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Sample records for 40-49 50-59 60-69

  1. Screening for breast cancer and mortality reduction among women 40-49 years of age.

    PubMed

    Kopans, D B

    1994-07-01

    The recent withdrawal of screening support for women ages 40-49 years is not scientifically supported. The subgroup analyses that have been used severely compromise the statistical power of the trials. None of the trials has the statistical power to be able to provide clear proof of benefit for screening women ages 40-49 years because none of the trials involved sufficient numbers of women in these age groups. Despite having not been designed to evaluate women ages 40-49 years as a separate group, five of the eight randomized, controlled trials have demonstrated mortality reductions for these women that range from 22% to 49%. In addition, data from other nonrandomized trials show that there is no difference in survival for women ages 40-49 years than for women ages 50-59 years. The detection rate for small, early cancers, using modern mammography, is similar for women in both decades. There is no scientific reason to believe that there is a sudden change in detection or cure at age 50 years, or even at menopause. The available data suggest that women ages 40-49 years can benefit from screening, just as can women ages 50-59 years.

  2. Varicella-zoster virus-specific antibody responses in 50-59-year-old recipients of zoster vaccine.

    PubMed

    Levin, Myron J; Schmader, Kenneth E; Gnann, John W; McNeil, Shelly A; Vesikari, Timo; Betts, Robert F; Keay, Susan; Stek, Jon E; Bundick, Nickoya D; Su, Shu-Chih; Zhao, Yanli; Li, Xiaoming; Chan, Ivan S F; Annunziato, Paula W; Parrino, Janie

    2013-11-01

    Prevaccination and 6-week postvaccination samples from the immunogenicity substudy (n = 2269) of the zoster vaccine (ZV) efficacy trial (N = 22 439) in 50-59-year-old subjects were examined for varicella-zoster virus-specific antibody responses to vaccination. The varicella-zoster virus geometric mean titer (GMT) and geometric mean fold rise were higher in ZV recipients than in placebo recipients (GMT, 660.0 vs 293.1 glycoprotein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay units/mL [P < .001], respectively; geometric mean fold rise, 2.31 vs 1.00 [P < .025]). In each group there was a strong inverse correlation between postvaccination GMT and risk of subsequent herpes zoster. Although these data provide strong evidence that relates ZV-induced antibody and the risk of herpes zoster, a protective threshold was not determined. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00534248.

  3. 27 CFR 40.49 - Delegations of the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Administrator's Authorities in 27 CFR Part 40, Manufacture of Tobacco Products and Cigarette Papers and Tubes. You may obtain a copy of this order by accessing the TTB Web site (http://www.ttb.gov) or by mailing a... AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Administrative Provisions § 40.49 Delegations of the...

  4. 27 CFR 40.49 - Delegations of the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Administrator's Authorities in 27 CFR Part 40, Manufacture of Tobacco Products and Cigarette Papers and Tubes. You may obtain a copy of this order by accessing the TTB Web site (http://www.ttb.gov) or by mailing a... AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Administrative Provisions § 40.49 Delegations of the...

  5. 27 CFR 40.49 - Delegations of the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Administrator's Authorities in 27 CFR Part 40, Manufacture of Tobacco Products and Cigarette Papers and Tubes. You may obtain a copy of this order by accessing the TTB Web site (http://www.ttb.gov) or by mailing a... AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Administrative Provisions § 40.49 Delegations of the...

  6. 27 CFR 40.49 - Delegations of the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Administrator's Authorities in 27 CFR Part 40, Manufacture of Tobacco Products and Cigarette Papers and Tubes. You may obtain a copy of this order by accessing the TTB Web site (http://www.ttb.gov) or by mailing a... AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Administrative Provisions § 40.49 Delegations of the...

  7. 27 CFR 40.49 - Delegations of the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Administrator's Authorities in 27 CFR Part 40, Manufacture of Tobacco Products and Cigarette Papers and Tubes. You may obtain a copy of this order by accessing the TTB Web site (http://www.ttb.gov) or by mailing a... AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Administrative Provisions § 40.49 Delegations of the...

  8. Mammography in asymptomatic women aged 40-49 years

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Flávio Xavier; Katz, Leila; Souza, Alex Sandro Rolland; Amorim, Melania Maria Ramos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess findings of mammography of and interventions resulting from breast cancer screening in women aged 40-49 years with no increased risk (typical risk) of breast cancer. METHODS This cross-sectional study evaluated women aged 40-49 years who underwent mammography screening in a mastology reference center in Recife, PE, Northeastern Brazil, between January 2010 and October 2011. Women with breast-related complaints, positive findings in the physical examination, or high risk of breast cancer were excluded. RESULTS The 1,000 mammograms performed were classified into the following Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories BI-RADS 0, 232; BI-RADS 1, 294; BI-RADS 2, 294; BI-RADS 3, 16; BI-RADS 4A, 2; BI-RADS 5, 1. There was one case of grade II invasive ductal carcinoma and various interventions, including 469 ultrasound scans, 53 referrals to mastologists, 11 cytological examinations, and 8 biopsies. CONCLUSIONS Mammography screening in women aged 40-49 years with typical risk of breast cancer led to the performance of other interventions. However, it also resulted in increased costs without demonstrable efficacy in decreasing mortality. PMID:26039396

  9. 49 CFR 40.49 - What materials are used to collect urine specimens?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What materials are used to collect urine specimens... in DOT Urine Collections § 40.49 What materials are used to collect urine specimens? For each DOT drug test, you must use a collection kit meeting the requirements of Appendix A of this part....

  10. 49 CFR 40.49 - What materials are used to collect urine specimens?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What materials are used to collect urine specimens... in DOT Urine Collections § 40.49 What materials are used to collect urine specimens? For each DOT drug test, you must use a collection kit meeting the requirements of appendix A of this part....

  11. 49 CFR 40.49 - What materials are used to collect urine specimens?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What materials are used to collect urine specimens... in DOT Urine Collections § 40.49 What materials are used to collect urine specimens? For each DOT drug test, you must use a collection kit meeting the requirements of Appendix A of this part....

  12. 49 CFR 40.49 - What materials are used to collect urine specimens?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What materials are used to collect urine specimens... in DOT Urine Collections § 40.49 What materials are used to collect urine specimens? For each DOT drug test, you must use a collection kit meeting the requirements of Appendix A of this part....

  13. The Aging Female Voice: Acoustic and Respiratory Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awan, Shaheen N.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend understanding of the effects of aging on the female voice by obtaining measures of both acoustic and respiratory-based performance in groups of 18-30, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70-79-year-old subjects. Acoustic measures of speaking fundamental frequency (SFF), pitch sigma, jitter, shimmer, and signal-to-noise…

  14. Breast cancer screening outcomes in women ages 40-49: clinical experience with service screening using modern mammography.

    PubMed

    Sickles, E A

    1997-01-01

    The several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of breast cancer screening among women of ages 40 to 49 now collectively show a statistically significant reduction in breast cancer mortality. However, there have been numerous recent advances in mammography, such that it now is demonstrably better than when the RCTs were conducted. The use of surrogate measures of screening efficacy (tumor size, lymph node status, cancer stage), readily derived from modern service screening programs, demonstrates how the improved mammography of the 1990s should produce a greater degree of mortality reduction among women ages 40-49 than that already demonstrated in the RCTs. Indeed, these surrogate measures of mortality reduction are as favorable for women of ages 40-49 and 65+ as they are for women of ages 50-64, strongly suggesting that, since modern service screening is accepted as effectively reducing mortality among women of ages 50-64, it should also effectively reduce mortality among women in the 40-49 and 65+ age groups.

  15. 10 CFR 50.59 - Changes, tests, and experiments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., including the holder of a license authorizing operation of a nuclear power reactor that has submitted the certification of permanent cessation of operations required under § 50.82(a)(1) or § 50.110 or a reactor... Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES...

  16. 10 CFR 50.59 - Changes, tests, and experiments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., including the holder of a license authorizing operation of a nuclear power reactor that has submitted the certification of permanent cessation of operations required under § 50.82(a)(1) or § 50.110 or a reactor... Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES...

  17. 10 CFR 50.59 - Changes, tests, and experiments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., including the holder of a license authorizing operation of a nuclear power reactor that has submitted the certification of permanent cessation of operations required under § 50.82(a)(1) or § 50.110 or a reactor... Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES...

  18. 10 CFR 50.59 - Changes, tests, and experiments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., including the holder of a license authorizing operation of a nuclear power reactor that has submitted the certification of permanent cessation of operations required under § 50.82(a)(1) or § 50.110 or a reactor... Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES...

  19. 10 CFR 50.59 - Changes, tests, and experiments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., including the holder of a license authorizing operation of a nuclear power reactor that has submitted the certification of permanent cessation of operations required under § 50.82(a)(1) or § 50.110 or a reactor... Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES...

  20. Randomized controlled trial on effectiveness of ultrasonography screening for breast cancer in women aged 40-49 (J-START): research design.

    PubMed

    Ohuchi, Noriaki; Ishida, Takanori; Kawai, Masaaki; Narikawa, Yoko; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2011-02-01

    In cancer screening, it is essential to undertake effective screening with appropriate methodology, which should be supported by evidence of a reduced mortality rate. At present, mammography is the only method for breast cancer screening with such evidence. However, mammography does not achieve sufficient accuracy in breasts with high density at ages below 50. Although ultrasonography achieves better accuracy in Breast Cancer detection even in dense breasts, the effectiveness has not been verified. We have planned a randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of ultrasonography in women aged 40-49, with a design to study 50,000 women with mammography and ultrasonography (intervention group), and 50,000 controls with mammography only (control group). The participants are scheduled to take second round screening with the same modality 2 years on. The primary endpoints are sensitivity and specificity, and the secondary endpoint is the rate of advanced breast cancers.

  1. A case-control study to assess the impact of mammographic density on breast cancer risk in women aged 40-49 at intermediate familial risk.

    PubMed

    Assi, Valentina; Massat, Nathalie J; Thomas, Susan; MacKay, James; Warwick, Jane; Kataoka, Masako; Warsi, Iqbal; Brentnall, Adam; Warren, Ruth; Duffy, Stephen W

    2015-05-15

    Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer, but its potential application in risk management is not clear, partly due to uncertainties about its interaction with other breast cancer risk factors. We aimed to quantify the impact of mammographic density on breast cancer risk in women aged 40-49 at intermediate familial risk of breast cancer (average lifetime risk of 23%), in particular in premenopausal women, and to investigate its relationship with other breast cancer risk factors in this population. We present the results from a case-control study nested with the FH01 cohort study of 6,710 women mostly aged 40-49 at intermediate familial risk of breast cancer. One hundred and three cases of breast cancer were age-matched to one or two controls. Density was measured by semiautomated interactive thresholding. Absolute density, but not percent density, was a significant risk factor for breast cancer in this population after adjusting for area of nondense tissue (OR per 10 cm(2) = 1.07, 95% CI 1.00-1.15, p = 0.04). The effect was stronger in premenopausal women, who made up the majority of the study population. Absolute density remained a significant predictor of breast cancer risk after adjusting for age at menarche, age at first live birth, parity, past or present hormone replacement therapy, and the Tyrer-Cuzick 10-year relative risk estimate of breast cancer. Absolute density can improve breast cancer risk stratification and delineation of high-risk groups alongside the Tyrer-Cuzick 10-year relative risk estimate.

  2. [Recommendations of a national Italian consensus conference on the opportunity of extending screening service by mammography to 40-49 and 70-74 years of age women].

    PubMed

    Distante, Vito; Ciatto, Stefano; Frigerio, Alfonso; Naldoni, Carlo; Paci, Eugenio; Ponti, Antonio; del Turco, Marco Rosselli; Vettorazzi, Marcello; Zappa, Marco

    2007-01-01

    The Italian Mammography Screening Network (GISMa) held a national consensus conference in Bologna, May 25-26 2006. The large panel of participants included national experts in fields related to breast cancer and screening issues. The final aim was the production of a consensus statement which might become a standard reference for Italy. The consensus document (http://www.gisma.it) states that full national coverage by organized screening for breast (age 50-69), cervical and colorectal cancer is a priority, before any extension of organized mammography screening to younger or older age groups may be considered. If adequate resources are available, extension of organized screening for breast cancer until age 74 is recommended, at least for regular attenders until age 69. Extension of organized screening to women aged 40-49 may be considered at some conditions: (a) that resources are available, (b) that a 1-year interval is adopted, (c) that proper information of the limitations of screening is given to participants and (d) that priority is given to age 45-49.

  3. Markov models of breast tumor progression: some age-specific results.

    PubMed

    Duffy, S W; Day, N E; Tabár, L; Chen, H H; Smith, T C

    1997-01-01

    Researchers have noted that mammographic screening has a reduced effect on breast cancer mortality in women in their forties compared to older women. Explanations for this include poorer sensitivity in younger women due to denser breast tissue, as well as more rapid tumor progression, giving a shorter mean sojourn time (the average duration of the preclinical screen-detectable period). To test these hypotheses, we developed a series of Markov-chain models to estimate tumor progression rates and sensitivity. Parameters were estimated using tumor data from the Swedish two-county trial of mammographic screening for breast cancer. The mean sojourn time was shorter in women aged 40-49 compared to women aged 50-59 and 60-69 (2.44, 3.70, and 4.17 years, respectively). Sensitivity was lower in the 40-49 age group compared to the two older groups (83%, 100%, and 100%, respectively). Thus, both rapid progression and poorer sensitivity are associated with the 40-49 age group. We also modeled tumor size, node status, and malignancy grade together with subsequent breast cancer mortality and found that, to achieve a reduction in mortality commensurate with that in women over 50, the interscreening interval for women in their forties should be less than two years. We conclude that Markov models and the use of tumor size, node status, and malignancy grade as surrogates for mortality can be useful in design and analysis of future studies of breast cancer screening.

  4. Markov models of breast tumor progression: some age-specific results.

    PubMed

    Duffy, S W; Day, N E; Tabár, L; Chen, H H; Smith, T C

    1997-01-01

    Researchers have noted that mammographic screening has a reduced effect on breast cancer mortality in women in their forties compared to older women. Explanations for this include poorer sensitivity in younger women due to denser breast tissue, as well as more rapid tumor progression, giving a shorter mean sojourn time (the average duration of the preclinical screen-detectable period). To test these hypotheses, we developed a series of Markov-chain models to estimate tumor progression rates and sensitivity. Parameters were estimated using tumor data from the Swedish two-county trial of mammographic screening for breast cancer. The mean sojourn time was shorter in women aged 40-49 compared to women aged 50-59 and 60-69 (2.44, 3.70, and 4.17 years, respectively). Sensitivity was lower in the 40-49 age group compared to the two older groups (83%, 100%, and 100%, respectively). Thus, both rapid progression and poorer sensitivity are associated with the 40-49 age group. We also modeled tumor size, node status, and malignancy grade together with subsequent breast cancer mortality and found that, to achieve a reduction in mortality commensurate with that in women over 50, the interscreening interval for women in their forties should be less than two years. We conclude that Markov models and the use of tumor size, node status, and malignancy grade as surrogates for mortality can be useful in design and analysis of future studies of breast cancer screening. PMID:9709283

  5. [Cognitive impairment, depression, and work capacity of 50-59-year-old psychosomatic inpatients].

    PubMed

    Wagner, S; Kaschel, R; Paulsen, S; Knickenberg, R J; Bleichner, F; Beutel, M E

    2006-11-01

    Due to aging of the population and a possible rise in retirement age, the cognitive capacity of older people is gaining great importance. As evidenced by the increase in early retirement due to psychosomatic disease, many employees are not capable of working at a higher age. Decreasing cognitive abilities have usually been studied in subjects over 65 years based on the heterogeneous construct of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This study investigates the prevalence of cognitive impairments in the age group from 50 to 59 years and their reflections in subjective vocational achievement and social medical evaluation. Having been assigned to inpatient rehabilitation due to decreasing work performance, these patients could be considered a risk group for developing MCI. A battery of standardized cognitive tests was conducted with patients at a psychosomatic hospital (Termine Test, CVLT, Block Design, TAP, and Tower of Hanoi). The MCI was defined by performance below the average age norm in at least two of five functional areas. Depression was assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory. Cognitive impairment was observed in 24% of participants. These patients also described vocational difficulties. Cognitive impairments of older employees could possibly be compensated for by specific training programs in order to maintain or rebuild their work capacity. PMID:16082527

  6. Adjuvant therapy, not mammographic screening, accounts for most of the observed breast cancer specific mortality reductions in Australian women since the national screening program began in 1991.

    PubMed

    Burton, Robert C; Bell, Robin J; Thiagarajah, Geetha; Stevenson, Christopher

    2012-02-01

    There has been a 28% reduction in age-standardised breast cancer mortality in Australia since 1991 when the free national mammographic program (BreastScreen) began. Therefore, a comparative study between BreastScreen participation and breast cancer age specific mortality trends in Australia was undertaken for two time periods between 1991 and 2007, where women aged 50-59 and 60-69 years, who were invited to screen, were compared to women aged 40-49 and 70-79 years who were not invited, but who did have access to the program. There were mortality reductions in all four age groups between 1991-1992 and 2007, resulting in 5,849 (95% CI 4,979 to 6,718) fewer women dying of breast cancer than would have otherwise been the case. Women aged 40-49 years, who had the lowest BreastScreen participation (approximately 20%), had the largest mortality reduction: 44% (95% CI 34.8-51.2). Women aged 60-69 years, who had the highest BreastScreen participation (approximately 60%), had the smallest mortality reduction: 19% (95% CI 10.5-26.9). As BreastScreen participation by invited women aged 50-69 years only reached a maximum of about 55-60% in 1998-1999, a decline in mortality in Australian women cannot be attributed to BreastScreen prior to this time. Thus, almost 60% of the Australian decline in breast cancer mortality since 1991 cannot be attributed to BreastScreen. Therefore, mammographic screening cannot account for most of the reductions in breast cancer mortality that have occurred in Australian women since 1991 and may have contributed to over-diagnosis. Most, if not all, of the reductions can be attributed to the adjuvant hormonal and chemotherapy, which Australian women have increasingly received since 1986.

  7. Prevalence of schizophrenia disability and associated mortality among Chinese men and women.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianli; Song, Xinming; Chen, Gong; Paradis, Angela D; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2014-12-15

    Schizophrenia is a major cause of psychiatric disability in China. In the present study, we estimated total and age-specific prevalence of both schizophrenia disability and associated mortality among Chinese women and men. We further examined whether sex differences in prevalence were attributable to mortality differences between men and women. Data from the Second China National Sample Survey on Disability (2006) and the 2007-2010 follow-up studies were utilized. Possibly psychiatrically disabled individuals were administered the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule, Version II and the ICD-10 Symptom Checklist for Mental Disorders by trained clinical psychiatrists. In total, 0.37% of men and 0.44% of women were living with schizophrenia disability in China. We did not find statistically significant differences in the 4-year cumulative mortality between men and women. Overall standardized mortality ratios for the age groups of 18-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70+ years were 120.89, 29.56, 15.06, 9.16, 10.57, and 4.95, respectively. In conclusion, mortality differences between men and women were unlikely to be a major contributor to sex differences in prevalence. Premature death among younger individuals experiencing schizophrenia disability warrants urgent attention. PMID:25113924

  8. Noise-induced hearing loss in relation to vibration-induced white finger in chain-saw workers.

    PubMed

    Miyakita, T; Miura, H; Futatsuka, M

    1987-02-01

    From the viewpoint of the etiologies of noise-induced permanent threshold shift (NIPTS) and vibration-induced white finger (VWF), the association between VWF and hearing loss was examined among 499 chain-saw workers who underwent a compulsory health examination for vibration syndrome. They were classified by age, duration of noise and vibration exposure, and the severity of VWF. The severity of VWF was evaluated according to the following criteria: no prior history; VWF history, but symptoms had disappeared; VWF present but appearing rarely; frequent appearance of VWF (more than 20 times per winter season). In three age groups (ie, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 years) with 5-9 years of exposure, the chainsaw workers with VWF had a significantly greater hearing loss at higher frequencies than those without VWF. However, in the 10- to 14-year exposure groups, a significant difference was not found between the VWF and non-VWF groups, except that the 50- to 59-year age groups showed a significant difference in mean age. It was suggested that interindividual differences in susceptibility to noise and vibration may be the reason for the synergistic effects of noise and vibration.

  9. Methodology for lognormal modelling of malignant pleural mesothelioma survival time distributions: a study of 5580 case histories from Europe and USA.

    PubMed

    Mould, Richard F; Lahanas, Michael; Asselain, Bernard; Brewster, David; Burgers, Sjaak A; Damhuis, Ronald A M; De Rycke, Yann; Gennaro, Valerio; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila

    2004-09-01

    A truncated left-censored and right-censored lognormal model has been validated for representing pleural mesothelioma survival times in the range 5-200 weeks for data subsets grouped by age for males, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79 and 80+ years and for all ages combined for females. The cases available for study were from Europe and USA and totalled 5580. This is larger than any other pleural mesothelioma cohort accrued for study. The methodology describes the computation of reference baseline probabilities, 5-200 weeks, which can be used in clinical trials to assess results of future promising treatment methods. This study is an extension of previous lognormal modelling by Mould et al (2002 Phys. Med. Biol. 47 3893-924) to predict long-term cancer survival from short-term data where the proportion cured is denoted by C and the uncured proportion, which can be represented by a lognormal, by (1 - C). Pleural mesothelioma is a special case when C = 0.

  10. Dental age estimation in a Brazilian adult population using Cameriere's method.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Alana de Cássia Silva; Alves, Nathalia Zanini; Michel-Crosato, Edgard; Rocha, Marcos; Cameriere, Roberto; Biazevic, Maria Gabriela Haye

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a specific formula to estimate age in a Brazilian adult population and to compare the original formula from Cameriere to this Brazilian formula. The sample comprised 1,772 periapical radiographs from 443 subjects (219 men, 224 women) that were organized into 12 groups according to sex (men or women) and age (20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70 years and older). The films were analyzed using the criteria described by Cameriere et al. (2004) and Adobe Photoshop®. We obtained a mean error of 8.56 (SD = 5.80) years for tooth 13, 7.99 (SD = 5.78) years for tooth 23, 8.38 (SD = 6.26) years for tooth 33, and 8.20 (SD = 6.54) years for tooth 43. When teeth were combined in the analysis, we observed lower mean errors. The Brazilian formula developed from this sample group was more accurate than Cameriere's formula. However, other factors must be considered to improve age estimates in adults. PMID:25590504

  11. Dental age estimation in a Brazilian adult population using Cameriere's method.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Alana de Cássia Silva; Alves, Nathalia Zanini; Michel-Crosato, Edgard; Rocha, Marcos; Cameriere, Roberto; Biazevic, Maria Gabriela Haye

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a specific formula to estimate age in a Brazilian adult population and to compare the original formula from Cameriere to this Brazilian formula. The sample comprised 1,772 periapical radiographs from 443 subjects (219 men, 224 women) that were organized into 12 groups according to sex (men or women) and age (20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70 years and older). The films were analyzed using the criteria described by Cameriere et al. (2004) and Adobe Photoshop®. We obtained a mean error of 8.56 (SD = 5.80) years for tooth 13, 7.99 (SD = 5.78) years for tooth 23, 8.38 (SD = 6.26) years for tooth 33, and 8.20 (SD = 6.54) years for tooth 43. When teeth were combined in the analysis, we observed lower mean errors. The Brazilian formula developed from this sample group was more accurate than Cameriere's formula. However, other factors must be considered to improve age estimates in adults.

  12. The prevalence of benign prostatic hyperplasia in mainland China: evidence from epidemiological surveys.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenying; Guo, Yuwen; Zhang, Daoxin; Tian, Ye; Zhang, Xiaonan

    2015-08-26

    The epidemiological characteristics of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) in mainland China are not completely understood. We performed this meta-analysis to assess the prevalence of BPH from 1989 through 2014. A total of 14 articles and 19 datasets were included. The pooled overall prevalence of BPH among men aged 40 years and older was 36.6% [95% CI, 32.3-44.8]. The occurrence rate of BPH in the age groups 40-49 years, 50-59 years, 60-69 years, 70-79 years and 80 years and older was 2.9%, 29.0%, 44.7%, 58.1% and 69.2%, respectively. The pooled occurrence rate of BPH was 41.5% [95% CI, 34.5-48.4] in urban areas and 38.6% [95% CI, 22.7-54.6] in rural areas; this difference in prevalence was not statistically significant [OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 0.97-2.36]. BPH is highly prevalent in mainland China, and its prevalence increased with age. The trend in the prevalence of BPH in mainland China was not steady; the prevalence map based on a geographic information system (GIS) showed an unequal geographic distribution. High-quality surveys on BPH with a larger sample size are needed throughout mainland China to confirm these findings.

  13. Mental Imagery and Idiom Understanding in Adults: Examining Dual Coding Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Pei-Fang

    2010-01-01

    This study examined idiom understanding in 120 neurologically healthy adults, ages 20-29 (20s Group), 40-49 (40s Group), 60-69 (60s Group), and 80-89 (80s Group) years old. Each participant was administered a familiarity task, definition explanation task, mental imagery task, and forced-choice comprehension task. Twenty idioms, 10 transparent and…

  14. Prevalence of Neutralizing Antibodies to Japanese Encephalitis Virus among High-Risk Age Groups in South Korea, 2010.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Ju; Cha, Go-Woon; Ju, Young Ran; Han, Myung Guk; Lee, Won-Ja; Jeong, Young Eui

    2016-01-01

    After an extensive vaccination policy, Japanese encephalitis (JE) was nearly eliminated since the mid-1980s in South Korea. Vaccination in children shifted the affected age of JE patients from children to adults. However, an abrupt increase in JE cases occurred in 2010, and this trend has continued. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to the JE virus (JEV) among high-risk age groups (≥40 years) in South Korea. A plaque reduction neutralization test was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to JEV in 945 subjects within four age groups (30-39, 40-49, 50-59, and 60-69 years) in 10 provinces. Of the 945 enrolled subjects, 927 (98.1%) exhibited antibodies against JEV. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies according to sex, age, or occupation. However, there were significant differences in the plaque reduction rate according to age and occupation; oldest age group had a higher reduction rate, and subjects who were employed in agriculture or forestry also had a higher value than the other occupations. We also found that three provinces (Gangwon, Jeonnam, and Gyeongnam) had a relatively lower plaque reduction rate than the other locations. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were conducted to determine recent viral infections and 12 (1.3%) subjects were found to have been recently infected by the virus [corrected]. In conclusion, the present study clearly indicated that the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies has been maintained at very high levels among adult age groups owing to vaccination or natural infections, or both. In the future, serosurveillance should be conducted periodically using more representative samples to better understand the population-level immunity to JE in South Korea.

  15. Ageing influence in the evolution of strength and muscle mass in women with fibromyalgia: the al-Ándalus project.

    PubMed

    Latorre-Román, Pedro Ángel; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Aparicio, Virginia A; Santos E Campos, María Aparecida; García-Pinillos, Felipe; Herrador-Colmenero, Manuel; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2015-07-01

    Fibromyalgia is associated with physical disabilities in daily activities. Moreover, patients with fibromyalgia present similar levels of functional capacity and physical condition than elderly people. The aim of this study was to analyse the evolution of strength and muscle mass in women with fibromyalgia along ageing. A total sample of 492 fibromyalgia patients and 279 healthy control women were included in the study. Participants in each group were further divided into four age subgroups: subgroup 1: 30-39 years old, subgroup 2: 40-49 years old, subgroup 3: 50-59 years old and subgroup 4: 60-69 years old. Standardized field-based fitness tests were used to assess muscle strength (30-s chair stand, handgrip strength and arm curl tests). Fibromyalgia patients did not show impairment on muscle mass along ageing, without values of skeletal muscle mass index below 6.76 kg/m(2) in any group. However, in all variables of muscle strength, the fibromyalgia group showed less strength than the healthy group (p < 0.05) for all age groups. As expected, handgrip strength test showed differences along ageing only in the fibromyalgia group (p < 0.001). Age was inversely associated with skeletal muscle mass (r = -0.155, p < 0.01) and handgrip strength (r = -0.230, p < 0.001) in the FM group. Women with fibromyalgia showed a reduction in muscle strength along ageing process, with significantly lower scores than healthy women for each age group, representing a risk of dynapenia.

  16. Does the Aging Process Significantly Modify the Mean Heart Rate?

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Marcos Antonio Almeida; Sousa, Antonio Carlos Sobral; Reis, Francisco Prado; Santos, Thayná Ramos; Lima, Sonia Oliveira; Barreto-Filho, José Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Background The Mean Heart Rate (MHR) tends to decrease with age. When adjusted for gender and diseases, the magnitude of this effect is unclear. Objective To analyze the MHR in a stratified sample of active and functionally independent individuals. Methods A total of 1,172 patients aged ≥ 40 years underwent Holter monitoring and were stratified by age group: 1 = 40-49, 2 = 50-59, 3 = 60-69, 4 = 70-79, 5 = ≥ 80 years. The MHR was evaluated according to age and gender, adjusted for Hypertension (SAH), dyslipidemia and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Several models of ANOVA, correlation and linear regression were employed. A two-tailed p value <0.05 was considered significant (95% CI). Results The MHR tended to decrease with the age range: 1 = 77.20 ± 7.10; 2 = 76.66 ± 7.07; 3 = 74.02 ± 7.46; 4 = 72.93 ± 7.35; 5 = 73.41 ± 7.98 (p < 0.001). Women showed a correlation with higher MHR (p <0.001). In the ANOVA and regression models, age and gender were predictors (p < 0.001). However, R2 and ETA2 < 0.10, as well as discrete standardized beta coefficients indicated reduced effect. Dyslipidemia, hypertension and DM did not influence the findings. Conclusion The MHR decreased with age. Women had higher values of MHR, regardless of the age group. Correlations between MHR and age or gender, albeit significant, showed the effect magnitude had little statistical relevance. The prevalence of SAH, dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus did not influence the results. PMID:24029962

  17. Are 30 minutes of rest between two incremental shuttle walking tests enough for cardiovascular variables and perceived exertion to return to baseline values?

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Laís R. G.; Mesquita, Rafael B.; Vidotto, Laís S.; Merli, Myriam F.; Carvalho, Débora R.; de Castro, Larissa A.; Probst, Vanessa S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To verify whether 30 minutes of rest between two incremental shuttle walking tests (ISWT) are enough for cardiovascular variables and perceived exertion to return to baseline values in healthy subjects in a broad age range. Method: The maximal exercise capacity of 334 apparently healthy subjects (age ≥18) was evaluated using the ISWT. The test was performed twice with 30 minutes of rest in between. Heart rate (HR), arterial blood pressure (ABP), dyspnea, and leg fatigue were evaluated before and after each test. Subjects were allocated to 6 groups according to their age: G1: 18-29 years; G2: 30-39 years; G3: 40-49 years; G4: 50-59 years; G5: 60-69 years and G6: ≥70 years. Results: All groups had a good performance in the ISWT (median >90% of the predicted distance). The initial HR (HRi) of the second ISWT was higher than the first ISWT in the total sample (p<0.0001), as well as in all groups (p<0.0001). No difference was observed in the behavior of ABP (systolic and diastolic) and dyspnea between the two tests, but this difference occurred for leg fatigue (greater before the second ISWT) in G1 (p<0.05). Most subjects (58%) performed better in the second test. Conclusion: 30 minutes of rest between two ISWTs are not enough for all cardiovascular variables and perceived exertion to return to baseline values. However, this period appears to be sufficient for blood pressure and performance to recover in most subjects. PMID:25789556

  18. The stem cell potential and multipotency of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells vary by cell donor and are different from those of other types of stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyun Jin; Kim, Ki-Joo; Kim, Min Kyoung; Lee, Su Jin; Ryu, Yeon Hee; Seo, Bommie F; Oh, Deuk-Young; Ahn, Sang-Tae; Lee, Hee Young; Rhie, Jong Won

    2014-01-01

    Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) from various sites are applied in tissue engineering and cell therapy. The condition of AT-MSCs depends on the donor's age, body mass index (BMI), and gender. AT-MSCs from 66 human donors were analyzed, and the cells were sorted according to donor age (10-19 years: n = 1; 20-29 years: n = 5; 30-39 years: n = 12; 40-49 years: n = 22; 50-59 years: n = 12; 60-69 years: n = 9, and 70 years or older: n = 5), BMI (under 25, 25-30, and over 30), and gender (19 males and 48 females). Additionally, AT-MSCs were compared to bone marrow MSCs and chorionic tissue-derived MSCs. We measured the MSC yield, growth rate, colony-forming units, multipotency, and surface antigens. AT-MSC proliferation was greater in cells isolated from individuals aged less than 30 years compared to the proliferation of AT-MSCs from those over 50 years old. BMI was correlated with osteogenic differentiation potency; increased BMI enhanced osteogenesis. Adipogenic differentiation was more strongly induced in cells isolated from donors aged less than 30 years compared to those isolated from other age groups. Also, a BMI above 30 was associated with enhanced adipogenic differentiation compared to cells isolated from individuals with a BMI below 25. Bone marrow MSCs were strongly induced to differentiate along both osteogenic and adipogenic lineages, whereas AT-MSCs predominantly differentiated into the chondrogenic lineage. Therefore, the type of regeneration required and variations among potential donors must be carefully considered when selecting MSCs for use in applied tissue engineering or cell therapy.

  19. The prevalence and characteristics of colorectal neoplasia in acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Renehan, A G; Bhaskar, P; Painter, J E; O'Dwyer, S T; Haboubi, N; Varma, J; Ball, S G; Shalet, S M

    2000-09-01

    An increased prevalence of colorectal neoplasia has been reported in acromegalic patients, and recommendations have been made for early colonoscopic screening and regular surveillance. This assumption, however, is frequently drawn from studies using selected control populations. To clarify colonoscopic management in these patients, we undertook a 2-center prospective screening colonoscopy study in 122 acromegalics (age range, 25-82 yr). In the absence of ideal age-matched controls, we calculated prevalence rates of occult adenocarcinomas and adenomas in the general population using cumulative data in the published literature from 8 autopsy studies (model 1, n = 3,559) and 4 screening colonoscopy studies (model 2, n= 810), applying linear regression models. Of the 115 patients with complete examinations, adenocarcinomas were discovered in 3 (2.6%), and at least 1 adenoma was found in 11, giving an overall prevalence of neoplasia of 12% (14 of 115). Prevalence rates for age bands 30-40, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70+ yr were 0%, 8%, 12%, 20%, and 21%, respectively. Compared with the 2 control models, the prevalence of occult colorectal cancer was not significantly increased (acromegalics vs. models 1 and 2, 2.6% vs. 2.3% and 0.9%), nor was there an increase in the prevalence of adenomas in any age band. Pathological characteristics showed some differences, in that adenomas in acromegalics tended to be right sided (68% vs. 57% and 56%), larger (for > or =10 mm, 27% vs. 13% and 9%), and of advanced histology (for tubulovillous, 27% vs. 4% and 22%). No associations were found between the presence of colonic neoplasia and the duration of disease, total GH exposure, cure status, and serum insulin-like growth factor I. This study has failed to demonstrate an increased prevalence of neoplasia in acromegalic patients compared with the expected prevalence in the general population and questions the need for an aggressive colonoscopic screening policy.

  20. Evaluation of preferable insertion routes for esophagogastroduodenoscopy using ultrathin endoscopes

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Satoshi; Niimi, Keiko; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Takahashi, Yu; Sakaguchi, Yoshiki; Nakayama, Chiemi; Minatsuki, Chihiro; Matsuda, Rie; Hirayama-Asada, Itsuko; Tsuji, Yosuke; Mochizuki, Satoshi; Kodashima, Shinya; Yamamichi, Nobutake; Ozeki, Atsuko; Matsumoto, Lumine; Ohike, Yumiko; Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the discomfort associated with esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) using an ultrathin endoscope through different insertion routes. METHODS: This study (January 2012-March 2013) included 1971 consecutive patients [male/female (M/F), 1158/813, 57.5 ± 11.9 years] who visited a single institute for annual health checkups. Transnasal EGD was performed in 1394 patients and transoral EGD in 577. EGD-associated discomfort was assessed using a visual analog scale score (VAS score: 0-10). RESULTS: Multivariate analysis revealed gender (M vs F: 4.02 ± 2.15 vs 5.06 ± 2.43) as the only independent predictor of the VAS score in 180 patients who underwent EGD for the first time; whereas it revealed gender (M vs F 3.60 ± 2.20 vs 4.84 ± 2.37), operator, age group (A: < 39 years; B: 40-49 years; C: 50-59 years; D: 60-69 years; E: > 70 years; A/B/C/D/E: 4.99 ± 2.32/4.34 ± 2.49/4.19 ± 2.31/3.99 ± 2.27/3.63 ± 2.31), and type of insertion as independent predictors in the remaining patients. Subanalysis for gender, age group, and insertion route revealed that the VAS score decreased with age regardless of gender and insertion route, was high in female patients regardless of age and insertion route, and was low in males aged over 60 years who underwent transoral insertion. CONCLUSION: Although comprehensive analysis revealed that the insertion route may not be an independent predictor of the VAS score, transoral insertion may reduce EGD-associated discomfort in elderly patients. PMID:24803817

  1. Cyanide Poisoning Deaths Detected at the National Forensic Service Headquarters in Seoul of Korea: A Six Year Survey (2005~2010)

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Jong Sook; Yum, Hye Sun

    2012-01-01

    The records of 255 cyanide poisoning deaths obtained from National Forensic Service (NFS) headquarters, located in Seoul of Korea, from 2005 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. The mean age was 41.88 ± 13.09 and range was 6~80 years (unknown in seven cases). The number of deaths of males and females were 200 and 53, respectively (unknown in two cases). The largest number of cases occurred in people aged 40-49 years (81 cases, 31.8%), followed by the age groups 30~39 years (51 cases, 20%), 50~59 years (44 cases, 17.2%) and 20~29 years (43 cases, 16.9%). The total number of deaths among other age groups (below 10, 10~19, 60~69, 70~79, over 80 years and unknown) were 36, representing only 14.1%. Of all cyanide poisoning deaths, 97.3% were due to suicide, and 14.5% of the total number who died received medical treatment. The most frequent site for ingestion was the person's own residence (120 cases, 47.1%) and the route of administration was mainly oral (252, 98.8%). From the total of 255 cyanide poisoning cases, white powders were submitted for analysis in 92 cases. Potassium cyanide and sodium cyanide occupied 51 and 41 cases, respectively. This study showed that poisoning deaths due to cyanide are one of the continuously reported public health problems in Korea. Enforcement of regulations and safety education to prevent cyanide poisoning should be carried out by the government. PMID:24278610

  2. Cyanide poisoning deaths detected at the national forensic service headquarters in seoul of Korea: a six year survey (2005~2010).

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Ki; Rhee, Jong Sook; Yum, Hye Sun

    2012-09-01

    The records of 255 cyanide poisoning deaths obtained from National Forensic Service (NFS) headquarters, located in Seoul of Korea, from 2005 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. The mean age was 41.88 ± 13.09 and range was 6~80 years (unknown in seven cases). The number of deaths of males and females were 200 and 53, respectively (unknown in two cases). The largest number of cases occurred in people aged 40-49 years (81 cases, 31.8%), followed by the age groups 30~39 years (51 cases, 20%), 50~59 years (44 cases, 17.2%) and 20~29 years (43 cases, 16.9%). The total number of deaths among other age groups (below 10, 10~19, 60~69, 70~79, over 80 years and unknown) were 36, representing only 14.1%. Of all cyanide poisoning deaths, 97.3% were due to suicide, and 14.5% of the total number who died received medical treatment. The most frequent site for ingestion was the person's own residence (120 cases, 47.1%) and the route of administration was mainly oral (252, 98.8%). From the total of 255 cyanide poisoning cases, white powders were submitted for analysis in 92 cases. Potassium cyanide and sodium cyanide occupied 51 and 41 cases, respectively. This study showed that poisoning deaths due to cyanide are one of the continuously reported public health problems in Korea. Enforcement of regulations and safety education to prevent cyanide poisoning should be carried out by the government.

  3. Oral Rehydration Therapy in Burn Patients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-24

    Burn Any Degree Involving 20-29 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 30-39 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 40-49 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 50-59 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 60-65 Percent of Body Surface

  4. Revised estimates of overdiagnosis from the Canadian National Breast Screening Study.

    PubMed

    Baines, Cornelia J; To, Teresa; Miller, Anthony B

    2016-09-01

    We have re-estimated overdiagnosis of breast cancer from mammography screening by age group in the Canadian National Breast Screening Study (CNBSS), a randomized screening trial. In the CNBSS, participants were recruited in 15 centers. 89,835 women were randomized with informed consent, 50,430 age 40-49 and 39,405 age 50-59. Women aged 40-49 received annual mammography and physical examination (MA+PX) versus a single physical examination and usual care in the community (UC). Women aged 50-59 received (MA+PX) versus (PX-alone) annually. Individual randomization resulted in 44 almost identically distributed demographic and risk factors. Annual compliance over the five or four scheduled screens was 86-95%. The cumulative numbers of invasive and in situ breast cancers ascertained by year during screening and subsequent follow-up to 25 years post entry to the CNBSS in the mammography arm have been compared to those in the control arm. Estimates of overdiagnosis were derived using post-screening cessation cut-off points from 1 to 20years.⋯Overdiagnosis of invasive breast cancer at five years post cessation of screening for women aged 40-49 was estimated to be 32%, and 16% for women aged 50-59; 20years post cessation of screening 48% for women 40-49 and 5% for those 50-59. Including ductal carcinoma in situ with invasive cancer, estimates were 41%, 25%, 55% and 16%, respectively. We conclude that approximately 30% of invasive screen-detected breast cancers in women age 40-49 were overdiagnosed, and 20% of those screen-detected in women age 50-59. Including ductal carcinoma in situ, the estimates are 40% and 30%, respectively. PMID:27374944

  5. Blood pressure levels, related factors, and hypertension control status of Japanese and Americans.

    PubMed

    Baba, S; Pan, W H; Ueshima, H; Ozawa, H; Komachi, Y; Stamler, R; Ruth, K; Stamler, J

    1991-08-01

    Blood pressure levels and related factors in Japanese, US whites and US blacks aged 30 to 74 years were compared, using data from the similarly designed national survey of each country in a similar period, i.e., the National Survey on Circulatory Disorders of Japan, 1980 (10,897 persons from all over Japan) and the second National Health and Nutrition Survey of the US, 1976 to 1980 (NHANES-II) (16,204 persons from all over the USA). Data collection methods were judged to be comparable. Data were stratified by age (30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-74 yrs) and sex. Age-specific and age-adjusted mean systolic BPs of Japanese were generally higher than those of US whites; mean diastolic pressures were similar in the two populations in both men and women. Mean weight and body mass index (BMI) and their standard deviations were lower for Japanese than Americans. In US blacks, BP was higher than in Japanese or in US whites for diastolic in men, and for both systolic and diastolic in women. Systolic BP levels of black men were between those of Japanese and US whites. At specific levels of BMI, Japanese systolic BPs were markedly higher than those of US whites in all age-sex groups, and diastolic pressures were higher in Japanese than in US whites, slightly so at younger ages and more so at ages 60 and over in both sexes. The proportions of all persons with high BP who were receiving antihypertensive treatment and who were controlled were similar in most age-sex groups of the Japanese and US white populations; they were lower in US black men and higher in US black women. In linear regression analyses of BP on BMI controlled for age, slopes were similar for Japanese and Americans. However, given the lower mean BMI and smaller BMI standard deviation (less overweight), partial correlation coefficients between BMI and BP were smaller for Japanese than Americans. These results indicate that overweight plays a lesser role in Japanese than Americans in producing high prevalence

  6. Factors associated with compliance with recommendations for liver cancer screening in Korea: a nationwide survey in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Boyoung; Choi, Kui Son; Suh, Mina; Shin, Ji-Yeon; Jun, Jae Kwan

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the factors associated with compliance with recommendations regarding liver cancer screening intervals and methods among individuals at high-risk for liver cancer in the Republic of Korea. We used data from the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV), a representative cross-sectional nationwide survey conducted between 2007 and 2009. The liver cancer screening rate and factors associated with compliance with recommended screening intervals (6 months) and methods (both abdominal ultrasonography and serum alpha-fetoprotein testing) among individuals at high risk for liver cancer such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers were investigated. Out of 24,871 KNHANES IV participants, 604 HBV carriers aged ≥ 20 years were included in our analysis. 39.6% of our study sample reported attending liver cancer screening at least once in their lifetime, 12.3% had attended within the previous 6 months, and 14.6% were screened using both recommended methods. Older age was associated with increased compliance with screening intervals (P-trend 0.011) and methods (40-49 year: OR = 3.25, 95% CI: 1.62-6.51; 50-59 years: OR = 3.09, 95% CI: 1.44-6.66; 60-69 years: OR = 3.17, 95% CI: 1.28-7.82). Unawareness of HBV infection status was negatively related to compliance with screening intervals and methods (OR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.17-0.53; OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.26-0.79). Female sex (OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.25-0.78), lower household income (P-trend 0.011), and routine and manual occupations (OR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.22-0.97) were associated with decreased compliance with screening methods. The liver cancer screening rate among high-risk individuals is much less suboptimal. Considering that those unaware of their HBV infection status got regular and complete liver cancer screening much less often, efforts should be made not only to decrease sociodemographic disparities, but also to better identify the high-risk population.

  7. Attitudes Toward Death Across the Life Span.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiden, Robert; Walker, Gail

    To understand the change and development of people's attitudes toward death over the life span, a 62-item attitude questionnaire on death and dying was administered to 90 adults. Participants included five females and five males in each of nine age categories: 18-20, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-64, and 65 or older. Participants…

  8. Cigarette smoking, tar yields, and non-fatal myocardial infarction: 14,000 cases and 32,000 controls in the United Kingdom. The International Studies of Infarct Survival (ISIS) Collaborators.

    PubMed Central

    Parish, S.; Collins, R.; Peto, R.; Youngman, L.; Barton, J.; Jayne, K.; Clarke, R.; Appleby, P.; Lyon, V.; Cederholm-Williams, S.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To assess the effects of cigarette smoking on the incidence of non-fatal myocardial infarction, and to compare tar in different types of manufactured cigarettes. METHODS--In the early 1990s responses to a postal questionnaire were obtained from 13,926 survivors of myocardial infarction (cases) recently discharged from hospitals in the United Kingdom and 32,389 of their relatives (controls). Blood had been obtained from cases soon after admission for the index myocardial infarction and was also sought from the controls. 4923 cases and 6880 controls were current smokers of manufactured cigarettes with known tar yields. Almost all tar yields were 7-9 or 12-15 mg/cigarette (mean 7.5 mg for low tar (< 10 mg) and 13.3 for medium tar (> or = 10 mg). The cited risk ratios were standardised for age and sex and compared myocardial infarction rates in current cigarette smokers with those in non-smokers who had not smoked cigarettes regularly in the past 10 years. RESULTS--At ages 30-49 the rates of myocardial infarction in smokers were about five times those in non-smokers (as defined); at ages 50-59 they were three times those in non-smokers, and even at ages 60-79 they were twice as great as in non-smokers (risk ratio 6.3, 4.7, 3.1, 2.5, and 1.9 at 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79 respectively; each 2P < 0.00001). After standardisation for age, sex, and amount smoked, the rate of non-fatal myocardial infarction was 10.4% (SD 5.4) higher in medium tar than in low tar cigarette smokers (2P = 0.06). This percentage was not significantly greater at ages 30-59 (16.6% (7.1)) than at 60-79 (1.0% (8.5)). In both age ranges the difference in risk between cigarette smokers and non-smokers was much larger than the difference between one type of cigarette and another (risk ratio 3.39 and 3.95 at ages 30-59 for smokers of similar numbers of low and of medium tar cigarettes, and risk ratio 2.35 and 2.37 at ages 60-79). Most possible confounding factors that could be tested

  9. Hypolactasia in the indigenous populations of northern Russia.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, A I

    1998-01-01

    The distribution of hypolactasia (PH) in the indigenous populations of the polar and related territories of the Russian Federation was investigated by an oral lactose tolerance. The frequency of hypolactasia in Kildin Saami population is 48%, Komi-Izhem-63%, Northern Mansi-71%, Northern Khanty-72%, West Siberia Nenets-78%. Generally hypolactasia frequencies in indigenous groups of Arctic and Sub-Arctic territories of Russia are higher than in the "reference" samples of Slav (Russian, 40-49%) and Permian Finn (Komi-Permiak and Udmurtian, 50-59%) groups.

  10. SSA 03-3 DIETARY SALT INTAKE AND HYPERTENSION IN SINGAPORE.

    PubMed

    Oh, Vernon Min Sen

    2016-09-01

    reduction in the daily dietary salt intake between the age group 40-49 years (9000 mg) and those aged 60-69 years (7700 mg). The Indian and Chinese respondents in the Survey consumed more salt, 8700 and 8500 mg/day respectively, than the Malays (7600 mg/day).A study led by Associate Professor Rob Martinus Van Dam in the School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, is addressing the validation and calibration of a technique to estimate the 24-hour urinary content of sodium from measurements of sodium concentration in a spot urine sample. The technique is intended to raise the accuracy of spot urine sampling.It is difficult to interpret the significance of the decreased daily intake of salt in older persons, aged 50 to 69, in the face of the greater prevalence of hypertension in these age bands (31.9% in those aged 50-59 years, and 53.4% in those aged 60-69). For instance, some older persons might ingest less dietary sodium, or the net renal tubular excretion of sodium in the urine might decrease between age 50 and 69 years without any change in dietary sodium intake.Moreover, the treatment of hypertension in persons aged 50 to 69 years is likely to include diuretic agents, both thiazide drugs, and loop diuretics such as furosemide and bumetanide. In most hypertensive patients, long-term treatment with diuretics exposes older persons to a risk of hyponatraemia, hypokalemia, or both. The latter conditions result from a net increase in the urinary excretion of sodium and potassium (apart from increased free water excretion). Such diuretic-related loss of sodium in the urine also needs to be factored into the estimation of dietary sodium intake by means of 24-hour urinary sodium output.The increased prescription of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blocking drugs to control HTn further confounds the estimation of dietary sodium intake from 24-hour urine collections. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blockers, both reduce the

  11. SSA 03-3 DIETARY SALT INTAKE AND HYPERTENSION IN SINGAPORE.

    PubMed

    Oh, Vernon Min Sen

    2016-09-01

    reduction in the daily dietary salt intake between the age group 40-49 years (9000 mg) and those aged 60-69 years (7700 mg). The Indian and Chinese respondents in the Survey consumed more salt, 8700 and 8500 mg/day respectively, than the Malays (7600 mg/day).A study led by Associate Professor Rob Martinus Van Dam in the School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, is addressing the validation and calibration of a technique to estimate the 24-hour urinary content of sodium from measurements of sodium concentration in a spot urine sample. The technique is intended to raise the accuracy of spot urine sampling.It is difficult to interpret the significance of the decreased daily intake of salt in older persons, aged 50 to 69, in the face of the greater prevalence of hypertension in these age bands (31.9% in those aged 50-59 years, and 53.4% in those aged 60-69). For instance, some older persons might ingest less dietary sodium, or the net renal tubular excretion of sodium in the urine might decrease between age 50 and 69 years without any change in dietary sodium intake.Moreover, the treatment of hypertension in persons aged 50 to 69 years is likely to include diuretic agents, both thiazide drugs, and loop diuretics such as furosemide and bumetanide. In most hypertensive patients, long-term treatment with diuretics exposes older persons to a risk of hyponatraemia, hypokalemia, or both. The latter conditions result from a net increase in the urinary excretion of sodium and potassium (apart from increased free water excretion). Such diuretic-related loss of sodium in the urine also needs to be factored into the estimation of dietary sodium intake by means of 24-hour urinary sodium output.The increased prescription of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blocking drugs to control HTn further confounds the estimation of dietary sodium intake from 24-hour urine collections. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blockers, both reduce the

  12. Does Health Insurance Premium Exemption Policy for Older People Increase Access to Health Care? Evidence from Ghana.

    PubMed

    Duku, Stephen Kwasi Opuku; van Dullemen, Caroline Elisabeth; Fenenga, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Aging in Sub-Saharan Africa causes major challenges for policy makers in social protection. Our study focuses on Ghana, one of the few Sub-Saharan African countries that passed a National Policy on Aging in 2010. Ghana is also one of the first Sub-Saharan African countries that launched a National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS; NHIS Act 650, 2003) with the aim to improve access to quality health care for all citizens, and as such can be considered as a means of poverty reduction. Our study assesses whether premium exemption policy under the NHIS that grants non-payments of annual health insurance premiums for older people increases access to health care. We assessed differences in enrollment coverage among four different age groups (18-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70+). We found higher enrollment for the 70+ and 60-69 age groups. The likelihood of enrollment was 2.7 and 1.7 times higher for the 70+ and 60-69 age groups, respectively. Our results suggest the NHIS exemption policy increases insurance coverage of the aged and their utilization of health care services. PMID:26161589

  13. Does Health Insurance Premium Exemption Policy for Older People Increase Access to Health Care? Evidence from Ghana.

    PubMed

    Duku, Stephen Kwasi Opuku; van Dullemen, Caroline Elisabeth; Fenenga, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Aging in Sub-Saharan Africa causes major challenges for policy makers in social protection. Our study focuses on Ghana, one of the few Sub-Saharan African countries that passed a National Policy on Aging in 2010. Ghana is also one of the first Sub-Saharan African countries that launched a National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS; NHIS Act 650, 2003) with the aim to improve access to quality health care for all citizens, and as such can be considered as a means of poverty reduction. Our study assesses whether premium exemption policy under the NHIS that grants non-payments of annual health insurance premiums for older people increases access to health care. We assessed differences in enrollment coverage among four different age groups (18-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70+). We found higher enrollment for the 70+ and 60-69 age groups. The likelihood of enrollment was 2.7 and 1.7 times higher for the 70+ and 60-69 age groups, respectively. Our results suggest the NHIS exemption policy increases insurance coverage of the aged and their utilization of health care services.

  14. [Access to early breast cancer diagnosis in the Brazilian Unified National Health System: an analysis of data from the Health Information System].

    PubMed

    Azevedo E Silva, Gulnar; Bustamante-Teixeira, Maria Teresa; Aquino, Estela M L; Tomazelli, Jeane Glaucia; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel

    2014-07-01

    The recent reduction in breast cancer mortality in high-income countries resulted from improvements in early detection and treatment. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in Brazilian women. Since 2004, the government has recommended annual clinical breast examination for women aged ≥ 40 years and biannual mammograms for those aged 50-69. This article investigates the degree of implementation of these guidelines using data from the Brazilian Unified National Health System for 2010 according to major geographic region and age group. The findings showed low national mammogram coverage in the target population (32% in the 50-59-year group; 25% from 60 to 69 years). The percentage of women with abnormal radiological findings who underwent biopsy was also low (27% for 50-59 years; 63% for 60-69 years). The number of breast cancer surgeries exceeded the number of cases detected by mammography but was well below the estimated number of incident breast cancer cases in 2010. There are striking regional inequalities in access to early detection and surgery, being the lowest access in the North Region and the highest in the South Region.

  15. Age-Adjusted PSA Levels in Prostate Cancer Prediction: Updated Results of the Tyrol Prostate Cancer Early Detection Program

    PubMed Central

    Heidegger, Isabel; Fritz, Josef; Klocker, Helmut; Pichler, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Objective To reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies in patients with benign prostatic disease, however, without missing significant PCa the present study re-evaluates the age-dependent PSA cut-offs in the Tyrol Prostate Cancer (PCa) early detection program. Patients and Methods The study population included 2225 patients who underwent prostate biopsy due to elevated PSA levels at our department. We divided our patient collective into four age groups: ≤49 years (n = 178), 50-59 years (n = 597), 60-69 years (n = 962) and ≥70 years (n = 488). We simulated different scenarios for PSA cut-off values between 1.25 and 6 ng/mL and fPSA% between 15 and 21% for all four age groups and calculated sensitivity, specificity, confidence intervals and predictive values. Results PCa was detected in 1218 men (54.7%). We found that in combination with free PSA ≤21% the following PSA cut-offs had the best cancer specificity: 1.75 ng/ml for men ≤49 years and 50-59 years, 2.25 ng/ml for men aged 60-69 years and 3.25 ng/ml for men ≥70 years. Using these adjusted PSA cut-off values all significant tumors are recognized in all age groups, yet the number of biopsies is reduced. Overall, one biopsy is avoided in 13 to 14 men (number needed to screen = 13.3, reduction of biopsies = 7.5%) when decision regarding biopsy is done according to the “new” cut-off values instead of the “old” ones. For the different age groups the number needed to screen to avoid one biopsy varied between 9.2 (≤49 years) and 17.4 (50-59 years). Conclusion With “new”, fine-tuned PSA cut-offs we detect all relevant PCa with a significant reduction of biopsies compared to the “old” cut-off values. Optimization of age-specific PSA cut-offs is one step towards a smarter strategy in the Tyrol PCa Early Detection Program. PMID:26218594

  16. No gender difference in peak performance in ultra-endurance swimming performance - analysis of the 'Zurich 12-h Swim' from 1996 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Eichenberger, Evelyn; Knechtle, Beat; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Christoph, Alexander Rüst; Knechtle, Patrizia; Lepers, Romuald; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-10-31

    The aims of the study were to [1] investigate the performance trends at the 'Zurich 12-h Swim' in Switzerland from 1996 to 2010; and [2] determine the gender difference in peak performance in ultraendurance swimming. In total, 113 male and 53 female swimmers competed in this indoor ultraendurance event while swimming in a heated pool. The number of male participants significantly increased (r² = 0.36, P = 0.04) over time while the participation of females remained unchanged (r² = 0.12, P = 0.26). In the age group < 19 years, the male swimmers achieved a significantly greater distance than the females (32.7 km vs. 21.9 km, respectively) (P < 0.05). In the older age groups (20-29 years, 30-39 years, 40-49 years, and 50-59 years, respectively) was no gender difference in swimming performances (P < 0.05). The best performance was achieved in the age groups 30-39 years and 40-49 years for both genders, respectively. The athletes in the age groups < 19 years, 20-29 years and 50-59 years in females were significantly slower than the athletes in the age group 30-39 years and 40-49 years (P < 0.05). For the males, the athletes in the age group 30-39 years were significantly faster than the athletes in the age group < 19 years. The annual best performance was not significantly different between males and females (38.3 ± 2.9 km vs. 34.4 ± 8.2 km, respectively) (P < 0.05). The best male and female swim performances remained unchanged across the years. Females are able to achieve a similar swim performance in an indoor ultra-endurance swim event of ~40 km. Further studies are needed to investigate whether females are able to achieve similar or even better performances than males in openwater ultra-swimming events such as 'Channel Swimming'.

  17. Increasing Trend in Colorectal Cancer Incidence in the Southeast of Iran 2003-2013: A Population Based Cancer Registry Study.

    PubMed

    Baniasadi, Nadieh; Moghtader, Elahe; Khajehkazemi, Razieh; Mohebbi, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Rates based on age-adjusted incidence of colorectal cancers over a 10-year period in Kerman, the biggest province of Iran, were estimated from 2003 to 2013. Data were obtained from the population-based cancer registry unit of Kerman University of Medical Sciences (CR-KMU). Information included age, sex, city, ICD-O and year of registry. Our trend analyses cover 3.91% of the Iranian population. The data set comprised cases diagnosed from 2003 to 2013.The population of over 20 years was interpolated using 2003 and 2010 censuses. Then, truncated age-adjusted incidence rates were calculated. Increase was noted from 2003-2009 to 2010-2013 for 731 cancer cases considered in the analysis. The increases was most prominent in 2009. Totally, the frequency of the cancer was greater in males. Moreover, calculating truncated age-adjusted incidence rate indicated that the most prevalent age of colorectal incidence was in the 50-59 year age group except in 2007-2008 and 2012- 2013, when greatest incidences occurred in people aged 60-69 years. Our data revealed that the incidence rates of colorectal cancer have increased over the past decade in our region of Iran.

  18. Farm Work-Related Injuries and Risk Factors in South Korean Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyocher; Räsänen, Kimmo; Chae, Hyeseon; Kim, Kyungsu; Kim, Kyungran; Lee, Kyungsuk

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is known to be a risk-filled industry in South Korea, as it is worldwide. The aims of this study were to identify the magnitude of farm work-related injuries and evaluate the association between injury and possible risk factors. Farmers, including farm members (N = 16,160), were surveyed. After excluding 7 subjects with missing data in questions about injury, 16,153 farmer responses were used for the analysis. Of the 16,153 farmers, 3.6% answered having at least one farm work-related injury requiring outpatient treatment or hospitalization during 2012. The proportion of injured men (4.3%) was 1.5 times higher than women (2.9%). From an age perspective, the proportion was 1.3% of those aged 49 or below, 2.7% of those aged 50-59, 4.2% of those aged 60-69, 4.2% of those aged 70-79, and 3.1% of those aged 80 or above. We used a multivariate logistic regression analysis with a stepwise model (forward) for risk factors (gender, age, farm ownership, farm type, work years in agriculture, work months during 2012, night work experience, and work experience under the influence of alcohol). The increased risk of farm work-related injuries significantly remained associated with age, farm ownership, and experience of night work. Further studies should be conducted to consistently identify injury characteristics, especially for old farmers, considering the crop cultivation in Asian countries. PMID:27428880

  19. Bone Mineral Density and Prevalence of Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Korean Women with Low-Energy Distal Radius Fractures

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone mineral density and the prevalence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Korean women with low-energy distal radius fractures and compared with those of aged-matched normal Korean women. Two hundred and six patients with distal radius fractures between March 2006 and March 2010 were included in this study. Patients were divided into three groups by age; group 1 (50-59 years), group 2 (60-69 years), and group 3 (70-79 years). Controls were age-matched normal Korean women. The bone mineral density values at all measured sites, except for the spine, were significantly lower in group 1 than those of control. While the bone mineral density values in group 2 and 3 were lower than those of controls, these differences were not statistically significant. All groups had significantly higher prevalence of osteoporosis at the Ward’s triangle; however, at the spine, femoral neck and trochanteric area it was not significantly different from those of age-matched controls. Although the prevalence of osteoporosis of the postmenopausal women with low-energy distal radius fractures may not be higher than that of the control, osteoporosis should be evaluated especially in younger postmenopausal patients to prevent other osteoporotic hip and/or spine fractures. PMID:27247508

  20. Employee stress status during the past decade (1982-1992) based on a nation-wide survey conducted by the Ministry of Labour in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Y; Makino, S; Takata, T

    1997-07-01

    In this paper we will report the results of nation-wide surveys on employee health conducted and published by the Ministry of Labour in 1982, 1987, and 1992. The subjects were approximately 20,000 employees in 1982, approximately 15,000 in 1987, and approximately 16,000 in 1992, from throughout Japan. Using the results of the surveys, we will show trends in the status of employee work-related stress, as well as trends in means of relaxation over the past decade. The percentage of employees with work-related stress among all subjects gradually increased as follows: 50.6% in 1982, 55.0% in 1987, and 57.3% in 1992. The percentage of employees with work-related stress increased remarkably from 1982 through 1992 among the following groups: the 50-59 age group in males; employees in the electricity, gas, heat and water-supply industries; those in the real estate industry; administrative and managerial workers; employees of large establishments with more than 5,000 employees; and employees performing shift work involving no night duty. The problem of "human relationships in the workplace" was associated with the increasing stress levels among 50-59-year-old males, 40-49-year-old females, employees of large establishments with more than 5,000 employees, those in the real estate industry, and service workers. In terms of means of relaxing to relieve fatigue and stress, employees tended to engage in active pursuits such as "eating out and shopping" and "driving and traveling" over the past decade. In 1992, on the other hand, 22.0% of males and 5.9% of females selected "smoking" as a means of relaxation. This shows the need for stress management in the workplace in order to prevent health problems related to smoking.

  1. Reductions in self-reported stress and anticipatory heart rate with the use of a semi-automated parallel parking system.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Bryan; Mehler, Bruce; Coughlin, Joseph F

    2016-01-01

    Drivers' reactions to a semi-autonomous technology for assisted parallel parking system were evaluated in a field experiment. A sample of 42 drivers balanced by gender and across three age groups (20-29, 40-49, 60-69) were given a comprehensive briefing, saw the technology demonstrated, practiced parallel parking 3 times each with and without the assistive technology, and then were assessed on an additional 3 parking events each with and without the technology. Anticipatory stress, as measured by heart rate, was significantly lower when drivers approached a parking space knowing that they would be using the assistive technology as opposed to manually parking. Self-reported stress levels following assisted parks were also lower. Thus, both subjective and objective data support the position that the assistive technology reduced stress levels in drivers who were given detailed training. It was observed that drivers decreased their use of turn signals when using the semi-autonomous technology, raising a caution concerning unintended lapses in safe driving behaviors that may occur when assistive technologies are used.

  2. [Quantitative evaluation of carotid elasticity in normal adults by ET technique].

    PubMed

    Fan, Yuting; Luo, Yan; Jia, Yiping; Wen, Xiaorong; Lin, Ling

    2008-10-01

    This investigation was aimed to detect the carotid elasticity in normal adults by use of echo-tracking (ET) technique. The stiffness parameter (beta), pressure-strain elasticity modulus (Ep), arterial compliance (AC), argumentation index (AI) and one-point pulse wave velocity (PWV beta) of carotid in 145 normal adults with the average age of 47.0 were calculated. The population were divided into five groups according to age: 20-29 y, 30-39 y,40-49 y, 50-59 y and > or = 60 y. The elasticity parameters between left and right side, between male female and between different age groups were compared using SAS 6.12 statistic software. There was no difference in carotid elasticity regarding the side and gender. The carotid beta, Ep, AI and PWV beta were noted to increase with age while AC was noted to decrease with age. The carotid elasticity was found to correlate with age significantly, but not with side and gender. This change can be detected by ET technique.

  3. Frequency of FRM1 premutations in a consecutive newborn Manitoba population of PCR of Guthrie blood spots

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, A.J.; Chudley, A.E.; Chodirker, B.

    1994-09-01

    We have analyzed the frequency of premutations of the FRM1 gene in 3000 X chromosomes of 1000 male and 1000 female consecutive newborn Guthrie blood spots in an unlinked, anonymous survey. The CGG repeat sizes were calculated by measuring the length of products of the PCR reaction based on the molecular size of labeled markers in a denaturing sequencing gel assay. For consistent PCR amplification a DNA microextraction was necessary, including a phenol/chloroform series. In our population, the CGG repeat ranged from 9-106 but 96% of alleles had fewer than 40 repeats. The most frequent allele was a repeat of 28. Approximately 2.7% of alleles had CGG repeats ranging from 40-49 and 0.36% of alleles had repeats ranging from 50-59. The frequency of alleles {ge}60 repeats in the Manitoba population is approximately 0.18%. The use of Guthrie blood spots for population screening of fra(X) premutations is not recommended. The necessity of a phenol/chloroform DNA microextraction is tedious and time consuming. The low yield of DNA (-250 ng) does not allow for re-analysis by Southern blot of apparently homozygous females and may result in an underestimate of premutation carrier status.

  4. Seroepidemiology of varicella-zoster virus in Korean adolescents and adults using fluorescent antibody to membrane antigen test.

    PubMed

    Han, S B; Kang, K R; Huh, D H; Lee, H C; Kim, J H; Kang, J H; Ma, S H

    2015-06-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional seroepidemiological study in 2012-2013 to determine the seroprevalence of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in adolescents and adults living in Korea, where varicella vaccination has been recommended universally at age 12-15 months since 2005. Residual serum samples were collected from 1196 healthy adults and adolescents aged ⩾10 years between November 2012 and March 2013. The fluorescent antibody to membrane antigen (FAMA) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were performed to determine the seroprevalence of VZV. The seroprevalences of VZV were compared between six age groups: 10-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, and ⩾60 years. The seroprevalence of VZV in the entire study cohort was 99·1% according to the FAMA test and 93·1% as determined by ELISA. The seroprevalences of the six age groups were as follows: 96·0%, 99·5%, 99·5%, 99·5%, 100%, and 100%, respectively, by the FAMA test, and 83·3%, 93·0%, 93·0%, 97·5%, 94·5%, and 97·5%, respectively, by ELISA. Seroprevalence increased significantly with age (P < 0·001); moreover, the seroprevalence in subjects aged 10-19 years was significantly lower than in other age groups (P < 0·001), as measured by both the FAMA test and ELISA. Thus, strategies to increase protective immunity against VZV in teenagers are necessary.

  5. Sleep problems in white-collar male workers in an electric equipment manufacturing company in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakata, A; Haratani, T; Kawakami, N; Miki, A; Kurabayashi, L; Shimizu, H

    2000-01-01

    In order to clarify poor sleep habits and prevalence in sleep problems (disturbances) of healthy male white-collar workers and the relationship of these to age and job type, a total of 1,161 Japanese employees of an electric equipment manufacturing company (aged 23 to 59, mean 37 years) were surveyed by means of a mailed questionnaire. The workers were asked about eleven sleep habits. They were also divided into four groups according to age and job type: 23-29 (n = 226), 30-39 (n = 597), 40-49 (n = 225) and 50-59 (n = 113); managerial (n = 209), professional (n = 336), technical (n = 475) and clerical (n = 134). In this study, the sleep problems were defined as who had at least one of the following four poor sleep habits: 1) taking more than 30 minutes to fall asleep, 2) awakening during sleep (ADS) almost every day, 3) early morning awakening (EMA) almost every day, and 4) excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) at work almost every day. Analyses showed that sleep problems were present in 26.0% of workers; the problems were most serious among workers aged 50 years and more (36.0%) which may be due to a significant increase in the prevalence rate of EMA. The results revealed that sleep problems are common in male white-collar daytime workers. The findings also suggest a need for increased attention to sleep problems in older workers and younger ones with EDS at work.

  6. Age-specific risk factor profiles of adenocarcinomas of the esophagus: A pooled analysis from the international BEACON consortium.

    PubMed

    Drahos, Jennifer; Xiao, Qian; Risch, Harvey A; Freedman, Neal D; Abnet, Christian C; Anderson, Lesley A; Bernstein, Leslie; Brown, Linda; Chow, Wong-Ho; Gammon, Marilie D; Kamangar, Farin; Liao, Linda M; Murray, Liam J; Ward, Mary H; Ye, Weimin; Wu, Anna H; Vaughan, Thomas L; Whiteman, David C; Cook, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal (EA) and esophagogastric junction (EGJA) adenocarcinoma have been steadily increasing in frequency in younger people; however, the etiology of these cancers is poorly understood. We therefore investigated associations of body mass index (BMI), cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, gastroesophageal reflux and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in relation to age-specific risks of EA and EGJA. We pooled individual participant data from eight population-based, case-control studies within the international Barrett's and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium (BEACON). The analysis included 1,363 EA patients, 1,472 EGJA patients and 5,728 control participants. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for age-specific (<50, 50-59, 60-69, ≥70 years) cancer outcomes, as well as interactions by age. BMI, smoking status and pack-years, recurrent gastroesophageal reflux and frequency of gastroesophageal reflux were positively associated with EA and EGJA in each age group. Early-onset EA (<50 years) had stronger associations with recurrent gastroesophageal reflux (OR = 8.06, 95% CI: 4.52, 14.37; peffect modification  = 0.01) and BMI (ORBMI ≥ 30 vs . <25  = 4.19, 95% CI: 2.23, 7.87; peffect modification  = 0.04), relative to older age groups. In contrast, inverse associations of NSAID use were strongest in the oldest age group (≥70 years), although this apparent difference was not statistically significant. Age-specific associations with EGJA showed similar, but slightly weaker patterns and no statistically significant differences by age were observed. Our study provides evidence that associations between obesity and gastroesophageal reflux are stronger among earlier onset EA cancers.

  7. Proportional Mortality due to Heart Failure and Ischemic Heart Diseases in the Brazilian Regions from 2004 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Gaui, Eduardo Nagib; Klein, Carlos Henrique; de Oliveira, Glaucia Maria Moraes

    2016-01-01

    Background: Heart failure (HF) and ischemic heart diseases (IHD) are important causes of death in Brazil. Objective: To assess proportional mortality (PM) due to HF and IHD as underlying causes stratified by sex and age groups in the Brazilian geoeconomic regions from 2004 to 2011. Methods: Data from death certificates were obtained in the DATASUS site under the following International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems codes, 10th Revision: 1) from chapter IX: I20 to I24 for acute IHD, I25 for chronic IHD, and I50 for HF; and 2) from chapter XVIII, for ill-defined causes (IDC). Results: Proportional mortality due to HF increased with age in both sexes and all regions, the highest percentages being found among elderly women. Among men, the highest percentages were observed in the West-Central region up to the ninth decade, but, among the eldest individuals, the highest percentages were identified in the Southern region. Among women, the regions did not differ up to the age group of 70-79 years, although the West-Central region took the lead from 50 to 79 years; however, from the age of 80 years on, the Southern region showed the highest PM due to HF. Proportional mortality due to acute IHD in all Brazilian regions and in both sexes increased up to the age group of 60-69 years, from which it decreased. Among men, the Southeastern region had the highest percentages in the age group of 50-59 years, while women had lower PM due to acute IHD than men in all regions. In both sexes, PM due to chronic IHD increased with age in the Southern and Southeastern regions, which did not happen in the others, while the Southern region had the highest rate of all regions for all age groups. Conclusions: Regional differences were more prominent at more advanced ages, especially when deaths due to IDC were excluded. PMID:27533259

  8. Inverse U-shaped curve for age dependency of torsional eye movement responses to galvanic vestibular stimulation.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Klaus; Naessl, Andrea; Schneider, Erich; Strupp, Michael; Brandt, Thomas; Dieterich, Marianne

    2003-07-01

    To investigate age dependent changes we analysed torsional eye movement responses to binaural and monaural galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) in 57 healthy subjects (20-69 years old). GVS (1-3 mA) induced torsional eye movements consisting of static torsion toward the anode (amplitude 1-6 degrees ) and superimposed torsional nystagmus (slow phase velocity 0.5-3 degrees /s, quick phase amplitude 0.5-2 degrees, nystagmus frequency 0.75-1.5 s-1). Static ocular torsion and torsional nystagmus increased from the third to the sixth decade and decreased in older subjects, e.g. slow phase velocity increased from 1.5 degrees /s (20-29 years) to 2.9 degrees /s (50-59 years) and decreased to 2.5 degrees /s for the seventh decade (60-69 years). Thus, an inverse U-shaped curve was found for the dependence of torsional eye movement responses on age. All structures relevant for vestibular function degenerate with age, but at varying times. Since hair cell loss precedes those seen in the vestibular nerve and Scarpa's ganglion, the decrease in hair cell counts could be compensated for by increased sensitivity of afferent nerve fibres or central mechanisms. Increased sensitivity could thus maintain normal function despite reduced peripheral input. As GVS acts at the vestibular nerve (thereby bypassing the hair cells), electrical stimulation should be more efficient in subjects with the beginning of hair cell degeneration, as seen in our data up to the sixth decade. The degeneration of nerve fibres, ganglion cells and central neurons becomes evident at older ages. Thus, the compensatory increase in sensitivity breaks down and GVS-induced eye movements decline-a finding that is reflected by the inverse U-shaped curve for age dependency presented in this study.

  9. Comparison of Barriers Against Mammography Screening in Socioeconomically Very Low and Very High Populations

    PubMed Central

    Soran, Atilla; Ozmen, Vahit

    2016-01-01

    Aim To compare barriers against mammography screening (MS) in socioeconomically the most and the least developed cities in a developing country, Turkey. Methods We compared two population-based survey studies investigating barriers against MS in women aged 40-69 years and living in the lowest socioeconomic status (SES) city (Mus) and the highest SES city (Istanbul/Bahcesehir). Results In Mus 2,054 and in Bahcesehir 908 women were surveyed. MS rate was higher in Bahcesehir (49% vs. 35%, p<0.001). Being younger than 50 years old and having no insurance were barriers against MS in Mus. Being older than 60 years of age, widowhood, being illiterate, unemployment, a monthly income lower than the hunger threshold and limited insurance coverage were barriers against MS in Bahcesehir. Both in Mus and in Bahcesehir women not reading the daily newspaper and not making annual gynecology visits had lower MS rates. Both in Mus and in Bahcesehir audiovisual media was the most common source of information about breast cancer (BC). Women, who had a chance to be informed about BC by their doctors, had a higher MS rate. Being knowledgeable about BC being the most common cancer in females increased MS rates in both cities, while a false belief of MS exposing to unnecessary radiation decreased MS rates in both cities. Conclusion Both in high and low SES populations more efforts should be given to influence women with low educational level, low-income level, and having no/limited insurance, while designing BC awareness programs. Low SES populations women being in 40-49 years age interval, in high SES populations being in 60-69 years age interval, and widowhood were SES-specific barriers and should be taken into consideration. Audiovisual media should be used efficiently to educate women on BC. Physicians from all specialties should not miss the chance to refer their patients to MS. PMID:27555988

  10. Predator-prey relations between age-1+ summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus, Linnaeus) and age-0 winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus, Walbaum): predator diets, prey selection, and effects of sediments and macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Manderson; Phelan; Stoner; Hilbert

    2000-08-23

    Laboratory experiments and weekly trammel net surveys in the Navesink River, New Jersey (USA) were used to examine the predator-prey interaction between age-1+ summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) and age-0 winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus). Winter flounder (24-67 mm TL) were the dominant piscine prey of summer flounder (n=95, 252-648 mm TL) collected in trammel nets. We observed a temporal shift in summer flounder diets from sand shrimp (Crangon septemspinosa) and winter flounder, dominant during June and early July, to blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) and other fishes (primarily Atlantic silversides, Menidia menidia and Atlantic menhaden, Brevortia tyrannus) later in the summer. Variations in prey selection appeared to be related to changes in the spatial distribution of predators and spatio-temporal variation in prey availability. In laboratory experiments, summer flounder (271-345 mm total length, TL) preferred demersal winter flounder to a pelagic fish (Atlantic silversides) and a benthic invertebrate (sand shrimp) prey, and the vulnerability of winter flounder increased with increasing prey body size from 20 to 90 mm TL. Experiments testing habitat effects showed that mortality of winter flounder in three different size classes (20-29, 40-49, 60-69 mm TL) was not influenced by sediment grain sizes permitting differential burial of the prey. However, vegetation enhanced survival, with fish suffering lower mortality in eelgrass (Zostera marina, 15+/-0.04%) than in sea lettuce (Ulva lactuca, 38+/-0.04%) or bare sand (70+/-0.07%) when the macrophytes were planted to produce similar leaf surface areas (5000 cm(2) m(-2)). Prey vulnerability appeared to be related to the role of vision in the predator's attack strategy and prey activity levels. PMID:10958899

  11. Age and gender distribution of Hepatitis C virus prevalence and genotypes of individuals of physical examination in WuHan, Central China.

    PubMed

    Niu, ZhiLi; Zhang, PingAn; Tong, YongQing

    2016-01-01

    observed for genotype 6. Among age group 50-59 years Genotype 1 was most common in male patients (29.05 % of 148) followed in 20-29 years (23.65 % of 148), genotype 2 in the age group 60-69 (12 cases of 31) and genotype 3 in the age group 50-59 (4 cases of 13) and genotype 6 was most frequent in the age group 30-39 (4 cases of 7). The frequency of HCV prevalence was significantly higher in female patients compared to males before ages 60, while the opposite result was observed after 60 years. The most common HCV genotype in WuHan was subtype 1b followed by 2a and more common among women than males patients. Further studies are needed to collect a large number of samples to estimate the different epidemiology of the HCV genotypes, because the sample size of non-genotype 1b and 2a is not large enough and other factors like disease history/monthly income/etc. are not included in our study. PMID:27652130

  12. Age and gender distribution of Hepatitis C virus prevalence and genotypes of individuals of physical examination in WuHan, Central China.

    PubMed

    Niu, ZhiLi; Zhang, PingAn; Tong, YongQing

    2016-01-01

    observed for genotype 6. Among age group 50-59 years Genotype 1 was most common in male patients (29.05 % of 148) followed in 20-29 years (23.65 % of 148), genotype 2 in the age group 60-69 (12 cases of 31) and genotype 3 in the age group 50-59 (4 cases of 13) and genotype 6 was most frequent in the age group 30-39 (4 cases of 7). The frequency of HCV prevalence was significantly higher in female patients compared to males before ages 60, while the opposite result was observed after 60 years. The most common HCV genotype in WuHan was subtype 1b followed by 2a and more common among women than males patients. Further studies are needed to collect a large number of samples to estimate the different epidemiology of the HCV genotypes, because the sample size of non-genotype 1b and 2a is not large enough and other factors like disease history/monthly income/etc. are not included in our study.

