Science.gov

Sample records for 40-year nesting history

  1. The Great Basin Canada goose in southcentral Washington: A 40-year nesting history

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzner, R.E.; Rickard, W.H.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Gray, R.H.

    1991-04-01

    Overall, the nesting population of Great Basin Canada geese (Branta canadensis moffitti) on the Hanford Site in southcentral Washington State is doing well and appears to be increasing. The average annual total nests for the period 1981 through 1990 was 215 nests, which is slightly above the average reported for the period 1950 through 1970. The nesting population has shifted its nucleus from upriver islands (1--10) to the lower river islands (11--20) with over 70% of the present-day nesting occurring on Islands 17, 18, 19, 20. The annual percent-successful nests from 1981 through 1990 was 80%. This is above the 71% reported for 1950 to 1970, but is below the 82% reported for 1971 to 1980. Average annual clutch size for 1981 to 1990 was 6.05, which is above the 1971-to-1980 average of 5.6 and the 1950-to-70 average of 5.5. Next desertions for 1981 to 1990 averaged 8%. This rate is well below the 14% reported for 1950 to 1970. Predators were responsible for an annual predation rate of 9% from 1981 to 1990. This is below the 1950-to-1970 annual average predation rate of 14%. Flooding losses to nests were low during the 1980s, except for 1989 and 1990 when 6% and 9% of the total nests, respectively, were destroyed by flooding. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Priapism in Homozygous Sickle Cell Disease: A 40-year Study of the Natural History

    PubMed Central

    Serjeant, G; Hambleton, I

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To describe the incidence, pattern, and outcome of priapism in homozygous sickle cell (SS) disease. Methods: Regular review, for periods up to 40 years, was done of all 162 males with SS disease detected during the screening of 100 000 consecutive non-operative deliveries at the main government maternity hospital in Kingston, Jamaica, between June 1973 and December 1981. Results: Priapism occurred in 52 (32.7%) patients overall, the incidence rising steeply in late adolescence to 32% by age 20 years and a cumulative incidence of nearly 60% of patients by age 40 years. Many cases were elicited only on direct questioning because of embarrassment and the lack of realization that priapism complicates SS disease. Initial events were recurrent stuttering episodes in 39 patients, a single short-term event in six patients and a major attack (more than six hours) in seven patients. Erectile function was preserved in almost all patients with simple stuttering or single events. Major attacks (> 6 hours) occurred in 17 patients, preceded by stuttering episodes in nine, by a single event in one, and occurring de novo in seven. In these, erectile function was unknown in five, deemed satisfactory in five (sometimes improving over three years), weak in three and impotence persisted in four (two with major attacks three and six months previously). Conclusions: A history of stuttering priapism should be routinely enquired and prophylactic measures used if attacks exceed once weekly. Major events generally result in short-term impotence, but the late recovery of erectile function cautions against the early insertion of penile prostheses. PMID:26426165

  3. A 40-Year History of the Association of Black Psychologists (ABPsi)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    The Association of Black Psychologists (ABPsi) was founded on September 2, 1968, during times of turbulence, turmoil, and unrest in this country. This article chronicles the formation, development, and progress of the ABPsi over the past 40 years. The initial thrust of the ABPsi in its originating years was to denounce racism and the American…

  4. 40 years of progress in NDT - History as a guide to the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farley, Mike

    2014-02-01

    The paper is focussed on the progress which has been made over 40 years in the science, technology and application of NDT/NDE both during manufacture and in-service, from the perspective of the author and his background in the energy industries in the UK. New techniques not dreamt of 40 years ago and new technology such as personal computers, lasers and robotics which are now common-place in everyday life have transformed some aspects of NDT. But other aspects have remained unchanged, including the continued use of the more basic NDT methods and the challenges of recruitment, training, certification and motivation of personnel. There have been major changes in the world scene over 40 years including the globalization of trade, the emergence of new countries as industrial powers, and the ageing of safety critical infrastructure. These have impacted on NDT business and on the activities of the international NDT community (including ICNDT, the International Committee for NDT). The paper concludes by introducing the activities championed by ICNDT to promote the understanding of the importance of NDT, to support the development of NDT Societies around the world, to educate users on the correct use of personnel certification and to pursue the objective of global harmonisation and recognition of third party certification.

  5. 40 years of progress in NDT - History as a guide to the future

    SciTech Connect

    Farley, Mike

    2014-02-18

    The paper is focussed on the progress which has been made over 40 years in the science, technology and application of NDT/NDE both during manufacture and in-service, from the perspective of the author and his background in the energy industries in the UK. New techniques not dreamt of 40 years ago and new technology such as personal computers, lasers and robotics which are now common-place in everyday life have transformed some aspects of NDT. But other aspects have remained unchanged, including the continued use of the more basic NDT methods and the challenges of recruitment, training, certification and motivation of personnel. There have been major changes in the world scene over 40 years including the globalization of trade, the emergence of new countries as industrial powers, and the ageing of safety critical infrastructure. These have impacted on NDT business and on the activities of the international NDT community (including ICNDT, the International Committee for NDT). The paper concludes by introducing the activities championed by ICNDT to promote the understanding of the importance of NDT, to support the development of NDT Societies around the world, to educate users on the correct use of personnel certification and to pursue the objective of global harmonisation and recognition of third party certification.

  6. A 40-Year History of End-of-Life Offerings in US Medical Schools: 1975-2015.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, George E

    2016-03-10

    The purpose of this longitudinal study of US medical schools over a 40-year period was to ascertain their offerings on end-of-life (EOL) issues. At 5-year intervals, beginning in 1975, US medical schools were surveyed via a questionnaire to determine their EOL offerings. Data were reported with frequency distributions. The Institute of Medicine has encouraged more emphasis on EOL issues over the past 2 decades. Findings revealed that undergraduate medical students in the United States are now exposed to death and dying, palliative care, and geriatric medicine. The inclusion of EOL topics has definitely expanded over the 40-year period as findings reveal that US undergraduate medical students are currently exposed in over 90% of programs to death and dying, palliative care, and geriatric medicine, with the emphasis on these topics varying with the medical programs. Such inclusion should produce future favorable outcomes for undergraduate medical students, patients, and their families.

  7. The 40-year history of modeling active dendrites in cerebellar Purkinje cells: emergence of the first single cell “community model”

    PubMed Central

    Bower, James M.

    2015-01-01

    The subject of the effects of the active properties of the Purkinje cell dendrite on neuronal function has been an active subject of study for more than 40 years. Somewhat unusually, some of these investigations, from the outset have involved an interacting combination of experimental and model-based techniques. This article recounts that 40-year history, and the view of the functional significance of the active properties of the Purkinje cell dendrite that has emerged. It specifically considers the emergence from these efforts of what is arguably the first single cell “community” model in neuroscience. The article also considers the implications of the development of this model for future studies of the complex properties of neuronal dendrites. PMID:26539104

  8. 40 Years of Discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, B; Heller, A

    2003-07-08

    History is most interesting when seen through the eyes of those who lived it. In this 40th anniversary retrospective of bioscience research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we've asked 19 scientists to share their personal recollections about a major accomplishment in the program's history. We have not tried to create a comprehensive or seamless story. Rather, we've attempted to capture the perspectives of key individuals, each of whom worked on a research program that met significant milestones. We have focused particularly on programs and accomplishments that have shaped the current Biology and Biotechnology Research Program (BBRP). In addition, we have included a timeline of biosciences at LLNL, a history of the directorate that appeared in the Laboratory's magazine, ''Science & Technology Review'', in 2002, and a list of bioscience-related articles that have appeared over the years in ''Science & Technology Review and its predecessor, Energy & Technology Review''. The landscape of biological science today is stunningly different from 40 years ago. When LLNL bioscience began in 1963, we knew about the structure of DNA and that it was the carrier of genetic information. However, it would be another year before scientists would understand how DNA codes for the production of proteins and more than a decade before the earliest DNA sequence would be known. It is sometimes difficult to remember that it was only 15 years ago that the polymerase chain reaction, a synthetic method to amplify pieces of DNA was developed, and that only within the last half-dozen years has sequence data for entire organisms begun to be available. In this publication, we have tried to capture some of the landmark and seminal research history: radiation effects studies, which were a major reason for founding the biological research program, and flow sorting and chromosome painting, which dramatically changed our ability to study DNA damage and enabled the creation of chromosome

  9. Biparental Care in Insects: Paternal Care, Life History, and the Function of the Nest

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Seizi

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of parental care is a complex process, and many evolutionary pathways have been hypothesized. Maternal care is common, but paternal care is not. High confidence of paternity should favor the evolution of paternal attendance in caring for young; biparental care is rare because paternity assurance is typically low compared to maternity. Biparental care in insects has evolved several times and has high diversity. To evaluate the conditions for the evolution of biparental care, a comparison across taxa is suitable. In this review, common traits of biparental species are discussed in order to evaluate previous models of biparental care and the life history of insects. It will be shown that nesting is a common feature in biparental insects. Nest structure limits extra-pair copulations, contributing to the evolution of biparental care. PMID:24766389

  10. FAO: the first 40 years

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations celebrated 40 years of service in October of 1985. This volume reviews FAO's history, some of the main themes of its work, and looks at its current status and plans for the future. The 14 highlights include the search for a world food policy and techniques for coping with food shortages and increasing food production. The FAO's work has focused on the rational use and protection of world resources, programs of self-help and international cooperation, and the development of human awareness and potential. The final chapter outlines six challenges for the future based on reducing hunger and improving the supply and distribution of food.

  11. Histories of Puerto Rican parrot nests in the Caribbean National Forest/Luquillo Experimental Forest, 1973-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wunderle, J.M.; Snyder, N.F.R.; Muiznieks, B.; Wiley, J.W.; Meyers, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    This publication summarizes the histories of all known Puerto Rican parrot nests in the Caribbean National Forest/Luquillo Experimental Forest from 1973 through 2000. Included for each nest, when known, are the identifies of the pair, clutch size, known fertile and infertile eggs, number of eggs that hatched, number of chicks that survived, sources of mortality, fostering (source, destination. or both), number of young fledged from the pair and from the nest, and percentage of days the nest was guarded. This information is useful for detecting and assessing potential changes in reproductive output and nest threats and is fundamental for understanding some of the demographic and genetic factors influencing the wild parrot population.

  12. Food availability and nest predation influence life history traits in Audouin's gull, Larus audouinii.

    PubMed

    Oro, Daniel; Pradel, Roger; Lebreton, Jean-Dominique

    1999-03-01

    The effects of food availability and nest predation on several life history traits such as adult survival, dispersal, and reproductive performance were assessed in an Audouin's gull (Larus audouinii) colony during the period 1992-1997. The amounts of fish discarded from trawlers were used as a measure of food availability, and a trawling moratorium which partially overlapped with the breeding season of the gulls was taken into account. The effects of nest predation were assessed in 1994, when a terrestrial predator entered the colony and remained for the whole breeding season preying on both eggs and chicks. Using the moratorium and the predatory event as natural experiments, several hypotheses were tested: (a) food supply would affect breeding performance but not adult survival (independently of age and sex), since gulls are long-lived and adult survival is the most sensitive demographic parameter in their population dynamics; (b) the predator would trigger breeding dispersal (although gulls are mostly philopatric, they are known to abandon their natal colony after breeding failure instigated by events such as this). If breeding dispersal occurs, the rate is expected to be higher in females than in males, and higher in new breeders than in more experienced breeding birds, as is usually recorded in colonial seabirds. Probabilities of resighting and survival were estimated separately, using capture-recapture models. As expected, changes in food availability did not affect adult survival, whereas they influenced egg volume, clutch size, and breeding success. Local adult survival was estimated to be 0.908 (SD = 0.007) for males and females, and it did not change significantly with the age of individuals (range 3-8 years). The predator significantly decreased breeding success, and caused the dispersal of a number of adults probably to breed in another colony; this rate was estimated at an average of 0.10 (SD = 0.02). As expected, inexperienced breeders

  13. Natural history of the Neotropical arboreal ant, Odontomachus hastatus: nest sites, foraging schedule, and diet.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Rafael X; Oliveira, Paulo S

    2012-01-01

    The ecology of most arboreal ants remains poorly documented because of the difficulty in accessing ant nests and foragers in the forest canopy. This study documents the nesting and foraging ecology of a large (∼13 mm total length) arboreal trap-jaw ant, Odontomachus hastatus (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in a sandy plain forest on Cardoso Island, off the coast of Southeast Brazil. The results showed that O. hastatus nested in root clusters of epiphytic bromeliads, most commonly Vriesea procera (70% of nest plants). Mature O. hastatus colonies include one to several queens and about 500 workers. Foraging by O. hastatus is primarily nocturnal year-round, with increased foraging activity during the wet/warm season. The foragers hunt singly in the trees, preying on a variety of canopy-dwelling arthropods, with flies, moths, ants, and spiders accounting for > 60% of the prey captured. Although predators often have impacts on prey populations, the ecological importance of O. hastatus remains to be studied.

  14. Natural History of the Neotropical Arboreal Ant, Odontomachus hastatus: Nest Sites, Foraging Schedule, and Diet

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, Rafael X.; Oliveira, Paulo S.

    2012-01-01

    The ecology of most arboreal ants remains poorly documented because of the difficulty in accessing ant nests and foragers in the forest canopy. This study documents the nesting and foraging ecology of a large (∼13 mm total length) arboreal trap—jaw ant, Odontomachus hastatus (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in a sandy plain forest on Cardoso Island, off the coast of Southeast Brazil. The results showed that O. hastatus nested in root clusters of epiphytic bromeliads, most commonly Vriesea procera (70% of nest plants). Mature O. hastatus colonies include one to several queens and about 500 workers. Foraging by O. hastatus is primarily nocturnal year—round, with increased foraging activity during the wet/warm season. The foragers hunt singly in the trees, preying on a variety of canopy—dwelling arthropods, with flies, moths, ants, and spiders accounting for > 60% of the prey captured. Although predators often have impacts on prey populations, the ecological importance of O. hastatus remains to be studied. PMID:22957686

  15. Avian life history profiles for use in the Markov chain nest productivity model (MCnest)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Markov Chain nest productivity model, or MCnest, quantitatively estimates the effects of pesticides or other toxic chemicals on annual reproductive success of avian species (Bennett and Etterson 2013, Etterson and Bennett 2013). The Basic Version of MCnest was developed as a...

  16. Natural history and morphology of the hoverfly Pseudomicrodon biluminiferus and its parasitic relationship with ants nesting in bromeliads.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Volker S; Morales, Mírian N; Marinoni, Luciane; Kamke, Rafael; Steiner, Josefina; Zillikens, Anne

    2014-03-12

    The syrphid subfamily Microdontinae is characterized by myrmecophily of their immature stages, i.e., they develop in ant nests. Data on natural history of microdontines are scarce, especially in the Neotropics. Based on fieldwork in southern Brazil, this study provided new data on development and ecology of the hoverfly Pseudomicrodon biluminiferus (Hull) (Diptera: Syrphidae) as well as the first morphological descriptions of male genitalia, larvae, and pupa. Immature specimens were specifically found in colonies of the ant species Crematogaster limata Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) found in rosettes of the bromeliad species Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren) Baker (Poales: Bromeliaceae) and A. nudicaulis (L.) Grisebach. Third instar larvae were observed preying on ant larvae, revealing the parasitic nature of P. biluminiferus. In this and several other aspects, the natural history of P. biluminiferus is similar to that of Holarctic microdontine species. Exceptions include: (i) indications that adults of P. biluminiferus outlast the winter months (in contrast to 3(rd)instar larvae in Holarctic species) and (ii) P. biluminiferus' relationship with bromeliads. The importance of bromeliads for this host-parasite system is evaluated in this paper. The single occurrence of another, unidentified microdontine species' pupae in a nest of the ant species Camponotus melanoticus Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is reported.

  17. Large increase in nest size linked to climate change: an indicator of life history, senescence and condition.

    PubMed

    Møller, Anders Pape; Nielsen, Jan Tøttrup

    2015-11-01

    Many animals build extravagant nests that exceed the size required for successful reproduction. Large nests may signal the parenting ability of nest builders suggesting that nests may have a signaling function. In particular, many raptors build very large nests for their body size. We studied nest size in the goshawk Accipiter gentilis, which is a top predator throughout most of the Nearctic. Both males and females build nests, and males provision their females and offspring with food. Nest volume in the goshawk is almost three-fold larger than predicted from their body size. Nest size in the goshawk is highly variable and may reach more than 600 kg for a bird that weighs ca. 1 kg. While 8.5% of nests fell down, smaller nests fell down more often than large nests. There was a hump-shaped relationship between nest volume and female age, with a decline in nest volume late in life, as expected for senescence. Clutch size increased with nest volume. Nest volume increased during 1977-2014 in an accelerating fashion, linked to increasing spring temperature during April, when goshawks build and start reproduction. These findings are consistent with nest size being a reliable signal of parental ability, with large nest size signaling superior parenting ability and senescence, and also indicating climate warming.

  18. Reproductive history and nest environment are correlated with circulating androgen and glucocorticoid concentrations in a parental care-providing teleost fish.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Constance M; Barthel, Brandon L; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Philipp, David P; Van Der Kraak, Glen; Cooke, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    Using a long-term study population of wild smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in a connected river-lake system, we investigated whether circulating glucocorticoid (cortisol) and androgen (testosterone) concentrations are influenced by reproductive investment and nesting environment in fish providing nest-guarding paternal care. For all individuals, we collected measures of reproductive history and the value of current parental care. We assessed nest environment and monitored individuals to quantify seasonal reproductive success. Finally, we measured circulating cortisol concentrations following a standardized stressor and circulating testosterone concentrations. Using general linear models, we found that poststress circulating cortisol concentrations were positively related to water temperature and were higher in fish nesting in the river than in the lake. Circulating testosterone concentrations were negatively related to water temperature and were higher in reproductively experienced fish. When considering the factors that influence reproductive success, we found that only parental size was positively related to current nest success. In summary, the results demonstrate that nesting environment is correlated with parental stress responses during parental care, while reproductive history and nesting environment are correlated with circulating androgen concentrations. Collectively, these results offer insight into the roles of both glucocorticoid and androgen steroid hormones during parental care in teleost fish.

  19. Changes in reproductive life-history strategies in response to nest density in a shell-brooding cichlid, Telmatochromis vittatus.

    PubMed

    Ota, Kazutaka; Hori, Michio; Kohda, Masanori

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether the appearance of a reproductively parasitic tactic varies, and how this variation affects territorial males of the Lake Tanganyika cichlid fish Telmatochromis vittatus, we examined the reproductive ecology of territorial males in Mtondwe and compared it with that of a neighboring Wonzye population, where nest density differs from that at Mtondwe. In Wonzye, with high nest density, male tactics change with their body size from a territorial to a non-territorial parasitic tactic called piracy in which they conquer several nests defended by territorial males and take over the nests while females are spawning. These "pirate" males could decrease the costs incurred by travelling among nests by exclusively targeting aggregations of nests in close proximity while avoiding separate nests. Territorial males in Wonzye sacrifice the potential higher attractiveness offered by large nests and instead compete for nests farther from neighbors on which pirates less frequently intrude. In contrast, the Mtondwe population had lower nest density and piracy was absent. Given that the success of piracy depends on the close proximity of nests, nest density is likely responsible for the observed variation in the occurrence of piracy between the two populations. Furthermore, in Mtondwe, territorial males competed for larger nests and were smaller than the territorial males in Wonzye. Thus, this lower nest density may free territorial males from the selection pressures for increased size caused by both defense against nest piracy and the need to develop into pirates as they grow.

  20. Changes in reproductive life-history strategies in response to nest density in a shell-brooding cichlid, Telmatochromis vittatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ota, Kazutaka; Hori, Michio; Kohda, Masanori

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether the appearance of a reproductively parasitic tactic varies, and how this variation affects territorial males of the Lake Tanganyika cichlid fish Telmatochromis vittatus, we examined the reproductive ecology of territorial males in Mtondwe and compared it with that of a neighboring Wonzye population, where nest density differs from that at Mtondwe. In Wonzye, with high nest density, male tactics change with their body size from a territorial to a non-territorial parasitic tactic called piracy in which they conquer several nests defended by territorial males and take over the nests while females are spawning. These "pirate" males could decrease the costs incurred by travelling among nests by exclusively targeting aggregations of nests in close proximity while avoiding separate nests. Territorial males in Wonzye sacrifice the potential higher attractiveness offered by large nests and instead compete for nests farther from neighbors on which pirates less frequently intrude. In contrast, the Mtondwe population had lower nest density and piracy was absent. Given that the success of piracy depends on the close proximity of nests, nest density is likely responsible for the observed variation in the occurrence of piracy between the two populations. Furthermore, in Mtondwe, territorial males competed for larger nests and were smaller than the territorial males in Wonzye. Thus, this lower nest density may free territorial males from the selection pressures for increased size caused by both defense against nest piracy and the need to develop into pirates as they grow.

  1. The Last 40 Years in Finnish Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    This article sets out to identify and discuss the changes that have taken place in Finnish teacher education during the last 40 years (1974-2014). A brief history of teacher education in Finland is presented, followed by the goals and aims of current research-based teacher education in Finland. Finally, the major changes in Finnish teacher…

  2. Ferruginous hawk nesting on the US DOE Hanford Site: Case history of a recent invasion caused by transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzner, R.E.; Newell, R.L.

    1989-04-01

    Ferruginous hawks were an uncommon nesting raptor on the US DOE Hanford Site prior to 1987, with only one or two pairs nesting each year. In 1987, four pair were found nesting on transmission towers. In 1988, seven pairs were observed nesting on the towers. This recent increase in nesting pairs may correspond to an acceptance phenomena related to age of the transmission towers. The increase may be due to an overall increase in the population of ferruginous hawks in Washington. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Cooling history of nested plutons from the Variscan Tichka plutonic complex (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lécuyer, Christophe; Gasquet, Dominique; Allemand, Pascal; Martineau, François; Martinez, Isabelle

    2017-03-01

    Four imbricated mafic to felsic plutons of Variscan age from Morocco have been investigated for their cooling history and geochemical interactions with surrounding continental rocks. Oxygen isotope compositions of whole rocks and minerals have been used to model the cooling rates of these kilometer-sized intrusions. By combining both the knowledge of oxygen-self diffusion data of rock-forming minerals and the determination by IR-spectroscopy of the water content of quartz, the cooling times are estimated ranging from 105 to 5 × 105 years in agreement with the shallow emplacement (4-6 km depth) of these intrusions into the continental crust. Such fast cooling rates could explain why after assimilation of the various country rocks, heterogeneities of both neodymium and strontium isotope ratios were still preserved. A progressive δ18O increase from the mafic to felsic terms of the plutonic suite, which does not excess 1 to 1.5‰, could be explained by the assimilation of metamorphosed pelitic and volcanic rocks that constitute the basement of the Tichka plutonic complex.

  4. Separate universe problem: 40 years on

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, B. J.; Harada, Tomohiro

    2015-04-01

    The claim that an overdense (positive-curvature) region in the early Universe cannot extend beyond some maximum scale and remain part of our Universe, first made 40 years ago, has recently been questioned by Kopp et al. Their analysis is elucidating and demonstrates that one cannot constrain the form of primordial density perturbations using this argument. However, the notion of a separate universe scale still applies and there is also an upper limit on the scale of a region collapsing to a black hole at any epoch, these scales being simply related. We calculate these scales for equations of state of the form p =k ρ c2 with -1 history of the Universe, the situation changes radically, in that a sufficiently large positive-curvature region produces a baby universe rather than a black hole. There is still a separate universe scale but the interpretation of these solutions requires care.

  5. What Is Next after 40 Years? Part 2: Prior Learning Assessment--2012 and after

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travers, Nan L.

    2012-01-01

    The previous article, "Prior Learning Assessment: What is next after 40 years? Part 1: Prior Learning Assessment: 1970-2011" focused on the history of prior learning assessment (PLA) in the United States over the past 40 years. After exploring more recent recognition and development of PLA across institutions of higher education, the…

  6. Nesting Instincts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Geri

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project where beginning drawing students used values and chiaroscuro techniques to draw bird nests. Explains how the students observed the nest that was displayed in the art classroom. Discusses the steps involved in creating the artworks. (CMK)

  7. INCAP Oriente longitudinal study: 40 years of history and legacy.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Melgar, Paul; Rivera, Juan A

    2010-02-01

    Our purpose in this article is to describe the objectives, design, overall coverage, and main domains of data collection of the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama Oriente Longitudinal Study and subsequent follow-up studies. This supplementary feeding trial targeted to pregnant and lactating women and children from birth to 7 y of age, conducted in 4 rural Guatemalan villages (1969-77) with a series of follow-up studies (1988-2007), is one of the richest sources of information on the effects of nutrition, growth, development, and human capital in the developing world, with outstanding data from gestation to adult age and 40 y of follow-up. Its results have influenced nutrition knowledge and policy with over 300 scientific publications. We present brief descriptions of preliminary studies that were critical for the success of the trial and the design and methods used during the trial and in the follow-up studies, in chronological order.

  8. The cavity-nest ant Temnothorax crassispinus prefers larger nests.

    PubMed

    Mitrus, S

    Colonies of the ant Temnothorax crassispinus inhabit mostly cavities in wood and hollow acorns. Typically in the field, nest sites that can be used by the ant are a limited resource. In a field experiment, it was investigated whether the ants prefer a specific size of nest, when different ones are available. In July 2011, a total of 160 artificial nests were placed in a beech-pine forest. Four artificial nests (pieces of wood with volume cavities, ca 415, 605, 730, and 980 mm(3), respectively) were located on each square meter of the experimental plot. One year later, shortly before the emergence of new sexuals, the nests were collected. In July 2012, colonies inhabited more frequently bigger nests. Among queenright colonies, the ones which inhabited bigger nests had more workers. However, there was no relationship between volume of nest and number of workers for queenless colonies. Queenright colonies from bigger nests produced more sexual individuals, but there was no correlation between number of workers and sex allocation ratio, or between volume of nest and sex allocation ratio. In a laboratory experiment where ant colonies were kept in 470 and 860 mm(3) nests, larger colonies allocated more energy to produce sexual individuals. The results of this study show the selectivity of T. crassispinus ants regarding the size of nest cavity, and that the nest volume has an impact on life history parameters.

  9. Breast Cancer Before Age 40 Years

    PubMed Central

    Anders, Carey K.; Johnson, Rebecca; Litton, Jennifer; Phillips, Marianne; Bleyer, Archie

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 7% of women with breast cancer are diagnosed before the age of 40 years, and this disease accounts for more than 40% of all cancer in women in this age group. Survival rates are worse when compared to those in older women, and multivariate analysis has shown younger age to be an independent predictor of adverse outcome. Inherited syndromes, specifically BRCA1 and BRCA2, must be considered when developing treatment algorithms for younger women. Chemotherapy, endocrine, and local therapies have the potential to significantly impact both the physiologic health—including future fertility, premature menopause, and bone health—and the psychological health of young women as they face a diagnosis of breast cancer. PMID:19460581

  10. Triangular Nests!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, R. I.

    2002-01-01

    Shows how integer-sided triangles can be nested, each nest having a single enclosing isosceles triangle. Brings to light what can be seen as a relatively simple generalization of Pythagoras' theorem, a result that should be readily accessible to many secondary school pupils. (Author/KHR)

  11. Celebrating Ruby: 40 years of NAS→SNANSC→SNACC→SNACC.

    PubMed

    Kofke, W Andrew

    2012-10-01

    The 40-year history of the Society of Neurosurgical Anesthesia and Critical Care (SNACC) is reviewed. Annual meetings have been a focus for reporting scientific advances and providing education to those attending. The society has undergone significant maturation dealing with transitions in leadership and dealing with an existential threat and undergoing name changes reflecting growth and maturation in its mission. SNACC has collaborated with several other professional societies, most notable being the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA), in which SNACC members have advocated for neuroscience in the ASA's educational and scientific activities, with several SNACC members being recognized through several major ASA awards and presentations. SNACC has been a strong advocate for educational advances, most recently addressing issues in neuroanesthesia fellowship accreditation and possibly certification. SNACC's initial North American focus has grown such that SNACC is now an international society dedicated to the advancement of neuroanesthesia, neurocritical care, neuromonitoring, and neuroscience.

  12. Feathering Your Nest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nabors, Martha L.; Edwards, Linda Carol; Decker, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    The first-grade classroom was like a natural history museum. Bird nests of every shape and size lay on top of bookshelves that lined two walls. Methods students, who were visiting the classroom in preparation for the science lessons they would teach there, were immediately inspired by the collection. They used the collection as a springboard for…

  13. NIAAA: Advancing Alcohol Research for 40 Years

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Kenneth R.; Hewitt, Brenda G.

    2010-01-01

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has been the lead Federal agency responsible for scientific research on alcohol and its effects for 40 years. During that time, NIAAA has conducted and funded groundbreaking research, distilled and disseminated those research findings to a broad audience, and ultimately improved public health. Among NIAAA’s many significant contributions are the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, the largest survey ever conducted on alcohol and associated psychiatric and medical conditions; investment in research to identify the genes underlying vulnerability to alcoholism; creation of the Collaborative Studies on Genetics of Alcoholism, a study of the genetics of alcoholism in a human population; leadership in exploring the effects of alcohol on fetal development and on a variety of diseases and organ systems; fostering alcoholism treatment, including supporting a medications development program that has funded more than 30 Phase 2 trials and 15 human laboratory studies; international collaborations and work across the National Institutes of Health; influential research on preventing alcohol problems through community programs as well as policy changes; and the translation of research findings to everyday practice, including the production of award-winning clinician training materials. PMID:23579932

  14. [Internal medicine in the last 40 years].

    PubMed

    Mandema, E

    1997-01-04

    Internal medicine in the last 40 years has known many eminent teachers at universities, such as Hijmans van den Bergh, Van Buchem, Borst, Mulder, Lindeboom, De Langen, Hulst, Jordan, Formijne, Major, Snapper, Groen and Querido, and others outside universities such as Stuyt, Van Hees, Eindhoven, Pannekoek, Schalm, Bruins Slot, Heeres, Stolte and Pompen. The main scientific platform on which the bequeathors assembled in the first few decades after World War II was the Algemene Ziektekundige Vereniging ('General Medical Association'), which met in Utrecht. Important medical steps forward in that period were the virtually complete eradication of tuberculosis in the Netherlands, the developing of vaccines against smallpox and polio, but also against the various types of virus hepatitis, and the progress in intensive care, transplantation and molecular biology. The Nederlandsche Internisten Vereeniging ('Dutch Association of Internists') has had its own scientific journal since 1958. Essentials in modern internal medicine are appropriate care and demonstrated usefulness of a treatment (evidence-based medicine); standards, values and ethics are core issues, as are quality control and cost control. Change is also in progress in the doctor-patient relationship, as manifested in the Wet Geneeskundige Behandelingsovereenkomst ('Medical Treatment Accord Act').

  15. Nested Cohort

    Cancer.gov

    NestedCohort is an R software package for fitting Kaplan-Meier and Cox Models to estimate standardized survival and attributable risks for studies where covariates of interest are observed on only a sample of the cohort.

  16. Frederick National Laboratory Celebrates 40 Years | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer Forty years ago, what we now call the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research was born. Here are some highlights in the facility’s history. October 19, 1971 – President Richard Nixon announced that Fort Detrick would be converted from a biological warfare facility to a cancer research center (Covert, Norman M., Cutting Edge: A History of Fort Detrick, Maryland, 1943–1993, pp. 85–87).

  17. Program: A Record of the First 40 Years of Electronic Library and Information Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedd, Lucy A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a broad overview of the history of the journal Program: electronic library and information systems and its contents over its first 40 years. Design/methodology/approach: Analysis of content from the original published material, as well as from abstracting and indexing publications and from minutes of Editorial Board meetings.…

  18. Developments in Business Gaming: A Review of the Past 40 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faria, A. J.; Hutchinson, David; Wellington, William J.; Gold, Steven

    2009-01-01

    This article examines developments in business simulation gaming during the past 40 years. Covered in this article are a brief history of business games, the changing technology employed in the development and use of business games, changes in why business games are adopted and used, changes in how business games are administered, and the current…

  19. Lunar laser ranging: 40 years of research

    SciTech Connect

    Kokurin, Yu L

    2003-01-31

    The history of the origin and development of the lunar laser ranging is described. The main results of lunar laser ranging are presented and fundamental problems solved by this technique are listed. (special issue devoted to the 80th anniversary of academician n g basov's birth)

  20. Opioid substitution treatment in New Zealand: a 40 year perspective.

    PubMed

    Deering, Daryle; Sellman, J Douglas; Adamson, Simon

    2014-07-04

    We provide an overview of the history and philosophy of the treatment for opioid dependence, which has been dominated by methadone substitution treatment for the past 40 years in New Zealand. Although changes in approach have occurred over this time, influenced by various sociopolitical events and changing ideologies, opioid substitution treatment has still "not come of age". It remains undermined by stigma and risk concerns associated with methadone and has struggled to be accessible and attractive to illicit opioid drug users, comprehensive and integrated into mainstream health care. However, the introduction in 2012 of Pharmac-subsidised buprenorphine combined with naloxone (Suboxone) in the context of an emerging trend towards a broader recovery and well-being orientation could signal a new era in treatment. The availability of buprenorphine-naloxone may also facilitate a further shift in treatment from primarily siloed specialist addiction services to integrated primary care services. This shift will help reduce stigma, promote patient self-management and community integration and align opioid substitution treatment with treatment for other chronic health conditions such as diabetes and asthma.

  1. Survey of master's gerontology students spanning over 40 years.

    PubMed

    Molinari, Victor; Ellis, Michelle L

    2014-01-01

    The University of South Florida's master's degree in gerontology is a long-established program that focuses on a multidisciplinary approach to population aging. This study identifies graduate students' needs in preparation for a professional career in gerontology. An online survey was distributed to graduates and those currently enrolled (N = 56) in order to better understand expectations for the program, identify outcomes of graduation, and obtain program recommendations for future students. The program's 40 year history was well represented with participants ranging from the first graduating class to current students. Results indicated high satisfaction in students' expectations of the program, educational experience, and assessment of faculty. Further, 68% of graduates reported success in gaining age-related employment shortly after graduation. However, students echoed well-known barriers in gerontology, reporting tough competition for jobs versus those with licensure, and challenges in promoting their nonclinical gerontology degree to employers. Respondents recommended more applied coursework and assistance with career planning to enhance employment opportunities upon graduation. Implications of these findings are discussed in further detail.

  2. The Forman Thesis: 40 Years After

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Cathryn; Kojevnikov, Alexei; Trischler, Helmuth

    Forty years ago, in 1971, Paul Forman published Weimar Culture, Causality, and Quantum Theory, 1918-1927: Adaptation by German Physicists and Mathematicians to a Hostile Intellectual Environment. His landmark study (too long, too thorough and too fundamental to be called simply an article) became immediately famous, and famously controversial. It has remained at the heart of debates about the historical relationship between science and culture ever since. The controversy surrounding the Forman Thesis was practically unavoidable, for Forman's work put forward and placed at the centre of a broader discussion the argument that the cultural values prevalent in a given place and time could influence the results of discipline-bound research, i.e. the very content of scientific knowledge. This idea, if still controversial, has since become commonly used in cultural studies of science, but at the time of its introduction it created uproar as it explicitly contradicted generally accepted and cherished beliefs about science. Yet tectonic shifts were already underway, if not always visible, that would eventually put those very beliefs into question. The Forman study both reflected and forwarded these shifts in our general perspectives on the nature and practice of science. Despite some heated objections to its findings, Forman's work has fundamentally changed directions of research in the history, sociology and philosophy of science and established itself as a classic in this group of fields, sometimes collectively called science studies. In subsequent decades it has been read and discussed in practically every graduate program that trains students in those fields, circulating in numerous copies and translated into many languages, while the original publication in the journal Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences has long become a bibliographic rarity…

  3. [Original articles in the Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde in the last 40 years].

    PubMed

    Maas, K L; Overbeke, A J

    1997-01-04

    Original articles offer the reader of the Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde information about Dutch scientific research. These readers are selective but appreciative. The emphasis has shifted in the last 40 years from case histories, introduction of new techniques, literature studies and opinions, to qualitatively and methodologically adequate numerical studies, with strictly arranged presentation. The numbers of patients per study have increased substantially, and statistical processing has grown more extensive. Cost-benefit analyses appeared. The number of prospective studies remained constant.

  4. Apollo, Paintbrushes, and Packaging: An Interview with 40-Year Spacesuit Veteran Ron Woods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Ron Woods exhibits a wealth of knowledge gathered in more than 40 years of experience with NASA and spacesuits. Many people are interested in his biography, progression of work at NASA, impact on the U.S. Spacesuit, and career accomplishments. Wright, from the JSC History Office, conducted this personal background interview with Woods. The interview highlighted the influences and decision-making methods that impacted his technical and management contributions to the space program.

  5. 40 Years of Processing Pieces of Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satterwhite, C. E.; Funk, R. C.; Righter, K.; Harrington, R. H.

    2016-01-01

    , meteorite studies have not only led to a better understanding of the complex histories of these bodies but have also tied certain meteorite groups to particular asteroid bodies. New meteorite discoveries by the ANSMET program provide a cost effective method for obtaining samples of previously unsampled bodies, allowing scientists to learn more about the origin, composition, and evolution of the solar system. Preservation in our cleanrooms at NASA allows material to be archived for future generations and advances in instrumentation and analysis.

  6. EDITORIAL: 40 years of Physica Scripta 40 years of Physica Scripta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wäppling, Roger

    2010-01-01

    (CAMOP); condensed matter physics (CCMP); nuclear and particle physics (CNPP); plasma physics and controlled fusion (CPPCF); astrophysics and cosmology (CAC). These sections contain invited papers that provide an authoritative contribution by an acknowledged expert and are intended to provide insight into current problems, methods and results. In the publication process we collaborate with IOP Publishing, which ensures a fast and efficient manuscript management system and journal production, with both online and printed volumes. In 2010 Physica Scripta celebrates 40 years of successful publishing and we encourage physicists throughout the world to join us in celebrating this prestigious anniversary by submitting their contributions.

  7. Tritium in Australian Precipitation: a 40 Year Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadros, C. V.; Stone, D. J.; Hill, D. M.; Henderson-Sellers, A.

    2004-12-01

    Tritium, the radioisotope of hydrogen, directly incorporated into water molecules in the global hydrological system, is the most commonly used radioisotope indicator of groundwater recharge. Tritium in precipitation has been measured in Australia over the past 40 years, as an essential research tool in hydro-climate studies and to contribute to the Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP). Tritium, which as tritiated water (3H 1H O) is very mobile in the environment, delivers the benefit of tracing groundwater systems in a 10 - 20 year timeframe as a result of last century's atmospheric thermonuclear testing. The concentration of tritium in Australian precipitation reached a maximum level of 160 TU in 1963, during one of the most intense periods of nuclear testing. Our data reveal Australia experienced a `minor' bomb pulse compared to the Northern Hemisphere eg. in Ottawa, Canada a value of 6000 TU was recorded in 1963 for tritium in precipitation. From 1963 to 1980 we observe a rapid drop in the concentration of tritium, more than expected from natural decay, mainly due to the wash out of tritium into the oceans and groundwater. Since 1990 the levels of tritium have stabilised globally and regionally. Currently the levels of tritium in Australia have stabilised to 2 to 3 TU latitudinally across the continent, a factor of 10 lower than values observed at stations in the Northern Hemisphere. At present, levels of tritium in Australia appear to have ceased declining and our analyses suggest that today the tritium in precipitation is predominantly natural. We believe that it may be possible that the increased levels observed in the Northern Hemisphere, due to nuclear power generation [1] could `leak' into the Southern Hemisphere. This is important for research in Australia because it could hinder the exploitation of tritium in providing information on the origin and mechanism of recharge of shallow groundwaters and rivers [2]. 1. J.D. Happell, et al. A

  8. 40 Years in Applied Linguistics: An Interview with Alan Davies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunnan, Antony John

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Professor Alan Davies who was born in Wales, studied at Oxford University and Birmingham University, and taught in Scotland at the University of Edinburgh, completing 40 years this year. Professor Davies has travelled widely to give invited talks and seminars, participate in applied linguistics conferences,…

  9. Nursing Simulation: A Review of the Past 40 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehring, Wendy M.; Lashley, Felissa R.

    2009-01-01

    Simulation, in its many forms, has been a part of nursing education and practice for many years. The use of games, computer-assisted instruction, standardized patients, virtual reality, and low-fidelity to high-fidelity mannequins have appeared in the past 40 years, whereas anatomical models, partial task trainers, and role playing were used…

  10. Reflections of Being "A Man of Truancy": 40 Years on

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ken

    2012-01-01

    This paper reflects upon a career of 40 years involving teaching and research into the causes and solutions for school absenteeism and truancy. It includes insights into both professional and empirical work and notes how the subject has become increasingly "politicised" over the last 25-30 years by governments of both persuasions: Left and Right.…

  11. "A 40-year-old female with painless, slow growing prepatellar mass".

    PubMed

    Arora, Sumit; Batra, Sahil; Rao, Seema; Maini, Lalit; Gautam, V K

    2014-12-01

    A 40-year-old woman from India presented with a mass in the front of her left knee which had been present for 8 months. Local examination revealed a globular mass of approximate size 5 cm × 4 cm × 4 cm in front of the lower pole of left patella. The patient was investigated with imaging studies and laboratory tests. Plain radiograph of the chest was normal. In addition, contrast enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the left knee was performed. Based on the history, physical examination, laboratory and imaging studies, what is the differential diagnosis?

  12. 40 years of Landsat images: What we learned about science and politics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dozier, Jeff

    2014-03-01

    The first Landsat (then called ERTS - Earth Resources Technology Satellite) launched in 1972. Landsat 8 launched in February 2013. The 40 + years of images have yielded a remarkable history of changes in Earth's land surface, and the program has accomplished significant technological achievements. However, the sustained long-term record owes more to luck than careful program planning, and especially benefitted from the remarkable 27-year life of Landsat 5. Recommendations for the future center mainly on making the program a real Program with a commitment to sustaining it, as well as some ideas to reduce cost and improve effectiveness.

  13. What's next after 40 years of drinking water regulations?

    PubMed

    Roberson, J Alan

    2011-01-01

    The quality of drinking water in the United States has continued to improve over the past 40 years. The formation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in 1971, the passage of the initial Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA, PL 93-523) in 1974, and the passage of the 1996 SDWA Amendments (PL 104-208) represent significant progress in drinking water quality. While the widespread adoption of filtration and disinfection in the early 1900s virtually eliminated waterborne typhoid fever, some residual risks still remained 40 years ago. These national regulatory developments compelled USEPA and the drinking water community to address these remaining risks in drinking water and optimize risk reduction for the public.

  14. Robert Blumenthal: More than 40 Years at FNL | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Carolynne Keenan, Guest Writer Robert Blumenthal, Ph.D., is a nanotechnology and cell membrane expert at Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNL)—just as you would imagine someone with more than 40 years of experience in biomedical research would be. Blumenthal started his career as a principal investigator (PI) at NCI in Bethesda, but since 1997, he has called FNL (formerly NCI-Frederick) his home.

  15. An Approach to the 40-Year Drug War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    States with a few modifications. The aim is to disrupt the Mexican drug trafficking organizations using operational shock. In order to accomplish this...Director, Thomas C. Graves, COL, IN School of Advanced Military Studies ___________________________________ Director, Robert F...Approach to the 40-Year Drug War by MAJ Dustin E. Phillips, U.S. Army, 54 pages. In 1969, President Nixon started the now well-known “War on Drugs

  16. IARC Monographs: 40 Years of Evaluating Carcinogenic Hazards to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Aaron; Vineis, Paolo; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Andersen, Aage; Anto, Josep M.; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Beland, Frederick A.; Berrington, Amy; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Brownson, Ross C.; Bucher, John R.; Cantor, Kenneth P.; Cardis, Elisabeth; Cherrie, John W.; Christiani, David C.; Cocco, Pierluigi; Coggon, David; Comba, Pietro; Demers, Paul A.; Dement, John M.; Douwes, Jeroen; Eisen, Ellen A.; Engel, Lawrence S.; Fenske, Richard A.; Fleming, Lora E.; Fletcher, Tony; Fontham, Elizabeth; Forastiere, Francesco; Frentzel-Beyme, Rainer; Fritschi, Lin; Gerin, Michel; Goldberg, Marcel; Grandjean, Philippe; Grimsrud, Tom K.; Gustavsson, Per; Haines, Andy; Hartge, Patricia; Hansen, Johnni; Hauptmann, Michael; Heederik, Dick; Hemminki, Kari; Hemon, Denis; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Hoppin, Jane A.; Huff, James; Jarvholm, Bengt; Kang, Daehee; Karagas, Margaret R.; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Kjuus, Helge; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kriebel, David; Kristensen, Petter; Kromhout, Hans; Laden, Francine; Lebailly, Pierre; LeMasters, Grace; Lubin, Jay H.; Lynch, Charles F.; Lynge, Elsebeth; ‘t Mannetje, Andrea; McMichael, Anthony J.; McLaughlin, John R.; Marrett, Loraine; Martuzzi, Marco; Merchant, James A.; Merler, Enzo; Merletti, Franco; Miller, Anthony; Mirer, Franklin E.; Monson, Richard; Nordby, Karl-Cristian; Olshan, Andrew F.; Parent, Marie-Elise; Perera, Frederica P.; Perry, Melissa J.; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia; Pirastu, Roberta; Porta, Miquel; Pukkala, Eero; Rice, Carol; Richardson, David B.; Ritter, Leonard; Ritz, Beate; Ronckers, Cecile M.; Rushton, Lesley; Rusiecki, Jennifer A.; Rusyn, Ivan; Samet, Jonathan M.; Sandler, Dale P.; de Sanjose, Silvia; Schernhammer, Eva; Costantini, Adele Seniori; Seixas, Noah; Shy, Carl; Siemiatycki, Jack; Silverman, Debra T.; Simonato, Lorenzo; Smith, Allan H.; Smith, Martyn T.; Spinelli, John J.; Spitz, Margaret R.; Stallones, Lorann; Stayner, Leslie T.; Steenland, Kyle; Stenzel, Mark; Stewart, Bernard W.; Stewart, Patricia A.; Symanski, Elaine; Terracini, Benedetto; Tolbert, Paige E.; Vainio, Harri; Vena, John; Vermeulen, Roel; Victora, Cesar G.; Ward, Elizabeth M.; Weinberg, Clarice R.; Weisenburger, Dennis; Wesseling, Catharina; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Zahm, Shelia Hoar

    2015-01-01

    , Cardis E, Cherrie JW, Christiani DC, Cocco P, Coggon D, Comba P, Demers PA, Dement JM, Douwes J, Eisen EA, Engel LS, Fenske RA, Fleming LE, Fletcher T, Fontham E, Forastiere F, Frentzel-Beyme R, Fritschi L, Gerin M, Goldberg M, Grandjean P, Grimsrud TK, Gustavsson P, Haines A, Hartge P, Hansen J, Hauptmann M, Heederik D, Hemminki K, Hemon D, Hertz-Picciotto I, Hoppin JA, Huff J, Jarvholm B, Kang D, Karagas MR, Kjaerheim K, Kjuus H, Kogevinas M, Kriebel D, Kristensen P, Kromhout H, Laden F, Lebailly P, LeMasters G, Lubin JH, Lynch CF, Lynge E, ‘t Mannetje A, McMichael AJ, McLaughlin JR, Marrett L, Martuzzi M, Merchant JA, Merler E, Merletti F, Miller A, Mirer FE, Monson R, Nordby KC, Olshan AF, Parent ME, Perera FP, Perry MJ, Pesatori AC, Pirastu R, Porta M, Pukkala E, Rice C, Richardson DB, Ritter L, Ritz B, Ronckers CM, Rushton L, Rusiecki JA, Rusyn I, Samet JM, Sandler DP, de Sanjose S, Schernhammer E, Seniori Costantini A, Seixas N, Shy C, Siemiatycki J, Silverman DT, Simonato L, Smith AH, Smith MT, Spinelli JJ, Spitz MR, Stallones L, Stayner LT, Steenland K, Stenzel M, Stewart BW, Stewart PA, Symanski E, Terracini B, Tolbert PE, Vainio H, Vena J, Vermeulen R, Victora CG, Ward EM, Weinberg CR, Weisenburger D, Wesseling C, Weiderpass E, Zahm SH. 2015. IARC Monographs: 40 years of evaluating carcinogenic hazards to humans. Environ Health Perspect 123:507–514; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409149 PMID:25712798

  17. Replicability and 40-year predictive power of childhood ARC types.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Benjamin P; Goldberg, Lewis R

    2011-09-01

    We examined 3 questions surrounding the undercontrolled, overcontrolled, and resilient-or Asendorpf-Robins-Caspi (ARC)-personality types originally identified by Block (1971). In analyses of the teacher personality assessments of over 2,000 children in 1st through 6th grade in 1959-1967 and follow-up data on general and cardiovascular health outcomes in over 1,100 adults recontacted 40 years later, we found bootstrapped internal replication clustering suggesting that Big Five scores were best characterized by a tripartite cluster structure corresponding to the ARC types. This cluster structure was fuzzy rather than discrete, indicating that ARC constructs are best represented as gradients of similarity to 3 prototype Big Five profiles; ARC types and degrees of ARC prototypicality showed associations with multiple health outcomes 40 years later. ARC constructs were more parsimonious but, depending on the outcome, comparable or slightly worse classifiers than the dimensional Big Five traits. Forty-year incident cases of heart disease could be correctly identified with 67% accuracy by childhood personality information alone and stroke incidence with over 70% accuracy. Findings support the theoretical validity of ARC constructs, their treatment as continua of prototypicality rather than discrete categories, and the need for further understanding the robust predictive power of childhood personality for midlife health.

  18. Replicability and 40-Year Predictive Power of Childhood ARC Types

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Goldberg, Lewis R.

    2011-01-01

    We examined three questions surrounding the Undercontrolled, Overcontrolled, and Resilient--or Asendorpf-Robins-Caspi (ARC)--personality types originally identified by Block (1971). In analyses of the teacher personality assessments of over 2,000 children in 1st through 6th grade in 1959-1967, and follow-up data on general and cardiovascular health outcomes in over 1,100 adults recontacted 40 years later, we found: (1) Bootstrapped internal replication clustering suggested that Big Five scores were best characterized by a tripartite cluster structure corresponding to the ARC types; (2) this cluster structure was fuzzy, rather than discrete, indicating that ARC constructs are best represented as gradients of similarity to three prototype Big Five profiles; and (3) ARC types and degrees of ARC prototypicality showed associations with multiple health outcomes 40 years later. ARC constructs were more parsimonious, but neither better nor more consistent predictors than the dimensional Big Five traits. Forty-year incident cases of heart disease could be correctly identified with 68% accuracy by personality information alone, a figure approaching the 12-year accuracy of a leading medical cardiovascular risk model. Findings support the theoretical validity of ARC constructs, their treatment as continua of prototypicality rather than discrete categories, and the need for further understanding the robust predictive power of childhood personality traits for mid-life health. PMID:21744975

  19. A 40-year-old man with testicular torsion and large bilateral spermatoceles

    PubMed Central

    Ameli, Mojtaba; Parsapour, Arezou; Gholami-Mahtaj, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Testicular torsion is a rare disease that mostly involves children. Peak incidence is in infancy and in adolescence. Testicular torsion is rarely seen in men over 40 years of age and has only once been accompanied with spermatocele. We report the case of a 40-year-old man with testicular pain one day prior to visiting our clinic. The patient's visit to the clinic was delayed due to history of occasional testicular pain related to his bilateral spermatoceles. On arrival, a color Doppler ultrasound test was performed, which revealed heterogeneous echo in the right testis with no vascular flow, suggestive of torsion, as well as two cystic lesions in the right and left scrotums indicating spermatoceles. The patient was immediately transferred to the operating room where the bilateral spermatoceles were resected and after detorting, the right testis was saved. After four months, a normal left testis along with partial right testicular atrophy was observed. It is highly recommended to educate patients with spermatocele who have no indication for surgical treatment to visit their physician in case any new testicular pain is experienced. Furthermore, testicular pain regardless of the co-existing pathology may always be treated as an indicator of suspected torsion. PMID:28058232

  20. PyMultiNest: Python interface for MultiNest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchner, Johannes

    2016-06-01

    PyMultiNest provides programmatic access to MultiNest (ascl:1109.006) and PyCuba, integration existing Python code (numpy, scipy), and enables writing Prior & LogLikelihood functions in Python. PyMultiNest can plot and visualize MultiNest's progress and allows easy plotting, visualization and summarization of MultiNest results. The plotting can be run on existing MultiNest output, and when not using PyMultiNest for running MultiNest.

  1. Crosscheck Principle in Pediatric Audiology Today: A 40-Year Perspective.

    PubMed

    Hall, James W

    2016-09-01

    The crosscheck principle is just as important in pediatric audiology as it was when first described 40 years ago. That is, no auditory test result should be accepted and used in the diagnosis of hearing loss until it is confirmed or crosschecked by one or more independent measures. Exclusive reliance on only one or two tests, even objective auditory measures, may result in a auditory diagnosis that is not clear or perhaps incorrect. On the other hand, close and careful analysis of findings for a test battery consisting of objective procedures and behavioral tests whenever feasible usually leads to prompt and accurate diagnosis of auditory dysfunction. This paper provides a concise review of the crosscheck principle from its introduction to its clinical application today. The review concludes with a description of a modern test battery for pediatric hearing assessment that supplements traditional behavioral tests with a variety of independent objective procedures including aural immittance measures, otoacoustic emissions, and auditory evoked responses.

  2. 40 Years of archaeal virology: Expanding viral diversity.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Jamie C; Bolduc, Benjamin; Young, Mark J

    2015-05-01

    The first archaeal virus was isolated over 40 years ago prior to the recognition of the three domain structure of life. In the ensuing years, our knowledge of Archaea and their viruses has increased, but they still remain the most mysterious of life's three domains. Currently, over 100 archaeal viruses have been discovered, but few have been described in biochemical or structural detail. However, those that have been characterized have revealed a new world of structural, biochemical and genetic diversity. Several model systems for studying archaeal virus-host interactions have been developed, revealing evolutionary linkages between viruses infecting the three domains of life, new viral lysis systems, and unusual features of host-virus interactions. It is likely that the study of archaeal viruses will continue to provide fertile ground for fundamental discoveries in virus diversity, structure and function.

  3. The landscapes of West Africa—40 years of change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cotillon, Suzanne E.

    2017-02-16

    What has driven changes in land use and land cover in West Africa over the past 40 years? What trends or patterns can be discerned in those changes? To answer these questions, the U.S. Geological Survey West Africa Land Use Dynamics project partnered with the Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel and the U.S. Agency for International Development/West Africa to map land use and land cover across the region for  three time periods (years): 1975, 2000, and 2013. This cooperative effort has resulted in the publication of a 219-page atlas, “Landscapes of West Africa: A Window on a Changing World.” The atlas uses satellite imagery, maps, and pictures to tell a complex story of landscape change at regional and national scales. It includes a collection of focused studies, some of which raise cause for concern, and others that provide considerable hope.

  4. Crosscheck Principle in Pediatric Audiology Today: A 40-Year Perspective

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The crosscheck principle is just as important in pediatric audiology as it was when first described 40 years ago. That is, no auditory test result should be accepted and used in the diagnosis of hearing loss until it is confirmed or crosschecked by one or more independent measures. Exclusive reliance on only one or two tests, even objective auditory measures, may result in a auditory diagnosis that is not clear or perhaps incorrect. On the other hand, close and careful analysis of findings for a test battery consisting of objective procedures and behavioral tests whenever feasible usually leads to prompt and accurate diagnosis of auditory dysfunction. This paper provides a concise review of the crosscheck principle from its introduction to its clinical application today. The review concludes with a description of a modern test battery for pediatric hearing assessment that supplements traditional behavioral tests with a variety of independent objective procedures including aural immittance measures, otoacoustic emissions, and auditory evoked responses. PMID:27626077

  5. Methods for Casting Subterranean Ant Nests

    PubMed Central

    Tschinkel, Walter R.

    2010-01-01

    The study of subterranean ant nests has been impeded by the difficulty of rendering their structures in visible form. Here, several different casting materials are shown to make perfect casts of the underground nests of ants. Each material (dental plaster, paraffin wax, aluminum, zinc) has advantages and limitations, which are discussed. Some of the materials allow the recovery of the ants entombed in the casts, allowing a census of the ants to be connected with features of their nest architecture. The necessary equipment and procedures are described in the hope that more researchers will study this very important aspect of ant natural history. PMID:20673073

  6. J.J. Sakurai Prize for Theoretical Particle Physics: 40 Years of Lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepage, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Lattice QCD was invented in 1973-74 by Ken Wilson, who passed away in 2013. This talk will describe the evolution of lattice QCD through the past 40 years with particular emphasis on its first years, and on the past decade, when lattice QCD simulations finally came of age. Thanks to theoretical breakthroughs in the late 1990s and early 2000s, lattice QCD simulations now produce the most accurate theoretical calculations in the history of strong-interaction physics. They play an essential role in high-precision experimental studies of physics within and beyond the Standard Model of Particle Physics. The talk will include a non-technical review of the conceptual ideas behind this revolutionary development in (highly) nonlinear quantum physics, together with a survey of its current impact on theoretical and experimental particle physics, and prospects for the future. Work supported by the National Science Foundation.

  7. Morphology of nested fullerenes

    SciTech Connect

    Srolovitz, D.J.; Safran, S.A.; Homyonfer, M.; Tenne, R. )

    1995-03-06

    We introduce a continuum model which shows that dislocations and/or grain boundaries are intrinsic features of nested fullerenes whose thickness exceeds a critical value to relieve the large inherent strains in these structures. The ratio of the thickness to the radius of the nested fullerenes is determined by the ratio of the surface to curvature and dislocation (or grain boundary) energies. Confirming experimental evidence is presented for nested fullerenes with small thicknesses and with spherosymmetric shapes.

  8. [40 years beta-adrenoceptor blockers in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Kornischka, J; Cordes, J; Agelink, M W

    2007-04-01

    Beta-adrenoceptor blockers belong to the most successful drug classes of medicine. Mainly they are used in internal medicine. 40 years ago beta-adrenoceptor blockers have occasionally been used in psychiatry for the treatment of anxiety disorders. Over the past four decades, the effects of beta-adrenoceptor blockers in the treatment of schizophrenic and manic psychoses, withdrawal syndromes and aggressive behaviour with temper outbursts has been investigated. Beta-adrenoceptor blockers are also used in the treatment of side-effects of psychopharmacological agents like neuroleptic or antidepressant-induced tachycardias, lithium-induced tremor, antipsychotic-induced akathisia or tardive dyskinesia as well. Since the mid-nineties it has been attempted to improve the efficacy of antidepressant agents by means of the 5-HT-(1a)-receptorantagonist pindolol. Presumedly memory consolidation of traumatic events can be enhanced by adrenergic activation. Therefore some open clinical trials investigated the effects of propranolol, a lipid soluble drug, which crosses the blood-brain barrier easily, to reduce the manifestation of PTSD. The present review presents the results of the literature with respect to the indications for beta-blockers in psychiatry. Considering evidence-based-medicine criteria beta-blockers are indicated to treat lithium-induced tremor, antipsychotic-induced akathisia and to reduce aggressive behavior of patients with brain-injuries.

  9. A 40-year Retrospective Clinicopathological Study of Ameloblastoma in Iran.

    PubMed

    Saghravanian, Nasrollah; Salehinejad, Jahanshah; Ghazi, Narges; Shirdel, Mohammad; Razi, Mahsa

    2016-01-01

    Ameloblastoma is the most common epithelial odontogenic tumor. It may show locally invasive behavior resulting in recurrence and malignancy. Therefore, appropriate diagnosis of this tumor is necessary. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinicopathological characteristics of ameloblastomas in an Iranian population. We present a 40-year retrospective study of patients diagnosed from 1971 to 2010 in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, Mashhad, Iran. Information gathered from patient records included age, gender, tumor location and histologic type. The frequency of odontogenic tumors among all lesions was 2.08% and ameloblastoma with 88 samples demonstrated the greatest prevalence (41.5%). Regarding gender, 60% of samples occurred in males. The mean age of studied patients was 33.02± 15.74 years with a peak of occurrence in the third decade of life. The most frequent location of tumor was the mandibles (93.2%). Eighty five (96.6%) tumors were recorded as benign and 3 (3.4%) as malignant. Of benign tumors, 62 (72.9%), 20 (23.5%) and 3 (3.6%) cases were of conventional, unicyctic and peripheral types, respectively. In contrast to most previous studies, the most common histologic subtype in the present study was plexiform. Knowledge of the incidence of ameloblastoma and its clinicopathologic features including most common location, gender and age distribution in different ethnogeographic backgrounds is necessary for accurate diagnosis and proper treatment.

  10. DNA cloning: A personal view after 40 years

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Stanley N.

    2013-01-01

    In November 1973, my colleagues A. C. Y. Chang, H. W. Boyer, R. B. Helling, and I reported in PNAS that individual genes can be cloned and isolated by enzymatically cleaving DNA molecules into fragments, linking the fragments to an autonomously replicating plasmid, and introducing the resulting recombinant DNA molecules into bacteria. A few months later, Chang and I reported that genes from unrelated bacterial species can be combined and propagated using the same approach and that interspecies recombinant DNA molecules can produce a biologically functional protein in a foreign host. Soon afterward, Boyer’s laboratory and mine published our collaborative discovery that even genes from animal cells can be cloned in bacteria. These three PNAS papers quickly led to the use of DNA cloning methods in multiple areas of the biological and chemical sciences. They also resulted in a highly public controversy about the potential hazards of laboratory manipulation of genetic material, a decision by Stanford University and the University of California to seek patents on the technology that Boyer and I had invented, and the application of DNA cloning methods for commercial purposes. In the 40 years that have passed since publication of our findings, use of DNA cloning has produced insights about the workings of genes and cells in health and disease and has altered the nature of the biotechnology and biopharmaceutical industries. Here, I provide a personal perspective of the events that led to, and followed, our report of DNA cloning. PMID:24043817

  11. Autopoiesis 40 years Later. A Review and a Reformulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razeto-Barry, Pablo

    2012-12-01

    The concept of autopoiesis was proposed 40 years ago as a definition of a living being, with the aim of providing a unifying concept for biology. The concept has also been extended to the theory of knowledge and to different areas of the social and behavioral sciences. Given some ambiguities of the original definitions of autopoiesis, the concept has been criticized and has been interpreted in diverse and even contradictory ways, which has prevented its integration into the biological sciences where it originated. Here I present a critical review and conceptual analysis of the definition of autopoiesis, and propose a new definition that is more precise, clear, and concise than the original ones. I argue that the difficulty in understanding the term lies in its refined conceptual subtlety and not, as has been claimed by some authors, because it is a vacuous, trivial or very complex concept. I also relate the concept of autopoiesis to the concepts of closed systems, boundaries, homeostasis, self-reproduction, causal circularity, organization and multicellularity. I show that under my proposed definition the concept of a molecular autopoietic system is a good demarcation criterion of a living being, allowing its general integration into the biological sciences and enhancing its interdisciplinary use.

  12. [Abdominal pain syndrome recurring after 40 years: critical revision].

    PubMed

    Zancan, L; Guariso, G; Gobber, D

    1996-01-01

    Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) syndrome is described by Apley 40 years ago. The definition of condition, still generally accepted, is at least three episodes of abdominal pain over a period of three months, with pain of intensity which affects the behaviour of the child. The prevalence of condition among school children is 10-15%. Apley's classic studies demonstrated organic disease in only 10% of the children. Apley's conclusions have dominated pediatric writing through present era. In recent years, however, a number of reports have appeared in the medical literature that have suggested that careful investigation of children with RAP may reveal previously unsuspected functional or morphologic abnormalities of the gastrointestinal tract. These have included reports of peptic disease and Helicobacter Pylori infection, abnormal antro-duodenal motility, lactase malabsorption, gastro-esophageal reflux. Nevertheless these abnormalities cannot be correlated always with specific complaints. Therefore pathogenetic background is not clarified. Despite greater understanding of these disorders the enigme remains. There is a need for controlled studies in non selected patients.

  13. Don't Mess with the NEST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Michael

    2012-03-01

    This presentation will describe the history of the Nuclear Emergency Support Team (NEST) and its evolution over the years. NEST was formed due to a number of nuclear extortion threats received in the early 1970s. From the beginning NEST developed an extensive exercise program to test and expand capabilities. The Nuclear Assessment Program (NAP) was developed, in part, to determine if NEST deployments were required. A major revamp of the NEST program occurred in 1994. Many other organizations work in conjunction with NEST in particular the FBI and DOD. Considerable research and development has been performed in the areas of Access, Search, Diagnostics, Device Assessment, and Disablement. Extensive searches of material appearing in the unclassified literature have been and are being performed to see what is being said about nuclear materials and devices. A comprehensive study of Improvised Nuclear Devices (IND) is ongoing to determine what a terrorist can and cannot do. NEST now consists of four phases with the latest additions of Phase III, Disposition and Phase IV, Nuclear Forensics. LLNL-ABS-521775

  14. Marsh nesting by mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapu, G.L.; Talent, L.G.; Dwyer, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    Nest-site selection by mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) hens was studied on a 52-km2, privately owned area in the Missouri Coteau of south-central North Dakota during 1974-77. Sixty-six percent of 53 nests initiated by radio-marked and unmarked hens were in wetlands in dense stands of emergent vegetation and usually within 50 m of the wetland edge. These findings and other sources of information suggest that significant numbers of mallards breeding in the Prairie Pothole Region nest in marsh habitat. Potential factors contributing to mallard use of marsh habitat for nesting purposes are discussed. Management considerations associated with marsh nesting by mallards are described and research needs are identified.

