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Sample records for 401-5978 ferc contact

  1. 78 FR 9679 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-60, FERC-61, & FERC-555A); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... Description of Service Company Functions), and FERC- 555A (Preservation of Records Companies and Service... Register (70 FR 70996, 11/28/2012) requesting public comments. FERC received no comments on the FERC-60... Service Companies), FERC-61 (Narrative Description of Service Company Functions), and FERC-...

  2. 75 FR 2124 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-538, FERC-539, FERC-577, FERC-606, and FERC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ..., such as administrative costs and the cost for information technology. Indirect or overhead costs are... burdens and the associated public costs follow. Number of Projected average FERC Data collection Projected... rounding and/or truncating. The total annual cost to respondents 1 2 is estimated as follows....

  3. 75 FR 15424 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-538, FERC-539, FERC-577, FERC-606, and FERC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... issued a Notice in the Federal Register (75 FR 2124, 1/ 14/2010) requesting public comments. FERC... not be exact, due to rounding and/or truncating. Projected Projected Number of average burden Total... $137,874/year. The estimated hourly cost is $66.29 (or $137,874/2,080). Estimated total Total...

  4. 77 FR 8245 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-65, FERC-65A, and FERC-65B); Comment Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... Control Number. This should simplify the FERC administrative burden of processing these information... Notification 0 1 0 1 0 Total \\3\\ N/A \\3\\ N/A 9 \\3\\ N/A 25 The total estimated annual cost burden to respondents... employee. The estimated annual cost of filing the FERC-65, FERC-65A, and FERC-65B per response is...

  5. 77 FR 58375 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... information, contact Patrick Clarey, Office of Energy Market Regulation, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State...

  6. 75 FR 53295 - Notice of FERC Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    .... For more information, contact Patrick Clarey, Office of Energy Market Regulation, Federal Energy... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee...

  7. 78 FR 25431 - Revised Information Collection Activities (FERC-545, FERC-549, and FERC-550); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... issued a Notice in the Federal Register, 78 FR 10,614 (February 14, 2013), requesting public comments by... compliance with this requirement was included in Order No. 770, 77 FR 71,288 (Nov. 30, 2012), FERC Stats... oil pipelines. These procedures will replace the use of random-number generated passwords...

  8. 75 FR 49914 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-511 and FERC-515); Comment Request; Extensions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... administrative costs and the cost for information technology. Indirect or overhead costs are costs incurred by an... 23 1 40 920 FERC-515 10 1 80 800 Total annual costs for these collections are estimated as: Cost burden per Total cost burden to FERC data collection respondent respondents \\5\\ FERC-511 $2,651...

  9. 77 FR 50683 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ..., contact Peter Nagler, Office of Energy Market Regulation, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission at (202... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State...

  10. 77 FR 29634 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Louisiana Public Service Commission's Business and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... meeting is open to the public. For more information, contact Patrick Clarey, Office of Energy Market... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Louisiana Public Service...

  11. 76 FR 28024 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ..., contact Patrick Clarey, Office of Energy Market Regulation, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission at (317... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State...

  12. 75 FR 51027 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-917 and FERC-918) 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... issued a Notice in the Federal Register (75 FR 30008, 5/ 28/2010) requesting public comments. FERC...; Recovery of Stranded Costs by Public Utilities and Transmitting Utilities, Order No. 888, 61 FR 21540 (May 10, 1996), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,036 (1996), order on reh'g, Order No. 888-A, 62 FR 12274 (Mar....

  13. 78 FR 64484 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-511 and FERC-515); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ...-511 at 78 FR 49490, 8/14/2013, and for FERC- 515 at 78 FR 49489, 8/14/2013) requesting public comments... FERC-511 to implement the statutory provisions of Sections 4(e) and 8 of the Federal Power Act (FPA).\\2...\\ Section 8 of the FPA provides that the voluntary transfer of any license is made only with the...

  14. 18 CFR 366.4 - FERC-65, notification of holding company status, FERC-65A, exemption notification, and FERC-65B...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false FERC-65, notification of holding company status, FERC-65A, exemption notification, and FERC-65B, waiver notification. 366.4 Section 366.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION,...

  15. FERC sees huge potential for demand response

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-15

    The FERC study concludes that U.S. peak demand can be reduced by as much as 188 GW -- roughly 20 percent -- under the most aggressive scenario. More moderate -- and realistic -- scenarios produce smaller but still significant reductions in peak demand. The FERC report is quick to point out that these are estimates of the potential, not projections of what could actually be achieved. The main varieties of demand response programs include interruptible tariffs, direct load control (DLC), and a number of pricing schemes.

  16. 75 FR 70726 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-511 and FERC-515); Comment Request; Submitted...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ...In compliance with the requirements of section 3507 of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, 44 U.S.C. 3507, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission or FERC) has submitted the information collections described below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review of the information collections requirements. Any interested person may file comments directly with OMB and......

  17. 18 CFR 366.23 - FERC Form No. 60, Annual reports of centralized service companies, and FERC-61, Narrative...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false FERC Form No. 60, Annual reports of centralized service companies, and FERC-61, Narrative description of service company functions. 366.23 Section 366.23 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS...

  18. 18 CFR 366.23 - FERC Form No. 60, Annual reports of centralized service companies, and FERC-61, Narrative...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false FERC Form No. 60, Annual reports of centralized service companies, and FERC-61, Narrative description of service company functions. 366.23 Section 366.23 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS...

  19. 77 FR 69614 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-714); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... the Federal Register (77 FR 53878, 9/4/2012) requesting public comments. FERC received no comments on... Commission (Commission or FERC) is submitting the information collection FERC-714 (Annual Electric Balancing...: Title: FERC-714, Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report. OMB Control...

  20. 75 FR 71097 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-919); Comment Request; Submitted for OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... Public Utilities, Order No. 697, 72 FR 39,904 (Jul. 20, 2007), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,252 (2007), clarified, 121 FERC ] 61,260 (2007), order on reh'g, Order No. 697- A, 73 FR 25832 (May 7, 2008), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,268, Order No. 697-B, 73 FR 79610 (Dec. 30, 2008), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,285...

  1. 75 FR 35776 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC Form No. 80); Comment Request; Submitted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... the Federal Register (75 FR 19630, 4/ 15/2010) requesting public comments. FERC received no comments... Commission's regional office staff uses the FERC Form 80 data when conducting inspections of licensed... are contained in the Commission's regulations, FERC plans to submit FERC Form 80 to the Office...

  2. 75 FR 7466 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-912 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... Docket No. IC09-912-001 requesting public comment (74 FR 63743, 12/4/ 2009), FERC and OMB received one... will be addressed in Docket No. RM09-23. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Ellen Brown may be reached by telephone at (202) 502-8663, by fax at (202) 273-0873, and by e-mail at ellen.brown@ferc.gov . Kimberly...

  3. 18 CFR 366.4 - FERC-65, notification of holding company status, FERC-65A, exemption notification, and FERC-65B...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... who file FERC-65A must include a form of notice suitable for publication in the Federal Register in... file a petition must include a form of notice suitable for publication in the Federal Register in...-65B must include a form of notice suitable for publication in the Federal Register in accordance...

  4. 76 FR 5799 - Notice of Commissioners and Staff Attendance at FERC Leadership Development Program Induction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commissioners and Staff Attendance at FERC Leadership Development...: FERC Leadership Development Program Induction Ceremony: 888 First Street, NE., Washington, DC 20426... Leadership Development Program. Kimberly D. Bose, Secretary. BILLING CODE 6717-01-P...

  5. 77 FR 64495 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-922); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... issued a Notice in the Federal Register (77 FR 12832, 3/2/2012) requesting public comments. FERC received...Library system (at http://www.ferc.gov/docs-filing/elibrary.asp ) by searching under Docket No....

  6. 78 FR 66350 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-574); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... FR 49491, 8/14/2013) requesting public comments. FERC received no comments on the FERC-574 and is... Commission; and (d) that such State Commission is exercising that jurisdiction. 18 CFR Part 152 specifies...

  7. 76 FR 52647 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-583); Comment Request; Submitted for OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... FR 34689, 06/14/2011) requesting public comments. FERC received no comments on the FERC-583 and is... government administrative costs and for the use of government dams. The Commission implements theses...

  8. 78 FR 36176 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-551); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ...). FERC implemented Order Nos. 720 and 720-A to comply with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (``EPAct 2005'') and specifically Section 23 of EPAct 2005, which amended the NGA to direct FERC to ``facilitate...

  9. 77 FR 76016 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-606); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... responsibilities over proposed natural gas projects, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005) modified FERC's role. Section 313 of EPAct 2005 \\1\\ directs FERC: (1) to establish a schedule for agencies to...

  10. 78 FR 7767 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-729); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... FR 67638, 11/13/2012) requesting public comments. FERC received no comments on the FERC-729 and is... collection implements the Commission's mandates under EPAct 2005 Section 1221 which authorizes the...

  11. 78 FR 16487 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-556); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... facilities which make use of reject heat associated with commercial or industrial processes, and by small... FR 77067, 12/31/2012) requesting public comments. FERC received no comments on the FERC-556 and...

  12. 76 FR 54748 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-519); Comment Request; Submitted for OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... FR 35871, 6/ 20/2001) requesting public comments. FERC received no comments on the FERC-519 and has... requirements. Any interested person may file comments directly with OMB and should address a copy of those... filing formats are available at http://www.ferc.gov/help/submission-guide.asp . To file the...

  13. 76 FR 54749 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-523); Comment Request; Submitted for OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... FR 35870, 6/ 20/2011) requesting public comments. FERC received no comments on the FERC-523 and has... requirements. Any interested person may file comments directly with OMB and should address a copy of those... filing formats are available at http://www.ferc.gov/help/submission-guide.asp . To file the...

  14. 76 FR 28760 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-73); Comment Request; Submitted for OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... FR 12090, 2/ 24/2011) requesting public comments. FERC received one comment on the FERC-73 and has... Order No. 12009, 42 FR 46277 (September 13, 1977). The Commission has authority over interstate oil.... IC11- 73-001. Users interested in receiving automatic notification of activity in FERC Docket...

  15. 77 FR 69615 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-715); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... Register (77 FR 53877, 9/4/2012) requesting public comments. FERC received no comments on the FERC-715 and.... Additionally, the Office of Electric Reliability (OER) uses the FERC-715 data to help protect and improve the reliability and security of the nation's bulk power system. OER oversees the development and review...

  16. 77 FR 69450 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance Docket No. PacifiCorp ER13-64-000 Deseret... staff will attend a meeting conducted by representatives of WestConnect, ColumbiaGrid, Northern Tier..., may be found at www.nttg.biz . The meeting is open to all stakeholders and Commission...

  17. 77 FR 66609 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance October 31, 2012. Docket No. Pacifi... notice that on November 7, 2012, members of its staff will attend a meeting conducted by representatives... stakeholders and Commission staff's attendance is part of the Commission's ongoing outreach efforts....

  18. 77 FR 74844 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance PacifiCorp Docket No. ER13-64-000. Deseret... that on December 19, 2012, members of its staff will attend a meeting hosted by NV Energy, Inc... meeting is open to all stakeholders and Commission staff's attendance is part of the Commission's...

  19. 78 FR 16497 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance Docket No. PacifiCorp ER13-64-000 Deseret... its staff will attend a conference call conducted by representatives of California Independent System... stakeholders and Commission staff's attendance is part of the Commission's ongoing outreach efforts....

  20. Implications of the Bangor Hydro decision on FERC relicensings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pizzi, L.

    1997-01-01

    In the next 15 years, over 400 existing nonfederal dams will require new licenses by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) in order to continue operations. In many cases, state or federal agencies have a unique opportunity to condition the hydropower licenses to protect environmental values. In 1996, the Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit issued an opinion striking down a mandatory license condition imposed by the U.S. Department of the Interior in a FERC relicensing. The case, Bangor Hydro-Electric Company v.Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, is instructive for agencies regarding the procedures to be followed in imposing mandatory FERC licensing conditions in the future. After Bangor Hydro, agencies should: (1) support their decisions by substantial evidence in the FERC record, (2) request applicant studies to support agency decisions and allow public comment on the decisions as a means to test the facts and analysis, and (3) consider intervening in a case to defend the condition on appeal. Bangor Hydro also raises, but does not decide, the issue of whether the agency imposing the mandatory condition should engage in balancing the economics of the hydropower project with the public resources affected by the project.

  1. 76 FR 46781 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC Form 1 and FERC Form 1F); Comment Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... to providing this information, such as administrative costs and the cost for information technology... 5 1 116 580 Total 243,438 The total estimated annual cost burden to respondents on the FERC Form 1 is $12,385,758 (242,858 hours x $51/hour \\3\\). The average cost per respondent is $59,262. \\3\\...

  2. 18 CFR 357.4 - FERC Form No. 6-Q, Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false FERC Form No. 6-Q... No. 6-Q, Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies. (a) Prescription. The quarterly financial report form of oil pipeline companies, designated as FERC Form No. 6-Q, is prescribed for the...

  3. 76 FR 35872 - Commission Information Collection Activities (Ferc-603); Comment Request; Submitted for OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... FR 18743, 4/ 5/2011) requesting public comments. FERC received no comments on the FERC-603 and has... 21, 2003, the Commission issued Order No. 630 (66 FR 52917) to address the appropriate treatment of... requirements. Any interested person may file comments directly with OMB and should address a copy of...

  4. 76 FR 51960 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-512); Comment Request; Submitted for OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... FR 30930, 05/27/2011) requesting public comments. FERC received no comments on the FERC-512 and has... requirements. Any interested person may file comments directly with OMB and should address a copy of those... should not make a paper filing. Commenters that are not able to file electronically must send an...

  5. 76 FR 19333 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-725B); Comment Request; Submitted for OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... requirements to safeguard critical cyber assets.\\2\\ These standards help protect the nation's Bulk-Power System against potential disruptions from cyber attacks.\\3\\ The CIP Reliability Standards include one actual... FR 65618, 10/26/2010) requesting public comments. FERC received no comments on the FERC-725B and...

  6. 78 FR 11868 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... Energy Market Regulation, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission at (317) 249- 5937 or patrick.clarey@ferc... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State...

  7. 77 FR 31342 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-914); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... Production and Cogeneration Facilities, Order No. 671, 71 FR 7852 (2/15/2006), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,203...-A, 71 FR 30585 (5/30/2006), in Docket No. RM05-36. FERC implemented the Congressional mandate of the... interstate service, to order the rendering of adequate interstate service by public utilities, the rates...

  8. 78 FR 45919 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC Form 80); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... the Federal Register (78 FR 28820, 5/16/2013) requesting public comments. FERC received no comments on... Energy Regulatory Commission Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC Form 80); Comment Request... the requirements of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, 44 U.S.C. 3507(a)(1)(D), the Federal...

  9. 78 FR 54880 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-551); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... Commission issued a Notice in the Federal Register (78 FR 36176, 6/ 17/2013) requesting public comments. FERC received no comments on the FERC-551 and is making this notation in its submittal to OMB. DATES: Comments..., the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit issued a decision granting the Texas...

  10. 77 FR 46086 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-576); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... Register (77 FR 28369, May 14, 2012) requesting public comments. FERC received no comments on the FERC-576...-8659 for TTY. Docket: Users interested in receiving automatic notification of activity in this docket... Commission of: (1) Damage to jurisdictional natural gas facilities as a result of a hurricane, earthquake,...

  11. 75 FR 61455 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-582); Comment Request; Submitted for OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... the Federal Register (75 FR 44781, 07/29/2010) requesting public comments. FERC received comments from... power marketers subject to these annual charges must submit FERC-582 data to the Commission by April 30... and power marketers then must pay the charges within 45 days of the Commission's issuance of the...

  12. 77 FR 39691 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-725); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... issued a Notice in the Federal Register (77 FR 24189, 04/23/2012) requesting public comments. FERC... ] 31,204 71 FR 8662 (2006) Order on rehearing, 71 FR 19,814 (2006), FERC Statutes and Regulations ] 31... @ $89.78/hr = $15,128,199. Regional Entity Cost: 593,120 hours @ $77.76/hr = $46,121,011....

  13. 18 CFR 357.4 - FERC Form No. 6-Q, Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false FERC Form No. 6-Q... No. 6-Q, Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies. (a) Prescription. The quarterly financial report form of oil pipeline companies, designated as FERC Form No. 6-Q, is prescribed for the...

  14. 77 FR 31607 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-587); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... Notice in the Federal Register (77 FR 11518, 02/27/2012) requesting public comments. FERC received no...\\ Section 24 of the FPA requires that applicants proposing hydropower projects on (or changes to existing... of the hydropower proposal. FERC-587 consolidates the information required and identifies...

  15. 78 FR 44424 - Revisions to Page 700 of FERC Form No. 6

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... rate base, and income taxes reported on Page 700. \\8\\ Revisions to Page 700 of FERC Form No. 6, 77 FR... (Commission) is modifying Page 700 of FERC Form No. 6 (Form 6) to facilitate the calculation of an oil.... NOPR 22 2. Comments 24 3. Commission Determination 26 E. Calculation of Actual Rate of Return on...

  16. 77 FR 28861 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-585); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ..., Reporting of Electric Energy shortages and Contingency Plans under PURPA, to the Office of Management and... fax at (202) 273-0873. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: FERC-585, Reporting of Electric Energy.... Abstract: The information collected under the requirements of FERC- 585, ``Reporting of Electric...

  17. 76 FR 18209 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-725D); Comment Request; Submitted for OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... FR 71678, 11/24/2010) requesting public comments. FERC received no comments on the FERC-725D and has... Mandatory Reliability Standards for the Bulk-Power System, Order No. 693, 72 FR, 16,416 (April 4, 2007), 118... methodologies to determine system operating limits (SOLs) for the bulk- power system in the planning...

  18. 77 FR 16214 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-598); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... as explained below. The Commission issued a Notice in the Federal Register (77 FR 97, 1/3/2012... 2005, 70 FR. 75,592 (2005), FERC Statutes and Regulations ] 31,197 (2005) Order on reh'g, 71 FR 28,446 (2006), FERC Statutes and Regulations ] 31,213 (2006), order on reh'g, 71 FR 42,750 (2006),...

  19. 78 FR 16485 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-607); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... issued a Notice in the Federal Register (77 FR 76015, December 26, 2012) requesting public comments. FERC... (EPAct 2005) modified FERC's role in order to better coordinate the activities of the separate agencies with varying responsibilities over proposed natural gas projects. Section 313 of EPAct 2005 \\1\\...

  20. 78 FR 16486 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-606); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... explained below. The Commission issued a Notice in the Federal Register (77 FR 76016, 12/26/2012) requesting... varying responsibilities over proposed natural gas projects, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005) modified FERC's role. Section 313 of EPAct 2005 \\1\\ directs FERC to establish a schedule for agencies...

  1. 77 FR 71186 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-912); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-29

    ... FR 58365, 09/20/2012) requesting public comments. FERC received no comments on the FERC-912 and is.... Abstract: On 8/8/2005, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005) \\1\\ was signed into law. Section 1253(a) of EPAct 2005 amends Section 210 of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA)...

  2. 78 FR 77111 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-555); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... FR 61983, 10/9/2013) requesting public comments. FERC received no comments on the FERC-555 and is... 20 of the Interstate Commerce Act (ICA).\\3\\ \\1\\ 16 U.S.C. 825, 825c and 825h. \\2\\ 15 U.S.C....

  3. 78 FR 24187 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC Form 6-Q); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... issued a Notice in the Federal Register (78 FR 8500, 2/6/2013) requesting public comments. FERC received... Commerce Act (ICA) \\1\\, the Commission is authorized and empowered to make investigations and to collect... out the provisions of the ICA. FERC must ensure just and reasonable rates for transportation of...

  4. 77 FR 35667 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-567); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ... Commission as explained below. The Commission issued a Notice in the Federal Register (77 FR 11520, 02/27... Regulations 1320.3. \\2\\ 77 FR 11520 (2/27/2012) FERC-567 (IC12-8-000): Gas Pipeline Certificates: Annual... collection FERC-567, Gas Pipeline Certificates: Annual Reports of System Flow Diagrams and System Capacity...

  5. 76 FR 66920 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-549); Comment Request; Submitted for OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-549); Comment Request; Submitted for OMB Review AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  6. 75 FR 35003 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC Form No. 580); Request; Submitted for OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... the Federal Register (74 FR 66114, 12/14/2009) requesting public comments. FERC received comments from...; Submitted for OMB Review June 15, 2010. AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. ACTION:...

  7. 77 FR 77069 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-730); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    .../2006), published: 71 FR 43294. Actual transmission investment for the most recent calendar year, and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-730); Comment...

  8. 78 FR 26766 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC Form 580); Comment Request; Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC Form 580); Comment Request; Revision AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of information...

  9. 77 FR 3751 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-725A); Comment Request; Submitted for OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... issued a Notice in the Federal Register (76 FR 65504, 10/21/2011) requesting public comments. FERC.... Transmission owners. from R3 of FAC-008-1. R6 Generator owners and None, this requirement is derived...

  10. 76 FR 29235 - California Independent System Operator Corporation; Notice of FERC Staff Attendance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ...] California Independent System Operator Corporation; Notice of FERC Staff Attendance The Federal Energy..., Market Update, Board of Governors Meeting, Settlement Process Timeline Change, CA Transmission Planning Group Call May 20, 2011, Congestion Revenue Rights Enhancements, Transmission Planning Standards May...

  11. 75 FR 44781 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-582); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... Report.'' Public utilities and power marketers subject to these annual charges must submit FERC-582 data... charges, and public utilities and power marketers then must pay the charges within 45 days of...

  12. 77 FR 76015 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-607); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... (EPAct 2005) modified FERC's role in order to better coordinate the activities of the separate agencies with varying responsibilities over proposed natural gas projects. Section 313 of EPAct 2005 \\1\\...

  13. 77 FR 97 - Commission Information Collection Activities, Proposed Collection (FERC-598); Comment Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... Holding Company Act of 2005, 70 FR. 75,592 (2005), FERC Statutes and Regulations ] 31,197 (2005) Order on reh'g, 71 FR 28,446 (2006), FERC Statutes and Regulations ] 31,213 (2006), order on reh'g, 71 FR 42... statutory provisions of Title XII, subchapter F of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005).\\1\\ \\1\\...

  14. Contact dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Dermatitis - contact; Allergic dermatitis; Dermatitis - allergic; Irritant contact dermatitis; Skin rash - contact dermatitis ... There are 2 types of contact dermatitis. Irritant dermatitis: This ... can be by contact with acids, alkaline materials such as soaps ...

  15. Research report: Summary of key state issues of FERC orders 888 and 889

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, K.; Burns, R.E.; Graniere, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s (FERC) Order 888 is perhaps the most important and far reaching FERC electricity order in decades. The consequences on the structure of the industry and how the industry is regulated are significant departures from past methods and regulatory philosophy. This will undoubtedly have a dramatic impact on the manner in which state public utility commissions, which are also undergoing or considering dramatic change, regulate their jurisdictional electric utilities. This report summarizes and discusses the actions that the FERC is taking and their profound repercussions on the industry and state commissions. The report is not a comprehensive summary of the entire order. Rather, it is intended to highlight the order`s more important features and discuss what this could mean for the states. The report is organized into eight sections; the first seven address Order 888 and the last section (section 8) addresses Order 889. Section 1 through 5 summarize and discuss the main features of Order 888. Section 6 (on jurisdiction) and Section 7 (on property rights) interpret the likely consequences of the order. Section 8, summarizes the FERC`s Open Access Same Time System (OASIS) and discusses some concerns about its real-world application.

  16. Test for abuse under NGPA Section 601(c)(2): Office of Consumers' Counsel v. FERC

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    A review of fraud and abuse challenge against the Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA) section 601, which allows the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to control the prices pipeline companies pay. The author explores the statutory background of the case, FERC's authority to interpret provisions of the NGPA in the area of take-or-pay problems, and court opinions. He concludes by outlining approaches for applying the fraud and abuse test, and views the guaranteed pass-through exception of fraud, abuse, or similar grounds as a valuable enforcement tool for FERC. As the terms become better defined, pipelines will be able to structure their business activities to avoid situations likely to lead to fraud or abuse charges. Both FERC and the natural gas industry will benefit from further development of the standard.

  17. Conducting a FERC environmental assessment: a case study and recommendations from the Terror Lake Project

    SciTech Connect

    Olive, S.W.; Lamb, B.L.

    1983-09-01

    This paper is an account of the process that evolved during acquisition of the license to operate the Terror Lake hydro-electric power project under the auspices of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). The Terror River is located on Kodiak Island in Alaska. The river is within the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge; it supports excellent runs of several species of Pacific Salmon which are both commercially important and a prime source of nutrition for the Kodiak brown bear. This paper discusses both the fish and wildlife questions, but concentrates on instream uses and how protection of these uses was decided. In this focus the paper explains the FERC process, gives a history of the Terror Lake Project, and, ultimately, makes recommendations for improved management of controversies within the context of FERC licensing procedures. 64 references.

  18. 75 FR 71123 - Notice of Commissioners and Staff Attendance at FERC/NARUC Collaborative on Smart Response Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commissioners and Staff Attendance at FERC/NARUC Collaborative on... meeting: FERC/NARUC Collaborative on Smart Response: Omni Hotel at CNN Center, 100 CNN Center, Atlanta,...

  19. 77 FR 26537 - Notice of Commissioners and Staff Attendance at FERC Leadership Development Program Graduation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commissioners and Staff Attendance at FERC Leadership Development... Leadership Development Program Graduation/Induction Ceremony: 888 First Street NE., Washington, DC 20426. May... 2012 Leadership Development Program and graduate 15 employees from the 2011 program. Dated: April...

  20. 77 FR 98 - Commission Information Collection Activities, Proposed Collection (FERC-716); Comment Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... cost estimate includes respondents' total salary and employment benefits. Comments are invited on: (1... CFR 2.20 identifies 12 components of a good faith estimate and 5 components of a reply to a good faith... total annual cost of filing FERC-716 is: 308 hours/2080 hours \\1\\ x $142,372 = $21,082.\\2\\ \\1\\ Number...

  1. 77 FR 53878 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-714); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... comment on the currently approved information collection, Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and...: FERC-714: Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report. OMB Control No.: 1902-0140... to collect information from electric utility balancing authorities and planning areas in the...

  2. 18 CFR 357.3 - FERC Form No. 73, Oil Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false FERC Form No. 73, Oil... No. 73, Oil Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis. (a) Who must file. Any oil pipeline company.... Service life data is reported to the Commission by an oil pipeline company, as necessary,...

  3. 18 CFR 357.4 - FERC Form No. 6-Q, Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies. 357.4 Section 357.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... No. 6-Q, Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies. (a) Prescription. The quarterly financial report form of oil pipeline companies, designated as FERC Form No. 6-Q, is prescribed for the...

  4. 18 CFR 357.3 - FERC Form No. 73, Oil Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false FERC Form No. 73, Oil... No. 73, Oil Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis. (a) Who must file. Any oil pipeline company.... Service life data is reported to the Commission by an oil pipeline company, as necessary,...

  5. 18 CFR 357.3 - FERC Form No. 73, Oil Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false FERC Form No. 73, Oil... No. 73, Oil Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis. (a) Who must file. Any oil pipeline company.... Service life data is reported to the Commission by an oil pipeline company, as necessary,...

  6. 18 CFR 357.2 - FERC Form No. 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies. (a) Who must file. (1) Each pipeline carrier subject to... submitting pages 301 and 700, each exempt oil pipeline carrier must include page 1 of Form No. 6, the...,” of FERC Form No. 6. When submitting page 700, each exempt oil pipeline carrier must include page 1...

  7. 18 CFR 357.4 - FERC Form No. 6-Q, Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies. 357.4 Section 357.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... No. 6-Q, Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies. (a) Prescription. The quarterly financial report form of oil pipeline companies, designated as FERC Form No. 6-Q, is prescribed for the...

  8. 18 CFR 357.2 - FERC Form No. 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies. (a) Who must file. (1) Each pipeline carrier subject to... submitting pages 301 and 700, each exempt oil pipeline carrier must include page 1 of Form No. 6, the...,” of FERC Form No. 6. When submitting page 700, each exempt oil pipeline carrier must include page 1...

  9. 18 CFR 357.2 - FERC Form No. 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies. (a) Who must file. (1) Each pipeline carrier subject to... submitting pages 301 and 700, each exempt oil pipeline carrier must include page 1 of Form No. 6, the...,” of FERC Form No. 6. When submitting page 700, each exempt oil pipeline carrier must include page 1...

  10. 18 CFR 357.2 - FERC Form No. 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies. (a) Who must file. (1) Each pipeline carrier subject to... submitting pages 301 and 700, each exempt oil pipeline carrier must include page 1 of Form No. 6, the...,” of FERC Form No. 6. When submitting page 700, each exempt oil pipeline carrier must include page 1...

  11. 18 CFR 357.2 - FERC Form No. 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies. (a) Who must file. (1) Each pipeline carrier subject to... submitting pages 301 and 700, each exempt oil pipeline carrier must include page 1 of Form No. 6, the...,” of FERC Form No. 6. When submitting page 700, each exempt oil pipeline carrier must include page 1...

  12. 18 CFR 357.4 - FERC Form No. 6-Q, Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies. 357.4 Section 357.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... No. 6-Q, Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies. (a) Prescription. The quarterly financial report form of oil pipeline companies, designated as FERC Form No. 6-Q, is prescribed for the...

  13. 18 CFR 357.3 - FERC Form No. 73, Oil Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false FERC Form No. 73, Oil... No. 73, Oil Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis. (a) Who must file. Any oil pipeline company.... Service life data is reported to the Commission by an oil pipeline company, as necessary,...

  14. 18 CFR 260.8 - System flow diagrams: Format No. FERC 567.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false System flow diagrams: Format No. FERC 567. 260.8 Section 260.8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... pipeline (to nearest 0.1 mile) between points of intake, delivery, river crossings, storage...

  15. 18 CFR 260.8 - System flow diagrams: Format No. FERC 567.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false System flow diagrams: Format No. FERC 567. 260.8 Section 260.8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... pipeline (to nearest 0.1 mile) between points of intake, delivery, river crossings, storage...

  16. 18 CFR 260.8 - System flow diagrams: Format No. FERC 567.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false System flow diagrams: Format No. FERC 567. 260.8 Section 260.8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... pipeline (to nearest 0.1 mile) between points of intake, delivery, river crossings, storage...

  17. 18 CFR 260.8 - System flow diagrams: Format No. FERC 567.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false System flow diagrams: Format No. FERC 567. 260.8 Section 260.8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... pipeline (to nearest 0.1 mile) between points of intake, delivery, river crossings, storage...