  13. Age-related differences in microstructure, density and biomechanics of vertebral cancellous bone of Chinese males.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo-Min; Xu, Chuan-Jie; Kong, Ning; Zhu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Xing-Yi; Yao, Yan

    2012-12-01

    The conventional lumbar separation was performed by removing soft tissue, subsidiary structures and leaving only the vertebral body. The vertebral body was cut into two halves along the median sagittal plane, keeping the upper and lower end plates of each half, which were subsequently used for biomechanical, morphological and density experiments. From the age of 20-29 to 30-39 years, both the horizontal trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) and vertical Tb.Th decreased; the horizontal and vertical Tb.Sp increased; the plate-like trabecular Tb.Th decreased; the apparent density and volume ratio decreased; and the elastic modulus and the ultimate stress decreased; with all changes being statistically significant (p < 0.01). Similar trends were obtained from ages 40-49 to 50-59, although the changes were not significant (p > 0.05), except for the reduction in ultimate stress (p < 0.05). With aging, the collagen cross-linking capacity declined; the thicknesses of the collagen fibrils were variable, ranging from almost the same to loose, sparse or disordered thickness; and the finer collagen fibrils between the thick filaments were disorganized. In males aged from 20 to 59 years old, the horizontal and vertical Tb.Th and the plate-like Tb.Th of the vertebral body decreased, while the horizontal and vertical Tb.Sp increased. Additionally, the density, elastic modulus and the ultimate stress of the cancellous bone decreased with age. Thus, the associated changes of bone microstructure, density and biomechanics with age may lead to an increased risk of osteoporosis and fracture.

  14. Health care and social media platforms in hospitals.

    PubMed

    McCarroll, Michele L; Armbruster, Shannon D; Chung, Jae Eun; Kim, Junghyun; McKenzie, Alissa; von Gruenigen, Vivian E

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this article is to illustrate user characteristics of a hospital's social media structure using analytics and user surveys. A 1-year retrospective analysis was conducted along with an Internet survey of users of the hospital's Facebook, Twitter, and blog. Of the survey respondents (n = 163), 95.7% are female and 4.3% are male; most are ages 50-59 years (31.5%) and 40-49 years (27.8%); and 93.2% are Caucasian. However, the hospital system database revealed 55% female and 37% minority population, respectively. Of the survey respondents, 61.4% reported having a bachelor's degree or higher, whereas only 11.7% reported having a high school degree/equivalent or lower. However, within the hospital patient databases, 93% of patients have a high school degree/equivalent or lower and only 3% have a bachelor's degree or higher in our women's services population. Social media were used to seek personal health information 68.7% (n = 112), to learn about hospital programming 27.6% (n = 45), and to seek family health information 25.2% (n = 41). Respondents younger than 49 years of age were more likely to seek personal health information using social media compared to those 50 years of age and older (p = .02). Respondents with a bachelor's degree or higher education were statistically less likely to search for physician information compared to those less educated individuals (p = .04). We conclude that social media may play an important role in personal health information, especially for young female respondents; however, the survey provides strong evidence that further research is needed to ensure that social network sites provided by hospitals are reaching the full spectrum of health system patients. PMID:24295109

  15. Prevalence of colorectal neoplasms in young, average risk individuals: A turning tide between East and West

    PubMed Central

    Leshno, Ari; Moshkowitz, Menachem; David, Maayan; Galazan, Lior; Neugut, Alfred I; Arber, Nadir; Santo, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the prevalence of colorectal neoplasia in average risk persons 40-59 years of age in Israel and to compare the results with other populations. METHODS We reviewed the results of asymptomatic average-risk subjects, aged 40 to 59 years, undergoing their first screening colonoscopy between April 1994 and January 2014. The detection rates of adenoma, advanced adenoma (AA) and colorectal cancer (CRC) were determined in the 40’s and 50’s age groups by gender. The prevalence of lesions was compared between age groups. After meticulous review of the literature, these results were compared to published studies addressing the prevalence of colorectal neoplasia in similar patient groups, in a variety of geographical locations. RESULTS We included first screening colonoscopy results of 1750 individuals. The prevalence of adenomas, AA and CRC was 8.3%, 1.0% and 0.2% in the 40-49 age group and 13.7%, 2.4% and 0.2% in the 50-59 age group, respectively. Age-dependent differences in adenoma and AA rates were significant only among men (P < 0.005). Literature review disclosed 17 relevant studies. As expected, in both Asian and Western populations, the risks for overall adenoma and advanced adenoma was significantly higher in the 50's age group as compared to the 40's age group in a similar fashion. The result of the current study were similar to previous studies on Western populations. A substantially higher rate of adenoma, was observed in studies conducted among Asian populations in both age groups. CONCLUSION The higher rate of colorectal neoplasia in Asian populations requires further investigation and reconsideration as to the starting age of screening in that population.

  16. Estimation of radiographic angles and distances in coronal part of mandibular molars: A study of panoramic radiographs using EMAGO software

    PubMed Central

    Tsatsoulis, Ioannis N.; Filippatos, Christos G.; Floratos, Spyros G.; Kontakiotis, Evangelos G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate radiographically the effects of age and external irritating stimuli on the morphology and thickness of the pulp chamber ceiling and floor in mandibular molars. Materials and Methods: A total of 234 panoramic radiographs were recruited and 494 mandibular molars were examined in this study. The sample was divided into six age groups: Group 1, <20 years; Group 2, 20-29 years; Group 3, 30-39 years; Group 4, 40-49 years; Group 5, 50-59 years and Group 6, >60 years. Each group was subdivided into two subgroups with regard to the tooth condition (intact or non-intact teeth). Four distances, two angles and two ratios were measured, in order to estimate the dimensions of the pulp chamber and the thickness of the pulp chamber ceiling and floor. Results: The thickness of the pulp chamber ceiling and floor increased significantly from Group 1 to 6. The pulp chamber floor angle presented progressive sharpness from Group 1 to 6 whereas the pulp chamber ceiling angle presented progressive bluntness from Group 1 to 5 and sharpness from Group 5 to 6. Significant differences were identified in the thickness of the pulp chamber ceiling, the thickness of the pulp chamber floor and the ceiling-floor distance between intact and non-intact teeth. Conclusion: Based on those results, there are differences in the location of secondary dentin formation between the two pulp chamber walls. Age is related to diminished pulp chamber size. The increase rate of the pulp chamber ceiling thickness is similar to that of the pulp chamber floor thickness. Furthermore, external irritating stimuli have an effect on the pulp chamber dimensional changes. PMID:24966753

  17. Prevalence of colorectal neoplasms in young, average risk individuals: A turning tide between East and West

    PubMed Central

    Leshno, Ari; Moshkowitz, Menachem; David, Maayan; Galazan, Lior; Neugut, Alfred I; Arber, Nadir; Santo, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the prevalence of colorectal neoplasia in average risk persons 40-59 years of age in Israel and to compare the results with other populations. METHODS We reviewed the results of asymptomatic average-risk subjects, aged 40 to 59 years, undergoing their first screening colonoscopy between April 1994 and January 2014. The detection rates of adenoma, advanced adenoma (AA) and colorectal cancer (CRC) were determined in the 40’s and 50’s age groups by gender. The prevalence of lesions was compared between age groups. After meticulous review of the literature, these results were compared to published studies addressing the prevalence of colorectal neoplasia in similar patient groups, in a variety of geographical locations. RESULTS We included first screening colonoscopy results of 1750 individuals. The prevalence of adenomas, AA and CRC was 8.3%, 1.0% and 0.2% in the 40-49 age group and 13.7%, 2.4% and 0.2% in the 50-59 age group, respectively. Age-dependent differences in adenoma and AA rates were significant only among men (P < 0.005). Literature review disclosed 17 relevant studies. As expected, in both Asian and Western populations, the risks for overall adenoma and advanced adenoma was significantly higher in the 50's age group as compared to the 40's age group in a similar fashion. The result of the current study were similar to previous studies on Western populations. A substantially higher rate of adenoma, was observed in studies conducted among Asian populations in both age groups. CONCLUSION The higher rate of colorectal neoplasia in Asian populations requires further investigation and reconsideration as to the starting age of screening in that population. PMID:27621582

  18. Age estimation using lower permanent first molars on a panoramic radiograph: A digital image analysis

    PubMed Central

    Talabani, Ranjdar M.; Baban, Mohammed T.; Mahmood, Mohammed A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A study was carried out to analyze the efficacy and practical application for age estimation using digital panoramic radiograph to exploit image analysis to obtain metric measurement of morphological parameters of permanent mandibular first molar on Sulaimani population. Materials and Methods: In the present study a population of known age and sex was studied and subjected to digital panoramic radiographic examination. The correlation between the reduction of coronal pulp cavity and chronological age was examined in a sample of 96 individuals distributed into four age groups: 20-29 years (29 cases), 30-39 years (29 cases), 40-49 years (26 cases) and 50-59 years (12 cases). The height (mm) of the crown (CH = coronal height) and the height (mm) of coronal pulp cavity (CPCH = coronal pulp cavity height) of 96 of first molars from all subjects was measured. The tooth–coronal index (TCI) after Ikeda et al. was computed for each tooth and regressed on real age. Results: ANOVA was used to show the strength of relation between the age and TCI (P = 0.0000). The correlation coefficient (r2) was 0.49, which mean there is strong negative linear regression between age and TCI with the r2, regarding predicting age using TCI value, after the following equation calculated, Predicted age = 3.78 – (0.064 TCI) showed that there is no significant difference between real age and estimated age. Conclusion: There is a strong negative liner relationship between TCIs of mandibular first molars with chronological age of Sulaimani population, and age of individuals can therefore be estimated with a good degree of accuracy using regression equations. PMID:26005307

  19. Health care and social media platforms in hospitals.

    PubMed

    McCarroll, Michele L; Armbruster, Shannon D; Chung, Jae Eun; Kim, Junghyun; McKenzie, Alissa; von Gruenigen, Vivian E

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this article is to illustrate user characteristics of a hospital's social media structure using analytics and user surveys. A 1-year retrospective analysis was conducted along with an Internet survey of users of the hospital's Facebook, Twitter, and blog. Of the survey respondents (n = 163), 95.7% are female and 4.3% are male; most are ages 50-59 years (31.5%) and 40-49 years (27.8%); and 93.2% are Caucasian. However, the hospital system database revealed 55% female and 37% minority population, respectively. Of the survey respondents, 61.4% reported having a bachelor's degree or higher, whereas only 11.7% reported having a high school degree/equivalent or lower. However, within the hospital patient databases, 93% of patients have a high school degree/equivalent or lower and only 3% have a bachelor's degree or higher in our women's services population. Social media were used to seek personal health information 68.7% (n = 112), to learn about hospital programming 27.6% (n = 45), and to seek family health information 25.2% (n = 41). Respondents younger than 49 years of age were more likely to seek personal health information using social media compared to those 50 years of age and older (p = .02). Respondents with a bachelor's degree or higher education were statistically less likely to search for physician information compared to those less educated individuals (p = .04). We conclude that social media may play an important role in personal health information, especially for young female respondents; however, the survey provides strong evidence that further research is needed to ensure that social network sites provided by hospitals are reaching the full spectrum of health system patients.

  20. Chinese herbal prescriptions for osteoarthritis in Taiwan: analysis of national health insurance dataset

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been commonly used for treating osteoarthritis in Asia for centuries. This study aimed to conduct a large-scale pharmaco-epidemiologic study and evaluate the frequency and patterns of CHM used in treating osteoarthritis in Taiwan. Methods A complete database (total 22,520,776 beneficiaries) of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient claims offered by the National Health Insurance program in Taiwan for the year 2002 was employed for this research. Patients with osteoarthritis were identified according to the diagnostic code of the International Classification of Disease among claimed visiting files. Corresponding prescription files were analyzed, and an association rule was applied to evaluate the co-prescription of CHM for treating osteoarthritis. Results There were 20,059 subjects who visited TCM clinics for osteoarthritis and received a total of 32,050 CHM prescriptions. Subjects between 40 and 49 years of age comprised the largest number of those treated (19.2%), followed by 50-59 years (18.8%) and 60-69 years group (18.2%). In addition, female subjects used CHMs for osteoarthritis more frequently than male subjects (female: male = 1.89: l). There was an average of 5.2 items prescribed in the form of either an individual Chinese herb or formula in a single CHM prescription for osteoarthritis. Du-zhong (Eucommia bark) was the most commonly prescribed Chinese single herb, while Du-huo-ji-sheng-tang was the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula for osteoarthritis. According to the association rule, the most commonly prescribed formula was Du-huo-ji-sheng-tang plus Shen-tong-zhu-yu-tang, and the most commonly prescribed triple-drug combination was Du-huo-ji-sheng-tang, Gu-sui-pu (Drynaria fortune (Kunze) J. Sm.), and Xu-Duan (Himalaya teasel). Nevertheless, further clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHMs for treating osteoarthritis. Conclusions This study

  1. Influence of Pastoralists' Sociocultural Activities on Tsetse-Trypanosome-Cattle Reservoir Interface: The Risk of Human African Trypanosomiasis in North-Central Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Alhaji, N B; Kabir, J

    2016-06-01

    The study investigated socio-cultural characteristics of pastoralists that influenced on the tsetse-trypanosome-cattle reservoir interface thereby predisposing them to HAT in Niger State, North-central Nigeria. It was a cross-sectional survey of adult pastoral herders, aged 30 years and above, and conducted between October 2012 and February 2013. A face-to-face structured questionnaire was administered on the pastoralists nested in 96 cattle herds with questions focused on pastoralists' socio-cultural activities and behavioral practices related to HAT risk. Descriptive and analytic statistics were used to describe the obtained data. A total of 384 pastoralists participated, with mean age of 49.6  ± 10.76 SD years. Male respondents constituted 86.7% of gender, while pastoralists of age group 40-49 years constituted 35.4% of respondents. About 59.4% of the pastoralists had knowledge about HAT and its symptoms and only 33.9% of them believed that cattle served as reservoir of HAT trypanosome. Knowledge/belief levels of the pastoralists about African trypanosomiasis occurrence in humans and animals were statistically significant. Males were four times more likely to be exposed to HAT (OR = 3.67; 95% CI: 1.42, 9.52); age group 60-69 was also four times more likely to be exposed (OR = 3.59; 95% CI: 1.56, 8.28); and nomadic pastoralists were two times more likely to be exposed to HAT (OR = 2.07; 95% CI: 1.37, 3.14). All cultural practices significantly influenced exposure to HAT with extensive husbandry system three times more likely to predisposed pastoralists to HAT (OR = 3.21; 95% CI: 1.65, 6.24). Socio-cultural characteristics of pastoralists influenced exposure to HAT risk and, therefore, there is a need to sensitize them to bring changes to their socio-cultural practices and perceptions to achieve effective and long term sustainable HAT control. Elimination strategies of parasites in animals and vectors should be considered to avoid reintroduction

  2. New chemosensory component in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES): first-year results for measured olfactory dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Howard J; Rawal, Shristi; Li, Chuan-Ming; Duffy, Valerie B

    2016-06-01

    The U.S. NHANES included chemosensory assessments in the 2011-2014 protocol. We provide an overview of this protocol and 2012 olfactory exam findings. Of the 1818 NHANES participants aged ≥40 years, 1281 (70.5 %) completed the exam; non-participation mostly was due to time constraints. Health technicians administered an 8-item, forced-choice, odor identification task scored as normosmic (6-8 odors identified correctly) versus olfactory dysfunction, including hyposmic (4-5 correct) and anosmic/severe hyposmic (0-3 correct). Interviewers recorded self-reported smell alterations (during past year, since age 25, phantosmia), histories of sinonasal problems, xerostomia, dental extractions, head or facial trauma, and chemosensory-related treatment and changes in quality of life. Olfactory dysfunction was found in 12.4 % (13.3 million adults; 55 % males/45 % females) including 3.2 % anosmic/severe hyposmic (3.4 million; 74 % males/26 % females). Selected age-specific prevalences were 4.2 % (40-49 years), 12.7 % (60-69 years), and 39.4 % (80+ years). Among adults ≥70 years, misidentification rates for warning odors were 20.3 % for smoke and 31.3 % for natural gas. The highest sensitivity (correctly identifying dysfunction) and specificity (correctly identifying normosmia) of self-reported olfactory alteration was among anosmics/severe hyposmics (54.4 % and 78.1 %, respectively). In age- and sex-adjusted logistic regression analysis, risk factors of olfactory dysfunction were racial/ethnic minority, income-to-poverty ratio ≤ 1.1, education

  3. New chemosensory component in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES): first-year results for measured olfactory dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Howard J; Rawal, Shristi; Li, Chuan-Ming; Duffy, Valerie B

    2016-06-01

    The U.S. NHANES included chemosensory assessments in the 2011-2014 protocol. We provide an overview of this protocol and 2012 olfactory exam findings. Of the 1818 NHANES participants aged ≥40 years, 1281 (70.5 %) completed the exam; non-participation mostly was due to time constraints. Health technicians administered an 8-item, forced-choice, odor identification task scored as normosmic (6-8 odors identified correctly) versus olfactory dysfunction, including hyposmic (4-5 correct) and anosmic/severe hyposmic (0-3 correct). Interviewers recorded self-reported smell alterations (during past year, since age 25, phantosmia), histories of sinonasal problems, xerostomia, dental extractions, head or facial trauma, and chemosensory-related treatment and changes in quality of life. Olfactory dysfunction was found in 12.4 % (13.3 million adults; 55 % males/45 % females) including 3.2 % anosmic/severe hyposmic (3.4 million; 74 % males/26 % females). Selected age-specific prevalences were 4.2 % (40-49 years), 12.7 % (60-69 years), and 39.4 % (80+ years). Among adults ≥70 years, misidentification rates for warning odors were 20.3 % for smoke and 31.3 % for natural gas. The highest sensitivity (correctly identifying dysfunction) and specificity (correctly identifying normosmia) of self-reported olfactory alteration was among anosmics/severe hyposmics (54.4 % and 78.1 %, respectively). In age- and sex-adjusted logistic regression analysis, risk factors of olfactory dysfunction were racial/ethnic minority, income-to-poverty ratio ≤ 1.1, education

  4. Long-term arsenic exposure and ischemic heart disease in arseniasis-hyperendemic villages in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chin-Hsiao; Chong, Choon-Khim; Tseng, Ching-Ping; Hsueh, Yu-Mei; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Tseng, Ching-Chung; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2003-01-31

    The association between long-term arsenic exposure and peripheral vascular disease has been well documented in our previous epidemiologic studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether long-term arsenic exposure could be associated with ischemic heart disease (IHD). A total of 462 subjects living in the blackfoot disease-hyperendemic villages along the southwestern coast of Taiwan and characterized by long-term arsenic exposure from drinking artesian well water was studied. The subjects were recruited from an epidemiologic cohort who participated in a health examination. IHD was diagnosed by coding the resting electrocardiograms with the Minnesota code. History of arsenic exposure was estimated through information obtained from a personal interview according to a structured questionnaire and the arsenic content in artesian well water of the villages. Cumulative arsenic exposure (CAE) was calculated as the sum of the products multiplying the arsenic concentration in artesian well water (mg/l) by the duration of drinking the water (years) in consecutive periods of living in the different villages. Among the subjects, 78 cases (16.9%) were diagnosed as having IHD. The prevalence rates of IHD for the age groups of 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, and >/=60 years were 4.9, 7.5, 16.8, and 30.7%, respectively (P<0.001). For those with CAE of 0, 0.1-14.9 and >/=15 mg/l-years, the prevalence rates of IHD were 5.2, 10.9 and 24.1%, respectively (P<0.001). The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for IHD were 1.60 (0.48, 5.34), and 3.60 (1.11, 11.65), respectively, for those with CAE of 0.1-14.9 and >/=15.0 mg/l-years, when compared with those lacking drinking water exposure to arsenic after multivariate adjustment. It is concluded that IHD in the arseniasis-hyperendemic villages in Taiwan was associated with long-term arsenic exposure.

  5. [Therapeutic experience with cefadroxil syrup in acute infections, especially scarlet fever, in pediatric field (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Minamitani, M; Hachimori, K; Nakazawa, H; Tomori, N

    1981-02-01

    Clinical effects were investigated on cefadroxil powder for syrup (containing 100 mg of cefadroxil per 1 g) for acute bacterial infections (mostly scarlet fever) in the field of pediatrics, and the results were obtained as follows. Cefadroxil was applied in 100 cases of scarlet fever. Among 49 cases administered 30-39 mg/kg/day, the results were excellent in 34 cases and good in 15 cases, efficacy ratio being thus 100%. Among 38 cases administered 40-49 mg/kg/day, the results were excellent in 33 cases, and good in 5 cases, efficacy ratio being thus 100%. Out of 4 cases administered 20-29 mg/kg/day, the results were excellent in 3 cases and good in 1 case, while out of 9 cases administered 50-59 mg/kg/day, excellent in 4 cases and good in 5 cases. Among 78 cases of scarlet fever from which beta-hemolytic Streptococcus was proven from swab liquid of palatal tonsil, 67 cases received cefadroxil at a daily dose of 30-49 mg/kg, and the bacteria turned to negative the next day of administration in 72 cases, 2 days later in 6 cases. Cefadroxil was administered at a daily dose of 46 mg/kg for 7 days in 1 case of SSS syndrome of which Staphylococcus aureus was proven from skin lesion, and local bacteria turned to negative, as well as clinical effect was excellent. No pathogen was proven in 1 case of acute tonsillitis, maybe because ampicillin (ABPC) and cefazolin (CEZ) were administered before cefadroxil treatment, and yet a clinical efficacy was judged by administering cefadroxil at a daily dose of 46 mg/kg, though no clinical improvement was observed with the prior antibiotics. As to the side effects of cefadroxil in 102 cases, a slight vomiting was noticed in 6 cases, though the administration could be continued, and a slight rise of GOT or GPT was observed respectively in 3 cases and 1 case, all of which were recovered without abnormal clinical findings. Among the patients of scarlet fever, after beta-hemolytic Streptococcus became negative, reelimination or recurrence

  6. The Impact of Age on Retention in Care and Viral Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Yehia, Baligh R.; Rebeiro, Peter; Althoff, Keri N.; Agwu, Allison L.; Horberg, Michael A.; Samji, Hasina; Napravnik, Sonia; Mayer, Kenneth; Tedaldi, Ellen; Silverberg, Michael J.; Thorne, Jennifer E.; Burchell, Ann N.; Rourke, Sean B.; Rachlis, Anita; Mayor, Angel; Gill, M. John; Zinski, Anne; Ohl, Michael; Anastos, Kathryn; Abraham, Alison G.; Kitahata, Mari M.; Moore, Richard D.; Gebo, Kelly A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Retention in care is important for all HIV-infected persons and is strongly associated with initiation of antiretroviral therapy and viral suppression. However, it is unclear how retention in care and age interact to effect viral suppression. We evaluated whether the association between retention and viral suppression differed by age at entry into care. Methods Cross-sectional analysis (2006-2010) involving 17,044 HIV-infected adults in 14 clinical cohorts across the U.S. and Canada. Patients contributed one year of data during their first full calendar year of clinical observation. Poisson regression examined associations between retention measures [U.S. National HIV/AIDS Strategy (NHAS), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), 6-month gap, and 3-month visit constancy] and viral suppression (HIV RNA ≤200 copies/mL) by age group: 18-29, 30-39, 40–49, 50–59, and ≥60 years old. Results Overall, 89% of patients were retained in care using the NHAS measure, 74% with the DHHS indicator, 85% did not have a 6-month gap, and 62% had visits in 3-4 quarters of the year; 54% achieved viral suppression. For each retention measure, the association with viral suppression was significant for only the younger age groups (18-29 and 30-39 years): 18-29 [adjusted prevalence ratio (APR)=1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.03-1.70]; 30-39 (APR=1.23, CI=1.01-1.49); 40-49 (APR=1.06, CI=0.90-1.22); 50-59 (APR=0.92, CI=0.75-1.13); ≥60 years (APR=0.99, CI=0.63-1.56) using the NHAS measure as a representative example. Conclusions These results have important implications for improving viral control among younger adults, emphasizing the crucial role retention in care plays in supporting viral suppression in this population. PMID:25559604

  7. 47 CFR 74.786 - Digital channel assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... shall not cause harmful interference to and must accept interference from non-Government fixed operation... auction Web site at http://www.fcc.gov/auctions. (e) UHF Channels 60-69 may be assigned to a digital...

  8. 47 CFR 74.786 - Digital channel assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... shall not cause harmful interference to and must accept interference from non-Government fixed operation... auction Web site at http://www.fcc.gov/auctions. (e) UHF Channels 60-69 may be assigned to a digital...

  9. 47 CFR 74.786 - Digital channel assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... shall not cause harmful interference to and must accept interference from non-Government fixed operation... auction Web site at http://www.fcc.gov/auctions. (e) UHF Channels 60-69 may be assigned to a digital...

  10. 7 CFR 51.38 - Basis for fees and rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... after March 1, 2008) for over a half carlot equivalent of an individual product; (ii) $109 ($125, on or after March 1, 2008) for a half carlot equivalent or less of an individual product; (iii) $60 ($69, on...) $109 ($125, on or after March 1, 2008) for over a half carlot equivalent of an individual product;...

  11. 75 FR 39947 - Proposed Data Collections Submitted for Public Comment and Recommendations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... Form Number of responses per per response Total burden respondents respondent (in hrs) hours Induction... Survey 10,302 1 20/60 3,434 CHC Induction Interview-Facility 208 1 20/60 69 ] Total 18,010 Dated: July...

  12. 77 FR 42197 - Small Business Size Standards: Construction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ..., Other Heavy and Civil Engineering Construction, from $20 million to $30 million in average annual... (Other Heavy and Civil Engineering Construction),averaged $100 million or more annually in Federal... ......... 30.0 33.5 237990 Other Heavy and Civil Engineering 5.0 59.9 2.5 10.7 476.2 0.812...

  13. Education and the Prevalence of Pain. NBER Working Paper No. 14964

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atlas, Steven J.; Skinner, Jonathan S.

    2009-01-01

    Many Americans report chronic and disabling pain, even in the absence of identifiable clinical disorders. We first examine the prevalence of pain in the older U.S. population using the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Among 50-59 year females, for example, pain rates ranged from 26 percent for college graduates to 55 percent for those without a…

  14. 77 FR 48536 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Logan Museum of Anthropology, Beloit College, Beloit, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... female 25-30 years of age. A more recent examination indicates the individual was a male, aged 50-59, and... village in the Middle Missouri subarea. The site was occupied from about A.D. 1550 to 1725 and...

  15. 49 CFR 655.52 - Substance abuse professional (SAP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OPERATIONS Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 655.52 Substance abuse professional (SAP). The SAP must perform the functions in 49 CFR Part 40. ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Substance abuse professional (SAP). 655.52...

  16. 49 CFR 655.52 - Substance abuse professional (SAP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OPERATIONS Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 655.52 Substance abuse professional (SAP). The SAP must perform the functions in 49 CFR Part 40. ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Substance abuse professional (SAP). 655.52...

  17. 49 CFR 655.52 - Substance abuse professional (SAP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OPERATIONS Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 655.52 Substance abuse professional (SAP). The SAP must perform the functions in 49 CFR Part 40. ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Substance abuse professional (SAP). 655.52...

  18. 49 CFR 655.52 - Substance abuse professional (SAP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OPERATIONS Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 655.52 Substance abuse professional (SAP). The SAP must perform the functions in 49 CFR Part 40. ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Substance abuse professional (SAP). 655.52...

  19. 49 CFR 655.52 - Substance abuse professional (SAP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OPERATIONS Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 655.52 Substance abuse professional (SAP). The SAP must perform the functions in 49 CFR Part 40. ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substance abuse professional (SAP). 655.52...

  20. 49 CFR 382.117 - Public interest exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING General § 382.117 Public interest exclusion. No employer shall use the services of a service agent who is subject to public interest exclusion in accordance with 49 CFR part 40... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public interest exclusion. 382.117 Section...

  1. Online Health Information (OHI) Utilization among Selected Worksite Employees in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Su-I; Hsiao, Tun-Jen; Hou, Peng-Hsi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study compared Internet and online health information (OHI) utilization among selected employees age 40-49 and 50-64 years, and examined the influence of age, gender, education, and worksite. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to participants from two worksites in Taiwan. Results: A total of 527 employees completed the survey…

  2. 47 CFR 15.712 - Interference protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... channels within 2.4 kilometers at the following locations. (1) The Naval Radio Research Observatory in...′40″ W. (3) The following facilities: Observatory Longitude(deg/min/sec) Latitude(deg/min/sec) Allen Telescope Array 121 28 24 W 40 49 04 N Arecibo Observatory 066 45 11 W 18 20 46 N Green Bank Telescope...

  3. The Prevalence, Types and Perceived Outcomes of Crisis Episodes in Early Adulthood and Midlife: A Structured Retrospective-Autobiographical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Oliver C.; Wright, Gordon R. T.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to gain data on the prevalence, types and perceived outcomes of crisis episodes in three age decades of adult life: 20-29, 30-39 and 40-49. A further aim was to explore the relationship between crisis occurrence and empathy. A retrospective-autobiographical survey instrument and an empathy questionnaire were…

  4. [Reference standards in the performance of a mammographic screening program. Results of the screening program in the province of Florence, 1992].

    PubMed

    Ciatto, S; Bonardi, R; Rosselli del Turco, M

    1993-10-01

    The authors report the results of the Florence District program for the year 1992. 11,033 subjects were examined. Attendance rate (64.4%) was significantly related to age (42-49 = 71.0%; 50-59 = 66.7%; 60-70 = 58.5%). Recall rate to diagnostic assessment was 2.09% (mammographic abnormalities = 199, subjective symptoms other than pain = 32) and was related to age (42-49 = 3.12%; 50-59 = 1.65%; 60-70 = 1.77%). According to the results of diagnostic assessment 53 surgical biopsies (0.48%) were recommended and performed. The biopsy rate was also related to age (42-49 = 0.2%; 50-59 = 0.4%; 60-70 = 0.7%). Forty-seven carcinomas were detected in 46 subjects (benign/malignant biopsy ratio = 0.13). Cancer detection rate was 0.42% and changed significantly with age (42-49 = 0.13; 50-59 = 0.36; 60-70 = 0.68%), as well as the observed/expected cancer ratio (42-49 = 0.89; 50-59 = 2.03; 60-70 = 2.98). Detected cancers were nonpalpable in 57% of cases. Pathologic staging was pTIS in 2 cases, pT1a in 5, pT1b in 17, pT1c in 17, pT2 in 5, and pT4b in one case. Six of 47 (12.8%) cancers involved axillary nodes. A preliminary estimate of screening cost yielded a total cost of Lit. 397,671,000 for the year 1992--i.e., Lit. 36,000 per examined subject and Lit. 8,461,000 per detected cancer. The results are compared with reference standards for the evaluation of screening performance provided by the national breast screening program in the United Kingdom.

  5. [The influence of different types of physical exertions on the mature males' biological age].

    PubMed

    Sirotin, A B; Belozerova, L M; Sergeeva, I G; Zhukov, V N; Kolegova, N G

    2014-01-01

    We studied the biological age according to anthropometric indexes, mental, physical and both the types of working efficiency in 122 males at the age of 50-59 years. All of them were devided into 5 groups: untrained individuals, going in for general physical training, sport veterans, specializing in endurance training, sport plays representatives, weight-lifters. We found out a younger biological age in sport veterans, who were carrying out dynamic exertions.

  6. Relationship between performance, dry-land power and kinematics in master swimmers.

    PubMed

    Espada, Mario C; Costa, Mario J; Costa, Aldo M; Silva, Antonio J; Barbosa, Tiago M; Pereira, Ana F

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze the relationships between sprint swimming performance, dry-land power, and kinematics in master swimmers. Twenty-two male master swimmers were separated in two groups based on their chronological age: (i) 30-39 years and; (ii) 40-49 years. Maximum dry-land power was determined through counter movement jump and 3 kg medicine ball throwing (Hmax and Tmax, respectively). Kinematic determinants of performance were measured during a maximal bout of 15, 25 and 50 m front crawl (T15, T25, T50). Stroke frequency (SF), stroke length (SL) and stroke index (SI) were calculated as kinematical aspects of the stroke. In the 30-39 group, SI25 was correlated to T25 (r = -0.76, p < 0.01, η2 = 0.96), the same was observed between SI50 and T50 (r = -0.83, p < 0.01, η2 = 0.96). Only SI50 was significantly correlated to T50 (r = 0.86, p < 0.01, η2 = 0.97) in the 40-49 years age cohort. In dryland power variables, Hmax and Tmax were only correlated in the younger master swimmers group (r = -0.87, p < 0.01, η2 = 0.97). There were no significant differences (p < 0.05) between younger (30-39 years) and older (40-49 years) swimmers groups in dry-land tests (Hmax 28.5 ± 5.9 vs. 26.5 ± 3.9 cm and Tmax 4.2 ± 1.0 vs. 4.2 ± 1.1 m). Our results suggest that swimming performance in younger master swimmers (30-39 years) seem more dependent on kinematic swimming variables than on strength parameters, which were most related to swimming performance in the older master swimmers (40-49 years). PMID:27406135

  7. Autism Symptoms across Adulthood in Men with Fragile X Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Sigan L.; Wheeler, Anne C.; Mailick, Marsha R.; Raspa, Melissa; Mihaila, Iulia; Bishop, Ellen; Bailey, Donald B.

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional analysis was used to examine age-related differences in ASD symptoms and corresponding differences in disruptive behavior and social skills in 281 adult men with fragile X syndrome. Four age groups were created: 18-21, 22-29, 30-39, and 40-49 years. The 18-21 year-old group was reported to have more impairments in verbal…

  8. [DEVELOPMENT OF THE QUADRIVALENT LIVE ATTENUATED INFLUENZA VACCINE INCLUDING TWO INFLUENZA B LINEAGES--VICTORIA AND YAMAGATA].

    PubMed

    Desheva, Yu A; Smolonogina, T A; Doroshenko, E M; Rudenko, L G

    2016-01-01

    This work is devoted to the research of the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) comprising two reassortant B/USSR/60/69-based vaccine influenza viruses Victoria and Yamagata. The intranasal immunization of the CBA mice with both Victoria and Yamagata strains induced 100% lung protection against the subsequent infection with the wild-type influenza B viruses of any antigen lineage. The quadrivalent LAIV (qLAIV) comprising both reassortant influenza B viruses Victoria and Yamagata were safe and areactogenic in adult volunteers. Following qLAIV administration the immune response was achieved to both Victoria and Yamagata lineages. PMID:27145595

  9. 45 CFR 305.33 - Determination of applicable percentages based on performance levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 100 79 80 98 78 79 96 77 78 94 76 77 92 75 76 90 74 75 88 73 74 86 72 73 84 71 72 82 70 71 80 69 70 79 68 69 78 67 68 77 66 67 76 65 66 75 64 65 74 63 64 73 62 63 72 61 62 71 60 61 70 59 60 69 58 59 68 57... 96 77 78 94 76 77 92 75 76 90 74 75 88 73 74 86 72 73 84 71 72 82 70 71 80 69 70 79 68 69 78 67 68...

  10. 45 CFR 305.33 - Determination of applicable percentages based on performance levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 100 79 80 98 78 79 96 77 78 94 76 77 92 75 76 90 74 75 88 73 74 86 72 73 84 71 72 82 70 71 80 69 70 79 68 69 78 67 68 77 66 67 76 65 66 75 64 65 74 63 64 73 62 63 72 61 62 71 60 61 70 59 60 69 58 59 68 57... 96 77 78 94 76 77 92 75 76 90 74 75 88 73 74 86 72 73 84 71 72 82 70 71 80 69 70 79 68 69 78 67 68...

  11. 45 CFR 305.33 - Determination of applicable percentages based on performance levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 100 79 80 98 78 79 96 77 78 94 76 77 92 75 76 90 74 75 88 73 74 86 72 73 84 71 72 82 70 71 80 69 70 79 68 69 78 67 68 77 66 67 76 65 66 75 64 65 74 63 64 73 62 63 72 61 62 71 60 61 70 59 60 69 58 59 68 57... 96 77 78 94 76 77 92 75 76 90 74 75 88 73 74 86 72 73 84 71 72 82 70 71 80 69 70 79 68 69 78 67 68...

  12. [DEVELOPMENT OF THE QUADRIVALENT LIVE ATTENUATED INFLUENZA VACCINE INCLUDING TWO INFLUENZA B LINEAGES--VICTORIA AND YAMAGATA].

    PubMed

    Desheva, Yu A; Smolonogina, T A; Doroshenko, E M; Rudenko, L G

    2016-01-01

    This work is devoted to the research of the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) comprising two reassortant B/USSR/60/69-based vaccine influenza viruses Victoria and Yamagata. The intranasal immunization of the CBA mice with both Victoria and Yamagata strains induced 100% lung protection against the subsequent infection with the wild-type influenza B viruses of any antigen lineage. The quadrivalent LAIV (qLAIV) comprising both reassortant influenza B viruses Victoria and Yamagata were safe and areactogenic in adult volunteers. Following qLAIV administration the immune response was achieved to both Victoria and Yamagata lineages.

  13. Use of Coaxil (tianeptine) in elderly patients with combined mild cognitive and depressive-anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Karpukhin, I B

    2009-01-01

    The studies reported here addressed 20 patients aged 60-69 years whose clinical picture combined the manifestations of mild dementia with those of mild depression and anxiety. Patients were treated with Coaxil (tianeptine) for 60 days at a dose of 37.5 mg/day. Patients were assessed by clinical-psychological investigations with addition of the Hamilton scales and neuropsychological testing by the Luriya method. Coaxil was found to be highly effective in relation to all psychopathological components. Recommendations for the use of Coaxil in elderly patients with cognitive and depressive-anxiety disorders are formulated.

  14. [The use of coaxil (tianeptine) in the treatment of aged people with combined mild cognitive impairment and depressive-anxiety disorders].

    PubMed

    Karpukhin, I B

    2008-01-01

    Twenty patients, aged 60-69 years, with combined mild cognitive impairment, subtle depression and anxiety have been treated with coaxil (tianeptine) used in dosage 37,5 mg daily during 60 days. The clinical state of patients has been assessed using clinical-psychopathological examination as well as the Hamilton scale and neuropsychological testing according to A.R. Luria. The high effectiveness of coaxil is revealed with respect to all psychopathological characteristics. Recommendations on expediency of administering coaxil to aged patients with combined cognitive and depressive disorders are presented.

  15. Aging With Schizophrenia: A Lifelong Experience of Multidimensional Losses and Suffering.

    PubMed

    Avieli, Hila; Mushkin, Peli; Araten-Bergman, Tal; Band-Winterstein, Tova

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the subjective experience of suffering in aging individuals with schizophrenia. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 18 participants aged 60-69. Phenomenological content analysis was performed. Nine dimensions of suffering emerged: social rejection; familial rejection; the symptoms of schizophrenia; hospitalisation; the side effects of medication; loss of employment potential; loss of independent accommodation; loss of social life, and loss of hope to be a partner and a parent. The suffering of aging people with schizophrenia is cumulative and ongoing and thus evokes issues such as existential loneliness and feelings of homelessness. PMID:26992876

  16. Change in Health-related Quality of Life from Before to After Destination Therapy Mechanical Circulatory Support is Similar for Older and Younger Patients: Analyses from INTERMACS by

    PubMed Central

    Grady, Kathleen L.; Naftel, David C.; Myers, Susan; Dew, Mary Amanda; Weidner, Gerdi; Spertus, John A.; Idrissi, Katharine; Lee, Hochang B.; McGee, Edwin C.; Kirklin, James K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Destination therapy left ventricular assist devices (DT LVADs) are being increasingly implanted in older adults. Older patients are at increased risk for mortality and morbidity post LVAD, which may impact their health-related quality of life (HRQOL). We sought to examine change in HRQOL by age from before to 1 year after DT LVAD implant and identify factors associated with change. Methods Data were collected from 1,470 continuous flow DT LVAD patients at 108 institutions participating in INTERMACS from January 21, 2010 to March 31, 2012. Patients were divided into three cohorts: <60 years (n=457), 60-69 years (n=520), and ≥70 years (n=493). HRQOL was measured using the generic EQ-5D-3L. Data were collected pre-implant and 3, 6, and 12 months post-implant. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, Kaplan-Meier survival analyses, and multivariable regression analyses. Results HRQL improved in all patients. Generally, older patients reported better HRQOL than younger patients pre implant (≥70 yrs, mean=40; 60-69 yrs, mean=33; and < 60 yrs, mean=31, p<0.0001) and 1 year post implant (≥70 yrs, mean=77; 60-69 yrs, mean=72; and < 60 yrs, mean=70, p=0.01) using the EQ-5D visual analog scale (VAS), with 0 = worst imaginable health state and 100 = best imaginable health state. The magnitude of improvement in EQ-5D scores from pre- to 1 year post LVAD was similar in all age groups (≥70 yrs, mean change=33; 60-69 yrs, mean change=35; and < 60 yrs, mean change=35, p=0.77). Factors associated with improvement in HRQOL from before to 1 year after implant were a lower VAS score pre implant and fewer re-hospitalizations after implant (R2=61.3%, p< 0.0001). Conclusions Older patients reported better HRQOL than younger patients before and after LVAD implantation. The magnitude of improvement was similar for all age groups, with more than 70% of all patients evidencing clinically important increases (>10 points on the VAS). Re-hospitalization appears to

  17. Income Related Inequality of Health Care Access in Japan: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Misuzu; Sato, Yasunori; Nagashima, Kengo; Takahashi, Sho; Hata, Akira

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to analyze the association between income level and health care access in Japan. Data from a total of 222,259 subjects (age range, 0-74 years) who submitted National Health Insurance claims in Chiba City from April 2012 to March 2014 and who declared income for the tax period from January 1 to December 31, 2012 were integrated and analyzed. The generalized estimating equation, in which household was defined as a cluster, was used to evaluate the association between equivalent income and utilization and duration of hospitalization and outpatient care services. A significant positive linear association was observed between income level and outpatient visit rates among all age groups of both sexes; however, a significantly higher rate and longer period of hospitalization, and longer outpatient care, were observed among certain lower income subgroups. To control for decreased income due to hospitalization, subjects hospitalized during the previous year were excluded, and the data was then reanalyzed. Significant inverse associations remained in the hospitalization rate among 40-59-year-old men and 60-69-year-old women, and in duration of hospitalization among 40-59 and 60-69-year-olds of both sexes and 70-74-year-old women. These results suggest that low-income individuals in Japan have poorer access to outpatient care and more serious health conditions than their higher income counterparts. PMID:26978270

  18. Income Related Inequality of Health Care Access in Japan: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Misuzu; Sato, Yasunori; Nagashima, Kengo; Takahashi, Sho; Hata, Akira

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to analyze the association between income level and health care access in Japan. Data from a total of 222,259 subjects (age range, 0-74 years) who submitted National Health Insurance claims in Chiba City from April 2012 to March 2014 and who declared income for the tax period from January 1 to December 31, 2012 were integrated and analyzed. The generalized estimating equation, in which household was defined as a cluster, was used to evaluate the association between equivalent income and utilization and duration of hospitalization and outpatient care services. A significant positive linear association was observed between income level and outpatient visit rates among all age groups of both sexes; however, a significantly higher rate and longer period of hospitalization, and longer outpatient care, were observed among certain lower income subgroups. To control for decreased income due to hospitalization, subjects hospitalized during the previous year were excluded, and the data was then reanalyzed. Significant inverse associations remained in the hospitalization rate among 40-59-year-old men and 60-69-year-old women, and in duration of hospitalization among 40-59 and 60-69-year-olds of both sexes and 70-74-year-old women. These results suggest that low-income individuals in Japan have poorer access to outpatient care and more serious health conditions than their higher income counterparts.

  19. Optimizing utilization of kidneys from deceased donors over 60 years: five-year outcomes after implementation of a combined clinical and histological allocation algorithm.

    PubMed

    Pierobon, Elisa Sefora; Sefora, Pierobon Elisa; Sandrini, Silvio; Silvio, Sandrini; De Fazio, Nicola; Nicola, De Fazio; Rossini, Giuseppe; Giuseppe, Rossini; Fontana, Iris; Iris, Fontana; Boschiero, Luigino; Luigino, Boschiero; Gropuzzo, Maria; Maria, Gropuzzo; Gotti, Eliana; Eliana, Gotti; Donati, Donato; Donato, Donati; Minetti, Enrico; Enrico, Minetti; Gandolfo, Maria Teresa; Teresa, Gandolfo Maria; Brunello, Anna; Anna, Brunello; Libetta, Carmelo; Carmelo, Libetta; Secchi, Antonio; Antonio, Secchi; Chiaramonte, Stefano; Stefano, Chiaramonte; Rigotti, Paolo; Paolo, Rigotti

    2013-08-01

    This 5 year observational multicentre study conducted in the Nord Italian Transplant programme area evaluated outcomes in patients receiving kidneys from donors over 60 years allocated according to a combined clinical and histological algorithm. Low-risk donors 60-69 years without risk factors were allocated to single kidney transplant (LR-SKT) based on clinical criteria. Biopsy was performed in donors over 70 years or 60-69 years with risk factors, allocated to Single (HR-SKT) or Dual kidney transplant (HR-DKT) according to the severity of histological damage. Forty HR-DKTs, 41 HR-SKTs and 234 LR-SKTs were evaluated. Baseline differences generally reflected stratification and allocation criteria. Patient and graft (death censored) survival were 90% and 92% for HR-DKT, 85% and 89% for HR-SKT, 88% and 87% for LR-SKT. The algorithm appeared user-friendly in daily practice and was safe and efficient, as demonstrated by satisfactory outcomes in all groups at 5 years. Clinical criteria performed well in low-risk donors. The excellent outcomes observed in DKTs call for fine-tuning of cut-off scores for allocation to DKT or SKT in high-risk patients.

  20. Cardiovascular risk factors in a tourist town: association with job-related factors.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Harunobu; Kouda, Katsuyasu; Fan, WenYing; Takeuchi, Hiroichi

    2002-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that mortality from cardiovascular diseases in fishing villages was lower than that in farming villages. In contrast, few reports on the population living in a tourist village have appeared. Then, we report here the characteristic features of a tourist town, and that in fishing and farming towns. The rural farming town in Gunma prefecture had a population of 15,100. The population working in the primary industry was 17.1%, and the farming population was 17.0%. The fishing town in Shizuoka prefecture had a population of 11,700. The population working in the primary industry was 11.0%, and the fishing population was 10.2%. The rural tourist town in Shizuoka prefecture had a population of 17,800. The population working in the tertiary industry was 60.2%, and the wholesaling or retailing population was 16.6%. Standardized mortality ratios of cardiovascular diseases in the tourist town reported by Shizuoka health officials were higher than the fishing town. The rate of participation at ages of 50-59 years for the basic health examination in the tourist town was lower than the fishing and the farming towns. From the results of the health examination of residents at ages of 50-59 years, the high prevalence of obesity and hypertension in men and high prevalence of hypertension in women were found in the tourist town. In the tourist town, self-employed women at ages of 50-59 years had irregular time of meals and insufficient care of diet in comparison with employed women. Furthermore, the prevalence of hypertension in self-employed women was also higher than that of employed women. We could suggest that health status in communities might be associated with job-related factors. PMID:12491818

  1. [Late epilepsy among the population of Kielce and selected communities in Kielce province].

    PubMed

    Nowak, S; Olczyk, E; Błaszczyk, B; Wójcik, J; Szmatoła, S

    1984-01-01

    The authors defined the morbidity index of late epilepsy (MI) on the ground of notified cases in the population aged over 20 years (with first seizure past the age of 20 years) comprising 228273 individuals (125453 living in towns and 102820 living in villages) in the years 1979-1980. The index was calculated per 1000 of the population. The general index was 2.23 (males--2.77; females--1.72). The value of the index was highest in the age group 20-29 years (3.75) and 40-49 years (2.58) in males, and in females this value was also at its peaks in these age groups (2.63 and 1.93, respectively). In the whole population the index had also two peaks in these age groups: 3.21 and 2.55 respectively. In the urban population the general index was 2.33 (2.77 in males and 1,91 in females) being again highest in the age groups 20-29 and 40-49 years. Similar peaks were found in these age groups in the urban male and female populations. In the rural population the general index was 2.11 (males 2.77, females 1.49) and the peaks were in the age groups 20-29 and 30-39 years. In males these peaks were in the age groups 20-29 and 40-49, and in females in the groups 20-29 and 30-39 years. The lowest index value was in the age group over 60 years in the whole population (1.22), in the urban population (1.62 and in the rural population (0.91). In further studies on epilepsy the method of active search for epilepsy cases with full clinical and epidemiological analysis is being used.

  2. Sulfur determination in blood from inhabitants of Brazil using neutron activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B.

    2013-05-01

    In this study the NAA technique was applied to analyze sulfur in blood from inhabitants of Brazil for the proposition of an indicative interval. The measurements were performed considering lifestyle factors (non-smokers, non-drinkers and no history of toxicological exposure) of Brazilian inhabitants. The influence of gender was also investigated considering several age ranges (18-29, 30-39, 40-49, >50 years). These data are useful in clinical investigations, to identify or prevent diseases caused by inadequate sulfur ingestion and for nutritional evaluation of Brazilian population.

  3. Korobov polynomials of the third kind and of the fourth kind.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taekyun; Kim, Dae San

    2015-01-01

    The first degenerate version of the Bernoulli polynomials of the second kind appeared in the paper by Korobov (Math Notes 2:77-19, 1996; Proceedings of the IV international conference modern problems of number theory and its applications, pp 40-49, 2001). In this paper, we study two degenerate versions of the Bernoulli polynomials of the second kind which will be called Korobov polynomials of third kind and of the fourth kind. Some properties, identities, recurrence relations and connections with other polynomials are investigated by using umbral calculus.

  4. Sulfur determination in blood from inhabitants of Brazil using neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B.

    2013-05-06

    In this study the NAA technique was applied to analyze sulfur in blood from inhabitants of Brazil for the proposition of an indicative interval. The measurements were performed considering lifestyle factors (non-smokers, non-drinkers and no history of toxicological exposure) of Brazilian inhabitants. The influence of gender was also investigated considering several age ranges (18-29, 30-39, 40-49, >50 years). These data are useful in clinical investigations, to identify or prevent diseases caused by inadequate sulfur ingestion and for nutritional evaluation of Brazilian population.

  5. [Influence of beta-endorphin on the proliferative and phagocytic activity of peripheral blood cells from males and females in different age groups].

    PubMed

    Geĭn, S V; Gileva, S G

    2013-01-01

    It was revealed that beta-endorphin modulation of lymphocyte proliferative activity in male donors was predominantly observed under younger age groups of 20-29 and 30-39 years, while with age it gradually decreased and disappeared as such in group of donors under 50-60 years. Meanwhile, females demonstrated prolonged modulating effect of peptide on the proliferation. In female group under 50-59 years the peptide was found to render marked promoting effect on the spontaneous proliferation in concentrations of 10(-7), 10(-8), and 10(-10) M that was induced by suboptimal PHA concentration of 10(-10) M, whereas women in the range of 30-39 years showed that beta-endorphin suppressed the PHA-induced proliferative response. Male donors in age group of 20-29 years demonstrated beta-endorphin-stimulated and in age group of 50-59 years beta-endorphin-suppressed uptake capacity of neutrophils. In female donors from all age groups the effect of beta-endorphin on neutrophil phagocyte activity was not observed. PMID:23885558

  6. Mammography outcomes in a practice setting by age: prognostic factors, sensitivity, and positive biopsy rate.

    PubMed

    Linver, M N; Paster, S B

    1997-01-01

    The separate unplanned analysis of women ages 40-49 in population-based randomized controlled trials has resulted in demonstration of statistically significant breast cancer mortality reduction due to screening mammography in only two of the individual trials, and in all such trials only through meta-analysis. Therefore, many researchers have utilized the surrogate endpoints of tumor size and axillary lymph node status to evaluate screening efficacy. For the present study, these endpoints were evaluated in an audit of 854 screen-detected cancers found in 147,125 mammographic examinations performed in women over 40 between 1988 and 1994 in a community practice setting. The concerns that mammography in the 40-49 group has a lower sensitivity and higher biopsy rate were also addressed. Median invasive tumor size and lymph node positivity were found to be equally small (1.0-1.1 cm and 13.5-12.2%, respectively), and the sensitivity and overall biopsy rate were found to be constant over all ages 40 and above. Positive biopsy rate (PBR) varied directly with increasing age, paralleling the measured cancer detection rate in each decade, with no abrupt change at age 50. We conclude that modern mammography in a community practice setting can successfully detect breast cancers with favorable prognostic factors and achieve constant sensitivity and acceptable PBRs in all women over 40. Our data also suggest that many of the large differences seen by inappropriately dividing data at age 50 decrease or disappear when analysis is performed by decade.

  7. [The geriatric psychiatric day hospital: an analysis of 5 years of activities].

    PubMed

    Trifonov, E G; Ognev, A E

    1997-01-01

    233 patients (53 men and 180 women) at the age of 60 years and older were treated in day gerontopsychiatric out-patient clinic for 5 years. 60-69 year old patients prevailed (146 individuals). Nearly all mental diseases characteristic for the old age were found in such patients; majority of patients suffered from schizophrenia (31.3%) and affective pathology (25.8%). Vascular form of dementia prevailed among the patients with dementia while atrophic degenerative dementia was rarely observed (2 patients). Syndromological distribution revealed that the main groups were formed by patients with depressions (41.6%) as well as individuals with neurosis- and psychopathic-like conditions (37.3%). Mental disorders with paranoid syndromes were observed in 8.6% of the patients. It is shown that day gerontopsychiatric out-patient clinic had some preferences in comparison with usual mental hospitals and psychoneurological out-patient clinic.

  8. [Sensory Organization Test outcomes in young, older and elderly healthy individuals--preliminary results].

    PubMed

    Pierchała, Katarzyna; Lachowska, Magdalena; Morawski, Krzysztof; Niemczyk, Kazimierz

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine healthy young, mature, old and elderly using Computerized Dynamic Posturography (Smart EquiTest, Neurocom Int,), to collect their data and assess if balance differs significantly with age. Subjects were divided into four age groups: 20-30, 40-50, 60-69, 70-80 years. Their dynamic balance was tested using Sensory Organization Test under various sensory conditions and the data from this test were evaluated. Our data show that overall equilibrium score and strategy score differ significantly mainly between young and mature versus old and elderly individuals, but in some SOT conditions, significant differences are present within both younger between both older age groups. It means, that balance performance declines not only between young and elderly, but also from decade to decade. Analysis of our data also suggests, that balance performance depends on multiple factors and age is probably only one of them. PMID:22890532

  9. Fabrication of sisal fibers/epoxy composites with liquid crystals polymer grafted on sisal fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Q. Y.; Lu, S. R.; Song, L. F.; Li, Y. Q.

    2016-07-01

    In this word, microcrystalline cellulose fibers (MCFs), extracted from sisal fibers, were treated with function end-group hyperbranched liquid crystals (HLP). This work brought some insights into the successful surface modification in epoxy composite with HLP. The HLP-MCFs/epoxy composites are studied systematically. The HLP - MCFs/epoxy composites were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), polarizing microscope (POM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and mechanical properties analysis. The results reveal that the reinforcement of EP composites was carried out by adding HLP-MCFs. In particular, with 1.0 wt% filler loading, the flexural strength, tensile strength, impact strength and flexural modulus of the HLP-MCFs/EP composites were increased by 60%, 69%, 130%, and 192%, respectively. It anticipates that our current work exploits more efficient methods to overcome the few nature fiber/polymer (NPC) adhesion in the interface region and provides implications for the engineering applications of the development of NPC.

  10. Etiologic Agents and Antifungal Susceptibility of Oral Candidosis from Romanian patients with HIV-infection or type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Minea, Bogdan; Nastasa, Valentin; Kolecka, Anna; Mares, Magdalena; Marangoci, Narcisa; Rosca, Irina; Pinteala, Mariana; Hancianu, Monica; Mares, Mihai

    2016-01-01

    This is the first Romanian investigation of oral candidosis in patients suffering of HIV-infection or type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Candida albicans was the dominant species in both types of isolates: n = 14 (46.7%) in T1DM, n = 60 (69.8%) in HIV. The most frequent non-albicans Candida spp. were Candida kefyr (n = 6; 20%) in T1DM and Candida dubliniensis (n = 8; 9.3%) in HIV. Resistance to fluconazole was detected only in the HIV non-albicans Candida group (n = 8; 9.3%). All isolates were susceptible to VOR. The experimental drug MXP had MIC values equal or close to the ones of VOR. Echinocandin resistance was more frequent than azole resistance. PMID:27282005

  11. Age peculiarities of human motor control in aging.

    PubMed

    Mankovsky, N B; Mints, A Y; Lisenyuk, V P

    1982-01-01

    A clinicophysiological investigation of motor control was carried out in 199 apparently healthy, socially active elderly (aged 60-69 years) and long-living (90 years and over) subjects in order to establish the peculiarities of the motor sphere specific to age-related changes of the nervous system. Analyzing the experimentally induced state of readiness (intention) before a spontaneous movement, we found an increase with age in the latent period of the muscle intentional activity (IA) parallel to an increase in the latent period of the spontaneous movement, a decrease in IA amplitude with more frequent structural deviations of the EMG in the prestarting period and a reduction of the required IA selectiveness. The described changes in the organization of readiness for a spontaneous movement seemed to be related with age impairment of supraspinal (mainly corticospinal) influences and may be used for an explanation of a number of clinical peculiarities of human motor control in late ontogenesis.

  12. Promoting mHealth in Nursing Practice in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yisi; Wu, Ying; Gong, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to reveal the status quo of mHealth application in clinical settings in China, especially in reducing patient falls and pressure ulcers and discuss how patient safety could be enhanced in the context of global collaboration on patient safety. The literature search resulted in a total of 290 articles. A steady increase is witnessed in the field of mHealth, especially after the year 2010. Personal digital assistant and electronic cart are the two main devices used in mobile nursing workstation. mHealth was mainly focused on two clinical areas, nursing practice (60.69%) and nursing management (25.86%). mHealth has begun to change the way of nursing process in prevention of adverse nurse events with an encouraging results in reducing the rate of pressure ulcer and falls. Healthcare educators should fully recognize the characteristics of mHealth and enhance a clinical informatics component in the curricula. PMID:27332160

  13. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in elderly patients: long-term outcome and prognostic factors in an interdisciplinary treatment approach.

    PubMed

    Schöller, Karsten; Massmann, Maike; Markl, Gertraud; Kunz, Mathias; Fesl, Gunther; Brückmann, Hartmut; Pfefferkorn, Thomas; Tonn, Jörg-Christian; Schichor, Christian

    2013-04-01

    The number of elderly patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is increasing with the aging of the population. However, management recommendations based on long-term outcome data and analyses of prognostic factors are scarce. Our study focused exclusively on elderly patients aged ≥ 60 years at the onset of SAH. Patients were selected from an in-house database and compared in cohorts of age 60-69, 70-79, and ≥ 80, regarding pre-existing medical conditions, treatment, clinical course including complications, and outcome. A multivariate analysis was conducted to identify prognostic factors for death and disability. A total of 256 patients (138 aged 60-69, 93 aged 70-79, 25 aged ≥ 80) with putative aneurysmal SAH who had been admitted to our hospital between January 1, 1996 and June 30, 2007 were extracted. The median follow-up of our total cohort was 35.5 months (range <1-154 months). Endovascular or conservative aneurysm treatment was applied more often with increasing age (p < 0.006). The 1-year survival rate was 78, 65, and 38 % in the three age groups, respectively (p = 0.0002); most of the patients died from the initial hemorrhage or from medical complications. Patients aged <70 with an initial World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) score of I-III showed the best clinical recovery. WFNS score, age, and clipping/coiling were extracted as prognostic factors from the Cox model. Elderly patients who get admitted with a good WFNS score (I-III) seem to benefit from aggressive treatment whereas caution seems to be warranted particularly in patients ≥ 70 years of age who get admitted in a WFNS score of IV and V because of their limited short- and long-term prognosis.

  14. The impact of advancing age on postoperative outcomes in plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Shih, Kevin; De Oliveira, Gildasio S; Qin, Charles; Kim, John Y

    2015-11-01

    Age has been shown to be an independent predictor of complications in general surgery patients. In contrast, the effect of age on outcomes after plastic surgery has yet to be confirmed or refuted. The objective of the current investigation was to evaluate a possible association between age and postoperative outcomes after plastic surgery. The 2005-2012 NSQIP database was retrospectively reviewed for all patients undergoing plastic surgery. Patients ≥60 years with procedures under the category of plastic surgery in NSQIP were selected for analysis. The primary outcome of interest was 30-day overall complication rates. Multivariate regression models were constructed to control for potential perioperative confounders. Of the 2,320,920 patients captured in the NSQIP database, 36,819 patients underwent plastic surgery and met inclusion criteria. The incidence of unadjusted overall complications increased with age with an overall complication rate of 9.0% in patients <60 years, 11.6% in patients 60-69 years, 13.2% in patients 70-79 years, and 15.9% in patients 80 or more years (p < 0.001). After adjusting for potential confounders, age was not independently associated with increased overall complications rates in patients 60-69 years (OR = 1.026; 95% CI = 0.927-1.135; p = 0.619) and 70-79 years (OR = 0.933; 95% CI = 0.797-0.919; p = 0.393), although patients 80 years and older experienced more medical complications (OR = 1.626; 95% CI = 1.218-2.172; p = 0.001). Age is not independently associated with overall worse outcomes in patients undergoing plastic surgery. Medical complications and mortality were more likely in extremes of age (>80 years). Age alone should not be included as a decisional factor in patients <80 years old considering plastic surgery.

  15. Effect of air temperature and relative humidity at various fuel-air ratios on exhaust emissions on a per-mode basis of an Avco Lycoming 0-320 DIAD light aircraft engine. Volume 2: Individual data points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skorobatckyi, M.; Cosgrove, D. V.; Meng, P. R.; Kempke, E. R.

    1976-01-01

    A carbureted four cylinder air cooled 0-320 DIAD Lycoming aircraft engine was tested to establish the effects of air temperature and humidity at various fuel-air ratios on the exhaust emissions on a per-mode basis. The test conditions included carburetor lean-out at air temperatures of 50, 59, 80, and 100 F at relative humidities of 0, 30, 60, and 80 percent. Temperature-humidity effects at the higher values of air temperature and relative humidity tested indicated that the HC and CO emissions increased significantly, while the NOx emissions decreased. Even at a fixed fuel-air ratio, the HC emissions increase and the NOx emissions decrease at the higher values of air temperature and humidity. Volume II contains the data taken at each of the individual test points.

  16. Otosclerosis in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Gristwood, R E; Venables, W N

    1984-08-01

    In this paper we report on the prevalence of clinical otosclerosis in South Australia, and discuss some aspects of its distribution and character. Our data comes from an exhaustive search for stapedectomy patients in a relatively closed population within a fixed time span, and hence our figures represent a lower limit for the true prevalence and not an unbiased estimate. Nevertheless, even with no allowance for this downward bias it would seem that South Australia has a high prevalence of otosclerosis by world standards, particularly of obliterative cases. The highest prevalence is about 5 per 1 000 of population for men and 10 per 1 000 of population for women, which occurs in the 50-59 year old age group. In common with many other studies, our data shows a prevalence for females approximately twice that for males, over most age groups. PMID:6333941

  17. Effect of Air Temperature and Relative Humidity at Various Fuel-Air Ratios on Exhaust Emissions on a Per-Mode Basis of an AVCO Lycoming 0-320 Diad Light Aircraft Engine: Volume 1: Results and Plotted Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skorobatckyi, M.; Cosgrove, D. V.; Meng, P. R.; Kempe, E. E., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A carbureted four cylinder air cooled 0-320 DIAD Lycoming aircraft engine was tested to establish the effects of air temperature and humidity at various fuel-air ratios on the exhaust emissions on a per-mode basis. The test conditions include carburetor lean out at air temperatures of 50, 59, 80, and 100 F at relative humidities of 0, 30, 60, and 80 percent. Temperature humidity effects at the higher values of air temperature and relative humidity tested indicated that the HC and CO emissions increased significantly, while the NOx emissions decreased. Even at a fixed fuel air ratio, the HC emissions increase and the NOx emissions decrease at the higher values of air temperature and humidity.

  18. Association between Homocysteine and Bone Mineral Density according to Age and Sex in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo Il; Moon, Ji Hyun; Chung, Hye Won; Kong, Mi Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background There are several studies about the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and bone mineral density (BMD), but the results are varied, and the studies are limited in Korea. In our study, the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and BMD by part according to age and sex is investigated. Methods From March 2012 to July 2015, the 3,337 healthy adults who took a medical examination were recruited. Subjects filled in the self-recording type questionnaire and physical examination, blood test, BMD of lumbar spine and femur were measured. After sorting by aging (≤49 year old, 50-59 year old, ≥60 year old) and sex, the results were adjusted with age and body mass index (BMI) and the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and BMD by lumbar spine and femur was analyzed by multiple regression analysis. Results As results of analysis, with the adjustment with age and BMI, all age groups of men had no significant relationship between log-converted serum homocysteine levels and BMD. In women aged under 50, there were significantly negative relationships at lumbar spine (β=-0.028, P=0.038), femur neck (β=-0.062, P=0.001), and total hip (β=-0.076, P<0.001), but there was no significant relationship in other age groups (50-59 year old and ≥60 year old). Conclusions As the serum homocysteine levels increased in women aged under 50, BMD of the lumbar spine and femur decreased, and correlations between homocysteine and BMD were different by sex and age. PMID:27622176

  19. Association between Homocysteine and Bone Mineral Density according to Age and Sex in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo Il; Moon, Ji Hyun; Chung, Hye Won; Kong, Mi Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background There are several studies about the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and bone mineral density (BMD), but the results are varied, and the studies are limited in Korea. In our study, the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and BMD by part according to age and sex is investigated. Methods From March 2012 to July 2015, the 3,337 healthy adults who took a medical examination were recruited. Subjects filled in the self-recording type questionnaire and physical examination, blood test, BMD of lumbar spine and femur were measured. After sorting by aging (≤49 year old, 50-59 year old, ≥60 year old) and sex, the results were adjusted with age and body mass index (BMI) and the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and BMD by lumbar spine and femur was analyzed by multiple regression analysis. Results As results of analysis, with the adjustment with age and BMI, all age groups of men had no significant relationship between log-converted serum homocysteine levels and BMD. In women aged under 50, there were significantly negative relationships at lumbar spine (β=-0.028, P=0.038), femur neck (β=-0.062, P=0.001), and total hip (β=-0.076, P<0.001), but there was no significant relationship in other age groups (50-59 year old and ≥60 year old). Conclusions As the serum homocysteine levels increased in women aged under 50, BMD of the lumbar spine and femur decreased, and correlations between homocysteine and BMD were different by sex and age.

  20. Atmospheric rivers moisture sources from a Lagrangian perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Alexandre M.; Nieto, Raquel; Tomé, Ricardo; Gimeno, Luis; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Lavers, David A.

    2016-04-01

    An automated atmospheric river (AR) detection algorithm is used for the North Atlantic Ocean basin, allowing the identification of the major ARs affecting western European coasts between 1979 and 2012 over the winter half-year (October to March). The entire western coast of Europe was divided into five domains, namely the Iberian Peninsula (9.75° W, 36-43.75° N), France (4.5° W, 43.75-50° N), UK (4.5° W, 50-59° N), southern Scandinavia and the Netherlands (5.25° E, 50-59° N), and northern Scandinavia (5.25° E, 59-70° N). Following the identification of the main ARs that made landfall in western Europe, a Lagrangian analysis was then applied in order to identify the main areas where the moisture uptake was anomalous and contributed to the ARs reaching each domain. The Lagrangian data set used was obtained from the FLEXPART (FLEXible PARTicle dispersion) model global simulation from 1979 to 2012 and was forced by ERA-Interim reanalysis on a 1° latitude-longitude grid. The results show that, in general, for all regions considered, the major climatological areas for the anomalous moisture uptake extend along the subtropical North Atlantic, from the Florida Peninsula (northward of 20° N) to each sink region, with the nearest coast to each sink region always appearing as a local maximum. In addition, during AR events the Atlantic subtropical source is reinforced and displaced, with a slight northward movement of the sources found when the sink region is positioned at higher latitudes. In conclusion, the results confirm not only the anomalous advection of moisture linked to ARs from subtropical ocean areas but also the existence of a tropical source, together with midlatitude anomaly sources at some locations closer to AR landfalls.

  1. [A modified monopolar electrocoagulation probe for endoscopic treatment of gastrointestinal hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Reimold, W V

    1991-06-01

    A modified monopolar electrocoagulation probe for endoscopic treatment of gastrointestinal bleedings in special situations is described. The tip of the active electrode may be moved foreward or drawn back into a teflon catheter. Thereby, blood clots are removed from the tip of the probe. The device is easy to use, reliable in emergency endoscopies and can be employed with conventional high-frequency diathermy instruments. The probe is inexpensive. 49 patients with active gastrointestinal bleedings according to Forrest Ib were treated. In 40/49 patients permanent hemostasis could be achieved. In 4/49 patients recurrent bleedings were controlled after repeated electro-coagulation. 4/49 patients needed elective operation, one patient emergency operation. Complications by application of the described monopolar electrocoagulation probe did not occur. The area of necrosis according to electrocoagulation was small. PMID:1926958

  2. [Industrial hygiene for subway train operators].

    PubMed

    Elizarov, B B; Sin'kov, A V

    1995-01-01

    Subway train drivers work in specific conditions of underground surroundings, face psychoemotional stress due to high intensity of signals analyzed in short time for the decision, prominent responsibility for passengers' lives. The work is also associated with significant levels of noise, minor artificial illumination, air pollution with dust and unfavorable microclimate. By the end of working shift the drivers demonstrate marked changes in blood pressure, prolonged oculomotor reactions, depressed visual function. Morbidity with transitory disablement is high among the drivers, presenting especially cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases. Unfavorable changes of ageing process are seen in the drivers over 35, in age group of 40-49 years (with length of service at least 20 years). The complex investigations helped to elaborate hygienic norms for new subway cars, to base rational schedule ot work and rest for the drivers. PMID:7767606

  3. Predicting borderline personality disorder features from personality traits, identity orientation, and attachment styles in Italian nonclinical adults: issues of consistency across age ranges.

    PubMed

    Fossati, Andrea; Borroni, Serena; Feeney, Judith; Maffei, Cesare

    2012-04-01

    The aims of this study were to assess whether Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) features could be predicted by Big Five traits, impulsivity, identity orientation, and adult attachment patterns in a sample of 1,192 adult nonclinical participants, and to evaluate the consistency of these regression models across four age groups (<30 years, 30-39 years, 40-49 years, and >50 years, respectively). In the full sample, measures of neuroticism (N), impulsivity, and anxious insecure attachment were substantial predictors of BPD features (adjusted R(2) = .38, p < .001). Attachment scales were significant predictors of BPD features across all age groups, but different scales were relevant in different age groups. Our results suggest that in nonclinical populations, BPD may represent a complex constellation of personality traits and disturbed attachment patterns.

  4. Differences in clinical features of two immigrant populations with tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Supervía, August; Pallàs, Oriol; Piccari, Lucilla; Herrera Fernández, Sabina; Domínguez Álvarez, Marisol; Cirera, Isabel; del Baño, Francisco

    2015-06-01

    A study was performed to assess differences in the clinical presentation of tuberculosis between two groups of immigrants. Ninety-four patients seen in the emergency room for newly diagnosed tuberculosis between 2006 and 2012 were included. Forty-nine patients were from Asian countries and 45 from Latin America. Mean age [years (SD)] was 35.3 (13) in Asian patients and 33.9 (10) in Latin American patients. Asian subjects were predominantly male (40/49 vs 25/45; P=0.006). Patients from Latin American countries had a higher rate of pulmonary tuberculosis. A higher percentage of Asian patients lived in overcrowded conditions, whereas HIV infection was more frequent among Latin Americans. Most patients were treated with a quadruple regimen. Resistance to isoniazid was documented in two patients from Latin America.

  5. Knowledge of Healthcare Coverage for Refugee Claimants: Results from a Survey of Health Service Providers in Montreal.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Casares, Mónica; Cleveland, Janet; Oulhote, Youssef; Dunkley-Hickin, Catherine; Rousseau, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Following changes to the Interim Federal Health (IFH) program in Canada in 2012, this study investigates health service providers' knowledge of the healthcare coverage for refugee claimants living in Quebec. An online questionnaire was completed by 1,772 staff and physicians from five hospitals and two primary care centres in Montreal. Low levels of knowledge and significant associations between knowledge and occupational group, age, and contact with refugees were documented. Social workers, respondents aged 40-49 years, and those who reported previous contact with refugee claimants seeking healthcare were significantly more likely to have 2 or more correct responses. Rapid and multiple changes to the complex IFH policy have generated a high level of confusion among healthcare providers. Simplification of the system and a knowledge transfer strategy aimed at improving healthcare delivery for IFH patients are urgently needed, proposing easy avenues to access rapidly updated information and emphasizing ethical and clinical issues. PMID:26789844

  6. Emissions of submicron particles from a direct injection diesel engine by using biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Cho; Wu, Chung-Hsing

    2002-01-01

    Small airborne particles less than 1 microm in diameter have a high probability to deposit deeply in the respiratory tract and cause respiratory diseases such as lung cancer. In this study, emission characteristics of submicron particles from a direct injection diesel engine using biodiesel (provided by the American Soybean Association) and petroleum-diesel fuels were measured under different operation conditions. The results show that the emitted particle sizes for both fuels are about the same. But when fueled with biodiesel, the diesel engine can substantially reduce 24-42% emission of the total number concentration, and 40-49% of the total mass concentration of submicron particles, which indicates that the emission of submicron particles can be effectively approved. PMID:12049119

  7. Seroprevalence of antibodies against fHbp and NadA, two potential vaccine antigens for Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Jacobsson, Susanne; Mölling, Paula; Olcén, Per

    2009-09-25

    The IgG antibody levels directed against fHbp and NadA, two potential vaccine antigens for Neisseria meningitidis, were examined in order to investigate the extent of natural immunisation against these antigens in different age groups. As a comparison, the IgG antibody levels against Haemophilus influenzae type b were examined. In the two youngest age groups, below 10 years of age, relatively low levels of both anti-fHbp and anti-NadA were measured. A 15-fold higher geometric mean concentration of anti-fHbp was noted in the age group 20-29 years as compared to the age group 15-19 years. The peak concentration was found at 30-39 years, followed by decreased levels with age. Anti-NadA showed a certain increase up to 9 years followed by an even increase up to 40-49 years.

  8. Cloning and characterization of the Dictyostelium discoideum cycloartenol synthase cDNA.

    PubMed

    Godzina, S M; Lovato, M A; Meyer, M M; Foster, K A; Wilson, W K; Gu, W; de Hostos, E L; Matsuda, S P

    2000-03-01

    Cycloartenol synthase converts oxidosqualene to cycloartenol, the first carbocyclic intermediate en route to sterols in plants and many protists. Presented here is the first cycloartenol synthase gene identified from a protist, the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The cDNA encodes an 81-kDa predicted protein 50-52% identical to known higher plant cycloartenol synthases and 40-49% identical to known lanosterol synthases from fungi and mammals. The encoded protein expressed in transgenic Saccharomyces cerevisiae converted synthetic oxidosqualene to cycloartenol in vitro. This product was characterized by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The predicted protein sequence diverges sufficiently from the known cycloartenol synthase sequences to dramatically reduce the number of residues that are candidates for the catalytic difference between cycloartenol and lanosterol formation.

  9. [Nutritional status and associated factors among the elderly in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Clarissa de Matos; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Cotta, Rosângela Minardi Mitre; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis; Peixoto, Sérgio Viana; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2011-12-01

    This cross-sectional study in 2009 focused on the prevalence of underweight and overweight and associated factors in a sample of 621 elderly individuals in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Data were obtained through home interviews on nutritional status and socio-demographic and health conditions. Of the total sample, 53.3% were females. Median BMI was 26.40 kg/m² (range = 15.20-46.82) and was lower for men than for women. Prevalence of overweight was high (45%; 95%CI: 40%-49%), decreased with age, was positively associated with female gender and history of arthritis/arthrosis, and was negatively associated with age 80 years or older and smoking. Prevalence of underweight was high in men (18.2%), increased with age, and was positively associated with worse self-rated health. The findings highlight the importance of health strategies that favor lifestyle changes and healthy eating habits.

  10. Knowledge of Healthcare Coverage for Refugee Claimants: Results from a Survey of Health Service Providers in Montreal.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Casares, Mónica; Cleveland, Janet; Oulhote, Youssef; Dunkley-Hickin, Catherine; Rousseau, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Following changes to the Interim Federal Health (IFH) program in Canada in 2012, this study investigates health service providers' knowledge of the healthcare coverage for refugee claimants living in Quebec. An online questionnaire was completed by 1,772 staff and physicians from five hospitals and two primary care centres in Montreal. Low levels of knowledge and significant associations between knowledge and occupational group, age, and contact with refugees were documented. Social workers, respondents aged 40-49 years, and those who reported previous contact with refugee claimants seeking healthcare were significantly more likely to have 2 or more correct responses. Rapid and multiple changes to the complex IFH policy have generated a high level of confusion among healthcare providers. Simplification of the system and a knowledge transfer strategy aimed at improving healthcare delivery for IFH patients are urgently needed, proposing easy avenues to access rapidly updated information and emphasizing ethical and clinical issues.

  11. Time interval since last test in a breast cancer screening programme: a case-control study in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Palli, D; Rosselli del Turco, M; Buiatti, E; Ciatto, S; Crocetti, E; Paci, E

    1989-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a population based screening programme for breast cancer. DESIGN: This was a case-control study of women dying of breast cancer between 1977 and 1987 who had been invited to take part in a screening programme. SETTING: Community based study of women aged between 40 and 70 years (total population about 35,000 at 1981 census), living in 23 small towns near Florence, Italy. PARTICIPANTS: 103 cases were identified from death certification, and 515 living controls (five per case) selected for year of birth and town of residence. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Screening history was obtained from computer archive. Sociodemographic information was obtained from town registry offices and directly from relatives of the deceased and from the controls by postal questionnaire, and if necessary telephone or personal interview. Analysis was carried out on two age groups--40-49 years and 50+ years at diagnosis--and considered the number of screening tests and the time interval since the last test, separately and together. In the older age group, women with at least one screening test in the previous 2 1/2 years showed a 50% reduction in risk (odds ratio 0.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.25-0.95). If they had also had another previous negative screen the risk was reduced to one third (odds ratio 0.35, 95% CI 0.14-0.85). There was a significant trend of decreasing risk with increasing number of screens in older women. No clear evidence of a similar protective effect was shown for women in the 40-49 year age group. CONCLUSIONS: A significant protective effect of the screening programme is evident in older women but not in younger ones. The data do not allow an assessment of optimal screening interval because of the small number of previously screened cases. PMID:2607303

  12. Piloting the Impact of Three Interventions on Guaiac Faecal Occult Blood Test Uptake within the NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme.

    PubMed

    White, Becky; Power, Emily; Ciurej, Monika; Lo, Siu Hing; Nash, Katherine; Ormiston-Smith, Nick

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of three interventions on uptake of the guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) in Greater London. The interventions were designed to improve awareness and understanding of the NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP) and assist stool sampling. Logistic regression analysis of BCSP London data (N = 205,541 invitees aged 60-74) compared uptake at 12 weeks between intervention groups and a control group, sent kits as usual between January-April 2013 and January-April 2014. An endorsement flyer, included with gFOBT kits, had no impact on uptake (P = 0.68). In 60-69-year-olds, there was a small but significant increase in modelled uptake amongst invitees sent both the flyer and a kit enhancement pack compared with controls (45.1% versus 43.4%, OR = 1.07, P = 0.047). In North East London, the flyer together with outdoor advertising was associated with a small but significant increase (45.6% versus 43.4%, OR = 1.09, P = 0.027). The largest increases were seen when all three interventions (flyer, pack, and advertising) were combined (49.5% versus 43.4%, OR = 1.28, P < 0.001). The increased uptake in the intervention groups was largest in "first-timers" and smaller amongst previous nonresponders and previously screened invitees.

