ ‘de-motivation’ and ‘powerlessness.’ Staff with negative perceptions of barriers to change held more junior positions, and had poorer job satisfaction. Qualitatively, nursing assistants expressed a greater sense of organisational unfairness in response to change. Conclusions VOCALISE can be used to explore staff perceptions of implementation climate and to assess how staff attitudes shape the successful outcomes of planned changes. Negative perceptions were linked with poor job satisfaction and to

  17. [Abortion in the 2d trimester using carboprost tromethamine].

    PubMed

    Berić, B; Kranc, F; Marijanović, M; Aleksić, S; Ancić, V; Belopavlović, Z

    1985-01-01

    The authors present their own experience (1980-1985) in the application (im. so called "monotone rhythm and doses") of Prostin 15-M (Upjohn) in legal abortions in the second trimester (14th-20th gestational weeks). This preparation was applied in 470 patients divided into 3 groups for the purpose of differential treatment and analysis: A--gravidae juvenae 13-18 years of age, B--gravidae adultae (19-40 years of age) C--gravidae vetustae 41-46 years of age. The mean age of patients by age groups was: A-16 years + 8 months; B-26 years + 3 months; C-42 years + 7 months. Indications for abortion were: medical in 53.83%, eugenic in 30.21%, medico-social in 14.25%, and ethico-legal in 1.70%. The percentage of primigravidae was 40.42 and of multigravidae 59.76%. The average length of the abortion interval and the average dose of Prostin 15-M (in ml) were as follows: group A 28 h 30' and 8.92 ml; group B 23 h 23' and 8.23 ml. and group C 16 h and 4.97 ml. All recorded side-effects and complications were analysed. Significant complications occurred in 5 cases (1.06%): cervical rupture in 3 cases and massive postabortal haemorrhage in 2 cases. No deaths occurred. The authors elaborated a system of the differential evaluation of the efficacy of this method and its advantages over other methods previously applied. The method has proved to be very simple, efficacious, suitable from the medico-clinical point of view, with a relatively low percentage of complications, and economical (costs of treatment and hospitalisation).

  18. Environmental enrichment lessens cognitive decline in APP23 mice without affecting brain sirtuin expression.

    PubMed

    Polito, Letizia; Chierchia, Armando; Tunesi, Marta; Bouybayoune, Ihssane; Kehoe, Patrick Gavin; Albani, Diego; Forloni, Gianluigi

    2014-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is a non-pharmacological intervention reported to counteract pathological signs in models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We developed EE protocols in APP23 mice and evaluated how they influenced cognitive decline and brain amyloid-β (Aβ) burden. We also investigated the involvement of sirtuins (SIRTs) as a possible molecular mediator of EE, by assessing hippocampal and cortical mRNA and protein levels of the SIRT family members (SIRT1 to SIRT7). APP23 transgenic mice were moved to EE cages (TG-EEs) starting from 3 months of age. TG-EEs were compared to transgenic mice housed in standard cages (TG-SHs) and to wild-type littermates in the two housing conditions (WT-EEs and WT-SHs). At 7 months of age, all mice were tested for behavioral performance with Morris Water Maze (MWM) and visual novel Object Recognition Test (vORT). After a month, a group underwent biochemical analyses, while another group continued in the EE environment till 18 months of age, when Aβ plaque load was assessed. At 7 months, TG-SHs had impaired behavioral performance in MWM and vORT. In contrast, TG-EE mice had restored behavioral performance. At 8 months, EE did not affect AβPP expression or processing, Aβ40/42, pGlu-Aβ3-40/3-42, or Aβ oligomer level. The expression of two Aβ degrading enzymes (insulin degrading enzyme and neprilysin) was not modulated by EE. Brain sirtuin mRNA and protein levels were unchanged, while brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression increased after EE. Aβ deposition was attenuated in 18-month-old TG-EE mice, without apparent reduction of neuroinflammatory signs. We suggest that EE had a beneficial effect on cognitive performance and lessened long-term Aβ accumulation, but brain sirtuin expression was not modulated when cognitive impairment was restored.

  19. Effects of perinatal methylphenidate (MPH) treatment on postweaning behaviors of male and female Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Sherry A; Delbert Law, C; Sahin, Leyla; Montenegro, Susan V

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is a common treatment for adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, little information exists regarding its safety during pregnancy and thus, women with ADHD face difficult decisions regarding continued use during pregnancy. Thus, Sprague-Dawley rats were orally treated 3×/day with 0 (control), 6 (low), 18 (mid), or 42 (high) mg MPH/kg/day (i.e., 0, 2, 6, or 14mg/kg at each treatment time) on gestational days 6-21. All offspring/litter were orally treated with the same dose their dam had received on postnatal days (PNDs) 1-21. After weaning, offspring were assessed for adolescent play behavior, locomotor activity, motor coordination, Barnes maze performance, acoustic startle response, novel object recognition, residential running wheel activity, flavored solution intake, home cage behavior, water maze performance, elevated plus maze behavior, locomotor response to an MPH challenge, and passive avoidance. At euthanasia, whole brain and striatal weights as well as serum hormone levels were measured. Body weights of the high MPH group were reduced in both sexes. Males of the high MPH group were less active than control males in open field assessments on PNDs 40-42. Latency to maximum acoustic startle was significantly altered in females of the medium and high MPH groups and residential running wheel activity of females of the low and medium MPH groups was lower than control females. Open arm entries in the elevated plus maze were increased in subjects of the medium MPH group. Females of the low MPH group were less sensitive to the locomotor-increasing effects of an acute 5mg/kg MPH challenge. Serum hormone levels and whole brain and striatal weights were not altered by prior MPH treatment. These results indicate that MPH treatment during development has sporadic effects on postweaning behaviors and those effects were generally exhibited by females.

  20. Using Receiver Functions to Investigate Signal Coherency Across a Dense Array and Resulting Images of the Crustal Structure Beneath Southwest Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gans, C.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.

    2011-12-01

    A 63-station broadband seismometer array was deployed in 2008-2009 in the Green River Basin to study both signal coherency and investigate the transition region between the Sevier and Laramide deformational regimes, using receiver function analysis. A dense array of 55 stations at ~250 m spacing allows a unique look at the coherency of the seismic signal across a small region. Receiver functions from these stations show great variability. The complex shallow structure underneath some stations in the dense array can be particularly problematic in receiver functions, as their many reverberations complicate the signal of deeper structures, notably the Moho. Combining the densely-spaced LaBarge array data with regional publicly-available data allows us to image the crustal structure of southwest Wyoming. The present-day tectonic features of western Wyoming have been strongly influenced by the Late Jurassic through the early Eocene Sevier and Laramide orogenies. The thin-skinned Sevier fold-thrust belt outcropping in the westernmost part of the state transitions to the thick-skinned basement-cored uplifts of central and eastern Wyoming. We find the depths to Moho range from ~30 km in the west to ~52 km in the east. A shallower Moho is found beneath the Rock Springs Uplift, and a deeper Moho east of the Wind River mountains. There is no sharp contrast in Moho depths between the Sevier and Laramide deformational-style regions. Most depths to Moho in the Green River Basin range from 31 to 35 km, with slightly deeper depths (40-42 km) to the west underneath the LaBarge array and in the surrounding Sevier fold-thrust belt and east beneath the Wind River Range. There are several mid-crustal features observed, including a particularly strong arrival around 15 km depth beneath the dense LaBarge array.

  1. Occurrence of intestinal and extraintestinal virulence genes in Escherichia coli isolates from rainwater tanks in Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, W; Hodgers, L; Masters, N; Sidhu, J P S; Katouli, M; Toze, S

    2011-10-01

    In this study, 200 Escherichia coli isolates from 22 rainwater tank samples in Southeast Queensland, Australia, were tested for the presence of 20 virulence genes (VGs) associated with intestinal and extraintestinal pathotypes. In addition, E. coli isolates were also classified into phylogenetic groups based on the detection of the chuA, yjaA, and TSPE4.C2 genes. Of the 22 rainwater tanks, 8 (36%) and 5 (23%) were positive for the eaeA (belonging to enteropathogenic E. coli [EPEC] and Shiga-toxigenic E. coli [STEC]) and ST1 (belonging to enterotoxigenic E. coli [ETEC]) genes, respectively. VGs (cdtB, cvaC, ibeA, kpsMT allele III, PAI, papAH, and traT) belonging to extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) were detected in 15 (68%) of the 22 rainwater tanks. Of the 22 samples, 17 (77%) and 11 (50%) contained E. coli belonging to phylogenetic groups A and B1, respectively. Similarly, 10 (45%) and 16 (72%) contained E. coli belonging to phylogenetic groups B2 and D, respectively. Of the 96 of the 200 strains from 22 tanks that were VG positive, 40 (42%) were carrying a single VG, 36 (37.5%) were carrying two VGs, 17 (18%) were carrying three VGs, and 3 (3%) had four or more VGs. This study reports the presence of multiple VGs in E. coli strains belonging to the STEC, EPEC, ETEC, and ExPEC pathotypes in rainwater tanks. The public health risks associated with potentially clinically significant E. coli in rainwater tanks should be assessed, as the water is used for drinking and other, nonpotable purposes. It is recommended that rainwater be disinfected using effective treatment procedures such as filtration, UV disinfection, or simply boiling prior to drinking.

  2. Unemployment and disability pension-an 18-year follow-up study of a 40-year-old population in a Norwegian county

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study explored the association of unemployment and an increased risk of receiving disability pension, and the possibility that this risk is attributed to municipality-specific characteristics. Methods A cohort of 7,985 40-42 year olds was followed for 18 years in national registers, identifying new episodes of unemployment and cases of disability pension. The association between an unemployment period and disability pension in the subsequent year was estimated using discrete time multilevel logistic regressions and clustering individuals by municipality. The association between unemployment and disability pension was adjusted for age in the follow up-period, sex, baseline health status, health behaviour and education level. A conditional intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was estimated as a measure of inter-municipality variance. Results In the follow-up period, 2784 (35%) of the participants were granted disability pension. The crude odds ratio for receiving disability pension after unemployment (adjusted for age in follow-up period and sex only) was 1.42 (95% CI 1.1-1.8). Adjusting for baseline health indicators reduced the odds ratio of unemployment to 1.33 (CI 1.1-1.7). A fully adjusted model, including education level, further reduced the odds ratio of unemployment to 1.25 (CI 1.00-1.6). The ICC of the municipality level was approximately 2%. Conclusions Becoming unemployed increased the risk of receiving subsequent disability pension. However, adjusting for baseline health status, health behaviour and education attenuated this impact considerably. The multilevel analysis indicated that a minor, yet statistically significant, proportion of the risk of disability pension can be attributed to the municipality of residence. PMID:22369630

  3. Intraneuronal Abeta immunoreactivity is not a predictor of brain amyloidosis-beta or neurofibrillary degeneration.

    PubMed

    Wegiel, Jerzy; Kuchna, Izabela; Nowicki, Krzysztof; Frackowiak, Janusz; Mazur-Kolecka, Bozena; Imaki, Humi; Wegiel, Jarek; Mehta, Pankaj D; Silverman, Wayne P; Reisberg, Barry; Deleon, Mony; Wisniewski, Thomas; Pirttilla, Tuula; Frey, Harry; Lehtimäki, Terho; Kivimäki, Tarmo; Visser, Frank E; Kamphorst, Wouter; Potempska, Anna; Bolton, David; Currie, Julia R; Miller, David L

    2007-04-01

    Amyloid beta (Abeta) immunoreactivity in neurons was examined in brains of 32 control subjects, 31 people with Down syndrome, and 36 patients with sporadic Alzheimer's disease to determine if intraneuronal Abeta immunoreactivity is an early manifestation of Alzheimer-type pathology leading to fibrillar plaque formation and/or neurofibrillary degeneration. The appearance of Abeta immunoreactivity in neurons in infants and stable neuron-type specific Abeta immunoreactivity in a majority of brain structures during late childhood, adulthood, and normal aging does not support this hypothesis. The absence or detection of only traces of reaction with antibodies against 4-13 aa and 8-17 aa of Abeta in neurons indicated that intraneuronal Abeta was mainly a product of alpha- and gamma-secretases (Abeta(17-40/42)). The presence of N-terminally truncated Abeta(17-40) and Abeta(17-42) in the control brains was confirmed by Western blotting and the identity of Abeta(17-40) was confirmed by mass spectrometry. The prevalence of products of alpha- and gamma -secretases in neurons and beta- and gamma-secretases in plaques argues against major contribution of Abeta-immunopositive material detected in neuronal soma to amyloid deposit in plaques. The strongest intraneuronal Abeta(17-42) immunoreactivity was observed in structures with low susceptibility to fibrillar Abeta deposition, neurofibrillary degeneration, and neuronal loss compared to areas more vulnerable to Alzheimer-type pathology. These observations indicate that the intraneuronal Abeta immunoreactivity detected in this study is not a predictor of brain amyloidosis or neurofibrillary degeneration. The constant level of Abeta immunoreactivity in structures free from neuronal pathology during essentially the entire life span suggests that intraneuronal amino-terminally truncated Abeta represents a product of normal neuronal metabolism.

  4. Block Copolymer Cross-linked Nanoassemblies Improve Particle Stability and Biocompatibility of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Dan, Mo; Scott, Daniel F.; Hardy, Peter A.; Wydra, Robert J.; Hilt, J. Zach; Yokel, Robert A.; Bae, Younsoo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To develop cross-linked nanoassemblies (CNAs) as carriers for superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs). Methods Ferric and ferrous ions were co-precipitated inside core-shell type nanoparticles prepared by cross-linking poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(aspartate) block copolymers to prepare CNAs entrapping Fe3O4 IONPs (CNA-IONPs). Particle stability and biocompatibility of CNA-IONPs were characterized in comparison to citrate-coated Fe3O4 IONPs (Citrate-IONPs). Results CNA-IONPs, approximately 30 nm in diameter, showed no precipitation in water, PBS, or a cell culture medium after 3 or 30 h, at 22, 37, and 43 °C, and 1, 2.5, and 5 mg/mL, whereas Citrate-IONPs agglomerated rapidly (> 400 nm) in all aqueous media tested. No cytotoxicity was observed in a mouse brain endothelial-derived cell line (bEnd.3) exposed to CNA-IONPs up to 10 mg/mL for 30 h. Citrate-IONPs (> 0.05 mg/mL) reduced cell viability after 3 h. CNA-IONPs retained the superparamagnetic properties of entrapped IONPs, enhancing T2-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRI) at 0.02 mg/mL, and generating heat at a mild hyperthermic level (40 ~ 42 °C) with an alternating magnetic field (AMF). Conclusion Compared to citric acid coating, CNAs with a cross-linked anionic core improved particle stability and biocompatibility of IONPs, which would be beneficial for future MRI and AMF-induced remote hyperthermia applications. PMID:23080062

  5. More folic acid, the five questions: why, who, when, how much, and how.

    PubMed

    Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Leoncini, Emanuele

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have been performed to evaluate the possible health benefits of an increased intake of folic acid (FA) on human health. However, the only well-documented benefit emerging from randomized controlled trials, nonrandomized interventions trials, and observational studies is the risk reduction of neural tube defects (NTDs). NTDs are congenital malformations that include anencephaly, encephalocele, and spina bifida caused by the failure of fusion of the neural tube that normally closes between 22nd and 28th day since conception (on an average 40-42th day after the first day of last menstrual period). The occurrence of NTDs varies among population between 0.8 and 3 per 1,000, and it is estimated that 324,000 pregnancies are affected every year worldwide. More FA can decrease the NTDs risk up to 0.6 per 1,000 births. Other malformations as congenital heart defects, cleft lip, and limb deficiencies can be most probably also reduced. To decrease the NTDs risk, it is recommended that all women capable of becoming pregnant should have more FA. The goal is that every woman could start her pregnancy with an optimal folate status, estimated today to be as more than 906 nmol/L of red blood cell folate concentration. More FA can be obtained through a strict Mediterranean pattern of nutrition and healthy life style, fortified food, supplements. Women and health authorities can choose the most appropriate strategy. Monitoring folate status of women during the periconceptional period is an essential way to evaluate the success of the preferred strategy.