  15. Landsat Science: 40 Years of Innovation and Opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Bruce D.; Irons, James R.; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Loveland, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Landsat satellites have provided unparalleled Earth-observing data for nearly 40 years, allowing scientists to describe, monitor and model the global environment during a period of time that has seen dramatic changes in population growth, land use, and climate. The success of the Landsat program can be attributed to well-designed instrument specifications, astute engineering, comprehensive global acquisition and calibration strategies, and innovative scientists who have developed analytical techniques and applications to address a wide range of needs at local to global scales (e.g., crop production, water resource management, human health and environmental quality, urbanization, deforestation and biodiversity). Early Landsat contributions included inventories of natural resources and land cover classification maps, which were initially prepared by a visual interpretation of Landsat imagery. Over time, advances in computer technology facilitated the development of sophisticated image processing algorithms and complex ecosystem modeling, enabling scientists to create accurate, reproducible, and more realistic simulations of biogeochemical processes (e.g., plant production and ecosystem dynamics). Today, the Landsat data archive is freely available for download through the USGS, creating new opportunities for scientists to generate global image datasets, develop new change detection algorithms, and provide products in support of operational programs such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries (REDD). In particular, the use of dense (approximately annual) time series to characterize both rapid and progressive landscape change has yielded new insights into how the land environment is responding to anthropogenic and natural pressures. The launch of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) satellite in 2012 will continue to propel innovative Landsat science.

  16. Celebrating 40 Years of the Framingham Heart Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenfant, Claude; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The Framingham Heart Study pioneered the concept of risk factors. This article recaps the history of the study, describes poster and essay contests used to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the study, and outlines the involvement of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute in school health research. (Author/MT)

  17. Nested neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baram, Yoram

    1988-01-01

    Nested neural networks, consisting of small interconnected subnetworks, allow for the storage and retrieval of neural state patterns of different sizes. The subnetworks are naturally categorized by layers of corresponding to spatial frequencies in the pattern field. The storage capacity and the error correction capability of the subnetworks generally increase with the degree of connectivity between layers (the nesting degree). Storage of only few subpatterns in each subnetworks results in a vast storage capacity of patterns and subpatterns in the nested network, maintaining high stability and error correction capability.

  18. The History of Secondary Education in History of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Gary

    2012-01-01

    "History of Education" has published a steady stream of papers on the history of secondary education over the first 40 years of its existence. This corpus of research has been generated in the context of renewed interest in the history of secondary education that has been stimulated by developments in social and historical inquiry as…

  19. Size matters: nest colonization patterns for twig-nesting ants

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Soto, Estelí; Philpott, Stacy M

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the drivers of ant diversity and co-occurrence in agroecosystems is fundamental because ants participate in interactions that influence agroecosystem processes. Multiple local and regional factors influence ant community assembly. We examined local factors that influence the structure of a twig-nesting ant community in a coffee system in Mexico using an experimental approach. We investigated whether twig characteristics (nest entrance size and diversity of nest entrance sizes) and nest strata (canopy shade tree or coffee shrub) affected occupation, species richness, and community composition of twig-nesting ants and whether frequency of occupation of ant species varied with particular nest entrance sizes or strata. We conducted our study in a shaded coffee farm in Chiapas, Mexico, between March and June 2012. We studied ant nest colonization by placing artificial nests (bamboo twigs) on coffee shrubs and shade trees either in diverse or uniform treatments. We also examined whether differences in vegetation (no. of trees, canopy cover and coffee density) influenced nest colonization. We found 33 ant species occupying 73% of nests placed. Nest colonization did not differ with nest strata or size. Mean species richness of colonizing ants was significantly higher in the diverse nest size entrance treatment, but did not differ with nest strata. Community composition differed between strata and also between the diverse and uniform size treatments on coffee shrubs, but not on shade trees. Some individual ant species were more frequently found in certain nest strata and in nests with certain entrance sizes. Our results indicate that twig-nesting ants are nest-site limited, quickly occupy artificial nests of many sizes, and that trees or shrubs with twigs of a diversity of entrance sizes likely support higher ant species richness. Further, individual ant species more frequently occupy nests with different sized entrances promoting ant richness on individual

  20. Nest and home.

    PubMed

    Hediger, H

    1977-01-01

    A nest as a rather loose construction of plant material, as it is used by most birds and some of the lowest primates, never serves as a goal of flight, very rarely as a sleeping place but mainly as a support for the offspring. A home, however, as used by many nonprimate mammals and other vertebrates, is a solid construction or an excavation in a solid material (tree hole, burrow, etc.) which serves principally as a goal of flight in case of danger, also as a sleeping place and temporarily as a nest, that is a fix-point for raising the young. In the phylogeny of primates the nest has been given up very early. The sleeping nest of pongids has nothing to do with it. Whereas the most primitive primates using nests transport their young with the mouth, in all other primates the young has to grasp actively the mother's (parent's) hair to be tranported. When the hair disappeared phylogenetically, technical devices came into use.

  1. Adult Neuroplasticity: More Than 40 Years of Research

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Eberhard; Flügge, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    Within the last four decades, our view of the mature vertebrate brain has changed significantly. Today it is generally accepted that the adult brain is far from being fixed. A number of factors such as stress, adrenal and gonadal hormones, neurotransmitters, growth factors, certain drugs, environmental stimulation, learning, and aging change neuronal structures and functions. The processes that these factors may induce are morphological alterations in brain areas, changes in neuron morphology, network alterations including changes in neuronal connectivity, the generation of new neurons (neurogenesis), and neurobiochemical changes. Here we review several aspects of neuroplasticity and discuss the functional implications of the neuroplastic capacities of the adult and differentiated brain with reference to the history of their discovery. PMID:24883212

  2. Community variability and ecological functioning: 40 years of change in the North Sea benthos.

    PubMed

    Clare, D S; Robinson, L A; Frid, C L J

    2015-06-01

    Using established associations between species traits (life history, morphological and behavioural characteristics) and key ecological functions, we applied biological traits analysis (BTA) to investigate the consequences of 40 years of change in two North Sea benthic communities. Ecological functioning (trait composition) was found to be statistically indistinguishable across periods that differed significantly in taxonomic composition. A temporary alteration to functioning was, however, inferred at both sampling stations; coinciding with the North Sea regime shift of the 1980s. Trait composition recovered after 1 year at the station located inside the grounds of a trawl fishery, whereas the station located outside the main area of fishing activity underwent a six-year period of significantly altered, and temporally unstable, trait composition. A further alteration to functioning was inferred at the fished station, when the population of a newly established species rapidly increased in numbers. The results suggest that density compensation by characteristically similar (redundant) taxa acts to buffer changes to ecological functioning over time, but that functional stability is subject to aperiodic disruption due to substitutions of dissimilar taxa or uncompensated population fluctuations. The rate at which ecological functioning stabilises and recovers appears to be dependent on environmental context; e.g. disturbance regime.

  3. Serenbe Nest Cottages

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, T.; Curtis, O.; Kim, E.; Roberts, S.; Stephenson, R.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Southface partnered with Martin Dodson Builders and the Serenbe community on the construction of a new test home in the suburbs of Atlanta, GA in the mixed humid climate zone. The most recent subdivision within the Serenbe community, the Nest, will contain 15 small footprint cottage style homes, and Southface has selected Lot Nine, as the test home for this study. This Nest subdivision serves as a project showcase for both the builder partner and the Serenbe community as a whole. The planning and design incorporated into the Nest cottages will be implemented in each home within the subdivision. These homes addresses Building America Savings targets and serve as a basis of design for other homes Martin Dodson plans to build within the Serenbe community.

  4. Serenbe Nest Cottages

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, T.; Curtis, O.; Kim, E.; Roberts, S.; Stephenson, R.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Southface partnered with Martin Dodson Builders and the Serenbe community on the construction of a new test home in the suburbs of Atlanta, GA, in the mixed humid climate zone. The most recent subdivision within the Serenbe community, the Nest, will contain 15 small footprint cottage-style homes, and Southface has selected Lot Nine, as the test home for this study. This Nest subdivision serves as a project showcase for both the builder partner and the Serenbe community as a whole. The planning and design incorporated into the Nest cottages will be implemented in each home within the subdivision. These homes addresses Building America savings targets and serve as a basis of design for other homes Martin Dodson plans to build within the Serenbe community.

  5. Nest-site selection in the acorn woodpecker

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooge, P.N.; Stanback, M.T.; Koenig, Walter D.

    1999-01-01

    Acorn Woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus) at Hastings Reservation in central California prefer to nest in dead limbs in large, dead valley oaks (Quercus lobata) and California sycamores (Platanus racemosa) that are also frequently used as acorn storage trees. Based on 232 nest cavities used over an 18-year period, we tested whether preferred or modal nest-site characters were associated with increased reproductive success (the 'nest-site quality' hypothesis). We also examined whether more successful nests were likely to experience more favorable microclimatic conditions or to be less accessible to terrestrial predators. We found only equivocal support for the nest-site quality hypothesis: only 1 of 5 preferred characters and 2 of 10 characters exhibiting a clear modality were correlated with higher reproductive success. All three characteristics of nests known or likely to be associated with a more favorable microclimate, and two of five characteristics likely to render nests less accessible to predators, were correlated with higher reproductive success: These results suggest that nest cavities in this population are built in part to take advantage of favorable microclimatic conditions and, to a lesser extent, to reduce access to predators. However, despite benefits of particular nest characteristics, birds frequently nested in apparently suboptimal cavities. We also found a significant relationship between mean group size and the history of occupancy of particular territories and the probability of nest cavities being built in microclimatically favorable live limbs, suggesting that larger groups residing on more stable territories were better able to construct nests with optimal characteristics. This indicates that there may be demographic, as well as ecological, constraints on nest-site selection in this primary cavity nester.

  6. Predation risk induces changes in nest-site selection and clutch size in the Siberian jay

    PubMed Central

    Eggers, Sönke; Griesser, Michael; Nystrand, Magdalena; Ekman, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that an individual should reduce its reproductive efforts by laying a smaller clutch size when high risk of nest predation reduces the value of current reproduction. Evidence in favour of this ‘nest predation hypothesis’, however, is scarce and based largely on correlative analyses. Here, we manipulated perceived risk of nest predation in the Siberian jay Perisoreus infaustus using playback involving a mixture of calls by corvid nest predators in the vicinity of nest sites. In response to being exposed to this acoustic cue simulating increased risk of nest predation, the jays chose a nest site offering more protective covering and reduced clutch size. This is the first experimental demonstration of clutch size adjustment and nest site selection as a result of phenotypic plasticity in an open nesting passerine reflecting a facultative response to the perceived risk of nest predation. PMID:16608689

  7. Time-specific patterns of nest survival for ducks and passerines breeding in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaffer, Terry L.; Grant, Todd A.

    2012-01-01

    In many bird species, survival can vary with the age of the nest, with the date a nest was initiated, or among years within the same nesting area. A literature review showed that patterns of survival vary in relation to nest age and date and are often contradictory. Inconsistencies could be a result of temporal variation in the environment or life-history differences among species. We examined patterns of nest survival in relation to nest age, date, and year for several duck and passerine species nesting at a single location in North Dakota during 1998–2003. We predicted that if environment shaped nest survival patterns, then temporal patterns in survival might be similar among three species of upland nesting ducks, and also among three species of grassland passerines nesting at the same site. We expected that survival patterns would differ between ducks and passerines because of relatively disparate life histories and differences in predators that prey on their nests. Nest survival was rarely constant among years, seasonally, or with age of the nest for species that we studied. As predicted, the pattern of survival was similar among duck species, driven mainly by differences in nest survival associated with nest initiation date. The pattern of survival also was similar among passerine species, but nest survival was more influenced by nest age than by date. Our findings suggest that some but not all variation in temporal patterns of nest survival in grassland birds reported in the literature can be explained on the basis of temporal environmental variation. Because patterns of survival were dissimilar among ducks and passerines, it is likely that mechanisms such as predation or brood parasitism have variable influences on productivity of ducks and passerines nesting in the same area. Our results indicate that biologists and managers should not assume that temporal environmental variations, especially factors that affect nest survival, act similarly on all

  8. Density-dependent nest predation in waterfowl: the relative importance of nest density versus nest dispersion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Ringelman, KM; Eadie, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    When nest predation levels are very high or very low, the absolute range of observable nest success is constrained (a floor/ceiling effect), and it may be more difficult to detect density-dependent nest predation. Density-dependent nest predation may be more detectable in years with moderate predation rates, simply because there can be a greater absolute difference in nest success between sites. To test this, we replicated a predation experiment 10 years after the original study, using both natural and artificial nests, comparing a year when overall rates of nest predation were high (2000) to a year with moderate nest predation (2010). We found no evidence for density-dependent predation on artificial nests in either year, indicating that nest predation is not density-dependent at the spatial scale of our experimental replicates (1-ha patches). Using nearest-neighbor distances as a measure of nest dispersion, we also found little evidence for “dispersion-dependent” predation on artificial nests. However, when we tested for dispersion-dependent predation using natural nests, we found that nest survival increased with shorter nearest-neighbor distances, and that neighboring nests were more likely to share the same nest fate than non-adjacent nests. Thus, at small spatial scales, density-dependence appears to operate in the opposite direction as predicted: closer nearest neighbors are more likely to be successful. We suggest that local nest dispersion, rather than larger-scale measures of nest density per se, may play a more important role in density-dependent nest predation.

  9. Breeding Phenology of Birds: Mechanisms Underlying Seasonal Declines in the Risk of Nest Predation

    PubMed Central

    Borgmann, Kathi L.; Conway, Courtney J.; Morrison, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal declines in avian clutch size are well documented, but seasonal variation in other reproductive parameters has received less attention. For example, the probability of complete brood mortality typically explains much of the variation in reproductive success and often varies seasonally, but we know little about the underlying cause of that variation. This oversight is surprising given that nest predation influences many other life-history traits and varies throughout the breeding season in many songbirds. To determine the underlying causes of observed seasonal decreases in risk of nest predation, we modeled nest predation of Dusky Flycatchers (Empidonax oberholseri) in northern California as a function of foliage phenology, energetic demand, developmental stage, conspecific nest density, food availability for nest predators, and nest predator abundance. Seasonal variation in the risk of nest predation was not associated with seasonal changes in energetic demand, conspecific nest density, or predator abundance. Instead, seasonal variation in the risk of nest predation was associated with foliage density (early, but not late, in the breeding season) and seasonal changes in food available to nest predators. Supplemental food provided to nest predators resulted in a numerical response by nest predators, increasing the risk of nest predation at nests that were near supplemental feeders. Our results suggest that seasonal changes in foliage density and factors associated with changes in food availability for nest predators are important drivers of temporal patterns in risk of avian nest predation. PMID:23776566

  10. Vascular Disease in Young Indians (20-40 years): Role of Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Kamal Kumar; Kerkar, Prafulla Gopinath; Ray, Saumitra; Guha, Santanu; Hiremath, Murugesh Shantaveeraya

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension (HTN) being one of the important risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a significant health concern, especially in India. With age, prevalence of HTN, especially systolic HTN increases. Special attention needs to be directed to HTN in young ages (20-40 years) due to lower awareness, need for early treatment and better control of HTN. HTN in the age group of 20-40 years needs critical reappraisal. Given the high prevalence of HTN in the general population in India, in this review we attempt to provide current evidence and expert opinion on epidemiology, aetiopathogenesis and treatment of HTN in young (20-40 years) Indians. PMID:27656492

  11. Variability in nest survival rates and implications to nesting studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, A.T.; Johnson, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    We used four reasonably large samples (83-213) of Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and Blue-winged Teal (A. discors) nests on an interstate highway right-of-way in southcentral North Dakota to evaluate potential biases in hatch-rate estimates. Twelve consecutive, weekly searches for nests were conducted with a cable-chain drag in 1976 and 1977. Nests were revisited at weekly intervals. Four methods were used to estimate hatch rates for the four data sets: the Traditional Method, the Mayfield Method, and two modifications of the Mayfield Method that are sometimes appropriate when daily mortality rates of nests are not constant. Hatch rates and the average age of nests at discovery declined as the interval between searches decreased, suggesting that mortality rates were not constant in our samples. An analysis of variance indicated that daily mortality rates varied with the age of nests in all four samples. Mortality was generally highest during the early laying period, moderately high during the late laying period, and lowest during incubation. We speculate that this relationship of mortality to nest age might be due to the presence of hens at nests or to differences in the vulnerability of nest sites to predation. A modification of the Mayfield Method that accounts for age-related variation in nest mortality was most appropriate for our samples. We suggest methods for conducting nesting studies and estimating nest success for species possessing similar nesting habits.

  12. Smoking aggravates the impaired pulmonary function of officially acknowledged female victims of air pollution of 40 years ago.

    PubMed

    Nishinakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Senjyu, Hideaki; Tanaka, Takako; Asai, Masaharu; Kotaki, Kenji; Yano, Yudai; Miyamoto, Naomi; Yanagita, Yorihide; Kozu, Ryo; Tabusadani, Mitsuru; Honda, Sumihisa

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution due to industrial waste and tobacco smoke is detrimental to pulmonary function. However, the combined effects of air pollution and smoking on pulmonary function have not been investigated. We examined the combined effect of air pollution of 40 years ago and concurrent smoking on the pulmonary function of officially acknowledged female victims in Japan, because females are more susceptible to the adverse effects of both irritants than males. The subjects comprised 655 female victims living in one of two areas with air pollution of 40 years ago and 572 females living in an area without air pollution. All victims have been prescribed standard respiratory medications. Pulmonary function was measured in 2000 for air-pollution groups (130 smokers and 525 non-smokers; mean age, 68.4 years) and during the period of 2004 to 2013 for non-air-pollution groups (113 smokers and 459 non-smokers; mean age, 69.0 years). The smokers included both current smokers and ex-smokers. The victims with a history of smoking had significantly lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 % predicted) (mean, 74%) and significantly lower FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) (mean, 70%) than the other groups (P<0.001). Thus, smoking aggravates the pulmonary function in officially acknowledged female victims, despite the improved air pollution and the continuous medical care provided by the government. In conclusion, exposure to air pollution of 40 years ago and cigarette smoking are associated with reduced pulmonary function. These results highlight the importance of measures aimed at smoking cessation and limiting air pollution.

  13. Perinatal outcomes in women over 40 years of age compared to those of other gestations

    PubMed Central

    Canhaço, Evandro Eduardo; Bergamo, Angela Mendes; Lippi, Umberto Gazi; Lopes, Reginaldo Guedes Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Objective To clarify if older pregnant women were more likely to have adverse perinatal outcomes when compared to women at an ideal age to have a child. Methods The groups were divided according to age groups: under 20 years, ≥20 to <40 years, and ≥40 years. Results During the period from January 1st, 2008, to December 31st, 2008, there were 76 births from patients younger than 20 years and 91 births from patients aged 40 years or over. To form a third group with intermediate age, the data of 92 patients aged 20 to 40 years were obtained, totaling 259 patients. Patients aged 40 or older had a statistically greater number of cesarean sections and less use of forceps or normal deliveries (p<0.001). The use of spinal anesthesia was statistically higher among those aged 40 years or more (p<0.001). The frequency of male newborns was statistically higher in older patients, a group with statistically fewer first pregnancies (p<0.001). The frequency of premature newborns was statistically higher in patients aged 40 years or more (p=0.004). Conclusion It is crucial to give priority to aged women, so that prenatal care will be appropriate, minimizing maternal complications and improving perinatal outcomes in this unique group. PMID:25993070

  14. Socioeconomic Outcomes in Adults Malnourished in the First Year of Life: A 40-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Bryce, Cyralene; Waber, Deborah P.; Zichlin, Miriam L.; Fitzmaurice, Garret M.; Eaglesfield, David

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lifelong functional, adaptive, and economic outcomes of moderate to severe infantile malnutrition are not well known. We assessed social status and income at midlife in a cohort of Barbadian adults, hospitalized for protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) during the first year of life, with good nutrition and health thereafter, in the context of a 40-year longitudinal case-control study. We also examined to what extent childhood IQ mediated any group differences. METHODS: Educational achievement, occupational status, and standard of living were assessed by the Hollingshead scales and a site-specific Ecology Questionnaire in Barbadian adults (aged 37–43 years) with a history of malnutrition (n = 80) and a matched healthy control group (n = 63), classmates of the index cases. Malnutrition effects, adjusted for childhood standard of living, were estimated by longitudinal multiple regression analyses, with and without childhood IQ, in the models. RESULTS: PEM predicted poorer socioeconomic outcomes with medium to large effect sizes (0.50–0.94), but childhood IQ substantially attenuated the magnitude of these effects (adjusted effect sizes: 0.17–0.34). The gap in weekly household income between the PEM and control groups increased substantially over the life span (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Moderate to severe PEM during the first year of life with adequate nutrition and health care thereafter is associated with significant depression of socioeconomic outcomes in adulthood, mediated in part by cognitive compromise in affected individuals. This finding underscores the potential long-term economic burden of infant malnutrition, which is of major concern given the continued high prevalence of malnutrition worldwide. PMID:22732170

  15. Nest survival estimation: a review of alternatives to the Mayfield estimator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jehle, G.; Yackel Adams, A.A.; Savidge, J.A.; Skagen, S.K.

    2004-01-01

    Reliable estimates of nest survival are essential for assessing strategies for avian conservation. We review the history of modifications and alternatives for estimating nest survival, with a focus on four techniques: apparent nest success, the Mayfield estimator, the Stanley method, and program MARK. The widely used Mayfield method avoids the known positive bias inherent in apparent nest success by estimating daily survival rates using the number of exposure days, eliminating the need to monitor nests from initiation. Concerns that some of Mayfield's assumptions were restrictive stimulated the development of new techniques. Stanley's method allows for calculation of stage-specific daily survival rates when transition and failure dates are unknown, and eliminates Mayfield's assumption that failure occurred midway through the nest-check interval. Program MARK obviates Mayfield's assumption of constant daily survival within nesting stages and evaluates variation in nest survival as a function of biologically relevant factors. These innovative methods facilitate the evaluation of nest survival using an information-theoretic approach. We illustrate use of these methods with Lark Bunting (Calamospiza melanocorys) nest data from the Pawnee National Grassland, Colorado. Nest survival estimates calculated using Mayfield, Stanley, and MARK methods were similar, but apparent nest success estimates ranged 1-24% greater than the other estimates. MARK analysis revealed that survival of Lark Bunting nests differed between site-year groups, declined with both nest age and time in season, but did not vary with weather parameters. We encourage researchers to use these approaches to gain reliable and meaningful nest survival estimates.

  16. PyNEST: A Convenient Interface to the NEST Simulator.

    PubMed

    Eppler, Jochen Martin; Helias, Moritz; Muller, Eilif; Diesmann, Markus; Gewaltig, Marc-Oliver

    2008-01-01

    The neural simulation tool NEST (http://www.nest-initiative.org) is a simulator for heterogeneous networks of point neurons or neurons with a small number of compartments. It aims at simulations of large neural systems with more than 10(4) neurons and 10(7) to 10(9) synapses. NEST is implemented in C++ and can be used on a large range of architectures from single-core laptops over multi-core desktop computers to super-computers with thousands of processor cores. Python (http://www.python.org) is a modern programming language that has recently received considerable attention in Computational Neuroscience. Python is easy to learn and has many extension modules for scientific computing (e.g. http://www.scipy.org). In this contribution we describe PyNEST, the new user interface to NEST. PyNEST combines NEST's efficient simulation kernel with the simplicity and flexibility of Python. Compared to NEST's native simulation language SLI, PyNEST makes it easier to set up simulations, generate stimuli, and analyze simulation results. We describe how PyNEST connects NEST and Python and how it is implemented. With a number of examples, we illustrate how it is used.

  17. Why wasp foundresses change nests: relatedness, dominance, and nest quality.

    PubMed

    Seppä, Perttu; Queller, David C; Strassmann, Joan E

    2012-01-01

    The costs and benefits of different social options are best understood when individuals can be followed as they make different choices, something that can be difficult in social insects. In this detailed study, we follow overwintered females of the social wasp Polistes carolina through different nesting strategies in a stratified habitat where nest site quality varies with proximity to a foraging area, and genetic relatedness among females is known. Females may initiate nests, join nests temporarily or permanently, or abandon nests. Females can become helpers or egglayers, effectively workers or queens. What they actually do can be predicted by a combination of ecological and relatedness factors. Advantages through increased lifetime success of individuals and nests drives foundresses of the social wasp Polistes from solitary to social nest founding. We studied reproductive options of spring foundresses of P. carolina by monitoring individually-marked wasps and assessing reproductive success of each foundress by using DNA microsatellites. We examined what behavioral decisions foundresses make after relaxing a strong ecological constraint, shortage of nesting sites. We also look at the reproductive consequences of different behaviors. As in other Polistes, the most successful strategy for a foundress was to initiate a nest as early as possible and then accept others as subordinates. A common feature for many P. carolina foundresses was, however, that they reassessed their reproductive options by actively monitoring other nests at the field site and sometimes moving permanently to new nests should that offer better (inclusive) fitness prospects compared to their original nests. A clear motivation for moving to new nests was high genetic relatedness; by the end of the foundress period all females were on nests with full sisters.

  18. Enduring consequences of early experiences: 40 year effects on survival and success among African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Lee, Phyllis C; Bussière, Luc F; Webber, C Elizabeth; Poole, Joyce H; Moss, Cynthia J

    2013-04-23

    Growth from conception to reproductive onset in African elephants (Loxodonta africana) provides insights into phenotypic plasticity, individual adaptive plastic responses and facultative maternal investment. Using growth for 867 and life histories for 2652 elephants over 40 years, we demonstrate that maternal inexperience plus drought in early life result in reduced growth rates for sons and higher mortality for both sexes. Slow growth during early lactation was associated with smaller adult size, later age at first reproduction, reduced lifetime survival and consequently limited reproductive output. These enduring effects of trading slow early growth against immediate survival were apparent over the very long term; delayed downstream consequences were unexpected for a species with a maximum longevity of 70+ years and unpredictable environmental experiences.

  19. EAGLES NEST WILDERNESS, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tweto, Ogden; Williams, Frank E.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a geologic and mineral survey, a primitive area that constitutes the nucleus of the Eagles Nest Wilderness, Colorado was appraised to offer little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Among the additional areas later incorporated in the wilderness, only a strip near a major fault west and northwest of Frisco and Dillon is classed as having probable mineral-resource potential. If mineral deposits exist, they probably are of the silver-lead-zinc or fluorspar types.

  20. Nest and nest site characterisitcs of some ground-nesting, non-passerine birds of northern grasslands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kantrud, H.A.; Higgins, K.F.

    1992-01-01

    We summarized biological and ecologic characteristics of 2490 nests of 16 species of upland-nesting, non-passerine birds of northern grasslands found during 1963 through 1991. Nest initiation and hatch dates, clutch sizes, nest fates, causes of failure, success rates of nests among major habitat types and land uses, and vegetation measurements at nest sites are analyzed.

  1. Pregnancy and Obstetrical Outcomes in Women Over 40 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Dietl, A.; Cupisti, S.; Beckmann, M. W.; Schwab, M.; Zollner, U.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Delayed childbearing is increasing, and advanced maternal age has been associated with an increased risk of obstetrical complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate pregnancy outcomes in women with advanced maternal age (≥ 40 years). Methods: Maternal and obstetrical data were collected from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the University of Wuerzburg for the period from 2006 to 2011. In this retrospective analysis we compared the outcomes for women aged ≥ 40 years (n = 405) with those of three younger subgroups (I: < 30 y; II: 30–34 y; III: 35–39 y). Results: Pregnant women older than 40 years had more chronic diseases such as hypertension, needed medical treatment more frequently and had a higher thrombosis risk. Pregnancy-induced diseases such as gestational diabetes, preeclampsia and pregnancy-associated hypertension occurred more often in women ≥ 40 years of age. Compared to mothers who were younger than 30 years, primiparous women ≥ 40 years had a more than four times higher overall cesarean section rate and four times higher elective cesarean section rate. Furthermore, they required longer hospital stays, both after cesarean section and after vaginal delivery. The preterm birth rate (≤ 32 weeks of gestation) was similar across the different age groups. Conclusions: The outcomes of pregnancy and childbirth and for newborns born to women ≥ 40 years did not vary significantly from those of younger women if the following conditions were met: a) pre-existing chronic diseases were treated medically and dietetically; b) pregnancy-induced morbidity was monitored regularly and controlled medically; c) women attended regular prenatal check-ups; d) a healthy lifestyle was adhered to during pregnancy, and e) delivery occurred in a perinatal center. PMID:26366002

  2. Parent birds assess nest predation risk and adjust their reproductive strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fontaine, J.J.; Martin, T.E.

    2006-01-01

    Avian life history theory has long assumed that nest predation plays a minor role in shaping reproductive strategies. Yet, this assumption remains conspicuously untested by broad experiments that alter environmental risk of nest predation, despite the fact that nest predation is a major source of reproductive failure. Here, we examined whether parents can assess experimentally reduced nest predation risk and alter their reproductive strategies. We experimentally reduced nest predation risk and show that in safer environments parents increased investment in young through increased egg size, clutch mass, and the rate they fed nestlings. Parents also increased investment in female condition by increasing the rates that males fed incubating females at the nest, and decreasing the time that females spent incubating. These results demonstrate that birds can assess nest predation risk at large and that nest predation plays a key role in the expression of avian reproductive strategies. ?? 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  3. Nest relocation using PVC "spotters"

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simon, John C.

    1998-01-01

    A simple device to aid in the rapid relocation of nests, composed on PVC pipe and tie wire, is described. A 16-18 cm length of pipe can be attached to a supporting structure with a section of wire and adjusted to point at the target nest by its discoverer. Used like an lensless spotting scope, the “spotter” allows other observers to quickly and reliably relocate the nest with minimal written or verbal description.

  4. Inflatable nested toroid structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christopher J. (Inventor); Raboin, Jasen L. (Inventor); Spexarth, Gary R. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An inflatable structure comprises at least two generally toroidal, inflatable modules. When in a deployed mode, the first, inner module has a major diameter less than that of a second, outer module and is positioned within the inner circumference of the outer module such that the first module is nested circumferentially alongside the second module. The inflatable structure, in a non-deployed, non-inflated mode, is of compact configuration and adapted to be transported to a site of deployment. When deployed, the inflatable structure is of substantially increased interior volume. In one embodiment, access between the interior of the first module and the second module is provided by at least one port or structural pass-through. In another embodiment, the inflatable structure includes at least one additional generally toroidal module external of and circumferentially surrounding the second module.

  5. Using Artificial Nests to Study Nest Predation in Birds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belthoff, James R.

    2005-01-01

    A simple and effective field exercise that demonstrates factors affecting predation on bird nests is described. With instructor guidance, students in high school biology or college-level biology, ecology, animal behavior, wildlife management or ornithology laboratory courses can collaborate to design field experiments related to nest depredation.

  6. Does nonrandom nest placement imply nonrandom nest predation? - A reply

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, R.J.; Wilson, R.R.; Zenitsky, G.D.; Mullin, S.J.; Dececco, J.D.; Marshall, M.R.; Wolf, D.J.; Pomara, L.Y.

    1999-01-01

    In response to the critique by Schmidt and Whelan (Condor 101(4):916-920, 1999), we find that the relationship between nest success and tree selectivity is dependent upon inclusion or exclusion of particular tree species, whether or not years are pooled, and the selectivity index used. We question their use of point estimates of nest success with extremely high variances, defend our index, question the application of the Chesson (1983) index to our data, and explain the need to analyze years separately. Bottomland hardwood forest systems are extremely variable; hydroperiods alter the suitability of nesting substrates, availability of alternative food, and behavior of predators and their prey. Given these features, actively searching for Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) nests is seldom an efficient predator foraging strategy. Therefore, these predation events are best described as random; nests are principally encountered opportunistically by generalist predators while searching for other prey.

  7. Education Services in Juvenile Corrections: 40 Years of Litigation and Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone, Peter E.; Wruble, Pamela Cichon

    2015-01-01

    Children and youth in juvenile corrections have statutory rights to education services of comparable quality to those found in the public schools. However, during the past 40 years in many states, access to education services that meet state and federal requirements under IDEA and state regulations has been inconsistent and inadequate for youth in…

  8. Rich-Poor Income Gap Hits 40-Year High As Poverty Rate Stalls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, Washington, DC.

    On September 26, 1990, the Census Bureau released its 1989 figures on poverty and income which showed that no significant progress was made in reducing poverty in 1989, and that gaps between rich and poor and between the wealthy and the middle class hit their widest points in more than 40 years. Although 1989 marked the seventh year of economic…

  9. Two Serious Cases of Infection with Clostridium celatum after 40 Years in Hiding?

    PubMed Central

    Hoegh, Silje Vermedal; Holt, Hanne Marie; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium celatum [ce.la'tum. L. adj. celatum hidden] has been known since 1974, when it was isolated from human feces. In 40 years, no association with human infection has been reported. In this work, we present two serious cases of infection with the anaerobic Gram-positive rod Clostridium celatum. PMID:26560535

  10. Celebrating 40 Years. Early Developments. Volume 10, Number 1, Spring 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Pam, Ed.; Buyssee, Virginia, Ed.; Hambrick, Catherine, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Although the FPG Child Development Institute's primary mission is to generate new knowledge, this research is in the service of a higher goal: child and family well being. This goal is distilled in their tag line: "Advancing knowledge, enhancing lives." This phrase is not just a tag line--it encapsulates 40 years of striving to be an…

  11. Recalling 40 Years of Teacher Education in the USA: A Personal Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullough, Robert V., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Taking the form of a personal essay, the author describes developments within teacher education in the USA over a 40-year period, since the founding of "JET." Beginning with his work within teacher education as a graduate student and moving across time, he describes major movements in teacher education, discusses several of the most…

  12. 40 Years after ESEA, Federal Role in Schools Is Broader than Ever

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on what has become of the federal schools legislation President Lyndon B. Johnson signed into law 40 years ago. The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) has been amended and rewritten many times since April 11, 1965, the day Mr. Johnson stood before the former one-room schoolhouse in Stonewall, Texas, he once attended…

  13. School Characteristics That Make a Difference for the Achievement of All Students: A 40-Year Odyssey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoy, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to trace a 40-year research journey to identify organizational properties that foster the achievement of all students, regardless of socio-economic status (SES). Design/methodology/approach: The author describes a search for school properties that have an impact on the cognitive and social-emotional…

  14. Currents in STSE Education: Mapping a Complex Field, 40 Years on

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedretti, Erminia; Nazir, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    It has been 40 years since science, technology, society, and environment (STSE) education first appeared in science education research and practice. Although supported among many educators worldwide, there is much confusion surrounding the STSE slogan. Widely differing discourses on STSE education and diverse ways of practicing, have led to an…

  15. Public Relations in Catholic Secondary Schools: Nearly 40 Years of Continuous Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, John T.

    2004-01-01

    This article traces the phenomenal improvement in public relations efforts over the past 40 years made by Catholic secondary schools. The improvements were brought about by crises, a theological paradigm shift, professional lay involvement, a growing awareness and appreciation of public relations, competition, and increasing financial need. The…

  16. A catalog of Louisiana's nesting seabird colonies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fontenot, William R.; Cardiff, Steve W.; DeMay, Richard A.; Dittmann, Donna L.; Hartley, Stephen B.; Jeske, Clinton W.; Lorenz, Nicole; Michot, Thomas C.; Purrington, Robert Dan; Seymour, Michael; Vermillion, William G.

    2012-01-01

    collective habitats which comprise Louisiana's now fragile coastal zone have taken major hits from commercial/residential, oil & gas, and other industrial development, primarily in the form of coastal erosion exacerbated by these and other factors (Portnoy 1978, Spendelow and Patton 1988, Martin and Lester 1990, Green, et al. 2006). Moreover, during this same period, both geologic subsidence rates (Tornqvist et al. 2008) and mean sea-level (Tornqvist et al. 2002) have increased, along with significant tropical storm activity; all of which have combined to impact available marsh, barrier island, beach, and dredge spoil nesting habitat for waterbirds, especially seabirds, throughout the coastal zone of Louisiana. The primary objective of this publication is to detail those coastal Louisiana colonial seabird nesting sites for which we have reasonably accurate data, in a tabular, site-by-site format. All major survey (1976-2008) data of site-by-site seabird species counts, as well as several smaller data sets, referred to in the site history tables as “miscellaneous observations” obtained during the May-June seabird breeding period, are included. It is our hope that these data will provide a dependable foundation from which future colonial seabird nesting surveys might be planned and carried out, as well as showcase the importance of coastal Louisiana's seabird rookeries, and contribute to their conservation.

  17. Do mammalian nest predators follow human scent trails in the shortgrass prairie?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skagen, S.K.; Stanley, T.R.; Dillon, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    Nest predation, the major cause of nest failure in passerines, has exerted a strong influence on the evolution of life history traits of birds. Because human disturbance during nest monitoring may alter predation rates, we investigated whether human scent affected the survival of artificial ground nests in shortgrass prairie. Our experiment consisted of two treatments, one in which there was no attempt to mask human scent along travel routes between artificial nests, and one in which we masked human scent with cow manure, a scent familiar to mammalian predators in the study area. We found no evidence that human scent influenced predation rates, nor that mammalian predators followed human trails between nests. We conclude that scent trails made by investigators do not result in lower nesting success of passerines of the shortgrass prairie where vegetation trampling is minimal, mammalian predators predominate, and avian predators are rare.

  18. Change analysis of karst rocky desertification for almost 40 years: a case study of Guangxi, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Zhou, Guoqing; Mao, Guodong; Shi, Yujun; Zhang, Rongting; Su, Chengjie

    2015-12-01

    The paper first studied the geometric correction of historical CORONA satellite imagery in the 1960s and used the historical imagery to extract KRD (karst rocky desertification). The study area is located in the karst region of Guangxi Province, China. Finally, we used the Landsat-5 imagery to extract rocky desertification in 2005, then we could find the changes of the karst rocky desertification in Guangxi from 1960s to 2005 about nearly 40 years. And comparison analysis was conducted and the results showed that, over the 40 years, Guangxi karst rocky desertification area has significantly changed. Guangxi has typical karst environment and is one of the most serious areas of rocky desertification in southwest China provinces, thus our research on this has great practical significance.

  19. Vascular Disease in Young Indians (20-40 years): Role of Ischemic Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hiremath, Murugesh Shantaveeraya; Das, Mrinal Kanti; Desai, Devangkumar M; Chopra, Vijay Kumar; Biswas, Arup Das

    2016-01-01

    Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) occurs at a younger age in Indians with over 50% of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) mortality occurring in individuals aged less than 50 years. Although several risk factors have been suggested; smoking, dyslipidemia and hypertension are major risk factors in the young. In this review, we have pooled the current evidence on Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) in young (20-40 years) and provided an opinion for the effective management of IHD in young Indians. PMID:27790504

  20. The long view: a selective review of 40 years of Newcastle disease research.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Dennis J; Aldous, Elizabeth W; Fuller, Chad M

    2012-01-01

    This review is written for the series celebrating the 40th year since the first issue of Avian Pathology. The aim of the authors was to cover the developments in Newcastle disease (ND) research over the last 40 years that they considered significant. During those 40 years there have been several panzootics of this serious disease in poultry and for the last 30 years there has been a continuing panzootic in domestic pigeons, which has spread to wild birds and poultry. The 40-year period began with worldwide outbreaks of severe ND, which served as an important impetus for ND research work. Although early work was concerned with controlling the disease, specifically by improving and developing new vaccines and vaccine regimens, even prior to the 1970s ND virus was seen as a useful laboratory virus for replication and virulence studies. This review covers the historical developments in the following areas: understanding the molecular basis of virulence; epidemiology and relatedness of different ND strains, both antigenically and genetically; the emergence of virulent strains and their relationship with viruses of low virulence; sequencing and understanding the viral genome and genes; the development of rapid molecular-based diagnostic tests; and the phylogeny and molecular taxonomy of ND virus. The authors suggest areas in which future research could or should be undertaken.

  1. Pre-nesting and nesting behavior of the Swainson's warbler

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meanley, B.

    1969-01-01

    The Swainson?s Warbler is one of the least known of southern birds. Although fairly common in some parts of its summer range, observations of its breeding biology have been made by very few persons. The present study was conducted mostly at Macon, Georgia; Pendleton Ferry, Arkansas; and Dismal Swamp, Virginia....In central Georgia and east-central Arkansas, Swainson?s Warblers usually arrive on their territories during the first two weeks in April. Territories in several localities ranged in size from 0.3 to 4.8 acres. A color-marked Arkansas male occupied the same territory for at least four months. Hostile encounters between territorial male Swainson?s Warblers usually take place along the boundary of adjacent territories. Paired males were more aggressive than unpaired males. Toward the end of an encounter one of the two males would usually perform a display in which the wing and tail feathers were spread and the tail vibrated. Following boundary encounters males drifted back onto their territories and usually sang unbroken courses of songs for several minutes.....During pre-nesting at Macon, a mated pair spent the day mostly on the ground within 20 feet of each other, often foragin g 3 to 4 feet apart. What may have been a form of courtship display, in which the male flew from a perch down to the female and either pecked her rump or pounced on her, occurred about three times each hour throughout the day. During this period the male sang less than at other times during the breeding season.....First nests are usually built by the first week in May. Although other investigators reported finding nests of this species outside of the defended territory, all nests that I have found were within the territory. The large, bulky nest of this species usually is placed 2-6 feet above the ground. It is built by the female from materials gathered close to the nest site; and takes two or three days to complete.....Three and occasionally four white eggs are laid. The female

  2. Thyroid Cancer Risk 40+ Years after Irradiation for an Enlarged Thymus: An Update of the Hempelmann Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Adams, (Michael) Jacob; Shore, Roy E.; Dozier, Ann; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Schwartz, Ronald G.; Constine, Louis S.; Pearson, Thomas A.; Stovall, Marilyn; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; Fisher, Susan G.

    2010-01-01

    Although ionizing radiation is a known carcinogen, the long-term risk from relatively higher-dose diagnostic procedures during childhood is less well known. We evaluated this risk indirectly by assessing thyroid cancer incidence in a cohort treated with “lower-dose” chest radiotherapy more than 55 years ago. Between 2004 and 2008, we re-surveyed a population-based cohort of subjects treated with radiation for an enlarged thymus during infancy between 1926 and 1957 and their unexposed siblings. Thyroid cancer occurred in 50 irradiated subjects (mean thyroid dose, 1.29 Gy) and in 13 nonirradiated siblings during 334,347 person-years of follow-up. After adjusting for attained age, Jewish religion, sex and history of goiter, the rate ratio for thyroid cancer was 5.6 (95% CI: 3.1–10.8). The adjusted excess relative risk per gray was 3.2 (95% CI: 1.5–6.6). The adjusted excess absolute risk per gray was 2.2 cases (95% CI: 1.4–3.2) per 10,000 person-years. Cumulative thyroid cancer incidence remains elevated in this cohort after a median 57.5 years of follow-up and is dose-dependent. Although the incidence appeared to decrease after 40 years, increased risk remains a lifelong concern in those exposed to lower doses of medical radiation during early childhood. PMID:21128799

  3. Technical manual for basic version of the Markov chain nest productivity model (MCnest)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Markov Chain Nest Productivity Model (or MCnest) integrates existing toxicity information from three standardized avian toxicity tests with information on species life history and the timing of pesticide applications relative to the timing of avian breeding seasons to quantit...

  4. User’s manual for basic version of MCnest Markov chain nest productivity model

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Markov Chain Nest Productivity Model (or MCnest) integrates existing toxicity information from three standardized avian toxicity tests with information on species life history and the timing of pesticide applications relative to the timing of avian breeding seasons to quantit...

  5. Nest poaching in Neotropical parrots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, T.F.; Toft, C.A.; Enkerlin-Hoeflich, E.; Gonzalez-Elizondo, J.; Albornoz, M.; Rodriguez-Ferraro, A.; Rojas-Suarez, F.; Sanz, V.; Trujillo, A.; Beissinger, S.R.; Berovides A., V.; Galvez A., X.; Brice, A.T.; Joyner, K.; Eberhard, J.; Gilardi, J.; Koenig, S.E.; Stoleson, S.; Martuscelli, P.; Meyers, J.M.; Renton, K.; Rodriguez, A.M.; Sosa-Asanza, A.C.; Vilella, F.J.; Wiley, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    Although the poaching of nestlings for the pet trade is thought to contribute to the decline of many species of parrots, its effects have been poorly demonstrated. We calculated rates of mortality due to nest poaching in 23 studies of Neotropical parrots, representing 4024 nesting attempts in 21 species and 14 countries. We also examined how poaching rates vary with geographic region, presence of active protection programs, conservation status and economic value of a species, and passage of the U.S. Wild Bird Conservation Act. The average poaching rate across all studies was 30% of all nests observed. Thirteen studies reported poaching rates of >20%, and four reported rates of >70%. Only six studies documented no nest poaching. Of these, four were conducted on islands in the Caribbean region, which had significantly lower poaching rates than the mainland Neotropics. The other two studies that showed no poaching were conducted on the two species with the lowest economic value in our sample (U.S. retail price). In four studies that allowed direct comparison between poaching at sites with active nest protection versus that at unprotected sites, poaching rates were significantly lower at protected sites, suggesting that active protection efforts can be effective in reducing nest poaching. In those studies conducted both before and after the passage of the U.S. Wild Bird Conservation Act, poaching rates were found to be significantly lower following its enactment than in the period before. This result supports the hypothesis that the legal and illegal parrot trades are positively related, rather than inversely related as has been suggested by avicultural interests. Overall, our study indicates that poaching of parrot nestlings for economic gain is a widespread and biologically significant source of nest mortality in Neotropical parrots.

  6. Association of Metabolic Factors with Symptomatic Hand Osteoarthritis in the Chinese Han Population Aged 40 Years and above

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Shi, Lei; Xue, Qing-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Background: The relationship between hand osteoarthritis (HOA) and systemic metabolic factors is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of systemic metabolic factors including obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and atherosclerosis in symptomatic patients with HOA and the association between these systemic metabolic factors and symptomatic HOA in the Chinese Han population aged 40 years and above. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on Chinese Han population aged 40 years and above in six centers in China. The sociodemographic features, lifestyle of the participants, and medical history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and atherosclerosis were collected. The cases with hand symptoms underwent anteroposterior radiographic examination of both hands to obtain a diagnosis. The correlations between systemic metabolic factors and symptomatic HOA were analyzed using Logistic regression analysis. Results: Overweight (39.3% vs. 30.5%, P < 0.001), hypertension (34.7% vs. 18.6%, P < 0.001), diabetes mellitus (11.2% vs. 3.3%, P < 0.001), and atherosclerosis (19.8% vs. 8.3%, P < 0.001) were more prevalent in symptomatic patients with HOA than those in the population without HOA. Overweight (odds ratio [OR] = 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10–1.65, P = 0.005), hypertension (OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.18–1.83, P < 0.001), and diabetes mellitus (OR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.74–3.45, P < 0.001) were associated with a higher prevalence of symptomatic HOA and the OR of symptomatic HOA significantly increased with the accumulated number of the three metabolic factors. Symptomatic HOA was associated with a higher prevalence of atherosclerosis (OR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.05–1.85, P = 0.023). Conclusions: Overweight, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus were associated with a higher prevalence of HOA, showing cumulative effects. Atherosclerosis risk should be assessed in patients with HOA. PMID:27647188

  7. Golden-cheeked warbler males participate in nest-site selection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graber, A.E.; Davis, C.A.; Leslie, David M.

    2006-01-01

    Nest-site selection behaviors have rarely been described for songbirds. Furthermore, male involvement in nest-site selection is generally assumed to be minimal among most species, especially those predominantly exhibiting female nest building. This assumption has held true for the federally endangered Golden-cheeked Warbler (Dendroica chrysoparia), a breeding resident of central Texas. We observed Golden-cheeked Warbler males and females searching for nest sites together on three separate occasions, 2001-2003. Although rare, such observations add to our knowledge of the life history of songbirds.

  8. Imaging observations of pulmonary inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors in patients over 40 years old

    PubMed Central

    WU, JIANG; ZHU, HONG; LI, KAI; YUAN, CAI-YUN; WANG, YAN-FEN; LU, GUANG-MING

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (PIMTs) are extremely rare in adults. If occurring in patients >40 years old, PIMT should be rapidly distinguished from lung cancer. The present study aimed to characterize the imaging features of PIMT in patients >40 years old in order to improve the diagnosis of PIMT. The imaging data of 10 patients with PIMT were reviewed retrospectively. Of the patients, eight underwent computed tomography (CT), two underwent positron emission tomography (PET)/CT and four underwent single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Unenhanced CT revealed 10 lesions with a maximum diameter ranging between 5 and 57 mm located in the lower (n=6) or upper (n=4) lobe, in a peripheral (n=9) or central (n=1) region, and that were well- (n=4) or ill-defined (n=6), and round to oval (n=5) or irregular (n=5) in shape. Calcification (n=3), necrosis (n=6), cavity (n=4), air bronchogram (n=6) and obstructive pneumonia (n=1) were also observed in the patients. Contrast-enhanced CT revealed six lesions with moderate to high contrast enhancement in the arterial and venous phases, including four lesions with delayed enhancement. PET/CT identified two lesions with increased tracer uptake that were homogeneous and heterogeneous and each exhibited a maximal standard uptake value (SUVmax) of 6.0 and 5.4, respectively. The delayed PET/CT revealed foci that each exhibited an increased SUVmax of 6.9 and 5.9, respectively. SPECT demonstrated no definitive bone metastases, but did reveal atypical hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy in one patient. The combined imaging methods may lead to a more precise evaluation of PIMT in patients >40 years old. PMID:25789060

  9. Committee on air pollution effects research: 40 years of UK air pollution.

    PubMed

    Fowler, David; Dise, Nancy; Sheppard, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    The UK Committee on Air Pollution Effects Research (CAPER) was established 40 years ago. This special section was compiled to mark this anniversary. During this time there have been dramatic changes in the composition of the air over the UK. The four papers in this special section of Environmental Pollution represent the current air pollution effects research focus on ozone and nitrogen deposition, two related issues and are proving from a policy perspective to be quite intractable issues. The UK CAPER research community continues to advance the underpinning science and engages closely with the user community in government departments.

  10. Vascular Disease in Young Indians (20-40 years): Role of Dyslipidemia

    PubMed Central

    Deb, Pradeep Kumar; Shrivastava, Sameer; Rao, Maddury Srinivas; Mohan, Jagdish Chander; Kumar, Arramraju Sreenivas

    2016-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Atherosclerosis begins early in life as suggested by “fatty streaks” observed in coronaries of healthy organ donors aged 20-29 years. Premature occurrence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in Indians, increases the risk for young individuals. Management of Dyslipidemia in the young Indian poses several challenges. In this article we provide in-depth review of prevalence, guidelines’ perspective and expert comments on management of Dyslipidemia in the young (20-40 years) Indian. PMID:27630892

  11. Quadruple cancer including Bowen's disease after arsenic injections 40 years earlier: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Murata, K; Iwazawa, T; Takayama, T; Yamashita, K; Okagawa, K

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the successful treatment of quadruple cancer including Bowen's disease in a 71-year-old man who had been given injections of salvarsan, an arsenic compound, for syphilis more than 40 years earlier. Resection of a skin lesion on his chest subsequently confirmed a diagnosis of Bowen's disease, 3 years after which he was operated on for concurrent gastric cancer and sigmoid colon cancer. A fourth cancer was discovered on his left vocal cord 2 weeks after this operation; it was resected 2 years later. A discussion of multiple malignant neoplasms and the possible relationship between arsenic and cancer is presented following this case report.

  12. My 40-Year History with Cronobacter/Enterobacter sakazakii – Lessons Learned, Myths Debunked, and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Much has been learned about organism in the Cronobacter/Enterobacter sakazakii complex since I first named and described Enterobacter sakazakii in 1980. However, there are still wide knowledge gaps. One of the most serious is that are still many uncertainties associated with assessing the public health risk posed by these bacteria, particularly in neonatal meningitis. Over the last few decades, Cronobacter contamination of commercial powdered infant formula products has apparently been reduced, but it is still an ongoing problem. The powdered infant formula industry still cannot produce powdered formula that is free of bacterial contamination with Cronobacter, other Enterobacteriaceae, other pathogenic bacteria, and other microorganisms. Until this happens, infants and other will be at risk of becoming infected when they ingest contaminated formula. PMID:26640778

  13. GIW and InCoB, two premier bioinformatics conferences in Asia with a combined 40 years of history

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge discovery in bioinformatics thrives on joint and inclusive efforts of stakeholders. Similarly, knowledge dissemination is expected to be more effective and scalable through joint efforts. Therefore, the International Conference on Bioinformatics (InCoB) and the International Conference on Genome Informatics (GIW) were organized as a joint conference for the first time in 13 years of coexistence. The Asia-Pacific Bioinformatics Network (APBioNet) and the Japanese Society for Bioinformatics (JSBi) collaborated to host GIW/InCoB2015 in Tokyo, September 9-11, 2015. The joint endeavour yielded 51 research articles published in seven journals, 78 poster and 89 oral presentations, showcasing bioinformatics research in the Asia-Pacific region. Encouraged by the results and reduced organizational overheads, APBioNet will collaborate with other bioinformatics societies in organizing co-located bioinformatics research and training meetings in the future. InCoB2016 will be hosted in Singapore, September 21-23, 2016. PMID:26679412

  14. Successful nesting behavior of Puerto Rican parrots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, K.A.; Field, R.; Wilson, M.H.

    1995-01-01

    We analyzed nesting behavior of five pairs of the endangered Puerto Rican Parrot (Amazona vittata) during eight successful nesting attempts. Each stage of the nesting cycle (egg laying, incubation, early chick rearing, and late chick rearing) was characterized by distinct trends or levels of behavior. During egg laying, female attentiveness to tile nest increased, and male attentiveness decreased. Throughout incubation and the first several days of early chick rearing, females were highly attentive to their nests, whereas males rarely entered the nest cavities. Female attentiveness then began to decline. Male attentiveness to the nest was sporadic until chicks were 10-12 days old. when all males began to enter their nests at least once each day. During late chick rearing, both male and female attentiveness were erratic and highly variable. Biologists may be able to use these results to identify nest problems and the need for management intervention when patterns of nest attentiveness deviate from the limits described in this study..

  15. Finding Nested Common Intervals Efficiently

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blin, Guillaume; Stoye, Jens

    In this paper, we study the problem of efficiently finding gene clusters formalized by nested common intervals between two genomes represented either as permutations or as sequences. Considering permutations, we give several algorithms whose running time depends on the size of the actual output rather than the output in the worst case. Indeed, we first provide a straightforward O(n 3) time algorithm for finding all nested common intervals. We reduce this complexity by providing an O(n 2) time algorithm computing an irredundant output. Finally, we show, by providing a third algorithm, that finding only the maximal nested common intervals can be done in linear time. Considering sequences, we provide solutions (modifications of previously defined algorithms and a new algorithm) for different variants of the problem, depending on the treatment one wants to apply to duplicated genes.

  16. Nest use is influenced by the positions of nests and drinkers in aviaries.

    PubMed

    Lentfer, T L; Gebhardt-Henrich, S G; Fröhlich, E K F; von Borell, E

    2013-06-01

    The influence of the nest location and the placement of nipple drinkers on nest use by laying hens in a commercial aviary was assessed. Twenty pens in a laying hen house were equipped with the same commercial aviary system, but the pens differed in the nest location and the placement of nipple drinkers. Nests were placed along the walls in 10 pens, and nipple drinkers were installed in front of the nests in 5 of these pens. The other 10 pens were equipped with nests placed on a tier within the aviary (integrated nests). Nipple drinkers were installed in front of the nests in 5 of these pens. A total of 225 Lohmann Selected Leghorns were housed per pen. The hens were offered 4 nests per pen: 2 facing the service corridor of the laying hen house and 2 facing the outdoor area. The numbers of nest eggs and mislaid eggs were counted daily per pen. At 25, 36, and 43 wk of age, the nest platforms were videotaped and the behavior of laying hens in front of the nests was analyzed. The nest location affected the stationary and locomotive behaviors in front of the nests. Hens in front of the integrated nests and the nests with drinkers displayed more stationary behaviors than hens in front of wall-placed nests or nests without drinkers. No difference in the number of nest eggs could be detected, but the integration of the nests inside the aviary led to a more even distribution of hens while nest searching. In the pens with wall-placed nests, significantly more hens laid eggs in the nests at the wall near the service corridor than at the wall near the outdoor area. Due to this imbalance, crowding in front of the preferred nests occurred and pushing and agonistic interactions on the nest platforms were significantly more frequent. Placement of nipple drinkers in front of nests had no effect on the number of eggs laid in those nests.

  17. Evolving images of the proton: hadron physics over the past 40 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennington, Michael R.

    2016-06-01

    Once upon a time, the world was simple: the proton contained three quarks, two ups and a down. How these give the proton its mass and its spin seemed obvious. Over the past 40 years the proton has become more complicated, and how even these most obvious of its properties is explained in a universe of quarks, antiquarks and gluons remains a challenge. That this should be so should come as no surprise. Quantum chromodynamics, the theory of the strong interaction, is seemingly simple, and its consequences are straightforward in the domain of hard scattering where perturbation theory applies. However, the beauty of the hadron world is its diversity. The existence of hadrons, their properties, and their binding into nuclei do not appear in the Lagrangian of QCD. They all emerge as a result of its strong coupling. Strong coupling QCD creates complex phenomena, much richer than known 40 years ago: a richness that ensures colour confinement and accounts for more than 95% of the mass of the visible Universe. How strong coupling QCD really works requires a synergy between experiment and theory. A very personal view of these fascinating developments in cold QCD is presented.

  18. A Validated Normative Model for Human Uterine Volume from Birth to Age 40 Years

    PubMed Central

    Ginbey, Eleanor; Chowdhury, Moti M.; Bath, Louise E.; Anderson, Richard A.; Wallace, W. Hamish B.

    2016-01-01

    Transabdominal pelvic ultrasound and/or pelvic Magnetic Resonance Imaging are safe, accurate and non-invasive means of determining the size and configuration of the internal female genitalia. The assessment of uterine size and volume is helpful in the assessment of many conditions including disorders of sex development, precocious or delayed puberty, infertility and menstrual disorders. Using our own data from the assessment of MRI scans in healthy young females and data extracted from four studies that assessed uterine volume using transabdominal ultrasound in healthy females we have derived and validated a normative model of uterine volume from birth to age 40 years. This shows that uterine volume increases across childhood, with a faster increase in adolescence reflecting the influence of puberty, followed by a slow but progressive rise during adult life. The model suggests that around 84% of the variation in uterine volumes in the healthy population up to age 40 is due to age alone. The derivation of a validated normative model for uterine volume from birth to age 40 years has important clinical applications by providing age-related reference values for uterine volume. PMID:27295032

  19. Evolving images of the proton: Hadron physics over the past 40 years

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, Michael R.

    2016-04-05

    Once upon a time, the world was simple: the proton contained three quarks, two ups and a down. How these give the proton its mass and its spin seemed obvious. Over the past 40 years the proton has become more complicated, and how even these most obvious of its properties is explained in a universe of quarks, antiquarks and gluons remains a challenge. That this should be so should come as no surprise. Quantum chromodynamics, the theory of the strong interaction, is seemingly simple, and its consequences are straightforward in the domain of hard scattering where perturbation theory applies. However, the beauty of the hadron world is its diversity. The existence of hadrons, their properties, and their binding into nuclei do not appear in the Lagrangian of QCD. They all emerge as a result of its strong coupling. Strong coupling QCD creates complex phenomena, much richer than known 40 years ago: a richness that ensures colour confinement and accounts for more than 95% of the mass of the visible Universe. How strong coupling QCD really works requires a synergy between experiment and theory. Furthermore, a very personal view of these fascinating developments in cold QCD is presented.

  20. Evolving images of the proton: Hadron physics over the past 40 years

    DOE PAGES

    Pennington, Michael R.

    2016-04-05

    Once upon a time, the world was simple: the proton contained three quarks, two ups and a down. How these give the proton its mass and its spin seemed obvious. Over the past 40 years the proton has become more complicated, and how even these most obvious of its properties is explained in a universe of quarks, antiquarks and gluons remains a challenge. That this should be so should come as no surprise. Quantum chromodynamics, the theory of the strong interaction, is seemingly simple, and its consequences are straightforward in the domain of hard scattering where perturbation theory applies. However,more » the beauty of the hadron world is its diversity. The existence of hadrons, their properties, and their binding into nuclei do not appear in the Lagrangian of QCD. They all emerge as a result of its strong coupling. Strong coupling QCD creates complex phenomena, much richer than known 40 years ago: a richness that ensures colour confinement and accounts for more than 95% of the mass of the visible Universe. How strong coupling QCD really works requires a synergy between experiment and theory. Furthermore, a very personal view of these fascinating developments in cold QCD is presented.« less

  1. Ducks and passerines nesting in northern mixed-grass prairie treated with fire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grant, Todd A.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Madden, Elizabeth M.; Berkey, Gordon B.

    2011-01-01

    Prescribed fire is an important, ecology-driven tool for restoration of grassland systems. However, prescribed fire remains controversial for some grassland managers because of reported reductions in bird use of recently burned grasslands. Few studies have evaluated effects of fire on grassland bird populations in the northern mixed-grass prairie region. Fewer studies yet have examined the influence of fire on nest density or survival. In our review, we found no studies that simultaneously examined effects of fire on duck and passerine nesting. During 1998—2003, we examined effects of prescribed fire on the density of upland-nesting ducks and passerines nesting in north-central North Dakota, USA. Apparent nest densities of gadwall (Anas strepera), mallard (A. platyrhynchos), and all duck species combined, were influenced by fire history of study units, although the degree of influence was not compelling. Fire history was not related to nest densities of blue-winged teal (A. discors), northern shoveler (A. clypeata), or northern pintail (A. acuta); however, apparent nest densities in relation to the number of postfire growing seasons exhibited a strikingly similar pattern among all duck species. When compared to ducks, fire history strongly influenced apparent nest densities of clay-colored sparrow (Spizella pallida), Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis), and bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus). For most species examined, apparent nest densities were lowest in recently burned units, increased during the second postfire growing season, and stabilized or, in some cases, decreased thereafter. Prescribed fire is critical for restoring the ecology of northern mixed-grass prairies and our findings indicate that reductions in nest densities are limited mostly to the first growing season after fire. Our results support the premise that upland-nesting ducks and several grassland passerine species are adapted to periodic fires occurring at a frequency similar to that

  2. Can selection on nest size from nest predation explain the latitudinal gradient in clutch size?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biancucci, L.; Martin, T.E.

    2010-01-01

    1. Latitudinal variation in clutch sizes of birds is a well described, but poorly understood pattern. Many hypotheses have been proposed, but few have been experimentally tested, and none have been universally accepted by researchers. 2. The nest size hypothesis posits that higher nest predation in the tropics favours selection for smaller nests and thereby constrains clutch size by shrinking available space for eggs and/or nestlings in the nest. We tested this hypothesis with an experiment in a tropical forest and a comparative study between temperate and tropical field sites. 3. Specifically, we tested if: (i) predation increased with nest size; (ii) tropical birds had smaller nests controlled for body size; and (iii) clutch size was explained by nest size controlled for body size. 4. Experimental swapping of nests of different sizes showed that nest predation increased with nest size in the tropical site. Moreover, nest predation rates were higher in species with larger nests in both sites. However, nest size, corrected for body mass and phylogeny, did not differ between sites and was not related to clutch size between sites. 5. Hence, nest predation can exert selection on nest size as predicted by the hypothesis. Nest size increased with adult body mass, such that adult size might indirectly influence reproductive success through effects on nest size and nest predation risk. Ultimately, however, selection from nest predation on nest size does not explain the smaller clutch sizes typical of the tropics.

  3. Elementary maps on nest algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengtong

    2006-08-01

    Let , be algebras and let , be maps. An elementary map of is an ordered pair (M,M*) such that for all , . In this paper, the general form of surjective elementary maps on standard subalgebras of nest algebras is described. In particular, such maps are automatically additive.

  4. Unusual raptor nests around the world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Craig, T.; Craig, E.; Postupalsky, S.; LaRue, C.T.; Nelson, R.W.; Anderson, D.W.; Henny, C.J.; Watson, J.; Millsap, B.A.; Dawson, J.W.; Cole, K.L.; Martin, E.M.; Margalida, A.; Kung, P.

    2009-01-01

    From surveys in many countries, we report raptors using unusual nesting materials (e.g., paper money, rags, metal, antlers, and large bones) and unusual nesting situations. For example, we documented nests of Steppe Eagles Aquila nipalensis and Upland Buzzards Buteo hemilasius on the ground beside well-traveled roads, Saker Falcon Falco cherrug eyries in attics and a cistern, and Osprey Pandion haliaetus nests on the masts of boats and on a suspended automobile. Other records include a Golden Eagle A. chrysaetos nest 7.0 m in height, believed to be the tallest nest ever described, and, for the same species, we report nesting in rudimentary nests. Some nest sites are within a few meters of known predators or competitors. These unusual observations may be important in revealing the plasticity of a species' behavioral repertoire. ?? 2009 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  5. Techniques for identifying predators of goose nests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, R. Michael; Grand, J.B.; Fondell, T.F.; Miller, David A.