  13. Geometric simulation of structures containing rigid units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Stephen

    2005-03-01

    Much insight into the behaviour of the framework silicates can be obtained from the Rigid Unit model. I review results from geometric analyses [1] of framework structures, quantifying the significance of rigid unit motion in thermal disorder and in defect accomodation, and from a method of simulation [2,3] based on a whole-body `geometric potential' rather than on interatomic potentials. I show the application of the geometric potential to the symmetry-constrained generation of hypothetical zeolite frameworks [4], and to the rapid generation of protein conformations using insights from rigid cluster decomposition [5]. 1. Wells, Dove and Tucker, Journal of Applied Crystallography, 37:536--544 (2004). 2. G.D. Gatta and S.A. Wells, Phys. Chem. Min. 31:1--10 (2004). 3. A. Sartbaeva, S. A. Wells, S. A. T. Redfern, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 16, 8173 (2004) 4. M. M. J. Treacy, I. Rivin, E. Balkovsky, K. H. Randall and M. D. Foster, Micropor. Mesopor. Mater. 74, 121-132 (2004). 5. M.F. Thorpe, Ming Lei, A.J. Rader, Donald J. Jacobs, and Leslie A. Kuhn, Journal of Molecular Graphics and Modelling 19, 1:60 - 69, (2001).

  14. Erectile dysfunction heralds onset of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Basu, Joyee; Sharma, Sanjay

    2016-06-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) was once assumed to be a psychological condition but has now been shown to share risk factors with cardiovascular disease including age, diabetes mellitus, smoking, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia, suggesting an underlying vascular pathology. Evidence reveals that there is a potential link between ED and subsequent development of coronary artery disease. ED itself may also increase cardiovascular risk. The relative risk of developing coronary artery disease within ten years, in patients with moderate to severe ED, has been calculated as 14% in men aged 30-39 years and may be as high as 27% in those aged 60-69. The association appears greater when younger men presenting with ED are considered. The severity of ED has also been linked with the severity of coronary artery disease The proposed pathological mechanisms are based on a theory of endothelial dysfunction which eventually leads to atherosclerosis. This occurs first in more vulnerable narrow diameter vessels such as the cavernosal arteries. The artery size hypothesis may explain why ED occurs before manifestation of coronary artery disease. There is likely to be a delay between presentation with ED and clinical presentation with coronary artery disease. In one study, ED was found to present 39 months prior to coronary symptoms. This provides GPs with a valuable window of opportunity for risk assessment, subsequent primary prevention and early referral to a cardiologist. PMID:27552797

  15. [OBESITY AND GYNECOLOGICAL CANCER].

    PubMed

    Stoianov, R; Chakalova, G

    2016-01-01

    An analysis of 329 patients with gynecological cancer, 120 of them were without obesity and 209 of them were with obesity. Only 36.47% of the cases were with normal weight. There is a trend of increasing obesity with age, with a peak in the age group 60-69 years. The distribution of patients according to BMI and stage of the disease there is a downward trend in the obesity with increasing stage. In both groups of patients (with and without obesity), the volume and type of surgery were carried out depending on the type of tumor process (localization) and stage of the disease. Radical histerectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection (with or without omentectomy) is carried out in 141 patients, of which only 6 were of normal weight, and 135 patients (95.7%) were of different stage of obesity. Total hysterectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection (with or without omentectomy) is carried out in 123 patients, of which only 2 were of normal weight, and 121 patients (98.4%) were of different stage of obesity. Our results show that the volume of surgery in patients with gynecological cancer does not depend the obesity and depend the stage of disease.

  16. Population status, demography and habitat preferences of the threatened lipstick palm Cyrtostachys renda Blume in Kerumutan Reserve, Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widyatmoko, Didik; Burgman, Mark A.; Guhardja, Edi; Mogea, Johanis P.; Walujo, Eko B.; Setiadi, Dede

    2005-09-01

    Population status and demography of a population of the threatened lipstick palm Cyrtostachys renda in a peat swamp ecosystem of Kerumutan Reserve, Sumatra (one of the largest remaining populations) was documented at 16 different sites, covering a wide range of forest and habitat types, vegetation associations, and population sizes. Population sizes were dominated by suckers comprising 89% of the total population. Individuals with stem heights between 0 and 4 m (47.5%), stem diameters between 4 and 10 cm (82.0%), and leaf scar numbers between 0 and 60 (69.2%) dominated. Ages of individuals were estimated and used to fit a curvilinear relationship between age and stem height. Wild plants reach reproductive maturity within 25-30 years, or when they have stem heights in excess of 2.0 m, or when they have 15-25 leaf scars. They can survive more than 80 years. Cultivated plants appear to reproduce earlier and produce more seeds than wild plants. Individual growth was plant size-dependent with the adult stage being the most productive. Higher mortality was experienced by suckers, especially in continuously waterlogged conditions and locations with dense canopies. Sucker growth was faster than seedling growth, an adaptation that may allow the species to cope with periodically waterlogged conditions. Population abundances varied with habitat types; well-drained areas were the most suitable habitat. To conserve the most important remaining populations of the lipstick palm, it is crucial to protect well-drained sites in Kerumutan Reserve.

  17. Intention to receive influenza vaccination prior to the summer influenza season in adults of Hong Kong, 2015.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Cowling, Benjamin J; Liao, Qiuyan

    2015-11-27

    Following a severe winter epidemic of drifted influenza A(H3N2) during January-March 2015, the Hong Kong government purchased vaccines of southern hemisphere formulation for administration prior to the anticipated summer influenza epidemic. This is the first time that seasonal influenza vaccines will be delivered twice within the same year in Hong Kong. We conducted a household telephone survey to investigate the acceptance of Hong Kong adults to pre-summer influenza vaccination. We found that the proportion of people reporting intention to receive vaccination was 37.8, 24.0, 31.4, and 34.4% in the age groups of 18-39, 40-59, 60-69, and 70 years or above. Only 31.3% of respondents who claimed they were parents or guardians said they would take their children to receive vaccination if the new vaccine was available. These findings suggested that intention to receive pre-summer vaccination was low even among the priority group of older people.

  18. Trends in survival outcomes of B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia in elderly patients: analysis of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database.

    PubMed

    Guru Murthy, Guru Subramanian; Venkitachalam, Raji; Mehta, Paulette

    2015-01-01

    B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) in the elderly population is generally considered to have a poor prognosis. It is unclear whether their survival has improved in the current era. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, we selected 717 elderly patients (age≥60) with B-ALL diagnosed between 1992 and 2011. Overall survival (OS) was compared based on their period of diagnosis and age. Patients in the age group 60-69 had an improvement in OS over time, both 1-year OS (49.4% in 2002-2011 vs. 33.1% in 1992-2001) and 5-year OS (20.4% in 2002-2011 vs. 8.1% in 1992-2001, p=0.002). Patients≥70 years had no significant improvement in 1-year OS or 5-year OS (5-year OS 5.5% in 1992-2001 vs. 9.7% in 2002-2011, p=0.326). Hence, there are discrepancies in the improvement of OS among elderly patients with B-ALL. Further focus of research in elderly patients with B-ALL is needed to improve their outcome.

  19. [Morbidity profile and the standard of access to health services for elderly practitioners of physical activities].

    PubMed

    Virtuoso, Janeisa Franck; Mazo, Giovana Zarpellon; Menezes, Enaiane Cristina; Cardoso, Adilson Sant'Ana; Dias, Roges Ghidini; Balbé, Giovane Pereira

    2012-01-01

    The morbidity profile and access to health services of 132 women and 33 men, with average age of 69.1 ± 6 years--all practitioners of physical activities was--analyzed. A questionnaire for the socio-demographic profile, physical activity involved, self-referred morbidity and access to health services was applied. In the analysis, descriptive and inferencial statistics were used, with a significance level of 5%. Most of the sample was 60-69 years old (55.7%), practicing water aerobics (52.7%) and had high blood pressure (48.4%). The women aged 60 to 69 years (p <0.05) and 70 to 79 years (p <0.05) had at least one chronic disease. The indicators of access to health services were similar between genders (p> 0.05). The younger-aged men went more often to a doctor during the last year than the younger-aged women (p <0.05). In the other age brackets, feminine hegemony was maintained, with significant difference for 70 to 79 year-old females (p <0.05). Most of the elderly sought their private doctor (33.3%) or a health center (27.8 %). The main problems of the health services were medication (64.8%) and delays in scheduling consultations (48.4%). It was noted that the elderly are worried about preventive healthcare, which can be linked to the benefits of the practice of physical activity. PMID:22218536

  20. Techno-economic comparison of series hybrid, plug-in hybrid, fuel cell and regular cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vliet, Oscar P. R.; Kruithof, Thomas; Turkenburg, Wim C.; Faaij, André P. C.

    We examine the competitiveness of series hybrid compared to fuel cell, parallel hybrid, and regular cars. We use public domain data to determine efficiency, fuel consumption, total costs of ownership and greenhouse gas emissions resulting from drivetrain choices. The series hybrid drivetrain can be seen both as an alternative to petrol, diesel and parallel hybrid cars, as well as an intermediate stage towards fully electric or fuel cell cars. We calculate the fuel consumption and costs of four diesel-fuelled series hybrid, four plug-in hybrid and four fuel cell car configurations, and compared these to three reference cars. We find that series hybrid cars may reduce fuel consumption by 34-47%, but cost €5000-12,000 more. Well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced to 89-103 g CO 2 km -1 compared to reference petrol (163 g km -1) and diesel cars (156 g km -1). Series hybrid cars with wheel motors have lower weight and 7-21% lower fuel consumption than those with central electric motors. The fuel cell car remains uncompetitive even if production costs of fuel cells come down by 90%. Plug-in hybrid cars are competitive when driving large distances on electricity, and/or if cost of batteries come down substantially. Well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced to 60-69 g CO 2 km -1.

  1. Left ventricular layer function in hypertension assessed by myocardial strain rate using novel one-beat real-time three-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography with high volume rates.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Maki; Sato, Noriaki; Kawasaki, Masanori; Tanaka, Ryuhei; Nagaya, Maki; Watanabe, Takatomo; Ono, Koji; Noda, Toshiyuki; Zile, Michael R; Minatoguchi, Shinya

    2015-08-01

    We recently developed novel software to measure phasic strain rate (SR) using automated one-beat real-time three-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (3D-STE) with high volume rates. We tested the hypothesis that left ventricular (LV) systolic function and relaxation analyzed by SR with the novel 3D-STE in hypertension (HTN) with hypertrophy may be impaired in the endocardium before there is LV systolic dysfunction. We measured LV longitudinal, radial and circumferential SR in patients with HTN (n=80, 69±7 years) and age-matched normotensive controls (n= 60, 69±10 years) using 3D-STE. HTN patients were divided into four groups according to LV geometry: normal, concentric remodeling, concentric hypertrophy and eccentric hypertrophy. We measured SR during systole as an index of systolic function, SR during isovolumic relaxation (IVR) as an index of relaxation and E/e' as an index of filling pressure. Endocardial SR during systole in HTN with concentric and eccentric hypertrophy decreased compared with that in controls despite no reduction in ejection fraction or epicardial SR. Endocardial radial SR during IVR decreased even in normal geometry, and it was further reduced in concentric remodeling and hypertrophy despite no reduction in epicardial SR. LV phasic SR assessed by 3D-STE with high volume rates is a useful index to detect early decreases in LV systolic function and to predict subclinical LV layer dysfunction in patients with HTN.

  2. Disease burden in Brazil: an investigation into alcohol and non-viral cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Portugal, Flávia Batista; Campos, Mônica Rodrigues; de Carvalho, Juliana Ribeiro; Flor, Luisa Sório; Schramm, Joyce Mendes de Andrade; Costa, Maria de Fátima dos Santos

    2015-02-01

    Alcohol use/dependence are an important risk factor for cirrhosis of the liver. The article aims to describe and conduct a comparative analysis of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY), Years of Life Lost (YLL) and Years Lived with Disability (YLD) of alcohol use disorders and non-viral cirrhosis in Brazil in 2008. DALY was calculated as the sum of YLL and YLD. For YLL estimates, the mean number of deaths from 2007- 2009 in the country was considered. After revision of epidemiological data, prevalence of each disease was modelled with the DisMod tool, which generated incidence data for YLD estimates. Alcohol and non-viral cirrhosis were responsible for 3% and 1% of total DALYs, respectively. In both diseases, men contributed to a greater proportion of DALYs. Among the first ten causes of DALYs, alcohol use disorders occupied the second, third and sixth positions at the ages of 15-29, 30-44 and 45- 59, respectively. Non-viral cirrhosis was the eighth cause of DALY in the 30-44 age group in men; the fifth, in the 45-59 group and the eighth, in the 60-69 group. Age distribution suggests that interventions directed against alcohol use/dependence would have effects on the burden of alcoholic cirrhosis in the country. PMID:25715143

  3. Phytochemicals and other characteristics of Croatian monovarietal extra virgin olive oils from Oblica, Lastovka and Levantinka varieties.

    PubMed

    Šarolić, Mladenka; Gugić, Mirko; Friganović, Emilija; Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni; Jerković, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Virgin olive oils from the fruits of Croatian autochthonous varieties Oblica, Lastovka and Levantinka were characterized for the first time. Headspace volatiles were analyzed by HS-SPME/GC-FID/MS. The main volatiles were C6 compounds. The most abundant was (E)-hex-2-enal (62.60%-69.20%). (Z)-Hex-3-enal was not found in Lastovka oil, while Levantinka oil did not contain hexanal. Tocopherols, chlorophylls and carotenoids were determined by HPLC-FL. Levantinka oil was characterized by the highest α-tocopherol level (222.00 mg/kg). Total phenolic contents (TPs), as well as antioxidant activity (DPPH assay) of the oils hydrophilic fractions (HFs) were assessed by spectroscopic methods. The antioxidant activity of Oblica oil HF was the most pronounced (0.91 mmol TEAC/kg) and the HF contained the highest TPs amount (212.21 mg/kg). HFs phenolic composition was determined by HPLC-DAD. The main identified phenols were secoiridoids dominated in Oblica oil: decarboxymethyl ligstroside aglycone (p-HPEA-EDA up to 158.5 mg/kg), oleuropein aglycone (3,4-HPEA-EA up to 96.4 mg/kg) and decarboxymethyl oleuropein aglycon (3,4-DHPEA-EDA up to 93.5 mg/kg). PMID:25759956

  4. Implementation of new approaches for generating conventional reassortants for live attenuated influenza vaccine based on Russian master donor viruses.

    PubMed

    Shcherbik, Svetlana; Pearce, Nicholas; Kiseleva, Irina; Larionova, Natalie; Rudenko, Larisa; Xu, Xiyan; Wentworth, David E; Bousse, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Cold-adapted influenza strains A/Leningrad/134/17/57 (H2N2) and B/USSR/60/69, originally developed in Russia, have been reliable master donors of attenuation for preparing live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV). The classical strategy for generating LAIV reassortants is robust, but has some disadvantages. The generation of reassortants requires at least 3 passages under selective conditions after co-infection; each of these selective passages takes six days. Screening the reassortants for a genomic composition traditionally starts after a second limiting dilution cloning procedure, and the number of suitable reassortants is limited. We developed a new approach to shorten process of preparing LAIV seed viruses. Introducing the genotyping of reassortants by pyrosequencing and monitoring sequence integrity of surface antigens starting at the first selective passage allowed specific selection of suitable reassortants for the next cloning procedure and also eliminate one of the group selective passage in vaccine candidate generation. Homogeneity analysis confirmed that reducing the number of selective passages didn't affect the quality of LAIV seed viruses. Finally, the two-way hemagglutination inhibition test, implemented for all the final seed viruses, confirmed that any amino acid substitutions acquired by reassortants during egg propagation didn't affect antigenicity of the vaccine. Our new strategy reduces the time required to generate a vaccine and was used to generate seasonal LAIVs candidates for the 2012/2013, 2014/2015, and 2015/2016 seasons more rapidly. PMID:26519883

  5. Fisher information due to a phase noisy laser under non-Markovian environment

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Khalek, S.

    2014-12-15

    More recently, K. Berrada [Annals of Physics 340 (2014) 60-69] [1] studied the geometric phase of a two-level atom system driven by a phase noise laser under non-Markovian dynamics in terms of different parameters involved in the whole system, and collapse and revival phenomena were found for large class of states. In this paper, using this noise effect, we study the quantum fisher information (QFI) for a two-level atom system driven by a phase noise laser under non-Markovian dynamics. A new quantity, called QFI flow is used to characterize the damping effect and unveil a fundamental connection between non-Markovian behavior and dynamics of system–environment correlations under phase noise laser. It is shown that QFI flow has disappeared suddenly followed by a sudden birth depending on the kind of the environment damping. QFI flow provides an indicator to characterize the dissipative quantum system’s decoherence by analyzing the behavior of the dynamical non-Markovian coefficients.

  6. Association analysis between carcass weight and meat quality of Bamei pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J P; Wu, G F; Xiang, A Q; Wang, L; Sun, S D; Yang, C; Xu, F F

    2016-01-01

    A total of 48 crossbred Bamei pig carcasses were divided into three groups (A, 60-69 kg; B, 70-79 kg; and C, 80-90 kg) to investigate the influence of carcass weight on meat quality. The intramuscular fat content of the three groups increased from 2.20% (Group A) to 4.14% (Group C). Group B had higher drip loss (6.83%, P < 0.05) than the other two groups. Warner-Bratzler shear force decreased with increasing weight (61.16 > 51.63 > 43.64 N, P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in meat color, cooking percentage, and water holding capacity among the three groups. The polyunsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids ratio in group B (0.23) was significantly higher than that in the other two groups. In conclusion, our results suggested that a carcass weight of 70-79 kg is suitable for the production of Bamei pigs. PMID:27525930

  7. Depression after CABG: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Joana Kátya Veras Rodrigues Sampaio; de Figueiredo Neto, José Albuquerque; de Sousa, Rosângela Maria Lopes; Costa, Vera Lívia Xavier de Castro; Silva, Flor de Maria Araújo Mendonça; da Hora, Ana Flávia Lima Teles; da Silva, Edna Lúcia Coutinho; Reis, Lívia Mariane Castelo Branco

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Depression during or shortly after hospitalization elevated two to three times the risk of mortality or nonfatal cardiac events, significantly increasing the morbidity and mortality of these patients. Objective To assess the impact of revascularization on symptoms of depression in patients with coronary artery disease. Methods A prospective cohort study of 57 patients of both sexes undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting between June 2010 and June 2011. We used the SF-36 to assess quality of life, and the Beck Depression Inventory to detect depressive symptoms, applied preoperatively and six months. Results The prevalence of patients aged 60-69 years was 22 patients (38.60%), 39 men (68.42%), 26 described themselves as mixed race (45.61%), 16 literate (28.07 %) and 30 married (52.63%). The beck depression inventory score demonstrated increased after revascularization: 15 patients mild (26.32%) at time zero to 17 (29.82%) after. And with moderate, seven patients (12.28%) before and 10 (17.54%) after. In the categories of individuals with decreased minimum degree of 32 (56.14%) to 28 (49.12%), and severe of three (5.26%) for two (3.51%) patients. Association was observed between beck depression inventory, gender, age, lifestyle, comorbidities and quality of life. Conclusion There was a high prevalence of elevated beck depression inventory scores, lowest scores of depressive symptoms among men and association between the improvement of quality of life scores and beck depression inventory. PMID:24598954

  8. Protective responses in mice to vaccination with multiply administered cold-adapted influenza vaccine reassortants and wild-type viruses.

    PubMed

    Romanova, J R; Tannock, G A; Alexandrova, G I

    1997-01-01

    Protective responses to influenza vaccine reassortants derived from the cold-adapted (ca) donor strains A/Leningrad/134/17/57 and B/USSR/60/69 and wild-type epidemic viruses were studied in two strains of mice. Preliminary experiments revealed that, when mixtures of three viruses were inoculated intranasally to mice with 50 microliters containing 10(6) EID50 per 200 microliters (10(5.4) EID50 per mouse), interference between strains did not occur. However, interference with the growth of the influenza reassortant B/60/32/R took place if its concentration in the mixture was reduced to 10(5) (10(4.4) per mouse) or if it was inoculated at 10(6) EID50 (10(5.4) per mouse) in the presence of the influenza reassortant R/34 and two other influenza A epidemic strains; interference was unrelated to serological responses to infection with B/60/32/R. Despite evidence of interference, mice inoculated with the same mixtures in two identical doses, three weeks apart, were able to clear a challenge from each of seven homotypic and heterotypic influenza A and B strains. Heterotypic clearance of influenza A challenge viruses was greater following mixed infection, indicating that common determinants within the surface antigen glycoproteins contributed to immune responses which were broader than could be expected to be induced by parenteral vaccination.

  9. Anti-hyperalgesic activity of crude extract and 7-methyljuglone of Diospyros lotus roots.

    PubMed

    Rauf, Abdur; Uddin, Ghias; Khan, Haroon; Siddiqui, Bina S; Arfan, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the antihyperalgesic effect of crude extract of Diospyros lotus followed by the isolation and characterisation of 7-methyljuglone in acetic acid and formalin tests. The pretreatment of crude extract evoked dose-dependent inhibition of noxious stimulation with maximum effect of 56.78% in acetic acid-induced writhing test, which were 51.89% and 60.69% in first and second phases, respectively, at 100 mg/kg i.p. The structure of 7-methyljuglone was confirmed by spectroscopic analysis. 7-Methyljuglone evoked profound increase in pain threshhold dose dependently; when it was studied in acetic acid-induced writhing test with 63.73% pain attenuation while 51.22% and 65.44% pain amelioration in first and second phases, respectively, at 100 mg/kg i.p. In conclusion, crude extract and 7-methyljuglone of D. lotus roots possessed both peripheral and central antinociceptive potential and thus could be a useful new therapeutic agent. PMID:25604725

  10. The effect of age on illness cognition, subjective well-being and psychological distress among gastric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Palgi, Yuval; Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Hamama-Raz, Yaira; Shacham Shmueli, Einat; Shrira, Amit

    2014-10-01

    The current study examined illness cognition-thoughts and perceptions-patients hold regarding their illness and psychological adaptation in various age groups. More specifically, we aimed to examine whether illness cognition among cancer patients is related to their age. In addition, such association of illness cognition and age was also examined with respect to subjective well-being and psychological distress. A cross-sectional sample comprised of 123 consecutive post-treatment gastric outpatients. Their mean age was 57.31 (SD = 12.74), 56.9% (n = 70) were men and 81.3% (n = 100) were married. The results indicated a higher level of acceptance and a lower level of psychological distress among the young-old participants (60-69) compared with their counterparts. The oldest group (70+ years) had the highest level of helplessness and psychological distress, and the lowest level of acceptance, satisfaction and affect balance compared with the young-old participants. Among gastric cancer patients, age was found to be a factor relevant to the understanding of illness cognitions (acceptance and sense of helplessness) along with subjective well-being and psychological distress. These findings have practical implications for working with older cancer patients. Implications of these results are discussed.

  11. Piloting the Impact of Three Interventions on Guaiac Faecal Occult Blood Test Uptake within the NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme.

    PubMed

    White, Becky; Power, Emily; Ciurej, Monika; Lo, Siu Hing; Nash, Katherine; Ormiston-Smith, Nick

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of three interventions on uptake of the guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) in Greater London. The interventions were designed to improve awareness and understanding of the NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP) and assist stool sampling. Logistic regression analysis of BCSP London data (N = 205,541 invitees aged 60-74) compared uptake at 12 weeks between intervention groups and a control group, sent kits as usual between January-April 2013 and January-April 2014. An endorsement flyer, included with gFOBT kits, had no impact on uptake (P = 0.68). In 60-69-year-olds, there was a small but significant increase in modelled uptake amongst invitees sent both the flyer and a kit enhancement pack compared with controls (45.1% versus 43.4%, OR = 1.07, P = 0.047). In North East London, the flyer together with outdoor advertising was associated with a small but significant increase (45.6% versus 43.4%, OR = 1.09, P = 0.027). The largest increases were seen when all three interventions (flyer, pack, and advertising) were combined (49.5% versus 43.4%, OR = 1.28, P < 0.001). The increased uptake in the intervention groups was largest in "first-timers" and smaller amongst previous nonresponders and previously screened invitees. PMID:26525423

  12. Association between urinary cadmium levels and prediabetes in the NHANES 2005-2010 population.

    PubMed

    Wallia, Amisha; Allen, Norrina Bai; Badon, Sylvia; El Muayed, Malek

    2014-11-01

    Evidence suggests an association between exposure to cadmium and dysglycemia. To investigate this matter, we examined the relationship between urinary cadmium and prediabetes in the cross sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). NHANES participants for the years 2005 through 2010 aged ≥ 40 years were included in the analysis. Participants with nephropathy, overt diabetes, or missing required data were excluded. To assess the non-linear relationship between cadmium and Prediabetes, non-parametric logistic regression with B spline expansion of urinary cadmium/creatinine ratio was performed. This analysis revealed a complex non-linear association between higher cadmium levels and prediabetes. This relationship persisted, though with varying magnitudes across smoking groups (never smokers, moderate smokers, heavy smokers). In a conventional logistic regression analysis, this relationship was less evident with significantly increased OR for prediabetes was found in the highest quintile of urine cadmium compared to the lowest quintile in the overall population and in moderate smokers. In an age stratified analysis, a significant linear association was found only in the age groups 60-69 and ≥ 70. We conclude that there is a significant non-linear, complex relationship between urinary Cd levels, age, smoking habits and odds of prediabetes.

  13. A worldwide survey of chronic cough: a manifestation of enhanced somatosensory response.

    PubMed

    Morice, Alyn H; Jakes, Adam D; Faruqi, Shoaib; Birring, Surinder S; McGarvey, Lorcan; Canning, Brendan; Smith, Jaclyn A; Parker, Sean M; Chung, Kian Fan; Lai, Kefang; Pavord, Ian D; van den Berg, Jan; Song, Woo-Jung; Millqvist, Eva; Farrell, Michael J; Mazzone, Stuart B; Dicpinigaitis, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Reports from individual centres suggest a preponderance of females with chronic cough. Females also have heightened cough reflex sensitivity. Here we have reviewed the age and sex of unselected referrals to 11 cough clinics. To investigate the cause of any observed sex dimorphism, functional magnetic resonance imaging of putative cough centres was analysed in normal volunteers. The demographic profile of consecutive patients presenting with chronic cough was evaluated. Cough challenge with capsaicin was undertaken in normal volunteers to construct a concentration-response curve. Subsequent functional magnetic resonance imaging during repeated inhalation of sub-tussive concentrations of capsaicin observed areas of activation within the brain and differences in the sexes identified. Of the 10,032 patients presenting with chronic cough, two-thirds (6591) were female (mean age 55 years). The patient profile was largely uniform across centres. The most common age for presentation was 60-69 years. The maximum tolerable dose of inhaled capsaicin was lower in females; however, a significantly greater activation of the somatosensory cortex was observed. Patients presenting with chronic cough from diverse racial and geographic backgrounds have a strikingly homogeneous demographic profile, suggesting a distinct clinical entity. The preponderance of females may be explained by sex-related differences in the central processing of cough sensation.

  14. No attentional capture from invisible flicker

    PubMed Central

    Alais, David; Locke, Shannon M.; Leung, Johahn; Van der Burg, Erik

    2016-01-01

    We tested whether fast flicker can capture attention using eight flicker frequencies from 20–96 Hz, including several too high to be perceived (>50 Hz). Using a 480 Hz visual display rate, we presented smoothly sampled sinusoidal temporal modulations at: 20, 30, 40, 48, 60, 69, 80, and 96 Hz. We first established flicker detection rates for each frequency. Performance was at or near ceiling until 48 Hz and dropped sharply to chance level at 60 Hz and above. We then presented the same flickering stimuli as pre-cues in a visual search task containing five elements. Flicker location varied randomly and was therefore congruent with target location on 20% of trials. Comparing congruent and incongruent trials revealed a very strong congruency effect (faster search for cued targets) for all detectable frequencies (20–48 Hz) but no effect for faster flicker rates that were detected at chance. This pattern of results (obtained with brief flicker cues: 58 ms) was replicated for long flicker cues (1000 ms) intended to allow for entrainment to the flicker frequency. These results indicate that only visible flicker serves as an exogenous attentional cue and that flicker rates too high to be perceived are completely ineffective. PMID:27377759

  15. Facial trauma as physical violence markers against elderly Brazilians: A comparative analysis between genders.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Rayanne Izabel Maciel; de Macedo Bernardino, Ítalo; Castro, Ricardo Dias; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite; Bento, Patricia Meira; d'Ávila, Sérgio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the profile of elderly Brazilians with injuries resulting from physical violence and identify victimization differences. A descriptive and exploratory study was conducted involving the analysis of medico-legal and social records of 259 elderly victims of physical violence treated at an Institute of Forensic Medicine and Dentistry over four years (from January 2008 to December 2011). The forensic service database was evaluated by researchers properly trained and calibrated to perform this function between January and March 2013. Socio-demographic variables of victims, aggression characteristics, aggressor's profile and types of lesions were evaluated. Descriptive and multivariate statistics using Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) were performed. The prevalence of facial trauma was 42.9%. Based on the MCA results, two groups with different victimization profiles were identified: married men aged 70-79 years, victims of community violence at night, suffering facial injuries; and single, widowed or separated women aged 60-69 years, victims of domestic violence during the day, suffering trauma in other areas of the body. The results suggest that there is a high prevalence of facial injuries among elderly Brazilians victims of physical violence and there are important differences related to victimization characteristics according to gender. PMID:27420151

  16. Automatic classification of Polish fricatives on the basis of optimization of the parameter space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domagala, Piotr; Richter, Lutoslawa

    1994-08-01

    The subject of this article is a study of the possibility of automatic classification and recognition of fricatives on the basis of a certain linear combination of values of an autocorrelation function. Automatic classification of fricative consonants constituted one phase of a study which involves the classification of all Polish phones for the purpose of enabling automatic speech recognition regardless of the phonetic context or the speaker. The study was conducted using phonetic material consisting of 166 nonsense syllables which included fricatives and had CVCV and VCCV structures. There were a total of about 20 contexts for each consonant. Separate classifications were performed for 5 female voices and 5 male voices and then both groups of voices were classified together. The three series of classifications had success rates of 60%, 69%, and 60% respectively. These results were about 10% better than the results obtained using classical discrimination analysis (CSS:Statistica 3.1 software). The use of cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling yielded information on the relative probabilities of the acoustic patterns of these phones in reference to perception tests.

  17. Intention to receive influenza vaccination prior to the summer influenza season in adults of Hong Kong, 2015.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Cowling, Benjamin J; Liao, Qiuyan

    2015-11-27

    Following a severe winter epidemic of drifted influenza A(H3N2) during January-March 2015, the Hong Kong government purchased vaccines of southern hemisphere formulation for administration prior to the anticipated summer influenza epidemic. This is the first time that seasonal influenza vaccines will be delivered twice within the same year in Hong Kong. We conducted a household telephone survey to investigate the acceptance of Hong Kong adults to pre-summer influenza vaccination. We found that the proportion of people reporting intention to receive vaccination was 37.8, 24.0, 31.4, and 34.4% in the age groups of 18-39, 40-59, 60-69, and 70 years or above. Only 31.3% of respondents who claimed they were parents or guardians said they would take their children to receive vaccination if the new vaccine was available. These findings suggested that intention to receive pre-summer vaccination was low even among the priority group of older people. PMID:26478202

  18. Growth of Byssochlamys Nivea in Pineapple Juice Under the Effect of Water Activity and Ascospore Age

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, M.; Miorelli, S.; Massaguer, P.R.; Aragão, G.M.F.

    2011-01-01

    The study of thermal resistant mould, including Byssochlamys nivea, is of extreme importance since it has been associated with fruit and fruit products. The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of water activity (aw) and ascospore age (I) on the growth of Byssochlamys nivea in pineapple juice. Mold growth was carried out under different conditions of water activity (aw) (0.99, 0.96, 0.95, 0.93, 0.90) and ascospore age (I) (30, 51, 60, 69, 90 days). Growth parameters as length of adaptation phase (λ), maximum specific growth rate (µmax) and maximum diameter reached by the colony (A) were obtained through the fit of the Modified Gompertz model to experimental data (measuring radial colony diameter). Statistica 6.0 was used for statistical analyses (significance level α = 0.05). The results obtained clearly showed that water activity is statistically significant and that it influences all growth parameters, while ascospore age does not have any statistically significant influence on growth parameters. Also, these data showed that by increasing aw from 0.90 to 0.99, the λ value substantially decreased, while µmax and A values rose. The data contributed for the understanding of the behavior of B. nivea in pineapple juice. Therefore, it provided mathematical models that can well predict growth parameters, also helping on microbiological control and products’ shelf life determination. PMID:24031622

  19. Treatment of a simulated textile wastewater in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with addition of a low-cost adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sílvia C R; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2015-06-30

    Color removal from textile wastewaters, at a low-cost and consistent technology, is even today a challenge. Simultaneous biological treatment and adsorption is a known alternative to the treatment of wastewaters containing biodegradable and non-biodegradable contaminants. The present work aims at evaluating the treatability of a simulated textile wastewater by simultaneously combining biological treatment and adsorption in a SBR (sequencing batch reactor), but using a low-cost adsorbent, instead of a commercial one. The selected adsorbent was a metal hydroxide sludge (WS) from an electroplating industry. Direct Blue 85 dye (DB) was used in the preparation of the synthetic wastewater. Firstly, adsorption kinetics and equilibrium were studied, in respect to many factors (temperature, pH, WS dosage and presence of salts and dyeing auxiliary chemicals in the aqueous media). At 25 °C and pH 4, 7 and 10, maximum DB adsorption capacities in aqueous solution were 600, 339 and 98.7 mg/g, respectively. These values are quite considerable, compared to other reported in literature, but proved to be significantly reduced by the presence of dyeing auxiliary chemicals in the wastewater. The simulated textile wastewater treatment in SBR led to BOD5 removals of 53-79%, but color removal was rather limited (10-18%). The performance was significantly enhanced by the addition of WS, with BOD5 removals above 91% and average color removals of 60-69%.

  20. Anti-hyperalgesic activity of crude extract and 7-methyljuglone of Diospyros lotus roots.

    PubMed

    Rauf, Abdur; Uddin, Ghias; Khan, Haroon; Siddiqui, Bina S; Arfan, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the antihyperalgesic effect of crude extract of Diospyros lotus followed by the isolation and characterisation of 7-methyljuglone in acetic acid and formalin tests. The pretreatment of crude extract evoked dose-dependent inhibition of noxious stimulation with maximum effect of 56.78% in acetic acid-induced writhing test, which were 51.89% and 60.69% in first and second phases, respectively, at 100 mg/kg i.p. The structure of 7-methyljuglone was confirmed by spectroscopic analysis. 7-Methyljuglone evoked profound increase in pain threshhold dose dependently; when it was studied in acetic acid-induced writhing test with 63.73% pain attenuation while 51.22% and 65.44% pain amelioration in first and second phases, respectively, at 100 mg/kg i.p. In conclusion, crude extract and 7-methyljuglone of D. lotus roots possessed both peripheral and central antinociceptive potential and thus could be a useful new therapeutic agent.

  1. Use of scoring systems for assessing and reporting the outcome results from shoulder surgery and arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Booker, Simon; Alfahad, Nawaf; Scott, Martin; Gooding, Ben; Wallace, W Angus

    2015-01-01

    To investigate shoulder scoring systems used in Europe and North America and how outcomes might be classified after shoulder joint replacement. All research papers published in four major journals in 2012 and 2013 were reviewed for the shoulder scoring systems used in their published papers. A method of identifying how outcomes after shoulder arthroplasty might be used to categorize patients into fair, good, very good and excellent outcomes was explored using the outcome evaluations from patients treated in our own unit. A total of 174 research articles that were published in the four journals used some form of shoulder scoring system. The outcome from shoulder arthroplasty in our unit has been evaluated using the constant score (CS) and the oxford shoulder score and these scores have been used to evaluate individual patient outcomes. CSs of < 30 = unsatisfactory; 30-39 = fair; 40-59 = good; 60-69 = very good; and 70 and over = excellent. The most popular shoulder scoring systems in North America were Simple Shoulder Test and American shoulder and elbow surgeons standard shoulder assessment form score and in Europe CS, Oxford Shoulder Score and DASH score. PMID:25793164

  2. Frequency of provision of knowledge of performance on skill acquisition in older persons.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Marcelo E S; Souza, Marina G T X; Basso, Luciano; Monteiro, Carlos B M; Corrêa, Umberto C; Santos, Suely

    2014-01-01

    The provision of feedback is a crucial factor for the evolution of the learner's performance. It is known that the knowledge of performance has the function of guiding the learner's attention to critical aspects of the movement pattern. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of frequency of knowledge of performance (KP) during the acquisition of the basketball free throw in older persons. Sixty active individuals (men and women) aged 60-69 years of age, divided into three experimental groups received KP in 100, 66, and 33% of their attempts during three practice sessions totaling 90 trials. The task was the basketball free throw. Volunteers were asked to conduct tests of immediate retention, 24 h retention, and 24 h transfer test, after the last practice session. During the acquisition phase, the volunteers received KP on the movement pattern on the previous attempt, which was obtained from a qualitative hierarchical checklist of the free throw (14 items). Sessions were recorded in order to confirm whether volunteers were able to score throughout sessions. ANOVA indicated that all individuals showed an improved performance in the retention and transfer tests. But the KP frequency of 66% was superior in both qualitative (movement pattern) and quantitative (score) measurements throughout the trials (p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion older persons seem to need an optimal KP frequency supply during the learning process.

  3. Age and sex differences in tibia morphology in healthy adult Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Sherk, Vanessa D.; Bemben, Debra A.; Bemben, Michael G.; Anderson, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Variability in peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) measurement sites limits direct comparisons of results between studies. Further, it is unclear what estimates of bone strength are most indicative of changes due to aging, disease, or interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine age group and sex differences in tibia morphology. Additional purposes of this study were to determine which tibia site or sites are most sensitive for detecting age and sex differences. Methods Self-identifying Caucasian men (n=55) and women (n=59) ages 20-59 years and separated by decades had their non-dominant tibias measured with pQCT (Stratec XCT 3000) at every 10% of the limb length from 5%-85% (distal to proximal). Volumetric BMD and BMC of the total, cortical and trabecular bone were determined, as well as periosteal (PeriC) and endosteal (EndoC) circumferences, and cortical thickness (CTh). Results There were significant (p<0.01) site effects for all BMC, vBMD, PeriC and EndoC measures. Large sex differences (men>women) in Tot.BMC (21-28%) were paralleled by differences in Cort.BMC (21-25%) (p<0.01). Site*sex interaction effects were significant (p<0.05) for BMC (peak sex difference: 5%, 15%, 25%, 85% sites) and circumference (peak sex difference: 65% site) variables. CTh and total vBMD were lowest (p<0.05) in 50-59 yr group, and EndoC was highest in the 50-59 yr group. Site*age interactions existed for Cort.vBMD, Tot.BMC (85% site), and EndoC (25%, 35%, 55%-85% sites). Correcting for bone free lean body mass (BFLBM) greatly reduced sex differences, eliminating sex*site interaction effects, but sex main effects remained significant. Correcting for BFLBM did not eliminate age effects. Conclusion The magnitude of age and sex differences in tibia variables varied by measurement site demonstrating the need for standardization of measurement sites. PMID:22449446

  4. Mammography Screening in a Large Health System Following the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendations and the Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Heidi D.; Weerasinghe, Roshanthi; Wang, Lian; Grunkemeier, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Background Practice recommendations for mammography screening were issued by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force in 2009 and expansion of insurance coverage was provided under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act soon thereafter, yet the influence of these changes on screening practices in the United States is not known. Methods To determine changes in mammography screening and their associations with new practice recommendations and the Affordable Care Act, we examined patient-level data from 249,803 screening mammograms from January 1, 2008 through December 31, 2012 in a large community-based health system in the northwestern United States. Associations were determined by an intervention analysis of time-series data method. Results Among women screened, 64% were age 50-74 years; 84% self-identified as white race; 62% had commercial insurance; and 70% were seen in facilities located in metropolitan areas. Practice recommendations were associated with decreased screening volumes among women age <40 (-37.4 mammograms/month; -39.4% change; P<0.001), 40-49 (-106.0 mammograms/month; -11.2% change; P<0.001), and ≥75 (-54.7 mammograms/month; -10.0% change; P<0.001), but not women age 50-74. Implementation of the Affordable Care Act was associated with increased screening among women age 50-74 (+184.3 mammograms/month; +7.2% change; P=0.001), but not women <40 or ≥75; increases for age 40-49 were of borderline statistical significance (+56.9 mammograms/month; +6% change; P=0.06). Practice recommendations were also associated with decreased screening for women with commercial insurance, while the Affordable Care Act was associated with increased screening for women with Medicare, Medicaid, or other noncommercial sources of payment. Conclusions Mammography screening volumes in a large community health system decreased among women age <50 and ≥75 in association with new U.S. Preventive Services Task Force practice recommendations, while insurance coverage

  5. Cardiovascular risk factor analysis in patients with a recent clinical fracture at the fracture liaison service.

    PubMed

    Wyers, Caroline E; Vranken, Lisanne; van der Velde, Robert Y; Geusens, Piet P M M; Janzing, Heinrich M J; Morrenhof, J Wim; van den Bergh, Joop P W

    2014-01-01

    Patients with a low bone mineral density have an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and venous thromboembolic events (VTE). The aim of our retrospective chart review was to investigate the prevalence of CVD, VTE, hypertension (HT), and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) in patients with a recent clinical fracture visiting the Fracture Liaison Service (FLS). Out of 3057 patients aged 50-90 years, 1359 consecutive patients, who agreed and were able to visit the FLS for fracture risk evaluation, were included (71.7% women; mean age 65.2 yrs). Based on medical history, 29.9% had a history of CVD (13.7%), VTE (1.7%), HT (14.9%), and DM2 (7.1%) or a combination. Their prevalence increased with age (21% in patients aged 50-59 years to 48% in patients aged >80 years) and was higher in men than in women (36% versus 27%), but independent of bone mineral density and fracture type. Careful evaluation of medical history with respect to these risk factors should be performed in patients with a recent clinical fracture before starting treatment with medications that increase the risk of VTE or cardiovascular events, such as raloxifene, strontium ranelate, or NSAIDs. PMID:25247184

  6. Synthesis and CYP24A1 inhibitory activity of (E)-2-(2-substituted benzylidene)- and 2-(2-substituted benzyl)-6-methoxy-tetralones.

    PubMed

    Aboraia, Ahmed S; Makowski, Bart; Bahja, Alba; Prosser, David; Brancale, Andrea; Jones, Glenville; Simons, Claire

    2010-10-01

    A series of (E)-2-(2-substituted benzylidene)- and 2-(2-substituted benzyl)-6-methoxy-tetralones were prepared, using an efficient synthetic scheme, and evaluated for their inhibitory activity against cytochrome P450C24A1 (CYP24A1) hydroxylase. In general the reduced benzyl tetralones were more active than the parent benzylidene tetralones. The 2-ethyl and 2-trifluoromethyl benzyl tetralone derivatives (4c and 4b) showed optimal activity in this series with IC(50) values of 1.92 microM and 2.08 microM, respectively compared with the standard ketoconazole IC(50) 0.52 microM. The 2-bromobenzyl tetralone (4d) showed a preference for CYP27A1 (IC(50) 59 nM) over CYP24A1 (IC50 16.3 microM) and may be a useful lead in CYP27A1 inhibition studies. The 2-ethylphenyl benzyl derivative (9c), which showed weak activity against the wild type CYP24A1 (IC(50) 25.57 microM), exhibited enhanced inhibitory activity towards L148F and M416T mutants, this difference in activity for the L148F mutant has been explained using molecular modelling.

  7. Theaflavin-3, 3′-digallate induces apoptosis and G2 cell cycle arrest through the Akt/MDM2/p53 pathway in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer A2780/CP70 cells

    PubMed Central

    TU, YOUYING; KIM, EUNHYE; GAO, YING; RANKIN, GARY O.; LI, BO; CHEN, YI CHARLIE

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological cancer among women worldwide. Adverse side effects and acquired resistance to conventional platinum based chemotherapy are major impediments in ovarian cancer treatment, and drive the development of more selective anticancer drugs that target cancer-specific defects. In this study, theaflavin-3, 3′-digallate (TF3), the major theaflavin monomer in black tea, exhibited a potent growth inhibitory effect on the cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer A2780/CP70 cells (IC50, 23.81 μM), and was less cytotoxic to a normal ovarian IOSE-364 cells (IC50, 59.58 μM) than to the cancer cells. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that TF3 induced preferential apoptosis and G2 cell cycle arrest in A2780/CP70 cells with respect to IOSE-364 cells. TF3 induced apoptosis through both the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways, and caused G2 cell cycle arrest via cyclin B1 in A2780/CP70 cells. The p53 protein played an important role in TF3-induced apoptosis and G2 cell cycle arrest. TF3 might upregulate the p53 expression via the Akt/MDM2 pathway. Our findings help elucidate the mechanisms by which TF3 may contribute to the prevention and treatment of platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. PMID:27082635

  8. Inhibition of autophagy contributes to the toxicity of cadmium telluride quantum dots in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Junpeng; Shao, Ming; Lai, Lu; Liu, Yi; Xie, Zhixiong

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) are used as near-infrared probes in biologic and medical applications, but their cytological effects and mechanism of potential toxicity are still unclear. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of CdTe QDs of different sizes and investigated their mechanism of toxicity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A growth inhibition assay revealed that orange-emitting CdTe (O-CdTe) QDs (half inhibitory concentration [IC50] =59.44±12.02 nmol/L) were more toxic than green-emitting CdTe QDs (IC50 =186.61±19.74 nmol/L) to S. cerevisiae. Further studies on toxicity mechanisms using a transmission electron microscope and green fluorescent protein tagged Atg8 processing assay revealed that O-CdTe QDs could partially inhibit autophagy at a late stage, which differs from the results reported in mammalian cells. Moreover, autophagy inhibited at a late stage by O-CdTe QDs could be partially recovered by enhancing autophagy with rapamycin (an autophagy activator), combined with an increased number of living cells. These results indicate that inhibition of autophagy acts as a toxicity mechanism of CdTe QDs in S. cerevisiae. This work reports a novel toxicity mechanism of CdTe QDs in yeast and provides valuable information on the effect of CdTe QDs on the processes of living cells. PMID:27524895

  9. Intergenerational transmission of reproductive behaviour in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Langeni, Tabitha T

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate intergenerational transmission of reproductive behaviour in Botswana. The major source of data was the 2001 Botswana AIDS Impact Survey where a nationally representative random sample of men and women aged 10-64 years was selected using a stratified two-stage probability sample design. Covariates in the analysis include age, education, marital status, religion, age at first birth, residence, duration at residence and contraceptive use. The main analytical technique is linear regression. The results indicate that the reproductive behaviour of older generations has a significantly positive influence on the reproductive behaviour of the subsequent generation, but does not affect the subsequent generation homogeneously. The effect appeared much stronger for women who initiated childbearing at an older age, for women who had never been to school, and for the cohort aged 50-59 years. These findings suggest that number of siblings, as a reproductive behaviour determinant, may very well have confounded previous reproductive behaviour analyses in Botswana. The study draws attention to the importance of the effect of origin family size in determining reproductive behaviour outcomes in Botswana.

  10. Use of antibodies specific to defined regions of scorpion. cap alpha. -toxin to study its interaction with its receptor site on the sodium channel

    SciTech Connect

    Ayeb, M.E.; Bahraoui, E.M.; Granier, C.; Rochat, H.

    1986-10-21

    Five antibody populations selected by immunoaffinity chromatography for the specificity toward various regions of toxin II of the scorpion Androctonus australis Hector were used to probe the interaction of this protein with its receptor site on the sodium channel. These studies indicate that two antigenic sites, one located around the disulfide bridge 12-63 and one encompassing residues 50-59, are involved in the molecular mechanisms of toxicity neutralization. Fab fragments specific to the region around disulfide bridge 12-63 inhibit binding of the /sup 125/I-labeled toxin to its receptor site. Also, these two antigenic regions are inaccessible to the antibodies when the toxin is bound to its receptor site. In contrast, the two other antigenic sites encompassing the only ..cap alpha..-helix region (residues 23-32) and a ..beta..-turn structure (residues 32-35) are accessible to the respective antibodies when the toxin is bound to its receptor. Together, these data support the recent proposal that a region made of residues that are conserved in the scorpion toxin family is involved in the binding of the toxin to the receptor.

  11. The Microbial Surface Components Recognizing Adhesive Matrix Molecules (MSCRAMMs) Genes among Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from Hospitalized Children

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemian, Abdolmajid; Najar Peerayeh, Shahin; Bakhshi, Bita; Mirzaee, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus express a myriad of adhesive surface proteins that play important role in colonization of the bacteria on nasal and skin surfaces, beginning the process of pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to screen several of the Microbial Surface Components Recognizing Adhesive Matrix Molecules (MSCRAMMs) genes among the isolate of S. aureus from hospitalized children. Methods: A total of 22 S. aureus isolates were collected from hospitalized children in Tehran from 2012 to 2013. Detection of the mecA and several adhesive surface proteins genes including clfA, B (encoding clumping factors A, B); fnbA, B (encoding finronectin binding proteins A, B); fib (encoding fibrinogen binding protein); eno (encoding laminin binding protein); cna (encoding collagen binding protein); ebps (encoding elastin binding protein) and bbp (encoding bone sialo-protein binding protein), was performed by PCR. Results: The clfAB genes were detected among all the isolates. The prevalence of fnbA, fnbB, fib, eno, cna, ebps and bbp was 63%, 6%, 50%, 59%, 82%, 63%, 9% and 0%, respectively. Conclusion: The high prevalence of these genes is important for future plans in vaccine designation. MRSA and MSSA isolates similarly can produce adhesive surface proteins for colonization. PMID:26351495

  12. Options to liberalize Social Security disabled widow(er)s benefits.

    PubMed

    Kingson, Eric R; Calhoun, Gary; Morse, Margaret; Brown, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Each month, 200,000 widows and 6,000 widowers receive Social Security disabled widow(er)s benefits, each benefit averaging about $550. Among the most economically at-risk Social Security beneficiaries, their benefits are permanently reduced. This paper reviews the legislative history of the disabled widow(er)s benefit, identifying key decisions that gave shape to this benefit. Social Security program data and six years of Current Population Survey data (March Annual Demographic Files, 1995-2000) are used to profile the economic status of current and potential disabled widows. The analysis, including comparison with other widows, provides strong evidence of economic need among disabled widows with, for example, 44% of disabled widow beneficiaries, ages 50-59, having below-poverty incomes compared with 15% of like-aged non-disabled widows. We conclude that serious consideration should be given to extending eligibility to all widow(er)s disabled before the normal retirement age; to providing a benefit equal to 100% of the deceased spouse's private insurance amount (PIA); to eliminating the unnecessarily restrictive seven-year rule; and to protecting beneficiaries from losing their eligibility to Medicaid. Even in the context of today's heated Social Security debate, we suggest that a rare opportunity may exist to garner bipartisan support for meaningful, low-cost improvements, in a benefit that primarily targets women.

  13. Growth Recovery of Lemna gibba and Lemna minor Following a 7-Day Exposure to the Herbicide Diuron.

    PubMed

    Burns, Mitchell; Hanson, Mark L; Prosser, Ryan S; Crossan, Angus N; Kennedy, Ivan R

    2015-08-01

    In agricultural catchments, aquatic ecosystems can experience a pulse exposure to pesticides. Following such exposure, non-target organisms that are not extirpated may recover. This paper investigates the potential of two duckweed species (Lemna minor and Lemna gibba) to recover from a 7-day exposure to different concentrations (0.4-208 µg L(-1)) of the herbicide diuron. There was significant inhibition in the growth and biomass after the initial 7-day exposure (e.g. frond number EC50=59.2 and 52.2 µg L(-1) for L. minor and L. gibba, respectively). Following transfer to clean media, recovery (the highest concentration yielding no significant difference in the effect endpoint from the control) was observed for all effects endpoints at concentrations ranging 60-111 µg L(-1) for L. minor and 60-208 µg L(-1) for L. gibba. These results suggest that recovery is possible for primary producers at environmentally relevant concentrations considered significant in ecological risk assessment.

  14. Anticonvulsant properties and bio-guided isolation of palmitone from leaves of Annona diversifolia.

    PubMed

    González-Trujano, M E; Navarrete, A; Reyes, B; Cedillo-Portugal, E; Hong, E

    2001-03-01

    The activity-guided fractionation of the ethanol extract of leaves of Annona diversifolia Saff., led to the isolation of palmitone (16-hentriacontanone) as the only anticonvulsant active compound. This aliphatic ketone was highly effective to diminish pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced clonic-tonic seizures and toxicity. Also, it produced a prolongation of the latency for onset of seizures and a reduction of the death rate produced by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and bicuculline (BIC). However, it was inactive to inhibit the kainic acid (KA)- and strychnine (STC)-induced seizures. Palmitone did not produce motor incoordination and loss of righting reflex which are used as signs of neurological impairment. Palmitone (ED50 = 1.85 mg/kg) proved to be a more potent antiepileptic drug against the PTZ-induced seizures than etosuximide (ED50 = 59.6 mg/kg), sodium valproate (ED50 = 63 mg/kg), and carbamazepine (ED50 > 300 mg/kg) and it was only four-fold less potent than diazepam (ED50 = 0.48 mg/kg). The pharmacological profile of palmitone suggests that this compound could be acting on the GABAergic inhibitory system. PMID:11301859

  15. Experiences sharing of implementing Template-based Electronic Medical Record System (TEMRS) in a Hong Kong medical organization.

    PubMed

    Ting, S L; Kwok, S K; Tsang, Albert H C; Lee, W B; Yee, K F

    2011-12-01

    This paper aims to investigate the efficacy and feasibility of Template-based Electronic Medical Record System (TEMRS) and factors for its successful implementation. A TEMRS was designed and implemented in one core clinic of a Hong Kong professional multi-disciplinary medical services provider with four core clinics located in different parts of Hong Kong. Eight doctors participated in the study. Surveys and interviews were conducted to acquire the users' feedback and satisfaction level. The design, development, and the factors related to the success of the implementation of TEMRS were analyzed. In the study period, 3,032 cases were collected. The most encountered diagnosis were upper respiratory tract infection (50.59%), gastroenteritis (10.19%), dermatitis (5.87%), dyspepsia (5.28%) and rhinitis (4.82%). The system gained an overall satisfaction by the users and the most satisfied areas were rapid retrieving the necessary information of patient (75%) and fasten the diagnostic selection (75%). TEMRS is an enabling system which can reduce the user resistance in new technology with its flexibility. The consideration of cost, security, human, technical, data migration and standardization issues are essential in the implementation of the TEMRS and further research should be conducted to expand the TEMRS's implementation in health care system.

  16. [Inability to work: analysis of sickness benefits granted in the State of Rondônia].

    PubMed

    Jakobi, Heinz Roland; Barbosa-Branco, Anadergh; Bueno, Luis Fernando; Ferreira, Ricardo de Godoi Mattos; Camargo, Luís Marcelo Aranha

    2013-11-01

    This is a descriptive epidemiological study aiming to o estimate the prevalence and duration of sickness benefits granted by the Brazilian Social Security Institute, as well as the clinical causes of inability to work among employees in Rondonia in 2008. The prevalence was submitted by 10,000 workers and stratified by sex, age, diagnosis, economic activity, and type and duration of benefits. Men had a higher prevalence and duration of benefits. Social security benefits were found to be 2,5 times more prevalent than accident benefits and both increased with age. Labor accidents were more prevalent in the age group ranging between 50-59 years, and Forestry, construction and manpower leasing: had the highest prevalence. The main diagnostic groups were injuries, musculoskeletal system disorders and digestive diseases. The duration of the sickness benefits was higher among men, =40 years and in the social security category. The economic activity is an important risk factor for Inability to work, and it needs to be further explored in order to improve sickness prevention and reduce the impact on workers' health arising from environmental conditions and working processes.

  17. The Core Pattern Analysis on Chinese Herbal Medicine for Sjögren's syndrome: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching-Mao; Chu, Hsueh-Ting; Wei, Yau-Huei; Chen, Fang-Pey; Wang, Shengwen; Wu, Po-Chang; Yen, Hung-Rong; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chang, Hen-Hong

    2015-01-01

    This large-scale survey aimed to evaluate frequencies and patterns of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) used for Sjögren's syndrome (SS) in Taiwan by analyzing the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) for cases in which CHM was used as an alternative therapy to Western medicine for improving patients' discomforts. We analyzed cases of SS principal diagnosis (ICD-9:710.2) with a catastrophic illness certificate (CIC) in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient clinics from three cohorts of the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (LHID) in the NHIRD between 2002 and 2011. CHM prescription patterns for SS were evaluated from claimed visitation files and corresponding prescription files. There were 15,914 SS patients with CIC (SS/CIC), and we found only 130 SS/CIC cases visiting TCM clinics in LHID2000, 133 in LHID2005, and 126 in LHID2010. After removing duplicate data, 366 SS/CIC and 4,867 visits were analyzed. The 50-59 year age group showed the highest ratio (29.51%) in both women and men. "Qi-Ju-Di-Huang-Wan" and "Xuan-Shen" (Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl.) was the most commonly used formula and single herb, respectively. "Qi-Ju-Di-Huang-Wan, Gan-Lu-Yin, Xuan-Shen, Mai-Men-Dong (Ophiopogon japonicus (L. f.) Ker-Gawl.), and Sheng-Di-Huang (raw Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch)" were the core pattern prescriptions in treating SS/CIC. PMID:25923413

  18. Characterization of a second open reading frame in genome segment 10 of bluetongue virus.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Meredith; Hardy, Alexandra; Barry, Gerald; Pinto, Rute Maria; Caporale, Marco; Melzi, Eleonora; Hughes, Joseph; Taggart, Aislynn; Janowicz, Anna; Varela, Mariana; Ratinier, Maxime; Palmarini, Massimo

    2015-11-01

    Viruses have often evolved overlapping reading frames in order to maximize their coding capacity. Until recently, the segmented dsRNA genome of viruses of the Orbivirus genus was thought to be monocistronic, but the identification of the bluetongue virus (BTV) NS4 protein changed this assumption. A small ORF in segment 10, overlapping the NS3 ORF in the +1 position, is maintained in more than 300 strains of the 27 different BTV serotypes and in more than 200 strains of the phylogenetically related African horse sickness virus (AHSV). In BTV, this ORF (named S10-ORF2 in this study) encodes a putative protein 50-59 residues in length and appears to be under strong positive selection. HA- or GFP-tagged versions of S10-ORF2 expressed from transfected plasmids localized within the nucleoli of transfected cells, unless a putative nucleolar localization signal was mutated. S10-ORF2 inhibited gene expression, but not RNA translation, in transient transfection reporter assays. In both mammalian and insect cells, BTV S10-ORF2 deletion mutants (BTV8ΔS10-ORF2) displayed similar replication kinetics to wt virus. In vivo, S10-ORF2 deletion mutants were pathogenic in mouse models of disease. Although further evidence is required for S10-ORF2 expression during infection, the data presented provide an initial characterization of this ORF. PMID:26290332

  19. Investigation into the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of Moringa stenopetala: identification of the active principles.

    PubMed

    Habtemariam, Solomon

    2015-03-01

    The fresh leaves of Moringa stenopetala (family, Moringaceae) are commonly eaten as cabbage while dried leaves are used as nutritional supplement and for treating a variety of disease conditions including diabetes. The present investigation into the therapeutic potential of the leaves and seeds of the plant revealed no inhibitory effect against α-glucosidase enzyme up to the concentration of 200 μg/mL but the leaves extract displayed potent DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging effect (IC50, 59.5 ± 4.1 μg/mL). An activity directed fractionation and isolation procedure resulted in the identification of the major antioxidant compound as rutin and minor active component, neochlorogenic acid. Both the crude extract (0.8-200 μg/mL) and rutin (0.8-200 μM) but not neochlorogenic acid displayed a concentration-dependent protection of human pancreatic β-cells (1.4E7 cells) from oxidant-induced cell death. The identification of these compounds along with their potential role in the nutritional and medicinal significance of the plant is discussed. PMID:25924532

  20. Prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis Infection among Residents along 5 Major Rivers in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Young-Il; Shin, Hee-Eun; Lee, Sang-Eun; Cheun, Hyeng-Il; Ju, Jung-Won; Kim, Jung-Yeon; Park, Mi Yeoun; Cho, Shin-Hyeong

    2016-04-01

    Clonorchis sinensis is currently the most important parasite affecting public health problems in the Republic of Korea. We investigated the prevalence of C. sinensis infection among residents living along 5 major rivers in Korea. A total of 42,562 individual stool samples were collected from 37 localities and examined using the formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Helminth eggs were detected in 4,052 (9.5%) residents and 3,586 (8.4%) were infected with C. sinensis. The egg positive rate of C. sinensis in Nakdong, Seomjin, Geum, Yeongsan, and Han River was 11.7%, 9.9%, 6.5%, 3.1%, and 1.0%, respectively. The overall prevalence of clonorchiasis by sex was 11.2% in males and 6.2% in females. The age-prevalence was the highest in the 50-59 years band. It has been reconfirmed that the endemicity of clonorchiasis is higher in southern areas of Korea, especially along Nakdong and Seomjin Rivers. A combination of continuous control programs with health education initiatives is urgently required in these highly endemic areas of clonorchiasis in Korea.

  1. Efficient utilization of the expanded criteria donor (ECD) deceased donor kidney pool: an analysis of the effect of labeling.

    PubMed

    Hirth, R A; Pan, Q; Schaubel, D E; Merion, R M

    2010-02-01

    We investigated the effect of the expanded criteria donor (ECD) label on (i) recovery of kidneys and (ii) acceptance for transplantation given recovery. An ECD is age > or = 60, or age 50-59 with > or = 2 of 3 specified comorbidities. Using data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients from 1999 to 2005, we modeled recovery rates through linear regression and transplantation probabilities via logistic regression, focusing on organs from donors just-younger versus just-older than the ECD age thresholds. We split the sample at July 1, 2002 to determine how decisions changed at the approximate time of implementation of the ECD definition. Before July 2002, the number of recovered kidneys with 0-1 comorbidities dropped at age 60, but transplantation probabilities given recovery did not. After July 2002, the number of recovered kidneys with 0-1 comorbidities rose at age 60, but transplantation probabilities contingent on recovery declined. No similar trends were observed at donor age 50 among donors with > or = 2 comorbidities. Overall, implementation of the ECD definition coincided with a reversal of an apparent reluctance to recover kidneys from donors over age 59, but increased selectiveness on the part of surgeons/centers with respect to these kidneys. PMID:20055795

  2. Growth Recovery of Lemna gibba and Lemna minor Following a 7-Day Exposure to the Herbicide Diuron.

    PubMed

    Burns, Mitchell; Hanson, Mark L; Prosser, Ryan S; Crossan, Angus N; Kennedy, Ivan R

    2015-08-01

    In agricultural catchments, aquatic ecosystems can experience a pulse exposure to pesticides. Following such exposure, non-target organisms that are not extirpated may recover. This paper investigates the potential of two duckweed species (Lemna minor and Lemna gibba) to recover from a 7-day exposure to different concentrations (0.4-208 µg L(-1)) of the herbicide diuron. There was significant inhibition in the growth and biomass after the initial 7-day exposure (e.g. frond number EC50=59.2 and 52.2 µg L(-1) for L. minor and L. gibba, respectively). Following transfer to clean media, recovery (the highest concentration yielding no significant difference in the effect endpoint from the control) was observed for all effects endpoints at concentrations ranging 60-111 µg L(-1) for L. minor and 60-208 µg L(-1) for L. gibba. These results suggest that recovery is possible for primary producers at environmentally relevant concentrations considered significant in ecological risk assessment. PMID:26067703

  3. The study of integrated coal-gasifier molten carbonate fuel cell systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A novel integration concept for a coal-fueled coal gasifier-molten carbonate fuel cell power plant was studied. Effort focused on determining the efficiency potential of the concept, design, and development requirements of the processes in order to achieve the efficiency. The concept incorporates a methane producing catalytic gasifier of the type previously under development by Exxon Research and Development Corp., a reforming molten carbonate fuel cell power section of the type currently under development by United Technologies Corp., and a gasifier-fuel cell recycle loop. The concept utilizes the fuel cell waste heat, in the form of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, to generate additional fuel in the coal gasifier, thereby eliminating the use of both an O2 plant and a stream bottoming cycle from the power plant. The concept has the potential for achieving coal-pile-to-busbar efficiencies of 50-59%, depending on the process configuration and degree of process configuration and degree of process development requirements. This is significantly higher than any previously reported gasifier-molten carbonate fuel cell system.

  4. Lack of carcinogenicity of cadmium chloride in female Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Waalkes, M P; Rehm, S

    1998-04-01

    Cadmium is very effective at inducing necrosis within the ovaries of rodents, and the Syrian hamster appears particularly sensitive. The extent of cadmium-induced necrosis depends on the stage of the estrous cycle and is most pronounced when injected on the day prior to ovulation (proestrous). In male rodents cadmium induces a similar necrosis within the testes, which given sufficient time can lead to the development of testicular tumors. In this study we tested the hypothesis that cadmium-induced ovarian necrosis could eventually lead to tumor formation. In sexually mature groups of female Syrian hamsters (> 8 weeks old; n = 50-59), the estrous cycle was determined by visual inspection of vaginal discharge for four consecutive cycles. The animals were then given cadmium (0, 30, 40 and 50 micromol/kg) subcutaneously as a single injection in the dorsal thoracic midline on cycle day 4 (proestrous). Based on prior work, these doses are sufficient to induce extensive acute ovarian damage. Animals were then observed over the next 78 weeks. Although survival and body weight were reduced by cadmium, treatment with the metal did not result in an enhanced incidence of tumors at any site including the ovaries. Non-neoplastic lesions such as amyloidosis and pancreatic hepatocytes were linked to cadmium exposure. These results indicate that the association of cadmium-induced testicular necrosis with tumor development seen in males does not occur in the Syrian hamster ovaries. PMID:9674965

  5. Observed Temperature Effects on Hourly Residential Electric LoadReduction in Response to an Experimental Critical Peak PricingTariff

    SciTech Connect

    Herter, Karen B.; McAuliffe, Patrick K.; Rosenfeld, Arthur H.

    2005-11-14

    The goal of this investigation was to characterize themanual and automated response of residential customers to high-price"critical" events dispatched under critical peak pricing tariffs testedin the 2003-2004 California Statewide Pricing Pilot. The 15-monthexperimental tariff gave customers a discounted two-price time-of-userate on 430 days in exchange for 27 critical days, during which the peakperiod price (2 p.m. to 7 p.m.) was increased to about three times thenormal time-of-use peak price. We calculated response by five-degreetemperature bins as the difference between peak usage on normal andcritical weekdays. Results indicatedthat manual response to criticalperiods reached -0.23 kW per home (-13 percent) in hot weather(95-104.9oF), -0.03 kW per home (-4 percent) in mild weather (60-94.9oF),and -0.07 kW per home (-9 percent) during cold weather (50-59.9oF).Separately, we analyzed response enhanced by programmable communicatingthermostats in high-use homes with air-conditioning. Between 90oF and94.9oF, the response of this group reached -0.56 kW per home (-25percent) for five-hour critical periods and -0.89 kW/home (-41 percent)for two-hour critical periods.

  6. Inhibition of autophagy contributes to the toxicity of cadmium telluride quantum dots in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Fan, Junpeng; Shao, Ming; Lai, Lu; Liu, Yi; Xie, Zhixiong

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) are used as near-infrared probes in biologic and medical applications, but their cytological effects and mechanism of potential toxicity are still unclear. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of CdTe QDs of different sizes and investigated their mechanism of toxicity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A growth inhibition assay revealed that orange-emitting CdTe (O-CdTe) QDs (half inhibitory concentration [IC50] =59.44±12.02 nmol/L) were more toxic than green-emitting CdTe QDs (IC50 =186.61±19.74 nmol/L) to S. cerevisiae. Further studies on toxicity mechanisms using a transmission electron microscope and green fluorescent protein tagged Atg8 processing assay revealed that O-CdTe QDs could partially inhibit autophagy at a late stage, which differs from the results reported in mammalian cells. Moreover, autophagy inhibited at a late stage by O-CdTe QDs could be partially recovered by enhancing autophagy with rapamycin (an autophagy activator), combined with an increased number of living cells. These results indicate that inhibition of autophagy acts as a toxicity mechanism of CdTe QDs in S. cerevisiae. This work reports a novel toxicity mechanism of CdTe QDs in yeast and provides valuable information on the effect of CdTe QDs on the processes of living cells. PMID:27524895

  7. Prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis Infection among Residents along 5 Major Rivers in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Young-Il; Shin, Hee-Eun; Lee, Sang-Eun; Cheun, Hyeng-Il; Ju, Jung-Won; Kim, Jung-Yeon; Park, Mi Yeoun; Cho, Shin-Hyeong

    2016-01-01

    Clonorchis sinensis is currently the most important parasite affecting public health problems in the Republic of Korea. We investigated the prevalence of C. sinensis infection among residents living along 5 major rivers in Korea. A total of 42,562 individual stool samples were collected from 37 localities and examined using the formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Helminth eggs were detected in 4,052 (9.5%) residents and 3,586 (8.4%) were infected with C. sinensis. The egg positive rate of C. sinensis in Nakdong, Seomjin, Geum, Yeongsan, and Han River was 11.7%, 9.9%, 6.5%, 3.1%, and 1.0%, respectively. The overall prevalence of clonorchiasis by sex was 11.2% in males and 6.2% in females. The age-prevalence was the highest in the 50-59 years band. It has been reconfirmed that the endemicity of clonorchiasis is higher in southern areas of Korea, especially along Nakdong and Seomjin Rivers. A combination of continuous control programs with health education initiatives is urgently required in these highly endemic areas of clonorchiasis in Korea. PMID:27180582

  8. Investigation into the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of Moringa stenopetala: identification of the active principles.

    PubMed

    Habtemariam, Solomon

    2015-03-01

    The fresh leaves of Moringa stenopetala (family, Moringaceae) are commonly eaten as cabbage while dried leaves are used as nutritional supplement and for treating a variety of disease conditions including diabetes. The present investigation into the therapeutic potential of the leaves and seeds of the plant revealed no inhibitory effect against α-glucosidase enzyme up to the concentration of 200 μg/mL but the leaves extract displayed potent DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging effect (IC50, 59.5 ± 4.1 μg/mL). An activity directed fractionation and isolation procedure resulted in the identification of the major antioxidant compound as rutin and minor active component, neochlorogenic acid. Both the crude extract (0.8-200 μg/mL) and rutin (0.8-200 μM) but not neochlorogenic acid displayed a concentration-dependent protection of human pancreatic β-cells (1.4E7 cells) from oxidant-induced cell death. The identification of these compounds along with their potential role in the nutritional and medicinal significance of the plant is discussed.

  9. Cytotoxicity and structure activity relationship studies of maplexins A-I, gallotannins from red maple (Acer rubrum).

    PubMed

    González-Sarrías, Antonio; Yuan, Tao; Seeram, Navindra P

    2012-05-01

    Maplexins A-I are a series of structurally related gallotannins recently isolated from the red maple (Acer rubrum) species. They differ in number and location of galloyl derivatives attached to 1,5-anhydro-glucitol. Here, maplexins A-I were evaluated for anticancer effects against human tumorigenic (colon, HCT-116; breast, MCF-7) and non-tumorigenic (colon, CCD-18Co) cell lines. The maplexins which contained two (maplexins C-D) or three (maplexins E-I) galloyl derivatives each, inhibited cancer cell growth while those with only one galloyl group (maplexins A-B) did not. Moreover, maplexins C-D showed greater antiproliferative effects than maplexins E-I (IC(50)=59.8-67.9 and 95.5-108.5 μM vs. 73.7-165.2 and 115.5-182.5 μM against HCT-116 and MCF-7 cells, respectively). Notably, the cancer cells were up to 2.5-fold more sensitive to the maplexins than the normal cells. In further mechanistic studies, maplexins C-D (at 75 μM concentrations) induced apoptosis and arrested cell cycle (in the S-phase) of the cancer cells. These results suggest that the number of galloyl groups attached to the 1,5-anhydro-glucitol moiety in these gallotannins are important for antiproliferative activity. Also, this is the first in vitro anticancer study of maplexins. PMID:22387705

  10. Characterization of a second open reading frame in genome segment 10 of bluetongue virus.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Meredith; Hardy, Alexandra; Barry, Gerald; Pinto, Rute Maria; Caporale, Marco; Melzi, Eleonora; Hughes, Joseph; Taggart, Aislynn; Janowicz, Anna; Varela, Mariana; Ratinier, Maxime; Palmarini, Massimo

    2015-11-01

    Viruses have often evolved overlapping reading frames in order to maximize their coding capacity. Until recently, the segmented dsRNA genome of viruses of the Orbivirus genus was thought to be monocistronic, but the identification of the bluetongue virus (BTV) NS4 protein changed this assumption. A small ORF in segment 10, overlapping the NS3 ORF in the +1 position, is maintained in more than 300 strains of the 27 different BTV serotypes and in more than 200 strains of the phylogenetically related African horse sickness virus (AHSV). In BTV, this ORF (named S10-ORF2 in this study) encodes a putative protein 50-59 residues in length and appears to be under strong positive selection. HA- or GFP-tagged versions of S10-ORF2 expressed from transfected plasmids localized within the nucleoli of transfected cells, unless a putative nucleolar localization signal was mutated. S10-ORF2 inhibited gene expression, but not RNA translation, in transient transfection reporter assays. In both mammalian and insect cells, BTV S10-ORF2 deletion mutants (BTV8ΔS10-ORF2) displayed similar replication kinetics to wt virus. In vivo, S10-ORF2 deletion mutants were pathogenic in mouse models of disease. Although further evidence is required for S10-ORF2 expression during infection, the data presented provide an initial characterization of this ORF.

  11. Safety evaluation report related to the Department of Energy`s proposal for the irradiation of lead test assemblies containing tritium-producing burnable absorber rods in commercial light-water reactors. Project Number 697

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The NRC staff has reviewed a report, submitted by DOE to determine whether the use of a commercial light-water reactor (CLWR) to irradiate a limited number of tritium-producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs) in lead test assemblies (LTAs) raises generic issues involving an unreviewed safety question. The staff has prepared this safety evaluation to address the acceptability of these LTAs in accordance with the provision of 10 CFR 50.59 without NRC licensing action. As summarized in Section 10 of this safety evaluation, the staff has identified issues that require NRC review. The staff has also identified a number of areas in which an individual licensee undertaking irradiation of TPBAR LTAs will have to supplement the information in the DOE report before the staff can determine whether the proposed irradiation is acceptable at a particular facility. The staff concludes that a licensee undertaking irradiation of TPBAR LTAs in a CLWR will have to submit an application for amendment to its facility operating license before inserting the LTAs into the reactor.

  12. Molecular cloning of mouse liver flavin containing monooxygenase (FMO1) cDNA and characterization of the expression product: metabolism of the neurotoxin, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (TIQ).

    PubMed

    Itoh, K; Nakamura, K; Kimura, T; Itoh, S; Kamataki, T

    1997-02-01

    A mouse liver cDNA clone, MFMO1, coding for a flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) was isolated. This cDNA clone encoded a protein of 532 amino acids. Based upon its predicted amino acid sequence, this clone was assumed to belong to the FMO1 subfamily. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 94, 84, 83, and 83% identity with FMO1s of rats, pigs, rabbits and humans, respectively, while it showed only 50-59% identity with human FMO3 and FMO4, rabbit FMO2, FMO3, FMO4 and FMO5, and guinea-pig FMO2. RNA blot analysis showed that the mouse FMO1 was also expressed in the lung and kidney and to lesser extents in the heart, spleen, testis and brain. Mouse FMO1 expressed in yeast showed activities of thiobenzamide S-oxidation, and NADPH oxidation associated with the S- or N-oxidation of chlorpromazine, N,N-dimethylaniline, N,N-dimethyl-hydrazine, imipramine, nicotine, thioacetamide, thiourea and trimethylamine. Moreover, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (TIQ), a substance known to induce a parkinsonism-like syndrome in monkeys, was also metabolized by the mouse FMO1. The K(m) values for chlorpromazine, imipramine and TIQ were determined to be 2,4, 16.0, 435 mM, respectively. This is the first report to show that an expressed FMO can metabolize a neurotoxin, TIQ. PMID:9076656

  13. The Core Pattern Analysis on Chinese Herbal Medicine for Sjögren's syndrome: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching-Mao; Chu, Hsueh-Ting; Wei, Yau-Huei; Chen, Fang-Pey; Wang, Shengwen; Wu, Po-Chang; Yen, Hung-Rong; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chang, Hen-Hong

    2015-01-01

    This large-scale survey aimed to evaluate frequencies and patterns of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) used for Sjögren's syndrome (SS) in Taiwan by analyzing the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) for cases in which CHM was used as an alternative therapy to Western medicine for improving patients' discomforts. We analyzed cases of SS principal diagnosis (ICD-9:710.2) with a catastrophic illness certificate (CIC) in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient clinics from three cohorts of the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (LHID) in the NHIRD between 2002 and 2011. CHM prescription patterns for SS were evaluated from claimed visitation files and corresponding prescription files. There were 15,914 SS patients with CIC (SS/CIC), and we found only 130 SS/CIC cases visiting TCM clinics in LHID2000, 133 in LHID2005, and 126 in LHID2010. After removing duplicate data, 366 SS/CIC and 4,867 visits were analyzed. The 50-59 year age group showed the highest ratio (29.51%) in both women and men. "Qi-Ju-Di-Huang-Wan" and "Xuan-Shen" (Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl.) was the most commonly used formula and single herb, respectively. "Qi-Ju-Di-Huang-Wan, Gan-Lu-Yin, Xuan-Shen, Mai-Men-Dong (Ophiopogon japonicus (L. f.) Ker-Gawl.), and Sheng-Di-Huang (raw Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch)" were the core pattern prescriptions in treating SS/CIC.

  14. Life conditions of persons with and without low-back pain.

    PubMed

    Saraste, H; Hultman, G

    1987-01-01

    A comparison of life conditions (such as dwelling, health, leisure-time activities, education, occupation, and work characteristics) was made between age- and sex-stratified groups of persons with and without low-back pain (BP). The primary data were collected from a random, geographically standardized 1:1,000 sample of the Swedish population including 2,872 citizens aged 30-59 years. There were no differences with respect to dwelling, height, weight, habits of physical exercise, other non-occupational activities, and frequency of unemployment. In the group of 50-59 year old persons, the males with BP smoked more than those without. In the same age-group of females, and in the younger male groups there were no differences in smoking habits. Physically heavy, monotonous, and repetitive work was more frequent among the subjects with BP. The relative number of highschool-educated was lower among males--in the youngest age group--with BP. The back-healthy persons evaluated their state of health as better and their need of medical care as less than the persons with BP.

  15. Discovery of 5-benzyl-3-phenyl-4,5-dihydroisoxazoles and 5-benzyl-3-phenyl-1,4,2-dioxazoles as potent firefly luciferase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Poutiainen, Pekka K; Palvimo, Jorma J; Hinkkanen, Ari E; Valkonen, Arto; Väisänen, Topi K; Laatikainen, Reino; Pulkkinen, Juha T

    2013-02-14

    Luciferase reporter assays are commonly used in high-throughput screening methods. Here, we report new firefly luciferase (FLuc) inhibitors based on 5-benzyl-3-phenyl-4,5-dihydroisoxazoles and 5-benzyl-3-phenyl-1,4,2-dioxazoles, which showed up as "false positives" in a luciferase reporter gene-based assay for nuclear receptor antagonists. The inhibition was shown to be noncompetitive for both natural enzyme substrates (d-luciferin and ATP) and selective to FLuc and proven to arise from a direct interaction between the enzyme and the inhibitor. Of the 63 evaluated compounds, 28 showed significantly better inhibition potency than the well-known inhibitor resveratrol (IC(50) = 59 nM), with five compounds having distinctly subnanomolar IC(50) values. The most efficient compounds inhibited the luminescence at concentrations lower than (1)/(100) in comparison to resveratrol (lowest IC(50) = 0.26 nM) and can thus be considered to belong to the most potent FLuc inhibitors reported thus far. Overall, the novel inhibitors form a unique molecular library for structure-activity relationship (SAR) analyses.