  18. 18 CFR 260.8 - System flow diagrams: Format No. FERC 567.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false System flow diagrams: Format No. FERC 567. 260.8 Section 260.8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.8 System flow diagrams: Format...

  19. 18 CFR 141.300 - FERC Form No. 715, Annual Transmission Planning and Evaluation Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false FERC Form No. 715, Annual Transmission Planning and Evaluation Report. 141.300 Section 141.300 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND PUBLIC UTILITY REGULATORY POLICIES...

  20. 18 CFR 141.300 - FERC Form No. 715, Annual Transmission Planning and Evaluation Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Critical Energy Infrastructure Information (CEII) may be found at 18 CFR 388.113. Requests for access to..., Annual Transmission Planning and Evaluation Report. 141.300 Section 141.300 Conservation of Power and... FERC Form No. 715, Annual Transmission Planning and Evaluation Report. (a) Who must file....

  1. 76 FR 31320 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-725B); Comment Request; Submitted for OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ... cyber attacks.\\4\\ The CIP Standards include one actual reporting requirement and several recordkeeping... (75 FR 65618, 10/26/2010) requesting public comments. In addition, FERC published a notice in the Federal Register (76 FR 19333, 4/7/2011) indicating submission to OMB of the information...

  2. 75 FR 34107 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-547); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... administrative costs and the cost for information technology. Indirect or overhead costs are costs incurred by an... (1) (2) (3) (1) x (2) x (3) FERC-547 30 1 75 2,250 The total estimated annual cost burden to... information; and (7) transmitting or otherwise disclosing the information. The estimate of cost...

  3. 76 FR 30927 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-516A), Proposed Collection; Comment Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... administrative costs and the cost for information technology. Indirect or overhead costs are costs incurred by an... Interconnection Agreements and Procedures, Order No. 2006, 70 FR 34189 (May 12, 2005), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31...-conforming interconnection procedures and agreements that occur on occasion. The estimated total cost...

  4. 76 FR 30930 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-512); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... attributable to providing this information, such as administrative costs and the cost for information... (2) x (3) FERC-512 200 1 37 7,400 Estimated cost burden to respondents is $508,000; [i.e., (7 hours... average annual cost burden per respondent is $2,540. The reporting burden includes the total time,...

  5. 75 FR 41840 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-919); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... include all costs directly attributable to providing this information, such as administrative costs and... Public Utilities, Order No. 697, 72 FR 39,904 (Jul. 20, 2007), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,252 (2007) (Final... presumption of horizontal market power, the Commission sets the just and reasonable rate at the default...

  6. 76 FR 30928 - Commision Information Collection Activities (FERC-588), Proposed Collection; Comment Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ..., such as administrative costs and the cost for information technology. Indirect or overhead costs are... respondent response burden hours (1) (2) (3) (1) x (2) x (3) FERC-583 8 1 10 80 The estimated total cost to... salary per employee = $5,476 (rounded)). The estimated annual cost per respondent is $685 (rounded)....

  7. 75 FR 64301 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-537); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... to providing this information, such as administrative costs and the cost for information technology... presenting the basis for the proposed action; and Cost of the proposed facilities, plans for financing, and...) FERC-537 225 3.44 133 102,942 The total estimated annual cost burden to respondents is $6,823,570...

  8. 75 FR 47804 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-574); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... administrative costs and the cost for information technology. Indirect or overhead costs are costs incurred by an...) response (3) burden hours (1)x(2)x(3) FERC-574 1 1 60 60 The total estimated annual cost burden to... an employee works each year. \\2\\ Estimated average annual cost per employee. The reporting...

  9. 78 FR 49490 - Commission Information Collection Activities (Ferc-511); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... public comment on the currently approved information collection, FERC-511 (Transfer of Electric License... all license instruments, and evidence that such transfer is in the public interest. The Commission... foreign nations and among the several Sates, or upon any part of public lands and reservations of...

  10. 78 FR 43871 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-580); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... the Federal Register (78 FR 26766, 5/8/2013) requesting public comments. FERC received two comments on.... --Add a ``Copy Row'' button to facilitate data entry. We are further reducing the amount of information... and oil. --Add a ``Copy Contract'' button. Question 6a --Add a column labeled ``Is contract...

  11. 77 FR 33212 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... Clarey, Office of Energy Market Regulation, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission at (317) 249- 5937 or... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State...

  12. 76 FR 49460 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC 516A); Comment Request; Submitted for OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... transmission of electric energy in interstate commerce to amend their Open Access Transmission Tariffs (OATTs... Federal Register notice of May 27, 2011. (76 FR 30927) and has made this notation in its submission to OMB... downloaded remotely via the Internet through FERC's homepage using the ``eLibrary'' link. For user...

  13. 77 FR 63811 - Notice of Commissioners and Staff Attendance at FERC Author Speaker Series Event

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commissioners and Staff Attendance at FERC Author Speaker Series... the Commission and/or Commission staff may attend the following event: Author Speaker Series featuring... event will feature Pulitzer Prize winning author, Daniel Yergin, presenting on his most recent book,...

  14. 76 FR 4888 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-537); Comment Request; Submitted for OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ...In compliance with the requirements of section 3507 of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, 44 U.S.C. 3507, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission or FERC) has submitted the information collection described below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review of the information collection requirements. Any interested person may file comments directly with OMB and should......

  15. 78 FR 28820 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC Form 80); Comment Request; Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... same docket, which was subsequently published in the Federal Register on 4/25/2013 (78 FR 24402). SUMMARY: In compliance with the requirements of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, 44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2... Energy Regulatory Commission Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC Form 80); Comment...

  16. 77 FR 20383 - Notice of Revisions to FERC Online, eSubscription Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Revisions to FERC Online, eSubscription Service Take notice that on March 30, 2012, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) will update its eSubscription service that provides email notification when documents are added to eLibrary in a...

  17. 76 FR 58803 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-725A); Comment Request; Submitted for OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ...In compliance with the requirements of section 3507 of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, 44 U.S.C. 3507, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission or FERC) has submitted the information collection described below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review of the information collection requirements. Any interested person may file comments directly with OMB and should......

  18. 18 CFR 260.401 - FERC Form No. 552, Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false FERC Form No. 552, Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions. 260.401 Section 260.401 Conservation of Power and Water... natural gas market participant, i.e., any buyer or seller that engaged in physical natural...

  19. 76 FR 76157 - California Independent System, Operator Corporation; Notice of FERC Staff Attendance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ...; ER11-4580-000; ER12-50-000] California Independent System, Operator Corporation; Notice of FERC Staff... Quarterly Performance Review. December 1, 2011 Transmission Planning and Generator Interconnection. Working... Compliance. December 7, 2011 Market Performance and Planning Forum. Settlements and Market Clearing...

  20. 78 FR 34093 - California Independent System Operator Corporation; Notice of FERC Staff Attendance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission California Independent System Operator Corporation; Notice of FERC Staff Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) hereby gives notice that on the following date members of its staff...

  1. 78 FR 24402 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC Form 80); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... instructions, form, and glossary and did not attach those to this notice. Type of Respondents: Hydropower.... Bose, Secretary. [NOTE: The remainder of the FERC Form 80 (instructions, form, and glossary) is... understanding of terms, please refer to the Glossary. c. Report actual data for each item. If actual data...

  2. 78 FR 53742 - Commission Information Collection Activities (Ferc-582); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... the Federal Register (78 FR 47310, 8/5/2013) requesting public comments. FERC received no comments on... ``Estimate of Annual Burden'' section of this notice. \\1\\ 78 FR 30912, 5/23/2013; and 78 FR 47310, 8/5/2013... transmission of electric energy in interstate commerce. Respondents (public utilities, power marketers)...

  3. 77 FR 53877 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-715); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... Electric Reliability (OER) uses the FERC-715 data to help protect and improve the reliability and security of the nation's bulk power system. OER oversees the development and review of mandatory reliability... operators of the bulk power system. OER also monitors and addresses issues concerning the nation's...

  4. 30 CFR 285.903 - What are the requirements for decommissioning FERC-licensed hydrokinetic facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FERC-licensed hydrokinetic facilities? 285.903 Section 285.903 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES... bond or other financial assurance; (b) You remain liable for removal or disposal costs and...

  5. 18 CFR 260.401 - FERC Form No. 552, Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions. 260.401 Section 260.401 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.401 FERC Form No. 552, Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions....

  6. 18 CFR 260.1 - FERC Form No. 2, Annual report for Major natural gas companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... report for Major natural gas companies. 260.1 Section 260.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.1 FERC Form No. 2, Annual report for Major natural gas companies....

  7. 18 CFR 260.401 - FERC Form No. 552, Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions. 260.401 Section 260.401 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.401 FERC Form No. 552, Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions....

  8. 18 CFR 260.1 - FERC Form No. 2, Annual report for Major natural gas companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... report for Major natural gas companies. 260.1 Section 260.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.1 FERC Form No. 2, Annual report for Major natural gas companies....

  9. 18 CFR 260.401 - FERC Form No. 552, Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions. 260.401 Section 260.401 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.401 FERC Form No. 552, Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions....

  10. 18 CFR 260.1 - FERC Form No. 2, Annual report for Major natural gas companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... report for Major natural gas companies. 260.1 Section 260.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.1 FERC Form No. 2, Annual report for Major natural gas companies....

  11. 18 CFR 260.1 - FERC Form No. 2, Annual report for Major natural gas companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... report for Major natural gas companies. 260.1 Section 260.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.1 FERC Form No. 2, Annual report for Major natural gas companies....

  12. 18 CFR 260.401 - FERC Form No. 552, Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions. 260.401 Section 260.401 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.401 FERC Form No. 552, Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions....

  13. 18 CFR 260.1 - FERC Form No. 2, Annual report for Major natural gas companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... report for Major natural gas companies. 260.1 Section 260.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.1 FERC Form No. 2, Annual report for Major natural gas companies....

  14. 78 FR 62006 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-919); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-11

    ... Public Utilities, Order No. 697, 72 FR 39904 (Jul. 20, 2007), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,252 (2007) (Final... market power screens:The uncommitted pivotal supplier screen (which is based on the annual peak demand of the relevant market) and the uncommitted market share screen applied on a seasonal basis....

  15. 78 FR 47310 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-582); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... the Federal Register (78 FR 30912, 5/23/2013) requesting public comments. FERC received no comments on... information are due by September 4, 2013. ADDRESSES: Comments filed with OMB, identified by the OMB Control No...: Title: Electric Fees, Annual Charges, Waivers, and Exemptions. OMB Control No.: 1902-0132. Type...

  16. 77 FR 59348 - Revisions to Page 700 of FERC Form No. 6

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... National Environmental Policy Act, 52 FR 47897 (Dec. 17, 1987), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 30,783 (1987). \\27... calculation of a pipeline's actual return on equity. The Commission proposes to expand the information... Pipeline Companies (Form 6), to facilitate the calculation of a pipeline's actual rate of return on...

  17. 77 FR 28863 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-915); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... utilities with approved market-based rate authority-- http://www.ferc.gov/industries/electric/gen-info/mbr... \\3\\ = $32,870. \\3\\ 2012 average hourly wage of filing clerk working within an electric utility. Record retention/storage cost (using an estimate of 48,891 cubic feet): $315,792.\\4\\ \\4\\ The...

  18. 18 CFR 369.1 - FERC Form No. 60, Annual report of centralized service company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false FERC Form No. 60, Annual report of centralized service company. 369.1 Section 369.1 Conservation of Power and Water... HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS...

  19. 18 CFR 369.1 - FERC Form No. 60, Annual report of centralized service company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false FERC Form No. 60, Annual report of centralized service company. 369.1 Section 369.1 Conservation of Power and Water... HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS...

  20. 18 CFR 369.1 - FERC Form No. 60, Annual report of centralized service company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false FERC Form No. 60, Annual report of centralized service company. 369.1 Section 369.1 Conservation of Power and Water... HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS...

  1. 18 CFR 369.1 - FERC Form No. 60, Annual report of centralized service company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false FERC Form No. 60, Annual report of centralized service company. 369.1 Section 369.1 Conservation of Power and Water... HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS...

  2. 18 CFR 369.1 - FERC Form No. 60, Annual report of centralized service company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false FERC Form No. 60, Annual report of centralized service company. 369.1 Section 369.1 Conservation of Power and Water... HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS...

  3. Natural Gas Deliverability Task Force report: A joint FERC/DOE project. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of the FERC/DOE Natural Gas Deliverability Task Force Report was threefold: (1) to review current deliverability data for utility, accuracy, and timeliness; (2) to identify mechanisms for closing significant gaps in information resulting from changing market structures; and (3) to ensure that technologies are available to meet the needs of the emerging, competitive natural gas industry.

  4. 75 FR 21623 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC Form Nos. 6 and 6-Q); Comment Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... associated public costs follow. 1 2 \\1\\ These figures may not be exact, due to rounding and/or truncating. \\2... hours/year, the estimated cost for 1 full-time employee is $137,874/year. The estimated hourly cost is $66.29 (or $137,874/2,080). Estimated Estimated total annual FERC data collection Total annual...

  5. 75 FR 5066 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC Form 60,1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ...In compliance with the requirements of section 3507 of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, 44 U.S.C. 3507, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission or FERC) has submitted the information collections described below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review of the information collection requirements. Any interested person may file comments directly with OMB and should......

  6. 77 FR 66609 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance; PacifiCorp, et al.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance; PacifiCorp, et al. Docket No. Deseret Generation & Transmission ER13-65-000 Cooperative, Inc. Northwestern Corporation (Montana)..... ER13-67-000 Portland General Electric...

  7. 75 FR 74696 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-555); Comment Request; Submitted for OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... issued a Notice in the Federal Register (75 FR 57744, 09/22/2010) requesting public comments. FERC... Act (NGA) (15 U.S.C. 717-717w), and section 20 of the Interstate Commerce Act (ICA, 49 U.S.C. 20)....

  8. 78 FR 8500 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC Form 6-Q); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... changes to the current reporting requirements. Abstract: Under the Interstate Commerce Act (ICA),\\1\\ the... FERC may consider to be necessary or useful for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of the ICA... provisions of the ICA to include the authority to prescribe rules and regulations concerning...

  9. 75 FR 5063 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-729); Comment Request; Submitted for OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... comments in response to the Federal Register notice (74 FR 52796, 10/14/2009). FERC has summarized and... and impact of the facilities, early in the planning stages of the proposed facilities as required... stakeholder questions, do not plan for public stakeholder input, do not adequately explain...

  10. 75 FR 70219 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-574); Comment Request; Submitted for OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ...: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Desk Officer. Comments to Created by OMB should be filed electronically, c/o oira_submission@omb.eop.gov and include OMB Control Number 1902-0116 for reference. The Desk... instructions and acceptable filing formats are available at http://www.ferc.gov/help/submission-guide.asp ....

  11. Conducting a FERC environmental assessment: a case study and recommendations from the Terror Lake Project

    SciTech Connect

    Olive, S.W.; Lamb, B.L.

    1984-04-01

    This paper is an account of the process that evolved during acquisition of the license to operate the Terror Lake hydroelectric power project under the auspices of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). The Commission is responsible for granting these licenses under the Federal Power Act (16 U.S.C. 792 et seq.). This act provides, in part, that FERC may condition a license to protect the public interest. The public interest in these cases has come to include both instream and terrestrial values. The Terror River is located on Kodiak Island in Alaska. The river is within the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge; it supports excellent runs of several species of Pacific Salmon which are both commercially important and a prime source of nutrition for the Kodiak brown bear. The river is also a prime resource for generating electric power. One major concern in the negotiations was the impact of land disturbance and management practices on brown bear habitat - i.e., protection of the brown bear. Maintenance of the bears' habitat is the main purpose of the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge. But, like many other projects, resolving the instream flow issue was of major importance in the issuance of the FERC license. This paper discusses the fish and wildlife questions, but concentrates on instream uses and how protection of these uses was decided. With this as a focus, the paper explains the FERC process, gives a history of the Terror Lake Project, and, ultimately, makes recommendations for improved management of controversies within the context of the FERC licensing procedures. 65 references.

  12. Contact Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... care Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Contact dermatitis Overview Contact dermatitis: Many health care workers ... to touching her face while wearing latex gloves. Contact dermatitis: Overview Almost everyone gets this type of ...

  13. Four olive branches: What the FERC bestowed on PUCs in Order 888

    SciTech Connect

    Hanger, J.R.

    1996-10-01

    Where others see conflict, a Pennsylvania commissioner finds a peace offering, not a grab for power. The jurisdictional issues posed by Order 888 continue to breed tension between federal and state officials. Unfortunately, most of this tension too often elevates form over substance. This jurisdictional tension shifts the focus of decisionmaking from securing the benefits of competition to preserving regulatory turf. In Order 888, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) extends four important olive branches to those states that want to introduce customer choice at the retail level. While these olive branches are not a fundamental concession by the FERC, state officials should pursue them before attacking Order 888 for its broad claims over jurisdiction.

  14. 75 FR 56082 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-725E); Comment Request; Submitted for OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... the Federal Register (75 FR 35002, 6/ 21/2010) requesting public comments. FERC received no comments...).\\3\\ \\1\\ 16 U.S.C. 824o(e)(4). \\2\\ 16 U.S.C. 824o(a)(7) and (e)(4). \\3\\ 72 FR 33462, June 18, 2007... following: WECC-BAL-STD-002-0--balancing authorities and reserve sharing groups are to submit to...

  15. A conflict in the circuits: The FERC's jurisdication over gathering rates

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    There is a ripe debate about the extent of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC or Commission) jurisdiction over certain gas gathering rates. This issue will be examined by considering two recent cases and their differing analyses of section 1(b) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), which defines the scope of authority granted by Congress to the Federal Power Commission. Section 1(b) of the NGA states: The provisions of this chapter shall apply to the transportation of natural gas in interstate commerce, to the sale in interstate commerce of natural gas for resale for ultimate public consumption for domestic, commercial, industrial, or any other use, and to natural-gas companies engaged in such transportation or sale, but shall not apply to any other transportation or sale of natural gas or to the local distribution of natural gas or to the facilities used for such distribution 2 or to the production or gathering of natural gas (emphasis added). Gathering is the act of transporting gas as it is collected from the wells, whether or not the movement is interstate. Gathering systems consist of pipeline and pumping units used to bring oil or gas from production leases by separate lines to a central point. Gathering can be performed by a producer, by a pipeline, or by an independent gathering company. The cases of Northwest Pipeline Corp. vs. FERC' and Northern Natural Gas Co. vs. FERC' were found to have the same common thread in the beginning of each suit, a challenge that a gathering charge was excessive. Each Circuit went in different directions in assessing the FERC's jurisdiction.

  16. Telocyte's contacts.

    PubMed

    Faussone-Pellegrini, Maria-Simonetta; Gherghiceanu, Mihaela

    2016-07-01

    Telocytes (TC) are an interstitial cell type located in the connective tissue of many organs of humans and laboratory mammals. By means of homocellular contacts, TC build a scaffold whose meshes integrity and continuity are guaranteed by those contacts having a mechanical function; those contacts acting as sites of intercellular communication allow exchanging information and spreading signals. Heterocellular contacts between TC and a great variety of cell types give origin to mixed networks. TC, by means of all these types of contacts, their interaction with the extracellular matrix and their vicinity to nerve endings, are part of an integrated system playing tissue/organ-specific roles. PMID:26826524

  17. Assessing the "need to negotiate" in FERC licensing consultations: a study of two hydropower projects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coughlan, Beth A. K.; Burkardt, Nina; Fulton, David

    1993-01-01

    We investigated the “need to negotiate” in a comparative case study of multi-agency negotiations in the FERC licensing process. Researchers interviewed participants in two cases involving environmental consultations and asked about parties' level of need to negotiate throughout the process. Participants identified a need to negotiate, and when this need was strongly felt, there was an increased opportunity for an agreement to be reached. An intense need to negotiate by all parties is not a prerequisite to successful agreements. When key participants have a strong need to negotiate, they can instigate negotiations and encourage the involvement of other parties.

  18. Fifth circuit expands not substantially developed exception to FERC jurisdiction under the Natural Gas Act of 1938

    SciTech Connect

    Eppler, D.

    1985-07-01

    The El Paso Natural Gas Co. v. Sun Oil Co. suit found that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) does not have jurisdiction over the sale of leases covering proven reserves of natural gas that lack the imminent ability to produce in commercial quantities. A review of the case and an analysis of the Court's decision concludes that it seems more logical to define the limits of the production and gathering exception in terms of commerce clause and federalism rather than in terms of the number of wells drilled at the time of sale. FERC's jurisdiction under the Natural Gas Act ought to be defined to reach wherever the state's regulatory jurisdiction cannot. Such an interpretation of FERC jurisdiction would further the purpose of the Natural Gas Act, which is to protect consumers from exploitation by natural gas suppliers by regulating the price at which large quantities of gas are transported and sold in interstate commerce.

  19. From gas to electric at FERC: Will it be deja vu all over again. [Federal Energy Regulatory Commission

    SciTech Connect

    Bobbish, D.J. )

    1992-06-01

    Recent legislative proposals to increase FERC's authority to require electric utilities to provide transmission service to third parties ( wheeling') and to encourage the development of independent power producers (IPPs) suggest that FERC may soon have the necessary legislative mandate to 436' the electric utility industry - to pursue at a faster pace the same sort of restructuring it has been following since at least 1988. In view of the possibility that the electric industry may be reformed in a way that parallels the natural gas industry in some fashion, this paper examines how the Commission has gone about restructuring the natural gas industry over the past seven years, and what lessons the Commission should have learned from that experience and whether recent developments at FERC on the electric side indicate that it has learned those lessons.

  20. 30 CFR 285.638 - What must I do upon completion of my commercial operations as approved in my COP or FERC license?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... operations as approved in my COP or FERC license? 285.638 Section 285.638 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN... Activities Under An Approved Cop § 285.638 What must I do upon completion of my commercial operations as approved in my COP or FERC license? (a) Upon completion of your approved activities under your COP,...

  1. 76 FR 49764 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy ICT Transmission Planning Summit and Entegry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy ICT Transmission Planning... Commission's ongoing outreach efforts. Entergy ICT Transmission Planning Summit August 23, 2011 (8 a.m.-5...

  2. 18 CFR 141.51 - FERC Form No. 714, Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report. 141.51 Section 141.51 Conservation of...) § 141.51 FERC Form No. 714, Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report. (a) Who... Policies Act, 16 U.S.C. 2602, operating a balancing authority area, and any group of electric...

  3. 77 FR 58829 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at Entergy/Cleco Teleconference on Order No. 1000

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ..., Office of Energy Market Regulation, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission at (202) 502-6083 or peter... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at Entergy/Cleco Teleconference on Order...

  4. 18 CFR 141.2 - FERC Form No. 1-F, Annual report for Nonmajor public utilities and licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Annual report for Nonmajor public utilities and licensees. 141.2 Section 141.2 Conservation of Power and... ACT AND PUBLIC UTILITY REGULATORY POLICIES ACT OF 1978 STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 141.2 FERC Form No. 1-F, Annual report for Nonmajor public utilities and licensees. (a) Prescription. The form...

  5. 75 FR 41858 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Southwest Power Pool ICT Stakeholder Policy Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Southwest Power Pool ICT Stakeholder Policy Committee Meeting July 12, 2010. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby gives notice that members of its staff may attend...

  6. 76 FR 13613 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the ICT Stakeholders Policy Committee and Entergy Regional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the ICT Stakeholders Policy Committee and Entergy Regional State Committee Meetings The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) hereby gives notice that members of its...

  7. 75 FR 63168 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Southwest Power Pool ICT Stakeholder Policy Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Southwest Power Pool ICT Stakeholder Policy Committee Meeting and the Entergy Regional State Committee Meeting October 6, 2010. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...

  8. 75 FR 23262 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Southwest Power Pool ICT Stakeholder Policy Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Southwest Power Pool ICT Stakeholder Policy Committee Meeting and the Entergy Regional State Committee Meeting April 26, 2010. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby...

  9. 76 FR 67727 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Work Group and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Work Group and Stakeholder Meeting The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby gives notice that...

  10. 76 FR 62804 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Work Group and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Work... outreach efforts. Entergy Regional State Committee Work Group and Stakeholder Meeting October 19, 2011 (9...

  11. 75 FR 42747 - Smart Grid Update; Notice of Commissioner and Staff Attendance at FERC/NARUC Collaborative on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Smart Grid Update; Notice of Commissioner and Staff Attendance at FERC/NARUC Collaborative on Smart Response Meeting July 15, 2010. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby gives.../NARUC Collaborative on Smart Response: Sacramento Convention Center, 1400 J Street, Sacramento, CA...

  12. 18 CFR 141.51 - FERC Form No. 714, Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report. 141.51 Section 141.51 Conservation of...) § 141.51 FERC Form No. 714, Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report. (a) Who... Policies Act, 16 U.S.C. 2602, operating a balancing authority area, and any group of electric...

  13. 18 CFR 141.51 - FERC Form No. 714, Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report. 141.51 Section 141.51 Conservation of...) § 141.51 FERC Form No. 714, Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report. (a) Who... Policies Act, 16 U.S.C. 2602, operating a balancing authority area, and any group of electric...

  14. 18 CFR 141.51 - FERC Form No. 714, Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report. 141.51 Section 141.51 Conservation of...) § 141.51 FERC Form No. 714, Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report. (a) Who... Policies Act, 16 U.S.C. 2602, operating a balancing authority area, and any group of electric...

  15. 18 CFR 260.2 - FERC Form No. 2-A, Annual report for Nonmajor natural gas companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Annual report for Nonmajor natural gas companies. 260.2 Section 260.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.2 FERC Form No. 2-A, Annual report for Nonmajor natural...

  16. 18 CFR 260.2 - FERC Form No. 2-A, Annual report for Nonmajor natural gas companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Annual report for Nonmajor natural gas companies. 260.2 Section 260.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.2 FERC Form No. 2-A, Annual report for Nonmajor natural...

  17. 18 CFR 260.300 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 260.300 Section 260... ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.300 FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. (a)...

  18. 18 CFR 141.400 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 141.400 Section 141..., licensees, and natural gas companies. (a) Prescription. The quarterly report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies, designated as FERC Form No. 3-Q, is prescribed for the...

  19. 18 CFR 260.300 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 260.300 Section 260... ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.300 FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. (a)...

  20. 18 CFR 141.400 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 141.400 Section 141..., licensees, and natural gas companies. (a) Prescription. The quarterly report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies, designated as FERC Form No. 3-Q, is prescribed for the...

  1. 18 CFR 260.300 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 260.300 Section 260... ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.300 FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. (a)...

  2. 18 CFR 141.400 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 141.400 Section 141..., licensees, and natural gas companies. (a) Prescription. The quarterly report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies, designated as FERC Form No. 3-Q, is prescribed for the...

  3. 18 CFR 260.2 - FERC Form No. 2-A, Annual report for Nonmajor natural gas companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Annual report for Nonmajor natural gas companies. 260.2 Section 260.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.2 FERC Form No. 2-A, Annual report for Nonmajor natural...

  4. 18 CFR 141.400 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 141.400 Section 141..., licensees, and natural gas companies. (a) Prescription. The quarterly report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies, designated as FERC Form No. 3-Q, is prescribed for the...

  5. 18 CFR 260.300 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 260.300 Section 260... ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.300 FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. (a)...

  6. 18 CFR 260.2 - FERC Form No. 2-A, Annual report for Nonmajor natural gas companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Annual report for Nonmajor natural gas companies. 260.2 Section 260.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.2 FERC Form No. 2-A, Annual report for Nonmajor natural...

  7. 18 CFR 260.300 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 260.300 Section 260... ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.300 FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. (a)...

  8. 18 CFR 260.2 - FERC Form No. 2-A, Annual report for Nonmajor natural gas companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., Annual report for Nonmajor natural gas companies. 260.2 Section 260.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.2 FERC Form No. 2-A, Annual report for Nonmajor natural...

  9. 18 CFR 141.400 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 141.400 Section 141..., licensees, and natural gas companies. (a) Prescription. The quarterly report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies, designated as FERC Form No. 3-Q, is prescribed for the...

  10. 18 CFR 141.1 - FERC Form No. 1, Annual report of Major electric utilities, licensees and others.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false FERC Form No. 1, Annual report of Major electric utilities, licensees and others. 141.1 Section 141.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, FEDERAL...

  11. 18 CFR 141.1 - FERC Form No. 1, Annual report of Major electric utilities, licensees and others.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false FERC Form No. 1, Annual report of Major electric utilities, licensees and others. 141.1 Section 141.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, FEDERAL...

  12. 18 CFR 141.1 - FERC Form No. 1, Annual report of Major electric utilities, licensees and others.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false FERC Form No. 1, Annual report of Major electric utilities, licensees and others. 141.1 Section 141.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, FEDERAL...

  13. 18 CFR 141.1 - FERC Form No. 1, Annual report of Major electric utilities, licensees and others.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false FERC Form No. 1, Annual report of Major electric utilities, licensees and others. 141.1 Section 141.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, FEDERAL...

  14. 75 FR 5061 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC Form Nos. 6 and 6-Q); Comment Request; Extensions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... distinct. Under the Interstate Commerce Act (ICA), (49 U.S.C. 1, 20, 54 Stat. 916), the Commission is... consider to be necessary or useful for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of the ICA. FERC must... carry out its responsibilities in implementing the statutory provisions of the ICA, including...

  15. Key U. S. gas policy issues await action by FERC during 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Crow, P.

    1991-04-08

    The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission expects to decide several key U.S. natural gas policy issues this year, absent much of the controversy over its actions in recent years designed to inject competition into gas markets. Chairman Martin Alday the his goal is to allow competitive forces to work through the marketplace to maintain the appropriate balance between supply and demand in the pipeline and producer program. He the that this will be accomplished through continued implementation of policies related to construction certificate requirements, rate design, and restructuring pipeline service obligations, and phased deregulation of wellhead prices. FERC is grapping with the issues of pipeline rate design, comparability of service, and pipeline permitting changes while continuing to administer rules governing marketing affiliates and gas inventory charges.

  16. Prioritized Contact Transport Stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Walter Lee, Jr. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A detection process, contact recognition process, classification process, and identification process are applied to raw sensor data to produce an identified contact record set containing one or more identified contact records. A prioritization process is applied to the identified contact record set to assign a contact priority to each contact record in the identified contact record set. Data are removed from the contact records in the identified contact record set based on the contact priorities assigned to those contact records. A first contact stream is produced from the resulting contact records. The first contact stream is streamed in a contact transport stream. The contact transport stream may include and stream additional contact streams. The contact transport stream may be varied dynamically over time based on parameters such as available bandwidth, contact priority, presence/absence of contacts, system state, and configuration parameters.