    2006-01-01

    We used cameras and artificial eggs to identify nest predators of dusky Canada goose Branta canadensis occidentalis nests during 1997-2000. Cameras were set up at 195 occupied goose nests and 60 artificial nests. We placed wooden eggs and domestic goose eggs that were emptied and then filled with wax or foam in an additional 263 natural goose nests to identify predators from marks in the artificial eggs. All techniques had limitations, but each correctly identified predators and estimated their relative importance. Nests with cameras had higher rates of abandonment than natural nests, especially during laying. Abandonment rates were reduced by deploying artificial eggs late in laying and reducing time at nests. Predation rates for nests with cameras were slightly lower than for nests without cameras. Wax-filled artificial eggs caused mortality of embryos in natural nests, but were better for identifying predator marks at artificial nests. Use of foam-filled artificial eggs in natural nests was the most cost effective means of monitoring nest predation. ?? Wildlife Biology (2006).

  6. Multiple skin neoplasms in subjects under 40 years of age in Goiania, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Samir; Curado, Maria Paula; Ribeiro, Ana Maria Quinteiro

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the trend for malignant skin neoplasms in subjects under 40 years of age in a region with high ultraviolet radiation indices.METHODS A descriptive epidemiological study on melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers that was conducted in Goiania, Midwest Brazil, with 1,688 people under 40 years of age, between 1988 and 2009. Cases were obtained fromRegistro de Câncer de Base Populacional de Goiânia(Goiania's Population-Based Cancer File). Frequency, trends, and incidence of cases with single and multiple lesions were analyzed; transplants and genetic skin diseases were found in cases with multiple lesions.RESULTS Over the period, 1,995 skin cancer cases were observed to found, of which 1,524 (90.3%) cases had single lesions and 164 (9.7%) had multiple lesions. Regarding single lesions, incidence on men was observed to have risen from 2.4 to 3.1/100,000 inhabitants; it differed significantly for women, shifting from 2.3 to 5.3/100,000 (Annual percentage change - [APC] 3.0%, p = 0.006). Regarding multiple lesions, incidence on men was observed to have risen from 0.30 to 0.98/100,000 inhabitants; for women, it rose from 0.43 to 1.16/100,000 (APC 8.6%, p = 0.003). Genetic skin diseases or transplants were found to have been correlated with 10.0% of cases with multiple lesions - an average of 5.1 lesions per patient. The average was 2.5 in cases without that correlation.CONCLUSIONS Skin cancer on women under 40 years of age has been observed to be increasing for both cases with single and multiple lesions. It is not unusual to find multiple tumors in young people - in most cases, they are not associated with genetic skin diseases or transplants. It is necessary to avoid excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation from childhood.

  7. Multiple skin neoplasms in subjects under 40 years of age in Goiania, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Samir; Curado, Maria Paula; Ribeiro, Ana Maria Quinteiro

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the trend for malignant skin neoplasms in subjects under 40 years of age in a region with high ultraviolet radiation indices. METHODS A descriptive epidemiological study on melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers that was conducted in Goiania, Midwest Brazil, with 1,688 people under 40 years of age, between 1988 and 2009. Cases were obtained from Registro de Câncer de Base Populacional de Goiânia (Goiania’s Population-Based Cancer File). Frequency, trends, and incidence of cases with single and multiple lesions were analyzed; transplants and genetic skin diseases were found in cases with multiple lesions. RESULTS Over the period, 1,995 skin cancer cases were observed to found, of which 1,524 (90.3%) cases had single lesions and 164 (9.7%) had multiple lesions. Regarding single lesions, incidence on men was observed to have risen from 2.4 to 3.1/100,000 inhabitants; it differed significantly for women, shifting from 2.3 to 5.3/100,000 (Annual percentage change – [APC] 3.0%, p = 0.006). Regarding multiple lesions, incidence on men was observed to have risen from 0.30 to 0.98/100,000 inhabitants; for women, it rose from 0.43 to 1.16/100,000 (APC 8.6%, p = 0.003). Genetic skin diseases or transplants were found to have been correlated with 10.0% of cases with multiple lesions – an average of 5.1 lesions per patient. The average was 2.5 in cases without that correlation. CONCLUSIONS Skin cancer on women under 40 years of age has been observed to be increasing for both cases with single and multiple lesions. It is not unusual to find multiple tumors in young people – in most cases, they are not associated with genetic skin diseases or transplants. It is necessary to avoid excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation from childhood. PMID:26465667

  8. Optimizing nest survival and female survival: Consequences of nest site selection for Canada Geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, David A.; Grand, J.B.; Fondell, T.F.; Anthony, R. Michael

    2007-01-01

    We examined the relationship between attributes of nest sites used by Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) in the Copper River Delta, Alaska, and patterns in nest and female survival. We aimed to determine whether nest site attributes related to nest and female survival differed and whether nest site attributes related to nest survival changed within and among years. Nest site attributes that we examined included vegetation at and surrounding the nest, as well as associations with other nesting birds. Optimal nest site characteristics were different depending on whether nest survival or female survival was examined. Prior to 25 May, the odds of daily survival for nests in tall shrubs and on islands were 2.92 and 2.26 times greater, respectively, than for nests in short shrub sites. Bald Eagles (Halieaeetus leucocephalus) are the major predator during the early breeding season and their behavior was likely important in determining this pattern. After 25 May, when eagle predation is limited due to the availability of alternative prey, no differences in nest survival among the nest site types were found. In addition, nest survival was positively related to the density of other Canada Goose nests near the nest site. Although the number of detected mortalities for females was relatively low, a clear pattern was found, with mortality three times more likely at nest sites dominated by high shrub density within 50 m than at open sites dominated by low shrub density. The negative relationship of nest concealment and adult survival is consistent with that found in other studies of ground-nesting birds. Physical barriers that limited access to nest sites by predators and sites that allowed for early detection of predators were important characteristics of nest site quality for Canada Geese and nest site quality shifted within seasons, likely as a result of shifting predator-prey interactions.

  9. Use of elevated nest baskets by ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doty, H.A.; Lee, F.B.; Kruse, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    Open-top nest baskets were mounted on upright metal poles in various wetlands to assess the value of baskets as a potential technique for increasing duck nest success. Observations were made from 1966-1968 in North and South Dakota, Minnesota, and Wisconsin and were continued through 1973 in North Dakota. Baskets were used most readily in the prairie pothole region; of the 1,038 basket nest sites provided during 1966-68, 392 contained clutches of eggs (38 percent), and 324 (83 percent) hatched. Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) initiated 98 percent of these nests. Factors affecting nest success included human disturbance, nesting material, egg freezing, and avian predation.

  10. Changes in Surface Radiation Flux Associated with Cloud Variability over Land during the Past 40+ Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Clouds have a large impact on the surface energy budget over land, but it has been difficult to accurately quantify variability in cloud radiative effect at multidecadal time scales. One reason for this is that the longest satellite cloud records are inhomogeneous. Another reason is that surface visual records, available for a longer time period than satellite data, do not provide quantitative radiative information. The present study describes empirical methods for removing artifacts from satellite-derived surface radiation flux data and for quantifying the surface radiative impact of variability in visually-observed cloud cover. Changes in surface radiation flux associated with cloud variability during the past 40+ years are examined for multiple land regions.

  11. A Certified Health Physicist’s Reflections on a 40-Year Career in Radiation Protection

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This is a reflection from a certified health physicist regarding his becoming aware, during his 40-year career, that the linear no-threshold (LNT) model and the associated As Low As Reasonably Achievable concept have no scientific basis and make no positive contribution to radiation safety. They should be replaced by an alternative, scientifically based model that includes a threshold, below which there is no harm, and recognition of hormesis and the adaptive response, which reflect the benefits of low-dose and low-dose-rate radiation exposure. Continued use of the unscientific LNT model is not conservative, as most regulators complacently claim but actually harmful. Examples of these harmful impacts in the areas of nuclear power, nuclear medicine, and environmental management are included. PMID:27867322

  12. Personality change over 40 years of adulthood: hierarchical linear modeling analyses of two longitudinal samples.

    PubMed

    Helson, Ravenna; Jones, Constance; Kwan, Virginia S Y

    2002-09-01

    Normative personality change over 40 years was shown in 2 longitudinal cohorts with hierarchical linear modeling of California Psychological Inventory data obtained at multiple times between ages 21-75. Although themes of change and the paucity of differences attributable to gender and cohort largely supported findings of multiethnic cross-sectional samples, the authors also found much quadratic change and much individual variability. The form of quadratic change supported predictions about the influence of period of life and social climate as factors in change over the adult years: Scores on Dominance and Independence peaked in the middle age of both cohorts, and scores on Responsibility were lowest during peak years of the culture of individualism. The idea that personality change is most pronounced before age 30 and then reaches a plateau received no support.

  13. Review of invasive meningococcal disease during the last 40 years in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bakir, Mustafa; Altinel, Serdar

    2015-01-01

    Due to the lack of comprehensive surveillance data representing Turkey, the authors aimed to derive information by panoramically reviewing all articles related to invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) published in the last 40 years. The following databases were reviewed: Ulakbim (the national database), BIOSIS Previews (from 1995), Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews-Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (from 2005), Embase (from 1996), Ovid MEDLINE(R) (from 1946) and Journals@Ovid Full Text (2014). Twenty-seven articles, 10 published in international journals and 17 in national journals, were identified. Only two were multicenter sentinel meningitis surveillance studies. Also, 74% of IMD patients were aged 5 years or younger and the median overall case fatality rate during childhood was 18.44%. Turkey is a country where meningococcal vaccination on a national basis is recommended by WHO. A vaccination strategy for serogroups B and W135 targeting the first 5 years, covering especially the first 12 months, would be appropriate.

  14. Cancer-associated malnutrition, cachexia and sarcopenia: the skeleton in the hospital closet 40 years later.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Aoife M; Power, Derek G; Daly, Louise; Cushen, Samantha J; Ní Bhuachalla, Ēadaoin; Prado, Carla M

    2016-05-01

    An awareness of the importance of nutritional status in hospital settings began more than 40 years ago. Much has been learned since and has altered care. For the past 40 years several large studies have shown that cancer patients are amongst the most malnourished of all patient groups. Recently, the use of gold-standard methods of body composition assessment, including computed tomography, has facilitated the understanding of the true prevalence of cancer cachexia (CC). CC remains a devastating syndrome affecting 50-80 % of cancer patients and it is responsible for the death of at least 20 %. The aetiology is multifactorial and complex; driven by pro-inflammatory cytokines and specific tumour-derived factors, which initiate an energy-intensive acute phase protein response and drive the loss of skeletal muscle even in the presence of adequate food intake and insulin. The most clinically relevant phenotypic feature of CC is muscle loss (sarcopenia), as this relates to asthenia, fatigue, impaired physical function, reduced tolerance to treatments, impaired quality of life and reduced survival. Sarcopenia is present in 20-70 % depending on the tumour type. There is mounting evidence that sarcopenia increases the risk of toxicity to many chemotherapy drugs. However, identification of patients with muscle loss has become increasingly difficult as 40-60 % of cancer patients are overweight or obese, even in the setting of metastatic disease. Further challenges exist in trying to reverse CC and sarcopenia. Future clinical trials investigating dose reductions in sarcopenic patients and dose-escalating studies based on pre-treatment body composition assessment have the potential to alter cancer treatment paradigms.

  15. Carbon turnover rates in the One Tree Island reef: A 40-year perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, J.; Kline, D. I.; Johnson, L.; Rivlin, T.; Schneider, K.; Erez, J.; Lazar, B.; Caldeira, K.

    2012-09-01

    During November-December 2009 community rates of gross photosynthesis (Pg), respiration (R) and net calcification (Gnet) were estimated from low-tide slack water measurements of dissolved oxygen, dissolved inorganic carbon and total alkalinity at the historical station DK13 One Tree Island reef, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Compared to measurements made during the 1960s-1970s at DK13 in the same season,Pg increased from 833 to 914 mmol O2·m-2·d-1 and Pg:R increased from 1.14 to 1.30, indicating that the reef has become more autotrophic. In contrast, Gnet decreased from 133 mmol C·m-2·d-1 to 74 ± 24 mmol C·m-2·d-1. This decrease stems primarily from the threefold increase in nighttime CaCO3 dissolution from -2.5 mmol·m-2·h-1 to -7.5 mmol·m-2·h-1. Comparison of the benthic community survey results from DK13 and its vicinity conducted during this study and in studies from the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s suggest that there have been no significant changes in the live coral coverage during the past 40 years. The reduced Gnet most likely reflects the almost threefold increase in dissolution rates, possibly resulting from increased bioerosion due to changes in the biota (e.g., sea cucumbers, boring organisms) and/or from greater chemical dissolution produced by changing abiotic conditions over the past 40 years associated with climate change, such as increased temperatures and ocean acidification. However, at this stage of research on One Tree Island the effects of these changes are not entirely understood.

  16. Uroflow nomogram for healthy, 15-40 year old Indian men

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Naveen Diwanand; Mulay, Abhirudra Ramkrishna; Satav, Vikram Pramod; Mane, Deepak Anandrao; Sabale, Vilas Pandurang; Kankalia, Sharad Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Uroflowmetry is the objective method of measuring rate of urine flow. Nomograms are required to observe the change in flow rates at different voided volumes (VVs) and the use of which overcomes the limitation of referencing flow rates to any single VV. The purpose of the present study was to construct the Indian uroflow nomogram for adult healthy males between 15-40 years of age. Methods: A total of 1000 healthy males between 15 and 40 years of age were included in the study. Exclusion criteria were any urinary symptoms or urological intervention. Parameters analyzed statistically were age, peak flow rate (Qmax), average flow rate (Qavg), and VV. A nomogram was drawn for the fitted regression model. Results: The mean age was 27.26 ± 6.71 years. The mean Qmax, Qavg, and VV were 24.32 ± 3.50 ml/s, 9.45 ± 2.55 ml/s, and 420.93 ± 97.89 ml, respectively. The correlation between flow rates and VV was statistically significant, indicating that the higher the VV, the higher the flow rates. A negative significant correlation of Qmax with age was seen in our study. We observed a decline of Qmax by 1 ml/s/decade. The relationship of Qmax with VV is in linear progression up to 600 ml, and then it becomes a plateau and with higher VV it declined. Conclusion: Qmax exhibits significant correlation with VV and age. A nomogram was constructed to attain normal reference values of flow rate over different VVs. PMID:27843212

  17. The association of obesity with hearing thresholds in women aged 18-40 years.

    PubMed

    Üçler, Rıfkı; Turan, Mahfuz; Garça, Fatih; Acar, İsmail; Atmaca, Murat; Çankaya, Hakan

    2016-04-01

    An elevation in hearing thresholds and decrease in hearing sensitivity in adults, particularly due to aging, are quite common. Recent studies have shown that, apart from aging, various other factors also play a role in auditory changes. Studies on the association of hearing loss (HL) with obesity are limited in advanced age cases and present contradictions. In this study, the association between obesity and hearing thresholds in women aged 18-40 years has been assessed. Forty women diagnosed with obesity (mean age, 31.8 years) and 40 healthy non-obese female controls (mean age, 30.5 years) were included in this prospective study. Each subject was tested with low (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz) and high (4000, 6000 and 8000 Hz) frequency audiometry. In the case and control groups, the average hearing thresholds at low frequencies were 16.03 ± 4.72 and 16.15 ± 2.72 (p = 0.885) for the right ear, respectively, and 16.15 ± 5.92 and 14.71 ± 3.18 (p = 0.180) for the left ear, respectively. The average hearing threshold levels at high frequencies were 20.70 ± 10.23 and 15.33 ± 3.87 (p = 0.003), respectively, for the right ear, and 22.91 ± 15.54 and 15.87 ± 4.35 (p = 0.007), respectively, for the left ear with statistical significance. This is the first report on the association of obesity with hearing threshold in women aged 18-40 years. We have demonstrated that obesity may affect hearing function, particularly that related to high frequencies. Hearing loss can be prevented by avoidance or control of obesity and its risk factors. Moreover, an auditory screening of obese cases at an early stage may provide early diagnosis of HL and may also contribute to their awareness in the fight against obesity.

  18. Factors influencing depredation of artificial duck nests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esler, Daniel N.; Grand, James B.

    1993-01-01

    Because artificial nests can facilitate controlled experiments of nest success, we used them to assess whether human visitation, nest density, vegetation structure, and proximity to habitat edge could affect depredation of duck nests on Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska. More (P < 0.01) nests in a plot visited daily (100%) were depredated than those in plots visited at intervals of 7 (40%), 14 (35%), or 28 days (45%). More (P < 0.01) nests were depredated in a plot with 10 nests/ha (95%) than nests in a plot of a lower density (2/ha; 40%). Vegetation height, vegetation density, distance to a wetland, distance to forest edge, or distance to the nearest ecotone did not differ (P > 0.05) between depredated and undisturbed nests. We suggest that daily visitation of duck nests increases depredation, but longer intervals, typical of most nest studies, do not. High nesting densities, which could occur when flooding limits nesting habitat, may result in higher depredation rates.

  19. Jacobsen syndrome due to an unbalanced translocation between 11q23 and 22q11.2 identified at age 40 years.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ikuko; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Sawada, Kenichi; Shimojima, Keiko; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    A woman with psychomotor developmental delay, congenital glaucoma, and distinctive facial features, and a short neck was diagnosed with Jacobsen syndrome (JBS) at age 40 years. A previously reported balanced translocation between chromosome 11 and 22 instead showed an unbalanced translocation by a microarray-based comparative hybridization analysis with the final karyotype of 46,XX,der(11)t(11;22)(q23.3;q11.21),del(22)(q11.21) dn. The breakpoint of chromosome 11 was determined to be at TECTA and not near the apolipoprotein gene cluster site or the fragile site (FRA11B), which are commonly seen in patients with t(11;22) and patients with typical 11q deletions, respectively. Although the phenotypic features of the patient, including psychomotor developmental delay, distinctive features, and mild thrombocytopenia, were consistent with JBS, congenital glaucoma, which is an uncommon finding of JBS, was the most prominent condition during her natural history.

  20. Nest materials as a source of genetic data for avian ecological studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearce, J.M.; Fields, R.L.; Scribner, K.T.

    1997-01-01

    We examined the utility of feathers and egg shell membranes, deposited in the nests of Spectacled Eiders (Somateria fischeri), as a source of DNA for genetic studies at both the population and individual level. The potential for feather DNA contamination as a result of female behavioral interactions (e.g. nest parasitism), reuse of nest sites from previous years, or other unknown occurrences was acknowledged and specifically tested. DNA was successfully extracted from both feathers and egg shell membranes and waterfowl microsatellite loci were used to construct individual genotypes. We found no difference in the genotypes obtained from nest feathers or blood of the incubating female. Detection of nest feather contamination was possible with as little as one feather when samples from multiple females were intentionally mixed. Triplicate DNA extractions from 33 nests provided a means of detecting contamination in 3 nests. Egg membranes proved a viable source of offspring DNA and can contribute valuable data to investigations of parentage when assayed jointly with maternal feather DNA. Nest materials provide an efficient, non-invasive method of genetic sampling that can be readily incorporated into field research. However, the natural history traits and mating strategies of a species must be considered during sample collection to identify the possible sources of nest materials (e.g., paternal, maternal, parasite, etc.). Specific experiments should also be designed to test sampling assumptions.

  1. Nest predation increases with parental activity: Separating nest site and parental activity effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, T.E.; Scott, J.; Menge, C.

    2000-01-01

    Alexander Skutch hypothesized that increased parental activity can increase the risk of nest predation. We tested this hypothesis using ten open-nesting bird species in Arizona, USA. Parental activity was greater during the nestling than incubation stage because parents visited the nest frequently to feed their young during the nestling stage. However, nest predation did not generally increase with parental activity between nesting stages across the ten study species. Previous investigators have found similar results. We tested whether nest site effects might yield higher predation during incubation because the most obvious sites are depredated most rapidly. We conducted experiments using nest sites from the previous year to remove parental activity. Our results showed that nest sites have highly repeatable effects on nest predation risk; poor nest sites incurred rapid predation and caused predation rates to be greater during the incubation than nestling stage. This pattern also was exhibited in a bird species with similar (i.e. controlled) parental activity between nesting stages. Once nest site effects are taken into account, nest predation shows a strong proximate increase with parental activity during the nestling stage within and across species. Parental activity and nest sites exert antagonistic influences on current estimates of nest predation between nesting stages and both must be considered in order to understand current patterns of nest predation, which is an important source of natural selection.

  2. Sorting it out: bedding particle size and nesting material processing method affect nest complexity.

    PubMed

    Robinson-Junker, Amy; Morin, Amelia; Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen; Gaskill, Brianna N

    2017-04-01

    As part of routine husbandry, an increasing number of laboratory mice receive nesting material in addition to standard bedding material in their cages. Nesting material improves health outcomes and physiological performance in mice that receive it. Providing usable nesting material uniformly and efficiently to various strains of mice remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to determine how bedding particle size, method of nesting material delivery, and processing of the nesting material before delivery affected nest building in mice of strong (BALB/cAnNCrl) and weak (C3H/HeNCrl) gathering abilities. Our data suggest that processing nesting material through a grinder in conjunction with bedding material, although convenient for provision of bedding with nesting material 'built-in', negatively affects the integrity of the nesting material and subsequent nest-building outcomes. We also found that C3H mice, previously thought to be poor nest builders, built similarly scored nests to those of BALB/c mice when provided with unprocessed nesting material. This was true even when nesting material was mixed into the bedding substrate. We also observed that when nesting material was mixed into the bedding substrate, mice of both strains would sort their bedding by particle size more often than if it were not mixed in. Our findings support the utility of the practice of distributing nesting material mixed in with bedding substrate, but not that of processing the nesting material with the bedding in order to mix them.

  3. Nest predation increases with parental activity: separating nest site and parental activity effects.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, T E; Scott, J; Menge, C

    2000-01-01

    Alexander Skutch hypothesized that increased parental activity can increase the risk of nest predation. We tested this hypothesis using ten open-nesting bird species in Arizona, USA. Parental activity was greater during the nestling than incubation stage because parents visited the nest frequently to feed their young during the nestling stage. However, nest predation did not generally increase with parental activity between nesting stages across the ten study species. Previous investigators have found similar results. We tested whether nest site effects might yield higher predation during incubation because the most obvious sites are depredated most rapidly. We conducted experiments using nest sites from the previous year to remove parental activity. Our results showed that nest sites have highly repeatable effects on nest predation risk; poor nest sites incurred rapid predation and caused predation rates to be greater during the incubation than nestling stage. This pattern also was exhibited in a bird species with similar (i.e. controlled) parental activity between nesting stages. Once nest site effects are taken into account, nest predation shows a strong proximate increase with parental activity during the nestling stage within and across species. Parental activity and nest sites exert antagonistic influences on current estimates of nest predation between nesting stages and both must be considered in order to understand current patterns of nest predation, which is an important source of natural selection. PMID:11413645

  4. Decoration Increases the Conspicuousness of Raptor Nests.

    PubMed

    Canal, David; Mulero-Pázmány, Margarita; Negro, Juan José; Sergio, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Avian nests are frequently concealed or camouflaged, but a number of species builds noticeable nests or use conspicuous materials for nest decoration. In most cases, nest decoration has a role in mate choice or provides thermoregulatory or antiparasitic benefits. In territorial species however, decorations may serve additional or complementary functions, such as extended phenotypic signaling of nest-site occupancy and social status to potential intruders. The latter may benefit both signaler and receiver by minimizing the risk of aggressive interactions, especially in organisms with dangerous weaponry. Support for this hypothesis was recently found in a population of black kites (Milvus migrans), a territorial raptor that decorates its nest with white artificial materials. However, the crucial assumption that nest decorations increased nest-site visibility to conspecifics was not assessed, a key aspect given that black kite nests may be well concealed within the canopy. Here, we used an unmanned aircraft system to take pictures of black kite nests, with and without an experimentally placed decoration, from different altitudes and distances simulating the perspective of a flying and approaching, prospecting intruder. The pictures were shown to human volunteers through a standardized routine to determine whether detection rates varied according the nest decoration status and distance. Decorated nests consistently showed a higher detection frequency and a lower detection-latency, compared to undecorated versions of the same nests. Our results confirm that nest decoration in this species may act as a signaling medium that enhances nest visibility for aerial receivers, even at large distances. This finding complements previous work on this communication system, which showed that nest decoration was a threat informing trespassing conspecifics on the social dominance, territory quality and fighting capabilities of the signaler.

  5. Nested Gulf of Mexico Modeling with HYCOM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-29

    Gulf of Mexico Modeling with HYCOM Patrick J. Hogan1 Alan J. Wallcraft1 Ole Martin Smedstad2 1Naval Research Laboratory Stennis Space Center...2004 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nested Gulf of Mexico Modeling with HYCOM 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...Running Nested Gulf of Mexico • 1/12° Assimilative Nested Gulf of Mexico 1/25° Free-Running Nested Gulf of Mexico

  6. Decoration Increases the Conspicuousness of Raptor Nests

    PubMed Central

    Canal, David; Mulero-Pázmány, Margarita; Negro, Juan José; Sergio, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Avian nests are frequently concealed or camouflaged, but a number of species builds noticeable nests or use conspicuous materials for nest decoration. In most cases, nest decoration has a role in mate choice or provides thermoregulatory or antiparasitic benefits. In territorial species however, decorations may serve additional or complementary functions, such as extended phenotypic signaling of nest-site occupancy and social status to potential intruders. The latter may benefit both signaler and receiver by minimizing the risk of aggressive interactions, especially in organisms with dangerous weaponry. Support for this hypothesis was recently found in a population of black kites (Milvus migrans), a territorial raptor that decorates its nest with white artificial materials. However, the crucial assumption that nest decorations increased nest-site visibility to conspecifics was not assessed, a key aspect given that black kite nests may be well concealed within the canopy. Here, we used an unmanned aircraft system to take pictures of black kite nests, with and without an experimentally placed decoration, from different altitudes and distances simulating the perspective of a flying and approaching, prospecting intruder. The pictures were shown to human volunteers through a standardized routine to determine whether detection rates varied according the nest decoration status and distance. Decorated nests consistently showed a higher detection frequency and a lower detection-latency, compared to undecorated versions of the same nests. Our results confirm that nest decoration in this species may act as a signaling medium that enhances nest visibility for aerial receivers, even at large distances. This finding complements previous work on this communication system, which showed that nest decoration was a threat informing trespassing conspecifics on the social dominance, territory quality and fighting capabilities of the signaler. PMID:27455066

  7. Individual variation in nest size and nest site features of the Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus).

    PubMed

    Rayadin, Yaya; Saitoh, Takashi

    2009-05-01

    Nest construction is a daily habit of independent orangutans for sleeping or resting. Data on their nests have been used in various ecological studies (e.g., density estimation, ranging behavior, evolution of material culture) because they are the most observable field signs. We investigated nest size and nest site features of Bornean orangutans in the wild during 10 months' fieldwork at three sites in East Kalimantan, Indonesia: Kutai National Park, Birawa, and Meratus. To examine individual variation, we followed 31 individual orangutans and recorded the 92 nests they made for nest size (diameter) and nest site features (height of nest above ground, tree species used for the nest site, the diameter and height of the tree, whether the nest was new or reused, and nest location within the tree). Analyses taking age-sex classes of the focal individuals into consideration showed significant age-sex differences in nest size and location, but not in nest height or nest tree features (diameter, height of tree, and height of lowest branch). Mature orangutans (adult females, unflanged and flanged males) made larger nests than immatures (juveniles and adolescents). Flanged male orangutans with larger nests used stable locations for nesting sites and reused old nests more frequently than immatures. The overall proportion of nests in open (exposed) locations was higher than in closed (sheltered) locations. Flanged males and immatures frequently made open nests, whereas adult females with an infant preferred closed locations. The good correspondence between nest size and age-sex classes indicates that nest size variation may reflect body size and therefore age-sex variation in the population.

  8. Teaching Ecological Concepts with Mud Dauber Nests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Robert W.; Matthews, Janice R.

    1999-01-01

    Contends that mud dauber nests--which are widely available, safe, inexpensive, and easy to use--offer a novel and highly motivating way to teach ecological concepts to life science students at many grade levels. Presents background information for teachers, details classroom-tested methods for nest dissection, provides keys to nest contents, and…

  9. Nesting behavior of the poo-uli

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kepler, C.B.; Pratt, T.K.; Ecton, A.M.; Engilis, A.; Fluetsch, K.M.

    1996-01-01

    We describe two sequential nestings of a pair of Poo-uli (Melamprosops phaeosoma), a Hawaiian honeycreeper nearing extinction. Similarities to nesting of most other honeycreepers included: nest site in ohia lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud.) canopy; breeding in March through June; monogamous breeding system with the putative male helping build the nest, feeding the putative female throughout each nesting event, and feeding the chicks, but not incubating or brooding; and complete nest sanitation. Notable differences were the paucity of songs and calls by the parents and inclusion of snails in the diet of nestlings. Clutch size was probably two eggs for both nests. High winds, rain, or both influenced parental behavior: the female stayed longer on the nest and took shorter recesses in poor weather. Weather did not affect rates at which the male fed the female on the nest; however, the feeding rate increased from the egg to the chick stage probably because food was passed on to the chicks. At nest #2, parents fed young chicks (<14 days old) more often in good than in poor weather; data were insufficient for old chicks. Weather is usually poor throughout the year in the relictual range of the Poo-uli and is likely to impact nesting success. The first nest failed in poor weather. The second fledged a single young 21 days old. Diet of nestlings appeared to consist of a higher proportion of insect larvae than that of older birds, which are reported to eat mostly snails.

  10. Hypertriglyceridemic Waist Phenotype and Chronic Kidney Disease in a Chinese Population Aged 40 Years and Older

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Xiaofei; Liu, Xinyu; Guo, Jia; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Honglei; Wang, Xiaohong; Li, Bin; Deng, Kangping; Liu, Qin; Holthöfer, Harry; Zou, Hequn

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between the HW phenotype and risk for CKD in a community population aged 40 years and older. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Zhuhai from June to October 2012. The participants were divided into three groups: Group 1, Waist circumference >90 cm in men or >85 cm in women and triglycerides ≥2 mmol/l; Group 3, Waist circumference ≤90 cm in men or ≤85 cm in women and triglycerides <2 mmol/l; Group 2, The remaining participants. The prevalence of the three subgroups and CKD were determined. The association between HW phenotype and CKD was then analyzed using SPSS (version 13.0). Results After adjusting for age and sex, Group 1 was associated with CKD (OR 3.08, 95% CI 2.01, 4.73, P<0.001), when compared with Group 3. Further adjustment for factors which were potential confounders and unlikely to be in the causal pathway between the HW phenotype and CKD, Group 1 was still significantly associated with CKD. The OR for CKD was 2.65 (95% CI 1.65, 4.26, P<0.001). When adjusted for diabetes and hypertension, the association of Group 1 and CKD was still significant (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.26, 3.45, P = 0.004). Group 2 was associated with CKD (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.29, 2.53, P = 0.001), when compared with Group 3. Further adjustment for factors which were potential confounders, Group 2 was still significantly associated with CKD. The OR for CKD was 1.75 (95% CI 1.22, 2.51, P = 0.002). When adjusted for diabetes and hypertension, the association between Group 2 and CKD still existed. The OR for CKD was 1.48 (95% CI 1.01, 2.16, P = 0.046). Conclusion Our results showed that HW phenotype was associated with CKD in the population aged 40 years and older. PMID:24663403

  11. 40-year trends in meal and snack eating behaviors of American adults

    PubMed Central

    Kant, Ashima K.; Graubard, Barry I.

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding of changes in profiles of eating behaviors over time may provide insights into contributors to upward trajectories of obesity in the United States population. Yet, little is known about whether characteristics of meal and snack eating behaviors reported by adult Americans have changed over time. Objective This study examined time trends in the distribution of day’s intake into individual meal and snack behaviors and related attributes in the United States adult population. Design The study was observational with cross-sectional data from national surveys fielded over 40 years. Participant/setting Nationally representative dietary data from nine National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted from 1971–74 to 2009–2010 (n=62298; age 20–74 years) were used to describe eating behaviors. Outcomes examined The respondent-labeled eating behaviors examined included main meals (breakfast, lunch, and dinner), and snacks (before breakfast, between breakfast and lunch, between lunch and dinner, after dinner, or other). For each eating behavior, percent of reporters; relative contribution to 24-hour energy intake; the clock time of report; and intermeal/snack intervals were examined. Statistical Analysis Multivariable logistic and linear regression methods for analysis of complex survey data adjusted for characteristics of respondents in each survey. Results Over the 40-year span examined: 1) reports of each individual named main meal (or all three main meals) declined, but reports of only two out of three meals or the same meal more than once increased; 2) the percentage of 24-hour energy from snacks reported between lunch and dinner or snacks that displaced meals increased; 3) clock times of breakfast and lunch were later, and intervals between dinner and after dinner snack were shorter. Changes in several snack reporting behaviors (e.g., report of any snack or ≥2 snacks), were significant in women only. Conclusions Several meal

  12. Liver function in alpha-1-antitrypsin deficient individuals at 37 to 40 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Mostafavi, Behrouz; Diaz, Sandra; Tanash, Hanan A.; Piitulainen, Eeva

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Severe alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency (PiZZ) is a risk factor for liver disease, but the prevalence of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer in PiZZ adults is unknown. The risk of liver disease in adults with moderate AAT deficiency (PiSZ) is also unknown. A cohort of 127 PiZZ, 2 PiZnull, 54 PiSZ, and 1 PiSnull individuals were identified by the Swedish national neonatal AAT screening program between 1972 and 1974, when all 200,000 newborn infants in Sweden were screened for AAT deficiency. The cohort has been followed up since birth. Our aim was to study liver function and signs of liver disease in this cohort at 37 to 40 years of age in comparison with a matched, random sample of control subjects identified from the population registry. Eighty seven PiZZ, 32 PiSZ, and 92 control subjects (PiMM) answered a questionnaire on medication and alcohol consumption and provided blood samples. Liver stiffness was assessed by Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) elastography in 32 PiZZ, 15 PiSZ, and 51 PiMM subjects. The median of liver function tests and procollagen-III-peptide were within the normal range in all Pi subgroups. However, the PiZZ men had significantly higher plasma bilirubin than the PiMM men (P = 0.018). Plasma ɣ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) was significantly higher in the PiZZ men (P = 0.009) and the PiSZ men (P = 0.021) compared with the PiMM men. The median of liver stiffness was significantly higher in the PiZZ men (P = 0.037) and the PiSZ men (P = 0.032) compared with the PiMM men. The PiZZ women taking medication influencing liver enzymes had significantly higher GGT than the PiMM women on the corresponding treatment (P = 0.023). These AAT-deficient individuals identified by neonatal screening have normal plasma levels of liver function tests, and no clinical signs indicating liver disease at the age of 37 to 40 years. However, bilirubin, GGT, and liver stiffness are significantly higher in PiZZ men than Pi

  13. Nest Material Shapes Eggs Bacterial Environment

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Castellano, Cristina; Tomás, Gustavo; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Martín-Gálvez, David; Soler, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    Selective pressures imposed by pathogenic microorganisms to embryos have selected in hosts for a battery of antimicrobial lines of defenses that includes physical and chemical barriers. Due to the antimicrobial properties of volatile compounds of green plants and of chemicals of feather degrading bacteria, the use of aromatic plants and feathers for nest building has been suggested as one of these barriers. However, experimental evidence suggesting such effects is scarce in the literature. During two consecutive years, we explored experimentally the effects of these nest materials on loads of different groups of bacteria (mesophilic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus and Enterococcus) of eggshells in nests of spotless starlings (Sturnus unicolor) at the beginning and at the end of the incubation period. This was also explored in artificial nests without incubation activity. We also experimentally increased bacterial density of eggs in natural and artificial nests and explored the effects of nest lining treatments on eggshell bacterial load. Support for the hypothetical antimicrobial function of nest materials was mainly detected for the year and location with larger average values of eggshell bacterial density. The beneficial effects of feathers and plants were more easily detected in artificial nests with no incubation activity, suggesting an active role of incubation against bacterial colonization of eggshells. Pigmented and unpigmented feathers reduced eggshell bacterial load in starling nests and artificial nest boxes. Results from artificial nests allowed us to discuss and discard alternative scenarios explaining the detected association, particularly those related to the possible sexual role of feathers and aromatic plants in starling nests. All these results considered together confirm the antimicrobial functionality mainly of feathers but also of plants used as nest materials, and highlight the importance of temporally and geographically

  14. Remote Measurement of Pollution - A 40-Year Langley Retrospective. Part 1; Temperature and Gaseous Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remsberg, Ellis E.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) phased down its Apollo Moon Program after 1970 in favor of a partly reusable Space Shuttle vehicle that could be used to construct and supply a manned, Earth-orbiting Space Station. Applications programs were emphasized in response to the growing public concern about Earth's finite natural resources and the degradation of its environment. Shortly thereafter, a workshop was convened in Norfolk, Virginia, on Remote Measurement of Pollution (or RMOP), and its findings are in a NASA Special Publication (NASA SP-285). The three primary workshop panels and their chairmen were focused on trace gas species (Will Kellogg), atmospheric particulates or aerosols (Verner Suomi), and water pollution (Gifford Ewing). Many of the workshop participants were specialists in the techniques that might be employed for the regional to global-scale, remote measurements from an Earth-orbiting satellite. The findings and recommendations of the RMOP Report represent the genesis of and a blueprint for the satellite, atmospheric sensing programs within NASA for nearly two decades. This paper is a brief, 40-year retrospective of those instrument developments that were an outgrowth of the RMOP activity. Its focus is on satellite measurement capabilities for temperature and gaseous species that were demonstrated by atmospheric technologists at the Langley Research Center. Limb absorption by solar occultation, limb infrared radiometry, and gas filter correlation radiometry techniques provided significant science data, so they are emphasized in this review.

  15. Gastrointestinal morbidity among World War II prisoners of war: 40 years on.

    PubMed

    Goulston, K J; Dent, O F; Chapuis, P H; Chapman, G; Smith, C I; Tait, A D; Tennant, C C

    1985-07-08

    A study of Australian male World War II veterans was conducted to assess clinically the gastrointestinal ill-effects which were present 40 years after the stress of internment as prisoners of war of the Japanese. A random sample of 170 surviving members of the captured Eighth Army Division resident in Sydney in 1983 (ex-POW) was compared with a similar sample of veterans who fought in Southeast Asia during the War, but were not imprisoned (non-POW). Duodenal ulcers and strongyloidiasis were more prevalent in the ex-POW group than in the non-POW group. The increased rate of duodenal ulcer (24.7%, compared with 10.5%; P = 0.0005) was confirmed by a higher proportion of ex-POWs currently taking cimetidine (9.0%, compared with 2.3%; P = 0.008). Strongyloidiasis had been found in 9.7% of all veterans, but in 15% of ex-POWs and in 19% of those who had worked on the Burma-Thailand railway. No other significant differences in gastrointestinal disease were found.

  16. Air pollution distribution patterns in the San Bernardino Mountains of southern California: a 40-year perspective.

    PubMed

    Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Arbaugh, Michael; Schilling, Susan; Fraczek, Witold; Alexander, Diane; Dawson, Philip

    2007-03-21

    Since the mid-1950s, native pines in the San Bernardino Mountains (SBM) in southern California have shown symptoms of decline. Initial studies in 1963 showed that ozone (O3) generated in the upwind Los Angeles Basin was responsible for the injury and decline of sensitive trees. Ambient O3 decreased significantly by the mid-1990s, resulting in decreased O3 injury and improved tree growth. Increased growth of trees may also be attributed to elevated atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition. Since most of the N deposition to mixed conifer forest stands in the SBM results from dry deposition of nitric acid vapor (HNO3) and ammonia (NH3), characterization of spatial and temporal distribution of these two pollutants has become essential. Although maximum daytime O3 concentrations over last 40 years have significantly decreased (approximately 3-fold), seasonal means have been reduced much less (approximately 1.5-fold), with 2-week long means occasionally exceeding 100 ppb in the western part of the range. In the same area, significantly elevated concentrations of HNO3 and NH3, up to 17.5 and 18.5 microg/m3 as 2-week averages, respectively, have been determined. Elevated levels of O3 and increased N deposition together with long-term drought predispose the SBM forests to massive bark beetle attacks making them susceptible to catastrophic fires.

  17. Continuous glucose monitoring: 40 years, what we've learned and what's next.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Raeann

    2013-07-22

    After 40 years of research and development, today continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is demonstrating the benefit it provides for millions with diabetes. To provide in vivo accuracy, new permselective membranes and mediated systems have been developed to prevent enzyme saturation and to minimize interference signals. Early in vivo implanted sensor research clearly showed that the foreign body response was a more difficult issue to overcome. Understanding the biological interface and circumventing the inflammatory response continue to drive development of a CGM sensor with accuracy and reliability performance suitable in a closed-loop artificial pancreas. Along with biocompatible polymer development, other complimentary algorithm and data analysis techniques have improved the performance of commercial systems significantly. For example, the mean average relative difference of Dexcom's CGM system improved from 26 to 14% and its use-life was extended from 3 to 7 d. Significant gains in usability, including size, flexibility, insertion, calibration, and data interface, have been incorporated into new generations of commercial CGM systems. Besides Medtronic, Dexcom, and Abbott, other major players are also investing in CGM. Becton Dickinson is conducting clinical trials with an optical galactose glucose binding system. Development of fully implanted sensor systems fulfills the desire for a discreet, reliable CGM system. Research continues to find innovative ways to help make living with diabetes easier and more normal, and new segments are being pursued (intensive care unit, surgery, behavior modification) in which CGM is being utilized.

  18. No corrosion of 304 stainless steel implant after 40 years of service.

    PubMed

    Blackwood, D J; Pereira, B P

    2004-07-01

    When exposed to 0.9% NaCl type 304 stainless steel undergoes severe pitting corrosion within a matter of days. However, a Sherman plate fabricated from type 304 stainless steel remained inside a patient's arm for almost 40 years without any visible indications of corrosion. Given the previous understanding of the pathological environments this was considered quite remarkable. It is proposed that the low dissolved oxygen levels found in human-body fluids makes the long-term in vivo environment much more benign than would be anticipated from in vitro experiments. Furthermore, it is proposed that previous cases of localized pitting corrosion on stainless steel implants most likely arose due to the development of short-term aggressive conditions due to pathological changes in the surrounding tissue as a result of the trauma of the implant procedure. In the present case the Sherman plate was sufficiently small that the surrounding tissue was not aggravated sufficiently to lead to the development of such an environment aggressive. The conclusion that surgical implants are at most risk during the first few weeks of service implies that short-term corrosion protection methods, such as coatings, may be more effective than previously thought.

  19. Therapeutic Advances in Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndrome Over the Past 40 Years

    PubMed Central

    Kantarjian, Hagop; O'Brien, Susan; Cortes, Jorge; Wierda, William; Faderl, Stefan; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Issa, Jean-Pierre; Estey, Elihu; Keating, Michael; Freireich, Emil J.

    2015-01-01

    Major therapeutic progress has been accomplished in leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) over the past 40 years, which may not be fully appreciated by the larger medical community. The objective of this review was to briefly highlight the treatment breakthroughs in leukemia and MDS. Therapeutic progress happened through better understanding of disease pathophysiologies and rational development of targeted agents, like imatinib mesylate in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and through astute, empirical discoveries in the clinic, like all-trans retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and chlorodeoxyadenosine in hairy cell leukemia (HCL). Today, the 5- to 10-year survival rates in patients with APL and HCL exceed 80%. In patients with CML, imatinib therapy has been associated with estimated 5- to 7-year survival rates from 85% to 90%. In patients with adult acute lymphocytic leukemia, modern intensive regimens have improved the 5-year survival rates from 20% up to 40%. In patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, chemoimmunotherapy recently produced high rates of quality responses and improved long-term outcome. In younger patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the 5-year survival rates range from 40% to 50%, although elderly AML remains a therapeutic challenge. In patients with MDS, it was recently demonstrated that epigenetic therapy with hypomethylating agents improved survival. Much therapeutic progress has been witnessed in leukemia and MDS, and much more is expected to occur soon. PMID:18798533

  20. Comparison of Model and Observed Regional Temperature Changes During the Past 40 Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Gary L.; Miller, James R.; Rind, David; Ruedy, Reto A.; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Sheth, Sukeshi

    1999-01-01

    Results are presented for six simulations of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) global atmosphere-ocean model for the years 1950 to 2099. There are two control simulations with constant 1950 atmospheric composition from different initial states, two GHG experiments with observed greenhouse gases up to 1990 and compounded .5% CO2 annual increases thereafter, and two GHG+SO4 experiments with the same varying greenhouse gases plus varying tropospheric sulfate aerosols. Surface air temperature trends in the two GHG experiments are compared between themselves and with the observed temperature record from 1960 and 1998. All comparisons show high positive spatial correlation in the northern hemisphere except in summer when the greenhouse signal is weakest. The GHG+SO4 experiments show weaker correlations. In the southern hemisphere, correlations are either weak or negative which in part are due to the model's unrealistic interannual variability of southern sea ice cover. The model results imply that temperature changes due to forcing by increased greenhouse gases have risen above the level of regional interannual temperature variability in the northern hemisphere over the past 40 years. This period is thus an important test of reliability of coupled climate models.

  1. Ontogeny of memory: An update on 40 years of work on infantile amnesia.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Heather Bronwyn; Kim, Jee Hyun

    2016-02-01

    Given the profound influence that early life experiences can have upon psychosocial functioning later in life, it is intriguing that most adults fail to recall autobiographical events from their early childhood years. Infantile amnesia is the term used to describe this phenomenon of accelerated forgetting during infancy, and it is not unique to humans. Over the years, information garnered from animal studies has provided clues as to the neurobiological basis of infantile amnesia. The purpose of this review is to provide a neurobiological update on what we now know about infantile amnesia since the publication of Campbell and Spear's seminal review on the topic more than 40 years ago. We present evidence that infantile amnesia is unlikely to be explained by a unitary theory, with the protracted development of multiple brain regions and neurotransmitter systems important for learning and memory likely to be involved. The recent discovery that exposure to early life stress can alleviate infantile amnesia offers a potential explanation as to how early adversity can so profoundly affect mental health in adulthood, and understanding the neurobiological basis for this early transition may lead to the development of effective therapeutic interventions.

  2. Corrosion damage diagnosis of a reinforced concrete beam after 40 years natural exposure in marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Poupard, O.; Petre-Lazar, I.

    2006-03-15

    A detailed investigation of the chloride induced corrosion damage was performed on a 40 years old reinforced concrete beam exposed in marine environment. Visual observations, electrochemical measurements, carbonation depth, total chloride content were carried out. Half-cell potential measurements were used to locate corrosion areas. It appeared that the interpretation based on gradient of the potential was in good concordance with real state of damage. Complementary destructive methods are applied to observe the real corrosion state of steel rebars and characterize the corrosion products and the steel/concrete interface (optical and electronical microscopy tools (XRD, SEM, EDS and {mu}-Raman). All these data indicate that on the beam, one may distinguish two types of areas: 'high-corrosion zones' and 'low-corrosion zones.' Given the fact that the 'high corrosion zones' were found to be close to corrosion induced cracks and that they have a different morphology, this contribution concludes that the position of these areas did not shift in time.

  3. Cancer in Korean war navy technicians: mortality survey after 40 years.

    PubMed

    Groves, Frank D; Page, William F; Gridley, Gloria; Lisimaque, Laure; Stewart, Patricia A; Tarone, Robert E; Gail, Mitchell H; Boice, John D; Beebe, Gilbert W

    2002-05-01

    This study reports on over 40 years of mortality follow-up of 40,581 Navy veterans of the Korean War with potential exposure to high-intensity radar. The cohort death rates were compared with mortality rates for White US men using standardized mortality ratios, and the death rates for men in occupations considered a priori to have high radar exposure were compared with the rates for men in low-exposure occupations using Poisson regression. Deaths from all diseases and all cancers were significantly below expectation overall and for the 20,021 sailors with high radar exposure potential. There was no evidence of increased brain cancer in the entire cohort (standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 0.9, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.7, 1.1) or in high-exposure occupations (SMR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.5, 1.0). Testicular cancer deaths also occurred less frequently than expected in the entire cohort and high-exposure occupations. Death rates for several smoking-related diseases were significantly lower in the high-exposure occupations. Nonlymphocytic leukemia was significantly elevated among men in high-exposure occupations but in only one of the three high-exposure occupations, namely, electronics technicians in aviation squadrons (SMR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3, 3.7). Radar exposure had little effect on mortality in this cohort of US Navy veterans.

  4. Remote Measurement of Pollution-A 40-Year Langley Retrospective. Part 2; Aerosols and Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remsberg, Ellis E.

    2012-01-01

    A workshop was convened in 1971 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on the Remote Measurement of Pollution (RMOP), and the findings and recommendations of its participants are in a NASA Special Publication (NASA SP-285). The three primary workshop panels and their chairmen were focused on trace gas species (Will Kellogg), atmospheric particulates or aerosols (Verner Suomi), and water pollution (Gifford Ewing). Many of the workshop participants were specialists in the techniques that might be employed for regional to global-scale, remote measurements of the atmospheric parameters from Earth-orbiting satellites. In 2011 the author published a 40-year retrospective (or Part I) of the instrumental developments that were an outgrowth of the RMOP panel headed by Will Kellogg, i.e., on atmospheric temperature and gaseous species. The current report (or Part II) is an analogous retrospective of the vision of the panel led by Verner Suomi for the measurement of particulates (or aerosols) and clouds and for their effects on Earth s radiation budget. The class of measurement techniques includes laser radar or lidar, solar occultation, limb emission and scattering, nadir-viewing photometry or radiometry, and aerosol polarimetry. In addition, the retrospective refers to the scientific imperatives that led to those instrument developments of 1971-2010. Contributions of the atmospheric technologists at the Langley Research Center are emphasized, and their progress is placed in the context of the parallel and complementary work from within the larger atmospheric science community.

  5. Revised ice flux of Pine Island Bay, West Antarctica over the last 40 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouginot, J.; Rignot, E. J.; Scheuchl, B.

    2012-12-01

    Large uncertainties remain in the current and future contribution to sea level rise from Antarctica. The mass budget of Antarctica is determined from the difference between two competing processes of ice discharge into the ocean by glaciers and accumulation of snowfall in the vast interior. Pine Island and Thwaites Glaciers alone drain about 20% of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet or half the discharge of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Here, we use satellite interferometric synthetic-aperture radar observations (ERS-1&2, RADARSAT-2, ALOS PALSAR, TANDEM-X) from 1992 to 2012 and Landsat images from 1972 to 1991 to revisit the total ice flux into the Pine Island Bay over the last 40 years. We examine the most recent velocity changes over Thwaites, Pine Island and Smith Glaciers and find that Thwaites glacier is now accelerating, Pine Island Glacier stopped accelerating and Smith Glacier is still accelerating. We compare the relative velocity change of these glaciers with the InSAR grounding lines position from 1992 to 2011. This work is performed at University of California, Irvine under a contract with the NASA Cryosphere Science Program.

  6. Breeding biology and nesting success of palila

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pletschet, S.M.; Kelly, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    We studied the breeding biology of Palila (Loxioides bailleui ) at 85 nests from 20 April to 14 September 1988. Eggs were laid over a 139-day period and incubation averaged 16.6 days. The female incubated 85.2% of daylight hours and males fed incubating females. Modal clutch size was 2 (x super(-) = 2.0) and an average of 1.4 nestlings fledged per successful nest. Nestlings were in the nest an average of 25.3 days. Both females and males fed nestlings with the rate of feeding decreasing as the nestlings grew older. Palila nesting success was 25%, reduced primarily by hatching failure and depredation of nestlings. Hatching failure, due to inviable eggs or desertion, occurred in 41% of nests with eggs (55% of nest mortality). Egg depredation was rare (5% of nest mortality). Inbreeding and low food availability are postulated as the major causes for poor hatching success.

  7. Nest Predation Deviates from Nest Predator Abundance in an Ecologically Trapped Bird

    PubMed Central

    Hollander, Franck A.; Van Dyck, Hans; San Martin, Gilles; Titeux, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    In human-modified environments, ecological traps may result from a preference for low-quality habitat where survival or reproductive success is lower than in high-quality habitat. It has often been shown that low reproductive success for birds in preferred habitat types was due to higher nest predator abundance. However, between-habitat differences in nest predation may only weakly correlate with differences in nest predator abundance. An ecological trap is at work in a farmland bird (Lanius collurio) that recently expanded its breeding habitat into open areas in plantation forests. This passerine bird shows a strong preference for forest habitat, but it has a higher nest success in farmland. We tested whether higher abundance of nest predators in the preferred habitat or, alternatively, a decoupling of nest predator abundance and nest predation explained this observed pattern of maladaptive habitat selection. More than 90% of brood failures were attributed to nest predation. Nest predator abundance was more than 50% higher in farmland, but nest predation was 17% higher in forest. Differences between nest predation on actual shrike nests and on artificial nests suggested that parent shrikes may facilitate nest disclosure for predators in forest more than they do in farmland. The level of caution by parent shrikes when visiting their nest during a simulated nest predator intrusion was the same in the two habitats, but nest concealment was considerably lower in forest, which contributes to explaining the higher nest predation in this habitat. We conclude that a decoupling of nest predator abundance and nest predation may create ecological traps in human-modified environments. PMID:26624619

  8. Nest Predation Deviates from Nest Predator Abundance in an Ecologically Trapped Bird.

    PubMed

    Hollander, Franck A; Van Dyck, Hans; San Martin, Gilles; Titeux, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    In human-modified environments, ecological traps may result from a preference for low-quality habitat where survival or reproductive success is lower than in high-quality habitat. It has often been shown that low reproductive success for birds in preferred habitat types was due to higher nest predator abundance. However, between-habitat differences in nest predation may only weakly correlate with differences in nest predator abundance. An ecological trap is at work in a farmland bird (Lanius collurio) that recently expanded its breeding habitat into open areas in plantation forests. This passerine bird shows a strong preference for forest habitat, but it has a higher nest success in farmland. We tested whether higher abundance of nest predators in the preferred habitat or, alternatively, a decoupling of nest predator abundance and nest predation explained this observed pattern of maladaptive habitat selection. More than 90% of brood failures were attributed to nest predation. Nest predator abundance was more than 50% higher in farmland, but nest predation was 17% higher in forest. Differences between nest predation on actual shrike nests and on artificial nests suggested that parent shrikes may facilitate nest disclosure for predators in forest more than they do in farmland. The level of caution by parent shrikes when visiting their nest during a simulated nest predator intrusion was the same in the two habitats, but nest concealment was considerably lower in forest, which contributes to explaining the higher nest predation in this habitat. We conclude that a decoupling of nest predator abundance and nest predation may create ecological traps in human-modified environments.

  9. Nest predation and circulating corticosterone levels within and among species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fontaine, Joseph J.; Arriero, Elena; Schwabl, Hubert; Martin, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Variation in the risk of predation to offspring can influence the expression of reproductive strategies both within and among species. Appropriate expression of reproductive strategies in environments that differ in predation risk can have clear advantages for fitness. Although adult-predation risk appears to influence glucocorticosteroid levels, leading to changes in behavioral and life-history strategies, the influence of offspring-predation risk on adult glucocorticosteroid levels remains unclear. We compared total baseline corticosterone concentrations in Gray-headed Juncos (Junco hyemalis dorsalis) nesting on plots with and without experimentally reduced risk of nest predation. Despite differences in risk between treatments, we failed to find differences in total baseline corticosterone concentrations. When we examined corticosterone concentrations across a suite of sympatric species, however, higher risk of nest predation correlated with higher total baseline corticosterone levels. As found previously, total baseline corticosterone was negatively correlated with body condition and positively correlated with date of sampling. However, we also found that corticosterone levels increased seasonally, independent of stage of breeding. Nest predation can alter the expression of birds' reproductive strategies, but our findings suggest that total baseline corticosterone is not the physiological mechanism regulating these responses.

  10. Nest predation and circulating corticosterone levels within and among species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fontaine, J.J.; Arriero, E.; Schwabl, H.; Martin, T.E.

    2011-01-01

    Variation in the risk of predation to offspring can influence the expression of reproductive strategies both within and among species. Appropriate expression of reproductive strategies in environments that differ in predation risk can have clear advantages for fitness. Although adult-predation risk appears to influence glucocorticosteroid levels, leading to changes in behavioral and life-history strategies, the influence of offspring-predation risk on adult glucocorticosteroid levels remains unclear. We compared total baseline corticosterone concentrations in Gray-headed Juncos (Junco hyemalis dorsalis) nesting on plots with and without experimentally reduced risk of nest predation. Despite differences in risk between treatments, we failed to find differences in total baseline corticosterone concentrations. When we examined corticosterone concentrations across a suite of sympatric species, however, higher risk of nest predation correlated with higher total baseline corticosterone levels. As found previously, total baseline corticosterone was negatively correlated with body condition and positively correlated with date of sampling. However, we also found that corticosterone levels increased seasonally, independent of stage of breeding. Nest predation can alter the expression of birds' reproductive strategies, but our findings suggest that total baseline corticosterone is not the physiological mechanism regulating these responses. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  11. Supply of geothermal power from hydrothermal sources: A study of the cost of power in 20 and 40 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petty, Susan; Livesay, B. J.; Long, W. P.; Geyer, John

    1992-11-01

    This study develops estimates for the amount of hydrothermal geothermal power that could be on line in 20 and 40 years. This study was intended to represent a 'snapshot' in 20 and 40 years of the hydrothermal energy available for electric power production should a market exist for this power. This does not represent the total or maximum amount of hydrothermal power, but is instead an attempt to estimate the rate at which power could be on line constrained by the exploration, development and support infrastructure available to the geothermal industry, but not constrained by the potential market for power.

  12. Concentric Nested Toroidal Inflatable Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Raboin, Jasen L.; Spexarth, Gary R.

    2010-01-01

    Assemblies comprising multiple limited- height toroidal inflatable structures nested in a concentric arrangement have been invented to obtain more design flexibility than can be obtained in single taller, wider toroidal inflatable structures (see figure). Originally intended for use as containers for habitats for humans in outer space or on remote planets, these and related prior inflatable structures could also be useful on Earth as lightweight, compactly stowable, portable special-purpose buildings that could be transported to remote locations and there inflated to full size and shape. In the case of a single inflatable toroidal structure, one important source of lack of design flexibility is the fact that an increase in outer diameter (which is sometimes desired) is necessarily accompanied by an increase in height (which is sometimes undesired). Increases in diameter and height can also cause difficulty in utilization of the resulting larger volume, in that it can become necessary to partition the volume by means of walls and floors, and features (e.g., stairs or ladders) must be added to enable vertical movement between floors. Moreover, ascending and descending between floors in a gravitational environment could pose unacceptable difficulty for the inhabitants under some circumstances. Another source of lack of design flexibility in a single toroidal inflatable structure is that for a given inflation pressure, an increase in the outer diameter of the structure necessarily entails an increase in the maximum stress in the structure. Because it is necessary to keep the maximum stress within the load-bearing capability of the structural materials, consistent with other aspects of the design, this may translate to a limit on the outer diameter. In an assembly comprising concentric nested toroidal structures, an increase in outer diameter does not necessarily entail an increase in height or a maximum stress in excess of the load-bearing capability of the structural

  13. Nested-cone transformer antenna

    DOEpatents

    Ekdahl, C.A.

    1991-05-28

    A plurality of conical transmission lines are concentrically nested to form an output antenna for pulsed-power, radio-frequency, and microwave sources. The diverging conical conductors enable a high power input density across a bulk dielectric to be reduced below a breakdown power density at the antenna interface with the transmitting medium. The plurality of cones maintain a spacing between conductors which minimizes the generation of high order modes between the conductors. Further, the power input feeds are isolated at the input while enabling the output electromagnetic waves to add at the transmission interface. Thus, very large power signals from a pulse rf, or microwave source can be radiated. 6 figures.

  14. Nested-cone transformer antenna

    DOEpatents

    Ekdahl, Carl A.

    1991-01-01

    A plurality of conical transmission lines are concentrically nested to form n output antenna for pulsed-power, radio-frequency, and microwave sources. The diverging conical conductors enable a high power input density across a bulk dielectric to be reduced below a breakdown power density at the antenna interface with the transmitting medium. The plurality of cones maintain a spacing between conductors which minimizes the generation of high order modes between the conductors. Further, the power input feeds are isolated at the input while enabling the output electromagnetic waves to add at the transmission interface. Thus, very large power signals from a pulse rf, or microwave source can be radiated.

  15. DNest3: Diffusive Nested Sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Brendon

    2016-04-01

    DNest3 is a C++ implementation of Diffusive Nested Sampling (ascl:1010.029), a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm for Bayesian Inference and Statistical Mechanics. Relative to older DNest versions, DNest3 has improved performance (in terms of the sampling overhead, likelihood evaluations still dominate in general) and is cleaner code: implementing new models should be easier than it was before. In addition, DNest3 is multi-threaded, so one can run multiple MCMC walkers at the same time, and the results will be combined together.

  16. Waterbird nest density and nest survival in rice fields of southwestern Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierluissi, S.; King, Sammy L.; Kaller, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Rice fields in southwestern Louisiana provide breeding habitat for several waterbird species; however, little is known about nest density, nest survival and the importance of landscape context of rice fields in determining breeding activity. In 2004, 42 rice fields were searched for nests, and 40 were searched in 2005. Land uses surrounding rice fields, including irrigation canals, trees, crawfish ponds, rice, fallow and soybean fields, were examined to determine influence on nest density and survival. Nest densities were 13.5-16.0 nests/km2 for Purple Gallinules (Porphyrio martinica), 3.0-13.7 nests/km2 for Fulvous Whistling Ducks (Dendrocygna bicolor), 2.6-2.8 nests/km2 for Common Moorhens (Gallinula chloropus), 0.3-0.92 nests/km2 for Least Bitterns (Ixobrychus exilisi) and 0-0.6 nests/km2 for Mottled Ducks (Anas fulvigula). Nest survival was 52-79% for Purple Gallinules and 39-43% for Fulvous Whistling Ducks. Apparent nest success of Common Moorhens was 73-75%, 83% for Least Bitterns and 33% for Mottled Ducks. Purple Gallinule and Common Moorhen nest densities were highest in fields with a larger proportion of irrigation canals surrounding rice fields. Purple Gallinule nest densities were greater in fields devoid of trees and landscapes dominated by rice fields and pasture, rather than landscapes containing soybean fields and residential areas. Fulvous Whistling Duck nest densities were higher in agriculturally-dominated landscapes with few trees.

  17. Home improvement: C57BL/6J mice given more naturalistic nesting materials build better nests.

    PubMed

    Hess, Sarah E; Rohr, Stephanie; Dufour, Brett D; Gaskill, Brianna N; Pajor, Edmond A; Garner, Joseph P

    2008-11-01

    Environmental enrichment of laboratory mice can improve the quality of research, but debate arises over the means of enrichment and its ability to be used in a sterile environment. One important form of enrichment is nesting material. Mice in the wild build dome-shaped, complex, multilayered nests, but this behavior is not seen in the laboratory, perhaps due to inappropriate nesting material rather than the nest-building ability of the mice. Here we focus on the use of naturalistic nesting materials to test whether they improve nest quality through the use of a 'naturalistic nest score' system; we also focus on materials that can be sterilized and easily used in existing housing systems. We first determined whether C57BL/6J mice build naturalistic nests when given shredded paper strips. We then compared these shredded paper strips with other commonly used nesting enrichments (facial tissues and compressed cotton squares). Nests were scored for 6 d. We found that the shredded paper strips allowed the mice to build higher quality nests than those built with any of the other materials. Nests built with tissues were of intermediate quality, and nests built with compressed cotton squares were of poor quality, similar to those built by the control group. These results suggest that C57BL/6J mice given appropriate nesting materials can build nests similar to those built by their wild counterparts.

  18. HCV infection prevalence lower than expected among 18-40-year-old injection drug users in San Diego, CA.

    PubMed

    Garfein, Richard S; Rondinelli, Amanda; Barnes, Richard F W; Cuevas, Jazmine; Metzner, Mitcheal; Velasquez, Michele; Rodriguez, David; Reilly, Meredith; Xing, Jian; Teshale, Eyasu H

    2013-06-01

    San Diego, California shares the world's busiest land border crossing with Tijuana, Mexico-a city where 95 % of injection drug users (IDUs) test hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody-positive. Yet, little is known about the prevalence and risk behaviors for HCV among IDUs in San Diego. In 2009-2010, 18-40-year-old IDUs in San Diego County completed a risk assessment interview and serologic testing for HCV and HIV infection. Recruitment involved respondent-driven sampling, venue-based sampling at a syringe exchange program, and convenience sampling. Correlates of HCV infection were identified by multivariable logistic regression. Among 510 current IDUs, 26.9 % (95 % CI 23.0-30.7 %) and 4.2 % (95 % CI 2.4-5.9 %) had been infected with HCV and HIV, respectively. Overall, median age was 28 years; 74 % were male; 60 % white and 29 % Hispanic; and 96 % were born in the U.S. Median years of injecting was 6; 41 % injected daily; 60 % injected heroin most often; 49 % receptively shared syringes and 68 % shared other injection paraphernalia; and only 22 % reported always using new syringes in the past 3 months. Two thirds had ever traveled to Mexico and 19 % injected in Mexico. HCV infection was independently associated with sharing injection paraphernalia (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.69) and SEP use (AOR = 2.17) in the previous 3 months, lifetime history of drug overdose (AOR = 2.66), and increased years of injecting (AOR = 2.82, all P values <0.05). Controlling for recruitment method did not alter results. HCV infection prevalence among IDUs in San Diego was modest compared to other US cities and much lower than Tijuana. Given that known individual-level HCV risk factors were common in San Diego, the city's lower HCV prevalence might be due to differences in social and structural factors between the cities.