  16. Reassessment of risk factors for oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Gangane, Nitin; Chawla, Shweta; Anshu; Subodh, Anshu; Gupta, Subodh Sharan; Sharma, Satish M

    2007-01-01

    A total of 140 cases of histologically confirmed oral cancer were evaluated for their demographic details, dietary habits and addiction to tobacco and alcohol using a pre-designed structured questionnaire at the Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram in Central India. These cases were matched with three sets of age and sex matched controls. Oral cancer was predominant in the age group of 50-59 years. Individuals on a non-vegetarian diet appeared to be at greater risk of developing oral cancer. Cases were habituated to consuming hot beverages more frequently and milk less frequently than controls. Consumption of ghutka, a granular form of chewable tobacco and areca nut, was significantly associated with oral cancer cases. Cases had been using oral tobacco for longer duration than controls, and were habituated to sleeping with tobacco quid in their mouth. Most cases were also addicted to smoking tobacco and alcohol consumption. Bidi (a crude cigarette) smoking was most commonly associated with oral cancer. On stratified analysis, a combination of regular smoking and oral tobacco use, as well as a combination of regular alcohol intake and oral tobacco use were significantly associated with oral cancer cases. Synergistic effects of all three or even two of the risk factors - oral tobacco use, smoking and alcohol consumption- was more commonly seen in cases when compared to controls.

  17. Sudden natural deaths in Edirne, Turkey, from 1984 to 2005.

    PubMed

    Azmak, Ali Derya

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the characteristics of sudden natural deaths (SND) in forensic autopsy cases which were performed in Trakya University Department of Forensic Medicine, Edirne, Turkey. For each case, a complete autopsy, toxicological screening and histological examination were performed. Deaths due to unnatural causes, alcohol, drug overdose and undetermined causes (negative autopsy) were excluded from the study. Autopsy reports of 959 consecutive forensic cases performed in a 22-year period were reviewed. Two hundred and seventy-eight (278) SNDs were identified, involving 232 males (83.4%) and 46 females (16.6%). The age group of 50-59 years accounted for 21.58% of the cases. In the majority (55%) the cause of death was related to the cardiovascular system--principally ischemic heart disease. The second most common cause of SND was related to the respiratory system (19.1%), especially pneumonia. Most of the SNDs occurred in the winter months. Ethyl alcohol was detected in 5.3% of cases. In conclusion, sudden natural deaths related to the cardiovascular system are shown to be a significant problem in the Trakya region of Turkey.

  18. Cytotoxicity and structure activity relationship studies of maplexins A-I, gallotannins from red maple (Acer rubrum).

    PubMed

    González-Sarrías, Antonio; Yuan, Tao; Seeram, Navindra P

    2012-05-01

    Maplexins A-I are a series of structurally related gallotannins recently isolated from the red maple (Acer rubrum) species. They differ in number and location of galloyl derivatives attached to 1,5-anhydro-glucitol. Here, maplexins A-I were evaluated for anticancer effects against human tumorigenic (colon, HCT-116; breast, MCF-7) and non-tumorigenic (colon, CCD-18Co) cell lines. The maplexins which contained two (maplexins C-D) or three (maplexins E-I) galloyl derivatives each, inhibited cancer cell growth while those with only one galloyl group (maplexins A-B) did not. Moreover, maplexins C-D showed greater antiproliferative effects than maplexins E-I (IC(50)=59.8-67.9 and 95.5-108.5 μM vs. 73.7-165.2 and 115.5-182.5 μM against HCT-116 and MCF-7 cells, respectively). Notably, the cancer cells were up to 2.5-fold more sensitive to the maplexins than the normal cells. In further mechanistic studies, maplexins C-D (at 75 μM concentrations) induced apoptosis and arrested cell cycle (in the S-phase) of the cancer cells. These results suggest that the number of galloyl groups attached to the 1,5-anhydro-glucitol moiety in these gallotannins are important for antiproliferative activity. Also, this is the first in vitro anticancer study of maplexins.

  19. Self-stigma, perceived discrimination and empowerment among people with a mental illness in six countries: Pan European stigma study.

    PubMed

    Krajewski, Christin; Burazeri, Genc; Brand, Helmut

    2013-12-30

    A cross-sectional study including 796 individuals with a psychiatric disorder was conducted in Croatia, Israel, Lithuania, Malta, Romania and Sweden in 2010 aiming to assess correlates of self-stigma. The Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) was used to measure self-stigma, whereas the Boston University Empowerment Scale was used to measure the self-efficacy/self-esteem (SESE) and sense of power/powerlessness (PP). Perceived discrimination and devaluation was measured with the Perceived Devaluation and Discrimination (PDD) Scale. Thirty three percent of participants had moderate-to-high ISMI scores. In multivariable-adjusted analysis, significant 'predictors' of high ISMI scores were: age-group of 50-59 years, current employment, lower social contacts, and minimal-to-low SESE and PP scores. Remarkably, no significant association between ISMI and PDD was evident. Furthermore, there was evidence of a significant interaction between SESE and country. Study participants might not be representative to all individuals with mental disorders in countries included in this survey. Our findings indicate that people with psychiatric diseases suffer both self-stigma and perceived discrimination and devaluation. This is one of the very few reports highlighting country differences and diagnosis disparities of self-stigma among individuals with mental illnesses. Between-country differences should be considered and carefully addressed in the process of policy formulation and interventional programs against stigma.

  20. Estimated tooth loss based on number of present teeth in Japanese adults using national surveys of dental disease.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Koichi; Ishizuka, Yoichi; Fukai, Kakuhiro; Takiguchi, Toru; Sugihara, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Oral health instruction for adults should take into account the potential effect of tooth loss, as this has been suggested to predict further tooth loss. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether further tooth loss could be predicted from the number of present teeth (PT). We employed the same method as in our previous study, this time using two national surveys of dental disease, which were deemed to represent a generational cohort. Percentiles were estimated using the cumulative frequency distribution of PT from the two surveys. The first was a survey of 704 participants aged 50-59 years conducted in 2005, and the second was a survey of 747 participants aged 56-65 years conducted in 2011. The 1st to 100th percentiles of the number of PT were calculated for both age groups. Using these percentiles and a generational cohort analysis based on the two surveys, the number of teeth lost per year could be calculated. The distribution of number of teeth lost generated a convex curve. Peak tooth loss occurred at around 12-14 PT, with 0.54 teeth being lost per year. The percentage of teeth lost (per number of PT) increased as number of PT decreased. The results confirmed that tooth loss promotes further tooth loss. These data should be made available for use in adult oral health education.

  1. Techno-economic analysis of ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse using a Liquefaction plus Simultaneous Saccharification and co-Fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Gubicza, Krisztina; Nieves, Ismael U; Sagues, William J; Barta, Zsolt; Shanmugam, K T; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2016-05-01

    A techno-economic analysis was conducted for a simplified lignocellulosic ethanol production process developed and proven by the University of Florida at laboratory, pilot, and demonstration scales. Data obtained from all three scales of development were used with Aspen Plus to create models for an experimentally-proven base-case and 5 hypothetical scenarios. The model input parameters that differed among the hypothetical scenarios were fermentation time, enzyme loading, enzymatic conversion, solids loading, and overall process yield. The minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) varied between 50.38 and 62.72 US cents/L. The feedstock and the capital cost were the main contributors to the production cost, comprising between 23-28% and 40-49% of the MESP, respectively. A sensitivity analysis showed that overall ethanol yield had the greatest effect on the MESP. These findings suggest that future efforts to increase the economic feasibility of a cellulosic ethanol process should focus on optimization for highest ethanol yield.

  2. Biofiltration pretreatment for reverse osmosis (RO) membrane in a water reclamation system.

    PubMed

    Hu, J Y; Song, L F; Ong, S L; Phua, E T; Ng, W J

    2005-03-01

    Biofouling control is considered as a major challenge in operating membrane systems. A lab-scale RO system was setup at a local water reclamation plant to study the feasibility of using biofiltration as a pretreatment process to control the biofouling. The biological activity in the RO system (feed, product, reject streams) was tested using the standard serial dilution plating technique. Operational parameters such as differential pressure (DP) and permeate flowrate of the system were also monitored. Effects of biofilter on AOC and DOC removals were investigated. Biofiltration was found to be a viable way of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removals, with removal efficiencies of 40-49% and 35-45% at an empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 30 min. It was also found that using the biofiltration as a pretreatment reduced the rate of biofouling. It took only about 72 h for biofouling to have a significant impact on the performance of the RO membrane, when the system was operated without using biofiltration as pretreatment. There was, however, a five times increase in operational length to more than 300 h when biofiltration was used. This study presented the suitability of the biofilter as an economical and simple way of biofouling control for RO membrane.

  3. Risk factors of type 2 diabetes in population of Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Ankit; Sharma, Swarkar; Dhar, Manoj K; Bamezai, Rameshwar N K

    2013-09-01

    We sought to identify risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Jammu and Kashmir populations, India. A total of 424 diabetic and 226 non-diabetic subjects from Jammu, and 161 diabetic and 100 non-diabetic subjects from Kashmir were screened for various parameters including fasting blood glucose level, 2 hour glucose level, urea, creatinine, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-C), uric acid, systolic and diastolic blood pressure level. We found that subjects aged 40-49 years had the highest rate of diabetes, with family income playing not much of a role. Kashmiri migrants or populations with rapid cultural, environmental, social or lifestyle change along with reduced physical activity, obesity and unhealthy lifestyle (smoking and alcohol consumption) were found to have higher rates of diabetes. High blood glucose, triglycerides and low HDL-C levels were found to be contributing to disease outcome. High blood pressure also contributed to a higher risk of developing T2D. Our study supports earlier reports confirming the contribution of comfortable life style, Western dietary habits and rapid life style change along with many other factors to the prevalence of diabetes. This may contribute to the epidemic proportion of diabetes in Jammu and Kashmir. Early diagnosis and routine screening for undiagnosed diabetes in obese subjects and subjects with parental diabetes history is expected to decrease the burden of chronic diabetic complications worldwide.

  4. The educational gradient in marriage: a comparison of 25 European countries.

    PubMed

    Kalmijn, Matthijs

    2013-08-01

    Previous research has suggested that a new marriage gradient has emerged in the United States, with marriage becoming increasingly the privilege of the better-educated. This article examines whether this is true for Europe and explores differences in the marriage gradient among 25 European countries, using multilevel models. The focus is on the chances of living in a marital (or cohabiting) union during midlife (ages 40-49). Multilevel analyses show that the direction and strength of the gradient depend on the societal context. In countries where gender roles are traditional, better-educated women are less likely to be married than less-educated women; in gender-egalitarian countries, better-educated women are more likely to be married. For men, the educational effect on marriage is absent in traditional countries but becomes positive as gender roles become more equal. Inequality in a society also modifies the gradient: if the degree of economic inequality between educational groups in a society is strong, better-educated men are more likely to be married than less-educated men. In general, the results suggest that there may be an accumulation of social and economic disadvantages for the less well educated in more-developed countries.

  5. Evaluation of early pelvic floor physiotherapy on the duration and degree of urinary incontinence after radical retropubic prostatectomy in a non-teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Cornel, E B; de Wit, R; Witjes, J A

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this study was to study the effect of early pelvic floor re-education on the degree and duration of incontinence and to evaluate the results of radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) performed in a non-teaching hospital. This is a non-randomised study. From March 2000 to November 2003, 57 consecutive men, who underwent RRP for localized prostate cancer, participated in a pelvic floor re-educating program. Continence was defined as a loss of no more than 2-g urine on the 24-h pad test and no use of pads. The 24-h pad test was performed once in every 4 weeks until the patient indicated that he was continent. Diurnal and nocturnal continence was achieved after 1, 2, 3, 6 and 12 months post catheter removal in 40, 49, 70, 86 and 88% of all men, respectively. Comparison of our results with current literature suggest that the time period towards continence after a RRP can be shortened relevantly if pelvic floor re-education is started directly after catheter removal.

  6. Abdominal crush injury in the Sichuan earthquake evaluated by multidetector computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tian-Wu; Yang, Zhi-Gang; Dong, Zhi-Hui; Shao, Heng; Chu, Zhi-Gang; Tang, Si-Shi

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the features of abdominal crush injuries resulting from an earthquake using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). METHODS: Fifty-one survivors with abdominal crush injuries due to the 2008 Sichuan earthquake underwent emergency non-enhanced scans with 16-row MDCT. Data were reviewed focusing on anatomic regions including lumbar vertebrae, abdominal wall soft tissue, retroperitoneum and intraperitoneal space; and types of traumatic lesions. RESULTS: Fractures of lumbar vertebrae and abdominal wall soft tissue injuries were more common than retro- and intraperitoneal injuries (P < 0.05). With regard to the 49 lumbar vertebral fractures in 24 patients, these occurred predominantly in the transverse process (P < 0.05), and 66.67% of patients (16/24) had fractures of multiple vertebrae, predominantly two vertebrae in 62.5% of patients (10/16), mainly in L1-3 vertebrae in 81.63% of the vertebrae (40/49). Retroperitoneal injuries occurred more frequently than intraperitoneal injuries (P < 0.05), and renal and liver injuries were most often seen in the retroperitoneum and in the intraperitoneal space, respectively (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Transverse process fractures in two vertebrae among L1-3 vertebrae, injury of abdominal wall soft tissue, and renal injury might be features of earthquake-related crush abdominal injury. PMID:21666819

  7. Efficacy of Trimetazidine Dihydrochloride for Relieving Chronic Tinnitus: A Randomized Double-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumral, Tolgar Lütfi; Yıldırım, Güven; Berkiten, Güler; Saltürk, Ziya; Ataç, Enes; Atar, Yavuz; Uyar, Yavuz

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the efficacy of trimetazidine dihydrochloride as a treatment for chronic tinnitus. Methods. A total of 97 chronic tinnitus patients were evaluated in this randomized, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. After assessing for eligibility, 82 patients were randomly assigned into placebo or trimetazidine groups according to the medication. The trimetazidine group received 20×3 mg/day per oral trimetazidine dihydrochloride and the placebo group received 20×3 mg/day per oral placebo for 3 months. Tinnitus handicap inventory (THI), visual analogue scale (VAS) questionnaires and audiometric results were used to determine the effectiveness of trimetazidine treatment. Results. The study group comprised 82 tinnitus subjects, 42 (51%) of whom received trimetazidine dihydrochloride and 40 (49%) who received placebo. There was no significant difference between placebo and trimetazidine groups in THI grade and VAS (both pre- and posttreatment scores) (P>0.05) and no significant improvement was observed in subjective loudness score in either group (P>0.05). Additionally there was no significant difference between groups in pre- and posttreatment pure tone hearing thresholds at all measured frequencies (P>0.05). Conclusion. Trimetazidine dihydrochloride therapy was ineffective for relieving chronic tinnitus. PMID:27230273

  8. Hormone use for menopausal symptoms and risk of breast cancer. A Danish cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ewertz, M; Mellemkjaer, L; Poulsen, A H; Friis, S; Sørensen, H T; Pedersen, L; McLaughlin, J K; Olsen, J H

    2005-04-11

    Numerous studies and meta-analyses have shown that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for menopausal symptoms increases the risk of developing breast cancer, estimated to be 2.3% for each year of use. The influence of different oestrogen-progestin regimens has still not been fully evaluated. Using longitudinal data from the population-based prescription database of the county of North Jutland, Denmark, and the Danish Cancer Registry, we examined the risk of developing breast cancer in relation to HRT in a cohort of 78,380 women aged 40-67 years from 1989 to 2002. A total of 1462 cases of breast cancer were identified during a mean follow-up of 10 years. Use of HRT did not increase the risk of breast cancer in women aged 40-49 years. Restricting the cohort to 48,812 women aged 50 years or more at entry, of whom 15 631 were HRT users, we found an increased risk associated with current use of HRT (relative risk 1.61, 95% confidence interval 1.38-1.88). The risk increased with increasing duration of use and decreased with time since last HRT prescription, reaching unity after 5 years. No material risk difference was observed among the various HRT-regimens. This population-based cohort study provides further confirmation that HRT increases the risk of developing breast cancer in women aged 50 years or more.

  9. [Combined nutritional indicators and associated factors in the Quilombo population (hinterland settlements founded by people of African origin) in southwestern Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Soares, Daniela Arruda; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2015-03-01

    This study sought to estimate the prevalence of the combination of Body Mass Index (BMI) plus Waist Circumference (WC) and of BMI plus Waist to Height Ratio (WHR) and to investigate associated factors. A two-stage random sample of adults (>20 years) living in former African slaves communities (Quilombos) was taken in Vitória da Conquista in the State of Bahia in 2011. Combined BMI+WHR nutritional risk was defined by the simultaneous presence of BMI > 25.0Kg/m2 or > 27.0Kg/m2, if aged > 60 years and WHR > 0.5. BMI + WC nutritional risk was defined by elevated BMI in addition to WC > 80cm for women, or > 94cm for men. Among the 739 participants, the prevalence of combined nutritional indicators were 35.3% (BMI + WHR) and 26.8% (BMI + WC). Female sex and hypertension increased the chances of a combination of both indicators, while being unmarried decreased the chances. The prevalence of BMI + WHR was higher in the 40-59 year age range and the prevalence of BMI + WC was higher in the 40-49 year age range. Less schooling increased the chances of the combined BMI + WHR indicator and watching television for more than two hours/day increased the chances of the BMI + WC indicator. The high prevalence of combined nutritional indicators indicate the need of diet promotion actions to prevent obesity.

  10. Toxicokinetics of seven perfluoroalkyl sulfonic and carboxylic acids in pigs fed a contaminated diet.

    PubMed

    Numata, Jorge; Kowalczyk, Janine; Adolphs, Julian; Ehlers, Susan; Schafft, Helmut; Fuerst, Peter; Müller-Graf, Christine; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Greiner, Matthias

    2014-07-16

    The transfer of a mixture of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from contaminated feed into the edible tissues of 24 fattening pigs was investigated. Four perfluoroalkyl sulfonic (PFSAs) and three perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) were quantifiable in feed, plasma, edible tissues, and urine. As percentages of unexcreted PFAA, the substances accumulated in plasma (up to 51%), fat, and muscle tissues (collectively, meat 40-49%), liver (under 7%), and kidney (under 2%) for most substances. An exception was perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), with lower affinity for plasma (23%) and higher for liver (35%). A toxicokinetic model is developed to quantify the absorption, distribution, and excretion of PFAAs and to calculate elimination half-lives. Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), a PFCA, had the shortest half-life at 4.1 days. PFSAs are eliminated more slowly (e.g., half-life of 634 days for PFOS). PFAAs in pigs exhibit longer elimination half-lives than in most organisms reported in the literature, but still shorter than in humans.

  11. Diffusion and leachability index studies on stabilization of chromium contaminated soil using fly ash.

    PubMed

    Kanchinadham, Sri Bala Kameswari; Narasimman, L M; Pedaballe, Vihita; Kalyanaraman, Chitra

    2015-10-30

    Experiments were performed to establish a feasible treatment process for the solidification and stabilization (S/S) of soil contaminated by leaching of Cr(VI) from Chromite ore processing residue (COPR). Reduction of the highly mobile Cr(VI) was performed using calcium polysulfide (CaS5) with a dosage of 3 times the molar stoichiometric ratio for the initial concentration of Cr(VI) present in the chromium contaminated soil (CCS). The CCS was solidified and stabilized (S/S) using fly ash (FA) in various proportions i.e., 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 (FA: CCS) with and without using reducing agent i.e., CaS5. Leachability tests such as Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and semi-dynamic long term leachability tests indicated that the CaS5 was effective in reduction of Cr(VI) followed by the S/S process. Leachability Index was derived from the results of the semi-dynamic long term leachability tests and was between 8 and 9, indicating that FA is an effective treatment for disposal into secured landfills for CCS. The characteristic compressive strength of the CaS5 treated CCS with FA mortar blocks were between 24.47 and 40.49 kg/cm(2). Considering the cost of CaS5 and FA, a total expenditure of Rs. 7826 i.e., US $ 130.4 would be required for remediation of one tonne of CCS.

  12. Clinical Q fever in Northern Ireland 1962-1989.

    PubMed

    Connolly, J H; Coyle, P V; Adgey, A A; O'Neill, H J; Simpson, D M

    1990-10-01

    Q fever was diagnosed in 443 patients in Northern Ireland between 1962 and 1989. From 1986 onwards there was an increase, which peaked in 1989 with 107 cases of whom 47 were infected in Ballycastle, Co Antrim. There were three outbreaks and 21 clusters of patients with Q fever. Most cases were in April and May which correlated with the peak lambing and calving season. Q fever mainly affected males in the 40-49 year old age group. County Antrim had the highest prevalence rate of 40/100,000 population and also had the most sheep. The number of sheep in Northern Ireland has doubled in the past ten years. Q fever was strongly associated with occupation and animal contact. Eighty-seven patients (19.6%) drank unpasteurized milk. The commonest presenting illnesses were pneumonia (62.8%), influenza-like illness (24.6%), involvement of the heart (9.0%) and hepatitis (1.6%). Thirty-two patients (7.2%) had endocarditis, 20 of whom had prosthetic valves and three of whom died. Coxiella burnetii was present on valves removed from seven patients.

  13. Recommendations for evaluation and management of bone disease in HIV.

    PubMed

    Brown, Todd T; Hoy, Jennifer; Borderi, Marco; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Renjifo, Boris; Vescini, Fabio; Yin, Michael T; Powderly, William G

    2015-04-15

    Thirty-four human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) specialists from 16 countries contributed to this project, whose primary aim was to provide guidance on the screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of bone disease in HIV-infected patients. Four clinically important questions in bone disease management were identified, and recommendations, based on literature review and expert opinion, were agreed upon. Risk of fragility fracture should be assessed primarily using the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX), without dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), in all HIV-infected men aged 40-49 years and HIV-infected premenopausal women aged ≥40 years. DXA should be performed in men aged ≥50 years, postmenopausal women, patients with a history of fragility fracture, patients receiving chronic glucocorticoid treatment, and patients at high risk of falls. In resource-limited settings, FRAX without bone mineral density can be substituted for DXA. Guidelines for antiretroviral therapy should be followed; adjustment should avoid tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or boosted protease inhibitors in at-risk patients. Dietary and lifestyle management strategies for high-risk patients should be employed and antiosteoporosis treatment initiated.

  14. The duration of stage transition during pharyngeal swallowing among young-elderly, and mid-elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Byeon, Haewon; Koh, Hyeung Woo

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] Understanding the normal movements of the pharyngeal stage is important in the assessment of dysphagia. This study classified an elderly population into young-elderly and mid-elderly individuals and investigated the difference in stage transition duration between the two groups to provide basic material for assessment of dysphagia in old age. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of the study were 12 middle-aged individuals (40-49 years), young-elderly individuals (65-74 years), and 9 mid-elderly individuals (75-84 years). Stage transition duration was defined as the time from the moment food boluses passed the ramus of the mandible until the start of upward movement of the hyoid. All image data were measured using a videofluoroscopic study. Difference in measured values for stage transition duration between the groups were confirmed with one-way analysis of variance. [Results] Although analysis of variance was significantly longer in the young-elderly and mid-elderly individuals than in the middle-aged individuals, there was no significant difference in stage transition duration between the young-elderly and mid-elderly individuals. [Conclusion] In this study, there was no significant difference between the young-elderly and mid-elderly individuals in the movement speed of muscles related to pharyngeal swallowing. PMID:27313360

  15. Viral Load in Spanish HIV patients: trends since the introduction of HAART.

    PubMed

    Eiros, J M; Sánchez-Padilla, E; Luquero, F J; Nogueira, B; Rojo, S; Atienza-Herrero, J; Ortiz de Lejarazu, R

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study is to describe trends in the percentage of samples with undetectable HIV viral load in Spain after the implementation of HAART. A descriptive observational study of HIV-VL measurements carried out in the microbiology department of the Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valladolid (HCUV) was conducted over a 9-year period (1996-2004). Regarding the trend over the study period, the 30-39 years age group accounted for most of the samples, although the percentage decreased from 65.5% to 59.6% over the study period. In contrast, the 40-49 years group increased from 9.1% to 14.5%. The preponderance of men, with percentages above 70%, was observed during the whole period. Although the purpose of this treatment is to maintain undetectable viral loads, since 1999 more than 60% of nonfirst samples had detectable levels. Based on the results of the VL trend among HIV/AIDS patients observed in this study, a large number of patients maintain elevated detectable VL years after HAART was implemented. Although different factors may be the cause of this and should be delimited in future studies, the phenomenon observed demonstrates the usefulness of monitoring VL and analyzing its time trend to gain further knowledge about the therapeutic results and care of HIV patients as a whole, also serving as the basis for corrective measures.

  16. A risk management model for familial breast cancer: A new application using Fuzzy Cognitive Map method.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, Elpiniki I; Jayashree Subramanian; Karmegam, Akila; Papandrianos, Nikolaos

    2015-11-01

    Breast cancer is the most deadly disease affecting women and thus it is natural for women aged 40-49 years (who have a family history of breast cancer or other related cancers) to assess their personal risk for developing familial breast cancer (FBC). Besides, as each individual woman possesses different levels of risk of developing breast cancer depending on their family history, genetic predispositions and personal medical history, individualized care setting mechanism needs to be identified so that appropriate risk assessment, counseling, screening, and prevention options can be determined by the health care professionals. The presented work aims at developing a soft computing based medical decision support system using Fuzzy Cognitive Map (FCM) that assists health care professionals in deciding the individualized care setting mechanisms based on the FBC risk level of the given women. The FCM based FBC risk management system uses NHL to learn causal weights from 40 patient records and achieves a 95% diagnostic accuracy. The results obtained from the proposed model are in concurrence with the comprehensive risk evaluation tool based on Tyrer-Cuzick model for 38/40 patient cases (95%). Besides, the proposed model identifies high risk women by calculating higher accuracy of prediction than the standard Gail and NSAPB models. The testing accuracy of the proposed model using 10-fold cross validation technique outperforms other standard machine learning based inference engines as well as previous FCM-based risk prediction methods for BC.

  17. Drug interactions of anti-microbial agents used in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Guastaldi, Rosimeire Barbosa Fonseca; Secoli, Silvia Regina

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed potential drug interactions (PDIs) of antimicrobials used in patients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and identified associated factors. The sample consisted of 70 patients admitted to a hospital in São Paulo. The PDIs were analyzed through the consultation of the Drug Interactions Facts and Drug Interactions Handbook. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used. Half of the sample was exposed to 13 PDIs, which occurred with fluconazole (53.8%), ciprofloxacin (30.8%) and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (15.4%). Most (92.3%) were of moderate severity, with good evidence (61.6%), early delayed effect (61.5%) and need to have their therapy monitored (76.9%). Patients with four or more medications (p<0.001), aged between 40-49 years of age (p <0.001), and being male (p<0.001) were associated with PDIs. A PDI may result in adverse outcomes, impacting patients' morbidity and mortality. Combination regimens can be safe, provided there is careful monitoring by professionals involved in care delivery. PMID:21876949

  18. Biofiltration pretreatment for reverse osmosis (RO) membrane in a water reclamation system.

    PubMed

    Hu, J Y; Song, L F; Ong, S L; Phua, E T; Ng, W J

    2005-03-01

    Biofouling control is considered as a major challenge in operating membrane systems. A lab-scale RO system was setup at a local water reclamation plant to study the feasibility of using biofiltration as a pretreatment process to control the biofouling. The biological activity in the RO system (feed, product, reject streams) was tested using the standard serial dilution plating technique. Operational parameters such as differential pressure (DP) and permeate flowrate of the system were also monitored. Effects of biofilter on AOC and DOC removals were investigated. Biofiltration was found to be a viable way of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removals, with removal efficiencies of 40-49% and 35-45% at an empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 30 min. It was also found that using the biofiltration as a pretreatment reduced the rate of biofouling. It took only about 72 h for biofouling to have a significant impact on the performance of the RO membrane, when the system was operated without using biofiltration as pretreatment. There was, however, a five times increase in operational length to more than 300 h when biofiltration was used. This study presented the suitability of the biofilter as an economical and simple way of biofouling control for RO membrane. PMID:15698653

  19. Technical assessment of three layered cement-bonded boards produced from wastepaper and sawdust

    SciTech Connect

    Fuwape, Joseph Adeola; Fabiyi, James Sunday Osuntuyi, Edward Olusola

    2007-07-01

    The technical properties of three layered cement-bonded boards (CBBs) made from wastepaper and sawdust were investigated. The CBBs were produced at three density levels of 1000, 1200 and 1300 kg/m{sup 3} and at four cement/particle ratios of 2.0:1, 2.5:1, 3.0:1 and 3.5:1 on a weight to weight basis. The technical properties evaluated were modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE), water absorption (WA) and thickness swelling (TS). The MOR values ranged from 4.85 to 11.69 MPa and MOE values ranged from 2.80 to 5.57 GPa. The mean values of WA and TS after 24 h of water soaking of the CBBs ranged from 18.18% to 40.49% and 3.55% to 12.13%, respectively. MOR and MOE of the CBBs increased with increase in board density, but MOR decreased with the increase in cement/particle ratio. On the other hand, WA and TS decreased with increase in board density and cement/particle ratio. CBBs produced from wastepaper and sawdust at cement/particle ratios of 3.0:1 and 3.5:1 are suitable for building construction such as paneling, ceiling and partitioning.

  20. [Statistical studies on suicides in Shiga Prefecture during the 15-year period, 1974 to 1988].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Y; Yamada, M; Fukunaga, T; Tatsuno, Y

    1990-04-01

    The authors examined 3,335 cases of suicides among the unnatural deaths in Shiga Prefecture during the 15-year period, 1974 to 1988. The results obtained were as follows: The number of suicides in a year amounted to 200 during the period from 1974 to 1982, and increased to 280 in 1983 at maximum. The cases of suicide were more in male than in female. The incidence of suicide was higher in March to July and the peak of incidence was observed in April. The highest frequency of suicides was in 40-49 year age group in male, and 70-79 year group in female. Among various procedures of suicide, hanging was most frequent during the past 15 years in both sexes, and the following procedure was carbon monoxide poisoning in male and drowning in female. As to the occupation, housewives and person without a regular occupation constituted 53.1% of the total suicidal cases, and products makers and laborers were found in 11.1%. With regarded to the causative factors, "suffering from illness" was the most frequent factor, and followed by "insanity or mental disorder", "problems of economic distress", "disagreement with family" and others.

  1. Epidemiology of canine distemper and canine parvovirus in domestic dogs in urban and rural areas of the Araucanía region in Chile.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Jamett, G; Surot, D; Cortés, M; Marambio, V; Valenzuela, C; Vallverdu, A; Ward, M P

    2015-08-01

    To assess whether the seroprevalence of canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) in domestic dogs is higher in urban versus rural areas of the Araucanía region in Chile and risk factors for exposure, a serosurvey and questionnaire survey at three, urban-rural paired sites was conducted from 2009 to 2012. Overall, 1161 households were interviewed of which 71% were located in urban areas. A total of 501 blood samples were analysed. The overall CDV and CPV seroprevalences were 61% (CI 90%: 58-70%) and 47% (CI 90%: 40-49%), and 89% (CI 90%: 85-92%) and 72% (CI 90%: 68-76%) in urban and rural areas, respectively. The higher seroprevalence in domestic dogs in urban areas suggests that urban domestic dogs might be a maintenance host for both CDV and CPV in this region. Due to the presence of endangered wild canids populations in areas close to these domestic populations, surveillance and control of these pathogens in urban dog populations is needed a priority.

  2. A risk management model for familial breast cancer: A new application using Fuzzy Cognitive Map method.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, Elpiniki I; Jayashree Subramanian; Karmegam, Akila; Papandrianos, Nikolaos

    2015-11-01

    Breast cancer is the most deadly disease affecting women and thus it is natural for women aged 40-49 years (who have a family history of breast cancer or other related cancers) to assess their personal risk for developing familial breast cancer (FBC). Besides, as each individual woman possesses different levels of risk of developing breast cancer depending on their family history, genetic predispositions and personal medical history, individualized care setting mechanism needs to be identified so that appropriate risk assessment, counseling, screening, and prevention options can be determined by the health care professionals. The presented work aims at developing a soft computing based medical decision support system using Fuzzy Cognitive Map (FCM) that assists health care professionals in deciding the individualized care setting mechanisms based on the FBC risk level of the given women. The FCM based FBC risk management system uses NHL to learn causal weights from 40 patient records and achieves a 95% diagnostic accuracy. The results obtained from the proposed model are in concurrence with the comprehensive risk evaluation tool based on Tyrer-Cuzick model for 38/40 patient cases (95%). Besides, the proposed model identifies high risk women by calculating higher accuracy of prediction than the standard Gail and NSAPB models. The testing accuracy of the proposed model using 10-fold cross validation technique outperforms other standard machine learning based inference engines as well as previous FCM-based risk prediction methods for BC. PMID:26220142

  3. Breast cancer screening: emerging role of new imaging techniques as adjuncts to mammography.

    PubMed

    Houssami, Nehmat; Lord, Sarah J; Ciatto, Stefano

    2009-05-01

    Early detection of breast cancer has been shown to reduce breast cancer deaths in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of mammography in women aged 50-69 years, with weaker evidence of benefit in those aged 40-49 or 70 years and older. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography have been evaluated in breast cancer screening, relative to, or in addition to, mammography, in selected populations; neither test has been examined in an RCT, and thus evidence of associated screening benefit is uncertain. MRI is more sensitive than mammography in screening women with suspected or proven inherited mutations of the breast cancer genes. The addition of MRI in screening this population detects 8-24 additional cancers per 1000 screens, but also significantly increases a woman's risk of being recalled for investigation or surgical biopsy for false-positive findings. In Australia, Medicare funding for MRI screening of women in specific risk groups was announced in February 2009. Ultrasonography can detect cancers not identified on mammography in asymptomatic women with dense breast tissue. Incremental ultrasound cancer detection is reported in 0.27%-0.46% of women with mammography-negative dense breasts; evidence varies on its association with false-positive findings. Computer-aided detection (CAD) is a complementary tool to mammography, prompting the reader to consider lesions on the mammogram that may represent cancer. Emerging evidence and improved CAD technology are likely to help define its role in breast screening. PMID:19413520

  4. Detection of microsporidia in local HIV-positive population in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lono, Angela; Kumar, Suresh; Chye, Tan Tian

    2011-07-01

    The HIV-positive population, due to their immuno-compromised nature, is considered more susceptible to parasitic infections than other populations. However despite the reports of other opportunistic pathogens such as Cryptosporidium and tuberculosis reported in vulnerable communities, microsporidia have not been highlighted in the local HIV-positive population in Malaysia. This study aimed to provide preliminary information on the prevalence of microsporidia in the local HIV-population. Microsporidia were detected in 21/247 (8.5%) stool samples from the HIV-infected individuals, a significantly higher (P-value <0.05) prevalence than in the control group, in which 5/173 (2.9%) were positive. HIV patients were 3x more at risk for acquiring microspordium (OR: 3.12; 95% CI 1.15-8.44). Spores were ellipsoid in shape with outlines that stained dark pink with the interior a lighter shade. Approximately 21% of the positive specimens were from individuals in the 40-49 years age group. Ten individuals who were positive for microsporidia were also positive for other enteric parasites such as Blastocystis hominis and Giardia lamblia. We detected Encephalitozoon intestinalis DNA following nested PCR from three of 10 samples analysed, as demonstrated by an amplicon of 370bp. From the findings reported, it appears that microsporidial infection in humans may actually be more common than reported. We strongly advocate greater emphasis on personal hygiene through public education on personal hygiene and the consumption of boiled or filtered water. PMID:21596411

  5. Correlates of breast cancer screening among Asian Americans enrolled in ENCOREplus.

    PubMed

    Leong-Wu, Cindy A; Fernandez, Maria E

    2006-07-01

    This study examines the correlates of mammogram utilization among predominantly low income Asian American women using cross sectional data of women recruited through the ENCORE(plus) program (n = 1,695) between July 1996 and June 1998. Logistic regression was used to examine the independent effect of variables corresponding to Andersen's behavioral model of health services utilization on mammography screening behavior. Foreign-born women living in the U.S. < 5 years and between 5 and 10 years were significantly less likely to have ever had a mammogram than women who were born in the U.S. (OR 0.22; CI 0.12, 0.40 and OR 0.48; CI 0.27, 0.86, respectively). Women 40-49 years old were half as likely to adhere to mammography screening recommendations as women 50-64 years (CI 0.33, 0.76). Health insurance was positively associated with adherence to mammography screening guidelines (OR 1.59; CI 1.02, 2.48). The results of this study highlight the need for health education about breast cancer and mammography among Asian American women. Policy work also needs to be directed toward improving access to health care in this community.

  6. The Role of Obesity Training in Medical School and Residency on Bariatric Surgery Knowledge in Primary Care Physicians.

    PubMed

    Stanford, Fatima Cody; Johnson, Erica D; Claridy, Mechelle D; Earle, Rebecca L; Kaplan, Lee M

    2015-01-01

    Objective. US primary care physicians are inadequately educated on how to provide obesity treatment. We sought to assess physician training in obesity and to characterize the perceptions, beliefs, knowledge, and treatment patterns of primary care physicians. Methods. We administered a cross-sectional web-based survey from July to October 2014 to adult primary care physicians in practices affiliated with the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). We evaluated survey respondent demographics, personal health habits, obesity training, knowledge of bariatric surgery care, perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs regarding the etiology of obesity and treatment strategies. Results. Younger primary care physicians (age 20-39) were more likely to have received some obesity training than those aged 40-49 (OR: 0.08, 95% CI: 0.008-0.822) or those 50+ (OR: 0.03, 95% CI: 0.004-0.321). Physicians who were young, had obesity, or received obesity education in medical school or postgraduate training were more likely to answer bariatric surgery knowledge questions correctly. Conclusions. There is a need for educational programs to improve physician knowledge and competency in treating patients with obesity. Obesity is a complex chronic disease, and it is important for clinicians to be equipped with the knowledge of the multiple treatment modalities that may be considered to help their patients achieve a healthy weight. PMID:26339506

  7. Process conditions for preparing methanol from cornstalk gas.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ling-Feng; Du, Lei; Li, Xin-Bao; Li, Guo-Ting; Zhang, Jie

    2007-01-01

    The low-heat-value cornstalk gas produced in the down-flow fixed bed gasifier was tentatively used for methanol synthesis. The cornstalk gas was purified and the technical procedures such as deoxygenation, desulfurization, catalytic cracking of tar, purification and hydrogenation were studied. The catalytic experiments of methanol synthesis with cornstalk syngas were carried out in a tubular-flow integral and isothermal reactor. The effect of reaction temperature, pressure, catalyst types, catalyst particle size, syngas flow at entering end and composition of syngas was investigated. The optimum process conditions and yield of methanol from cornstalk syngas were obtained. The experimental results indicated that the proper catalyst for the synthetic reaction was C301 and the optimum catalyst size was 0.833 mm x 0.351 mm. The optimum operating temperature and pressure were found to be 235 degrees C and 5 MPa, respectively. The suitable syngas flow 0.9-1.10 mol/h at entering end was selected and the best composition of syngas were CO 10.49%, CO2 8.8%, N2 37.32%, C(n)H(m) 0.95% and H2 40.49%. The best methanol yield was 0.418 g/g cornstalk. This study provided the technical support for the industrial test of methanol production from biomass (cornstalk) gas.

  8. Breast cancer in Iran: a review of 903 case records.

    PubMed

    Harirchi, I; Ebrahimi, M; Zamani, N; Jarvandi, S; Montazeri, A

    2000-03-01

    A retrospective study was carried out in five main General District and Teaching Hospitals in Tehran (18 general surgical wards) to investigate breast cancer in Tehran, Iran. All patients who have had breast pathology during 1985-95 were reviewed. For each patient the following data were extracted from case records sex, age, type of disease (based on ICD-10 and ICD-O), breast cancer pathology, tumor size, lymph node involvement, pathological staging (based on TNM system), type of surgery, mass location and the affected side of breast. In all 3085 records were reviewed. Of these, in 903 cases the final diagnosis was breast cancer. The mean age of breast cancer patients was 47.1 (SD=12.3) y and the age-adjusted analysis showed that the observed number of breast cancer cases in the age group 40-49 was higher than expected (P<0.001). The majority of patients (71%) were patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma, 70% had advanced disease (Stage III), and in 51% of cases the tumour was more than 5 cm in size. Finally it was found that two-third of patients (76%) underwent modified radical mastectomy. Although this study does not address true incidence, but rather frequency, the findings suggest that the Iranian breast cancer patients are relatively younger than their western counterparts and mostly have locally advanced disease. In terms of breast cancer screening programs, these findings have some implications for public health professionals in Iran.

  9. HPV 16/18-associated condyloma acuminatum of the urinary bladder: first international report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Chrisofos, M; Skolarikos, A; Lazaris, A; Bogris, S; Deliveliotis, Ch

    2004-12-01

    Condyloma acuminatum is an anogenital lesion caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, a common sexually transmitted disease. It usually affects the external genitalia while urethral and/or bladder involvement is rare. HPV types are classified into three categories depending on their oncogenic potential: low risk (type 6, 11, 42, 43, 44, 59, 66, 68, 70), intermediate risk (type 30, 31, 33, 34, 35, 39, 40, 49, 51, 52, 53, 57, 58, 63, 64) and high risk (type 16, 18, 45, 56). High-risk and intermediate-risk HPV-DNA types, together with other co-factors still to be defined, are responsible for over 90% of the cases of anogenital pre-malignant and malignant tumours. We report a unique case of a urinary bladder condyloma acuminatum positive for HPV 16/18 DNA, presented as the primary and only site of the disease in an immunocompetent patient. We review the treatment and follow-up strategies of this rare lesion.

  10. Histopathological profile of breast cancer in an African population

    PubMed Central

    Forae, GD; Nwachokor, FN; Igbe, AP

    2014-01-01

    Background: Currently breast cancer (BRCA) still remain the most commonly diagnosed female cancer globally with a significant geographic, racial and ethnical variations in its incidence. Aim: This article examines the frequency and histological types and grades of BRCA in a pioneer teaching Hospital in Delta State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: H and E stained-slides of breast biopsies diagnosed at the Central Hospital, Warri from 2005 to 2011 were archived and studied. Request forms were scrutinized for clinical bio-data, diagnosis and histological sections were analyzed. Data obtained were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17 statistical package (SPSS) Incorporated, Chicago, Illinois, USA, and value presented descriptively. Results: During this period, 905 breast lesions were seen. Out of this, 261 were BRCAs, of which 260 cases were females and one case was a male. The peak age incidence for BRCA and its variants was 40-49 years accounting for (n = 94/261; 36%). The mean age of BRCA was 46 years (6.2). Invasive carcinoma of no special type (NST) was the most commonly encountered histological group of breast carcinoma constituting (n = 203/261, 77.7%) with the high grade invasive ductal carcinoma as the leading diagnosis. Conclusion: Majority of BRCAs encounter was invasive ductal carcinoma of NST with bulk of patients presenting in Stages III and IV. PMID:24971211

  11. [Lipid levels of a healthy population in the region of Extremadura].

    PubMed

    Sáenz, P; Fernández de los Ríos, A; Sanz, A; Cabanillas, A; Díaz, F; Rodilla, C S; Piñán, E

    1993-01-01

    We present the results of the first epidemiological study on lipidic levels among a healthy population from Extremadura. The study included 1.128 subjects, 520 males and 608 females, distributed by age and sex. Average total cholesterol levels were 228 +/- 40 mg/dl among middle-age and 215.6 +/- 43 mg/dl among women. We observed a significant reduction of these figures in ages above 60. In addition, we observed significant differences in HDL-Ch levels between men and women from all ages, with higher values among women and we only observed significant differences regarding total cholesterol levels between men and women in the 20-29 and 40-49 age-groups. Total cholesterol levels were higher than 220 mg/dl in more than half the studied population between 40 and 60 years of age and higher than 250 mg/dl in 20% of the subjects in such age groups. These data suggest the need for dietary changes in near 70% of the population if cholesterol levels are to approach the recommendations of the Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis.

  12. Ageing, retirement and changes in vegetable consumption in France: findings from the prospective GAZEL cohort.

    PubMed

    Plessz, Marie; Guéguen, Alice; Goldberg, Marcel; Czernichow, Sébastien; Zins, Marie

    2015-09-28

    The aim of this study was to describe the change in vegetable consumption with ageing and the transition to retirement. Study subjects were the participants of the GAZEL prospective cohort (Gaz and Électricité de France) aged 40-49 years at inclusion in 1989 who retired between 1991 and 2008 (12,942 men and 2739 women). Four FFQ were completed from 1990 to 2009. We used multiple imputation by chained equations in order to avoid dropping incomplete cases. The OR for eating vegetables everyday was estimated as a function of ageing, retirement status and the place of lunch before retirement through generalised estimating equations. Analyses were stratified by sex, and models were adjusted for confounders, including current spousal status. In 1990, 17.7% of men and 31% of women reported eating vegetables daily. The odds of consuming vegetables everyday increased with ageing for both men and women. The usual place of lunch was home for less than half the sample before retirement and for almost every respondent after retirement. For those who changed their place of lunch, the association between being retired and the odds of eating vegetables daily was positive and significant. We found that, in this cohort, vegetable consumption increased with ageing. Retirement had an indirect effect on vegetable consumption mediated by changes in the place of lunch.

  13. Lack of clinical utility of urine gram stain for suspected urinary tract infection in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Cantey, Joseph B; Gaviria-Agudelo, Claudia; McElvania TeKippe, Erin; Doern, Christopher D

    2015-04-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infections in children. Urine culture remains the gold standard for diagnosis, but the utility of urine Gram stain relative to urinalysis (UA) is unclear. We reviewed 312 pediatric patients with suspected UTI who had urine culture, UA, and urine Gram stain performed from a single urine specimen. UA was considered positive if ≥10 leukocytes per oil immersion field were seen or if either nitrates or leukocyte esterase testing was positive. Urine Gram stain was considered positive if any organisms were seen. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated using urine culture as the gold standard. Thirty-seven (12%) patients had a culture-proven UTI. Compared to urine Gram stain, UA had equal sensitivity (97.3% versus 97.5%) and higher specificity (85% versus 74%). Empirical therapy was prescribed before the Gram stain result was known in 40 (49%) patients and after in 42 (51%) patients. The antibiotics chosen did not differ between the two groups (P=0.81), nor did they differ for patients with Gram-negative rods on urine Gram stain compared to those with Gram-positive cocci (P=0.67). From these data, we conclude that UA has excellent negative predictive value that is not enhanced by urine Gram stain and that antibiotic selection did not vary based on the urine Gram stain result. In conclusion, the clinical utility of urine Gram stain does not warrant the time or cost it requires.

  14. Epidemiology and laboratory diagnoses of rubella in Hokkaido district during the Nationwide Outbreak in Japan, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Masahiro; Komagome, Rika; Ishida, Setsuko; Nagano, Hideki; Okano, Motohiko

    2014-01-01

    We report the epidemiology and laboratory diagnostic results of rubella cases from 2011 to 2013 in Hokkaido district, Japan. A total of 150 cases were officially reported as rubella; 102 (68%) involved males and 48 (32%) involved females. The highest proportion of cases were notified in 40-49-year-old age group among males and the 20-29-years-old age group among females. Forty-six cases (25 males and 21 females) had not been vaccinated, and 17 had been vaccinated, whereas 87 had the unknown vaccination status. Eighty-three cases (55.3%) showed the 3 typical principal rubella symptoms (fever, rash, and lymphadenopathy). Seven, 11, 92, and 40 cases were identified in the northern, eastern, central, and southern areas of Hokkaido district, respectively. In the central and southern areas of Hokkaido district, endemic rubella transmissions were indicated by both the epidemiological survey and molecular analyses. However, these outbreaks terminated spontaneously and did not expand to other areas of Hokkaido district. Fortunately, no congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) cases were reported during this observation period. However, to control virus transmission, prevent CRS, and maintain the routine vaccination program, the immediate introduction of an immunization strategy is required for susceptible individuals, particularly young adults. PMID:25410565

  15. Demography of the marriage market in the United States.

    PubMed

    Goldman, N; Westoff, C F; Hammerslough, C

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, a new index designed to measure the relative availability of unmarried men and women is introduced. Termed the "Availability Ratio," the measure is defined as the number of suitable persons divided by the average competition. Suitability, in turn, is defined in terms of race, age and education. After various experimental tests, particular age and eeducational constraints were empirically derived from marriage data. Persons of opposite sex sharing living quarters are tested as unavailable. Estimates are also made of those presumed to be unsuitable on the basis of the % of persons aged 45-74 who have never married. Adjustments for the census undercount are given. 1980 and 1970 estimates are presented for the US population. Subsequent analyses will focus on metropolitan areas, which are more likely to function as actual marriage markets in contrast to the nation as a whole. The substantive evidence indicates that women under 25 are in a good position to find a mate, but that after this age, their prospects deteriorate rapidly. The outlook is especially poor for the more educated women at older ages, especially black women. At ages 40-49, for example, there are fewer than 3 suitable men available for every 10 college-educated women. The results suggest that the combination of preferences of women for older men (or men's tastes for younger women), combined with higher survival rates for women at older ages, results in a very unbalanced market situationn for all but the youngest cohorts of men and women.

  16. Patterns of mammography use among Hispanic, American Indian, and non-Hispanic White women in New Mexico, 1994-1997.

    PubMed

    Gilliland, F D; Rosenberg, R D; Hunt, W C; Stauber, P; Key, C R

    2000-09-01

    For screening efforts to maximally reduce mortality in the general population, a large proportion of women need to utilize mammography routinely. To investigate utilization of mammography in a community setting, the authors used population-based data collected by the New Mexico Mammography Project for residents of the Albuquerque, New Mexico, metropolitan area for the period 1994-1997. The authors computed screening rates and the proportion of women who routinely use mammography. The utilization of mammography was low. Only 50% of the women aged 50-74 years were screened each year. Less than one third of women aged 40-49 years or 75 years and older were screened annually. The percentage of women who routinely used mammography on an annual or biennial basis was low in all age groups, especially among Hispanics and American Indians. Women aged 50-74 years had the highest percentage of routine annual mammography use, ranging from 30% in non-Hispanic Whites to 20% in Hispanics. Current utilization of mammography in community-based screening efforts is unlikely to achieve a potential 30% reduction in breast cancer mortality. Interventions are needed to increase the routine use of mammography.

  17. Mediterranean dietary pattern and mortality among young women: a cohort study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Sandin, Sven; Lagiou, Areti; Mucci, Lorelei; Wolk, Alicja; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Adami, Hans-Olov

    2006-08-01

    Studies of diet and health focus increasingly on dietary patterns. Although the traditional Mediterranean diet is perceived as being healthy, there is little information on its possible benefit to young people. We studied whether closer adherence to the traditional Mediterranean dietary pattern was associated with overall and cancer mortality in a cohort of 42,237 young women, aged 30-49 years at enrollment, who were recruited in 1991-2 from the general population in the Uppsala Health Care Region, Sweden, and followed up, almost completely, for about 12 years. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed by a 10-point score incorporating the characteristics of this diet. Among women less than 40 years old at enrollment--whose causes of death are mainly cancer with probable genetic influences, injuries or suicide--there was no association of the Mediterranean diet score with total or cancer mortality. Among women 40-49 years old at enrollment, a 2-point increase in the score was associated with considerable reductions in overall mortality (13%; 95% CI 1%, 23%; P approximately 0.05) and cancer mortality (16%; 95% CI -1%, 29%; P approximately 0.06). Few cardiovascular deaths occurred in this cohort of young women. The findings of the present study in a northern European population of young women indicate that closer adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern reduces mortality even among young persons.

  18. Prevalence of obesity in Indian women.

    PubMed

    Garg, C; Khan, S A; Ansari, S H; Garg, M

    2010-02-01

    Comparison of two major studies conducted by National family health survey (NFHS-2) in 1998-1999 and NFHS-3 in 2005-2006 shows that prevalence of obesity among Indian women has elevated from 10.6% to 12.6% (increased by 24.52%). The prevalence is more profound in the women of age between 40-49 years (23.7%), residing in cities (23.5%), having high qualification (23.8%), belonging to Sikh community (31.6%) and households in the highest wealth quintile (30.5%). Highest percentage of obese women is found in Punjab (29.9%). Although this number seems small in the international perspective, it is significant because of the sheer size of population in India. While the problem of under-nutrition still exists in many parts of India, the additional burden of obesity due to increasing sedentary lifestyle, junk food habits in some urban and economically sound areas is really alarming. Prevention and control of this serious problem through awareness programmes to adopt diversified nutritional food and healthy lifestyle are strongly recommended.

  19. Incidence and outcome of subarachnoid haemorrhage: a retrospective population based study

    PubMed Central

    Pobereskin, L

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—The purpose was to define the incidence and case fatality rates of subarachnoid haemorrhage in the population of Devon and Cornwall.
METHODS—A retrospective population based design was employed with multiple overlapping methods of case ascertainment. A strict definition of subarachnoid haemorrhage was used. Age and sex specific incidence rates and relative risks for death at different time intervals are calculated.
RESULTS—Eight hundred cases of first ever subarachnoid haemorrhage were identified; 77% of cases were verified by CT, 22% by necropsy, and 1% by lumbar puncture. The incidence rates are higher than those previously reported in the United Kingdom. The age standardised incidence rate (/100 000 person-years) for females was 11.9 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 9.5-15.0), for males 7.4 (5.4-10.0), and the total rate was 9.7 (7.5-12.6). The case fatality rates at 24 hours, 1 week, and 30 days were 21 (18-24)%, 37 (33-41)%, and 44 (40-49)% respectively. The relative risk for death at 30days for those over 60 years:under 60 years was 2.95 (2.18-3.97).
CONCLUSION—The incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage in the United Kingdom is higher than previously reported. Three quarters of the mortality occurs within 3days.

 PMID:11181855

  20. Efficacy of Trimetazidine Dihydrochloride for Relieving Chronic Tinnitus: A Randomized Double-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumral, Tolgar Lütfi; Yıldırım, Güven; Berkiten, Güler; Saltürk, Ziya; Ataç, Enes; Atar, Yavuz; Uyar, Yavuz

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of trimetazidine dihydrochloride as a treatment for chronic tinnitus. Methods: A total of 97 chronic tinnitus patients were evaluated in this randomized, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. After assessing for eligibility, 82 patients were randomly assigned into placebo or trimetazidine groups according to the medication. The trimetazidine group received 20×3 mg/day per oral trimetazidine dihydrochloride and the placebo group received 20×3 mg/day per oral placebo for 3 months. Tinnitus handicap inventory (THI), visual analogue scale (VAS) questionnaires and audiometric results were used to determine the effectiveness of trimetazidine treatment. Results: The study group comprised 82 tinnitus subjects, 42 (51%) of whom received trimetazidine dihydrochloride and 40 (49%) who received placebo. There was no significant difference between placebo and trimetazidine groups in THI grade and VAS (both pre- and posttreatment scores) (P>0.05) and no significant improvement was observed in subjective loudness score in either group (P>0.05). Additionally there was no significant difference between groups in pre- and posttreatment pure tone hearing thresholds at all measured frequencies (P>0.05). Conclusion: Trimetazidine dihydrochloride therapy was ineffective for relieving chronic tinnitus. PMID:27230273

  1. The association of smoking with clinical indicators of altered sex steroids--a study of 50,145 women.

    PubMed Central

    Hartz, A J; Kelber, S; Borkowf, H; Wild, R; Gillis, B L; Rimm, A A

    1987-01-01

    This study was designed to test the association of smoking with four clinically apparent conditions that may be related to altered sex steroids: natural and induced menopause, infertility, oligomenorrhea, and hirsutism. Data were obtained from the personal inventories of 50,145 women ages 20-59 years in TOPS, a weight reduction program. The age-adjusted odds ratios of each condition for heavy smokers compared with nonsmokers were 1.59 for natural menopause, 1.49 for induced menopause, 1.35 for infertility, 1.30 for oligomenorrhea among women younger than 40 years, 1.63 for oligomenorrhea among women 40-49 years, and 1.54 for hirsutism (P less than .05 for oligomenorrhea and P less than .001 for all other risks). The odds ratios were not substantially changed after adjustment for obesity, parity, and husband's education level. These results suggest that smoking may affect the ovaries or hormone metabolism, or both, with medical and cosmetic consequences. PMID:3108939

  2. Techno-economic analysis of ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse using a Liquefaction plus Simultaneous Saccharification and co-Fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Gubicza, Krisztina; Nieves, Ismael U; Sagues, William J; Barta, Zsolt; Shanmugam, K T; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2016-05-01

    A techno-economic analysis was conducted for a simplified lignocellulosic ethanol production process developed and proven by the University of Florida at laboratory, pilot, and demonstration scales. Data obtained from all three scales of development were used with Aspen Plus to create models for an experimentally-proven base-case and 5 hypothetical scenarios. The model input parameters that differed among the hypothetical scenarios were fermentation time, enzyme loading, enzymatic conversion, solids loading, and overall process yield. The minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) varied between 50.38 and 62.72 US cents/L. The feedstock and the capital cost were the main contributors to the production cost, comprising between 23-28% and 40-49% of the MESP, respectively. A sensitivity analysis showed that overall ethanol yield had the greatest effect on the MESP. These findings suggest that future efforts to increase the economic feasibility of a cellulosic ethanol process should focus on optimization for highest ethanol yield. PMID:26918837

  3. Two new species of Caryospora Léger, 1904 (Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae) from accipitrid raptors.

    PubMed

    Volf, J; Koudela, B; Modrý, D

    2000-05-01

    Two new species of Coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) are described from European accipitrid raptors (Falconiformes: Accipitridae). Oöcysts of Carvospora aquilae n. sp. found in faeces of the gold eagle Aquila chrysaetos are subspherical to broad ellipsoidal and measure 43 (40-49) x 37.5 (34-39) microm. Polar granule, oöcyst residuum and micropyle are absent. Each oöcyst contains one spherical to subspherical slightly polygonal sporocyst measuring 23.8 (23-25) x 23.3 (22-25) microm. Stieda and substieda bodies are absent. The sporocyst residuum is composed of numerous small granules less than 0.5 microm in diameter dispersed randomly among the sporozoites. Sporulated oöcysts of Carvospora circi n. sp. from faeces of the marsh harrier Circus aeruginosus are widely oval, measuring 24.5 (23-25) x 21.8 (21-24) microm. A polar granule, oöcyst residuum and micropyle are absent. Each oöcyst contains one spherical to subspherical sporocyst measuring 16.2 (15-17) x 15.6 (15-17) microm. A compact granular, spherical to subspherical sporocyst residuum, 10.4 (10-11) x 8.5 (7-9), was present in 76% of measured sporocysts. In 24% of sporocysts the granules of sporocyst residuum were scattered among the sporozoites. PMID:10803432

  4. Cadmium Accumulation in Periphyton from an Abandoned Mining District in the Buffalo National River, Arkansas.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Jacob R; Bouldin, Jennifer L

    2016-06-01

    The Rush Mining District along the Buffalo River in Arkansas has a significant history of zinc and lead mining operations. The tails and spoils of these operations deposit heavy amounts of raw ore into streams. One element commonly found in the earth's crust that becomes a minor constituent of the deposition is cadmium. Periphyton samples from Rush Creek and Clabber Creek, two creeks within the Rush Mining District were measured for cadmium as well as two creeks with no history of mining, Spring Creek and Water Creek. Periphyton samples from Rush and Clabber Creek contained mean cadmium concentrations of 436.6 ± 67.3 and 93.38 ± 8.67 µg/kg, respectively. Spring Creek and Water Creek had a mean cadmium concentration of 40.49 ± 3.40 and 41.78 ± 3.99 µg/kg within periphyton. The results indicate increased metal concentrations in algal communities from mined areas. As periphyton is the base of the aquatic food chain, it acts as a conduit for movement of cadmium in the food web.

  5. Diffusion and leachability index studies on stabilization of chromium contaminated soil using fly ash.

    PubMed

    Kanchinadham, Sri Bala Kameswari; Narasimman, L M; Pedaballe, Vihita; Kalyanaraman, Chitra

    2015-10-30

    Experiments were performed to establish a feasible treatment process for the solidification and stabilization (S/S) of soil contaminated by leaching of Cr(VI) from Chromite ore processing residue (COPR). Reduction of the highly mobile Cr(VI) was performed using calcium polysulfide (CaS5) with a dosage of 3 times the molar stoichiometric ratio for the initial concentration of Cr(VI) present in the chromium contaminated soil (CCS). The CCS was solidified and stabilized (S/S) using fly ash (FA) in various proportions i.e., 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 (FA: CCS) with and without using reducing agent i.e., CaS5. Leachability tests such as Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and semi-dynamic long term leachability tests indicated that the CaS5 was effective in reduction of Cr(VI) followed by the S/S process. Leachability Index was derived from the results of the semi-dynamic long term leachability tests and was between 8 and 9, indicating that FA is an effective treatment for disposal into secured landfills for CCS. The characteristic compressive strength of the CaS5 treated CCS with FA mortar blocks were between 24.47 and 40.49 kg/cm(2). Considering the cost of CaS5 and FA, a total expenditure of Rs. 7826 i.e., US $ 130.4 would be required for remediation of one tonne of CCS. PMID:25942695

  6. Exercise time relationship to coronary risk factors in Kuwaiti adult males 1985-1986.

    PubMed

    al-Muhailan, A R; Ramadan, J; Gjorgov, A N; Moussa, M

    1989-12-01

    Two hundred and sixty-nine apparently healthy Kuwaiti men, aged 20-49, from 800 randomly selected Kuwaiti families, were examined for cardiovascular fitness and risk factors for coronary heart diseases (CHD). The risk factors were examined by exercise stress test on Quinton-2000 ECG monitor and treadmill Q-model 24-26, Bruce protocol, along with Ergo-oxyscreen, by laboratory tests of fasting blood lipid levels, and by interview using a questionnaire. The sample was stratified into three age groups, 20-29, 30-39, and 40-49. For the entire sample, the results showed that a number of the investigated factors were significantly correlated with the duration of treadmill exercise time. Univariate analysis indicated that performance was inversely correlated with age, cholesterol levels, cholesterol:HDL ratio, triglycerides and uric acid, weight, body-build indexes, body density, resting heart rate, blood pressure (BP), personal history of CHD, and smoking habits. Most of the observed significant correlations were particularly pronounced in the younger age groups, 20-39 years. In this group, significant results in the analysis of variance were found between the treadmill performance time and a number of risk factors, including: cholesterol levels, age, cholesterol:HDL ratios, triglycerides, uric acid, heart rate, elevated systolic blood pressure, and obesity.

  7. Cardiorespiratory fitness levels among US adults 20-49 years of age: findings from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chia-Yih; Haskell, William L; Farrell, Stephen W; Lamonte, Michael J; Blair, Steven N; Curtin, Lester R; Hughes, Jeffery P; Burt, Vicki L

    2010-02-15

    Data from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to describe the distribution of cardiorespiratory fitness and its association with obesity and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) for adults 20-49 years of age without physical limitations or indications of cardiovascular disease. A sample of 7,437 adults aged 20-49 years were examined at a mobile examination center. Of 4,860 eligible for a submaximal treadmill test, 3,250 completed the test and were included in the analysis. The mean maximal oxygen uptake ( max) was estimated as 44.5, 42.8, and 42.2 mL/kg/minute for men 20-29, 30-39, and 40-49 years of age, respectively. For women, it was 36.5, 35.4, and 34.4 mL/kg/minute for the corresponding age groups. Non-Hispanic black women had lower fitness levels than did non-Hispanic white and Mexican-American women. Regardless of gender or race/ethnicity, people who were obese had a significantly lower estimated maximal oxygen uptake than did nonobese adults. Furthermore, a positive association between fitness level and LTPA participation was observed for both men and women. These results can be used to track future population assessments and to evaluate interventions. The differences in fitness status among population subgroups and by obesity status or LTPA can also be used to develop health policies and targeted educational campaigns.

  8. Cadmium Accumulation in Periphyton from an Abandoned Mining District in the Buffalo National River, Arkansas.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Jacob R; Bouldin, Jennifer L

    2016-06-01

    The Rush Mining District along the Buffalo River in Arkansas has a significant history of zinc and lead mining operations. The tails and spoils of these operations deposit heavy amounts of raw ore into streams. One element commonly found in the earth's crust that becomes a minor constituent of the deposition is cadmium. Periphyton samples from Rush Creek and Clabber Creek, two creeks within the Rush Mining District were measured for cadmium as well as two creeks with no history of mining, Spring Creek and Water Creek. Periphyton samples from Rush and Clabber Creek contained mean cadmium concentrations of 436.6 ± 67.3 and 93.38 ± 8.67 µg/kg, respectively. Spring Creek and Water Creek had a mean cadmium concentration of 40.49 ± 3.40 and 41.78 ± 3.99 µg/kg within periphyton. The results indicate increased metal concentrations in algal communities from mined areas. As periphyton is the base of the aquatic food chain, it acts as a conduit for movement of cadmium in the food web. PMID:27130541

  9. Factors affecting the interactions between beta-lactoglobulin and fatty acids as revealed in molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Yi, Changhong; Wambo, Thierry O

    2015-09-21

    Beta-lactoglobulin (BLG), a bovine dairy protein, is a promiscuously interacting protein that can bind multiple hydrophobic ligands. Fatty acids (FAs), common hydrophobic molecules bound to BLG, are important sources of fuel for life because they yield large quantities of ATP when metabolized. The binding affinity increases with the length of the ligands, indicating the importance of the van der Waals (vdW) interactions between the hydrocarbon tail and the hydrophobic calyx of BLG. An exception to this rule is caprylic acid (OCA) which is two-carbon shorter but has a stronger binding affinity than capric acid. Theoretical calculations in the current literature are not accurate enough to shed light on the underlying physics of this exception. The computed affinity values are greater for longer fatty acids without respect for the caprylic exception and those values are generally several orders of magnitude away from the experimental data. In this work, we used hybrid steered molecular dynamics to accurately compute the binding free energies between BLG and the five saturated FAs of 8 to 16 carbon atoms. The computed binding free energies agree well with experimental data not only in rank but also in absolute values. We gained insights into the exceptional behavior of caprylic acid in the computed values of entropy and electrostatic interactions. We found that the electrostatic interaction between the carboxyl group of caprylic acid and the two amino groups of K60/69 in BLG is much stronger than the vdW force between the OCA's hydrophobic tail and the BLG calyx. This pulls OCA to the top of the beta barrel where it is easier to fluctuate, giving rise to greater entropy of OCA at the binding site. PMID:26272099

  10. Sildenafil (Viagra) in the treatment of male erectile dysfunction in Nairobi.

    PubMed

    Magoha, G A

    2000-02-01

    This prospective open-label extension study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of sildenafil (Viagra) in the treatment of male erectile dysfunction in Nairobi, Kenya. A total of 219 adult male patients with erectile dysfunction were instructed to take 50 mg, 25 mg, or 100 mg of sildenafil orally 1 hour prior to planned sexual activity, but not more than once every 24 hours. Patients were reviewed at 4-week intervals for 16 weeks to assess the efficacy and adverse effects of the drug. The age range was 33-80 years with a mean of 62.5 years and a peak incidence in the 60-69 year age group. The causes of erectile dysfunction were organic (n = 119, 54.34%), psychogenic (n = 85, 38.81%), and mixed (n = 15). 200 patients (91.32%) had improved sexual function after treatment with Viagra. This improvement included improved erectile and orgasmic functions and overall sexual satisfaction. 157 patients responded to the 50-mg treatment regimen; 40, to the 25-mg regimen; and 3, to the 100-mg regimen. No improvement in sexual function was reported in 19 patients (8.68%) after Viagra administration. In addition, 7 patients reported mild and transient adverse effects of the drug, including mild headache, dyspepsia, facial flushing, nausea, and vomiting. In conclusion, oral sildenafil (Viagra) is an effective well-tolerated and simple treatment for male erectile dysfunction in the majority of cases. However, the cost of treatment may prohibit and limit its wide use by many deserving patients in this area.

  11. Age- and speed-related differences in harmonic ratios during walking.

    PubMed

    Lowry, K A; Lokenvitz, N; Smiley-Oyen, A L

    2012-02-01

    Harmonic ratios (HRs), derived from trunk accelerations, measure smoothness of trunk motion during gait; higher ratios indicate greater smoothness. Previous research indicates that young adults optimize HRs at preferred pace, exhibiting reduced HRs at speeds faster and slower than preferred. Recent studies examining HRs and other trunk acceleration measures challenge this finding. The purpose of this study was to examine age-related differences in HRs across a range of self-selected overground walking speeds. Anteroposterior (AP), vertical (VT), and mediolateral (ML) HRs were examined in 13 young adults (ages 20-23), 13 healthy older adults (ages 60-69), and 13 healthy old-old adults (ages 80-86) while walking overground at very slow, slow, preferred, fast, and very fast speeds. Young and older adults exhibited similar HRs in all directions of motion across speeds, while old-old adults exhibited lower AP- and VT-HRs. All groups exhibited reduced HRs at speeds slower than preferred. However, there were no differences in HRs between preferred and faster speeds, with the exception of reduced VT-HRs in the very fast condition for the older groups. The ML-HR was not different between groups, and varied less across speeds. Stride time variability exhibited inverse relations with, and independently contributed to, HRs across speeds; lower stride time variability was associated with greater smoothness of trunk motion. Older groups were not disproportionately affected by walking more slowly and smoothness of trunk motion did not show a clear pattern of optimization at preferred pace for any group.

  12. Effect of Simulated Dasiops inedulis (Diptera: Lonchaeidae) Injury on Yield and Fruit Quality Parameters in Yellow Passionfruit.

    PubMed

    Salamanca, Leidy; Manzano, Maria R; Baena, Diosdado; Tovar, Diego; Wyckhuys, Kris A G

    2015-02-01

    Yellow passionfruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa O. Deg.) is a tropical fruit crop that is meeting increasing demand both in local and international markets in South America. The lance fly, Dasiops inedulis (Diptera: Lonchaeidae), affects P. edulis floral buds and flowers, and is thought to cause important yield losses in this crop. In Colombia, D. inedulis are commonly controlled through calendar-based applications of chemically synthesized insecticides, and no scientific criteria exist to guide pest management. In the present study, we simulated D. inedulis injury to passionfruit plants, over the course of three production cycles. We assessed the effect of seven different categories of flower bud removal (from 0% to 79.9%) on passionfruit yield and fruit quality parameters. Removal rates above 20% caused a significant reduction in the number of flowers, while yield levels were lowest at 50-79.9% bud removal. With increasing rates of flower bud removal, we observed higher initial production of buds and lower levels of natural abortion of floral and fruiting structures. For the three consecutive harvests, maximum yield levels were 7.57±5.51 kg (mean±SD; with 0-9.9% damage), and minimum yield was 2.37±2.15 kg (60-69.9% damage) per plant. For fruit quality parameters, D. inedulis injury did not affect fruit pulp weight or the content of soluble solids (Brix). Our work provides insights into the impact of D. inedulis on yellow passionfruit production, and constitutes a basis for future integrated pest management programs for this pest.

  13. Measurement of serum pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor (PSTI) for the evaluation as a marker for pancreatic diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Y.; Tsujino, D.; Noguchi, M.; Someya, K.

    1985-05-01

    Clinical usefulness of measuring PSTI in sera was studied using a new RIA kit produced by Shionogi Pharmaceutical Co. The assessment of the kit performance was satisfactory with good precision (1.6-6.9% in C.V.), reproducibility (5.0-6.0%), sensitivity (>2.Ong/ml), recovery test (98-109%, m101) and linear dilution test results. Serum PSTI levels in 71 normal controls were 12.0 + 5.0 ng/ml(m+S.D.) with higher values in subjects over 60 y.o. (14.2 +- 4.2 in 60-69 y.o. and 18.9 +- 6.5 over 70 y.o.). Serum PSTI levels were measured in 183 patients with various benign diseases (BD) and 251 cancer patients (CA). Among BD relatively high positive (>30ng/ml) ratios were observed in acute pancreatitis(40%, N=15), chronic pancreatitis(23.1%,13), pneumonia(23.5%,23) in contrast to low levels in acute hepatitis (6.7%,15), chronic hepatitis (8.0%, 25), liver cirrhosis (10.3%,29) and others (11.1%,25) including 2 chronic renal failure (220 and 465 ng/ml). In a patient with acute pancreatitis followed from the onset of the attack PSTI levels revealed 2 peaks on the 1st and 4th day. Serum PSTI correlated with clinical courses better than serum amylase which declined faster than PSTI. Among CA relatively high positive ratios were seen in CA of pancreas(46.7%,30), biliary tract (52.6%,19) and primary hepatoma (58.8%,34) in contrast to low levels in CA of esophagus (18.2%,11), stomach (16.7%, 78), colon (21.6%, 37), lung (8.0%, 25) and breast (0%.17). Measurement of PSTI should provide a clinical indicator for pancreatic diseases complementing existing markers such as amylase, lipase, elastase 1 and trypsin.

  14. Adjuvant systemic therapy in early breast cancer: impact of guideline changes and clinicopathological factors associated with nonadherence at a nation-wide level.

    PubMed

    Verschoor, A M F; Kuijer, A; Verloop, J; Van Gils, C H; Sonke, G S; Jager, A; van Dalen, T; Elias, S G

    2016-09-01

    Over recent years, adjuvant systemic treatment guidelines (AST) for early-stage breast cancer have changed considerably. We aimed to assess the impact of these guideline changes on the administration of AST in early-stage breast cancer patients and to what extent these guidelines are adhered to at a nation-wide level. We used Netherlands Cancer Registry data to describe trends in AST prescription, adherence to AST guidelines, and to identify clinicopathological determinants of nonadherence. Between 1990 and 2012, 231,648 Dutch patients were diagnosed with early breast cancer, of whom 124,472 received AST. Adjuvant endocrine treatment (ET) use increased from 23 % of patients (1990) to 56 % (2012), and chemotherapy from 11 to 44 %. In 2009-2012, 8 % of patients received ET and 3 % received chemotherapy without guideline indication. Conversely, 10-29 % of patients did not receive ET and chemotherapy, respectively, despite a guideline indication. Unfavorable clinicopathological characteristics generally decreased the chance of undertreatment and increased the chance for overtreatment. Remarkable was the increased chance of ET undertreatment in younger women (RR < 35 vs 60-69 years 1.79; 95 % CI 1.30-2.47) and in women with HER2+ disease (RR 1.64; 95 % CI 1.46-1.85). Over the years, AST guidelines expanded resulting in much more Dutch early breast cancer patients receiving AST. In the majority of cases, AST administration was guideline concordant, but the high frequency of chemotherapy undertreatment in some subgroups suggests limited AST guideline support in these patients. PMID:27514397

  15. Factors affecting the interactions between beta-lactoglobulin and fatty acids as revealed in molecular dynamics simulations

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Changhong; Wambo, Thierry O.

    2015-01-01

    Beta-lactoglobulin (BLG), a bovine dairy protein, is a promiscuously interacting protein that can bind multiple hydrophobic ligands. Fatty acids (FAs), common hydrophobic molecules bound to BLG, are important sources of fuel for life because they yield large quantities of ATP when metabolized. The binding affinity increases with the length of the ligands, indicating the importance of the van der Waals (vdW) interactions between the hydrocarbon tail and the hydrophobic calyx of BLG. An exception to this rule is caprylic acid (OCA) which is two-carbon shorter but has a stronger binding affinity than capric acid. Theoretical calculations in the current literature are not accurate enough to shed light on the underlying physics of this exception. The computed affinity values are greater for longer fatty acids without respect for the caprylic exception and those values are generally several orders of magnitude away from the experimental data. In this work, we used hybrid steered molecular dynamics to accurately compute the binding free energies between BLG and the five saturated FAs of 8 to 16 carbon atoms. The computed binding free energies agree well with experimental data not only in rank but also in absolute values. We gained insights into the exceptional behavior of caprylic acid in the computed values of entropy and electrostatic interactions. We found that the electrostatic interaction between the carboxyl group of caprylic acid and the two amino groups of K60/69 in BLG is much stronger than the vdW force between OCA’s hydrophobic tail and the BLG calyx. This pulls OCA to the top of the beta barrel where it is easier to fluctuate, giving rise to greater entropy of OCA at the binding site. PMID:26272099

  16. Kinetic modelling and characterization of microbial community present in a full-scale UASB reactor treating brewery effluent.

    PubMed

    Enitan, Abimbola M; Kumari, Sheena; Swalaha, Feroz M; Adeyemo, J; Ramdhani, Nishani; Bux, Faizal

    2014-02-01

    The performance of a full-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating brewery wastewater was investigated by microbial analysis and kinetic modelling. The microbial community present in the granular sludge was detected using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and further confirmed using polymerase chain reaction. A group of 16S rRNA based fluorescent probes and primers targeting Archaea and Eubacteria were selected for microbial analysis. FISH results indicated the presence and dominance of a significant amount of Eubacteria and diverse group of methanogenic Archaea belonging to the order Methanococcales, Methanobacteriales, and Methanomicrobiales within in the UASB reactor. The influent brewery wastewater had a relatively high amount of volatile fatty acids chemical oxygen demand (COD), 2005 mg/l and the final COD concentration of the reactor was 457 mg/l. The biogas analysis showed 60-69% of methane, confirming the presence and activities of methanogens within the reactor. Biokinetics of the degradable organic substrate present in the brewery wastewater was further explored using Stover and Kincannon kinetic model, with the aim of predicting the final effluent quality. The maximum utilization rate constant U max and the saturation constant (K(B)) in the model were estimated as 18.51 and 13.64 g/l/day, respectively. The model showed an excellent fit between the predicted and the observed effluent COD concentrations. Applicability of this model to predict the effluent quality of the UASB reactor treating brewery wastewater was evident from the regression analysis (R(2) = 0.957) which could be used for optimizing the reactor performance.

  17. Population-Based Incidence Rates of First-Ever Stroke in Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Yamanashi, Hirotomo; Ngoc, Mai Quang; Huy, Tran Van; Suzuki, Motoi; Tsujino, Akira; Toizumi, Michiko; Takahashi, Kensuke; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Anh, Dang Duc; Anh, Nguyen Thi Hien; Tho, Le Huu; Maeda, Takahiro; Cox, Sharon E.; Yoshida, Lay-Myint; Ariyoshi, Koya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Stroke incidence data with methodologically acceptable design in Southeast Asia countries is limited. This study aimed to determine incidence of age-, sex- and subtype-specific first-ever stroke (FES) in Vietnam. Methods We conducted a hospital-based retrospective study, targeting all stroke cases hospitalized at a solo-provider hospital in our study site of Nha Trang from January 2009 to December 2011 with International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) codes I60-69. We calculated positive predictive values (PPVs) of each ICD-10-coded stroke by conducting a detailed case review of 190 randomly selected admissions with ICD-10 codes of I60-I69. These PPVs were then used to estimate annual incident stroke cases from the computerized database. National census data in 2009 was used as a denominator. Results 2,693 eligible admissions were recorded during the study period. The crude annual incidence rate of total FES was 90.2 per 100,000 population (95% CI 81.1–100.2). The age-adjusted incidence of FES was 115.7 (95% CI 95.9–139.1) when adjusted to the WHO world populations. Importantly, age-adjusted intracerebral hemorrhage was as much as one third of total FES: 36.9 (95% CI 26.1–51.0). Conclusions We found a considerable proportion of FES in Vietnam to be attributable to intracerebral hemorrhage, which is as high or exceeding levels seen in high-income countries. A high prevalence of improperly treated hypertension in Vietnam may underlie the high prevalence of intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke in this population. PMID:27513471

  18. Assessment of gastric emptying in normal subjects with sucralfate (Carafate) and Amphojel

    SciTech Connect

    Marano, A.R.; Prokop, E.K.; Caride, V.J.; McCallum, R.

    1984-01-01

    Aluminum-containing antacids (e.g Amphojel) and aluminum-containing compounds such as sucralfate (Carafate) have been shown in animal and human studies to delay gastric emptying, and are one proposed mechanism of action for healing of duodenal ulcers. Therefore, the authors designed a study to study the effects of Carafate and Amphojel on gastric emptying. Ten normal volunteers of mean age 27 years with no previous history of upper gastrointestinal diseases were studied. For each test the subject ingested a meal composed of 30gm of cooked chicken liver injected with lmCi of 99m-Tc-S-C, mixed with 7.5 oz. of beef stew, and eaten with 4 oz. of water labeled with 100..mu..Ci of 111-In-DTPA. Immediately after ingestion of the meal, the subject was placed supine under a gamma camera. Gastric emptying (GE) was expressed as percent emptied. On separate days the subject was given either lgm of Carafate (190mg Al/gm) or placebo in a double blind fashion one hour prior to the test meal. On the third day, each subject was given 30cc of Amphojel (105mg Al/5cc) followed 30 minutes later by the test meal. GE at 2 hours for the solid meal was 60%, 69%, and 54% and 79%, 86% and 68% at 3 hours for placebo, Carafate, and Amphojel respectively. A small but not significant difference in gastric emptying between Amphojel and placebo was seen from 2 to 3 hours. For the liquid meal approximately 90% emptying was present at 1 hour for all three studies. Further studies are needed to determine whether these medications administered in the standard doses given here may affect gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients.