  6. Photoprotection by tocopherol submicron emulsion against UV-mediated damage in HaCaT cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dan; Lin, X F; Min, W; Ma, Q H; Gu, N; Jin, S L; Wang, D G

    2007-04-01

    alpha-Tocopherol is a lipophilic vitamin E that shows antioxidative, antiaging and antiphotodamage activity. Nanometer biotechnology is more widely used in the entrainment system of drug carriers and the development for new pharmaceutical preparations. Ultraviolet irradiation to human skin in the long term can result in photoaging and photocarcinogenesis. The purpose of this study was to observe the biological features of tocopherol submicron emulsion (vitE SME) and to clarify the roles of vitE SME on UVB-induced photodamage in HaCaT keratinocytes (KC). VitE SME was prepared by high-pressure homogenization and microemulsion technique. HaCaT KC was incubated in the culture medium supplied with 1/200 and 1/400 of VitE SME prior to different dosages of UVB irradiation. The vitamin E amount in the culture medium was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Cell growth and cellular viability was detected by MTT assay. The amount of vitamin E remaining in the culture medium significantly decreased during the first 8 h, and less than 10% can be detected by the terminal experiment (24 h). No cytotoxicity effect of tocopherol NM on HaCat KC was observed. In contrast to the control group, the cellular viability of VitE SME-treated group increased 44.22% by 24 h. Compared with irradiated groups without VitE SME, cell proliferation decreased by 17.77% and 40.42% when the HaCaT KC was irradiated with 30 mJ/cm(2) and 90 mJ/cm(2) UVB irradiation, respectively. VitE SME has no toxicity to cell culture system and is characterized by stable release and penetration. Pre-incubation with VitE SME can partly reduce UV-induced cell damage, and the photoprotective efficiency to UVB irradiation also shows time dependence.

  7. Elastolytic activity and alveolar epithelial type-1 cell damage after chronic LPS inhalation: Effects of dexamethasone and rolipram

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Frederick J. . E-mail: JohnsonFJ@Cardiff.ac.uk; Reynolds, Lucy J.; Toward, Toby J.

    2005-09-15

    This study investigated whether a correlation between leukocyte-derived elastolytic activity, alveolar epithelial type-1 cell damage, and leukocyte infiltration of the airways existed in guinea-pigs chronically exposed to inhaled lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The airway pathology of this model, notably the neutrophilia, resembles chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The effect of the corticosteroid, dexamethasone, or the phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4)-inhibitor, rolipram, on these features was studied. Conscious guinea-pigs were exposed for 1 h to single or repeated (nine) doses of LPS (30 {mu}g ml{sup -1}). Dexamethasone (20 mg kg{sup -1}, ip) or rolipram (1 mg kg{sup -1}, ip) was administered 24 and 0.5 h before the first exposure and daily thereafter. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was removed and elastolytic activity determined as the elastase-like release of Congo Red from impregnated elastin. The presence of the specific epithelial cell type-1 protein (40-42 kDa) RT1{sub 40} in BALF was identified by Western blotting using a rat monoclonal antibody and semi-quantified by dot-blot analysis. The antibody was found to identify guinea-pig RT1{sub 40}. BALF inflammatory cells, particularly neutrophils and macrophages, and elastolytic activity were increased in chronic LPS-exposed guinea-pigs, the latter by 90%. Chronic LPS exposure also increased (10.5-fold) RT1{sub 40} levels, indicating significant alveolar epithelial type-1 cell damage. Dexamethasone or rolipram treatment reduced the influx of inflammatory cells, the elastolytic activity (by 40% and 38%, respectively), and RT1{sub 40} levels (by 50% and 57%, respectively). In conclusion, chronic LPS-exposed guinea-pigs, like COPD, exhibit elastolytic lung damage. This was prevented by a PDE4 inhibitor and supports their development for suppressing this leukocyte-mediated pathology.

  8. Growth of the conceptus from day 33 to 45 of pregnancy is minimally associated with concurrent hormonal or metabolic status in postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Stratman, T J; Moore, S G; Lamberson, W R; Keisler, D H; Poock, S E; Lucy, M C

    2016-05-01

    A hypothetical explanation for pregnancy loss in postpartum dairy cows is that the metabolic environment of the cow inhibits the growth of the conceptus and places the pregnancy at risk for loss. The objective of the current study, therefore, was to model the association between cow-level metabolic indicators and conceptus growth during early pregnancy (day 33-45 after AI) and to determine if an association (if present) is large enough to cause pregnancy loss. Metabolic indicators included milk production, changes in body weight and body condition score, parity, and concentrations of circulating hormones and metabolites (glucose, non-esterified fatty acids, growth hormone, IGF1, progesterone, and pregnancy-associated glycoproteins). One-hundred cows were enrolled. Cows that became pregnant with single conceptus pregnancies (n=53) weighed more (P<0.007) and had fewer uterine polymorphonuclear neutrophils (uterine health indicator; P<0.051) compared with cows that failed to become pregnant. The embryo and amniotic vesicle were measured by using ultrasound on day 33, 35, 38, 40, 42, and 45 of pregnancy. Most of the cow-level indicators that were included in the model of conceptus growth failed to achieve statistical significance. Day of pregnancy had the largest effect on conceptus growth (size and cross-sectional area of the embryo and amniotic vesicle; P<0.001). There were effects of sex of fetus (male fetuses larger than female), insulin (negative association), and body weigh change (positive association) on embryo length and cross-sectional area but these effects were small when compared with the range in conceptus length or area that we observed. The conclusion was that the capacity of the cow to become pregnant was associated with body weight and uterine health but we failed to find a large association with metabolic status on conceptus growth from day 33 to 45 of pregnancy in lactating dairy cows.

  9. Physicochemical characterization of sewage sludge and green waste for agricultural utilization.

    PubMed

    Ramdani, N; Hamou, A; Lousdad, A; Al-Douri, Y

    2015-01-01

    In order to valorize the organic wastes, a mixture composed of 60 kg of thick sewage sludge from a wastewater treatment plant, 30 kg of green wastes (made of 10 kg straw of wheat, 10 kg manure farm wastes, and 10 kg of dead leaves), and 10 kg of wood chips was prepared. The organic wastes were mixed and put into a wooden cubic composter having a volume of 1.5 m3. Physicochemical analyses were made every 30 days for five months. The results of the analyses showed that the obtained compost had good physicochemical quality and can be used as an organic fertilizer. The main characteristics of this compost were distinguished by its pH from 7.4 to 7.8, with a ratio of organic matter of 40-42%. During composting, the humification process led to an increase in humic acids from 29.5 to 39.1 mg g(-1), a decrease in fulvic acids from 32.1 to 10.9 mg g(-1), and a global decomposition of hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin. The obtained results show that a period of 150 days of composting gave a C/N ratio of 15.4. The total metal content in the final compost was much lower than the standard toxic levels for composts to be used as good soil fertilizers. The germination index for the two plants Cicer arietinum and Hordeum vulgare was 93% after the same period of composting, showing that the final compost was not phytotoxic. The study showed the possibility of valorization of the compost and its possible use in the domain of agriculture.

  10. Seasonal and Elevational Variations of Black Carbon and Dust in Snow and Ice in the Solu-Khumbu, Nepal and Estimated Radiative Forcings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspari, S.; Painter, T. H.; Gysel, M.; Skiles, M.; Schwikowski, M.

    2014-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) and dust deposited on snow and glacier surfaces can reduce the surface albedo, accelerate melt, and trigger albedo feedback. Assessing BC and dust concentrations in snow and ice in the Himalaya is of interest because this region borders large BC and dust sources, and seasonal snow and glacier ice in this region are an important source of water resources. Snow and ice samples were collected from crevasse profiles and snowpits at elevations between 5400 and 6400 m asl from Mera glacier located in the Solu-Khumbu region of Nepal. The samples were measured for Fe concentrations (used as a dust proxy) via ICP-MS, total impurity content gravimetrically, and BC concentrations using a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). BC and Fe concentrations are substantially higher at elevations < 6000 m due to post-depositional processes including melt and sublimation and greater loading in the lower troposphere. Because the largest areal extent of snow and ice resides at elevations < 6000 m, the higher BC and dust concentrations at these elevations can reduce the snow and glacier albedo over large areas, accelerating melt, affecting glacier mass-balance and water resources, and contributing to a positive climate forcing. Radiative transfer modeling constrained by measurements at 5400 m at Mera La indicates that BC concentrations in the winter-spring snow/ice horizons are sufficient to reduce albedo by 6-10% relative to clean snow, corresponding to localized instantaneous radiative forcings of 75-120 W m-2. The other bulk impurity concentrations, when treated separately as dust, reduce albedo by 40-42% relative to clean snow and give localized instantaneous radiative forcings of 488 to 525 W m-2. Adding the BC absorption to the other impurities results in additional radiative forcings of 3 W m-2. While these results suggest that the snow albedo and radiative forcing effect of dust is considerably greater than BC, there are several sources of uncertainty.

  11. Exogenous L-arginine attenuates the effects of angiotensin II on renal hemodynamics and the pressure natriuresis-diuresis relationship.

    PubMed

    Das, Satarupa; Mattson, David L

    2014-04-01

    Administration of exogenous L-arginine (L-Arg) attenuates angiotensin-II (AngII)-mediated hypertension and kidney disease in rats. The present study assessed renal hemodynamics and pressure diuresis-natriuresis in anaesthetized rats infused with vehicle, AngII (20 ng/kg per min i.v.) or AngII + L-Arg (300 μg/kg per min i.v.). Experiments in isolated aortic rings were carried out to assess L-Arg effects on the vasculature. Increasing renal perfusion pressure (RPP) from ~100 to 140 mmHg resulted in a nine- to tenfold increase in urine flow and sodium excretion rate in control animals. In comparison, AngII infusion significantly reduced renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by 40-42%, and blunted the pressure-dependent increase in urine flow and sodium excretion rate by 54-58% at elevated RPP. Supplementation of L-Arg reversed the vasoconstrictor effects of AngII and restored pressure-dependent diuresis to levels not significantly different from control rats. Dose-dependent contraction to AngII (10(-10) mol/L to 10(-7) mol/L) was observed with a maximal force equal to 27 ± 3% of the response to 10(-5) mol/L phenylephrine. Contraction to 10(-7) mol/L AngII was blunted by 75 ± 3% with 10(-4) mol/L L-Arg. The influence of L-Arg to blunt AngII-mediated contraction was eliminated by endothelial denudation or incubation with nitric oxide synthase inhibitors. Furthermore, the addition of 10(-3) mol/L cationic or neutral amino acids, which compete with L-Arg for cellular uptake, blocked the effect of L-Arg. Anionic amino acids did not influence the effects of L-Arg on AngII-mediated contraction. These studies show that L-Arg blunts AngII-mediated vascular contraction by an endothelial- and nitric oxide synthase-dependent mechanism involving cellular uptake of L-Arg.

  12. Thermal safety of ultrasound-enhanced ocular drug delivery: A modeling study

    SciTech Connect

    Nabili, Marjan; Geist, Craig E-mail: zderic@gwu.edu; Zderic, Vesna E-mail: zderic@gwu.edu

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Delivery of sufficient amounts of therapeutic drugs into the eye for treatment of various ocular diseases is often a challenging task. Ultrasound was shown to be effective in enhancing ocular drug delivery in the authors’ previous in vitro and in vivo studies. Methods: The study reported here was designed to investigate the safety of ultrasound application and its potential thermal effects in the eye using PZFlex modeling software. The safety limit in this study was set as a temperature increase of no more than 1.5 °C based on regulatory recommendations and previous experimental safety studies. Acoustic and thermal specifications of different human eye tissues were obtained from the published literature. The tissues of particular interest in this modeling safety study were cornea, lens, and the location of optic nerve in the posterior eye. Ultrasound application was modeled at frequencies of 400 kHz–1 MHz, intensities of 0.3–1 W/cm{sup 2}, and exposure duration of 5 min, which were the parameters used in the authors’ previous drug delivery experiments. The baseline eye temperature was 37 °C. Results: The authors’ results showed that the maximal tissue temperatures after 5 min of ultrasound application were 38, 39, 39.5, and 40 °C in the cornea, 39.5, 40, 42, and 43 °C in the center of the lens, and 37.5, 38.5, and 39 °C in the back of the eye (at the optic nerve location) at frequencies of 400, 600, 800 kHz, and 1 MHz, respectively. Conclusions: The ocular temperatures reached at higher frequencies were considered unsafe based on current recommendations. At a frequency of 400 kHz and intensity of 0.8 W/cm{sup 2} (parameters shown in the authors’ previous in vivo studies to be optimal for ocular drug delivery), the temperature increase was small enough to be considered safe inside different ocular tissues. However, the impact of orbital bone and tissue perfusion should be included in future modeling efforts to determine the safety

  13. Extensive fragmentation of the X chromosome in the bed bug Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 (Heteroptera, Cimicidae): a survey across Europe

    PubMed Central

    Sadílek, David; Šťáhlavský, František; Vilímová, Jitka; Zima, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Variation in the number of chromosomes was revealed in 61 samples of Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 from the Czech Republic and other European countries, hosted on Myotis Kaup, 1829 (4) and Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 (57). The karyotype of all the specimens of Cimex lectularius analysed contained 26 autosomes and a varying number of the sex chromosomes. The number of sex chromosomes showed extensive variation, and up to 20 fragments were recorded. Altogether, 12 distinct karyotypes were distinguished. The male karyotypes consisted of 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 40, 42 and 47 chromosomes. The females usually exhibited the number of chromosomes which was complementary to the number established in the males from the same sample. However, 11 polymorphic samples were revealed in which the karyotypes of females and males were not complementary each other. The complement with 2n = 26+X1X2Y was found in 44% of the specimens and 57,4% samples of bed bugs studied. The karyotypes with higher chromosome numbers as well as individuals with chromosomal mosaics were usually found within the samples exhibiting particularly extensive variation between individuals, and such complements were not found within samples contaning a few or single specimen. The occurrence of chromosomal mosaics with the karyotype constitution varying between cells of single individual was observed in five specimens (4.3%) from five samples. We assume that polymorphism caused by fragmentation of the X chromosome may result in meiotic problems and non-disjunction can produce unbalanced gametes and result in lowered fitness of individuals carrying higher numbers of the X chromosome fragments. This effect should be apparently enhanced with the increasing number of the fragments and this may be the reason for the observed distribution pattern of individual karyotypes in the studied samples and the rarity of individuals with extremely high chromosome numbers. The assumed lowering of the

  14. Are NORs always located on homeologous chromosomes? A FISH investigation with rDNA and whole chromosome probes in Gymnotus fishes (Gymnotiformes).

    PubMed

    Milhomem, Susana S R; Scacchetti, Priscilla C; Pieczarka, Julio C; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Pansonato-Alves, José C; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Foresti, Fausto; Nagamachi, Cleusa Y

    2013-01-01

    Gymnotus (Gymnotiformes, Gymnotidae) is the most diverse known Neotropical electric knife fish genus. Cytogenetic studies in Gymnotus demonstrate a huge karyotypic diversity for this genus, with diploid numbers ranging from 34 to 54. The NOR are also variable in this genus, with both single and multiple NORs described. A common interpretation is that the single NOR pair is a primitive trait while multiple NORs are derivative. However this hypothesis has never been fully tested. In this report we checked if the NOR-bearing chromosome and the rDNA site are homeologous in different species of the genus Gymnotus: G. carapo (2n = 40, 42, 54), G. mamiraua (2n = 54), G. arapaima (2n = 44), G. sylvius (2n = 40), G. inaequilabiatus (2n = 54) and G. capanema (2n = 34), from the monophyletic group G. carapo (Gymnotidae-Gymnotiformes), as well as G. jonasi (2n = 52), belonging to the G1 group. They were analyzed with Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using 18S rDNA and whole chromosome probes of the NOR-bearing chromosome 20 (GCA20) of G. carapo (cytotype 2n = 42), obtained by Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting. All species of the monophyletic G. carapo group show the NOR in the same single pair, confirmed by hybridization with CGA20 whole chromosome probe. In G. jonasi the NORs are multiple, and located on pairs 9, 10 and 11. In G. jonasi the GCA20 chromosome probe paints the distal half of the long arm of pair 7, which is not a NOR-bearing chromosome. Thus these rDNA sequences are not always in the homeologous chromosomes in different species thus giving no support to the hypothesis that single NOR pairs are primitive traits while multiple NORs are derived. The separation of groups of species in the genus Gymnotus proposed by phylogenies with morphologic and molecular data is supported by our cytogenetic data.