  19. A 40-year accumulation dataset for Adelie Land, Antarctica and its application for model validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agosta, Cécile; Favier, Vincent; Genthon, Christophe; Gallée, Hubert; Krinner, Gerhard; Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; van den Broeke, Michiel R.

    2012-01-01

    The GLACIOCLIM-SAMBA (GS) Antarctic accumulation monitoring network, which extends from the coast of Adelie Land to the Antarctic plateau, has been surveyed annually since 2004. The network includes a 156-km stake-line from the coast inland, along which accumulation shows high spatial and interannual variability with a mean value of 362 mm water equivalent a-1. In this paper, this accumulation is compared with older accumulation reports from between 1971 and 1991. The mean and annual standard deviation and the km-scale spatial pattern of accumulation were seen to be very similar in the older and more recent data. The data did not reveal any significant accumulation trend over the last 40 years. The ECMWF analysis-based forecasts (ERA-40 and ERA-Interim), a stretched-grid global general circulation model (LMDZ4) and three regional circulation models (PMM5, MAR and RACMO2), all with high resolution over Antarctica (27-125 km), were tested against the GS reports. They qualitatively reproduced the meso-scale spatial pattern of the annual-mean accumulation except MAR. MAR significantly underestimated mean accumulation, while LMDZ4 and RACMO2 overestimated it. ERA-40 and the regional models that use ERA-40 as lateral boundary condition qualitatively reproduced the chronology of interannual variability but underestimated the magnitude of interannual variations. Two widely used climatologies for Antarctic accumulation agreed well with the mean GS data. The model-based climatology was also able to reproduce the observed spatial pattern. These data thus provide new stringent constraints on models and other large-scale evaluations of the Antarctic accumulation.

  20. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Vegetation:Knowledge Gain and Knowledge Gap after 40 years of research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thenkabail, P. S.; Huete, A. R.

    2012-12-01

    This presentation summarizes the advances made over 40+ years in understanding, modeling, and mapping terrestrial vegetation as reported in the new book on "Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Vegetation" (Publisher: Taylor and Francis inc.). The advent of spaceborne hyperspectral sensors or imaging spectroscopy (e.g., NASA's Hyperion, ESA's PROBA, and upcoming Italy's ASI's Prisma, Germany's DLR's EnMAP, Japanese HIUSI, NASA's HyspIRI) as well as the advancements in processing large volumes of hyperspectral data have generated tremendous interest in expanding the hyperspectral applications' knowledge base to large areas. Advances made in using hyperspectral data, relative to broadband spectral data, include: (a) significantly improved characterization and modeling of a wide array of biophysical and biochemical properties of vegetation, (b) the ability to discriminate plant species and vegetation types with high degree of accuracy, (c) reduced uncertainty in determining net primary productivity or carbon assessments from terrestrial vegetation, (d) improved crop productivity and water productivity models, (e) the ability to assess stress resulting from causes such as management practices, pests and disease, water deficit or water excess, and (f) establishing wavebands and indices with greater sensitivity for analyzing vegetation characteristics. Current state of knowledge on hyperspectral narrowbands (HNBs) for agricultural and vegetation studies inferred from the Book entitled hyperspectral remote sensing of vegetation by Thenkabail et al., 2011. Six study areas of the World for which we have extensive data from field spectroradiometers for 8 major world crops (wheat, corn, rice, barley, soybeans, pulses, and cotton). Approx. 10,500 such data points will be used in crop modeling and in building spectral libraries.

  1. Increasing Dengue Incidence in Singapore over the Past 40 Years: Population Growth, Climate and Mobility.

    PubMed

    Struchiner, Claudio Jose; Rocklöv, Joacim; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Massad, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    In Singapore, the frequency and magnitude of dengue epidemics have increased significantly over the past 40 years. It is important to understand the main drivers for the rapid increase in dengue incidence. We studied the relative contributions of putative drivers for the rise of dengue in Singapore: population growth, climate parameters and international air passenger arrivals from dengue endemic countries, for the time period of 1974 until 2011. We used multivariable Poisson regression models with the following predictors: Annual Population Size; Aedes Premises Index; Mean Annual Temperature; Minimum and Maximum Temperature Recorded in each year; Annual Precipitation and Annual Number of Air Passengers arriving from dengue-endemic South-East Asia to Singapore. The relative risk (RR) of the increase in dengue incidence due to population growth over the study period was 42.7, while the climate variables (mean and minimum temperature) together explained an RR of 7.1 (RR defined as risk at the end of the time period relative to the beginning and goodness of fit associated with the model leading to these estimates assessed by pseudo-R2 equal to 0.83). Estimating the extent of the contribution of these individual factors on the increasing dengue incidence, we found that population growth contributed to 86% while the residual 14% was explained by increase in temperature. We found no correlation with incoming air passenger arrivals into Singapore from dengue endemic countries. Our findings have significant implications for predicting future trends of the dengue epidemics given the rapid urbanization with population growth in many dengue endemic countries. It is time for policy-makers and the scientific community alike to pay more attention to the negative impact of urbanization and urban climate on diseases such as dengue.

  2. Dioxins and cytogenetic status of villagers after 40 years of agent Orange application in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Sycheva, Lyudmila P; Umnova, Nataliya V; Kovalenko, Maria A; Zhurkov, Vjacheslav S; Shelepchikov, Andrey A; Roumak, Vladimir S

    2016-02-01

    We have examined cytogenetic status of the rural population living on dioxin-contaminated territories (DCT, TCDD in soil 2.6 ng/kg) compared to the villagers of the control area (TCDD in soil 0.18 ng kg(-1)). The examination took place almost 40 years after the war. The consequences of some confounding factors (years of residence in the region, farming, and aging) has been examined. Karyological analysis of buccal and nasal epitheliocytes among healthy adult males living on DCT and control area (26 and 35 persons) was conducted. A wide range of cytogenetic (micronuclei, nuclear protrusions), proliferative (binucleated cells and cells with doubled nucleus) and endpoints of cell death (cells with perinuclear vacuoles, with damaged nucleus membrane, condensed chromatin, pyknosis, karyorrhexis, karyolysis) had been analyzed. The frequent amount of cells with nuclear protrusions in both epithelia was slightly decreased in the DСT group. Biomarkers of early and late stages of nuclear destruction in buccal epithelium (cells with damaged nuclear membrane, karyolysis) were elevated significantly in DCT. Higher level of the same parameters was also identified in nasal epithelium. The cytogenetic status of healthy adult males on DCT had got "normalization" by present moment in comparison with our early data. Nevertheless, in exposed group some alteration of the cytogenetic status was being registered (mostly biomarkers of apoptosis). Years of residence (and exposure to dioxins) affected the cytogenetic status of DCT inhabitants, whereas no influence of farming factors (pesticides, fertilizers, etc.) had been discovered. Some biomarkers of proliferation and cell death were affected by aging.

  3. Overweight in Midlife and Risk of Dementia: A 40-Year Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Hassing, Linda B.; Dahl, Anna K.; Thorvaldsson, Valgeir; Berg, Stig; Gatz, Margaret; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Johansson, Boo

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study examines if overweight in midlife increases dementia risk later in life. Methods In 1963 Body Mass Index was assessed in 1152 participants of The Swedish Twin Registry, then at the age of 45 to 65 years. These participants were later screened for dementia in a prospective study with up to 40 years follow-up. A total of 312 participants were diagnosed with dementia. Results Logistic regression analyses, adjusted for demographic factors, smoking and alcohol habits, indicated that men and women categorized as overweight in their midlife had an elevated risk of dementia (OR = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.21 to 2.07, p = .002), Alzheimer’s disease (OR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.24 to 2.35, p = .003), and vascular dementia (OR = 1.55; 95% CI: 0.98 to 2.47, p = .059). Further adjustments for diabetes and vascular diseases did not substantially affect the associations, except for vascular dementia (OR = 1.36; 95% CI: 0.82 to 2.56, p = .116), reflecting the significance of diabetes and vascular diseases in the aetiology of vascular dementia. There was no significant interaction between overweight and APOE ε4 status, indicating that having both risk factors does not have a multiplicative effect concerning dementia risk. Conclusions This study gives further support to the notion that overweight in midlife increases later risk of dementia. The risk is increased for both Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia, and follows the same pattern for men and women. PMID:19506566

  4. Soil Properties in a South Georgia, USA, Borrow Pit 40 Years After Excavation Ceased

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, E. C.

    2012-04-01

    This study investigates soil properties in an abandoned sand borrow pit located about 11 km south of Valdosta, GA, USA, that was used and then abandoned with no efforts at reclamation, and compares those developing soils to natural soils surrounding the pit. The pit contains two tiers, a deep lower part and an upper terrace. There are distinct vegetative zones within the pit; three are included in this study. The lowest part of the pit is characterized by a mix of slash pines (Pinus caribaea) and deciduous trees including sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) and blackgum (Nyssa biflora) with a well-developed leaf litter cover but a lack of significant underbrush or grass. Water ponds at the surface during wet periods in the lowest part of the pit. The upper terrace has sparse vegetation along its lip including a few stunted slash and longleaf (Pinus palustris) pines and a sparse lichen cover, including "deer moss" (Cladina evansii) on the ground surface, lacks leaf litter cover, and the water table is deep relative to the rest of the pit. There is a gentle slope away from this sparsely-vegetated area towards the edge of the excavation. The edge of the pit along the upper terrace has a healthy stand of mixed pine and deciduous trees similar to that found in the pit bottom, but the ground also includes a thick cover of grass (Andropogon sp.). Water ponds at the surface during wet periods here as well. Native deciduous trees including live oaks (Quercus virginiana), water oaks (Quercus nigra), and magnolias (Magnolia sp.) characterize the area outside the pit. Although soil formation over only 40 years is slight, there are distinct differences in the soils between the vegetative zones that were studied. Soil differences are attributed to differences in topographically controlled access to water and vegetation type. Study of surrounding developed soils reveals that soils within the pit still have a significant amount of development remaining before they reach equilibrium

  5. 40-years of fires in a touristic area from South of Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Murillo, Juan F.; Aranda-Gómez, Francisco; Damián Ruiz-Sinoga, José

    2014-05-01

    Costa del Sol in the Province of Malaga is one of the major touristic region in Spain. Its develop started in the 1960s of the XXth century at the same time as other regions in Mediterranean Europe. Since then, this area has become a holiday touristic centre for different countries and regions from Europe (United Kingdom, Escandinavia, Germany, Netherlands, Russia, etc.). Likewise, Costa del Sol has been characterised by a constant grow of the residence tourism rendering in an extreme increment of urban areas, especially in those municipalities located in the coast. This expansión of urban áreas was carried out against rural and natural vegetated areas. The region is characterised by very montanious topography, predominant impermeable rocks (shales, schists and peridotites) and abundant rainfalls from October to May, especially, in the western area (where a climatic gradient is observed from humid to dry conditions). All of these features, joined a very spread and intense occupation by urban, infrastructures and touristic land uses, renders in a very high vulnerability to fires and their consequences. As fire removes vegetation cover and accelerate water erosion, local relief and climatic conditions induce to extreme high risk of soil loss and floodings. During the last 40 years, in the study area, the number of fires increased as weell as the affected area, following the similar trend for the rest of Spain and other Mediterranean countries. This situation increases the exposition to fire risk for more than one-million of people, which become at least two-millions during the summer months when fire conditions are expected.

  6. The delay time in sickle cell disease after 40 years: A paradigm assessed.

    PubMed

    Ferrone, Frank A

    2015-05-01

    Sickle hemoglobin polymerization commences with a striking latency period, called a "delay time" followed by abrupt polymer formation. The delay time is exceedingly concentration dependent. This discovery (40 years ago) led to the "kinetic hypothesis," that is, that the pathophysiology was related to the relationship between the delay time and the capillary transit. The delay time is well described by a double-nucleation mechanism of polymer formation. In macroscopic volumes, the delay time is highly reproducible, but in small volumes such as erythrocytes, under certain conditions, the intrinsic delay time can be augmented by a stochastic delay owing to random waiting times for the first nucleus to form. This lengthens the average delay and adds further protection from vaso-occlusion. When oxygen removal is not sudden, the growth of polymers after the delay time is limited by the rate of oxygen removal, further lengthening the time before occlusion may occur. This is important if some polymers have remained in the cell after pulmonary transit as their presence otherwise would obliterate any delay. The difficulty of deforming a cell once polymerized rationalizes the "two-step" model of vaso-occlusion in which a postcapillary adhesion event is followed by a sickling logjam. The delay time that is required is therefore generalized to be the delay time for an erythrocyte to move beyond regions in the venuoles where adherent cells have reduced the available lumen. The measurements of delay times correlate well with the severity of sickling syndromes. They also correlate with the improvements owing to the administration of hydroxyurea.

  7. Trends in dental caries among Brazilian schoolchildren: 40 years of monitoring (1971-2011).

    PubMed

    Constante, Helena Mendes; Souza, Marina Leite; Bastos, João Luiz; Peres, Marco Aurélio

    2014-08-01

    The study aimed to estimate the prevalence, severity, and inequality in the distribution of dental caries in schoolchildren from Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil, in 2011, and to compare the results with data from previous studies carried out since 1971. All 12- and 13-year-old schoolchildren enrolled in a public school were eligible. Dental caries were assessed according to the World Health Organisation diagnostic criteria. Decayed, missing and filled surfaces and teeth (DMFS/DMFT) indexes, the Significant Caries Index (SiC) and the Gini coefficient (to assess inequalities in the distribution of dental caries) were estimated. The response rate was 82.3% (n = 130). The prevalence of dental caries decreased from 98.0% (95% CI 96.0-100.0) in 1971 to 36.9% (95% CI 28.5-45.3) in 2011. The mean DMFT ranged from 9.2 in 1971 to 0.7 in 2011. The mean DMFS index was 1.2 (95% CI 0.8-1.6) in 2011. The Gini coefficient was 0.624 in 2002 but increased to 0.725 in 2011; the Lorenz curve showed that 70-75% of dental caries attacks was restricted to 20% of the population in 2011. A reduction of 41.2% in the mean SiC index was observed between 2002 (3.4, 95% CI 3.0-3.8) and 2011 (1.9, 95% CI 1.6-2.1). An effective decline in the prevalence and severity of dental caries in schoolchildren was observed throughout 40 years of monitoring. However, a small proportion of the population has experienced most of the caries burden in the recent years studied.

  8. Genetic studies on the Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques: A review of 40 years of research.

    PubMed

    Widdig, Anja; Kessler, Matthew J; Bercovitch, Fred B; Berard, John D; Duggleby, Christine; Nürnberg, Peter; Rawlins, Richard G; Sauermann, Ulrike; Wang, Qian; Krawczak, Michael; Schmidtke, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Genetic studies not only contribute substantially to our current understanding of the natural variation in behavior and health in many species, they also provide the basis of numerous in vivo models of human traits. Despite the many challenges posed by the high level of biological and social complexity, a long lifespan and difficult access in the field, genetic studies of primates are particularly rewarding because of the close evolutionary relatedness of these species to humans. The free-ranging rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) population on Cayo Santiago (CS), Puerto Rico, provides a unique resource in this respect because several of the abovementioned caveats are of either minor importance there, or lacking altogether, thereby allowing long-term genetic research in a primate population under constant surveillance since 1956. This review summarizes more than 40 years of genetic research carried out on CS, from early blood group typing and the genetic characterization of skeletal material via population-wide paternity testing with DNA fingerprints and short tandem repeats (STRs) to the analysis of the highly polymorphic DQB1 locus within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The results of the paternity studies also facilitated subsequent studies of male dominance and other factors influencing male reproductive success, of male reproductive skew, paternal kin bias, and mechanisms of paternal kin recognition. More recently, the CS macaques have been the subjects of functional genetic and gene expression analyses and have played an important role in behavioral and quantitative genetic studies. In addition, the CS colony has been used as a natural model for human adult-onset macular degeneration, glaucoma, and circadian rhythm disorder. Our review finishes off with a discussion of potential future directions of research on CS, including the transition from STRs to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing and whole genome sequencing.

  9. Oxygen in respiratory care: a personal perspective from 40 years in the field.

    PubMed

    Pierson, David J

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen is necessary for all aerobic life, and nothing is more important in respiratory care than its proper understanding, assessment, and administration. By the early 1970s P(aO(2)) had become the gold standard for clinically assessing oxygenation in the body. Since the 1980s the measurement of arterial oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry has also been increasingly used as an adjunct to (but not a replacement for) P(aO(2)). Despite the desirability of measuring tissue oxygenation directly, no reliable and clinically relevant such measure has emerged. The 2 areas in which oxygen has proven most important in respiratory care are long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) and the management of potentially life-threatening hypoxemia in acute respiratory failure. That LTOT improves survival in appropriately selected patients with COPD was demonstrated by multicenter studies published more than 30 years ago, and their original selection criteria have so far not been improved upon. Severe hypoxemia in acute lung injury and ARDS can be improved by ventilation with PEEP, and also in many patients by various adjunctive techniques and alternative support strategies. However, the latter measures have not brought clear improvements in survival or other patient-relevant outcomes. In addition, the original goals of "normalizing" arterial oxygenation with high tidal volumes and lung-distending pressures have required modification as appreciation for ventilator-related lung injury has emerged. High concentrations of inspired oxygen may play a role in such injury, but aggressive measures to reduce them in order to avoid oxygen toxicity-which dominated ventilator management in previous decades-have been tempered in the present era of lung-protective ventilation. Although some additions and modifications have emerged, much of what we understand today about oxygen in respiratory care is owed to the pioneering work of Thomas L Petty more than 40 years ago.

  10. Lung cancer burden has increased during the last 40 years in Hebei Province, China

    PubMed Central

    He, Yutong; Li, Daojuan; Song, Guohui; Li, Yongwei; Liang, Di; Jin, Jing; Wen, Denggui

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background In 2011, Hebei Province, located in North China with a population of 71 794 239, accounted for approximately 6% of the national population. It is well known as a heavily air polluted area. This study reports the lung cancer burden and mortality trend in Hebei Province from 1973 to 2011. Methods Eight cancer registries in Hebei Province submitted data to the Hebei Provincial Cancer Registry Center. Pooled data were stratified by area (urban/rural), gender, and age group. The proportions, cumulative incidence/mortality rates, and median age at death of lung cancer were calculated. Lung cancer mortality data of 1973–1975, 1990–1992, and 2004–2005 were extracted from national death surveys. Data of lung cancer from Cixian and Shexian were obtained from population‐based cancer registries in each county. Results The estimated numbers of newly diagnosed lung cancer cases and deaths in 2011 in Hebei Province were 32 623 and 27 612, respectively. The crude incidence rate of lung cancer was 45.44/100 000. The age‐standardized incidence rate by world standard population was 39.01/100 000, ranking second among all cancers. The lung cancer mortality rate was 38.46/100 000, ranking first among all cancer deaths, with a significantly increasing trend in Hebei Province from 1973–1975 to 2010–2011, with an increased rate of 189.15%. Conclusion Hebei Province suffers a heavy disease burden of lung cancer and an obvious increasing trend has been observed over the past 40 years. Preventive and control strategies should be encouraged. PMID:27148418

  11. Increasing Dengue Incidence in Singapore over the Past 40 Years: Population Growth, Climate and Mobility

    PubMed Central

    Struchiner, Claudio Jose; Rocklöv, Joacim; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Massad, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    In Singapore, the frequency and magnitude of dengue epidemics have increased significantly over the past 40 years. It is important to understand the main drivers for the rapid increase in dengue incidence. We studied the relative contributions of putative drivers for the rise of dengue in Singapore: population growth, climate parameters and international air passenger arrivals from dengue endemic countries, for the time period of 1974 until 2011. We used multivariable Poisson regression models with the following predictors: Annual Population Size; Aedes Premises Index; Mean Annual Temperature; Minimum and Maximum Temperature Recorded in each year; Annual Precipitation and Annual Number of Air Passengers arriving from dengue-endemic South-East Asia to Singapore. The relative risk (RR) of the increase in dengue incidence due to population growth over the study period was 42.7, while the climate variables (mean and minimum temperature) together explained an RR of 7.1 (RR defined as risk at the end of the time period relative to the beginning and goodness of fit associated with the model leading to these estimates assessed by pseudo-R2 equal to 0.83). Estimating the extent of the contribution of these individual factors on the increasing dengue incidence, we found that population growth contributed to 86% while the residual 14% was explained by increase in temperature. We found no correlation with incoming air passenger arrivals into Singapore from dengue endemic countries. Our findings have significant implications for predicting future trends of the dengue epidemics given the rapid urbanization with population growth in many dengue endemic countries. It is time for policy-makers and the scientific community alike to pay more attention to the negative impact of urbanization and urban climate on diseases such as dengue. PMID:26322517

  12. Nest guarding from observation blinds: strategy for improving Puerto Rican parrot nest success

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    The effectiveness of 17 yr of nestguarding from observation blinds for increasing reproductive success of the endangered Puerto Rican Parrot (Amazona vittata) is described. As personnel and time allowed, active nests were guarded part-time during the nest site exploration and selection s stage of the breeding cycle, and part-time to full-time when a nest contained eggs or chicks. Biologists identified nine categories of threat to the success of parrot nests. Since 1973, a minimum of 20 nests, which otherwise would have failed, successfully produced fledglings as a direct result of nest guarding and intervention. Nest success averaged 66% with nest guarding compared to an estimated 38% without guarding. Nest guarding from blinds can help maintain a wild population of a critically endangered species while other management techniques are being developed to stimulate population growth.

  13. A 40-Year Review of Multicultural Counseling Outcome Research: Outlining a Future Research Agenda for the Multicultural Counseling Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Andrea, Michael; Heckman, Elizabeth Foster

    2008-01-01

    This study represents a 40-year review of multicultural counseling outcome research that has been done in the mental health professions. Particular attention is directed to the outcomes that ensue from counseling situations that are composed of counselors and clients from different racial/cultural backgrounds and identities in individual, group,…

  14. Prenatal glucocorticoids and maternal smoking during pregnancy independently program adult nicotine dependence in daughters: A 40-year prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Stroud, Laura R.; Papandonatos, George; Shenassa, Edmond; Rodriguez, Daniel; Niaura, Raymond; LeWinn, Kaja; Lipsitt, Lewis P.; Buka, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) is an independent risk factor for offspring nicotine dependence (ND), but mechanisms remain unknown. We investigated prenatal glucocorticoid (cortisol) and androgen (testosterone) associations with offspring ND over 40 years, and the possibility that prenatal glucocorticoids and androgens would mediate links between MSDP and offspring ND. Methods Participants were 1,086 mother-adult offspring pairs (59% female) from the New England Family Study, a 40-year longitudinal follow up of the Collaborative Perinatal Project. MSDP was assessed prospectively at each prenatal visit. Maternal cortisol, testosterone, and cotinine (nicotine metabolite), were assayed from third trimester maternal sera. Offspring lifetime ND was assessed via structured interview. Results Significant bivariate associations emerged for: a) MSDP/cotinine and lifetime ND, and b) maternal cortisol and lifetime ND, for daughters only. In multivariate models, maternal cortisol and MSDP/cotinine remained significantly and independently associated with increased odds of daughters’ lifetime ND. However, cortisol did not mediate the MSDP-lifetime ND relation. No associations emerged between maternal testosterone and offspring ND. Conclusions Results provide the first evidence in support of prenatal glucocorticoid programming of adult ND over 40 years in daughters only. Our study highlights two independent prenatal pathways leading to increased risk for ND in daughters: elevated prenatal glucocorticoids and MSDP/nicotine exposure. Daughter-specific effects of glucocorticoid and MSDP programming over 40 years highlight the breadth and persistence of sexually dimorphic programming effects in humans. Results do not support androgen programming of offspring ND. PMID:24034414

  15. Demand for nest boxes in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Cooper, J J; Appleby, M C

    1996-04-01

    Domestic hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) from commercial laying strains have been selected for high egg yield and may lay over 300 eggs in their working lives. In conventional wire cages, there is little opportunity to perform either nest seeking or nest building activities, which may lead to frustration each time an egg is laid. To measure the demand for a well-defined nest-site, which may act as a consummatory stimulus for nest seeking behaviour and an appetitive stimulus for nest building behaviour, 16 hens were allowed to work to gain access to a pen containing two littered, enclosed nest boxes. The cost of access to the nest boxes was varied by changing the width of the vertical gap, which divided a home pen containing food, water and a perch from the pen containing the nest boxes (gaps of 220, 140, 125, 110 and 95 mm, compared with mean body width of 117 mm). The number of entries to the nest pen declined with narrowing gap, whilst the number of failed attempts to enter rose, but all 16 hens persevered with entering the nest pen prior to oviposition and laid in the nest boxes. Between 120 and 30 min to oviposition hens made many entries with the 220 mm gap (27.6), but this declined to no entries with 95 mm gap. Hens made few entries in the last half hour prior to ovipositoin (1.3) but there was no significant decline in entries as the gap narrowed (1.1 with 95 mm gap). The number of nest inspections and nest entries also declined with width of gap, but there was no effect on time spent in the nest boxes. Hens passed gaps of 220, and 140 mm to return to the nest pen following oviposition, but did not pass gaps of 125, 110 or 95 mm. We therefore conclude that the narrow gap width can be used to assess the demand for environmental requirements. Hens were willing to pay a high cost to gain access to a nest box prior to oviposition, so prelaying behaviour may be frustrated in hens without a well-defined, littered nest site.

  16. Waterbird nest-site selection is influenced by neighboring nests and island topography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, Christopher; Ackerman, Josh; Takekawa, John Y.; Herzog, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Avian nest-site selection is influenced by factors operating across multiple spatial scales. Identifying preferred physical characteristics (e.g., topography, vegetation structure) can inform managers to improve nesting habitat suitability. However, social factors (e.g., attraction, territoriality, competition) can complicate understanding physical characteristics preferred by nesting birds. We simultaneously evaluated the physical characteristics and social factors influencing selection of island nest sites by colonial-nesting American avocets (Recurvirostra americana) and Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) at 2 spatial scales in San Francisco Bay, 2011–2012. At the larger island plot (1 m2) scale, we used real-time kinematics to produce detailed topographies of nesting islands and map the distribution of nests. Nesting probability was greatest in island plots between 0.5 m and 1.5 m above the water surface, at distances <10 m from the water's edge, and of moderately steep (avocets) or flat (terns) slopes. Further, avocet and tern nesting probability increased as the number of nests initiated in adjacent plots increased up to a peak of 11–12 tern nests, and then decreased thereafter. Yet, avocets were less likely to nest in plots adjacent to plots with nesting avocets, suggesting an influence of intra-specific territoriality. At the smaller microhabitat scale, or the area immediately surrounding the nest, we compared topography, vegetation, and distance to nearest nest between nest sites and paired random sites. Topography had little influence on selection of the nest microhabitat. Instead, nest sites were more likely to have vegetation present, and greater cover, than random sites. Finally, avocet, and to a lesser extent tern, nest sites were closer to other active conspecific or heterospecific nests than random sites, indicating that social attraction played a role in selection of nest microhabitat. Our results demonstrate key differences in nest

  17. Copper accumulation by stickleback nests containing spiggin.

    PubMed

    Pinho, G L L; Martins, C M G; Barber, I

    2016-07-01

    The three-spined stickleback is a ubiquitous fish of marine, brackish and freshwater ecosystems across the Northern hemisphere that presents intermediate sensitivity to copper. Male sticklebacks display a range of elaborate reproductive behaviours that include nest construction. To build the nests, each male binds nesting material together using an endogenous glycoprotein nesting glue, known as 'spiggin'. Spiggin is a cysteine-rich protein and, therefore, potentially binds heavy metals present in the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of stickleback nests to accumulate copper from environmental sources. Newly built nests, constructed by male fish from polyester threads in laboratory aquaria, were immersed in copper solutions ranging in concentration from 21.1-626.6 μg Cu L(-1). Bundles of polyester threads from aquaria without male fish were also immersed in the same copper solutions. After immersion, nests presented higher amounts of copper than the thread bundles, indicating a higher capacity of nests to bind this metal. A significant, positive correlation between the concentration of copper in the exposure solution and in the exposed nests was identified, but there was no such relationship for thread bundles. Since both spiggin synthesis and male courtship behaviour are under the control of circulating androgens, we predicted that males with high courtship scores would produce and secrete high levels of the spiggin protein. In the present study, nests built by high courtship score males accumulated more copper than those built by low courtship score males. Considering the potential of spiggin to bind metals, the positive relationship between fish courtship and spiggin secretion seems to explain the higher amount of copper on the nests from the fish showing high behaviour scores. Further work is now needed to determine the consequences of the copper binding potential of spiggin in stickleback nests for the health and survival of

  18. Nesting by a yearling Canada goose

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, L.C.; McGilvrey, F.B.

    1971-01-01

    A free-flying Canada goose (Branta canadensis interior), known to be just under a year old, laid a clutch of four eggs at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. At least half of the 2-year-old females nest at Patuxent, and almost all of the 3-year-olds nest. As far as we know, this is the first record of nesting by a yearling Canada goose.

  19. Nested trampoline resonators for optomechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, M. J. Pepper, B.; Luna, F.; Perock, B.; Buters, F. M.; Eerkens, H. J.; Welker, G.; Heeck, K.; Man, S. de; Bouwmeester, D.

    2016-01-18

    Two major challenges in the development of optomechanical devices are achieving a low mechanical and optical loss rate and vibration isolation from the environment. We address both issues by fabricating trampoline resonators made from low pressure chemical vapor deposition Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} with a distributed Bragg reflector mirror. We design a nested double resonator structure with 80 dB of mechanical isolation from the mounting surface at the inner resonator frequency, and we demonstrate up to 45 dB of isolation at lower frequencies in agreement with the design. We reliably fabricate devices with mechanical quality factors of around 400 000 at room temperature. In addition, these devices were used to form optical cavities with finesse up to 181 000 ± 1000. These promising parameters will enable experiments in the quantum regime with macroscopic mechanical resonators.

  20. Arctic nesting geese: alaskan populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, Jerry W.; Stehn, Robert A.; Ely, Craig R.; Derksen, Dirk V.

    1995-01-01

    While data for some areas are lacking, populations of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) and medium-sized Canada geese (Branta canadensis) in interior and northern Alaska appear stable or have increased (King and Derksen 1986). Although only a small number of lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) nest in Alaska, substantial populations occur in Canada and Russia. Populations of Pacific black brant (B. bernicla nigricans), emperor geese (C. canagica), greater white-fronted geese, and cackling Canada geese (B.c. minima) on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) of western Alaska have declined from their historical numbers and are the focus of special management efforts (USFWS 1989). In addition, populations of tule white-fronted geese (A.a. gambeli), Aleutian Canada geese (B.c. leucopareia), Vancouver Canada Geese (B.c. fulva), and dusky Canada geese (B.c. occidentalis) are of special concern because of their limited geographic distributions and small numbers.

  1. The Children's Literature Assembly: 40 Years of Passionate Commitment to Children and Their Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Amy

    2015-01-01

    On the 40th anniversary of the Children's Literature Assembly (CLA), it seemed appropriate to document and reflect on where the assembly has been, and to discover how the organization that is so valued has evolved. Knowing the history is helpful for framing the future, not only of the organization but also of the field of children's literature. It…

  2. Conceptualizing the Science Curriculum: 40 Years of Developing Assessment Frameworks in Three Large-Scale Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kind, Per Morten

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyzes conceptualizations in the science frameworks in three large-scale assessments, Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), and National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The assessments have a shared history, but have developed different conceptualizations. The…

  3. The design and function of birds' nests.

    PubMed

    Mainwaring, Mark C; Hartley, Ian R; Lambrechts, Marcel M; Deeming, D Charles

    2014-10-01

    All birds construct nests in which to lay eggs and/or raise offspring. Traditionally, it was thought that natural selection and the requirement to minimize the risk of predation determined the design of completed nests. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that sexual selection also influences nest design. This is an important development as while species such as bowerbirds build structures that are extended phenotypic signals whose sole purpose is to attract a mate, nests contain eggs and/or offspring, thereby suggesting a direct trade-off between the conflicting requirements of natural and sexual selection. Nest design also varies adaptively in order to both minimize the detrimental effects of parasites and to create a suitable microclimate for parents and developing offspring in relation to predictable variation in environmental conditions. Our understanding of the design and function of birds' nests has increased considerably in recent years, and the evidence suggests that nests have four nonmutually exclusive functions. Consequently, we conclude that the design of birds' nests is far more sophisticated than previously realized and that nests are multifunctional structures that have important fitness consequences for the builder/s.

  4. The design and function of birds' nests

    PubMed Central

    Mainwaring, Mark C; Hartley, Ian R; Lambrechts, Marcel M; Deeming, D Charles

    2014-01-01

    All birds construct nests in which to lay eggs and/or raise offspring. Traditionally, it was thought that natural selection and the requirement to minimize the risk of predation determined the design of completed nests. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that sexual selection also influences nest design. This is an important development as while species such as bowerbirds build structures that are extended phenotypic signals whose sole purpose is to attract a mate, nests contain eggs and/or offspring, thereby suggesting a direct trade-off between the conflicting requirements of natural and sexual selection. Nest design also varies adaptively in order to both minimize the detrimental effects of parasites and to create a suitable microclimate for parents and developing offspring in relation to predictable variation in environmental conditions. Our understanding of the design and function of birds' nests has increased considerably in recent years, and the evidence suggests that nests have four nonmutually exclusive functions. Consequently, we conclude that the design of birds' nests is far more sophisticated than previously realized and that nests are multifunctional structures that have important fitness consequences for the builder/s. PMID:25505520

  5. Blue jays nest in an unusual structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, Erin L.; Lyons, Curtis P.; Sedgwick, James A.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a successful Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata) nest in an unusual structure on the side of a building.  The nest was located near the edge of the species' range along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado.  The nest was completely obvious, suggesting that the structure itself provided adequate cover and sercurity for the jays.  Blue Jays appear to be declining in some areas of the United States such as the Southeast.  Structures such as the one we describe may be more useful in attracting Blue Jays than the nesting platforms available commercially.

  6. [Structure characteristics of natural nests and its implication to artificial nest frame design for Ciconia boyciana].

    PubMed

    Wei, Yi-qing; Cui, Guo-fa

    2014-12-01

    Artificial nest can improve the breeding success of birds in the field, and it has been proved to be more effective to endangered species. We surveyed the structure characteristics of natural nest and the status of the use of artificial nests for oriental white stork, Ciconia boyciana, in Honghe National Nature Reserve, Heilongjiang Province. Differences were investigated among the structure characteristics of the used and unused artificial nests, and natural nests based on one-way ANOVA. It was observed that significant differences in the diameter of nest branch, the vertical an- gle between nest branch, the height of the jointthe height of the nest above ground exited in different nest types. On account of the structure characteristics of the natural nests of C. boyciana, the suitable diameter of nest pillar for artificial nest frame should be 15.0-25.0 cm with the height of 5.0-12.0 m, which would be better if they were constructed by some acid-resistant materials, e.g., cement. The number of nest stands should be 3-4 individuals with the diameter of 9.0-12.0 cm, the vertical angle of 45 degrees-60 degrees, and the length of 90.0-140.0 cm.

  7. Nest predation risk influences a cavity-nesting passerine during the post-hatching care period

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jongmin; Kim, Byung-Su; Joo, Eun-Jin; Park, Shi-Ryong

    2016-01-01

    Some nest predators visually assess parental activities to locate a prey nest, whereas parents modify fitness-related traits to reduce the probability of nest predation, and/or nestlings fledge early to escape the risky nest environment. Here, we experimentally tested if the parental and fledging behaviours of oriental tits (Parus minor) that bred in the nest-box varied with cavity conditions associated with nest predation risk during the nestling period. The entrance of experimental nest-boxes was enlarged to create a long-term risk soon after clutch competition. A short-term risk, using simulated playbacks with a coexisting control bird and avian nest predator sound, was simultaneously applied to the nest-boxes whether or not the long-term risk existed. We found that the parents reduced their hourly feeding trips, and the nestlings fledged early with the long-term risk, although the nest mortality of the two nest-box types was low and did not differ. While this study presents a portion of prey–predator interactions with the associated uncertainties, our results highlight that the entrance size of cavities for small hole-nesting birds may play an important role in determining their fitness-related traits depending upon the degree of perceived risk of nest predation. PMID:27553176

  8. Nests and nest sites of the San Miguel Island Song Sparrow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kern, Michael D.; Sogge, Mark K.; Kern, Robert B.; Van Riper, Charles

    1993-01-01

    Nests and nest sites of the San Miguel Island (SMI) Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia micronyx) are described; nests are compared with those of 16 other races of Song Sparrows. Bush lupins (Lupinus albifrons), coyote brush (Baccharis pilularis) and golden bush (Haplopappus venetus) were the shrubs used most commonly as nest sites by Song Sparrows on SMI. As a result of its location, the nest was effectively concealed from gray foxes (Urocyon littoralis), the major predator of this sparrow. Nest and nest site also moderated the combined chilling effects of cool air temperatures and strong northwesterly winds on the eggs and nestlings. Even in the absence of these moderating effects of the nest site, the energetic cost of incubation, estimated at 41-53% of the sparrow's resting metabolic rate, was modest. Twenty-nine percent of the canopy above the nest was open and as much as 73% of the nest cup was in the sun at midday, a time when surface temperatures of foliage, nest and nestlings sometimes exceeded 40 C. Whereas this exposure did not apparently reduce fledging success, it may explain why the incidence of addled eggs was so high in this population of Song Sparrows compared to others. Significant differences existed among races of Song Sparrows in the size, porosity and insulation of the nest. In most cases, these differences were not related to the latitude of the races' nesting areas.

  9. Glacier dynamics of the Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya region over the last 40 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourmelen, N.; Dehecq, A.; Trouvé, E.

    2014-12-01

    Climate warming over the 20th century has caused drastic changes in mountain glaciers globally, and of the Himalayan glaciers in particular. The stakes are high; glaciers and ice caps are the largest contributor to the increase in the mass of the world's oceans, and the Himalayas play a key role in the hydrology of the region, impacting on the economy, food safety and flood risk. Partial monitoring of the Himalayan glaciers has revealed a mixed picture; while many of the Himalayan glaciers are retreating, in some cases locally stable or advancing glaciers in this region have also been observed. But recent controversies have highlighted the need to understand the glaciers dynamic and its relationship with climate change in the region. Earth Observation provides a mean for global and long-term monitoring of mountain glaciers' dynamics. In the frame of the Dragon program, a partnership between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Chinese Center for Earth Observation (NRSCC), we begun a monitoring program aimed at quantifying multidecadal changes in glaciers' flow at the scale of the entire Himalayas and Karakoram from a 40 years' archive of Earth Observation. Ultimately, the provision of a global and time-sensitive glaciers velocity product will help to understand the evolution of the Himalayan glaciers in lights of glaciological (e.g. presence of debris-cover, surges, proglacial lakes) and climatic conditions. Here we present a region-wide analysis of annual and seasonnal glacier flow velocity covering the Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya region obtained from the analysis of the entire archive of Landsat data. Over 90% of the ice-covered regions, as defined by the Randolph Glacier Inventory, are measured, with precision on the retrieved velocity of the order of 2 m/yr. We show that the first order temporal evolution of glacier flow mirrors the pattern of glacier mass balance. We observe a general decrease of ice velocity in regions of known ice mass loss, and a more

  10. A 40 Year Time Series of SBUV Observations: the Version 8.6 Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPeters, Richard; Bhartia, P. K.; Flynn, L.

    2012-01-01

    Under a NASA program to produce long term data records from instruments on multiple satellites (MEaSUREs), data from a series of eight SBUV and SBUV 12 instruments have been reprocessed to create a 40 year long ozone time series. Data from the Nimbus 4 BUV, Nimbus 7 SBUV, and SBUV/2 instruments on NOAA 9, 11, 14, 16, 17, and 18 were used covering the period 1970 to 1972 and 1979 to the present. In past analyses an ozone time series was created from these instruments by adjusting ozone itself, instrument by instrument, for consistency during overlap periods. In the version 8.6 processing adjustments were made to the radiance calibration of each instrument to maintain a consistent calibration over the entire time series. Data for all eight instruments were then reprocessed using the adjusted radiances. Reprocessing is necessary to produce an accurate latitude dependence. Other improvements incorporated in version 8.6 included the use of the ozone cross sections of Brion, Daumont, and Malicet, and the use of a cloud height climatology derived from Aura OMI measurements. The new cross sections have a more accurate temperature dependence than the cross sections previously used. The OMI-based cloud heights account for the penetration of UV into the upper layers of clouds. The consistency of the version 8.6 time series was evaluated by intra-instrument comparisons during overlap periods, comparisons with ground-based instruments, and comparisons with measurements made by instruments on other satellites such as SAGE II and UARS MLS. These comparisons show that for the instruments on NOAA 16, 17 and 18, the instrument calibrations were remarkably stable and consistent from instrument to instrument. The data record from the Nimbus 7 SBUV was also very stable, and SAGE and ground-based comparisons show that the' calibration was consistent with measurements made years laterby the NOAA 16 instrument. The calibrations of the SBUV/2 instruments on NOAA 9, 11, and 14 were more of

  11. Cigarettes with defective filters marketed for 40 years: what Philip Morris never told smokers

    PubMed Central

    Pauly, J; Mepani, A; Lesses, J; Cummings, K; Streck, R

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Specific goals were to review systematically the writings of tobacco companies to: (a) identify papers that would document the existence of defective filters; (b) characterise the extent of the defect; (c) establish when the defect became known; (d) determine whether the defect exists on cigarettes marketed currently; (e) assess the prevalence of the defect on cigarettes manufactured by different companies; (f) define whether the knowledge of the defect had been withheld by the tobacco company as confidential and not disclosed publicly; and (g) ascertain the feasibility of correcting or preventing the defect. Methods: Document searches utilised databases of the scientific literature, medical journals, chemical abstracts, US Patents, Tobacco Abstracts, papers presented at tobacco meetings and court documents. Results: Sixty one documents of Philip Morris, Inc were selected for study because they disclosed specifically the "fall-out" of cellulose acetate filter fibres and, for cigarettes with charcoal filters, carbon particles from cigarette filters. The term "fall-out" was defined in 1985 laboratory protocols of Philip Morris, Inc. as "loose fibers (or particles) that are drawn out of the filter during puffing of the cigarette". As early as 1957, the health concern of inhaling cellulose acetate fibres released from cigarette filters was addressed by Philip Morris, Inc. A 1962 document reported the results of laboratory tests conducted by Phillip Morris, Inc that compared the "fall-out" of cellulose acetate fibres from the filters of their cigarettes (Marlboro) and cigarettes of their competitor (Liggett & Meyers). A 1997 overview by Phillip Morris of documents addressing the "fallout of carbon particles and cellulose acetate fibers from filters" stated that they were "essentially routine reports" of cigarette filter assays, and referenced a "Filter Fallout" memo written in 1961—more than 40 years ago. Most likely these tests are being conducted

  12. Frog Foam Nest Protein Diversity and Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Hissa, Denise Cavalcante; Bezerra, Walderly Melgaço; Freitas, Cléverson Diniz Teixeira De; Ramos, Márcio Viana; Lopes, José Luiz De Souza; Beltramini, Leila Maria; Roberto, Igor Joventino; Cascon, Paulo; Melo, Vânia Maria Maciel

    2016-08-01

    Some amphibian species have developed a breeding strategy in which they deposit their eggs in stable foam nests to protect their eggs and larvae. The frog foam nests are rich in proteins (ranaspumin), especially surfactant proteins, involved in the production of the foam nest. Despite the ecological importance of the foam nests for evolution and species conservation, the biochemical composition, the long-term stability and even the origin of the components are still not completely understood. Recently we showed that Lv-RSN-1, a 23.5-kDa surfactant protein isolated from the nest of the frog Leptodacylus vastus, presents a structural conformation distinct from any protein structures yet reported. So, in the current study we aimed to reveal the protein composition of the foam nest of L. vastus and further characterize the Lv-RSN-1. Proteomic analysis showed the foam nest contains more than 100 of proteins, and that Lv-RSN-1 comprises 45% of the total proteins, suggesting a key role in the nest construction and stability. We demonstrated by Western blotting that Lv-RSN-1 is mainly produced only by the female in the pars convoluta dilata, which highlights the importance of the female preservation for conservation of species that depend on the production of foam nests in the early stages of development. Overall, our results showed the foam nest of L. vastus is composed of a great diversity of proteins and that besides Lv-RSN-1, the main protein in the foam, other proteins must have a coadjuvant role in building and stability of the nest.

  13. Interstitial lung disease more than 40 years after a 5 year occupational exposure to talc.

    PubMed

    Gysbrechts, C; Michiels, E; Verbeken, E; Verschakelen, J; Dinsdale, D; Nemery, B; Demedts, M

    1998-06-01

    A 62 yr old woman was initially diagnosed with sarcoidosis until a thoracoscopic biopsy revealed the presence of numerous birefringent particles in fibrotic areas of the centrilobular lung zones. These particles were examined by electron microscopy and X-ray spectrometry and characterized as impure talc. Further inquiry into her occupational history revealed that she had worked from the age of 14-18 yrs in a factory making rubber hoses, where she had had an intense exposure to talc. There was no evidence of silicosis or asbestosis, and other significant causes of interstitial lung disease were excluded. This case emphasizes the importance of a thorough occupational history, which may reveal a remote and forgotten exposure to a significant cause of interstitial lung disease. Although this presentation of talcosis is unusual, this case suggests that even a relatively short, but presumably intense exposure to talc more than 40 yrs previously may be a cause of progressive lung fibrosis.

  14. The Economic Burden of Vision Loss and Eye Disorders among the United States Population Younger than 40 Years

    PubMed Central

    Wittenborn, John S.; Zhang, Xinzhi; Feagan, Charles W.; Crouse, Wesley L.; Shrestha, Sundar; Kemper, Alex R.; Hoerger, Thomas J.; Saaddine, Jinan B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To estimate the economic burden of vision loss and eye disorders in the United States population younger than 40 years in 2012. Design Econometric and statistical analysis of survey, commercial claims, and census data. Participants The United States population younger than 40 years in 2012. Methods We categorized costs based on consensus guidelines. We estimated medical costs attributable to diagnosed eye-related disorders, undiagnosed vision loss, and medical vision aids using Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and MarketScan data. The prevalence of vision impairment and blindness were estimated using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. We estimated costs from lost productivity using Survey of Income and Program Participation. We estimated costs of informal care, low vision aids, special education, school screening, government spending, and transfer payments based on published estimates and federal budgets. We estimated quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) lost based on published utility values. Main Outcome Measures Costs and QALYs lost in 2012. Results The economic burden of vision loss and eye disorders among the United States population younger than 40 years was $27.5 billion in 2012 (95% confidence interval, $21.5–$37.2 billion), including $5.9 billion for children and $21.6 billion for adults 18 to 39 years of age. Direct costs were $14.5 billion, including $7.3 billion in medical costs for diagnosed disorders, $4.9 billion in refraction correction, $0.5 billion in medical costs for undiagnosed vision loss, and $1.8 billion in other direct costs. Indirect costs were $13 billion, primarily because of $12.2 billion in productivity losses. In addition, vision loss cost society 215 000 QALYs. Conclusions We found a substantial burden resulting from vision loss and eye disorders in the United States population younger than 40 years, a population excluded from previous studies. Monetizing quality-of-life losses at $50 000 per QALY would

  15. Florida harvester ant nest architecture, nest relocation and soil carbon dioxide gradients.

    PubMed

    Tschinkel, Walter R

    2013-01-01

    Colonies of the Florida harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex badius, excavate species-typical subterranean nests up the 3 m deep with characteristic vertical distribution of chamber area/shape, spacing between levels and vertical arrangement of the ants by age and brood stage. Colonies excavate and occupy a new nest about once a year, and doing so requires that they have information about the depth below ground. Careful excavation and mapping of vacated and new nests revealed that there was no significant difference between the old and new nests in any measure of nest size, shape or arrangement. Colonies essentially built a replicate of the just-vacated nest (although details differed), and they did so in less than a week. The reason for nest relocation is not apparent. Tschinkel noted that the vertical distribution of chamber area, worker age and brood type was strongly correlated to the soil carbon dioxide gradient, and proposed that this gradient serves as a template for nest excavation and vertical distribution. To test this hypothesis, the carbon dioxide gradient of colonies that were just beginning to excavate a new nest was eliminated by boring 6 vent holes around the forming nest, allowing the soil CO2 to diffuse into the atmosphere and eliminating the gradient. Sadly, neither the nest architecture nor the vertical ant distribution of vented nests differed from either unvented control or from their own vacated nest. In a stronger test, workers excavated a new nest under a reversed carbon dioxide gradient (high concentration near the surface, low below). Even under these conditions, the new and old nests did not differ significantly, showing that the soil carbon dioxide gradient does not serve as a template for nest construction or vertical worker distribution. The possible importance of soil CO2 gradients for soil-dwelling animals is discussed.

  16. Spawning chronology, nest site selection and nest success of smallmouth bass during benign streamflow conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dauwalter, D.C.; Fisher, W.L.

    2007-01-01

    We documented the nesting chronology, nest site selection and nest success of smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in an upstream (4th order) and downstream (5th order) reach of Baron Fork Creek, Oklahoma. Males started nesting in mid-Apr. when water temperatures increased to 16.9 C upstream, and in late-Apr. when temperatures increased to 16.2 C downstream. Streamflows were low (77% upstream to 82% downstream of mean Apr. streamflow, and 12 and 18% of meanjun. streamflow; 47 and 55 y of record), and decreased throughout the spawning period. Larger males nested first upstream, as has been observed in other populations, but not downstream. Upstream, progeny in 62 of 153 nests developed to swim-up stage. Downstream, progeny in 31 of 73 nests developed to swim-up. Nesting densities upstream (147/km) and downstream (100/km) were both higher than any densities previously reported. Males selected nest sites with intermediate water depths, low water velocity and near cover, behavior that is typical of smallmouth bass. Documented nest failures resulted from human disturbance, angling, and longear sunfish predation. Logistic exposure models showed that water velocity at the nest was negatively related and length of the guarding male was positively related to nest success upstream. Male length and number of degree days were both positively related to nest success downstream. Our results, and those of other studies, suggest that biological factors account for most nest failures during benign (stable, low flow) streamflow conditions, whereas nest failures attributed to substrate mobility or nest abandonment dominate when harsh streamflow conditions (spring floods) coincide with the spawning season.

  17. Adaptive nest clustering and density-dependent nest survival in dabbling ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ringelman, Kevin M.; Eadie, John M.; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2014-01-01

    Density-dependent population regulation is observed in many taxa, and understanding the mechanisms that generate density dependence is especially important for the conservation of heavily-managed species. In one such system, North American waterfowl, density dependence is often observed at continental scales, and nest predation has long been implicated as a key factor driving this pattern. However, despite extensive research on this topic, it remains unclear if and how nest density influences predation rates. Part of this confusion may have arisen because previous studies have studied density-dependent predation at relatively large spatial and temporal scales. Because the spatial distribution of nests changes throughout the season, which potentially influences predator behavior, nest survival may vary through time at relatively small spatial scales. As such, density-dependent nest predation might be more detectable at a spatially- and temporally-refined scale and this may provide new insights into nest site selection and predator foraging behavior. Here, we used three years of data on nest survival of two species of waterfowl, mallards and gadwall, to more fully explore the relationship between local nest clustering and nest survival. Throughout the season, we found that the distribution of nests was consistently clustered at small spatial scales (˜50–400 m), especially for mallard nests, and that this pattern was robust to yearly variation in nest density and the intensity of predation. We demonstrated further that local nest clustering had positive fitness consequences – nests with closer nearest neighbors were more likely to be successful, a result that is counter to the general assumption that nest predation rates increase with nest density.

  18. Florida Harvester Ant Nest Architecture, Nest Relocation and Soil Carbon Dioxide Gradients

    PubMed Central

    Tschinkel, Walter R.

    2013-01-01

    Colonies of the Florida harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex badius, excavate species-typical subterranean nests up the 3 m deep with characteristic vertical distribution of chamber area/shape, spacing between levels and vertical arrangement of the ants by age and brood stage. Colonies excavate and occupy a new nest about once a year, and doing so requires that they have information about the depth below ground. Careful excavation and mapping of vacated and new nests revealed that there was no significant difference between the old and new nests in any measure of nest size, shape or arrangement. Colonies essentially built a replicate of the just-vacated nest (although details differed), and they did so in less than a week. The reason for nest relocation is not apparent. Tschinkel noted that the vertical distribution of chamber area, worker age and brood type was strongly correlated to the soil carbon dioxide gradient, and proposed that this gradient serves as a template for nest excavation and vertical distribution. To test this hypothesis, the carbon dioxide gradient of colonies that were just beginning to excavate a new nest was eliminated by boring 6 vent holes around the forming nest, allowing the soil CO2 to diffuse into the atmosphere and eliminating the gradient. Sadly, neither the nest architecture nor the vertical ant distribution of vented nests differed from either unvented control or from their own vacated nest. In a stronger test, workers excavated a new nest under a reversed carbon dioxide gradient (high concentration near the surface, low below). Even under these conditions, the new and old nests did not differ significantly, showing that the soil carbon dioxide gradient does not serve as a template for nest construction or vertical worker distribution. The possible importance of soil CO2 gradients for soil-dwelling animals is discussed. PMID:23555829

  19. Nest marking behavior and chemical composition of olfactory cues involved in nest recognition in Megachile rotundata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study examines the use of olfactory cues for nest recognition by Megachile rotundata (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), an economically important pollinator of seed alfalfa throughout western North America. In-nest observations revealed that nesting females drag their abdomen alon...

  20. 7 CFR 30.19 - Nested.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nested. 30.19 Section 30.19 Agriculture Regulations of... AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.19 Nested. Any lot of tobacco which has been so handled or packed as to conceal damaged, injured,...

  1. Teaching Ecological Interactions with Mud Dauber Nests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Robert W.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the use of mud dauber wasp nests in laboratory activities in ecology and behavior and life science classes. Provides students with an opportunity to develop and practice basic skills including dissection, identification, observation, measurement, and communication. Discusses the life of mud daubers, obtaining and storing nests,…

  2. 7 CFR 29.6027 - Nested.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nested. 29.6027 Section 29.6027 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6027 Nested. Any tobacco which has been loaded, packed, or arranged...

  3. Dune vegetation fertilization by nesting sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Laura B; Roth, James D; Ehrhart, Llewellyn M; Weishampel, John F

    2007-04-01

    Sea turtle nesting presents a potential pathway to subsidize nutrient-poor dune ecosystems, which provide the nesting habitat for sea turtles. To assess whether this positive feedback between dune plants and turtle nests exists, we measured N concentration and delta15N values in dune soils, leaves from a common dune plant (sea oats [Uniola paniculata]), and addled eggs of loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and green turtles (Chelonia mydas) across a nesting gradient (200-1050 nests/km) along a 40.5-km stretch of beach in east central Florida, USA. The delta15N levels were higher in loggerhead than green turtle eggs, denoting the higher trophic level of loggerhead turtles. Soil N concentration and delta15N values were both positively correlated to turtle nest density. Sea oat leaf tissue delta15N was also positively correlated to nest density, indicating an increased use of augmented marine-based nutrient sources. Foliar N concentration was correlated with delta15N, suggesting that increased nutrient availability from this biogenic vector may enhance the vigor of dune vegetation, promoting dune stabilization and preserving sea turtle nesting habitat.

  4. A unified approach to analyzing nest success

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaffer, T.L.

    2004-01-01

    Logistic regression has become increasingly popular for modeling nest success in terms of nest-specific explanatory variables. However, logistic regression models for nest fate are inappropriate when applied to data from nests found at various ages, for the same reason that the apparent estimator of nest success is biased (i.e. older clutches are more likely to be successful than younger clutches). A generalized linear model is presented and illustrated that gives ornithologists access to a flexible, suitable alternative to logistic regression that is appropriate when exposure periods vary, as they usually do. Unlike the Mayfield method and the logistic regression method of Aebischer (1999), the logistic-exposure model requires no assumptions about when nest losses occur. Nest survival models involving continuous and categorical explanatory variables, multi-way classifications, and time-specific (e.g. nest age) and random effects are easily implemented with the logistic-exposure model. Application of the model to a sample of Yellow-breasted Chat (Icteria virens) nests shows that logistic-exposure estimates for individual levels of categorical explanatory variables agree closely with estimates obtained with Johnson's (1979) constant-survival estimator. Use of the logistic-exposure method to model time-specific effects of nest age and date on survival of Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors) and Mallard (A. platyrhynchos) nests gives results comparable to those reported by Klett and Johnson (1982). However, the logistic-exposure approach is less subjective and much easier to implement than Klett and Johnson's method. In addition, logistic-exposure survival rate estimates are constrained to the (0,1) interval, whereas Klett and Johnson estimates are not. When applied to a sample of Mountain Plover (Charadrius montanus) nests, the logistic-exposure method gives results either identical to, or similar to, those obtained with the nest survival model in program MARK. I

  5. Low Immunogenicity of Recombinant Hepatitis B Vaccine Derived from Hansenula polymorpha in Adults Aged Over 40 Years.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Karlla Antonieta Amorim; Del-Rios, Nativa Helena Alves; Pinheiro, Raquel Silva; Bergamaschi, Fabiana Perez Rodrigues; Carneiro, Megmar Aparecida Dos Santos; Teles, Sheila Araujo

    2017-01-11

    The Brazilian recombinant hepatitis B vaccine (VrHB-IB) is based on the expression of the recombinant antigen in Hansenula polymorpha yeast cells. Currently, data on the immunogenicity of this vaccine in older adults are nonexistent. This study aimed to evaluate the immunogenicity of VrHB-IB in adults over 40 years of age. From May to October 2011, 235 rural settlers between 2 and 93 years of age from the State of Goias in Brazil were eligible for vaccination. Of these, 180 accepted the first dose of the vaccine and 106 (58.9%) completed the vaccination schedule. Multivariate analysis revealed that individuals ≥ 40 years of age responded significantly less well to vaccination than younger adults. Also, a greater proportion of male nonresponders was observed (versus women; P = 0.02). These results point to the need for better evaluation of the immunogenicity of VrHB-IB in older adults.

  6. Production of sea lamprey larvae from nests in two Lake Superior streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.

    1968-01-01

    The life history of the landlocked sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, has been described by several authors, the two most recent of which are Applegate and Wigley. The only information on the production of larvae from nests of the sea lamprey was reported by Applegate, who counted the larvae from three nests in the Ocqueoc River, a tributary of Lake Huron. The present report presents data on the hatching success of sea lamprey larvae from 19 nests in two small tributaries of southern Lake Superior and indicates greater production per nest than that recorded by Applegate. Studies were conducted by personnel of the U.S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries on the Little Garlic River, Marquette County, Michigan, and on the Traverse River, Keweenaw County, Michigan.

  7. Fine and Coarse-Scale Patterns of Vegetation Diversity on Reclaimed Surface Mine-land Over a 40-Year Chronosequence.

    PubMed

    Bohrer, Stefanie L; Limb, Ryan F; Daigh, Aaron L; Volk, Jay M; Wick, Abbey F

    2017-03-01

    Rangelands are described as heterogeneous, due to patterning in species assemblages and productivity that arise from species dispersal and interactions with environmental gradients and disturbances across multiple scales. The objectives of rangeland reclamation are typically vegetation establishment, plant community productivity, and soil stability. However, while fine-scale diversity is often promoted through species-rich seed mixes, landscape heterogeneity and coarse-scale diversity are largely overlooked. Our objectives were to evaluate fine and coarse-scale vegetation patterns across a 40-year reclamation chronosequence on reclaimed surface coalmine lands. We hypothesized that both α-diversity and β-diversity would increase and community patch size and species dissimilarity to reference sites would decrease on independent sites over 40 years. Plant communities were surveyed on 19 post-coalmine reclaimed sites and four intact native reference sites in central North Dakota mixed-grass prairie. Our results showed no differences in α or β-diversity and plant community patch size over the 40-year chronosequence. However, both α-diversity and β-diversity on reclaimed sites was similar to reference sites. Native species establishment was limited due to the presence of non-native species such as Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) on both the reclaimed and reference sites. Species composition was different between reclaimed and reference sites and community dissimilarity increased on reclaimed sites over the 40-year chronosequence. Plant communities resulting from reclamation followed non-equilibrium succession, even with consistent seeds mixes established across all reclaimed years. This suggests post-reclamation management strategies influence species composition outcomes and land management strategies applied uniformly may not increase landscape-level diversity.

  8. Fine and Coarse-Scale Patterns of Vegetation Diversity on Reclaimed Surface Mine-land Over a 40-Year Chronosequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohrer, Stefanie L.; Limb, Ryan F.; Daigh, Aaron L.; Volk, Jay M.; Wick, Abbey F.

    2017-03-01

    Rangelands are described as heterogeneous, due to patterning in species assemblages and productivity that arise from species dispersal and interactions with environmental gradients and disturbances across multiple scales. The objectives of rangeland reclamation are typically vegetation establishment, plant community productivity, and soil stability. However, while fine-scale diversity is often promoted through species-rich seed mixes, landscape heterogeneity and coarse-scale diversity are largely overlooked. Our objectives were to evaluate fine and coarse-scale vegetation patterns across a 40-year reclamation chronosequence on reclaimed surface coalmine lands. We hypothesized that both α-diversity and β-diversity would increase and community patch size and species dissimilarity to reference sites would decrease on independent sites over 40 years. Plant communities were surveyed on 19 post-coalmine reclaimed sites and four intact native reference sites in central North Dakota mixed-grass prairie. Our results showed no differences in α or β-diversity and plant community patch size over the 40-year chronosequence. However, both α-diversity and β-diversity on reclaimed sites was similar to reference sites. Native species establishment was limited due to the presence of non-native species such as Kentucky bluegrass ( Poa pratensis) on both the reclaimed and reference sites. Species composition was different between reclaimed and reference sites and community dissimilarity increased on reclaimed sites over the 40-year chronosequence. Plant communities resulting from reclamation followed non-equilibrium succession, even with consistent seeds mixes established across all reclaimed years. This suggests post-reclamation management strategies influence species composition outcomes and land management strategies applied uniformly may not increase landscape-level diversity.

  9. Association among functional-movement ability, fatigue, sedentary time, and fitness in 40 years and older active duty military personnel.

    PubMed

    Kennedy-Armbruster, Carol; Evans, Ellen M; Sexauer, Lisa; Peterson, James; Wyatt, William

    2013-12-01

    Identifying potential modifiable determinants of functional movement ability and fatigue may inform efforts to maintain constant physical readiness, especially in active duty military over 40 years of age, who are largely sedentary throughout their work day. The primary aim of this study was to determine the associations among conventional fitness measures (body composition, flexibility, and strength), sedentary behavior (sitting time), functional movement ability, and fatigue in military personnel. Volunteer active duty personnel 40 years of age and older (n = 569 males; n = 121 females; mean ± SD for total sample = 44.5 ± 4.1 years) were assessed for adiposity (%Fat), strength, flexibility, self-reported sitting time, perceived fatigue using the fatigue severity scale, and functional movement ability using the functional movement screening criteria. Greater flexibility was associated with better functional movement screening scores (r = 0.34, p < 0.05), and waist circumference and %Fat were inversely related to function (r = -0.26 and -0.21, p < 0.05). Furthermore, less sitting time (p < 0.001) was associated with less fatigue. Our data suggest that exercise training, reductions in daily sitting time, and weight management may be viable intervention targets to enhance functional movement ability and reduce fatigue in 40+ year old active duty military personnel.

  10. Nest survival rate of Reeves's pheasant (Syrmaticus reevesii) based on artificial nest experiments.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xu; Zhao, Yu-Ze; Ma, Jing; Li, Jian-Qiang; Xu, Ji-Liang

    2017-01-18

    To explore the nest survival rate of Reeves's pheasant(Syrmaticus reevesii) and the nest-site factors that affect it, we conducted artificial nest experiments with reference to natural nests at Dongzhai National Nature Reserve(DNNR), Henan Province and Pingjingguan, Hubei Province from April to June 2014 simulating the situation in its early and later breeding season. We also determined distance characteristics of the nest sites by ArcGIS 10.0. Nest survival models were constructed in Program MARK for data analysis. Results indicated that in the early breeding season, the apparent survival rate(ASR) in DNNR(52.4%) was significantly greater than that in Pingjingguan(13.5%), and the ASR in the later breeding season in DNNR(26.7%) was not indistinctively correlated with Pingjingguan(3.2%). The daily survival rate(DSR) in the later breeding season was 93.8% in DNNR and 92.0% in Pingjingguan, respectively. The DSRs were both negatively correlated with nest distance to forest edges and settlements. The DSR in Pingjingguan was positively correlated with nest distance to paths and negatively correlated with nest distance to water sources. However, the DSR in DNNR was negatively correlated with nest distance to paths but positively correlated with nest distance to water sources.