  17. Types of Contact Lenses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Devices Consumer Products Contact Lenses Types of Contact Lenses Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Orthokeratology (Ortho-K) Decorative (Plano) Contact Lenses Soft Contact Lenses Soft contact lenses are made of soft, ...

  18. EDITORIAL: Close contact Close contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-07-01

    The development of scanning probe techniques, such as scanning tunnelling microscopy [1], has often been touted as the catalyst for the surge in activity and progress in nanoscale science and technology. Images of nanoscale structural detail have served as an invaluable investigative resource and continue to fascinate with the fantastical reality of an intricate nether world existing all around us, but hidden from view of the naked eye by a disparity in scale. As is so often the case, the invention of the scanning tunnelling microscope heralded far more than just a useful new apparatus, it demonstrated the scope for exploiting the subtleties of electronic contact. The shrinking of electronic devices has been a driving force for research into molecular electronics, in which an understanding of the nature of electronic contact at junctions is crucial. In response, the number of experimental techniques in molecular electronics has increased rapidly in recent years. Scanning tunnelling microscopes have been used to study electron transfer through molecular films on a conducting substrate, and the need to monitor the contact force of scanning tunnelling electrodes led to the use of atomic force microscopy probes coated in a conducting layer as studied by Cui and colleagues in Arizona [2]. In this issue a collaboration of researchers at Delft University and Leiden University in the Netherlands report a new device architecture for the independent mechanical and electrostatic tuning of nanoscale charge transport, which will enable thorough studies of molecular transport in the future [3]. Scanning probes can also be used to pattern surfaces, such as through spatially-localized Suzuki and Heck reactions in chemical scanning probe lithography. Mechanistic aspects of spatially confined Suzuki and Heck chemistry are also reported in this issue by researchers in Oxford [4]. All these developments in molecular electronics fabrication and characterization provide alternative

  19. 77 FR 12283 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    .... Entergy Regional State Committee Meeting February 29, 2012 (1 pm-5 pm), March 1, 2012 (8 am-12 pm). This... meetings are open to the public. For more information, contact Patrick Clarey, Office of Energy...

  20. A Review of Recent RTO Benefit-Cost Studies: Toward MoreComprehensive Assessments of FERC Electricity RestructuringPolicies

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joseph H.; Lesieutre, Bernard C.

    2005-12-01

    During the past three years, government and private organizations have issued more than a dozen studies of the benefits and costs of Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs). Most of these studies have focused on benefits that can be readily estimated using traditional production-cost simulation techniques, which compare the cost of centralized dispatch under an RTO to dispatch in the absence of an RTO, and on costs associated with RTO start-up and operation. Taken as a whole, it is difficult to draw definitive conclusions from these studies because they have not examined potentially much larger benefits (and costs) resulting from the impacts of RTOs on reliability management, generation and transmission investment and operation, and wholesale electricity market operation. This report: (1) Describes the history of benefit-cost analysis of FERC electricity restructuring policies; (2)Reviews current practice by analyzing 11 RTO benefit-cost studies that were published between 2002 and 2004 and makes recommendations to improve the documentation of data and methods and the presentation of findings in future studies that focus primarily on estimating short-run economic impacts; and (3) Reviews important impacts of FERC policies that have been overlooked or incompletely treated by recent RTO benefit-cost studies and the challenges to crafting more comprehensive assessments of these impacts based on actual performance, including impacts on reliability management, generation and transmission investment and operation, and wholesale electricity market operation.

  1. Irritant Contact Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Irritant Contact Dermatitis Information for adults A A A This ... severe involvement in the patient's armpit. Overview Irritant contact dermatitis is an inflammatory rash caused by direct ...

  2. Contact Lens Risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health and Consumer Devices Consumer Products Contact Lenses Contact Lens Risks Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... redness blurred vision swelling pain Serious Hazards of Contact Lenses Symptoms of eye irritation can indicate a ...

  3. Contact Lens Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Contact Lens Care Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... 1088, www.fda.gov/medwatch Learn More about Contact Lens Care Other Tips on Contact Lenses Decorative ...

  4. Contact Lens Solution Toxicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Contact Lens Solution Toxicity Information for adults A A A This image shows a reaction to contact lens solution. The prominent blood vessels and redness ...

  5. 30 CFR 285.638 - What must I do upon completion of my commercial operations as approved in my COP or FERC license?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... operations as approved in my COP or FERC license? 285.638 Section 285.638 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING... decommissioning process as set forth in subpart I of this part. You must submit your decommissioning...

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Sep. 26, 2013 It ... she first put in a pair of colored contact lenses, Laura Butler of Parkersburg, W.Va., had " ...

  7. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes of allergic contact dermatitis include nickel, chromates, rubber chemicals, and topical antibiotic ointments and creams. Frequent ... construction workers who are in contact with cement. Rubber chemicals are found in gloves, balloons, elastic in ...

  8. Glasses and Contact Lenses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Glasses and Contact Lenses KidsHealth > For Kids > Glasses and Contact Lenses Print A A A Text Size What's ... together the way they should. But eyeglasses or contact lenses, also called corrective lenses, can help most ...

  9. Contact lens in keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Rathi, Varsha M; Mandathara, Preeji S; Dumpati, Srikanth

    2013-01-01

    Contact lenses are required for the visual improvement in patients with keratoconus. Various contact lens options, such as rigid gas permeable (RGP) lenses, soft and soft toric lenses, piggy back contact lenses (PBCL), hybrid lenses and scleral lenses are availble. This article discusses about selection of a lens depending on the type of keratoconus and the fitting philosophies of various contact lenses including the starting trial lens. A Medline search was carried out for articles in the English language with the keywords keratoconus and various contact lenses such as Rose k lens, RGP lens, hybrid lens, scleral lens and PBCL. PMID:23925325

  10. Modeling Thermal Contact Resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittel, Peter; Sperans, Joel (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    One difficulty in using cryocoolers is making good thermal contact between the cooler and the instrument being cooled. The connection is often made through a bolted joint. The temperature drop associated with this joint has been the subject of many experimental and theoretical studies. The low temperature behavior of dry joints have shown some anomalous dependence on the surface condition of the mating parts. There is also some doubts on how well one can extrapolate from the test samples to predicting the performance of a real system. Both finite element and analytic models of a simple contact system have been developed. The model assumes (a) the contact is dry (contact limited to a small portion of the total available area and the spaces in-between the actual contact patches are perfect insulators), (b) contacts are clean (conductivity of the actual contact is the same as the bulk), (c) small temperature gradients (the bulk conductance may be assumed to be temperature independent), (d) the absolute temperature is low (thermal radiation effects are ignored), and (e) the dimensions of the nominal contact area are small compared to the thickness of the bulk material (the contact effects are localized near the contact). The models show that in the limit of actual contact area much less than the nominal area (a much less than A), that the excess temperature drop due to a single point of contact scales as a(exp -1/2). This disturbance only extends a distance approx. A(exp 1/2) into the bulk material. A group of identical contacts will result in an excess temperature drop that scales as n(exp -1/2), where n is the number of contacts and n dot a is constant. This implies that flat rough surfaces will have a lower excess temperature drop than flat polished surfaces.

  11. Proposed modifications to the Lower Mokelumne River Project, California: FERC Project No. 2916-004. Final environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This final environmental impact statement (FEIS) has been prepared for the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) to consider modifications to the existing Lower Mokelumne River Project (LMRP) (FERC Project No. 2916-004) in California. Chinook salmon and steelhead trout populations in the lower Mokelumne River have experienced recent declines and fish kills associated, in part, with discharges from Camanche Dam. The California Department of Fish and Game and the California Sportfishing Protection Alliance have asked the Commission to investigate and correct these problems. A wide range of different mitigation actions has been proposed by parties participating in the scoping of this proceeding, and staff has evaluated these proposed actions in this assessment. The staff is recommending a combination of flow and non-flow modifications to the existing license, including new minimum flow and minimum pool elevation requirements at Camanche Reservoir, ramping rates on dam releases, interim attraction and out-migrant spike flows, instream habitat improvements, and a series of studies and monitoring to determine feasible means for solving off-site fish passage problems.

  12. Colors and contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Foti, Caterina; Romita, Paolo; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of skin diseases relies on several clinical signs, among which color is of paramount importance. In this review, we consider certain clinical presentations of both eczematous and noneczematous contact dermatitis in which color plays a peculiar role orientating toward the right diagnosis. The conditions that will be discussed include specific clinical-morphologic subtypes of eczematous contact dermatitis, primary melanocytic, and nonmelanocytic contact hyperchromia, black dermographism, contact chemical leukoderma, and others. Based on the physical, chemical, and biologic factors underlying a healthy skin color, the various skin shades drawing a disease picture are thoroughly debated, stressing their etiopathogenic origins and histopathologic aspects. PMID:25000236

  13. Constructions of contact manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiges, Hansjörg

    1997-05-01

    1. IntroductionIt has been known for some time that contact structures show a high degree of topological flexibility in the sense that many topological operations can be performed on contact manifolds while preserving the contact property. For instance, Martinet [14] used a surgery description of 3-manifolds to show that every closed, oriented 3-manifold admits a contact structure, and alternative proofs of this result were given later by Thurston and Winkelnkemper [18], who based their proof on an open book decomposition, and Gonzalo [8], who used branched covers. These, however, are all strictly 3-dimensional constructions.

  14. Optical contact micrometer

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Steven D.

    2014-08-19

    Certain examples provide optical contact micrometers and methods of use. An example optical contact micrometer includes a pair of opposable lenses to receive an object and immobilize the object in a position. The example optical contact micrometer includes a pair of opposable mirrors positioned with respect to the pair of lenses to facilitate viewing of the object through the lenses. The example optical contact micrometer includes a microscope to facilitate viewing of the object through the lenses via the mirrors; and an interferometer to obtain one or more measurements of the object.

  15. Language Contact: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomason, Sarah G.

    This book surveys situations in which language contact arises and focuses on what happens to the languages themselves: sometimes nothing, sometimes the incorporation of new words, sometimes the spread of new sounds and sentence structures across many languages and wide swathes of territory. It outlines the origins and results of contact-induced…

  16. Miniature intermittent contact switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sword, A.

    1972-01-01

    Design of electric switch for providing intermittent contact is presented. Switch consists of flexible conductor surrounding, but separated from, fixed conductor. Flexing of outside conductor to contact fixed conductor completes circuit. Advantage is small size of switch compared to standard switches.

  17. Noneczematous Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Foti, Caterina; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Irritant or allergic contact dermatitis usually presents as an eczematous process, clinically characterized by erythematoedematovesicous lesions with intense itching in the acute phase. Such manifestations become erythematous-scaly as the condition progresses to the subacute phase and papular-hyperkeratotic in the chronic phase. Not infrequently, however, contact dermatitis presents with noneczematous features. The reasons underlying this clinical polymorphism lie in the different noxae and contact modalities, as well as in the individual susceptibility and the various targeted cutaneous structures. The most represented forms of non-eczematous contact dermatitis include the erythema multiforme-like, the purpuric, the lichenoid, and the pigmented kinds. These clinical entities must obviously be discerned from the corresponding “pure” dermatitis, which are not associated with contact with exogenous agents. PMID:24109520

  18. Electrical Contacts to Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Bandaru, P R; Faraby, H; DiBattista, M

    2015-12-01

    The efficient passage of electrical current from an external contact to a nanomaterial is necessary for harnessing characteristics unique to the nanoscale, such as those relevant to energy quantization. However, an intrinsic resistance pertinent to dimensionality crossover and the presence of impurities precludes optimal electrical contact formation. In this review, we first discuss the relevant principles and contact resistance measurement methodologies, with modifications necessary for the nanoscale. Aspects related to the deposition of the contact material are deemed to be crucial. Consequently, the use of focused ion beam (FIB) based deposition, which relies on the ion-induced decomposition of a metallorganic precursor, and which has been frequently utilized for nanoscale contacts is considered in detail. PMID:26682353

  19. Telescopic vision contact lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Eric J.; Beer, R. Dirk; Arianpour, Ashkan; Ford, Joseph E.

    2011-03-01

    We present the concept, optical design, and first proof of principle experimental results for a telescopic contact lens intended to become a visual aid for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), providing magnification to the user without surgery or external head-mounted optics. Our contact lens optical system can provide a combination of telescopic and non-magnified vision through two independent optical paths through the contact lens. The magnified optical path incorporates a telescopic arrangement of positive and negative annular concentric reflectors to achieve 2.8x - 3x magnification on the eye, while light passing through a central clear aperture provides unmagnified vision.

  20. Optical contacting of quartz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, L. L.

    1982-01-01

    The strength of the bond between optically contacted quartz surfaces was investigated. The Gravity Probe-B (GP-B) experiment to test the theories of general relativity requires extremely precise measurements. The quartz components of the instruments to make these measurements must be held together in a very stable unit. Optical contacting is suggested as a possible method of joining these components. The fundamental forces involved in optical contacting are reviewed and relates calculations of these forces to the results obtained in experiments.

  1. Occupational Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis accounts for 90% of all cases of work-related cutaneous disorders. It can be divided into irritant contact dermatitis, which occurs in 80% of cases, and allergic contact dermatitis. In most cases, both types will present as eczematous lesions on exposed parts of the body, notably the hands. Accurate diagnosis relies on meticulous history taking, thorough physical examination, careful reading of Material Safety Data Sheets to distinguish between irritants and allergens, and comprehensive patch testing to confirm or rule out allergic sensitization. This article reviews the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of occupational contact dermatitis and provides diagnostic guidelines and a rational approach to management of these often frustrating cases. PMID:20525126

  2. Contacting American Overseas Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, David

    1993-01-01

    Provides contacts for architects or educational consultants who wish to work overseas. Cites a directory, newsletters, newspapers, and associations focused on educators involved with independent overseas schools that are organized around the United States curriculum. (MLF)

  3. ELECTRIC CONTACT MEANS

    DOEpatents

    Grear, J.W. Jr.

    1959-03-10

    A switch adapted to maintain electrical connections under conditions of vibration or acceleration is described. According to the invention, thc switch includes a rotatable arm carrying a conductive bar arranged to close against two contacts spaced in the same plane. The firm and continuous engagement of the conductive bar with the contacts is acheived by utilizeing a spring located betwenn the vbar and athe a rem frzme and slidable mounting the bar in channel between two arms suspendef from the arm frame.

  4. The impact of contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finney, B.

    1986-10-01

    Scenarios of the impact on human society of radio contact with an extraterrestrial civilization are presented. Some believe that contact with advanced extraterrestrials would quickly devastate the human spirit, while others believe that these super-intelligent beings would show the inhabitants of the earth how to live in peace. It is proposed that the possible existence of extraterrestrial civilizations and the development of means of studying and communicating with them need to be considered.

  5. Contact dermatitis complicating pinnaplasty.

    PubMed

    Singh-Ranger, G; Britto, J A; Sommerlad, B C

    2001-04-01

    Proflavine allergy is uncommon, occurring in approximately 6% of patients attending contact dermatitis clinics. Proflavine wool is used by many surgeons in the UK as a dressing that can be moulded to conform to the contours of a corrected prominent ear. It may have bacteriostatic properties. We present a case where contact dermatitis in response to proflavine developed after pinnaplasty. This caused diagnostic confusion, a lengthened hospital stay and an unsightly hypertrophic scar. PMID:11254419

  6. Lettuce contact allergy.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-02-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present new data on lettuce contact allergy and review the literature. Lettuce is weakly allergenic, and occupational cases are mainly reported. Using aimed patch testing in Compositae-allergic patients, two recent Danish studies showed prevalence rates of positive lettuce reactions of 11% and 22%. The majority of cases are non-occupational, and may partly be caused by cross-reactivity. The sesquiterpene lactone mix seems to be a poor screening agent for lettuce contact allergy, as the prevalence of positive reactions is significantly higher in non-occupationally sensitized patients. Because of the easy degradability of lettuce allergens, it is recommended to patch test with freshly cut lettuce stem and supplement this with Compositae mix. As contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis may present as dermatitis, it is important to perform prick-to-prick tests, and possibly scratch patch tests as well. Any person who is occupationally exposed to lettuce for longer periods, especially atopics, amateur gardeners, and persons keeping lettuce-eating pets, is potentially at risk of developing lettuce contact allergy. PMID:26289653

  7. Contact Lenses for Vision Correction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact Lenses Colored Contact Lenses Contact Lenses for Vision Correction Written by: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed by: Brenda ... on the surface of the eye. They correct vision like eyeglasses do and are safe when used ...

  8. Contact binary stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochnacki, S. W.

    1981-04-01

    Densities, corrected primary colors, minimum periods, inferred masses, luminosities, and specific angular momenta are computed from data on 37 W Ursae Majoris systems. A-type systems, having lower densities and angular momenta than the W-type systems, are shown to be evolved, and a new class of contact binary is identified, the OO Aquilae systems, whose members have evolved into contact. Evolutionary grids based on the contact condition agree with observation, except in that the evolved A-type systems have lost more angular momentum than predicted by gravitational radiation alone. This is accounted for by stellar wind magnetic braking, which is shown to be effective on a shorter time scale and to be important in other kinds of binaries containing a cool, tidally coupled component.

  9. Shoe allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Matthys, Erin; Zahir, Amir; Ehrlich, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Foot dermatitis is a widespread condition, affecting men and women of all ages. Because of the location, this condition may present as a debilitating problem to those who have it. Allergic contact dermatitis involving the feet is frequently due to shoes or socks. The allergens that cause shoe dermatitis can be found in any constituent of footwear, including rubber, adhesives, leather, dyes, metals, and medicaments. The goal of treatment is to identify and minimize contact with the offending allergen(s). The lack of product information released from shoe manufacturers and the continually changing trends in footwear present a challenge in treating this condition. The aim of this study is to review the current literature on allergic contact shoe dermatitis; clinical presentation, allergens, patch testing, and management will be discussed. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were used for the search, with a focus on literature updates from the last 15 years. PMID:25000234

  10. Contact sensitization in children.

    PubMed

    Manzini, B M; Ferdani, G; Simonetti, V; Donini, M; Seidenari, S

    1998-01-01

    Our study concerns contact sensitization in children, the frequency of which is still debated in the literature, even though specific reports are increasing. During a 7 year period (1988-1994) 670 patients, 6 months to 12 years of age, were patch tested with the European standard series, integrated with 24 haptens, at the same concentrations as for adults. We observed positive results in 42% of our patients. Thimerosal, nickel sulfate, Kathon CG, fragrance mix, neomycin, wool alcohols, and ammoniated mercury induced most of the positive responses. The highest sensitization rate was found in children from 0 to 3 years of age. Comments on main positive haptens are reported. Seventy-seven percent of our sensitized patients were atopics, suggesting that atopy represents a predisposing factor for contact hypersensitivity. Patch testing represents a useful diagnostic procedure for the definition of childhood eczematous dermatitis and for the identification of agents inducing contact sensitization which is frequently associated with atopic dermatitis. PMID:9496796

  11. Cross-contact chain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieneweg, Udo (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A system is provided for use with wafers that include multiple integrated circuits that include two conductive layers in contact at multiple interfaces. Contact chains are formed beside the integrated circuits, each contact chain formed of the same two layers as the circuits, in the form of conductive segments alternating between the upper and lower layers and with the ends of the segments connected in series through interfaces. A current source passes a current through the series-connected segments, by way of a pair of current tabs connected to opposite ends of the series of segments. While the current flows, voltage measurements are taken between each of a plurality of pairs of voltage tabs, the two tabs of each pair connected to opposite ends of an interface that lies along the series-connected segments. A plot of interface conductances on a normal probability chart, enables prediction of the yield of good integrated circuits from the wafer.

  12. Cross-contact chain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieneweg, U. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A system is provided for use with wafers that include multiple integrated circuits that include two conductive layers in contact at multiple interfaces. Contact chains are formed beside the integrated circuits, each contact chain formed of the same two layers as the circuits, in the form of conductive segments alternating between the upper and lower layers and with the ends of the segments connected in series through interfaces. A current source passes a current through the series-connected segments, by way of a pair of current tabs connected to opposite ends of the series of segments. While the current flows, voltage measurements are taken between each of a plurality of pairs of voltage tabs, the two tabs of each pair connected to opposite ends of an interface that lies along the series-connected segments. A plot of interface conductances on normal probability chart enables prediction of the yield of good integrated circuits from the wafer.

  13. Thermal contact conductance for cylindrical and spherical contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunil Kumar, S.; Abilash, P. M.; Ramamurthi, K.

    A prediction methodology based on Monte-Carlo simulation model, developed for flat conforming surfaces in contact, is modified and extended to predict contact conductance between curvilinear surfaces like cylinders and spheres. Experiments are also conducted in vacuum for the measurement of contact conductance between stainless steel and aluminium cylindrical contacts and stainless steel spherical contacts over a range of contact pressures. The contact conductance between cylindrical and spherical bodies is, in general, about an order of magnitude lower than for flat surfaces in contact. Increase of surface roughness and decrease in contact pressure lowers the contact conductance. However, the influence of these parameters is larger than those obtained for flat surfaces. The prediction for different parametric conditions agree closely with those measured in the experiments.

  14. Contact: Releasing the news

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinotti, Roberto

    The problem of mass behavior after man's future contacts with other intelligences in the universe is not only a challenge for social scientists and political leaders all over the world, but also a cultural time bomb as well. In fact, since the impact of CETI (Contact with Extraterrestrial Intelligence) on human civilization, with its different cultures, might cause a serious socio-anthropological shock, a common and predetermined worldwide strategy is necessary in releasing the news after the contact, in order to keep possible manifestations of fear, panic and hysteria under control. An analysis of past studies in this field and of parallel historical situations as analogs suggests a definite "authority crisis" in the public as a direct consequence of an unexpected release of the news, involving a devastating "chain reaction" process (from both the psychological and sociological viewpoints) of anomie and maybe the collapse of today's society. The only way to prevent all this is to prepare the world's public opinion concerning contact before releasing the news, and to develop a long-term strategy through the combined efforts of scientists, political leaders, intelligence agencies and the mass media, in order to create the cultural conditions in which a confrontation with ETI won't affect mankind in a traumatic way. Definite roles and tasks in this multi-level model are suggested.

  15. [Contact allergies in musicians].

    PubMed

    Gasenzer, E R; Neugebauer, E A M

    2012-12-01

    During the last years, the problem of allergic diseases has increased. Allergies are errant immune responses to a normally harmless substance. In musicians the allergic contact dermatitis to exotic woods is a special problem. Exotic rosewood contains new flavonoids, which trigger an allergic reaction after permanent contact with the instrument. High quality woodwind instruments such as baroque flute or clarinets are made in ebony or palisander because of its great sound. Today instruments for non-professional players are also made in these exotic materials and non-professionals may have the risk to develop contact dermatitis, too. Brass-player has the risk of an allergic reaction to the different metals contained in the metal sheets of modern flutes and brass instruments. Specially nickel and brass alloys are used to product flute tubes or brass instruments. Special problem arises in children: patients who are allergic to plants or foods have a high risk to develop contact dermatitis. Parents don't know the materials of low-priced instruments for beginners. Often unknown cheap woods from exotic areas are used. Low-priced brass instruments contain high amount of brass and other cheap metals. Physicians should advice musician-patients or parents about the risks of the different materials and look for the reason of eczema on mouth, face, or hands. PMID:23233303

  16. [Current contact allergens].

    PubMed

    Geier, J; Uter, W; Lessmann, H; Schnuch, A

    2011-10-01

    Ever-changing exposure to contact allergens, partly due to statutory directives (e.g. nickel, chromate, methyldibromo glutaronitrile) or recommendations from industrial associations (e.g. hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde), requires on-going epidemiologic surveillance of contact allergy. In this paper, the current state with special focus in fragrances and preservatives is described on the basis of data of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK) of the year 2010. In 2010, 12,574 patients were patch tested in the dermatology departments belonging to the IVDK. Nickel is still the most frequent contact allergen. However the continuously improved EU nickel directive already has some beneficial effect; sensitization frequency in young women is dropping. In Germany, chromate-reduced cement has been in use now for several years, leading to a decline in chromate sensitization in brick-layers. Two fragrance mixes are part of the German baseline series; they are still relevant. The most important fragrances in these mixes still are oak moss absolute and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde. However, in relation to these leading allergens, sensitization frequency to other fragrances contained in the mixes seems to be increasing. Among the preservatives, MCI/MI has not lost its importance as contact allergen, in contrast to MDBGN. Sources of MCI/MI sensitization obviously are increasingly found in occupational context. Methylisothiazolinone is a significant allergen in occupational settings, and less frequently in body care products. PMID:21901563

  17. Thermal Contact Conductance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salerno, Louis J.; Kittel, Peter

    1997-01-01

    The performance of cryogenic instruments is often a function of their operating temperature. Thus, designers of cryogenic instruments often are required to predict the operating temperature of each instrument they design. This requires accurate thermal models of cryogenic components which include the properties of the materials and assembly techniques used. When components are bolted or otherwise pressed together, a knowledge of the thermal performance of such joints are also needed. In some cases, the temperature drop across these joints represents a significant fraction of the total temperature difference between the instrument and its cooler. While extensive databases exist on the thermal properties of bulk materials, similar databases for pressed contacts do not. This has often lead to instrument designs that avoid pressed contacts or to the over-design of such joints at unnecessary expense. Although many people have made measurements of contact conductances at cryogenic temperatures, this data is often very narrow in scope and even more often it has not been published in an easily retrievable fashion, if published at all. This paper presents a summary of the limited pressed contact data available in the literature.

  18. Multigrid contact detection method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Kejing; Dong, Shoubin; Zhou, Zhaoyao

    2007-03-01

    Contact detection is a general problem of many physical simulations. This work presents a O(N) multigrid method for general contact detection problems (MGCD). The multigrid idea is integrated with contact detection problems. Both the time complexity and memory consumption of the MGCD are O(N) . Unlike other methods, whose efficiencies are influenced strongly by the object size distribution, the performance of MGCD is insensitive to the object size distribution. We compare the MGCD with the no binary search (NBS) method and the multilevel boxing method in three dimensions for both time complexity and memory consumption. For objects with similar size, the MGCD is as good as the NBS method, both of which outperform the multilevel boxing method regarding memory consumption. For objects with diverse size, the MGCD outperform both the NBS method and the multilevel boxing method. We use the MGCD to solve the contact detection problem for a granular simulation system based on the discrete element method. From this granular simulation, we get the density property of monosize packing and binary packing with size ratio equal to 10. The packing density for monosize particles is 0.636. For binary packing with size ratio equal to 10, when the number of small particles is 300 times as the number of big particles, the maximal packing density 0.824 is achieved.

  19. Compact contacting device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acharya, Arun (Inventor); Gottzmann, Christian F. (Inventor); Lockett, Michael J. (Inventor); Schneider, James S. (Inventor); Victor, Richard A. (Inventor); Zawierucha, Robert (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus comprising a rotatable mass of structured packing for mass or heat transfer between two contacting fluids of different densities wherein the packing mass is made up of corrugated sheets of involute shape relative to the axis of the packing mass and form a logarithmic spiral curved counter to the direction of rotation.

  20. Religious Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Alina; Matiz, Catalina; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2015-01-01

    Henna, derived from a combination of natural leaves and coloring additives, is a common decorative dye traditionally used in many Islamic religious celebrations. Para-phenylenediamine (PPD), a major component of black henna tattoo, is a strong sensitizer and common allergen. We report a case of severe connubial allergic contact dermatitis after black henna heterotransfer in a girl. PMID:25968562

  1. Have Confidence in Contact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Richard J.; Turner, Rhiannon N.

    2010-01-01

    In an article in the May-June 2009 "American Psychologist," we discussed a new approach to reducing prejudice and encouraging more positive intergroup relations (Crisp & Turner, 2009). We named the approach imagined intergroup contact and defined it as "the mental simulation of a social interaction with a member or members of an outgroup category"…

  2. Contact Graph Routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Contact Graph Routing (CGR) is a dynamic routing system that computes routes through a time-varying topology of scheduled communication contacts in a network based on the DTN (Delay-Tolerant Networking) architecture. It is designed to enable dynamic selection of data transmission routes in a space network based on DTN. This dynamic responsiveness in route computation should be significantly more effective and less expensive than static routing, increasing total data return while at the same time reducing mission operations cost and risk. The basic strategy of CGR is to take advantage of the fact that, since flight mission communication operations are planned in detail, the communication routes between any pair of bundle agents in a population of nodes that have all been informed of one another's plans can be inferred from those plans rather than discovered via dialogue (which is impractical over long one-way-light-time space links). Messages that convey this planning information are used to construct contact graphs (time-varying models of network connectivity) from which CGR automatically computes efficient routes for bundles. Automatic route selection increases the flexibility and resilience of the space network, simplifying cross-support and reducing mission management costs. Note that there are no routing tables in Contact Graph Routing. The best route for a bundle destined for a given node may routinely be different from the best route for a different bundle destined for the same node, depending on bundle priority, bundle expiration time, and changes in the current lengths of transmission queues for neighboring nodes; routes must be computed individually for each bundle, from the Bundle Protocol agent's current network connectivity model for the bundle s destination node (the contact graph). Clearly this places a premium on optimizing the implementation of the route computation algorithm. The scalability of CGR to very large networks remains a research topic

  3. Contact dynamics math model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaese, John R.; Tobbe, Patrick A.

    1986-01-01

    The Space Station Mechanism Test Bed consists of a hydraulically driven, computer controlled six degree of freedom (DOF) motion system with which docking, berthing, and other mechanisms can be evaluated. Measured contact forces and moments are provided to the simulation host computer to enable representation of orbital contact dynamics. This report describes the development of a generalized math model which represents the relative motion between two rigid orbiting vehicles. The model allows motion in six DOF for each body, with no vehicle size limitation. The rotational and translational equations of motion are derived. The method used to transform the forces and moments from the sensor location to the vehicles' centers of mass is also explained. Two math models of docking mechanisms, a simple translational spring and the Remote Manipulator System end effector, are presented along with simulation results. The translational spring model is used in an attempt to verify the simulation with compensated hardware in the loop results.