  15. Nitric oxide stimulates human sperm motility via activation of the cyclic GMP/protein kinase G signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Miraglia, Erica; De Angelis, Federico; Gazzano, Elena; Hassanpour, Hossain; Bertagna, Angela; Aldieri, Elisabetta; Revelli, Alberto; Ghigo, Dario

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), a modulator of several physiological processes, is involved in different human sperm functions. We have investigated whether NO may stimulate the motility of human spermatozoa via activation of the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC)/cGMP pathway. Sperm samples obtained by masturbation from 70 normozoospermic patients were processed by the swim-up technique. The kinetic parameters of the motile sperm-rich fractions were assessed by computer-assisted sperm analysis. After a 30-90  min incubation, the NO donor S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) exerted a significant enhancing effect on progressive motility (77, 78, and 78% vs 66, 65, and 62% of the control at the corresponding time), straight linear velocity (44, 49, and 48 μm/s vs 34, 35, and 35.5 μm/s), curvilinear velocity (81, 83, and 84 μm/s vs 68 μm/s), and average path velocity (52, 57, and 54 μm/s vs 40, 42, and 42 μm/s) at 5 μM but not at lower concentrations, and in parallel increased the synthesis of cGMP. A similar effect was obtained with the NO donor spermine NONOate after 30 and 60  min. The GSNO-induced effects on sperm motility were abolished by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo-[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (a specific sGC inhibitor) and mimicked by 8-bromo-cGMP (8-Br-cGMP; a cell-permeating cGMP analog); the treatment with Rp-8-Br-cGMPS (an inhibitor of cGMP-dependent protein kinases) prevented both the GSNO- and the 8-Br-cGMP-induced responses. On the contrary, we did not observe any effect of the cGMP/PRKG1 (PKG) pathway modulators on the onset of hyperactivated sperm motility. Our results suggest that NO stimulates human sperm motility via the activation of sGC, the subsequent synthesis of cGMP, and the activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinases.

  16. Genital prevalence of HPV types and co-infection in men.

    PubMed

    Freire, Marcos P; Pires, Daniel; Forjaz, Raphael; Sato, Sérgio; Cotrim, Ismael; Stiepcich, Mônica; Scarpellini, Bruno; Truzzi, José C

    2014-01-01

    HPV infection is a highly prevalent sexually transmitted disease and there is evidence of the relationship of HPV infection and the development of genital warts, penile intraepitelial neoplasia, invasive penile carcinoma and cervical cancer. However, there is sparse data regarding the prevalence of HPV types and co-infection of different HPV types among men. To assess the prevalence of HPV subtypes infections and rates of co-infection among men. 366 men were evaluated from March to October 2010. Men were referred to our institution for HPV diagnostic evaluation based on the following criteria: 1. presence of a genital wart; 2. presence of an atypical genital lesion; 3. absence of symptoms and a partner with a HPV diagnosis; 4. absence of symptoms and a desire to undergo a full STD diagnostic evaluation. Genital samples were collected from the urethra, penile shaft, scrotum and anus with Digene® collection and preservation kit and submitted to HPV genotype microarray detection (Papillocheck®). All men were tested for the low-risk HPV types 6-11-40-42-43-44 and for the high-risk HPV types 16-18-31-33-35-39-45-51-52-53-56-58-59-66-68-70-73-82. Of the 366 men, 11 were tested inconclusive and were excluded from the analysis. 256 men (72.1% of the men from the cohort referred to our institution) tested positive with genotype micro-array detection and 99 tested negative. The most preva¬lent HPV-subtypes in the studied population were 6, 42, 51 and 16. Co-infection was found in 153 men. Of those, 70 (19.7%) had a co-infection by 2 types, 37 (10.4%) by 3 types; 33 men (9.2%) by 4 types; 8 men (2.2%) by 5 types; 1 man (0.3%) by 6 types; 1 man (0.3%) by 7 types; 2 men (0.6%) by 8 types and 1 man (0.3%) by 9 types. The most frequent HPV types were 6, 16, 42 and 51. Co-infection was found in 59% of our patients. This information is vital to drive future public health policies including massive public vaccination campaign.

  17. Paleoclimatic Evidence for Cenozoic Migration of Alaskan Terranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, G.; von Huene, R.; McDougall, K.; Bruns, T. R.

    1984-08-01

    Chronostratigraphic and paleoclimatic comparisons of microfossils from deep-sea cores, from samples of an exploratory drill hole, and from dredged rock of the Gulf of Alaska with coeval microfossil assemblages on the North American continent provide constraints on the northward migration of the Yakutat block, the Prince William terrane and the Pacific plate during Tertiary time. The comparative paleolatitudes of microfauna and flora provide three main constraints. (1) The Prince William terrane was in its present position with respect to North America (at high latitudes, 50° ± 5°N) by middle Eocene time (40-42 Ma), consistent with models derived from paleomagnetic data. (2) The adjacent Yakutat block was 30° ± 5° south of its present position in early Eocene (50 Ma), 20° ± 5° south in middle Eocene (40-44 Ma), and 15° ± 5° south in late Eocene time (37-40 Ma), thus requiring a northward motion of about 30° since 50 Ma. Moreover, the Yakutat block was at least 10° south of the Prince William terrane during Eocene time. These data are consistent with migration of the Yakutat block with the Pacific and Kula plates for at least the last 50 Ma. (3) site 192 on the Pacific plate was at about 15° ± 5°N latitude in the late Cretaceous (68 Ma), at 30° ± 5°N in early Eocene (50 Ma), at 40° ± 5°N in middle Eocene (40-44 Ma), at 45° ± 5°N in late Eocene (37-40 Ma), and north of 50° ± 5°N in latest Eocene to early Oligocene time (34-37 Ma). These paleolatitudes, based on planktonic foraminiferal assemblages, indicate northward drift consistent with the North America-Pacific plate reconstructions from about 68 Ma to 40 Ma (Engebretson, 1982). However, from Cretaceous to early Eocené time, faunal data indicate significantly lower latitudinal positions, and from Oligocwne to early Miocene time, significantly higher latitudinal positions. These discrepancies can be explained by the northward expansion of tropical faunas during the globally warm early

  18. Concentration effect of Riesling Icewine juice on yeast performance and wine acidity.

    PubMed

    Pigeau, G M; Bozza, E; Kaiser, K; Inglis, D L

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increasing juice soluble solids above 40 degrees Brix on wine yeast's ability to grow and ferment the juice, with particular focus on acetic acid production, titratable acidity (TA) changes and the maximum amount of sugar consumed by the yeast. Riesling Icewine juices at 40, 42, 44 and 46 degrees Brix were inoculated with K1- V116 at 0.5 g 1(-1) and fermented at 17 degrees C until sugar consumption ceased. Increasing soluble solids showed strong negative linear correlations with yeast growth, sugar consumption and ethanol production (r = -0.999, -0.997 and 0.984, P < 0.001, respectively). Acetic acid, glycerol and TA production normalized to sugar consumed showed strong positive correlations to the initial juice concentration (r = 0.992, 0.963, and 0.937, P < 0.001 respectively) but no correlation was found for ethanol production. The acetic acid produced as a function of sugar consumed was positively correlated to the glycerol produced (r = 0.970, P < 0.001). The final TA of the wines ranged between 11.8 and 13.7 g 1(-1) tartaric acid, increasing by 2.3-3 g 1(-1) over the starting juice. The increase in TA was positively correlated to the increase in acetic acid produced after normalizing the data to the amount of sugar consumed (r =0.975, P < 0.001). The acid equivalents resulting from the increase in acetic acid accounted for 80-100% of the TA increase when converted to units of tartaric acid. In the final Icewines, acetic acid represented 19-20% of wine TA. Increasing Icewine juice concentration from 40 to 46 degrees Brix increases the proportion of yeast sugar metabolism towards glycerol and acetic acid production to cope with the increased osmotic stress by decreasing yeast growth, sugar consumption rate, the total amount of sugar consumed and the total amount of ethanol produced. The high proportional contribution of acetic acid to titratable acidity in Riesling Icewine may affect acidity perception

  19. A 700 km long crustal transect across northern Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonell, Ramon; Gallart, Josep; Díaz, Jordi; Gil, Alba; Harnafi, Mimoun; Ouraini, Fadila; Ayarza, Puy; Teixell, Antonio; Arboleya, Maria Luisa; Palomeras, Imma; Levander, Alan

    2013-04-01

    Two controlled-source wide angle seismic reflection experiments have been acquired recently (2010 and 2011) in northern Africa across Morocco. A lithospheric scale transect can be constructed by joining both data sets. Hence, an approximately 700 km-long seismic velocity cross section can be derived. From south-to-north the transect goes from the Sahara Platform, south of Merzouga, to Tanger in the north. The first experiment, SIMA, aimed to constrain the crustal structure across the Atlas Mountains. The Rif, the orogenic belt located just south of the coast of Alboran Sea, was the target of the second experiment, RIFSIS. In both cases 900 recording instruments (TEXANS) from the IRIS-PASSCAL instrument center were used to record the acoustic energy generated by explosion shots. In both experiments the shots consisted of 1 TM of explosives fired in ~30 m deep boreholes. Although the data quality varies from shot to shot, key seismic phases as Pg, PmP, Pn, and a few intra-crustal arrivals have been identified to constrain the velocity-depth structure along the whole transect. Forward modelling of the seismic reflection/refraction phases reveals a crust consisting of 3 layers in average. The Moho topography shows from south to north a relatively moderate crustal root beneath the High Atlas, which can reach 40-42 km depth. The crust is thicker beneath the Rif where the Moho is imaged as an asymmetric feature that locally defines a crustal root reaching depths of 50 km and suggesting a crustal imbrication. P wave velocities are rather low in the crust and upper mantle. First arrivals/reflections tomography supports the forward modelling results. Low fold wide-angle stacks obtained by using hyperbolic move-out reveals the geometry of the Moho along the entire transect. Beneath the Atlas, the moderate crustal root inferred is not isostatically consistent with the high surface elevations, hence supporting the idea of a 'mantle plume' as main contributor to the Atlas

  20. Matched-Case Comparisons in a Single Institution to Determine Critical Points for Inexperienced Surgeons’ Successful Performances of Laparoscopic Radical Hysterectomy versus Abdominal Radical Hysterectomy in Stage IA2-IIA Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Dong Hoon; Cho, Hye-Yon; Kim, Kidong; No, Jae Hong; Kim, Yong-Beom

    2015-01-01

    This is a retrospective study which aims to identify major determinants of successful laparoscopic radical hysterectomy (LRH) versus abdominal radical hysterectomy (ARH) performed by inexperienced surgeons for stage IA2-IIA cervical cancer. A total of 161 consecutive patients with stage IA2–IIA cervical cancer who underwent RH were grouped into 2 groups according to the surgeons’ experience with LRH: experienced surgeon versus inexperienced surgeon. After matching for age and risk factors, surgical and survival outcomes were compared. Experienced surgeon selected patients with earlier-stage and fewer risk factors for LRH than ARH, but inexperience surgeons did not. After matching, the vaginal tumor-free margin of LRH was shorter than that of ARH in experienced surgeon group (1.3 versus 1.7 cm, p=0.007); however, the vaginal tumor-free margin was longer than that of ARH in the inexperienced surgeon group (1.8 versus 1.3 cm, p=0.035). The postoperative hospital stay of LRH was shorter than that of ARH in experienced surgeon group (5.5 versus 7.7 days, p<0.001), but not different from that of ARH in the inexperienced surgeon group. Vaginal tumor-free margin >1.8 cm (OR 7.33, 95% CI 1.22–40.42), stage >IB1 (OR 8.83, 95% CI 1.51–51.73), and estimated blood loss >575 mL (OR 33.95, 95% CI 4.87–236.79) were independent risk factors for longer postoperative hospital stay in the inexperienced surgeon group. There was no difference of 5-year-profression-free survival of LRH patients between experienced surgeon and inexperienced surgeon groups after matching (55.1 versus 33.3%, p=0.391). Selection of earlier-stage disease and moderate vaginal tumor-free margin might be important for an inexperienced surgeon to successfully perform LRH with minimal complications in stage IA2–IIA cervical cancer. PMID:26110866

  1. Development of micro immunosensors to study genomic and proteomic biomarkers related to cancer and Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhulkar, Shradha

    A report from the National Institutes of Health defines a disease biomarker as a "characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biologic processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention." Early diagnosis is a crucial factor for incurable disease such as cancer and Alzheimer's disease (AD). During the last decade researchers have discovered that biochemical changes caused by a disease can be detected considerably earlier as compared to physical manifestations/symptoms. In this dissertation electrochemical detection was utilized as the detection strategy as it offers high sensitivity/specificity, ease of operation, and capability of miniaturization and multiplexed detection. Electrochemical detection of biological analytes is an established field, and has matured at a rapid pace during the last 50 years and adapted itself to advances in micro/nanofabrication procedures. Carbon fiber microelectrodes were utilized as the platform sensor due to their high signal to noise ratio, ease and low-cost of fabrication, biocompatibility, and active carbon surface which allows conjugation with biorecognition moieties. This dissertation specifically focuses on the detection of 3 extensively validated biomarkers for cancer and AD. Firstly, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) a cancer biomarker was detected using a one-step, reagentless immunosensing strategy. The immunosensing strategy allowed a rapid and sensitive means of VEGF detection with a detection limit of about 38 pg/mL with a linear dynamic range of 0--100 pg/mL. Direct detection of AD-related biomarker amyloid beta (Abeta) was achieved by exploiting its inherent electroactivity. The quantification of the ratio of Abeta1-40/42 (or Abeta ratio) has been established as a reliable test to diagnose AD through human clinical trials. Triple barrel carbon fiber microelectrodes were used to simultaneously detect Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 in

  2. Platelet transfusion versus standard care after acute stroke due to spontaneous cerebral haemorrhage associated with antiplatelet therapy (PATCH): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Baharoglu, M Irem; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam; de Gans, Koen; Koopman, Maria M; Brand, Anneke; Majoie, Charles B; Beenen, Ludo F; Marquering, Henk A; Vermeulen, Marinus; Nederkoorn, Paul J; de Haan, Rob J; Roos, Yvo B

    2016-06-25

    standard care group (adjusted common odds ratio 2·05, 95% CI 1·18-3·56; p=0·0114). 40 (42%) participants who received platelet transfusion had a serious adverse event during their hospital stay, as did 28 (29%) who received standard care. 23 (24%) participants assigned to platelet transfusion and 16 (17%) assigned to standard care died during hospital stay. Platelet transfusion seems inferior to standard care for people taking antiplatelet therapy before intracerebral haemorrhage. Platelet transfusion cannot be recommended for this indication in clinical practice. The Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development, Sanquin Blood Supply, Chest Heart and Stroke Scotland, French Ministry of Health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Real-time GPS seismology with a stand-alone receiver: A preliminary feasibility demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colosimo, G.; Crespi, M.; Mazzoni, A.

    2011-11-01

    , 22:12:41 UTC), as well as the 5 Hz data collected by some of the stations of the University NAVSTAR Consortium-Plate Boundary Observatory network and the California Real Time Network during the Baja California, Mexico, earthquake (Mw 7.2, 4 April, 2010, 22:40:42 UTC). Comparisons of the results obtained using VADASE, as well as other already well-established approaches, displayed agreement to within a few centimeters.

  4. Noise and Fuel Burn Reduction Potential of an Innovative Subsonic Transport Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Yueping; Nickol, Craig L.; Thomas, Russell H.