  11. Nest survival rate of Reeves's pheasant (Syrmaticus reevesii) based on artificial nest experiments

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xu; Zhao, Yu-Ze; Ma, Jing; Li, Jian-Qiang; Xu, Ji-Liang

    2017-01-01

    To explore the nest survival rate of Reeves's pheasant (Syrmaticus reevesii) and the nest-site factors that affect it, we conducted artificial nest experiments with reference to natural nests at Dongzhai National Nature Reserve (DNNR), Henan Province and Pingjingguan, Hubei Province from April to June 2014 simulating the situation in its early and later breeding season. We also determined distance characteristics of the nest sites using ArcGIS 10.0. Nest survival models were constructed in Program MARK for data analysis. Results indicated that in the early breeding season, the apparent survival rate (ASR) in DNNR (52.4%) was significantly greater than that in Pingjingguan (13.5%), and the ASR in the later breeding season in DNNR (26.7%) was not indistinctively correlated with Pingjingguan (3.2%). The daily survival rate (DSR) in the later breeding season was 93.8% in DNNR and 92.0% in Pingjingguan, respectively. The DSRs were both negatively correlated with nest distance to forest edges and settlements. The DSR in Pingjingguan was positively correlated with nest distance to paths and negatively correlated with nest distance to water sources. However, the DSR in DNNR was negatively correlated with nest distance to paths but positively correlated with nest distance to water sources. PMID:28271670

  12. The Discovery of the Tau Lepton and the Changes in Elementary Particle Physics in 40 Years

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Perl, M.

    2003-10-22

    This is a history of my discovery of the tau lepton in the 1970s for which I was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics. I have previously described some aspects of the discovery. In 1996 in my collection of papers entitled, ''Reflections on Experimental Science,'' I gave a straightforward account of the experimental method and the physics involved in the discovery as an introduction to the collection. In a 2002 paper written with Mary A. Meyer published in the journal ''Theoria et Historia Scientiarum'' I used the story of the discovery to outline my thoughts on the practice of experimental science. That 2002 paper was written primarily for young women and men who are beginning their lives in science and it was based on a lecture given at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Some of the historical material in this paper has appeared in those two earlier papers.

  13. Chirality generated by flows in pseudocyanine dye J-aggregates: revisiting 40 years old reports.

    PubMed

    El-Hachemi, Zoubir; Arteaga, Oriol; Canillas, Adolf; Crusats, Joaquim; Llorens, Joan; Ribo, Josep M

    2011-09-01

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking in J-aggregates of cyanine dyes has a long history in chemical literature. In 1976, Honda and Hada claimed that they had achieved chiral induction (CD) by stirring J-aggregates of pseudocyanine. However, this report is controversial, as the combinations of linear dichroism and birefringence can lead to artifactual circular dichroic signals that are unrelated to molecular chirality. A Mueller matrix spectroscopy study, with an approach for the application of a gradient of the shear rate (solution layer between a rotating and a fixed disk) that differs from the simple vortex stirring used in the original report, shows that true CD can be induced in the sample. The phenomenon is discussed, taking into account the flow dynamics that allows the alignment of the aggregate particles and the gradient of shear rates that determines their folding/torsion, which leads to a chiral excitonic transition.

  14. Diversity of active microbial communities subjected to long-term exposure to chemical contaminants along a 40-year-old sediment core.

    PubMed

    Kaci, Assia; Petit, Fabienne; Fournier, Matthieu; Cécillon, Sébastien; Boust, Dominique; Lesueur, Patrick; Berthe, Thierry

    2016-03-01

    In estuarine ecosystems, metallic and organic contaminants are mainly associated with fine grain sediments which settle on mudflats. Over time, the layers of sediment accumulate and are then transformed by diagenetic processes mainly controlled by microbial activity, recording the history of the estuary's chemical contamination. In an environment of this specific type, we investigated the evolution of the chemical contamination and the structure of both total and active microbial communities, based on PhyloChip analysis of a 4.6-m core corresponding to a 40-year sedimentary record. While the archaeal abundance remained constant along the core, a decrease by one order of magnitude in the bacterial abundance was observed with depth. Both total and active microbial communities were dominated by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes in all sediment samples. Among Proteobacteria, alpha-Proteobacteria dominated both total (from 37 to 60 %) and metabolically active (from 19.7 to 34.6 %) communities, including the Rhizobiales, Rhodobacter, Caulobacterales, and Sphingomonadales orders. Co-inertia analysis revealed a relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, zinc and some polychlorobiphenyls concentrations, and the structure of total and active microbial communities in the oldest and most contaminated sediments (from 1970 to 1975), suggesting that long-term exposure to chemicals shaped the structure of the microbial community.

  15. Emperor penguins nesting on Inaccessible Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonkel, G.M.; Llano, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    Emperor penguins were observed nesting on Inaccessible I. during the 1973 winter. This is the southernmost nesting of emperor penguins thus far recorded; it also could be the first record of emperors attempting to start a new rookery. This site, however, may have been used by emperors in the past. The closest reported nesting of these penguins to Inaccessible I. is on the Ross Ice Shelf east of Cape Crozier. With the exception of the Inaccessible I. record, there is little evidence that emperor penguins breed in McMurdo Sound proper.

  16. Nested Gulf of Mexico Modeling with HYCOM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-08

    Nested Gulf of Mexico Modeling with HYCOM Patrick J. Hogan Alan J. Wallcraft Naval Research Laboratory Stennis Space Center, MS HYCOM Meeting...valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE DEC 2005 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2005 to 00-00-2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nested Gulf of Mexico Modeling...topography is from NRL-DBDB2 • Integrated over 2000-2001 1/25° (~4 km) non-assimilative Nested Gulf of Mexico Possible cross-shelf transport

  17. Acadian flycatcher nest placement: Does placement influence reproductive success?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, R.R.; Cooper, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    We located 511 Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) nests in bottomland hardwood forest of eastern Arkansas. Microhabitat characteristics were measured and their relationship with nest success evaluated. Fifty-two percent of all nesting attempts resulted in predation. Attributes of nest placement were similar between successful and unsuccessful nests, although successful nests were placed higher. Similarly, nonparasitized nests were typically higher than parasitized nests. Nests initiated late in the breeding season were placed in larger trees with higher canopy bases resulting in increased vegetation around the nest. Fifteen different tree species were used for nesting. Acadian Flycatchers chose nest trees in a nonrandom fashion, selecting Nuttall oak (Quercus nuttallii) and possumhaw (Ilex decidua) in greater proportions than their availability. However, there was no relationship between tree species used for nesting and nest success. Nest height was positively correlated with concealment at the nest site, supporting the predator-avoidance theory. No other attribute of nest placement differentiated successful nest sites, suggesting that nest predation is likely a function of random events in space and time.

  18. Construction patterns of birds’ nests provide insight into nest-building behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Adrian M.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that birds and mammals select materials needed for nest building based on their thermal or structural properties, although the amounts or properties of the materials used have been recorded for only a very small number of species. Some of the behaviours underlying the construction of nests can be indirectly determined by careful deconstruction of the structure and measurement of the biomechanical properties of the materials used. Here we examined this idea in an investigation of Bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula) nests as a model for open-nesting songbird species that construct a “twig” nest, and tested the hypothesis that materials in different parts of nests serve different functions. The quantities of materials present in the nest base, sides and cup were recorded before structural analysis. Structural analysis showed that the base of the outer nests were composed of significantly thicker, stronger and more rigid materials compared to the side walls, which in turn were significantly thicker, stronger and more rigid than materials used in the cup. These results suggest that the placement of particular materials in nests may not be random, but further work is required to determine if the final structure of a nest accurately reflects the construction process. PMID:28265501

  19. Construction patterns of birds' nests provide insight into nest-building behaviours.

    PubMed

    Biddle, Lucia; Goodman, Adrian M; Deeming, D Charles

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that birds and mammals select materials needed for nest building based on their thermal or structural properties, although the amounts or properties of the materials used have been recorded for only a very small number of species. Some of the behaviours underlying the construction of nests can be indirectly determined by careful deconstruction of the structure and measurement of the biomechanical properties of the materials used. Here we examined this idea in an investigation of Bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula) nests as a model for open-nesting songbird species that construct a "twig" nest, and tested the hypothesis that materials in different parts of nests serve different functions. The quantities of materials present in the nest base, sides and cup were recorded before structural analysis. Structural analysis showed that the base of the outer nests were composed of significantly thicker, stronger and more rigid materials compared to the side walls, which in turn were significantly thicker, stronger and more rigid than materials used in the cup. These results suggest that the placement of particular materials in nests may not be random, but further work is required to determine if the final structure of a nest accurately reflects the construction process.

  20. Spatial dynamics of nesting behavior: lizards shift microhabitats to construct nests with beneficial thermal properties.

    PubMed

    Angilletta, Michael J; Sears, Michael W; Pringle, Robert M

    2009-10-01

    Because temperature affects the growth, development, and survival of embryos, oviparous mothers should discriminate carefully among available nesting sites. We combined a radiotelemetric study of animal movements with a spatial mapping of environmental temperatures to test predictions about the nesting behavior of the eastern fence lizard (Sceloporus undulatus). Females made large excursions from their typical home ranges to construct nests in exposed substrates. These excursions appeared to be related solely to nesting because all females returned to forested habitat immediately afterward. On average, <1% (range = 0-8%, n = 19) of the area used by a female during nesting was contained within the area used before and after nesting. The selection of nesting sites matched predictions based on laboratory studies of embryonic performance; specifically, females nested in extremely open habitat at a mean of 6 cm depth. Spatial mapping of soil temperatures revealed that temperatures of nesting areas exceeded those of areas typically used by females, indicating that females preferred to construct warm nests that speed embryonic growth and development. However, this behavior could reduce the survivorship of females because of the need to rapidly navigate unfamiliar and exposed terrain.

  1. Nest site characteristics and nesting success of the Western Burrowing Owl in the eastern Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longshore, Kathleen M.; Crowe, Dorothy E.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated nest site selection at two spatial scales (microsite, territory) and reproductive success of Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) at three spatial scales (microsite, territory, landscape) in the eastern Mojave Desert. We used binary logistic regression within an information-theoretic approach to assess factors influencing nest site choice and nesting success. Microsite-scale variables favored by owls included burrows excavated by desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii), burrows with a large mound of excavated soil at the entrance, and a greater number of satellite burrows within 5 m of the nest burrow. At the territory scale, owls preferred patches with greater cover of creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) within 50 m of the nest burrow. An interaction between the presence or absence of a calcic soil horizon layer over the top of the burrow (microsite) and the number of burrows within 50 m (territory) influenced nest site choice. Nesting success was influenced by a greater number of burrows within 5 m of the nest burrow. Total cool season precipitation was a predictor of nesting success at the landscape scale. Conservation strategies can rely on management of habitat for favored and productive nesting sites for this declining species.

  2. The nest as fortress: defensive behavior of Polybia emaciata, a mud-nesting eusocial wasp

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, Sean; Jeanne, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    The swarm-founding wasp Polybia emaciata is unusual among eusocial Vespidae because it uses mud, rather than wood pulp, as its primary nest construction material. Polybia emaciata nests are more durable than similarly sized paper nests. We tested the hypothesis that the defensive behavior of this wasp may have been modified to take advantage of their strong nests in defense against vertebrate attacks. We simulated vertebrate disturbances by tapping on, and breathing in, P. emaciata nests and similarly sized P. occidentalis paper nests in the same location at the same time. Polybia emaciata responses to disturbance were qualitatively different from those of P. occidentalis. The latter exit the nest and attack, while P. emaciata workers typically fled or entered the nest, attacking only after repeated and extended disturbances. We conclude that durable nest material may permit predator avoidance behavior in P. emaciata. We compare the defensive responses of P. emaciata workers with those of other swarm-founding Vespidae, and discuss several selective forces that could cause the evolution of species variation in nest defense behavior. PMID:15455037

  3. Seizures as the first manifestation of chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome in a 40-year old man: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Tonelli, Adriano R; Kosuri, Kalyan; Wei, Sainan; Chick, Davoren

    2007-01-01

    Background The microdeletion of chromosome 22q11.2 is the most common human deletion syndrome. It typically presents early in life and is rarely considered in adult patients. As part of the manifestations of this condition, patients can have parathyroid glandular involvement ranging from hypocalcemic hypoparathyroidism to normocalcemia with normal parathryroid hormone levels. The first manifestation of the syndrome might be seizures due to profound hypocalcemia. Case presentation A 40-year-old man without significant past medical history presented with a new-onset generalized tonic-clonic seizure. He had no personal history of hypocalcemia or seizures. Physical examination was remarkable for short stature, hypertelorism, prominent forehead and nasal voice. His initial laboratory examination showed hypocalcemia (Calcium 5.2 mg/dl and Calcium ionized 0.69 mmol/l) with hypoparathyroidism (Parathyroid hormone intact < 2.5 pg/ml. NV: 14–72 pg/ml). Urine Calcium was 3 mg/dl on a spot and 88 mg in a 24-hour urine collection (NV: 100–300 mg/24 hs). The electrocardiogram showed a prolonged corrected QT interval. Echocardiogram, abdominal ultrasound and electroencephalogram were normal. A computer tomography of the brain showed basal ganglia calcification. The subtle physical findings and the presence of idiopathic hypoparathyroidism motivated the performance of fluorescent in situ hybridization which demonstrated a microdeletion on one of the homologs 22q11.2. The patient was treated with calcium citrate and calcitriol with good response. Conclusion Microdeletion of chromosome 22q11.2 is among the most clinically variable syndromes, with more than 180 features associated with the deletion. It has a variable phenotypical expression, requiring a high level of awareness for its early diagnosis. Seizures, related to marked hypocalcemia due to idiopathic hypoparathyroidism, might be the presenting feature in an adult patient with this syndrome. PMID:18053182

  4. Adult Health: Worried About Empty Nest Syndrome?

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcoholism, identity crisis and marital conflicts. However, recent studies suggest that an empty nest might reduce work and family conflicts, and can provide parents with many other benefits. When the last child leaves home, parents have ...

  5. University of Washington's Manastash Ridge Observatory: 40 Years of Astronomy Research and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Julie H.; Laws, C.; Ramien, N.

    2012-01-01

    The University of Washington's Manastash Ridge Observatory (UW MRO) will celebrate the 40th anniversary of its dedication in May 2012. The MRO Boller and Chivens 0.75-m telescope was installed in 1972, following two years of site surveys in the Cascade Mountains east of Seattle. The observatory was used initially for research by UW faculty, as well as for graduate research and training, and during the 1970's and 1980's many of the UW's astronomy PhD theses relied heavily on data obtained at MRO. In recent years MRO has shifted its mission to enabling undergraduate research, and to providing a "capstone” course in advanced photometric methods for our undergraduate majors. Photometry has long been the major source of data from MRO, and the Washington Photometry system for measuring stellar abundances was developed at UW and first deployed at MRO. The cameras at MRO have been used to research a wide variety of objects: cataclysmic variables, RR Lyrae stars, symbiotic stars, novae, X-ray binaries, white dwarfs, M dwarfs, asteroids, comets, star clusters, and many others. Over 100 papers based all or in part upon data obtained at MRO data have appeared in refereed publications. Our poster will present highlights of the research and stories from MRO's history.

  6. Evolution of treatment mechanics and contemporary appliance design in orthodontics: A 40-year perspective.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Richard P; Bennett, John C

    2015-06-01

    Until the early 1970s, successful treatment with the Begg technique and the Tweed edgewise technique required tedious wire bending. The introduction of Andrews' straight wire appliance changed that, and it was one of the most significant contributions in the history of orthodontics. The straight wire appliance significantly reduced the amount of wire bending and also brought along other options in treatment mechanics. Retraction of the canines with elastic chains and ligature wires became more common. Sliding mechanics in place of closing loops became the method of space closure for a significant number of clinicians. Edgewise force levels were initially used to close spaces; however, it was soon observed that lighter forces were more effective with sliding mechanics. Along with these changes, it became apparent that compensation in the appliance was needed, depending on the type of malocclusion and particularly with varying extraction sequences. Various appliance designs were developed to accommodate changes in mechanics and force levels. These modifications improved tooth positions at the end of treatment as long as the brackets were properly placed. These major changes in appliances, force levels, and treatment mechanics can be traced back to the work of Dr Lawrence Andrews and the straight wire appliances.

  7. Nested ocean models: Work in progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, A. Louise

    1991-01-01

    The ongoing work of combining three existing software programs into a nested grid oceanography model is detailed. The HYPER domain decomposition program, the SPEM ocean modeling program, and a quasi-geostrophic model written in England are being combined into a general ocean modeling facility. This facility will be used to test the viability and the capability of two-way nested grids in the North Atlantic.

  8. Nest Construction by a Ground-nesting Bird Represents a Potential Trade-off Between Egg Crypticity and Thermoregulation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Predation selects against conspicuous colors in bird eggs and nests, while thermoregulatory constraints select for nest building behavior that regulates incubation temperatures. We present results that reveal a trade-off between nest crypticity and thermoregulation of eggs base...

  9. Monitoring floods and fires during the summer of 2011--The value of the Landsat satellite 40-year archives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonescheit, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The summer of 2011 proved to be a season of extreme events. Heavy snowfall in the western mountains and excessive spring rains caused flooding along the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers; whereas extended dry conditions enabled fires to rage out of control from Alaska and Canada, south to Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, Georgia, and Mexico. The Landsat archive holds nearly 40 years of continuous global earth observation data. Landsat data are used by emergency responders to monitor change and damage caused by natural and man-made disasters. Decision makers rely on Landsat as they create plans for future environmental concerns.

  10. Nesting habitat and nest site selection by the bald eagle in Maryland. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mosher, J.A.; Andrew, J.M.

    1981-07-01

    Habitat at 70 bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nest sites was quantified and compared with evaluations at 139 random habitat plots located in the Chesapeake Bay region of Maryland. Bald eagles selected vegetationally open habitats near water and away from selected human activities relative to random habitat plots. Successful nest sites were located in denser forest stands farther from water and unoccupied structures than unsuccessful nest sites.

  11. Daily Activity and Nest Occupation Patterns of Fox Squirrels (Sciurus niger) throughout the Year

    PubMed Central

    Wassmer, Thomas; Refinetti, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated the general activity and nest occupation patterns of fox squirrels in a natural setting using temperature-sensitive data loggers that measure activity as changes in the microenvironment of the animal. Data were obtained from 25 distinct preparations, upon 14 unique squirrels, totaling 1385 recording days. The animals were clearly diurnal, with a predominantly unimodal activity pattern, although individual squirrels occasionally exhibited bimodal patterns, particularly in the spring and summer. Even during the short days of winter (9 hours of light), the squirrels typically left the nest after dawn and returned before dusk, spending only about 7 hours out of the nest each day. Although the duration of the daily active phase did not change with the seasons, the squirrels exited the nest earlier in the day when the days became longer in the summer and exited the nest later in the day when the days became shorter in the winter, thus tracking dawn along the seasons. During the few hours spent outside the nest each day, fox squirrels seemed to spend most of the time sitting or lying. These findings suggest that fox squirrels may have adopted a slow life history strategy that involves long periods of rest on trees and short periods of ground activity each day. PMID:26963918

  12. Reproductive Ecology and Habitat Use of Pacific Black Scoters (Melanitta nigra americana) Nesting on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schamber, Jason L.

    2010-01-01

    Abundance indices of Black Scoters (Melanitta nigra. americana) breeding in Alaska indicate a long-term population decline without obvious cause (s). However, few life history data are available for the species in North America. In 2001–2004, information was collected on nesting habitat and reproductive parameters (i.e. components of productivity) from a population of Black Scoters nesting on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. A total of 157 nests were found over four years. Primarily, nests were among dense vegetation in shrub edge habitat, predominantly dwarf birch (Betula glandulosa) and Alaska spiraea (Spiraea beauverdiana), an average of 58 m from water. Females initiated nests from 11 June and 17 July across years. Clutch size averaged 7.5 eggs and did not vary annually. Nest success was highly variable among years and ranged from 0.01 to 0.37. Duckling survival to 30 days old varied among years, and ranged from 0.09 – 0.35. Nest success was poor in three of four years, likely due to predation by Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes). Black Scoters appear to have low but variable productivity, consistent with life-history patterns of other sea duck species. Information gained will direct future demographic research on Black Scoters, and highlights knowledge gaps impeding management strategies needed for population recovery.

  13. Testing ecological and behavioral correlates of nest predation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fontaine, J.J.; Martel, M.; Markland, H.M.; Niklison, Alina M.; Decker, Karie L.; Martin, T.E.

    2007-01-01

    Variation in nest predation rates among bird species are assumed to reflect differences in risk that are specific to particular nest sites. Theoretical and empirical studies suggest that parental care behaviors can evolve in response to nest predation risk and thereby differ among ecological conditions that vary in inherent risk. However, parental care also can influence predation risk. Separating the effects of nest predation risk inherent to a nest site from the risk imposed by parental strategies is needed to understand the evolution of parental care. Here we identify correlations between risks inherent to nest sites, and risk associated with parental care behaviors, and use an artificial nest experiment to assess site-specific differences in nest predation risk across nesting guilds and between habitats that differed in nest predator abundance. We found a strong correlation between parental care behaviors and inherent differences in nest predation risk, but despite the absence of parental care at artificial nests, patterns of nest predation risk were similar for real and artificial nests both across nesting guilds and between predator treatments. Thus, we show for the first time that inherent risk of nest predation varies with nesting guild and predator abundance independent of parental care. ?? Oikos.

  14. An EVACS simulation with nested transactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auty, David; Atkinson, Collin; Randall, Charlie

    1992-01-01

    Documented here is the recent effort of the MISSION Kernel Team on an Extra-Vehicular Activity Control System (EVACS) simulation with nested transactions. The team has implemented the EVACS simulation along with a design for nested transactions. The EVACS simulation is a project wide aid to exploring Mission and Safety Critical (MASC) applications and their support software. For this effort it served as a trial scenario for demonstrating nested transactions and exercising the transaction support design. The EVACS simulation is a simulation of some aspects of the Extra-Vehicular Activity Control System, in particular, just the selection of communication frequencies. Its current definition is quite narrow, serving only as a starting point for prototyping purposes. (EVACS itself may be supplanted in a larger scenario of a lunar outpost with astronauts and a lunar rover.) Initially the simulation of frequency selection was written without consideration of nested transactions. This scenario was then modified to embed its processing in nested transactions. To simplify the prototyping effort, only two aspects of the general design for transaction support have been implemented: the basic architecture and state recovery. The simulation has been implemented in the programming language Smalltalk. It consists of three components: (1) a simulation support code which provides the framework for initiating, interacting and tracing the system; (2) the EVACS application code itself, including its calls upon nested transaction support; and (3) a transaction support code which implements the logic necessary for nested transactions. Each of these components deserves further description, but for now only the transaction support is discussed.

  15. A first large cohort study of personality trait stability over the 40 years between elementary school and midlife.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Sarah E; Goldberg, Lewis R

    2006-10-01

    This report provides some initial findings from an investigation of the relations between childhood Big Five personality traits assessed by elementary school teachers and similar traits assessed 40 years later by self-reports at midlife (N = 799). Short-term (1-3 years) test-retest reliabilities were lower (.22-.53) in childhood when personality was developing than they were in adulthood (.70-.79) when personality stability should be at its peak. Stability coefficients across the 40-year interval between the childhood assessment and the 2 measures of adulthood personality were higher for Extraversion (e.g., .29) and Conscientiousness (e.g., .25) than for Openness (e.g., .16), Agreeableness (e.g., .08), and Neuroticism (e.g., .00). Construct continuity between childhood and adulthood was evaluated by canonical analysis and by structural equation modeling and indicated continuity at both a broad, two-dimensional level and at the level of the Big Five. The findings are discussed in relation to A. Caspi, B. W. Roberts, and R. L. Shiner's (2005) principles of rank-order personality stability.

  16. Childhood Conscientiousness and Leukocyte Telomere Length 40 Years Later in Adult Women—Preliminary Findings of a Prospective Association

    PubMed Central

    Edmonds, Grant W.; Côté, Hélène C. F.; Hampson, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortens with age, and is a prospective marker of mortality related to cardiovascular disease. Many health behaviors and social environmental factors have been found to be associated with LTL. Several of these are also associated with conscientiousness, a dispositional personality trait. Conscientiousness is a propensity to be planful, adhere to social norms, and inhibit pre-potent responses. Like LTL, conscientiousness is prospectively related to mortality, possibly through cumulative effects on health over the life course via multiple pathways. As a result, we hypothesized that childhood levels of conscientiousness would predict LTL prospectively in adulthood. We selected a sample of 60 women in the Hawaii Personality and Health Cohort; 30 described by their teachers as high on conscientiousness in childhood and 30 described as low on the trait. Dried blood spot samples collected in adulthood 40 years later were used as sources of DNA for the LTL assay. Conscientiousness was associated with longer LTL (p = .02). Controlling for age did not account for this association. Controlling for education and physiological dysregulation partially attenuated the association, and the effect remained significant when accounting for differences in LTL across cultural groups. These results represent the first evidence that childhood personality prospectively predicts LTL 40 years later in adulthood. Our findings would be consistent with a mediation hypothesis whereby conscientiousness predicts life paths and trajectories of health that are reflected in rates of LTL erosion across the lifespan. PMID:26218760

  17. Childhood Conscientiousness and Leukocyte Telomere Length 40 Years Later in Adult Women--Preliminary Findings of a Prospective Association.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Grant W; Côté, Hélène C F; Hampson, Sarah E

    2015-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortens with age, and is a prospective marker of mortality related to cardiovascular disease. Many health behaviors and social environmental factors have been found to be associated with LTL. Several of these are also associated with conscientiousness, a dispositional personality trait. Conscientiousness is a propensity to be planful, adhere to social norms, and inhibit pre-potent responses. Like LTL, conscientiousness is prospectively related to mortality, possibly through cumulative effects on health over the life course via multiple pathways. As a result, we hypothesized that childhood levels of conscientiousness would predict LTL prospectively in adulthood. We selected a sample of 60 women in the Hawaii Personality and Health Cohort; 30 described by their teachers as high on conscientiousness in childhood and 30 described as low on the trait. Dried blood spot samples collected in adulthood 40 years later were used as sources of DNA for the LTL assay. Conscientiousness was associated with longer LTL (p = .02). Controlling for age did not account for this association. Controlling for education and physiological dysregulation partially attenuated the association, and the effect remained significant when accounting for differences in LTL across cultural groups. These results represent the first evidence that childhood personality prospectively predicts LTL 40 years later in adulthood. Our findings would be consistent with a mediation hypothesis whereby conscientiousness predicts life paths and trajectories of health that are reflected in rates of LTL erosion across the lifespan.

  18. Nested Canalyzing, Unate Cascade, and Polynomial Functions.

    PubMed

    Jarrah, Abdul Salam; Raposa, Blessilda; Laubenbacher, Reinhard

    2007-09-15

    This paper focuses on the study of certain classes of Boolean functions that have appeared in several different contexts. Nested canalyzing functions have been studied recently in the context of Boolean network models of gene regulatory networks. In the same context, polynomial functions over finite fields have been used to develop network inference methods for gene regulatory networks. Finally, unate cascade functions have been studied in the design of logic circuits and binary decision diagrams. This paper shows that the class of nested canalyzing functions is equal to that of unate cascade functions. Furthermore, it provides a description of nested canalyzing functions as a certain type of Boolean polynomial function. Using the polynomial framework one can show that the class of nested canalyzing functions, or, equivalently, the class of unate cascade functions, forms an algebraic variety which makes their analysis amenable to the use of techniques from algebraic geometry and computational algebra. As a corollary of the functional equivalence derived here, a formula in the literature for the number of unate cascade functions provides such a formula for the number of nested canalyzing functions.

  19. A history of orthotopic heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Meine, Trip J; Russell, Stuart D

    2005-01-01

    Orthotopic human heart transplantation today is performed at more than 150 U.S. centers, and the average survival is more than 10 years. Its prevalence and success, however, belies the fact that just 40 years ago, no one had ever attempted the procedure in humans and that the procedure seemed destined for failure just a year after the first transplant. This article reviews the history of orthotopic heart transplantation, beginning with ancient Greek legends and culminating in modern successes.

  20. The effects of large beach debris on nesting sea turtles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fujisaki, Ikuko; Lamont, Margaret M.

    2016-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to understand the effects of large beach debris on sea turtle nesting behavior as well as the effectiveness of large debris removal for habitat restoration. Large natural and anthropogenic debris were removed from one of three sections of a sea turtle nesting beach and distributions of nests and false crawls (non-nesting crawls) in pre- (2011–2012) and post- (2013–2014) removal years in the three sections were compared. The number of nests increased 200% and the number of false crawls increased 55% in the experimental section, whereas a corresponding increase in number of nests and false crawls was not observed in the other two sections where debris removal was not conducted. The proportion of nest and false crawl abundance in all three beach sections was significantly different between pre- and post-removal years. The nesting success, the percent of successful nests in total nesting attempts (number of nests + false crawls), also increased from 24% to 38%; however the magnitude of the increase was comparably small because both the number of nests and false crawls increased, and thus the proportion of the nesting success in the experimental beach in pre- and post-removal years was not significantly different. The substantial increase in sea turtle nesting activities after the removal of large debris indicates that large debris may have an adverse impact on sea turtle nesting behavior. Removal of large debris could be an effective restoration strategy to improve sea turtle nesting.

  1. Ant Colonies Prefer Infected over Uninfected Nest Sites

    PubMed Central

    Pontieri, Luigi; Vojvodic, Svjetlana; Graham, Riley; Pedersen, Jes Søe; Linksvayer, Timothy A.

    2014-01-01

    During colony relocation, the selection of a new nest involves exploration and assessment of potential sites followed by colony movement on the basis of a collective decision making process. Hygiene and pathogen load of the potential nest sites are factors worker scouts might evaluate, given the high risk of epidemics in group-living animals. Choosing nest sites free of pathogens is hypothesized to be highly efficient in invasive ants as each of their introduced populations is often an open network of nests exchanging individuals (unicolonial) with frequent relocation into new nest sites and low genetic diversity, likely making these species particularly vulnerable to parasites and diseases. We investigated the nest site preference of the invasive pharaoh ant, Monomorium pharaonis, through binary choice tests between three nest types: nests containing dead nestmates overgrown with sporulating mycelium of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum (infected nests), nests containing nestmates killed by freezing (uninfected nests), and empty nests. In contrast to the expectation pharaoh ant colonies preferentially (84%) moved into the infected nest when presented with the choice of an infected and an uninfected nest. The ants had an intermediate preference for empty nests. Pharaoh ants display an overall preference for infected nests during colony relocation. While we cannot rule out that the ants are actually manipulated by the pathogen, we propose that this preference might be an adaptive strategy by the host to “immunize” the colony against future exposure to the same pathogenic fungus. PMID:25372856

  2. The influence of regional hydrology on nesting behavior and nest fate of the American alligator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ugarte, Cristina A.; Bass, Oron L.; Nuttle, William; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Whelan, Kevin R.T.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrologic conditions are critical to the nesting behavior and reproductive success of crocodilians. In South Florida, USA, growing human settlement has led to extensive surface water management and modification of historical water flows in the wetlands, which have affected regional nesting of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Although both natural and anthropogenic factors are considered to determine hydrologic conditions, the aspects of hydrological patterns that affect alligator nest effort, flooding (partial and complete), and failure (no hatchling) are unclear. We deconstructed annual hydrological patterns using harmonic models that estimated hydrological matrices including mean, amplitude, timing of peak, and periodicity of surface water depth and discharge and examined their effects on alligator nesting using survey data from Shark Slough, Everglades National Park, from 1985 to 2005. Nest effort increased in years with higher mean and lesser periodicity of water depth. A greater proportion of nests were flooded and failed when peak discharge occurred earlier in the year. Also, nest flooding rates were greater in years with greater periodicity of water depth, and nest failure rate was greater when mean discharge was higher. This study guides future water management decisions to mitigate negative impacts on reproduction of alligators and provides wildlife managers with a tool for assessing and modifying annual water management plans to conserve crocodilians and other wetland species.

  3. Landscaping pebbles attract nesting by the native ground-nesting bee Halictus rubicundus (Hymenoptera: Halictidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most species of bees nest underground. Recent interest in pollinator-friendly gardens and landscaping focuses on planting suitable flowering species for bees, but we know little about providing for the ground-nesting needs of bees other than leaving them bare dirt surfaces. In this study, a surfac...

  4. Nest survival patterns in Eurasian Bittern: effect of nest age, time and habitat variables.

    PubMed

    Polak, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Determining the key factors affecting the reproductive success of nesting birds is crucial in order to better understand the population dynamics of endangered species and to introduce effective conservation programmes for them. Inhabiting a variety of wetland habitats, aquatic birds actively select safe nesting sites so as to protect their nests against predators. The main aim of the present work was to assess the effect of temporal and habitat variables on the daily nest survival rate of Eurasian Bitterns colonizing semi-natural fishpond habitat in eastern Poland. MARK software was used for the modelling. Eurasian Bittern nests were most vulnerable to depredation at the beginning of the breeding season. This was probably because the reedbed vegetation at this time was not yet dense enough to effectively conceal the nests. There was a positive relationship between nest age and the daily survival rate. Two of the habitat variables analysed were of the greatest significance: water depth and vegetation density. In the Eurasian Bittern population studied here, nests built over deep water and in dense vegetation had the best chances of survival. The results of this work may be useful in the preparation of plans for the conservation and management of populations of this rare and endangered species. Conservation and restoration efforts that attempt to maintain high water levels will be especially beneficial to this avian species that is dependent on wetland ecosystems for breeding.

  5. Nest survival patterns in Eurasian Bittern: effect of nest age, time and habitat variables

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Determining the key factors affecting the reproductive success of nesting birds is crucial in order to better understand the population dynamics of endangered species and to introduce effective conservation programmes for them. Inhabiting a variety of wetland habitats, aquatic birds actively select safe nesting sites so as to protect their nests against predators. The main aim of the present work was to assess the effect of temporal and habitat variables on the daily nest survival rate of Eurasian Bitterns colonizing semi–natural fishpond habitat in eastern Poland. MARK software was used for the modelling. Eurasian Bittern nests were most vulnerable to depredation at the beginning of the breeding season. This was probably because the reedbed vegetation at this time was not yet dense enough to effectively conceal the nests. There was a positive relationship between nest age and the daily survival rate. Two of the habitat variables analysed were of the greatest significance: water depth and vegetation density. In the Eurasian Bittern population studied here, nests built over deep water and in dense vegetation had the best chances of survival. The results of this work may be useful in the preparation of plans for the conservation and management of populations of this rare and endangered species. Conservation and restoration efforts that attempt to maintain high water levels will be especially beneficial to this avian species that is dependent on wetland ecosystems for breeding. PMID:27350897

  6. Spatial association of nest construction by brown trout Salmo trutta.

    PubMed

    Youngson, A F; Piertney, S B; Thorley, J L; Malcolm, I A; Soulsby, C

    2011-03-01

    Spawning patterns in female brown trout Salmo trutta were examined by documenting the construction of nests in a small stream and later excavating them to recover progeny. The maternal provenance of nests was determined by genetic typing of embryos using microsatellite markers. Seventy-two nests, for which position and date of construction were known, were made by 59 individuals. Position and date of construction were known for a further 35 nests, comprising 11 Atlantic salmon Salmo salar nests and 24 nests which contained few or no progeny. Salmo trutta showed a behavioural preference for spawning near (≤ 1 m) prior nests; nests made by different individuals tended to accumulate in a spatial sequence that progressed upstream. The directionality of the association between prior and new nests suggests that later spawners use the residual depressions created by previous spawners as the first element of their own nests.

  7. Behavior of Puerto Rican parrots during failed nesting attempts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, K.A.; Wilson, M.H.; Field, R.

    1997-01-01

    We compared patterns of nesting behavior of four pairs of Puerto Rican Parrots (Amazona vittata) that experienced failed nesting attempts to behavior of four pairs of parrots that experienced no substantial nest problems and successfully fledged young without management intervention. Only changes in female parrots' behavior were clearly associated with nest failure. During incubation, decreases in nest attendance, increases in duration of recesses, and increases in frequency of nest entries by female parrots were associated with imminent abandonment of nests. During early chick rearing, similar behavior was associated with the loss of broods. Low nest attendance and long recesses by female parrots during incubation were also associated with successful hatching of eggs followed by death of young several days later. The behavior patterns and changes in Puerto Rican Parrot nesting behavior described in this paper may alert biologists to nest problems that might be mitigated by management intervention.

  8. How Corridors Reduce Indigo Bunting Nest Success.

    SciTech Connect

    Weldon, Aimee, J.

    2006-08-01

    Abstract: Corridors are a popular strategy to conserve biodiversity and promote gene flow in fragmented landscapes. Corridor effectiveness has been bolstered by the fact that no empirical field studies have shown negative effects on populations or communities. I tested the hypothesis that corridors increase nest predation in connected habitat fragments relative to unconnected fragments. I evaluated this hypothesis in a large-scale experimental system of open-habitat fragments that varied in shape and connectivity. Corridors increased nest predation rates in connected fragments relative to unconnected fragments with lower edge:area ratios. Nest predation rates were similar between connected and unconnected fragments with higher edge:area ratios. These results suggest that the increase in predator activity is largely attributable to edge effects incurred through the addition of a corridor. This is the first field study to demonstrate that corridors can negatively impact animal populations occupying connected fragments.

  9. Buteo Nesting Ecology: Evaluating Nesting of Swainson's Hawks in the Northern Great Plains.

    PubMed

    Inselman, Will M; Datta, Shubham; Jenks, Jonathan A; Jensen, Kent C; Grovenburg, Troy W

    2015-01-01

    Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsoni) are long-distance migratory raptors that nest primarily in isolated trees located in areas of high grassland density. In recent years, anthropogenic conversion of grassland habitat has raised concerns about the status of the breeding population in the northern Great Plains. In 2013, we initiated a study to investigate the influence of extrinsic factors influencing Swainson's hawk nesting ecology in north-central South Dakota and south-central North Dakota. Using ground and aerial surveys, we located and monitored nesting Swainson's hawk pairs: 73 in 2013 and 120 in 2014. We documented 98 successful breeding attempts that fledged 163 chicks; 1.52 and 1.72 fledglings per successful nest in 2013 and 2014, respectively. We used Program MARK to evaluate the influence of land cover on nest survival. The top model, SDist2Farm+%Hay, indicated that nest survival (fledging at least one chick) decreased as nests were located farther from farm sites and as the percent of hay cover increased within 1200-m of the nest site (34.4%; 95% CI = 27.6%-42.3%). We used logistic regression analysis to evaluate the influence of landscape variables on nest-site selection; Swainson's hawks selected for nest sites located closer to roads. We suggest that tree belts associated with farm sites, whether occupied or not, provide critical breeding sites for Swainson's hawks. Additionally, poor breeding success may be related to the late migratory behavior of this species which requires them to occupy marginal habitat due to other raptors occupying the most suitable habitat prior to Swainson's hawks arriving to the breeding grounds.

  10. Buteo Nesting Ecology: Evaluating Nesting of Swainson’s Hawks in the Northern Great Plains

    PubMed Central

    Inselman, Will M.; Datta, Shubham; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Jensen, Kent C.; Grovenburg, Troy W.

    2015-01-01

    Swainson’s hawks (Buteo swainsoni) are long-distance migratory raptors that nest primarily in isolated trees located in areas of high grassland density. In recent years, anthropogenic conversion of grassland habitat has raised concerns about the status of the breeding population in the northern Great Plains. In 2013, we initiated a study to investigate the influence of extrinsic factors influencing Swainson’s hawk nesting ecology in north-central South Dakota and south-central North Dakota. Using ground and aerial surveys, we located and monitored nesting Swainson’s hawk pairs: 73 in 2013 and 120 in 2014. We documented 98 successful breeding attempts that fledged 163 chicks; 1.52 and 1.72 fledglings per successful nest in 2013 and 2014, respectively. We used Program MARK to evaluate the influence of land cover on nest survival. The top model, SDist2Farm+%Hay, indicated that nest survival (fledging at least one chick) decreased as nests were located farther from farm sites and as the percent of hay cover increased within 1200-m of the nest site (34.4%; 95% CI = 27.6%–42.3%). We used logistic regression analysis to evaluate the influence of landscape variables on nest-site selection; Swainson’s hawks selected for nest sites located closer to roads. We suggest that tree belts associated with farm sites, whether occupied or not, provide critical breeding sites for Swainson’s hawks. Additionally, poor breeding success may be related to the late migratory behavior of this species which requires them to occupy marginal habitat due to other raptors occupying the most suitable habitat prior to Swainson’s hawks arriving to the breeding grounds. PMID:26327440

  11. The Field of Educational Development: Histories and Critical Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manathunga, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The field of educational development has a 40-year history of providing continuing education or professional development for academic staff, particularly focusing on improving teaching and learning. However, little has yet been written on the historical origins and development of this field, apart from content analyses of some key journals and…

  12. Meta-Analysis at Middle Age: A Personal History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V.

    2015-01-01

    The 40-year history of meta-analysis is traced from the vantage point of one of its originators. Research syntheses leading to the first examples of meta-analysis are identified. Early meta-analyses of the literature on psychotherapy outcomes and school class size are recounted. The influence on the development of meta-analysis of several…

  13. Current situation of asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) in Chinese patients older than 40 years with airflow limitation: rationale and design for a multicenter, cross-sectional trial (study protocol)

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Wanzhen; Cai, Baiqiang; Chen, Ping; Ling, Xia; Shang, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Background Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are the frequently occurring chronic airway diseases, and the overlapping syndrome observed in the majority of patients has been recently defined as asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung (GOLD, 2014) and Global initiative for Asthma (GINA, 2015). The proportion, features, and clinical practice of ACOS still remain elusive in China. We are conducting this multicenter, cross-sectional, observational study (NCT02600221) to investigate the distributions of chronic obstructive diseases in patients >40 years of age with chronic airflow limitation in China along with determination of the main clinical practice and features of these diseases. The study will also explore the factors that may influence the exacerbations and severity of ACOS in Chinese patients (>40 years of age). Methods A total of 2,000 patients (age, ≥40 years; either sex) who are clinically diagnosed as having asthma, COPD/chronic bronchitis/emphysema, or ACOS for at least 12 months with airflow limitation [post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC): <0.7] will be enrolled from approximately 20 sites in China between December 2015 and December 2016. The proportion of ACOS among patients older than 40 years based on GINA 2015 and GOLD 2014 definitions is the primary variable. Following were the secondary variables: the proportions of COPD and asthma among the patients, distributions of the severity of airflow limitation, distribution of groups according to GOLD 2011 group definition (A, B, C, D), and the distribution of medication by drug class in patients with ACOS, asthma, and COPD. Acute exacerbation history, hospitalization, and severity of ACOS as evaluated using COPD Assessment Test, Asthma Control Questionnaire-5, and Modified British Medical Research Council in patients with ACOS were also assessed. Implications This will be the

  14. Nest-site selection, nesting behaviour and spatial ecology of female Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Combrink, Xander; Warner, Jonathan K; Downs, Colleen T

    2017-02-01

    Nesting biology and ecology have been investigated for Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus), but information on behaviour and movement patterns of nesting females during nest guarding is scant. Consequently, we investigated the home ranges, nest-site selection strategies, movement patterns, activity levels and nest fidelity of four nesting females using telemetry. Gravid females selected winter basking/breeding areas close (351±2m) to nest-sites. Mean home range and core-use areas of nesting females were 8539±4752m(2), and 4949±3302m(2) respectively. Mean home range (0.85ha) was significantly smaller than those of non-nesting females (108.4ha) during nesting season. Activity levels and mean daily movements while nesting were 8.1±2.5% and 213±64m, respectively, and increased to 47.9±11.7% and 2176±708m post-nesting. Overall levels of nest fidelity were 82.8±11.7%, (day 78.1±15.9%; night 87.3±7.8%). Highest nest fidelity recorded during incubation was 99.7% over 96days. Telemetry data from nesting females were helpful for elucidating spatial and behavioural patterns during the nest guarding period, and provided novel insights into this biologically important event.

  15. Do "helpers at the nest" increase their parents' reproductive success?

    PubMed

    Crognier, E; Baali, A; Hilali, M K

    2001-01-01

    "Helpers at the nest," usually offspring of a preceding litter who contribute by feeding the young to increase the reproductive success of a breeding pair, are known in many species of birds and mammals. Although similar behaviors were described by ethnological observations in several human societies, there is a lack of data on their existence and role. This study of 794 reproductive life histories of post-menopausal Berber women of Southern Morocco aims to provide such information. Results show that the presence of "probable helpers" in the household is related to higher fertility scores and is associated with improved survival of offspring to sexual maturity. In contrast to sparse observations from other human societies, there is no indication that child caretaking would be specific to eldest daughters. Although the association between offspring survival and helping patterns seems highly probable, there is no confirmation that child caretaking per se is the relevant variable. Contrary to nonhuman helpers at the nest, workloads of children range from housekeeping to light agricultural tasks, and are not focused on assisting younger siblings. The improvement of reproductive success is probably the result of multiple interactions, among which the network of kinship would play a role at both the levels of economy and reciprocal assistance.

  16. Don't Mess with the NEST

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, M

    2012-03-15

    NEST stands for Nuclear Emergency Support Team. The NEST Mission Statement as first established: (1) Conduct, direct, coordinate search and recovery operations for nuclear material, weapons or devices; and (2) Assist in identification and deactivation of Improvised Nuclear Devices (INDs) and Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDDs). Then in 1980 a very sophisticated improvised explosive device was found at Harvey's Casino at Lake Tahoe, Nevada. The FBI and Bomb Squads were unprepared and it detonated. As a result the additional phrase 'and Sophisticated Improvised Explosive Devices (SIEDs)' was added to the Mission Statement.

  17. Characteristics of some black duck nest sites in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; McAuley, D.G.; Ringelman, J.K.

    1997-01-01

    A standard method for characterizing nest sites and concealment (visibility of orange decoy and percent overhead cover measured by densiometer) was used to obtain characteristics of 36 nest sites of black ducks in Maine, 1978-89. Nest locations were represented by cutover areas (10), islands (6), bogmat (5), emergent meadow (5), emergent wetland (3), stream floodplain (3), hardwood forest (1), conifer forest (1), mixed forest (1) and ephemeral pond (1). Within these locations nests were found in shrub clumps (1), under conifers (6), on hummocks (6), on ericaceous mats (4), under a clump of hardwood trees (4), under woody slash (3), on an emergent herbaceous clump (1), on a boulder (1) and on a muskrat house (1). After excluding 7 nests disturbed by investigators, 22 (76%) of the 29 remaining nests were successful nests. Nests in upland cuts were especially successful (9 of 9) and success was 75 - 100% at most locations, but both nests along stream floodplain were abandoned because of human disturbance. Unsuccessful nests were usually closer to ponds (2.5 times) or streams (6.6 times) and often at land water interfaces, i.e., islands and bogmat. Nests under conifers (5 of 6) and woody slash (3 of 3) usually were successful. The combination of low nesting density and isolation of nests in upland cutover areas (successful nests averaged nearly 3 times farther from roads) seem to influence black duck nest success.

  18. Estimating populations of nesting brant using aerial videography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, R. Michael; Anderson, W.H.; Sedinger, J.S.; McDonald, L.L.

    1995-01-01

    We mounted a video camcorder in a single-engine aircraft to estimate nesting density along 10-m wide strip transects in black brant colonies on the Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska during 1990-1992. A global positioning system (GPS) receiver was connected to the video recorder and a laptop computer to locate transects and annotate video tape with time and latitude-longitude at 1-second intervals. About 4-5 hours of flight time were required to record 30-40 minutes of video tape needed to survey large (>5,000 nests in > 10 km2)colonies. We conducted ground searches along transects to locate and identify nests for determining detection rates of nests in video images. Counts of nests from video transects were correlated with actual numbers of nests. Resolution of images was sufficient to detect 81% of known nests (with and without incubating females). Of these, 68% were correctly identified as brant nests. The most common misidentification of known nests was failure of viewers to see the nest that the detected bird was incubating. Unattended nests with exposed eggs, down-covered nests, and nesting brant, cackling Canada geese, and emperor geese were identified in video images. Flushing of incubating geese by survey aircraft was not significant. About 10% of known nests were unoccupied in video images compared to 16% unoccupied nests observed from tower blinds during periods without aircraft disturbance.

  19. A historical look at the first reported cases of Lassa fever: IgG antibodies 40 years after acute infection.

    PubMed

    Bond, Nell; Schieffelin, John S; Moses, Lina M; Bennett, Andrew J; Bausch, Daniel G

    2013-02-01

    Lassa fever is an acute and sometimes severe viral hemorrhagic illness endemic in West Africa. One important question regarding Lassa fever is the duration of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody after infection. We were able to locate three persons who worked in Nigeria dating back to the 1940s, two of whom were integrally involved in the early outbreaks and investigations of Lassa fever in the late 1960s, including the person from whom Lassa virus was first isolated. Two persons had high titers of Lassa virus-specific IgG antibody over 40 years after infection, indicating the potential for long-term duration of these antibodies. One person was likely infected in 1952, 17 years before the first recognized outbreak. We briefly recount the fascinating stories of these three pioneers and their important contribution to our understanding of Lassa fever.

  20. [Evolution of the physiological profile of gymnasts over the past 40 years. A review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Jemni, M; Friemel, F; Sands, W; Mikesky, A

    2001-10-01

    Authors illustrate the evolution of the physiological profile of gymnasts over the past 40 years. Gymnasts are demonstrating increased anaerobic power. Maximal power output measured by the Wingate test in high level male gymnasts is currently between 12 and 14 W x kg(-1). Female gymnasts show maximal power between 10 and 12 W x kg(-1). In spite of an increase in the number of training hours, they have a low aerobic aptitude. It is still adequate and sufficient for their practice. Maximal heart rate values measured during gymnastic exercises have mirrored technical and acrobatic demands of increasing difficulty. Currently, exercise heart rates exceed 190 beat x min(-1) as compared to 135 to 151 beat x min(-1) in the seventies. Measurement of higher blood lactate values suggests that anaerobic glycolysis has increased in importance. Glycolytic contributions differ between apparatuses. Data from energy cost studies demonstrate that gymnastics energy demands are greater now than in the seventies.

  1. Re-assessment of net energy production and greenhouse gas emissions avoidance after 40 years of photovoltaics development.

    PubMed

    Louwen, Atse; van Sark, Wilfried G J H M; Faaij, André P C; Schropp, Ruud E I

    2016-12-06

    Since the 1970s, installed solar photovoltaic capacity has grown tremendously to 230 gigawatt worldwide in 2015, with a growth rate between 1975 and 2015 of 45%. This rapid growth has led to concerns regarding the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of photovoltaics production. We present a review of 40 years of photovoltaics development, analysing the development of energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions associated with photovoltaics production. Here we show strong downward trends of environmental impact of photovoltaics production, following the experience curve law. For every doubling of installed photovoltaic capacity, energy use decreases by 13 and 12% and greenhouse gas footprints by 17 and 24%, for poly- and monocrystalline based photovoltaic systems, respectively. As a result, we show a break-even between the cumulative disadvantages and benefits of photovoltaics, for both energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, occurs between 1997 and 2018, depending on photovoltaic performance and model uncertainties.

  2. Re-assessment of net energy production and greenhouse gas emissions avoidance after 40 years of photovoltaics development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louwen, Atse; van Sark, Wilfried G. J. H. M.; Faaij, André P. C.; Schropp, Ruud E. I.

    2016-12-01

    Since the 1970s, installed solar photovoltaic capacity has grown tremendously to 230 gigawatt worldwide in 2015, with a growth rate between 1975 and 2015 of 45%. This rapid growth has led to concerns regarding the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of photovoltaics production. We present a review of 40 years of photovoltaics development, analysing the development of energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions associated with photovoltaics production. Here we show strong downward trends of environmental impact of photovoltaics production, following the experience curve law. For every doubling of installed photovoltaic capacity, energy use decreases by 13 and 12% and greenhouse gas footprints by 17 and 24%, for poly- and monocrystalline based photovoltaic systems, respectively. As a result, we show a break-even between the cumulative disadvantages and benefits of photovoltaics, for both energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, occurs between 1997 and 2018, depending on photovoltaic performance and model uncertainties.

  3. Re-assessment of net energy production and greenhouse gas emissions avoidance after 40 years of photovoltaics development

    PubMed Central

    Louwen, Atse; van Sark, Wilfried G. J. H. M.; Faaij, André P. C.; Schropp, Ruud E. I.

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1970s, installed solar photovoltaic capacity has grown tremendously to 230 gigawatt worldwide in 2015, with a growth rate between 1975 and 2015 of 45%. This rapid growth has led to concerns regarding the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of photovoltaics production. We present a review of 40 years of photovoltaics development, analysing the development of energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions associated with photovoltaics production. Here we show strong downward trends of environmental impact of photovoltaics production, following the experience curve law. For every doubling of installed photovoltaic capacity, energy use decreases by 13 and 12% and greenhouse gas footprints by 17 and 24%, for poly- and monocrystalline based photovoltaic systems, respectively. As a result, we show a break-even between the cumulative disadvantages and benefits of photovoltaics, for both energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, occurs between 1997 and 2018, depending on photovoltaic performance and model uncertainties. PMID:27922591

  4. A Historical Look at the First Reported Cases of Lassa Fever: IgG Antibodies 40 Years After Acute Infection.

    PubMed

    Bond, Nell; Schieffelin, John S; Moses, Lina M; Bennett, Andrew J; Bausch, Daniel G

    2012-12-31

    Lassa fever is an acute and sometimes severe viral hemorrhagic illness endemic in West Africa. One important question regarding Lassa fever is the duration of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody after infection. We were able to locate three persons who worked in Nigeria dating back to the 1940s, two of whom were integrally involved in the early outbreaks and investigations of Lassa fever in the late 1960s, including the person from whom Lassa virus was first isolated. Two persons had high titers of Lassa virus-specific IgG antibody over 40 years after infection, indicating the potential for long-term duration of these antibodies. One person was likely infected in 1952, 17 years before the first recognized outbreak. We briefly recount the fascinating stories of these three pioneers and their important contribution to our understanding of Lassa fever.

  5. Do children cope better than adults with potentially traumatic stress? A 40-year follow-up of Holocaust survivors.

    PubMed

    Sigal, J J; Weinfeld, M

    2001-01-01

    Anecdotal reports suggest that child survivors of the Nazi persecution are functioning well as adults. Ratings of their parents by a randomly selected community sample of young adult Ashkenazi Jews on a scale that measured Schizoid, Paranoid, Depressive/Masochistic and Type A/Normal Aggressive symptoms permitted verification of these reports. Among the parents were groups who were children, adolescents, or young adults in 1945, at the end of World War II. Child-survivor parents did not differ from native-born parents on these measures 40 years later, whereas, consistent with the empirical findings of others, survivors who were adolescents or young adults at the end of the war manifested more paranoid and depressive/masochistic symptoms than native-born parents. To explain this possible greater long-term resilience among those who were child survivors, reference is made to later caretakers, endowment, cognitive and social development, and psychodynamics.

  6. Sex-specific impact of maternal–fetal risk factors on depression and cardiovascular risk 40 years later

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, J. M.; Cherkerzian, S.; Buka, S. L.; Fitzmaurice, G.; Hornig, M.; Gillman, M.; O’Toole, S.; Sloan, R. P.

    2013-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) represent leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We tested the hypothesis that growth restriction and preeclampsia (referred to as fetal risk) are significant predictors of these conditions, with women at higher risk in adulthood. Adult offspring exposed to fetal risk factors and their discordant siblings were from two prenatal cohorts, whose mothers were followed through pregnancy and whom we recruited as adults 40 years later (n=538; 250 males and 288 females). Subjects were psychiatrically diagnosed and underwent a stress challenge during which parasympathetic regulation was assessed by electrocardiogram, operationalized as high-frequency R-R interval variability (HF-RRV). Linear mixed models and generalized estimating equations were used to examine the relationship of fetal risk on HF-RRV, MDD and comorbidity of low HF-RRV (lowest 25th percentile) and MDD, including interactions with sex and socioeconomic status (SES). Fetal risk was significantly associated with low HF-RRV response (F=3.64, P=0.05), particularly among low SES (interaction: F=4.31, P<0.04). When stratified by MDD, the fetal risk impact was three times greater among MDD compared with non-MDD subjects (effect size: 0.21 v. 0.06). Females had a significantly higher risk for the comorbidity of MDD and low HF-RRV than males (relative risk (RR)=1.36, 95% CI: 1.07–1.73), an association only seen among those exposed to fetal risk (RR=1.38, 95% CI: 1.04–1.83). Findings suggest that these are shared fetal antecedents to the comorbidity of MDD and CVD risk 40 years later, an association stronger in females than in males. PMID:23378891

  7. A comparison of 40 years of SBUV measurements of column ozone with data from the Dobson/Brewer network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labow, Gordon J.; McPeters, Richard D.; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Kramarova, Natalya

    2013-07-01

    column ozone data from the Nimbus-4 Backscatter UltraViolet (BUV) instrument, Nimbus-7 Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) instrument, as well as from seven NOAA SBUV/2 instruments have been newly reprocessed with the Version 8.6 ozone retrieval algorithm. This yields a coherent data set that, unlike the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer ozone record, has no data gaps or significant time periods with large uncertainties due to calibration issues from 1979 to the present. The column ozone data from the first 3 years of the BUV record (1970-1972) is of high quality and can be used to extend the satellite ozone record back over 40 years. With the new algorithm, an improved total column ozone value is calculated by summing up the profile information as opposed to a single direct column measurement, and the algorithm is optimized for the detection of long-term trends. The results from this processing of these data have been systematically compared to total ozone data from Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometers for many individual ground stations as a function of time, satellite solar zenith angle, and latitude. The time series comparisons show an agreement within ± 1% over the past 40 years with the bias approaching zero over the last decade. The aerosols associated with the eruption of Mt Pinatubo in 1991 produced an underestimation of ozone for our retrievals at high slant columns while the near-nadir values were relatively unaffected. There is very little systematic offset between the satellite and ground-based measurements as a function of latitude with the Nimbus-4 BUV data (1970-1976) showing the largest offsets. The comparisons as a function of satellite solar zenith angle show consistent behavior for all instruments. Comparisons with ozonesonde data show good agreement in the integrated column up to 25 hPa with differences of no more than 5%.

  8. The primary research of climate change features and their causes for the recent 40 years in Xinjiang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yujiang; He, Qing; Zhang, Jiabao; Mu, Guijin

    2003-07-01

    In the paper, the three outstanding features of climate change in Xinjiang for the recent 40 years are identified. Their causes are discussed primarily from two aspects of natural change and factitious influence. Results are as follows: (1)The warming trend of winter mean temperature in northern and southern Xinjiang are resulted from the controlling of macroclimate regularities of winter warming in The Northern Hemisphere and the local influence of factitious factors, the former is more important than the latter. (2)The increasing trend of summer precipitation in southern Xinjiang may have little to do with the change of macroclimate background, but mainly have to do with human activities, especially with increasing of real evaporation in oasis area, which are result from both the area under cultivation (or oasis) enlarging continually in southern Xinjiang between the south foot of Tianshan Mountains and the north foot of Kunlun Mountains and the amount of drawing water from Tarim River increasing continually. Furthermore, the warming trend of summer in southern Xinjiang for the recent 40 years coinciding with The Northern Hemisphere also helps to increase evaporation intensity, to form the increasing trend of real evaporation amount, and results in the increase of summer precipitation. But this is less important than the increase of available evaporation water amount and evaporation area that result from the acreage under cultivation (or oasis) enlarging. (3)The variability of annual mean temperature in Tianshan Mountainous area is the greatest, which maybe have to do with that the annul difference of early or later of forming or smelting, thick or thin and cover extent of seasonal stable snow is largely in the area.

  9. Prevalence and awareness of sacroiliac joint alterations on lumbar spine CT in low back pain patients younger than 40 years.

    PubMed

    Klang, Eyal; Lidar, Merav; Lidar, Zvi; Aharoni, Dvora; Eshed, Iris

    2017-04-01

    Background Computed tomography (CT) examinations of the lumbar spine are commonly performed in patients aged ≤40 years due to low back pain (LBP). Purpose To investigate the prevalence and awareness of radiologists for the presence of structural post-inflammatory/other sacroiliac joint (SIJ) alterations on lumbar spine CTs of young patients with LBP. Material and Methods A total of 484 lumbar spine CT examinations (272 men, 212 women; average age, 31 years; age range, 18-40 years) of patients with LBP in which the entire SIJs were visualized were retrospectively reviewed. SIJs were scored (consensus) by two senior radiologists (study reading) for the presence of post-inflammatory structural SIJ findings or other SIJs alterations. The original reports were compared to the study reading. Fifty CT examinations were re-evaluated for reliability assessment (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC]). Results A total of 150 (31%) abnormal SIJ examinations were registered (ICC: r = 0.7-0.8; P < 0.0001): suspected sacroiliitis = 50 (10.2%); definite sacroiliitis = 16 (3.3%); osteitis-condensans-ilii = 38 (7.8%); diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis = 24 (5%); degenerative changes = 22 (4.5%); accessory SIJ = 22 (4.5%); and tumor = 1. The SIJs were referenced 39 times (8.0%) in the original readings: pathological findings (n = 15); and normal SIJ (n = 24). Total diagnostic accuracy for these reports only and for the entire readings were 49% and 69%, respectively, and 13% and 1.3%, respectively, for the pathological findings. Conclusion Sacroiliitis and other SIJ alterations are prevalent in young individuals with LBP, albeit, the majority of these alterations are not recognized nor reported by senior radiologists thus may delay efficacious treatment.

  10. Particle path through a nested Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2016-09-01

    Possible paths of a photon passing through a nested Mach-Zehnder interferometer on its way to a detector are analyzed using the consistent histories formulation of quantum mechanics, and confirmed using a set of weak measurements (but not weak values). The results disagree with an analysis by Vaidman [Phys. Rev. A 87, 052104 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.87.052104], and agree with a conclusion reached by Li et al. [Phys. Rev. A 88, 046102 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.88.046102]. However, the analysis casts serious doubt on the claim of Salih et al. (whose authorship includes Li et al.) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 170502 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.170502] to have constructed a protocol for counterfactual communication: a channel which can transmit information even though it contains a negligible number of photons.

  11. Factor determining prochard nest predation along a wetland gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albrecht, T.; Horak, D.; Kreisinger, J.; Weidinger, K.; Klvana, P.; Michot, T.C.

    2006-01-01

    Waterfowl management on breeding grounds focuses on improving nest success, but few studies have compared waterfowl nest success and factors affecting nest survival along a wetland gradient and simultaneously identified nest predators. We monitored nests (n = 195) of common pochards (Aythya ferina) in Trebon Basin Biosphere Reserve, Czech Republic, during 1999-2002. Daily nest survival rates (DSRs, logistic-exposure) declined from island (0.985, 95% confidence interval, 0.978-0.991) to overwater (0.962, 0.950-0.971) and terrestrial (0.844, 0.759-0.904) nests. The most parsimonious model for DSRs included habitat class (DSRs: island > overwater > terrestrial) and nest visibility. Nest survival was improved by reduced nest visibility, increased water depth, and increased distance from the nest to habitat edge in littoral habitats. On islands, nest success increased with advancing date and increased distance to open water. A model of constant nest survival best explained the data for terrestrial nests. There were no observer effects on DSRs in any habitat. In 2003, artificial nests (n = 180; 120 contained a wax-filled egg) were deployed on study plots. The model that best explained variation in DSRs for artificial nests included only 1 variable: habitat class (DSRs: island ??? overwater > terrestrial). Mammalian predation of artificial nests (by foxes [Vulpes vulpes] and martens [Martes spp.]) was more likely in terrestrial habitats than in littoral habitats or on islands. By contrast, corvids and marsh harriers (Circus aeruginosus) prevailed among predators of overwater and island nests. Our data indicate that artificial islands and wide strips of littoral vegetation may represent secure breeding habitats for waterfowl because those habitats allow nests to be placed in areas that are not accessible to, or that are avoided by, mammalian predators. Management actions should be aimed at preserving these habitats. This, along with creation of new artificial islands

  12. Open cup nests evolved from roofed nests in the early passerines.

    PubMed

    Price, J Jordan; Griffith, Simon C

    2017-02-08

    The architectural diversity of nests in the passerine birds (order Passeriformes) is thought to have played an important role in the adaptive radiation of this group, which now comprises more than half of avian species and occupies nearly all terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we present an extensive survey and ancestral state reconstruction of nest design across the passerines, focusing on early Australian lineages and including members of nearly all passerine families worldwide. Most passerines build open cup-shaped nests, whereas a minority build more elaborate domed structures with roofs. We provide strong evidence that, despite their relative rarity today, domed nests were constructed by the common ancestor of all modern passerines. Open cup nests evolved from enclosed domes at least four times independently during early passerine evolution, at least three of which occurred on the Australian continent, yielding several primarily cup-nesting clades that are now widespread and numerically dominant among passerines. Our results show that the ubiquitous and relatively simple cup-shaped nests of many birds today evolved multiple times convergently, suggesting adaptive benefits over earlier roofed designs.