  4. Simulating Contact Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadam, Kundan; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Frank, Juhan; Tohline, Joel E.; Staff, Jan E.; Motl, Patrick M.; Marcello, Dominic

    2014-06-01

    About one in every 150 stars is a contact binary system of WUMa type and it was thought for a long time that such a binary would naturally proceed towards merger, forming a single star. In September 2008 such a merger was observed in the eruption of a “red nova", V1309 Sco. We are developing a hydrodynamics simulation for contact binaries using Self Consistent Field (SCF) techniques, so that their formation, structural, and merger properties could be studied. This model can also be used to probe the stability criteria such as the large-scale equatorial circulations and the minimum mass ratio. We also plan to generate light curves from the simulation data in order to compare with the observed case of V1309 Sco. A comparison between observations and simulations will help us better understand the nova-like phenomena of stellar mergers.

  5. Contact dermatitis in children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Contact dermatitis in pediatric population is a common but (previously) under recognized disease. It is usually divided into the allergic and the irritant forms. The diagnosis is usually obtained with the patch test technique after conducting a thorough medical history and careful physical examination but patch testing in infants may be particularly difficult, and false-positive reactions may occur. This study also provides an overview of the most common allergens in pediatric population and discusses various therapeutic modalities. PMID:20205907

  6. Contact stress sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kotovsky, Jack

    2014-02-11

    A method for producing a contact stress sensor that includes one or more MEMS fabricated sensor elements, where each sensor element of includes a thin non-recessed portion, a recessed portion and a pressure sensitive element adjacent to the recessed portion. An electric circuit is connected to the pressure sensitive element. The circuit includes a pressure signal circuit element configured to provide a signal upon movement of the pressure sensitive element.

  7. Contact stress sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kotovsky, Jack

    2012-02-07

    A contact stress sensor includes one or more MEMS fabricated sensor elements, where each sensor element of includes a thin non-recessed portion, a recessed portion and a pressure sensitive element adjacent to the recessed portion. An electric circuit is connected to the pressure sensitive element. The circuit includes a thermal compensator and a pressure signal circuit element configured to provide a signal upon movement of the pressure sensitive element.

  8. Functional modular contact lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shum, Angela J.; Cowan, Melissa; Lähdesmäki, Ilkka; Lingley, Andrew; Otis, Brian; Parviz, Babak A.

    2009-08-01

    Tear fluid offers a potential route for non-invasive sensing of physiological parameters. Utilization of this potential depends on the ability to manufacture sensors that can be placed on the surface of the eye. A contact lens makes a natural platform for such sensors, but contact lens polymers present a challenge for sensor fabrication. This paper describes a microfabrication process for constructing sensors that can be integrated into the structure of a functional contact lens in the future. To demonstrate the capabilities of the process, an amperometric glucose sensor was fabricated on a polymer substrate. The sensor consists of platinum working and counter electrodes, as well as a region of indium-tin oxide (ITO) for glucose oxidase immobilization. An external silver-silver chloride electrode was used as the reference electrode during the characterization experiments. Sensor operation was validated by hydrogen peroxide measurements in the 10- 20 μM range and glucose measurements in the 0.125-20 mM range.

  9. Acrylate Systemic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Sauder, Maxwell B; Pratt, Melanie D

    2015-01-01

    Acrylates, the 2012 American Contact Dermatitis Society allergen of the year, are found in a range of products including the absorbent materials within feminine hygiene pads. When fully polymerized, acrylates are nonimmunogenic; however, if not completely cured, the monomers can be potent allergens.A 28-year-old woman is presented, who had her teeth varnished with Isodan (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, France) containing HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) with no initial reaction. Approximately 1 month later, the patient developed a genital dermatitis secondary to her feminine hygiene pads. The initial reaction resolved, but 5 months later, the patient developed a systemic contact dermatitis after receiving a second varnishing.The patient was dramatically patch test positive to many acrylates. This case demonstrates a reaction to likely unpolymerized acrylates within a feminine hygiene pad, as well as broad cross-reactivity or cosensitivity to acrylates, and possibly a systemic contact dermatitis with systemic re-exposure to unpolymerized acrylates. PMID:26367207

  10. Pediatric contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vinod K; Asati, Dinesh P

    2010-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in children, until recently, was considered rare. ACD was considered as a disorder of the adult population and children were thought to be spared due to a lack of exposure to potential allergens and an immature immune system. Prevalence of ACD to even the most common allergens in children, like poison ivy and parthenium, is relatively rare as compared to adults. However, there is now growing evidence of contact sensitization of the pediatric population, and it begins right from early childhood, including 1-week-old neonates. Vaccinations, piercing, topical medicaments and cosmetics in younger patients are potential exposures for sensitization. Nickel is the most common sensitizer in almost all studies pertaining to pediatric contact dermatitis. Other common allergens reported are cobalt, fragrance mix, rubber, lanolin, thiomersol, neomycin, gold, mercapto mix, balsum of Peru and colophony. Different factors like age, sex, atopy, social and cultural practices, habit of parents and caregivers and geographic changes affect the patterns of ACD and their variable clinical presentation. Patch testing should be considered not only in children with lesions of a morphology suggestive of ACD, but in any child with dermatitis that is difficult to control. PMID:20826990

  11. Dual contact pogo pin assembly

    DOEpatents

    Hatch, Stephen McGarry

    2016-06-21

    A contact assembly includes a base and a pair of electrical contacts supported by the base. A first end of the first electrical contact corresponds to a first end of the base and is configured to engage a first external conductive circuit element. A first end of the second electrical contact also corresponds to the first end of the base and is configured to engage a second external conductive circuit element. The first contact and the second contact are electrically isolated from one another and configured to compress when engaging an external connector element. The base includes an aperture positioned on a second end of the base outboard of a second end of the first and second electrical contacts. The aperture presents a narrowing shape with a wide mouth distal the electrical contacts and a narrow internal through-hole proximate the electrical contacts.

  12. Dual contact pogo pin assembly

    DOEpatents

    Hatch, Stephen McGarry

    2015-01-20

    A contact assembly includes a base and a pair of electrical contacts supported by the base. A first end of the first electrical contact corresponds to a first end of the base and is configured to engage a first external conductive circuit element. A first end of the second electrical contact also corresponds to the first end of the base and is configured to engage a second external conductive circuit element. The first contact and the second contact are electrically isolated from one another and configured to compress when engaging an external connector element. The base includes an aperture positioned on a second end of the base outboard of a second end of the first and second electrical contacts. The aperture presents a narrowing shape with a wide mouth distal the electrical contacts and a narrow internal through-hole proximate the electrical contacts.

  13. Measuring the specific contact resistance of contacts to semiconductor nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohney, S. E.; Wang, Y.; Cabassi, M. A.; Lew, K. K.; Dey, S.; Redwing, J. M.; Mayer, T. S.

    2005-02-01

    Ohmic contacts to semiconductor nanowires are essential components of many new nanoscale electronic devices. Equations for extracting specific contact resistance (or contact resistivity) from several different test structures have been developed by modeling the metal/semiconductor contact as a transmission line, leading to the development of equations analogous to those used for planar contacts. The advantages and disadvantages of various test structures are discussed. To fabricate test structures using a convenient four-point approach, silicon nanowires have been aligned using field-assisted assembly and contacts fabricated. Finally, specific contact resistances near 5 × 10 -4 Ω cm 2 have been measured for Ti/Au contacts to p-type Si nanowires with diameters of 78 and 104 nm.

  14. Contact resistivities of metal-insulator-semiconductor contacts and metal-semiconductor contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hao; Schaekers, Marc; Barla, Kathy; Horiguchi, Naoto; Collaert, Nadine; Thean, Aaron Voon-Yew; De Meyer, Kristin

    2016-04-01

    Applying simulations and experiments, this paper systematically compares contact resistivities (ρc) of metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) contacts and metal-semiconductor (MS) contacts with various semiconductor doping concentrations (Nd). Compared with the MS contacts, the MIS contacts with the low Schottky barrier height are more beneficial for ρc on semiconductors with low Nd, but this benefit diminishes gradually when Nd increases. With high Nd, we find that even an "ideal" MIS contact with optimized parameters cannot outperform the MS contact. As a result, the MIS contacts mainly apply to devices that use relatively low doped semiconductors, while we need to focus on the MS contacts to meet the sub-1 × 10-8 Ω cm2 ρc requirement for future Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) technology.

  15. Contact dermatitis in hairdressers.

    PubMed

    Nethercott, J R; MacPherson, M; Choi, B C; Nixon, P

    1986-02-01

    18 cases of hand dermatitis in hairdressers seen over a 5-year period are reviewed. The diagnoses in these patients are discussed with reference to other studies of hand dermatitis in hairdressers. Contact allergy due to paraphenylenediamine and related hair dyes was the presenting complaint in younger hairdressers, while formaldehyde allergy occurred in those who were older. The prognosis in the former group of workers with respect to continued employment in the trade tended to be poorer than the latter. Follow-up revealed that hand dermatitis often resulted in the worker not continuing to work in the hairdressing trade. PMID:2940055

  16. Adhesive Contact Sweeper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Jonathan D.

    1993-01-01

    Adhesive contact sweeper removes hair and particles vacuum cleaner leaves behind, without stirring up dust. Also cleans loose rugs. Sweeper holds commercially available spools of inverted adhesive tape. Suitable for use in environments in which air kept free of dust; optics laboratories, computer rooms, and areas inhabited by people allergic to dust. For carpets, best used in tandem with vacuum cleaner; first pass with vacuum cleaner removes coarse particles, and second pass with sweeper extracts fine particles. This practice extends useful life of adhesive spools.

  17. Contact dermatitis to methylisothiazolinone*

    PubMed Central

    Scherrer, Maria Antonieta Rios; Rocha, Vanessa Barreto; Andrade, Ana Regina Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Methylisothiazolinone (MI) is a preservative found in cosmetic and industrial products. Contact dermatitis caused by either methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI or Kathon CG) or MI has shown increasing frequency. The latter is preferably detected through epicutaneous testing with aqueous MI 2000 ppm, which is not included in the Brazilian standard tray. We describe a series of 23 patients tested using it and our standard tray. A case with negative reaction to MCI/MI and positive to MI is emphasized. PMID:26734880

  18. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jenny L.

    2010-01-01

    Epicutaneous patch testing is the gold standard method for the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. Despite this knowledge, many clinical dermatologists do not offer patch testing in their offices or offer testing with only a limited number of allergens. Introduced in 1995, the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test originally contained 23 allergens and one control. In 2007, five additional allergens were added. This United States Food and Drug Administration-approved patch testing system made patch testing more convenient, and after its introduction, more dermatologists offered patch testing services. However, the number of allergens in the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test remains relatively low. Every two years, the North American Contact Dermatitis Group collects and reports the data from patch testing among its members to a standardized series of allergens. In 2005-2006, the Group used a series of 65 allergens. Of the top 30 allergens reported in 2005-2006, 10 were not included in the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test. Knowledge of and testing for additional allergens such as these may increase patch testing yield. PMID:20967194

  19. [Systemic contact dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Nowak, Daria; Gomułka, Krzysztof; Dziemieszonek, Paulina; Panaszek, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Systemic contact dermatitis (SCD) is a skin inflammation occurring in a patient after systemic administration of a hapten, which previously caused an allergic contact skin reaction in the same person. Most frequently, hypersensitivity reactions typical for SCD occur after absorption of haptens with food or inhalation. Haptens occur mainly in the forms of metals and compounds present in natural resins, preservatives, food thickeners, flavorings and medicines. For many years, several studies have been conducted on understanding the pathogenesis of SCD in which both delayed type hypersensitivity (type IV) and immediate type I are observed. Components of the complement system are also suspected to attend there. Helper T cells (Th) (Th1 and Th2), cytotoxic T lymphocytes (Tc), and NK cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of SCD. They secrete a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, regulatory T cells (Tregs) have an important role. They control and inhibit activity of the immune system during inflammation. Tregs release suppressor cytokines and interact directly with a target cell through presentation of immunosuppressive particles at the cell surface. Diagnostic methods are generally the patch test, oral provocation test, elimination diet and lymphocyte stimulation test. There are many kinds of inflammatory skin reactions caused by systemic haptens' distribution. They are manifested in a variety of clinical phenotypes of the disease. PMID:26943310

  20. 75 FR 70234 - Pacific Gas & Electric Company; Notice of Section 10j Meeting and Providing Teleconference...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... 95814. c. FERC Contact: Emily Carter, 202-502-6512 or emily.carter@ferc.gov . d. Purpose of Meeting... available. Please contact Emily Carter at (202) 502-6512 or emily.carter@ferc.gov by Friday, November...

  1. Contact heat transfer and thermal contact conductance between nonconforming surfaces in an abrupt contact

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.K.; Kroeger, V.D.

    1996-08-01

    An understanding of the thermal contact conductance behavior when a fuel pin contacts the pressure tube is important in the safety analyses of CANDU reactors. Experiments were therefore performed in a small-scale apparatus with fuel element and pressure tube specimens coming into contact in an argon/oxygen atmosphere, which kinetically simulated steam. The contact was initiated when the fuel-element and pressure-tube specimens were at {approximately} 1,000 C and {approximately} 400 C respectively. The experiments were analyzed using a finite-element code. Heat transfer rates through the contact and thermal contact conductances were determined for contact loads ranging from 20 to 80 N. For most contact loads, the contact conductance increased with time during the transient heat-up of the fuel element specimen. It was found that the calculated thermal contact conductances were in the range of 1 to 30 kW/(m{sup 2} K) based on a reference contact width of 2.5 mm. The variation of contact conductance with contact load was nearly linear.

  2. Disproportionate minority contact.

    PubMed

    Piquero, Alex R

    2008-01-01

    For many years, notes Alex Piquero, youth of color have been overrepresented at every stage of the U.S. juvenile justice system. As with racial disparities in a wide variety of social indicators, the causes of these disparities are not immediately apparent. Some analysts attribute the disparities to "differential involvement"--that is, to differences in offending by minorities and whites. Others attribute them to "differential selection"--that is, to the fact that the justice system treats minority and white offenders in different ways. Still others believe the explanation lies in a combination of the two. Differential involvement may be important earlier in the judicial process, especially in youths' contacts with police, and may influence differential selection later as individuals make their way through the juvenile justice system. Adjudicating between these options, says Piquero, is difficult and may even be impossible. Asking how much minority overrepresentation is due to differences in offending and how much to differences in processing no longer seems a helpful way to frame the discussion. Piquero urges future research to move beyond the debate over "which one matters more" and seek to understand how each of the two hypotheses can explain both the fact of minority overrepresentation in the juvenile justice system and how best to address it. Piquero cites many sizable gaps in the research and policy-relevant literature. Work is needed especially, he says, in analyzing the first stage of the justice system that juveniles confront: police contacts. The police are a critical part of the juvenile justice decision-making system and are afforded far more discretion than any other formal agent of social control, but researchers have paid surprisingly little attention to contacts between police and citizens, especially juveniles. Piquero notes that some states and localities are undertaking initiatives to reduce racial and ethnic disparities. He urges researchers and

  3. Contact Binary Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieger, Samantha

    2015-05-01

    Recent observations have found that some contact binaries are oriented such that the secondary impacts with the primary at a high inclination. This research investigates the evolution of how such contact binaries came to exist. This process begins with an asteroid pair, where the secondary lies on the Laplace plane. The Laplace plane is a plane normal to the axis about which the pole of a satellites orbit precesses, causing a near constant inclination for such an orbit. For the study of the classical Laplace plane, the secondary asteroid is in circular orbit around an oblate primary with axial tilt. This system is also orbiting the Sun. Thus, there are two perturbations on the secondarys orbit: J2 and third body Sun perturbations. The Laplace surface is defined as the group of orbits that lie on the Laplace plane at varying distances from the primary. If the secondary is very close to the primary, the inclination of the Laplace plane will be near the equator of the asteroid, while further from the primary the inclination will be similar to the asteroid-Sun plane. The secondary will lie on the Laplace plane because near the asteroid the Laplace plane is stable to large deviations in motion, causing the asteroid to come to rest in this orbit. Assuming the secondary is asymmetrical in shape and the bodys rotation is synchronous with its orbit, the secondary will experience the BYORP effect. BYORP can cause secular motion such as the semi-major axis of the secondary expanding or contracting. Assuming the secondary expands due to BYORP, the secondary will eventually reach the unstable region of the Laplace plane. The unstable region exists if the primary has an obliquity of 68.875 degrees or greater. The unstable region exists at 0.9 Laplace radius to 1.25 Laplace radius, where the Laplace radius is defined as the distance from the central body where the inclination of the Laplace plane orbit is half the obliquity. In the unstable region, the eccentricity of the orbit

  4. Contact urticaria from rice.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, Y; Ohsuna, H; Aihara, M; Tsubaki, K; Ikezawa, Z

    2001-02-01

    A 30-year-old man with atopic dermatitis had had erythema and itching of the hands after washing rice in water, though he had always eaten cooked rice without problems. Handling test with water used to wash regular rice was performed on abraded hands, and produced urticarial erythema after several minutes. Applications of water used to wash allergen-reduced rice were negative for urticarial reaction. Prick test with water used to wash regular rice was +++. However prick test reaction with water used to wash allergen-reduced rice was +. Histamine-release test of regular rice-washing water was grade 3 and that of allergen-reduced rice grade 1. In immunoblotting analysis with regular rice washing water, there were no bands with this patient. These results suggest that the allergen responsible for contact urticaria in this patient might be water-soluble, heat-unstable, and not contained in allergen-reduced rice. PMID:11205411

  5. Contact dermatitis to Alstroemeria.

    PubMed

    Santucci, B; Picardo, M; Iavarone, C; Trogolo, C

    1985-04-01

    A study was carried out on 50 workers in a floriculture centre to evaluate the incidence of contact dermatitis to Alstroemeria. 3 subjects gave positive reactions to aqueous and ethanolic extracts of cut flowers, stems and leaves. By column chromatography, the allergen was isolated and its chemical structure identified as 6-tuliposide A by proton magnetic resonance and carbon-13 magnetic resonance. Only 6-tuliposide A was isolated from cut flowers, and this gave positive reactions when patch tested at 0.01%; a-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone at 10(-5) (v/v) was positive in the same 3 subjects. Other lactones (gamma-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone, alantolactone, isoalantolactone) were negative at all concentrations used. PMID:3160533

  6. Contact dermatitis in blacks.

    PubMed

    Berardesca, E; Maibach, H I

    1988-07-01

    Black skin is characterized by structural and functional differences such as increased stratum corneum cohesion, melanin content, and stratum corneum layers. These differences seem to make black skin difficult for irritants and light to penetrate, thus explaining the common opinion that skin in blacks is harder and develops contact dermatitis less frequently. The paucity of interpretable epidemiologic data and of clinical and experimental studies does not permit confirmation of this hypothesis, and the few data available are controversial. This article describes the main physiologic differences between black and white barrier function and reviews the literature on irritation, sensitization, and transcutaneous penetration. We found that the data are still too incomplete to generalize on the resistance, or lack thereof, of black skin (versus white skin) to chemical irritation, sensitization, and penetration. PMID:3048818

  7. Reducing contact resistance in graphene devices through contact area patterning.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua T; Franklin, Aaron D; Farmer, Damon B; Dimitrakopoulos, Christos D

    2013-04-23

    Performance of graphene electronics is limited by contact resistance associated with the metal-graphene (M-G) interface, where unique transport challenges arise as carriers are injected from a 3D metal into a 2D-graphene sheet. In this work, enhanced carrier injection is experimentally achieved in graphene devices by forming cuts in the graphene within the contact regions. These cuts are oriented normal to the channel and facilitate bonding between the contact metal and carbon atoms at the graphene cut edges, reproducibly maximizing "edge-contacted" injection. Despite the reduction in M-G contact area caused by these cuts, we find that a 32% reduction in contact resistance results in Cu-contacted, two-terminal devices, while a 22% reduction is achieved for top-gated graphene transistors with Pd contacts as compared to conventionally fabricated devices. The crucial role of contact annealing to facilitate this improvement is also elucidated. This simple approach provides a reliable and reproducible means of lowering contact resistance in graphene devices to bolster performance. Importantly, this enhancement requires no additional processing steps. PMID:23473291

  8. Point contacts in encapsulated graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Handschin, Clevin; Fülöp, Bálint; Csonka, Szabolcs; Makk, Péter; Blanter, Sofya; Weiss, Markus; Schönenberger, Christian; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi

    2015-11-02

    We present a method to establish inner point contacts with dimensions as small as 100 nm on hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) encapsulated graphene heterostructures by pre-patterning the top-hBN in a separate step prior to dry-stacking. 2- and 4-terminal field effect measurements between different lead combinations are in qualitative agreement with an electrostatic model assuming point-like contacts. The measured contact resistances are 0.5–1.5 kΩ per contact, which is quite low for such small contacts. By applying a perpendicular magnetic field, an insulating behaviour in the quantum Hall regime was observed, as expected for inner contacts. The fabricated contacts are compatible with high mobility graphene structures and open up the field for the realization of several electron optical proposals.

  9. A Prototype Antifungal Contact Lens

    PubMed Central

    Ciolino, Joseph B.; Hudson, Sarah P.; Mobbs, Ashley N.; Hoare, Todd R.; Iwata, Naomi G.; Fink, Gerald R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To design a contact lens to treat and prevent fungal ocular infections. Methods. Curved contact lenses were created by encapsulating econazole-impregnated poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) films in poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) by ultraviolet photopolymerization. Release studies were conducted in phosphate-buffered saline at 37°C with continuous shaking. The contact lenses and their release media were tested in an antifungal assay against Candida albicans. Cross sections of the pre- and postrelease contact lenses were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and by Raman spectroscopy. Results. Econazole-eluting contact lenses provided extended antifungal activity against Candida albicans fungi. Fungicidal activity varied in duration and effectiveness depending on the mass of the econazole-PLGA film encapsulated in the contact lens. Conclusions. An econazole-eluting contact lens could be used as a treatment for fungal ocular infections. PMID:21527380

  10. Wireless Measurement of Contact and Motion Between Contact Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2007-01-01

    This method uses a magnetic-field- response contact sensor that is designed to identify surface contact and motion between contact locations. The sensor has three components: (1) a capacitor-inductor circuit with two sets of electrical contact pads, (2) a capacitor with a set of electrical contact pads, and (3) an inductor with a set of electrical contact pads. A unique feature of this sensor is that it is inherently multifunctional. Information can be derived from analyzing such sensor response attributes as amplitude, frequency, and bandwidth. A change in one attribute can be due to a change in a physical property of a system. A change in another attribute can be due to another physical property, which has no relationship to the first one.

  11. JKR adhesion in cylindrical contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaram, Narayan; Farris, T. N.; Chandrasekar, S.

    2012-01-01

    Planar JKR adhesive solutions use the half-plane assumption and do not permit calculation of indenter approach or visualization of adhesive force-displacement curves unless the contact is periodic. By considering a conforming cylindrical contact and using an arc crack analogy, we obtain closed-form indenter approach and load-contact size relations for a planar adhesive problem. The contact pressure distribution is also obtained in closed-form. The solutions reduce to known cases in both the adhesion-free and small-contact solution ( Barquins, 1988) limits. The cylindrical system shows two distinct regimes of adhesive behavior; in particular, contact sizes exceeding the critical (maximum) size seen in adhesionless contacts are possible. The effects of contact confinement on adhesive behavior are investigated. Some special cases are considered, including contact with an initial neat-fit and the detachment of a rubbery cylinder from a rigid cradle. A comparison of the cylindrical solution with the half-plane adhesive solution is carried out, and it indicates that the latter typically underestimates the adherence force. The cylindrical adhesive system is novel in that it possesses stable contact states that may not be attained even on applying an infinite load in the absence of adhesion.

  12. Hysteresis during contact angles measurement.

    PubMed

    Diaz, M Elena; Fuentes, Javier; Cerro, Ramon L; Savage, Michael D

    2010-03-15

    A theory, based on the presence of an adsorbed film in the vicinity of the triple contact line, provides a molecular interpretation of intrinsic hysteresis during the measurement of static contact angles. Static contact angles are measured by placing a sessile drop on top of a flat solid surface. If the solid surface has not been previously in contact with a vapor phase saturated with the molecules of the liquid phase, the solid surface is free of adsorbed liquid molecules. In the absence of an adsorbed film, molecular forces configure an advancing contact angle larger than the static contact angle. After some time, due to an evaporation/adsorption process, the interface of the drop coexists with an adsorbed film of liquid molecules as part of the equilibrium configuration, denoted as the static contact angle. This equilibrium configuration is metastable because the droplet has a larger vapor pressure than the surrounding flat film. As the drop evaporates, the vapor/liquid interface contracts and the apparent contact line moves towards the center of the drop. During this process, the film left behind is thicker than the adsorbed film and molecular attraction results in a receding contact angle, smaller than the equilibrium contact angle. PMID:20060981

  13. Wearable telescopic contact lens.

    PubMed

    Arianpour, Ashkan; Schuster, Glenn M; Tremblay, Eric J; Stamenov, Igor; Groisman, Alex; Legerton, Jerry; Meyers, William; Amigo, Goretty Alonso; Ford, Joseph E

    2015-08-20

    We describe the design, fabrication, and testing of a 1.6 mm thick scleral contact lens providing both 1× and 2.8× magnified vision paths, intended for use as a switchable eye-borne telescopic low-vision aid. The F/9.7 telescopic vision path uses an 8.2 mm diameter annular entrance pupil and 4 internal reflections in a polymethyl methacrylate precision optic. This gas-impermeable insert is contained inside a smooth outer casing of rigid gas-permeable polymer, which also provides achromatic correction for refraction at the curved lens face. The unmagnified F/4.1 vision path is through the central aperture of the lens, with additional transmission between the annular telescope rings to enable peripheral vision. We discuss potential solutions for providing oxygenation for an extended wear version of the lens. The prototype lenses were characterized using a scale-model human eye, and telescope functionality was confirmed in a small-scale clinical (nondispensed) demonstration. PMID:26368753

  14. Protein folding using contact maps.

    PubMed

    Vendruscolo, M; Domany, E

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the problem of representations of protein structure and give the definition of contact maps. We present a method to obtain a three-dimensional polypeptide conformation from a contact map. We also explain how to deal with the case of nonphysical contact maps. We describe a stochastic method to perform dynamics in contact map space. We explain how the motion is restricted to physical regions of the space. First, we introduce the exact free energy of a contact map and discuss two simple approximations to it. Second, we present a method to derive energy parameters based on perception learning. We prove in an extensive number of situations that the pairwise contact approximation both when alone and when supplemented with a hydrophobic term is unsuitable for stabilizing proteins' native states. PMID:10668399

  15. Method for forming metal contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Reddington, Erik; Sutter, Thomas C; Bu, Lujia; Cannon, Alexandra; Habas, Susan E; Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Ginley, David S; Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria

    2013-09-17

    Methods of forming metal contacts with metal inks in the manufacture of photovoltaic devices are disclosed. The metal inks are selectively deposited on semiconductor coatings by inkjet and aerosol apparatus. The composite is heated to selective temperatures where the metal inks burn through the coating to form an electrical contact with the semiconductor. Metal layers are then deposited on the electrical contacts by light induced or light assisted plating.

  16. Ion Implanted Passivated Contacts for Interdigitated Back Contacted Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Young, David L.; Nemeth, William; LaSalvia, Vincenzo; Reedy, Robert; Bateman, Nicholas; Stradins, Pauls

    2015-06-14

    We describe work towards an interdigitated back contacted (IBC) solar cell utilizing ion implanted, passivated contacts. Formation of electron and hole passivated contacts to n-type CZ wafers using tunneling SiO2 and ion implanted amorphous silicon (a-Si) are described. P and B were ion implanted into intrinsic amorphous Si films at several doses and energies. A series of post-implant anneals showed that the passivation quality improved with increasing annealing temperatures up to 900 degrees C. The recombination parameter, Jo, as measured by a Sinton lifetime tester, was Jo ~ 14 fA/cm2 for Si:P, and Jo ~ 56 fA/cm2 for Si:B contacts. The contact resistivity for the passivated contacts, as measured by TLM patterns, was 14 milliohm-cm2 for the n-type contact and 0.6 milliohm-cm2 for the p-type contact. These Jo and pcontact values are encouraging for forming IBC cells using ion implantation to spatially define dopants.

  17. Molecular dynamics study of contact mechanics: contact area and interfacial separation from small to full contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chunyan; Persson, Bo

    2008-03-01

    We report a molecular dynamics study of the contact between a rigid solid with a randomly rough surface and an elastic block with a flat surface. We study the contact area and the interfacial separation from small contact (low load) to full contact (high load). For small load the contact area varies linearly with the load and the interfacial separation depends logarithmically on the load [1-4]. For high load the contact area approaches to the nominal contact area (i.e., complete contact), and the interfacial separation approaches to zero. The present results may be very important for soft solids, e.g., rubber, or for very smooth surfaces, where complete contact can be reached at moderate high loads without plastic deformation of the solids. References: [1] C. Yang and B.N.J. Persson, arXiv:0710.0276, (to appear in Phys. Rev. Lett.) [2] B.N.J. Persson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 125502 (2007) [3] L. Pei, S. Hyun, J.F. Molinari and M.O. Robbins, J. Mech. Phys. Sol. 53, 2385 (2005) [4] M. Benz, K.J. Rosenberg, E.J. Kramer and J.N. Israelachvili, J. Phy. Chem. B.110, 11884 (2006)

  18. Contact dermatitis to methyl methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Kassis, V; Vedel, P; Darre, E

    1984-07-01

    2 cases of contact dermatitis to methyl methacrylate monomer are presented. The patients are nurses who mixed bone cement at orthopedic operations. During the procedure, they used 2 pairs of gloves (latex). Butyl rubber gloves are recommended for methyl methacrylate monomer to avoid sensitization and/or cumulative irritant contact dermatitis on the hands. PMID:6204812

  19. Contact sensitization in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Balato, Anna; Balato, Nicola; Di Costanzo, Luisa; Ayala, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Contact dermatitis from irritant and allergic sources is the reason for 6% to 10% of all dermatologic visits with considerable morbidity and economic impact. Allergic contact dermatitis is a T-cell-mediated inflammatory reaction and develops in predisposed individuals as a consequence of environmental exposure to allergens. Aging is correlated with the rate and type of contact sensitization because of "immunosenescence." The number of old people is growing around the world. This contribution reviews the main findings from published epidemiologic studies on contact allergy in elderly populations. In all examined studies, patch testing was performed in patients with cutaneous manifestations possibly related to contact dermatitis; the prevalence of contact dermatitis in the elderly was from 33% to 64%. Establishing the most frequent allergens responsible for allergic contact dermatitis in the elderly is a hard task. The commonest allergens reported were nickel sulfate, fragrance mix, diamino diphenylmethane, lanolin alcohols, paraben mix, Euxyl K400, quinoline mix, and balsam of Peru. We emphasize that allergens surveillance is needed to realize an "elderly series" for having a useful adjunct to contact allergy that may help the treatment of each patient. PMID:21146728

  20. Contact modeling for robotics applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lafarge, R.A.; Lewis, C.

    1998-08-01

    At Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), the authors are developing the ability to accurately predict motions for arbitrary numbers of bodies of arbitrary shapes experiencing multiple applied forces and intermittent contacts. In particular, the authors are concerned with the simulation of systems such as part feeders or mobile robots operating in realistic environments. Preliminary investigation of commercial dynamics software packages led them to the conclusion that they could use commercial software to provide everything they needed except for the contact model. They found that ADAMS best fit their needs for a simulation package. To simulate intermittent contacts, they need collision detection software that can efficiently compute the distances between non-convex objects and return the associated witness features. They also require a computationally efficient contact model for rapid simulation of impact, sustained contact under load, and transition to and from contact conditions. This paper provides a technical review of a custom hierarchical distance computation engine developed at Sandia, called the C-Space Toolkit (CSTk). In addition, they describe an efficient contact model using a non-linear damping term developed by SNL and Ohio State. Both the CSTk and the non-linear damper have been incorporated in a simplified two-body testbed code, which is used to investigate how to correctly model the contact using these two utilities. They have incorporated this model into the ADAMS software using the callable function interface. An example that illustrates the capabilities of the 9.02 release of ADAMS with their extensions is provided.