    2014-01-01

    A study is presented for the noise and fuel burn reduction potential of an innovative double deck concept aircraft with two three-shaft direct-drive turbofan engines. The engines are mounted from the fuselage so that the engine inlet is over the main wing. It is shown that such an aircraft can achieve a cumulative Effective Perceived Noise Level (EPNL) about 28 dB below the current aircraft noise regulations of Stage 4. The combination of high bypass ratio engines and advanced wing design with laminar flow control technologies provide fuel burn reduction and low noise levels simultaneously. For example, the fuselage mounted engine position provides more than 4 EPNLdB of noise reduction by shielding the inlet radiated noise. To identify the potential effect of noise reduction technologies on this concept, parametric studies are presented to reveal the system level benefits of various emerging noise reduction concepts, for both engine and airframe noise reduction. These concepts are discussed both individually to show their respective incremental noise reduction potential and collectively to assess their aggregate effects on the total noise. Through these concepts approximately about 8 dB of additional noise reduction is possible, bringing the cumulative noise level of this aircraft to 36 EPNLdB below Stage 4, if the entire suite of noise reduction technologies would mature to practical application. In a final step, an estimate is made for this same aircraft concept but with higher bypass ratio, geared, turbofan engines. With this geared turbofan propulsion system, the noise is estimated to reach as low as 40-42 dB below Stage 4 with a fuel burn reduction of 43-47% below the 2005 best-in-class aircraft baseline. While just short of the NASA N+2 goals of 42 dB and 50% fuel burn reduction, for a 2025 in service timeframe, this assessment shows that this innovative concept warrants refined study. Furthermore, this design appears to be a viable potential future passenger

  5. Depression and quality of life in Spanish-speaking immigrant persons with epilepsy compared with those in English-speaking US-born persons with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Myers, Lorna; Lancman, Marcelo; Vazquez-Casals, Gonzalo; Bonafina, Marcela; Perrine, Kenneth; Sabri, Jomard

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to examine levels of depression and quality of life in Spanish-speaking (less acculturated) immigrants with epilepsy compared with those in English-speaking US-born persons with epilepsy (PWEs). The study included 85 PWEs - 38 Spanish-speaking immigrants with epilepsy and 47 US-born PWEs. All patients underwent video-EEG monitoring and completed depression and quality-of-life inventories in their dominant language (Spanish/English). Chart review of clinical epilepsy variables was conducted by an epileptologist. Our study revealed that depression scores were significantly higher in Hispanic PWEs (21.65±14.6) than in US-born PWEs (14.50±10.2) (t (64.02)=-2.3, two-sided p=.025). Marital status, medical insurance, antidepressant use, seizure frequency, and number of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) were tested as covariates in the ANCOVA framework and were not statistically significant at the 0.05 significance level. Fewer Hispanics were prescribed antidepressant medications (13.15% for Hispanics and 40.42% for US-born, χ(2) (1,85) 7.71, p=.005) and had access to comprehensive health insurance coverage (χ(2) (1,85)=13.70, p=0.000). Hispanic patients were also found to be receiving significantly less AEDs compared with their US-born peers (t (83, 85)=2.33, p=.02). Although quality of life was diminished in both groups, Seizure Worry was worse for Hispanics after accounting for potential effects of marital status, medical insurance, use of antidepressants, seizure frequency, and number of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) ((1, 83), F=7.607, p=0.007). The present study is the first of its kind to examine depression and quality of life in Spanish-speaking US immigrants with epilepsy. Spanish-speaking immigrants with epilepsy have been identified as a group at risk. They demonstrated higher depression scores and more Seizure Worry independent of epilepsy and demographic characteristics compared with their US-born peers. The Hispanic group was receiving less

  6. Xylem-Transported Glucose as an Additional Carbon Source for Leaf Isoprene Formation in Quercus Robur L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graus, M.; Kreuzwieser, J.; Schnitzler, J.; Wisthaler, A.; Hansel, A.; Rennenberg, H.

    2003-04-01

    isoprene emission (40 - 42°C) when net assimilation was strongly reduced. Fast dark-to-light transitions led to a strong single or double C-13 labeling of isoprene from xylem-fed [U-C-13] glucose. During a time period of 10 - 15 minutes up to 86% of all isoprene molecules became single or double C-13 labeled, resulting in a C-13 portion of up to 30% of total carbon emitted as isoprene. The results provide potential evidence that xylem-transported glucose or its degradation products can be used as additional precursors for isoprene biosynthesis and this carbon source becomes more important under conditions of limited photosynthesis.

  7. Xylem-transported Glucose as an Additional Carbon Source for Leaf Isoprene Formation in Quercus Robur L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graus, M.; Wisthaler, A.; Hansel, A.; Kreuzwieser, J.; Rennenberg, H.; Schnitzler, J.

    2002-12-01

    Isoprene is emitted from mature, photosynthesizing leaves of many plant species, particularly of trees. Current interest in understanding the biochemical and physiological mechanisms controlling isoprene formation is caused by the important role isoprene plays in atmospheric chemistry. Isoprene reacts with hydroxyl radicals (OH) thereby generating oxidizing agents such as ozone and organic peroxides. Ozone causes significant deterioration in air quality and can pose threats to human health therefore its control is a major goal in Europe and the United States. In recent years, much progress has been made in elucidating the pathways of isoprene biosynthesis. Nevertheless the regulatory mechanisms controlling isoprene emission are not completely understood. Light and temperature appear to be the main factors controlling short-term variations in isoprene emission. Exposure of plants to 13CO2 showed instantaneous assimilated carbon is the primary carbon source for isoprene formation. However, variations in diurnal and seasonal isoprene fluxes, which cannot be explained by temperature, light, and leaf development led to the suggestion that alternative carbon sources may exist contributing to isoprene emissions. The aim of the present study was to test whether xylem-transported carbohydrates act as additional sources for isoprene biosynthesis. For this purpose, [U-13C]α-D-glucose was fed to photosynthesizing leaves via the xylem of {Quercus} {robur} L. seedlings and the incorporation of glucose derived 13C into emitted isoprene was monitored in real time using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS). A rapid incorporation of 13C from xylem-fed glucose into single (mass 70) and double (mass 71) 13C-labeled isoprene molecules was observed after a lag phase of approximately 5 to 10 minutes. This incorporation was temperature dependent and was highest (up to 13 % 13C of total carbon emitted as isoprene) at the temperature optimum of isoprene emission (40 - 42

  8. Subinternship in Radiology - A Practical Start to the Specialization?

    PubMed

    Kasch, R; Wirkner, J; Hosten, N; Hinz, P; Napp, M; Kessler, R

    2016-11-01

    Purpose: To identify factors influencing medical students to choose radiology in the four-month clinical elective in the final year of medical school following radiology subinternships. Materials and Methods: A subsample of medical students in a nationwide German online survey evaluated a subinternship in radiology (19 items). They were divided into four groups: Students who could imagine doing a clinical elective in radiology in the practical year based on their experiences during the subinternship ("yes, based on subinternship"), students who could not ("no, based on subinternship") and students who had made this decision prior to the subinternship ("yes, prior to subinternship" and "no, prior to subinternship"). Results: 94 medical students evaluated a radiology subinternship (54.4 % females). Based on their experiences during the subinternship, 54 students (57.4 %) intended to do a final year clinical elective in radiology, 39 of them (41.5 %) being encouraged by the subinternship. 40 (42.6 %) reported having a negative attitude towards a clinical elective in radiology, 16 of them (17.0 %) having made this decision based on their subinternship experience. Groups did not differ regarding gender (p = 0.396) and age (p = 0.853). Students motivated to do a final year clinical elective in radiology experienced excellent academic teaching (p = 0.001) and practical involvement (p = 0.003), achieved their learning goals more often (p = 0.001), were better integrated into the team (p = 0.001), and acquired more practical skills (p = 0.003). Overall satisfaction was higher in these groups (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Satisfaction with a radiology subinternship is crucial for motivating medical students to do a final year clinical elective in radiology. A structured subinternship and continuous mentoring should be targeted to keep students connected to radiology. Key Points: • Radiology subinternships influence further

  9. DWPF Sample Vial Insert Study-Statistical Analysis of DWPF Mock-Up Test Data

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, S.P.

    1997-09-18

    -up Facility using 3 ml inserts and 15 ml peanut vials. A number of the insert samples were analyzed by Cold Chem and compared with full peanut vial samples analyzed by the current methods. The remaining inserts were analyzed by the modified fusion method, for comparison to the current method, and also to obtain a calcine correction factor. The simulant was within 40 - 42 wt% solids in order to provide a rheology within the DWPF design range. The rheology at 42 wt% was approximately 47 dynes/cm2 yield stress at 251/4C.

  10. Melittin and its potential in the destruction and inhibition of the biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Picoli, Tony; Peter, Cristina Mendes; Zani, João Luíz; Waller, Stefanie Bressan; Lopes, Matheus Gomes; Boesche, Kamilla Neutzling; Vargas, Gilberto D Ávila; Hübner, Silvia de Oliveira; Fischer, Geferson

    2017-09-21

    Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa stand out in veterinary and human medicine for their role in opportunistic infections and their pathogenic mechanisms, including the biofilms formation. It was investigated the antibacterial activity of melittin and antibiofilm of such bacteria. Twelve strains of these microorganisms isolated from bovine milk were used, as well as the strains S. aureus ATCC 12600, E. coli ATCC 8739 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by broth microdilution technique. The biofilms were formed in 96-well plates and melittin on these colonies was added at different concentrations and times. Bacteria previously exposed to melittin were evaluated for inhibition of biofilm production. The MIC and MBC were respectively in μg/mL: S. aureus (6-7 and 32-64), E. coli (40-42.5 and 64-128) and P. aeruginosa (65-70 and 64-128). S. aureus biofilms were more sensitive to the action of melittin, since upon exposure to a concentration 10 times lower than the MIC for 4 h, was completely destroyed. In Gram negative bacteria, the pre-formed biofilm was destroyed only when exposed for 4 h under the MIC. With respect to inhibition of biofilm production, S. aureus was the most sensitive again because produced only 37.2% of the biofilm formed by the control (without previous exposure to melittin), when exposed to the MIC, and at a concentration hundred times smaller than MIC, this microorganism produced 75.2% of the biofilm. E. coli was the most resistant bacteria and produced 56.3% of the biofilm, even if previously exposed to melittin MIC. Melittin presents desirable effects in combating microorganisms studied both at your disposal, biofilm destruction and inhibition of the formation, and maybe used in future studies of new strategies to combat infections caused by these pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  11. Toxic β-Amyloid (Aβ) Alzheimer's Ion Channels: From Structure to Function and Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussinov, Ruth

    2012-02-01

    Full-length amyloid beta peptides (Aβ1-40/42) form neuritic amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and are implicated in AD pathology. Recent biophysical and cell biological studies suggest a direct mechanism of amyloid beta toxicity -- ion channel mediated loss of calcium homeostasis. Truncated amyloid beta fragments (Aβ11-42 and Aβ17-42), commonly termed as non-amyloidogenic are also found in amyloid plaques of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in the preamyloid lesions of Down's syndrome (DS), a model system for early onset AD study. Very little is known about the structure and activity of these smaller peptides although they could be key AD and DS pathological agents. Using complementary techniques of explicit solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, atomic force microscopy (AFM), channel conductance measurements, cell calcium uptake assays, neurite degeneration and cell death assays, we have shown that non-amyloidogenic Aβ9-42 and Aβ17-42 peptides form ion channels with loosely attached subunits and elicit single channel conductances. The subunits appear mobile suggesting insertion of small oligomers, followed by dynamic channel assembly and dissociation. These channels allow calcium uptake in APP-deficient cells and cause neurite degeneration in human cortical neurons. Channel conductance, calcium uptake and neurite degeneration are selectively inhibited by zinc, a blocker of amyloid ion channel activity. Thus truncated Aβ fragments could account for undefined roles played by full length Aβs and provide a novel mechanism of AD and DS pathology. The emerging picture from our large-scale simulations is that toxic ion channels formed by β-sheets are highly polymorphic, and spontaneously break into loosely interacting dynamic units (though still maintaining ion channel structures as imaged with AFM), that associate and dissociate leading to toxic ion flux. This sharply contrasts intact conventional gated ion channels that consist of tightly

  12. Effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency with multifunctional epidural electrode in chronic lumbosacral radicular pain with neuropathic features.

    PubMed

    Vigneri, Simone; Sindaco, Gianfranco; Gallo, Giampiero; Zanella, Matteo; Paci, Valentina; La Grua, Marco; Ravaioli, Laura; Pari, Gilberto

    2014-01-01

    Lumbosacral radicular pain is a common clinical finding with a statistical prevalence ranging from 9.9% to 25% in the general population. To investigate the effectiveness of dorsal root ganglion pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) in patients with chronic lumbosacral radicular pain and neuropathic features. Prospective case series clinical outcome study. We evaluated 34 patients with lumbosacral neuropathic pain who underwent PRF at the corresponding level of radicular symptoms distribution (ranging from L3 to S1). Each patient suffered a single leg-radiating pain with probable neuropathic features (assessed with clinical grading) lasting for > 6 months and unresponsive to previous treatments. A multifunctional PASHA-electrode® was introduced with trans-sacral access through a hollow needle, placed under fluoroscopic guidance into the lumbosacral epidural space and its active tip moved close to the dorsal root ganglion responsible of the clinical symptoms. After connecting the electrode to a generator, stimulation tests were performed and PRF was started and applied for 240 seconds at a frequency of 2Hz, amplitude of 45 V and a tip temperature between 40 - 42°C. If the pain involved more than a single nerve root, the electrode was placed at a different segment and the procedure repeated. Outcome measures included the pain intensity score on a 0 - 10 numeric rating scale (NRS) and the Italian Pain Questionnaire (QUID) at pre-treatment, one and 6 months post-treatment. P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. In comparison with pre-treatment, a significant reduction in pain score was observed in mean NRS either at one and 6 months (P < 0.001). The QUID - Pain Rating Index rank displayed a parallel trend at the first (P < 0.001) and last follow-up (P = 0.01). Moreover, a direct correlation between the 2 scales occurred, showing a parallel score decreasing (P < 0.001). Eighteen (52.9%) and 17 (50%) of 34 patients showed pain reduction in NRS > 2 points and

  13. Quantification of pork belly and boston butt quality attribute preferences of South Korean customers.

    PubMed

    Vonada, M L; Bidner, B S; Belk, K E; McKeith, F K; Lloyd, W R; O'Connor, M E; Smith, G C

    2000-10-01

    U.S. packers must have quantitative criteria for selection of pork bellies and Boston butts for export to South Korea. Pork bellies (IMPS 409A) and Boston butts (IMPS 409A, 406B, 407) were selected from normal production in a U.S. pork packing plant and transported to Seoul, South Korea, via seafreighter in refrigerated containers (frozen < -5 degrees C) or via air freight (fresh > 0 degrees C; frozen < -5 degrees C). Participants at the Seoul Food Show were surveyed about their preferences for specific quality attributes of these cuts. Bellies were selected to differ in seam fat content (low = < 20%, moderate = 20 to 40%, high = > 40% extractable fat), lean color (pale = L* > 50, medium = L* 48-50, dark = L* < 48), weight (3.36, 4.04, or 5.36 kg), state of refrigeration and packaging (frozen, poly-wrapped; chilled, poly-wrapped; frozen, vacuum-packaged; chilled, vacuum-packaged), shape (round, wavy, square), and belly thickness (3.81, 4.32, or 4.90 cm). Boston butts were selected to differ in USDA marbling score (Slight, Small, Modest, Moderate, and Slightly Abundant), seam fat content (low = < 10%, moderate = 10 to 20% fat, high = > 20% extractable fat), lean color (pale = L* > 44, medium = L* 40-42, dark = L* < 38), weight (2.91, 3.82, or 4.66 kg), state of refrigeration and packaging (frozen, poly-wrapped; chilled, poly-wrapped; frozen, vacuum-packaged; chilled, vacuum-packaged), and shape (square, oblong, round). In Seoul, pork subprimals were tempered (if frozen), sliced, and arrayed by quality attribute and category in a retail display case. Over 4 d of testing, attendees (n = 210) of the food show were asked to rate the displayed samples for each quality attribute on a standardized ballot. Mid-weight (3.82 kg) Boston butts that displayed Moderate or higher USDA marbling scores with moderate amounts of seam fat, Japanese lean color scores of 2 or 4, round geometric shape, and that were vacuum-packaged and transported to Korea in the freshly chilled state

  14. Diagnosis of station and rotation of the fetal head in the second stage of labor with intrapartum translabial ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Ghi, T; Farina, A; Pedrazzi, A; Rizzo, N; Pelusi, G; Pilu, G

    2009-03-01

    To investigate the ability of intrapartum translabial sonography to diagnose fetal station in the second stage of labor. Patients with uncomplicated pregnancies at term gestation with fetuses in vertex presentation in the second stage of labor underwent serial translabial sonography and digital examinations. In a sagittal section of the maternal pelvis, the direction of the head was noted and categorized as downward, horizontal or upward. By rotating the transducer in the transverse plane the cerebral midline echo was also visualized and the rotation of the head was noted. Clinical and ultrasound data were compared using Somer's d-test. Sixty patients underwent a total of 168 clinical and sonographic examinations. When on the sonogram the fetal head was directed downward, the station assessed clinically was most frequently or= + 3 cm (46/52 (88.5%) cases). Failure to visualize the cerebral midline or a rotation >or= 45 degrees were associated with a station of + 2 cm or less in 98/103 (95.1%) examinations. Conversely, a rotation of < 45 degrees was associated with a station of + 3 cm or more in 45/65 (69.2%) examinations. All comparisons between clinical and sonographic findings demonstrated a statistically significant relationship (P < 0.0001). The probability of a station + 3 cm or more was particularly high when an upward direction of the head was seen in combination with a rotation of < 45 degrees (40/42 (95.2%) examinations). The interobserver variability (Cohen's kappa 0.795 and 0.727 for station and rotation, respectively; P < 0.001) and intraobserver variability (0.845 for both station and rotation, P < 0.001) suggested good reproducibility of the method. Translabial sonography allows a diagnosis of fetal station with an accuracy

  15. Geology, mineralization, and fluid inclusion study of the Kuru-Tegerek Au-Cu-Mo skarn deposit in the Middle Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloviev, Serguei G.; Kryazhev, Sergey; Dvurechenskaya, Svetlana