  13. Diversity of fungi from the mound nests of Formica ulkei and adjacent non-nest soils.

    PubMed

    Duff, Lyndon B; Urichuk, Theresa M; Hodgins, Lisa N; Young, Jocelyn R; Untereiner, Wendy A

    2016-07-01

    Culture-based methods were employed to recover 3929 isolates of fungi from soils collected in May and July 2014 from mound nests of Formica ulkei and adjacent non-nest sites. The abundance, diversity, and richness of species from nest mounds exceeded those of non-mound soils, particularly in July. Communities of fungi from mounds were more similar to those from mounds than non-mounds; this was also the case for non-mound soils with the exception of one non-mound site in July. Species of Aspergillus, Paecilomyces, and Penicillium were dominant in nest soils and represented up to 81.8% of the taxa recovered. Members of the genus Aspergillus accounted for the majority of Trichocomaceae from nests and were represented almost exclusively by Aspergillus navahoensis and Aspergillus pseudodeflectus. Dominant fungi from non-mound sites included Cladosporium cladosporioides, Geomyces pannorum, and species of Acremonium, Fusarium, Penicillium, and Phoma. Although mound nests were warmer than adjacent soils, the dominance of xerotolerant Aspergillus in soils from mounds and the isolation of the majority of Trichocomaceae at 25 and 35 °C suggests that both temperature and water availability may be determinants of fungal community structure in nests of F. ulkei.

  14. Preliminary evaluation of a nest usage sensor to detect double nest occupations of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Zaninelli, Mauro; Costa, Annamaria; Tangorra, Francesco Maria; Rossi, Luciana; Agazzi, Alessandro; Savoini, Giovanni

    2015-01-26

    Conventional cage systems will be replaced by housing systems that allow hens to move freely. These systems may improve hens' welfare, but they lead to some disadvantages: disease, bone fractures, cannibalism, piling and lower egg production. New selection criteria for existing commercial strains should be identified considering individual data about laying performance and the behavior of hens. Many recording systems have been developed to collect these data. However, the management of double nest occupations remains critical for the correct egg-to-hen assignment. To limit such events, most systems adopt specific trap devices and additional mechanical components. Others, instead, only prevent these occurrences by narrowing the nest, without any detection and management. The aim of this study was to develop and test a nest usage "sensor", based on imaging analysis, that is able to automatically detect a double nest occupation. Results showed that the developed sensor correctly identified the double nest occupation occurrences. Therefore, the imaging analysis resulted in being a useful solution that could simplify the nest construction for this type of recording system, allowing the collection of more precise and accurate data, since double nest occupations would be managed and the normal laying behavior of hens would not be discouraged by the presence of the trap devices.

  15. Preliminary Evaluation of a Nest Usage Sensor to Detect Double Nest Occupations of Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Zaninelli, Mauro; Costa, Annamaria; Tangorra, Francesco Maria; Rossi, Luciana; Agazzi, Alessandro; Savoini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Conventional cage systems will be replaced by housing systems that allow hens to move freely. These systems may improve hens' welfare, but they lead to some disadvantages: disease, bone fractures, cannibalism, piling and lower egg production. New selection criteria for existing commercial strains should be identified considering individual data about laying performance and the behavior of hens. Many recording systems have been developed to collect these data. However, the management of double nest occupations remains critical for the correct egg-to-hen assignment. To limit such events, most systems adopt specific trap devices and additional mechanical components. Others, instead, only prevent these occurrences by narrowing the nest, without any detection and management. The aim of this study was to develop and test a nest usage “sensor”, based on imaging analysis, that is able to automatically detect a double nest occupation. Results showed that the developed sensor correctly identified the double nest occupation occurrences. Therefore, the imaging analysis resulted in being a useful solution that could simplify the nest construction for this type of recording system, allowing the collection of more precise and accurate data, since double nest occupations would be managed and the normal laying behavior of hens would not be discouraged by the presence of the trap devices. PMID:25629704

  16. Intellectual History, Social History, Cultural History...and Our History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, David Paul

    1990-01-01

    Defines and explores the links among intellectual, social, and cultural history. Warns that an adequate foundation must be laid in the economic and institutional social history of mass media before communication historians jump into cultural history. (SR)

  17. A comparison of diel nest temperature and nest site selection for two sympatric species of freshwater turtles

    SciTech Connect

    Bodie, J.R.; Burke, V.J.; Smith, K.R.

    1996-07-01

    Diel nest temperature profiles were recorded form natural nests of eastern mud turtles (Kinosternon subrubrum) and Florida cooters (Pseudemys floridana) to determine whether nest microhabitat selection compensates for the effect of interspecific differences in nest depth on nest temperature. Kinosternon subrubrum nest depths were significantly shallower than those of P. floridana (t = 2.93, P < 0.01). We predicted that differences in nest depth would result in K. subrubrum nests being cooler at night and warmer during daylight than the deeper P. floridana nests. Diel temperature patterns agreed with out predictions at night, but P. floridana nest temperatures were not lower than K. subrubrum nest temperatures during the day. Soil composition, slope and soil moisture were similar for the nest of both species. However, the amount of sunlight reaching the soil above K. subrubrum nest sites was substantially less than the amount above P. floridana nest sites. We suggest that these species select habitats for oviposition that differ in the amount and types of vegetative cover, which in turn affect exposure to sunlight and ultimately nest temperature. 27 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Collective fluid mechanics of honeybee nest ventilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravish, Nick; Combes, Stacey; Wood, Robert J.; Peters, Jacob

    2014-11-01

    Honeybees thermoregulate their brood in the warm summer months by collectively fanning their wings and creating air flow through the nest. During nest ventilation workers flap their wings in close proximity in which wings continuously operate in unsteady oncoming flows (i.e. the wake of neighboring worker bees) and near the ground. The fluid mechanics of this collective aerodynamic phenomena are unstudied and may play an important role in the physiology of colony life. We have performed field and laboratory observations of the nest ventilation wing kinematics and air flow generated by individuals and groups of honeybee workers. Inspired from these field observations we describe here a robotic model system to study collective flapping wing aerodynamics. We microfabricate arrays of 1.4 cm long flapping wings and observe the air flow generated by arrays of two or more fanning robotic wings. We vary phase, frequency, and separation distance among wings and find that net output flow is enhanced when wings operate at the appropriate phase-distance relationship to catch shed vortices from neighboring wings. These results suggest that by varying position within the fanning array honeybee workers may benefit from collective aerodynamic interactions during nest ventilation.

  19. 7 CFR 29.3533 - Nested.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign... arranged to conceal foreign matter or tobacco of inferior grade, quality, or condition. Nested includes: (a) Any lot of tobacco which contains foreign matter or damaged, injured, tangled, or other...

  20. 7 CFR 29.3533 - Nested.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign... arranged to conceal foreign matter or tobacco of inferior grade, quality, or condition. Nested includes: (a) Any lot of tobacco which contains foreign matter or damaged, injured, tangled, or other...

  1. 7 CFR 29.3533 - Nested.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign... arranged to conceal foreign matter or tobacco of inferior grade, quality, or condition. Nested includes: (a) Any lot of tobacco which contains foreign matter or damaged, injured, tangled, or other...

  2. 7 CFR 29.3533 - Nested.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign... arranged to conceal foreign matter or tobacco of inferior grade, quality, or condition. Nested includes: (a) Any lot of tobacco which contains foreign matter or damaged, injured, tangled, or other...

  3. 7 CFR 29.3533 - Nested.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign... arranged to conceal foreign matter or tobacco of inferior grade, quality, or condition. Nested includes: (a) Any lot of tobacco which contains foreign matter or damaged, injured, tangled, or other...

  4. The Birds and Their Nests Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elizondo, Liliana; Valencia, Lilian

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses a project about birds and their nests undertaken by 3- to 5-year-olds in a preschool class in Florida. After a description of the center and the goal of the project, the three phases of the project are presented. Reflections of the teachers and photographs taken for documenting the project are also included.

  5. High-field superconducting nested coil magnet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laverick, C.; Lobell, G. M.

    1970-01-01

    Superconducting magnet, employed in conjunction with five types of superconducting cables in a nested solenoid configuration, produces total, central magnetic field strengths approaching 70 kG. The multiple coils permit maximum information on cable characteristics to be gathered from one test.

  6. Nested Dissection Interface Reconstruction in Pececillo

    SciTech Connect

    Jibben, Zechariah Joel

    2016-08-31

    A nested dissection method for interface reconstruction in a volume tracking framework has been implemented in Pececillo. This method provides a significant improvement over the traditional onion-skin method, which does not appropriately handle T-shaped multimaterial intersections and dynamic contact lines present in additive manufacturing simulations. The resulting implementation lays the groundwork for further re- search in numerical contact angle estimates.

  7. Gamasoidosis illustrated - from the nest to dermoscopy*

    PubMed Central

    Wambier, Carlos Gustavo; Wambier, Sarah Perillo de Farias

    2012-01-01

    Gamasoidosis (acariasis, avian-mite dermatitis or bird-mite dermatitis) is a challenging diagnosis that is becoming more common because of the frequent use of window air conditioners in tropical countries. These devices may serve as shelters for nests of urban birds such as pigeons. Dermatologists should become familiar with this infestation to establish the correct diagnosis and treatment. PMID:23197219

  8. Connecting Spatial Memories of Two Nested Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Hui; Mou, Weimin; McNamara, Timothy P.; Wang, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Four experiments investigated the manner in which people use spatial reference directions to organize spatial memories of 2 conceptually nested layouts. Participants learned directions of 8 remote cities centered to Beijing or Edmonton, where the experiments occurred, using a map or using direct pointing. The map and the environment were aligned,…

  9. Nest Boxes Artificial Homes for Woodland Mammals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Daniel J.; Kelley, John W.

    1983-01-01

    Provides instructions for constructing artificial "homes" for squirrels, raccoons, and rabbits. These include squirrel dens constructed from discarded automobile tires and squirrel nest boxes, raccoon dens, and rabbit burrows constructed from wood. Includes a chart giving dimensions of materials needed and suggestions on where to place the…

  10. Shape transition during nest digging in ants

    PubMed Central

    Toffin, Etienne; Di Paolo, David; Campo, Alexandre; Detrain, Claire; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis

    2009-01-01

    Nest building in social insects is among the collective processes that show highly conservative features such as basic modules (chambers and galleries) or homeostatic properties. Although ant nests share common characteristics, they exhibit a high structural variability, of which morphogenesis and underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. We conducted two-dimensional nest-digging experiments under homogeneous laboratory conditions to investigate the shape diversity that emerges only from digging dynamics and without the influence of any environmental heterogeneity. These experiments revealed that, during the excavation, a morphological transition occurs because the primary circular cavity evolves into a ramified structure through a branching process. Such a transition is observed, whatever the number of ants involved, but occurs more frequently for a larger number of workers. A stochastic model highlights the central role of density effects in shape transition. These results indicate that nest digging shares similar properties with various physical, chemical, and biological systems. Moreover, our model of morphogenesis provides an explanatory framework for shape transitions in decentralized growing structures in group-living animals. PMID:19846774

  11. Forty Years on: Presidential Address to the History of Education Society, London, 4 November 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Gary

    2007-01-01

    This paper, based on the author's presidential address to the History of Education Society in November 2006, explores aspects of continuity and change over the past 40 years with particular reference to educational reform and the development of the History of Education Society itself. It assesses the significance of the work of the playwright Alan…

  12. Am I a Woman? The Normalisation of Woman in US History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Sandra J.

    2012-01-01

    The curriculum of US History has improved substantially in its presentation of women over the 40 years since Trecker's 1971 study of US History textbooks. While studies show increased inclusions, they also suggest that women have not yet claimed their own place in the school curriculum. This paper seeks to better understand the woman who is…

  13. Oldest known dinosaurian nesting site and reproductive biology of the Early Jurassic sauropodomorph Massospondylus

    PubMed Central

    Reisz, Robert R.; Evans, David C.; Roberts, Eric M.; Sues, Hans-Dieter; Yates, Adam M.

    2012-01-01

    The extensive Early Jurassic continental strata of southern Africa have yielded an exceptional record of dinosaurs that includes scores of partial to complete skeletons of the sauropodomorph Massospondylus, ranging from embryos to large adults. In 1976 an incomplete egg clutch including in ovo embryos of this dinosaur, the oldest known example in the fossil record, was collected from a road-cut talus, but its exact provenance was uncertain. An excavation program at the site started in 2006 has yielded multiple in situ egg clutches, documenting the oldest known dinosaurian nesting site, predating other similar sites by more than 100 million years. The presence of numerous clutches of eggs, some of which contain embryonic remains, in at least four distinct horizons within a small area, provides the earliest known evidence of complex reproductive behavior including site fidelity and colonial nesting in a terrestrial vertebrate. Thus, fossil and sedimentological evidence from this nesting site provides empirical data on reproductive strategies in early dinosaurs. A temporally calibrated optimization of dinosaurian reproductive biology not only demonstrates the primary significance of the Massospondylus nesting site, but also provides additional insights into the initial stages of the evolutionary history of dinosaurs, including evidence that deposition of eggs in a tightly organized single layer in a nest evolved independently from brooding. PMID:22308330

  14. Evolution of clutch size in cavity-excavating birds: the nest site limitation hypothesis revisited.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, Karen L; Koenig, Walter D; Martin, Kathy

    2006-03-01

    There are two major competing hypotheses for variation in clutch size among cavity-nesting species. The nest site limitation hypothesis postulates that nesting opportunities are more limited for weak excavators, which consequently invest more in each breeding attempt by laying larger clutches. Alternatively, clutch size may be determined by diet; the clutch sizes of strong excavators may be smaller because they are able to specialize on a more seasonally stable prey. We built a conceptual model that integrated hypotheses for interspecific variation in clutch size and tested it with comparative data on life-history traits of woodpeckers (Picidae) and nuthatches (Sittidae). In most analyses, diet explained more variation in clutch size among species than did propensity to excavate. Migratory status was positively associated with clutch size but was difficult to distinguish from diet since resident species consumed more bark beetles (a prey available in winter) and had smaller clutches than migratory species. The literature suggests that cavities are not limited in natural, old-growth forests. Although our data do not rule out nest site limitation, we conclude that annual stability of food resources has a larger impact on the evolution of clutch sizes in excavators than does limitation of nest sites.

  15. Communally Nesting Migratory Birds Create Ecological Hot-Spots in Tropical Australia

    PubMed Central

    Natusch, Daniel J. D.; Lyons, Jessica A.; Brown, Gregory; Shine, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Large numbers of metallic starlings (Aplonis metallica) migrate annually from New Guinea to the rainforests of tropical Australia, where they nest communally in single emergent trees (up to 1,000 birds). These aggregations create dense and species-rich faunal “hot-spots”, attracting a diverse assemblage of local consumers that utilise this seasonal resource. The starlings nested primarily in poison-dart trees (Antiaris toxicaria) near the rainforest-woodland boundary. Surveys underneath these colonies revealed that bird-derived nutrients massively increased densities of soil invertebrates and mammals (primarily wild pigs) beneath trees, year-round. Flying invertebrates, nocturnal birds, reptiles, and amphibians congregated beneath the trees when starlings were nesting (the wet-season). Diurnal birds (primarily cockatoos and bush turkeys) aggregated beneath the trees during the dry-season to utilise residual nutrients when the starlings were not nesting. The abundance of several taxa was considerably higher (to > 1000-fold) under colony trees than under nearby trees. The system strikingly resembles utilisation of bird nesting colonies by predators in other parts of the world but this spectacular system has never been described, emphasizing the continuing need for detailed natural-history studies in tropical Australia. PMID:27706197

  16. Avian nest success in midwestern forests fragmented by agriculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knutson, M.G.; Friberg, M.A.; Niemi, G.J.; Newton, W.E.

    2004-01-01

    Knutson et al. (2004) report the results of an avian nest success study conducted to investigate how forest-bird nest success varied by nest location and type as well as by landscape context from 1996 to 1998 in an agricultural region of southwestern Minnesota, and southwestern Wisconsin, and northeastern Iowa. The authors found an overall Mayfield adjusted nest success of 48%, 82% for cavity-nesting species, and 42% for cup-nesting species. Common species varied from 23% for American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla) to 43% for the Eastern Wood-Pewee (Contopus virens). Nest success was lowest for open-cup nesters, species that reject Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) eggs, species that next near forest edges, and Neotropical migrants. These tendencies were consistent across the years of the study. Assessments of nest success considering surrounding landscape metrics indicated that forest area may not be a strong indicator of nest success in landscapes where all the available forests are fragmented.

  17. Frequency of nest use by golden eagles in southwestern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kochert, Michael N.; Steenhof, Karen

    2012-01-01

    We studied nest use by Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) from 1966 to 2011 to assess nest reuse within territories, ascertain the length of time that elapses between uses of nests, and test the hypotheses that reproductive success and adult turnover influence nest switching. Golden Eagles used 454 nests in 66 territories and used individual nests 1 to 26 times during 45 continuous years of observation. Time between reuse ranged from 1 to 39 yr. Distances between nearest adjacent alternative nests within territories ranged between 5 times. Two nests were unused for 21 and 27 yr after 1971 before being used every 1 to 3 yr thereafter. Eagles used 43% of the nests in series of consecutive years (range 3 to 20 consecutive nestings). Protecting unused nests for a proposed 10 yr after the last known use would not have protected 34% of all 300 nests that were reused during the study and 49% of 37 reused nests monitored consistently for 41 yr. The 102 nests that would not have received protection were in 56 of the 66 territories.

  18. Factors influencing predation associated with visits to artificial goose nests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vacca, M. Michele; Handel, Colleen M.

    1988-01-01

    Artificial goose nests were used to determine what factors might increase predation after visits to nests of Cackling Canada Geese (Branta canadensis minima). We tested whether leaving the nest uncovered, marking the nest location with a flag, or placing the nest on an island or peninsula would increase the rate of predation. Predators destroyed significantly more of the nests with eggs exposed to view (61%) than of the nests with eggs covered with goose down (35%) (P < 0.05). However, the rate of predation was only slightly higher among nests located on peninsulas than on islands and equal proportions of flagged and unflagged nests were destroyed. We also determined that investigators attracted predators to the study area and caused an increase in predation at uncovered nests immediately after the visit. Covering the eggs with down essentially negated the effect of attracting predators when visiting the nest. Among the 46 nests destroyed, 78% were destroyed by birds and 22% by mammals. Results of our study suggested that visibility of exposed eggs rather than nest markers provided important cues to avian predators and that islands probably provided some refuge from mammalian predators. Investigators can take steps to minimize their impact on nesting success and should incorporate a measure of that impact in their studies.

  19. Survival and habitat of Ruffed Grouse nests in northern Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, M.A.; Clark, M.E.; Winterstein, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Effective management of Ruffed Grouse (Bonasa umbellus) populations requires a full understanding of chick production. Previous reports of nest survival for Ruffed Grouse are biased because they did not account for successful nests being more likely to be found, and the role of habitat quality in determining nest survival is unknown. We determined survival rates of Ruffed Grouse nests in northern lower Michigan using the less biased Mayfield estimator, defined differences between first and second nests, and compared the local habitat characteristics of successful and unsuccessful nests. Median hatching dates were 10 June for first nests (n = 34) and 1 July for second nests (n = 6). First nests had a lower survival rate (0.442, 95% CI = 0.270-0.716), a higher mean clutch size (12.7 eggs ?? 0.3 SE), and higher egg hatching rate (0.960, 95% CI = 0.900-0.997) than did second nests (nest survival = 0.788, 95% CI = 0.491-1.00; clutch size = 7.3 eggs ?? 0.3 SE; and hatching rate = 0.826, 95% CI = 0.718-0.925). Nest survival, annual production (3.4 hatchling females/adult female, 95% CI = 2.3-5.0), and fall recruitment (1.0 juvenile females/adult female, 95% CI = 0.3-2.4) were less than previously reported estimates. Habitat characteristics at nest sites varied widely and did not differ appreciably between successful and unsuccessful nests.

  20. Inertial cavitation threshold of nested microbubbles.

    PubMed

    Wallace, N; Dicker, S; Lewin, Peter; Wrenn, S P

    2015-04-01

    Cavitation of ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) promotes both beneficial and detrimental bioeffects in vivo (Radhakrishnan et al., 2013) [1]. The ability to determine the inertial cavitation threshold of UCA microbubbles has potential application in contrast imaging, development of therapeutic agents, and evaluation of localized effects on the body (Ammi et al., 2006) [2]. This study evaluates a novel UCA and its inertial cavitation behavior as determined by a home built cavitation detection system. Two 2.25 MHz transducers are placed at a 90° angle to one another where one transducer is driven by a high voltage pulser and the other transducer receives the signal from the oscillating microbubble. The sample chamber is placed in the overlap of the focal region of the two transducers where the microbubbles are exposed to a pulser signal consisting of 600 pulse trains per experiment at a pulse repetition frequency of 5 Hz where each train has four pulses of four cycles. The formulation being analyzed is comprised of an SF6 microbubble coated by a DSPC PEG-3000 monolayer nested within a poly-lactic acid (PLA) spherical shell. The effect of varying shell diameters and microbubble concentration on cavitation threshold profile for peak negative pressures ranging from 50 kPa to 2 MPa are presented and discussed in this paper. The nesting shell decreases inertial cavitation events from 97.96% for an un-nested microbubble to 19.09% for the same microbubbles nested within a 2.53 μm shell. As shell diameter decreases, the percentage of inertially cavitating microbubbles also decreases. For nesting formulations with average outer capsule diameters of 20.52, 14.95, 9.95, 5.55, 2.53, and 1.95 μm, the percentage of sample destroyed at 1 MPa was 51.02, 38.94, 33.25, 25.27, 19.09, and 5.37% respectively.

  1. A Sad Journey down History: A Conversation with Judge Nathaniel Jones about Litigating "Milliken v. Bradley I" (1974), 40 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooden, Mark A.; Green, Terrance L.

    2016-01-01

    The Honorable Judge Nathaniel Jones litigated the "Milliken v. Bradley I" case before the U.S. District Court and Supreme Court in 1971 and 1974. Nathaniel Jones was born May 12, 1926 in Youngstown, Ohio, and served as the general counsel for the NAACP from 1969-1979. In 1979, President Jimmy Carter nominated Nathaniel Jones to the U.S.…

  2. Timing of nest vegetation measurement may obscure adaptive significance of nest-site characteristics: A simulation study.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Mark D; Monroe, Adrian P; Burger, Loren Wes; Martin, James A

    2017-02-01

    Advances in understanding avian nesting ecology are hindered by a prevalent lack of agreement between nest-site characteristics and fitness metrics such as nest success. We posit this is a result of inconsistent and improper timing of nest-site vegetation measurements. Therefore, we evaluated how the timing of nest vegetation measurement influences the estimated effects of vegetation structure on nest survival. We simulated phenological changes in nest-site vegetation growth over a typical nesting season and modeled how the timing of measuring that vegetation, relative to nest fate, creates bias in conclusions regarding its influence on nest survival. We modeled the bias associated with four methods of measuring nest-site vegetation: Method 1-measuring at nest initiation, Method 2-measuring at nest termination regardless of fate, Method 3-measuring at nest termination for successful nests and at estimated completion for unsuccessful nests, and Method 4-measuring at nest termination regardless of fate while also accounting for initiation date. We quantified and compared bias for each method for varying simulated effects, ranked models for each method using AIC, and calculated the proportion of simulations in which each model (measurement method) was selected as the best model. Our results indicate that the risk of drawing an erroneous or spurious conclusion was present in all methods but greater with Method 2 which is the most common method reported in the literature. Methods 1 and 3 were similarly less biased. Method 4 provided no additional value as bias was similar to Method 2 for all scenarios. While Method 1 is seldom practical to collect in the field, Method 3 is logistically practical and minimizes inherent bias. Implementation of Method 3 will facilitate estimating the effect of nest-site vegetation on survival, in the least biased way, and allow reliable conclusions to be drawn.

  3. Nest site characteristics, nesting movements, and lack of long-term nest site fidelity in Agassiz's desert tortoises at a wind energy facility in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Agha, Mickey; Yackulic, Charles B.; Meyer-Wilkins, Kathie; Bjurlin, Curtis; Ennen, Joshua R.; Arundel, Terry R.; Austin, Meaghan

    2014-01-01

    Nest site selection has important consequences for maternal and offspring survival and fitness. Females of some species return to the same nesting areas year after year. We studied nest site characteristics, fidelity, and daily pre-nesting movements in a population of Agassiz’s desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) at a wind energy facility in southern California during two field seasons separated by over a decade. No females returned to the same exact nest site within or between years but several nested in the same general area. However, distances between first and second clutches within a year (2000) were not significantly different from distances between nests among years (2000 and 2011) for a small sample of females, suggesting some degree of fidelity within their normal activity areas. Environmental attributes of nest sites did not differ significantly among females but did among years due largely to changes in perennial plant structure as a result of multiple fires. Daily pre-nesting distances moved by females decreased consistently from the time shelled eggs were first visible in X-radiographs until oviposition, again suggesting some degree of nest site selection. Tortoises appear to select nest sites that are within their long-term activity areas, inside the climate-moderated confines of one of their self-constructed burrows, and specifically, at a depth in the burrow that minimizes exposure of eggs and embryos to lethal incubation temperatures. Nesting in “climate-controlled” burrows and nest guarding by females relaxes some of the constraints that drive nest site selection in other oviparous species.

  4. Nest site preferences of the Woodlark (Lullula arborea) and its association with artificial nest predation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buehler, Roman; Bosco, Laura; Arlettaz, Raphaël; Jacot, Alain

    2017-01-01

    The Woodlark is an insectivorous bird, which is listed as a priority species in Switzerland. In Valais, a stronghold of this species in the country, the birds breed in intensively managed vineyards and show a preference for parcels with ground vegetation during territory establishment. As a ground-breeder, the species is highly vulnerable to nest predation by avian and mammal predators. The aims of our study were firstly to investigate nest site preferences of the woodlark within vineyards and secondly to compare the predation risk of artificial nests dependent of ground vegetation structure. Our results point out that the Woodlark prefers patches of tall and dense ground cover within vegetated vineyard parcels and avoids parcels that have been treated with herbicides. In a follow-up experiment we conducted a study comparing the predation rate of artificial nests between bare parcels (<20% vegetated area) and vegetated parcels (>40% vegetated area). Artificial nests equipped with one quail egg were distributed pairwise between two adjacent parcels that fulfilled the upper criteria and were monitored by trail cameras during 10-12 days. Predation rate was generally low (4 predation events) and only occurred in bare parcels. These data indicate that conspicuousness of avian nests may be decreased in vegetated parcels and that the amount of vegetation can lower the predation risk on ground breeding birds - another indication for the importance of ground vegetation for a successful conservation of the endangered Woodlark in Swiss vineyards.

  5. Habitat relationships and nest site characteristics of cavity-nesting birds in cottonwood floodplains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedgwick, James A.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1990-01-01

    We examined habitat relationships and nest site characteristics for 6 species of cavity-nesting birds--American kestrel (Falco sparverius), northern flicker (Colaptes auratus), red-headed woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus), black-capped chickadee (Parus atricapillus), house wren (Troglodytes aedon), and European starling (Sturnus vulgaris)--in a mature plains cottonwood (Populus sargentii) bottomland along the South Platte River in northeastern Colorado in 1985 and 1986. We examined characteristics of cavities, nest trees, and the habitat surrounding nest trees. Density of large trees (>69 cm dbh), total length of dead limbs ≥10 cm diameter (TDLL), and cavity density were the most important habitat variables; dead limb length (DLL), dbh, and species were the most important tree variables; and cavity height, cavity entrance diameter, and substrate condition at the cavity (live vs. dead) were the most important cavity variables in segregating cavity nesters along habitat, tree, and cavity dimensions, respectively. Random sites differed most from cavity-nesting bird sites on the basis of dbh, DLL, limb tree density (trees with ≥1 m dead limbs ≥10 cm diameter), and cavity density. Habitats of red-headed woodpeckers and American kestrels were the most unique, differing most from random sites. Based on current trends in cottonwood demography, densities of cavity-nesting birds will probably decline gradually along the South Platte River, paralleling a decline in DLL, limb tree density, snag density, and the concurrent lack of cottonwood regeneration.

  6. Stabilities of ant nests and their adjacent soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echezona, B. C.; Igwe, C. A.

    2012-10-01

    Nests habour ants and termites and protect them from harsh environmental conditions. The structural stabilities of nests were studied to ascertain their relative vulnerability to environmental stresses. Arboreal-ant nests were pried from different trees, while epigeous-termite nests were excavated from soil surface within the sample area. Soils without any visible sign of ant or termite activity were also sampled 6 m away from the nests as control. Laboratory analysis result showed that irrespective of the tree hosts, the aggregate stabilities of the ant nests were lower than those of the ground termite, with nests formed on Cola nitida significantly showing lower aggregate stability (19.7%) than other antnest structures. Clay dispersion ratio, moisture content, water stable aggregate class <0.25mm and sand mass were each negatively correlated with aggregate stability, while water stable aggregate class1.00-0.50 mm gave a positive correlation. Nest structures were dominated more by water stable aggregate class >2.00 mm but path analysis demonstrated that water stable aggregate class <0.25 mm contributed most to the higher aggregate stability of the termite nest than the other nest. Nest aggregates had greater structural stability compared to the control soil. The higher structural stability of termite nests over other nest and soil was considered a better adaptive mechanism against body desiccation.

  7. Eggshell Porosity Provides Insight on Evolution of Nesting in Dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kohei; Zelenitsky, Darla K; Therrien, François

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about the types of nests built by dinosaurs can provide insight into the evolution of nesting and reproductive behaviors among archosaurs. However, the low preservation potential of their nesting materials and nesting structures means that most information can only be gleaned indirectly through comparison with extant archosaurs. Two general nest types are recognized among living archosaurs: 1) covered nests, in which eggs are incubated while fully covered by nesting material (as in crocodylians and megapodes), and 2) open nests, in which eggs are exposed in the nest and brooded (as in most birds). Previously, dinosaur nest types had been inferred by estimating the water vapor conductance (i.e., diffusive capacity) of their eggs, based on the premise that high conductance corresponds to covered nests and low conductance to open nests. However, a lack of statistical rigor and inconsistencies in this method render its application problematic and its validity questionable. As an alternative we propose a statistically rigorous approach to infer nest type based on large datasets of eggshell porosity and egg mass compiled for over 120 extant archosaur species and 29 archosaur extinct taxa/ootaxa. The presence of a strong correlation between eggshell porosity and nest type among extant archosaurs indicates that eggshell porosity can be used as a proxy for nest type, and thus discriminant analyses can help predict nest type in extinct taxa. Our results suggest that: 1) covered nests are likely the primitive condition for dinosaurs (and probably archosaurs), and 2) open nests first evolved among non-avian theropods more derived than Lourinhanosaurus and were likely widespread in non-avian maniraptorans, well before the appearance of birds. Although taphonomic evidence suggests that basal open nesters (i.e., oviraptorosaurs and troodontids) were potentially the first dinosaurs to brood their clutches, they still partially buried their eggs in sediment. Open nests

  8. Eggshell Porosity Provides Insight on Evolution of Nesting in Dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about the types of nests built by dinosaurs can provide insight into the evolution of nesting and reproductive behaviors among archosaurs. However, the low preservation potential of their nesting materials and nesting structures means that most information can only be gleaned indirectly through comparison with extant archosaurs. Two general nest types are recognized among living archosaurs: 1) covered nests, in which eggs are incubated while fully covered by nesting material (as in crocodylians and megapodes), and 2) open nests, in which eggs are exposed in the nest and brooded (as in most birds). Previously, dinosaur nest types had been inferred by estimating the water vapor conductance (i.e., diffusive capacity) of their eggs, based on the premise that high conductance corresponds to covered nests and low conductance to open nests. However, a lack of statistical rigor and inconsistencies in this method render its application problematic and its validity questionable. As an alternative we propose a statistically rigorous approach to infer nest type based on large datasets of eggshell porosity and egg mass compiled for over 120 extant archosaur species and 29 archosaur extinct taxa/ootaxa. The presence of a strong correlation between eggshell porosity and nest type among extant archosaurs indicates that eggshell porosity can be used as a proxy for nest type, and thus discriminant analyses can help predict nest type in extinct taxa. Our results suggest that: 1) covered nests are likely the primitive condition for dinosaurs (and probably archosaurs), and 2) open nests first evolved among non-avian theropods more derived than Lourinhanosaurus and were likely widespread in non-avian maniraptorans, well before the appearance of birds. Although taphonomic evidence suggests that basal open nesters (i.e., oviraptorosaurs and troodontids) were potentially the first dinosaurs to brood their clutches, they still partially buried their eggs in sediment. Open nests

  9. Design of nest access grids and perches in front of the nests: Influence on the behavior of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Stämpfli, K; Buchwalder, T; Fröhlich, E K F; Roth, B A

    2013-04-01

    In aviary systems for laying hens, it is important to provide suitable nest access platforms in front of the nests, allowing hens to reach and explore each of the nests easily. This access platform is needed to achieve good nest acceptance by the hens and thereby prevent mislaid eggs. In the present experiment, the behavior of hens using 2 different nest access platforms, a plastic grid and 2 wooden perches, was examined. Furthermore, the nests were placed on both sides of the aviary rack (corridor side and outdoor side), either integrated into the aviary rack itself (integrated nest; IN) or placed on the walls of the pens (wall nest; WN), resulting in a 2 × 2 factorial design Four thousand five hundred white laying hens were housed in 20 test pens. The eggs in the nests and mislaid eggs were collected daily, and the behavior of hens on the nest accesses was filmed during wk 25 and 26, using focal observation and scan sampling methods. More balancing, body contact, and agonistic interactions were expected for nests with perches, whereas more walking and nest inspections were expected for nests with grids. There were more mislaid eggs and balancing found in pens equipped with nests with wooden perches. More agonistic interactions and balancing, less standing, and a longer duration of nest inspection were found with the WN compared with the IN. Interactions between platform design and position of the nests were found for duration of nest visits, body contact, and walking, with the highest amount for WN equipped with plastic grids. Nests on the corridor side were favored by the hens. Nest-related behaviors, such as nest inspection, standing, and walking, decreased over time as did the number of hens on the nest accesses, whereas sitting increased. These results indicate that the hens had more difficulties in gripping the perches as designed. The lower number of hens on the nest access platforms in front of IN may be due to a better distribution around nests and tier

  10. Avian community response to lowland tropical rainforest isolation: 40 years of change at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Sigel, Bryan J; Sherry, Thomas W; Young, Bruce E

    2006-02-01

    Since 1960, most of the forest surrounding the La Selva Biological Station, an intensively studied tropical research facility in Costa Rica, has been converted to agricultural uses. We used quantitative censuses and analysis of previously published categorical abundances to assess changes in the bird community, and we evaluated potential causes of species-specific changes by assessing their association with habitat, diet, participation in mixed-species flocks, and nest type. Approximately the same percentage of species increased as decreased in abundance from 1960 to 1999 (10-20% of all species, depending on method of assessment). Diet was the single most important trait associated with declining species. At least 50% of the species that declined have insectivorous diets. Use of forest habitat and participation in mixed-species flocks were also significant factors associated with declines, but nest type was unrelated to change in abundance. The species that increased in abundance tended to occur in open habitats and have omnivorous diets. These results reinforce the importance of several population risk factors associated with tropical understory insectivory and mixed-species flocking: patchy spatial distribution, low population density, large home range, and dietary specialization. La Selva's protected area (1611 ha), despite a forested connection on one boundary with a higher elevation national park, is apparently too small to maintain at least one major guild (understory insectivores). This first quantitative assessment of bird community change at La Selva highlights the need to intensify study of the mechanisms and consequences of biological diversity change in tropical forest fragments.

  11. Are nested case-control studies biased?

    PubMed Central

    Langholz, Bryan; Richardson, David

    2014-01-01

    It has been recently asserted that the nested case-control study design, in which case-control sets are sampled from cohort risk sets, can introduce bias (“study design bias”) when there are lagged exposures. The bases for this claim include a theoretic and an “empirical evaluation” argument. Both of these arguments are examined and found to be incorrect. Appropriate methods to explore the performance of nested case-control study designs, analysis methods, and compute power and sample size from an existing cohort are described. This empirical evaluation approach relies on simulating case-control outcomes from risk sets in the cohort from which the case-control study is to be performed. Because it is based on the underlying cohort structure, the empirical evaluation can provide an assessment that is tailored to the specific characteristics of the study under consideration. The methods are illustrated using samples from the Colorado Plateau uranium miners cohort. PMID:19289963

  12. Mechanisms of multi-strain coexistence in host-phage systems with nested infection networks.

    PubMed

    Jover, Luis F; Cortez, Michael H; Weitz, Joshua S

    2013-09-07

    Bacteria and their viruses (bacteriophages) coexist in natural environments forming complex infection networks. Recent empirical findings suggest that phage-bacteria infection networks often possess a nested structure such that there is a hierarchical relationship among who can infect whom. Here we consider how nested infection networks may affect phage and bacteria dynamics using a multi-type Lotka-Volterra framework with cross-infection. Analysis of similar models has, in the past, assumed simpler interaction structures as a first step towards tractability. We solve the proposed model, finding trade-off conditions on the life-history traits of both bacteria and viruses that allow coexistence in communities with nested infection networks. First, we find that bacterial growth rate should decrease with increasing defense against infection. Second, we find that the efficiency of viral infection should decrease with host range. Next, we establish a relationship between relative densities and the curvature of life history trade-offs. We compare and contrast the current findings to the "Kill-the-Winner" model of multi-species phage-bacteria communities. Finally, we discuss a suite of testable hypotheses stemming from the current model concerning relationships between infection range, life history traits and coexistence in complex phage-bacteria communities.

  13. Nesting biology of four Tetrapedia species in trap-nests (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Tetrapediini).

    PubMed

    Camillo, Evandro

    2005-01-01

    The nests used in this study were obtained from trap-nests (tubes of cardboard and cut bamboo stems) placed on Santa Carlota Farm (Itaoca Section-IS, Santana Section-SS and Cerrado-Ce), Cajuru, SP, Brazil. The number of nests and corresponding species obtained were as follows: 516 nests of T. curvitarsis, 104 of T. rugulosa, 399 of T. diversipes and 98 of T. gamfaloi. The most abundant species from SS and Ce was T. curvitarsis, and from IS it was T. diversipes. In general, most nests were collected during the hot and wet season (September to April). The nests were constructed with sand and an oily substance, and a single female established them. The cells were constructed in a linear series, sometimes followed by a vestibular cell. The number of brood cells ranged from 1 to 10 in T. curvitarsis (n=200), and in T. garofaloi (n-51), from 1 to 8 (n-30) in T. rugulosa, and from 1 to 6 (n=37) in T. diversipes. The pollen mass (pollen + oily substance) contained a hollow, sometimes divided by a transverse ridge, on the exposed face of the pollen mass. The egg was vertically positioned in the lower part of the hollow. At times, the closing of a cell was initiated before provisioning was completed, with a construction of a collar at the cell limit. In some nests the final cellular partition also acted as a closure plug. Females began activities at 6:18 a.m. and ended between 3:31 and 6:26 p.m. Some females (T. curvitarsis, T. rugiulosa and T. ganrfaloi) did not spend the nights at their nests, returning to them only the following morning with additional material. In general, the development period (for males and females) was greater in nests collected near the end of the hot and wet season than it was for nests collected in other months. Sex ratios for each species were as follows: T. curvitarsis. 1:1: T. rugulosa, 1.6:1 female; T. diversipes, 1.9:1: T. garofaloi, 2.8:1. Males and females of T. diversipes exhibited statistically similar sizes and in the other three species

  14. Impact of special early harvest seasons on subarctic-nesting and temperate-nesting Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheaffer, S.E.; Kendall, W.L.; Bowers, E. Frank

    2005-01-01

    Dramatic changes in wintering distributions of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) have occurred over the past 50 years in eastern North America. Declines in numbers of subarctic-nesting geese wintering in southern states, and increases in numbers wintering in northern regions, have resulted in a northern shift in winter distributions. In contrast, numbers of temperate-nesting geese have increased throughout eastern North America. Management efforts to control overabundant temperate-nesting flocks have included the establishment of special early harvest seasons in September. However, the effect of early seasons on survival and harvest of subarctic-nesting populations has not been documented. Understanding the timing of migration movements and the fidelity of subarctic-nesting flocks to terminal winter refuges in the Southeast also is necessary to design early harvest seasons that target temperate-nesting flocks and protect subarctic-nesting populations. We used recoveries of marked geese to estimate survival and harvest rates before and after implementation of early harvest seasons within the Mississippi Flyway during 1976-1999. In addition, we used observations of neck-banded geese from the Southern James Bay Population (SJBP) to evaluate the hypothesis that subarctic-nesting geese arriving prior to mid-December on several key terminal winter refuges in the Southeast (early arriving migrants) were more likely to return to those refuges in subsequent years than were migrants, arriving after mid-December (late arriving migrants). September seasons during 1987-1994 were a minor source of mortality for subarctic-nesting populations and accounted for < 10% of their annual harvest mortality. The effectiveness of early seasons for increasing mortality of temperate-nesting flocks varied among the states we examined and was tempered by concurrent changes in state-specific harvest regulations during the regular harvest season. For SJBP Canada geese, annual fidelity to

  15. DISPERSAL OF SEEDS AS NEST MATERIAL BY THE CACTUS WREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus) nests from the southern Chihuahuan Desert contained viable seeds of grasses, forbs, and shrubs. The most common plants used as construction material in these nests were Muhlenbergia porteri, Boerhavia spicata, and the alien grass Era...

  16. Patterns of artificial nest depredation in a large floodplain forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knutson, Melinda G.; Gutreuter, Steven J.; Klaas, Erwin E.

    2000-01-01

    We used artificial bird nests to examine the relative effects of local habitat features and the surrounding landscape on the probability of songbird nest depredation in floodplain forests of the Upper Mississippi River. We found that the probability of depredation increased with size of floodplain forest plots. In small plots, the probability of depredation tended to increase away from the forest edge. Small patches of floodplain forest within a large river system can provide valuable nesting habitat for songbirds. We suggest that depredation pressure may be lower due to isolation effects. The probability of nest depredation increased with increasing canopy cover surrounding the nest tree and decreasing cover around the nest. Managers seeking to discourage nest predators in floodplain forests should consider managing for habitats that supply dense cover for nest concealment and an open tree canopy.

  17. Ant nest corrosion -- Exploring the labyrinth

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, P.; Corbett, R.A.

    1999-07-01

    The phenomenon of ant nest (formicary) corrosion is reviewed. Current theories indicate that attack requires the simultaneous presence of moisture, oxygen and a corrodent, usually an organic acid, such as formic acid. Morphological features are presented using several recent case studies as examples. This paper seeks to create more answers to this less appreciated phenomenon that causes premature corrosion failure in copper tubes used typically for refrigeration or air conditioning applications.

  18. Nested Dissection Interface Reconstruction in Pececillo

    SciTech Connect

    Jibben, Zechariah Joel; Carlson, Neil N.; Francois, Marianne M.

    2016-09-13

    A nested dissection method for interface reconstruction in a volume tracking framework has been implemented in Pececillo, a mini-app for Truchas, which is the ASC code for casting and additive manufacturing. This method provides a significant improvement over the traditional onion-skin method, which does not appropriately handle T-shaped multimaterial intersections and dynamic contact lines present in additive manufacturing simulations. The resulting implementation lays the groundwork for further research in contact angle estimates and surface tension calculations.

  19. Hyperspectral remote sensing of vegetation and agricultural crops: knowledge gain and knowledge gap after 40 years of research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Lyon, John G.; Huete, Alfredo; Edited by Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Lyon, John G.; Huete, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this chapter was to summarize the advances made over last 40+ years, as reported in various chapters of this book, in understanding, modeling, and mapping terrestrial vegetation using hyperspectral remote sensing (or imaging spectroscopy) using sensors that are ground-based, truck-mounted, airborne, and spaceborne. As we have seen in various chapters of this book and synthesized in this chapter, the advances made include: (a) significantly improved characterization and modeling of a wide array of biophysical and biochemical properties of vegetation, (b) ability to discriminate plant species and vegetation types with high degree of accuracies (c) reducing uncertainties in determining net primary productivity or carbon assessments from terrestrial vegetation, (d) improved crop productivity and water productivity models, (b), (e) ability to access stress resulting from causes such as management practices, pests and disease, water deficit or excess; , and (f) establishing more sensitive wavebands and indices to detect plant water\\moisture content. The advent of spaceborne hyperspectral sensors (e.g., NASA’s Hyperion, ESA’s PROBA, and upcoming NASA’s HyspIRI) and numerous methods and techniques espoused in this book to overcome Hughes phenomenon or data redundancy when handling large volumes of hyperspectral data have generated tremendous interest in advancing our hyperspectral applications knowledge base over larger spatial extent such as region, nation, continent, and globe.

  20. Molecular Features and Methylation Status in Early Onset (≤40 Years) Colorectal Cancer: A Population Based, Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Magnani, Giulia; Furlan, Daniela; Sahnane, Nora; Reggiani Bonetti, Luca; Domati, Federica; Pedroni, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is usually considered a disease of the elderly. However, a small fraction of patients develops colorectal cancer earlier. The aim of our study was to define the frequency of known hereditary colorectal syndromes and to characterise genetic and epigenetic features of early nonhereditary tumors. Thirty-three patients ≤40 years with diagnosis of colorectal cancer and 41 patients with disease at >60 years of age were investigated for MSI, Mismatch Repair proteins expression, KRAS and BRAF mutations, hypermethylation, and LINE-1 hypomethylation. Detection of germline mutations was performed in Mismatch Repair, APC and MUTYH genes. Early onset colorectal cancer showed a high incidence of hereditary forms (18%). KRAS mutations were detected in 36% of early nonhereditary tumors. Early onset colorectal cancer disclosed an average number of methylated genes significantly lower when compared to the controls (p = 0.02). Finally both of the two groups were highly methylated in ESR1, GATA5, and WT1 genes and were similar for LINE-1 hypomethylation. The genetic make-up of carcinomas differs from young to elderly patients. Early onset tumors showed more frequently a constitutional defective of Mismatch Repair System and a minor number of methylated genes. Hypermethylation of ESR1, GATA5, and WT1 genes suggests possible markers in the earlier diagnosis of colorectal tumorigenesis. PMID:26557847

  1. Spatial-temporal variations and their dynamics of the saline lakes in the Qaidam Basin over the past 40 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, S. L.; Zhang, W. C.; Wang, F.

    2016-11-01

    The saline lakes in the Qaidam basin, providing numerous saline mineral resources to the development of China's western region have changed greatly in recent decades. Understanding the spatial-temporal variations of the saline lakes for exploring the dynamics of those changes is not only essential for sustainable development of the region, but also is of significance for scientific studies. By using multi-temporal Landsat and HJ-1A/1B remote sensing data, this study focused on detecting the spatial-temporal variations of the saline lakes concerning with their extent changes with the influence of climate and human activities in the Qaidam basin from 1973 to 2014 based on the normalized difference water index (NDWI) and maximum likelihood supervised classification techniques. The results indicated that most of the saline lakes studied in this paper across the study region had experienced great changes over the past 40 years, and each saline lake differed considerably on extent. The runoff supplies from the surrounding rivers and the large-scale saline resource exploitation were considered as direct reasons for the saline lake extent changes, in which climatic changes characterized by the increase of temperature and slight decrease of precipitation over the region had significant impacts on the lake area variations directly or indirectly.

  2. River flow trends in the west of Iran during the past 40 years: Impact of precipitation variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abghari, Hirad; Tabari, Hossein; Hosseinzadeh Talaee, P.

    2013-02-01

    A better understanding of hydrological changes associated with climate change can be achieved by analyzing the temporal trends in river discharge time series. We used the non-parametric Spearman's rho, Kendall's tau, Mann-Kendall and Theil-Sen approaches to evaluate annual and monthly trends in river flow data from 12 stations located in the mountainous western regions of Iran over a 40-year period spanning the hydrological years 1969-1970 to 2008-2009. The Pearson correlation analysis was also applied to explore the relationships between precipitation and river flow series. Using a 5% significance level, we found an evidence of downward trends in annual river discharge at Varayeneh, Omar-Abad, Saleh-Abad, Zehtaran and Bahadorbeig stations at the rates of 0.491, 1.00, 0.101, 0.044, and 0.020 m3/s per decade, respectively. These significant downward trends started in the hydrological years of 2005-2006, 2000-2001, 2006-2007, 1995-1996 and 1995-1996, respectively. The greatest numbers of stations with significant river discharge trends occur in October and November, accounting for seven and six stations respectively. Annual precipitation exhibited no strong directional trend, although the tendency was toward increasing annual precipitation. Monthly precipitation variability seems to be also increasing for most of the months but no overall trend pattern in monthly precipitation totals emerged. Correlation analyses indicated strong relationships between river discharge and precipitation at the annual scale and for most of the months.

  3. Stimulus generation, ratings, phoneme counts, and group classifications for 696 famous people by British adults over 40 years of age.

    PubMed

    Smith-Spark, James H; Moore, Viv; Valentine, Tim; Sherman, Susan M

    2006-11-01

    Matching stimuli across a range of influencing variables is no less important for studies of face recognition than it is for those of word processing. Whereas a number of corpora exist to allow experimenters to select a carefully controlled set of word stimuli, similar databases for famous faces do not exist. This article, therefore, provides researchers in the area of face recognition with a useful resource on which to base their stimulus selection. In the first phase of the investigation, British adults over 40 years of age were requested to generate the names of famous people (or celebrities) that they thought they would recognize and to write these down. The most frequently named celebrities were then rated by adults from the same age population for familiarity, distinctiveness, and age of acquisition. The result is a database of 696 famous people, with an indication of their relative eminence in the public consciousness and rated for these important variables. Phoneme counts are also provided for each famous person, together with family name frequency counts in the general population, where available. Materials and links may be accessed at www.psychonomic.org/archive.

  4. Small cell neuroendocrine tumor of the breast in a 40 year-old woman: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Small cell neuroendocrine cancer of the breast is a rare tumor with less than 30 cases reported in the literature. The morphological and immunohistochemical patterns of this tumor are similar to small cell neuroendocrine cancer of the lung. For this reason, it is often difficult to distinguish a primary small cell neuroendocrine cancer of the breast from a metastatic lesion from other sites. Case presentation We report and characterize with immunohistochemical techniques a case of primary small cell neuroendocrine cancer of the breast occurring in a 40-year-old Caucasian woman. A palpable and mobile 3.0 cm tumor was located in the upper-outer quadrant of her right breast. Lumpectomy and subsequent radical mastectomy with axillary lymph node resection were performed. Microscopically, the tumor consisted predominantly of a diffuse proliferation of small oat cells. The tumor cells were positive for neuroendocrine markers chromogranin A and synaptophysin. One of 16 lymph nodes was metastatic. A correct treatment needs to be chosen. Conclusions It has recently been demonstrated that early small cell neuroendocrine cancer of the breast shows a good prognosis with adjuvant treatments with high disease free survival. Our patient is alive and well without disease eight years after treatment. We performed an adjuvant therapy with the classic scheme doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide, followed by carboplatin and etoposide. A more extensive review is required to define a standard treatment protocol for this rare neoplasm. PMID:20591162

  5. A history of helmet mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foote, Bob; Melzer, James

    2015-05-01

    In more than 40 years of development, the Helmet-Mounted Display (HMD) has become a key part of the equipment for fixed and rotary wing pilots and ground soldiers, proving to be a force multiplier and reducing user workload. Rockwell Collins has been a key player in the development of modern HMD technology and is currently fielding major HMDs supporting pilots around the world including the Joint Hemet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) and Strike Eye. This paper will outline the history of HMDs over the last 40 years for fixed wing, rotorcraft and soldiers and discuss Rockwell Collins' role. We will discuss the development and testing required for introduction of HMDs into the modern pilot environment. Within the paper we will point out some of the misconceptions, facts and legends of HMDS.

  6. Localizing Tortoise Nests by Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Barbuti, Roberto; Chessa, Stefano; Micheli, Alessio; Pucci, Rita

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this research is to recognize the nest digging activity of tortoises using a device mounted atop the tortoise carapace. The device classifies tortoise movements in order to discriminate between nest digging, and non-digging activity (specifically walking and eating). Accelerometer data was collected from devices attached to the carapace of a number of tortoises during their two-month nesting period. Our system uses an accelerometer and an activity recognition system (ARS) which is modularly structured using an artificial neural network and an output filter. For the purpose of experiment and comparison, and with the aim of minimizing the computational cost, the artificial neural network has been modelled according to three different architectures based on the input delay neural network (IDNN). We show that the ARS can achieve very high accuracy on segments of data sequences, with an extremely small neural network that can be embedded in programmable low power devices. Given that digging is typically a long activity (up to two hours), the application of ARS on data segments can be repeated over time to set up a reliable and efficient system, called Tortoise@, for digging activity recognition.

  7. Localizing Tortoise Nests by Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this research is to recognize the nest digging activity of tortoises using a device mounted atop the tortoise carapace. The device classifies tortoise movements in order to discriminate between nest digging, and non-digging activity (specifically walking and eating). Accelerometer data was collected from devices attached to the carapace of a number of tortoises during their two-month nesting period. Our system uses an accelerometer and an activity recognition system (ARS) which is modularly structured using an artificial neural network and an output filter. For the purpose of experiment and comparison, and with the aim of minimizing the computational cost, the artificial neural network has been modelled according to three different architectures based on the input delay neural network (IDNN). We show that the ARS can achieve very high accuracy on segments of data sequences, with an extremely small neural network that can be embedded in programmable low power devices. Given that digging is typically a long activity (up to two hours), the application of ARS on data segments can be repeated over time to set up a reliable and efficient system, called Tortoise@, for digging activity recognition. PMID:26985660

  8. Nesting by pomarine jaegers near Barrow, Alaska, 1971

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Thomas W.; Pitelka, Frank A.

    1987-01-01

    An estimated 5.7 pairs of pomarine jaegers km -2 (14.8 mi -2) nested near Barrow, Alaska, in 1971. Hatching success of 67 eggs (34 nests) was 57%. Fledging success of 44 nestlings (26 nests) was 32%. An estimated 0.4 young survived to 25 d of age per nesting attempt. Low fledging success is explained by an abrupt decline in lemming abundance.

  9. Nest Success of Gunnison Sage-Grouse in Colorado, USA

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Amy J.; Phillips, Michael L.; Doherty, Paul F.

    2015-01-01

    Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus) is a species of concern for which little demographic information exists. To help fill this information gap, we investigated factors affecting nest success in two populations of Gunnison Sage-Grouse. We assessed the relative effects of (1) vegetation characteristics (e.g., shrub height, shrub cover, grass cover, and grass height), (2) temporal factors (e.g., year, timing of incubation initiation, and nest age), (3) precipitation, and (4) age of the nesting female (yearling or adult) on nest success rates. We found 177 nests in the Gunnison Basin population (that contains 85–90% of the species) from 2005–2010 and 20 nests in the San Miguel population (that contains < 10% of the species) from 2007–2010. Temporal factors had the greatest impact on nest success compared to vegetation characteristics, precipitation, and female age. Nest success varied considerably among years ranging from 4.0%-60.2% in Gunnison Basin and from 12.9%- 51.9% in San Miguel. Nests that were initiated earlier in the breeding season had higher nest success (at least one egg hatches). Daily nest survival rates decreased during the course of incubation. None of the vegetation characteristics we examined were strongly related to nest success. PMID:26287996

  10. PARTITIONING RISK AMONG DIFFERENT SOURCES OF NEST FAILURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nest predation and nest parasitism receive the most attention as causes of nest failure for North American songbirds. Yet for many populations, interspecific competition, adverse weather, abandonment, nestling starvation, and

    egg failure may also be significant causes of n...

  11. Nest Success of Gunnison Sage-Grouse in Colorado, USA.

    PubMed

    Davis, Amy J; Phillips, Michael L; Doherty, Paul F

    2015-01-01

    Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus) is a species of concern for which little demographic information exists. To help fill this information gap, we investigated factors affecting nest success in two populations of Gunnison Sage-Grouse. We assessed the relative effects of (1) vegetation characteristics (e.g., shrub height, shrub cover, grass cover, and grass height), (2) temporal factors (e.g., year, timing of incubation initiation, and nest age), (3) precipitation, and (4) age of the nesting female (yearling or adult) on nest success rates. We found 177 nests in the Gunnison Basin population (that contains 85-90% of the species) from 2005-2010 and 20 nests in the San Miguel population (that contains < 10% of the species) from 2007-2010. Temporal factors had the greatest impact on nest success compared to vegetation characteristics, precipitation, and female age. Nest success varied considerably among years ranging from 4.0%-60.2% in Gunnison Basin and from 12.9%- 51.9% in San Miguel. Nests that were initiated earlier in the breeding season had higher nest success (at least one egg hatches). Daily nest survival rates decreased during the course of incubation. None of the vegetation characteristics we examined were strongly related to nest success.

  12. Communal nesting and kinship in degus (Octodon degus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebensperger, Luis A.; Hurtado, María José; Soto-Gamboa, Mauricio; Lacey, Eileen A.; Chang, Ann T.

    Communal nesting is a fundamental component of many animal societies. Because the fitness consequences of this behavior vary with the relatedness among nest mates, understanding the kin structure of communally nesting groups is critical to understanding why such groups form. Observations of captive degus (Octodon degus) indicate that multiple females nest together, even when supplied with several nest boxes. To determine whether free-living degus also engage in communal nesting, we used radiotelemetry to monitor spatial relationships among adult females in a population of O. degus in central Chile. These analyses revealed that females formed stable associations of > 2-4 individuals, all of whom shared the same nest site at night. During the daytime, spatial overlap and frequency of social interactions were greatest among co-nesting females, suggesting that nesting associations represent distinct social units. To assess kinship among co-nesting females, we examined genotypic variation in our study animals at six microsatellite loci. These analyses indicated that mean pairwise relatedness among members of a nesting association (r=0.25) was significantly greater than that among randomly selected females (r=-0.03). Thus, communally nesting groups of degus are composed of female kin, making it possible for indirect as well as direct fitness benefits to contribute to sociality in this species.

  13. Strategies for nest-site selection by king eiders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bentzen, R.L.; Powell, A.N.; Suydam, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    Nest site selection is a critical component of reproduction and has presumably evolved in relation to predation, local resources, and microclimate. We investigated nest-site choice by king eiders (Somateria spectabilis) on the coastal plain of northern Alaska, USA, 2003-2005. We hypothesized that nest-site selection is driven by predator avoidance and that a variety of strategies including concealment, seclusion, and conspecific or inter-specific nest defense might lead to improved nesting success. We systematically searched wetland basins for king eider nests and measured habitat and social variables at nests (n = 212) and random locations (n = 493). King eiders made use of both secluded and concealed breeding strategies; logistic regression models revealed that females selected nests close to water, on islands, and in areas with high willow (Salix spp.) cover but did not select sites near conspecific or glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) nests. The most effective nest-placement strategy may vary depending on density and types of nest predators; seclusion is likely a mammalian-predator avoidance tactic whereas concealment may provide protection from avian predators. We recommend that managers in northern Alaska attempt to maintain wetland basins with islands and complex shorelines to provide potential nest sites in the vicinity of water. ?? The Wildlife Society.

  14. Nest relocation and excavation in the Florida harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex badius.

    PubMed

    Tschinkel, Walter R

    2014-01-01

    The Florida harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex badius) excavates deep nests in the sandy soils of the Gulf and Atlantic coastal plains. Nest relocations of over 400 colonies in a north Florida coastal plains pine forest were tracked and mapped from 2010 to 2013. Individual colonies varied from one move in two years to four times a year, averaging about one per year. Almost all moves occurred between May and November peaking in July when more than 1% of the colonies moved per day. Move directions were random, and averaged 4 m, with few moves exceeding 10 m. Distance moved was not related to colony size. Over multiple moves, paths were random walks around the original nest location. Relocation is probably intrinsic to the life history of this species, and the causes of relocation remain obscure--the architecture of old and new nests was very similar, and neither the forest canopy nor the density or size of neighbors was correlated with relocation. Monitoring entire relocations (n = 20) showed that they were usually completed in 4 to 6 days. Moves were diurnal, peaking in the mornings and afternoons dipping during mid-day, and ceasing before sundown. Workers excavated the new nest continuously during the daytime throughout the move and beyond. A minority of workers carried seeds, charcoal and brood, with seeds being by far the most common burden. The proportion of burdened workers increased throughout the move. Measured from year to year, small colonies gained size and large ones lost it. Colonies moving more than once in two years lost more size than those moving less often, suggesting that moving may bear a fitness cost. Colony relocation is a dramatic and consistent feature of the life history of the Florida harvester ant, inviting inquiry into its proximal and ultimate causes.

  15. Nest Relocation and Excavation in the Florida Harvester Ant, Pogonomyrmex badius

    PubMed Central

    Tschinkel, Walter R.

    2014-01-01

    The Florida harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex badius) excavates deep nests in the sandy soils of the Gulf and Atlantic coastal plains. Nest relocations of over 400 colonies in a north Florida coastal plains pine forest were tracked and mapped from 2010 to 2013. Individual colonies varied from one move in two years to four times a year, averaging about one per year. Almost all moves occurred between May and November peaking in July when more than 1% of the colonies moved per day. Move directions were random, and averaged 4 m, with few moves exceeding 10 m. Distance moved was not related to colony size. Over multiple moves, paths were random walks around the original nest location. Relocation is probably intrinsic to the life history of this species, and the causes of relocation remain obscure— the architecture of old and new nests was very similar, and neither the forest canopy nor the density or size of neighbors was correlated with relocation. Monitoring entire relocations (n = 20) showed that they were usually completed in 4 to 6 days. Moves were diurnal, peaking in the mornings and afternoons dipping during mid-day, and ceasing before sundown. Workers excavated the new nest continuously during the daytime throughout the move and beyond. A minority of workers carried seeds, charcoal and brood, with seeds being by far the most common burden. The proportion of burdened workers increased throughout the move. Measured from year to year, small colonies gained size and large ones lost it. Colonies moving more than once in two years lost more size than those moving less often, suggesting that moving may bear a fitness cost. Colony relocation is a dramatic and consistent feature of the life history of the Florida harvester ant, inviting inquiry into its proximal and ultimate causes. PMID:25409332

  16. Sharp-Tailed Grouse Nest Survival and Nest Predator Habitat Use in North Dakota’s Bakken Oil Field

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Recent advancements in extraction technologies have resulted in rapid increases of gas and oil development across the United States and specifically in western North Dakota. This expansion of energy development has unknown influences on local wildlife populations and the ecological interactions within and among species. Our objectives for this study were to evaluate nest success and nest predator dynamics of sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus) in two study sites that represented areas of high and low energy development intensities in North Dakota. During the summers of 2012 and 2013, we monitored 163 grouse nests using radio telemetry. Of these, 90 nests also were monitored using miniature cameras to accurately determine nest fates and identify nest predators. We simultaneously conducted predator surveys using camera scent stations and occupancy modeling to estimate nest predator occurrence at each site. American badgers (Taxidea taxus) and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) were the primary nest predators, accounting for 56.7% of all video recorded nest depredations. Nests in our high intensity gas and oil area were 1.95 times more likely to succeed compared to our minimal intensity area. Camera monitored nests were 2.03 times more likely to succeed than non-camera monitored nests. Occupancy of mammalian nest predators was 6.9 times more likely in our study area of minimal gas and oil intensity compared to the high intensity area. Although only a correlative study, our results suggest energy development may alter the predator community, thereby increasing nest success for sharp-tailed grouse in areas of intense development, while adjacent areas may have increased predator occurrence and reduced nest success. Our study illustrates the potential influences of energy development on the nest predator—prey dynamics of sharp-tailed grouse in western North Dakota and the complexity of evaluating such impacts on wildlife. PMID:28081245

  17. Sharp-Tailed Grouse Nest Survival and Nest Predator Habitat Use in North Dakota's Bakken Oil Field.

    PubMed

    Burr, Paul C; Robinson, Aaron C; Larsen, Randy T; Newman, Robert A; Ellis-Felege, Susan N

    2017-01-01

    Recent advancements in extraction technologies have resulted in rapid increases of gas and oil development across the United States and specifically in western North Dakota. This expansion of energy development has unknown influences on local wildlife populations and the ecological interactions within and among species. Our objectives for this study were to evaluate nest success and nest predator dynamics of sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus) in two study sites that represented areas of high and low energy development intensities in North Dakota. During the summers of 2012 and 2013, we monitored 163 grouse nests using radio telemetry. Of these, 90 nests also were monitored using miniature cameras to accurately determine nest fates and identify nest predators. We simultaneously conducted predator surveys using camera scent stations and occupancy modeling to estimate nest predator occurrence at each site. American badgers (Taxidea taxus) and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) were the primary nest predators, accounting for 56.7% of all video recorded nest depredations. Nests in our high intensity gas and oil area were 1.95 times more likely to succeed compared to our minimal intensity area. Camera monitored nests were 2.03 times more likely to succeed than non-camera monitored nests. Occupancy of mammalian nest predators was 6.9 times more likely in our study area of minimal gas and oil intensity compared to the high intensity area. Although only a correlative study, our results suggest energy development may alter the predator community, thereby increasing nest success for sharp-tailed grouse in areas of intense development, while adjacent areas may have increased predator occurrence and reduced nest success. Our study illustrates the potential influences of energy development on the nest predator-prey dynamics of sharp-tailed grouse in western North Dakota and the complexity of evaluating such impacts on wildlife.