  19. Prevalence of joint pain is higher among women in rural Japan than urban Japanese-American women in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Aoyagi, K.; Ross, P.; Huang, C.; Wasnich, R.; Hayashi, T.; Takemoto, T.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Environmental factors such as farming contribute to the frequency of joint symptoms. The purpose of this study is to explore the possible role of environment (lifestyle), by comparing the prevalence of joint pain between Japanese in a rural farming district in Japan and in urban Hawaii.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS—Current or previous pain at specific joints was surveyed among 222 women in rural Japan and 638 Japanese women in urban Hawaii aged 60-79. The age adjusted prevalence was compared using logistic regression.
RESULTS—The prevalence of pain at one or more joints was approximately 70% in Japan and 50% in Hawaii. The prevalence of knee pain in Japan ranged from 36% at ages 60-69 years to 53% at 70-79 years (mean 41%), whereas knee pain affected only 20% of women in Hawaii in both age groups. The odds ratio (and 95% CI) was 3.2 (2.1, 4.8) for knee pain, and 4.0 (2.2, 7.4) for mid-back pain in Japan, compared with Hawaii. Pain was also significantly more common in Japan at the shoulder, elbow, and ankle, but not at other joints. Women in Japan were shorter and weighed less than in Hawaii. Adjustment for body mass index increased the odds ratios to 4.4 (2.9, 6.8) for knee, and 4.5 (2.4, 8.5) for mid-back pain.
CONCLUSION—Although the potential influence of cultural factors or other sources of bias cannot be ruled out, the large differences in the prevalence of pain at specific joints suggest that environmental factors are probably responsible, because both populations are of similar genetic stock.

 PMID:10225818

  20. Structural indexes and sexual maturity of tambaqui Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier, 1818) (Characiformes: Characidae) in central Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Villacorta-Correa, M A; Saint-Paul, U

    1999-11-01

    Length, weight, structural index and sexual maturity in tambaqui Colossoma macropomum were analysed. 449 specimens were obtained from the commercial fishing fleet arriving at Manaus Harbour from the floodplain areas from May 1992 to July 1993. The objective of this study is to describe changes in structural index during one hidrological cycle and to interpret them according to the water level fluctuations and to also determine the time, reproductive period and length in sexual maturity. Sex ratio in tambaqui was 1:1 however, the length of females was significantly longer than males'. Length/weight relationship was described by the expression: Pt = 0.00058*Cp2.9039. b value was significantly different from 3 which meant an alometric growth. Lower condition index values (Kn) were found from August to October at the end of receding water and dry period. The feeding index was significantly lower during the receding water and dry period. Lower hepatosomatic index values were found in December during the dry period. Fishes in lengths longer than 550 mm which were more common from September to December during the dry period, stored larger cavitary fat reserves. Fishes smaller than the standard length of 550 mm stored less fat reserves and were more common during the rising of the water and flooding period. Spawning period of tambaqui extends from September to February in a total spawning synchronized with "repiquetes" (native term used to name a sudden recending and rising of the water level). Length of tambaqui was 60.69 cm, at sexual maturity.

  1. Comparison of antibody assays for detection of autoantibodies to Ro 52, Ro 60 and La associated with primary Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Trier, Nicole Hartwig; Nielsen, Inger Ødum; Friis, Tina; Houen, Gunnar; Theander, Elke

    2016-06-01

    Anti-Ro(52/60) and anti-La constitute the hallmark autoantibodies in primary Sjögren's syndrome, being present in 40-70% of sera. Several anti-Ro/La assays exist, but antibody detection appears to be assay-specific, thus the aim of this study was to compare several anti-Ro/La assays. In total, 96 sera from individuals with primary Sjögren's syndrome and 114 healthy controls were tested for anti-Ro 52/60 and anti-La in 17 immunoassays. Especially the immunoassays used for detection of anti-Ro 52 differed in their sensitivity (48-79%), while only small differences in sensitivities were observed for the anti-Ro 60 (69-77%) anti-La (39-44%) assays. Concordances of 65%, 79% and 73% for the anti-Ro 52, anti-Ro 60 and anti-La assays were found, respectively. The majority of the assays yielded high specificities, primarily ranging from 97 to 100%, except from a single anti-Ro 60 assay, which yielded a specificity of 79%. Occasionally, reactivity levels were increased in a few assays, indicating that false-positive results can be obtained when applying assays of reduced specificity. In general, the commercial assays appeared to perform better than the in-house analyses. When correcting the in-house assays for background reactivity, sensitivities were reduced by approximately 7%, 17%, and 19% for anti-Ro 52, anti-Ro 60 and anti-La assays, respectively, illustrating the pitfalls when applying immunoassays for detection of autoantibodies, which in theory may apply to commercial assays as well. Finally, increased total sensitivities were obtained when combining assays. These studies contribute to clarify the clinical utility of immunoassays for detection of autoantibodies of Ro 52, Ro 60 and La and illustrate that the most efficient strategy to maximize antibody sensitivity is to combine several assays.

  2. Effect of Simulated Dasiops inedulis (Diptera: Lonchaeidae) Injury on Yield and Fruit Quality Parameters in Yellow Passionfruit.

    PubMed

    Salamanca, Leidy; Manzano, Maria R; Baena, Diosdado; Tovar, Diego; Wyckhuys, Kris A G

    2015-02-01

    Yellow passionfruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa O. Deg.) is a tropical fruit crop that is meeting increasing demand both in local and international markets in South America. The lance fly, Dasiops inedulis (Diptera: Lonchaeidae), affects P. edulis floral buds and flowers, and is thought to cause important yield losses in this crop. In Colombia, D. inedulis are commonly controlled through calendar-based applications of chemically synthesized insecticides, and no scientific criteria exist to guide pest management. In the present study, we simulated D. inedulis injury to passionfruit plants, over the course of three production cycles. We assessed the effect of seven different categories of flower bud removal (from 0% to 79.9%) on passionfruit yield and fruit quality parameters. Removal rates above 20% caused a significant reduction in the number of flowers, while yield levels were lowest at 50-79.9% bud removal. With increasing rates of flower bud removal, we observed higher initial production of buds and lower levels of natural abortion of floral and fruiting structures. For the three consecutive harvests, maximum yield levels were 7.57±5.51 kg (mean±SD; with 0-9.9% damage), and minimum yield was 2.37±2.15 kg (60-69.9% damage) per plant. For fruit quality parameters, D. inedulis injury did not affect fruit pulp weight or the content of soluble solids (Brix). Our work provides insights into the impact of D. inedulis on yellow passionfruit production, and constitutes a basis for future integrated pest management programs for this pest. PMID:26470121

  3. Erectile Function Durability Following Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Taira, Al V.; Merrick, Gregory S.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M.; Wallner, Kent E.; Kurko, Brian S.; Anderson, Richard; Lief, Jonathan H.

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate long-term changes in erectile function following prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: This study included 226 patients with prostate cancer and preimplant erectile function assessed by the International Index of Erectile Function-6 (IIEF-6) who underwent brachytherapy in two prospective randomized trials between February 2001 and January 2003. Median follow-up was 6.4 years. Pre- and postbrachytherapy potency was defined as IIEF-6 >= 13 without pharmacologic or mechanical support. The relationship among clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters and erectile function was examined. Results: The 7-year actuarial rate of potency preservation was 55.6% with median postimplant IIEF of 22 in potent patients. Potent patients were statistically younger (p = 0.014), had a higher preimplant IIEF (p < 0.001), were less likely to be diabetic (p = 0.002), and were more likely to report nocturnal erections (p = 0.008). Potency preservation in men with baseline IIEF scores of 29-30, 24-28, 18-23, and 13-17 were 75.5% vs. 73.6%, 51.7% vs. 44.8%, 48.0% vs. 40.0%, and 23.5% vs. 23.5% in 2004 vs. 2008. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, preimplant IIEF, hypertension, diabetes, prostate size, and brachytherapy dose to proximal penis strongly predicted for potency preservation. Impact of proximal penile dose was most pronounced for men with IIEF of 18-23 and aged 60-69. A significant minority of men who developed postimplant impotence ultimately regained erectile function. Conclusion: Potency preservation and median IIEF scores following brachytherapy are durable. Thoughtful dose sparing of proximal penile structures and early penile rehabilitation may further improve these results.

  4. Self-reported diabetes in older people: comparison of prevalences and control measures

    PubMed Central

    Stopa, Sheila Rizzato; César, Chester Luiz Galvão; Segri, Neuber José; Goldbaum, Moisés; Guimarães, Vanessa Martins Valente; Alves, Maria Cecília Goi Porto; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of diabetes in older people and the adopted control measures. METHODS Data regarding older diabetic individuals who participated in the Health Surveys conducted in the Municipality of Sao Paulo, SP, ISA-Capital, in 2003 and 2008, which were cross-sectional studies, were analyzed. Prevalences and confidence intervals were compared between 2003 and 2008, according to sociodemographic variables. The combination of the databases was performed when the confidence intervals overlapped. The Chi-square (level of significance of 5%) and the Pearson’s Chi-square (Rao-Scott) tests were performed. The variables without overlap between the confidence intervals were not tested. RESULTS The age of the older adults was 60-69 years. The majority were women, Caucasian, with an income of between > 0.5 and 2.5 times the minimum salary and low levels of schooling. The prevalence of diabetes was 17.6% (95%CI 14.9;20.6) in 2003 and 20.1% (95%CI 17.3;23.1) in 2008, which indicates a growth over this period (p at the limit of significance). The most prevalent measure adopted by the older adults to control diabetes was hypoglycemic agents, followed by diet. Physical activity was not frequent, despite the significant differences observed between 2003 and 2008 results. The use of public health services to control diabetes was significantly higher in older individuals with lower income and lower levels of education. CONCLUSIONS Diabetes is a complex and challenging disease for patients and the health systems. Measures that encourage health promotion practices are necessary because they presented a smaller proportion than the use of hypoglycemic agents. Public health policies should be implemented, and aimed mainly at older individuals with low income and schooling levels. These changes are essential to improve the health condition of older diabetic patients. PMID:25210814

  5. [Incidence and lethality of ischaemic stroke among people 60 years or older in the region of Tarragona (Spain), 2008-2011].

    PubMed

    Vila-Corcoles, Ángel; Satue-Gracia, Eva; Ochoa-Gondar, Olga; de Diego-Cabanes, Cinta; Vila-Rovira, Ángel; Blade, Jordi; Bobé, Francesc; Casanova, Raquel; Jariod, Manuel; Reig, Rosaura

    2014-12-01

    Introduccion. La informacion existente sobre la epidemiologia del ictus en nuestro pais es limitada. Este estudio analizo la incidencia y mortalidad por ictus isquemico en la poblacion general mayor de 60 años del area de Tarragona. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio de cohortes de base poblacional que incluyo a 27.204 personas de 60 o mas años adscritas a nueve areas basicas de salud en la comarca del Tarragones. Se realizo un seguimiento prospectivo durante tres años, en los que se seleccionaron todos los episodios de ictus isquemicos ocurridos entre los miembros de la cohorte desde el 1 de diciembre de 2008 hasta el 30 de noviembre de 2011. Se incluyeron exclusivamente episodios con diagnostico validado tras la revision de la historia clinica y se excluyeron aquellos casos sin confirmacion diagnostica por neuroimagen. Resultados. Se observo un total de 343 casos confirmados de ictus isquemico, lo cual supuso una incidencia de 453 episodios por 100.000 personas/año (intervalo de confianza del 95% = 408-504). La incidencia fue mayor en hombres que en mujeres (531 frente a 392 por 100.000 personas/año; p < 0,001) y aumento sustancialmente con la edad (195 frente a 517 y frente a 1.006 por 100.000 personas/año en 60-69, 70-79 y >= 80 años, respectivamente; p < 0,001). La incidencia fue mas de ocho veces superior entre las personas con antecedentes de ictus previo en comparacion con aquellas sin historia de ictus previo (2.962 frente a 340 por 100.000 personas/año; p < 0,001). El indice de letalidad global fue del 13%, y alcanzo el 21% entre las personas de 80 o mas años. Conclusiones. La morbimortalidad por ictus es considerable en nuestra poblacion. Medidas preventivas y tratamientos mas eficaces son imperativos.

  6. Trends in Mortality from Cerebrovascular and Hypertensive Diseases in Brazil Between 1980 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Villela, Paolo Blanco; Klein, Carlos Henrique; de Oliveira, Gláucia Maria Moraes

    2016-01-01

    Background Cerebrovascular and hypertensive diseases are among the main causes of death worldwide. However, there are limited data about the trends of these diseases over the years. Objective To evaluate the temporal trends in mortality rates and proportional mortality from cerebrovascular and hypertensive diseases according to sex and age in Brazil between 1980 and 2012. Methods We evaluated the underlying causes of death between 1980 and 2012 in both sexes and by age groups for circulatory diseases (CD), cerebrovascular diseases (CBVD), and hypertensive diseases (HD). We also evaluated death due to all causes (AC), external causes (EC), and ill-defined causes of death (IDCD). Data on deaths and population were obtained from the Department of Information Technology of the Unified Health System (Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde, DATASUS/MS). We estimated crude and standardized annual mortality rates per 100,000 inhabitants and percentages of proportional mortality rates. Results With the exception of EC, the mortality rates per 100,000 inhabitants of all other diseases increased with age. The proportional mortality of CD, CBVD, and HD increased up to the age range of 60-69 years in men and 70-79 years in women, and reached a plateau in both sexes after that. The standardized rates of CD and CBVD declined in both sexes. However, the HD rates showed the opposite trend and increased mildly during the study period. Conclusion Despite the decline in standardized mortality rates due to CD and CBVD, there was an increase in deaths due to HD, which could be related to factors associated with the completion of the death certificates, decline in IDCD rates, and increase in the prevalence of hypertension. PMID:27355586

  7. Socio-Demographic, Clinical and Behavioral Characteristics Associated with a History of Suicide Attempts among Psychiatric Outpatients: A Case Control Study in a Northern Mexican City

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Arnaud-Gil, Carlos Alberto; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Molina-Espinoza, Luis Fernando; Rábago-Sánchez, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the epidemiology of suicide attempts among psychiatric outpatients in Mexico. This study was aimed to determine the socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics associated with suicide attempts in psychiatric outpatients in two public hospitals in Durango, Mexico. Methods: Two hundred seventy six psychiatric outpatients (154 suicide attempters and 122 patients without suicide attempt history) attended the two public hospitals in Durango City, Mexico were included in this study. Socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics were obtained retrospectively from all outpatients and compared in relation to the presence or absence of suicide attempt history. Results: Increased prevalence of suicide attempts was associated with mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use (F10-19) (P=0.01), schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders (F20-29) (P=0.02), mood (affective) disorders (F30-39) (P<0.001), and disorders of adult personality and behavior (F60-69) (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that suicide attempts were associated with young age (OR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.06-1.39; P=0.003), female gender (OR=2.98, 95% CI: 1.55-5.73; P=0.001), urban residence (OR=2.31, 95% CI: 1.17-4.57; P=0.01), memory impairment (OR=1.91, 95% CI: 1.07-3.40; P=0.02), alcohol consumption (OR=2.39, 95% CI: 1.21-4.70; P=0.01), and sexual promiscuity (OR=3.90, 95% CI: 1.74-8.77; P<0.001). Conclusions: We report the association of suicide attempts with socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics in psychiatric outpatients in Mexico. Results may be useful for an optimal planning of preventive measures against suicide attempts in psychiatric outpatients. PMID:24711751

  8. MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY DUE TO AIDS: A STUDY OF BURDEN OF DISEASE AT A MUNICIPAL LEVEL

    PubMed Central

    SILVA, Jane DA; RAMOS, Victoria; SILVA, Helena Caetano Gonçalves DA; TRAEBERT, Jefferson

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of measuring the burden of disease involves aggregating morbidity and mortality components into a single indicator, the disability-adjusted life year (DALY), to measure how much and how people live and suffer the impact of a disease. Objective: To estimate the global burden of disease due to AIDS in a municipality of southern Brazil. Methods: An ecological study was conducted in 2009 to examine the incidence and AIDS-related deaths among the population residing in the city of Tubarao, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Data from the Mortality Information System in the National Health System was used to calculate the years of life lost (YLL) due to premature mortality. The calculation was based on the difference between a standardized life expectancy and age at death, with a discount rate of 3% per year. Data from the Information System for Notifiable Diseases were used to calculate the years lived with disability (YLD). The DALY was estimated by the sum of YLL and YLD. Indicator rates were estimated per 100,000 inhabitants, distributed by age and gender. Results: A total of 131 records were examined, and a 572.5 DALYs were estimated, which generated a rate of 593.1 DALYs/100,000 inhabitants. The rate among men amounted to 780.7 DALYs/100,000, whereas among women the rate was 417.1 DALYs/100,000. The most affected age groups were 30-44 years for men and 60-69 years for women. Conclusion: The burden of disease due to AIDS in the city of Tubarao was relatively high when considering the global trend. The mortality component accounted for more than 90% of the burden of disease. PMID:26603227

  9. Antibiotic resistance pattern among biofilm producing and non producing Proteus strains isolated from hospitalized patients; matter of hospital hygiene and antimicrobial stewardship.

    PubMed

    Shikh-Bardsiri, Houshang; Shakibaie, Mohammad Reza

    2013-11-15

    A retrospective study on antimicrobial susceptibility and biofilm production were carried out for eighty eight strains of Proteus strains isolated from UTI and other hospital samples during April 2011-April 2012. The antibiotic susceptibility was carried out by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion and MIC by E-test. Biofilm production was measured by microtiter method and confirmed by Scanning electron microscopy. Plasmids from biofilm producing isolates were detected by alkaline lysis technique. From 88 patients infected by proteus species, 58% were female and 42% were mail. The most frequent age range was 20-29 (77.39%) and the least were 60-69 years old (3.4%) (p = 0.05). Eighty one isolates were identified as P. mirabilis while, 7 identified as P. vulgaris. 67.04% [n = 59] of the isolates showed MIC range (16-32 +/- 0.05 microg mL(-1)) to ceftriaxone, 46.59% [n = 41] exhibited least MIC range to chloramphenicol (8-64 +/- 0.08 microg mL(-1)). 31% [n = 28] of the isolates also exhibited MIC range 1-4 microg mL(-1) to ciprofloxacin. 17% [n = 15] of the isolates exhibited strong biofilm while, 6% [n = 6] did not show any biofilm (p < or = 0.05). Plasmid isolation from biofilm producing isolates revealed that stains number 19, 24 and 87' that produced strong biofilm carried similar high M. Wt. plasmid. From above results it can be concluded that the majority of Proteus isolated from UTI patients were belong to P. mirabilis. Ciprofloxacin was the most effective antibiotic for treatment of the infected patients. Limited number of the isolates could produce strong biofilm that were bearing plasmids. Majority of the biofilm producing isolates were also resistance at least to 4 antibiotics routinely prescribed in our hospital.

  10. Bracing the trunk and neck in young adults leads to a more aged-like gait.

    PubMed

    Russell, Daniel M; Kelleran, Kyle J; Morrison, Steven

    2016-09-01

    Older individuals typically walk at slower speeds, with shorter step lengths, greater step widths and spend a larger proportion of the gait cycle in double stance. Changes in neck and trunk mobility may underlie some of the changes in walking seen with increasing age. Consequently, this study was designed to assess whether externally increasing trunk/neck stiffness in young adults leads to similar changes in gait pattern observed with aging. Twelve young adults (20-29 years), sixteen old adults (60-69 years) and fifteen older adults (70-79 years) walked across a 20' pressure sensitive GAITRite© instrumented walkway at their preferred speed. The young adults also walked under three bracing conditions: (1) Neck braced, (2) Trunk braced, and (3) Neck and Trunk braced. The results revealed that the old and older age groups walked significantly slower, with a shorter step length and with a narrower base of support (p's<0.05) compared to the young adults. In young adults, combined neck and trunk bracing led to reduced walking speed, shorter step length, wider base of support and a larger proportion of the gait cycle spent in double stance (p's<0.05). The walking speed and step length of older adults remained less than fully braced young adults (p's<0.05). Overall these results indicate that artificially stiffening the trunk and neck of young individuals leads to systematic gait changes similar to aging. Consequently, age-related changes in mobility of the neck and torso may in part contribute to the decrements in walking seen for older adults.

  11. Evaluation of a 3-hydroxypyridin-2-one (2,3-HOPO) Based Macrocyclic Chelator for 89Zr4+ and Its Use for ImmunoPET Imaging of HER2 Positive Model of Ovarian Carcinoma in Mice

    PubMed Central

    N.Tinianow, Jeff; Pandya, Darpan N.; Pailloux, Sylvie L.; Ogasawara, Annie; Vanderbilt, Alexander N.; Gill, Herman S.; Williams, Simon-P.; Wadas, Thaddeus J.; Magda, Darren; Marik, Jan

    2016-01-01

    A novel octadentate 3-hydroxypyridin-2-one (2,3-HOPO) based di-macrocyclic ligand was evaluated for chelation of 89Zr; subsequently, it was used as a bi-functional chelator for preparation of 89Zr-labeled antibodies. Quantitative chelation of 89Zr4+ with the octadentate ligand forming 89ZrL complex was achieved under mild conditions within 15 minutes. The 89Zr-complex was stable in vitro in presence of DTPA, but a slow degradation was observed in serum. In vivo, the hydrophilic 89Zr-complex showed prevalently renal excretion; and an elevated bone uptake of radioactivity suggested a partial release of 89Zr4+ from the complex. The 2,3-HOPO based ligand was conjugated to the monoclonal antibodies, HER2-specific trastuzumab and an isotypic anti-gD antibody, using a p-phenylene bis-isothiocyanate linker to yield products with an average loading of less than 2 chelates per antibody. Conjugated antibodies were labeled with 89Zr under mild conditions providing the PET tracers in 60-69% yield. Despite the limited stability in mouse serum; the PET tracers performed very well in vivo. The PET imaging in mouse model of HER2 positive ovarian carcinoma showed tumor uptake of 89Zr-trastuzumab (29.2 ± 12.9 %ID/g) indistinguishable (p = 0.488) from the uptake of positive control 89Zr-DFO-trastuzumab (26.1 ± 3.3 %ID/g). In conclusion, the newly developed 3-hydroxypyridin-2-one based di-macrocyclic chelator provides a viable alternative to DFO-based heterobifunctional ligands for preparation of 89Zr-labeled monoclonal antibodies for immunoPET studies. PMID:26941844

  12. Determinants of intelligence in childhood-onset epilepsy: a single-center study.

    PubMed

    Park, Jungmee; Yum, Mi-Sun; Choi, Hae-won; Kim, Eun Hee; Kim, Hyo Won; Ko, Tae-Sung

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the intelligence of children with epilepsy and to determine the clinical factors associated with intellectual impairment. The medical records of patients diagnosed with childhood-onset epilepsy at a single tertiary medical center in Korea between 2006 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. The Korean Education Development Institute-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children or Korean Wechsler Intelligence Scale for adults was used to quantify the level of intelligence. Age at seizure onset, etiology, epilepsy duration, number of seizures in the last year, use of antiepileptic drugs, EEG/MRI findings, and epilepsy classification were recorded. The association between clinical factors and the intelligence was determined using logistic regression. Three hundred and twenty-two patients were included in the analysis. One hundred and seventy-six (54.7%) patients had low intelligence (intelligence quotient [IQ]<80) with 18 (5.6%) defined as borderline mental retardation (IQ 70-79), 47 (14.6%) as mild mental retardation (IQ 60-69), and 111 (34.5%) as moderate-to-severe mental retardation (IQ<60). Epilepsy duration, number of seizures in the last year, and epilepsy classification were significantly associated with low intelligence in multivariate logistic regression (p<0.05). However, when analyzed according to etiology, these factors were not associated with low intelligence in children with idiopathic epilepsy. The most important factors associated with low intelligence in childhood-onset epilepsy are the underlying etiology and, in cryptogenic and symptomatic epilepsy, seizure burden. The results of this study underscore the importance of seizure control to alleviate the harmful impact of epilepsy on cognition.

  13. Decomposing socio-economic inequality in colorectal cancer screening uptake in England.

    PubMed

    Solmi, Francesca; Von Wagner, Christian; Kobayashi, Lindsay C; Raine, Rosalind; Wardle, Jane; Morris, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second largest cause of cancer death in the UK. Since 2010, CRC screening based on Faecal Occult Blood testing has been offered by the NHS in England biennially to all persons age 60-69 years. Several studies have demonstrated a gradient in uptake using area-level markers of socio-economic status (SES), but few have examined the individual-level contributors to the gradient. We aimed to quantify the extent of SES inequality in CRC screening uptake in England using individual-level data, and to identify individual factors associated with this inequality. We used data from 1833 participants (aged 61-69) in Wave 5 (collected in years 2010/11) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) eligible for having been sent at least one CRC screening invitation. Uptake was defined by self-report of ever having been screened as part of the National Screening Programme. We assessed socio-economic inequality using the corrected concentration index of uptake against SES rank, which was derived by regressing a range of SES markers against net non-pension household wealth. Other demographic and health-related variables were included in the analysis. Factors associated with inequality were measured using concentration index decomposition. There was a significant pro-rich gradient in screening uptake (concentration index: 0.16, 95% CI:0.11-0.22), mostly explained within our model by differences in non-pension wealth (38.7%), partner screening status (15.9%), sickness/disability (13.5%), and health literacy (8.5%). Interventions aimed at reducing inequalities in CRC screening uptake should focus on improving acceptability of screening in populations with low levels of education and literacy barriers.

  14. Problem gambling and the circumstances facing older people : a study of gaming machine players aged 60+ in licensed clubs.

    PubMed

    Southwell, Jenni; Boreham, Paul; Laffan, Warren

    2008-06-01

    Local gambling venues are an important contemporary context for older people's gambling in many parts of the world typically being more accessible to this segment of the population than traditional, centralised gambling venues, such as casinos. This study, undertaken in South East Queensland, analyses older people's electronic gaming machine (EGM) behaviour and motivations, specifically in the context of licensed social and recreational clubs-a popular local gambling venue in many parts of Australia. The study gathered data via a postal survey of 80 managers of licensed clubs, interviews with Gambling Help services and a survey of 414 people aged 60+ who regularly play EGMs, self-administered on site at local clubs. The analysis undertaken suggests that certain age-related circumstances of older people-such as being without a partner, having a disability that impacts on everyday activities, having a low annual income, and no longer participating in the workforce-are associated with higher overall levels of motivation for playing EGMs and greater reliance on EGMs to meet social, recreational and mental health needs. Over a quarter of the older people surveyed (27%) reported drawing on their savings to fund their EGM gambling. Certain categories of older people, including those who were without a partner and those with a disability, were more likely to report drawing on their savings to fund EGM play and betting more than they could afford to lose, pointing to age-related vulnerabilities older people may experience to the negative impacts of gambling given the greater likelihood of their dependency on smaller, fixed incomes. The explanatory contribution of a range of demographic and motivational variables on problem/moderate risk gambling status was computed via a logistic regression model. Younger age (60-69), male gender, single marital status and being motivated to play EGMs to experience excitement and to win money all emerged as significant predictors in the

  15. Health-Related Quality of Life Measures for Physically Active Elderly in Community Exercise Programs in Catalonia: Comparative Analysis with Sedentary People

    PubMed Central

    Fortuño-Godes, Jesús; Guerra-Balic, Myriam; Cabedo-Sanromà, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL), medication used, and Stock of Health Capital (SHC) in physically active elderly participants in Community Exercise Programs (CEPs) compared to a sedentary group. Methods. EuroQol standardized instrument was completed by physically active elderly (n = 2,185) who participated in CEPs. Common items were compared to HRQoL data of 1,874 sedentary elderly people, taken from the Catalan Health Survey 2006 (CHS'06). Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) outcomes and medication used were assessed through parametric statistics. Dimensions of health conditions were compared, between sedentary people and physically active elderly participants in CEPs. SHC results were obtained combining the EuroQol scores and Life Expectancy (LE) values. An economic value of €34,858.70 was assigned to these years of LE. Results. Physically active subjects had better HRQoL values (75.36 in males and 70.71 in females) than CHS'06 sedentary subjects (58.35 in males and 50.59 in females). Medication used was different between physically active subjects (1.89 in males and 2.87 in females) and CHS'06 sedentary subjects (4.34 in males and 4.21 in females). SHC data for physically active elderly (€465,988.31/QALY in males and €522,550.31/QALY in females) were higher than for CHS'06 sedentary subjects (€363,689.33/QALY in males and €346,615.91/QALY in females). PMID:24454357

  16. Health-related quality of life measures for physically active elderly in community exercise programs in catalonia: comparative analysis with sedentary people.

    PubMed

    Fortuño-Godes, Jesús; Guerra-Balic, Myriam; Cabedo-Sanromà, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL), medication used, and Stock of Health Capital (SHC) in physically active elderly participants in Community Exercise Programs (CEPs) compared to a sedentary group. Methods. EuroQol standardized instrument was completed by physically active elderly (n = 2,185) who participated in CEPs. Common items were compared to HRQoL data of 1,874 sedentary elderly people, taken from the Catalan Health Survey 2006 (CHS'06). Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) outcomes and medication used were assessed through parametric statistics. Dimensions of health conditions were compared, between sedentary people and physically active elderly participants in CEPs. SHC results were obtained combining the EuroQol scores and Life Expectancy (LE) values. An economic value of €34,858.70 was assigned to these years of LE. Results. Physically active subjects had better HRQoL values (75.36 in males and 70.71 in females) than CHS'06 sedentary subjects (58.35 in males and 50.59 in females). Medication used was different between physically active subjects (1.89 in males and 2.87 in females) and CHS'06 sedentary subjects (4.34 in males and 4.21 in females). SHC data for physically active elderly (€465,988.31/QALY in males and €522,550.31/QALY in females) were higher than for CHS'06 sedentary subjects (€363,689.33/QALY in males and €346,615.91/QALY in females).

  17. Pneumonia caused by Aeromonas species in Taiwan, 2004-2011.

    PubMed

    Chao, C M; Lai, C C; Tsai, H Y; Wu, C J; Tang, H J; Ko, W C; Hsueh, P-R

    2013-08-01

    We investigated the clinical characteristics of patients with pneumonia caused by Aeromonas species. Patients with pneumonia caused by Aeromonas species during the period 2004 to 2011 were identified from a computerized database of a regional hospital in southern Taiwan. The medical records of these patients were retrospectively reviewed. Of the 84 patients with pneumonia due to Aeromonas species, possible Aeromonas pneumonia was diagnosed in 58 patients, probable Aeromonas pneumonia was diagnosed in 18 patients, and pneumonia due to Aeromonas was conclusively diagnosed in 8 patients. Most of the cases of Aeromonas pneumonia developed in men and in patients of advanced age. A. hydrophila (n = 50, 59.5 %) was the most common pathogen, followed by A. caviae (n = 24, 28.6 %), A. veronii biovar sobria (n = 7, 8.3 %), and A. veronii biovar veronii (n = 3, 3.6 %). Cancer (n = 37, 44.0 %) was the most common underlying disease, followed by diabetes mellitus (n = 27, 32.1 %). Drowning-associated pneumonia developed in 6 (7.1 %) patients. Of 47 patients who were admitted to the intensive care ward, 42 patients developed acute respiratory failure and 24 of those patients died. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was significantly associated with liver cirrhosis, cancer, initial presentation of shock, and usage of mechanical ventilation. In conclusion, Aeromonas species should be considered as one of the causative pathogens of severe pneumonia, especially in immunocompromised patients, and should be recognized as a cause of drowning-associated pneumonia. Cirrhosis, cancer, and shock as the initial presenting symptom are associated with poor outcome.

  18. Controlled insect-sting challenge in 55 patients: correlation between activation of plasminogen and the development of anaphylactic shock.

    PubMed

    van der Linden, P W; Hack, C E; Struyvenberg, A; Roem, D; Brouwer, M C; de Boer, J P; van der Zwan, J K

    1993-09-15

    The pathogenesis of anaphylactic shock is not completely understood. Mast cell degranulation products may stimulate endothelial cells, leading to activation of fibrinolytic and coagulation systems. We investigated the activation of these systems in insect-sting anaphylaxis. Fifty-five patients with a previous insect-sting anaphylactic reaction and 8 volunteers were challenged with an in-hospital sting. Plasma levels of von Willebrand factor (vWF), coagulation, and fibrinolytic parameters were assessed. After the sting challenge, 20 patients developed anaphylactic symptoms, 7 of whom developed hypotension. In only these 7 patients, but not in the volunteers or in the other patients with no or mild anaphylactic symptoms, vWF levels increased from 107% +/- 33% (mean +/- SD) before, to 235% +/- 134% 60 minutes after the onset of clinical symptoms. This increase of vWF was accompanied by an increase of circulating tissue-type plasminogen-activator (tPA) levels from 5 +/- 3 micrograms/L to 50 +/- 59 micrograms/L and of plasminogen-alpha 2-antiplasmin complex (PAP-c) levels from 6 +/- 3 nmol/L to 297 +/- 225 nmol/L. Both tPA and PAP-c levels peaked 5 minutes after the onset of clinical symptoms. Such increases of tPA and PAP-c were not observed in the volunteers or in the patients who did not develop shock. The increase of tPA and PAP-c levels in the hypotensive patients correlated positively with the degree of mast cell degranulation and inversely with the mean arterial pressure. We conclude that activation of plasminogen may be involved in the pathogenesis of anaphylactic shock induced by insect venom.

  19. Identifying Vulnerable Populations Using a Social Determinants of Health Framework: Analysis of National Survey Data across Six Asia-Pacific Countries

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Paul R.; Mamerow, Loreen; Meyer, Samantha B.

    2013-01-01

    Background In order to improve the health of the most vulnerable groups in society, the WHO called for research on the multiple and inter-linking factors shaping the social determinants of health (SDH). This paper analyses four key SDH (social cohesion, social inclusion, social empowerment and socioeconomic security) across six Asia-Pacific countries: Australia, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. Methods Population surveys were undertaken using a validated instrument in 2009-10, with sample sizes around 1000 in each country. The four SDH were analysed using multivariate binomial logistic regression to identify socio-demographic predictors in each country. Results Low socio-economic security was associated with low income in all six study countries and with poor subjective health in Japan, South Korea and Thailand and with being married or cohabiting in Australia and Hong Kong. Low social cohesion was associated with low income in all countries and with undertaking household duties in South Korea, Thailand and Taiwan. Low social inclusion was associated with low income in Australia, South Korea and Taiwan and with poor subjective health in Australia, Japan and South Korea. Older people had lower social inclusion in Taiwan (50-59 years) and Hong Kong (retired), younger people in Japan and South Korea (20-29 years in both countries) and younger and middle-aged people in Australia. Low social empowerment was associated with low income in Australia, Thailand and Taiwan, with being aged 60 years or over in Australia, Hong Kong and South Korea, and over 50 years in Thailand. Conclusions This paper provides baseline measures for identifying where and how policy should be altered to improve the SDH. Furthermore, these data can be used for future policy evaluation to identify whether changes in policy have indeed improved the SDH, particularly for marginalised and vulnerable populations. PMID:24349417

  20. Lipid lowering effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in hyperlipidaemic albino rabbits.

    PubMed

    Javed, Ijaz; Faisal, Imran; Rahman, Ziaur; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Muhammad, Faqir; Aslam, Bilal; Ahmad, Mahmood; Shahzadi, Andleeb

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the lipid lowering effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cinnamon) in hyperlipidaemic albino rabbits. For this purpose, forty eight albino rabbits were randomly divided into eight equal groups; untreated control on normal routine feed, untreated control on butter and cholesterol, treated control on synthetic cholesterol lowering drug simvastatin (Tablet survive (R) 20 mg), three treated groups on three respective doses of C. zeylanicum bark powder and two treated groups on water and methanol extracts of C. zeylanicum bark powder. Butter ad lib and cholesterol powder 500 mg/kg body weight were used to induce experimental hyperlipidaemia in all groups except untreated control group. The results suggested that C. zeylanicum bark powder at the rate of 0.50 g/kg, 0.75 g/kg and methanol extract equivalent to 0.75 g/kg powder produced respective percent reductions in total lipids by 45, 49 and 64; triglycerides by 38, 53 and 60; total cholesterol by 53, 64 and 69 and LDL-cholesterol by 50, 59 and 62. However, at these dosage levels HDL-cholesterol showed respective percent increase of 42, 48 and 53. Nonetheless, C. zeylanicum bark powder at the level of 0.25g/kg and C. zeylanicum extract in water could not significantly reduce lipid profile indicators. Based on these studies, it can safely be said that C. zeylanicum bark powder methanol extract equivalent to 0.75g/kg bark powder and simvastatin (0.6 mg/kg b. wt.) were equieffective in treating hyperlipidaemia.

  1. Incidence of Sleep Disorders Reported by Patients at UTHSC College of Dentistry: A Two-Year Follow-Up and Proposed Educational Program.

    PubMed

    Ivanoff, Chris S; Pancratz, Frank

    2015-05-01

    A 2011 study at one U.S. dental school found that patients were not routinely screened by dental students for obstructive sleep apnea and/or other related sleep disorders, nor were students being trained to screen. Consequently, the medical history questionnaire used in the clinic was updated to include five specific screening questions. The aim of this two-year follow-up study was to determine whether screening had improved at the school. A retrospective chart review of all patients (age 14-70+) in the third- and fourth-year dental clinics in 2012 and 2013 searched for "YES" responses to the five questions. Of 5,931 patients, 38% reported they snore or were told they snore. By age 50-59, their reports of snoring increased to 50%. About 5% reported incidents waking up choking. By age 50, between one-fifth and one-quarter indicated they woke up frequently during the night. One in six frequently felt overly tired during the daytime, often falling asleep. This problem was evenly reported by all age groups between ages 30 and 69. About half the patients reporting sleep problems also had hypertension and cardiovascular problems with an equal distribution between males and females. The results showed that updating the medical history form had dramatically improved screening for sleep-disordered breathing by these dental students. Though screening is neither a definitive diagnosis nor an attempt to distinguish among sleep disorders, the results correlate with national statistics. Screening is an important step to increase student awareness of this serious health trend as it prepares students to engage more constructively in its management and referral.

  2. Recent changes in breast cancer incidence and mortality in Estonia: Transition to the west.

    PubMed

    Baburin, Aleksei; Aareleid, Tiiu; Rahu, Mati; Reedik, Lauri; Innos, Kaire

    2016-06-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine breast cancer (BC) incidence and mortality trends in Estonia during recent decades and to compare the pattern of these trends with other selected European countries and regions. We attempt to explain the findings in relation to changes in Estonian society and healthcare system. Methods BC incidence (1985-2012) and mortality (1985-2013) data for Estonia were obtained from the Estonian Cancer Registry and Statistics Estonia. Data for selected European countries were obtained from the EUREG database. Joinpoint regression was used to analyze age-standardized rates in Estonia by age. For international comparison of incidence and mortality rates, we used scatterplot with 95% confidence ellipses and the mortality to incidence ratio. Results The overall BC incidence continues to increase in Estonia, while mortality has been in decline since 2000. Both incidence and mortality trends varied considerably across age groups. Among women aged 60 years and older, BC incidence increased at a rate of nearly 3% per year. Significant decrease in mortality was seen only among women aged 50-59 years. Comparison of scatterplots between countries and regions revealed two clusters in Europe separated along the incidence axis. The correlation between incidence and mortality in Estonia changed its direction in the mid-1990s. Conclusion In recent years, the dynamics of BC burden in Estonia has transitioned towards the high incidence-low mortality type model, which is characteristic to Western, Northern and Southern Europe. Although overall BC incidence is much lower in Estonia than in more affluent European countries, mortality from BC is still relatively high, particularly among elderly women. PMID:27222251

  3. Determination of cathinones and other stimulant, psychedelic, and dissociative designer drugs in real hair samples.

    PubMed

    Salomone, Alberto; Gazzilli, Giulia; Di Corcia, Daniele; Gerace, Enrico; Vincenti, Marco

    2016-03-01

    The detection of new psychoactive substances (NPS) in hair proved to provide insight into their current diffusion among the population and the social characteristics of these synthetic drugs' users. Therefore, a UHPLC-MS/MS method was developed in order to determine 31 stimulant and psychedelic substituted phenethylamines, and dissociative drugs in hair samples. The method proved to be simple, fast, specific, and sensitive. The absence of matrix interferents, together with excellent repeatability of both retention times and relative abundances of diagnostic transitions, allowed the correct identification of all analytes tested. The method showed optimal linearity in the interval 10-1000 pg/mg, with correlation coefficient values varying between 0.9981 and 0.9997. Quantitation limits ranged from 1.8 pg/mg for 4-methoxyphencyclidine (4-MeO-PCP) up to 35 pg/mg for 6-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran (6-APB). The method was applied to (i) 23 real samples taken from proven MDMA and ketamine abusers and (ii) 54 real hair samples which had been previously tested negative during regular drug screening in driver's license recovery. Six samples tested positive for at least one target analyte. Methoxetamine (MXE) was found in three cases (range of concentration 7.7-27 pg/mg); mephedrone (4-MMC) was found in two cases (50-59 pg/mg) while one sample tested positive for methylone at 28 pg/mg. Other positive findings included 4-methylethcathinone (4-MEC), alpha-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP), 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA), 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), and diphenidine. The present study confirms the increasing diffusion of new designer drugs with enhanced stimulant activity among the target population of poly-abuse consumers. PMID:26680593

  4. Outdoor clothing: its relationship to geography, climate, behaviour and cold-related mortality in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donaldson, G. C.; Rintamäki, H.; Näyhä, S.

    It has been suggested, that the inhabitants of northern European regions, who experience little cold-related mortality, protect themselves outdoors by wearing more clothing, at the same temperature, than people living in southern regions where such mortality is high. Outdoor clothing data were collected in eight regions from 6583 people divided by sex and age group (50-59 and 65-74 years). Across Europe, the total clothing worn (as assessed by dry thermal insulation and numbers of items or layers) increased significantly with cold, wind, less physical activity and longer periods outdoors. Men wore 0.14 clo (1 clo=0.115 m2 K W-1) more than women and the older people wore 0.05 clo more than the younger group (both P<0.001). After allowance for these factors, regional differences in insulation and item number were correlated (r=-0.74, P=0.037; r=-0.74, P=0.036 respectively), but not those in clothing layers (r=-0.21 P=0.61), with indices of cold-related mortality. Cold weather most increased the wearing of gloves, scarves and hats. The geographical variation in the wearing of these three together items more closely matched that in cold-related mortality (r=-0.89, P=0.003). A possible explanation for this may be that they protect the head and hands, where stimulation by cold greatly increases peripheral vasoconstriction causing a rise in blood pressure that procedure haemoconcentration and raised cardiovascular risk.

  5. Petrography and microanalysis of Pennsylvanian coal-ball concretions (Herrin Coal, Illinois Basin, USA): Bearing on fossil plant preservation and coal-ball origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siewers, Fredrick D.; Phillips, Tom L.

    2015-11-01

    Petrographic analyses of 25 coal balls from well-studied paleobotanical profiles in the Middle Pennsylvanian Herrin Coal (Westphalian D, Illinois Basin) and five select coal balls from university collections, indicate that Herrin Coal-ball peats were permineralized by fibrous and non-fibrous carbonates. Fibrous carbonates occur in fan-like to spherulitic arrays in many intracellular (within tissue) pores, and are best developed in relatively open extracellular (between plant) pore spaces. Acid etched fibrous carbonates appear white under reflected light and possess a microcrystalline texture attributable to abundant microdolomite. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and electron microprobe analysis demonstrate that individual fibers have a distinct trigonal prism morphology and are notable for their magnesium content (≈ 9-15 mol% MgCO3). Non-fibrous carbonates fill intercrystalline spaces among fibers and pores within the peat as primary precipitates and neomorphic replacements. In the immediate vicinity of plant cell walls, non-fibrous carbonates cut across fibrous carbonates as a secondary, neomorphic phase attributed to coalification of plant cell walls. Dolomite occurs as diagenetic microdolomite associated with the fibrous carbonate phase, as sparite replacements, and as void-filling cement. Maximum dolomite (50-59 wt.%) is in the top-of-seam coal-ball zone at the Sahara Mine, which is overlain by the marine Anna Shale. Coal-ball formation in the Herrin Coal began with the precipitation of fibrous high magnesium calcite. The trigonal prism morphology of the carbonate fibers suggests rapid precipitation from super-saturated, meteoric pore waters. Carbonate precipitation from marine waters is discounted on the basis of stratigraphic, paleobotanical, and stable isotopic evidence. Most non-fibrous carbonate is attributable to later diagenetic events, including void-fill replacements, recrystallization, and post-depositional fracture fills. Evidence

  6. Infection by Paramphistomidae trematodes in cattle from two agricultural regions in NW Uruguay and NW Spain.

    PubMed

    Sanchís, J; Sánchez-Andrade, R; Macchi, M I; Piñeiro, P; Suárez, J L; Cazapal-Monteiro, C; Maldini, G; Venzal, J M; Paz-Silva, A; Arias, M S

    2013-01-16

    The analysis of infection by Paramphistomidae trematodes was conducted in two agricultural regions with different knowledge on this parasitosis. Faecal and blood samples were collected from 374 cattle in Salto (NW Uruguay) where there is a lack of information about paramphistomosis. A total of 429 cattle from Galicia (NW Spain), an area with previous records of infection by gastric flukes, were sampled. Diagnostics of trematodosis was developed by using a copromicroscopic probe and an ELISA with excretory/secretory antigens collected from adult Calicophoron daubneyi (Paramphistomidae) specimens. Results were evaluated according intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In the Uruguay, the percentage of cattle passing Paramphistomidae-eggs by faeces was 7% (95% Confidence Interval 5, 10). A significantly higher prevalence of paramphistomosis in the Hereford × Angus cattle (OR=3.5) was recorded, as observed for the oldest ruminants (>3.5 years). An overall seroprevalence of 29% (25, 34) was obtained by ELISA, with the highest values in the Friesians (OR=3), the youngest bovines (<2.5 years) and dairy cattle (Friesians). Twenty-six percent (22, 30) of the cattle from Spain passed eggs by faeces, and cattle aged 2.5-7 years reached significant highest prevalences. By means of the ELISA, a percentage of 55 cattle (50, 59) had antibodies against the gastric fluke, and the highest seroprevalence was observed among the bovines under 6 years. It is concluded that paramphistomosis is on the increase in cattle from NW Spain, partly due to the absence of an effective treatment against the trematode. There is a need for reducing the risk of infection by Paramhistomidae spp. in cattle from Uruguay, especially by improving their management to avoid exposure to the gastric trematode. Further studies are in progress for identifying the species of Paramphistomidae affecting ruminants in Uruguay.

  7. HIV and aging: insights from the Asia Pacific HIV Observational Database (APHOD)

    PubMed Central

    Han, N; Wright, ST; O'Connor, CC; Hoy, J; Ponnampalavanar, S; Grotowski, M; Zhao, HX; Kamarulzaman, A

    2016-01-01

    Background The proportion of people living with HIV/AIDS in the ageing population (>50 years) is increasing. We aim to explore the relationship between older age and treatment outcomes in HIV-positive persons from the Asia-Pacific region. Methods Patients from the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD) and the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD) were included in the analysis. We used survival methods to assess the association between older age and all-cause mortality, as well as time-to treatment modification. We used regression analyses to evaluate changes in CD4 counts after combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiation and determined the odds of detectable viral load, up to 24 months of treatment. Results A total of 7142 patients were included in these analyses (60% TAHOD, 40% AHOD), of which, 25% were >50 years old. In multivariable analyses those aged >50 were at least twice as likely to die as those aged 30-39 years [HR (50-59 years): 2.27, 95% CI: 1.34-3.83; HR (>60years) 4.28, 95% CI: 2.42-7.55]. The effect of older age on CD4 count changes was insignificant (p-trend=0.06). The odds of detectable viral load after cART initiation decreased with age (p-trend=<0.0001). The effect of older age on time-to first treatment modification was insignificant (p-trend=0.21). We found no statistically significant differences in outcomes between AHOD and TAHOD participants for all endpoints examined. Conclusion The associations between older age and typical patient outcomes in HIV-positive patients from the Asia-Pacific region are similar in AHOD and TAHOD. Our data indicate that ‘age-effects’ traverse the resource-rich and resource-limited divide and indicate that future ageing-related findings might be applicable to each setting. PMID:25407085

  8. [Vaccines against varicella-zoster virus (VZV)].

    PubMed

    Salleras, Luis; Salleras, Montserrat; Soldevila, Nuria; Prat, Andreu; Garrido, Patricio; Domínguez, Ángela

    2015-01-01

    In Western countries, two attenuated varicella vaccines derived from the OKA strain are licensed: Varilrix® GlaxoSmithKline (OKA/RIT strain) and Varivax® Merck Sharp and Dohme (OKA/Merck strain). Currently, in Spain, varicella vaccination is only included in the Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality official vaccination calendar for administration in adolescents who have not had the disease. Given the good results obtained in Navarra and Madrid with universal administration of the vaccine in children, it would be desirable to include the vaccine in the routine immunization schedule, with the administration of two doses at 15-18 months of age in the future. The protective efficacy of the attenuated herpes zoster vaccine was evaluated in the Shingles Prevention Study, which showed that in the short term (0-4 years) the vaccine reduced the incidence of herpes zoster by 53%, post-herpetic neuralgia by 66%, and the disease burden in immunocompetent persons aged ≥60 years by 61%. Another study demonstrated protective efficacy in persons aged 50-59 years. Over time, the protective efficacy decreases, but remains at acceptable levels, especially for post-herpetic neuralgia and the disease burden. Recently, the results of a controlled clinical trial (phase III) conducted in 18 countries to assess the protective efficacy of the inactivated subunit vaccine (glycoprotein E) adjuvanted with the adjuvant AS01B were published. The study inferred that the vaccine significantly reduced the incidence of herpes zoster in the short term (3.2 years) in people aged ≥50 years. Vaccine protection did not decrease with age at vaccination, ranging between 96.8% and 97.9% in all age groups.

  9. Health-related quality of life measures for physically active elderly in community exercise programs in catalonia: comparative analysis with sedentary people.

    PubMed

    Fortuño-Godes, Jesús; Guerra-Balic, Myriam; Cabedo-Sanromà, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL), medication used, and Stock of Health Capital (SHC) in physically active elderly participants in Community Exercise Programs (CEPs) compared to a sedentary group. Methods. EuroQol standardized instrument was completed by physically active elderly (n = 2,185) who participated in CEPs. Common items were compared to HRQoL data of 1,874 sedentary elderly people, taken from the Catalan Health Survey 2006 (CHS'06). Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) outcomes and medication used were assessed through parametric statistics. Dimensions of health conditions were compared, between sedentary people and physically active elderly participants in CEPs. SHC results were obtained combining the EuroQol scores and Life Expectancy (LE) values. An economic value of €34,858.70 was assigned to these years of LE. Results. Physically active subjects had better HRQoL values (75.36 in males and 70.71 in females) than CHS'06 sedentary subjects (58.35 in males and 50.59 in females). Medication used was different between physically active subjects (1.89 in males and 2.87 in females) and CHS'06 sedentary subjects (4.34 in males and 4.21 in females). SHC data for physically active elderly (€465,988.31/QALY in males and €522,550.31/QALY in females) were higher than for CHS'06 sedentary subjects (€363,689.33/QALY in males and €346,615.91/QALY in females). PMID:24454357

  10. Endogenous attention modulates early selective attention in psychopathy: An ERP investigation.

    PubMed

    Krusemark, Elizabeth A; Kiehl, Kent A; Newman, Joseph P

    2016-10-01

    Psychopathic individuals are prone to act on urges without adequate consideration of future consequences or the rights of other individuals. One interpretation of this behavior is that it reflects abnormal selective attention (i.e., a failure to process information that is incongruent with their primary focus of attention; Hiatt, Schmitt, & Newman, Neuropsychology, 18, 50-59, 2004). Unfortunately, it is unclear whether this selective attention abnormality reflects top-down endogenous influences, such as the strength or specificity of attention focus (i.e., top-down set) apart from other, more exogenous (bottom-up), effects on attention. To explore this question, we used an early visual event-related potential (N2pc) in combination with a modified visual search task designed to assess the effect of early endogenous (i.e., top-down) attention on the processing of set-congruent information. The task was administered to a sample of 70 incarcerated adult males, who were assigned to high, intermediate, and low psychopathy groups using Hare's Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (Hare, 2003). Based on the assumption that their failure to process set-incongruent information reflects the exaggerated effects of endogenous attention, we predicted that participants with high psychopathy scores would show an exaggerated N2pc response to set-congruent information. The results supported the hypothesis and provide novel electrophysiological evidence that psychopathy is associated with exaggerated endogenous attention effects during early stages of processing. Further research is needed to examine the implications of this finding for the well-established failure of psychopathic individuals to process set-incongruent information and inhibit inappropriate responses.

  11. Glyphosate catabolism by Pseudomonas sp

    SciTech Connect

    Shinabarger, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The pathway for the degradation of glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 has been determined using metabolic radiolabeling experiments. Radiorespirometry experiments utilizing (3-/sup 14/C) glyphosate revealed that approximately 50-59% of the C3 carbon was oxidized to CO/sub 2/. Fractionation of stationary phase cells labeled with (3-/sup 14/C)glyphosate revealed that from 45-47% of the assimilated C3 carbon is distributed to proteins and that amino acids methionine and serine are highly labeled. The nucleic acid bases adenine and guanine received 90% of the C3 label that was incorporated into nucleic acids, and the only pyrimidine base labeled was thymine. Pulse labeling of PG2982 cells with (3-/sup 14/C)glyphosate revealed that (3-/sup 14/C)sarcosine is an intermediate in glyphosate degradation. Examination of crude extracts prepared from PG2982 cells revealed the presence of an enzyme that oxidizes sarcosine to glycine and formaldehyde. These results indicate that the first step in glyphosate degradation by PG2982 is cleavage of the carbon-phosphorus bond, resulting in the release of sarcosine and a phosphate group. The phosphate group is utilized as a source of phosphorus, and the sarcosine is degraded to glycine and formaldehyde. Phosphonate utilization by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 was investigated. Each of the ten phosphonates tested were utilized as a sole source of phosphorus by PG2982. Representative compounds tested included alkylphosphonates, 1-amino-substituted alkylphosphonates, amino-terminal phosphonates, and an arylphosphonate. PG2982 cultures degraded phenylphosphonate to benzene and produced methane from methylphosphonate. The data indicate that PG2982 is capable of cleaving the carbon-phosphorus bond of several structurally different phosphonates.

  12. Vertebral fracture definition from population-based data: preliminary results from the Canadian Multicenter Osteoporosis Study (CaMos).

    PubMed

    Jackson, S A; Tenenhouse, A; Robertson, L

    2000-01-01

    The Canadian Multicenter Osteoporosis Study is a large population-based prospective study of osteoporosis in the Canadian population. The study involves 9424 subjects, both male and female, from nine centers and seven regions of Canada. Each subject completed an extensive interview to obtain medical, demographic and lifestyle information, and was examined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of the spine and hip, ultrasound of the heel and, for subjects over 50 years of age, lateral spine radiographs. Spinal morphometry of the initial radiographs was performed to determine the prevalence of vertebral deformity. A method is utilized to extract reference norms for vertebral shape from a subset of the population data, which is then used to categorize any deformity within the whole data set. Using 3 standard deviations (SD) as a limit of normality', the male prevalence of 21.5% was similar to the female prevalence of 23.5%. Using 4 SD this reduced to 7.3% and 9.3% respectively. The younger men (50-59 years) showed a higher prevalence of deformity than the women and a lower increase of prevalence with age. In the older age group (over 80 years) the female prevalence of 45% compared with 36% for the men using 3 SD (grade 1) to define the limit of normality. The female group presented with more severe deformities on average than the male group. This continuing study will provide longitudinal information regarding the development of osteoporosis and associated risk factors which will eventually be of use to develop public health policies.

  13. Powder processing of hybrid titanium neural electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Jose Luis, Jr.

    A preliminary investigation into the powder production of a novel hybrid titanium neural electrode for EEG is presented. The rheological behavior of titanium powder suspensions using sodium alginate as a dispersant are examined for optimal slip casting conditions. Electrodes were slip cast and sintered at 950°C for 1 hr, 1000°C for 1, 3, and 6 hrs, and 1050°C for 1 hr. Residual porosities from sintering are characterized using Archimedes' technique and image analysis. The pore network is gel impregnated by submerging the electrodes in electrically conductive gel and placing them in a chamber under vacuum. Gel evaporation of the impregnated electrodes is examined. Electrodes are characterized in the dry and gelled states using impedance spectrometry and compared to a standard silver- silver chloride electrode. Power spectral densities for the sensors in the dry and gelled state are also compared. Residual porosities for the sintered specimens were between 50.59% and 44.81%. Gel evaporation tests show most of the impregnated gel evaporating within 20 min of exposure to atmospheric conditions with prolonged evaporation times for electrodes with higher impregnated gel mass. Impedance measurements of the produced electrodes indicate the low impedance of the hybrid electrodes are due to the increased contact area of the porous electrode. Power spectral densities of the titanium electrode behave similar to a standard silver-silver chloride electrode. Tests suggest the powder processed hybrid titanium electrode's performance is better than current dry contact electrodes and comparable to standard gelled silver-silver chloride electrodes.

  14. Cytotoxic activity of Macrosolen parasiticus (L.) Danser on the growth of breast cancer cell line (MCF-7)

    PubMed Central

    Sodde, Vijay Kumar; Lobo, Richard; Kumar, Nimmy; Maheshwari, Rajalekshmi; Shreedhara, C. S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Macrosolen parasiticus (L.) Danser belonging to Loranthaceaea (mistletoe family) is a parasitic plant that grows on different host plants such as mango, jack fruit, peepal, neem tree, etc., This study was aimed to investigate the anti-cancer activity of methanolic and aqueous extract of stem of M. parasiticus. Objectives: To investigate the in vitro cytotoxic potential of the methanolic and aqueous extracts from stems of M. parasiticus against MCF-7 breast cancer cells by brine shrimp lethality (BSL) bioassay, MTT assay and sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Materials and Methods: The extracts were tested in human breast cancer cell lines in vitro for percentage cytotoxicity, apoptosis by acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, LD50 and IC50 values after treatment with M. parasiticus extracts. Results: In BSL bioassay, aqueous extract showed more significant (P < 0.01) cytotoxicity with LD50 82.79 ± 2.67 μg/mL as compared to methanolic extract with LD50 125 ± 3.04 μg/mL. The methanolic extract of M. parasiticus showed IC50 97.33 ± 3.75 μg/mL (MTT) (P < 0.05) and 94.58 ± 3.84 μg/mL (SRB) (P < 0.01) assays against MCF-7. The aqueous extract of M. parasiticus demonstrated higher activity with IC50 59.33 ± 3.3 μg/mL (MTT) (P < 0.01) and 51.9 ± 1.87 μg/mL (SRB)(P < 0.01) assays, after 48 h of exposure and thus showed significant dose-dependent cytotoxic activity. Conclusion: The finding demonstrated that both extracts of M. parasiticus showed significant cytotoxic activity, however aqueous extract demonstrated higher activity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells. PMID:26109761

  15. Study on the adult physique with the Heath-Carter anthropometric somatotype in the Han of Xi'an, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Tao; Wang, Ning; Li, Zeng-Xian; Liu, Cui; He, Xin; Zhang, Jian-Fei; Han, Hua; Wen, You-Feng; Qian, Yi-Hua; Xi, Huan-Jiu

    2016-03-01

    The study of somatotypes has important significance for medical and physical anthropology as well as sports science. The aim of this study was to understand the somatotype components of the Han population in Xi'an and compare the somatotypes of the Han and five other nationalities in China. The study sample consisted of 429 people of Han nationality (207 males, 222 females) from Xi'an, China, aged ≥20 years old. The Heath-Carter anthropometric method was employed. We evaluated the differences in age and sex by one-way ANOVA and t test. A comparison of somatotypes between the Han and other nationalities was made using the U test. The results showed that the male and female samples all could be classified as having a mesomorphic endomorph profile. The difference in endomorphy was strongest between sexes in all age groups (P < 0.01). There were prominent differences in mesomorphy and ectomorphy between males and females in the 50-59- and ≥60-year-old age groups. In females, the differences in somatotype components appeared to be distinguished between ages (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). However, in males, there were prominent differences in somatotype components between the 20-29 year olds and all other age groups (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) except for between those 20-29 and ≥60 years old in endomorphy. Compared with the other five nationalities, there were prominent differences in somatotype components between males and females. These results suggest that the somatotype of the Han population in Xi'an, China, has a predominantly mesomorphic endomorph profile. The endomorphic component shows distinct differences between ages and genders, respectively. Additionally, there are distinct differences in the somatotype components between Xi'an Han and five other nationalities in China in males and females. PMID:25940679

  16. Adapting the Australian system: is an organized screening program feasible in Malaysia?--an overview of cervical cancer screening in both countries.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Rima Ma; Dahlui, Maznah; Mohamed, Majdah; Gertig, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common form of cancer that strikes Malaysian women. The National Cancer Registry in 2006 and 2007 reported that the age standardized incidence (ASR) of cervical cancer was 12.2 and 7.8 per 100,000 women, respectively. The cumulative risk of developing cervical cancer for a Malaysian woman is 0.9 for 74 years. Among all ethnic groups, the Chinese experienced the highest incidence rate in 2006, followed by Indians and Malays. The percentage cervical cancer detected at stage I and II was 55% (stage I: 21.0%, stage II: 34.0%, stage III: 26.0% and stage IV: 19.0%). Data from Ministry of Health Malaysia (2006) showed a 58.9% estimated coverage of pap smear screening conducted among those aged 30-49 years. Only a small percentage of women aged 50-59 and 50-65 years old were screened, 14% and 13.8% coverage, respectively. Incidence of cervical cancer was highest (71.6%) among those in the 60-65 age group (MOH, 2003). Currently, there is no organized population-based screening program available for the whole of Malaysia. A pilot project was initiated in 2006, to move from opportunistic cervical screening of women who attend antenatal and postnatal visits to a population based approach to be able to monitor the women through the screening pathway and encourage women at highest risk to be screened. The project was modelled on the screening program in Australia with some modifications to suit the Malaysian setting. Substantial challenges have been identified, particularly in relation to information systems for call and recall of women, as well as laboratory reporting and quality assurance. A cost-effective locally-specific approach to organized screening, that will provide the infrastructure for increasing participation in the cervical cancer screening program, is urgently required.

  17. Identification of Potent and Selective Inhibitors of the Plasmodium falciparum M18 Aspartyl Aminopeptidase (PfM18AAP) of Human Malaria via High Throughput Screening

    PubMed Central

    Spicer, Timothy; Fernandez-Vega, Virneliz; Chase, Peter; Scampavia, Louis; To, Joyce; Dalton, John P; Da Silva, Fabio L; Skinner-Adams, Tina S; Gardiner, Donald L; Trenholme, Katharine R; Brown, Christopher L; Ghosh, Partha; Porubsky, Patrick; Wang, Jenna L; Whipple, David A; Schoenen, Frank J; Hodder, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The target of this study, the PfM18 aspartyl aminopeptidase (PfM18AAP), is the only AAP present in the genome of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. PfM18AAP is a metallo-exopeptidase that exclusively cleaves N-terminal acidic amino acids glutamate and aspartate. It is expressed in parasite cytoplasm and may function in concert with other aminopeptidases in protein degradation, of, for example, hemoglobin. Previous antisense knockdown experiments identified a lethal phenotype associated with PfM18AAP suggesting that it is a valid target for new anti-malaria therapies. To identify inhibitors of PfM18AAP function, a fluorescence enzymatic assay was developed using recombinant PfM18AAP enzyme and a fluorogenic peptide substrate (H-Glu-NHMec). This was screened against the Molecular Libraries Probe Production Centers Network (MLPCN) collection of ~292,000 compounds (the Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository (MLSMR)). A Cathepsin L1 (CTSL1) enzyme-based assay was developed and used as a counterscreen to identify compounds with nonspecific activity. Enzymology and phenotypic assays were used to determine mechanism of action and efficacy of selective and potent compounds identified from HTS. Two structurally related compounds, CID 6852389 and CID 23724194, yield micromolar potency and are inactive in CTSL1 titration experiments (IC50 >59.6 μM). As measured by Ki assay, both compounds demonstrate micromolar non-competitive inhibition in the PfM18AAP enzyme assay. Both CID 6852389 and CID 23724194 demonstrate potency in malaria growth assays (IC50 4 μM and 1.3 μM, respectively). PMID:24619116

  18. Normal Cellular Prion Protein Protects against Manganese-induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptotic Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Christopher J.; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Saetveit, Nathan J.; Houk, Robert. S.; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

    2012-01-01

    The normal prion protein is abundantly expressed in the CNS, but its biological function remains unclear. The prion protein has octapeptide repeat regions that bind to several divalent metals, suggesting that the prion proteins may alter the toxic effect of environmental neurotoxic metals. In the present study, we systematically examined whether prion protein modifies the neurotoxicity of manganese (Mn) by comparing the effect of Mn on mouse neural cells expressing prion protein (PrPC -cells) and prion-knockout (PrPKO -cells). Exposure to Mn (10 μM-1 mM) for 24 hr produced a dose-dependent cytotoxic response in both PrPC -cells and PrPKO -cells. Interestingly, PrPC -cells (EC50 117.6μM) were more resistant to Mn-induced cytotoxicity, as compared to PrPKO -cells (EC50 59.9μM), suggesting a protective role for PrPC against Mn neurotoxicity. Analysis of intracellular Mn levels showed less Mn accumulation in PrPC -cells as compared to PrPKO -cells. Furthermore, Mn-induced mitochondrial depolarization and ROS generation were significantly attenuated in PrPC -cells as compared to PrPKO -cells. Measurement of antioxidant status revealed similar basal levels of glutathione (GSH) in PrPC -cells and PrPKO -cells; however, Mn treatment caused greater depletion of GSH in PrPKO -cells. Mn-induced mitochondrial depolarization and ROS production were followed by time- and dose-dependent activation of the apoptotic cell death cascade involving caspase-9 and -3. Notably, DNA fragmentation induced by both Mn treatment and oxidative stress-inducer hydrogen peroxide (100μM) was significantly suppressed in PrPC -cells as compared to PrPKO -cells. Together, these results demonstrate that prion protein interferes with divalent metal Mn uptake and protects against Mn-induced oxidative stress and apoptotic cell death. PMID:17483122

  19. Risk Factors and Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Five Largest Islands of Indonesia: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Syam, Ari Fahrial; Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Makmun, Dadang; Nusi, Iswan Abbas; Zain, Lukman Hakim; Zulkhairi; Akil, Fardah; Uswan, Willi Brodus; Simanjuntak, David; Uchida, Tomohisa; Adi, Pangestu; Utari, Amanda Pitarini; Rezkitha, Yudith Annisa Ayu; Subsomwong, Phawinee; Nasronudin; Suzuki, Rumiko; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Indonesia is still controversial and mainly investigated in the largest ethnic group, Javanese. We examined the prevalence of H. pylori infection using four different tests including culture, histology confirmed by immunohistochemistry and rapid urease test. We also analyzed risk factors associated with H. pylori infection in five largest islands in Indonesia. From January 2014-February 2015 we consecutively recruited a total of 267 patients with dyspeptic symptoms in Java, Papua, Sulawesi, Borneo and Sumatera Island. Overall, the prevalence of H. pylori infection was 22.1% (59/267). Papuan, Batak and Buginese ethnics had higher risk for H. pylori infection than Javanese, Dayak and Chinese ethnics (OR = 30.57, 6.31, 4.95; OR = 28.39, 5.81, 4.61 and OR = 23.23, 4.76, 3.77, respectively, P <0.05). The sensitivity and specificity for RUT and culture were 90.2%, 92.9% and 80.5%, 98.2%, respectively. The patients aged 50-59 years group had significantly higher H. pylori infection than 30-39 years group (OR 2.98, P = 0.05). Protestant had significantly higher H. pylori infection rate than that among Catholic (OR 4.42, P = 0.008). It was also significantly lower among peoples who used tap water as source of drinking water than from Wells/river (OR 9.67, P = 0.03). However only ethnics as become independent risk factors for H. pylori infection. Although we confirmed low prevalence of H. pylori in Javanese; predominant ethnic in Indonesia, several ethnic groups had higher risk of H. pylori infection. The age, religion and water source may implicate as a risk factor for H. pylori infection in Indonesia.

  20. China witnesses a changing concept on marriage.

    PubMed

    She, W

    1998-08-01

    This article discusses changing marriage, divorce, and remarriage patterns in China. The State Statistical Bureau reports that changing life style patterns will impact on the education of children and difficulties of housing and employment of single women, with or without children. Economic development has resulted in the elimination of poverty among over 20 million persons. Early marriage among males aged 15-21 years and females aged 15-19 years declined during 1990-96. The average age at first marriage increased by 2.0 years for males and 0.7 years for females during 1990-96. Average age at first marriage varies with level of economic development and location. Chinese families for centuries maintained arranged marriages. Marriage patterns have been influenced by customs from outside China. Couples use divorce as a means of settling disputes and focus on the quality of married life. Western culture has contributed to more frequent extramarital love affairs and the disintegration of many families. The basic foundation of marriage has weakened. The divorce rate rose during 1990-96. The highest rate of divorce by age was among persons aged 30-39 years in 1996, and among persons aged 50-59 years in 1990. The highest divorce rates by educational status were among illiterates and semiliterates in 1990, and among high school educated in 1996. Urban population had a higher divorce rate than rural population. Remarriage is gaining in popularity. Remarriages rose from 500,000 to 862,000 during 1985-95. The percentage of remarriages rose, especially among persons aged over 50 years.

  1. Synthesis, structural and optical properties, ferromagnetic behaviour, cytotoxicity and NLO activity of lithium sulphate doped L-threonine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theras, J. Elberin Mary; Kalaivani, D.; Mani, J. Arul Martin; Jayaraman, D.; Joseph, V.

    2016-09-01

    Lithium Sulphate doped L-threonine (Li2SO4-LT), a semi-organic crystal, has been synthesised and grown by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. The grown crystal was subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis in order to establish their crystalline nature. Li2SO4-LT crystal belongs to the orthorhombic crystal system (a=7.66 Å, b=5.11 Å, c=13.60 Å) with space group P212121. Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) study was carried out to quantify the concentration of lithium element in the grown crystal. The results show that 0.07 mol of lithium sulphate has been incorporated into the parent system. The grown material has been found to possess wide transparency in the range 240-1100 nm with lower cut-off wavelength at 240 nm. The optical band gap was calculated as 4.92 eV using optical absorption spectrum and Tauc's relation. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic study was performed to identify the functional groups present in the grown crystal. The surface features of the grown crystal were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis. The magnetic property was studied with the help of Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). The coercivity and retentivity of the material were measured from the hysteresis curve as 550.06 G and 79.50×10-6 emu respectively. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay method was performed to understand the cytotoxicity or anticancer activity of the sample. The cell viability and cytotoxicity of the sample against MCF-7 cells were estimated as 49.41% and 50.59% respectively at a concentration of 250 μg. The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency was measured by the Kurtz powder technique using Nd:YAG laser and was found to be 1.46 times that of standard potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP).

  2. [Studying specific effects of nootropic drugs on glutamate receptors in the rat brain].

    PubMed

    Firstova, Iu Iu; Vasil'eva, E V; Kovalev, G I

    2011-01-01

    The influence of nootropic drugs of different groups (piracetam, phenotropil, nooglutil, noopept, semax, meclofenoxate, pantocalcine, and dimebon) on the binding of the corresponding ligands to AMPA, NMDA, and mGlu receptors of rat brain has been studied by the method of radio-ligand binding in vitro. It is established that nooglutil exhibits pharmacologically significant competition with a selective agonist of AMPA receptors ([G-3H]Ro 48-8587) for the receptor binding sites (with IC50 = 6.4 +/- 0.2 microM), while the competition of noopept for these receptor binding sites was lower by an order of magnitude (IC50 = 80 +/- 5.6 microM). The heptapeptide drug semax was moderately competitive with [G-3H]LY 354740 for mGlu receptor sites (IC50 = 33 +/- 2.4 microM). Dimebon moderately influenced the specific binding of the ligand of NMDA receptor channel ([G-3H]MK-801) at IC50 = 59 +/- 3.6 microM. Nootropic drugs of the pyrrolidone group (piracetam, phenotropil) as well as meclofenoxate, pantocalcine (pantogam) in a broad rage of concentrations (10(-4)-10(-10) M) did not affect the binding of the corresponding ligands to glutamate receptors (IC50 100 pM). Thus, the direct neurochemical investigation was used for the first time to qualitatively characterize the specific binding sites for nooglutil and (to a lower extent) noopept on AMPA receptors, for semax on metabotropic glutamate receptors, and for dimebon on the channel region of NMDA receptors. The results are indicative of a selective action of some nootropes on the glutamate family. PMID:21476267

  3. Effect of somatic nerve stimulation on the kidney in intact, vagotomized and carotid sinus-denervated rats.

    PubMed

    Davis, G; Johns, E J

    1991-01-01

    1. The influence of cardiopulmonary and arterial baroreceptors on the renal nerve-dependent functional responses of the kidney to electrical stimulation of somatic afferent nerves was studied in pentobarbitone-anaesthetized rats. 2. Electrical stimulation of the left brachial nerve plexus at 3 Hz, 0.2 ms and 15 V in the intact animals increased blood pressure by 22%, and while renal perfusion pressure was maintained at pre-stimulus levels, renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate decreased by 14 and 22% respectively. At the same time urine flow rate and absolute and fractional sodium excretion decreased by 36, 42 and 27% respectively. In animals subjected to acute renal nerve section these renal functional responses could not be elicited. 3. Following bilateral vagotomy the systemic and renal haemodynamic responses to brachial nerve stimulation were similar to the intact group. However, urine flow rate and absolute and fractional sodium excretions decreased by 50, 59 and 47% respectively, responses which were significantly greater than in the intact group. 4. In a group of rats in which the carotid sinus nerves had been sectioned, stimulation of the brachial plexus caused reductions of renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate of the same magnitude as in the intact group; however, urine flow rate and absolute and fractional sodium excretion fell by 51, 60 and 48%, respectively, which were significantly larger than in the intact group. 5. These results demonstrate that the afferent nerve information arising from muscle joints and skin and carried via the brachial plexus caused reflex renal nerve-dependent reductions in renal haemodynamics and an antidiuresis and antinatriuresis. The cardiopulmonary and carotid sinus baroreceptors exert a tonic inhibitory action on these reflex renal responses insofar as they appeared to attenuate the antidiuretic and antinatriuretic responses to somatic afferent nerve stimulation.

  4. Estimating numbers of greater prairie-chickens using mark-resight techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clifton, A.M.; Krementz, D.G.

    2006-01-01

    Current monitoring efforts for greater prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus) populations indicate that populations are declining across their range. Monitoring the population status of greater prairie-chickens is based on traditional lek surveys (TLS) that provide an index without considering detectability. Estimators, such as immigration-emigration joint maximum-likelihood estimator from a hypergeometric distribution (IEJHE), can account for detectability and provide reliable population estimates based on resightings. We evaluated the use of mark-resight methods using radiotelemetry to estimate population size and density of greater prairie-chickens on 2 sites at a tallgrass prairie in the Flint Hills of Kansas, USA. We used average distances traveled from lek of capture to estimate density. Population estimates and confidence intervals at the 2 sites were 54 (CI 50-59) on 52.9 km 2 and 87 (CI 82-94) on 73.6 km2. The TLS performed at the same sites resulted in population ranges of 7-34 and 36-63 and always produced a lower population index than the mark-resight population estimate with a larger range. Mark-resight simulations with varying male:female ratios of marks indicated that this ratio was important in designing a population study on prairie-chickens. Confidence intervals for estimates when no marks were placed on females at the 2 sites (CI 46-50, 76-84) did not overlap confidence intervals when 40% of marks were placed on females (CI 54-64, 91-109). Population estimates derived using this mark-resight technique were apparently more accurate than traditional methods and would be more effective in detecting changes in prairie-chicken populations. Our technique could improve prairie-chicken management by providing wildlife biologists and land managers with a tool to estimate the population size and trends of lekking bird species, such as greater prairie-chickens.

  5. Kinetic properties of Streptomyces canarius L- Glutaminase and its anticancer efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Reda, Fifi M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract L-glutaminase was produced by Streptomyces canarius FR (KC460654) with an apparent molecular mass of 44 kDa. It has 17.9 purification fold with a final specific activity 132.2 U/mg proteins and 28% yield recovery. The purified L-glutaminase showed a maximal activity against L-glutamine when incubated at pH 8.0 at 40 °C for 30 min. It maintained its stability at wide range of pH from 5.0 11.0 and thermal stable up to 60 °C with Tm value 57.5 °C. It has high affinity and catalytic activity for L-glutamine (Km 0.129 mM, Vmax 2.02 U/mg/min), followed by L-asparagine and L-aspartic acid. In vivo, L-glutaminase showed no observed changes in liver; kidney functions; hematological parameters and slight effect on RBCs and level of platelets after 10 days of rabbit's injection. The anticancer activity of L-glutaminase was also tested against five types of human cancer cell lines using MTT assay in vitro. L-glutaminase has a significant efficiency against Hep-G2 cell (IC50, 6.8 μg/mL) and HeLa cells (IC50, 8.3 μg/mL), while the growth of MCF-7 cells was not affected. L-glutaminase has a moderate cytotoxic effect against HCT-116 cell (IC50, 64.7 μg/mL) and RAW 264.7 cell (IC50, 59.3 μg/mL). PMID:26691453

  6. Incidence of Sleep Disorders Reported by Patients at UTHSC College of Dentistry: A Two-Year Follow-Up and Proposed Educational Program.

    PubMed

    Ivanoff, Chris S; Pancratz, Frank

    2015-05-01

    A 2011 study at one U.S. dental school found that patients were not routinely screened by dental students for obstructive sleep apnea and/or other related sleep disorders, nor were students being trained to screen. Consequently, the medical history questionnaire used in the clinic was updated to include five specific screening questions. The aim of this two-year follow-up study was to determine whether screening had improved at the school. A retrospective chart review of all patients (age 14-70+) in the third- and fourth-year dental clinics in 2012 and 2013 searched for "YES" responses to the five questions. Of 5,931 patients, 38% reported they snore or were told they snore. By age 50-59, their reports of snoring increased to 50%. About 5% reported incidents waking up choking. By age 50, between one-fifth and one-quarter indicated they woke up frequently during the night. One in six frequently felt overly tired during the daytime, often falling asleep. This problem was evenly reported by all age groups between ages 30 and 69. About half the patients reporting sleep problems also had hypertension and cardiovascular problems with an equal distribution between males and females. The results showed that updating the medical history form had dramatically improved screening for sleep-disordered breathing by these dental students. Though screening is neither a definitive diagnosis nor an attempt to distinguish among sleep disorders, the results correlate with national statistics. Screening is an important step to increase student awareness of this serious health trend as it prepares students to engage more constructively in its management and referral. PMID:25941148

  7. Endogenous attention modulates early selective attention in psychopathy: An ERP investigation.

    PubMed

    Krusemark, Elizabeth A; Kiehl, Kent A; Newman, Joseph P

    2016-10-01

    Psychopathic individuals are prone to act on urges without adequate consideration of future consequences or the rights of other individuals. One interpretation of this behavior is that it reflects abnormal selective attention (i.e., a failure to process information that is incongruent with their primary focus of attention; Hiatt, Schmitt, & Newman, Neuropsychology, 18, 50-59, 2004). Unfortunately, it is unclear whether this selective attention abnormality reflects top-down endogenous influences, such as the strength or specificity of attention focus (i.e., top-down set) apart from other, more exogenous (bottom-up), effects on attention. To explore this question, we used an early visual event-related potential (N2pc) in combination with a modified visual search task designed to assess the effect of early endogenous (i.e., top-down) attention on the processing of set-congruent information. The task was administered to a sample of 70 incarcerated adult males, who were assigned to high, intermediate, and low psychopathy groups using Hare's Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (Hare, 2003). Based on the assumption that their failure to process set-incongruent information reflects the exaggerated effects of endogenous attention, we predicted that participants with high psychopathy scores would show an exaggerated N2pc response to set-congruent information. The results supported the hypothesis and provide novel electrophysiological evidence that psychopathy is associated with exaggerated endogenous attention effects during early stages of processing. Further research is needed to examine the implications of this finding for the well-established failure of psychopathic individuals to process set-incongruent information and inhibit inappropriate responses. PMID:27225501

  8. The Impact of RELAP5 Pipe Break Flow Rates Associated With Reverse Flow Limiter Removal for Steam Generator Replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Zheng; Jarvis, Julie M.; Vieira, Allen T.