  1. CHARACTERIZING HUMAN CONTACT WITH SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    People contact sediment during a variety of activities such as fishing, wading and boating. A number of default assumptions are used today to characterize dermal contact with sediments in terms of magnitude, frequency and duration. The accuracy of these default values are widel...

  2. Tobacco-induced contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Vestita, Michelangelo; Filoni, Angela; Mastrolonardo, Mario; Angelini, Gianni; Foti, Caterina

    2016-06-01

    Tobacco and tobacco smoke are strongly associated with various skin conditions, among which contact dermatitis is of prime importance. The aetiological and clinical aspects vary according to the different tobacco production and processing steps. Contact dermatitis is frequent in tobacco harvesters, curers and cigar makers, whereas it rarely affects smokers and, only exceptionally, cigarette packaging workers. The skin sites involved also vary, according to whether the exposure is occupational or non-occupational. Tobacco contact irritation is far more frequent than contact allergy. The sensitizing compound in tobacco is unknown; nicotine, while highly toxic, does not seem to cause sensitization, except in rare cases. Besides natural substances, several compounds are added to tobacco during processing and manufacturing. For this reason, identifying the aetiological factors is exceedingly difficult. Another important aspect to take into account is the co-causative role of tobacco in eliciting or exacerbating contact dermatitis in response to other agents, occupational or extra-occupational. PMID:27020490

  3. Thermal contact conductance of pressed contacts at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunil Kumar, S.; Ramamurthi, K.

    2004-10-01

    The influence of variations of interface temperature in the range 50-300 K on the thermal contact conductance between aluminium and stainless steel joints was determined. Predictions were done by modeling the deformation at the interface for different values of surface finish and contact pressure over the range of interface temperatures. Both elastic and plastic deformation was considered. Experiments were carried out in a closed loop cryostat and the results were shown to compare well with the predictions. A reduction of the interface temperature resulted in a smaller value of thermal contact conductance. Interfacial pressure variation had much lower influence at the smaller value of temperatures. The role of surface roughness at the contact was also seen to be less significant at lower interface temperatures and the zone of hysteresis was smaller. A correlation was developed for estimating thermal contact conductance at joints over this temperature range. An explicit dependence of contact conductance on temperature was not seen to be necessary as long as the changes in the hardness and thermal conductivity of the material with temperature are incorporated in the correlation.

  4. Allergic contact dermatitis from ketoconazole.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Warshaw, Erin M

    2014-09-01

    Ketoconazole is a widely used imidazole antifungal agent. True contact allergy to topical ketoconazole is rare, and few cases of patients with contact allergy to ketoconazole have been reported. We present the case of a patient with a history of undiagnosed recurrent dermatitis who developed acute facial swelling and pruritus after using ketoconazole cream and shampoo for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. Patch testing revealed true contact allergy to ketoconazole without cross-reactivity to 4 other imidazole antifungals. Review of the patient's medical record suggested that prior incidences of dermatitis might have been due to ketoconazole exposure. When the patient avoided this imidazole agent, the dermatitis resolved. PMID:25279470

  5. Connector contact-ring bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ligon, J.

    1976-01-01

    Use of device eliminates crimp connectors and ferrules, resulting in compact termination assembly and efficient use of back-shell space. Pair of insulator rings, one at each end of assembly, provides spacing between disc caps and contact rings.

  6. Racial Disparity in Police Contacts

    PubMed Central

    Crutchfield, Robert D.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; McGlynn, Anne; Catalano, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    Criminologists agree the race disparity in arrests cannot be fully explained by differences in criminal behavior. We examine social environment factors that may lead to racial differences in police contact in early adolescence, including family, peers, school, and community. Data are from 331 8th-grade students. Blacks were almost twice as likely as Whites to report a police contact. Blacks reported more property crime but not more violent crime than Whites. Police contacts were increased by having a parent who had been arrested, a sibling involved in criminal activity, higher observed reward for negative behavior, having school disciplinary actions, and knowing adults who engaged in substance abuse or criminal behavior. Race differences in police contacts were partially attributable to more school discipline. PMID:24363956

  7. Transition metal contacts to graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Politou, Maria De Gendt, Stefan; Heyns, Marc; Asselberghs, Inge; Radu, Iuliana; Conard, Thierry; Richard, Olivier; Martens, Koen; Huyghebaert, Cedric; Tokei, Zsolt; Lee, Chang Seung; Sayan, Safak

    2015-10-12

    Achieving low resistance contacts to graphene is a common concern for graphene device performance and hybrid graphene/metal interconnects. In this work, we have used the circular Transfer Length Method (cTLM) to electrically characterize Ag, Au, Ni, Ti, and Pd as contact metals to graphene. The consistency of the obtained results was verified with the characterization of up to 72 cTLM structures per metal. Within our study, the noble metals Au, Ag and Pd, which form a weaker bond with graphene, are shown to result in lower contact resistance (Rc) values compared to the more reactive Ni and Ti. X-ray Photo Electron Spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy characterization for the latter have shown the formation of Ti and Ni carbides. Graphene/Pd contacts show a distinct intermediate behavior. The weak carbide formation signature and the low Rc values measured agree with theoretical predictions of an intermediate state of weak chemisorption of Pd on graphene.

  8. Pose and motion from contact

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Y.B.; Erdmann, M.

    1999-05-01

    In the absence of vision, grasping an object often relies on tactile feedback from the fingertips. As the finger pushes the object, the fingertip can feel the contact point move. If the object is known in advance, from this motion the finger may infer the location of the contact point on the object, and thereby, the object pose. This paper primarily investigates the problem of determining the pose (orientation and position) and motion (velocity and angular velocity) of a planar object with known geometry from such contact motion generated by pushing. A dynamic analysis of pushing yields a nonlinear system that relates through contact the object pose and motion to the finger motion. The contact motion on the fingertip thus encodes certain information about the object pose. Nonlinear observability theory is employed to show that such information is sufficient for the finger to observe not only the pose, but also the motion of the object. Therefore, a sensing strategy can be realized as an observer of the nonlinear dynamic system. Two observers are subsequently introduced. The first observer, based on the work of Gautheir, Hammouri, and Othman (1992), has its gain determined by the solution of a Lyapunov-like equation; it can be activated at any time instant during a push. The second observer, based on Newton`s method, solves for the initial (motionless) object pose from three intermediate contact points during a push. Under the Coulomb-friction model, the paper deals with support friction in the plane and/or contact friction between the finger and the object. Extensive simulations have been done to demonstrate the feasibility of the two observers. Preliminary experiments (with an Adept robot) have also been conducted. A contact sensor has been implemented using strain gauges.

  9. Method for lubricating contacting surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Dugger, Michael T.; Ohlhausen, James A.; Asay, David B.; Kim, Seong H.

    2011-12-06

    A method is provided for tribological lubrication of sliding contact surfaces, where two surfaces are in contact and in motion relative to each other, operating in a vapor-phase environment containing at least one alcohol compound at a concentration sufficiently high to provide one monolayer of coverage on at least one of the surfaces, where the alcohol compound continuously reacts at the surface to provide lubrication.

  10. Discrete-contact nanowire photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitambar, Michelle J.; Wen, Wen; Maldonado, Stephen

    2013-11-01

    A series of finite-element simulations have been performed to assess the operational characteristics of a new semiconductor nanowire solar cell design operating under high-level injection conditions. Specifically, the steady-state current-voltage behavior of a cylindrical silicon (Si) nanowire with a series of discrete, ohmic-selective contacts under intense sunlight illumination was investigated. The scope of the analysis was limited to only the factors that impact the net internal quantum yield for solar to electricity conversion. No evaluations were performed with regards to optical light trapping in the modeled structures. Several aspects in a discrete-contact nanowire device that could impact operation were explored, including the size and density of ohmic-selective contacts, the size of the nanowire, the electronic quality and conductivity of the nanowire, the surface defect density of the nanowire, and the type of ohmic selectivity employed at each contact. The analysis showed that there were ranges of values for each parameter that supported good to excellent photoresponses, with certain combinations of experimentally attainable material properties yielding internal energy conversion efficiencies at the thermodynamic limit for a single junction cell. The merits of the discrete-contact nanowire cell were contrasted with "conventional" nanowire photovoltaic cells featuring a uniform conformal contact and also with planar point-contact solar cells. The unique capacity of the discrete-contact nanowire solar cell design to operate at useful energy conversion efficiencies with low quality semiconductor nanowires (i.e., possessing short charge-carrier lifetimes) with only light doping is discussed. This work thus defines the impetus for future experimental work aimed at developing this photovoltaic architecture.

  11. Solution-Assisted Optical Contacting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaddock, Daniel; Abramovici, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    A modified version of a conventional optical-contact procedure has been found to facilitate alignment of optical components. The optical-contact procedure (called simply optical contacting in the art) is a standard means of bonding two highly polished and cleaned glass optical components without using epoxies or other adhesives. In its unmodified form, the procedure does not involve the use of any foreign substances at all: components to be optically contacted are dry. The main disadvantage of conventional optical contacting is that it is difficult or impossible to adjust the alignment of the components once they have become bonded. In the modified version of the procedure, a drop of an alcohol-based optical cleaning solution (isopropyl alcohol or similar) is placed at the interface between two components immediately before putting the components together. The solution forms a weak bond that gradually strengthens during a time interval of the order of tens of seconds as the alcohol evaporates. While the solution is present, the components can be slid, without loss of contact, to perform fine adjustments of their relative positions. After about a minute, most of the alcohol has evaporated and the optical components are rigidly attached to each other. If necessary, more solution can be added to enable resumption or repetition of the adjustment until the components are aligned to the required precision.

  12. Mechanisms of rolling contact spalling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, A. M.; Kulkarni, S. M.; Bhargava, V.; Hahn, G. T.; Rubin, C. A.

    1987-01-01

    The results of a study aimed at analyzing the mechanical material interactions responsible for rolling contact spalling of the 440 C steel, high pressure oxygen turbopump bearings are presented. A coupled temperature displacement finite element analysis of the effects of friction heating under the contact is presented. The contact is modelled as a stationary, heat generating, 2 dimensional indent in an elastic perfectly plastic half-space with heat fluxes up to 8.6 x 10000 KW/m sq comparable to those generated in the bearing. Local temperatures in excess of 1000 C are treated. The calculations reveal high levels of residual tension after the contact is unloaded and cools. Efforts to promote Mode 2/Mode 3 fatigue crack growth under cyclic torsion in hardened 440 C steel are described. Spalls produced on 440 C steel by a 3 ball/rod rolling contact testing machine were studied with scanning microscopy. The shapes of the cyclic, stress strain hysteresis loops displayed by hardened 440 C steel in cyclic torsion at room temperature are defined for the plastic strain amplitudes encountered in rolling/sliding contact. Results of these analyses are discussed in detail.

  13. Diabetes and contact lens wear.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Clare; Efron, Nathan

    2012-05-01

    The literature suggests that diabetic patients may have altered tear chemistry and tear secretion as well as structural and functional changes to the corneal epithelium, endothelium and nerves. These factors, together with a reported increased incidence of corneal infection, suggest that diabetic patients may be particularly susceptible to developing ocular complications during contact lens wear. Reports of contact lens-induced complications in diabetic patients do exist, although a number of these reports concern patients with advanced diabetic eye disease using lenses on an extended wear basis. Over the past decade or so, there have been published studies documenting the response of the diabetic eye to more modern contact lens modalities. The results of these studies suggest that contact lenses can be a viable mode of refractive correction for diabetic patients. Furthermore, new research suggests that the measurement of tear glucose concentration could, in future, be used to monitor metabolic control non-invasively in diabetic patients. This could be carried out using contact lenses manufactured from hydrogel polymers embedded with glucose-sensing agents or nanoscale digital electronic technology. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on the anterior ocular manifestations of diabetes, particularly that pertaining to contact lens wear. PMID:22537249

  14. Crane-Load Contact Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert; Mata, Carlos; Cox, Robert

    2005-01-01

    An electronic instrument has been developed as a prototype of a portable crane-load contact sensor. Such a sensor could be helpful in an application in which the load rests on a base in a horizontal position determined by vertical alignment pins (see Figure 1). If the crane is not positioned to lift the load precisely vertically, then the load can be expected to swing once it has been lifted clear of the pins. If the load is especially heavy, large, and/or fragile, it could hurt workers and/or damage itself and nearby objects. By indicating whether the load remains in contact with the pins when it has been lifted a fraction of the length of the pins, the crane-load contact sensor helps the crane operator determine whether it is safe to lift the load clear of the pins: If there is contact, then the load is resting against the sides of the pins and, hence, it may not be safe to lift; if contact is occasionally broken, then the load is probably not resting against the pins, so it should be safe to lift. It is assumed that the load and base, or at least the pins and the surfaces of the alignment holes in the load, are electrically conductive, so the instrument can use electrical contact to indicate mechanical contact. However, DC resistance cannot be used as an indicator of contact for the following reasons: The load and the base are both electrically grounded through cables (the load is grounded through the lifting cable of the crane) to prevent discharge of static electricity. In other words, the DC resistance between the load and the pins is always low, as though they were always in direct contact. Therefore, instead of DC resistance, the instrument utilizes the AC electrical impedance between the pins and the load. The signal frequency used in the measurement is high enough (.1 MHz) that the impedance contributed by the cables and the electrical ground network of the building in which the crane and the base are situated is significantly greater than the contact

  15. Ferromagnetic tunnel contacts to graphene: Contact resistance and spin signal

    SciTech Connect

    Cubukcu, M.; Laczkowski, P.; Vergnaud, C.; Marty, A.; Attané, J.-P.; Notin, L.; Vila, L. Jamet, M.; Martin, M.-B.; Seneor, P.; Anane, A.; Deranlot, C.; Fert, A.; Auffret, S.; Ducruet, C.

    2015-02-28

    We report spin transport in CVD graphene-based lateral spin valves using different magnetic contacts. We compared the spin signal amplitude measured on devices where the cobalt layer is directly in contact with the graphene to the one obtained using tunnel contacts. Although a sizeable spin signal (up to ∼2 Ω) is obtained with direct contacts, the signal is strongly enhanced (∼400 Ω) by inserting a tunnel barrier. In addition, we studied the resistance-area product (R.A) of a variety of contacts on CVD graphene. In particular, we compared the R.A products of alumina and magnesium oxide tunnel barriers grown by sputtering deposition of aluminum or magnesium and subsequent natural oxidation under pure oxygen atmosphere or by plasma. When using an alumina tunnel barrier on CVD graphene, the R.A product is high and exhibits a large dispersion. This dispersion can be highly reduced by using a magnesium oxide tunnel barrier, as for the R.A value. This study gives insight in the material quest for reproducible and efficient spin injection in CVD graphene.

  16. Measuring The Contact Resistances Of Photovoltaic Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    Simple method devised to measure contact resistances of photovoltaic solar cells. Method uses readily available equipment and applicable at any time during life of cell. Enables evaluation of cell contact resistance, contact-end resistance, contact resistivity, sheet resistivity, and sheet resistivity under contact.

  17. Solar cell with back side contacts

    DOEpatents

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J; Wanlass, Mark Woodbury; Clews, Peggy J

    2013-12-24

    A III-V solar cell is described herein that includes all back side contacts. Additionally, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact compoud semiconductor layers of the solar cell other than the absorbing layer of the solar cell. That is, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact passivating layers of the solar cell.

  18. Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Sections Contact Lens-Related ... About Contact Lenses Proper Care of Contact Lenses Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Written by: Kierstan Boyd ...

  19. RF Sputtering of Gold Contacts On Niobium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, D. W.

    1983-01-01

    Reliable gold contacts are deposited on niobium by combination of RF sputtering and photolithography. Process results in structures having gold only where desired for electrical contact. Contacts are stable under repeated cycling from room temperature to 4.2 K and show room-temperature contact resistance as much as 40 percent below indium contacts made by thermalcompression bonding.

  20. On the structure of contact binaries. I - The contact discontinuity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shu, F. H.; Lubow, S. H.; Anderson, L.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of the interior structure of contact binaries is reviewed, and a simple resolution of the difficulties which plague the theory is suggested. It is proposed that contact binaries contain a contact discontinuity between the lower surface of the common envelope and the Roche lobe of the cooler star. This discontinuity is maintained against thermal diffusion by fluid flow, and the transition layer is thin to the extent that the dynamical time scale is short in comparison with the thermal time scale. The idealization that the transition layer has infinitesimal thickness allows a simple formulation of the structure equations which are closed by appropriate jump conditions across the discontinuity. The further imposition of the standard boundary conditions suffices to define a unique model for the system once the chemical composition, the masses of the two stars, and the orbital separation are specified.

  1. Reduced contact resistance in top-contact organic field-effect transistors by interface contact doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Ji-Ling; Kasemann, Daniel; Widmer, Johannes; Günther, Alrun A.; Lüssem, Björn; Leo, Karl

    2016-03-01

    Emerging organic integrated electronics require capability of high speed and the compatibility with high-resolution structuring processes such as photolithography. When downscaling the channel length, the contact resistance is known to limit the performance of the short channel devices. In this report, orthogonal photolithography is used for the patterning of the source/drain electrodes of the organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) as well as the interface dopant insertion layers for further modifications of the contact resistance. Bottom-gate top-contact pentacene OFETs with different thicknesses of the p-dopant 2,2'-(perfluoronaphthalene-2,6-diylidene)dimalononitrile under the Au electrodes show a significant decrease in threshold voltage from -2.2 V to -0.8 V and in contact resistance from 55 k Ω cm to 10 k Ω cm by adding a 1 nm thin dopant interlayer. The influence of doping on charge carrier injection is directly visible in the temperature-dependent output characteristics and a charge-transfer activation energy of ˜20 meV is obtained. Our results provide a systematic study of interface contact doping and also show the connection between interface contact doping and improved charge carrier injection by the activation of charge transfer process.

  2. SARS Patients and Their Close Contacts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fact Sheet for SARS Patients and Their Close Contacts Format: Select one PDF [256 KB] Recommend on ... that are not now known. What does "close contact" mean? In the context of SARS, close contact ...

  3. Multimodal characterization of contact lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcus, Michael A.; Compertore, David; Gibson, Donald S.; Herbrand, Matthew E.; Ignatovich, Filipp V.

    2015-10-01

    A table top instrument has been designed, constructed and tested to characterize all of the primary optical and physical properties of contact lenses. Measured optical properties include base power, cylinder power, cylindrical axis, prism, refractive index and wavefront aberrations. Measured physical properties include center thickness, lens diameter and lens sagittal depth. The instrument combines a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS), a machine vision sensor, and a low coherence light interferometer (LCI) all coaxially aligned into a single tabletop unit. The unit includes a cuvette, mounted in a translatable sample chamber for holding the contact lens under test, and it can be configured to measure wet or dry contact lenses. During operation, the vision sensor measures the diameter of the lens, and locates the center of the lens. The lens is then aligned for other measurements. The vision sensor can also measure various alignment marks on the lens, as well as identify any alpha numerical features, which can be used to associate the lens orientation with the measured aberrations. The LCI measures the center thickness, sagittal depth and index of refraction of the contact lens. The base radius of curvature is then calculated using these measured parameters. The SHWS measures the lenses prescription power, including spherical, cylinder, prism, and higher order wavefront aberrations. NIST traceable calibration artifacts are used to calibrate the SHWS, machine vision and LCI modalities. Repeatability measurements on a contact lens in a saline solution are presented.

  4. Marine Bioinspired Underwater Contact Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Sean K; Sodano, Antonio; Cunningham, Dylan J; Huang, Sharon S; Zalicki, Piotr J; Shin, Seunghan; Ahn, B Kollbe

    2016-05-01

    Marine mussels and barnacles are sessile biofouling organisms that adhere to a number of surfaces in wet environments and maintain remarkably strong bonds. Previous synthetic approaches to mimic biological wet adhesive properties have focused mainly on the catechol moiety, present in mussel foot proteins (mfps), and especially rich in the interfacial mfps, for example, mfp-3 and -5, found at the interface between the mussel plaque and substrate. Barnacles, however, do not use Dopa for their wet adhesion, but are instead rich in noncatecholic aromatic residues. Due to this anomaly, we were intrigued to study the initial contact adhesion properties of copolymerized acrylate films containing the key functionalities of barnacle cement proteins and interfacial mfps, for example, aromatic (catecholic or noncatecholic), cationic, anionic, and nonpolar residues. The initial wet contact adhesion of the copolymers was measured using a probe tack testing apparatus with a flat-punch contact geometry. The wet contact adhesion of an optimized, bioinspired copolymer film was ∼15.0 N/cm(2) in deionized water and ∼9.0 N/cm(2) in artificial seawater, up to 150 times greater than commercial pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) tapes (∼0.1 N/cm(2)). Furthermore, maximum wet contact adhesion was obtained at ∼pH 7, suggesting viability for biomedical applications. PMID:27046671

  5. Contact tracing and disease control.

    PubMed Central

    Eames, Ken T D; Keeling, Matt J

    2003-01-01

    Contact tracing, followed by treatment or isolation, is a key control measure in the battle against infectious diseases. It is an extreme form of locally targeted control, and as such has the potential to be highly efficient when dealing with low numbers of cases. For this reason it is frequently used to combat sexually transmitted diseases and new invading pathogens. Accurate modelling of contact tracing requires explicit information about the disease-transmission pathways from each individual, and hence the network of contacts. Here, pairwise-approximation methods and full stochastic simulations are used to investigate the utility of contact tracing. A simple relationship is found between the efficiency of contact tracing necessary for eradication and the basic reproductive ratio of the disease. This holds for a wide variety of realistic situations including heterogeneous networks containing core-groups or super-spreaders, and asymptomatic individuals. Clustering (transitivity) within the transmission network is found to destroy the relationship, requiring lower efficiency than predicted. PMID:14728778

  6. Contact electrification of insulating materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacks, Daniel J.; Mohan Sankaran, R.

    2011-11-01

    The electrostatic charge that is generated when two materials are contacted or rubbed and then separated is a well-known physical process that has been studied for more than 2500 years. Contact electrification occurs in many contexts, both natural and technological. For example, in dust storms the collisions between particles lead to electrostatic charging and in extreme cases, extraordinary lightning displays. In electrophotography, toner particles are intentionally charged to guide their deposition in well-defined patterns. Despite such a long history and so many important consequences, a fundamental understanding of the mechanism behind contact electrification remains elusive. An open question is what type of species are transferred between the surfaces to generate charge—experiments suggest various species ranging from electrons to ions to nanoscopic bits of material, and theoretical work suggests that non-equilibrium states may play an important role. Another open question is the contact electrification that occurs when two insulating materials with identical physical properties touch—since there is no apparent driving force, it is not clear why charge transfer occurs. A third open question involves granular systems—models and experiments have shown that a particle-size dependence for the charging often exists. In this review, we discuss the fundamental aspects of contact electrification and highlight recent research efforts aimed at understanding these open questions.

  7. 78 FR 14549 - National Contact Center; Information Collection; National Contact Center Customer Evaluation Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION National Contact Center; Information Collection; National Contact Center Customer Evaluation Survey AGENCY: Contact Center Services, Federal Citizen Information Center, Office of Citizen Services... requirement regarding the National Contact Center customer evaluation surveys. In this request, the...

  8. Dermatitis, contact on the cheek (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin inflammation (dermatitis) on the cheek caused by contact with a substance that produced an allergic reaction (allergen). Contact dermatitis causes redness, itching, and small blisters (vesicles).

  9. Contacts de langues et representations (Language Contacts and Representations).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthey, Marinette, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    Essays on language contact and the image of language, entirely in French, include: "Representations 'du' contexte et representations 'en' contexte? Eleves et enseignants face a l'apprentissage de la langue" ("Representations 'of' Context or Representations 'in' Context? Students and Teachers Facing Language Learning" (Laurent Gajo); "Le crepuscule…

  10. Nanotechnology and Food Contact Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaspyrides, Constantine (Costas) D.

    2010-06-01

    The use of nanotechnology in food contact materials is highlighted in relation to novel applications and potential implications for consumer safety and regulatory controls. Nanotechnology applications are expected to bring a range of benefits to the food sector, including improved packaging, antimicrobial properties, traceability and security of food products. The toxicological nature of hazard, likelihood of exposure and risk to consumers from nanotechnology-derived food/food packaging are largely unknown and this work highlights the benefits of nanotechnology in food contact materials but also the gaps in knowledge regarding consumers safety that require further research.

  11. Contact potential measurement: The preamplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Frank

    1992-07-01

    The factors governing the choice of preamplifier type for the vibrating capacitive probe used in contact potential measurements are examined. Two types are compared: a high input impedance voltage amplifier and a current amplifier. The latter has been increasingly used in recent years due to its great advantages in dealing with parasitic input capacitance. We extend previous analyses, elucidating other advantages of the current amplifier. Particularly important are (i) the reduction of spurious microphonic signals, implying lower systematic error, and (ii) the white noise spectrum of its equivalent contact potential noise, which allows random error to be effectively reduced by increased averaging periods.

  12. Non- contacting capacitive diagnostic device

    DOEpatents

    Ellison, Timothy

    2005-07-12

    A non-contacting capacitive diagnostic device includes a pulsed light source for producing an electric field in a semiconductor or photovoltaic device or material to be evaluated and a circuit responsive to the electric field. The circuit is not in physical contact with the device or material being evaluated and produces an electrical signal characteristic of the electric field produced in the device or material. The diagnostic device permits quality control and evaluation of semiconductor or photovoltaic device properties in continuous manufacturing processes.

  13. [Tefillin-related contact dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Hashkes, Philip J; Sagi, Efraim

    2011-09-01

    We describe a 14 year-old male with a background of atopic dermatitis who developed a contact dermatitis reaction on the left arm to the leather straps of tefillin (phylacteries), a religious article worn by observant Jewish men from the age 13 years during most morning prayer services. Patch testing revealed contact allergy to potassium dichromate, a chemical involved in leather tanning. Placing the leather straps over clothing and later switching to potassium dichromate-free leather straps resolved the condition. It is important to recognize this uncommon phenomena in a population in which a large proportion regularly use this religious article. PMID:22026052

  14. Contacts of space--times

    SciTech Connect

    Maia, M.D.

    1981-03-01

    The concept of contact between manifolds is applied to space--times of general relativity. For a given background space--time a contact approximation of second order is defined and interpreted both from the point of view of a metric pertubation and of a higher order tangent manifold. In the first case, an application to the high frequency gravitational wave hypothesis is suggested. In the second case, a constant curvature tangent bundle is constructed and suggested as a means to define a ten parameter local space--time symmetry.

  15. Corneal topography and contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Szczotka, Loretta B

    2003-09-01

    Regardless of whether CVK is used qualitatively for RGP lens design selection or quantitatively in RGP parameter selection, it has a significant role in contact lens practice. Further advancements and testing on CVK-based RGP fitting modules and fluorescein simulations will make CVK an invaluable tool for the RGP lens fitter. Soft lens applications of CVK data are already being tested [42,43]. This technology will become the standard of care for all contact lens patients and will most likely replace the keratometer. PMID:14564765

  16. Thermal and electrical contact conductance studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vansciver, S. W.; Nilles, M.

    1985-01-01

    Prediction of electrical and thermal contact resistance for pressed, nominally flat contacts is complicated by the large number of variables which influence contact formation. This is reflected in experimental results as a wide variation in contact resistances, spanning up to six orders of magnitude. A series of experiments were performed to observe the effects of oxidation and surface roughness on contact resistance. Electrical contact resistance and thermal contact conductance from 4 to 290 K on OFHC Cu contacts are reported. Electrical contact resistance was measured with a 4-wire DC technique. Thermal contact conductance was determined by steady-state longitudinal heat flow. Corrections for the bulk contribution ot the overall measured resistance were made, with the remaining resistance due solely to the presence of the contact.

  17. Imaging surface contacts: Power law contact distributions and contact stresses in quartz, calcite, glass and acrylic plastic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieterich, J.H.; Kilgore, B.D.

    1996-01-01

    A procedure has been developed to obtain microscope images of regions of contact between roughened surfaces of transparent materials, while the surfaces are subjected to static loads or undergoing frictional slip. Static loading experiments with quartz, calcite, soda-lime glass and acrylic plastic at normal stresses to 30 MPa yield power law distributions of contact areas from the smallest contacts that can be resolved (3.5 ??m2) up to a limiting size that correlates with the grain size of the abrasive grit used to roughen the surfaces. In each material, increasing normal stress results in a roughly linear increase of the real area of contact. Mechanisms of contact area increase are by growth of existing contacts, coalescence of contacts and appearance of new contacts. Mean contacts stresses are consistent with the indentation strength of each material. Contact size distributions are insensitive to normal stress indicating that the increase of contact area is approximately self-similar. The contact images and contact distributions are modeled using simulations of surfaces with random fractal topographies. The contact process for model fractal surfaces is represented by the simple expedient of removing material at regions where surface irregularities overlap. Synthetic contact images created by this approach reproduce observed characteristics of the contacts and demonstrate that the exponent in the power law distributions depends on the scaling exponent used to generate the surface topography.

  18. DISEASES CAUSED BY WATER CONTACT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diseases associated with water contact are reviewed with respect to the sources of etiological agents, the types of diseases and the conditions under which they occur. The sources of disease agents fall into three general groups; point sources such as sewage treatment plants; dis...