  18. Nest construction by a ground-nesting bird represents a potential trade-off between egg crypticity and thermoregulation.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Paul M; Smith, Levica M; Ford, Robert G; Watterson, Dustin C; McCutchen, Marshall D; Ryan, Mark R

    2009-04-01

    Predation selects against conspicuous colors in bird eggs and nests, while thermoregulatory constraints select for nest-building behavior that regulates incubation temperatures. We present results that suggest a trade-off between nest crypticity and thermoregulation of eggs based on selection of nest materials by piping plovers (Charadrius melodus), a ground-nesting bird that constructs simple, pebble-lined nests highly vulnerable to predators and exposed to temperature extremes. Piping plovers selected pebbles that were whiter and appeared closer in color to eggs than randomly available pebbles, suggesting a crypsis function. However, nests that were more contrasting in color to surrounding substrates were at greater risk of predation, suggesting an alternate strategy driving selection of white rocks. Near-infrared reflectance of nest pebbles was higher than randomly available pebbles, indicating a direct physical mechanism for heat control through pebble selection. Artificial nests constructed of randomly available pebbles heated more quickly and conferred heat to model eggs, causing eggs to heat more rapidly than in nests constructed from piping plover nest pebbles. Thermal models and field data indicated that temperatures inside nests may remain up to 2-6 degrees C cooler than surrounding substrates. Thermal models indicated that nests heat especially rapidly if not incubated, suggesting that nest construction behavior may serve to keep eggs cooler during the unattended laying period. Thus, pebble selection suggests a potential trade-off between maximizing heat reflectance to improve egg microclimate and minimizing conspicuous contrast of nests with the surrounding substrate to conceal eggs from predators. Nest construction behavior that employs light-colored, thermally reflective materials may represent an evolutionary response by birds and other egg-laying organisms to egg predation and heat stress.

  19. Upland duck nesting related to land use and predator reduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duebbert, H.F.; Kantrud, H.A.

    1974-01-01

    Duck nesting was studied during 1971 in north-central South Dakota under four conditions: in idle, five or six year old fields of domestic grass-legume mixtures in an area where predators including the red fox (Vulpes fulva), raccoon (Procyon lotor), striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), and badger (Taxidea taxus) were (1) reduced and (2) not reduced. Nesting was also studied in tracts of active agricultural land (primarily croplands and pastures) where predators were (3) reduced, and (4) not reduced. Under condition (1), 260 nests were found on 0.87 km2 (299 nests/km2), eggs hatched in 92 percent of the nests and production was 22.0 ducklings/hectare. Under condition (2), 187 nests were found on 2.22 km2 (84 nests/km2), nest success was 68 percent and 4.7 ducklings/hectare were produced. On active agricultural land subject to predator reduction (condition 3), 64 nests were found on 5.14 km2 (12 nests/km2). Eggs in 85 percent of the nests hatched and production was 0.7 duckling/hectare. On active agricultural land not subject to predator reduction (condition 4), 58 nests were found on 4.01 km2 (14 nests/km2), nest success was 51 percent and 0.5 duckling/hectare was produced. Idle, 16 to 65-hectare (40 to 160-acre) stands of cool-season, introduced grasses in combination with legumes produced maximum numbers of upland nesting ducks.

  20. Reduced entomopathogen abundance in Myrmica ant nests-testing a possible immunological benefit of myrmecophily using Galleria mellonella as a model.

    PubMed

    Schär, Sämi; Larsen, Louise L M; Meyling, Nicolai V; Nash, David R

    2015-10-01

    Social insects such as ants have evolved collective rather than individual immune defence strategies against diseases and parasites at the level of their societies (colonies), known as social immunity. Ants frequently host other arthropods, so-called myrmecophiles, in their nests. Here, we tested the hypothesis that myrmecophily may partly arise from selection for exploiting the ants' social immunity. We used larvae of the wax moth Galleria mellonella as 'model myrmecophiles' (baits) to test this hypothesis. We found significantly reduced abundance of entomopathogens in ant nests compared with the surrounding environment. Specific entomopathogen groups (Isaria fumosorosea and nematodes) were also found to be significantly less abundant inside than outside ant nests, whereas one entomopathogen (Beauveria brongniartii) was significantly more abundant inside nests. We therefore hypothesize that immunological benefits of entering ant nests may provide us a new explanation of why natural selection acts in favour of such a life-history strategy.

  1. EFL Students' and Teachers' Attitudes toward Foreign Language Speaking Anxiety: A Look at NESTs and Non-NESTs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Turgay; Tanriöver, Ahmet Serkan; Sahan, Özgür

    2016-01-01

    Native English Speaking Teachers (NESTs) have been employed in various English language teaching (ELT) positions and departments at private and state universities in Turkey, particularly over the last three decades. However, undergraduate EFL students' attitudes toward NESTs and Non-Native English Speaking Teachers (Non-NESTs) remain seriously…

  2. Changes in Algal Trends and Nutrient Budgets in Arctic Tundra Ponds Over the Past 40 Years in Barrow, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, C.; Lougheed, V.

    2011-12-01

    In the 1970's, Barrow, Alaska was host to a detailed ecological study, the International Biological Program (IBP), which examined physical, chemical and biological characteristics of Arctic tundra ponds. Forty years later, this area has experienced warming and potential release of nutrients from permafrost; however, there have been no follow up studies since the 1970's and biological changes in these ponds remain unknown. The 1970's IBP research suggested that algae had warmer temperature optima than ambient temperatures and that phosphorus was the limiting nutrient. The goal of this study was to understand algal growth trends during the 2010 growing season, the role of limiting nutrients, and how both these have changed through time in light of shifting climate regimes. Algae was collected and quantified weekly from periphyton (attached to sediment) and phytoplankton (free-floating algae) from several IBP ponds over the summer of 2010. Nutrient addition and release experiments with known quantities of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) were utilized to determine algal nutrient limitation. Algal biomass was significantly greater in 2010 than in the 1970s. Nutrient addition experiments showed a shift from phosphorus limitation in the 1970s to nitrogen limitation of periphyton in 2010, while phytoplankton was co-limited by nitrogen and phosphorus in 2010. These preliminary results indicate substantial changes have occurred over the past 40 years. Further studies are being completed in Summer 2011 to understand inter-annual variability in these trends and to reveal the implications of these trends in algal production and nutrient budgets in the Arctic.

  3. Development of U.S. Regulations for the Transportation of Radioactive Materials - A Look Back Over the Past 40 Years

    SciTech Connect

    Hafner, R S

    2005-08-29

    The discussion in this Chapter is a relatively straightforward, chronological description of the development of U.S. transportation regulations for radioactive materials over the past 40 years. Although primarily based on the development of U.S. regulations for the shipment of what is now known as Type B quantities of radioactive materials, the information presented details the interactions between a number of U.S. governmental agencies, commissions, and departments, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). For the most part, the information that follows was taken directly from the Federal Register, between 1965 and 2004, which, within the boundaries of the U.S., is considered law, or at least policy at the federal level. Starting in 1978, however, the information presented also takes a look at a series of so-called Guidance Documents, including Regulatory Guides (Reg. Guides), NUREGs, and NUREG/CRs. Developed originally by the U.S. Atomic Energy Agency (AEC), and later adapted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the NUREGs and NUREG/CRs cited in this Chapter clearly specify a preferred methodology that can be used to meet the regulatory requirements of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10 CFR Part 71, or, more simply, 10 CFR 71). As is appropriate for the discussion in this Chapter, the methodology preferred by the NRC, not as law but as guidance, was adapted directly from the requirements of the ASME's Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. The information provided below is provided with little embellishment. By taking the information directly from the Federal Register, it becomes a story that tells itself. The information is self-consistent, and it provides all of the details behind the numerous policy decisions that led to the development of the U.S. regulations, as they were in their time, and as they are now.

  4. Simulation of ocean variability in the last 40 years with a high-resolution Mediterranean basin model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, B. W.; Vichi, M.; Oddo, P.; Mattia, G.; Zavatarelli, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Mediterranean Sea high-resolution model developed at INGV was run for the period 1958 - 2001 forced by the ECMWF ERA40 atmospheric forcing functions. The model is the NEMO primitive equation model with the Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS) grid at 1/16 degree horizontal resolution and 72 vertical levels, optimized for long-term simulations in the framework of the EU FP6 project SESAME. The open boundary data in the Atlantic box are derived from global ocean analyses produced in the framework of the EU FP5 ENACT project and forced with the same ERA40 atmospheric data. The presentation focuses on the analysis of the simulated ocean variability in the last 40 years with emphasis on the reproduction of climatological features and biases with respect to the observations. In this work, we focused on dense water formation processes in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea in related to the larger scale climatic conditions. Eastern Mediterranean Transient (hereafter EMT) was captured and evaluated by the deep and intermediate water mass pathway and the amount of their formation rate. Analysis of the main driving mechanism of this EMT was also studied. During the pre-EMT period, about 0.2 Sv of intermediate water formed in the Levantine basin at depth around 300 m and about 0.1 Sv of the deep water formed in the Ionian basin. However, during EMT, the intermediate water and the deep water paths were modified in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea because of the deep water and the intermediate water formed only in the Aegean Sea. From our results, we conclude that the general driving mechanism of EMT is mainly affected by the atmospheric forcing and the locations of dense water formation are affected by the freshwater budget. Our results demonstrate the model skills in capturing the major climatic state and variability in the basin, which will allow us to use this model for studying the impacts on marine biogeochemistry as planned in the SESAME project.

  5. Simulating a 40-year flood event climatology of Australia with a view to ocean-land teleconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, Guy J.-P.; Andreadis, Konstantinos; Stampoulis, Dimitrios; Bates, Paul

    2015-04-01

    We develop, for the first time, a proof-of-concept version for a high-resolution global flood inundation model to generate a flood inundation climatology of the past 40 years (1973-2012) for the entire Australian continent at a native 1 km resolution. The objectives of our study includes (1) deriving an inundation climatology for a continent (Australia) as a demonstrator case to understand the requirements for expanding globally; (2) developing a test bed to assess the potential and value of current and future satellite missions (GRACE, SMAP, ICESat-2, AMSR-2, Sentinels and SWOT) in flood monitoring; and (3) answering science questions such as the linking of inundation to ocean circulation teleconnections. We employ the LISFLOOD-FP hydrodynamic model to generate a flood inundation climatology. The model will be built from freely available SRTM-derived data (channel widths, bank heights and floodplain topography corrected for vegetation canopy using ICESat canopy heights). Lakes and reservoirs are represented and channel hydraulics are resolved using actual channel data with bathymetry inferred from hydraulic geometry. Simulations are run with gauged flows and floodplain inundation climatology are compared to observations from GRACE, flood maps from Landsat, SAR, and MODIS. Simulations have been completed for the entire Australian continent. Additionally, changes in flood inundation have been correlated with indices related to global ocean circulation, such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation index. We will produce data layers on flood event climatology and other derived (default) products from the proposed model including channel and floodplain depths, flow direction, velocity vectors, floodplain water volume, shoreline extent and flooded area. These data layers will be in the form of simple vector and raster formats. Since outputs will be large in size we propose to upload them onto Google Earth under the GEE API license.

  6. Barriers to eye care among people aged 40 years and older with diagnosed diabetes, 2006-2010.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chiu-Fang; Sherrod, Cheryl E; Zhang, Xinzhi; Barker, Lawrence E; Bullard, Kai McKeever; Crews, John E; Saaddine, Jinan B

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We examine barriers to receiving recommended eye care among people aged ≥40 years with diagnosed diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed 2006-2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from 22 states (n = 27,699). Respondents who had not sought eye care in the preceding 12 months were asked the main reason why. We categorized the reasons as cost/lack of insurance, no need, no eye doctor/travel/appointment, and other (meaning everything else). We used multinomial logistic regression to control for race/ethnicity, education, income, and other selected covariates. RESULTS Among adults with diagnosed diabetes, nonadherence to the recommended annual eye examinations was 23.5%. The most commonly reported reasons for not receiving eye care in the preceding 12 months were "no need" and "cost or lack of insurance" (39.7 and 32.3%, respectively). Other reasons were "no eye doctor," "no transportation" or "could not get appointment" (6.4%), and "other" (21.5%). After controlling for covariates, adults aged 40-64 years were more likely than those aged ≥65 years (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 2.79; 95% CI 2.01-3.89) and women were more likely than men (RRR = 2.33; 95% CI 1.75-3.14) to report "cost or lack of insurance" as their main reason. However, people aged 40-64 years were less likely than those aged ≥65 years to report "no need" (RRR = 0.51; 95% CI 0.39-0.67) as their main reason. CONCLUSIONS Addressing concerns about "cost or lack of insurance" for adults under 65 years and "no perceived need" among those 65 years and older could help improve eye care service utilization among people with diabetes.

  7. Barriers to Eye Care Among People Aged 40 Years and Older With Diagnosed Diabetes, 2006–2010

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chiu-Fang; Sherrod, Cheryl E.; Zhang, Xinzhi; Barker, Lawrence E.; Bullard, Kai McKeever; Crews, John E.; Saaddine, Jinan B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We examine barriers to receiving recommended eye care among people aged ≥40 years with diagnosed diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed 2006–2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from 22 states (n = 27,699). Respondents who had not sought eye care in the preceding 12 months were asked the main reason why. We categorized the reasons as cost/lack of insurance, no need, no eye doctor/travel/appointment, and other (meaning everything else). We used multinomial logistic regression to control for race/ethnicity, education, income, and other selected covariates. RESULTS Among adults with diagnosed diabetes, nonadherence to the recommended annual eye examinations was 23.5%. The most commonly reported reasons for not receiving eye care in the preceding 12 months were “no need” and “cost or lack of insurance” (39.7 and 32.3%, respectively). Other reasons were “no eye doctor,” “no transportation” or “could not get appointment” (6.4%), and “other” (21.5%). After controlling for covariates, adults aged 40–64 years were more likely than those aged ≥65 years (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 2.79; 95% CI 2.01–3.89) and women were more likely than men (RRR = 2.33; 95% CI 1.75–3.14) to report “cost or lack of insurance” as their main reason. However, people aged 40–64 years were less likely than those aged ≥65 years to report “no need” (RRR = 0.51; 95% CI 0.39–0.67) as their main reason. CONCLUSIONS Addressing concerns about “cost or lack of insurance” for adults under 65 years and “no perceived need” among those 65 years and older could help improve eye care service utilization among people with diabetes. PMID:24009300

  8. Desmoplastic nested spindle cell tumours and nested stromal epithelial tumours of the liver.

    PubMed

    Misra, Sunayana; Bihari, Chhagan

    2016-04-01

    Desmoplastic nested spindle cell tumour of liver (DNSTL), nested stromal-epithelial tumour (NSET) and calcifying nested stromal-epithelial tumour (CNSET) are recently described entities with similar morphology, immunohistochemistry and molecular genetics. These are rare entities with only three large case series described till date. These tumours commonly present in the paediatric age group. NSETs, in addition have been described to be associated with ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) production and Cushingoid features. It is important to discuss this rare group of tumours with a low malignant potential as the most common radiological differential diagnosis is hepatoblastoma, which has a relatively poorer prognosis. Thus, a pathologist needs to keep this entity in mind, so as to offer a correct histological diagnosis.

  9. Community History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Helen M.

    1997-01-01

    Recounts the experience of researching community history in Ivanhoe, Virginia, between 1987 and 1990. The Ivanhoe History Project involved community members in collecting photographs, memorabilia, and oral histories of their town. Subsequent published volumes won the W. D. Weatherford Award and inspired a quilt exhibit and a theatrical production.…

  10. Marital History and the Burden of Cardiovascular Disease in Midlife

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Zhenmei

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the effects of marital history on the burden of cardiovascular disease in midlife. With use of data from the 1992 Health and Retirement Study, a series of nested logistic regression models was used to estimate the association between marital history and the likelihood of cardiovascular disease. Results suggest that, in midlife,…

  11. The Nest Architecture of the Ant Odontomachus brunneus

    PubMed Central

    Cerquera, Lina M.; Tschinkel, Walter R.

    2010-01-01

    The architecture of the subterranean nests of the ant Odontomachus brunneus (Patton) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) was studied by means of casts with dental plaster or molten metal. The entombed ants were later recovered by dissolution of plaster casts in hot running water. O. brunneus excavates simple nests, each consisting of a single, vertical shaft connecting more or less horizontal, simple chambers. Nests contained between 11 and 177 workers, from 2 to 17 chambers, and 28 to 340 cm2 of chamber floor space and reached a maximum depth of 18 to 184 cm. All components of nest size increased simultaneously during nest enlargement, number of chambers, mean chamber size, and nest depth, making the nest shape (proportions) relatively size-independent. Regardless of nest size, all nests had approximately 2 cm2 of chamber floor space per worker. Chambers were closer together near the top and the bottom of the nest than in the middle, and total chamber area was greater near the bottom. Colonies occasionally incorporated cavities made by other animals into their nests. PMID:20672980

  12. Estimating raptor nesting success: old and new approaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Jessi L.; Steenhof, Karen; Kochert, Michael N.; Bond, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Studies of nesting success can be valuable in assessing the status of raptor populations, but differing monitoring protocols can present unique challenges when comparing populations of different species across time or geographic areas. We used large datasets from long-term studies of 3 raptor species to compare estimates of apparent nest success (ANS, the ratio of successful to total number of nesting attempts), Mayfield nesting success, and the logistic-exposure model of nest survival. Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), prairie falcons (Falco mexicanus), and American kestrels (F. sparverius) differ in their breeding biology and the methods often used to monitor their reproduction. Mayfield and logistic-exposure models generated similar estimates of nesting success with similar levels of precision. Apparent nest success overestimated nesting success and was particularly sensitive to inclusion of nesting attempts discovered late in the nesting season. Thus, the ANS estimator is inappropriate when exact point estimates are required, especially when most raptor pairs cannot be located before or soon after laying eggs. However, ANS may be sufficient to assess long-term trends of species in which nesting attempts are highly detectable.

  13. A quantitative approach to identifying predators from nest remains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, R. Michael; Grand, J.B.; Fondell, T.F.; Manly, B.F.

    2004-01-01

    Nesting success of Dusky Canada Geese (Branta canadensis occidentalis) has declined greatly since a major earthquake affected southern Alaska in 1964. To identify nest predators, we collected predation data at goose nests and photographs of predators at natural nests containing artificial eggs in 1997-2000. To document feeding behavior by nest predators, we compiled the evidence from destroyed nests with known predators on our study site and from previous studies. We constructed a profile for each predator group and compared the evidence from 895 nests with unknown predators to our predator profiles using mixture-model analysis. This analysis indicated that 72% of destroyed nests were depredated by Bald Eagles and 13% by brown bears, and also yielded the probability that each nest was correctly assigned to a predator group based on model fit. Model testing using simulations indicated that the proportion estimated for eagle predation was unbiased and the proportion for bear predation was slightly overestimated. This approach may have application whenever there are adequate data on nests destroyed by known predators and predators exhibit different feeding behavior at nests.

  14. Estimating Raptor Nesting Success: Old and New Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jessi L.; Steenhof, Karen; Kochert, Michael N.; Bond, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Studies of nesting success can be valuable in assessing the status of raptor populations, but differing monitoring protocols can present unique challenges when comparing populations of different species across time or geographic areas. We used large datasets from long-term studies of 3 raptor species to compare estimates of apparent nest success (ANS, the ratio of successful to total number of nesting attempts), Mayfield nesting success, and the logistic-exposure model of nest survival. Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), prairie falcons (Falco mexicanus), and American kestrels (F. sparverius) differ in their breeding biology and the methods often used to monitor their reproduction. Mayfield and logistic-exposure models generated similar estimates of nesting success with similar levels of precision. Apparent nest success overestimated nesting success and was particularly sensitive to inclusion of nesting attempts discovered late in the nesting season. Thus, the ANS estimator is inappropriate when exact point estimates are required, especially when most raptor pairs cannot be located before or soon after laying eggs. However, ANS may be sufficient to assess long-term trends of species in which nesting attempts are highly detectable. PMID:26401058

  15. Estimating Raptor Nesting Success: Old and New Approaches.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jessi L; Steenhof, Karen; Kochert, Michael N; Bond, Laura

    2013-07-01

    Studies of nesting success can be valuable in assessing the status of raptor populations, but differing monitoring protocols can present unique challenges when comparing populations of different species across time or geographic areas. We used large datasets from long-term studies of 3 raptor species to compare estimates of apparent nest success (ANS, the ratio of successful to total number of nesting attempts), Mayfield nesting success, and the logistic-exposure model of nest survival. Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), prairie falcons (Falco mexicanus), and American kestrels (F. sparverius) differ in their breeding biology and the methods often used to monitor their reproduction. Mayfield and logistic-exposure models generated similar estimates of nesting success with similar levels of precision. Apparent nest success overestimated nesting success and was particularly sensitive to inclusion of nesting attempts discovered late in the nesting season. Thus, the ANS estimator is inappropriate when exact point estimates are required, especially when most raptor pairs cannot be located before or soon after laying eggs. However, ANS may be sufficient to assess long-term trends of species in which nesting attempts are highly detectable.

  16. Resource redistribution in polydomous ant nest networks: local or global?

    PubMed Central

    Franks, Daniel W.; Robinson, Elva J.H.

    2014-01-01

    An important problem facing organisms in a heterogeneous environment is how to redistribute resources to where they are required. This is particularly complex in social insect societies as resources have to be moved both from the environment into the nest and between individuals within the nest. Polydomous ant colonies are split between multiple spatially separated, but socially connected, nests. Whether, and how, resources are redistributed between nests in polydomous colonies is unknown. We analyzed the nest networks of the facultatively polydomous wood ant Formica lugubris. Our results indicate that resource redistribution in polydomous F. lugubris colonies is organized at the local level between neighboring nests and not at the colony level. We found that internest trails connecting nests that differed more in their amount of foraging were stronger than trails between nests with more equal foraging activity. This indicates that resources are being exchanged directly from nests with a foraging excess to nests that require resources. In contrast, we found no significant relationships between nest properties, such as size and amount of foraging, and network measures such as centrality and connectedness. This indicates an absence of a colony-level resource exchange. This is a clear example of a complex behavior emerging as a result of local interactions between parts of a system. PMID:25214755

  17. Acute Stroke and Limb Ischemia Secondary to Catastrophic Massive Intracardiac Thrombus in a 40-Year-Old Patient With Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Gi Jung; Song, Bong Gun; Park, Yong Hwan; Kang, Gu Hyun; Chun, Woo Jung; Oh, Ju Hyeon

    2012-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy has been associated with left ventricular (LV) thrombosis which leads to substantial morbidity and mortality as a site for systemic emboli. We report an interesting case of a stroke and acute limb ischemia secondary to a large mobile pedunculated LV thrombus in 40-year-old patient with dilated cardiomyopathy.

  18. Student Characteristics and Behaviors at Age 12 Predict Occupational Success 40 Years Later over and above Childhood IQ and Parental Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spengler, Marion; Brunner, Martin; Damian, Rodica I.; Lüdtke, Oliver; Martin, Romain; Roberts, Brent W.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on a 2-wave longitudinal sample spanning 40 years from childhood (age 12) to middle adulthood (age 52), the present study was designed to examine how student characteristics and behaviors in late childhood (assessed in Wave 1 in 1968) predict career success in adulthood (assessed in Wave 2 in 2008). We examined the influence of parental…

  19. Teacher Self-Efficacy and Its Effects on Classroom Processes, Student Academic Adjustment, and Teacher Well-Being: A Synthesis of 40 Years of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zee, Marjolein; Koomen, Helma M. Y.

    2016-01-01

    This study integrates 40 years of teacher self-efficacy (TSE) research to explore the consequences of TSE for the quality of classroom processes, students' academic adjustment, and teachers' psychological well-being. Via a criteria-based review approach, 165 eligible articles were included for analysis. Results suggest that TSE shows positive…

  20. Success Factors 40 Years Later: The Pioneer Postsecondary Program for Students with Learning Disabilities, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Laurie

    2013-01-01

    In 1970, this first program supporting college students with language-based learning disabilities was a radical pioneer. While an exemplar for 40 years, there are fresh challenges today in the form of competition for diminished numbers of 18 year olds. To better understand what helps and what matters to students, research needs to go beyond most…

  1. Dependable Trend Measurement Is Not Just IRT Scaling: Commentary on "Linking Large-Scale Reading Assessments: Measuring International Trends over 40 Years"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Ina V. S.; Martin, Michael O.

    2016-01-01

    Linking IEA's international reading assessments across 40 years is an interesting endeavor from several perspectives. Being able to examine trends in reading achievement at the 4th grade over such a long period and relate these to policy changes during that time span is an attractive idea. However, this work brings to the fore many thorny issues…

  2. A spatial model of waterfowl nest site selection in grassland nesting cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pool, Duane Bruce

    Ducks Unlimited's (DU) mission statement is focused on providing for the annual lifecycle needs of migratory waterfowl. The largest impacts to the success and numbers of continental populations are determined by their activities on the breeding grounds. To model and therefore manage habitats and landscapes for ducks (Anas and Aythya spp.) it is necessary to understand several characteristics of their behavior. This research builds a model of nest site selection from nest probability based on remotely sensed data, presence data and minimum threshold theory. The methods used are applicable to other sensor platforms as well as other target species or phenomenon. Using data compression techniques, logistic regression, and spatial statistical functions (Ripley's k-function, a global k-function, and Multiple Response Permutation Procedure) we tested the observed point patterns and developed a point process model to predict nesting patterns. The application of this type of fine resolution database, validated by empirical data, will be more powerful than either classified remote sensing data or field level nest demographic data alone. In the largest of the five study sites, which was also the site with the greatest number of observations, the pattern of nests were significantly different from Poisson. The model developed to fit these data was tested using the other sites and the observed data on the other four sites were not shown to be significantly different from the model. The tests for spatial association showed some evidence negative association between Blue-winged Teal and Gadwall as well as between successful and unsuccessful nest. There is some evidence that a process of natural selection may exist and the future studies should be designed with this in mind. These data will be used as a baseline for future habitat manipulation and controlled experiments on the DU Goebel Ranch complex. The results of this and future studies will be used as the basis for DU strategic

  3. Grassland birds orient nests relative to nearby vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoekman, S.T.; Ball, I.J.; Fondell, T.E.

    2002-01-01

    We studied orientation of nest sites relative to nearby vegetation for dabbling ducks (Cinnamon Teal, Anas cyanoptera; Blue-winged Teal, A. discors; Gadwall, A. strepera; Mallard, A. platyrhynchos; and Northern Shoveler, A. clypeata) and Short-eared Owls (Asio flammeus) in ungrazed grassland habitat during 1995-1997 in westcentral Montana. We estimated an index of vegetation height and density in intercardinal directions (NE, SE, SW, NW) immediately around nests. All species oriented nests with the least vegetation to the southeast and the most vegetation to either the southwest or northwest. Furthermore, maximum vegetation around nests shifted from the southwest to the northwest with increasing nest initiation date, apparently as a response of individuals tracking seasonal change in the afternoon solar path. Thus, nests were relatively exposed to solar insolation during cool morning hours but were shaded from intense insolation in the afternoon throughout the breeding season. We suggest that nest microhabitat was selected in part to moderate the thermal environment.

  4. Advanced development of the nested fiber filter

    SciTech Connect

    Litt, R.D.; Glover, R.C.; Raghavan, J.K.

    1993-05-01

    Battelle and DOE have been developing the Nested Fiber Filter for high-temperature, high-pressure particulate control as applied to advanced coal-fired power systems. The current program represents a focused effort to develop cleaning techniques for the NFF at pilot plant scale. The filter consists of a 10-inch deep nest of stainless steel fibers collecting particles as dendrites on individual fibers. Tests with a 6-sq ft Nested Fiber Filter (NFF) have demonstrated greater than 99% particulate capture over a limited number of operating hours. Design, development, and testing a 6-sq ft module proceeded in three sequential stages. The NFF test module was integrated with a fluidized bed combustor to provide a realistic particulate laden gas to the NFF. Initial problems with gas and particulate bypassing plus ineffective cleaning by acoustic drivers led to a series of tests on a 1.5 sq ft section of the NFF. The fiber bed was slightly compressed to further prevent voids forming at the side walls during the vibration cleaning cycle. A mechanical vibrator was coupled with the pulse combustor to effectively clean/regenerate the NFF over a limited number of cycles. Testing resumed with the 6-sq ft test module and the above modifications. Two tests totaling 15 hours of operation and 14 repetitive cycles are summarized here and demonstrated the NFF performance. The preliminary engineering and economic evaluation showed the NFF to be cost-competitive with the ceramic cross-flow filter and the granular bed filter. Capital cost for a NFF on a 330 MW PFBC is estimated to be $42.9 million or $130/kW. The total plant cost for a PFBC system including the NFF is estimated to be $1,274/kW. This compares to $1,261/kW for a PFBC plus ceramic cross-flow filter or $1,351/kW for a PFBC plus granular bed filter.

  5. Generating Series for Nested Bethe Vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoroshkin, Sergey; Pakuliak, Stanislav

    2008-11-01

    We reformulate nested relations between off-shell Uq(^glN) Bethe vectors as a certain equation on generating series of strings of the composed Uq(^glN) currents. Using inversion of the generating series we find a new type of hierarchical relations between universal off-shell Bethe vectors, useful for a derivation of Bethe equation. As an example of application, we use these relations for a derivation of analytical Bethe ansatz equations [Arnaudon D. et al., Ann. Henri Poincaré 7 (2006), 1217-1268, math-ph/0512037] for the parameters of universal Bethe vectors of the algebra Uq(^gl2).

  6. Nested X Pinches on the COBRA Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Shelkovenko, T. A.; Pikuz, S. A.; McBride, R. D.; Knapp, P. F.; Wilhelm, H.; Hammer, D. A.; Sinars, D. B.

    2009-01-21

    Recent results of X pinch studies on the COBRA generator at Cornell University (peak current up to 1.2 MA and rise time of 100 ns) are presented. Using an initial configuration of wires before their twisting, similar to nested cylindrical wire arrays enables the assembly of a symmetric configuration at the X pinch crossing region. It also enables an investigation of multilayered X pinches. X pinches with different configurations, including with different materials in the inner and outer wire layers, were tested.

  7. Comparative reproductive biology of sympatric species: Nest and chick survival of American avocets and black-necked stilts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Takekawa, John Y.; Hartman, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying differences in reproductive success rates of closely related and sympatrically breeding species can be useful for understanding limitations to population growth. We simultaneously examined the reproductive ecology of American avocets Recurvirostra americana and black-necked stilts Himantopus mexicanus using 1274 monitored nests and 240 radio-marked chicks in San Francisco Bay, California. Although there were 1.8 times more avocet nests than stilt nests, stilts nonetheless fledged 3.3 times more chicks. Greater production by stilts than avocets was the result of greater chick survival from hatching to fledging (avocet: 6%; stilt: 40%), and not because of differences in clutch size (avocet: 3.84; stilt: 3.77), nest survival (avocet: 44%; stilt: 35%), or egg hatching success (avocet: 90%; stilt: 92%). We reviewed the literature and confirmed that nest survival and hatching success are generally similar when avocets and stilts breed sympatrically. In addition to species, chick survival was strongly influenced by age, site, and year. In particular, daily survival rates increased rapidly with chick age, with 70% of mortalities occurring ≤ 1 week after hatch. California gulls Larus californicus caused 55% of avocet, but only 15% of stilt, chick deaths. Differential use of micro-habitats likely reduced stilt chick’s vulnerability to gull predation, particularly during the first week after hatch, because stilts nested in vegetation 2.7 times more often than avocets and vegetation height was 65% taller at stilt nests compared with avocet nests. Our results demonstrate that two co-occurring and closely related species with similar life history strategies can differ markedly in reproductive success, and simultaneous studies of such species can identify differences that limit productivity.

  8. Tracing Forest Change through 40 Years on Two Continents with the BULC Algorithm and Google Earth Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardille, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    With the opening of the Landsat archive, researchers have a vast new data source teeming with imagery and potential. Beyond Landsat, data from other sensors is newly available as well: these include ALOS/PALSAR, Sentinel-1 and -2, MERIS, and many more. Google Earth Engine, developed to organize and provide analysis tools for these immense data sets, is an ideal platform for researchers trying to sift through huge image stacks. It offers nearly unlimited processing power and storage with a straightforward programming interface. Yet labeling forest change through time remains challenging given the current state of the art for interpreting remote sensing image sequences. Moreover, combining data from very different image platforms remains quite difficult. To address these challenges, we developed the BULC algorithm (Bayesian Updating of Land Cover), designed for the continuous updating of land-cover classifications through time in large data sets. The algorithm ingests data from any of the wide variety of earth-resources sensors; it maintains a running estimate of land-cover probabilities and the most probable class at all time points along a sequence of events. Here we compare BULC results from two study sites that witnessed considerable forest change in the last 40 years: the Pacific Northwest of the United States and the Mato Grosso region of Brazil. In Brazil, we incorporated rough classifications from more than 100 images of varying quality, mixing imagery from more than 10 different sensors. In the Pacific Northwest, we used BULC to identify forest changes due to logging and urbanization from 1973 to the present. Both regions had classification sequences that were better than many of the component days, effectively ignoring clouds and other unwanted signal while fusing the information contained on several platforms. As we leave remote sensing's data-poor era and enter a period with multiple looks at Earth's surface from multiple sensors over a short period of

  9. Postfire encroachment of Fabiana imbricata is real? Assessing changes of shrubland occupation during 40 years in NW Patagonia steppe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasaponara, Rosa; Oddi, Facundo; Ghermandi, Luciana

    2014-05-01

    Landscapes are dynamic in space and time, being spatio-temporal processes of particular interest for landscape ecology. In particular, grasslands can change their structure through the expansion of shrubs in the landscape matrix. Shrub encroachment affect biodiversity as well as forage availability that is the key component of the productive use of rangelands. However, despite its recognition as a global problem, knowledge on the rates, dynamics and encroachment patterns is even scarce. For example, although it is generally accepted that fire control shrub encroachment, certain shrubby species could be favored by the occurrence of fire. In northwestern Patagonian steppe, Fabiana imbricata form large monospecific shrublands that are part of the landscape mosaic and its dynamics of regeneration is strongly related to fire. This long-lived shrub (≡ 150 years) is a typical seeder that is killed by fire and recruits seedlings almost exclusively in post-fire, establishing even-age patches. Our objective was to determine whether F. imbricata shrublands have expanded during the last 40 years in a landscape fire prone. The study area corresponds to San Ramon ranch (22,000 ha) located in northwestern Patagonia steppe, Argentina (latitude -41° 04'; longitude -70° 51'). Two distribution maps of the species were made that corresponds to the study area in 1968 and 2011. The 1968 map was elaborated from the digitalization of aerial photographs (1:45000) while the 2011 map was produced with very high resolution satellite images, current aerial photographs and GPS field data. Both maps were loaded into a GIS environment, in which landscape metrics at patch and class level were determined and then compared. From remote sensing and dendroecological techniques, we know that the study area was almost entirely affected by fires during the study period. Therefore, the comparison of both maps allows us to know post-fire changes in the shrublands spatial configuration at the landscape

  10. Use of Smokeless Tobacco by Indian Women Aged 18–40 Years during Pregnancy and Reproductive Years

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Saritha; Schensul, Jean J.; Begum, Shahina; Pednekar, Mangesh S.; Oncken, Cheryl; Bilgi, Sameena M.; Pasi, Achhelal R.; Donta, Balaiah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper discusses patterns of daily smokeless tobacco (SLT) use and correlates of poly SLT use among married women aged 18–40 years in a Mumbai slum community with implications for tobacco control. Methods Using a mixed methods approach, the study included a structured survey with 409 daily SLT users and in-depth interviews with 42 women. Participants for the survey were selected using a systematic sampling procedure (one woman in every fourth eligible household). Univariate and bivariate analysis, and multiple logistic regressions were conducted to identify demographic and social factors associated with women’s use of poly SLT products. To illustrate survey results, in-depth interviews were analyzed using Atlas ti software. Results Sixty-four percent of the women surveyed used only one type of SLT; of these, 30% used mishri, 32% used pan with tobacco and the rest used chewed tobacco (11%), gul (17%) or gutkha (10%). Thirty-six percent used more than one type of SLT. Poly SLT users chewed or rubbed 50% more tobacco as compared to single users (mean consumption of tobacco per day: 9.54 vs. 6.49 grams; p<0.001). Women were more likely to be poly SLT users if they were illiterate as compared to literate (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.67; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.07-2.71), if they had lived in Mumbai for 10 years or more, versus less than ten years (AOR=1.67, 95% CI=1.03-2.71); and if their husband was a poly SLT user as compared to a non SLT user (AOR=2.78, 95% CI=1.63-4.76). No differences were noted between pregnant and non-pregnant women in SLT consumption patterns. Conclusions Tobacco control policies and programs must focus specifically on both social context and use patterns to address SLT use among women of reproductive age with special attention to poly SLT users, an understudied and vulnerable population. PMID:25786247

  11. Iatrogenic CJD due to pituitary-derived growth hormone with genetically determined incubation times of up to 40 years

    PubMed Central

    Jaunmuktane, Zane; Adlard, Peter; Bjurstrom, Nina; Caine, Diana; Lowe, Jessica; Norsworthy, Penny; Hummerich, Holger; Druyeh, Ron; Wadsworth, Jonathan D. F.; Brandner, Sebastian; Hyare, Harpreet; Mead, Simon; Collinge, John

    2015-01-01

    Patients with iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease due to administration of cadaver-sourced growth hormone during childhood are still being seen in the UK 30 years after cessation of this treatment. Of the 77 patients who have developed iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, 56 have been genotyped. There has been a marked change in genotype profile at polymorphic codon 129 of the prion protein gene (PRNP) from predominantly valine homozygous to a mixed picture of methionine homozygous and methionine-valine heterozygous over time. The incubation period of iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is significantly different between all three genotypes. This experience is a striking contrast with that in France and the USA, which may relate to contamination of different growth hormone batches with different strains of human prions. We describe the clinical, imaging, molecular and autopsy features in 22 of 24 patients who have developed iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the UK since 2003. Mean age at onset of symptoms was 42.7 years. Gait ataxia and lower limb dysaesthesiae were the most frequent presenting symptoms. All had cerebellar signs, and the majority had myoclonus and lower limb pyramidal signs, with relatively preserved cognitive function, when first seen. There was a progressive decline in neurological and cognitive function leading to death after 5–32 (mean 14) months. Despite incubation periods approaching 40 years, the clinical duration in methionine homozygote patients appeared to be shorter than that seen in heterozygote patients. MRI showed restricted diffusion in the basal ganglia, thalamus, hippocampus, frontal and the paracentral motor cortex and cerebellar vermis. The electroencephalogram was abnormal in 15 patients and cerebrospinal fluid 14-3-3 protein was positive in half the patients. Neuropathological examination was conducted in nine patients. All but one showed synaptic prion deposition with numerous kuru type plaques in the basal ganglia

  12. Iatrogenic CJD due to pituitary-derived growth hormone with genetically determined incubation times of up to 40 years.

    PubMed

    Rudge, Peter; Jaunmuktane, Zane; Adlard, Peter; Bjurstrom, Nina; Caine, Diana; Lowe, Jessica; Norsworthy, Penny; Hummerich, Holger; Druyeh, Ron; Wadsworth, Jonathan D F; Brandner, Sebastian; Hyare, Harpreet; Mead, Simon; Collinge, John

    2015-11-01

    Patients with iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease due to administration of cadaver-sourced growth hormone during childhood are still being seen in the UK 30 years after cessation of this treatment. Of the 77 patients who have developed iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, 56 have been genotyped. There has been a marked change in genotype profile at polymorphic codon 129 of the prion protein gene (PRNP) from predominantly valine homozygous to a mixed picture of methionine homozygous and methionine-valine heterozygous over time. The incubation period of iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is significantly different between all three genotypes. This experience is a striking contrast with that in France and the USA, which may relate to contamination of different growth hormone batches with different strains of human prions. We describe the clinical, imaging, molecular and autopsy features in 22 of 24 patients who have developed iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the UK since 2003. Mean age at onset of symptoms was 42.7 years. Gait ataxia and lower limb dysaesthesiae were the most frequent presenting symptoms. All had cerebellar signs, and the majority had myoclonus and lower limb pyramidal signs, with relatively preserved cognitive function, when first seen. There was a progressive decline in neurological and cognitive function leading to death after 5-32 (mean 14) months. Despite incubation periods approaching 40 years, the clinical duration in methionine homozygote patients appeared to be shorter than that seen in heterozygote patients. MRI showed restricted diffusion in the basal ganglia, thalamus, hippocampus, frontal and the paracentral motor cortex and cerebellar vermis. The electroencephalogram was abnormal in 15 patients and cerebrospinal fluid 14-3-3 protein was positive in half the patients. Neuropathological examination was conducted in nine patients. All but one showed synaptic prion deposition with numerous kuru type plaques in the basal ganglia

  13. Neural correlates of nesting behavior in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Zachary J.; Bertin, Marion; Bailey, Ida E.; Meddle, Simone L.; Healy, Susan D.

    2014-01-01

    Nest building in birds involves a behavioral sequence (nest material collection and deposition in the nest) that offers a unique model for addressing how the brain sequences motor actions. In this study, we identified brain regions involved in nesting behavior in male and female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). We used Fos immunohistochemistry to quantify production of the immediate early gene protein product Fos (a molecular indicator of neuronal activity) in the brain correlated this expression with the variation in nesting behavior. Using this technique, we found that neural circuitry involved in motor sequencing, social behavior, reward and motivation were active during nesting. Within pairs of nesting birds, the number of times a male picked up or deposited nesting material and the amount of time a female spent in the nest explained the variation in Fos expression in the anterior motor pathway, social behavior network, and reward neural circuits. Identification of the brain regions that are involved in nesting enables us to begin studying the roles of motor sequencing, context, and reward in construction behavior at the neural level. PMID:24508238

  14. Does cooperation mean kinship between spatially discrete ant nests?

    PubMed

    Procter, Duncan S; Cottrell, Joan E; Watts, Kevin; A'Hara, Stuart W; Hofreiter, Michael; Robinson, Elva J H

    2016-12-01

    Eusociality is one of the most complex forms of social organization, characterized by cooperative and reproductive units termed colonies. Altruistic behavior of workers within colonies is explained by inclusive fitness, with indirect fitness benefits accrued by helping kin. Members of a social insect colony are expected to be more closely related to one another than they are to other conspecifics. In many social insects, the colony can extend to multiple socially connected but spatially separate nests (polydomy). Social connections, such as trails between nests, promote cooperation and resource exchange, and we predict that workers from socially connected nests will have higher internest relatedness than those from socially unconnected, and noncooperating, nests. We measure social connections, resource exchange, and internest genetic relatedness in the polydomous wood ant Formica lugubris to test whether (1) socially connected but spatially separate nests cooperate, and (2) high internest relatedness is the underlying driver of this cooperation. Our results show that socially connected nests exhibit movement of workers and resources, which suggests they do cooperate, whereas unconnected nests do not. However, we find no difference in internest genetic relatedness between socially connected and unconnected nest pairs, both show high kinship. Our results suggest that neighboring pairs of connected nests show a social and cooperative distinction, but no genetic distinction. We hypothesize that the loss of a social connection may initiate ecological divergence within colonies. Genetic divergence between neighboring nests may build up only later, as a consequence rather than a cause of colony separation.

  15. Island characteristics within wetlands influence waterbird nest success and abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, Christopher; Ackerman, Josh; Herzog, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Coastal waterbird populations are threatened by habitat loss and degradation from urban and agricultural development and forecasted sea level rise associated with climate change. Remaining wetlands often must be managed to ensure that waterbird habitat needs, and other ecosystem functions, are met. For many waterbirds, the availability of island nesting habitat is important for conserving breeding populations. We used linear mixed models to investigate the influence of pond and island landscape characteristics on nest abundance and nest success of American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) in San Francisco Bay, California, USA, based on a 9-year dataset that included >9,000 nests. Nest abundance and nest success were greatest within ponds and on individual islands located either <1 km or >4 km from San Francisco Bay. Further, nest abundance was greater within ponds with relatively few islands, and on linear-shaped, highly elongated islands compared to more rounded islands. Nest success was greater on islands located away from the nearest surrounding pond levee. Compared to more rounded islands, linear islands contained more near-water habitat preferred by many nesting waterbirds. Islands located away from pond levees may provide greater protection from terrestrial egg and chick predators. Our results indicate that creating and maintaining a few, relatively small, highly elongated and narrow islands away from mainland levees, in as many wetland ponds as possible would be effective at providing waterbirds with preferred nesting habitat.

  16. Hatching and fledging times from grassland passerine nests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pietz, P.J.; Granfors, D.A.; Grant, T.A.; Ribic, C.A.; Thompson, F. R.; Pietz, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate estimates of fledging age are needed in field studies to avoid inducing premature fledging or missing the fledging event. Both may lead to misinterpretation of nest fate. Correctly assessing nest fate and length of the nestling period can be critical for accurate calculation of nest survival rates. For researchers who mark nestlings, knowing the age at which their activities may cause young to leave nests prematurely could prevent introducing bias to their studies. We obtained estimates of fledging age using data from grassland bird nests monitored from hatching through fledging with video-surveillance systems in North Dakota and Minnesota during 1996–2001. We compared these values to those obtained from traditional nest visits and from available literature. Mean and modal fledging ages for video-monitored nests were generally similar to those for visited nests, although Clay-colored Sparrows (Spizella pallida) typically fledged 1 day earlier from visited nests. Average fledging ages from both video and nest visits occurred within ranges reported in the literature, but expanded by 1–2 days the upper age limit for Clay-colored Sparrows and the lower age limit for Bobolinks (Dolichonyx oryzivorus). Video showed that eggs hatched throughout the day whereas most young fledged in the morning (06:30–12:30 CDT). Length of the hatching period for a clutch was usually >1 day and was positively correlated with clutch size. Length of the fledging period for a brood was usually <1 day, and in nearly half the nests, fledging was completed within <2 hr. Video surveillance has proven to be a useful tool for providing new information and for corroborating published statements related to hatching and fledging chronology. Comparison of data collected from video and nest visits showed that carefully conducted nest visits generally can provide reliable data for deriving estimates of survival.

  17. A model for the emergence of pillars, walls and royal chambers in termite nests

    PubMed Central

    Bonabeau, E.

    1998-01-01

    A simple model of the emergence of pillars in termite nests by Deneubourg is modified to include several additional features that break the homogeneity of the original model: (i) a convection air stream that drives molecules of pheromone along a given direction; (ii) a net flux of individuals in a specific direction; (iii) a well-defined self-maintained pheromone trail; and (iv) a pheromonal template representing the effect of the presence of a queen that continuously emits pheromone. It is shown that, under certain conditions, pillars are transformed into walls or galleries or chambers, and that this transformation may not be driven by any change in the termites' behaviour. Because the same type of response at the individual level can generate different patterns under different conditions, and because previous construction modifies current building conditions, we hypothesize that nest complexity can result from the unfolding of a morphogenetic process that progressively generates a diversity of history-dependent structures.

  18. Nest success of grassland sparrows on reclaimed surface mines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stauffer, G.E.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Marshall, M.R.; Brauning, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    Grasslands resulting from surface mine reclamation support grassland songbird populations in several midwestern and eastern states in the United States, especially where reclaimed mines are large (>1,000ha). However, most reclaimed surface mines in Pennsylvania are small (<200ha), and nest success is unknown. We evaluated nest success of grasshopper (Ammodramus savannarum), Henslow's (A. henslowii), and Savannah sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis) on 4 reclaimed surface mines (50-180ha) in western Pennsylvania, USA from 2006 to 2007. Overall nest success based on mean covariate values was 0.435 (95% CI = 0.376-0.504) for grasshopper sparrows, 0.396 (95% CI = 0.295-0.533) for Henslow's sparrows, and 0.158 (95% CI = 0.063-0.392) for Savannah sparrows. These estimates of nest success are comparable to those on larger reclaimed mines and other habitats. Grasshopper and Henslow's sparrow nests that were well concealed were less likely to fail than highly visible nests (??visible = -0.028, CI = -0.051 to -0.005 for grasshopper sparrows; ??visible = -0.063, CI = -0.112 to -0.014 for Henslow's sparrows), and nests in areas with surrounding deep litter were more likely to fail than nests in areas with shallow litter (??litterD = -0.145, CI = -0.335 to 0.045 for grasshopper sparrows; ??litterD = -0.676, CI = -1.187 to -0.116 for Henslow's sparrows). Savannah sparrow nests in areas with high visual obstruction by vegetation were less likely to fail than nests in areas with sparse and short vegetation (??VisOb = 0.048, CI = 0.006-0.091). Daily probability of survival for grasshopper sparrow nests was greatest early and late in the breeding season, and Savannah sparrow nest survival followed a decreasing linear trend. Nest survival of Henslow's sparrows was greater on warm days (??temp = 0.197, CI = 0.014-0.379), whereas for Savannah sparrows nest survival decreased on warm days and on days with rain, but for Savannah sparrows confidence intervals of weather effects included

  19. Are coastal protected areas always effective in achieving population recovery for nesting sea turtles?

    PubMed

    Nel, Ronel; Punt, André E; Hughes, George R

    2013-01-01

    Sea turtles are highly migratory and usually dispersed, but aggregate off beaches during the nesting season, rendering them vulnerable to coastal threats. Consequently, coastal Marine Protection Areas (MPAs) have been used to facilitate the recovery of turtle populations, but the effectiveness of these programs is uncertain as most have been operating for less than a single turtle generation (or<20 yr). South Africa, however, hosts one of the longest running conservation programs, protecting nesting loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) turtles since 1963 in a series of coastal MPAs. This provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the long-term effect of spatial protection on the abundance of two highly migratory turtle species with different life history characteristics. Population responses were assessed by modeling the number of nests over time in an index area (13 km) and an expanded monitoring area (53 km) with varying survey effort. Loggerhead abundance increased dramatically from∼250 to>1700 nests pa (index area) especially over the last decade, while leatherback abundance increased initially∼10 to 70 nests pa (index area), but then stabilized. Although leatherbacks have higher reproductive output per female and comparable remigration periods and hatching success to loggerheads, the leatherback population failed to expand. Our results suggest that coastal MPAs can work but do not guarantee the recovery of sea turtle populations as pressures change over time. Causes considered for the lack of population growth include factors in the MPA (expansion into unmonitored areas or incubation environment) of outside of the MPA (including carrying capacity and fishing mortality). Conservation areas for migratory species thus require careful design to account for species-specific needs, and need to be monitored to keep track of changing pressures.

  20. Are Coastal Protected Areas Always Effective in Achieving Population Recovery for Nesting Sea Turtles?

    PubMed Central

    Nel, Ronel; Punt, André E.; Hughes, George R.

    2013-01-01

    Sea turtles are highly migratory and usually dispersed, but aggregate off beaches during the nesting season, rendering them vulnerable to coastal threats. Consequently, coastal Marine Protection Areas (MPAs) have been used to facilitate the recovery of turtle populations, but the effectiveness of these programs is uncertain as most have been operating for less than a single turtle generation (or<20 yr). South Africa, however, hosts one of the longest running conservation programs, protecting nesting loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) turtles since 1963 in a series of coastal MPAs. This provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the long-term effect of spatial protection on the abundance of two highly migratory turtle species with different life history characteristics. Population responses were assessed by modeling the number of nests over time in an index area (13 km) and an expanded monitoring area (53 km) with varying survey effort. Loggerhead abundance increased dramatically from∼250 to>1700 nests pa (index area) especially over the last decade, while leatherback abundance increased initially∼10 to 70 nests pa (index area), but then stabilized. Although leatherbacks have higher reproductive output per female and comparable remigration periods and hatching success to loggerheads, the leatherback population failed to expand. Our results suggest that coastal MPAs can work but do not guarantee the recovery of sea turtle populations as pressures change over time. Causes considered for the lack of population growth include factors in the MPA (expansion into unmonitored areas or incubation environment) of outside of the MPA (including carrying capacity and fishing mortality). Conservation areas for migratory species thus require careful design to account for species-specific needs, and need to be monitored to keep track of changing pressures. PMID:23671683

  1. Survival during the Breeding Season: Nest Stage, Parental Sex, and Season Advancement Affect Reed Warbler Survival

    PubMed Central

    Wierucka, Kaja; Halupka, Lucyna; Klimczuk, Ewelina; Sztwiertnia, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Avian annual survival has received much attention, yet little is known about seasonal patterns in survival, especially of migratory passerines. In order to evaluate survival rates and timing of mortality within the breeding season of adult reed warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus), mark-recapture data were collected in southwest Poland, between 2006 and 2012. A total of 612 individuals (304 females and 308 males) were monitored throughout the entire breeding season, and their capture-recapture histories were used to model survival rates. Males showed higher survival during the breeding season (0.985, 95% CI: 0.941–0.996) than females (0.869, 95% CI: 0.727–0.937). Survival rates of females declined with the progression of the breeding season (from May to August), while males showed constant survival during this period. We also found a clear pattern within the female (but not male) nesting cycle: survival was significantly lower during the laying, incubation, and nestling periods (0.934, 95% CI: 0.898–0.958), when birds spent much time on the nest, compared to the nest building and fledgling periods (1.000, 95% CI: 1.00–1.000), when we did not record any female mortality. These data (coupled with some direct evidence, like bird corpses or blood remains found next to/on the nest) may suggest that the main cause of adult mortality was on-nest predation. The calculated survival rates for both sexes during the breeding season were high compared to annual rates reported for this species, suggesting that a majority of mortality occurs at other times of the year, during migration or wintering. These results have implications for understanding survival variation within the reproductive period as well as general trends of avian mortality. PMID:26934086

  2. Flexibility in nest-site choice and nesting success of Turdus rufiventris (Turdidae) in a montane forest in northwestern argentina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lomascolo, S.B.; Monmany, A.C.; Malizia, A.; Martin, T.E.

    2010-01-01

    We studied the consequences of nest-site choice on nesting success under differing disturbance levels for the Rufous-bellied Thrush (Turdus rufiventris). We compared nest-site choice and nest success between a disturbed site and an undisturbed site in a montane subtropical forest in northwestern Argentina. We found no overall difference in daily predation rate (DPR) between the disturbed and undisturbed sites. However, DPR of nests on bromeliads was significantly lower at the microhabitat level than on other types of subtrates at the disturbed site. T. rufiventris used bromeliads for nesting more often than expected by chance at the disturbed site. DPR did not differ between substrates at the undisturbed site and T. rufiventris used all substrates according to their availability. Nests had higher predation at the disturbed site when DPR on non-bromeliad substrates was compared between disturbed and undisturbed sites. Nest fate was independent of nest height. Our results suggest T. rufiventris' flexibility in nest-site choice, as reflected by increased use of the safest sites, i.e., bromeliads, in the disturbed site compared to the undisturbed site, may allow this species to survive in an otherwise much riskier habitat. Our results illustrate how microhabitat-scale effects can mediate landscape scale effects. ?? 2010 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  3. Nests with numerous SOX10 and MiTF-positive cells in lichenoid inflammation: pseudomelanocytic nests or authentic melanocytic proliferation?

    PubMed

    Silva, Claudine Yap; Goldberg, Lynne J; Mahalingam, Meera; Bhawan, Jag; Wolpowitz, Deon

    2011-10-01

    Pseudomelanocytic nests in the setting of lichenoid inflammation can mimic atypical melanocytic proliferations. Both melanocytic and cytokeratin immunohistochemical stains may be utilized to differentiate these entities. Unlike true melanocytic nests, pseudomelanocytic nests contain Melanoma Antigen Recognized by T-cells 1 (MART-1)/ Melan-A-positive cells and cells positive for pan-cytokeratins, CD3 and/or CD68. Recently, rare (1-2 cells/nest) microphthalmia- associated transcription factor (MiTF)-positive cells were also reported in pseudomelanocytic nests. We present a 48-year-old man with a 2 × 3 cm violaceous to hyperpigmented, non-blanching, polygonal patch on the neck. Histopathology showed focal epidermal atrophy, irregularly distributed junctional nests and a lichenoid infiltrate with colloid bodies. Immunoperoxidase studies revealed occasional pan-cytokeratin and MART-1/Melan-A-positive staining in nests as well as focal S-100 protein-positive cells. Importantly, the majority of nests showed numerous cells positive for MiTF and SOX10 (>2 cells/nest and some the majority of cells). This combined staining pattern confounds the above-described immunohistochemical distinction between pseudo and true melanocytic nests. Clinically felt to represent unilateral lichen planus pigmentosus/erythema dyschromicum perstans and not malignant melanoma in situ, this lesion highlights the importance of clinicopathologic correlation and suggests either a new melanocytic entity or a novel pattern of benign melanocytic reorganization in a subset of lichenoid dermatitides.

  4. Parental investment decisions in response to ambient nest-predation risk versus actual predation on the prior nest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalfoun, A.D.; Martin, T.E.

    2010-01-01

    Theory predicts that parents should invest less in dependent offspring with lower reproductive value, such as those with a high risk of predation. Moreover, high predation risk can favor reduced parental activity when such activity attracts nest predators. Yet, the ability of parents to assess ambient nest-predation risk and respond adaptively remains unclear, especially where nest-predator assemblages are diverse and potentially difficult to assess. We tested whether variation in parental investment by a multi-brooded songbird (Brewer's Sparrow, Spizella breweri) in an environment (sagebrush steppe) with diverse predators was predicted by ambient nest-predation risk or direct experience with nest predation. Variation among eight sites in ambient nest-predation risk, assayed by daily probabilities of nest predation, was largely uncorrelated across four years. In this system risk may therefore be unpredictable, and aspects of parental investment (clutch size, egg mass, incubation rhythms, nestling-feeding rates) were not related to ambient risk. Moreover, investment at first nests that were successful did not differ from that at nests that were depredated, suggesting parents could not assess and respond to territorylevel nest-predation risk. However, parents whose nests were depredated reduced clutch sizes and activity at nests attempted later in the season by increasing the length of incubation shifts (on-bouts) and recesses (off-bouts) and decreasing trips to feed nestlings. In this unpredictable environment parent birds may therefore lack sufficient cues of ambient risk on which to base their investment decisions and instead rely on direct experience with nest predation to inform at least some of their decisions. ?? 2010 The Cooper Ornithological Society.

  5. Colour preferences in nest-building zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Muth, Felicity; Steele, Matthew; Healy, Susan D

    2013-10-01

    Some bird species are selective in the materials they choose for nest building, preferring, for example, materials of one colour to others. However, in many cases the cause of these preferences is not clear. One of those species is the zebra finch, which exhibits strong preferences for particular colours of nest material. In an attempt to determine why these birds strongly prefer one colour of material over another, we compared the preferences of paired male zebra finches for nest material colour with their preferences for food of the same colours. We found that birds did indeed prefer particular colours of nest material (in most cases blue) but that they did not generally prefer food of one colour over the other colours. It appears, then, that a preference for one colour or another of nest material is specific to the nest-building context. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: insert SI title.

  6. Effect of predator reduction on waterfowl nesting success

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balser, D.S.; Dill, H.H.; Nelson, H.K.

    1968-01-01

    A 6-year study to determine the effect of nest-predator removal on waterfowl nesting success was conducted at the Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge in northwestern Minnesota from 1959 through 1964. Predators were removed from the west side of the Refuge while the east side served as a control area. At the end of 3 years, these areas were reversed to reduce the effects of environmental influences. The effect of predator removal was measured by a simulated nest study to determine predation pressure, a check of natural nest success, and weekly breeding pair and brood counts. Results indicated that 60 percent more Class I ducklings were produced on the units where predator control was conducted. Until more is known, reduction of predators to increase waterfowl nesting success should be limited to intensively managed production areas where substantial nest losses are demonstrated.

  7. Estimating sighting proportions of American alligator nests during helicopter survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Percival, H. Franklin; Woodward, Allan R.

    2000-01-01

    Proportions of American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) nests sighted during aerial survey in Florida were estimated based upon multiple surveys by different observers. We compared sighting proportions across habitats, nesting seasons, and observer experience levels. The mean sighting proportion across all habitats and years was 0.736 (SE=0.024). Survey counts corrected by the mean sighting proportion reliably predicted total nest counts (7?2=0.933). Sighting proportions did not differ by habitat type (P=0.668) or year P=0.328). Experienced observers detected a greater proportion of nests (P<0.0001) than did either less experienced or inexperienced observers. Reliable estimates of nest abundance can be derived from aerial counts of alligator nests when corrected by the appropriate sighting proportion.

  8. Knowledge gained from video-monitoring grassland passerine nests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pietz, Pamela J.; Granfors, D.A.; Ribic, Christine A.; Ribic, Christine A.; Thompson, Frank R.; Pietz, Pamela J.

    2012-01-01

    In the mid-1990s, researchers began using miniature cameras to videotape activities at cryptic passerine nests in grasslands.In subsequent years, use of these video surveillance systems spread dramatically, leading to major strides in our knowledge of nest predation and nesting ecology of many species.Studies using video nest surveillance have helped overturn or substantiate many long-standing assumptions and have provided insights on a wide range of topics.Using examples from grasslands, we highlight the accumulated knowledge about activities at nests documented with video; we also discuss implications of this knowledge for our understanding of avian ecology.Like all tools, video nest surveillance has potential limitations, and users must take precautions to minimize possible sources of bias in data collection and interpretation.

  9. Mapping risk for nest predation on a barrier island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackney, Amanda D.; Baldwin, Robert F.; Jodice, Patrick G.

    2013-01-01

    Barrier islands and coastal beach systems provide nesting habitat for marine and estuarine turtles. Densely settled coastal areas may subsidize nest predators. Our purpose was to inform conservation by providing a greater understanding of habitat-based risk factors for nest predation, for an estuarine turtle. We expected that habitat conditions at predated nests would differ from random locations at two spatial extents. We developed and validated an island-wide model for the distribution of predated Diamondback terrapin nests using locations of 198 predated nests collected during exhaustive searches at Fisherman Island National Wildlife Refuge, USA. We used aerial photographs to identify all areas of possible nesting habitat and searched each and surrounding environments for nests, collecting location and random-point microhabitat data. We built models for the probability of finding a predated nest using an equal number of random points and validated them with a reserve set (N = 67). Five variables in 9 a priori models were used and the best selected model (AIC weight 0.98) reflected positive associations with sand patches near marshes and roadways. Model validation had an average capture rate of predated nests of 84.14 % (26.17–97.38 %, Q1 77.53 %, median 88.07 %, Q3 95.08 %). Microhabitat selection results suggest that nests placed at the edges of sand patches adjacent to upland shrub/forest and marsh systems are vulnerable to predation. Forests and marshes provide cover and alternative resources for predators and roadways provide access; a suggestion is to focus nest protection efforts on the edges of dunes, near dense vegetation and roads.

  10. Avian nest success in midwestern forests fragmented by agriculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knutson, M.G.; Niemi, G.J.; Newton, W.E.; Friberg, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    We studied how forest-bird nest success varied by landscape context from 1996 to 1998 in an agricultural region of southeastern Minnesota, southwestern Wisconsin, and northeastern Iowa. Nest success was 48% for all nests, 82% for cavity-nesting species, and 42% for cup-nesting species. Mayfield-adjusted nest success for five common species ranged from 23% for the American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla) to 43% for the Eastern Wood-Pewee (Contopus virens). Nest success was lowest for open-cup nesters, species that reject Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) eggs, species that nest near forest edges, and Neo-tropical migrants. The proportion of forest core area in a 5-km radius around the plot had a weakly negative relationship with daily survival rate of nests for all species pooled and for medium or high canopy nesters, species associated with interior and edge habitats, open-cup nesters, and nests located between 75 and 199 m from an edge. The proportion of forest core area was positively related to daily survival rate only for ground and low nesters. Our findings are in contrast to a number of studies from the eastern United States reporting strong positive associations between forest area and nesting success. Supported models of habitat associations changed with the spatial scale of analysis and included variables not often considered in studies of forest birds, including the proportion of water, shrubs, and grasslands in the landscape. Forest area may not be a strong indicator of nest success in landscapes where all the available forests are fragmented.

  11. Sandhill crane abundance and nesting ecology at Grays Lake, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, J.E.; Henry, A.R.; Ball, I.J.

    2007-01-01

    We examined population size and factors influencing nest survival of greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) at Grays Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Idaho, USA, during 1997-2000. Average local population of cranes from late April to early May, 1998-2000, was 735 cranes, 34% higher than that reported for May 1970-1971. We estimated 228 (SE = 30) nests in the basin core (excluding renests), 14% higher than a 1971 estimate. Apparent nest success in our study (x?? = 60%, n = 519 nests) was lower than reported for Grays Lake 30-50 years earlier. Daily survival rates (DSRs) of all nests averaged 0.9707 (41.2%). The best model explaining nest survival included year and water depth and their interaction. Nest survival was highest (DSR = 0.9827) in 1998 compared with other years (0.9698-0.9707). Nest survival changed little relative to water depth in 1998, when flooding was extensive and alternative prey (microtines) irrupted, but declined markedly with lower water levels in 2000, the driest year studied. Hypotheses relating nest survival to vegetation height, land use (idle, summer grazing, fall grazing), and date were not supported. In a before-after-control-impact design using 12 experimental fields, nest survival differed among years but not among management treatments (idle, fall graze, fall burn, and summer-graze-idle rotation), nor was there an interaction between year and treatments. However, DSRs in fall-burn fields declined from 0.9781 in 1997-1998 to 0.9503 in 1999-2000 (posttreatment). Changes in the predator community have likely contributed to declines in nest success since the 1950s and 1970s. Our results did not support earlier concerns about effects of habitat management practices on crane productivity. Nest survival could best be enhanced by managing spring water levels. Managers should continue censuses during late April to evaluate long-term relationships to habitat conditions and management.

  12. A cable-chain device for locating duck nests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, K.F.; Kirsch, L.M.; Ball, I.J.