    2006-07-01

    Pipe break flow rates are calculated for a main feedwater line break (FWLB) in the main steam valve vault (MSVV) for a PWR Steam Generator Replacement (SGR). A reverse flow limiter is installed in the original steam generator (OSG) feedwater nozzle to limit the blowdown flowrate in the event of a postulated FWLB. This feature is not incorporated in the replacement steam generator (RSG) design. The change in RSG nozzle design in conjunction with new operating conditions results in increased FWLB mass and energy releases which can impact environmental temperatures and pressures and flooding levels. In the United States, benchmarking for safety related analyses is necessary in consideration of 10CFR50.59 requirements. RELAP5/MOD3 is used to model the pipe break flowrates for a FWLB at different break locations. The benchmark FWLB blowdown releases are larger than the OSG design basis blowdown releases due to differences in RELAP5/MOD3 versions which are found to have different algorithms for subcooled choked flow. The SGR FWLB blowdown release rates are determined to have minimal impact on the compartment temperature and pressure response. However, the flooding levels and associated equipment qualification are potentially impacted. Modeling techniques used to minimize the impact of the SGR blowdown releases on MSVV flooding levels include modeling flashing effects, more realistic RSG temperature distribution, inventory depletion and Auxiliary Feedwater (AFW) flow initiation time, and considering loss of offsite power scenarios. A detailed flooding hazard evaluation is needed, which considers the actual main feedwater isolation times to ensure that environmentally qualified safety related components, required to mitigate the effects of a FWLB inside the MSVV, can perform their safety function prior to being submerged. (authors)

  9. Human papillomavirus genotypes distribution by cervical cytologic status among women attending the General Hospital of Loandjili, Pointe-Noire, Southwest Congo (Brazzaville).

    PubMed

    Boumba, Luc Magloire Anicet; Qmichou, Zineb; Mouallif, Mustapha; Attaleb, Mohammed; El Mzibri, Mohammed; Hilali, Lahoucine; Donatien, Moukassa; Ennaji, Moulay Mustapha

    2015-10-01

    HPV infection is associated with cervical cancer, one of the major public health problems in developing countries. In the Republic of Congo, despite of the high age-standardized incidence rate estimated at 25.2 per 100,000 women, molecular epidemiology data on HPV infections are very limited. We investigated HPV genotypes distribution in cervical smears among patients attending the General Hospital of Loandjili, Southwest Congo. A cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted on 321 women. Liquid-based cytology samples were collected for cytological diagnosis and HPV detection. Nested-PCR was performed using MY09/MY11 and GP5+/GP6+ primers with genotyping by direct sequencing. Type-specific PCR for HPV-6, -11, -16, -18, -31 and -33 was also used to assess multiple infections. Out of 321 women examined, 189 (58.8%) had normal cytology, 16 (5.0%) had ASCUS and 116 (36.1%) had cytological abnormalities. HPV-DNA was detected in 22 (11.6%), 6 (37.5%), and 104 (89.6%) normal cytology, ASCUS and cytological abnormalities respectively. HPV16 was the most prevalent genotype regardless of cytological status followed by HPV70 in women without lesions and HPV33 among those with lesions. HR-HPV prevalence varied significantly according to the cervical cytology (P = 0.000). Among women without lesions, two peaks of HPV infections were observed in age group less than 30 years (60.0%) and in age group 50-59 years (7.1%). Age, age of first sex, multiple sexual partners and pregnancies were the risk factors for HPV infection in women without lesions. Our findings could be used as evidence data base for future epidemiological monitoring in this region.

  10. Illicit substance use among persons admitted to probation polyclinic of a regional mental hospital in the Eastern Anatolia, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Telo, Selda; Kaman, Dilara; Korkmaz, Sevda

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the illicit substance use trends by gender and year in Eastern Turkey, Elazığ. Methods: This is a retrospective study designed to assess the drug use prevalence in persons who admitted to the Probation Policlinic of Elazig Mental Health Hospital between January 2011 and December 2014 in Eastern Turkey, Elazığ. Laboratory screening tests for drugs were studied using the cloned enzyme donor immunoassay technique in urine. Results: The study consisted of 10267 males (95.3%) and 510 females (4.7%), with a mean age of 30.42±10.83 years. Overall prevalence was 32.1% for cannabis, 3.8% for opiate, 0.35% for cocaine and 1.2% for polydrug usage. The prevalence of cannabis was significantly higher in males (32.7%, p=0.000). The prevalence of cannabis use was the lowest in the age group of 50-59 while it was significantly higher in the age groups of 20-29 and 30-39 (p=0.000). The prevalence of opiate use showed a significant difference among the years (p=0.000). There was a significant difference in the prevalence of cocaine use among the years (p=0.02). The prevalence of polysubstance use showed a significant difference among years (p=0.000). Conclusion: Cannabis was the most common illicit drug in the east of the Turkey. Further studies are required for comparing the results of various regions of the country and developing early interventions and treatment facilities. PMID:27381538

  11. Risk Factors and Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Five Largest Islands of Indonesia: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Syam, Ari Fahrial; Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Makmun, Dadang; Nusi, Iswan Abbas; Zain, Lukman Hakim; Zulkhairi; Akil, Fardah; Uswan, Willi Brodus; Simanjuntak, David; Uchida, Tomohisa; Adi, Pangestu; Utari, Amanda Pitarini; Rezkitha, Yudith Annisa Ayu; Subsomwong, Phawinee; Nasronudin; Suzuki, Rumiko; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Indonesia is still controversial and mainly investigated in the largest ethnic group, Javanese. We examined the prevalence of H. pylori infection using four different tests including culture, histology confirmed by immunohistochemistry and rapid urease test. We also analyzed risk factors associated with H. pylori infection in five largest islands in Indonesia. From January 2014-February 2015 we consecutively recruited a total of 267 patients with dyspeptic symptoms in Java, Papua, Sulawesi, Borneo and Sumatera Island. Overall, the prevalence of H. pylori infection was 22.1% (59/267). Papuan, Batak and Buginese ethnics had higher risk for H. pylori infection than Javanese, Dayak and Chinese ethnics (OR = 30.57, 6.31, 4.95; OR = 28.39, 5.81, 4.61 and OR = 23.23, 4.76, 3.77, respectively, P <0.05). The sensitivity and specificity for RUT and culture were 90.2%, 92.9% and 80.5%, 98.2%, respectively. The patients aged 50-59 years group had significantly higher H. pylori infection than 30-39 years group (OR 2.98, P = 0.05). Protestant had significantly higher H. pylori infection rate than that among Catholic (OR 4.42, P = 0.008). It was also significantly lower among peoples who used tap water as source of drinking water than from Wells/river (OR 9.67, P = 0.03). However only ethnics as become independent risk factors for H. pylori infection. Although we confirmed low prevalence of H. pylori in Javanese; predominant ethnic in Indonesia, several ethnic groups had higher risk of H. pylori infection. The age, religion and water source may implicate as a risk factor for H. pylori infection in Indonesia. PMID:26599790

  12. Does aortic regurgitation affect transmitral flow? An echo-Doppler study.

    PubMed

    Castini, D; Gentile, F; Siffredi, M; Lippolis, A; Mangiarotti, E; Donzelli, W; Maggi, G C

    1993-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the presence of aortic regurgitation can interfere with Doppler measurement of mitral pressure half-time in patients with mitral stenosis. Amongst the factors affecting the transmitral flow in aortic regurgitation a putative role may be played by the mechanical hit of the aortic regurgitant jet impinging on the anterior mitral leaflet, as is very often seen with Doppler Color Flow examination. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of pure aortic regurgitation on the transmitral flow in patients with normal mitral valves. We studied 35 patients affected by pure chronic aortic regurgitation but with a normal mitral valve and compared them with 30 normal subjects. In all the patients the aortic regurgitant jet was directed toward the anterior mitral leaflet. In all the patients and control subjects a standard echo-Doppler examination was performed, sampling the transmitral flow at the level of the tip of the mitral leaflets. In 7 patients and 11 normal subjects the transmitral flow was also sampled at the level of the mitral annulus. Patients with aortic regurgitation showed significantly higher values of the mitral pressure half-time (61.04 +/- 15.14 vs 50.59 +/- 7.07 ms, P < 0.05) and of the time-velocity integral of the total transmitral flow, while the other parameters of transmitral flow, the mitral annulus diameter and the mitral stroke volume didn't show statistically significant differences. The comparison of the pressure half-time and time-velocity flow values measured at the level of the mitral annulus between patients and normal subjects didn't show significant differences.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Relationship between Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Self-assessed Oral Health Status: An Internet Survey.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Seitaro; Kojima, Yuki; Takayanagi, Atsushi; Yoshino, Koichi; Ishizuka, Yoichi; Satou, Ryouichi; Takahashi, Naoko; Tazaki, Masakazu; Kamijo, Hideyuki; Sugihara, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study based on a cross-sectional internet survey was to investigate the relationship between risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and self-assessed oral health status. The participants, who comprised individuals registered with an online research company, were required to complete a self-reported questionnaire. Those answering in the affirmative to both of the following two questions were placed in the OSA-risk group, while those answering in the negative were assigned to the control group: 'Have other people noticed pauses in your breathing while you are sleeping?' and 'Do you feel excessively sleepy during the daytime?'. A total of 493 were included in the OSA-risk group and 2,560 in the control group. Among the total 3,053 respondents, the highest prevalence for OSA risk in men was in the 50-59-year age range, although this tended to level off after age 60 years. No such trend was observed in women, however. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the relationship between risk of OSA and self-assessed oral health status. Significant correlations were observed with the following parameters: difficulty in opening mouth (odds ratio [OR]: 2.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.647-4.311), dry mouth (OR: 2.11; CI: 1.544-2.876), bad breath (OR: 1.69; CI: 1.309-2.186), gingival bleeding (OR: 1.48; CI: 1.134-1.932), and gingival swelling (OR: 1.44; CI: 1.046-1.981). These results suggest a relationship between risk of OSA and self-assessed oral health status, indicating that treating OSA might improve oral health status. Further study is needed to demonstrate a causal relationship between OSA and self-assessed oral health status, however. PMID:27665695

  14. Type 1 and 2 immunity following vaccination is influenced by nanoparticle size: formulation of a model vaccine for respiratory syncytial virus.

    PubMed

    Mottram, Patricia L; Leong, David; Crimeen-Irwin, Blessing; Gloster, Simone; Xiang, Sue D; Meanger, Jayesh; Ghildyal, Reena; Vardaxis, Nicholas; Plebanski, Magdalena

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies compared uptake by dendritic cells (DC) of 20, 40, 100, 200, 500, 1000, and 2000 nm beads in vivo. When beads were used as antigen carriers, bead size influenced antibody responses and induction of IFN-gamma-producing CD4 and CD8 T cells. Beads of 40-50 nm were taken up preferentially by DC and induced particularly strong immunity. Herein, we examine immunity induced by minute differences in nanobead size, specifically within a narrow viral-sized range (20, 40, 49, 67, 93, 101, and 123 nm), to see if bead carrier size influenced the induction of type 1 or type 2 cells as demonstrated by the production of IFN-gamma or IL-4. In vivo uptake by DC was assessed for selected sizes in this range. Responses to whole ovalbumin (OVA) or the OVA-derived CD8 T cell peptide epitope (SIINFEKL) were tested. After one immunization with beads-OVA, IFN-gamma responses to both OVA and SIINFEKL were significantly better with 40 and 49 nm beads than other sizes, while, in contrast, IL-4 responses to OVA were higher after immunization with OVA conjugated to larger beads (93, 101, and 123 nm). Thus IFN-gamma induction from CD8 T cells was limited to 40-49 nm beads, while CD4 T cell activation and IL-4 were induced by 93-123 nm beads-OVA. After two immunizations, there were comparable high levels of IFN-gamma produced with 40 and 49 beads and IL-4 reactivity was still higher for larger beads (93, 101, 123 nm). Production of IgG1 was seen across the full range of bead sizes, increasing after two immunizations. Since protection against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) depends on strong IFN responses, while IL-4 responses are reported to cause asthma-like symptoms, immunization with RSV antigens on the 49 nm carrier beads could provide the basis for a suitable vaccine. When the 49 nm beads were conjugated to RSV proteins G88 (surface) or M2.1 (internal capsid), one immunization with G88 induced high levels of IFN-gamma and low levels of IL-4. IL-4 increased with two

  15. Linoleic acid content in adipose tissue and coronary heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Riemersma, R A; Wood, D A; Butler, S; Elton, R A; Oliver, M; Salo, M; Nikkari, T; Vartiainen, E; Puska, P; Gey, F

    1986-01-01

    The possibility of an inverse relation between essential fatty acids in adipose tissue, in particular linoleic acid, and mortality from coronary heart disease was studied by a cross sectional survey of random population samples of apparently healthy men aged 40-49 from four European regions with differing mortality from coronary heart disease. The proportion of linoleic acid in adipose tissue was lowest in men from north Karelia, Finland, where mortality from coronary heart disease is highest, and highest in men from Italy, where mortality is lowest, with intermediate proportions in men from Scotland and south west Finland. Similar gradients were observed for the desaturation and elongation products dihomo-gamma-linolenic and arachidonic acid. The proportion of saturated fatty acids in adipose tissue was highest in Finland, intermediate in Scotland, and lowest in Italy. Italian men also had the highest proportion of oleate in their adipose tissue and the lowest proportion of myristoleate and palmitoleate. Finnish men were more obese and had a higher blood pressure. Serum cholesterol concentration was higher in north Karelia and south west Finland than in Scotland or Italy. High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations reflected the regional differences in serum cholesterol, being higher in Finland and lower in Italy. The ratios of HDL cholesterol to total cholesterol, however, did not differ. The regional differences in linoleic acid in adipose tissue remained highly significant when the observed differences in other known risk factors for coronary heart disease among the four areas were taken into account by multivariate analysis. The gradients in proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids probably reflect differences in dietary intake of linoleic acid. PMID:3087455

  16. Brazilian experience using high dose sequential chemotherapy followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for malignant lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Bruno Kosa Lino; Miranda, Eliana Cristina Martins; Nucci, Marcio; Vigorito, Afonso Celso; Penteado, Francisco José; Marques Jr, José Francisco Comenalli; Oliveira-Duarte, Gislaine Borba; Lorand-Metze, Irene Gyongyver Heidemarie; Pagnano, Katia Borgia; Delamain, Marcia Torresan; Baldissera, Renata; Valente, Isabella Salvetti; de Souza, Carmino Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the use of high-dose sequential chemotherapy in a Brazilian population. Methods High-dose cyclophosphamide followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is an effective and feasible therapy for refractory/relapsed lymphomas; this regimen has never before been evaluated in a Brazilian population. All patients (106 with high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma and 77 with Hodgkin's lymphoma) submitted to this treatment between 1998 and 2006 were analyzed. Chemotherapy consisted of the sequential administration of high-dose cyclophosphamide (4 or 7 g/m2) and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (300 µg/day), followed by peripheral blood progenitor cell harvesting, administration of etoposide (2g/m2) and methotrexate (8 g/m2 only for Hodgkin's lymphoma) and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Results At diagnosis, non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients had a median age of 45 (range: 8-65) years old, 78% had diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and 83% had stage III/IV disease. The Hodgkin's lymphoma patients had a median age of 23 (range: 7-68) years old, 64.9% had the nodular sclerosis subtype and 65% had stage III/IV disease. Nine Hodgkin's lymphoma patients (13%) and 10 (9%) non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients had some kind of cardiac toxicity. The overall survival, disease-free survival and progression-free survival in Hodgkin's lymphoma were 29%, 59% and 26%, respectively. In non-Hodgkin lymphoma, these values were 40%, 49% and 31%, respectively. High-dose cyclophosphamide-related mortality was 10% for Hodgkin's lymphoma and 5% for non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients. High-dose cyclophosphamide dosing had no impact on toxicity or survival for both groups. Conclusions Despite a greater prevalence of poor prognostic factors, our results are comparable to the literature. The incidence of secondary neoplasias is noteworthy. Our study suggests that this approach is efficient and feasible, regardless of toxicity-related mortality. PMID:23049359

  17. Age-related changes in the Brazilian woman's smile.

    PubMed

    Correia, Luiza Nayara Almeida Lyra; Reis, Silvia Augusta Braga; Conti, Ana Claudia de Castro Ferreira; Capelozza Filho, Leopoldino; Almeida-Pedrin, Renata Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate age-related changes in the smile of Brazilian women. The sample consisted of 249 Brazilian women who had not undergone previous orthodontic treatment or facial surgery. They were divided into four groups, according to age: G1 (20-29), G2 (30-39), G3 (40-49) and G4 (50 or older). Standardized front view photographs were taken while smiling and at rest. Measurements were evaluated by ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey. The Chi-square test was applied for qualitative variables. Upper lip thickness at rest and exposure of upper incisors on smiling decreased with age. Most individuals (60.9%) exhibited a medium smile. High smiles were more often seen in G1 (45%) and less frequently in G4 (18.8%), whereas the opposite occurred with the low smile, i.e., G4 (21.9%) and G1 (6.7%). Variations among the groups were observed in the transverse exposure of the teeth on smiling. In G1 and G3, there was a balance between tooth exposures, so that the teeth were exposed as far as the premolars and/or molars. Most of the women (56.3%) in G2 exposed their teeth as far as the first molars on smiling, whereas most of those (40.6%) in G4 exposed their teeth only as far as the first premolars on smiling. As age increased, there was decreased exposure of the upper incisors, decreased upper lip thickness and lower exposure of teeth vertically and transversely.

  18. Moessbauer Mineralogy of Rock, Soil, and Dust at Gusev Crater, Mars: Spirit's Journey through Weakly Altered Olivine Basalt on the Plains and Pervasively Altered Basalt in the Columbia Hills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. V.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Schroeder, C.; Rodionov, D. S.; Yen, A.; Ming, D. W.; deSouza, P. A., Jr.; Fleischer, I.; Wdowiak, T.; Gellert, R.; Bernhardt, B.; Evlanov, E. N.; Zubkov, B.; Foh, J.; Bonnes, U.; Kankeleit, E.; Guetlich, P.; Renz, F.; Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.

    2006-01-01

    The Moessbauer spectrometer on Spirit measured the oxidation state of Fe, identified Fe-bearing phases, and measured relative abundances of Fe among those phases for surface materials on the plains and in the Columbia Hills of Gusev crater. Eight Fe-bearing phases were identified: olivine, pyroxene, ilmenite, magnetite, nanophase ferric oxide (npOx), hematite, goethite, and a Fe(3+)-sulfate. Adirondack basaltic rocks on the plains are nearly unaltered (Fe(3+)/Fe(sub T)<0.2) with Fe from olivine, pyroxene (Ol>Px), and minor npOx and magnetite. Columbia Hills basaltic rocks are nearly unaltered (Peace and Backstay), moderately altered (WoolyPatch, Wishstone, and Keystone), and pervasively altered (e.g., Clovis, Uchben, Watchtower, Keel, and Paros with Fe(3+)/Fe(sub T) approx.0.6-0.9). Fe from pyroxene is greater than Fe from olivine (Ol sometimes absent), and Fe(2+) from Ol+Px is 40-49% and 9-24% for moderately and pervasively altered materials, respectively. Ilmenite (Fe from Ilm approx.3-6%) is present in Backstay, Wishstone, Keystone, and related rocks along with magnetite (Fe from Mt approx. 10-15%). Remaining Fe is present as npOx, hematite, and goethite in variable proportions. Clovis has the highest goethite content (Fe from Gt=40%). Goethite (alpha-FeOOH) is mineralogical evidence for aqueous processes because it has structural hydroxide and is formed under aqueous conditions. Relatively unaltered basaltic soils (Fe(3+)/Fe(sub T) approx. 0.3) occur throughout Gusev crater (approx. 60-80% Fe from Ol+Px, approx. 10-30% from npOx, and approx. 10% from Mt). PasoRobles soil in the Columbia Hills has a unique occurrence of high concentrations of Fe(3+)-sulfate (approx. 65% of Fe). Magnetite is identified as a strongly magnetic phase in Martian soil and dust.

  19. Clinicopathological features of familial adenomatous polyposis in Korean patients

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sung Min; Yoon, Yong Sik; Lim, Seok-Byeong; Yu, Chang Sik; Kim, Jin Cheon

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To identify prognostic factors and to correlate APC mutations with clinical features, including extracolic manifestations. METHODS: One hundred thirty-five patients who underwent surgical procedures for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) were included. FAP was diagnosed when the number of adenomatous polyps was > 100. Data related to patient, extracoloic manifestations, cancer characteristics, operative procedure, follow up and surveillance were collected. APC mutation testing was performed in the 30 most recent patients. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and polymerase chain reaction products using 31 primer pairs on APC gene were sequenced. A retrospective study was performed to investigate a causal relationship between prognosis and feature of patient. RESULTS: The mean age of the 51 patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) was older than that of those without CRC (30.5 vs 36.9, P = 0.002). Older individuals were more likely to have colon cancer at the time of FAP diagnosis [odds ratio, 4.75 (95%CI: 1.71-13.89) and 5.91(1.76-22.12) for 40-49 years and age > 50 vs age < 30). The number of confirmed deaths was 13 and the median age at death was 40 years (range, 27 to 85 years). Ten of the deaths (76.9%) were from CRC. Another cause of two cases of death were desmoid tumors (15.4%). Development of cancer on remnant rectal or ileal mucosa after surgery was not observed. The APC mutation testing revealed 23 pathogenic mutations and one likely pathogenic mutation, among which were four novel mutations. The correlation between mutational status and clinical manifestations was investigated. Mutations that could prodict poor prognosis were at codon 1309 which located on mutation cluster region, codon 1465 and codon 1507. CONCLUSION: Identification of APC mutations should aid in the diagnosis and counseling of family members in terms of early diagnosis and management of FAP. PMID:27158207

  20. Prevalence and pattern of radiographic intervertebral disc degeneration in Vietnamese: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Ho-Pham, Lan T; Lai, Thai Q; Mai, Linh D; Doan, Minh C; Pham, Hoa N; Nguyen, Tuan V

    2015-06-01

    Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is one of the most common skeletal disorders, yet few data are available in Asian populations. We sought to assess the prevalence and pattern of radiographic IDD in a Vietnamese population. This population-based cross-sectional investigation involved 170 men and 488 women aged ≥40 years, who were randomly sampled from the Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam). Anthropometric data, clinical history and self-reported back and neck pain were ascertained by a questionnaire. Plain radiographs (from the cervical spine, thoracic spine to the lumbar spine) were examined for the presence of disc space narrowing and/or osteophytosis using the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grading system. The presence of radiographic IDD was defined if the KL grade was 2 or greater in at least one disc. The prevalence of radiographic IDD was 62.4% (n = 106) in men and 54.7% (n = 267) in women. The most frequently affected site was the lumbar spine with prevalence being 50.6 and 43.2% in men and women, respectively. The prevalence of IDD increased with advancing age: 18.8% among those aged 40-49 years, and increased to 83.4% in those aged ≥60 years. Self-reported neck pain and lower back pain were found in 30 and 44% of individuals, respectively. There was no statistically significant association between self-reported neck pain and cervical spine OA. These data suggest that radiographic IDD is highly prevalent in the Vietnamese population, and that self-reported back pain is not a sensitive indicator of IDD.

  1. Reported fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, 1992-2002.

    PubMed

    Heggie, Travis W

    2005-08-01

    Objectives. To examine fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Methods. Official press releases from the public relations office at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park were examined for reports of fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists. Results. Between 1992 and 2002 there were 65 press releases reporting 40 fatalities, 45 serious injuries, 53 minor injuries, and 25 no injury events. Severity information was unavailable for four additional tourists. Aircraft and backcountry incidents each accounted for 30% of all incidents followed by road incidents (22%) and frontcountry incidents (17%). Aircraft incidents reported 17 fatalities, backcountry incidents accounted for 10 fatalities, frontcountry incidents reported seven fatalities, and road incidents totaled six fatalities. One fatality was classified as a suicide. Backcountry (23) and road (10) incidents had the highest number of serious incidents. Male tourists (62) were more frequently involved in incidents than female tourists (41) and tourists aged 20-29 years and 40-49 years accounted for the highest number of fatalities and total incidents. Conclusions. Helicopter tours, hiking in areas with active lava flows, falls into steam vents and earthcracks, and driving unfamiliar rental cars in unfamiliar locations are the major activities resulting in death and serious injury. Additional factors such as tourists ignoring warning signs, wandering off-trail or hiking at night, tourists misinformed by guidebooks and other tourists, and tourists with pre-existing heart and asthma conditions are contributing causes in many incidents. The findings of this study provide information that allows prospective tourists, tourism managers, and travel health providers make informed decisions that promote safe tourism and can aid future efforts in developing preventative strategies at tourist destinations with similar environments and activities. However, in order for preventative

  2. Cardiac rehabilitation in Austria: long term health-related quality of life outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The goal of cardiac rehabilitation programs is not only to prolong life but also to improve physical functioning, symptoms, well-being, and health-related quality of life (HRQL). The aim of this study was to document the long-term effect of a 1-month inpatient cardiac rehabilitation intervention on HRQL in Austria. Methods Patients (N = 487, 64.7% male, age 60.9 ± 12.5 SD years) after myocardial infarction, with or without percutaneous interventions, coronary artery bypass grafting or valve surgery underwent inpatient cardiac rehabilitation and were included in this long-term observational study (two years follow-up). HRQL was measured with both the MacNew Heart Disease Quality of Life Instrument [MacNew] and EuroQoL-5D [EQ-5D]. Results All MacNew scale scores improved significantly (p < 0.001) and exceeded the minimal important difference (0.5 MacNew points) by the end of rehabilitation. Although all MacNew scale scores deteriorated significantly over the two year follow-up period (p < .001), all MacNew scale scores still remained significantly higher than the pre-rehabilitation values. The mean improvement after two years in the MacNew social scale exceeded the minimal important difference while MacNew scale scores greater than the minimal important difference were reported by 40-49% of the patients. Two years after rehabilitation the mean improvement in the EQ-5D Visual Analogue Scale score was not significant with no significant change in the proportion of patients reporting problems at this time. Conclusion These findings provide a first indication that two years following inpatient cardiac rehabilitation in Austria, the long-term improvements in HRQL are statistically significant and clinically relevant for almost 50% of the patients. Future controlled randomized trials comparing different cardiac rehabilitation programs are needed. PMID:19995445

  3. Clinical and Audio Vestibular Profile of Meniere's Disease in a Tertiary Care Centre in India.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, Paul; Balraj, Achamma; Kurien, Regi; Krishnan, Thenmozhi

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this study are to determine the frequency of patients presenting with Meniere's Disease(MD) in an Indian setting, using the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (AAO) diagnostic criteria, and to describe the clinical and audio vestibular profiles of these patients. The study was based on prospective case series design in the settings of a tertiary referral hospital. The study included all consecutive patients aged between 5 and 75 years presenting with the history of hearing loss, vertigo, tinnitus and or aural fullness as participants, satisfying inclusion and exclusion criteria for MD (AAO 1995) recruited over a 12 month period. Main outcome measures comprised the evaluation of epidemiological profile, clinical features, and results of audio vestibular investigations like Pure Tone Audiometry with and without glycerol, Impedance Audiometry, Electrocochleography (ECohG), Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emission and Electronystagmography (ENG). The results of the study are as follows: The frequency of MD was 15.6%, being commoner in males than females (2.6:1) and occurring more in the age group 40-49  years among males and 30-39 years among females. High frequency tinnitus was commoner than low frequency tinnitus. Extra tympanic ECohG had a positive predictive value of 76% for endolymphatic hydrops. ENG was useful for demonstrating canal paresis pattern of nystagmus in 61%. Indian patients with MD commonly present to tertiary care at the functional level scale of 3. The results of this study revealed that the frequency of MD is not as low in the Indian ENT setting as earlier believed. There is a high chance of missing cases in the routine ENT outpatient clinic setting unless a structured proforma incorporating the AAO 1995 diagnostic criteria is used. PMID:24294577

  4. Physicochemical and Phytochemical Analyses of Copra and Oil of Cocos nucifera L. (West Coast Tall Variety).

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Probir Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Paramita; Mitra, Souvik; Poddar-Sarkar, Mousumi

    2014-01-01

    Coconut copra from West coast tall variety, cultivated in Kerala, India, was subjected to aqueous and solvent extractions (using n-hexane). Additionally, oil was extracted from the copra in Soxhlet assembly using petroleum ether (b.p. 60-80°C). Physicochemical and phytochemical analyses were conducted for the extracts and the oil, with commercial coconut oil as the experimental control. The physicochemical analyses showed that the aqueous extract of copra was milky-white in color with a sweet odor, while the solvent extract was pale yellow and odorless. The commercial oil had 0.08 ± 0.02% oleic acid and a TOTOX value of 7.73 ± 0.78, lower than the Soxhlet extracted oil. Among all the extracts and oils, best phytochemical properties, antioxidant activity (DPPH activity, IC50 value 0.04 ± 0.01 mg/mL), total phenol (0.96 ± 0.04 mg gallic acid eq./g dry copra), reducing power (40.49 ± 1.84 mg BHT eq./g dry copra), and anti-inflammatory activity (NO activity, IC50  value 0.77 ± 0.06 mg/mL) were obtained in the commercial coconut oil, followed by the Soxhlet extracted oil, aqueous extract, and solvent extract. Fatty acid composition analyses showed mainly medium chain fatty acids in the copra oil with lauric acid as the predominant fatty acid (51.88% and 44.84% in Soxhlet extracted and commercial oils, resp.).

  5. Cost-effectiveness of digital mammography screening before the age of 50 in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Sankatsing, Valérie D V; Heijnsdijk, Eveline A M; van Luijt, Paula A; van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T; Fracheboud, Jacques; de Koning, Harry J

    2015-10-15

    In the Netherlands, routine mammography screening starts at age 50. This starting age may have to be reconsidered because of the increasing breast cancer incidence among women aged 40 to 49 and the recent implementation of digital mammography. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of digital mammography screening that starts between age 40 and 49, using a microsimulation model. Women were screened before age 50, in addition to the current programme (biennial 50-74). Screening strategies varied in starting age (between 40 and 50) and frequency (annual or biennial). The numbers of breast cancers diagnosed, life-years gained (LYG) and breast cancer deaths averted were predicted and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated to compare screening scenarios. Biennial screening from age 50 to 74 (current strategy) was estimated to gain 157 life years per 1,000 women with lifelong follow-up, compared to a situation without screening, and cost €3,376/LYG (3.5% discounted). Additional screening increased the number of LYG, compared to no screening, ranging from 168 to 242. The costs to generate one additional LYG (i.e., ICER), comparing a screening strategy to the less intensive alternative, were estimated at €5,329 (biennial 48-74 vs. current strategy), €7,628 (biennial 45-74 vs. biennial 48-74), €10,826 (biennial 40-74 vs. biennial 45-74) and €18,759 (annual 40-49 + biennial 50-74 vs. biennial 40-74). Other strategies (49 + biennial 50-74 and annual 45-49 + biennial 50-74) resulted in less favourable ICERs. These findings show that extending the Dutch screening programme by screening between age 40 and 49 is cost-effective, particularly for biennial strategies.

  6. A dynamic analysis of the display of the dentition during speech.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Allen; Upadhyay, Madhur; Nanda, Ravindra

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to quantify the display of the dentition through the soft tissue frame during speech using videography for different age groups. Two hundred and sixty-one subjects were initially screened and were divided into five groups: group 1 (G1) (15-19 years), G2 (20-29 years), G3 (30-39 years), G4 (40-49 years), and G5 (≥ 50 years). Groups were also made on the basis of gender and history of orthodontic treatment. Video equipment was used to capture video and each frame was analysed out of which two frames that best represented the maximal display of maxillary incisors (MDMI) during speech and the widest transverse display of dentition (WTDD) during speech were selected. The data obtained was analysed using one-way analyses of variance with Fisher's least significant difference post hoc test. MDMI and WTDD were found to be highly significant during speech across all age groups (P < 0.05). G1-G3 displayed approximately similar levels of maxillary incisor (P > 0.05) but was greater (P < 0.05) than G4 and G5. The buccal corridor showed significant differences as a function of age (P < 0.05). Orthodontic treatment had a significant impact on the display of the maxillary incisors (P < 0.05) but not on the buccal corridors (P > 0.05). Mandibular incisor display was relatively stable across G1-G3, increasing only for G4 and G5. It appears that the maximum display of maxillary incisors decreases with age and the decline is particularly rapid with increasing age. Females tend to display more teeth both in the transverse and vertical directions.

  7. Wuchereria bancrofti infection in rural tropical guinea savannah communities: Rapid epidemiological assessment using immunochromatographic card test and prevalence of hydrocoele.

    PubMed

    Ivoke, N; Ezeabikwa, B O; Ivoke, O N; Ekeh, F N; Ezenwaji, N E; Odo, G E; Onoja, U S; Eyo, J E

    2015-06-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) caused by the nematode Wuchereria bancrofti is a major public health concern in endemic communities worldwide. Among tropical diseases it is second to malaria in terms of disability adjusted life years. The Nigerian LF elimination programme has been slated for 2015. Currently, there is paucity of published data on the problem in rural Ebonyi State. This survey was conducted in six rural communities of southwestern Ebonyi State to assess its prevalence among the population and provide baseline data for incorporation into the national LF elimination programme. Immunochromatographic card test (ICT) for detecting circulating filarial antigen (CFA) using whole blood and overt clinical manifestations (lymphoedema and hydrocoele) were used as epidemiological tools. All the studied communities were endemic for active bancroftian filariasis. Of the 600 randomly selected subjects aged ≥10 years, an overall prevalence of 23.50% was established (range, 17.00 - 30.00%). Overall, the antigenaemic prevalence was similar; there was a trend of slightly higher prevalence in males (24.34%) than females (22.39%). The between-gender prevalence difference was not statistically significant (χ² = 8.16, df = 1, p = 0.05) based on CFA positivity. Antigenaemia prevalence was age-dependent, increased exponentially and peaked at 20.57% in subjects in the 40-49 years age category. Lymphoedema and hydrocoele attributable to W. bancrofti were observed in 4.05% of subjects examined. Generally, hydrocoele was observed in 1.69% males, whereas lymphoedema was presented by 2.36% (1.35% females; 1.01% males) of studied population. None of the male subjects had both the two clinical features. Results of this study showed that W. bancrofti infection is widespread in southwestern Ebonyi State, Nigeria, and is a major health issue. There is a need for mass mobilization, mass education and community involvement in sustained intervention programme toward lymphatic filariasis

  8. At what age should screening mammography be recommended for Asian women?

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Junko; Nagahashi, Masayuki; Rashid, Omar M; Takabe, Kazuaki; Wakai, Toshifumi

    2015-07-01

    Although regular screening mammography has been suggested to be associated with improvements in the relative survival of breast cancer in recent years, the appropriate age to start screening mammography remains controversial. In November 2009, the United States Preventive Service Task Force published updated guidelines for breast cancer, which no longer support routine screening mammography for women aged 40-49 years, but instead, defer the choice of screening in that age group to the patient and physician. The age to begin screening differs between guidelines, including those from the Task Force, the American Cancer Society and the World Health Organization. It remains unclear how this discrepancy impacts patient survival, especially among certain subpopulations. Although the biological characteristics of breast cancer and peak age of incidence differ among different ethnic populations, there have been few reports that evaluate the starting age for screening mammography based on ethnicity. Here, we discuss the benefits and harm of screening mammography in the fifth decade, and re-evaluate the starting age for screening mammography taking ethnicity into account, focusing on the Asian population. Breast cancer incidence peaked in the fifth decade in Asian women, which has been thought to be due to a combination of biological and environmental factors. Previous reports suggest that Asian women in their 40s may receive more benefit and less harm from screening mammography than the age-matched non-Asian US population. Therefore, starting screening mammography at age 40 may be beneficial for women of Asian ethnicity in well-resourced countries, such as Japanese women who reside in Japan.

  9. Host characteristics, sun exposure, indoor tanning and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.

    PubMed

    Veierød, Marit B; Couto, Elisabeth; Lund, Eiliv; Adami, Hans-Olov; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2014-07-15

    Use of indoor tanning devices increases risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma, but the association with risk of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin is unclear. Cohort studies of SCC risk are rare and we aimed to assess the association between SCC risk and host characteristics, sun exposure, and indoor tanning in a population-based cohort of Norwegian and Swedish women conjunctly with SCC incidence data from national cancer registries. Host characteristics and exposure to sun and indoor tanning devices before 50-years old were recorded by questionnaire at inclusion (30-50 years) in 1991/92. Multivariable relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by Poisson regression. During follow-up of 106,548 women through December 2009, SCC was diagnosed in 141 women. Skin sensitivity to acute sun exposure was the most important pigmentation characteristic (RR = 2.73, 95% CI 1.47-5.05, for red with pain/red with pain and blisters versus brown). We found no consistent associations with sunburns and bathing vacations in the first five age decades, but a significant positive trend for bathing vacations summarized over ages 10-49 years (Ptrend  = 0.02). We also found significantly increased risks of SCC following indoor tanning at age 40-49 years (RR = 2.17, 95% CI 1.29-3.67, for ≥ 1 time/month versus never) and indoor tanning summarized over ages 10-49 years (Ptrend  = 0.001). RR for ever versus never use of indoor tanning over ages 10-49 years was 1.93 (95% CI 1.27-2.95). Propensity to burn was an important host characteristic, and bathing vacations and indoor tanning summarized over ages 10-49 years increased SCC risk.

  10. [Screening for breast cancer on basis of individual risk assessment for women ineligible for the national population screening program].

    PubMed

    van Asperen, C J; de Bock, G H; van der Horst, F; de Koning, H J; Rutgers, E J

    2001-01-20

    For healthy women, without malignancies in their personal histories, a positive family history for breast cancer is the single indication for individual breast surveillance outside the population screening. Management of women is based on individual risk assessment. A cumulative risk of 20% and more, as a result of a positive family history, will in practice be an indication for breast surveillance. This threshold is not evidence-based yet, nor are data available on the benefits of this surveillance efficacy. When a personal cumulative risk of more than 30% exists to develop breast cancer, a consultation with a clinical geneticist involved in a family cancer clinic should be offered. Surveillance of women with a high-risk cumulative risk should preferably be included in a prospective study design. Only in this way will data about compliance and the estimates of different ways of surveillance become available. There is no convincing evidence that population screening for women aged 40-49 years does lead to important mortality reduction in combination with a good balance between pros and cons for the women involved. Women in the age category 50-75 years, with breast cancer in their personal histories, who are not followed anymore, should be informed by their specialist about participating (again) in the population breast screening. There is no evidence of mortality reduction as a result of breast self-examination nor of palpation performed by a physician. However, awareness of the own body can be useful for early recognition of breast abnormalities; it may reduce the delay between the first recognizable symptom and the subsequently initiated therapy.

  11. Decreased prefrontal cortex dopamine activity following adolescent social defeat in male rats: role of dopamine D2 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Michael J.; Roberts, Christina L.; Scholl, Jamie L.; Meyer, Danielle L.; Miiller, Leah C.; Barr, Jeffrey L.; Novick, Andrew M.; Renner, Kenneth J.; Forster, Gina L.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Adverse social experience in adolescence causes reduced medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) dopamine (DA) and associated behavioral deficits in early adulthood. Objective To determine whether mPFC DA hypofunction following social stress is specific to adolescent experience, and if this results from stress-induced DA D2 receptor activation. Materials and Methods Male rats exposed to repeated social defeat during adolescence or adulthood had mPFC DA activity sampled 17 days later. Separate experiments used freely-moving microdialysis to measure mPFC DA release in response to adolescent defeat exposure. At P40, 49 and 56 mPFC DA turnover was assessed to identify when DA activity decreased in relation to the adolescent defeat experience. Finally, non-defeated adolescent rats received repeated intra-mPFC infusions of the D2 receptor agonist quinpirole, while another adolescent group received intra-mPFC infusions of the D2 antagonist amisulpride before defeat exposure. Results Long-term decreases or increases in mPFC DA turnover were observed following adolescent or adult defeat, respectively. Adolescent defeat exposure elicits sustained increases in mPFC DA release, and DA turnover remains elevated beyond the stress experience before declining to levels below normal at P56. Activation of mPFC D2 receptors in non-defeated adolescents decreases DA activity in a similar manner to that caused by adolescent defeat, while defeat-induced reductions in mPFC DA activity are prevented by D2 receptor blockade. Conclusions Both the developing and mature PFC DA systems are vulnerable to social stress, but only adolescent defeat causes DA hypofunction. This appears to result in part from stress-induced activation of mPFC D2 autoreceptors. PMID:24271009

  12. Curative and population medicine: bridging the great divide.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, J H

    1999-01-01

    There are gaps in understanding between practicing physicians (curative medicine) and those trained in public health and epidemiology (population medicine). In the last century, these groups were closer, as physicians played a role in public health, sanitation and in the prevention of the spreading of infection. However, with the recent extraordinary successes of the biomedical model in explaining disease, and the ensuing explosion of remarkable - and expensive - medical procedures and treatments, public health, preventive medicine and the population approach in general have been overshadowed. In this essay, I try to explain how the training of physicians and the daily care of patients may hinder their appreciation of the population model. For instance, for many of the myriad decisions involved in patient care in daily practice, there is little evidence, population derived or otherwise. What little evidence there is may be dominated by personal experiences, opinions and values. Additionally, the statistical and epidemiologic approach necessary for the maintenance of health and prevention of illness may not be valued by practitioners whose training and focus is on treating sick people one by one. To illustrate these disparities in understanding, examples are given from the NIH Consensus Conference on mammography screening for women aged 40-49, and from the use of science in the courtroom in adjudicating toxic tort cases. Understanding population medicine requires an appreciation of the concepts of chance, probability and statistics and of epidemiologic principles, difficult areas for many - including the general public. These topics play a small to nonexistent role in the formal training of most physicians. Some closing of the gap in understanding may be occurring. It is hoped this essay will help. PMID:10202265

  13. Wuchereria bancrofti infection in rural tropical guinea savannah communities: Rapid epidemiological assessment using immunochromatographic card test and prevalence of hydrocoele.

    PubMed

    Ivoke, N; Ezeabikwa, B O; Ivoke, O N; Ekeh, F N; Ezenwaji, N E; Odo, G E; Onoja, U S; Eyo, J E

    2015-06-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) caused by the nematode Wuchereria bancrofti is a major public health concern in endemic communities worldwide. Among tropical diseases it is second to malaria in terms of disability adjusted life years. The Nigerian LF elimination programme has been slated for 2015. Currently, there is paucity of published data on the problem in rural Ebonyi State. This survey was conducted in six rural communities of southwestern Ebonyi State to assess its prevalence among the population and provide baseline data for incorporation into the national LF elimination programme. Immunochromatographic card test (ICT) for detecting circulating filarial antigen (CFA) using whole blood and overt clinical manifestations (lymphoedema and hydrocoele) were used as epidemiological tools. All the studied communities were endemic for active bancroftian filariasis. Of the 600 randomly selected subjects aged ≥10 years, an overall prevalence of 23.50% was established (range, 17.00 - 30.00%). Overall, the antigenaemic prevalence was similar; there was a trend of slightly higher prevalence in males (24.34%) than females (22.39%). The between-gender prevalence difference was not statistically significant (χ² = 8.16, df = 1, p = 0.05) based on CFA positivity. Antigenaemia prevalence was age-dependent, increased exponentially and peaked at 20.57% in subjects in the 40-49 years age category. Lymphoedema and hydrocoele attributable to W. bancrofti were observed in 4.05% of subjects examined. Generally, hydrocoele was observed in 1.69% males, whereas lymphoedema was presented by 2.36% (1.35% females; 1.01% males) of studied population. None of the male subjects had both the two clinical features. Results of this study showed that W. bancrofti infection is widespread in southwestern Ebonyi State, Nigeria, and is a major health issue. There is a need for mass mobilization, mass education and community involvement in sustained intervention programme toward lymphatic filariasis

  14. Effect of diethyl ether on the biliary excretion of acetaminophen.

    PubMed

    Watkins, J B; Siegers, C P; Klaassen, C D

    1984-10-01

    The biliary and renal excretion of acetaminophen and its metabolites over 8 hr was determined in rats exposed to diethyl ether by inhalation for 1 hr. Additional rats were anesthetized with urethane (1 g/kg ip) while control animals were conscious throughout the experiment (surgery was performed under hexobarbital narcosis: 150 mg/kg ip; 30-min duration). The concentration of UDP-glucuronic acid was decreased 80% in livers from ether-anesthetized rats but was not reduced in urethane-treated animals when compared to that in control rats. The concentration of reduced glutathione was not affected by either urethane or diethyl ether. Basal bile flow was not altered by the anesthetic agents. Bile flow rate after acetaminophen injection (100 mg/kg iv) was increased slightly over basal levels for 2 hr in hexobarbital-treated control rats, was unaltered in urethane-anesthetized animals, and was decreased throughout the 8-hr experiment in rats exposed to diethyl ether for 1 hr. In control and urethane-anesthetized animals, approximately 30-35% of the total acetaminophen dose (100 mg/kg iv) was excreted into bile in 8 hr, while only 16% was excreted in rats anesthetized with diethyl ether. Urinary elimination (60-70% of the dose) was not altered by exposure to ether. Separation of metabolites by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography showed that ether decreased the biliary elimination of unchanged acetaminophen and its glucuronide, sulfate, and glutathione conjugates by 47, 40, 49, and 73%, respectively, as compared to control rats. Excretion of unchanged acetaminophen and the glutathione conjugate into bile was depressed in urethane-anesthetized animals by 45 and 66%, respectively, whereas elimination of the glucuronide and sulfate conjugates was increased by 27 and 50%, respectively. These results indicate that biliary excretion is influenced by the anesthetic agent and that diethyl ether depresses conjugation with sulfate and glutathione as well as glucuronic

  15. Relationship of lean body mass with bone mass and bone mineral density in the general Korean population.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seong-Su

    2014-09-01

    We investigated association of lean body mass with bone mass (BM) and bone mineral density (BMD) according to gender and menopausal status in the general Korean population. Participants included 4,299 males and 5,226 females who were 20 years of age or older from the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys (2009-2010). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used for measurement of BMD and body composition. BMD was measured in the femur and lumbar spine. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) was defined as the sum of the lean soft tissue masses for the arms and legs. Analysis was performed after categorizing participants into four groups (males <50 years, males ≥ 50 years, premenopausal females, and postmenopausal females). In males, the highest ASM was observed in the 20-29-year group and then showed a gradual decrease as age increased, and BM and BMD showed similar patterns of change, while in females, ASM, BMD, and BM reached the peak level in the 40-49-year group and then decreased. In multiple regression analysis, after adjusting for confounding factors, the results showed an independent association of ASM with an increase in BM and BMD (P < 0.05). After adjusting for confounding factors, total fat mass showed a significant association with BM (P < 0.05). These aforementioned relationships were commonly observed on both femur and lumbar spine in every group. Lean body mass showed an independent association with increased BM and BMD, regardless of gender, age in men, and menopausal status in women. PMID:24415174

  16. Variation of benefits and harms of breast cancer screening with age.

    PubMed

    Harris, R

    1997-01-01

    The critical issue in deciding whether to recommend breast cancer screening for women in their forties is to determine whether potential benefits are substantially greater than potential harms. Recent evidence from randomized clinical trials makes it likely that, after 10-12 years of follow-up, there is a real benefit from screening women ages 40-49, on the order of a 15-20% reduction in the relative risk of breast cancer death. This relative risk reduction translates into an absolute risk reduction of 1-2 women whose lives are extended from screening 1,000 women in their forties annually for 10 years (i.e., about one life extended per 5,000 mammograms). The absolute benefit of screening increases with age. Evidence about potential harms is less well established, but it is compelling that there are 15-40 times as many false positive as true positive mammograms (depending on the patient's age), and that at least some of the women with false positive mammograms have ongoing psychological distress as a result. Some 30% of all women who are screened annually during their forties will have at least one false positive mammogram and this probability likely decreases with advancing age. If the balance between benefits and harms is judged to be a "close call" for women in their forties, a blanket recommendation for all is inappropriate. Instead, each woman in her forties should be helped to understand the pros and cons of screening, to clarify her own values, and to consider with her primary care physician what decision would be best for her. PMID:9709290

  17. Assessment of an intervention aimed at early discontinuation of intravenous antimicrobial therapy in a Brazilian University hospital.

    PubMed

    Bonella, Gislaine Ferraresi; Fontes, Astrídia Marília de Souza; Jorge, Miguel Tanús; Silveira, Alexandre Barcelos Morais da

    2016-01-01

    Many interventions demonstrate success in adapting the duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy, but few studies have been conducted in developing countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention in the induction of early discontinuation of intravenous antimicrobial therapy and/or its switch to oral therapy. The study employed a before-after intervention design that consisted of displaying a message in the computerized prescription on the third day and suspension of the prescription on the fifth day of intravenous antimicrobial therapy. A total of 465 patients were followed during the control period (CP) and 440 in the intervention period (IP). The intravenous therapy was switched to oral therapy for 11 (2.4%) patients during the CP and 25 (5.7%) in the IP (p=0.011), and was discontinued for 82 (17.6%) patients during the CP and 106 (24.1%) in the IP (p=0.017). During the IP there was a significant increase of patients who had their antimicrobial treatment discontinued before the seventh day of intravenous treatment, 37.40% (49/131) in the IP and 16.13% (15/93) in the CP (p=0.0005). The duration of intravenous antimicrobial therapy decreased by one day, but it was not significant (p=0.136). It is concluded that the proposed intervention is effective in promoting the early discontinuation of antimicrobial treatment and/or switch to oral therapy. As long as a computerized system for prescription already exists, it is easy and inexpensive to be implemented, especially in hospitals in developing countries.

  18. Decrease in the urine cotinine concentrations of Korean non-smokers between 2009 and 2011 following implementation of stricter smoking regulations.

    PubMed

    Park, Ju Hyoung; Lee, Chae Kwan; Kim, Kun Hyung; Son, Byung Chul; Kim, Jeong Ho; Suh, Chun Hui; Kim, Se Yeong; Yu, Seung Do; Kim, Sue Jin; Choi, Wook Hee; Kim, Dae Hwan; Park, Yeong Beom; Park, Seok Hwan; Lee, Soo Woong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine if there was an association between the implementation of smoking regulation policies and the urine cotinine concentrations of Korean non-smokers. The subjects of this study were 4612 non-smoking Korean citizens (aged 19 or older) selected from the first stage of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Research from 2009 to 2011. Cotinine concentrations in urine were measured by GC-MS (limit of detection: 0.05 ng/mL). Changes in the urine cotinine concentration were analyzed using a weighted general linear model and linear regression and values were shown as geometric mean (GM). The GM urine cotinine concentration decreased over time (2.92 ng/mL in 2009, 1.93 ng/mL in 2010, and 1.25 ng/mL in 2011). The total decrease in the subjects' urine cotinine concentration between 2009 and 2011 was 2.79 ng/mL, representing a relative decrease of 54.7%. The decrease in GM urine cotinine concentration in each subgroup ranged from 2.17 ng/mL to 3.29 ng/mL (relative decreases of 46.4% and 62.8%, respectively), with the largest absolute reductions in subjects in the following groups: females, aged 40-49 years, detached residence type, no alcohol consumption, employed, secondhand smoke exposure. All groups had negative regression coefficients, all of which were significant (p < 0.001). Our results provide indirect indicators of the effectiveness of smoking regulation policies including the revision of the National Health Promotion Act in Korea.

  19. Enhancing knowledge of colorectal cancer among African Americans: why are we waiting until age 50?

    PubMed

    Powe, Barbara D; Finnie, Ramona; Ko, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Because of low rates of colorectal cancer screening among African Americans, it may be beneficial to begin educating persons about this disease before age 50. Using the Patient/Provider/System Theoretical Model for cancer screening, this study compared knowledge of colorectal cancer, sources of information, and awareness of programs among participants of age 20-29, 30-49, and 50-75 years. The majority (n = 354) were women and African American (mean age = 37 years, mean education = 12th grade). Younger participants tended to know less about the disease, but there were few differences in knowledge between the two older groups. Persons in the 40-49-year age group were more likely to be familiar with the role diet plays in the risk of colorectal cancer. Participants associated the need for screening with the presence of symptoms. Television and radio were listed as the most frequent source of information about cancer. The Internet was the least used. The majority were not familiar with selected national programs and services focused on increasing awareness of cancer. Findings suggest that colorectal cancer-related information should be targeted toward this population before age 50, using multiple sources such as TV/radio, providers, magazines, and cancer-related organizations. An estimated 104,950 colon and 40,340 rectal cancer cases will be diagnosed in 2005 with an estimated 56,290 deaths from the disease (American Cancer Society [ACS], 2005). Despite a stabilization of colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence rates since the 1980s, African American males and females have higher incidence and mortality rates associated with this disease compared to Whites. The 5-year survival rate for CRC among African Americans improved to 54% during the years 1995-2000, but lagged well behind the 64% survival rate for Whites during the same time period. Screening and early detection of CRC followed by effective treatment is crucial to reducing these mortality rates.

  20. Autoimmune diseases and myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Komrokji, Rami S; Kulasekararaj, Austin; Al Ali, Najla H; Kordasti, Shahram; Bart-Smith, Emily; Craig, Benjamin M; Padron, Eric; Zhang, Ling; Lancet, Jeffrey E; Pinilla-Ibarz, Javier; List, Alan F; Mufti, Ghulam J; Epling-Burnette, Pearlie K

    2016-05-01

    Immune dysregulation and altered T-cell hemostasis play important roles in the pathogenesis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Recent studies suggest an increased risk of MDS among patients with autoimmune diseases. Here, we investigated the prevalence of autoimmune diseases among MDS patients, comparing characteristics and outcomes in those with and without autoimmune diseases. From our study group of 1408 MDS patients, 391 (28%) had autoimmune disease, with hypothyroidism being the most common type, accounting for 44% (n = 171) of patients (12% among all MDS patients analyzed). Other autoimmune diseases with ≥5% prevalence included idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in 12% (n = 46), rheumatoid arthritis in 10% (n = 41), and psoriasis in 7% (n = 28) of patients. Autoimmune diseases were more common in female MDS patients, those with RA or RCMD WHO subtype, and those who were less dependent on red blood cell transfusion. Median overall survival (OS) was 60 months (95% CI, 50-70) for patients with autoimmune diseases versus 45 months (95% CI, 40-49) for those without (log-rank test, P = 0.006). By multivariate analysis adjusting for revised IPSS and age >60 years, autoimmune diseases were a statistically significant independent factor for OS (HR 0.78; 95% CI, 0.66-0.92; P = 0.004). The rate of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) transformation was 23% (n = 89) in MDS patients with autoimmune disease versus 30% (n = 301) in those without (P = 0.011). Patient groups did not differ in response to azacitidine or lenalidomide treatment. Autoimmune diseases are prevalent among MDS patients. MDS patients with autoimmune diseases have better OS and less AML transformation. PMID:26875020

  1. A theoretical multiscale treatment of protein-protein electron transfer: The ferredoxin/ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductase and flavodoxin/ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductase systems.

    PubMed

    Saen-Oon, Suwipa; Cabeza de Vaca, Israel; Masone, Diego; Medina, Milagros; Guallar, Victor

    2015-12-01

    In the photosynthetic electron transfer (ET) chain, two electrons transfer from photosystem I to the flavin-dependent ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductase (FNR) via two sequential independent ferredoxin (Fd) electron carriers. In some algae and cyanobacteria (as Anabaena), under low iron conditions, flavodoxin (Fld) replaces Fd as single electron carrier. Extensive mutational studies have characterized the protein-protein interaction in FNR/Fd and FNR/Fld complexes. Interestingly, even though Fd and Fld share the interaction site on FNR, individual residues on FNR do not participate to the same extent in the interaction with each of the protein partners, pointing to different electron transfer mechanisms. Despite of extensive mutational studies, only FNR/Fd X-ray structures from Anabaena and maize have been solved; structural data for FNR/Fld remains elusive. Here, we present a multiscale modelling approach including coarse-grained and all-atom protein-protein docking, the QM/MM e-Pathway analysis and electronic coupling calculations, allowing for a molecular and electronic comprehensive analysis of the ET process in both complexes. Our results, consistent with experimental mutational data, reveal the ET in FNR/Fd proceeding through a bridge-mediated mechanism in a dominant protein-protein complex, where transfer of the electron is facilitated by Fd loop-residues 40-49. In FNR/Fld, however, we observe a direct transfer between redox cofactors and less complex specificity than in Fd; more than one orientation in the encounter complex can be efficient in ET. PMID:26385068

  2. Circadian variation in salivary testosterone across age classes in Ache Amerindian males of Paraguay.

    PubMed

    Bribiescas, Richard G; Hill, Kim R

    2010-01-01

    Testosterone levels exhibit a circadian rhythm in healthy men, with morning levels tending to be higher compared to evening titers. However, circadian rhythms wane with age. Although this has been described in males living within industrialized settings, age-related changes have not received similar attention in populations outside these contexts. Because many nonindustrialized populations, such as Ache Amerindians of Paraguay, exhibit testosterone levels that are lower than what is commonly reported in the clinical literature and lack age-associated variation in testosterone, it was hypothesized that Ache men would not show age-related variation in testosterone circadian rhythms. Diurnal rhythmicity in testosterone within and between Ache men in association with age (n = 52; age range, 18-64) was therefore examined. A significant negative association was evident between the ratio of morning and evening salivary testosterone and age (r = -0.28, P = 0.04). Men in their third decade of life exhibited significant diurnal variation (P = 0.0003), whereas older and younger age classes did not. Men between the ages of 30 and 39 also exhibited a higher AM:PM testosterone ratio compared to 40-49 and 50< year old men (P = 0.002, 0.006). Overall, declines in testosterone with aging may not be universal among human males, however, within-individual analyses of diurnal variation capture age-related contrasts in daily testosterone fluctuations. Circadian rhythmicity differs with age among the Ache and may be a common aspect of reproductive senescence among men regardless of ecological context.

  3. Filariasis in the Igwun River Basin, Nigeria: an epidemiological and clinical study with a note on the vectors.

    PubMed

    Udonsi, J K

    1988-02-01

    In a cross-sectional, epidemiological and parasitological study of human filariasis, 845 individuals were examined in settlements along the Igwun Basin, Imo State, Nigeria. Four different filarial nematode species were identified. Two hundred and fifty-six (30.3%) of the individuals examined were positive for Onchocerca volvulus, 113 (13.4%) for Mansonella perstans, 76 (9.6%) for Wuchereria bancrofti and 77 (9.1%) for Loa loa. Microfilarial rates increased with age of individuals and showed a tendency towards higher prevalence rates in males than in females. The intensity of O. volvulus infection was high, with the highest microfilarial density of 44 mf mg-1 snip which occurred in the 40-49-year-old individuals. In W. bancrofti and L. loa infections, infections of over 1000 mf 20 ml-1 blood were recorded in 15.8% and 19.5% of individuals, respectively. Observed clinical signs were associated with inflammatory, lympho-obstructive and ocular manifestations. In M. perstans infections all clinical cases were inflammatory. In W. bancrofti, 44.4% of clinical cases were inflammatory, and lympho-obstructive manifestations consisted of 23.8% chyluria, 12.7% hydrocele and 19.1% elephantiasis. In L. loa infections all clinical cases were inflammatory with indications of Calabar swellings. In O. volvulus infections 23.5% of clinical cases were inflammatory, while 76.5% showed ocular manifestations. The absence of blindness despite high O. volvulus infection rates was remarkable. The presence of potential insect vectors and the occurrence of clinical signs are indications of active transmissions.

  4. Autism risk associated with parental age and with increasing difference in age between the parents.

    PubMed

    Sandin, S; Schendel, D; Magnusson, P; Hultman, C; Surén, P; Susser, E; Grønborg, T; Gissler, M; Gunnes, N; Gross, R; Henning, M; Bresnahan, M; Sourander, A; Hornig, M; Carter, K; Francis, R; Parner, E; Leonard, H; Rosanoff, M; Stoltenberg, C; Reichenberg, A

    2016-05-01

    Advancing paternal and maternal age have both been associated with risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, the shape of the association remains unclear, and results on the joint associations is lacking. This study tests if advancing paternal and maternal ages are independently associated with ASD risk and estimates the functional form of the associations. In a population-based cohort study from five countries (Denmark, Israel, Norway, Sweden and Western Australia) comprising 5 766 794 children born 1985-2004 and followed up to the end of 2004-2009, the relative risk (RR) of ASD was estimated by using logistic regression and splines. Our analyses included 30 902 cases of ASD. Advancing paternal and maternal age were each associated with increased RR of ASD after adjusting for confounding and the other parent's age (mothers 40-49 years vs 20-29 years, RR=1.15 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-1.24), P-value<0.001; fathers⩾50 years vs 20-29 years, RR=1.66 (95% CI: 1.49-1.85), P-value<0.001). Younger maternal age was also associated with increased risk for ASD (mothers <20 years vs 20-29 years, RR=1.18 (95% CI: 1.08-1.29), P-value<0.001). There was a joint effect of maternal and paternal age with increasing risk of ASD for couples with increasing differences in parental ages. We did not find any support for a modifying effect by the sex of the offspring. In conclusion, as shown in multiple geographic regions, increases in ASD was not only limited to advancing paternal or maternal age alone but also to differences parental age including younger or older similarly aged parents as well as disparately aged parents.

  5. Influence of sex differences in leaders' behavior.

    PubMed

    Moss, Jennifer A; Barbuto, John E; Matkin, Gina S; Chin, Tzu-Yun

    2005-04-01

    Sex differences in influence tactics were examined with a sample of 269 followers (67 men, 202 women) at a large midwestern national insurance company who rated the downward influence tactics used by their direct supervisors. Downward influence tactics are behaviors used by leaders to gain compliance from followers. One department within the organization was identified as a source for participants in the study. Participation was voluntary. The age range for the sample was 21 to 65 years, with the largest percentage falling in the 40-49 year range (M = 3.8, SD = .8). Hierarchical linear modeling procedures were utilized to analyze the multiple level data (leader and follower) and to examine variables within the organization at different levels of analysis. Leader participants were asked to solicit their followers to complete an influence tactic measure, which consisted of the most reliable subscales taken from the Influence Behavior Questionnaire, Schriesheim and Hinkin Influence Measure, and the Profiles of Organizational Influence Strategies. The integrated measure resulted in a 45-item scale. It was hypothesized that, overall, followers would report that male leaders would use hard influence tactics more frequently than female leaders. On the other hand, followers would report that female leaders would use soft influence tactics more frequently than male leaders. When differentiating followers by sex, however, we expected that male followers would report more than female followers that their leaders use hard tactics more frequently. Also, we expected that female followers would report (more than male followers) that their leaders use soft tactics more frequently. Overall, followers reported that male leaders used significantly more personal appeal and consultation, so called "soft tactics," with their followers than did female leaders. Female followers reported that their leaders (both male and female) used consultation and inspirational appeal more frequently

  6. Hypertension Prevalence, Awareness and Blood Pressure Control in Matao, Brazil: A Pilot Study in Partnership With the Brazilian Family Health Strategy Program

    PubMed Central

    Minelli, Cesar; Borin, Lucileni Aparecida; Trovo, Mayra de Cassia; dos Reis, Geraldo Cassio

    2016-01-01

    Background Around 30% of Brazilian population is hypertensive. Brazilian’s Family Health Strategy (FHS) is a community-based approach to provide primary health care and control chronic disease as hypertension. The aims of this pilot study were to study hypertension prevalence and awareness and to analyze the feasibility of FHS program with community healthy agents (CHA) to collect data about hypertensive subjects in Matao, Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in subjects equal or older than 40 years old in a neighborhood belonging to FHS program. CHA were trained to collect data and to assess blood pressure (BP) with an automated device. Hypertension diagnosis was defined if systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mm Hg or subject had previous use of hypertensive drug. Chi-square test and univariate logistic regression analysis were applied with significance level of 5% and a confidence interval of 95%. Results In 625 subjects, hypertension prevalence was 68.8% and women (71.9%) were more hypertensive than men (63.2%) (P = 0.02). Prevalence of hypertension increased with age group, from 46.3% (40 - 49 years) to 82.5% (70 - 79 years) (P < 0.001). The overall prevalence of pre-hypertension was 40.1%: stage 1, 25.7% and stage 2, 17.0%. Hypertension awareness was 81.8% and 79.8% reported use of anti-hypertensive drugs. BP was not controlled in 61.8% and 67.7% of them was using anti-hypertensive drugs. CHA reported no difficulties to collect data and BP assessment with the automated device. Conclusion We observed a high hypertension prevalence rate, awareness, and subjects with uncontrolled hypertension even with use of anti-hypertensive drugs. CHA from FHS program are a feasible option to BP control in future studies involving larger populations. PMID:27298661

  7. Prevalence and pattern of radiographic intervertebral disc degeneration in Vietnamese: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Ho-Pham, Lan T; Lai, Thai Q; Mai, Linh D; Doan, Minh C; Pham, Hoa N; Nguyen, Tuan V

    2015-06-01

    Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is one of the most common skeletal disorders, yet few data are available in Asian populations. We sought to assess the prevalence and pattern of radiographic IDD in a Vietnamese population. This population-based cross-sectional investigation involved 170 men and 488 women aged ≥40 years, who were randomly sampled from the Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam). Anthropometric data, clinical history and self-reported back and neck pain were ascertained by a questionnaire. Plain radiographs (from the cervical spine, thoracic spine to the lumbar spine) were examined for the presence of disc space narrowing and/or osteophytosis using the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grading system. The presence of radiographic IDD was defined if the KL grade was 2 or greater in at least one disc. The prevalence of radiographic IDD was 62.4% (n = 106) in men and 54.7% (n = 267) in women. The most frequently affected site was the lumbar spine with prevalence being 50.6 and 43.2% in men and women, respectively. The prevalence of IDD increased with advancing age: 18.8% among those aged 40-49 years, and increased to 83.4% in those aged ≥60 years. Self-reported neck pain and lower back pain were found in 30 and 44% of individuals, respectively. There was no statistically significant association between self-reported neck pain and cervical spine OA. These data suggest that radiographic IDD is highly prevalent in the Vietnamese population, and that self-reported back pain is not a sensitive indicator of IDD. PMID:25791571

  8. Role of Serum Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Luteinizing Hormone, Testosterone and Prolactin Levels in Azoospermic Male Partner of Subfertile Couple.

    PubMed

    Begum, N; Anwary, S A; Alfazzaman, M; Mahzabin, Z; Nahar, K; Rahman, M M; Mostafa, M A

    2016-04-01

    This cross sectional study was carried out in the Infertility Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) from January 2011 and June 2013. Eighty one (81) consecutive azoospermic male partner of married couple, aged 20-50 years with at least two years of subfertility and no known endocrinopathy and ejaculatory dysfunction were included in this study to find out their abnormal hormonal pattern. None of them had received any form of treatment within the last 3 months prior to hormonal evaluation. Men with hypertension, recent fever, chemo or radiation exposure were excluded from the study. Eight weeks interval two semen analyses were done in the Andrology Laboratory of above department following standard WHO guideline, 2004. Using standard ELISA technique, serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone and prolactin were measured/assayed/estimated. The results of this study demonstrated that 40 (49.4%) men had normal endocrine pattern against 51 (50.6%) with endocrinopathy. The former may be related to obstructive azoospermia, which needs further analyses. Both the increased FSH (>11.1mIU/ml) and LH (>7.6mIU/ml) were observed in 25 (30.9%) men, only elevated FSH (>11.1mIU/ml) in 9(11.1%), and only elevated LH (>7.6mIU/ml) in 7(8.6%). Low testosterone level (<270ng/dl) was observed in 11(13.6%), low TSH (<0.4μIU/ml) in 1(1.2%) and low prolactin (<2.5ng/dl) in 5(6.2%).

  9. Autoimmune diseases and myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Komrokji, Rami S; Kulasekararaj, Austin; Al Ali, Najla H; Kordasti, Shahram; Bart-Smith, Emily; Craig, Benjamin M; Padron, Eric; Zhang, Ling; Lancet, Jeffrey E; Pinilla-Ibarz, Javier; List, Alan F; Mufti, Ghulam J; Epling-Burnette, Pearlie K

    2016-05-01

    Immune dysregulation and altered T-cell hemostasis play important roles in the pathogenesis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Recent studies suggest an increased risk of MDS among patients with autoimmune diseases. Here, we investigated the prevalence of autoimmune diseases among MDS patients, comparing characteristics and outcomes in those with and without autoimmune diseases. From our study group of 1408 MDS patients, 391 (28%) had autoimmune disease, with hypothyroidism being the most common type, accounting for 44% (n = 171) of patients (12% among all MDS patients analyzed). Other autoimmune diseases with ≥5% prevalence included idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in 12% (n = 46), rheumatoid arthritis in 10% (n = 41), and psoriasis in 7% (n = 28) of patients. Autoimmune diseases were more common in female MDS patients, those with RA or RCMD WHO subtype, and those who were less dependent on red blood cell transfusion. Median overall survival (OS) was 60 months (95% CI, 50-70) for patients with autoimmune diseases versus 45 months (95% CI, 40-49) for those without (log-rank test, P = 0.006). By multivariate analysis adjusting for revised IPSS and age >60 years, autoimmune diseases were a statistically significant independent factor for OS (HR 0.78; 95% CI, 0.66-0.92; P = 0.004). The rate of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) transformation was 23% (n = 89) in MDS patients with autoimmune disease versus 30% (n = 301) in those without (P = 0.011). Patient groups did not differ in response to azacitidine or lenalidomide treatment. Autoimmune diseases are prevalent among MDS patients. MDS patients with autoimmune diseases have better OS and less AML transformation.

  10. Prevalence and risk factors of lens opacities in rural populations living at two different altitudes in China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jia-Ming; Yang, De-Qi; Wang, Han; Xu, Jun; Gao, Qian; Hu, Li-Wen; Wang, Fang; Wang, Yang; Yan, Qi-Chang; Zhang, Jin-Song; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for lens opacities in populations living at two different altitudes in China. METHODS A total of 813 subjects aged ≥40y in Lhasa (Tibet Autonomous Region, China. Altitude: 3658 m) and Shaoxing (Zhejiang Province, China. Altitude: 15 m) were underwent eye examinations and interviewed in this cross-sectional study. Participants' lens opacities were graded according to the Lens Opacities Classification System II (LOCS II) and the types of opacities with LOCS II scores ≥2 were determined. Univariate and stepwise logistic regression were used to evaluate the associations of independent risk factors with lens opacities. RESULTS Lens opacities were significantly more prevalent in the high-altitude than in the low-altitude area (χ2=10.54, P<0.001). Lens opacities appear to develop earlier in people living at high than at low altitude. The main types of lens opacity in Lhasa and Shaoxing were mixed (23.81%) and cortical (17.87%), respectively. Independent risk factors associated with all lens opacities were age, ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure, and educational level. Compared with participants aged 40-49y, the risk of lens opacities increased gradually from 2 to 85 times per 10y [odds ratio (OR)=2.168-84.731, P<0.05). The risk of lens opacities was about two times greater in participants with the highest UV exposure than in those with the lowest exposure (OR=2.606, P=0.001). Educational level was inversely associated with lens opacities; literacy deceased the risk by about 25% compared with illiteracy (OR=0.758, P=0.041). CONCLUSION Old age, higher UV exposure and lower educational level are important risk factors for the development of lens opacities. Lens opacities are more prevalent among high-altitude than low-altitude inhabitants. PMID:27162738

  11. Reported fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, 1992-2002.

    PubMed

    Heggie, Travis W

    2005-08-01

    Objectives. To examine fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Methods. Official press releases from the public relations office at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park were examined for reports of fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists. Results. Between 1992 and 2002 there were 65 press releases reporting 40 fatalities, 45 serious injuries, 53 minor injuries, and 25 no injury events. Severity information was unavailable for four additional tourists. Aircraft and backcountry incidents each accounted for 30% of all incidents followed by road incidents (22%) and frontcountry incidents (17%). Aircraft incidents reported 17 fatalities, backcountry incidents accounted for 10 fatalities, frontcountry incidents reported seven fatalities, and road incidents totaled six fatalities. One fatality was classified as a suicide. Backcountry (23) and road (10) incidents had the highest number of serious incidents. Male tourists (62) were more frequently involved in incidents than female tourists (41) and tourists aged 20-29 years and 40-49 years accounted for the highest number of fatalities and total incidents. Conclusions. Helicopter tours, hiking in areas with active lava flows, falls into steam vents and earthcracks, and driving unfamiliar rental cars in unfamiliar locations are the major activities resulting in death and serious injury. Additional factors such as tourists ignoring warning signs, wandering off-trail or hiking at night, tourists misinformed by guidebooks and other tourists, and tourists with pre-existing heart and asthma conditions are contributing causes in many incidents. The findings of this study provide information that allows prospective tourists, tourism managers, and travel health providers make informed decisions that promote safe tourism and can aid future efforts in developing preventative strategies at tourist destinations with similar environments and activities. However, in order for preventative

  12. Decrease in the urine cotinine concentrations of Korean non-smokers between 2009 and 2011 following implementation of stricter smoking regulations.

    PubMed

    Park, Ju Hyoung; Lee, Chae Kwan; Kim, Kun Hyung; Son, Byung Chul; Kim, Jeong Ho; Suh, Chun Hui; Kim, Se Yeong; Yu, Seung Do; Kim, Sue Jin; Choi, Wook Hee; Kim, Dae Hwan; Park, Yeong Beom; Park, Seok Hwan; Lee, Soo Woong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine if there was an association between the implementation of smoking regulation policies and the urine cotinine concentrations of Korean non-smokers. The subjects of this study were 4612 non-smoking Korean citizens (aged 19 or older) selected from the first stage of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Research from 2009 to 2011. Cotinine concentrations in urine were measured by GC-MS (limit of detection: 0.05 ng/mL). Changes in the urine cotinine concentration were analyzed using a weighted general linear model and linear regression and values were shown as geometric mean (GM). The GM urine cotinine concentration decreased over time (2.92 ng/mL in 2009, 1.93 ng/mL in 2010, and 1.25 ng/mL in 2011). The total decrease in the subjects' urine cotinine concentration between 2009 and 2011 was 2.79 ng/mL, representing a relative decrease of 54.7%. The decrease in GM urine cotinine concentration in each subgroup ranged from 2.17 ng/mL to 3.29 ng/mL (relative decreases of 46.4% and 62.8%, respectively), with the largest absolute reductions in subjects in the following groups: females, aged 40-49 years, detached residence type, no alcohol consumption, employed, secondhand smoke exposure. All groups had negative regression coefficients, all of which were significant (p < 0.001). Our results provide indirect indicators of the effectiveness of smoking regulation policies including the revision of the National Health Promotion Act in Korea. PMID:26507969

  13. Economic and social correlates of female employment and fertility.

    PubMed

    Herrin, A N

    1979-01-01

    This study tested a theoretical model that views female employment and fertility decisions as jointly determined by biologic, sociologic, economic, and demographic factors that determine the circumstances of individual women, families, and the labor market. The data were drawn from a multistage stratified sample of 1926 married women of childbearing age in southern Philippines. The independent variables analyzed included the exogenous wage rates of both the wife and husband, the age of the wife, the number of children ever born per year of marriage, and residence (urban or rural). Also analyzed were the social variables of time conflict, normative conflict, work commitment, and wife's relative dominance in household decision making. An exogenous change in female wage rates increased the percent of time spent in paid employment but had an insignificant effect on fertility. In contrast, a change in the male wage rate reduce female employment and current fertility. Women in municipal poblacions had lower current fertility and significantly higher labor force participation than women in rural or urban settings. Women who perceived that children interfere with work were more likely to bear a child in the study period and less likely to participate in the labor force. The husband's attitude toward female employment reduced labor force participation, but did not increase current fertility. Finally, women who play a major role in household decision making had both increased labor force participation and increased fertility. There was some variation in these trends by age cohort. A positive coefficient of the female wage on fertility was observed among women 20-29 and 40-49 years, while a negative coefficient existed for women 30-39 years. It is concluded that a common set of economic and social factors jointly determine current female employment and fertility decisions.

  14. Clinical Study of Endometrial Polyp and Role of Diagnostic Hysteroscopy and Blind Avulsion of Polyp

    PubMed Central

    Remadevi, Chithra; Sumathy, Sudha; Sharma, Deepti; Sreedhar, Sarala; Jose, Amrutha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Endometrial polyp is one of the common causes of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB) in the reproductive age group as well as postmenopausal age group. Aim To study the clinical features of endometrial polyp and the safety and feasibility of blind polypectomy following diagnostic hysteroscopy. Materials and Methods Total of 256 women who were diagnosed to have endometrial polyp by transvaginal ultrasound and underwent diagnostic hysteroscopy and blind polypectomy by simple avulsion in the period of January 2008 to December 2014 were included in our study. Polyp was confirmed by the histopathology. Results The prevalence of polyp among women who underwent diagnostic hysteroscopy and blind polypectomy was more common in the age group of 40-49years. Polyps manifested as AUB in 45.6% of our study population. The mean size of the polyp was not significantly different between premenopausal and postmenopausal women and single and multiple polyps. Histopathological study of the polyp showed two malignant polyps in our study population. Premalignant lesions i.e., endometrial hyperplasia without atypia and with atypia was found in 33 women. There was one uterine perforation, one cervical tear; one false passage and one patient had mild bleeding after the procedure. In our study, in the mean follow-up period of 37.57±28.12 months, 3.9% (7 women) had recurrence. In the follow-up period of 16.56±18.96 months, 78.9% women didn’t have recurrence. Conclusion Diagnostic hysteroscopy and blind polypectomy has low complication rate and recurrence rate and technically feasible for the practicing gynaecologists which don’t need much training and is cost-effective also. PMID:27504357

  15. Curbing child marriages.

    PubMed

    Rajan, S I

    Demographers are interested in marriage age because women who marry early are exposed to conceptions through the most fecund years of their lives. Women who marry young are exposed comparatively to a longer duration and tend to shorten the intergenerational years, consequently influencing the fertility to be higher. In India, despite the law, child marriages occur in many states, more prevalent among the backward conservative communities. According to India's Child Marriage Restraint Act, a woman must be 18 to marry (a man 21), but in fact in 1981 the marriage age of females was 15. This young marriage age is substantiated by available survey and report data. For example, in a mass marriage solemnized at Wardha village in Vidisha district in 1981, there was not 1 of the 110 couples of the prescribed marriage age. 55 of the brides were below age 10 and 48 were between 10-12 years. Only 8 brides were older than 14 years. A survey conducted by the Population Research Center, Lucknow University, revealed that more than half of the females surveyed were married before age 15. The census data for 1981 provide the following information: 1.19 million or 2.63% of the total 45.18 million boys aged 10-14 years and 2.67 million or 6.59% of the total 40.49 million girls were married. Christians had the highest mean age at marriage followed by Sikhs and Jains, but all religious groups had shown an improvement in their age at marriage. Several factors are responsible for child marriage. Consequently, a multidimensional approach to dealing with the problem is needed. The way to bring about this change is through creating more job and educational opportunities for women.