  19. Contact symmetries and Hamiltonian thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Bravetti, A.; Lopez-Monsalvo, C.S.; Nettel, F.

    2015-10-15

    It has been shown that contact geometry is the proper framework underlying classical thermodynamics and that thermodynamic fluctuations are captured by an additional metric structure related to Fisher’s Information Matrix. In this work we analyse several unaddressed aspects about the application of contact and metric geometry to thermodynamics. We consider here the Thermodynamic Phase Space and start by investigating the role of gauge transformations and Legendre symmetries for metric contact manifolds and their significance in thermodynamics. Then we present a novel mathematical characterization of first order phase transitions as equilibrium processes on the Thermodynamic Phase Space for which the Legendre symmetry is broken. Moreover, we use contact Hamiltonian dynamics to represent thermodynamic processes in a way that resembles the classical Hamiltonian formulation of conservative mechanics and we show that the relevant Hamiltonian coincides with the irreversible entropy production along thermodynamic processes. Therefore, we use such property to give a geometric definition of thermodynamically admissible fluctuations according to the Second Law of thermodynamics. Finally, we show that the length of a curve describing a thermodynamic process measures its entropy production.

  20. Non-contact ECG monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Alexey S.; Erlikh, Vadim V.; Kodkin, Vladimir L.; Keller, Andrei V.; Epishev, Vitaly V.

    2016-03-01

    The research is dedicated to non-contact methods of electrocardiography. The authors describe the routine of experimental procedure and suggest the approach to solving the problems which arise at indirect signal recording. The paper presents the results of experiments conducted by the authors, covers the flow charts of ECG recorders and reviews the drawbacks of filtering methods used in foreign equivalents.

  1. Barrier/Cu contact resistivity

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, J.S.; Nicolet, M.A.; Angyal, M.S.; Lilienfeld, D.; Shacham-Diamand, Y.; Smith, P.M.

    1995-10-17

    The specific contact resistivity of Cu with ({alpha} + {beta})-Ta, TiN, {alpha}-W, and amorphous-Ta{sub 36}Si{sub 14}N{sub 50} barrier films is measured using a novel four-point-probe approach. Geometrically, the test structures consist of colinear sets of W-plugs to act as current and voltage probes that contact the bottom of a planar Cu/barrier/Cu stack. Underlying Al interconnects link the plugs to the current source and voltmeter. The center-to-center distance of the probes ranges from 3 to 200 {micro}m. Using a relation developed by Vu et al., a contact resistivity of roughly 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} {Omega} cm{sup 2} is obtained for all tested barrier/Cu combinations. By reflective-mode small-angle X-ray scattering, the similarity in contact resistivity among the barrier films may be related to interfacial impurities absorbed from the deposition process.

  2. Cultural Contacts, Attitudes and Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Carol; Purbhoo, Mary

    To investigate the effects of contacts with people from other cultures, students in nine Canadian secondary schools with differing ethnic population densities were compared. The first focus of the study was the development of cross-cultural understanding. Three measurement instruments were administered to eleventh grade English and history classes…

  3. Patterns of Nonresident Father Contact

    PubMed Central

    CHEADLE, JACOB E.; AMATO, PAUL R.; KING, VALARIE

    2010-01-01

    We used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort (NLSY79) from 1979 to 2002 and the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (CNLSY) from 1986 to 2002 to describe the number, shape, and population frequencies of U.S. nonresident father contact trajectories over a 14-year period using growth mixture models. The resulting four-category classification indicated that nonresident father involvement is not adequately characterized by a single population with a monotonic pattern of declining contact over time. Contrary to expectations, about two-thirds of fathers were consistently either highly involved or rarely involved in their children’s lives. Only one group, constituting approximately 23% of fathers, exhibited a clear pattern of declining contact. In addition, a small group of fathers (8%) displayed a pattern of increasing contact. A variety of variables differentiated between these groups, including the child’s age at father-child separation, whether the child was born within marriage, the mother’s education, the mother’s age at birth, whether the father pays child support regularly, and the geographical distance between fathers and children. PMID:20355691

  4. Electrical contact tool set station

    DOEpatents

    Byers, M.E.

    1988-02-22

    An apparatus is provided for the precise setting to zero of electrically conductive cutting tools used in the machining of work pieces. An electrically conductive cylindrical pin, tapered at one end to a small flat, rests in a vee-shaped channel in a base so that its longitudinal axis is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the machine's spindle. Electronic apparatus is connected between the cylindrical pin and the electrically conductive cutting tool to produce a detectable signal when contact between tool and pin is made. The axes of the machine are set to zero by contact between the cutting tool and the sides, end or top of the cylindrical pin. Upon contact, an electrical circuit is completed, and the detectable signal is produced. The tool can then be set to zero for that axis. Should the tool contact the cylindrical pin with too much force, the cylindrical pin would be harmlessly dislodged from the vee-shaped channel, preventing damage either to the cutting tool or the cylindrical pin. 5 figs.

  5. Contact lens related corneal ulcer.

    PubMed

    Loh, Ky; Agarwal, P

    2010-01-01

    A corneal ulcer caused by infection is one of the major causes of blindness worldwide. One of the recent health concerns is the increasing incidence of corneal ulcers associated with contact lens user especially if the users fail to follow specific instruction in using their contact lenses. Risk factors associated with increased risk of contact lens related corneal ulcers are: overnight wear, long duration of continuous wear, lower socio-economic classes, smoking, dry eye and poor hygiene. The presenting symptoms of contact lens related corneal ulcers include eye discomfort, foreign body sensation and lacrimation. More serious symptoms are redness (especially circum-corneal injection), severe pain, photophobia, eye discharge and blurring of vision. The diagnosis is established by a thorough slit lamp microscopic examination with fluorescein staining and corneal scraping for Gram stain and culture of the infective organism. Delay in diagnosing and treatment can cause permanent blindness, therefore an early referral to ophthalmologist and commencing of antimicrobial therapy can prevent visual loss. PMID:25606178

  6. Assessing Measures of Contact Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, William R.; Patchen, Martin

    This paper consolidates findings from two related studies: William Brown's research on the predictive ability of measures of early and non-high school interracial contact/opportunities that appear to affect interracial attitudes and behaviors in high school; and Martin Patchen's investigation in Indianapolis, Indiana high schools analyzing the…

  7. Computing Contact Stresses In Gear Teeth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, Fred B.; Somprakit, Paisan; Huston, Ronald L.

    1995-01-01

    Improved method of computing contact stresses in gear teeth accounts for complicating effects like those of static and sliding friction. Provides iterative procedure for determination of contact region and nodal contact forces along with contact stresses. Method based on equations and computational procedure incorporating these effects routinely.

  8. Contact discontinuity as a stabilizing factor in contact binary stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarna, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    A mechanism is proposed, which can stabilize oscillation cycles, in the sense of the thermal relaxation oscillation theory, during the first phase of the contact configuration evolution. It is argued that a special structure of the secondary component (the inversion layer) acts as a stabilizing factor that is complementary to another stabilizing factor (evolved primary component) proposed by Rahunen (1981). The proposition explains quite well the fact that not many systems with EB and EW light curves are observed.

  9. Spin analysis of concentrated traction contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1983-01-01

    Spin, the result of a mismatch in contact radii on either side of the point of rolling, has a detrimental effect on traction contact performance. It occurs in concentrated contacts having conical or contoured rolling elements, such as those in traction drives or angular contact bearings, and is responsible for an increase in contact heating and power loss. The kinematics of spin producing contact geometries and the subsequent effect on traction and power loss are investigated. The influence of lubricant traction characteristics and contact geometries that minimize spin are also addressed.

  10. Phenomena resulting from hypergolic contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forness, Jordan M.

    Understanding hypergolic ignition is critical for the safe and successful operation of hypergolic engines. The complex coupling of physical and chemical processes during hypergolic ignition complicates analysis of the event. Presently, hypergolic ignition models cannot simulate liquid contact and mixing or liquid-phase chemical reactions, and rely on experimental results for validation. In some cases, chemical kinetics of hypergolic propellants and fluid dynamics of droplet collisions couple to produce unexpected phenomena. This research investigates contact between droplets and pools of liquid hypergolic propellants under various conditions in order to investigate these liquid-phase reactions and categorize the resulting interaction. During this experiment, 142 drop tests were performed to investigate phenomena associated with hypergolic contact of various propellants. A drop of fuel impacted a semi-ellipsoidal pool of oxidizer at varying impact velocities and impact geometries. The temperature, pressure, ambient atmosphere, and propellant quality were all controlled during the experiment, as these factors have been shown to influence hypergolic ignition delay. Three distinct types of impacts were identified: explosions, bounces, and splashes. The impact type was found to depend on the impact Weber number and impact angle. Splashes occurred above a critical Weber number of 250, regardless of impact angle. Explosions occurred for Weber numbers less than 250, and for impact angles less than seven degrees. If the impact angle was greater than seven degrees then the test resulted in a bounce. Literature related to explosions induced by hypergolic contact was reviewed. Explosions were observed to occur inconsistently, a feature that has never been addressed. Literature related to non-reactive splashing, bouncing, and coalescence was reviewed for insight into the explosion phenomenon. I propose that the dependence of impact angle on the transition between explosion and

  11. Improved Electrical Contact For Dowhhole Drilling Networks

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Dahlgren, Scott; Fox, Joe; Sneddon, Cameron

    2005-08-16

    An electrical contact system for transmitting information across tool joints while minimizing signal reflections that occur at the tool joints includes a first electrical contact comprising an annular resilient material. An annular conductor is embedded within the annular resilient material and has a surface exposed from the annular resilient material. A second electrical contact is provided that is substantially equal to the first electrical contact. Likewise, the second electrical contact has an annular resilient material and an annular conductor. The two electrical contacts configured to contact one another such that the annular conductors of each come into physical contact. The annular resilient materials of each electrical contact each have dielectric characteristics and dimensions that are adjusted to provide desired impedance to the electrical contacts.

  12. Thermal Contact Resistance: Experiment Versus Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, L.; Moyne, C.; Degiovanni, A.

    1998-11-01

    With a knowledge of the thermal resistance value associated with an asperity, a model for the thermal contact resistance of a given interface is obtained by considering that each asperity of surfaces in contact is a flux tube. Calculation of any of the thermal conductances depends on the contact radius of each asperity. This radius increases with load, as asperities are compressed. Contact area is calculated for a plastic load. Values of thermal contact conductance (or resistance) are compared with experimental results.

  13. Pseudoelastic deformation during nanoscale adhesive contact formation.

    PubMed

    Mordehai, Dan; Rabkin, Eugen; Srolovitz, David J

    2011-08-26

    Molecular dynamics simulations are employed to demonstrate that adhesive contact formation through classical jump to contact is mediated by extensive dislocation activity in metallic nanoparticles. The dislocations generated during jump to contact are completely annihilated by the completion of the adhesive contact, leaving the nanoparticles dislocation-free. This rapid and efficient jump to contact process is pseudoelastic, rather than purely elastic or plastic. PMID:21929255

  14. Chain Of Test Contacts For Integrated Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieneweg, Udo

    1989-01-01

    Test structure forms chain of "cross" contacts fabricated together with large-scale integrated circuits. If necessary, number of such chains incorporated at suitable locations in integrated-circuit wafer for determination of fabrication yield of contacts. In new structure, resistances of individual contacts determined: In addition to making it possible to identify local defects, enables generation of statistical distributions of contact resistances for prediction of "parametric" contact yield of fabrication process.

  15. PREFACE: Non-contact AFM Non-contact AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giessibl, Franz J.; Morita, Seizo

    2012-02-01

    This special issue is focussed on high resolution non-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM). Non-contact atomic force microscopy was established approximately 15 years ago as a tool to image conducting and insulating surfaces with atomic resolution. Since 1998, an annual international conference has taken place, and although the proceedings of these conferences are a useful source of information, several key developments warrant devoting a special issue to this subject. In the theoretic field, the possibility of supplementing established techniques such as scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and Kelvin probe microscopy with atomically resolved force micrsoscopy poses many challenges in the calculation of contrast and contrast reversal. The surface science of insulators, self-assembled monolayers and adsorbates on insulators is a fruitful field for the application of non-contact AFM: several articles in this issue are devoted to these subjects. Atomic imaging and manipulation have been pioneered using STM, but because AFM allows the measurement of forces, AFM has had a profound impact in this field as well. Three-dimensional force spectroscopy has allowed many important insights into surface science. In this issue a combined 3D tunneling and force microscopy is introduced. Non-contact AFM typically uses frequency modulation to measure force gradients and was initially used mainly in a vacuum. As can be seen in this issue, frequency modulation is now also used in ambient conditions, allowing better spatial and force resolution. We thank all of the contributors for their time and efforts in making this special issue possible. We are also very grateful to the staff of IOP Publishing for handling the administrative aspects and for steering the refereeing process. Non-contact AFM contents Relation between the chemical force and the tunnelling current in atomic point contacts: a simple model Pavel Jelínek, Martin Ondrácek and Fernando Flores Theoretical simulation of

  16. Sensing with Superconducting Point Contacts

    PubMed Central

    Nurbawono, Argo; Zhang, Chun

    2012-01-01

    Superconducting point contacts have been used for measuring magnetic polarizations, identifying magnetic impurities, electronic structures, and even the vibrational modes of small molecules. Due to intrinsically small energy scale in the subgap structures of the supercurrent determined by the size of the superconducting energy gap, superconductors provide ultrahigh sensitivities for high resolution spectroscopies. The so-called Andreev reflection process between normal metal and superconductor carries complex and rich information which can be utilized as powerful sensor when fully exploited. In this review, we would discuss recent experimental and theoretical developments in the supercurrent transport through superconducting point contacts and their relevance to sensing applications, and we would highlight their current issues and potentials. A true utilization of the method based on Andreev reflection analysis opens up possibilities for a new class of ultrasensitive sensors. PMID:22778630

  17. Contact charge-transfer lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Dharamsi, A.N.; Tulip, J.

    1981-07-01

    A mechanism for sustaining population inversions in contact charge-transfer complexes in which the ground electronic state is not bound is described. The mechanism relies on picosecond radiationless depletion of the lower laser state. This generates an inversion even when the ground-state potential curve, as plotted against the donor-acceptor distance, is not repulsive vertically below the excited state minimum. Contact charge-transfer lasers would offer high gain, high-energy density, and tunable sources of coherent radiation in the uv and visible. A method for pumping such a laser is examined and applied to the pyrrole-oxygen complex. A rate equation analysis is done and estimates for gain and energy density are presented.

  18. Remedial Action Contacts Directory - 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This document, which was prepared for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration (ER), is a directory of 2628 individuals interested or involved in environmental restoration and/or remedial actions at radioactively contaminated sites. This directory contains a list of mailing addresses and phone numbers of DOE operations, area, site, project, and contractor offices; an index of DOE operations, area, site, project, and contractor office sorted by state; a list of individuals, presented by last name, facsimile number, and e-mail address; an index of affiliations presented alphabetically, with individual contacts appearing below each affiliation name; and an index of foreign contacta sorted by country and affiliation. This document was generated from the Remedial Action Contacts Database, which is maintained by the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC).

  19. Contact microscopy with synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Panessa-Warren, B.J.

    1985-10-01

    Soft x-ray contact microscopy with synchrotron radiation offers the biologist and especially the microscopist, a way to morphologically study specimens that could not be imaged by conventional TEM, STEM or SEM methods (i.e. hydrated samples, samples easily damaged by an electron beam, electron dense samples, thick specimens, unstained low contrast specimens) at spatial resolutions approaching those of the TEM, with the additional possibility to obtain compositional (elemental) information about the sample as well. Although flash x-ray sources offer faster exposure times, synchrotron radiation provides a highly collimated, intense radiation that can be tuned to select specific discrete ranges of x-ray wavelengths or specific individual wavelengths which optimize imaging or microanalysis of a specific sample. This paper presents an overview of the applications of x-ray contact microscopy to biological research and some current research results using monochromatic synchrotron radiation to image biological samples. 24 refs., 10 figs.

  20. Contact dermatitis caused by preservatives.

    PubMed

    Yim, Elizabeth; Baquerizo Nole, Katherine L; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Preservatives are biocidal chemicals added to food, cosmetics, and industrial products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. They are usually nontoxic and inexpensive and have a long shelf life. Unfortunately, they commonly cause contact dermatitis. This article reviews the most important classes of preservatives physicians are most likely to encounter in their daily practice, specifically isothiazolinones, formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, and parabens. For each preservative mentioned, the prevalence of sensitization, clinical presentation of contact dermatitis, patch testing concentrations, cross reactions, and related legislation will be discussed. Mandatory labeling of preservatives is required in some countries, but not required in others. Until policies are made, physicians and patients must be proactive in identifying potential sensitizers and removing their use. We hope that this article will serve as a guide for policy makers in creating legislation and future regulations on the use and concentration of certain preservatives in cosmetics and industrial products. PMID:25207684

  1. Freely suspended quantum point contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rössler, C.; Herz, M.; Bichler, M.; Ludwig, S.

    2010-05-01

    We present a versatile design of freely suspended quantum point contacts with particular large one-dimensional subband quantization energies of up to Δɛ≈10 meV. The nanoscale bridges embedding a two-dimensional electron system are fabricated from AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures by electron-beam lithography and etching techniques. Narrow constrictions define quantum point contacts that are capacitively controlled via local in-plane side gates. Employing transport spectroscopy, we investigate the transition from electrostatic subbands to Landau quantization in a perpendicular magnetic field. The large subband quantization energies allow us to utilize a wide magnetic field range and thereby observe a large exchange split spin-gap of the two lowest Landau-levels.

  2. Allergic contact dermatitis to Alstroemeria.

    PubMed

    Marks, J G

    1988-06-01

    Two female florists developed dermatitis of the fingertips. Patch testing revealed allergic contact dermatitis to the flower, Alstroemeria, used in floral arrangements. They had positive patch tests to portions of Alstroemeria, and to tuliposide A, the allergen in this plant. Vinyl gloves were not helpful since tuliposide A readily penetrates through these gloves. Nitrile gloves may be protective since they prevented positive patch test to tuliposide A. PMID:2967676

  3. [Contact allergies in medical occupations].

    PubMed

    Rustemeyer, T; Pilz, B; Frosch, P J

    1994-12-01

    Based on reports in the literature, data from the information network of German dermatology centres (Informationsverbund Dermatologischer Kliniken) and the authors own findings, a review is presented on prevalence, clinical picture and causative agents of contact allergic dermatoses in health care professions. In 1991 the proportion of suspected occupational diseases in the health care professions (including hairdressers) represented by cases of dermatitis, as reported to the responsible insurance institution, reached 72% of the total for the year (7287 out of 10127). Every 20th to 40th case was recognized as an occupational dermatosis according to German law. Accurate figures on incidence are scarce; for dentists an incidence of 0.11% has been calculated. The risk of developing occupational hand eczema has been shown to be at least three times higher for nurses than for other so-called dry professions. For persons engaged in the personal care of the ill and the elderly, relevant occupational allergens were found to be benzalkonium chloride and aldehydes in disinfectants, as well as rubber accelerators such as thiuram mix. Latex contact urticaria has increasing significance for medical personnel, with prevalence rates of sensitization between 4.5% and 10.7%. Among physicians, contact allergies to thiuram mix were found to be dominant (12.9%). For surgeons and orthopaedic surgeons, methyl methacrylate as a constituent of bone cement is of great importance. Various esters of acrylic acid and methacrylic acid are important sensitizers in the dental professions, particularly in heavily exposed dental laboratory technicians. Only a few gloves protect against these types of sensitizers. Sensitizations by medicaments can be avoided in most cases by reducing direct skin contact, as practiced with penicillin or ispaghula powder. Strategies of prevention include information of atopics regarding the increase in occupational dermatitis, the regular use of barrier creams

  4. [Contact allergy to essential oils].

    PubMed

    Selvåg, E; Holm, J O; Thune, P

    1995-11-10

    Ethereal oils are widely used, in food, toothpaste, as flavouring agents in perfumes and cosmetics, and in dermatological treatment, as antiseptics, adstringenta, antipruritic tinctures, lotions and pomades. The use of ethereal oils seems to have increased in recent years, probably due to a growing interest in alternative medicine, and especially aromatherapy. By describing the cases of three patients with allergic contact dermatitis, we wish to point out possible unwanted side effects of using ethereal oils. PMID:7491578

  5. Contact | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    For more information about the Office of Cancer Genomics, please contact: Office of Cancer Genomics National Cancer Institute 31 Center Drive, 10A07 Bethesda, Maryland 20892-2580 Phone: (301) 451-8027 Fax: (301) 480-4368 Email: ocg@mail.nih.gov *Please note that this site will not function properly in Internet Explorer unless you completely turn off the Compatibility View*

  6. Contact processes in crowded environments.

    PubMed

    Xu, S-L-Y; Schwarz, J M

    2013-11-01

    Periodically sheared colloids at low densities demonstrate a dynamical phase transition from an inactive to active phase as the strain amplitude is increased. The inactive phase consists of no collisions (contacts) between particles in the steady state limit, while in the active phase collisions persist. To investigate this system at higher densities, we construct and study a conserved-particle-number contact process with three-body interactions, which are potentially more likely than two-body interactions at higher densities. For example, consider one active (diffusing) particle colliding with two inactive (nondiffusing) particles such that they become active and consider spontaneous inactivation. In mean field, this system exhibits a continuous dynamical phase transition. Simulations on square lattices also indicate a continuous transition with exponents similar to those measured for the conserved lattice gas (CLG) model. In contrast, the three-body interaction requiring two active particles to activate one inactive particle exhibits a discontinuous transition. Finally, inspired by kinetically constrained models of the glass transition, we investigate the "caging effect" at even higher particle densities to look for a second dynamical phase transition back to an inactive phase. Square lattice simulations suggest a continuous transition with a new set of exponents differing from both the CLG model and what is known as directed percolation, indicating a potentially new universality class for a contact process with a conserved particle number. PMID:24329237

  7. 76 FR 1612 - Natural Currents Energy Services, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ..., please contact FERC Online Support at FERCOnlineSupport@ferc.gov or toll free at 1-866-208-3676, or for... stainless steel cage; (3) a 200-foot-long underwater transmission cable that would interconnect with the... document. For assistance, contact FERC Online Support at FERCOnlineSupport@ferc.gov or toll free at...

  8. Implicit Multibody Penalty-BasedDistributed Contact.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongyi; Zhao, Yili; Barbic, Jernej

    2014-09-01

    The penalty method is a simple and popular approach to resolving contact in computer graphics and robotics. Penalty-based contact, however, suffers from stability problems due to the highly variable and unpredictable net stiffness, and this is particularly pronounced in simulations with time-varying distributed geometrically complex contact. We employ semi-implicit integration, exact analytical contact gradients, symbolic Gaussian elimination and a SVD solver to simulate stable penalty-based frictional contact with large, time-varying contact areas, involving many rigid objects and articulated rigid objects in complex conforming contact and self-contact. We also derive implicit proportional-derivative control forces for real-time control of articulated structures with loops. We present challenging contact scenarios such as screwing a hexbolt into a hole, bowls stacked in perfectly conforming configurations, and manipulating many objects using actively controlled articulated mechanisms in real time. PMID:26357376

  9. Direct-Write Contacts: Metallization and Contact Formation; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    van Hest, M. F. A. M.; Curtis, C. J.; Miedaner, A.; Pasquarelli, R. M.; Kaydonova, T.; Hersh, P.; Ginley, D. S.

    2008-05-01

    Using direct-write approaches in photovoltaics for metallization and contact formation can significantly reduce the cost per watt of producing photovoltaic devices. Inks have been developed for various materials, such as Ag, Cu, Ni and Al, which can be used to inkjet print metallizations for various kinds of photovoltaic devices. Use of these inks results in metallization with resistivities close to those of bulk materials. By means of inkjet printing a metallization grid can be printed with better resolution, i.e. smaller lines, than screen-printing. Also inks have been developed to deposit transparent conductive oxide films by means of ultrasonic spraying.

  10. Contact Dermatitis, Patch Testing, and Allergen Avoidance.

    PubMed

    Burkemper, Nicole M

    2015-01-01

    In patients presenting with a complaint of rash, contact dermatitis is often the underlying diagnosis making it an entity with which health care providers should be familiar. Contact dermatitis can be divided into irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. In a patient suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis, patch testing can be done to identify specific allergens. Education focused on allergen avoidance and safe products is an integral part of treatment for the contact dermatitis patient. Knowledge of the most common allergens is helpful for clinicians to be able to provide this education. PMID:26455061

  11. Solar cell contact formation using laser ablation

    DOEpatents

    Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David D.; Cousins, Peter John

    2014-07-22

    The formation of solar cell contacts using a laser is described. A method of fabricating a back-contact solar cell includes forming a poly-crystalline material layer above a single-crystalline substrate. The method also includes forming a dielectric material stack above the poly-crystalline material layer. The method also includes forming, by laser ablation, a plurality of contacts holes in the dielectric material stack, each of the contact holes exposing a portion of the poly-crystalline materiat layer; and forming conductive contacts in the plurality of contact holes.

  12. Solar cell contact formation using laser ablation

    DOEpatents

    Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David D.; Cousins, Peter John

    2015-07-21

    The formation of solar cell contacts using a laser is described. A method of fabricating a back-contact solar cell includes forming a poly-crystalline material layer above a single-crystalline substrate. The method also includes forming a dielectric material stack above the poly-crystalline material layer. The method also includes forming, by laser ablation, a plurality of contacts holes in the dielectric material stack, each of the contact holes exposing a portion of the poly-crystalline material layer; and forming conductive contacts in the plurality of contact holes.

  13. Solar cell contact formation using laser ablation

    DOEpatents

    Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David; Cousins, Peter

    2012-12-04

    The formation of solar cell contacts using a laser is described. A method of fabricating a back-contact solar cell includes forming a poly-crystalline material layer above a single-crystalline substrate. The method also includes forming a dielectric material stack above the poly-crystalline material layer. The method also includes forming, by laser ablation, a plurality of contacts holes in the dielectric material stack, each of the contact holes exposing a portion of the poly-crystalline material layer; and forming conductive contacts in the plurality of contact holes.

  14. Low resistance contacts for shallow junction semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fatemi, Navid S. (Inventor); Weizer, Victor G. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A method of enhancing the specific contact resistivity in InP semiconductor devices and improved devices produced thereby are disclosed. Low resistivity values are obtained by using gold ohmic contacts that contain small amounts of gallium or indium and by depositing a thin gold phosphide interlayer between the surface of the InP device and the ohmic contact. When both the thin interlayer and the gold-gallium or gold-indium contact metallizations are used, ultra low specific contact resistivities are achieved. Thermal stability with good contact resistivity is achieved by depositing a layer of refractory metal over the gold phosphide interlayer.

  15. Towards an optimal contact metal for CNTFETs.

    PubMed

    Fediai, Artem; Ryndyk, Dmitry A; Seifert, Gotthard; Mothes, Sven; Claus, Martin; Schröter, Michael; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2016-05-21

    Downscaling of the contact length Lc of a side-contacted carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNTFET) is challenging because of the rapidly increasing contact resistance as Lc falls below 20-50 nm. If in agreement with existing experimental results, theoretical work might answer the question, which metals yield the lowest CNT-metal contact resistance and what physical mechanisms govern the geometry dependence of the contact resistance. However, at the scale of 10 nm, parameter-free models of electron transport become computationally prohibitively expensive. In our work we used a dedicated combination of the Green function formalism and density functional theory to perform an overall ab initio simulation of extended CNT-metal contacts of an arbitrary length (including infinite), a previously not achievable level of simulations. We provide a systematic and comprehensive discussion of metal-CNT contact properties as a function of the metal type and the contact length. We have found and been able to explain very uncommon relations between chemical, physical and electrical properties observed in CNT-metal contacts. The calculated electrical characteristics are in reasonable quantitative agreement and exhibit similar trends as the latest experimental data in terms of: (i) contact resistance for Lc = ∞, (ii) scaling of contact resistance Rc(Lc); (iii) metal-defined polarity of a CNTFET. Our results can guide technology development and contact material selection for downscaling the length of side-contacts below 10 nm. PMID:27124382

  16. Seeking Contact: Issues to Consider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaud, M.

    Seeking contact with extraterrestrial intelligence is a species enterprise that should be conducted with our shared interests in mind. We must reflect on the full range of possible outcomes; we cannot opt out of the potential consequences of actions taken by small numbers of our fellow humans. Until we have empirical evidence about alien technological civilizations, we can reason about them only by analogy with our own history and behaviour. Given that record, some degree of prudence is in order. To conduct this debate more rationally, we must free our thinking of excessively binary stereotypes.

  17. Thermal Conductances Of Metal Contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salerno, L. J.; Kittel, P.; Scherkenbach, F. E.; Spivak, A. L.

    1988-01-01

    Report presents results of measurements of thermal conductances of aluminum and stainless-steel contacts at temperatures from 1.6 to 6.0 K. Measurement apparatus includes gearmotor assembly connected to rocker arm by music wire to load sample pair with forces up to 670 N. Heater placed above upper sample. Germanium resistance thermometers in upper and lower samples measured temperature difference across interface over range of heater powers from 0.1 to 10.0 mW. The thermal conductance calculated from temperature difference. Measurements provide data for prediction of thermal conductances of bolted joints in cryogenic infrared instruments.

  18. Smart contact oscillations by IPMCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asanuma, H.; Asaka, K.; Su, J.; Poubel, L.; Shahinpoor, M.

    2016-02-01

    An ion migration-induced self-oscillation phenomenon observed in ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) is reported. These oscillations are generated from a purely static equilibrium configuration of IPMCs in loose contact with a stationary electrode, and in particular the anode of an imposed DC voltage source. Many interesting possibilities emerge, which are described in this paper. Of particular importance is the emergence of the possibility of creating tailor-made electric signals or pulse-width modulation-type signals from a DC source.

  19. Frictionless contact of aircraft tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Kyun O.; Tanner, John A.; Noor, Ahmed K.

    1989-01-01

    A computational procedure for the solution of frictionless contact problems of spacecraft tires was developed using a two-dimensional laminated anisotropic shell theory incorporating the effects of variations in material and geometric parameters, transverse shear deformation, and geometric nonlinearities to model the nose-gear tire of a space shuttle. Numerical results are presented for the case when the nose-gear tire is subjected to inflation pressure and pressed against a rigid pavement. The results are compared with experimental results obtained at NASA Langley, demonstrating a high accuracy of the model and the effectiveness of the computational procedure.