    2017-04-01

    The Kuru-Tegerek Cu-Au-Mo deposit is situated in a system of Late Carboniferous subduction-related magmatic arcs of the Middle Tien Shan, which together constitute a metallogenic belt of Cu-Au-Mo (±W) porphyry, with local skarns, deposits. The deposit is related to magnetite-series gabbro-diorite to tonalite intrusion. It contains prograde magnesian and calcic skarns with abundant magnetite, associated with gabbro-diorite, and retrograde skarn with Cu mineralization, formed after intrusion of tonalite. Subsequent propylitic alteration introduced abundant chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite, and native Au culminating in zones overprinting magnetite and garnet skarn. Later quartz-muscovite-carbonate veins, formed after intrusion of late mafic quartz monzogabbro dikes, contain chalcopyrite, pyrite, arsenopyrite and other sulfides and sulfosalts, tellurides, and native Au. The earliest retrograde skarn garnet contains gaseous low-salinity (1.7-3.4 wt.% NaCl eq.) fluid inclusions homogenizing at 460-500 °C into vapor, indicating that the early fluid released from crystallizing magma was a low-density vapor. It was followed by more saline (4.0-5.0 wt.% NaCl eq.), high-temperature (400-440 °C) aqueous fluid, as fluid release from the magma progressed. Boiling of this fluid at temperatures of 420 to 370 °C and a pressure of 350-300 bar produced a low-salinity (0.6-1.2 wt.% NaCl eq.), essentially gaseous, and high-salinity (from 39 to 31 wt.% NaCl eq.) brine, with possible metal (including Cu) partitioning into both gaseous and aqueous-saline phases. Boiling was coeval with sulfide deposition in the retrograde skarn. The latest episode of the retrograde skarn stage included direct separation of saline ( 40-42 wt.% NaCl eq.) fluid from crystallizing magma. The separation of saline ( 40 to 14 wt.% NaCl eq.) fluids from a crystallizing magmatic melt continued during the propylitic stage, when fluid cooling from 370 to 320 °C, together with decreasing fO2, caused Cu and especially

  16. Marker Assisted Transfer of Two Powdery Mildew Resistance Genes PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2 from Triticum boeoticum (Boiss.) to Triticum aestivum (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Elkot, Ahmed Fawzy Abdelnaby; Chhuneja, Parveen; Kaur, Satinder; Saluja, Manny; Keller, Beat; Singh, Kuldeep

    2015-01-01

    Powdery mildew (PM), caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is one of the important wheat diseases, worldwide. Two PM resistance genes, designated as PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2, were identified in T. boeoticum acc. pau5088 and mapped on chromosome 7AL approximately 48cM apart. Two resistance gene analogue (RGA)-STS markers Ta7AL-4556232 and 7AL-4426363 were identified to be linked to the PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2, at a distance of 0.6cM and 6.0cM, respectively. In the present study, following marker assisted selection (MAS), the two genes were transferred to T. aestivum using T. durum as bridging species. As many as 12,317 florets of F1 of the cross T. durum /T. boeoticum were pollinated with T. aestivum lines PBW343-IL and PBW621 to produce 61 and 65 seeds, respectively, of three-way F1. The resulting F1s of the cross T. durum/T. boeoticum//T. aestivum were screened with marker flanking both the PM resistance genes PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2 (foreground selection) and the selected plants were backcrossed to generate BC1F1. Marker assisted selection was carried both in BC1F1 and the BC2F1 generations. Introgression of alien chromatin in BC2F1 plants varied from 15.4 - 62.9 percent. Out of more than 110 BC2F1 plants showing introgression for markers linked to the two PM resistance genes, 40 agronomically desirable plants were selected for background selection for the carrier chromosome to identify the plants with minimum of the alien introgression. Cytological analysis showed that most plants have chromosome number ranging from 40-42. The BC2F2 plants homozygous for the two genes have been identified. These will be crossed to generate lines combining both the PM resistance genes but with minimal of the alien introgression. The PM resistance gene PmTb7A.1 maps in a region very close to Sr22, a stem rust resistance gene effective against the race Ug99. Analysis of selected plants with markers linked to Sr22 showed introgression of Sr22 from T. boeoticum in several BC2F1 plants

  17. Measurement Of Diatom Oxygen Isotopes From The Guaymas Basin Using A Sediment Trap Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menicucci, A. J.; Spero, H. J.; Thunell, R.

    2013-12-01

    Technique. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry. v. 27. p. 1873-1881. Labeyrie, L.D., 1974, New approach to surface seawater palaeotemperatures using 18O/16O ratios in silica of diatom frustules. Nature. v. 248. p. 40-42.

  18. Detection of genes encoding multidrug resistance and biofilm virulence factor in uterine pathogenic bacteria in postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kasimanickam, V R; Owen, K; Kasimanickam, R K

    2016-01-15

    Reckless use of antibiotics and/or development of biofilm are the rationale for the development of multidrug resistance (MDR) of pathogenic bacteria. The objective of the present study was to detect MDR genes in Trueperella pyogenes and to detect biofilm virulence factor (VF) genes in Escherichia coli isolated from the uterus of postpartum dairy cows. Uterine secretions from different parity postpartum Holstein cows (n = 40) were collected using cytobrush technique after a sterile procedure from cows with varying degree of uterine inflammatory conditions. The cytobrush was stored in a specimen collector, placed in a cooler with ice, and transported to the laboratory within 2 hours. The pathogens were isolated and were identified initially by their colony morphology and biochemical characteristics. To further identify and classify the single species, and to determine the presence of MDR and VF genes, the genes fragments were amplified using the respective primers by either singleplex or multiplex polymerase chain reaction protocol, and amplicons were detected by electrophoresis method. T pyogenes was isolated in 17 of 40 (42.5%) cows in the study population as recognized by the 16S rRNA gene. Of the positive T pyogenes samples, 8 of 17 (42.1%) were positive for integron type 1 (intI I), and none were positive for integron type 2 (intI II). Of those 8 positive for intI I, six of eight (66.7%) were positive for amplicons aadA5 and aadA24-ORF1 at 1048 and 1608 bp, respectively, associated with specific drug resistance. Presence of addA5 indicated resistance to sulfadiazine, bacitracin, florfenicol, and ceftiofur. Presence of addA24-ORF1 indicated resistant to sulfadiazine, bacitracin, penicillin, clindamycin, and erythromycin. E coli was isolated in 18 of 40 (45.0%) cows in the study population. The genes for VF, Agn43a, and Agn43 b, associated with biofilm production, were found in 6 of 18 (33.3%) of the positive isolates. Both T pyogenes MDR gene and E coli

  19. Peridotitic diamonds from the Slave and the Kaapvaal cratons—similarities and differences based on a preliminary data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachel, Thomas; Harris, Jeff W.; Tappert, Ralf; Brey, Gerhard P.

    2003-12-01

    A comparison of the diamond productions from Panda (Ekati Mine) and Snap Lake with those from southern Africa shows significant differences: diamonds from the Slave typically are un-resorbed octahedrals or macles, often with opaque coats, and yellow colours are very rare. Diamonds from the Kaapvaal are dominated by resorbed, dodecahedral shapes, coats are absent and yellow colours are common. The first two features suggest exposure to oxidizing fluids/melts during mantle storage and/or transport to the Earth's surface, for the Kaapvaal diamond population. Comparing peridotitic inclusions in diamonds from the central and southern Slave (Panda, DO27 and Snap Lake kimberlites) and the Kaapvaal indicates that the diamondiferous mantle lithosphere beneath the Slave is chemically less depleted. Most notable are the almost complete absence of garnet inclusions derived from low-Ca harzburgites and a generally lower Mg-number of Slave inclusions. Geothermobarometric calculations suggest that Slave diamonds originally formed at very similar thermal conditions as observed beneath the Kaapvaal (geothermal gradients corresponding to 40-42 mW/m 2 surface heat flow), but the diamond source regions subsequently cooled by about 100-150 °C to fall on a 37-38 mW/m 2 (surface heat flow) conductive geotherm, as is evidenced from touching (re-equilibrated) inclusions in diamonds, and from xenocrysts and xenoliths. In the Kaapvaal, a similar thermal evolution has previously been recognized for diamonds from the De Beers Pool kimberlites. In part very low aggregation levels of nitrogen impurities in Slave diamonds imply that cooling occurred soon after diamond formation. This may relate elevated temperatures during diamond formation to short-lived magmatic perturbations. Generally high Cr-contents of pyrope garnets (inside and outside of diamonds) indicate that the mantle lithosphere beneath the Slave originally formed as a residue of melt extraction at relatively low pressures (within

  20. Fat accumulation, fatty acids and melting point changes in broiler chick abdominal fat as affected by time of dietary fat feeding and slaughter age.

    PubMed

    Carmona, J M; Lopez-Bote, C J; Daza, A; Rey, A I

    2017-03-23

    1. This work aims to quantify changes in fatty acid profile, melting point, abdominal fat accumulation and 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances production depending on dietary fat source and age at slaughter, and to estimate the optimal date for the change from an unsaturated fat to a saturated fat diet or vice versa. 2. Treatments established were (1) birds fed 8% tallow from 21 to 49 d (TTT); (2) birds fed 8% tallow from 21 to 37 d and 8% sunflower oil from d 38 to 49 (TSS); (3) birds fed 8% sunflower oil from 21 to 37 d and 8% tallow from d 38 to 49 (STT); (4) birds fed 8% sunflower oil from 21 to 41 d and 8% tallow from d 42 to 49 (SST); (5) birds fed 8% sunflower oil from 21 to 49 d (SSS). Birds from each group were slaughtered on d 21, 29, 38, 40, 42, 44, 46 and 49. 3. The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) proportion in the SSS group reached maximum values at d 40 and fitted a quadratic response. This group also showed a decrease in saturated fatty acids (SATs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) of lower intensity than the PUFA increase. The highest synthesis of SAT + MUFA was found in the SSS and TSS groups, whereas these had the lowest body-to-dietary PUFA ratio. 4. A high and quadratic increase in the MUFA proportion was observed during the first 10 d of feeding with the tallow-enriched diet at the expenses of the proportion of PUFA that quadratically decreased (minimum values at d 38). 5. Lipogenic and desaturation capacity decreased with age. 6. The TSS group increased tissue PUFA content faster that the SST group decreased PUFA content after the change in diet which indicates that the earlier feeding has to be taken into consideration for obtaining higher or lower changes in quality parameters. 7. The melting point of the SSS group showed a lower response to the dietary treatment in the initial period when compared to the TTT treatment. 8. The TTT, STT, SST and TSS groups showed similar fat accumulation, and changes in lipid

  1. Activity and Architecture of Pyroglutamate-Modified Amyloid-β (AβpE3-42) Pores

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Among the family of Aβ peptides, pyroglutamate-modified Aβ (AβpE) peptides are particularly associated with cytotoxicity in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). They represent the dominant fraction of Aβ oligomers in the brains of AD patients, but their accumulation in the brains of elderly individuals with normal cognition is significantly lower. Accumulation of AβpE plaques precedes the formation of plaques of full-length Aβ (Aβ1-40/42). Most of these properties appear to be associated with the higher hydrophobicity of AβpE as well as an increased resistance to enzymatic degradation. However, the important question of whether AβpE peptides induce pore activity in lipid membranes and their potential toxicity compared with other Aβ pores is still open. Here we examine the activity of AβpE pores in anionic membranes using planar bilayer electrical recording and provide their structures using molecular dynamics simulations. We find that AβpE pores spontaneously induce ionic current across the membrane and have some similar properties to the other previously studied pores of the Aβ family. However, there are also some significant differences. The onset of AβpE3-42 pore activity is generally delayed compared with Aβ1-42 pores. However, once formed, AβpE3-42 pores produce increased ion permeability of the membrane, as indicated by a greater occurrence of higher conductance electrical events. Structurally, the lactam ring of AβpE peptides induces a change in the conformation of the N-terminal strands of the AβpE3-42 pores. While the N-termini of wild-type Aβ1–42 peptides normally reside in the bulk water region, the N-termini of AβpE3-42 peptides tend to reside in the hydrophobic lipid core. These studies provide a first step to an understanding of the enhanced toxicity attributed to AβpE peptides. PMID:24922585

  2. Evidence for Northern Hemisphere Glaciation Back to 44 Ma From Ice-Rafted Debris in the Greenland Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shorttle, O.; Tripati, A.; Eagle, R. A.; Dawber, C.; Morton, A.; Dowdeswell, J.; Atkinson, K.; Bahe, Y.; Shaw, R.; Thanabalasundaram, L.; Khadun, E.

    2007-12-01

    The widely accepted age estimate for the onset of glaciation in the Northern Hemisphere ranges between 2 and 15 million years ago (Ma). However, recent studies indicate the date for N. Hemisphere glacial onset may be significantly older [1,2,3]. We report the presence of ice-rafted debris (IRD) in ~44 to 39 Ma sediments from the Greenland Sea, evidence for glaciation in the North Atlantic during the Middle Eocene to Late Eocene. We also have developed a high-resolution record of ice-rafting for the late Eocene through early Oligocene (39-30 Ma). Detailed sedimentological evidence indicates that glaciers extended to sea level in the region during part of the study interval, allowing icebergs to be produced. Peaks in IRD accumulation are observed at ~40-42 Ma, IRD may have been sourced from tidewater glaciers, small ice caps, and/or a continental ice sheet. Foraminiferal records from the deep Pacific show that several shifts in seawater δ18O of greater than 0.6‰ occurred during these intervals, consistent with the build-up of ice in both hemispheres [1,4]. [1] Tripati, A., Backman, J., Elderfield, H. and Ferretti, P. Eocene bipolar glaciation associated with global carbon cycle changes. Nature 436, 341-346 (2005). [2] Moran, K., Backman, J., Brinkhuis, H., Clemens, S.C., Cronin, T., Dickens, G.R., Eynaud, F., Gattacceca, J., Jakobsson, M., Jordan, R.W., Makinski, M., King, J., Koc, N., Krylov, A., Martinez, N., Matthiessen, J., McInroy, D., Moore, T.C., Onodera, J., O'Regan, M., Plike, H., Rea, B., Rio, D., Sakamoto, T., Smith, D.C., Stein, R., St. John, K., Suto, I., Suzuki, N., Takahashi, K., Watanabe, M., Yamamoto, M., Farrell, J., Frank, M., Kubik, P., Jokat, W., and Kristoffersen, Y., 2006, The Cenozoic palaeoenvironment of the Arctic Ocean, Nature, 441, 601-605. [3] Eldrett, J., Harding, I., Wilson, P., Butler, E. and Roberts, A., 2007, Continental ice in Greenland during the Eocene and Oligocene, Nature, 446, 176-179. [4] Dawber, C. and Tripati, A., 2007

  3. WISE Identified Young Stellar Objects In BRC 38

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, John; Rebull, L. M.; Laurence, W.; Marshall, R.; Murphy, M.; Orr, L.; Whitworth, C.; Burton, A.; Corris, T.; Goodey, S.; McGinnis, S.; Laurence, C.; Aschman, O.; Kikuchi, R.; Prather, J.; Whitley, L.; Billings, C.; Mader, C.

    2014-01-01

    Bright rimmed clouds (BRCs) are dense clumps of gas and dust within HII regions at the edges of molecular clouds; while the BRCs themselves are dark, their rims are optically bright from illumination by nearby O or B stars. Many BRCs show evidence of active star formation possibly triggered by the ionizing radiation from the nearby O or B stars. The large molecular cloud IC1396 is home to eleven BRCs thought to be driven by the O6.5V star HD206267. BRC 38 is located in the north of IC1396, at 21:40:42 +58:16:13. The immediate ~5'x5' region around BRC 38 has been extensively studied in many wavelengths from X-rays to infrared (IR), identifying ~100 young stellar objects (YSOs). We used data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) to expand the search for YSOs to a 20 arcminute radius from the center of BRC 38. Starting with approximately 7000 sources identified in the WISE catalog, we used an updated version of the IR color selection scheme developed by Koenig et al. (2012) to identify ~40 objects having IR colors consistent with those of YSOs; some overlapping with the literature YSO candidates. Combining confirmed and candidate YSOs from literature with those we identified by color selection, we find 115 unique objects of interest. For each of these sources, we analyzed (a) the WISE, 2MASS, and Spitzer images to determine if they were point-like sources; (b) their IR colors to determine if they exhibited a clear IR excess; and (c) their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to determine if they had an SED shape consistent with their identification as YSO candidates. Our work adds several new YSO candidates to the list of YSOs in and near BRC 38 and newly identifies IR excesses for many of the previously identified YSOs in the region. We looked for evidence of triggered star formation in BRC 38, but are limited in our conclusions by small-number statistics. Support is provided for this work by the NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Program (NITARP

  4. Human papillomavirus typing by single tube multiplex amplification in real time (SMART): the PapillomaFinder® SMART 20 assay.