  16. Executive women and the myth of having it all.

    PubMed

    Hewlett, Sylvia Ann

    2002-04-01

    When it comes to having a high-powered career and a family, the painful truth is that women in the United States don't "have it all." At midlife, in fact, at least a third of the country's high-achieving women--a category that includes high wage earners across a variety of professions--do not have children. For many, this wasn't a conscious choice: Indeed, most yearn for motherhood. So finds economist Sylvia Ann Hewlett, who recently fielded a nationwide survey to explore the professional and private lives of highly educated and high-earning women. Other findings are similarly disturbing. Many of these women who are raising children have suffered insurmountable career setbacks. In addition, today's young women will likely experience even starker trade-offs. In general, Hewlett's data show that, for too many women, the demands of ambitious careers, the asymmetries of male-female relationships, and the difficulties of conceiving later in life undermine the possibility of combining high-level work with family. By contrast, Hewlett's research reveals that high-achieving men continue to "have it all." Of the men she surveyed, 79% report wanting children, and 75% have them. Indeed, the more successful the man, the more likely he is to have a spouse and children. The opposite holds true for women, particularly the highest-achieving women in Hewlett's survey: At age 40, 49% of these ultra-achievers are childless, while 19% of their male peers are. The facts and figures are bleak but, the author contends, could be liberating if they spur action. Hewlett urges lawmakers and corporations to establish policies that support working parents. But recognizing that changes won't happen overnight, she exhorts young women to be more deliberate about their career and family choices. PMID:11930783

  17. Prevalence of nutritional deficiency in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis*

    PubMed Central

    Piva, Silvana Gomes Nunes; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Barreto, Florisneide Rodrigues; Pereira, Susan Martins

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of nutritional deficiency among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study using data obtained from the Brazilian Case Registry Database and from the medical records of patients diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis (15-59 years of age) residing in one of the municipalities that make up the 16th Regional Health District of the state of Bahia. We calculated the incidence, lethality, and mortality rates, as well as the prevalence of nutritional deficiency, as evaluated by body mass index. Demographic, social, clinical, and epidemiological data were collected. RESULTS: Of the 72 confirmed cases of tuberculosis, 59 (81.9%) were in males, and 21 (29.2%) of the patients were in the 40-49 year age bracket. The majority (85.3%) described themselves as Mulatto or Black; 55.2% reported using alcohol; and approximately 90% were treated as outpatients. In the district and age bracket studied, the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis was 30.6/100,000 population. Among the 72 patients, data regarding nutritional status was available for 34. Of those, 50% and 25%, respectively, presented nutritional deficiency at the beginning and at the end of treatment. No statistically significant differences were found between normal-weight and malnourished patients regarding the characteristics studied. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of nutritional deficiency was high among our sample of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. This underscores the importance of nutritional follow-up for the assessment of tuberculosis treatment in the decision-making process regarding therapeutic interventions. PMID:24068270

  18. Limitations of stereotactic biopsy in the initial management of gliomas.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, R. J.; Fuller, G. N.; Abi-Said, D.; Lang, F. F.; Gokaslan, Z. L.; Shi, W. M.; Wildrick, D. M.; Sawaya, R.

    2001-01-01

    Stereotactic biopsy is often performed for diagnostic purposes before treating patients whose imaging studies highly suggest glioma. Indications cited for biopsy include diagnosis and/or the "inoperability" of the tumor. This study questions the routine use of stereotactic biopsy in the initial management of gliomas. At The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, we retrospectively reviewed a consecutive series of 81 patients whose imaging studies suggested glioma and who underwent stereotactic biopsy followed by craniotomy/resection (within 60 days) between 1993 and 1998. All relevant clinical and imaging information was reviewed, including computerized volumetric analysis of the tumors based on pre- and postoperative MRI. Stereotactic biopsy was performed at institutions other than M. D. Anderson in 78 (96%) of 81 patients. The majority of tumors were located either in eloquent brain (36 of 81 = 44%) or near-eloquent brain (41 of 81 = 51%), and this frequently was the rationale cited for performing stereotactic biopsy. Gross total resection (>95%) was achieved in 46 (57%) of 81 patients, with a median extent of resection of 96% for this series. Diagnoses based on biopsy or resection in the same patient differed in 40 (49%) of 82 cases. This discrepancy was reduced to 30 (38%) of 80 cases when the biopsy slides were reviewed preoperatively by each of three neuropathologists at M. D. Anderson. Major neurologic complications occurred in 10 (12.3%) of 81 surgical patients and 3 (3.7%) of 81 patients undergoing biopsy. Surgical morbidity was probably higher in our series than it would be for glioma patients in general because our patients represent a highly selected subset of glioma patients whose tumors present a technical challenge to remove. Stereotactic biopsy is frequently inaccurate in providing a correct diagnosis and is associated with additional risk and cost. If stereotactic biopsy is performed, expert neuropathology consultation should be sought

  19. Analysis on sports and recreation activity-related eye injuries presenting to the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sungbae; Ryoo, Hyun Wook; Ahn, Jae Yun; Park, Jung Bae; Seo, Kang Suk; Shin, Sang Do; Song, Kyoung Jun; Lee, Kang Hyun; Yoo, In Sool; Cho, Jin Seong; Ryu, Hyun Ho; Jeong, Tae Oh; Yeom, Seok Ran; Kim, Young Taek; Hong, Sung Ok

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the incidence and general characteristics of sports-related eye injuries in patients visiting the Emergency Department. METHODS A cross-sectional, multi-center, observational study. Patients with an injured eye who visited the Emergency Department at one of nine hospitals in Korea were enrolled. All data were prospectively collected between March and September 2010 using a questionnaire. Eye injuries that occurred during risky sports were examined by gender and age. Additionally, the rate of open globe injuries that occurred with and without protective eyewear was examined for each activity. Continuous variables were compared using Student's t-test and categorical variables were compared using Chi-square test. RESULTS A total of 446 patients had sports-related eye injuries. Teenagers (10-19 years old) and young adults (20-29 years old) had the most eye injuries. Eye injuries accounted for 0.2% of Emergency Department patients. Baseball was the most common cause of sports-related eye injuries, followed by soccer and hiking. Protective gear was worn by 9.4% of all patients. Patients that were 30-39 years of age had the highest rate of protective gear use, followed by patients that were 40-49 years of age. The proportion of sports-related eye injuries that were open-globe injuries was highest for soccer and hiking. CONCLUSION Although injuries were most common in patients below the age of 10 years, these patients had the lowest rate of protective eyewear use. Injuries in adults over 40 years of age most commonly occurred during hiking, but the rate of protective eyewear use was low. Young athletes should be educated on and provided with protective eyewear and policies protective gear use should be established. For older adults, eye protection should be encouraged, especially during hiking. PMID:27803871

  20. Mortality from breast carcinoma among US women: the role and implications of socio-economics, heterogeneous insurance, screening mammography, and geography.

    PubMed

    Okunade, Albert A; Karakus, Mustafa C

    2003-11-01

    Despite rapid advances in medicine and beneficial lifestyle changes, the incidence and mortality rate of gynecologic carcinoma remains high worldwide. This paper presents the econometric model findings of the major drivers of breast cancer mortality among US women. The results have implications for public health policy formulation on disease incidence and the drivers of mortality risks. The research methodology is a fixed-effects GLS regression model of breast cancer mortality in US females age 25 and above, using 1990-1997 time-series data pooled across 50 US states and DC. The covariates are age, years schooled, family income, 'screening' mammography, insurance coverage types, race, and US census region. The regressions have strong explanatory powers. Finding education and income to be significantly and positively correlated with mortality supports the 'life in the fast lanes' hypothesis of Phelps. The policy of raising a woman's education at a given income appears more beneficial than raising her income at a given education level. The relatively higher mortality rate for Blacks suggests implementing culturally appropriate set of disease prevention and health promotion programs and policies. Mortality differs across insurance types with Medicaid the worst suggesting need for program reform. Mortality is greater for women ages 25-44 years, females 40-49 years who have had screening mammography, smokers, and residents of some US states. These findings suggest imposing more effective tobacco use control policies (e.g., imposing a special tobacco tax on adult smokers), creating a more tractable screening mammography surveillance system, and designing region-specific programs to cut breast cancer mortality risks.

  1. A DNA methylation classifier of cervical precancer based on human papillomavirus and human genes.

    PubMed

    Brentnall, Adam R; Vasiljević, Nataša; Scibior-Bentkowska, Dorota; Cadman, Louise; Austin, Janet; Szarewski, Anne; Cuzick, Jack; Lorincz, Attila T

    2014-09-15

    Testing for high-risk (hr) types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is highly sensitive as a screening test of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplastic (CIN2/3) disease, the precursor of cervical cancer. However, it has a relatively low specificity. Our objective was to develop a prediction rule with a higher specificity, using combinations of human and HPV DNA methylation. Exfoliated cervical specimens from colposcopy-referral cohorts in London were analyzed for DNA methylation levels by pyrosequencing in the L1 and L2 regions of HPV16, HPV18, HPV31 and human genes EPB41L3, DPYS and MAL. Samples from 1,493 hrHPV-positive women were assessed and of these 556 were found to have CIN2/3 at biopsy; 556 tested positive for HPV16 (323 CIN2/3), 201 for HPV18 (73 CIN2/3) and 202 for HPV31 (98 CIN2/3). The prediction rule included EPB41L3 and HPV and had area under curve 0.80 (95% CI 0.78-0.82). For 90% sensitivity, specificity was 36% (33-40) and positive predictive value (PPV) was 46% (43-48). By HPV type, 90% sensitivity corresponded to the following specificities and PPV, respectively: HPV16, 38% (32-45) and 67% (63-71); HPV18, 53% (45-62) and 52% (45-59); HPV31, 39% (31-49) and 58% (51-65); HPV16, 18 or 31, 44% (40-49) and 62% (59-65) and other hrHPV 17% (14-21) and 21% (18-24). We conclude that a methylation assay in hrHPV-positive women might improve PPV with minimal sensitivity loss.

  2. Population dynamics of adult fleas (Siphonaptera) on hosts and in nests of the California vole.

    PubMed

    Stark, Harold E

    2002-11-01

    Microtus californicus (Peale, 1848) were live trapped or retrapped 887 times, and fleas were collected over a 2.5-yr period in the San Francisco Watershed and Wildlife Refuge. Also, 179 M. californicus nests were collected monthly with observations to identify the environment of fleas. The ratio of the mean number of fleas per nest to the mean number collected on voles was 4.7:1 for Malaraeus telchinus (Rothschild, 1905), 13:1 for Hystrichopsylla occidentalis linsdalei Holland, 1957,9:1 for Atyphloceras multidentatus multidentatus (C. Fox, 1909), and 76:1 for Catallagia wymani (C. Fox, 1909). The proportion of each flea species per nest to those per host was not closely associated seasonally or spatially. The average nest contained 37.5% moisture content in relation to its total weight and ranged between 3 and 92%. No relationship was observed between relative humidity of air within nests and flea number, but a significant relationship existed between the moisture of nesting materials and flea number. Malaraeus telchinus and A. m. multidentatus were collected in greatest numbers from nests having 30-39% moisture content by weight, and H. o. linsdalei and C. wymani were most numerous in nests that had 40-49% moisture content. Catallagia wymani had the greatest tolerance for high moisture and was severely affected by lack of moisture and nearly absent in drier nests. No ectoparasites were collected from nests that had <12% moisture content, and nests with >50% moisture content had few fleas. A static concept of nest fleas and host fleas as suggested by averages and often used in literature is questionable. In seasonal comparison of populations of fleas on hosts and in nests, M. telchinus and H. o. linsdalei reversed so that more of the flea population was on the host than in the nest for a short time during fall. PMID:12495178

  3. Survivors of Childhood Cancer in the United States: Prevalence and Burden of Morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Siobhan M.; Padgett, Lynne S.; Leisenring, Wendy M.; Stratton, Kayla K.; Bishop, Ken; Krull, Kevin R.; Alfano, Catherine M.; Gibson, Todd M.; de Moor, Janet S.; Hartigan, Danielle Blanch; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Robison, Leslie L.; Rowland, Julia H.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Mariotto, Angela B.

    2015-01-01

    Background No studies have estimated the population-level burden of morbidity in individuals diagnosed with cancer as children (ages 0-19 years). We updated prevalence estimates of childhood cancer survivors as of 2011 and burden of morbidity in this population reflected by chronic conditions, neurocognitive dysfunction, compromised health-related quality of life and health status (general health, mental health, functional impairment, functional limitations, pain and fear/anxiety). Methods Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Program data from 1975 to 2011 were used to update the prevalence of survivors of childhood cancers in the US. Childhood Cancer Survivor Study data were used to obtain estimates of morbidity burden indicators which were then extrapolated to SEER data to obtain population-level estimates. Results There were an estimated 388,501 survivors of childhood cancer in the US as of January 1, 2011, of whom 83.5% are ≥5 years post-diagnosis. The prevalence of any chronic condition among ≥5-year survivors ranged from 66% (ages 5-19) to 88% (ages 40-49). Estimates for specific morbidities ranged from 12% (pain) to 35% (neurocognitive dysfunction). Generally, morbidities increased by age. However, mental health and anxiety remained fairly stable and neurocognitive dysfunction exhibited initial decline and then remained stable by time since diagnosis. Conclusions The estimated prevalence of survivors of childhood cancer is increasing, as is the estimated prevalence of morbidity in those ≥5 years post-diagnosis. Impact Efforts to understand how to effectively decrease morbidity burden and incorporate effective care coordination and rehabilitation models to optimize longevity and well-being in this population should be a priority. PMID:25834148

  4. Prevalence of oral Candida carriage and Candida species among cigarette and maras powder users

    PubMed Central

    Keten, Hamit Sirri; Keten, Derya; Ucer, Huseyin; Yildirim, Fatis; Hakkoymaz, Hakan; Isik, Oguz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Candida carriage and Candida species among cigarette and Maras powder (MP) users. Material and methods: This study was conducted on 180 volunteering men in 20 cafehouses in the city of Kahramanmaras, Turkey. The sociodemographic characteristics of the participants and the behaviors of MP and cigarette usage were noted down. Culture specimens were obtained from bilateral buccal mucosa and dorsum of the tongue with a sterile cotton-tipped swap. Results: The specimens were inoculated into Sabouraud Dextrose Agar. The mean age of the participants was 40.49 ± 12.89 years (min = 18, max = 87). Fifty-eight percent of the cigarette users, 56.7% of the MP users, and 36.7% of the control group were Candida carriers. The difference of Candida carriage between cigarette and MP users and the control group was statistically significant (P = 0.018 and P = 0.029 respectively). The prevalence of Candida carriage was similar between cigarette and MP users (P = 0.854). The most frequently isolated species was Candida albicans at a rate of 30% in the cigarette users’ group, 28.3% in the MP users’ group and at a rate of 18.3% in the controls. The prevalence of Candida tropicalis carriage was found to be at a rate of 20% in cigarette and 21.7% in the MP users’ group compared to 11.7% in the nonusers. Conclusions: In the present study we found that the prevalence of oral Candida carriage was significantly higher among cigarette and MP users. PMID:26309667

  5. Short-term outcomes of a program developed to inculcate research essentials in undergraduate medical students

    PubMed Central

    Devi, V; Ramnarayan, K; Abraham, RR; Pallath, V; Kamath, A; Kodidela, S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Participation in research during undergraduate studies may increase students’ interest in research and inculcate research essentials in them. Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the mentored student project (MSP) program. Settings and Design: In the MSP program, students in groups (n = 3 to 5) undertook a research project, wrote a scholarly report, and presented the work as a poster presentation with the help of a faculty mentor. To begin with, the logic model of the program was developed to identify short-term outcomes of the program on students, mentors, and the institution. A quasi-experimental design was used to measure the outcomes. Materials and Methods: A mixed method evaluation was done using a newly-developed questionnaire to assess the impact of the MSP on students’ attitude, a multiple-choice question (MCQs) test to find out the impact on students’ knowledge and grading of students’ project reports and posters along with a survey to check the impact on skills. Students’ satisfaction regarding the program and mentors’ perceptions were collected using questionnaires. Evidence for validity was collected for all the instruments used for the evaluation. Statistical Analysis: Non-parametric tests were used to analyze data. Based on the scores, project reports and posters were graded into A (>70% marks), B (60-69% marks), and C (<59% marks) categories. The number of MSPs that resulted in publications, conference presentation and departmental collaborations were taken as impact on the institution. Results: Students’ response rate was 91.5%. The students’ attitudes regarding research changed positively (P = 0.036) and score in the MCQ test improved (P < 0.001) after undertaking MSP. Majority of project reports and posters were of grade A category. The majority of the items related to skills gained and satisfaction had a median score of 4. The MSPs resulted in inter-departmental and inter

  6. Quality of Web-based Information for the 10 Most Common Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Ginsberg, Lydia; Simunovic, Nicole; Ristevski, Bill; Bhandari, Mohit; Kleinlugtenbelt, Ydo Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Background In today's technologically advanced world, 75% of patients have used Google to search for health information. As a result, health care professionals fear that patients may be misinformed. Currently, there is a paucity of data on the quality and readability of Web-based health information on fractures. Objectives In this study, we assessed the quality and readability of Web-based health information related to the 10 most common fractures. Methods Using the Google search engine, we assessed websites from the first results page for the 10 most common fractures using lay search terms. Website quality was measured using the DISCERN instrument, which scores websites as very poor (15-22.5), poor (22.5-37.5), fair (37.5-52.5), good (52.5-67.5), or excellent (67.5-75). The presence of Health on the Net code (HONcode) certification was assessed for all websites. Website readability was measured using the Flesch Reading Ease Score (0-100), where 60-69 is ideal for the general public, and the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL; −3.4 to ∞), where the mean FKGL of the US adult population is 8. Results Overall, website quality was “fair” for all fractures, with a mean (standard deviation) DISCERN score of 50.3 (5.8). The DISCERN score correlated positively with a higher website position on the search results page (r2=0.1, P=.002) and with HONcode certification (P=.007). The mean (standard deviation) Flesch Reading Ease Score and FKGL for all fractures were 62.2 (9.1) and 6.7 (1.6), respectively. Conclusion The quality of Web-based health information on fracture care is fair, and its readability is appropriate for the general public. To obtain higher quality information, patients should select HONcode-certified websites. Furthermore, patients should select websites that are positioned higher on the results page because the Google ranking algorithms appear to rank the websites by quality. PMID:27317159

  7. Trends in surveillance data of human Lyme borreliosis from six federal states in eastern Germany, 2009-2012.

    PubMed

    Wilking, Hendrik; Stark, Klaus

    2014-04-01

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most frequent vector-borne disease in Germany. For more than 10 years, data from mandatory notifications have been available from 6 federal states in the eastern part of Germany. A common case definition was applied. Clinical manifestations of erythema migrans, neuroborreliosis (radiculoneuritis, cranial neuritis, meningitis), and Lyme arthritis were notifiable. From 2009 to 2012, altogether 18,894 cases were notified. The overall incidence varied between 34.9 cases/100,000 inhabitants in 2009 and 19.54 cases/100,000 persons in 2012. LB in eastern Germany showed a pronounced seasonality with a peak in August. Decreasing as well as increasing trends were observed in different federal states. Females predominated among all cases (55.3%). The age distribution was bimodal with incidence peaks in children 5-9 years old (32.4 cases/100,000 persons in 2011) and in adults aged 60-69 years (56.7 cases/100,000 persons in 2011). Erythema migrans affected 95.4% of the patients and acute neuroborreliosis 3.3%. Among the latter, the most common manifestation was radiculoneuritis (n=316). Neuritis cranialis was more common in children than in adults (p<0.01). The same was true for meningitis (p<0.01). Altogether 2.0% of the LB cases developed Lyme arthritis. LB has a significant disease burden in the study area. Different levels of under-ascertainment in the surveillance system could explain parts of the differences in the incidence. Furthermore, there may be discrepancies in disease awareness among patients and physicians. Changes in time and differences among geographical regions could result from variations in risk factors related to human behaviour (e.g., outdoor activity). Additionally, vector-related risk factors may have varied (e.g., landscape, climate). Public health strategies with a particular focus on the high-incidence age groups should promote daily checks for ticks and prompt removal of ticks after exposure to avoid infection

  8. Using nonlinear rheology in ASPECT: benchmarking and an application to subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glerum, A.; Thieulot, C.; Graas, A.; Spakman, W.

    2013-12-01

    , Tectonophysics, 464, 60-69. Buiter, S. J. H. et al., 'The numerical sandbox: comparison of model results for a shortening and an extension experiment'. Analogue and Numerical Modelling of Crustal-Scale Processes, Buiter, S. J. H. and Schreurs, G. (eds). London: Geological Society, 2006. Kaus, B. J. (2010), Factors that control the angle of shear bands in geodynamic numerical models of brittle deformation, Tectonophysics, 484, 36-47. Kronbichler, M., Heister, T. and Bangerth, W. (2012), High Accuracy Mantle Convection Simulation through Modern Numerical Methods, Geophysical Journal International, 191, 12-29. Thieulot, C., Fullsack, P. and Braun, J. (2008), Adaptive octree-based finite element analysis of two-dimensional and three-dimensional indentation problems, Journal of Geophysical Research, 113.

  9. The changing demography of diabetes mellitus in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Lee, W R

    2000-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus has been on the rise in Singapore, while Singaporeans are becoming more affluent, our lifestyles are more sedentary and our population is ageing rapidly. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus rose from 2% in 1975 to 4.7% in 1984, 8.6% in 1992 and 9.0% of adults 18-69 years old in 1998. Malay and Indian women and Indian men were at higher risk, with 14.3, 14.9 and 16.7% prevalence rates, respectively. A further 15% of the adult population have impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Diabetes was a factor in 39.7% of strokes and in 9.3% of all deaths in Singapore, and is the sixth most common cause of death. In the Diabcare Singapore 1998 Study, 91% of participants were diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes, with mean BMI of 25.1+/-4.4 kg/m(2). The incidence of Type 1 diabetes in childhood is 2.46 per 100000 children 0-12 years of age, while Type 2 diabetes in childhood is an emerging problem. The prevalence of obesity (BMI >30 kg/m(2)) among persons aged 18-69 years rose to 6% in 1998, up from 5.1% in 1992. The prevalence of obesity was highest among the Malays (16.2%) followed by the Indians (12.2%) and the Chinese (3.8%). About 12% of schoolchildren are obese. Increased efforts must be made to change lifestyle and eating patterns in our society, reduce childhood obesity and encourage adults to make lifelong sports and exercise part of the Singaporean way of life. Singapore has one of the world's fastest ageing populations, and even now, 32.4% of Singaporeans 60-69 years of age have diabetes. We should consider screening for diabetes in obese schoolchildren and seek to improve quality of care for people with diabetes, including enlisting the aid of community organisations to improve access to diabetes education, monitoring, support and complications screening services. PMID:11024582

  10. Ovarian and Adrenal Androgens and Their Link to High Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Levels: A Prospective Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, René; Villarreal-Pérez, Jesús Zacarías; Morales-Martinez, Felipe Arturo; Rodríguez-Guajardo, René; González-Saldivar, Gloria; Mancillas-Adame, Leonardo G.; Alvarez-Villalobos, Neri Alejandro; Lavalle-Gonzalez, Fernando Javier; González-González, José Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Background. Although the association between human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and hyperandrogenism was identified more than 40 years ago, relevant questions remain unanswered. Design and Methods. We conducted a prospective, longitudinal, and controlled study in 23 women with a diagnosis of a complete hydatidiform mole (HM). Results. All participants completed the study. Before HM evacuation mean hCG was markedly higher in the cases than in the control group (P ≤ 0.001). Free testosterone (T) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) were found to be higher in the cases (2.78 ± 1.24 pg/mL and 231.50 ± 127.20 μ/dL) when compared to the control group (1.50 ± 0.75 pg/mL and 133.59 ± 60.69 μ/dL) (P = 0.0001 and 0.001), respectively. There was a strong correlation between hCG and free T/total T/DHEA-S concentrations (r = 0.78; P ≤ 0.001, r = 0.74;  P ≤ 0.001, and r = 0.71;  P ≤ 0.001), respectively. In the cases group 48 hours after HM evacuation, hCG levels were found to be significantly lower when compared to initial levels (P = 0.001) and free T and DHEA-S declined significantly (P = 0.0002 and 0.009). Conclusion. Before uterus evacuation, hCG, free T, and DHEA-S levels were significantly higher when compared with controls finding a strong correlation between hCG and free T/DHEA-S levels. Forty-eight hours after HM treatment hCG levels declined and the difference was lost. A novel finding of our study is that in cases, besides free T, DHEA-S was also found to be significantly higher and both the ovaries and adrenal glands appear to be the sites of this androgen overproduction. PMID:25505909

  11. Ovarian and adrenal androgens and their link to high human chorionic gonadotropin levels: a prospective controlled study.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, René; Villarreal-Pérez, Jesús Zacarías; Morales-Martinez, Felipe Arturo; Rodríguez-Guajardo, René; González-Saldivar, Gloria; Mancillas-Adame, Leonardo G; Alvarez-Villalobos, Neri Alejandro; Lavalle-Gonzalez, Fernando Javier; González-González, José Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Background. Although the association between human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and hyperandrogenism was identified more than 40 years ago, relevant questions remain unanswered. Design and Methods. We conducted a prospective, longitudinal, and controlled study in 23 women with a diagnosis of a complete hydatidiform mole (HM). Results. All participants completed the study. Before HM evacuation mean hCG was markedly higher in the cases than in the control group (P ≤ 0.001). Free testosterone (T) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) were found to be higher in the cases (2.78 ± 1.24 pg/mL and 231.50 ± 127.20 μ/dL) when compared to the control group (1.50 ± 0.75 pg/mL and 133.59 ± 60.69 μ/dL) (P = 0.0001 and 0.001), respectively. There was a strong correlation between hCG and free T/total T/DHEA-S concentrations (r = 0.78; P ≤ 0.001, r = 0.74;  P ≤ 0.001, and r = 0.71;  P ≤ 0.001), respectively. In the cases group 48 hours after HM evacuation, hCG levels were found to be significantly lower when compared to initial levels (P = 0.001) and free T and DHEA-S declined significantly (P = 0.0002 and 0.009). Conclusion. Before uterus evacuation, hCG, free T, and DHEA-S levels were significantly higher when compared with controls finding a strong correlation between hCG and free T/DHEA-S levels. Forty-eight hours after HM treatment hCG levels declined and the difference was lost. A novel finding of our study is that in cases, besides free T, DHEA-S was also found to be significantly higher and both the ovaries and adrenal glands appear to be the sites of this androgen overproduction.

  12. Sarcopenia, sarcopenic obesity, and functional impairments in older adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999-2004.

    PubMed

    Batsis, John A; Mackenzie, Todd A; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Bartels, Stephen J

    2015-12-01

    The Foundation for the National Institutes of Health Sarcopenia Project validated cutpoints for appendicular lean mass (ALM) to identify individuals with functional impairment. We hypothesized that the prevalence of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity would be similar based on the different Foundation for the National Institutes of Health criteria, increase with age, and be associated with risk of impairment limitations. We identified 4984 subjects at least 60 years of age from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999-2004. Sarcopenia was defined using ALM (men <19.75 kg, women <15.02 kg) and ALM adjusted for body mass index (BMI; men <0.789 kg/m2, women <0.512 kg/m2). Sarcopenic obesity is defined as subjects fulfilling the criteria for sarcopenia and obesity by body fat (men ≥25%, women ≥35%). Prevalence rates of both sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity were evaluated with respect to sex, age category (60-69, 70-79, and >80 years) and race. We assessed the association of physical limitations, basic and instrumental activities of daily living and sarcopenia status. The mean age was 70.5 years in men and 71.6 years in women. Half (50.8%; n = 2531) were female, and mean BMI was 28 kg/m2 in both sexes. Appendicular lean mass was higher in men than in women (24.1 vs. 16.3; P < .001), but fat mass was lower (30.9 vs. 42.0; P < .001). In men, sarcopenia prevalence was 16.0% and 27.8% using the ALM and ALM/BMI criteria. In women, prevalence was 40.5% and 19.3% using the ALM and ALM/BMI criteria. Sarcopenia was associated with a 1.10 (0.86-1.41) and 0.93 (0.74-1.16), and 1.46 (1.10-1.94), and 2.13 (1.41-3.20) risk of physical limitations using the ALM and ALM/BMI definitions in men and women, respectively. Prevalence of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity varies greatly, and a uniform definition is needed to identify and characterize these high-risk populations. PMID:26472145

  13. Liver Disease Burden of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Iran and the Potential Impact of Various Treatment Strategies on the Disease Burden

    PubMed Central

    Hajarizadeh, Behzad; Razavi-Shearer, Devin; Merat, Shahin; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Malekzadeh, Reza; Razavi, Homie

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is emerging as the leading cause of viral hepatitis-related liver disease in Iran. Objectives This study estimated the current and future disease burden of HCV infection in Iran and assessed the impact of various strategies in access to HCV treatment on reducing the disease burden. Materials and Methods A modelling approach was used to estimate the size of HCV infected population, and disease progression from 2014 to 2030. Literature review and expert consensus informed the model parameters. Base case scenario assumed the currently utilized Interferon (IFN)-based treatment. Five other scenarios assumed utilizing IFN-free direct acting anti-viral regimens with 1, the base case diagnosis and treatment uptake; 2, restricting treatment to severe liver fibrosis; 3, treatment uptake being doubled; 4, stepwise increase in treatment uptake (doubled by 2017, quadrupled thereafter); 5, targeting at least 90% reduction in HCV infections by 2030. Results In 2014, an estimated 186,500 individuals are living with HCV infection in Iran (median age: 30 years). By 2030, this number will increase to 213,700, while three to four fold increase is expected in the case numbers of decompensated cirrhosis (DC, n = 620), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, n = 510), and liver disease death (n = 400), assuming the current diagnosis/treatment settings. As compared with the base case scenario, scenarios 1 and 2 will have a limited impact on HCV disease burden, while scenarios 3 and 4 will result in 45% - 49% decrease in the number of individuals living with HCV infection and 60% - 69% decrease in DC, HCC and liver disease deaths by 2030. For at least 90% reduction in HCV infections by 2030 (scenario 5), diagnosis and treatment rates should be increased to 12,000 and 9,000 individuals per year in 2016, respectively and to 24,000 and 18,000 individuals per year, respectively in 2018 onward. Conclusions An increasing burden of HCV-related liver

  14. Microbiology of Non-Tunnelled Catheter-Related Infections

    PubMed Central

    Mallya, Shrikara P.; Bhat, Ashok; Baliga, Shrikala

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Aerobic bacterial infections often complicate vascular access in patients receiving haemodialysis, leading to Catheter-Related Blood Stream Infections (CRBSI). Various studies report Gram - positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in particular, as the most common aetiologic agent. Studies on microbiological analysis in this subset of population from India are very few. Aim To examine clinical and bacteriological profiles of haemodialysis patients developing CRBSI, the antibiotic susceptibility of the bacteria isolated from these patients and determine nasal carriage of S. aureus in the study subjects. Materials and Methods Using a prospective observational design 127 patients receiving haemodialysis (84 males; 43 females) from October 2011 to March 2013 were enrolled in this study. At each dialysis session, catheters were examined for any evidence of infection. In case of suspicion for infection, pus swab, blood culture and the catheter tips were sent to microbiology laboratory for site specific investigations. Vancomycin injection was empirically administered to these patients pending culture results. Data obtained was examined for relationship of CRBSI with clinical and socio-demographic risk factors. Results Out of 127 patients, 19 developed CRBSI, 10 developed exit-site infections and 33 patients were noted to have colonization of their catheters. The most common organisms included S. aureus in 24 (45.2%) catheter tips, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 9 (17%), Acinetobacter spp. in 5 (9%), Enterobacter spp. in 4 (7.5%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae in 3 (5.6%) catheter tips. Bacteraemia was found in 19 (20.7%) patients and P. aeruginosa was the most commonly isolated organism amongst them (38.8%). Staphylococcal nasal carriage was seen in 60 (69%) patients and 36 (41.4%) of these isolates were methicillin-resistant. Significant factors associated with CRBSI included history of bacteraemia, presence of diabetes mellitus, long duration

  15. Correlation between nutritional status and comprehensive physical performance measures among older adults with undernourishment in residential institutions

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Devinder KA; Manaf, Zahara A; Yusoff, Noor Aini M; Muhammad, Nur A; Phan, Mei Fang; Shahar, Suzana

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The consequences of combined undernourishment and decreased physical performance in older adults are debilitating and increases cost of care. To date, the information regarding the association between nutritional status and physical performance does not provide a complete picture. Most studies used limited or self-reported measures to evaluate physical performance. The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between nutritional status and comprehensive physical performance measures among undernourished older adults who reside in residential institutions. Methods Forty-seven older adults (26 males, 21 females) aged ≥60 (69.23±8.63) years who were identified as undernourished from two residential institutions participated in this study. A battery of physical performance tests (10 m gait speed test, dominant hand grip strength test, timed five-repetition sit-to-stand test, ten step test, arm curl test, scratch test, and respiratory muscle strength test), biochemical profiles (serum albumin, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, and prealbumin levels), and falls risk using the short-form Physiological Profile Approach were performed. The Functional Ability Questionnaire and Geriatric Depression Scale were also administered. Results The results demonstrated that generally older adults with undernourishment scored poorly on the physical performance tests, had depression, and a high risk of falls. Biochemical results demonstrated that 10.9% of the participants were anemic, 63% had hypoalbuminemia (<3.5 g/dL), and 21.7% were at risk of protein energy malnutrition with prealbumin level (100–170 mg/L). A significant correlation (P<0.05) was demonstrated between hand grip strength and ferritin, between self-reported mobility dependence and prealbumin levels, and between self-reported mobility tiredness and body mass index. Conclusion These results confirm that older adults with undernutrition have poor physical function, higher falls risk, and depression

  16. Initial clinical presentation of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy with-a focus on electrocardiographic changes: A literature review of cases

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Jimenez, Erick Francisco

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To review the initial presentation and demonstrate the importance of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. METHODS: A PubMed search using the terms “Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC)” and “apical ballooning syndrome” yielded 211 publications. Only those that were relevant were fully reviewed. The gender, age, precipitating stressor, main complaint at presentation, electrocardiogram (ECG) at admission and serum cardiac markers of patients diagnosed with TC, were extracted as available. The data were organized in tables and graphics, and the incidence of the disorder was calculated and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 250 clinical cases were examined. The predominant gender that was affected was female, with a prevalence of 87.5%. The mean age of presentation was 64 ± 14 years. The cases were divided by age into 10-year intervals. The age interval of 60-69 years showed the highest frequency of TC, accounting for 79 cases. The most common precipitating stressor was physical (50% of cases). Chest pain was the primary complaint at presentation (58.8% of cases) followed by dyspnea (30% of cases). The ST segment changes category was the most common (60%), followed by T wave changes (39.6%). Of the 60% of cases with ST segment changes, 12% had concomitant T wave changes. This means that for 27.6% of the cases, the primary abnormality in the ECG was T wave changes; 87.6% of cases with TC had a change in the ST segment, in the T wave or in both. The percentage of ECGs presenting with changes in the anterior wall was 54.4% (35.6% of ST segment elevation + 1.6% of ST segment depression + 17.2% of T wave inversion). The percentage of patients presenting with changes in the lateral segment of the heart was 46.8%, while the percentage of patients with changes in the inferior heart was 21.6% and the percentage of patients with changes in the apical region was only 16%. The prevalence of elevated creatinine kinase and/or troponin on initial presentation was 89.3%. CONCLUSION: It is

  17. Risk Factors for Postoperative Infections Following Single Level Lumbar Fusion Surgery.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seokchun; Edelstein, Adam I; Patel, Alpesh A; Kim, Bobby D; Kim, John Y S

    2014-09-29

    Study Design. Retrospective multivariate analysis of a prospectively collected, multi-center database.Objective. To identify patient characteristics and perioperative risk factors associated with postoperative infectious complications following single level lumbar fusion (SLLF) surgery.Summary of Background Data. Postoperative infection is a known complication following lumbar fusion. Risk factors for infectious complications following lumbar fusion have not been investigated using select set of SLLF procedures.Methods. Patients who underwent SLLF between 2006 and 2011 were identified from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify pre- and intra-operative risk factors associated with postoperative infection.Results. 3,353 patients were analyzed in this study. Overall, 173 (5.2%) patients experienced a postoperative infection, including 86 (2.6%) surgical site infections (SSI) and 111 (3.3%) non-SSI infectious complications (pneumonia, UTI, sepsis/septic shock). Twenty four (0.7%) patients experienced both SSI and non-SSI infectious complications. Postoperative SSI were associated with obesity (OR 1.628, 95% CI 1.042-2.544), American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) class>2 (OR 2.078, 95% CI 1.309-3.299), and operative time >6 hrs (OR 2.573, 95% CI 1.310-5.056). Risk factors for non-SSI infectious complications included age (60-69 yrs, OR 3.279, 95% CI 1.541-6.980;≥70 yrs, OR 3.348, 95% CI 1.519-7.378), female gender (OR 1.791, 95% CI 1.183-2.711), creatinine>1.5mg/dL (OR 2.400, 95% CI 1.138-5.062), ASA >2 (OR 1.835, 95% CI 1.177-2.860), and operative time >6hrs (OR 3.563, 95% CI 2.082-6.097).Conclusions. Across a wide study population, we identified that obesity, advanced ASA classification, and longer operative time were predictive of postoperative SSI. We also demonstrated that increased age, female gender, serum creatinine>1.5mg/dL, and

  18. A ten year analysis of the traumatic maxillofacial and brain injury patient in Amsterdam: complications and treatment.

    PubMed

    Salentijn, Erik G; Collin, John D; Boffano, Paolo; Forouzanfar, Tymour

    2014-12-01

    Maxillofacial trauma is often associated with injuries to the cranium, especially in high-energy trauma. The management of such cases can be challenging and requires close cooperation between oral and maxillofacial surgery and neurosurgical teams. There are few reports in the current literature describing the complications that develop in patients with maxillofacial trauma and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Complications can be categorized as early or late and/or minor and major. The exact definition of complications and their categorization remains a matter of current debate. We present a 10 year retrospective study of complications and their subsequent management in patients receiving maxillofacial and neurosurgical treatment for maxillofacial trauma associated with TBI. The study population consisted of 47 people, excluded from a maxillofacial trauma population of 579 patients. The severity of the trauma was scored as mild, moderate or severe, using the Glasgow Coma Scale at presentation of the Emergency Department. In total 36 patients (76.6%) developed complications. Patients involved in road traffic collision were most likely to develop complications (92.3%). This was followed by falls (66.7%) as mechanism of the injury. Patients aged 60-69 years experienced the highest complication rate (5), followed by patients aged 20-29 years (4.1) and 30-39 years (3.5). The majority of complications were infection and inflammation (36.4%), followed by neurological deficit (24.0%), physiological dysregulation (11.6%) and facial bone deformity (8.3%). Patients who developed no complications, most often presented with mild TBI (72.7%). The most common treatment modality employed to manage complications was pharmacological, followed by antibiotic treatment, conservative treatment and decompression therapy. The mean hospital stay after the trauma for the patients with complications was 28 days. Thirteen patients (36.1%) were transferred to a rehabilitation centre, a nursing

  19. Baseline Cardiopulmonary Function as an Independent Prognostic Factor for Survival of Inoperable Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer After Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy: A Single-Center Analysis of 161 Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Semrau, Sabine; Klautke, Gunther; Fietkau, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about the effects of cardiopulmonary function on the prognosis of concurrent chemoradiotherapy in patients with inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis of the effects of tumor- and patient-related factors and parameters of cardiopulmonary function and heart morphology on the feasibility, toxicity, and prognosis was performed. Results: Cardiopulmonary function had no effect on the toxicity or feasibility of treatment; effects on survival were observed in the univariate analysis. Median survival varied as follows: cardiac function: 13.0 {+-} 1.6 months for left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) > 50% vs. 10.0 {+-} 1.9 months for LVEF {<=} 50% (p = 0.003); pulmonary function: 16.0 {+-} 0.6 months for no lung function deficits (vital capacity [VC]{>=} 60%, forced expiratory volume in 1 s {>=} 80%, and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) {>=}60%) vs. 14.0 {+-} 1.5 months for one or two function deficits vs. 8.0 {+-} 1.5 months for three lung function deficits (p = 0.001); T stage: 19.0 {+-} 3.1 months for rcT0/cT1/cT2 vs. 12.0 {+-} 0.8 months for cT3/cT4 (p = 0.039); and age: 11.0 {+-} 1.5 months for <60 years vs. 18.0 {+-} 2.5 months for 60-69 years vs. 12.0 {+-} 1.2 months for {>=}70 years (p = 0.008). Prognostic factors identified in the multivariate analysis were LVEF {<=}50% (p = 0.043; hazard ratio [HR], 1.74), reduced pulmonary function (p = 0.001; HR, 1.71 or 5.05) and T stage (p = 0.026; HR: 1.71). Conclusions: In addition to T-stage, cardiac and pulmonary function variables affected the survival of non-small-cell lung cancer patients after chemoradiotherapy.

  20. Sarcopenia, sarcopenic obesity, and functional impairments in older adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999-2004.

    PubMed

    Batsis, John A; Mackenzie, Todd A; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Bartels, Stephen J

    2015-12-01

    The Foundation for the National Institutes of Health Sarcopenia Project validated cutpoints for appendicular lean mass (ALM) to identify individuals with functional impairment. We hypothesized that the prevalence of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity would be similar based on the different Foundation for the National Institutes of Health criteria, increase with age, and be associated with risk of impairment limitations. We identified 4984 subjects at least 60 years of age from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999-2004. Sarcopenia was defined using ALM (men <19.75 kg, women <15.02 kg) and ALM adjusted for body mass index (BMI; men <0.789 kg/m2, women <0.512 kg/m2). Sarcopenic obesity is defined as subjects fulfilling the criteria for sarcopenia and obesity by body fat (men ≥25%, women ≥35%). Prevalence rates of both sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity were evaluated with respect to sex, age category (60-69, 70-79, and >80 years) and race. We assessed the association of physical limitations, basic and instrumental activities of daily living and sarcopenia status. The mean age was 70.5 years in men and 71.6 years in women. Half (50.8%; n = 2531) were female, and mean BMI was 28 kg/m2 in both sexes. Appendicular lean mass was higher in men than in women (24.1 vs. 16.3; P < .001), but fat mass was lower (30.9 vs. 42.0; P < .001). In men, sarcopenia prevalence was 16.0% and 27.8% using the ALM and ALM/BMI criteria. In women, prevalence was 40.5% and 19.3% using the ALM and ALM/BMI criteria. Sarcopenia was associated with a 1.10 (0.86-1.41) and 0.93 (0.74-1.16), and 1.46 (1.10-1.94), and 2.13 (1.41-3.20) risk of physical limitations using the ALM and ALM/BMI definitions in men and women, respectively. Prevalence of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity varies greatly, and a uniform definition is needed to identify and characterize these high-risk populations.

  1. Suppressive effects of Mimosa pudica (L.) constituents on the production of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Neeraj K.; Bhutani, Kamlesh K.

    2014-01-01

    The present study deals with the isolation of fourteen compounds from the active ethyl acetate (MPE) extract of M. pudica (L.) whole plant and their subsequent evaluation for the nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß) inhibitory activities in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated RAW 264.7 and J774A.1 cells. Among the tested compounds, L-mimosine (12; IC50 = 19.23 to 21.15 µM), crocetin (4; IC50 = 23.45 to 25.57 µM), crocin (14; IC50 = 27.16 to 31.53 µM) and jasmonic acid (11; IC50 = 21.32 to 29.42 µM) were identified as potent NO inhibitor when tested on the macrophages. Similarly, towards TNF-α and IL-1ß inhibition, including these four compounds, and ethyl gallate (3), gallic acid (10) and caffeic acid (7) were found to be more active with half maximal concentration, 17.32 to 62.32 µM whereas the other compounds depicted moderate and mild effects (IC50 = 59.32 to 95.01 µM). Also, at a dose of 40 mg/Kg, L-mimosine (12), jasmonic acid (11), crocin (14) and its de-esterified form, crocetin (4) were found to significantly (p < 0.05 and 0.001) reduce 60.7 %, 48.9 %, 48.4 % and 43.6 % respectively of TNF-de-esterified production in female Sprague Dawley rats. However, in case of IL-1ß, with the same dose (40 mg/Kg), jasmonic acid (11) exhibited significant reduction with 54.2 % followed by crocin (14) (50.2 %) and crocetin (4) (39.8 %) while L-mimosine (12) was found to reduce only 16.3 %. Based on the results, it can be estimated that these compounds imparting greatly to anti-inflammatory effects of M. pudica in vitro as well as in vivo through reduction of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators which affirm the ethno-pharmacological use of this plant for prevention of inflammatory-related disorders. PMID:26417317

  2. Exploring face-to-face and Web-based pedagogy in undergraduate natural resource sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbabaliye, Theogene

    Little has been published about Internet instruction compared to traditional classroom teaching in undergraduate natural resource science (NRS) education. This study hypothesized associations between teaching environments (face-to-face only (FF), Web only (WE), mixed mode (MI)); and teaching philosophy, practices, and perceived course outcomes. A questionnaire was sent to 142 faculty members with experience teaching in these environments in Western US. Sixty percent responded. Data were analyzed using factor analysis and multivariate statistics. Only statistically significant differences are presented. Most respondents were male (68%) 50-59 years old (80%) and tenured (74%). Overall, Web-based instruction was not seen as equivalent to face to face instruction. Adoption of the Internet for teaching was beyond critical mass. Most faculty members ranked their ability to use the Internet as average (27%) or expert (22%). Faculty rarely perceived students' learning experience in a WE course as "better" than FF. Web-based courses were not usually required of majors in the offering department. Faculty age, gender and experience are significant variables in use of some teaching practices. Faculty members who used the Internet favored a constructivist teaching philosophy, while FF and MI instruction tended towards a behaviorist philosophy. Respondents' most frequent teaching practices addressed connections, collaboration, meaning making, and learner autonomy. Collaborative teaching strategies were seldom used in Web-based instruction relative to FF. Learning assessments focused on learner interactions, efforts (individual or groups), and recall. The latter assessment was used less on the Web. Respondents viewed effective teaching in all teaching environments as achieving competency and application of knowledge. Personal experience, resource availability, and feedback were the most important influences on teaching. Resource availability constrained Internet instruction most

  3. Diabetes among Ethiopian Immigrants to Israel: Exploring the Effects of Migration and Ethnicity on Diabetes Risk

    PubMed Central

    Giveon, Shmuel; Wulffhart, Liat; Oberman, Bernice; Freedman, Laurence; Ziv, Arnona; Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra

    2016-01-01

    Objective Diabetes prevalence among ethnic minorities and immigrants often differs from the majority indigenous population. We compared diabetes prevalence, incidence and risk among Ethiopian and non-Ethiopian Jews. Within these main groups, we controlled for the effect of migration on diabetes risk by comparing the subgroups of Ethiopian and former Soviet Union (FSU) immigrants, and compared both with Israeli-born non-Ethiopian Jews. Methods The study cohort included adult Ethiopian (n = 8,398) and age-matched non-Ethiopian Jews (n = 15,977) and subgroups: Ethiopian immigrants (n = 7,994), FSU immigrants (n = 1,541) and Israeli-born non-Ethiopian Jews (n = 10,828). Diabetes prevalence, annual incidence, and hazard ratios (HRs) adjusted for sex and metabolic syndrome (MetS)-components, were determined in three age groups (<50yrs, 50-59yrs, and ≥60yrs). Comparisons of body mass index (BMI) at diabetes incidence were made. Results Younger (<50yrs) Ethiopians had higher prevalence rates, 3.6% (95%CI: 3.1–4.1) and annual incidence, 0.9% (95%CI: 0.8–1.0) than non-Ethiopians, 2.7% (95%CI: 2.3–3.0) and 0.5% (95%CI: 0.4–0.6), respectively. These differences were particularly pronounced among Ethiopian women. Diabetes risk among Ethiopians was higher and adjustment for MetS-components was important only for BMI, which further increased hazard ratio (HR) estimates associated with Ethiopian ethnicity from 1.81 (95% CI:1.50–2.17) to 2.31 (95% CI:1.91–2.79). The same differences were seen when comparing Ethiopian to FSU immigrants. BMI before incident diabetes was lower among younger Ethiopian immigrants than younger FSU immigrants and Israeli-born. Conclusions Ethiopian ethnicity is associated with increased diabetes risk, which is age and BMI dependent. Young Ethiopians<50yrs, particularly women, had the greatest increase in risk. Lower BMI cut-offs should be defined to reflect diabetes risk among Ethiopians. PMID:27300299

  4. CD8 T-cell responses against the immunodominant Theileria parva peptide Tp249-59 are composed of two distinct populations specific for overlapping 11-mer and 10-mer epitopes.

    PubMed

    Connelley, Timothy K; Li, Xiaoying; MacHugh, Niall; Colau, Didier; Graham, Simon P; van der Bruggen, Pierre; Taracha, Evans L; Gill, Andy; Morrison, William Ivan

    2016-10-01

    Immunity against Theileria parva is associated with CD8 T-cell responses that exhibit immunodominance, focusing the response against limited numbers of epitopes. As candidates for inclusion in vaccines, characterization of responses against immunodominant epitopes is a key component in novel vaccine development. We have previously demonstrated that the Tp249-59 and Tp1214-224 epitopes dominate CD8 T-cell responses in BoLA-A10 and BoLA-18 MHC I homozygous animals, respectively. In this study, peptide-MHC I tetramers for these epitopes, and a subdominant BoLA-A10-restricted epitope (Tp298-106 ), were generated to facilitate accurate and rapid enumeration of epitope-specific CD8 T cells. During validation of these tetramers a substantial proportion of Tp249-59 -reactive T cells failed to bind the tetramer, suggesting that this population was heterogeneous with respect to the recognized epitope. We demonstrate that Tp250-59 represents a distinct epitope and that tetramers produced with Tp50-59 and Tp49-59 show no cross-reactivity. The Tp249-59 and Tp250-59 epitopes use different serine residues as the N-terminal anchor for binding to the presenting MHC I molecule. Molecular dynamic modelling predicts that the two peptide-MHC I complexes adopt structurally different conformations and Tcell receptor β sequence analysis showed that Tp249-59 and Tp250-59 are recognized by non-overlapping T-cell receptor repertoires. Together these data demonstrate that although differing by only a single residue, Tp249-59 and Tp250-59 epitopes form distinct ligands for T-cell receptor recognition. Tetramer analysis of T. parva-specific CD8 T-cell lines confirmed the immunodominance of Tp1214-224 in BoLA-A18 animals and showed in BoLA-A10 animals that the Tp249-59 epitope response was generally more dominant than the Tp250-59 response and confirmed that the Tp298-106 response was subdominant.

  5. [Accidents and their health effects in firemen of rescue and firefighting teams].

    PubMed

    Szubert, Z; Sobala, W

    2000-01-01

    Accidents, traumas and poisoning are the most frequent causes of health impairments among firemen, determined by the nature of their occupation. Their work is directly related with the exposure to various harmful chemical and physical factors, involving at the same time mental stress during rescue and firefighting actions. The aim of the analysis performed was to determine the accident rate, range and causes of accident-related absenteeism among firemen of the rescue and firefighting brigades, as well as to indicate major traumas resulting from accidents at work. The study was carried out in a group of 1503 firemen (7% of the total number of firemen in Poland) employed in the rescue and firefighting brigades, selected at random throughout the country. Workers' personal data, as well as the data on the number of accidents and the number of days of work disability during the years 1994-97 were analysed. Accidents and accident-related absenteeism by age, certified causes and sites (body parts) of traumas were also analysed using the following parameters: the accident rate (the number of accidents per 1000 workers), accident severity rate (the number of work disability days per one accident), and absenteeism rate (the number of accident-related work disability days per 100 employed). In the period under study (1994-97) 352 accidents, involving 301 persons were registered. Thus, the accident rate was 70.3. These accidents were responsible for the period of work disability three times higher (293.5 days/100 workers) than that observed in the male population employed in the national economy, and eight times higher (770.2 days/100 workers) in the 50-59 age group. Dislocations and distortions were the most frequent causes of accident-related absenteeism--48, whereas fractures occupied the second place--25%. Burns were classified among the most severe injuries, resulting in more than 90 days of absenteeism annually, but they made only 7% of absenteeism with frequency rate of

  6. A Prospective, Multicentered Study to Assess Social Adjustment in Patients With an Intestinal Stoma in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Karadağ, Ayişe; Karabulut, Hatice; Baykara, Zehra G; Harputlu, Deniz; Toyluk, Eylem; Ulusoy, Birgül; Karadağ, Sercan; Kahraman, Aysel; Hin, Aysel Ören; Altinsoy, Meral; Akıl, Yasemin; Leventoğlu, Sezai

    2015-10-01

    Patients with a stoma undergo physiological, psychological, and social adjustment to their new life situation. A descriptive, prospective study was conducted to assess adaptation among patients >18 years of age with a new temporary or permanent colostomy or ileostomy living in Turkey and receiving care at a participating stomatherapy unit. The study took place between September 1, 2011, and September 1, 2012. During hospitalization and following discharge, patients with a stoma received training and counseling according to their individual characteristics and their physiological, psychological, and social needs. Each participant completed the 19-item "Identification Form for Patients with a Stoma" at the beginning of the study to document sociodemographic and stoma characteristics. To assess adjustment to the stoma, The Ostomy Assessment Inventory (OAI-23) was administered 2 times - the first within 1 month and the second within 6 months after surgery or when a temporary stoma was closed (whichever came first). This instrument comprised 23 items regarding adaptation to the stoma using Likert-type response options (0-4 range). Total scores ranged from 10 to 92, with higher scores indicating better adjustment. The instruments were completed by stoma and wound care nurses during face-to-face interviews. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and Wilcoxon tests. Of the 135 participants, the majority (77, 57.0%) were male; 73 (54.1%) had a colostomy, and 106 (78.5%) had a temporary stoma. The primary reason for stoma creation was cancer (89, 65.9%). Mean total OAI-23 scores were 48.63 ± 13.75 at the first administration and 50.59 ± 13.89 for the second. In terms of sociodemographic factors, significant increases in mean scores from the first to the second survey time were noted among patients in the 50-69 age group, women, married persons, and unemployed persons (P less than 0.05). With regard to stoma characteristics, the OAI-23 scores of patients

  7. Frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption and coronary heart disease in France and Northern Ireland: the PRIME study.

    PubMed

    Dauchet, Luc; Ferrières, Jean; Arveiler, Dominique; Yarnell, John W; Gey, Fred; Ducimetière, Pierre; Ruidavets, Jean-Bernard; Haas, Bernadette; Evans, Alun; Bingham, Annie; Amouyel, Philippe; Dallongeville, Jean

    2004-12-01

    Fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with low CHD risk in the USA and Northern Europe. There is, in contrast, little information about these associations in other regions of Europe. The goal of the present study was to assess the relationship between frequency of fruit and vegetable intake and CHD risk in two European populations with contrasting cardiovascular incidence rates; France and Northern Ireland. The present prospective study was in men aged 50-59 years, free of CHD, who were recruited in France (n 5982) and Northern Ireland (n 2105). Fruit and vegetable intake was assessed by a food-frequency questionnaire. Incident cases of acute coronary events and angina were recorded over a 5-year follow-up. During follow-up there was a total of 249 ischaemic events. After adjustment on education level, smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, employment status, BMI, blood pressure, serum total and HDL-cholesterol, the relative risks (RR) of acute coronary events were 0.67 (95% CI 0.44, 1.03) and 0.64 (95% CI 0.41, 0.99) in the 2nd and 3rd tertiles of citrus fruit consumption, respectively (P for trend <0.03). Similar results were observed in France and Northern Ireland. In contrast, the RR of acute coronary events for 'other fruit' consumption were 0.70 (95% CI 0.31, 1.56) and 0.52 (95% CI 0.24, 1.14) respectively in Northern Ireland (trend P<0.05) and 1.29 (95% CI 0.69, 2.4) and 1.15 (95% CI 0.68, 1.94) in France (trend P=0.5; interaction P<0.04). There was no evidence for any association between vegetable intake and total CHD events. In conclusion, frequency of citrus fruit, but not other fruits, intake is associated with lower rates of acute coronary events in both France and Northern Ireland, suggesting that geographical or related factors might affect the relationship between fruit consumption and CHD risk.

  8. CD8 T-cell responses against the immunodominant Theileria parva peptide Tp249-59 are composed of two distinct populations specific for overlapping 11-mer and 10-mer epitopes.

    PubMed

    Connelley, Timothy K; Li, Xiaoying; MacHugh, Niall; Colau, Didier; Graham, Simon P; van der Bruggen, Pierre; Taracha, Evans L; Gill, Andy; Morrison, William Ivan

    2016-10-01

    Immunity against Theileria parva is associated with CD8 T-cell responses that exhibit immunodominance, focusing the response against limited numbers of epitopes. As candidates for inclusion in vaccines, characterization of responses against immunodominant epitopes is a key component in novel vaccine development. We have previously demonstrated that the Tp249-59 and Tp1214-224 epitopes dominate CD8 T-cell responses in BoLA-A10 and BoLA-18 MHC I homozygous animals, respectively. In this study, peptide-MHC I tetramers for these epitopes, and a subdominant BoLA-A10-restricted epitope (Tp298-106 ), were generated to facilitate accurate and rapid enumeration of epitope-specific CD8 T cells. During validation of these tetramers a substantial proportion of Tp249-59 -reactive T cells failed to bind the tetramer, suggesting that this population was heterogeneous with respect to the recognized epitope. We demonstrate that Tp250-59 represents a distinct epitope and that tetramers produced with Tp50-59 and Tp49-59 show no cross-reactivity. The Tp249-59 and Tp250-59 epitopes use different serine residues as the N-terminal anchor for binding to the presenting MHC I molecule. Molecular dynamic modelling predicts that the two peptide-MHC I complexes adopt structurally different conformations and Tcell receptor β sequence analysis showed that Tp249-59 and Tp250-59 are recognized by non-overlapping T-cell receptor repertoires. Together these data demonstrate that although differing by only a single residue, Tp249-59 and Tp250-59 epitopes form distinct ligands for T-cell receptor recognition. Tetramer analysis of T. parva-specific CD8 T-cell lines confirmed the immunodominance of Tp1214-224 in BoLA-A18 animals and showed in BoLA-A10 animals that the Tp249-59 epitope response was generally more dominant than the Tp250-59 response and confirmed that the Tp298-106 response was subdominant. PMID:27317384

  9. Retrospective Validation of a Protocol to Limit Unnecessary Transport of Assisted-living Residents Who Fall.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jefferson G; Bachman, Michael W; Jones, A Wooten; Myers, J Brent; Kronhaus, Alan K; Miller, Diane L; Currie, Benjamin; Lyons, Michael; Zalkin, Joseph; Register-Mihalik, Johna K; Tibbo-Valeriote, Holly; De Maio, Valerie J

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Emergency medical services (EMS) often transports patients who suffer simple falls in assisted-living facilities (ALFs). An EMS "falls protocol" could avoid unnecessary transport for many of these patients, while ensuring that patients with time-sensitive conditions are transported. Our objective was to retrospectively validate an EMS protocol to assist decision making regarding the transport of ALF patients with simple falls. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients transported to the emergency department from July 2010 to June 2011 for a chief complaint of "fall" within a subset of ALFs served by a specific primary care group in our urban EMS system (population 900,000). The primary outcome, "time-sensitive intervention" (TSI), was met by patients who had wound repair or fracture, admission to the ICU, OR, or cardiac cath lab, death during hospitalization, or readmission within 48 hours. EMS and primary care physicians developed an EMS protocol, a priori and by consensus, to require transport for patients needing TSI. The protocol utilizes screening criteria, including history and exam findings, to recommend transport versus nontransport with close primary care follow-up. The EMS protocol was retrospectively applied to determine which patients required transport. Protocol performance was estimated using sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value (NPV). Results. Of 653 patients transported across 30 facilities, 644 had sufficient data. Of these, 197 (31%) met the primary outcome. Most patients who required TSI had fracture (73) or wound repair (92). The EMS protocol identified 190 patients requiring TSI, for a sensitivity of 96% (95% CI: 93-98%), specificity of 54% (95% CI: 50-59%), and NPV of 97% (95% CI: 94-99%). Of 7 patients with false negatives, 3 were readmitted (and redischarged) after another fall, 3 sustained hip fractures that were surgically repaired, and 1 had a lumbar compression fracture and was

  10. Etude longitudinale de la névralgie cervico-brachiale dans le service de neurologie du CHU Gabriel Touré, Bamako (Mali)

    PubMed Central

    Maiga, Youssoufa; Fara, Amina Ahmed; Sogoba, Youssouf; Diango, Djibo; Diakite, Sara; Diallo, Mohamed; Ak, Hadiza; Diallo, Gangaly; Traore, Hamar Alassane

    2013-01-01

    Introduction La Névralgie Cervico-Brachiale (NCB) est une pathologie relativement fréquente dans la pratique courante. Elle est pourvoyeuse d'importants coûts médicaux et socio-économiques. Peu de données existent sur la NCB en Afrique. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude longitudinale, descriptive et prospective qui s'est déroulée du 1er novembre 2009 au 30 Août 2010 au CHU Gabriel Touré de Bamako, Mali. Elle a pour objectif d’étudier les caractéristiques épidémiologiques et cliniques de la NCB. Le diagnostic à été strictement clinique, et la DN4 a permis de déterminer les caractéristiques de cette névralgie. L'intensité de la douleur a été évaluée par l’échelle verbale simple (EVS). L’échelle concis de la douleur et l’échelle HAD ont permis d’étudier l'impact de la douleur sur la qualité de vie des patients. Résultats La fréquence de la NCB est de 10,9%. Les ménagères sont les plus touchées, 21(40,4%). L’âge moyen des patients est de 48 ±7 ans. La tranche d’âge de 50-59 ans représente la classe modale. La douleur est à prédominance nocturne chez 75,0% des patients. Les décharges électriques sont la caractéristique principale soit 48,1% des patients et 57,7% malades présentent une douleur intense. Sur le plan topographique, la racine C7, est la plus atteinte soit 50,0%. Sur la qualité de la vie, 44,2% des malades présentent des troubles du sommeil. Sur le plan thérapeutique l’évolution a été favorable chez 78,8% des patients sous AINS, Tramadol et Amitriptilline. Conclusion otre travail à l'instar des études antérieures sur la NCB montre que cette pathologie reste une entité clinique relativement courante. Le pronostic généralement favorable est fonction d'un diagnostic précoce et d'une prise en charge adaptée. PMID:24648859

  11. In vitro potential modulation of baicalin and baicalein on P-glycoprotein activity and expression in Caco-2 cells and rat gut sacs.

    PubMed

    Miao, Qing; Wang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Miao, Peipei; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yujie; Ma, Shuangcheng

    2016-09-01

    Context Previous studies have shown that Scutellariae Radix, the dried root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Labiatae), has a certain inhibitory effect on P-glycoprotein (P-gp), but the effects of its main active constituents on P-gp are still ambiguous. Objectives In vitro studies were performed to investigate the effects of its main active constituents (baicalin and its aglycone, baicalein) on the activity and expression of P-gp in intestine using Caco-2 cells and rat gut sacs. Materials and methods In Caco-2 cell experiments, the effects of baicalin and baicalein on P-gp activity were investigated using a P-gp substrate, rhodamine 123 and non-substrate fluorescein Na, by determining their intracellular fluorescence accumulation, and their effects on P-gp expression were determined using flow cytometry. In addition, rat gut sac model was selected to investigate the effects of baicalin and baicalein on the transport of verapamil, a classical P-gp substrate. The gut sacs of male Sprague-Dawley rats were filled with 0.4 mL the test solution contained verapamil (0.2575 mg/mL) and the drugs [baicalin and baicalein, at concentrations of 1/8 IC50 (59.875, 41.5 μg/mL), 1/4 IC50 (119.75, 83 μg/mL) and 1/2 IC50 (239.5, 166 μg/mL)], and then incubated in Tyrode's solution for a period of time. After termination of the incubation, the incubated solution was processed for the subsequent detection. Results According to the results of MTT assay, the IC50 values of verapamil, baicalin and baicalein were 104, 479, 332 μg/mL, respectively. The obtained results from the two models were confirmed mutually. As a result, baicalin exhibited no obvious effect on intracellular accumulation of Rh-123, and almost had no effect on P-gp expression and verapamil transportation, while baicalein significantly increased intracellular accumulation of Rh-123 (p < 0.01), down-regulated P-gp expression (p < 0.01) and increased the transport of verapamil (p < 0

  12. Definition of advanced age in HIV infection: looking for an age cut-off.

    PubMed

    Blanco, José R; Jarrín, Inmaculada; Vallejo, Manuel; Berenguer, Juan; Solera, Carmen; Rubio, Rafael; Pulido, Federico; Asensi, Victor; del Amo, Julia; Moreno, Santiago

    2012-09-01

    The age of 50 has been considered as a cut-off to discriminate older subjects within HIV-infected people according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). However, the International AIDS Society (IAS) mentions 60 years of age and the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) makes no consideration. We aimed to establish an age cut-off that could differentiate response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and, therefore, help to define advanced age in HIV-infected patients. CoRIS is an open, prospective, multicenter cohort of HIV adults naive to HAART at entry (January 2004 to October 2009). Survival, immunological response (IR) (CD4 increase of more than 100 cell/ml), and virological response (VR) (HIV RNA less than 50 copies/ml) were compared among 5-year age intervals at start of HAART using Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by hospital and adjusted for potential confounders. Among 5514 patients, 2726 began HAART. During follow-up, 2164 (79.4%) patients experienced an IR, 1686 (61.8%) a VR, and 54 (1.9%) died. Compared with patients aged <25 years at start of HAART, those aged 50-54, 55-59, 60-64, 65-59, and 70 or older were 32% (aHR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.52-0.87), 29% (aHR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.53-0.96), 34% (aHR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.46-0.95), 39% (aHR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.37-1.00), and 43% (aHR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.31-1.04) less likely to experience an IR. The VR was similar across all age groups. Finally, patients aged 50-59 showed a 3-fold increase (aHR: 3.58; 95% CI: 1.07-11.99) in their risk of death compared to those aged <30 years. In HIV infection, patients aged ≥50 years have a poorer immunological response to HAART and a poorer survival. This age could be used to define medically advanced age in HIV-infected people.

  13. In vitro potential modulation of baicalin and baicalein on P-glycoprotein activity and expression in Caco-2 cells and rat gut sacs.

    PubMed

    Miao, Qing; Wang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Miao, Peipei; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yujie; Ma, Shuangcheng

    2016-09-01

    Context Previous studies have shown that Scutellariae Radix, the dried root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Labiatae), has a certain inhibitory effect on P-glycoprotein (P-gp), but the effects of its main active constituents on P-gp are still ambiguous. Objectives In vitro studies were performed to investigate the effects of its main active constituents (baicalin and its aglycone, baicalein) on the activity and expression of P-gp in intestine using Caco-2 cells and rat gut sacs. Materials and methods In Caco-2 cell experiments, the effects of baicalin and baicalein on P-gp activity were investigated using a P-gp substrate, rhodamine 123 and non-substrate fluorescein Na, by determining their intracellular fluorescence accumulation, and their effects on P-gp expression were determined using flow cytometry. In addition, rat gut sac model was selected to investigate the effects of baicalin and baicalein on the transport of verapamil, a classical P-gp substrate. The gut sacs of male Sprague-Dawley rats were filled with 0.4 mL the test solution contained verapamil (0.2575 mg/mL) and the drugs [baicalin and baicalein, at concentrations of 1/8 IC50 (59.875, 41.5 μg/mL), 1/4 IC50 (119.75, 83 μg/mL) and 1/2 IC50 (239.5, 166 μg/mL)], and then incubated in Tyrode's solution for a period of time. After termination of the incubation, the incubated solution was processed for the subsequent detection. Results According to the results of MTT assay, the IC50 values of verapamil, baicalin and baicalein were 104, 479, 332 μg/mL, respectively. The obtained results from the two models were confirmed mutually. As a result, baicalin exhibited no obvious effect on intracellular accumulation of Rh-123, and almost had no effect on P-gp expression and verapamil transportation, while baicalein significantly increased intracellular accumulation of Rh-123 (p < 0.01), down-regulated P-gp expression (p < 0.01) and increased the transport of verapamil (p < 0

  14. Comparison of Four Cisplatin-Based Radiochemotherapy Regimens for Nonmetastatic Stage III/IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck;Head-and-neck cancer; Cisplatin-based radiochemotherapy; Toxicity; Treatment outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk; Kronemann, Stefanie; Meyners, Thekla; Bohlen, Guenther; Tribius, Silke; Kazic, Nadja; Schroeder, Ursula; Hakim, Samer G.; Schild, Steven E.; Dunst, Juergen

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To compare the outcomes of four cisplatin-based radiochemotherapy regimens in 311 patients with Stage III/IV squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Methods and Materials: Concurrent chemotherapy consisted of three courses of cisplatin 100 mg/m{sup 2} on Day 1 (Group A, n = 74), two courses of cisplatin 20 mg/m{sup 2} on Days 1-5 plus 5-fluorouracil 1,000 mg/m{sup 2} on Days 1-5 (Group B, n = 49), two courses of cisplatin 20 mg/m{sup 2} on Days 1-5 plus 5-fluorouracil 600 mg/m{sup 2} on Days 1-5 (Group C, n = 102), or two courses of cisplatin 20 mg/m{sup 2} on Days 1-5 (Group D, n = 86). The groups were retrospectively compared for toxicity and outcomes, and 11 additional factors were evaluated for outcomes. Results: No significant difference was observed among the groups regarding radiation-related acute oral mucositis and radiation-related late toxicities. Acute Grade 3 skin toxicity was significantly more frequent in Group B than in the patients of the other three groups (p = .013). The chemotherapy-related Grade 3 nausea/vomiting rate was 24% for Group A, 8% for Group B, 9% for Group C, and 6% for Group D (p = .003). The corresponding Grade 3 nephrotoxicity rates were 8%, 1%, 2%, and 1% (p = .019). The corresponding Grade 3-4 hematologic toxicity rates were 35%, 41%, 19%, and 21% (p = .027). Chemotherapy could be completed in 50%, 59%, 74%, and 83% of the Group A, B, C, and D patients, respectively (p = .002). Toxicity-related radiotherapy breaks occurred in 39%, 43%, 21%, and 15% of Groups A, B, C, and D, respectively (p = .005). The 3-year locoregional control rate was 67%, 72%, 60%, and 59% for Groups A, B, C, and D, respectively (p = .48). The corresponding 3-year metastasis-free survival rates were 67%, 74%, 63%, and 79% (p = .31), and the corresponding 3-year survival rates were 60%, 63%, 50%, and 71% (p = .056). On multivariate analysis, Karnofsky performance status, histologic grade, T/N category, preradiotherapy hemoglobin level

  15. Antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of Piper betle, Areca catechu, Uncaria gambir and betel quid with and without calcium hydroxide

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Betel quid chewing is a popular habit in Southeast Asia. It is believed that chewing betel quid could reduce stress, strengthen teeth and maintain oral hygiene. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of each of the ingredients of betel quid and compared with betel quid itself (with and without calcium hydroxide). The correlation of their cytoprotective and antioxidant activities with phenolic content was also determined. Methods Five samples (betel leaf, areca nut, gambir, betel quid and betel quid containing calcium hydroxide) were extracted in deionized distilled water for 12 hours at 37°C. Antioxidant activities were evaluated for radical scavenging activity using DPPH assay, ferric reducing activity using FRAP assay and lipid peroxidation inhibition activity using FTC assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu procedure. Phenolic composition was analyzed using LC-MS/MS. Cytoprotective activity towards human gingival fibroblast cells was examined using MTT assay. Results Among the ingredients of betel quid, gambir demonstrated the highest antioxidant (DPPH - IC50 = 6.4 ± 0.8 μg/mL, FRAP - 5717.8 ± 537.6 μmol Fe(II)/mg), total phenolic content (TPC - 1142.5 ± 106.8 μg TAE/mg) and cytoprotective (100.1 ± 4.6%) activities. Betel quid when compared with betel quid containing calcium hydroxide has higher antioxidant (DPPH - IC50 =59.4 ± 4.4 μg/mL, FRAP - 1022.2 ± 235.7 μmol Fe(II)/mg), total phenolic content (TPC - 140.0 ± 22.3 μg TAE/mg), and cytoprotective (113.5 ± 15.9%) activities. However, all of the five samples showed good lipid peroxidation inhibition compared to vitamin E. LC-MS/MS analysis revealed the presence of quinic acid as the major compound of gambir and betel quid. A positive correlation was observed between TPC and radical scavenging (r = 0.972), reducing power (r = 0.981) and cytoprotective

  16. Long term cause specific mortality among 34 489 five year survivors of childhood cancer in Great Britain: population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Fidler, Miranda M; Reulen, Raoul C; Winter, David L; Kelly, Julie; Jenkinson, Helen C; Skinner, Rod; Frobisher, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether modern treatments for cancer are associated with a net increased or decreased risk of death from neoplastic and non-neoplastic causes among survivors of childhood cancer. Design Population based cohort study. Setting British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Participants Nationwide population based cohort of 34 489 five year survivors of childhood cancer with a diagnosis from 1940 to 2006 and followed up until 28 February 2014. Main outcome measures Cause specific standardised mortality ratios and absolute excess risks are reported. Multivariable Poisson regression models were utilised to evaluate the simultaneous effect of risk factors. Likelihood ratio tests were used to test for heterogeneity or trend. Results Overall, 4475 deaths were observed, which was 9.1 (95% confidence interval 8.9 to 9.4) times that expected in the general population, corresponding to 64.2 (95% confidence interval 62.1 to 66.3) excess deaths per 10 000 person years. The number of excess deaths from all causes declined among those treated more recently; those treated during 1990-2006 experienced 30% of the excess number of deaths experienced by those treated before 1970. The corresponding percentages for the decline in excess deaths from recurrence or progression and non-neoplastic causes were 30% and 60%, respectively. Among survivors aged 50-59 years, 41% and 22% of excess deaths were attributable to subsequent primary neoplasms and circulatory conditions, respectively, whereas the corresponding percentages among those aged 60 years or more were 31% and 37%. Conclusions The net effects of changes in cancer treatments, and surveillance and management for late effects, over the period 1940 to 2006 was to reduce the excess number of deaths from both recurrence or progression and non-neoplastic causes among those treated more recently. Among survivors aged 60 years or more, the excess number of deaths from circulatory causes exceeds the excess number

  17. Evaluation of alternate outreach models for cataract services in rural Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bharatpur Eye Hospital in Chitwan District, a primarily agrarian setting in south-central Nepal, reduced the number of diagnostic screening and treatment (DST) camps by one half (151 to 75) in an attempt to increase both the efficiency of its outreach program and the number of people that go directly to the hospital for service. The Hospital evaluated the two program models in terms of program costs, cataract surgical utilization, hospital direct payment and patient equity. Methods The study is a prospective, before and after, study of the impact of an alternate outreach model on cataract service utilization patterns and cost per outreach camp and cost per cataract surgery at Bharatpur Eye Hospital, comparing the service years July 2006 to June 2007, with July 2007 to June 2008. Study findings were based on routinely gathered hospital and outreach administrative data. Results The total cost of the DST camps decreased by approximately US$2000. The cost per camp increased from US$52 to $78 and the cost per cataract surgery decreased from US$ 3.80 to $3.20. The number of patients who went directly to the hospital, and paid for cataract surgery, increased from 432 (17%) to 623 (25%). The total number of cataract surgical procedures at Bharatpur Eye Hospital remained very similar between the two service years (2501 and 2449, respectively). The presenting visual acuity and sex of the two cataract surgical populations were very similar (favouring women, 53 and 55% in the two years, respectively). A shift toward younger men and women occurred with a 245 (64%) increase in people age 50-59 years, and shift away from people age 70 years and older with a 236 (22%) reduction. The age and sex distribution of the direct paying patients were very similar in the two years. Conclusion The new, more concentrated, more rural DST model of service delivery reduced overall outreach program costs, cost per cataract surgery transported, while increasing direct payments to the

  18. A Hyperspectrometer for Remote Sensing of Biochemical Components in the Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semeniv, Oleh; Yatsenko, Vitalij; Khandriga, Pavlo; Shatokhina, Iuliia

    on a quantum optimization procedure is presented. [1] V. Yatsenko, S. Kochubey, P. Khandryga, V. Donets, O. Semeniv, Space Sciences and Technologie, 3 (2007). P. 35-45. [2] Yatsenko V., Kochubey S., Donets V., Kazantsev T., in: Proc. of SPIE "Detectors and Associated Signal Processing II" (Jena, 2005), V. 5964, P.1-6. [3] Yatsenko V.A., Kochubey S.M., Pardalos P.M., Zhan L. in: Proc. of SPIE Conference 'AeroSence. Technologies and Systems for Defence and Security' (Orlando, 2003), V. 5071, P.50-59. [4] Yatsenko V., Semeniv O., Shatohina J, in: "Thesis of conference reports", International Conference "Dynamical System Modeling and Stability Investigation" (Kyiv, 2007), P.259. [5] O.V. Semeniv, Iu.V. Shatokhina, V.A. Yatsenko, Journal of Automation and Information Sciences, 2 (2008).

  19. Helicobacter pylori: the mouth, stomach, and gut axis.

    PubMed

    Oshowo, A; Gillam, D; Botha, A; Tunio, M; Holton, J; Boulos, P; Hobsley, M

    1998-07-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the natural reservoir and route of transmission of Helicobacter pylori infection. Two hundred eight (208) dyspeptic patients (114 males, 94 females; peak age of cohort, 50-59.9) were recruited. Specimens were collected from saliva, supra- and subgingival dental plaque, tongue scrapings, and oropharyngeal swabs. At subsequent endoscopy, gastric antral biopsy was performed for the rapid urease test (RUT), microbiological culture, and, in some patients, histology. Gastric juice samples were aspirated, and in 50 patients duodenal aspirate was collected. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers targeted to the 16S rRNA sequence of H. pylori was also employed for each of the specimens. In those patients where H. pylori was detected from multiple sites (dental plaque, gastric juice, gastric biopsy, and duodenal aspirate), restriction endonuclease digestion with Hae III was performed to determine if they were epidemiologically linked. The results indicated that 15/208 patients (7%) tested positively for H. pylori by PCR in dental plaque; only 2 samples were positive by culture. In none of the other oral sites sampled was H. pylori detected by any test used in the study. Gastric juice and gastric biopsy specimens from 36/ 208 patients (17%) and 114/208 patients (55%), respectively, were positive by PCR. Duodenal aspirate from 6/50 patients (12%) also tested positively by PCR. All specimens tested by restriction endonuclease digestion with Hae III (15/15 patients) were positive in both antral biopsy and gastric juice specimens, as well as 5 specimens from the duodenal aspirate. Four of the dental plaque strains had restriction patterns similar to those of the stomach and duodenal sites, providing evidence that these sites were infected with the same strain of H. pylori. In conclusion, the results suggest that H. pylori selects the gastric mucosa as its preferred site. The detection in dental plaque could indicate that the oral cavity

  20. Comparison of radiation exposure and associated radiation-induced cancer risks from mammography and molecular imaging of the breast

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, Michael K.; Li Hua; Rhodes, Deborah J.; Hruska, Carrie B.; Clancy, Conor B.; Vetter, Richard J.