  20. Contact dermatitis: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Ronni; Orion, Edith; Ruocco, Eleonora; Baroni, Adone; Ruocco, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    The history of contact dermatitis (CD) is inseparable from the history of the patch test, and the patch test is inseparable from the pioneer in the field, Josef Jadassohn (1860-1936). Despite the fact that we have been diagnosing, treating, and investigating the condition for more than 100 years, there are still many unsolved questions and controversies, which show no signs of coming to an end in the foreseeable future. This contribution reviews and highlights some of the disagreements and discrepancies associated with CD. For example: • What is the real sensitizer in balsam of Peru, one of the most common allergens, and what, if any, is the value of a low-balsam diet? • Is benzalkonium chloride, which has well-known and undisputed irritant properties, a contact allergen as well? • Is cocamidopropyl betaine (CABP) a common contact allergen and what is the actual sensitizer in CABP allergy the molecule itself, or impurities, or intermediaries in its synthesis? • How can the significant differences in the prevalence of sensitization of formaldehyde (FA, a common cause of contact allergy) between the United States (8%-9%) and Europe (2%-3%) be explained? • What is the relationship between formaldehyde releasers (FRs) allergy and an FA allergy? Should we recommend that FA-allergic patients also avoid FRs, and, if so, to what extent? • What is the true frequency of lanolin allergy? This issue remains enigmatic despite the expenditure of thousands of dollars and the innumerable hours spent investigating this subject. • What is the basis behind the so-called "lanolin paradox"? This label was coined in 1996 and is still a matter of controversy. • Is there such a thing as systemic CD from nickel, and, if so, to what extent? Is there a cross-reactivity or concomitant sensitization between nickel and cobalt?These are some of the controversial problems discussed. We have selected the ones that we consider to be of special interest and importance to the

  1. Protein Residue Contacts and Prediction Methods

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Badri

    2016-01-01

    In the field of computational structural proteomics, contact predictions have shown new prospects of solving the longstanding problem of ab initio protein structure prediction. In the last few years, application of deep learning algorithms and availability of large protein sequence databases, combined with improvement in methods that derive contacts from multiple sequence alignments, have shown a huge increase in the precision of contact prediction. In addition, these predicted contacts have also been used to build three-dimensional models from scratch. In this chapter, we briefly discuss many elements of protein residue–residue contacts and the methods available for prediction, focusing on a state-of-the-art contact prediction tool, DNcon. Illustrating with a case study, we describe how DNcon can be used to make ab initio contact predictions for a given protein sequence and discuss how the predicted contacts may be analyzed and evaluated. PMID:27115648

  2. Ensuring Safe Use of Contact Lens Solution

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Ensuring Safe Use of Contact Lens Solution Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... back to top Dos and Don'ts for Contact Lens Wearers DO: Always wash your hands before ...

  3. Protein Residue Contacts and Prediction Methods.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Badri; Cheng, Jianlin

    2016-01-01

    In the field of computational structural proteomics, contact predictions have shown new prospects of solving the longstanding problem of ab initio protein structure prediction. In the last few years, application of deep learning algorithms and availability of large protein sequence databases, combined with improvement in methods that derive contacts from multiple sequence alignments, have shown a huge increase in the precision of contact prediction. In addition, these predicted contacts have also been used to build three-dimensional models from scratch.In this chapter, we briefly discuss many elements of protein residue-residue contacts and the methods available for prediction, focusing on a state-of-the-art contact prediction tool, DNcon. Illustrating with a case study, we describe how DNcon can be used to make ab initio contact predictions for a given protein sequence and discuss how the predicted contacts may be analyzed and evaluated. PMID:27115648

  4. Rolling-Contact Spalling In Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, A. M.; Kulkarni, S. M.; Bhargava, B.; Hahn, G. T.; Rubin, C. A.

    1990-01-01

    Report describes experimental and theoretical studies of effects of thermal and mechanical contact stresses and attendant plastic deformations responsible for rolling-contact spalling of the 440C-steel bearings in high-pressure-oxygen turbopump.

  5. Inferring Epidemic Contact Structure from Phylogenetic Trees

    PubMed Central

    Leventhal, Gabriel E.; Kouyos, Roger; Stadler, Tanja; von Wyl, Viktor; Yerly, Sabine; Böni, Jürg; Cellerai, Cristina; Klimkait, Thomas; Günthard, Huldrych F.; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Contact structure is believed to have a large impact on epidemic spreading and consequently using networks to model such contact structure continues to gain interest in epidemiology. However, detailed knowledge of the exact contact structure underlying real epidemics is limited. Here we address the question whether the structure of the contact network leaves a detectable genetic fingerprint in the pathogen population. To this end we compare phylogenies generated by disease outbreaks in simulated populations with different types of contact networks. We find that the shape of these phylogenies strongly depends on contact structure. In particular, measures of tree imbalance allow us to quantify to what extent the contact structure underlying an epidemic deviates from a null model contact network and illustrate this in the case of random mixing. Using a phylogeny from the Swiss HIV epidemic, we show that this epidemic has a significantly more unbalanced tree than would be expected from random mixing. PMID:22412361

  6. On the ohmicity of Schottky contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachenko, A. V.; Belyaev, A. E.; Konakova, R. V.

    2016-06-01

    An analysis is made of the conditions for ohmic contacts realization in the case of Schottky contacts. Based on the classical notions about the mechanisms of current flow, we consider the generalized model of Schottky contact that takes into account the thermionic current of majority charge carriers and recombination current of minority charge carriers in Schottky contacts with a dielectric gap. An analysis of the results given by that model made it possible to obtain ohmicity criteria for Schottky contacts and compare the conditions for low injection level and ohmicity of Schottky contacts in the case of silicon-based contacts. It is shown that conditions for Schottky contact ohmicity do not coincide with those for p-n junctions.

  7. Clean Cities Program Contacts (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet provides contact information for program staff of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program, as well as contact information for the nearly 100 local Clean Cities coalitions across the country.

  8. Hydrodynamic Simulations of Contact Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadam, Kundan; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Frank, Juhan; Marcello, Dominic; Motl, Patrick M.; Staff, Jan E.

    2015-01-01

    The motivation for our project is the peculiar case of the 'red nova" V1309 Sco which erupted in September 2008. The progenitor was, in fact, a contact binary system. We are developing a simulation of contact binaries, so that their formation, structural, and merger properties could be studied using hydrodynamics codes. The observed transient event was the disruption of the secondary star by the primary, and their subsequent merger into one star; hence to replicate this behavior, we need a core-envelope structure for both the stars. We achieve this using a combination of Self Consistant Field (SCF) technique and composite polytropes, also known as bipolytropes. So far we have been able to generate close binaries with various mass ratios. Another consequence of using bipolytropes is that according to theoretical calculations, the radius of a star should expand when the core mass fraction exceeds a critical value, resulting in interesting consequences in a binary system. We present some initial results of these simulations.

  9. [Contact allergies in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Mahler, V

    2015-09-01

    The percentage of seniors (> 65 years of age) in the general population continues to rise. Their sensitization profile may be influenced by lifelong work-related and nonwork-related exposures and comorbidities requiring local or systemic treatment. Recent analysis of the IVDK (Information Network of Departments of Dermatology) cohort concerning the most frequently recognized contact allergens in the age group above 65 (2009-2013: N = 14,841) revealed significant differences compared to the age group up to 65 years of age. The top 10 contact allergens recognized in individuals older than 65 years were the following: fragrance mix, Myroxylon pereirae (Balsam of Peru), nickel (II) sulfate, fragrance mix II, colophony, propolis, methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI), lanolin alcohol, Amerchol L 101, tert-butylhydroquinone. Sensitization to nickel was significantly less frequent, while sensitizations to fragrance mix and Balsam of Peru were significantly more frequent than in the age group up to 65 years of age. The percentage of patients with leg dermatitis was 25.9 % in the age group above 65 (versus 5.8 % in the age group up to 65 years of age). The analysis of the subgroup over 65 years of age with and without ulcer/stasis dermatitis/chronic venous insufficiency displayed remarkable differences in sensitization frequencies against ingredients of topical ointments (lanolin alcohol, Amerchol L 101, and tert-butylhydroquinone). If these comorbidities exist, patch testing of the topical ointment series parallel to the standard series is worthwhile. PMID:26285897

  10. Lubricant Rheology in Concentrated Contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, B. O.

    1984-01-01

    Lubricant behavior in highly stressed situtations shows that a Newtonian model for lubricant rheology is insufficient for explanation of traction behavior. The oil film build up is predicted by using a Newtonian lubricant model except at high slide to roll ratios and at very high loads, where the nonNewtonian behavior starts to be important already outside the Hertzian contact area. Static and dynamic experiments are reported. In static experiments the pressure is applied to the lubricant more than a million times longer than in an EHD contact. Depending on the pressure-temperature history of the experiment the lubricant will become a crystallized or amorphous solid at high pressures. In dynamic experiments, the oil is in an amorphous solid state. Depending on the viscosity, time scale, elasticity of the oil and the bearing surfaces, the oil film pressure, shear strain rate and the type of lubricant, different properties of the oil are important for prediction of shear stresses in the oil. The different proposed models for the lubricant, which describe it to a Newtonian liquid, an elastic liquid, a plastic liquid and an elastic-plastic solid.

  11. Rolling Contact Fatigue of Ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Wereszczak, Andrew A; Wang, W.; Wang, Y.; Hadfield, M.; Kanematsu, W.; Kirkland, Timothy Philip; Jadaan, Osama M.

    2006-09-01

    High hardness, low coefficient of thermal expansion and high temperature capability are properties also suited to rolling element materials. Silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) has been found to have a good combination of properties suitable for these applications. However, much is still not known about rolling contact fatigue (RCF) behavior, which is fundamental information to assess the lifetime of the material. Additionally, there are several test techniques that are employed internationally whose measured RCF performances are often irreconcilable. Due to the lack of such information, some concern for the reliability of ceramic bearings still remains. This report surveys a variety of topics pertaining to RCF. Surface defects (cracks) in Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and their propagation during RCF are discussed. Five methods to measure RCF are then briefly overviewed. Spalling, delamination, and rolling contact wear are discussed. Lastly, methods to destructively (e.g., C-sphere flexure strength testing) and non-destructively identify potential RCF-limiting flaws in Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} balls are described.

  12. Relaxation damping in oscillating contacts

    PubMed Central

    Popov, M.; Popov, V.L.; Pohrt, R.

    2015-01-01

    If a contact of two purely elastic bodies with no sliding (infinite coefficient of friction) is subjected to superimposed oscillations in the normal and tangential directions, then a specific damping appears, that is not dependent on friction or dissipation in the material. We call this effect “relaxation damping”. The rate of energy dissipation due to relaxation damping is calculated in a closed analytic form for arbitrary axially-symmetric contacts. In the case of equal frequency of normal and tangential oscillations, the dissipated energy per cycle is proportional to the square of the amplitude of tangential oscillation and to the absolute value of the amplitude of normal oscillation, and is dependent on the phase shift between both oscillations. In the case of low frequency tangential oscillations with superimposed high frequency normal oscillations, the dissipation is proportional to the ratio of the frequencies. Generalization of the results for macroscopically planar, randomly rough surfaces as well as for the case of finite friction is discussed. PMID:26549011

  13. Contact dermatitis from a prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Carla A; Gaspari, Anthony; Goldner, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    Patients wearing a prosthesis face a wide variety of medical problems. Skin complications have long been recognized, but their prevalence is still unknown. The most frequently reported disorders are allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), acroangiodermatitis, epidermoid cysts, epidermal hyperplasia, follicular hyperkeratosis, verrucous hyperplasia, bullous diseases, hyperhidrosis, infections, malignancies, and ulcerations. Contact dermatitis represents one-third of the dermatoses in amputees wearing prostheses. All patients who are suspected of having ACD should be patch tested with standard allergen series as well as materials from the patient's own prosthesis, topical medicaments, moisturizers, and cosmetics. We report a patient with an ACD to mixed dialkyl thiourea present in the rubber parts of his below-the-knee prosthesis. Thiourea derivates are used as accelerators in the manufacture of chloroprene rubber and as fixatives in photography and photocopy paper. Allergy to thiourea is relatively uncommon; different studies have shown a prevalence of 0.7% up to 2.4% in patch-tested patients. Thiourea derivates are often the allergic sources in ACD involving high-grade rubber products made of neoprene such as diving suits, protective goggles, knee braces, and continuous positive airway pressure masks. They are also present in the rubber material of prostheses, as in the case of our patient. PMID:18413115

  14. Relaxation damping in oscillating contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, M.; Popov, V. L.; Pohrt, R.

    2015-11-01

    If a contact of two purely elastic bodies with no sliding (infinite coefficient of friction) is subjected to superimposed oscillations in the normal and tangential directions, then a specific damping appears, that is not dependent on friction or dissipation in the material. We call this effect “relaxation damping”. The rate of energy dissipation due to relaxation damping is calculated in a closed analytic form for arbitrary axially-symmetric contacts. In the case of equal frequency of normal and tangential oscillations, the dissipated energy per cycle is proportional to the square of the amplitude of tangential oscillation and to the absolute value of the amplitude of normal oscillation, and is dependent on the phase shift between both oscillations. In the case of low frequency tangential oscillations with superimposed high frequency normal oscillations, the dissipation is proportional to the ratio of the frequencies. Generalization of the results for macroscopically planar, randomly rough surfaces as well as for the case of finite friction is discussed.

  15. Microscale hydrodynamics near moving contact lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garoff, Stephen; Chen, Q.; Rame, Enrique; Willson, K. R.

    1994-01-01

    The hydrodynamics governing the fluid motions on a microscopic scale near moving contact lines are different from those governing motion far from the contact line. We explore these unique hydrodynamics by detailed measurement of the shape of a fluid meniscus very close to a moving contact line. The validity of present models of the hydrodynamics near moving contact lines as well as the dynamic wetting characteristics of a family of polymer liquids are discussed.

  16. Substantially oxygen-free contact tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, James F. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A device for arc welding is provided in which a continuously-fed electrode wire is in electrical contact with a contact tube. The contact tube is improved by using a substantially oxygen-free conductive alloy in order to reduce the amount of electrical erosion.

  17. AIDS, Contact Notification, and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dejowski, Edmund F.

    The concept of contact tracing and notification once used for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is being mentioned for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Some professional organizations have supported contact notification; others have opposed it. Initially, states were free to establish their own contact notification programs. More…

  18. Substantially Oxygen-Free Contact Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, James F. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A device for arc welding is provided in which a continuously-fed electrode wire is in electrical contact with a contact tube. The contact tube is improved by using a substantially oxygen-free conductive alloy in order to reduce the amount of electrical erosion.

  19. Techniques for Solution- Assisted Optical Contacting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeVine, Glenn; Ware, Brent; Wuchenich, Danielle M.; Spero, Robert E.; Klipstein, William M.; McKenzie, Kirk

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses a solution-assisted contacting technique for optical contacting. An optic of surface flatness Lambda/20 was successfully contacted with one of moderate surface quality, or Lambda/4. Optics used were both ultra-low expansion (ULE) glass (Lambda/4 and Lambda/20) and fused silica (Lambda/20). A stainless steel template of the intended interferometer layout was designed and constructed with three contact points per optic. The contact points were all on a common side of the template. The entire contacting jig was tilted at about 30 . Thus, when the isopropanol was applied, each optic slid due to gravity, resting on the contact points. All of the contacting was performed in a relatively dusty laboratory. A number of successful contacts were achieved where up to two or three visible pieces of dust could be seen. These were clearly visible due to refraction patterns between the optic and bench. On a number of optics, the final step of dropping isopropyl between the surfaces was repeated until a successful contact was achieved. The new procedures realized in this work represent a simplification for optical contacting in the laboratory. They will both save time and money spent during the contacting process, and research and development phases. The techniques outlined are suitable for laboratory experiments, research, and initial development stages.

  20. 7 CFR 1737.10 - Initial contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Initial contact. 1737.10 Section 1737.10 Agriculture... Preapplication Stage § 1737.10 Initial contact. Initial loan applicants seeking assistance should write the Rural.... Existing borrowers initiate the contact directly with their assigned field representative....

  1. Sinterless Formation Of Contacts On Indium Phosphide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weizer, Victor G.; Fatemi, Navid S.

    1995-01-01

    Improved technique makes it possible to form low-resistivity {nearly equal to 10(Sup-6) ohm cm(Sup2)} electrical contacts on indium phosphide semiconductor devices without damaging devices. Layer of AgP2 40 Angstrom thick deposited on InP before depositing metal contact. AgP2 interlayer sharply reduces contact resistance, without need for sintering.

  2. Spectral flow dissipation in superconducting point contacts.

    SciTech Connect

    Kopnin, N. B.; Vinokur, V. M.; Materials Science Division; Helsinki Univ. of Technology; L. D. Landau Inst. for Theoretical Physics

    2003-03-15

    We find that multiple Andreev reflections mediating the transport in superconducting point contacts are strongly affected by a small amount of impurities in the area of the contact. We also argue that the model based on Zener transitions within independent conducting channels is not suitable for kinetic processes in multichannel contacts.

  3. A record system for contact tracing.

    PubMed Central

    Satin, A

    1977-01-01

    A system for recording information on patients and contacts was developed during a research project designed to measure the effectiveness of contact tracing. The record system has proved valuable in contact tracing, cross-referencing patients and their contacts, defining the characteristics of the patient and contact populations, and providing information for research and management. The value of a standardised system has been accepted by health workers who appreciate that its purpose is to increase efficiency and improve the care of infected persons. By October 1976 health workers in 16 clinics in the United Kingdom had started to use the system. PMID:576849

  4. Contact kinematics of biomimetic scales

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Ranajay; Ebrahimi, Hamid; Vaziri, Ashkan

    2014-12-08

    Dermal scales, prevalent across biological groups, considerably boost survival by providing multifunctional advantages. Here, we investigate the nonlinear mechanical effects of biomimetic scale like attachments on the behavior of an elastic substrate brought about by the contact interaction of scales in pure bending using qualitative experiments, analytical models, and detailed finite element (FE) analysis. Our results reveal the existence of three distinct kinematic phases of operation spanning linear, nonlinear, and rigid behavior driven by kinematic interactions of scales. The response of the modified elastic beam strongly depends on the size and spatial overlap of rigid scales. The nonlinearity is perceptible even in relatively small strain regime and without invoking material level complexities of either the scales or the substrate.

  5. Contact kinematics of biomimetic scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Ranajay; Ebrahimi, Hamid; Vaziri, Ashkan

    2014-12-01

    Dermal scales, prevalent across biological groups, considerably boost survival by providing multifunctional advantages. Here, we investigate the nonlinear mechanical effects of biomimetic scale like attachments on the behavior of an elastic substrate brought about by the contact interaction of scales in pure bending using qualitative experiments, analytical models, and detailed finite element (FE) analysis. Our results reveal the existence of three distinct kinematic phases of operation spanning linear, nonlinear, and rigid behavior driven by kinematic interactions of scales. The response of the modified elastic beam strongly depends on the size and spatial overlap of rigid scales. The nonlinearity is perceptible even in relatively small strain regime and without invoking material level complexities of either the scales or the substrate.

  6. Contact lenses, migraine, and allodynia

    PubMed Central

    Timucin, Ozgur Bulent; Karadag, Mehmet Fatih; Mehmet, Baykara

    2016-01-01

    Clinical trials and electrophysiologic studies demonstrated increased perceptual sensitivity in patients suffering from migraines. At least, one triggering factor is described in 85% of migraine patients. The aim of this report was to investigate the relationship between contact lens (CL) usage and migraine attacks in two cases. Two patients who were diagnosed with migraine reported that the frequency of migraine attacks increased after they switched to using CL with different base curves (BCs). These two patients, who began using CL with different BCs experienced discomfort and dryness of the eye. The ocular complaints were followed by migraine attacks. CL intolerance was also developed during migraine attack in one of the cases. The frequency of migraine attacks decreased and allodynia relieved significantly when flatter BCs were selected. CL related stimulus could have triggered the migraine attack. CLs should be well fitted in migraine patients with allodynia. PMID:27433037

  7. Contact dermatitis in Alstroemeria workers.

    PubMed

    van der Mei, I A; de Boer, E M; Bruynzeel, D P

    1998-09-01

    Hand dermatitis is common in workers in the horticultural industry. This study determined the prevalence of hand dermatitis in workers of Alstroemeria cultivation, investigated how many workers had been sensitized by tulipalin A (the allergen in Alstroemeria) and took stock of a wide range of determinants of hand dermatitis. The 12-month period prevalence of major hand dermatitis amounted to 29.5% whereas 7.4% had minor dermatitis. Of these workers, 52.1% were sensitized for tulipalin A. Several personal and work-related determinants played a role in the multifactorial aetiology of hand dermatitis. Factors which showed a significant relationship with major hand dermatitis were: female sex, atopic dermatitis, chapped hands and the frequency of washing hands. It may be concluded that the Alstroemeria workers are a population at risk of developing contact dermatitis and it might be useful to carry out an educational campaign to lower the high prevalence. PMID:10024736

  8. Contact process with temporal disorder.

    PubMed

    Barghathi, Hatem; Vojta, Thomas; Hoyos, José A

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the influence of time-varying environmental noise, i.e., temporal disorder, on the nonequilibrium phase transition of the contact process. Combining a real-time renormalization group, scaling theory, and large scale Monte-Carlo simulations in one and two dimensions, we show that the temporal disorder gives rise to an exotic critical point. At criticality, the effective noise amplitude diverges with increasing time scale, and the probability distribution of the density becomes infinitely broad, even on a logarithmic scale. Moreover, the average density and survival probability decay only logarithmically with time. This infinite-noise critical behavior can be understood as the temporal counterpart of infinite-randomness critical behavior in spatially disordered systems, but with exchanged roles of space and time. We also analyze the generality of our results, and we discuss potential experiments. PMID:27627250

  9. Making eye contact without awareness.

    PubMed

    Rothkirch, Marcus; Madipakkam, Apoorva Rajiv; Rehn, Erik; Sterzer, Philipp

    2015-10-01

    Direct gaze is a potent non-verbal signal that establishes a communicative connection between two individuals, setting the course for further interactions. Although consciously perceived faces with direct gaze have been shown to capture attention, it is unknown whether an attentional preference for these socially meaningful stimuli exists even in the absence of awareness. In two experiments, we recorded participants' eye movements while they were exposed to faces with direct and averted gaze rendered invisible by interocular suppression. Participants' inability to correctly guess the occurrence of the faces in a manual forced-choice task demonstrated complete unawareness of the faces. However, eye movements were preferentially directed towards faces with direct compared to averted gaze, indicating a specific sensitivity to others' gaze directions even without awareness. This oculomotor preference suggests that a rapid and automatic establishment of mutual eye contact constitutes a biological advantage, which could be mediated by fast subcortical pathways in the human brain. PMID:26133642

  10. Single-contact tunneling thermometry

    DOEpatents

    Maksymovych, Petro

    2016-02-23

    A single-contact tunneling thermometry circuit includes a tunnel junction formed between two objects. Junction temperature gradient information is determined based on a mathematical relationship between a target alternating voltage applied across the junction and the junction temperature gradient. Total voltage measured across the junction indicates the magnitude of the target alternating voltage. A thermal gradient is induced across the junction. A reference thermovoltage is measured when zero alternating voltage is applied across the junction. An increasing alternating voltage is applied while measuring a thermovoltage component and a DC rectification voltage component created by the applied alternating voltage. The target alternating voltage is reached when the thermovoltage is nullified or doubled by the DC rectification voltage depending on the sign of the reference thermovoltage. Thermoelectric current and current measurements may be utilized in place of the thermovoltage and voltage measurements. The system may be automated with a feedback loop.

  11. Screening for corticosteroid contact hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Boffa, M J; Wilkinson, S M; Beck, M H

    1995-09-01

    To evaluate which corticosteroids are most useful for the detection of corticosteroid contact allergy in our population, 2123 patients were patch tested with a series of 6 corticosteroids, in parallel with a standard series, and other relevant investigations. 127 patients (5.98%) were allergic to one or more corticosteroids; 96 to tixocortol pivalate, 51 to hydrocortisone butyrate, 47 to budesonide, 11 to betamethasone valerate, 11 to clobetasone butyrate and 8 to clobetasol propionate. 511 patients with negative patch tests to the limited corticosteroid series were in addition tested to a further 12 corticosteroids; only 1 of these patients reacted to a corticosteroid. A combination of tixocortol pivalate and budesonide thus detected 91.3% of corticosteroid-allergic subjects. We believe that both these allergens should be included in the standard series and that there may be a case for extending this further. PMID:8565453

  12. Contact process with temporal disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barghathi, Hatem; Vojta, Thomas; Hoyos, José A.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the influence of time-varying environmental noise, i.e., temporal disorder, on the nonequilibrium phase transition of the contact process. Combining a real-time renormalization group, scaling theory, and large scale Monte-Carlo simulations in one and two dimensions, we show that the temporal disorder gives rise to an exotic critical point. At criticality, the effective noise amplitude diverges with increasing time scale, and the probability distribution of the density becomes infinitely broad, even on a logarithmic scale. Moreover, the average density and survival probability decay only logarithmically with time. This infinite-noise critical behavior can be understood as the temporal counterpart of infinite-randomness critical behavior in spatially disordered systems, but with exchanged roles of space and time. We also analyze the generality of our results, and we discuss potential experiments.

  13. Fingertip contact influences human postural control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeka, J. J.; Lackner, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    Touch and pressure stimulation of the body surface can strongly influence apparent body orientation, as well as the maintenance of upright posture during quiet stance. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between postural sway and contact forces at the fingertip while subjects touched a rigid metal bar. Subjects were tested in the tandem Romberg stance with eyes open or closed under three conditions of fingertip contact: no contact, touch contact (< 0.98 N of force), and force contact (as much force as desired). Touch contact was as effective as force contact or sight of the surroundings in reducing postural sway when compared to the no contact, eyes closed condition. Body sway and fingertip forces were essentially in phase with force contact, suggesting that fingertip contact forces are physically counteracting body sway. Time delays between body sway and fingertip forces were much larger with light touch contact, suggesting that the fingertip is providing information that allows anticipatory innervation of musculature to reduce body sway. The results are related to observations on precision grip as well as the somatosensory, proprioceptive, and motor mechanisms involved in the reduction of body sway.

  14. Salt deposition at particle contact points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Xiaodong; Evitts, Richard W.; Besant, Robert W.; Kennell, Glyn F.

    2015-09-01

    Caking may occur when granular potash fertilizer with a moisture content greater than 0.25 % (w/w) undergoes drying. Since cake strength is proportional to the mass of crystal deposited per unit volume near contact points (and other factors) the modelling of mass deposition near contact points is important. The Young-Laplace equation for the air-salt-solution interface is used to determine the geometry of a 2-D planar saline film between two cubic potash particles. A 2-D theoretical model is developed and applied for ion diffusion and deposition near the contact point during drying. The numerical predictions of ion diffusion in an initially saturated salt illustrate the transient spatial distribution of new KCl deposits along the solid surfaces near the contact line. These results indicate the average salt deposition commences at the air-liquid-solid intersection, where the liquid film is thinnest, and moves toward the particle contact point with increasing area averaged KCl deposits, causing the formation of crystal deposits and bridges near contact points. It is concluded that the average salt deposit height increases inversely with distance from the contact point and decreases with initial contact angle of the contact region, but the deposition is nearly independent of the evaporation or drying rate near each contact region. Caking strength depends on, among other parameters, the amount of salt deposition near contact points.

  15. Complementary Barrier Infrared Detector (CBIRD) Contact Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.; Hill, Cory J.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the CBIRD detector is enhanced by using new device contacting methods that have been developed. The detector structure features a narrow gap adsorber sandwiched between a pair of complementary, unipolar barriers that are, in turn, surrounded by contact layers. In this innovation, the contact adjacent to the hole barrier is doped n-type, while the contact adjacent to the electron barrier is doped p-type. The contact layers can have wider bandgaps than the adsorber layer, so long as good electrical contacts are made to them. If good electrical contacts are made to either (or both) of the barriers, then one could contact the barrier(s) directly, obviating the need for additional contact layers. Both the left and right contacts can be doped either n-type or ptype. Having an n-type contact layer next to the electron barrier creates a second p-n junction (the first being the one between the hole barrier and the adsorber) over which applied bias could drop. This reduces the voltage drop over the adsorber, thereby reducing dark current generation in the adsorber region.