    PubMed

    Ossel, J; Litjens, R J; Reijans, M; Brink, A A T P; Ummelen, M; Ramaekers, F C; Hopman, A H N; Simons, G

    2014-12-01

    High-risk (hr) human papillomavirus (HPV) infections play a causal role in the development of cervical cancer. The detection of hrHPV is, therefore, advocated in cervical cancer screening programs. The aim of this study was to determine the performance of a novel HPV typing assay, PapillomaFinder® SMART 20. This is a one-tube-per-sample method, to be performed on standard real-time PCR platforms, using melting curve analysis to distinguish targets. The assay detects all 14 hrHPV types, of which 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 52, 56 and 58 individually. HrHPV types 51, 59, 66 and 68 are detected in an hrHPV pool, and low-risk (lr) HPV types 6, 11, 40, 42, 43 and 44 in an lrHPV pool. The method was tested on HPV plasmid models, WHO and QCMD proficiency panels and a series of clinical cytological samples (n=45), the latter in comparison with a clinically validated real-time quantitative PCR. Type-specificity of the test was 100% using plasmids, the WHO and QCMD panels. Sensitivity for hrHPV in single infections was 100% using the WHO and QCMD panels and cytological samples, with an analytical sensitivity of 10-25 copies per reaction for all HPV types tested. Of the 34 HPV types present in the 8 multiple infections in the WHO panel, 30 were detected. In all cytological samples at least one hrHPV type was found, in concordance with the clinically validated method. Only when the viral load of the dominant HPV types in multiple infections greatly exceeded that of the other types in the infection, those other types were not always detected. PapillomaFinder® SMART 20 is a rapid, easy to perform, single tube HPV typing assay. The assay detects the 14 hrHPV types, and the 6 most important lrHPV types with a high sensitivity and type-specificity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Mantle Evolution Beneath The Colorado Palteau: Interpreta-tion of The Study of Mineral Concentrate From Kimberlite Pipe Kl-1 Colorado.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashchepkov, I.; Vladykin, N.; Mitchell, R.; Coopersmith, H.; Garanin, V.; Saprykin, A. I.; Khmelnikova, O. S.

    Mineral grains and their intergrowth from the concentrate form the KL1- kimberlite pipe Colorado plateau was analyzed by EPMA and LAM ICP MS in Analytic Center of UIGGM. Garnets reveal nearly continuous trend of the compositions divided into 5 intervals. 1 cumulates from the crust and Sp facie mantle; 2. Gar-Sp lherzolites; 3- Gar- wehrlites, lherzolites and harzburgites; 4- Gar lherzolites and harzburgites; 4. Pyroxenites and Il peri-dotites . They reveal three trend of Ti decrease with the ris- ing Cr content. Those in the inter-growth with the pyroxenes are less in Tio2 as well as the pyroxenes. Discrete large Cpx grains are richer in Na, Al, Cr. TP conditions determined for the clinopyroxenes with Nimis- Taylor, 2001 thermobarometer and barometer Ashchepkov, 2001 reveal the heating from 35 to 40-42 mv/m2 in 30-50kbar interval. The spinels show two compositional intervals 64-50% Cr2O3 and 47-30%. The branch with the essential enrichment to 8% TiO2with the Cr decrease what also suppose the peridotite alteration due to rising of evolving Ti-rich melts. Two descend- ing crystallization lines for the ilmenites suggest the (polybaric) differentiation in two magmatic chambers. The Cr-rich ilmenites and most Cr-rich subcalcis garnets were found in the serpentinized ilmenite harzburgites that probably surround the most deep mag-matic chamber. The Ilm -Q (coesite) intergrowth suggests the deep differenti- ation. Several ilmenites contain up to 11%MnO. Trace elements determined for the clinopyroxenes suppose small decree melting possibly under influence of subducted- related melts having definite U peak and Ta-Nb minimums. Their reaction with peri- dotites with garnet dissolution according to AFC model decrease La/Ybn ration as well as the Pb* and U peak. Two stages of the Ti-rich melt percolations suggested to be accompanied the plum- re-lated melts influence on the peridotite of Wyoming craton keel which was followed with fur-ther followed by submelting of the subducted

  6. Activation of cumulus-free equine oocytes: effect of maturation medium, calcium ionophore concentration and duration of cycloheximide exposure.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y H; Love, C C; Varner, D D; Thompson, J A; Hinrichs, K

    2001-07-01

    Two different culture media (TCM-199 and follicular fluid), two activation treatments (10 and 50 micromol calcium ionophore l(-1)) and three culture periods with cycloheximide were evaluated to find effective culture conditions for activation of cumulus-free equine oocytes. Oocytes were collected by scraping the follicle walls of ovaries obtained from an abattoir. Oocytes with expanded cumuli were matured at 38.2 degrees C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO(2) in air, in either TCM-199 with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 5 microU FSH ml(-1), or in 100% follicular fluid derived from a preovulatory follicle 24 h after injection of hCG. After 40--42 h of in vitro maturation, oocytes were denuded by gentle pipetting in TCM-199 plus 10% FBS with hyaluronidase. Oocytes with intact cytoplasmic membranes (n = 398; 94% presumed metaphase II) were treated in protein-free PBS with 10 or 50 micromol calcium ionophore l(-1) for 5 min. After washing, the oocytes were cultured in TCM-199 containing 10% FBS and 10 microg cycloheximide ml(-1) for 6 h, in cycloheximide for 6 h and then in cycloheximide-free medium for 18 h, or in cycloheximide for 24 h. The oocytes were fixed and evaluated by fluorescence microscopy. Oocytes with pronucleus I--II (dense to decondensing chromatin), pronucleus III--IV (decondensed chromatin) or progressing towards the first cleavage division were considered activated. The activation rate for oocytes matured in TCM-199 was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than for oocytes matured in follicular fluid (49% (99/204) versus 35% (60/171), respectively; P < 0.05). Culture with cycloheximide for 24 h resulted in a significantly higher rate of activation (67%, 74/111) than did the 6 h (33%, 44/136) or 6 h plus 18 h (32%, 41/128) treatments. The highest rate of activation (82%) was observed in oocytes matured in TCM-199, treated with 50 micromol calcium ionophore l(-1) and cultured with cycloheximide for 24 h.

  7. Thermal safety of ultrasound-enhanced ocular drug delivery: A modeling study

    PubMed Central

    Nabili, Marjan; Geist, Craig; Zderic, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Delivery of sufficient amounts of therapeutic drugs into the eye for treatment of various ocular diseases is often a challenging task. Ultrasound was shown to be effective in enhancing ocular drug delivery in the authors’ previous in vitro and in vivo studies. Methods: The study reported here was designed to investigate the safety of ultrasound application and its potential thermal effects in the eye using PZFlex modeling software. The safety limit in this study was set as a temperature increase of no more than 1.5 °C based on regulatory recommendations and previous experimental safety studies. Acoustic and thermal specifications of different human eye tissues were obtained from the published literature. The tissues of particular interest in this modeling safety study were cornea, lens, and the location of optic nerve in the posterior eye. Ultrasound application was modeled at frequencies of 400 kHz–1 MHz, intensities of 0.3–1 W/cm2, and exposure duration of 5 min, which were the parameters used in the authors’ previous drug delivery experiments. The baseline eye temperature was 37 °C. Results: The authors’ results showed that the maximal tissue temperatures after 5 min of ultrasound application were 38, 39, 39.5, and 40 °C in the cornea, 39.5, 40, 42, and 43 °C in the center of the lens, and 37.5, 38.5, and 39 °C in the back of the eye (at the optic nerve location) at frequencies of 400, 600, 800 kHz, and 1 MHz, respectively. Conclusions: The ocular temperatures reached at higher frequencies were considered unsafe based on current recommendations. At a frequency of 400 kHz and intensity of 0.8 W/cm2 (parameters shown in the authors’ previous in vivo studies to be optimal for ocular drug delivery), the temperature increase was small enough to be considered safe inside different ocular tissues. However, the impact of orbital bone and tissue perfusion should be included in future modeling efforts to determine the safety of this

  8. Seasonal and elevational variations of black carbon and dust in snow and ice in the Solu-Khumbu, Nepal and estimated radiative forcings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspari, S.; Painter, T. H.; Gysel, M.; Schwikowski, M.

    2013-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) and dust deposited on snow and glacier surfaces can reduce the surface albedo, accelerate snow and ice melt, and trigger albedo feedback. Assessing BC concentrations in snow and ice in the Himalaya is of interest because this region borders large BC sources, and seasonal snow and glacier ice in this region are an important source of water resources. Snow and ice samples were collected from crevasse profiles and snowpits at elevations between 5400 and 6400 m a.s.l. from Mera glacier located in the Solu-Khumbu region of Nepal on the southern slope of the Himalaya during spring and fall 2009. The samples were measured for Fe concentrations (used as a dust proxy) via ICP-MS, total impurity content gravimetrically, and BC concentrations using a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). Measured BC concentrations underestimate actual BC concentrations due to changes to the sample during storage, and loss of BC particles in the ultrasonic nebulizer. BC and Fe concentrations peak during the winter-spring, and are substantially higher at elevations <6000 m due to post-depositional processes including melt and sublimation and greater loading in the lower troposphere. Because the largest areal extent of snow and ice resides at elevations <6000 m, the higher BC and dust concentrations at these elevations can reduce the snow and glacier albedo over large areas, accelerating melt, affecting glacier mass-balance and water resources, and contributing to a positive climate forcing. Radiative transfer modeling constrained by measurements indicates that BC concentrations in the winter-spring snow/ice horizons are sufficient to reduce albedo by 6-10% relative to clean snow, corresponding to instantaneous radiative forcings of 75-120 W m-2. The other bulk impurity concentrations, when treated separately as dust, reduce albedo by 40-42% relative to clean snow and give instantaneous radiative forcings of 490 to 520 W m-2. Adding the BC absorption to the other impurities

  9. Dense Pyroclastic Flows of the 16 -17 August 2006 Eruption of Tungurahua Volcano, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, M. L.; Mothes, P. A.; Ramon, P.; Arellano, S.; Barba, D.; Palacios, P.

    2007-05-01

    The 16-17 August 2006 eruption of Tungurahua volcano in central Ecuador was preceded by 7 years of threatening activity and finally a VEI=2 eruption on 14-15 July 2006. The larger August eruption witnessed tens of pyroclastic flows that descended 17 different channels up to 8.5 km to the volcano's base on the NW, N, W, and SW sides. Tungurahua (5023m) is a steep-sided, low SiO2 andesitic volcano with 2600 to 3200m of relief. The initial, small nuee ardentes began around 1700hr (local time), the larger flows occurred between 2147hr and 0100hr (17 Aug.), and a total of 31 events were indicated by seismic signals. The deposits of three distinct flow cycles are recognized at the NW base of the cone. On the Los Pajaros depositional fan, deposits of flows 1 and 2 are widespread laterally (<600m) and have low-aspect morphologies with low snouts and without levees. Their outer surfaces are covered with accessory > juvenile clasts that mainly range from 15 to 25cm in diameter, conversely their interiors are comprised of 40-42% clasts of 1-25cm size and a matrix (58-60%) of sand-size grains. The earlier flow 1 was accompanied by an ash cloud surge that leveled, but did not scorch, all trees, brush, even metal antenna posts, leaving a 1-10cm thick sandy ash layer upon flow 1's deposit. On the fan as well as in gullies on the upper flanks, flow 3 deposits form long narrow lobes with 1-2m high frontal snouts that are followed by empty flow channels, 5-15m wide, bounded by parallel levees 1-1.5m high. Within these channels subsequent flow lobes are found as remnant pulses. Unlike flows 1 and 2, flow 3 lobes are covered with 0.5-3m cauliflower-shaped, slightly vesiculated bombs that are rarely abraded; the deposit's interior has a 45% sandy matrix. During the climatic eruptive phase continuous lava fountaining, 500-700m high, and crater spilling likely fed a continual stream of fragmented lava onto the cone's upper steep flanks, from which dense pyroclastic mass flows were

  10. Impaired lipoprotein receptor-mediated peripheral binding of plasma Aβ is an early biomarker for mild cognitive impairment preceding Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Sagare, Abhay P.; Deane, Rashid; Zetterberg, Henrik; Wallin, Anders; Blennow, Kaj; Zlokovic, Berislav V.

    2014-01-01

    Soluble circulating low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (sLRP) provides key plasma binding activity for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) amyloid β-peptide (Aβ). sLRP normally binds 70–90% of plasma Aβ preventing free Aβ access to the brain. In AD, Aβ binding to sLRP is compromised by increased levels of oxidized sLRP which does not bind Aβ. Here, we determined plasma oxidized sLRP and Aβ40/42 sLRP-bound, other proteins-bound and free plasma fractions, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tau/Aβ42 ratios and mini-mental state examination (MMSE) scores in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who progressed to AD (MCI-AD, n=14), AD (n=14) and neurologically healthy controls (n=14) recruited from the Göteborg MCI study. In MCI-AD patients prior to conversion to AD and AD patients, the respective increases in oxidized sLRP and free plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42 levels were 4.9 and 3.7-fold, 1.8 and 1.7-fold and 4.3 and 3.3-fold (P < 0.05, ANOVA with Tuckey post-hoc test). In MCI-AD and AD patients increases in oxidized sLRP and free plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42 correlated with increases in CSF tau/Aβ42 ratios and reductions in MMSE scores (P < 0.05, Pearson analysis). A heterogenous group of ‘stable’ MCI patients that was followed over 2–4 years (n=24) had normal CSF tau/Aβ42 ratios but increased oxidized sLRP levels (P < 0.05, Student’s t test). Data suggests that a deficient sLRP-Aβ binding might precede and correlate later in disease with an increase in the tau/Aβ42 CSF ratio and global cognitive decline in MCI individuals converting into AD, and therefore is an early biomarker for AD-type dementia. PMID:21157031

  11. The effect of dietary supplementation of salts of organic acid on production performance of laying hens

    PubMed Central

    Dahiya, Ravinder; Berwal, Raj Singh; Sihag, Sajjan; Patil, Chandrashekhar Santosh; Lalit

    2016-01-01

    Aim: An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementing different levels of salts of organic acid in the laying hen’s diet on their production performance and egg quality parameters during a period of 16-week. Materials and Methods: A total of 140 white leghorn laying hens at 24 weeks of age were randomly distributed to seven dietary treatment groups, i.e. T1 (control), T2 (0.5% sodium-butyrate), T3 (1.0% sodium-butyrate), T4 (1.5% sodium-butyrate), T5 (0.5% calcium-propionate), T6 (1.0% calcium-propionate) and T7 (1.5% calcium-propionate) consisting of 5 replications of 4 birds each in each treatment and housed in individual cages from 24 to 40 weeks of age. Feed intake, percent hen-day egg production, egg weight, egg mass production, feed conversion ratio (FCR), and economics of supplementation of salts of organic acids in layers’ ration were evaluated. Results: The dietary supplementation of salts of organic acids did not significantly affect the feed intake (g/day/hen) and body weight gain (g). Different levels of supplementation significantly (p<0.05) improved production performance (percent hen-day egg production and egg mass production) as compared to control group. FCR in terms of feed intake (kg) per dozen eggs was lowest (1.83±0.05) in T4 and feed intake (kg) per kg egg mass was lowest (2.87±0.05) in T5 as comparison to control (T1) group. Salts of organic acids supplementation resulted in significant (p<0.05) improvement in FCR. Egg weight was significantly (p<0.05) increased at 0.5% level of salts of organic acids in the diet. The cumulative mean values of feed cost per dozen egg production were Rs. 44.14, 42.40, 42.85, 43.26, 42.57, 43.29 and 43.56 in treatment groups T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6 and T7, respectively, and reduction in feed cost per kg egg mass production for Rs. 0.52 and 0.99 in groups T2 and T5, respectively, in comparison to T1 group. Conclusions: It can be concluded that supplementation of salts of organic acids may

  12. The Last Glacial Maximum and Termination in the Torres del Paine Region, Southern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, J.; Hall, B. L.; Kaplan, M. R.; Vega, R. M.; Binnie, S.; Gómez, G.; Santana, F.