    1969-01-01

    A cable-chain device towed between two vehicles was developed for locating occupied duck nests in brushy, herbaceous, and grassy cover types. Twenty-three of 29 previously located gadwall (Anas strepera) and blue-winged teal (A. discors) hens were flushed from their nests with the drag for an efficiency of 79 percent. Eighty acres of nesting cover can be searched in 4-6 hours by the method described.

  13. Nesting ecology of waterbirds at Grays Lake, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, J.E.; Pyle, W.H.

    2004-01-01

    Montane wetlands provide valuable habitat for nesting waterfowl and other waterbirds in the western United States, but relatively little information is available about the nesting ecology of their waterbird communities. We describe the general nesting ecology of breeding waterbirds at a large, shallow montane wetland in southeast Idaho during 1997-2000. Habitats included upland grasslands and intermittently to semipermanently flooded wetland habitats. We located a total of 1207 nests of 23 bird species: eared grebe (Podiceps nigricollis), Canada goose (Branta canadensis), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), gadwall (A. strepera), American wigeon (A. americana), green-winged teal (A. crecca), blue-winged teal (A. discors), cinnamon teal (A. cyanoptera), northern shoveler (A. clypeata), northern pintail (A. acuta), redhead (Aythya americana), canvasback (A. valisineria), lesser scaup (A. affinis), ruddy duck (Oxyuris jamaicensis), northern harrier (Circus cyaneus), American coot (Fulica americana), Virginia rail (Rallus limicola), greater sandhill crane (Grus canadensis tabida), American avocet (Recurvirostra americana), long-billed curlew (Numenius americanus), Wilsons snipe (Gallinago delicta), Wilsons phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor), and short-eared owl (Asio flammeus). Most nests were initiated in May-early June and were terminated (hatched or destroyed) by the third week of June. Mean daily survival rate (DSR) for Canada goose nests was 0.954 0.005 (SE) (n = 127 nests), equivalent to Mayfield nest success of 21%. Mean DSR for dabbling duck nests over all four years was 0.938 0.006 (n = 141), equivalent to Mayfield nest success of 11%. For all other species where we found >10 nests each year (eared grebe, redhead, canvasback, coot, sandhill crane, American avocet, and Wilsons snipe), >50% of nests found hatched at least one young. Success rates for geese, cranes, and ducks were lower than reported for Grays Lake during 1949-1951 and lower than most other wetlands in

  14. Nesting behavior of Palila, as assessed from video recordings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laut, M.E.; Banko, P.C.; Gray, E.M.

    2003-01-01

    We quantified nesting behavior of Palila (Loxiodes bailleui), an endangered Hawaiian honeycreeper, by recording at nests during three breeding seasons using a black-and-white video camera connected to a Videocassette recorder. A total of seven nests was observed. We measured the following factors for daylight hours: percentage of time the female was on the nest (attendance), length of attendance bouts by the female, length of nest recesses, and adult provisioning rates. Comparisons were made between three stages of the 40-day nesting cycle: incubation (day 1-day 16), early nestling stage (day 17-day 30 [i.e., nestlings ??? 14 days old]), and late nestling stage (day 31-day 40 [i.e., nestlings > 14 days old]). Of seven nests observed, four fledged at least one nestling and three failed. One of these failed nests was filmed being depredated by a feral cat (Felis catus). Female nest attendance was near 82% during the incubation stage and decreased to 21% as nestlings aged. We did not detect a difference in attendance bout length between stages of the nesting cycle. Mean length of nest recesses increased from 4.5 min during the incubation stage to over 45 min during the late nestling stage. Mean number of nest recesses per hour ranged from 1.6 to 2.0. Food was delivered to nestlings by adults an average of 1.8 times per hour for the early nestling stage and 1.5 times per hour during the late nestling stage and did not change over time. Characterization of parental behavior by video had similarities to but also key differences from findings taken from blind observations. Results from this study will facilitate greater understanding of Palila reproductive strategies.

  15. Nested Focusing Optics for Compact Neutron Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nabors, Sammy A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and the University of Alabama Huntsville (UAH) have developed novel neutron grazing incidence optics for use with small-scale portable neutron generators. The technology was developed to enable the use of commercially available neutron generators for applications requiring high flux densities, including high performance imaging and analysis. Nested grazing incidence mirror optics, with high collection efficiency, are used to produce divergent, parallel, or convergent neutron beams. Ray tracing simulations of the system (with source-object separation of 10m for 5 meV neutrons) show nearly an order of magnitude neutron flux increase on a 1-mm diameter object. The technology is a result of joint development efforts between NASA and MIT researchers seeking to maximize neutron flux from diffuse sources for imaging and testing applications.

  16. Edible bird's nest: food or medicine?

    PubMed

    Wong, Rebecca S Y

    2013-09-01

    Edible bird's nest (EBN) is derived from the saliva of certain types of swiftlets. It is consumed in many parts of the world for its nutritional and medicinal values. Although many claims have been made on the therapeutic and health-promoting effects of EBN, scientific documentations regarding these effects are very limited in published literature. It is not until recently that the biological effects of EBN are being investigated and evidence-based studies are being conducted. Several studies have found that EBN may enhance cell proliferation and differentiation and various beneficial effects have been reported in vitro as well as in vivo. While these studies point towards the potential use of EBN in the treatment or even prevention of several diseases, the mechanisms of action of EBN remain largely unknown and more explorations are needed. This review is one of the very few scientific reviews on EBN which focuses on recent evidence-based discoveries.

  17. Artificial nest experiments in a fragmented neotropical cloud forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trujillo, G.; Ahumada, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted artificial nest experiments in a Neotropical montane forest in the eastern Andes, Colombia, in order to test the effect of placing the nests in forest fragments or continuous forests, at two nest heights and for two different climatic seasons. Predation was not consistently different between nests placed in fragments and controls. However, we found that nests on the ground had a higher daily probability of being predated than nests in the understory. Also, daily nest mortality rate (DNM) was higher in the wet season than in the dry season. Most of the predated nests were attributed to mammals (56%), and predation occurred mostly on the ground (78%). Our estimates of DNM are quite low (= 0.023) and similar to another Neotropical montane forest and other Neotropical sites. Comparisons of DNM between Neotropical and temperate sites suggests that predation rates are similar. Our results suggest that fragmentation may not have a large negative impact in nest predation for bird populations breeding in fragments compared to other sites in tropical and temperate regions. ?? The Neotropical Ornithological Society.

  18. Nest-site biology of the California condor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, N.F.R.; Ramey, R.R.; Sibley, F.C.

    1986-01-01

    A study of 72 historical and recent nests of the California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus) has revealed considerable variability in nest-site characteristics. This paper primarily summarizes the data on nest elevations and dimensions, entrance orientations, nest longevity and re-use, vulnerability of sites to natural enemies, and use of sites by other species. Although all known nests have been natural cavities, some have been little more than overhung ledges on cliffs, while others have been deep, dark caves with nest chambers completely concealed from the outside. Two sites have been cavities in giant sequoias (Sequoiadendron giganteum). Contrary to previous assumptions, condors do modify the characteristics of their nest sites significantly and commonly construct substrates of coarse gravel on which to rest their eggs. Many nests have been completely accessible to terrestrial predators, many have been poorly protected from avian predators, and some have had structural flaws leading directly to nesting failure. The use of suboptimal sites has not been clearly related to a scarcity of better quality sites.

  19. Parental nest defense on videotape: More reality than "myth"

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pietz, Pamela J.; Granfors, Diane A.

    2005-01-01

    Predation is recognized as the primary source of nest mortality in most passerine species (e.g. Ricklefs 1969, Martin 1992a); thus, it is no surprise that parental nest defense has received considerable scientifi c a ention (see below). By nest defense, we refer to any parental behavior that decreases the probability that a predator (or brood parasite) will harm the nest contents and that simultaneously entails some cost to the bird engaged in the behavior—either by increasing the bird’s risk of injury or death (Montgomerie and Weatherhead 1988) or by at least increasing its expenditure of time and energy (Buitron 1983).

  20. Duck nesting in intensively farmed areas of North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, K.F.

    1977-01-01

    A study to determine the major factors limiting duck nesting and production on intensively farmed areas in eastern North Dakota was conducted from 1969 through 1974. A total of 186 duck nests was found during searches on 6,018 ha of upland. Nest density per km2 for 5 major habitat types was 20.2 in untilled upland, 3.7 in standing grain stubble, 1.6 in mulched grain stubble, 1.2 in summer fallow, and 1.1 in growing grain. Pintails (Anas acuta) nested in cultivated cropland types in greater prevalence than other duck species. Nest densities were 12 times greater on untilled upland (20.2/km2) than on annually tilled cropland (1.7/km2), and hatched-clutch densities were 16 times greater on untilled upland (4.8/km2) than on annually tilled cropland (0.3/km2). Hatching success was greater on untilled upland (25%) than on tilled cropland (17%). Of 186 nests found, 77 percent did not hatch; 76 percent of the failures were attributed to predators and 19 percent to farming operations. Poor quality nesting cover, the result of intensive land use practices, and nesting failures caused by machinery and predators mainly mammals, were the principal factors limiting duck nesting and production on intensively farmed areas.

  1. Canadian History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Libraries in Canada, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Includes 22 articles that address Canadian history and the importance of having students honor Canada's past by providing articles relating to the areas of History and Social Studies covering: historical fiction as instructional material; Canadian scientists; agricultural fairs; the Historical Foundation; social science books on Canada; student…

  2. Nesting ecology and nest survival of lesser prairie-chickens on the Southern High Plains of Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grisham, Blake A.; Borsdorf, Philip K.; Boal, Clint W.; Boydston, Kathy K.

    2014-01-01

    The decline in population and range of lesser prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) throughout the central and southern Great Plains has raised concerns considering their candidate status under the United States Endangered Species Act. Baseline ecological data for lesser prairie-chickens are limited, especially for the shinnery oak-grassland communities of Texas. This information is imperative because lesser prairie-chickens in shinnery oak grasslands occur at the extreme southwestern edge of their distribution. This geographic region is characterized by hot, arid climates, less fragmentation, and less anthropogenic development than within the remaining core distribution of the species. Thus, large expanses of open rangeland with less anthropogenic development and a climate that is classified as extreme for ground nesting birds may subsequently influence nest ecology, nest survival, and nest site selection differently compared to the rest of the distribution of the species. We investigated the nesting ecology of 50 radio-tagged lesser prairie-chicken hens from 2008 to 2011 in the shinnery oak-grassland communities in west Texas and found a substantial amount of inter-annual variation in incubation start date and percent of females incubating nests. Prairie-chickens were less likely to nest near unimproved roads and utility poles and in areas with more bare ground and litter. In contrast, hens selected areas dominated by grasses and shrubs and close to stock tanks to nest. Candidate models including visual obstruction best explained daily nest survival; a 5% increase in visual obstruction improved nest survival probability by 10%. The model-averaged probability of a nest surviving the incubation period was 0.43 (SE = 0.006; 95% CI: 0.23, 0.56). Our findings indicate that lesser prairie-chicken reproduction during our study period was dynamic and was correlated with seasonal weather patterns that ultimately promoted greater grass growth earlier in the

  3. Daily survival rate for nests and chicks of Least Terns (Sternula antillarum) at natural nest sites in South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Gillian L.; Sanders, Felicia J.; Gerard, Patrick D.; Jodice, Patrick G.

    2013-01-01

    Although a species of conservation concern, little is known about the reproductive success of Least Terns (Sternula antillarum) throughout the southeastern USA where availability of natural beaches for nesting is limited. Daily survival rate (DSR) of nests and chicks was examined at four natural nesting sites in Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge, South Carolina, 2009–2010. Measures of nest success (n = 257 nests) ranged from 0–93% among colony sites. The DSR of nests was primarily related to colony site, but year and estimates of predation risk also were related to DSR. Predation was the principal cause of identifiable nest loss, accounting for 47% of nest failures when the two years of data were pooled. The probability (± SE) of a chick surviving from hatching to fledging = 0.449 ± 0.01 (n = 92 chicks). DSR of chicks was negatively related to tide height and rainfall. Therefore, productivity of Least Terns is being lost during both the nesting and chick stage through a combination of biotic and abiotic factors that may prove difficult to fully mitigate or manage. Although natural nesting sites within Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge intermittently produce successful nests, the consistency of productivity over the long term is still unknown. Given that the long term availability of anthropogenic nest sites (e.g., rooftops, dredge-spoil islands) for Least Terns is questionable, further research is required both locally and throughout the region to assess the extent to which natural sites act as population sources or sinks.

  4. A hierarchical nest survival model integrating incomplete temporally varying covariates

    PubMed Central

    Converse, Sarah J; Royle, J Andrew; Adler, Peter H; Urbanek, Richard P; Barzen, Jeb A

    2013-01-01

    Nest success is a critical determinant of the dynamics of avian populations, and nest survival modeling has played a key role in advancing avian ecology and management. Beginning with the development of daily nest survival models, and proceeding through subsequent extensions, the capacity for modeling the effects of hypothesized factors on nest survival has expanded greatly. We extend nest survival models further by introducing an approach to deal with incompletely observed, temporally varying covariates using a hierarchical model. Hierarchical modeling offers a way to separate process and observational components of demographic models to obtain estimates of the parameters of primary interest, and to evaluate structural effects of ecological and management interest. We built a hierarchical model for daily nest survival to analyze nest data from reintroduced whooping cranes (Grus americana) in the Eastern Migratory Population. This reintroduction effort has been beset by poor reproduction, apparently due primarily to nest abandonment by breeding birds. We used the model to assess support for the hypothesis that nest abandonment is caused by harassment from biting insects. We obtained indices of blood-feeding insect populations based on the spatially interpolated counts of insects captured in carbon dioxide traps. However, insect trapping was not conducted daily, and so we had incomplete information on a temporally variable covariate of interest. We therefore supplemented our nest survival model with a parallel model for estimating the values of the missing insect covariates. We used Bayesian model selection to identify the best predictors of daily nest survival. Our results suggest that the black fly Simulium annulus may be negatively affecting nest survival of reintroduced whooping cranes, with decreasing nest survival as abundance of S. annulus increases. The modeling framework we have developed will be applied in the future to a larger data set to evaluate the

  5. A hierarchical nest survival model integrating incomplete temporally varying covariates.

    PubMed

    Converse, Sarah J; Royle, J Andrew; Adler, Peter H; Urbanek, Richard P; Barzen, Jeb A

    2013-11-01

    Nest success is a critical determinant of the dynamics of avian populations, and nest survival modeling has played a key role in advancing avian ecology and management. Beginning with the development of daily nest survival models, and proceeding through subsequent extensions, the capacity for modeling the effects of hypothesized factors on nest survival has expanded greatly. We extend nest survival models further by introducing an approach to deal with incompletely observed, temporally varying covariates using a hierarchical model. Hierarchical modeling offers a way to separate process and observational components of demographic models to obtain estimates of the parameters of primary interest, and to evaluate structural effects of ecological and management interest. We built a hierarchical model for daily nest survival to analyze nest data from reintroduced whooping cranes (Grus americana) in the Eastern Migratory Population. This reintroduction effort has been beset by poor reproduction, apparently due primarily to nest abandonment by breeding birds. We used the model to assess support for the hypothesis that nest abandonment is caused by harassment from biting insects. We obtained indices of blood-feeding insect populations based on the spatially interpolated counts of insects captured in carbon dioxide traps. However, insect trapping was not conducted daily, and so we had incomplete information on a temporally variable covariate of interest. We therefore supplemented our nest survival model with a parallel model for estimating the values of the missing insect covariates. We used Bayesian model selection to identify the best predictors of daily nest survival. Our results suggest that the black fly Simulium annulus may be negatively affecting nest survival of reintroduced whooping cranes, with decreasing nest survival as abundance of S. annulus increases. The modeling framework we have developed will be applied in the future to a larger data set to evaluate the

  6. A hierarchical nest survival model integrating incomplete temporally varying covariates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Converse, Sarah J.; Royle, J. Andrew; Adler, Peter H.; Urbanek, Richard P.; Barzan, Jeb A.

    2013-01-01

    Nest success is a critical determinant of the dynamics of avian populations, and nest survival modeling has played a key role in advancing avian ecology and management. Beginning with the development of daily nest survival models, and proceeding through subsequent extensions, the capacity for modeling the effects of hypothesized factors on nest survival has expanded greatly. We extend nest survival models further by introducing an approach to deal with incompletely observed, temporally varying covariates using a hierarchical model. Hierarchical modeling offers a way to separate process and observational components of demographic models to obtain estimates of the parameters of primary interest, and to evaluate structural effects of ecological and management interest. We built a hierarchical model for daily nest survival to analyze nest data from reintroduced whooping cranes (Grus americana) in the Eastern Migratory Population. This reintroduction effort has been beset by poor reproduction, apparently due primarily to nest abandonment by breeding birds. We used the model to assess support for the hypothesis that nest abandonment is caused by harassment from biting insects. We obtained indices of blood-feeding insect populations based on the spatially interpolated counts of insects captured in carbon dioxide traps. However, insect trapping was not conducted daily, and so we had incomplete information on a temporally variable covariate of interest. We therefore supplemented our nest survival model with a parallel model for estimating the values of the missing insect covariates. We used Bayesian model selection to identify the best predictors of daily nest survival. Our results suggest that the black fly Simulium annulus may be negatively affecting nest survival of reintroduced whooping cranes, with decreasing nest survival as abundance of S. annulus increases. The modeling framework we have developed will be applied in the future to a larger data set to evaluate the

  7. Do chimpanzee nests serve an anti-predatory function?

    PubMed

    Stewart, Fiona A; Pruetz, J D

    2013-06-01

    Sleep is a vulnerable state for animals as it compromises the ability to detect predators. The evolution of shelter construction in the great apes may have been a solution to the trade-off between restorative sleep and predation-risk, which allowed a large bodied ape to sleep recumbent in a safe, comfortable spot. In this article we review the evidence of predator pressure on great apes and specifically investigate the potential influence of predation-risk on chimpanzee nesting behavior by comparing nests between chimpanzees living in a habitat of several potential predators (Issa, Ugalla, Tanzania) and a habitat relatively devoid of predators (Fongoli, Senegal). Chimpanzees in Issa did not nest more frequently in forest vegetation than chimpanzees in Fongoli although forest vegetation is expected to provide greater opportunity for escape from terrestrial predators. Nor do chimpanzees in Issa nest in larger groups or aggregate together more than Fongoli chimpanzees, as would be expected if larger groups provide protection from or greater detection of predators. Nests in Issa also did not appear to provide greater opportunities for escape than nests in Fongoli. Chimpanzees in Issa nested more frequently within the same tree as other community members, which may indicate that these chimpanzees nest in greater proximity than chimpanzees in Fongoli. Finally, Issa chimpanzees built their nests proportionately higher and more peripherally within trees. The selection of high and peripheral nesting locations within trees may make Issa chimpanzees inaccessible to potential predators. Many factors influence nest site selection in chimpanzees, of which danger from terrestrial predators is likely to be one.

  8. Probability of detection of nests and implications for survey design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, P.A.; Bart, J.; Lanctot, Richard B.; McCaffery, B.J.; Brown, S.

    2009-01-01

    Surveys based on double sampling include a correction for the probability of detection by assuming complete enumeration of birds in an intensively surveyed subsample of plots. To evaluate this assumption, we calculated the probability of detecting active shorebird nests by using information from observers who searched the same plots independently. Our results demonstrate that this probability varies substantially by species and stage of the nesting cycle but less by site or density of nests. Among the species we studied, the estimated single-visit probability of nest detection during the incubation period varied from 0.21 for the White-rumped Sandpiper (Calidris fuscicollis), the most difficult species to detect, to 0.64 for the Western Sandpiper (Calidris mauri), the most easily detected species, with a mean across species of 0.46. We used these detection probabilities to predict the fraction of persistent nests found over repeated nest searches. For a species with the mean value for detectability, the detection rate exceeded 0.85 after four visits. This level of nest detection was exceeded in only three visits for the Western Sandpiper, but six to nine visits were required for the White-rumped Sandpiper, depending on the type of survey employed. Our results suggest that the double-sampling method's requirement of nearly complete counts of birds in the intensively surveyed plots is likely to be met for birds with nests that survive over several visits of nest searching. Individuals with nests that fail quickly or individuals that do not breed can be detected with high probability only if territorial behavior is used to identify likely nesting pairs. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society, 2009.

  9. Local Individual Preferences for Nest Materials in a Passerine Bird

    PubMed Central

    Mennerat, Adèle; Perret, Philippe; Lambrechts, Marcel M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Variation in the behavioural repertoire of animals is acquired by learning in a range of animal species. In nest-building birds, the assemblage of nest materials in an appropriate structure is often typical of a bird genus or species. Yet plasticity in the selection of nest materials may be beneficial because the nature and abundance of nest materials vary across habitats. Such plasticity can be learned, either individually or socially. In Corsican populations of blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus, females regularly add in their nests fragments of several species of aromatic plants during the whole breeding period. The selected plants represent a small fraction of the species present in the environment and have positive effects on nestlings. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated spatiotemporal variations of this behaviour to test whether the aromatic plant species composition in nests depends on 1) plant availability in territories, 2) female experience or 3) female identity. Our results indicate that territory plays a very marginal role in the aromatic plant species composition of nests. Female experience is not related to a change in nest plant composition. Actually, this composition clearly depends on female identity, i.e. results from individual preferences which, furthermore, are repeatable both within and across years. A puzzling fact is the strong difference in plant species composition of nests across distinct study plots. Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrates that plant species composition of nests results from individual preferences that are homogeneous within study plots. We propose several hypotheses to interpret this pattern of spatial variation before discussing them in the light of preliminary results. As a conclusion, we cannot exclude the possibility of social transmission of individual preferences for aromatic plants. This is an exciting perspective for further work in birds, where nest construction behaviour has

  10. Phoretic nest parasites use sexual deception to obtain transport to their host's nest

    PubMed Central

    Saul-Gershenz, Leslie S.; Millar, Jocelyn G.

    2006-01-01

    Cooperative behaviors are common among social insects such as bees, wasps, ants, and termites, but they have not been reported from insect species that use aggressive mimicry to manipulate and exploit prey or hosts. Here we show that larval aggregations of the blister beetle Meloe franciscanus, which parasitize nests of the solitary bee Habropoda pallida, cooperate to exploit the sexual communication system of their hosts by producing a chemical cue that mimics the sex pheromone of the female bee. Male bees are lured to larval aggregations, and upon contact (pseudocopulation) the beetle larvae attach to the male bees. The larvae transfer to female bees during mating and subsequently are transported to the nests of their hosts. To mimic the chemical and visual signals of female bees effectively, the parasite larvae must cooperate, emphasizing the adaptive value of cooperation between larvae. The aggressive chemical mimicry by the beetle larvae and their subsequent transport to their hosts' nests by the hosts themselves provide an efficient solution to the problem of locating a critical but scarce resource in a harsh environment. PMID:16966608

  11. Avian growth and development rates and age-specific mortality: the roles of nest predation and adult mortality.

    PubMed

    Remes, V

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that avian growth and development covary with juvenile mortality. Juveniles of birds under strong nest predation pressure grow rapidly, have short incubation and nestling periods, and leave the nest at low body mass. Life-history theory predicts that parental investment increases with adult mortality rate. Thus, developmental traits that depend on the parental effort exerted (pre- and postnatal growth rate) should scale positively with adult mortality, in contrast to those that do not have a direct relationship with parental investment (timing of developmental events, e.g. nest leaving). I tested this prediction on a sample of 84 North American songbirds. Nestling growth rate scaled positively and incubation period duration negatively with annual adult mortality rates even when controlled for nest predation and other covariates, including phylogeny. On the contrary, neither the duration of the nestling period nor body mass at fledging showed any relationship. Proximate mechanisms generating the relationship of pre- and postnatal growth rates to adult mortality may include increased feeding, nest attentiveness during incubation and/or allocation of hormones, and deserve further attention.

  12. Central corneal thickness, intraocular pressure, and degree of myopia in an adult myopic population aged 20 to 40 years in southeast Spain: determination and relationships

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Medina, Manuel; Garcia-Medina, Jose Javier; Garrido-Fernandez, Pablo; Galvan-Espinosa, Jose; Martin-Molina, Jesus; Garcia-Maturana, Carlos; Perez-Pardo, Sergio; Pinazo-Duran, Maria Dolores

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the values of, and study the relationships among, central corneal thickness (CCT), intraocular pressure (IOP), and degree of myopia (DM) in an adult myopic population aged 20 to 40 years in Almeria (southeast Spain). To our knowledge this is first study of this kind in this region. Methods: An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study was done in which a sample of 310 myopic patients (620 eyes) aged 20 to 40 years was selected by gender- and age-stratified sampling, which was proportionally fixed to the size of the population strata for which a 20% prevalence of myopia, 5% epsilon, and a 95% confidence interval were hypothesized. We studied IOP, CCT, and DM and their relationships by calculating the mean, standard deviation, 95% confidence interval for the mean, median, Fisher’s asymmetry coefficient, range (maximum, minimum), and the Brown-Forsythe’s robust test for each variable (IOP, CCT, and DM). Results: In the adult myopic population of Almeria aged 20 to 40 years (mean of 29.8), the mean overall CCT was 550.12 μm. The corneas of men were thicker than those of women (P = 0.014). CCT was stable as no significant differences were seen in the 20- to 40-year-old subjects’ CCT values. The mean overall IOP was 13.60 mmHg. Men had a higher IOP than women (P = 0.002). Subjects over 30 years (13.83) had a higher IOP than those under 30 (13.38) (P = 0.04). The mean overall DM was −4.18 diopters. Men had less myopia than women (P < 0.001). Myopia was stable in the 20- to 40-year-old study population (P = 0.089). A linear relationship was found between CCT and IOP (R2 = 0.152, P ≤ 0.001). CCT influenced the IOP value by 15.2%. However no linear relationship between DM and IOP, or between CCT and DM, was found. Conclusions: CCT was found to be similar to that reported in other studies in different populations. IOP tends to increase after the age of 30 and is not accounted for by alterations in CCT values. PMID:21468330

  13. Nest survival of forest birds in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.; Henne-Kerr, J.L.; Hamilton, R.B.

    2001-01-01

    In the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, flood control has led to a drastic reduction in the area of forest habitat and altered the patchwork of forest cover types. Silvicultural management of the remaining fragmented forests has changed to reflect the altered hydrology of the forests, current economic conditions of the area, and demand for forest products. Because forest type and silvicultural management impact forest birds, differences in avian productivity within these forests directly impact bird conservation. To assist in conservation planning, we evaluated daily nest survival, nest predation rates, and brood parasitism rates of forest birds in relation to different forest cover types and silvicultural management strategies within this floodplain. Within bottomland hardwood forests, nest success of blue-gray gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea, 13%), eastern towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus, 28%), indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea, 18%), northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis, 22%), and yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus, 18%) did not differ from that within intensively managed cottonwood plantations. However, average daily survival of 542 open-cup nests of 19 bird species in bottomland hardwoods (0.9516 + 0.0028, -27% nest success) was greater than that of 543 nests of 18 species in cotlonwood plantations (0.9298 + 0.0035, -15% nest success). Differences in daily nest survival rates likely resulted from a combination of differences in the predator community--particularly fire ants (Solenopsis invicta)--and a marked difference in species composition of birds breeding within these 2 forest types. At least 39% of nests in bottomland hardwood forests and 65% of nests in cottonwood plantations were depredated. Rates of parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) were greater in managed cottonwoods (24%) than in bottomland hardwoods (9%). Nest success in planted cottonwood plantations for 18 species combined (-14%), and for yellow-breasted chat (Icteria

  14. Women in Mathematics: A Nested Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Köse, Emek; Johnson, Angela C.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we present a case study of a course called Women in Mathematics. Students in the course studied the lives and the mathematical contributions of women mathematicians throughout history, as well as current gender equity issues in the study of mathematics and in mathematical careers. They also mentored 20 middle school girls…

  15. Nesting habitat and productivity of Swainson's Hawks in southeastern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nishida, Catherine; Boal, Clint W.; DeStefano, Stephen; Hobbs, Royden J.

    2013-01-01

    We studied Swainson's Hawks (Buteo swainsoni) in southeastern Arizona to assess the status of the local breeding population. Nest success (≥1 young fledged) was 44.4% in 1999 with an average of 1.43 ± 0.09 (SE) young produced per successful pair. Productivity was similar in 2000, with 58.2% nesting success and 1.83 ± 0.09 fledglings per successful pair. Mesquite (Prosopis velutina) and cottonwood (Populus fremontii) accounted for >50% of 167 nest trees. Nest trees were taller than surrounding trees and random trees, and overall there was more vegetative cover at nest sites than random sites. This apparent requirement for cover around nest sites could be important for management of the species in Arizona. However, any need for cover at nest sites must be balanced with the need for open areas for foraging. Density of nesting Swainson's Hawks was higher in agriculture than in grasslands and desert scrub. Breeding pairs had similar success in agricultural and nonagricultural areas, but the effect of rapid and widespread land-use change on breeding distribution and productivity continues to be a concern throughout the range of the species.

  16. 34. THE CROW'S NEST. IN THE EARLY YEARS OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. THE CROW'S NEST. IN THE EARLY YEARS OF THE INN MUSICIANS SAT AND PLAYED FOR THE GUESTS IN THE LOBBY BELOW. THE EARTHQUAKE IN 1959 CAUSED SOME STRUCTURAL DAMAGE AND NOW THE CROW'S NEST IS NOT ACCESSIBLE TO THE PUBLIC. - Old Faithful Inn, 900' northeast of Snowlodge & 1050' west of Old Faithful Lodge, Lake, Teton County, WY

  17. Animating Nested Taylor Polynomials to Approximate a Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzone, Eric F.; Piper, Bruce R.

    2010-01-01

    The way that Taylor polynomials approximate functions can be demonstrated by moving the center point while keeping the degree fixed. These animations are particularly nice when the Taylor polynomials do not intersect and form a nested family. We prove a result that shows when this nesting occurs. The animations can be shown in class or…

  18. Nest ectoparasites increase physiological stress in breeding birds: an experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-de La Puente, Josué; Merino, Santiago; Tomás, Gustavo; Moreno, Juan; Morales, Judith; Lobato, Elisa; Martínez, Javier

    2011-02-01

    Parasites are undoubtedly a biotic factor that produces stress. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are important molecules buffering cellular damage under adverse conditions. During the breeding season, blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus (L.) adults are affected by blood parasites, nest-dwelling parasites and biting flies, potentially affecting their HSP-mediated responses. Here, we treated females with primaquine to reduce blood parasites and fumigated nests with permethrin to reduce nest-dwelling parasites to test whether these treatments affect HSP60 level during the breeding season. Medicated females, but not controls, had a significant reduction of the intensity of infection by Haemoproteus spp. blood parasites. However, final intensity of infection did not differ significantly between groups, and we did not find an effect of medication on change in HSP60 level. Fumigation reduced the abundance of nest-dwelling parasites (mites, fleas and blowfly larvae) and engorged biting midges in nests. Females breeding in non-fumigated nests increased HSP60 levels during the season more than those breeding in fumigated nests. Furthermore, the change in HSP60 level was positively correlated with the abundance of biting midges. These results show how infections by nest ectoparasites during the breeding period can increase the level of HSPs and suggest that biting midges impose physiological costs on breeding female blue tits. Although plausible, the alternative that biting midges prefer to feed on more stressed birds is poorly supported by previous studies.

  19. LOGGERHEAD SEA TURTLE LATE NESTING ECOLOGY IN VIRGINIA BEACH, VIRGINIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    T'he.loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta came is the only recurrent nesting species of sea turtle in southeastern Virginia (Lutcavage & Musick, 1985; Dodd, 1988). Inasmuch as the loggerhead is a federally threatened species, the opportunity to gather data on its nesting ecology is imp...

  20. 50 CFR 22.27 - Removal of eagle nests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... factors affecting eagle populations, are compatible with the preservation of the bald eagle or the golden... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Removal of eagle nests. 22.27 Section 22... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) EAGLE PERMITS Eagle Permits § 22.27 Removal of eagle nests. (a) Purpose...

  1. 50 CFR 22.27 - Removal of eagle nests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... factors affecting eagle populations, are compatible with the preservation of the bald eagle or the golden... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Removal of eagle nests. 22.27 Section 22... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) EAGLE PERMITS Eagle Permits § 22.27 Removal of eagle nests. (a) Purpose...

  2. 50 CFR 22.27 - Removal of eagle nests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... factors affecting eagle populations, are compatible with the preservation of the bald eagle or the golden... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Removal of eagle nests. 22.27 Section 22... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) EAGLE PERMITS Eagle Permits § 22.27 Removal of eagle nests. (a) Purpose...

  3. 50 CFR 22.27 - Removal of eagle nests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... factors affecting eagle populations, are compatible with the preservation of the bald eagle or the golden... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Removal of eagle nests. 22.27 Section 22... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) EAGLE PERMITS Eagle Permits § 22.27 Removal of eagle nests. (a) Purpose...

  4. 50 CFR 22.27 - Removal of eagle nests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... factors affecting eagle populations, are compatible with the preservation of the bald eagle or the golden... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Removal of eagle nests. 22.27 Section 22... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) EAGLE PERMITS Eagle Permits § 22.27 Removal of eagle nests. (a) Purpose...

  5. Understanding Insecure Attachment: A Study Using Children's Bird Nest Imagery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheller, Sandy

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a phenomenological study of the artistic creations of bird nests by four school-aged children to illuminate their internal experiences of attachment. The author analyzed qualitative data from in-depth interviews pertaining to two-dimensional and three-dimensional artistic representations of a bird's nest and a family of…

  6. Factors affecting Culicoides species composition and abundance in avian nests.

    PubMed

    Martínez-de la Puente, J; Merino, S; Tomás, G; Moreno, J; Morales, J; Lobato, E; Talavera, S; Sarto I Monteys, V

    2009-08-01

    Mechanisms affecting patterns of vector distribution among host individuals may influence the population and evolutionary dynamics of vectors, hosts and the parasites transmitted. We studied the role of different factors affecting the species composition and abundance of Culicoides found in nests of the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). We identified 1531 females and 2 males of 7 different Culicoides species in nests, with C. simulator being the most abundant species, followed by C. kibunensis, C. festivipennis, C. segnis, C. truncorum, C. pictipennis and C. circumscriptus. We conducted a medicationxfumigation experiment randomly assigning bird's nests to different treatments, thereby generating groups of medicated and control pairs breeding in fumigated and control nests. Medicated pairs were injected with the anti-malarial drug Primaquine diluted in saline solution while control pairs were injected with saline solution. The fumigation treatment was carried out using insecticide solution or water for fumigated and control nests respectively. Brood size was the main factor associated with the abundance of biting midges probably because more nestlings may produce higher quantities of vector attractants. In addition, birds medicated against haemoparasites breeding in non-fumigated nests supported a higher abundance of C. festivipennis than the rest of the groups. Also, we found that the fumigation treatment reduced the abundance of engorged Culicoides in both medicated and control nests, thus indicating a reduction of feeding success produced by the insecticide. These results represent the first evidence for the role of different factors in affecting the Culicoides infracommunity in wild avian nests.

  7. On piecewise smooth vector fields tangent to nested tori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Tiago; Teixeira, Marco A.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we present a number of results involving 3D nonsmooth dynamical systems tangent to a foliation. We study one-parameter families of systems Zε passing through a specific model Z0 whose phase portrait is foliated by invariant nested tori. For each positive integer k we, explicitly, construct a family Zεk possessing exactly k nested tori.

  8. Response of predators to Western Sandpiper nest exclosures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Niehaus, Amanda C.; Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; McCaffery, Brian J.

    2004-01-01

    In 2001, predator exclosures were used to protect nests of the Western Sandpiper (Calidris mauri) in western Alaska. During the exclosure experiment, nest contents in exclosures had significantly higher daily survival rates than control nests, however, late in the study predators began to cue in on exclosures and predate the nest contents. An Arctic Fox (Alopex lagopus) dug under one exclosure and took the newly hatched chicks, and Long-tailed Jaegers (Stercorarius longicaudus) learned to associate exclosures with active nests and repeatedly visited them. The jaegers attempted to gain access to exclosed nests and pursued adult sandpipers as they emerged from the exclosures. The exclosures were removed to reduce potential mortality to adult and young sandpipers, but subsequently, post-exclosure nests had lower daily survival rates than controls during the same time period. Predation of post-exclosure eggs and chicks highlighted the lasting influence of the exclosure treatment on offspring survival because predators probably remembered nest locations. Researchers are urged to use caution when considering use of predator exclosures in areas where jaegers occur.

  9. Hurricane disturbance benefits nesting American Oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simons, Theodore R.; Schulte, Shiloh A.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems are under increasing pressure from human activity, introduced species, sea level rise, and storm activity. Hurricanes are a powerful destructive force, but can also renew coastal habitats. In 2003, Hurricane Isabel altered the barrier islands of North Carolina, flattening dunes and creating sand flats. American Oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus) are large shorebirds that inhabit the coastal zone throughout the year. Alternative survival models were evaluated for 699 American Oystercatcher nests on North Core Banks and South Core Banks, North Carolina, USA, from 1999–2007. Nest survival on North Core Banks increased from 0.170 (SE = 0.002) to 0.772 (SE = 0.090) after the hurricane, with a carry-over effect lasting 2 years. A simple year effects model described nest survival on South Core Banks. Habitat had no effect on survival except when the overall rate of nest survival was at intermediate levels (0.300–0.600), when nests on open flats survived at a higher rate (0.600; SE = 0.112) than nests in dune habitat (0.243; SE = 0.094). Predator activity declined on North Core Banks after the hurricane and corresponded with an increase in nest survival. Periodic years with elevated nest survival may offset low annual productivity and contribute to the stability of American Oystercatcher populations.

  10. Family History

    MedlinePlus

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  11. Nest Site Selection by Kentish Plover Suggests a Trade-Off between Nest-Crypsis and Predator Detection Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Serrano, Miguel Ángel; López-López, Pascual

    2014-01-01

    Predation is one of the main causes of adult mortality and breeding failure for ground-nesting birds. Micro-habitat structure around nests plays a critical role in minimizing predation risk. Plovers nest in sites with little vegetation cover to maximize the incubating adult visibility, but many studies suggest a trade-off between nest-crypsis and predator detection strategies. However, this trade-off has not been explored in detail because methods used so far do not allow estimating the visibility with regards to critical factors such as slope or plant permeability to vision. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Kentish plovers select exposed sites according to a predator detection strategy, and the hypothesis that more concealed nests survive longer according to a crypsis strategy. To this end, we obtained an accurate estimation of the incubating adult's field of vision through a custom built inverted periscope. Our results showed that plovers selected nest sites with higher visibility than control points randomly selected with regards to humans and dogs, although nests located in sites with higher vegetation cover survived longer. In addition, the flushing distance (i.e., the distance at which incubating adults leave the nest when they detect a potential predator) decreased with vegetation cover. Consequently, the advantages of concealing the nest were limited by the ability to detect predators, thus indirectly supporting the existence of the trade-off between crypsis and predator detection. Finally, human disturbance also constrained nest choice, forcing plovers to move to inland sites that were less suitable because of higher vegetation cover, and modulated flushing behavior, since plovers that were habituated to humans left their nests closer to potential predators. This constraint on the width of suitable breeding habitat is particularly relevant for the conservation of Kentish Plover in sand beaches, especially under the current context of coastal regression

  12. Nesting behavior of Trypoxylon (Trypargilum) agamemnom Richards (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae).

    PubMed

    Buschini, M L T; Donatti, A J

    2012-05-01

    Nesting behaviour is extremely diversified among solitary nesting sphecids. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe the nesting behaviour of Trypoxylon agamemnon and discuss the advantages of guarding behaviour of males. It was conducted in the Parque Municipal das Araucárias, Guarapuava (PR), Brazil from October/2003 to July/2007. To describe the behaviour of T. agamemnon and construct its ethogram, daily observations were made, totalling 410:19 hours observation. Although the males of T. agamemnon stand guard close to the entrance of the nests, we concluded that this behaviour is not ensuring the protection of nests against parasitoids and that, probably, this behaviour ensures them the paternity, but further studies with microsatellite markers will be necessary to confirm this hypothesis.

  13. Nest predation research: Recent findings and future perspectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalfoun, Anna D.; Ibanez-Alamo, J. D.; Magrath, R. D.; Schmidt, Kenneth A.; Thomson, R. L.; Oteyza, Juan C.; Haff, T. M.; Martin, T.E.

    2016-01-01

    Nest predation is a key source of selection for birds that has attracted increasing attention from ornithologists. The inclusion of new concepts applicable to nest predation that stem from social information, eavesdropping or physiology has expanded our knowledge considerably. Recent methodological advancements now allow focus on all three players within nest predation interactions: adults, offspring and predators. Indeed, the study of nest predation now forms a vital part of avian research in several fields, including animal behaviour, population ecology, evolution and conservation biology. However, within nest predation research there are important aspects that require further development, such as the comparison between ecological and evolutionary antipredator responses, and the role of anthropogenic change. We hope this review of recent findings and the presentation of new research avenues will encourage researchers to study this important and interesting selective pressure, and ultimately will help us to better understand the biology of birds.

  14. Time-lapse video sysem used to study nesting gyrfalcons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Booms, Travis; Fuller, Mark R.

    2003-01-01

    We used solar-powered time-lapse video photography to document nesting Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) food habits in central West Greenland from May to July in 2000 and 2001. We collected 2677.25 h of videotape from three nests, representing 94, 87, and 49% of the nestling period at each nest. The video recorded 921 deliveries of 832 prey items. We placed 95% of the items into prey categories. The image quality was good but did not reveal enough detail to identify most passerines to species. We found no evidence that Gyrfalcons were negatively affected by the video system after the initial camera set-up. The video system experienced some mechanical problems but proved reliable. The system likely can be used to effectively document the food habits and nesting behavior of other birds, especially those delivering large prey to a nest or other frequently used site.

  15. Nesting of waterfowl on islands in Lake Audubon, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duebbert, H.F.

    1982-01-01

    Nesting waterfowl were studied in 1978 and 1980 on 15 newly established islands with an area of 19 ha in 7,430-ha Lake Audubon in the Audubon National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), North Dakota. Islands ranged in size from 0.2 to 5.0 ha and were 60-1,600 m from the mainland. Cover available for nesting waterfowl was composed of grasses, legumes, and forbs with abundant residual plant material. In 1978 and 1980, 207 and 251 nests were found, respectively, of 10 waterfowl species primarily mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and gadwall (A. strepera). Densities of waterfowl nests were 10.9/ha in 1978 and 13.2/ha in 1980. Nest success averaged 86% for the 2 years. Increased emphasis on construction of new islands and manipulation of plant communities on existing islands should be considered for waterfowl management programs in the prairie and parkland regions of North America.

  16. Apparent predation by cattle at grassland bird nests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nack, J.L.; Ribic, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    We document the first cases of cattle behaving as avian predators, removing nestlings and eggs from three active ground nests in continuously grazed pastures in southwestern Wisconsin, 2000-2001. Cows removed three of four Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) eggs from one nest (the fourth egg was damaged), all four Eastern Meadowlark (Sturnella magna) nestlings from another, and all three Savannah Sparrow nestlings from a third. We found only two of three missing eggs (intact) and one of seven missing nestlings (dead) near two of the nests. Cows may have eaten the egg and nestlings we were unable to account for; alternatively, the egg and nestlings may have been scavenged by predators or removed from the area by the adult birds. Without videotape documentation, we would have attributed nest failure to traditional predators and cattle would not have been implicated. We may be underestimating the impact of cattle on ground nests by not considering cattle as potential predators.

  17. Effects of experimental reduction in nest micro-parasite and macro-parasite loads on nestling hemoglobin level in blue tits Parus caeruleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Słomczyński, Robert; Kaliński, Adam; Wawrzyniak, Jarosław; Bańbura, Mirosława; Skwarska, Joanna; Zieliński, Piotr; Bańbura, Jerzy

    2006-09-01

    Theory suggests that macro- and micro-parasites may be important factors of selection for life-histories. They generate selection pressures by detrimental effects on host health. Nests of secondary cavity nesters provide a convenient habitat for an assemblage of parasites exploiting nestlings. In this study, natural blue tit Parus caeruleus nests (26) were replaced with clean artificial nests, twice during the nestling stage. This treatment caused an increase of 7-10.5 g/l in hemoglobin level of 12-day-old nestlings in comparison with control nestlings. Nestlings that developed in parasite-pathogen-free nests improved their health status. The experimental sterilization did not affect a morphometric index of condition. Potential effects on condition indices might be masked by trophic conditions.

  18. Directed random polymers via nested contour integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodin, Alexei; Bufetov, Alexey; Corwin, Ivan

    2016-05-01

    We study the partition function of two versions of the continuum directed polymer in 1 + 1 dimension. In the full-space version, the polymer starts at the origin and is free to move transversally in R, and in the half-space version, the polymer starts at the origin but is reflected at the origin and stays in R-. The partition functions solve the stochastic heat equation in full-space or half-space with mixed boundary condition at the origin; or equivalently the free energy satisfies the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation. We derive exact formulas for the Laplace transforms of the partition functions. In the full-space this is expressed as a Fredholm determinant while in the half-space this is expressed as a Fredholm Pfaffian. Taking long-time asymptotics we show that the limiting free energy fluctuations scale with exponent 1 / 3 and are given by the GUE and GSE Tracy-Widom distributions. These formulas come from summing divergent moment generating functions, hence are not mathematically justified. The primary purpose of this work is to present a mathematical perspective on the polymer replica method which is used to derive these results. In contrast to other replica method work, we do not appeal directly to the Bethe ansatz for the Lieb-Liniger model but rather utilize nested contour integral formulas for moments as well as their residue expansions.

  19. Impact of nesting material on mouse body temperature and physiology.

    PubMed

    Gaskill, Brianna N; Gordon, Christopher J; Pajor, Edmond A; Lucas, Jeffrey R; Davis, Jerry K; Garner, Joseph P

    2013-02-17

    In laboratories, mice are housed at 20-24 °C, which is below their lower critical temperature (≈30 °C). Thus, mice are potentially cold stressed, which can alter metabolism, immune function, and reproduction. These physiological changes reflect impaired wellbeing, and affect scientific outcomes. We hypothesized that nesting material would allow mice to alleviate cold stress by controlling their thermal microenvironment, thus insulating them, reducing heat loss and thermogenic processes. Naïve C57BL/6, CD-1, and BALB/c mice (24 male and 24 female/strain in groups of 3) were housed in standard cages at 20 °C either with or without 8 g nesting material for 4 weeks. Core body temperature was followed using intraperitoneal radio telemetry. The thermal properties of the nests were assessed using a thermal imaging camera, and related to nest quality. Higher scoring nests were negatively correlated with the mean radiated temperature and were thus more insulating. No effects of nesting material on body temperature were found. CD-1 mice with nesting material had higher end body weights than controls. No effect was seen in the other two strains. Mice with the telemetry implant had larger spleens than controls, possibly indicating an immune response to the implant or low level infection from the surgery. BALB/c mice express less mRNA for the UCP1 protein than mice without nesting material. This indicates that BALB/c's with nesting material do not utilize their brown fat to create heat as readily as controls. Nests can alleviate thermal discomfort by decreasing the amount of radiated heat and reduce the need for non-shivering thermogenesis. However, different strains appear to use different behavioral (through different primary modes of behavioral thermoregulation) and physiological strategies (utilizing thermogenesis to different degrees) to maintain a constant body temperature under cool standard laboratory ambient temperatures.

  20. [Egg size variation in egrets and herons (Aves: Ardeidae) nesting in Birama's swamp, Cuba].

    PubMed

    Denis Avila, Dennis

    2015-03-01

    Intraclutch egg size variation in birds depends on many ecological factors and on the evolutive history of each species. In wading birds, a trend to smaller eggs with laying order has been described, but comparative reports are scarce. In this study, egg size variation patterns were described for nine Egrets and Heron species nesting in Birama' Swamp, Cuba. The patterns were described using external dimensions of 3142 eggs from 1875 nests of Butorides virescens, Bubulcus ibis, Ardea alba, Nycticorax nycticorax, Nyctanassa violacea and four Egretta species, taken in the field between 1998 and 2006. Results showed that eggs were 4.9-10% of adult weight and had volume variation coefficients between 6-9%. There were no general and consistent interspecies relationship between clutch size and egg sizes. Average volumes tend to get smaller with laying order, but it is not statistically detectable in Butorides and Bubulcus. Last egg was between 0.2% and 15% smaller than the first, showing an inverse relationship with it. Intraclutch asymmetry is light in E. thula and fluctuating around null in Bubulcus. Size only predicted laying or hatching order for the last egg, in nests with more than two eggs, with 72.4% of confidence.

  1. Nested radiations and the pulse of angiosperm diversification: increased diversification rates often follow whole genome duplications.

    PubMed

    Tank, David C; Eastman, Jonathan M; Pennell, Matthew W; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E; Hinchliff, Cody E; Brown, Joseph W; Sessa, Emily B; Harmon, Luke J

    2015-07-01

    Our growing understanding of the plant tree of life provides a novel opportunity to uncover the major drivers of angiosperm diversity. Using a time-calibrated phylogeny, we characterized hot and cold spots of lineage diversification across the angiosperm tree of life by modeling evolutionary diversification using stepwise AIC (MEDUSA). We also tested the whole-genome duplication (WGD) radiation lag-time model, which postulates that increases in diversification tend to lag behind established WGD events. Diversification rates have been incredibly heterogeneous throughout the evolutionary history of angiosperms and reveal a pattern of 'nested radiations' - increases in net diversification nested within other radiations. This pattern in turn generates a negative relationship between clade age and diversity across both families and orders. We suggest that stochastically changing diversification rates across the phylogeny explain these patterns. Finally, we demonstrate significant statistical support for the WGD radiation lag-time model. Across angiosperms, nested shifts in diversification led to an overall increasing rate of net diversification and declining relative extinction rates through time. These diversification shifts are only rarely perfectly associated with WGD events, but commonly follow them after a lag period.

  2. Strong selection on mandible and nest features in a carpenter bee that nests in two sympatric host plants.

    PubMed

    Flores-Prado, Luis; Pinto, Carlos F; Rojas, Alejandra; Fontúrbel, Francisco E

    2014-05-01

    Host plants are used by herbivorous insects as feeding or nesting resources. In wood-boring insects, host plants features may impose selective forces leading to phenotypic differentiation on traits related to nest construction. Carpenter bees build their nests in dead stems or dry twigs of shrubs and trees; thus, mandibles are essential for the nesting process, and the nest is required for egg laying and offspring survival. We explored the shape and intensity of natural selection on phenotypic variation on three size measures of the bees (intertegular width, wing length, and mandible area) and two nest architecture measures (tunnel length and diameter) on bees using the native species Chusquea quila (Poaceae), and the alloctonous species Rubus ulmifolius (Rosaceae), in central Chile. Our results showed significant and positive linear selection gradients for tunnel length on both hosts, indicating that bees building long nests have more offspring. Bees with broader mandibles show greater fitness on C. quila but not on R. ulmifolius. Considering that C. quila represents a selective force on mandible area, we hypothesized a high adaptive value of this trait, resulting in higher fitness values when nesting on this host, despite its wood is denser and hence more difficult to be bored.

  3. Nest Success and Cause-Specific Nest Failure of Grassland Passerines Breeding in Prairie Grazed by Livestock

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript describes two years of field research on ground-nesting songbird species at Zumwalt Prairie Reserve, northeastern Oregon, USA. Cattle-grazing has long been suspected in declines of ground-nesting songbirds in grazed grassland, primarily due to increased trampling...

  4. Landscape and regional context differentially affect nest parasitism and nest predation for Wood Thrush in central Virginia, USA (Presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many empirical studies have shown that forest-breeding songbirds suffer greater rates of nest predation and nest parasitism in smaller forest patches and in fragmented landscapes. To compare the performance of different metrics of spatial habitat configuration resulting from defo...

  5. Landscape distribution of food and nesting sites affect larval diet and nest size, but not abundance of Osmia bicornis.

    PubMed

    Coudrain, Valérie; Rittiner, Sarah; Herzog, Felix; Tinner, Willy; Entling, Martin H

    2016-10-01

    Habitat fragmentation is a major threat for beneficial organisms and the ecosystem services they provide. Multiple-habitat users such as wild bees depend on both nesting and foraging habitat. Thus, they may be affected by the fragmentation of at least two habitat types. We investigated the effects of landscape-scale amount of and patch isolation from both nesting habitat (woody plants) and foraging habitat (specific pollen sources) on the abundance and diet of Osmia bicornis L. Trap-nests of O. bicornis were studied in 30 agricultural landscapes of the Swiss Plateau. Nesting and foraging habitats were mapped in a radius of 500 m around the sites. Pollen composition of larval diet changed as isolation to the main pollen source, Ranunculus, increased, suggesting that O. bicornis adapted its foraging strategy in function of the nest proximity to main pollen sources. Abundance of O. bicornis was neither related to isolation or amount of nesting habitat nor to isolation or abundance of food plants. Surprisingly, nests of O. bicornis contained fewer larvae in sites at forest edge compared to isolated sites, possibly due to higher parasitism risk. This study indicates that O. bicornis can nest in a variety of situations by compensating scarcity of its main larval food by exploiting alternative food sources.

  6. Mourning Dove Nesting: Seasonal Patterns and Effects of September Hunting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geissler, P.H.; Dolton, D.D.; Coon, R.A.; Percival, H.F.; Field, R.; Hayne, D.W.; Soileau, L.D.; George, R.R.; Dunks, J.H.; Bunnell, S.D.

    1982-01-01

    A nationwide State/Federal cooperative study was initiated in 1978 to examine effects of September hunting on mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) nesting. This study was designed to (1) determine the proportion of the annual total of dove nesting activity and production that occurs in September and October, and (2) determine if survival rates of mourning dove eggs and nestlings are lower in areas where early September dove hunting is permitted compared to areas where it is prohibited. During 1979 and 1980, 6,950 active nests were followed to obtain data on nesting patterns. Nest initiation was estimated both by backdating from hatch dates and by the numbers of nests found for the first time. The nationwide percent of the annual total of nests that were initiated in September and October was 1.0% based on backdating hatch dates and 2.7% based on nests found for the first time. Nesting activity was measured by numbers of eggs and nestlings present in weekly counts. Nationally, 4.5% of the annual total of nesting activity occurred in September and October. The observed period when 80% of the nests were active, based on hatch dates, lasted from April 22 to September 4. The measure of production used in this study was numbers of young fledged. Nationally, 10.3% of all observed fledging occurred in September and October. A decline in nests found in the latter half of the nesting season preceded the September 1 start of hunting. From this we concluded that the reduction in nesting activity at the end of the season is a natural phenomenon and not caused by hunting disturbance. In a separate part of this study, we estimated survival rates in hunted and nonhunted sections from data on 668 nests. The estimated daily survival rates for individual eggs and nestlings were 95.8% in the nonhunted and 95.0% in the hunted sections; the corresponding fledging rates were 33% and 26%, respectively. The fledging rates are lower because they are the daily survival rates operating over a 26

  7. Mourning dove nesting: seasonal patterns and effects of September hunting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geissler, Paul H.; Dolton, David D.; Field, Rebecca; Coon, Richard A.; Percival, H. Franklin; Hayne, Don W.; Soileau, Lawrence D.; George, Ronnie R.; Dunks, James H.; Bunnell, S. Dwight

    1987-01-01

    A nationwide State-Federal cooperative study was initiated in 1978 to examine effects of September hunting on nesting mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). This study was designed to (1) determine the proportion of the annual total of dove nesting activity and production that occurs in September and October, and (2) determine if survival rates of mourning dove eggs and nestlings are lower in zones where early September dove hunting is permitted than in zones where it is prohibited. During 1979 and 1980, 6,950 active nests were monitored to obtain data on nesting patterns. Nest initiation was estimated using two measurements, backdating from hatch dates and counting numbers of nests found for the first time. The nationwide percentage of the annual total of nests that were initiated in September and October was 1.0% based on backdating from hatch dates and 2.7% based on nests found for the first time. Nesting activity was measured by numbers of eggs and nestlings present in weekly counts. Nationally, 4.5% of the annual nesting activity occurred in September and October. The activity of 80% of the observed nests was within the period of 22 April to 4 September. The measure of production used in this study was numbers of young fledged. Nationally, 10.3% of all observed fledging occurred in September and October. Because a decline in nests found in the latter half of the nesting season preceded the 1 September start of hunting, we concluded that the reduction in nesting activity at the end of the season is a natural phenomenon and is not caused by hunting disturbance. In a separate part of this study, we estimated survival rates in adjacent hunted and nonhunted zones from data on 668 nests. The estimated daily survival rates for individual eggs and nestlings were 95.8% in the nonhunted and 95.0% in the hunted zones; the corresponding fledging rates were 33 and 26%, respectively. The fledging rates are lower because they are the daily survival rates operating over a 26-day

  8. The automation and evaluation of nested clade phylogeographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Panchal, Mahesh; Beaumont, Mark A

    2007-06-01

    Nested clade phylogeographic analysis (NCPA) is a popular method for reconstructing the demographic history of spatially distributed populations from genetic data. Although some parts of the analysis are automated, there is no unique and widely followed algorithm for doing this in its entirety, beginning with the data, and ending with the inferences drawn from the data. This article describes a method that automates NCPA, thereby providing a framework for replicating analyses in an objective way. To do so, a number of decisions need to be made so that the automated implementation is representative of previous analyses. We review how the NCPA procedure has evolved since its inception and conclude that there is scope for some variability in the manual application of NCPA. We apply the automated software to three published datasets previously analyzed manually and replicate many details of the manual analyses, suggesting that the current algorithm is representative of how a typical user will perform NCPA. We simulate a large number of replicate datasets for geographically distributed, but entirely random-mating, populations. These are then analyzed using the automated NCPA algorithm. Results indicate that NCPA tends to give a high frequency of false positives. In our simulations we observe that 14% of the clades give a conclusive inference that a demographic event has occurred, and that 75% of the datasets have at least one clade that gives such an inference. This is mainly due to the generation of multiple statistics per clade, of which only one is required to be significant to apply the inference key. We survey the inferences that have been made in recent publications and show that the most commonly inferred processes (restricted gene flow with isolation by distance and contiguous range expansion) are those that are commonly inferred in our simulations. However, published datasets typically yield a richer set of inferences with NCPA than obtained in our random

  9. A 40-year record of Northern Hemisphere atmospheric carbon monoxide concentration and isotope ratios from the firn at Greenland Summit.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Place, P., Jr.; Petrenko, V. V.; Vimont, I.; Buizert, C.; Lang, P. M.; Edwards, J.; Harth, C. M.; Hmiel, B.; Mak, J. E.; Novelli, P. C.; Brook, E.; Weiss, R. F.; Vaughn, B. H.; White, J. W. C.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon Monoxide (CO) is an important atmospheric trace gas that affects the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere and contributes indirectly to climate forcing by being a major sink of tropospheric OH. A good understanding of the past atmospheric CO budget is therefore important for climate models attempting to characterize recent changes in the atmosphere. Previous work at NEEM, Greenland provided the first reconstructions of Arctic atmospheric history of CO concentration and stable isotope ratios (δC18O and δ13CO) from firn air, dating to the 1950s. In this new study, firn air was sampled from eighteen depth levels through the firn column at Summit, Greenland (in May 2013), yielding a second, independent record of Arctic CO concentration and isotopic ratios. Carbon monoxide stable isotope ratios were analyzed on replicate samples and using a newly developed system with improved precision allowing for a more robust reconstruction. The new CO concentration and stable isotope results overall confirm the earlier findings from NEEM, with a CO concentration peak around the 1970s and higher δC18O and δ13CO values associated with peak CO. Modeling and interpretation of the data are in progress.

  10. Pollinator population size and pollination ecosystem service responses to enhancing floral and nesting resources.

    PubMed

    Häussler, Johanna; Sahlin, Ullrika; Baey, Charlotte; Smith, Henrik G; Clough, Yann

    2017-03-01

    Modeling pollination ecosystem services requires a spatially explicit, process-based approach because they depend on both the behavioral responses of pollinators to the amount and spatial arrangement of habitat and on the within- and between-season dynamics of pollinator populations in response to land use. We describe a novel pollinator model predicting flower visitation rates by wild central-place foragers (e.g., nesting bees) in spatially explicit landscapes. The model goes beyond existing approaches by: (1) integrating preferential use of more rewarding floral and nesting resources; (2) considering population growth over time; (3) allowing different dispersal distances for workers and reproductives; (4) providing visitation rates for use in crop pollination models. We use the model to estimate the effect of establishing grassy field margins offering nesting resources and a low quantity of flower resources, and/or late-flowering flower strips offering no nesting resources but abundant flowers, on bumble bee populations and visitation rates to flowers in landscapes that differ in amounts of linear seminatural habitats and early mass-flowering crops. Flower strips were three times more effective in increasing pollinator populations and visitation rates than field margins, and this effect increased over time. Late-blooming flower strips increased early-season visitation rates, but decreased visitation rates in other late-season flowers. Increases in population size over time in response to flower strips and amounts of linear seminatural habitats reduced this apparent competition for pollinators. Our spatially explicit, process-based model generates emergent patterns reflecting empirical observations, such that adding flower resources may have contrasting short- and long-term effects due to apparent competition for pollinators and pollinator population size increase. It allows exploring these effects and comparing effect sizes in ways not possible with other

  11. Population trends and survival of nesting green sea turtles Chelonia mydas on Aves Island, Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia-Cruz, Marco A.; Lampo, Margarita; Peñaloza, Claudia L.; Kendall, William; Solé, Genaro; Rodriguez-Clark, Kathryn M.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term demographic data are valuable for assessing the effect of anthropogenic impacts on endangered species and evaluating recovery programs. Using a 2-state open robust design model, we analyzed mark-recapture data from green turtles Chelonia mydas sighted between 1979 and 2009 on Aves Island, Venezuela, a rookery heavily impacted by human activities before it was declared a wildlife refuge in 1972. Based on the encounter histories of 7689 nesting females, we estimated the abundance, annual survival, and remigration intervals for this population. Female survival varied from 0.14-0.91, with a mean of 0.79, which is low compared to survival of other populations from the Caribbean (mean = 0.84) and Australia (mean = 0.95), even though we partially corrected for tag loss, which is known to negatively bias survival estimates. This supports prior suggestions that Caribbean populations in general, and the Aves Island population in particular, may be more strongly impacted than populations elsewhere. It is likely that nesters from this rookery are extracted while foraging in remote feeding grounds where hunting still occurs. Despite its relatively low survival, the nesting population at Aves Island increased during the past 30 years from approx. 500 to >1000 nesting females in 2009. Thus, this population, like others in the Caribbean and the Atlantic, seems to be slowly recovering following protective management. Although these findings support the importance of long-term conservation programs aimed at protecting nesting grounds, they also highlight the need to extend management actions to foraging grounds where human activities may still impact green turtle populations.

  12. Assessing hypotheses about nesting site occupancy dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bled, Florent; Royle, J. Andrew; Cam, Emmanuelle

    2011-01-01

    Hypotheses about habitat selection developed in the evolutionary ecology framework assume that individuals, under some conditions, select breeding habitat based on expected fitness in different habitat. The relationship between habitat quality and fitness may be reflected by breeding success of individuals, which may in turn be used to assess habitat quality. Habitat quality may also be assessed via local density: if high-quality sites are preferentially used, high density may reflect high-quality habitat. Here we assessed whether site occupancy dynamics vary with site surrogates for habitat quality. We modeled nest site use probability in a seabird subcolony (the Black-legged Kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla) over a 20-year period. We estimated site persistence (an occupied site remains occupied from time t to t + 1) and colonization through two subprocesses: first colonization (site creation at the timescale of the study) and recolonization (a site is colonized again after being deserted). Our model explicitly incorporated site-specific and neighboring breeding success and conspecific density in the neighborhood. Our results provided evidence that reproductively "successful'' sites have a higher persistence probability than "unsuccessful'' ones. Analyses of site fidelity in marked birds and of survival probability showed that high site persistence predominantly reflects site fidelity, not immediate colonization by new owners after emigration or death of previous owners. There is a negative quadratic relationship between local density and persistence probability. First colonization probability decreases with density, whereas recolonization probability is constant. This highlights the importance of distinguishing initial colonization and recolonization to understand site occupancy. All dynamics varied positively with neighboring breeding success. We found evidence of a positive interaction between site-specific and neighboring breeding success. We addressed local

  13. The impacts of selective logging and clear-cutting on woody plant diversity after 40years of natural recovery in a tropical montane rain forest, south China.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yi; Zang, Runguo; Lu, Xinghui; Huang, Jihong

    2017-02-01

    Historically, clear-cutting and selective logging have been the commercial logging practices. However, the effect of these pervasive timber extraction methods on biodiversity in tropical forests is still poorly understood. In this study, we compared abiotic factors, species diversity, community composition, and structure between ca. 40-year-old clear-cut (MCC); ca. 40-year-old selectively logged (MSL); and tropical old growth montane rain forests (MOG) on Hainan Island, China. Results showed that there were a large number of trees with a diameter at breast height (DBH) <30cm in the two logged forests. Additionally, the two logged forests only had 40% of the basal area of the large trees (DBH≥30cm) found in the old growth forest. The species richness and Shannon-Wiener diversity indices generally showed no difference among the three forest types. MCC had 70% of the species richness of the large trees in the MOG, whereas MSL and MOG had similar species richness. High value timber species had similar species richness among the three forest types, but a lower abundance and basal area of large tr