    2010-12-15

    Purpose: Recent studies have raised concerns about exposure to low-dose ionizing radiation from medical imaging procedures. Little has been published regarding the relative exposure and risks associated with breast imaging techniques such as breast specific gamma imaging (BSGI), molecular breast imaging (MBI), or positron emission mammography (PEM). The purpose of this article was to estimate and compare the risks of radiation-induced cancer from mammography and techniques such as PEM, BSGI, and MBI in a screening environment. Methods: The authors used a common scheme for all estimates of cancer incidence and mortality based on the excess absolute risk model from the BEIR VII report. The lifetime attributable risk model was used to estimate the lifetime risk of radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality. All estimates of cancer incidence and mortality were based on a population of 100 000 females followed from birth to age 80 and adjusted for the fraction that survives to various ages between 0 and 80. Assuming annual screening from ages 40 to 80 and from ages 50 to 80, the cumulative cancer incidence and mortality attributed to digital mammography, screen-film mammography, MBI, BSGI, and PEM was calculated. The corresponding cancer incidence and mortality from natural background radiation was calculated as a useful reference. Assuming a 15%-32% reduction in mortality from screening, the benefit/risk ratio for the different imaging modalities was evaluated. Results: Using conventional doses of 925 MBq Tc-99m sestamibi for MBI and BSGI and 370 MBq F-18 FDG for PEM, the cumulative cancer incidence and mortality were found to be 15-30 times higher than digital mammography. The benefit/risk ratio for annual digital mammography was >50:1 for both the 40-80 and 50-80 screening groups, but dropped to 3:1 for the 40-49 age group. If the primary use of MBI, BSGI, and PEM is in women with dense breast tissue, then the administered doses need to be in the range

  1. Cognitive consequences of sleep deprivation, shiftwork, and heat exposure for underground miners.

    PubMed

    Legault, Glenn; Clement, Alexandra; Kenny, Glen P; Hardcastle, Stephen; Keller, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    Sleep deprivation, abnormal sleep patterns arising from working rotating shifts, and exposure to high ambient temperatures contribute to physical and cognitive dysfunction. We examined the effects of these on 19 (41.5 ± 5.1 years) male underground miners. Data were collected for 28 to 30 consecutive days such that the participants experienced their full rotating shift schedule, including days off. Objective measures of sleep quality (actigraphy), attentional capacity (psychomotor vigilance task), core body temperature (visceral pill), executive function (BRIEF-A) and subjective measures of fatigue (Karolinska and Epworth Sleepiness scales) were obtained over the 28-30 day period. Non-parametric analyses (χ(2), Wilcoxen Signed ranks) were used to determine differences between shift types and days off. Z-tests were used to compare sample data to population norms. These revealed that the participants experienced poor quality of sleep relative to age-matched norms irrespective of the shift being worked or if the participant was on a scheduled day off [30-39 year olds: z = -14.62, p < 0.001; 40-49 year olds: z = -4.44, p < 0.001]. Participants when working day shift experienced less sleep prior to beginning work compared to their days off or night shift; however, no differences in total sleep time between when participants worked day or night shifts were observed [χ(2) (2, n = 18) = 13.44, p < 0.01]. When measured subjectively, the only time participants reported excessive sleepiness was after a night shift. Objective measures of attentional capacity showed best performance at the beginning of night shifts in contrast to any other time that the task was completed; however, performance degraded dramatically over the course of the night shift [χ(2) (2, n = 12) = 6.50, p < 0.05]. We show that underground miners reported for work sleep deprived. The cognitive consequences of this poor sleep were most pronounced during night shift when their

  2. Structural and attitudinal change: fertility decline in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Adamchak, D J; Mbizvo, M T

    1993-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of wives' and husbands' education, gender equality, and place of residence on children ever born. In 1984 the total fertility rate (TFR) in Zimbabwe was 6.5 births per woman and total contraceptive prevalence was 38%. By 1988-89 the TFR had declined to 5.5 per women and contraceptive prevalence increased to 43% among married women ages 15-49. The 1988 Zimbabwe Male Fertility Survey (ZMFS) provided the data on the Shona-speaking population, using a stratified cluster sampling design. 710 respondents were identified in each administrative enumeration area. The analysis was based on an unweighted subsample of respondents in the 11 rural, rural commercial, and urban enumeration areas and limited to wives in the 15-49 age group, yielding 457 people. Also 423 husbands with one wife were included, but the final sample was 393 after exclusions. All information gathered in the survey was obtained from male respondents, i.e., husbands. The reproductive age group of 15-49 was divided into equal age groupings of 15-29 and 30-49 with 182 and 211 couples respectively in the multiple regression analysis. Three models were estimated for each age group by successively adding variables. The effects of age and GENDEX (the gender equality index) were estimated, then the two dummy residence variables were added, and finally the two education variables were included. The 3 residence types for the 15-49 age group showed significant differences for GENDEX and both wives' and husbands' education. GENDEX significantly increased from rural to high density and from high density to middle class residences. In all age groups the independent variables of GENDEX, MIDCLASS and wife's education had a significant and negative influence on children ever born. In the 30-49 age group the overall mean was 5.6 children compared to 6.4 children ever born for the 40-49 age group. In the future primarily female education but also urban residence, gender equality, and

  3. Kinetics of nuclear maturation and effect of holding ovaries at room temperature on in vitro maturation of camel (Camelus dromedarius) oocytes.

    PubMed

    Wani, N A; Nowshari, M A

    2005-07-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate kinetics of in vitro nuclear maturation and the effect of storing ovaries at room temperature on initial chromatin configuration and in vitro maturation of dromedary camel oocytes. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were collected from slaughterhouse ovaries and matured in vitro for 4-48h. At every 4h interval (starting from 0 to 48 h), groups of oocytes were fixed, stained and evaluated for the status of nuclear chromatin. Oocytes were categorized as germinal vesicle (GV), diakinesis (DK), metaphase-I (M-I), anaphase-I (A-I), metaphase-II (M-II) stage and those with degenerated, fragmented, activated or without a visible chromatin as others. At the start of culture, 74% (66/89) oocytes were at GV stage, 13% (12/89) at DK and 12% (11/89) were classified as others. Germinal vesicle breakdown started spontaneously in culture and at 20 h of culture 97% oocytes had already completed this process. After 8 and 16 h of maturation the highest proportion of oocytes (42%, 48/114 and 41%, 51/123) were at DK and M-I stage, respectively. The proportions of oocytes reaching M-II stage at 32 (42%, 50/118), 36 (45%, 47/104), 40 (49%, 57/117), 44 (52%, 103/198) and 48 h (46%, 55/120) of culture were not different from each other (P>0.05). The proportion of oocytes categorized as others, however, increased after 40 h of culture and was higher (P<0.05) at 48 h compared with other maturation periods. There was no difference (P>0.05) in the proportion of oocytes reaching M-II stage from the ovaries collected and stored in normal saline solution (NSS) at room temperature for 12h (43%, 64/148) and those collected in warm NSS (37 degrees C) and processed immediately after arrival in laboratory (49%, 57/117). However, low number of oocytes reached M-II stage from ovaries collected in warm NSS but stored at room temperature (29%, 37/128) compared with other two groups (P<0.05). It may be concluded that dromedary oocytes require 32-44h of in vitro

  4. Platelet aggregation in Finnish men and its relation to fatty acids in platelets, plasma and adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Salo, M K; Vartiainen, E; Puska, P; Nikkari, T

    1985-10-30

    Platelet aggregation and its relation to fatty acid composition of platelets, plasma and adipose tissue was determined in 196 randomly selected, free-living, 40-49-year-old men in two regions of Finland (east and southwest) with a nearly twofold difference in the IHD rate. There were no significant east-southwest differences in platelet aggregation induced with ADP, thrombin or epinephrine. ADP-induced platelet secondary aggregation showed significant negative associations with all C20-C22 omega 3-fatty acids in platelets (r = -0.26- -0.40) and with the platelet 20: 5 omega 3/20: 4 omega 6 and omega 3/omega 6 ratios, but significant positive correlations with the contents of 18:2 in adipose tissue (r = 0.20) and plasma triglycerides (TG) (r = 0.29). Epinephrine-induced aggregation correlated negatively with 20: 5 omega 3 in plasma cholesteryl esters (CE) (r = -0.23) and TG (r = -0.29), and positively with the total percentage of saturated fatty acids in platelets (r = 0.33), but had no significant correlations with any of the omega 6-fatty acids. Thrombin-induced aggregation correlated negatively with the omega 3/6 omega ratio in adipose tissue (r = -0.25) and the 20: 3 omega 6/20: 4 omega 6 ratio in plasma CE (r = -0.27) and free fatty acids (FFA) (r = -0.23), and positively with adipose tissue 18:2 (r = 0.23) and 20:4 omega 6 (r = 0.22) in plasma phospholipids (PL). The percentages of prostanoid precursors in platelet lipids, i.e. 20:3 omega 6, 20:4 omega 6 and 20:5 omega 3, correlated best with the same fatty acids in plasma CE (r = 0.32 - 0.77) and PL (r = 0.28 - 0.74). Platelet 20:5 omega 3 had highly significant negative correlations with the percentage of 18:2 in adipose tissue and all plasma lipid fractions (r = -0.35 - -0.44).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Stimulus-induced Rotary Saturation (SIRS): a potential method for the detection of neuronal currents with MRI.

    PubMed

    Witzel, Thomas; Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Rosen, Bruce R; Wald, Lawrence L

    2008-10-01

    the brain. Magn. Reson. Med. 50, 40-49], but is potentially less encumbered by temporal and spatial cancellation effects.

  6. Effect of Organic Diet Intervention on Pesticide Exposures in Young Children Living in Low-Income Urban and Agricultural Communities

    PubMed Central

    Quirós-Alcalá, Lesliam; Castorina, Rosemary; Schall, Raul Aguilar; Camacho, Jose; Holland, Nina T.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent organic diet intervention studies suggest that diet is a significant source of pesticide exposure in young children. These studies have focused on children living in suburban communities. Objectives We aimed to determine whether consuming an organic diet reduced urinary pesticide metabolite concentrations in 40 Mexican-American children, 3–6 years of age, living in California urban and agricultural communities. Methods In 2006, we collected urine samples over 16 consecutive days from children who consumed conventionally grown food for 4 days, organic food for 7 days, and then conventionally grown food for 5 days. We measured 23 metabolites, reflecting potential exposure to organophosphorous (OP), pyrethroid, and other pesticides used in homes and agriculture. We used linear mixed-effects models to evaluate the effects of diet on urinary metabolite concentrations. Results For six metabolites with detection frequencies > 50%, adjusted geometric mean concentrations during the organic phase were generally lower for all children, and were significant for total dialkylphosphates (DAPs) and dimethyl DAPs (DMs; metabolites of OP insecticides) and 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, a herbicide), with reductions of 40%, 49%, and 25%, respectively (p < 0.01). Chemical-specific metabolite concentrations for several OP pesticides, pyrethroids, and herbicides were either infrequently detected and/or not significantly affected by diet. Concentrations for most of the frequently detected metabolites were generally higher in Salinas compared with Oakland children, with DMs and metolachlor at or near significance (p = 0.06 and 0.03, respectively). Conclusion An organic diet was significantly associated with reduced urinary concentrations of nonspecific dimethyl OP insecticide metabolites and the herbicide 2,4-D in children. Additional research is needed to clarify the relative importance of dietary and non-dietary sources of pesticide exposures to young

  7. A pooled analysis of body mass index and mortality among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Sarah S; Park, Yikyung; Signorello, Lisa B; Patel, Alpa V; Boggs, Deborah A; Kolonel, Laurence N; Kitahara, Cari M; Knutsen, Synnove F; Gillanders, Elizabeth; Monroe, Kristine R; Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy; Bethea, Traci N; Black, Amanda; Fraser, Gary; Gapstur, Susan; Hartge, Patricia; Matthews, Charles E; Park, Song-Yi; Purdue, Mark P; Singh, Pramil; Harvey, Chinonye; Blot, William J; Palmer, Julie R

    2014-01-01

    Pooled analyses among whites and East Asians have demonstrated positive associations between all-cause mortality and body mass index (BMI), but studies of African Americans have yielded less consistent results. We examined the association between BMI and all-cause mortality in a sample of African Americans pooled from seven prospective cohort studies: NIH-AARP, 1995-2009; Adventist Health Study 2, 2002-2008; Black Women's Health Study, 1995-2009; Cancer Prevention Study II, 1982-2008; Multiethnic Cohort Study, 1993-2007; Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Screening Trial, 1993-2009; Southern Community Cohort Study, 2002-2009. 239,526 African Americans (including 100,175 never smokers without baseline heart disease, stroke, or cancer), age 30-104 (mean 52) and 71% female, were followed up to 26.5 years (mean 11.7). Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for mortality were derived from multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Among healthy, never smokers (11,386 deaths), HRs (CI) for BMI 25-27.4, 27.5-29.9, 30-34.9, 35-39.9, 40-49.9, and 50-60 kg/m(2) were 1.02 (0.92-1.12), 1.06 (0.95-1.18), 1.32 (1.18-1.47), 1.54 (1.29-1.83), 1.93 (1.46-2.56), and 1.93 (0.80-4.69), respectively among men and 1.06 (0.99-1.15), 1.15 (1.06-1.25), 1.24 (1.15-1.34), 1.58 (1.43-1.74), 1.80 (1.60-2.02), and 2.31 (1.74-3.07) respectively among women (reference category 22.5-24.9). HRs were highest among those with the highest educational attainment, longest follow-up, and for cardiovascular disease mortality. Obesity was associated with a higher risk of mortality in African Americans, similar to that observed in pooled analyses of whites and East Asians. This study provides compelling evidence to support public health efforts to prevent excess weight gain and obesity in African Americans.

  8. Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes for Solitary Fibrous Tumor (SFT): A Single Center Experience.

    PubMed

    DeVito, Nicholas; Henderson, Evita; Han, Gang; Reed, Damon; Bui, Marilyn M; Lavey, Robert; Robinson, Lary; Zager, Jonathan S; Gonzalez, Ricardo J; Sondak, Vernon K; Letson, G Douglas; Conley, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a mesenchymal neoplasm of fibrous origin. The 2013 WHO classification of soft tissue tumors defines malignant forms as hypercellular, mitotically active (>4 mitosis/10 high-power fields), with cytological atypia, tumor necrosis, and/or infiltrative margins. With an IRB-approved protocol, we investigated patient records and clinicopathologic data from our Sarcoma Database to describe the clinical characteristics of both benign and malignant SFT. All pathology specimens were reviewed by two pathologists. Descriptive statistics and univariate/multivariate survival analysis were performed. Patient records and Social Security Death Index were used to evaluate vital status. Of 82 patients, 47 (57%) were women and 73 (89%) were Caucasian. Median age was 62 years (range, 20 to 89). Thirty-two (39%) patients succumbed to the disease. Primary tumor site was lung/pleura in 28 (34%), abdomen/pelvis in 23 (28%), extremity in 13 (16%), and head/neck in 9 (11%) patients. Pathology was described as benign in 42 (51%) and malignant in 40 (49%) patients. Compared to benign SFT, malignant histology is associated with larger tumor size, higher mitotic counts, metastatic disease at diagnosis, and greater use of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Gender, age, and tumor site were not significantly different between benign and malignant subtypes. By univariate analysis, only benign vs. malignant variant and complete resection positively impacted overall survival (P = 0.02 and P<0.0001, respectively). In the multivariable analysis of overall survival, receiving chemotherapy or not receiving surgery were two variables significantly associated with higher failure rate in overall survival: patients with chemotherapy vs. no chemotherapy (P = 0.003, HR = 4.55, with 95% CI: 1.68-12.34) and patients without surgery vs. with surgery (P = 0.005, HR = 25.49, with 95% CI: 2.62-247.57). Clear survival differences exist between benign and malignant SFT. While surgery

  9. Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes for Solitary Fibrous Tumor (SFT): A Single Center Experience.

    PubMed

    DeVito, Nicholas; Henderson, Evita; Han, Gang; Reed, Damon; Bui, Marilyn M; Lavey, Robert; Robinson, Lary; Zager, Jonathan S; Gonzalez, Ricardo J; Sondak, Vernon K; Letson, G Douglas; Conley, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a mesenchymal neoplasm of fibrous origin. The 2013 WHO classification of soft tissue tumors defines malignant forms as hypercellular, mitotically active (>4 mitosis/10 high-power fields), with cytological atypia, tumor necrosis, and/or infiltrative margins. With an IRB-approved protocol, we investigated patient records and clinicopathologic data from our Sarcoma Database to describe the clinical characteristics of both benign and malignant SFT. All pathology specimens were reviewed by two pathologists. Descriptive statistics and univariate/multivariate survival analysis were performed. Patient records and Social Security Death Index were used to evaluate vital status. Of 82 patients, 47 (57%) were women and 73 (89%) were Caucasian. Median age was 62 years (range, 20 to 89). Thirty-two (39%) patients succumbed to the disease. Primary tumor site was lung/pleura in 28 (34%), abdomen/pelvis in 23 (28%), extremity in 13 (16%), and head/neck in 9 (11%) patients. Pathology was described as benign in 42 (51%) and malignant in 40 (49%) patients. Compared to benign SFT, malignant histology is associated with larger tumor size, higher mitotic counts, metastatic disease at diagnosis, and greater use of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Gender, age, and tumor site were not significantly different between benign and malignant subtypes. By univariate analysis, only benign vs. malignant variant and complete resection positively impacted overall survival (P = 0.02 and P<0.0001, respectively). In the multivariable analysis of overall survival, receiving chemotherapy or not receiving surgery were two variables significantly associated with higher failure rate in overall survival: patients with chemotherapy vs. no chemotherapy (P = 0.003, HR = 4.55, with 95% CI: 1.68-12.34) and patients without surgery vs. with surgery (P = 0.005, HR = 25.49, with 95% CI: 2.62-247.57). Clear survival differences exist between benign and malignant SFT. While surgery

  10. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Breast Cancer Control Interventions in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Zelle, Sten G.; Vidaurre, Tatiana; Abugattas, Julio E.; Manrique, Javier E.; Sarria, Gustavo; Jeronimo, José; Seinfeld, Janice N.; Lauer, Jeremy A.; Sepulveda, Cecilia R.; Venegas, Diego; Baltussen, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Objectives In Peru, a country with constrained health resources, breast cancer control is characterized by late stage treatment and poor survival. To support breast cancer control in Peru, this study aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of different breast cancer control interventions relevant for the Peruvian context. Methods We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) according to WHO-CHOICE guidelines, from a healthcare perspective. Different screening, early detection, palliative, and treatment interventions were evaluated using mathematical modeling. Effectiveness estimates were based on observational studies, modeling, and on information from Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas (INEN). Resource utilizations and unit costs were based on estimates from INEN and observational studies. Cost-effectiveness estimates are in 2012 United States dollars (US$) per disability adjusted life year (DALY) averted. Results The current breast cancer program in Peru ($8,426 per DALY averted) could be improved through implementing triennial or biennial screening strategies. These strategies seem the most cost-effective in Peru, particularly when mobile mammography is applied (from $4,125 per DALY averted), or when both CBE screening and mammography screening are combined (from $4,239 per DALY averted). Triennially, these interventions costs between $63 million and $72 million per year. Late stage treatment, trastuzumab therapy and annual screening strategies are the least cost-effective. Conclusions Our analysis suggests that breast cancer control in Peru should be oriented towards early detection through combining fixed and mobile mammography screening (age 45-69) triennially. However, a phased introduction of triennial CBE screening (age 40-69) with upfront FNA in non-urban settings, and both CBE (age 40-49) and fixed mammography screening (age 50-69) in urban settings, seems a more feasible option and is also cost-effective. The implementation of this

  11. Substance-Use and Sexual Harm-Reduction Strategies of Methamphetamine-Using Men Who Have Sex with Men and Inject Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Wilkerson, J. Michael; Noor, Syed W.; Breckenridge, Ellen D.; Adeboye, Adeniyi A.; Rosser, B. R. Simon

    2015-01-01

    Research indicates that men who have sex with men (MSM), use methamphetamine, and inject drugs are at high risk of HIV infection and they employ multiple harm reduction strategies simultaneously to reduce that risk. In this study, we identified substances most commonly injected and harm reduction strategies most often employed by methamphetamine-using MSM, used latent class analysis (LCA) to identify patterns of harm reduction strategies, and differentiated MSM within each class by individual characteristics. We analyzed data from 284 participants who completed an online cross-sectional survey. Commonly injected substances were methamphetamine (93.70%), gamma-hydroxybutyrate/gamma-butyrolactone (41.55%), flunitrazepam (40.49%), and cocaine (35.56%). The substance-use strategies most often used were avoidance of sharing needles (85.92%) and use of bleach to clean drug paraphernalia (64.08%). The sexual strategy most often used was avoidance of condomless anal intercourse (CAS) while using drugs (77.11%). Using an LCA approach, we identified three classes distinguishable by age, race/ethnicity, and outness. One class (19%) employed lay strategies to reduce harm: they avoided sharing drug preparation equipment, serosorted when sharing needles and equipment or having CAS, and practiced withdrawal when having CAS. The largest class (53%) combined sexual and substance use strategies: they avoided sharing needles, used bleach to clean needles and equipment, avoided CAS when using drugs, and used extra lubricant when having CAS. The remaining class (28%) employed only substance-use rather than sexual strategies. More MSM of color were in the substance-use class, and more young, non-Hispanic White men were in the lay class. The low utilization of sexual strategies by younger, non-Hispanic White men in the lay class is concerning as they are just as likely as older, non-Hispanic White men in the combined class to have CAS with multiple male partners. Interventionists should

  12. Slow and Steady Drop of the Atacama Water Table from ~15 Ma Constrained by (U-Th)/He Dating of Hematite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, F. J.; Adams, B. A.; Blundy, J. D.; Farley, K. A.; McKeon, R. E.; Ruggiero, A.

    2015-12-01

    ] Winograd (1986), USGS Report 85-697. [7] Farley & Flowers (2012), EPSL 359-360, 131-140. [8] Kato et al. (2009), EPSL 278, 40-49.

  13. Screening mammography beliefs and recommendations: a web-based survey of primary care physicians

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The appropriateness and cost-effectiveness of screening mammography (SM) for women younger than 50 and older than 74 years is debated in the clinical research community, among health care providers, and by the American public. This study explored primary care physicians' (PCPs) perceptions of the influence of clinical practice guidelines for SM; the recommendations for SM in response to hypothetical case scenarios; and the factors associated with perceived SM effectiveness and recommendations in the US from June to December 2009 before the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recently revised guidelines. Methods A nationally representative sample of 11,922 PCPs was surveyed using a web-based questionnaire. The response rate was 5.7% (684); (41%) 271 family physicians (FP), (36%) 232 general internal medicine physicians (IM), (23%) 150 obstetrician-gynaecologists (OBG), and (0.2%) 31 others. Cross-sectional analysis examined PCPs perceived effectiveness of SM, and recommendation for SM in response to hypothetical case scenarios. PCPs responses were measured using 4-5 point adjectival scales. Differences in perceived effectiveness and recommendations for SM were examined after adjusting for PCPs specialty, race/ethnicity, and the US region. Results Compared to IM and FP, OBG considered SM more effective in reducing breast cancer mortality among women aged 40-49 years (p = 0.003). Physicians consistently recommended mammography to women aged 50-69 years with no differences by specialty (p = 0.11). However, 94% of OBG "always recommended" SM to younger and 86% of older women compared to 81% and 67% for IM and 84% and 59% for FP respectively (p = < .001). In ordinal regression analysis, OBG specialty was a significant predictor for perceived higher SM effectiveness and recommendations for younger and older women. In evaluating hypothetical scenarios, overall PCPs would recommend SM for the 80 year woman with CHF with a significant variation

  14. Estimates for Masses of Different Minerals Precipitated on the Aral Sea Bottom during its Desiccation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavialov, Sergey; Zavialov, Peter

    2010-05-01

    results in the terms of relative proportion between mirabilite, gypsum, and halite, namely, 40:49:8 and 38:60:8, respectively. We also discuss the dependence of the bottom sediment mineral composition on the depth at the location where the sample was collected.

  15. Aldicarb and carbofuran transport in a Hapludalf influenced by differential antecedent soil water content and irrigation delay.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, H V; Anderson, S H; Goyne, K W; Gantzer, C J

    2009-01-01

    Pesticide use in agroecosystems can adversely impact groundwater quality via chemical leaching through soils. Few studies have investigated the effects of antecedent soil water content (SWC) and timing of initial irrigation (TII) after chemical application on pesticide transport and degradation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of antecedent soil water content (wet vs dry) and timing of initial irrigation (0h Delay vs 24h Delay) on aldicarb [(EZ)-2-methyl-2-(methylthio)propionaldehyde O-methylcarbamoyloxime] and carbofuran [2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethylbenzofuran-7-yl methylcarbamate] transport and degradation parameters at a field site with Menfro silt loam (fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Typic Hapludalf) soils. Aldicarb and carbofuran were applied to plots near field capacity (wet) or near permanent wilting point (dry). Half of the dry and wet plots received irrigation water immediately after chemical application and the remaining plots were irrigated after a 24h Delay. The transport and degradation parameters were estimated using the method of moments. Statistical significance determined for SWC included averages across TII levels, and significance determined for TII included averages across SWC levels. For the dry treatment, aldicarb was detected 0.10 m deeper (P<0.01) on two of the four sampling dates and carbofuran was detected at least 0.10 m deeper (P<0.05) on all of the sampling dates compared to the wet treatment. Pore water velocity was found to be higher (P<0.10) in the dry vs wet treatments on three of four dates for aldicarb and two of four dates for carbofuran. Retardation coefficients for both pesticides showed similar evidence of reduced values for the dry vs wet treatments. These results indicate deeper pesticide movement in the initially dry treatment. For aldicarb and carbofuran, estimated values of the degradation rate were approximately 40-49% lower in the initially dry plots compared to the initially wet plots

  16. New point of care Chlamydia Rapid Test—bridging the gap between diagnosis and treatment: performance evaluation study

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the performance of a new Chlamydia Rapid Test with vaginal swab specimens as a potential tool for chlamydia diagnosis and screening. Design Performance evaluation study. Settings A young people’s sexual health centre (site 1) and two genitourinary medicine clinics (sites 2 and 3) in the United Kingdom. Participants 1349 women aged between 16 and 54 attending one of the three clinics. Main outcome measures Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the Chlamydia Rapid Test versus polymerase chain reaction and strand displacement amplification assays; correlation between the Chlamydia Rapid Test visual signal and organism load; acceptability to participants of self collected vaginal swabs as the specimen type for Chlamydia testing. Results Polymerase chain reaction positivity rates for Chlamydia trachomatis infection were 8.4% (56/663) at site 1, 9.4% (36/385) at site 2, and 6.0% (18/301) at site 3. Compared with polymerase chain reaction assay, the resolved sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the Chlamydia Rapid Test were 83.5% (91/109), 98.9% (1224/1238), 86.7% (91/105), and 98.6% (1224/1242). Compared with strand displacement amplification assay, sensitivity and specificity of the Chlamydia Rapid Test were 81.6% (40/49) and 98.3% (578/588). Organism load of self collected vaginal swabs ranged from 5.97×102 to 1.09×109 Chlamydia plasmids per swab, which correlated well with the Chlamydia Rapid Test’s visual signal (r=0.6435, P<0.0001). Most (95.9%) surveyed participants felt comfortable about collecting their own swabs. Conclusions The performance of the Chlamydia Rapid Test with self collected vaginal swabs indicates that it would be an effective same day diagnostic and screening tool for Chlamydia infection in women. The availability of Chlamydia Rapid Test results within 30 minutes allows for immediate treatment and contact tracing

  17. Prevalence, symptoms and management of uterine fibroids: an international internet-based survey of 21,746 women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2009 the Uterine Bleeding and Pain Women's Research Study (UBP-WRS) was conducted interviewing 21,479 women across 8 countries in order to gain patient-based prevalence data on uterine pain and bleeding indications and investigate uterine symptoms and women's treatment experiences. This article shows relevant results of the study for the indication uterine fibroids providing data on self-reported prevalence, symptomatology and management of uterine fibroids. Methods 2,500 women (USA: 4,500 women) in each country (Brazil, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, South Korea, the UK, the USA) completed an online survey. Women included were in their reproductive age (age group 15-49 years; USA: 18-49 years) and had ever experienced menstrual bleedings. Quotas were applied for age, region, level of education and household income of respondents. Variables have been analyzed descriptively and exploratory statistical tests have been performed. Results The self-reported prevalence of uterine fibroids ranged from 4.5% (UK) to 9.8% (Italy), reaching 9.4% (UK) to 17.8% (Italy) in the age group of 40-49 years. Women with a diagnosis of uterine fibroids reported significantly more often about bleeding symptoms than women without a diagnosis: heavy bleedings (59.8% vs. 37.4%), prolonged bleedings (37.3% vs. 15.6%), bleeding between periods (33.3% vs. 13.5%), frequent periods (28.4% vs. 15.2%), irregular and predictable periods (36.3% vs. 23.9%). Furthermore women with diagnosed uterine fibroids reported significantly more often about the following pain symptoms: pressure on the bladder (32.6% vs. 15.0%), chronic pelvic pain (14.5% vs. 2.9%), painful sexual intercourse (23.5% vs. 9.1%) and pain occurring mid-cycle, after and during menstrual bleeding (31.3%, 16.7%, 59.7%, vs. 17.1%, 6.4%, 52.0%). 53.7% of women reported that their symptoms had a negative impact on their life in the last 12 month, influencing their sexual life (42.9%), performance at work (27.7%) and

  18. Development, labour relations and gender in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Fahey, S

    1986-08-01

    The increase in wage labor in the periurban village of Siar, Papua New Guinea, was examined by carrying out field work in 1980. There were 82 households in Siar: 40 (49%) had at least one wage earner, and of these, 8 (20%) had two or more wage earners. This was far less than in urban areas (86%) and far more than in rural villages (6%). 39 males aged 20-49 years and 10 females aged 10-29 years out of the total population of 503 people were in regular employment. 6 of the 9 women between the ages of 18 and 25 were employed as clerks, 2 as domestic servants, and 1 as a shop assistant. 6 of the 21 men between the ages of 18 and 25 were employed as clerks, 6 as laborers in a timber mill, 4 as construction workers, 2 as medical assistants, 2 as plantation workers, and 1 in a bakery. 67% of the women were in skilled employment compared with 51% of men. Most Siar villagers were employed in Madang town with 26 people being employed in private enterprise, 17 employed by the government, and 6 by the Lutheran Mission. Access to employment depended largely on the wantok system of referring kinfolk by people who were employed. In contrast to male employment patterns, there was little opportunity for unskilled females. Most wage laborers were unable to save money because of the demands exerted on them by relatives. The villagers had developed needs to be satisfied by monetized transactions: food, clothing, housing materials, school fees, transport costs, and social activities for beer and cigarettes. On the other hand, several women requested that their employers deduct 15% of their wages for savings. The expenditure for food varied between 38% and 58% of the total cash income of units of villagers. The village's population increased because migrants arrived. In 1977, 247 (37%) Siar villagers were absent, most having left for reasons related to employment. Sexual division in Siar reinforced women's alienation from the means of production and they became doubly subordinated to

  19. Declining Inconsistent Condom Use but Increasing HIV and Syphilis Prevalence Among Older Male Clients of Female Sex Workers: Analysis From Sentinel Surveillance Sites (2010-2015), Guangxi, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Abraham Bussell, Scottie; Shen, Zhiyong; Tang, Zhenzhu; Lan, Guanghua; Zhu, Qiuying; Liu, Wei; Tang, Shuai; Li, Rongjian; Huang, Wenbo; Huang, Yuman; Liang, Fuxiong; Wang, Lu; Shao, Yiming; Ruan, Yuhua

    2016-05-01

    Clients of female sex workers (CFSWs) are a bridge population for the spread of HIV and syphilis to low or average risk heterosexuals. Most studies have examined the point prevalence of these infections in CFSWs. Limited evidence suggests that older age CFSWs are at a higher risk of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases compared with younger clients. Thus, we sought to describe long-term trends in HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis C (HCV) to better understand how these infections differ by sex worker classification and client age. We also examined trends in HIV, syphilis, and HCV among categories of female sex workers (FSWs).We conducted serial cross-sectional studies from 2010 to 2015 in Guangxi autonomous region, China. We collected demographic and behavior variables. FSWs and their clients were tested for HIV, syphilis, and HCV antibodies. Positive HIV and syphilis serologies were confirmed by Western blot and rapid plasma regain, respectively. Clients were categorized as middle age (40-49 years) and older clients (≥50 years). FSWs were categorized as high-tier, middle-tier, or low-tier based on the payment amount charged for sex and their work venue. Chi-square test for trends was used for testing changes in prevalence over time.By 2015, low-tier FSWs (LTFSWs) accounted for almost half of all FSWs; and they had the highest HIV prevalence at 1.4%. HIV prevalence declined significantly for FSWs (high-tier FSW, P = 0.003; middle-tier FSWs; P = 0.021; LTFSWs, P < 0.001). Syphilis infections significantly declined for FSWs (P < 0.001) but only to 7.3% for LTFSWs. HCV and intravenous drug use were uncommon in FSWs. HIV prevalence increased for older age clients (1.3%-2.0%, P = 0.159) while syphilis prevalence remained stable. HCV infections were halved among older clients in 3 years (1.7%-0.8%, P < 0.001). Condom use during the last sexual encounter increased for FSWs and CFSWs. Few clients reported sex with men or intravenous drug use. Clients

  20. Alternative population futures.

    PubMed

    1980-01-01

    The Philippines is now passing through a late demographic transitional period in which the death rate declines while the birth rate remains at a relatively high level; the population of young people under 15 rises to about 45% of the population while proportions of people of working age and old people decline. In 1970, 4 of the Philippine's 12 regions had a birth rate exceeding 40/1000; life expectancy at birth in these regions ranged from 57-64 years and population growth rates ranged from 2.6-4.2% annually. Also in 1970 40-49% of all 12 regional populations were young (under 15) and only 2-5% were old. In this transitional period there are a greater number of children in each household and thus heavier social and economic burdens occur; also the burden of youth dependency increases by more than 1/3. In the modern population structure, family burdens diminish as the average number of children surviving to age 20 becomes identical with the number of children born and great improvements in the quality of life are allowed. Population projections are based on the following assumptions: 1) decrease in mortality, either rapid or slow, 2) increase in age at marriage, 3) decline in fertility will remain at 0.7% annually, and 4) migration trends will stay the same as during the 1960-75 period. Total population is expected to reach 83.8 million by 2000, a 98% increase from 1975; a low estimate, assuming lower fertility and nuptiality, is 64.1 million, a 52% increase from 1975. The urban population will more than double its size by the year 2000 and rural population will grow from 22-65% with the fastest urbanizing regions being the Central and Southern Luzon. From 1975-2000 a 3-fold increase is expected in the number of families in Metro Manila. By 2000 a national labor force of 27.5 million is expected, more than double the 1970 level, with late entry into the labor force and declines in participation by elderly males. The various regions will see lower economic activity

  1. Bisphenol S in urine from the United States and seven Asian countries: occurrence and human exposures.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chunyang; Liu, Fang; Alomirah, Husam; Loi, Vu Duc; Mohd, Mustafa Ali; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Nakata, Haruhiko; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2012-06-19

    As concern regarding the toxic effects of bisphenol A (BPA) grows, BPA in many consumer products is gradually being replaced with compounds such as bisphenol S (BPS). Nevertheless, data on the occurrence of BPS in human specimens are limited. In this study, 315 urine samples, collected from the general populations in the United States, China, India, Japan, Korea, Kuwait, Malaysia, and Vietnam, were analyzed for the presence of total BPS (free plus conjugated) concentrations by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). BPS was detected in 81% of the urine samples analyzed at concentrations ranging from below the limit of quantitation (LOQ; 0.02 ng/mL) to 21 ng/mL (geometric mean: 0.168 ng/mL). The urinary BPS concentration varied among countries, and the highest geometric mean concentration [1.18 ng/mLor 0.933 μg/g creatinine (Cre)] of BPS was found in urine samples from Japan, followed by the United States (0.299 ng/mL, 0.304 μg/g Cre), China (0.226 ng/mL, 0.223 μg/g Cre), Kuwait (0.172 ng/mL, 0.126 μg/g Cre), and Vietnam (0.160 ng/mL, 0.148 μg/g Cre). Median concentrations of BPS in urine samples from the Asian countries were 1 order of magnitude lower than the median concentrations reported earlier for BPA in the same set of samples, with the exception of samples from Japan. There were no significant differences in BPS concentrations between genders (male versus female), or among age groups (categorized as ≤ 19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, and ≥ 50 years), or races (Caucasian versus Asian). The daily intake (EDI) of BPS was estimated on the basis of urinary concentrations using a simple pharmacokinetic approach. The median EDI values of BPS in Japan, China, United States, Kuwait, Vietnam, Malaysia, India, and Korea were 1.67, 0.339, 0.316, 0.292, 0.217, 0.122, 0.084, and 0.023 μg/person, respectively. This is the first study to report the occurrence of BPS in human urine.

  2. [Changes in knowledge of HIV/AIDS and attitudes for PWA in Tokyo: 1992-1995].

    PubMed

    Inagaki, T

    1997-12-01

    In order to assess changes in knowledge of HIV/AIDS and attitude for People With HIV/AIDS (PWA), interview surveys (Dec. 1992, Jan. 1994, Jan. 1995) were carried out annually on random samples of the general public in Tokyo, age between 15-69 years. In total, 4,270 individuals were sampled, with an average response rate of 63.2%. Answers were scored and classified in 12 sex and age sub-groups. Additionally, correlations between scores of questions and social indices were analyzed. The results of the study are as follows: 1) The 15-19, 20-29 and 30-39 age groups showed higher scores on knowledge about HIV transmission modes. During the entire study period, the score increased in 7 groups, but decreased in 5 groups. 2) The 30-39 and 40-49 age groups showed higher scores on knowledge about HIV antibody test. During the period, the score increased in 11 groups, and among them 6 groups showed statistically significant (p < 0.05) increases. However, the score decreased in 9 groups at the third survey. 3) The 15-19, 20-29 and 30-39 age groups showed higher scores on acceptable attitudes for PWA. During the period, the score increased in all groups, and among them 3 groups showed statistically significant (p < 0.05) increases. 4) Rank correlations between two scores-knowledge quantity about the transmission modes and acceptable attitudes for PWA-were positive (0.2 < R) and statistically significant (p < 0.05) in 11 groups at the first survey, 9 groups at the second, and 6 groups at the third. 5) During the entire study period, 6 groups showed positive correlations (0.7 < R) between two changes: (1) score of knowledge about the transmission modes and (2) score of acceptable attitudes. 6) During the entire study period, 10 groups showed positive correlations (0.7 < R) between two changes: (1) score of acceptable attitudes and (2) number of newspaper articles regarding acceptance or discrimination of the PWA. 7) Knowledge about HIV/AIDS in the general public in Tokyo showed

  3. Toxicological assessment of heavy metals accumulated in vegetables and fruits grown in Ginfel river near Sheba Tannery, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebrekidan, Abraha; Weldegebriel, Yirgaalem; Hadera, Amanual; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2013-09-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals in vegetables resulting from irrigation with contaminated water obtained from industrial effluents may create a potential public health risk. We quantified the concentration of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cr, Cd, Ni, Co and Pb) in soil, vegetables and the water used for irrigation at two sites (Laelay Wukro and Tahtay Wukro) around Wukro Town, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. The concentrations of heavy metals in irrigation water measured during this study were lower than permissible limits of heavy metals allowed for irrigation water. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in irrigated soil samples obtained from Tahtay Wukro were higher for Mn, Zn, Cr, and Cu. The overall results of soil samples ranged 2.62-827, 1.4-51.6, 25.5-33.6, 23.5-28.2, 2.52-25.1, 15-17.8, 3-4, 2.5-40.49 and 0.7-0.8 mg/kg for Mn, Zn, Cr, Ni, Cu, Co, Pb, Fe and Cd, respectively. Higher concentrations of heavy metals were also observed in vegetable samples from Tahtay Wukro. Pb was found to accumulate the most in all vegetable samples. It was observed that green pepper and lettuce accumulate high amounts of Cu and Zn; Swiss chard accumulates excessive amounts of Fe, Mn, Cr, Cd, Ni and Co; lettuce and tomato higher amounts of Cd; and green pepper, tomato and onion a higher concentration of Pb. Significant differences in the elemental concentrations between the vegetables analyzed from Laelay and Tahtay Wukro were observed. This was attributed in part to the geological nature of the study area and the discharges from the town and from a tannery. The results also indicate that Fe, Pb and Cd have high transfer factor values (mean values: 42.89, 0.84 and 0.37, respectively). The transfer pattern for heavy metals in different vegetables showed a trend in the order: Fe>Pb>Cd>Mn>Cu>Zn>Ni>Zn>Cr=Co. The heavy metal contamination of vegetables grown in Tahtay Wukro, located downstream of the tannery, may pose increased health risks in the future to the local population

  4. Health Promotion Behaviors and Chronic Diseases of Aging in the Elderly People of Iranshahr*- IR Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mofrad, Zahra Pishkar; Jahantigh, Mozhgan; Arbabisarjou, Azizollah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Aim: Aging is considered as the phenomenon of the day in the health arena of the world and Iran. It is anticipated that there will be an explosion of aging population in Iran in about 2031 and 20-25% of the population will be aged over 60 years. With aging, chronic diseases also increase and diminish the functional ability of older people. On the other hand, increased healthcare costs should be also added to this issue. Health promotion is a concept of process that continues throughout life. As much as health promotion is important in children and adults, it is equally important in older people. In fact, the elderlies, as a group, also acquire many benefits from health promotion behaviors. Due to the increasing elderly population, geriatric health promotion and enhancing the health level of older people is proposed as a health priority that should be properly planned. Hence, the present study has been conducted in this regard and aims to identify behaviors of health promotion and chronic diseases of aging in the elderly people of Iranshahr-Iran. Materials and Methods: The present research is a cross-sectional descriptive study whose population consists of 425 elderly people aged 60 years and over, who lived in the city of Iranshahr*, IR Iran. The random cluster sampling method has been used to select the research samples. The required information was collected using a questionnaire which was distributed among the older people through visiting their homes; then, the collected data was statistically analyzed using the statistical software of SPSS version 13. Findings: The research findings show that the mean age of older people is 66.33 ± 7.7 and the highest frequency belongs to the age group of 60 years and the maximum age is 92 years. 69.5% of the older people were in the age group of the young elderly (60-69 years) and 44% of them lived with their married children; also 55.8%, 81.9%, 70.5%, and 74.4% of them were respectively female, illiterate

  5. Mineral chemistry and geochemistry of the Late Neoproterozoic Gabal Abu Diab granitoids, Central Eastern Dessert, Egypt: Implications for the origin of rare metal post-orogenic A-type granites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sami, Mabrouk; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Farahat, Esam S.; Ahmed, Awaad F.; Mohamed, Haroun A.

    2015-04-01

    The Neoproterozoic Gabal Abu Diab pluton is a part of the Arabian Nubian shield (ANS) continental crust and located in the Central Eastern Desert (CED) of Egypt. It constitutes multiphase granitic pluton intruded into granodiorite and metagabbro-diorite rocks with sharp and nonreactive contacts. Based on field observations, colors, structural variations and petrographic investigations, this granitic outcrop consists of an inner core of two-mica granite (TMG) followed outward by garnet bearing muscovite granite (GBMG) and albite granite (AG). Petrographical study indicated that medium to coarse-grained TMG is dominated by K-feldspar (Or88-98), quartz, plagioclase (albite, An0-7), muscovite and biotite with hypidiomorphic texture. With exception the appearance of garnet and the disappearance of biotite the GBMG resembles the TGM, while AG is leucocratic without any mafic mineral. The main accessories are zircon, Nb and Ta-bearing rutile, columbite, ilmenorutile, ilmenite, magnetite and apatite. This mineralogical similarity and the existence of columbite group minerals (CGM) in all granitoids, indicates a cogenetic relationship. Microprobe analyses reveal that, besides the CGM, rutile and ilmenite are the main repository phases for Nb-Ta-Ti. Columbite-(Mn) exists as individual subhedral crystals (up to 100μm in size) or intimate intergrowth with Nb-bearing rutile and/or ilmenite. The CGM are represented mostly by columbite-(Mn) with Ta/(Ta+Nb) and Mn/(Mn+Fe) ratio ranging from 0.02-0.08 and 0.4-0.9, respectively suggesting extreme degree of magmatic fractionation. Rutile contains significant amounts of Ta (up to 4 wt.% Ta2O5) and Nb (up to 22 wt.% Nb2O5). Biotites are phlogopite-annite in composition (Ann47-60Phlog40-53,on average) and are enriched with AlIV that characterize peraluminous granites. Garnets contain 60-69 mol.% spessartine and 28-36 mol.% almandine where, the ratio of spessartine and almandine together exceeds 95 mole percent, similar to garnet occur

  6. Sonoran propolis and some of its chemical constituents inhibit in vitro growth of Giardia lamblia trophozoites.

    PubMed

    Alday-Provencio, Samuel; Diaz, Gabriela; Rascon, Lucila; Quintero, Jael; Alday, Efrain; Robles-Zepeda, Ramón; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana; Astiazaran, Humberto; Hernandez, Javier; Velazquez, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    Propolis is a cereus resin with a complex chemical composition that possesses a wide range of biological activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro anti-Giardia lamblia activity of Sonoran propolis collected from three different areas of Sonoran Desert in northwestern Mexico (Caborca, Pueblo de Alamos, and Ures) and some of its chemical constituents. Additionally, we also analyzed the seasonal effect on the anti-G. lamblia activity of propolis. G. lamblia trophozoite cultures were treated with different concentrations of Sonoran propolis or chemical compounds during 48 h cell proliferation and cell viability were determined. Ures propolis showed the highest inhibitory activity against G. lamblia (IC50 63.8 ± 7.1 µg/mL) in a dose-dependent manner (Ures > Pueblo de Alamos > Caborca). Season had a significant effect on the in vitro anti-G. lamblia activity of Ures propolis. Summer propolis showed the highest inhibitory effect on the G. lamblia trophozoite growth (IC50 23.8 ± 2.3 µg/mL), followed by propolis collected during winter (IC50 59.2 ± 34.7 µg/mL), spring (IC50 102.5 ± 15.3 µg/mL), and autumn (IC50 125.0 ± 3.1 µg/mL). Caffeic acid phenethyl ester, an Ures propolis exclusive constituent, had the highest growth-inhibitory activity towards G. lamblia [IC50 63.1 ± 0.9 µg/mL (222.1 ± 3.2 µM)]. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that caffeic acid phenethyl ester possesses antiparasitic activity against G. lamblia. Naringenin [IC50 125.7 ± 20.7 µg/mL (461.8 ± 76.3 µM)], hesperetin [IC50 149.6 ± 24.8 µg/mL (494.9 ± 82.2 µM)], and pinocembrin [IC50 174.4 ± 26.0 µg/mL (680.6 ± 101.7 µM)] showed weak anti-G. lamblia activity. On the other hand, chrysin and rutin did not show significant antiparasitic activity. In conclusion, our results suggest that Sonoran propolis and some of its chemical constituents had inhibitory effects on the

  7. Evidence against small dam removal as an ecological disturbance: Benthic macroinvertebrate and channel responses to dam removals in Oregon, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tullos, D. D.

    2012-12-01

    A dominant concern for environmental managers is often the biological consequences of the physical disturbance generated by sediment pulses, such as those associated with dam removal or sediment flushing from existing dams. However, limited field data exists against which concerns regarding planned removals can be evaluated. This study documents an investigation of biophysical interactions related to sediment pulses from dam removals, with emphasis on a) the spatial extent and magnitude of disturbance to channel habitat and benthic macroinvertebrate community, and b) the rate and spatial patterns of channel and invertebrate community recovery over time. We analyzed field observations, collected in an upstream-downstream BACI study design, from three dam removals of varying size and channel substrate: Brownsville Dam, Calapooia River (height = 2.5 m, D50 = 59 m), Chiloquin Dam, Sprague River (height = 3.4 m, D50 = 0.15 mm), and Savage Rapids Dam, Rogue River (height = 12 m, D50 = 8 m). At each site, we investigated how elements of the physical channel related to disturbance (grain size and variability, bed stability, bed complexity) and benthic macroinvertebrate community (species richness, functional traits) changed over space and time. We projected that hypothesized changes in the physical channel (reduction in bed complexity, site-specific changes in bed mobility, site-specific grain size changes) following the sediment pulse would lead to reduction in species richness and a transition to functional traits (short lived, rapid reproduction, tolerant of mobile beds) affiliated with sediment disturbance. However, results indicate that our hypothesized channel changes were not consistently validated across the sites. Further, we found little evidence of substantial impact of the sediment pulse on the invertebrate communities, though some variability in functional traits may be attributable to dam removal at Savage Rapids. More specifically, we found that: a) Channel

  8. Sonoran propolis and some of its chemical constituents inhibit in vitro growth of Giardia lamblia trophozoites.

    PubMed

    Alday-Provencio, Samuel; Diaz, Gabriela; Rascon, Lucila; Quintero, Jael; Alday, Efrain; Robles-Zepeda, Ramón; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana; Astiazaran, Humberto; Hernandez, Javier; Velazquez, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    Propolis is a cereus resin with a complex chemical composition that possesses a wide range of biological activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro anti-Giardia lamblia activity of Sonoran propolis collected from three different areas of Sonoran Desert in northwestern Mexico (Caborca, Pueblo de Alamos, and Ures) and some of its chemical constituents. Additionally, we also analyzed the seasonal effect on the anti-G. lamblia activity of propolis. G. lamblia trophozoite cultures were treated with different concentrations of Sonoran propolis or chemical compounds during 48 h cell proliferation and cell viability were determined. Ures propolis showed the highest inhibitory activity against G. lamblia (IC50 63.8 ± 7.1 µg/mL) in a dose-dependent manner (Ures > Pueblo de Alamos > Caborca). Season had a significant effect on the in vitro anti-G. lamblia activity of Ures propolis. Summer propolis showed the highest inhibitory effect on the G. lamblia trophozoite growth (IC50 23.8 ± 2.3 µg/mL), followed by propolis collected during winter (IC50 59.2 ± 34.7 µg/mL), spring (IC50 102.5 ± 15.3 µg/mL), and autumn (IC50 125.0 ± 3.1 µg/mL). Caffeic acid phenethyl ester, an Ures propolis exclusive constituent, had the highest growth-inhibitory activity towards G. lamblia [IC50 63.1 ± 0.9 µg/mL (222.1 ± 3.2 µM)]. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that caffeic acid phenethyl ester possesses antiparasitic activity against G. lamblia. Naringenin [IC50 125.7 ± 20.7 µg/mL (461.8 ± 76.3 µM)], hesperetin [IC50 149.6 ± 24.8 µg/mL (494.9 ± 82.2 µM)], and pinocembrin [IC50 174.4 ± 26.0 µg/mL (680.6 ± 101.7 µM)] showed weak anti-G. lamblia activity. On the other hand, chrysin and rutin did not show significant antiparasitic activity. In conclusion, our results suggest that Sonoran propolis and some of its chemical constituents had inhibitory effects on the

  9. An area with high density of craters on the lunar surface.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feoktistova, Ekaterina

    2015-04-01

    surface of the moon). It is assumed that the craters classes 1 and 2 were formed at the end of heavy bombardment, which occurred 3.8 - 4 billion. years ago. The reasons for this cluster of high-preserved craters in this area are unclear. Perhaps these craters formed by ejections during the formation of any large crater or basin. References: [1] Rodionova et al., Tr. Gos. Astron. Inst. im. Sternberga, 1989a, vol. LXI, pp. 356-376. [2] Rodionova et al., Astron. Vestn., 1989b, vol. 23, no. 1,pp. 50-59. [3] http://ode.rsl.wustl.edu/moon/indexDatasets.aspx [4] http://selena.sai.msu.ru/Home/Moon_Cat/moon_cat.htm [5] Rodionova et al. , 2000, Solar System Research. V. 34, No 5, p.390-397.

  10. Interpretation of borehole geophysical logs, aquifer-isolation tests, and water quality, supply wells 1 and 2, Willow Grove Naval Air Station/Joint Reserve Base, Horsham Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Goode, Daniel J.; Frasch, Steven M.

    2002-01-01

    Ground water pumped from supply wells 1 and 2 on the Willow Grove Naval Air Station/Joint Reserve Base (NAS/JRB) provides water for use at the base, including potable water for drinking. The supply wells have been contaminated by volatile organic compounds (VOC?s), particularly trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and the water is treated to remove the VOC?s. The Willow Grove NAS/JRB and surrounding area are underlain by sedimentary rocks of the Triassic-age Stockton Formation, which form a complex, heterogeneous aquifer. The ground-water-flow system for the supply wells was characterized by use of borehole geophysical logs and heatpulse-flowmeter measurements. The heatpulse-flowmeter measurements showed upward and downward borehole flow under nonpumping conditions in both wells. The hydraulic and chemical properties of discrete water-bearing fractures in the supply wells were characterized by isolating each water-bearing fracture with straddle packers. Eight fractures in supply well 1 and five fractures in supply well 2 were selected for testing on the basis of the borehole geophysical logs and borehole television surveys. Water samples were collected from each isolated fracture and analyzed for VOC?s and inorganic constituents. Fractures at 50?59, 79?80, 196, 124?152, 182, 241, 256, and 350?354 ft btoc (feet below top of casing) were isolated in supply well 1. Specific capacities ranged from 0.26 to 5.7 (gal/min)/ft (gallons per minute per foot) of drawdown. The highest specific capacity was for the fracture isolated at 179.8?188 ft btoc. Specific capacity and depth of fracture were not related in either supply well. The highest concentrations of PCE were in water samples collected from fractures isolated at 236.8?245 and 249.8?258 ft btoc, which are hydraulically connected. The concentration of PCE generally increased with depth to a maximum of 39 mg/L (micrograms per liter) at a depth of 249.8? 258 ft btoc and then decreased to 21 mg/L at a

  11. The Ontogenesis of Human Fetal Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, S. L.; Grumbach, M. M.; Shepard, T. H.

    1972-01-01

    The content and concentration of immunoreactive growth hormone (GH) were measured in 117 human fetal pituitary glands from 68 days of gestation to term and in the pituitary glands of 20 children 1 month to 9 yr of age. Physicochemical and immunochemical properties of GH of fetal pituitary glands and GH from adult pituitary glands were indistinguishable by disc gel electrophoresis, immunoelectrophoresis, starch gel electrophoresis, and radioimmunoassay techniques. In the fetal pituitary gland, the GH content rose from mean levels of 0.44±0.2 μg at 10-14 wk of gestation, to 9.21±2.31 μg at 15-19 wk, to 59.38±11.08 μg at 20-24 wk, to 225.93±40.49 μg at 25-29 wk, to 577.67±90 μg at 30-34 wk, and to 675.17±112.33 μg at 35-40 wk. There was a significant positive correlation between growth hormone content of the pituitary and gestational age, crown-rump length, and the weight of the pituitary gland. The content and concentration (micrograms/milligram) of human growth hormone (HGH) in the fetal pituitary showed significant increments (P < 0.001) for each 4 wk period of gestation until 35 wk. Further increases in the HGH content were noted in pituitaries of children aged 1-9 yr (range of 832 to 11.211 μg). Immunoreactive GH was detected in fetal serum at a concentration of 14.5 ng/ml as early as 70 days gestation, the youngest fetus assayed. At 10-14 wk, the mean concentration of serum growth hormone was 65.2±7.6 ng/ml; at 15-19 wk 114.9±12.5 ng/ml; at 20-24 wk 119.3±19.8 ng/ml; at 25-29 wk 72.0±11.5 ng/ml; and 33.5±4.2 ng/ml at term. A significant negative correlation of serum growth hormone with advancing gestational age after 20-24 wk was observed (P < 0.001). In 17 fetuses paired serum and pituitary samples were assayed; no significant correlation between the concentration of serum GH and the pituitary content or concentration of GH was demonstrable. The serum concentration of chorionic somatomammotropin (HCS) in the fetus was unrelated to gestational

  12. [There are many variations in beginning and duration of the procreative period].

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    Although most women in the developing world begin to have children at early ages and have their last child at a relatively late age, there are wide variations between regions and countries in the beginning and duration of the childbearing period. A UN report based on data from fertility histories of women aged 40-49 in World Fertility Surveys from 38 developing countries analyzed the differences within and between regions in such factors as age at 1st marriage, ages at 1st and last births, and family size. 12 of the countries studied were in Africa, 13 were in Asia and Oceania, and 13 were in Latin America and the Caribbean. The average age at first marriage was 18-21 in Latin American and the Caribbean, 15-19 in Africa, and 12-19 in Asia and Oceania. The average age at 1st birth was 19-21 in Latin America and the Caribbean, 18-21 in Africa, and 17-22 in Asia and Oceania. The average age at the last birth was 33-38 in Latin American and the Caribbean, 35-39 in Africa, and 35-40 in Asia and Oceania. The average duration of the childbearing period was 14-18 years in Latin America and the Caribbean, 16-20 years in Africa, and 15-20 years in Asia and Oceania. Women in Latin America tend to marry and have their 1st child later than women in the other regions. Asia had the widest variation in average ages at marriage and birth of the 1st child. The intervals between marriage and 1st birth were considerably longer in countries where women marry at young ages than in countries where women marry later. As a consequence there was less variation in age at 1st birth than in age at 1st marriage. In most of Latin America, women conceive their 1st child at 20-21 years, while in most Africa countries they do so between 19-20 years. A variation of 8 years was seen in the average age at birth of the last child. The average duration of the childbearing period is shortest in Latin America because of the relatively late age at birth of the 1st child and the relatively early age at

  13. Seasonal and diurnal trends in black carbon properties and co-pollutants in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retama, A.; Baumgardner, D.; Raga, G. B.; McMeeking, G. R.; Walker, J. W.

    2015-08-01

    The Mexico City metropolitan area (MCMA) is a region that continues to grow in population and vehicular traffic as well as being the largest source of short-lived climate pollutants (SLCP) in Latin America. The local city government has made significant progress in controlling some of these pollutants, i.e., ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO), but particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) and black carbon (BC) have shown a less positive response to mitigation strategies that have been in place for almost 3 decades. For the first time, extended measurements of equivalent black carbon (eBC), derived from light absorption measurements, have been made using a Photoacoustic Extinctiometer (PAX) over a 13 month period from March 2013 through March 2014. The daily trends in workdays (Monday through Saturday) and Sunday eBC, PM2.5 and the co-pollutants CO, O3 and NOx are evaluated with respect to the three primary seasons in the MCMA: rainy, cold and dry and warm and dry. The maximum values in all of the particle and gas concentrations were significantly larger (Student's t test, P < 0.05) during the dry periods than in the rainy season. The changes from rainy to dry seasons for eBC, PM2.5, CO, O3 and NOx were 8.8 to 13.1 μg m-3 (40 %), 49 to 73 μg m-3 (40 %), 2.5 to 3.8 ppm (40 %), 73 to 100 ppb (30 %) and 144 to 252 ppb (53 %), respectively. The primary factors that lead to these large changes between the wet and dry seasons are the accelerated vertical mixing of boundary layer and free tropospheric air by the formation of clouds that dilutes the concentration of the SLCPs, the decreased actinic flux that reduces the production of ozone by photochemical reactions and the heavy, almost daily rain that removes particulate matter. A significant "weekend effect" was also identified, particularly the decrease in BC due to fewer large transport vehicles that are fueled by diesel, which produces a large fraction of the BC. The other co-pollutant concentrations are also

  14. [Women with high fertility in Mexico: orientations for a population policy].

    PubMed

    Lopez, E

    1989-01-01

    The characteristics and correlates of high fertility women in Mexico were assessed for different age and residential groups with data from the National Demographic Survey of 1982. This survey included information on rural, urban and metropolitan Mexican women aged 15-49 years who had ever been in union. Rural areas were defined as those with fewer than 20,000 inhabitants. Metropolitan areas were Guadalajara, Monterrey, and Mexico City. High fertility was defined for the purpose of this study as at least 2 live births for women 15-19, 3 for women 20-24, 4 for those 25-29, 5 for those 30-34, 6 for those 35-39, and 7 for those 40-49. According to this definition about 40% of Mexican women are high fertility, with proportions ranging from about 1/3 of those 20-29 to half of those 35-49 years old. High fertility is about twice as common in women 15-19 in rural areas as in urban and metropolitan areas of Mexico. 10% of rural women aged 20-24 already have 5 children, compared to less than 1% of metropolitan women and under 3% of women in other urban areas. By age 45-49, 31% of rural women, 20% of other urban women, and 15% of metropolitan women have 10 or more children. 13% in all areas have 2 or 3. Large proportions of rural women in all age groups are high fertility, with the difference especially marked at young ages. The data on contraceptive usage indicate that high fertility women are among the increasing numbers of Mexican women attempting to control their family size. 10% of high fertility women in rural areas are sterilized and another 10% use oral contraceptives. Injectables and traditional methods share 3rd place. IUDs are almost nonexistent in rural areas. In urban and metropolitan zones about 1/4 of high fertility women have been sterilized. About 10% use pills. Traditional methods and IUDs are in 3rd place for urban women while injectables occupy 3rd place for metropolitan women. Except among women 30-34, about 70% of sterilizations in rural areas are in

  15. Origin and Evolution of the Cometary Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dones, Luke; Brasser, Ramon; Kaib, Nathan; Rickman, Hans

    2015-12-01

    underwent a dynamical instability that led to a flood of comets and asteroids throughout the Solar System (Gomes et al. in Nature 435:466-469, 2005b). In this scenario, it is somewhat a matter of luck whether an icy planetesimal ends up in the Kuiper Belt or Oort Cloud (Brasser and Morbidelli in Icarus 225:40-49, 2013), as a Trojan asteroid (Morbidelli et al. in Nature 435:462-465, 2005; Nesvorný and Vokrouhlický in Astron. J. 137:5003-5011, 2009; Nesvorný et al. in Astrophys. J. 768:45, 2013), or as a distant "irregular" satellite of a giant planet (Nesvorný et al. in Astron. J. 133:1962-1976, 2007). Comets could even have been captured into the asteroid belt (Levison et al. in Nature 460:364-366, 2009). The remarkable finding of two "inner Oort Cloud" bodies, Sedna and 2012 VP_{113}, with perihelion distances of 76 and 81 AU, respectively (Brown et al. in Astrophys. J. 617:645-649, 2004; Trujillo and Sheppard in Nature 507:471-474, 2014), along with the discovery of other likely inner Oort Cloud bodies (Chen et al. in Astrophys. J. Lett. 775:8, 2013; Brasser and Schwamb in Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 446:3788-3796, 2015), suggests that the Sun formed in a denser environment, i.e., in a star cluster (Brasser et al. in Icarus 184:59-82, 2006, 191:413-433, 2007, 217:1-19, 2012b; Kaib and Quinn in Icarus 197:221-238, 2008). The Sun may have orbited closer or further from the center of the Galaxy than it does now, with implications for the structure of the Oort Cloud (Kaib et al. in Icarus 215:491-507, 2011).

  16. Seasonal trends in black carbon properties and co-pollutants in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retama, A.; Baumgardner, D.; Raga, G. B.; McMeeking, G. R.; Walker, J. W.

    2015-04-01

    The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is a region that continues to grow in population and vehicular traffic as well as being the largest source of short lived climate pollutants (SLCP) in Latin America. The local city government has made significant progress in controlling some of these pollutants, i.e. ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO), but particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) and black carbon (BC) have shown little response to mitigation strategies that have been in place for more than two decades. For the first time, extended measurements have been made of equivalent black carbon (eBC), derived from light absorption measurements made with a Photoacoustic Extinctiometer (PAX), over a 13 month period from March 2013 through March 2014. The daily trends in workday (Monday through Saturday) and Sunday eBC, PM2.5 and the co-pollutants CO, O3 and NOx are evaluated with respect to the three primary seasons in that region: rainy, cold-dry and warm-dry. The maximum values in all of the particle and gas concentrations were significantly larger (Student's t test, P< 0.05) during the dry periods than in the rainy season. The changes from rainy to dry seasons for eBC, PM2.5, CO, O3, and NOx were 8.8 to 13.1 μg m-3 (40%), 49 to 73 μg m-3 (40%), 2.5 to 3.8 ppm (40%), 73 to 100 ppb (30%) and 144 to 252 ppb (53%), respectively. The primary factors that lead to these large changes between the wet and dry seasons are the accelerated vertical mixing of boundary layer and free tropospheric air by the formation of clouds that dilutes the concentration of the SLCPs and the decreased actinic flux that reduces the production of ozone by photochemical reactions. A significant "weekend effect" was also identified, particularly the decrease in BC due to fewer large transport vehicles that are fueled by diesel that produces a large fraction of the BC emissions. The other co-pollutant concentrations are also significantly less on weekends except for O3 that shows no change in maximum

  17. Interaction of pressure and momentum driven flows with thin porous media: Experiments and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naaktgeboren, Christian

    inlet and outlet pressure-drop is obtained by considering a least restrictive porous medium core. Finally, modified K and C are proposed and predictive equations, accurate to within 2.5%, are obtained for both channel configurations with Re ranging from 10-2 to 102 and φ from 6% to 95%. When momentum driven flows interact with thin porous media, the interaction of vortices with the media's complex structure gives way to a number of phenomena of fundamental and applied interest, such as unsteady flow separation. A special case that embodies many of the key features of these flows is the interaction of a vortex ring with a permeable flat surface. Although fundamental, this complex flow configuration has never been considered. The present investigation experimentally studies the fluid mechanics of the interaction of a vortex ring impinging directly on thin permeable flat targets. The vortex ring is formed in water using a piston-cylinder mechanism and visualized using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF). The rings are formed for jet Reynolds numbers of 3000 and 6000, and piston stroke-to-diameter ratios of 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0. Thin screens of similar geometry having surface opening fractions of 44, 60, 69, and 79% are targeted by the rings. The flow that emerges downstream of the screens reforms into a new, "transmitted" vortex ring. For the lower porosity targets, features that are characteristic of vortex ring impingement on walls are also observed, such as primary vortex ring rebound and reversal, flow separation, formation of secondary vortices and mixing. As the interaction proceeds, however, the primary vortex ring and secondary vortices are drawn toward the symmetry axis of the flow by fluid passing through the permeable screen. Quantitative flow measurements using digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV), indicate the transmitted vortex ring has lower velocity and less (total) kinetic energy than the incident ring. Ring trajectories and total kinetic energy

  18. Responding to the challenges of breast cancer in egypt and other arab countries.

    PubMed

    El Saghir, Nagi S

    2008-12-01

    common female malignancy in women in almost all Arab countries [2-5]. Randomized trials of mammographic screening of average-risk women above 50 years reduced breast cancer mortality by more than 36%. Analysis of the eight randomized trials, including the Canadian trials on women, ages 40-49 years old, showed a relative reduction of breast cancer deaths by 18% [6]. There is an obvious overlap as women with ages ranging from 40-49 years old reach the age of 50 and above, and enjoy the more clear benefits of mammographic screening beyond the age of 50 years. Many societies, including the American Cancer Society, recommend mammographic screening starting at age 40 years [7,8]. As it would be very difficult in this day and age to do more studies on breast cancer screening, and in view of the observations that almost 50% of cases are below the age of 50 years with a median age of 48-52 years at presentation, we recommend screening be done starting age 40, where resources are available and where setup for breast cancer care is appropriate [4,9]. Salem et al. report an initial very significant and alarming number of 10.215 women out of 20.098 women to be overweight and 2692 women to be obese [1]. Their observation that there is no significant correlation with breast cancer is only a one point in time observation and it cannot be used to confirm or refute any potential relationship between overweight, obesity and breast cancer. Future results, follow-up, and multivariate analysis will be awaited. Correlation of mammographic abnormalities with diabetes and hypertension in WHOP participants are very preliminary and will also need further multivariate analysis. WHOP investigators report that they invited women aged 45 years and up for screening. Eligibility criteria listed include only two points, women should have no personal history of breast cancer and no recent mammography [1], authors neither describe clinical history nor physical breast examination of selected and invited

  19. Mid-late Holocene climate and vegetation in northeastern part of the Altai Mountains recorded in Lake Teletskoye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudaya, Natalia; Nazarova, Larisa; Novenko, Elena; Babich, Valery; Kalugin, Ivan; Daryin, Andrei

    2015-04-01

    temperatures fell to 17.04 0C. Minimums of July temperatures related to AD1560-1650 and may reflect Little Ice Age in the northeastern Altai. This assumption is in an agreement with previous data from Lake Teletskoye (core Tel 2001-02 covered last 1000 years) where the period with relatively cold and dry climate was revealed between AD1560 and 1820 (Andreev et al., 2007). The coldest period in Tuva according to dendrochronological data (Myglan, Oidupaa, Vaganov, 2012) was in 17-19 centuries with minimum of June-July temperatures at AD1778-1819. Pollen records from the Chuya basin (southeastern part of Russian Altai) revealed the onset of LIA around AD1600 (Schluetz&Lehmkuhl, 2007). Open steppe-like vegetation slightly enlarged after ~AD1700 with increasing of continentality. Modern Index of Continentality mapping for the Altai Mountains is in range of 50-59 (Grieser et al., 2006). The average Index of Continentality calculated for last 30 years using data from Barnaul meteostation, located 300 km northwest of the lake in forest-steppe zone, is 40.6; the average Index of Continentality for Yailu meteostation (north shore of Lake Teletskoye) is 20. Index of Continentality reconstructed from Tel 2006 varies in limits of 48-58 and obviously shows regional but not local situation. Throughout the Tel 2006 record woody coverages vary between 29.0% at the 3890 cal yr BP and 50.3% at the AD1830. Woody coverage greater than 65% is associated with the Siberian mid-latitudinal zonal taiga. Areas north and south of the taiga zone have moderate forest coverage (25-45%), suggesting greater landscape openness (Tarasov et al., 2007). Regarding to VCF data, modern woody cover in 20 km around the lake is ca. 55% (http://glcf.umiacs.umd.edu/data/vcf). Reconstructed woody coverage is lower than observed and reflect probably forest development in the whole lake catchment basin. Spectral analysis of Tel 2006 data demonstrates periodic changes of taiga-biome curve of ~1050, ~470 and ~210 years

  20. Mid-late Holocene climate and vegetation in northeastern part of the Altai Mountains recorded in Lake Teletskoye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudaya, Natalia; Nazarova, Larisa; Novenko, Elena; Babich, Valery; Kalugin, Ivan; Daryin, Andrei

    2015-04-01

    temperatures fell to 17.04 0C. Minimums of July temperatures related to AD1560-1650 and may reflect Little Ice Age in the northeastern Altai. This assumption is in an agreement with previous data from Lake Teletskoye (core Tel 2001-02 covered last 1000 years) where the period with relatively cold and dry climate was revealed between AD1560 and 1820 (Andreev et al., 2007). The coldest period in Tuva according to dendrochronological data (Myglan, Oidupaa, Vaganov, 2012) was in 17-19 centuries with minimum of June-July temperatures at AD1778-1819. Pollen records from the Chuya basin (southeastern part of Russian Altai) revealed the onset of LIA around AD1600 (Schluetz&Lehmkuhl, 2007). Open steppe-like vegetation slightly enlarged after ~AD1700 with increasing of continentality. Modern Index of Continentality mapping for the Altai Mountains is in range of 50-59 (Grieser et al., 2006). The average Index of Continentality calculated for last 30 years using data from Barnaul meteostation, located 300 km northwest of the lake in forest-steppe zone, is 40.6; the average Index of Continentality for Yailu meteostation (north shore of Lake Teletskoye) is 20. Index of Continentality reconstructed from Tel 2006 varies in limits of 48-58 and obviously shows regional but not local situation. Throughout the Tel 2006 record woody coverages vary between 29.0% at the 3890 cal yr BP and 50.3% at the AD1830. Woody coverage greater than 65% is associated with the Siberian mid-latitudinal zonal taiga. Areas north and south of the taiga zone have moderate forest coverage (25-45%), suggesting greater landscape openness (Tarasov et al., 2007). Regarding to VCF data, modern woody cover in 20 km around the lake is ca. 55% (http://glcf.umiacs.umd.edu/data/vcf). Reconstructed woody coverage is lower than observed and reflect probably forest development in the whole lake catchment basin. Spectral analysis of Tel 2006 data demonstrates periodic changes of taiga-biome curve of ~1050, ~470 and ~210 years

  1. Influence of the nature and age of cover crop residues on the sorption of three pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassigneul, Ana; Alletto, Lionel; Chuette, Delphine; Le Gac, Anne-Laure; Hatier, Jules; Etievant, Veronique; Bergheaud, Valérie; Baumberger, Stéphanie; Méchin, Valérie; Justes, Eric; Benoit, Pierre

    2013-04-01

    , turnip rape, phacelia) to 206 ± 45 L/Kg (red clover); and glyphosate was the less adsorbed, with Kd values ranging from 1 ± 1 L/Kg (oat, red clover) to 9 ± 1 L/Kg (phacelia) at day 0. Differences between pesticides were expected considering the hydrophobicity of these molecules. Adsorption of the three pesticides increased with decomposition time (up to sevenfold for glyphosate on oat), and was negatively correlated with C/N ratio (-0.73<ρ<-0.89, p<0.001) and positively with the lignin fraction of the residue in decomposition (0.54<ρ<0.85, p<0.05). The correlation between adsorption and wettability was slight and not significant, except for glyphosate on oat and turnip rape (ρ=-0.99 and ρ=-0.62, p<0.05 respectively), leading to the assumption of the contribution of other factors than biochemical composition in wettability. This study highlighted that the nature and level of decomposition of cover crop at the soil surface influenced the mobility of pesticides as it was observed in decomposing mulch of crop residues (Aslam et al., 2013). As a result, the type of cover crop and the changes of cover crop residues composition during decomposition in field may control differently the movement of non-ionic pesticides compared to ionic compounds such as glyphosate, largely used in conservation agriculture practices. Keywords : Cover crops ; Glyphosate ; S-metolachlor ; Epoxiconazole ; Mulch; Sorption ; Biochemical composition References Alletto L., Benoit P., Justes E., Coquet Y. 2012. Effects of tillage and fallow period management on the fate of the herbicide isoxaflutole in an irrigated continuous-maize field. Agriculture, Ecosystems Environment, 153, 40- 49. http://dx.doi:10.1016/j.agee.2012.03.002 Alletto L., Benoit P., Coufignal M., Bergheaud V., Dumény V., Longueval D., Barriuso E. 2013. Sorption and mineralization of S-metolachlor in 51 fields cultivated with conservation tillage. Soil Tillage Research 128, 97-103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2012

  2. Debris flows of the mountain massif of Hjorthfjellet and Adventtoppen, Svalbard: Implications for gullies on mountains in the Argyre basin, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, D.; Hiesinger, H.; Zanetti, M.; Hauber, E.; Johnsson, A.; Carlsson, E.; Raack, J.; Olvmo, M.; Johansson, H. A. B.; Johansson, L.; Fredriksson, S.; Schmidt, H. T.; McDaniel, S.; Heldmann, J. L.; McKay, C. P.

    2008-09-01

    goals in both study regions on Earth and Mars are to classify different gully morphologies, map their distribution and orientations, gather information about bedrock, grain sizes and slopes and assess how all these parameters might influence the different gully morphologies, orientations, geological settings and their frequency. Airborne imagery from 1999 and a new, planned campaign in 2008 will be used to track the recent activity of debris flows in the last decade. In addition, a planned flight campaign with the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC-AX) at the same time as the field trip might acquire high resolution image (10 cm/pxl) and topographic data (25 cm/pxl), if weather conditions are good. References [1] Malin, M.C. and Edgett K. S. (2000) Science, 288, 2330-2335. [2] Balme, M. et al. (2006) J. Geophys. Res. 111, E05001, doi:10.1029/2005JE002607. [3] Dickson, J.L. (2007) Icarus 188, 315-323. [4] Heldmann, J.L. and Mellon, M.T. (2004) Icarus, 168, 285-304. [5] Stewart, S.T. and Nimmo, F. (2002) J. Geophys. Res. 107, 5069, doi:10.1029/2000JE001465. [6] Costard, F. et al. (2002) Science 295, 110-113. [7] Christensen, P.R. (2003) Nature 422, 45-48. [8] Carlsson, E. et al. (2008) LPSC XXXIX, abstract 1852. [9] Carlsson, E. et al. (2008), this issue. [10] Dallmann et al. (2002) Norsk Polarinstitutt Temakart No. 33. [11] Rapp, A. (1957) Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie 1, 179-200. [12] Rapp, A. (1960) Norsk Polarinst. Skrifter 119, 1-96. [13] Larsson, S. (1982) Geografiska Annaler A64, 105-125. [14] Åkerman, J. (1984) Geografiska Annaler A66, 267-284. [15] Thiedig, F. and Kreling, A. (1973) Polarforschung 43, 40-49. [16] Costa, J.E. (1984) In: Developments and Applications of Geomorphology, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 268-317. [17] Reiss et al. [2008] submitted to Planet. Space Sci.

  3. Influence of the nature and age of cover crop residues on the sorption of three pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassigneul, Ana; Alletto, Lionel; Chuette, Delphine; Le Gac, Anne-Laure; Hatier, Jules; Etievant, Veronique; Bergheaud, Valérie; Baumberger, Stéphanie; Méchin, Valérie; Justes, Eric; Benoit, Pierre

    2013-04-01

    , turnip rape, phacelia) to 206 ± 45 L/Kg (red clover); and glyphosate was the less adsorbed, with Kd values ranging from 1 ± 1 L/Kg (oat, red clover) to 9 ± 1 L/Kg (phacelia) at day 0. Differences between pesticides were expected considering the hydrophobicity of these molecules. Adsorption of the three pesticides increased with decomposition time (up to sevenfold for glyphosate on oat), and was negatively correlated with C/N ratio (-0.73<ρ<-0.89, p<0.001) and positively with the lignin fraction of the residue in decomposition (0.54<ρ<0.85, p<0.05). The correlation between adsorption and wettability was slight and not significant, except for glyphosate on oat and turnip rape (ρ=-0.99 and ρ=-0.62, p<0.05 respectively), leading to the assumption of the contribution of other factors than biochemical composition in wettability. This study highlighted that the nature and level of decomposition of cover crop at the soil surface influenced the mobility of pesticides as it was observed in decomposing mulch of crop residues (Aslam et al., 2013). As a result, the type of cover crop and the changes of cover crop residues composition during decomposition in field may control differently the movement of non-ionic pesticides compared to ionic compounds such as glyphosate, largely used in conservation agriculture practices. Keywords : Cover crops ; Glyphosate ; S-metolachlor ; Epoxiconazole ; Mulch; Sorption ; Biochemical composition References Alletto L., Benoit P., Justes E., Coquet Y. 2012. Effects of tillage and fallow period management on the fate of the herbicide isoxaflutole in an irrigated continuous-maize field. Agriculture, Ecosystems Environment, 153, 40- 49. http://dx.doi:10.1016/j.agee.2012.03.002 Alletto L., Benoit P., Coufignal M., Bergheaud V., Dumény V., Longueval D., Barriuso E. 2013. Sorption and mineralization of S-metolachlor in 51 fields cultivated with conservation tillage. Soil Tillage Research 128, 97-103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2012

  4. Understanding environmental drivers in the regulation of soil respiration dynamics after fire in semi-arid ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Lewandrowski, Wolfgang; Erickson, Todd E.; Dixon, Kingsley W.; Merritt, David J.

    2016-04-01

    semi-arid ecosystems of Western Australia. Geophysical Research. Abstracts Vol. 17, EGU2015-3961-1, EGU General Assembly. Muñoz-Rojas, M., Erickson, T.E., Martini, D., Dixon, K.W., Merritt, D.J. 2016. Soil physicochemical and microbiological indicators of short, medium and long term post-fire recovery in semi-arid ecosystems. Ecological indicators 63,14-22. Oyonarte, C., Rey, A., Raimundo, J., Miralles, I., Escribano, P., 2012. The use of soil respiration as an ecological indicator in arid ecosystems of the SE of Spain: spatial variability and controlling factors. Ecological Indicators 14, 40-49. Van Groenigen, K.J., Qi, X., Osenberg, C.W., Luo, Y., Hungate, B.A., 2014. Faster Decomposition under Increased Atmospheric CO2 Limits Soil Carbon Storage. Science 344, 508 Willaarts, B.A., Oyonarte, C., Muñoz-Rojas, M., Ibáñez, J.J. and Aguilera, P.A. 2015. Environmental Factors Controlling Soil Organic Carbon Stocks in Two Contrasting Mediterranean Climatic Areas of Southern Spain. Land Degradation and Development (on-line). DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2417

  5. Collision and Break-off : Numerical models and surface observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottrill, Andrew; van Hunen, Jeroen; Allen, Mark

    2013-04-01

    , Tectonophysics, 464(1-4), 60-69, doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2007.09.004, 2009. Ascione, A., Ciarcia, S., Di Donato, V., Mazzoli, S. and Vitale, S.: The Pliocene-Quaternary wedge-top basins of southern Italy: an expression of propagating lateral slab tear beneath the Apennines, Basin Research, 24(4), 456-474, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2117.2011.00534.x, 2012. Bottrill, A. D., Van Hunen, J. and Allen, M. B.: Insight into collision zone dynamics from topography: numerical modelling results and observations, Solid Earth, 3(2), 387-399, doi:10.5194/se-3-387-2012, 2012. Gerya, T. V., Yuen, D. a. and Maresch, W. V.: Thermomechanical modelling of slab detachment, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 226(1-2), 101-116, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2004.07.022, 2004. Van Hunen, J. and Allen, M. B.: Continental collision and slab break-off: A comparison of 3-D numerical models with observations, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 302(1-2), 27-37, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2010.11.035, 2011. Van der Meulen, M. J., Meulenkamp, J. E. and Wortel, R.: Lateral shifts of Apenninic foredeep depocentres reflecting detachment of subducted lithosphere, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 154(1-4), 203-219, doi:10.1016/S0012-821X(97)00166-0, 1998. Morley, C. K., Kongwung, B., Julapour, A. A., Abdolghafourian, M., Hajian, M., Waples, D., Warren, J., Otterdoom, H., Srisuriyon, K. and Kazemi, H.: Structural development of a major late Cenozoic basin and transpressional belt in central Iran: The Central Basin in the Qom-Saveh area, Geosphere, 5(4), 325-362, doi:10.1130/GES00223.1, 2009. Vincent, S. J., Morton, A. C., Carter, A., Gibbs, S. and Barabadze, T. G.: Oligocene uplift of the Western Greater Caucasus: an effect of initial Arabia?Eurasia collision, Terra Nova, 19(2), 160-166, doi:10.1111/j.1365-3121.2007.00731.x, 2007. Wortel, M. J. R.: Subduction and Slab Detachment in the Mediterranean-Carpathian Region, Science, 290(5498), 1910-1917, doi:10.1126/science.290.5498.1910, 2000.