    2012-12-01

    Deciphering the timing, structure and termination of the local last glacial maximum (LGM) throughout Patagonia (42-55 S) remains one of the key unsolved paleoclimate questions in Quaternary sciences. During the last glaciation, the Patagonian ice sheet formed one ice body along the Patagonian Andes (42-55 S) in southern South America, but previous work has revealed different spatiotemporal ice dynamics along the eastern and western ice margins. The Patagonian Andes is the only landmass that exists at this latitude confronting the southern westerly wind belt, which seems to have played a key role in past glacial and climate changes. Therefore, reconstructing southern Andes glacier history constitutes a key element for understanding the causes of glaciations in the Southern Hemisphere. Major progress has been made to document the local Late-Pleistocene glacier history, particularly in response to recent application of exposure-cosmogenic dating technique in the region, although only sparse well-dated paleoclimate records exist in this vast area. LGM moraine-based records in south Patagonia (~48-55 S) have been developed for the Strait of Magellan area, where full glacial conditions seems to have occurred between ~28.0 - 17.5 ka. Despite that these data seem to confirm previous glacial chronologies developed in north Patagonia and the Chilean Lake District (40-42 S), recent works in Torres del Paine and Última Esperanza basins (50-51 S), suggest that glacial maximum conditions may have occurred earlier (i.e., during Marine Isotope Stage 3) and that ice extent could have been twice the size of previously thought. Here, we discuss paleoclimatological implications from our 10Be and 26Al-dating program of moraines in the Torres del Paine region in southern Patagonia. We focused our efforts in the previously undated Río de las Viscachas (RV) I and II moraines, which occur distal to the late-glacial TDP II, III and IV moraines that enclose present lake bodies at the

  13. Live-birth rate associated with repeat in vitro fertilisation treatment cycles

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew D.A.C.; Tilling, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Importance The likelihood of achieving a live-birth with repeat in-vitro fertilisation (IVF) is unclear, yet treatment is commonly limited to three or four embryo transfers. Objective To determine the live-birth rate per initiated IVF cycle and with repeated cycles. Design, Setting and Participants Prospective study of 156,947 UK women who received 257,398 IVF ovarian stimulation cycles between 2003 and 2010 and were followed until June 2012. Main exposure IVF, with a cycle defined as an episode of ovarian stimulation and all subsequent separate fresh and frozen embryo transfers. Main Outcome(s) Live-birth rate per IVF cycle and the cumulative live-birth rates across all cycles in all women and by age and treatment type. Optimal, prognosis-adjusted and conservative cumulative live-birth rates were estimated, reflecting 0%, 30% and 100% of women discontinuing due to poor prognosis and having a live-birth rate of zero had they continued. Results In all women the live-birth rate for the first cycle was 29.5% (95%CI: 29.3, 29.7). This remained above 20% up to and including the fourth cycle. The cumulative prognosis-adjusted live-birth rate across all cycles continued to increase up to the ninth, with 65.3% (64.8, 65.8) of women achieving a live-birth by the sixth cycle. In women younger than 40 using their own oocytes, the live-birth rate for the first cycle was 32.3% (32.0, 32.5), and remained above 20% up to and including the fourth cycle. Six cycles achieved a cumulative prognosis-adjusted live-birth rate of 68.4% (67.8, 68.9). For women aged 40-42, the live-birth rate for the first cycle was 12.3% (95%CI: 11.8, 12.8), with six cycles achieving a cumulative prognosis-adjusted live-birth rate of 31.5% (29.7, 33.3). For women older than 42 years all rates within each cycle were less than 4%. No age differential was observed among women using donor oocytes. Rates were lower in those with untreated male factor infertility compared to those with any other cause, but

  14. Anatomy of a bottleneck: diagnosing factors limiting population growth in the Puerto Rican parrot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beissenger, S.R.; Wunderle, J.M.; Meyers, J.M.; Saether, B.-E.; Engen, S.

    2008-01-01

    The relative importance of genetic, demographic, environmental, and catastrophic processes that maintain population bottlenecks has received little consideration. We evaluate the role of these factors in maintaining the Puerto Rican Parrot (Amazona vittata) in a prolonged bottleneck from 1973 through 2000 despite intensive conservation efforts. We first conduct a risk analysis, then examine evidence for the importance of specific processes maintaining the bottleneck using the multiple competing hypotheses approach, and finally integrate these results through a sensitivity analysis of a demographic model using life-stage simulation analysis (LSA) to determine the relative importance of genetic, demographic, environmental, and catastrophic processes on population growth. Annual population growth has been slow and variable (1.0 6 5.2 parrots per year, or an average k?1.05 6 0.19) from 16 parrots (1973) to a high of 40-42 birds (1997-1998). A risk analysis based on population prediction intervals (PPI) indicates great risk and large uncertainty, with a range of 22?83 birds in the 90% PPI only five years into the future. Four primary factors (reduced hatching success due to inbreeding, failure of adults to nest, nest failure due to nongenetic causes, and reduced survival of adults and juveniles) were responsible for maintaining the bottleneck. Egghatchability rates were low (70.6% per egg and 76.8% per pair), and hatchability increased after mate changes, suggesting inbreeding effects. Only an average of 34% of the population nested annually, which was well below the percentage of adults that should have reached an age of first breeding (41-56%). This chronic failure to nest appears to have been caused primarily by environmental and/or behavioral factors, and not by nest-site scarcity or a skewed sex ratio. Nest failure rates from nongenetic causes (i.e., predation, parasitism, and wet cavities) were low (29%) due to active management (protecting nests and fostering

  15. Prevalence of self-treatment with complementary products and therapies for weight loss: A randomized, cross-sectional Study in Overweight and Obese Patients in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Amariles, Pedro; González, Laura I.; Giraldo, Nubia A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The use of complementary and alternative medicine for weight loss is becoming increasingly common worldwide. In overweight or obese patients, this practice could be harmful. Available data concerning the use of complementary therapies and products (CTPs) for weight loss in these patients in Colombia are limited. Objectives: The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of self-treatment with CTPs in overweight or obese patients in Colombia and to explore the relationship between CTP use and demographic, anthropometric, and biochemical parameters. Methods: This randomized, cross-sectional study was conducted at a registered dieticians' office located at the Center for Nutritional Care, School of Nutrition and Dietetics, University of Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia, and at an outpatient clinic attended by a registered dietician located at the Pablo Tobón Uribe Hospital, Medellín, Colombia. The study enrolled a random sample of overweight (body mass index [BMI], 25–30 kg/m2) or obese (BMI, >30 kg/m2) male and female patients aged 20 to 50 years received nutritional treatment in Colombia in 2002. Data concerning the use of weight-loss CTPs were gathered, and their possible association with demographic, anthropometric, and biochemical data was explored. Results: This randomized study comprised 94 patients (70 women, 24 men; mean [SD] age, 36.5 [9.7] years; mean [SD] BMI, 28.4 [4.2] kg/m2). Forty-nine (52.1%) patients reported self-treatment with weight-loss CTPs; 40 (42.6%) patients used complementary products, and 21 (22.3%) used complementary therapies. Among the products, inadequately identified herbal medicines (ie, absence of available information concerning the composition of the products or information could not be obtained from the patient [many of the products used were not authorized for distribution in Colombia]), folkloric or home remedies, and commercial diets were most commonly used (40.0%, 40.0%, and 27.5%, respectively). The use

  16. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for Bell's palsy.

    PubMed

    Holland, N Julian; Bernstein, Jonathan M; Hamilton, John W

    2012-02-15

    42 people who received hyperbaric oxygen therapy (2.8 atmospheres for 60 minutes twice daily, five days per week until the facial palsy resolved; maximum 30 'dives') and placebo tablets with 37 people who received placebo hyperbaric oxygen therapy (achieving only a normal partial pressure of oxygen) and prednisone (40 mg twice daily, reducing over eight days). Facial function recovered in more participants treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy than with prednisone (hyperbaric oxygen therapy, 40/42 (95%); prednisone, 28/37 (76%); risk ratio 1.26, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.53). There were no reported major complications and all participants completed the trial. Very low quality evidence from one trial suggests that hyperbaric oxygen therapy may be an effective treatment for moderate to severe Bell's palsy, but this study was excluded as the outcome assessor was not blinded to treatment allocation. Further randomised controlled trials are needed.

  17. Hydrothermal circulation in the slow spreading Red Sea traced by chlorine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Zwan, F. M.; Devey, C. W.; Augustin, N.; Basaham, A.; Bantan, R.; Fietzke, J.; Almeev, R.

    2012-12-01

    The process of assimilation of hydrothermally altered crust at mid-ocean ridges can be traced by chlorine (Cl) contents of basalts, since the Cl contents of seawater and magma are vastly different. Although assimilation has been clearly shown for fast spreading ridges [e.g. 1, 2], basalts from slow spreading ridges have intrinsically lower Cl values (~50-200 ppm), which previously led to the conclusion that this process was not occurring there. Here, we studied the Cl concentrations of basalts from the very slow spreading Red Sea (max. 1.6 cm/yr). The Red Sea is particularly interesting for Cl research because of its relatively high seawater salinity (40 - 42‰ compared to 34.5‰ for average ocean water) and the presence of (hot) saline brine pools (up to 270‰ salinity [3]) in some within-axis Deeps. Therefore, the potential to increase magmatic Cl concentrations by interaction with seawater/brines might be expected to be intrinsically higher. Chlorine concentrations we measured for basalts sampled from deeps along the Red Sea rift valley between 26.5°N to 16.5°N, range from 70 to 1300 ppm, which is much higher than for average slow spreading ridges. Chlorine concentration are also elevated relative to minor or trace elements of similar mantle incompatibility (e.g. K, Nb), indicating a strong seawater/brine influence in the oceanic crust of the Red Sea for many of the measured samples. The lowest magmatic Cl concentrations were measured in samples from the brine-filled Atlantis II Deep as well as the brine-free Shagara Deep, while the highest Cl values are obtained for the brine-filled Port Sudan Deep and the brine-free Hadarba deep. This indicates that high magmatic chlorine concentrations are not directly related to the presence of highly saline brines on the seafloor at the site of eruption. Instead they are probably related to the long-term degree of infiltration of fluids into the crust and the extent to which water-magma interaction is possible. This in

  18. Spatial and temporal variation of OIB-like magmatism in the Western Pacific: Plume or non-plume related enriched magmatism?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizuka, O.; Taylor, R. N.; Ohara, Y.; Tani, K.; Yuasa, M.

    2012-12-01

    We present new 40Ar/39Ar ages as well as geochemical data for samples recovered from bathymetric highs in the West Philippine Basin (WPB) and Daito Ridge group in the Philippine Sea. This data defines the volcanic history of OIB-like magmatism in and around the WPB and enables a tectonic reconstruction of the early history of the Philippine Sea. The prominent bathymetric features in the WPB include broad highs (plateaus) of Benham Rise and Urdaneta Plateau which lie at equal distances from the extinct spreading centre of the WPB. The northern margin of the WPB is marked by Daito Ridge group, including Oki-Daito and Daito Ridges, and Amami Plateau as well as the recently-defined Oki-Daito Rise. New drilling and dredge sampling from these bathymetric features as well as from the WPB, recovered dominantly basaltic lavas with minor but significant quantites of more differentiated volcanic rocks. Basalts with OIB-like geochemical characteristics (an overall enrichment of incompatible elements and associated radiogenic isotopes) were found from these bathymetric highs and some locations on the Daito Ridge group. In addition, basalts from the WPB are found to have variable enrichment relative to N-MORB. The age range obtained from OIB-like basalts from Urdaneta Plateau (34.6 to 38.0Ma) agrees with that reported from the Benham Rise. Meanwhile, older ages of around 40-42 Ma were obtained from basalts from the Oki-Daito Rise, north of Urdaneta Plateau. These ages overlap with those we have determined from the Minami-Daito Basin (Hickey-Vargas, 1998). This implies that Urdaneta Plateau and Oki-Daito Rise represent age-progressive record of OIB-like magmatism in the West Philippine Basin, and the source for the OIB-like magmatism existed near the spreading center of the West Philippine Basin at 34-42 Ma. Significantly, the OIB-like magmatism is not restricted to the plateaus, but is also found on the WPB floor. This might indicate that besides the continuous supply of the

  19. Comparison of Content on the American Board of Internal Medicine Maintenance of Certification Examination With Conditions Seen in Practice by General Internists.

    PubMed

    Gray, Bradley; Vandergrift, Jonathan; Lipner, Rebecca S; Green, Marianne M

    2017-06-13

    examination form) were administered and 3461 questions (96.1%) were mapped into the 186 study conditions (mean, 18.6 questions per condition). Comparison of the percentages of 186 categories of medical conditions seen in 13 832 office visits and 108 472 hospital stays with the percentages of 3461 questions on IM-MOC examinations revealed that 2389 examination questions (69.0%; 95% CI, 67.5%-70.6% involving 158 conditions) were categorized as concordant. For concordance between questions and office visits only, 2010 questions (58.08%; 95% CI, 56.43%-59.72% of all examination questions) involving 145 conditions were categorized as concordant. For concordance between questions and hospital stays only, 1456 questions (42.07%; 95% CI, 40.42%-43.71% of all examination questions) involving 122 conditions were categorized as concordant. Among questions on IM-MOC examinations from 2010-2013, 69% were concordant with conditions seen in general internal medicine practices, although some areas of discordance were identified.

  20. What can seafloor fabric tell us about the nature of the 50 Ma plate-mantle event?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, R. D.; Matthews, K. J.

    2011-12-01

    Several different mechanisms have been proposed to account for the 50 Ma plate-mantle event, including India-Eurasia collision, the time dependence of the Reunion plume-push force, the subduction of the Izanagi-Pacific mid-ocean ridge, and transient ridge capture of the Hawaiian plume. We use a recent digital global seafloor tectonic fabric map derived from vertical gravity gradients together with magnetic anomaly identifications to analyse the geometry and timing of Late Cretaceous-Early Cenozoic fracture zone (FZ) bends. Two sets of closely spaced FZ bends in the North Atlantic, Weddell Sea and at the Southwest Indian Ridge between Antarctica and Africa produce an S-shape in the seafloor fabric. The older spreading ridge reorganisation initiated close to 70 Ma, and was completed around 55 Ma. The younger FZ bends are sharper, were initiated approximately 55-49 Ma and completed around 40-42 Ma, after which time spreading returned to its pre-S-bend azimuth. Additionally there is a distinct increase in seafloor roughness at the mid-Atlantic ridge at about 70 Ma reflecting a decrease in spreading rate. Seafloor fabric indicators of plate motion change produced at around 70 Ma coincide with emplacement of the Reunion plume and are restricted to parts of the Atlantic-Indian realm. The Pacific domain appears unaffected by the mechanism that drove plate motion changes in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans at this time. Yet, from ~55-40 Ma Pacific FZ bends and other oceanic and plate margin events are widespread. Along with formation of the younger part of the Atlantic-Indian S-bends, FZ bends and changes in FZ morphology in the northeast Pacific signify a reorientation of the Pacific-Farallon spreading ridge, a northward propagation of the Pacific-Antarctic ridge, increases in spreading rates at the Australia-Pacific ridge and a change in the direction of plate motion, with spreading terminating in the Tasman Sea. And initiation of Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction. This

  1. Developing methodologies for estimation of manure across livestock systems using agricultural census data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Mohammad I.; Muldowney, John; Osborne, Bruce

    2017-04-01

    Livestock production and management-induced emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs), comprising 18% of total global anthropogenic emissions together with air pollutants, have major atmospheric and ecosystem-related impacts. Identification of categorical/sub-categorical hotspots associated with these emissions and the estimation of emissions factors (EFs), including the use of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change defaults (Tier 1), are key objectives in the preparation of reasonable, and transparent national reporting inventories (Tier 2). They also provide a basis for assessment of technological/management approaches for emissions reduction. For this, data on manure (solid/FYM and slurry/liquid) production across livestock categories, housing types and periods, storage types and application methodologies are required. However, relevant agricultural activity data are not sufficient to quantify the proportion and timing of the amounts of manure applied to major land use types and for different seasons. We have used the recent Census of Agriculture survey data 2010, collected by the Central Statistics Office, Ireland. Based on the compiled datasheets, several steps have been taken to generate missing information (e.g., number of individual livestock categories/subcategories) and to develop methodologies for calculating the proportion of slurry and manure production and application across farm categories. Among livestock categories, the proportion (%) of slurry over solids was higher for pigs (99:1) than the proportion derived from cattle (61:39). Solid manure production from other livestock systems derived mostly from loose-bedded houses. There were large differences between the proportions estimated using the number of farms and the livestock population. A major proportion of the slurry was applied to grassland (97 vs. 73) and the amounts applied in spring and summer were similar (40-42 vs. 36-39), but significantly higher than the autumn application (18 vs. 24

  2. Long wavelength gravity anomalies over India: Crustal and lithospheric structures and its flexure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, V. M.; Ravi Kumar, M.; Mishra, D. C.

    2013-07-01

    Long wavelength gravity anomalies over India were obtained from terrestrial gravity data through two independent methods: (i) wavelength filtering and (ii) removing crustal effects. The gravity fields due to the lithospheric mantle obtained from two methods were quite comparable. The long wavelength gravity anomalies were interpreted in terms of variations in the depth of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) and the Moho with appropriate densities, that are constrained from seismic results at certain points. Modeling of the long wavelength gravity anomaly along a N-S profile (77°E) suggest that the thickness of the lithosphere for a density contrast of 0.05 g/cm3 with the asthenosphere is maximum of ˜190 km along the Himalayan front that reduces to ˜155 km under the southern part of the Ganga and the Vindhyan basins increasing to ˜175 km south of the Satpura Mobile belt, reducing to ˜155-140 km under the Eastern Dharwar craton (EDC) and from there consistently decreasing south wards to ˜120 km under the southernmost part of India, known as Southern Granulite Terrain (SGT). The crustal model clearly shows three distinct terrains of different bulk densities, and thicknesses, north of the SMB under the Ganga and the Vindhyan basins, and south of it the Eastern Dharwar Craton (EDC) and the Southern Granulite Terrain (SGT) of bulk densities 2.87, 2.90 and 2.96 g/cm3, respectively. It is confirmed from the exposed rock types as the SGT is composed of high bulk density lower crustal rocks and mafic/ultramafic intrusives while the EDC represent typical granite/gneisses rocks and the basement under the Vindhyan and Ganga basins towards the north are composed of Bundelkhand granite massif of the lower density. The crustal thickness along this profile varies from ˜37-38 km under the EDC, increasing to ˜40-45 km under the SGT and ˜40-42 km under the northern part of the Ganga basin with a bulge up to ˜36 km under its southern part. Reduced lithospheric and

  3. [Distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes among patients with chronic hepatitis C infection in Akdeniz University Hospital, Antalya, Turkey: a five-year evaluation].

    PubMed

    Sağlik, İmran; Mutlu, Derya; Öngut, Gözde; İnan, Dilara; Öğünç, Dilara; Can Sarinoğlu, Rabia; Özhak Baysan, Betil; Gültekin, Meral; Çolak, Dilek

    2014-07-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the major causes of chronic hepatitis. It is important to know the genotypes of HCV in the decision of the HCV related chronic hepatitis therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the HCV genotypes determined at the Microbiology Laboratory of Akdeniz University Hospital, and to evaluate the changes in the distribution of the genotypes within the last five years. A total of 422 blood samples from HCV-RNA positive chronic hepatitis C patients (219 male, 203 female; age range: 8-79 yrs, mean age 46.3 ± 15.5 yrs) which were sent to our laboratory for genotyping between 2009-2013 period, were analyzed retrospectively. HCV-RNA extractions were performed in an automated system (EZ1 Virus Mini Kit v2.0, Qiagen, Germany), and a commercial reverse hybridization line probe-based assay (LIPA; GEN-C RT-PCR, Italy) was carried out for genotyping, For viral load determinations, a real-time PCR method (Cobas TaqMan HCV, Roche Diagnostics, Germany) was used. Demographic data of the patients were obtained from the hospital information systems and electronic patients' files. Out of the 422 patients, genotype 1b was detected in 63.3% (n= 267), genotype 1a in 14.7% (n= 62), genotype 3a in 11.1% (n= 47), genotype 2b in 0.9% (n= 4), genotype 4e in 0.2% (n= 1). The subtypes couldn't be determined for 5.4% (n= 23), 2.6% (n= 11) and 1.4% (n= 6) of the patients infected with genotype 1, 2 and 4, respectively. One (0.2%) patient, was coinfected with genotype 1 and 4. Of the patients, 40 were foreign-born (16 cases from Russia; 4 of each from Ukraine and Georgia; 3 of each from Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Germany; one of each from Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Chechnya, Moldova, Switzerland and Romania) and among these patients genotype 3a (19/40; 47.5%) was the most common genotype followed by genotype 1b (17/40; 42.5%). Median values of HCV viral load were 668.500 IU/ml (range: 2.000-9.630.000) in the whole group; while it was 732.000 IU

  4. Cerebral regional oxygen saturation monitoring in pediatric malfunctioning shunt patients☆,☆☆,★

    PubMed Central

    Abramo, Thomas J.; Zhou, Chuan; Estrada, Cristina; Drayna, Patrick C.; Locklair, Matthew R.; Miller, Renee; Pearson, Matthew; Tulipan, Noel; Arnold, Donald H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Shunt malfunction produces increased intracranial pressure causing decreased cerebral regional perfusion and tissue O2sat. Cerebral regional oxygen saturation (rSO2) by near-infrared spectroscopy represents tissue perfusion and oxygen saturation. Cerebral rSO2 is used to detect cerebral ischemia in pediatric clinical settings. Objective The objective of the study was to determine the reliability of cerebral rSO2 in pediatric malfunctioning shunt. Methods A prospective observational study of pediatric patients presented to the pediatric emergency department was conducted. Confirmed malfunctioning shunt subjects had cerebral rSO2 monitoring. Results A total of 131 malfunctioning shunt subjects had cerebral rSO2 monitoring. Patient's central trend and intrasubject variability of cerebral rSO2 readings for left and right probe and malfunction sites (n = 131) are as follows: VariableOverall, mean SO2Distal, mean SO2Proximal, mean rSO2PLeft cerebral rSO2 trend69.1 (10.7)67.7 (9.81)70.0 (11.17).23Right cerebral rSO2 trend71.3 (9.6)70.5 (8.13)71.8 (10.40).42Left cerebral rSO2 variability3.57 (2.04)4.72 (2.55)2.88 (1.24)<.001Right cerebral rSO2 variability3.46 (1.95)3.77 (2.20)3.28 (1.77).19 Intrasubject left and right rSO2 Pearson correlation was −0.46 to 0.98 (mean ± SD, 0.35 ± 0.34; median, 0.34; interquartile range, 0.06–0.61). The correlation coefficients of 99 subjects between left and right rSO2 was significantly different (P < .001), suggesting that intrasubjects' left and right rSO2 are highly correlated. Sample mean difference between left and right rSO2 were −1.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], −1.8 to −1.6; P < .001) supporting overall left lower than right. Intraclass correlation for left rSO2 was 87.4% (95% CI, 87.2%−87.6%), and that for right rSO2 was 83.8% (95% CI, 83.8%−84%), showing intersubject differences accounting for the variation, and relative to intersubject variation, intrasubjects readings are consistent. Intrasubjects

  5. Possibilities of three-component geoacoustic logging at hydrocarbon deposits.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trojanov, Alexandr; Astrakhantsev, Yurie; Nachapkin, Nikolay; Beloglasova, Nadejda; Bajenova, Evgenia; Vdovin, Alexey

    2013-04-01

    The geophysical method of oil-gas borehole investigation devised at the Institute of geophysics UB of RAS studies characteristics of geoacoustic emission (GAE) over the frequency range of 0.1÷5 kHz which displays peculiarities of fluid-gas dynamic processes in a volume of geological environment. More over: 1. The second displacement derivative (acceleration) of borehole walls' vibrations is recorded. 2. The three-component system of orthogonal transducers-accelerometers in a protecting casing of a borehole instrument with the diameter of 40-42 mm enabling to divide geoenvironment microvibrations into three directions is applied. 3. Frequency composition of recorded geoacoustic signals is analyzed. 4. Values of measured and calculated parameters representing distribution of signal amplitudes according to three components at four frequency bands are evaluated. Three-component geoacoustic logging at hydrocarbon deposits solves the following problems: · Estimation of fluid saturation character at a qualitative level; · Detection of fluid flow outside and inside the casing string with division into fluid types; · Detection of fluid flow position in chambers of a cement ring with division into fluid types; · Detection of non-sealed points of borehole equipment; · Location of gas-water, gas-oil ad water-oil contacts; · Study of inflow section in a perforated interval of casing string which determines the boundaries of efficient intervals; · Detection of sections with high absorption of drilling fluid in an open shaft; · Test for leaks of the column (together with thermometry); · Detection of intervals of fluid movement in horizontal direction outside a casing string within seams (it is impossible to determine them by other methods); · Detection of industrial deposits; · Revelation of water-flooded intervals of a hydrocarbon deposit. Transducers-accelerometers with relative coefficient of transverse conversion not more than 6% allow confident division of

  6. Seasonal and elevational variations of black carbon and dust in snow and ice in the Solu-Khumbu, Nepal and estimated radiative forcings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspari, S.; Painter, T. H.; Gysel, M.; Skiles, S. M.; Schwikowski, M.

    2014-08-01

    40-42% relative to clean snow and give localized instantaneous radiative forcings of 488 to 525 W m-2. Adding the BC absorption to the other impurities results in additional radiative forcings of 3 W m-2. The BC and Fe concentrations were used to further examine relative absorption of BC and dust. When dust concentrations are high, dust dominates absorption, snow albedo reduction, and radiative forcing, and the impact of BC may be negligible, confirming the radiative transfer modeling. When impurity concentrations are low, the absorption by BC and dust may be comparable; however, due to the low impurity concentrations, albedo reductions are small. While these results suggest that the snow albedo and radiative forcing effect of dust is considerably greater than BC, there are several sources of uncertainty. Further observational studies are needed to address the contribution of BC, dust, and colored organics to albedo reductions and snow and ice melt, and to characterize the time variation of radiative forcing.

  7. Shaded Relief and Radar Image with Color as Height, Bosporus Strait and Istanbul, Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    faults close to Istanbul that could kill many more than the 1999 event.

    Three visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height and radar image intensity. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction. Northwest-facing slopes appear dark and southeast-facing slopes appear bright. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and brown to white at the highest elevations. The shade image was combined with the radar intensity image to add detail, especially in the flat areas.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Size: 2x2 degrees (168 by 222 kilometers; 104 by 138 miles) Location: 40-42 degrees North latitude, 28-30 degrees East longitude Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model, with SRTM radar intensity added Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (about 30 meters or 98 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM))

  8. Shaded Relief and Radar Image with Color as Height, Bosporus Strait and Istanbul, Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    faults close to Istanbul that could kill many more than the 1999 event.

    Three visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height and radar image intensity. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction. Northwest-facing slopes appear dark and southeast-facing slopes appear bright. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and brown to white at the highest elevations. The shade image was combined with the radar intensity image to add detail, especially in the flat areas.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Size: 2x2 degrees (168 by 222 kilometers; 104 by 138 miles) Location: 40-42 degrees North latitude, 28-30 degrees East longitude Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model, with SRTM radar intensity added Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (about 30 meters or 98 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM))

  9. Hydrology, vegetation, and soils of riverine and tidal floodplain forests of the lower Suwannee River, Florida, and potential impacts of flow reductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Light, Helen M.; Darst, Melanie R.; Lewis, Lori J.; Howell, David A.

    2002-01-01

    swamps. Surface soils in upper and lower tidal reaches are predominantly organic, saturated mucks. In the downstream part of the lower tidal reach, conductivities of surface soils are high enough (greater than 4 milli-mhos per centimeter) to exclude many tree species that are intolerant of salinity. Species richness of canopy and subcanopy plants in wetland forests in the lower Suwannee River is high compared to other river floodplains in North America. A total of 77 tree, shrub, and woody vine species were identified in the canopy and subcanopy of floodplain wetland forests (n = 8,376). Fourteen specific forest types were mapped using digitized aerial photographs, defined from vegetative sampling, and described in terms of plant species composition. For discussion purposes, some specific wetland types were combined, resulting in three general wetland forest types for each reach. Riverine high bottomland hardwoods have higher canopy species richness than all other forest types (40-42 species), with Quercus virginiana the most important canopy tree by basal area. The canopy composition of riverine low bottomland hardwoods is dominated by five species with Quercus laurifolia the most important by basal area. Riverine swamps occur in the lowest and wettest areas with Taxodium distichum the most important canopy species by basal area. Upper tidal bottomland hardwoods are differentiated from riverine forests by the presence of Sabal palmetto in the canopy. Upper tidal mixed forests and swamps are differentiated from riverine forests, in part, by the presence of Fraxinus profunda in the canopy. Nyssa aquatica, the most important canopy species by basal area in upper tidal swamps, is absent from most forests in the lower tidal reach where its distribution is probably restricted by salinity. Hydric hammocks, a wetland type that is rare outside of Florida, are found in the lower tidal reach and are flooded every 1-2 years by either storm surge or river floods. Lowe

  10. PREFACE: Symmetries and integrability of difference equations Symmetries and integrability of difference equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levi, Decio; Olver, Peter; Thomova, Zora; Winternitz, Pavel

    2009-11-01

    meeting with the name `Symmetries and Integrability of Discrete Equations (SIDE)' was held in Estérel, Québec, Canada. This was organized by D Levi, P Winternitz and L Vinet. After the success of the first meeting the scientific community decided to hold bi-annual SIDE meetings. They were held in 1996 at the University of Kent (UK), 1998 in Sabaudia (Italy), 2000 at the University of Tokyo (Japan), 2002 in Giens (France), 2004 in Helsinki (Finland) and in 2006 at the University of Melbourne (Australia). In 2008 the SIDE 8 meeting was again organized near Montreal, in Ste-Adèle, Québec, Canada. The SIDE 8 International Advisory Committee (also the SIDE steering committee) consisted of Frank Nijhoff, Alexander Bobenko, Basil Grammaticos, Jarmo Hietarinta, Nalini Joshi, Decio Levi, Vassilis Papageorgiou, Junkichi Satsuma, Yuri Suris, Claude Vialet and Pavel Winternitz. The local organizing committee consisted of Pavel Winternitz, John Harnad, Véronique Hussin, Decio Levi, Peter Olver and Luc Vinet. Financial support came from the Centre de Recherches Mathématiques in Montreal and the National Science Foundation (through the University of Minnesota). Proceedings of the first three SIDE meetings were published in the LMS Lecture Note series. Since 2000 the emphasis has been on publishing selected refereed articles in response to a general call for papers issued after the conference. This allows for a wider author base, since the call for papers is not restricted to conference participants. The SIDE topics thus are represented in special issues of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General 34 (48) and Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical, 40 (42) (SIDE 4 and SIDE 7, respectively), Journal of Nonlinear Mathematical Physics 10 (Suppl. 2) and 12 (Suppl. 2) (SIDE 5 and SIDE 6 respectively). The SIDE 8 meeting was organized around several topics and the contributions to this special issue reflect the diversity presented during the meeting. The papers

  11. Effects of Nitrogen and Desferal Treatments on CROTALARIA's (Crotalaria juncea Roth) Biomass Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    Presently sustainable agriculture is vital to achieving food security poverty alleviation and environmental protection because land degradation and desertification has occurred in all the world over cutting across a broad spectrum of contrasts in climate, ecosystem types, land uses and socio/economic settings. For this reason improving integrated soil fertility management is appreciationed and has become a major issue of concern on the development plant nutrition and plant production agendas. On plant nutrition level mineral macronutrients so nitrogen and chelating agents of different microelements so Desferal- deferoxamin-methansulfonic are essential for plant growth and development. Crotalari juncea L. is a well-known nutrient indicator fodder and green manure crop with a high yield potential. Field experiment was carried out on a chernozem meadow soil (Kunság- region of Hungary, Kunmadaras) in partly of experiment series (6 years) in 2001. The ploughed layer of region soils contained with about 2.6-3.4% humus and 40-42% clay, had a humus stability index of 0.9-2.5 by Márton (1997), pH (H2O) of 6.5-7.7, pH (KCl) of 5.3-6.8, y1 of 6.7-13.3. The topsoil was poorly supplied with all five macronutrients (N-NO3 1 mg 100 g-1, AL-soluble P2O5 14 mg 100 g-1, AL-K2O 36 mg 100 g-1, Ca 330 mg 100 g-1, Mg 43 mg 100 g-1) and with all four micronutrients (0.5m HNO3 soluble Cu 1 mg kg-1, Zn 1 mg kg-1, Mn 9 mg kg-1, Fe 80 mg kg-1) according to soil analysis. The groundwater depth was 2-3 m. Nitrogen x Desferal (Novartis Pharma AG Basie, Switzerland, Suiza 500mg) x Genotype (Brazíl-EMBRAPA/CNPH, Brazilia-DF, India-University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore) x Time experiment involved 4Nx2Dx2Gx3T=48 treatments in 3 replications giving a total of 144 plots. The N levels were 0, 100, 200 and 300 kg ha-1 year-1, and desferal levels 0 and 20 kg ha-1 year-1 with a 100 kg ha-1 year-1 P2O5 and 120 kg ha-1 year-1 K2O basic fertilisation. The plot size had an area of 4x2=8 m2 with