  16. Towards an optimal contact metal for CNTFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fediai, Artem; Ryndyk, Dmitry A.; Seifert, Gotthard; Mothes, Sven; Claus, Martin; Schröter, Michael; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2016-05-01

    Downscaling of the contact length Lc of a side-contacted carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNTFET) is challenging because of the rapidly increasing contact resistance as Lc falls below 20-50 nm. If in agreement with existing experimental results, theoretical work might answer the question, which metals yield the lowest CNT-metal contact resistance and what physical mechanisms govern the geometry dependence of the contact resistance. However, at the scale of 10 nm, parameter-free models of electron transport become computationally prohibitively expensive. In our work we used a dedicated combination of the Green function formalism and density functional theory to perform an overall ab initio simulation of extended CNT-metal contacts of an arbitrary length (including infinite), a previously not achievable level of simulations. We provide a systematic and comprehensive discussion of metal-CNT contact properties as a function of the metal type and the contact length. We have found and been able to explain very uncommon relations between chemical, physical and electrical properties observed in CNT-metal contacts. The calculated electrical characteristics are in reasonable quantitative agreement and exhibit similar trends as the latest experimental data in terms of: (i) contact resistance for Lc = ∞, (ii) scaling of contact resistance Rc(Lc); (iii) metal-defined polarity of a CNTFET. Our results can guide technology development and contact material selection for downscaling the length of side-contacts below 10 nm.Downscaling of the contact length Lc of a side-contacted carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNTFET) is challenging because of the rapidly increasing contact resistance as Lc falls below 20-50 nm. If in agreement with existing experimental results, theoretical work might answer the question, which metals yield the lowest CNT-metal contact resistance and what physical mechanisms govern the geometry dependence of the contact resistance. However, at

  17. Contact lens sensors in ocular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Farandos, Nicholas M; Yetisen, Ali K; Monteiro, Michael J; Lowe, Christopher R; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2015-04-22

    Contact lenses as a minimally invasive platform for diagnostics and drug delivery have emerged in recent years. Contact lens sensors have been developed for analyzing the glucose composition of tears as a surrogate for blood glucose monitoring and for the diagnosis of glaucoma by measuring intraocular pressure. However, the eye offers a wider diagnostic potential as a sensing site and therefore contact lens sensors have the potential to improve the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases and conditions. With advances in polymer synthesis, electronics and micro/nanofabrication, contact lens sensors can be produced to quantify the concentrations of many biomolecules in ocular fluids. Non- or minimally invasive contact lens sensors can be used directly in a clinical or point-of-care setting to monitor a disease state continuously. This article reviews the state-of-the-art in contact lens sensor fabrication, their detection, wireless powering, and readout mechanisms, and integration with mobile devices and smartphones. High-volume manufacturing considerations of contact lenses are also covered and a case study of an intraocular pressure contact lens sensor is provided as an example of a successful product. This Review further analyzes the contact lens market and the FDA regulatory requirements for commercialization of contact lens sensors. PMID:25400274

  18. Tear analysis in contact lens wearers.

    PubMed Central

    Farris, R L

    1985-01-01

    Tear analysis in contact lens wearers was compared with tear analysis in aphakics without contact lens wear and normal phakic patients. Subjects were divided into five groups: group 1, aphakic without contact lens; group 2, phakic with daily-wear hard contact lens; group 3, phakic with daily-wear soft contact lens; group 4, phakic with extended-wear soft contact lens; and group 5, aphakic with extended-wear soft contact lens. The experimental groups were compared with age- and sex-matched control groups for statistical analysis of tear variables by means of the Student's t-test. The variables measured were tear osmolarity, tear albumin, and lysozyme and lactoferrin concentrations in basal and reflex tears. Highly significant elevations of tear osmolarity were found in aphakic subjects without contact lenses. Less significant differences in tear osmolarity were found in phakic subjects with hard daily-wear lenses or with extended-wear soft lenses. Tear albumin, lysozyme, and lactoferrin in basal and reflex tears were not significantly different in the different groups of contact lens wearers or in the group of aphakic subjects without contact lenses compared with their control groups. Individual variations in tear albumin, lysozyme, and lactoferrin appeared to be responsible for the inability to demonstrate significant differences in tear composition in association with the wearing of different types of contact lenses. Older and aphakic patients demonstrated a tendency to have increased concentrations of proteins in the tears compared with younger, phakic contact lens wearers and normal controls without contact lenses. PMID:3914131

  19. SIPOS heterojunction contacts to silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwark, Y. H.; Swanson, R. M.

    1986-02-01

    Deliberate introduction of controlled amounts of an oxygen-bearing species such as nitrous oxide into the deposition ambient normally used for chemical vapor deposition of polysilicon produces SIPOS, a class of silicon oxides that exhibits a wide range of physical properties is discussed. It is possible to tailor SIPOS film characteristics such as refractive index by altering the oxygen partial pressure in the deposition ambient. The addition of a dopant species converts these films from semi-insulating to a form that can be made sufficiently conductive after annealing to make them interesting for electronic applications. The potential for conveniently altering the effective mobility gap in this material suggests its use in heterojunction contact structures to silicon. Incorporation of these films into the emitter structure of an NPN bipolar transistor has been found to reduce the emitter saturation current fifty fold. This suppression of reverse injected hole transport has often been assumed to be the result of a wider gap in the SIPOS due to the presence of incorporated oxygen. However, this seems to be an oversimplification in view of microstructural studies that revealed a multi-phase structure consisting of a fine dispersion of silicon microcrystals embedded in an oxide-like matrix.

  20. Occupational contact dermatitis from propacetamol.

    PubMed

    Szczurko, C; Dompmartin, A; Michel, M; Castel, B; Leroy, D

    1996-11-01

    We report 4 cases of contact sensitization to propacetamol. They presented with lesions on the hands, forearms, crease of the elbows, and neck. They were all sensitized to multiple allergens and 2 of them were atopic. Patch tests to Pro-Dafalgan and propacetamol were positive; sodium citrate and paracetamol were negative. Our cases were similar to those published for the first time by Barbaud in 1995. The only allergen was propacetamol; patch tests with diethyglycine and paracetamol were negative. Propacetamol chlorhydrate is composed of a complex paracetamol-diethylglycine, which probably acts like a hapten capable of inducing cutaneous allergy. It is an occupational allergy affecting nurses who work in surgery departments or post-anesthesia recovery rooms, where high doses of analgesics are widely used. The patients were not allergic to oral paracetamol. Despite the usual precautions, the mixture of propacetamol chlorhydrate and solvent leaks onto the nurses' hands, suggesting that health care workers handling propacetamol chlorhydrate should wear gloves. PMID:9007376

  1. Technology Transfer: A Contact Sport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paynter, Nina P.

    1995-01-01

    Technology transfer is a dynamic process, involving dynamic people as the bridge between NASA Langley Research Center and the outside world. This bridge, for nonaerospace applications, is known as the Technology Applications Group. The introduction of new innovations and expertise where they are needed occurs through a 'push' and 'pull' process. A 'push' occurs when a new technology is first developed with high commercial potential and then a company is found to licence or further develop the technology. The 'pull' process occurs through problem statements. A company or group will submit a written statement of what they need and the shortcomings of commercially available technology. The Technology Transfer Team (T3) reviews these problem statements and decides where NASA LaRC can offer assistance. A researcher or group of researchers are then identified who can help solve the problem and they are put in contact with the company. Depending upon the situation in either method, a Space Act Agreement (SAA), or outline of the responsibilities for each party, is developed.

  2. Advancing contact angles on large structured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshitake, Yumiko; Itakura, Yoshinori; Gobo, Junichi; Takahashi, Tsutomu

    2014-11-01

    To understand wetting phenomena on complex surfaces, simple modeling experiments in two-dimension system would be one of the most efficient approaches. We develop a new experimental method for wetting dynamics using a large pseudo two- dimensional droplet. This method is useful to examine theoretical studies developed in two dimensional systems. In this study, we examine a pinning and depinning phenomena on millimeter-size structured surface to explain the origin of contact angle hysteresis. Contact lines of the droplet are pinned and deppined at the edge of surface texture. The contact lines can move when the contact angle is equal to the Young's contact angle which are determined by the balance of the surface and interfacial tension immediate vicinity of the contact lines, which is different from the Wenzel's low. Our approach enables to realize a macroscopic modelling experiment of wetting on complex surfaces, which opens a path to design functional surfaces with chemical and physical structure.

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by dorzolamide eyedrops.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Jun; Kim, Moosang

    2015-01-01

    The side effects of topical dorzolamide hydrochloride, such as conjunctivitis, eyelid edema, and eye lid irritation, are well known. However, allergic contact dermatitis due to dorzolamide is rare, although the product has been commonly used worldwide in patients with glaucoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of allergic contact dermatitis caused by topical dorzolamide hydrochloride in Korea. Herein we report a case of allergic contact dermatitis due to topical dorzolamide eyedrops. PMID:25897195

  4. Driven drops with contact line damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yi; Chang, Chun-Ti; Steen, Paul

    2015-11-01

    A water droplet placed on a hydrophobic plate is driven by plate-normal oscillations. Resulting droplet motions are largely inviscid, having Reynolds number >100 (Ohnesorge 0.002). We are interested in isolating the effective damping, sometimes called Davis dissipation, owing to a moving contact line that is not completely mobile. In this talk, we report energy budgets as influenced by contact angle - contact line speed relationships for variously prepared surfaces.

  5. Process design for Al backside contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Chalfoun, L.L.; Kimerling, L.C.

    1995-08-01

    It is known that properly alloyed aluminum backside contacts can improve silicon solar cell efficiency. To use this knowledge to fullest advantage, we have studied the gettering process that occurs during contact formation and the microstructure of the contact and backside junction region. With an understanding of the alloying step, optimized fabrication processes can be designed. To study gettering, single crystal silicon wafers were coated with aluminim on both sides and subjected to heat treatments. Results are described.

  6. Optical contacting for gravity probe star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, J. J.; Zissa, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    A star-tracker telescope, constructed entirely of fused silica elements optically contacted together, has been proposed to provide submilliarc-second pointing accuracy for Gravity Probe. A bibliography and discussion on optical contacting (the bonding of very flat, highly polished surfaces without the use of adhesives) are presented. Then results from preliminary experiments on the strength of optical contacts including a tensile strength test in liquid helium are discussed. Suggestions are made for further study to verify an optical contacting method for the Gravity Probe star-tracker telescope.

  7. Charge Redistribution and Transport in Molecular Contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corso, Martina; Ondráček, Martin; Lotze, Christian; Hapala, Prokop; Franke, Katharina J.; Jelínek, Pavel; Pascual, J. Ignacio

    2015-09-01

    The forces between two single molecules brought into contact, and their connection with charge transport through the molecular junction, are studied here using non contact AFM, STM, and density functional theory simulations. A carbon monoxide molecule approaching an acetylene molecule (C2 H2 ) initially feels weak attractive electrostatic forces, partly arising from charge reorganization in the presence of molecular . We find that the molecular contact is chemically passive, and protects the electron tunneling barrier from collapsing, even in the limit of repulsive forces. However, we find subtle conductance and force variations at different contacting sites along the C2 H2 molecule attributed to a weak overlap of their respective frontier orbitals.

  8. Electrical contacts to individual SWCNTs: A review

    PubMed Central

    Hierold, Christofer; Haluska, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Summary Owing to their superior electrical characteristics, nanometer dimensions and definable lengths, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are considered as one of the most promising materials for various types of nanodevices. Additionally, they can be used as either passive or active elements. To be integrated into circuitry or devices, they are typically connected with metal leads to provide electrical contacts. The properties and quality of these electrical contacts are important for the function and performance of SWCNT-based devices. Since carbon nanotubes are quasi-one-dimensional structures, contacts to them are different from those for bulk semiconductors. Additionally, some techniques used in Si-based technology are not compatible with SWCNT-based device fabrication, such as the contact area cleaning technique. In this review, an overview of the investigations of metal–SWCNT contacts is presented, including the principle of charge carrier injection through the metal–SWCNT contacts and experimental achievements. The methods for characterizing the electrical contacts are discussed as well. The parameters which influence the contact properties are summarized, mainly focusing on the contact geometry, metal type and the cleanliness of the SWCNT surface affected by the fabrication processes. Moreover, the challenges for widespread application of CNFETs are additionally discussed. PMID:25551048

  9. BISON Contact Improvements CASL FY14 Report

    SciTech Connect

    B. W. Spencer; J. D. Hales; D. R. Gaston; D. A. Karpeev; R. L. Williamson; S. R. Novascone; D. M. Perez; R. J. Gardner; K. A. Gamble

    2014-09-01

    The BISON code is the foundation for multiple fuel performance modeling efforts, and is cur- rently under heavy development. For a variety of fuel forms, the effects of heat conduction across a gap and mechanical contact between components of a fuel system are very significant. It is thus critical that BISON have robust capabilities for enforcement of thermal and mechanical contact. BISON’s solver robustness has generally been quite good before mechanical contact between the fuel and cladding occurs, but there have been significant challenges obtaining converged so- lutions once that contact occurs and the solver begins to enforce mechanical contact constraints. During the current year, significant development effort has been focused on the enforcement of mechanical contact to provide improved solution robustness. In addition to this work to improve mechanical contact robustness, an investigation into ques- tionable results attributable to thermal contact has been performed. This investigation found that the order of integration typically used on the surfaces involved in thermal contact was not suffi- ciently high. To address this problem, a new option was provided to permit the use of a different integration order for surfaces, and new usage recommendations were provided.

  10. Mathematical model of electrical contact bouncing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharin, Stanislav

    2015-09-01

    Mathematical model of a contact bouncing takes into account elastic-plastic and electrodynamic forces, phase transformations during interaction of electrical arc with the contact surface as a result of increasing temperature. It is based on the integro-differential equations for the contact motion and Stefan problem for the temperature field. These equations describe four consecutive stages of the contact vibration from the impact at contact closing up to opening after bouncing including effects of penetration and restitution. The new method for the solution of the Stefan problem is elaborated, which enables us to get the information about dynamics of zones of elasticity, plasticity and phase transformations during contact vibration. It is shown that the decrement of damping depends on the coefficient of plasticity and the moment of inertia only, while the frequency of vibration depends also on the hardness of contact, its temperature, properties of contact spring, and geometry of rotational mechanism. It is found also from the solution of Stefan problem that the relationship between dynamical zones of plasticity and melting explains the decrease of current density and contact welding. The results of calculations are compared with the experimental data.

  11. Star product and contact Weyl manifold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshioka, Akira

    2016-09-01

    Contact algebra is introduced, which is a Lie algebra given as a one-dimesional exrention of a Weyl algebra. A contact Lie algebra bundle called a contact Weyl manifold is considered over a symplectic manifold which contains a Weyl manifold as a subbundle. A relationship is discussed between deformation quantization on s symplectic manifold and a Weyl manifold over the symplectic manifold. The contact Weyl manifold has a canonical connection which gives rise the relation, and is regarded as an extension of Fedosov connection.

  12. What To Know If Your Child Wants Contact Lenses

    MedlinePlus

    ... For More Information Decorative Contact Lenses Contact Lenses Hydrogen Peroxide Solution Consumer Updates Focusing on Contact Lens ... Prescription Is A Must Contact Lens Solutions With Hydrogen Peroxide: To Avoid Injury, Follow All Instructions Five ...

  13. Metal contact reliability of RF MEMS switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Qing; Tran, Quan; Chou, Tsung-Kuan A.; Heck, John; Bar, Hanan; Kant, Rishi; Rao, Valluri

    2007-01-01

    It is well-recognized that MEMS switches, compared to their more traditional solid state counterparts, have several important advantages for wireless communications. These include superior linearity, low insertion loss and high isolation. Indeed, many potential applications have been investigated such as Tx/Rx antenna switching, frequency band selection, tunable matching networks for PA and antenna, tunable filters, and antenna reconfiguration. However, none of these applications have been materialized in high volume products to a large extent because of reliability concerns, particularly those related to the metal contacts. The subject of the metal contact in a switch was studied extensively in the history of developing miniaturized switches, such as the reed switches for telecommunication applications. While such studies are highly relevant, they do not address the issues encountered in the sub 100μN, low contact force regime in which most MEMS switches operate. At such low forces, the contact resistance is extremely sensitive to even a trace amount of contamination on the contact surfaces. Significant work was done to develop wafer cleaning processes and storage techniques for maintaining the cleanliness. To preserve contact cleanliness over the switch service lifetime, several hermetic packaging technologies were developed and their effectiveness in protecting the contacts from contamination was examined. The contact reliability is also very much influenced by the contact metal selection. When pure Au, a relatively soft metal, was used as the contact material, significant stiction problems occurred when clean switches were cycled in an N II environment. In addition, various mechanical damages occurred after extended switching cycling tests. Harder metals, while more resistant to deformation and stiction, are more sensitive to chemical reactions, particularly oxidation. They also lead to higher contact resistance because of their lower electrical conductivity

  14. Multibody dynamic simulation of knee contact mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Bei, Yanhong; Fregly, Benjamin J.

    2006-01-01

    Multibody dynamic musculoskeletal models capable of predicting muscle forces and joint contact pressures simultaneously would be valuable for studying clinical issues related to knee joint degeneration and restoration. Current three-dimensional multi-body knee models are either quasi-static with deformable contact or dynamic with rigid contact. This study proposes a computationally efficient methodology for combining multibody dynamic simulation methods with a deformable contact knee model. The methodology requires preparation of the articular surface geometry, development of efficient methods to calculate distances between contact surfaces, implementation of an efficient contact solver that accounts for the unique characteristics of human joints, and specification of an application programming interface for integration with any multibody dynamic simulation environment. The current implementation accommodates natural or artificial tibiofemoral joint models, small or large strain contact models, and linear or nonlinear material models. Applications are presented for static analysis (via dynamic simulation) of a natural knee model created from MRI and CT data and dynamic simulation of an artificial knee model produced from manufacturer’s CAD data. Small and large strain natural knee static analyses required 1 min of CPU time and predicted similar contact conditions except for peak pressure, which was higher for the large strain model. Linear and nonlinear artificial knee dynamic simulations required 10 min of CPU time and predicted similar contact force and torque but different contact pressures, which were lower for the nonlinear model due to increased contact area. This methodology provides an important step toward the realization of dynamic musculoskeletal models that can predict in vivo knee joint motion and loading simultaneously. PMID:15564115

  15. 76 FR 73614 - Lock 14 Hydro Partners; FFP Project 106 LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit Applications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... Lock and Dam No. 14, as directed by the Corps. Applicant Contact: Mr. David Brown Kinloch, Soft Energy...-2822. FERC Contact: Michael Spencer, michael.spencer@ferc.gov , (202) 502- 6093. Deadline for...

  16. 76 FR 73616 - Lock 12 Hydro Partners; FFP Project 107 LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit Applications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... Lock and Dam No. 12, as directed by the Corps. Applicant Contact: Mr. David Brown Kinloch, Soft Energy...-2822. FERC Contact: Michael Spencer, michael.spencer@ferc.gov , (202) 502- 6093. Deadline for...

  17. Evaluation of Contact Separation Force Testing as a Screening Methodology for Electrical Socket Contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Chris; Greenwell, Chris; Brusse, jay; Krus, Dennis; Leidecker, Henning

    2009-01-01

    During system level testing intermittent and permanent open circuit failures of mated, crimp removable, electrical contact pairs were experienced. The root cause of the failures was determined to be low (but not zero) contact forces applied by the socket contact tines against the engaging pin. The low contact force reduces the effectiveness of the wiping action of the socket tines against the pin. The observed failure mode may be produced when insufficient wiping during mate, demate and small relative movement in use allows for the accumulation of debris or insulating films that electrically separate the contact pair. The investigation identified at least three manufacturing process control problems associated with the socket contacts that enabled shipment of contacts susceptible to developing low contact forces: (1) Improper heat treatment of the socket tines resulting in plastic rather than elastic behavior; (2) Overly thinned socket tines at their base resulting in reduced pin retention forces; (3) insufficient screening tests to identify parts susceptible to the aforementioned failure mechanisms. The results from an extensive screening program of socket contacts utilizing the industry standard contact separation force test procedures are described herein. The investigation shows this method to be capable of identifying initially weak sockets. However, sockets whose contact retention forces may degrade during use may not be screened out by pin retention testing alone. Further investigations are required to correlate low contact retention forces with increased electrical contact resistance in the presence of insulating films that may accumulate in the use environment.

  18. 5 CFR 2600.102 - Contact information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contact information. 2600.102 Section... AND FUNCTIONS OF THE OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS § 2600.102 Contact information. (a) Address. The.... OGE does not have any regional offices. (b) Web site. Information about OGE and its role in...

  19. [Allergic contact dermatitis caused by etofenamate].

    PubMed

    Degenhardt, A; Zick, C; Hausen, B M

    1988-06-15

    We report on 3 cases of contact dermatitis following topical application of etofenamat. Each patient developed positive reactions in patch tests with etofenamat in concentrations of both 10% and 1%. After testing, one patient showed secondary inflammatory reactions at the original site of application. Considering the frequent administration of etofenamat, contact sensitization seems to be relatively rare. PMID:2970161

  20. Screen printed interdigitated back contact solar cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baraona, C. R.; Mazaris, G. A.; Chai, A. T. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Interdigitated back contact solar cells are made by screen printing dopant materials onto the back surface of a semiconductor substrate in a pair of interdigitated patterns. These dopant materials are then diffused into the substrate to form junctions having configurations corresponding to these patterns. Contacts having configurations which match the patterns are then applied over the junctions.

  1. Effects of insoles contact on static balance

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ju Yong; Ryu, Young Uk; Yi, Chae Woo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effect of the degree of the contact area between the insoles and soles on static balance. [Subjects and Methods] Thirteen healthy male and female adults voluntarily participated. All of the subjects wore three different types of insoles (no orthotic insole, partial contact, full contact) in the present experiment. The subjects were instructed to place both feet parallel to each other and maintain static balance for 30 seconds. Center of pressure parameters (range, total distance, and mean velocity) were analyzed. [Results] The results show that the anteroposterior range and mediolateral (ML) total distance and velocity decreased when orthotic insoles with partial contact or full contact were used in comparison to when a flat insole (no orthotic insole) was used. Also, the ML range and total distance were lower with full contact than in the other two conditions. These results indicate that static balance improves as the degree of contact between the soles and insoles increases. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggests that using insoles with increased sole contact area would improve static balance ability. PMID:27190460

  2. 3-2-1 Contact Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Television Workshop, New York, NY.

    This guide to the television program 3-2-1 Contact covers 20 theme weeks. The program is designed to bring students into closer contact with the science and technology in their everyday lives. This guide includes: (1) a brief introduction to the contents of each week's shows; (2) a detailed discussion of each week's primary concepts as well as…

  3. Contact micromechanics in granular media with clay

    SciTech Connect

    Ita, S.L.

    1994-08-01

    Many granular materials, including sedimentary rocks and soils, contain clay particles in the pores, grain contacts, or matrix. The amount and location of the clays and fluids can influence the mechanical and hydraulic properties of the granular material. This research investigated the mechanical effects of clay at grain-to-grain contacts in the presence of different fluids. Laboratory seismic wave propagation tests were conducted at ultrasonic frequencies using spherical glass beads coated with Montmorillonite clay (SWy-1) onto which different fluids were adsorbed. For all bead samples, seismic velocity increased and attenuation decreased as the contact stiffnesses increased with increasing stress demonstrating that grain contacts control seismic transmission in poorly consolidated and unconsolidated granular material. Coating the beads with clay added stiffness and introduced viscosity to the mechanical contact properties that increased the velocity and attenuation of the propagating seismic wave. Clay-fluid interactions were studied by allowing the clay coating to absorb water, ethyl alcohol, and hexadecane. Increasing water amounts initially increased seismic attenuation due to clay swelling at the contacts. Attenuation decreased for higher water amounts where the clay exceeded the plastic limit and was forced from the contact areas into the surrounding open pore space during sample consolidation. This work investigates how clay located at grain contacts affects the micromechanical, particularly seismic, behavior of granular materials. The need for this work is shown by a review of the effects of clays on seismic wave propagation, laboratory measurements of attenuation in granular media, and proposed mechanisms for attenuation in granular media.

  4. Thin Silicon MEMS Contact-Stress Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Kotovksy, J; Tooker, A; Horsley, D

    2010-05-28

    This thin, MEMS contact-stress sensor continuously and accurately measures time-varying, solid interface loads over tens of thousands of load cycles. The contact-stress sensor is extremely thin (150 {mu}m) and has a linear output with an accuracy of {+-} 1.5% FSO.

  5. 15 CFR 23.2 - Contact person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contact person. 23.2 Section 23.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce USE OF PENALTY MAIL IN THE LOCATION AND RECOVERY OF MISSING CHILDREN § 23.2 Contact person. Tim Coss, Office of Administrative Services...

  6. 2 CFR 225.55 - Information contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Information contact. 225.55 Section 225.55 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR STATE, LOCAL, AND INDIAN TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS (OMB CIRCULAR A-87) § 225.55 Information contact....

  7. 2 CFR 230.50 - Information contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Information contact. 230.50 Section 230.50 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-122) § 230.50 Information contact. Further...

  8. 2 CFR 220.45 - Information contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Information contact. 220.45 Section 220.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-21) § 220.45 Information contact. Further information concerning...

  9. Biological Analogs for Language Contact Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seliger, Herbert W.

    1977-01-01

    This article proposes that language contact can be best understood if the entire range of such situations from second language learning to evolution of dialects and creoles is studied within a framework analogical to the symbiosis of living organisms. Language contact is viewed in terms of dynamic evolutionary stages. (CHK)

  10. Achromobacter xylosoxidans keratitis after contact lens usage.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Hyun; Song, Nang Hee; Koh, Jae Woong

    2012-02-01

    To report on Achromobacter xylosoxidans keratitis in two healthy patients who had worn contact lenses foran extended period of time. A 36-year-old female and a 21-year-old female visited our hospital with ocular pain and blurred vision. Both patients had a history of wearing soft contact lenses for over fve years with occasional overnight wear. At the initial presentation, a slit lamp examination revealed corneal stromal infiltrations and epithelial defects with peripheral neovascularization in both patients. Microbiological examinations were performed from samples of corneal scrapings, contact lenses, contact lens cases, and solution. The culture resulting from the samples taken from the contact lenses, contact lens cases, and solution were all positive for Achromobacter xylosoxidans. Confrming that the direct cause of the keratitis was the contact lenses, the frst patient was prescribed ceftazidime and amikacin drops sensitive to Achromobacter xylosoxidans. The second patient was treated with 0.3% gatifoxacin and fortifed tobramycin drops. After treatment, the corneal epithelial defects were completely healed, and subepithelial corneal opacity was observed. Two cases of Achromobacter xylosoxidans keratitis were reported in healthy young females who wore soft contact lenses. Achromobacter xylosoxidans should be considered a rare but potentially harmful pathogen for lens-induced keratitis in healthy hosts. PMID:22323886

  11. Data Qualification Report: Borehole Straigraphic Contacts

    SciTech Connect

    R.W. Clayton; C. Lum

    2000-04-18

    The data set considered here is the borehole stratigraphic contacts data (DTN: M09811MWDGFM03.000) used as input to the Geologic Framework Model. A Technical Assessment method used to evaluate these data with a two-fold approach: (1) comparison to the geophysical logs on which the contacts were, in part, based; and (2) evaluation of the data by mapping individual units using the entire data set. Qualification of the geophysical logs is being performed in a separate activity. A representative subset of the contacts data was chosen based on importance of the contact and representativeness of that contact in the total data set. An acceptance window was established for each contact based on the needs of the data users. Data determined to be within the acceptance window were determined to be adequate for their intended use in three-dimensional spatial modeling and were recommended to be Qualified. These methods were chosen to provide a two-pronged evaluation that examines both the origin and results of the data. The result of this evaluation is a recommendation to qualify all contacts. No data were found to lie outside the pre-determined acceptance window. Where no geophysical logs are available, data were evaluated in relation to surrounding data and by impact assessment. These data are also recommended to be qualified. The stratigraphic contact data contained in this report (Attachment VII; DTN: M00004QGFMPICK.000) are intended to replace the source data, which will remain unqualified.

  12. Immunohistochemical appearance of corticosteroid contact hypersensitivity reactions.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, S M; Andrew, S M; Maseruka, H; Beck, M H

    1994-11-01

    We have studied, immunohistochemically, hypersensitivity reactions to corticosteroids and compared them with allergic contact dermatitis from nickel and appropriate controls. We could find no qualitative differences between nickel and corticosteroid contact reactions, providing further evidence that hypersensitivity to corticosteroids is an immunologically mediated reaction. PMID:7532558

  13. CoinFold: a web server for protein contact prediction and contact-assisted protein folding.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng; Li, Wei; Zhang, Renyu; Liu, Shiwang; Xu, Jinbo

    2016-07-01

    CoinFold (http://raptorx2.uchicago.edu/ContactMap/) is a web server for protein contact prediction and contact-assisted de novo structure prediction. CoinFold predicts contacts by integrating joint multi-family evolutionary coupling (EC) analysis and supervised machine learning. This joint EC analysis is unique in that it not only uses residue coevolution information in the target protein family, but also that in the related families which may have divergent sequences but similar folds. The supervised learning further improves contact prediction accuracy by making use of sequence profile, contact (distance) potential and other information. Finally, this server predicts tertiary structure of a sequence by feeding its predicted contacts and secondary structure to the CNS suite. Tested on the CASP and CAMEO targets, this server shows significant advantages over existing ones of similar category in both contact and tertiary structure prediction. PMID:27112569

  14. Contact gating at GHz frequency in graphene

    PubMed Central

    Wilmart, Q.; Inhofer, A.; Boukhicha, M.; Yang, W.; Rosticher, M.; Morfin, P.; Garroum, N.; Fève, G.; Berroir, J.-M.; Plaçais, B.

    2016-01-01

    The paradigm of graphene transistors is based on the gate modulation of the channel carrier density by means of a local channel gate. This standard architecture is subject to the scaling limit of the channel length and further restrictions due to access and contact resistances impeding the device performance. We propose a novel design, overcoming these issues by implementing additional local gates underneath the contact region which allow a full control of the Klein barrier taking place at the contact edge. In particular, our work demonstrates the GHz operation of transistors driven by independent contact gates. We benchmark the standard channel and novel contact gating and report for the later dynamical transconductance levels at the state of the art. Our finding may find applications in electronics and optoelectronics whenever there is need to control independently the Fermi level and the electrostatic potential of electronic sources or to get rid of cumbersome local channel gates. PMID:26879709

  15. Tear exchange and contact lenses: A review

    PubMed Central

    Muntz, Alex; Subbaraman, Lakshman N.; Sorbara, Luigina; Jones, Lyndon

    2015-01-01

    Tear exchange beneath a contact lens facilitates ongoing fluid replenishment between the ocular surface and the lens. This exchange is considerably lower during the wear of soft lenses compared with rigid lenses. As a result, the accumulation of tear film debris and metabolic by-products between the cornea and a soft contact lens increases, potentially leading to complications. Lens design innovations have been proposed, but no substantial improvement in soft lens tear exchange has been reported. Researchers have determined post-lens tear exchange using several methods, notably fluorophotometry. However, due to technological limitations, little remains known about tear hydrodynamics around the lens and, to-date, true tear exchange with contact lenses has not been shown. Further knowledge regarding tear exchange could be vital in aiding better contact lens design, with the prospect of alleviating certain adverse ocular responses. This article reviews the literature to-date on the significance, implications and measurement of tear exchange with contact lenses. PMID:25575892

  16. Surface Contact Model for Comets and Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackmore, Lars James C.; Trease, Brian P.; Acikmese, Behcet; Mandic, Milan; Carson, John M.

    2011-01-01

    A contact force model was developed for use in touch and go (TAG) surface sampling simulations on small celestial bodies such as comets and asteroids. In TAG scenarios, a spacecraft descending toward the surface of a small body comes into contact with the surface for a short duration of time, collects material samples with a sampler device, and then ascends to leave the surface. The surface contact required 6-DOF (degrees of freedom) dynamics models due to coupling of the attitude and translation dynamics during the contact. The model described here is for contact scenarios that utilize a rotating brush wheel sampler (BWS) to collect surface material. The model includes stiffness and damping of the surface material during BWS vertical motion, lateral friction from the BWS dragging across the surface, and lateral shear from the rotating BWS scooping the surface material. This model is useful for any mission to asteroids or comets that incorporates surface sampling operations.

  17. Contact gating at GHz frequency in graphene.

    PubMed

    Wilmart, Q; Inhofer, A; Boukhicha, M; Yang, W; Rosticher, M; Morfin, P; Garroum, N; Fève, G; Berroir, J-M; Plaçais, B

    2016-01-01

    The paradigm of graphene transistors is based on the gate modulation of the channel carrier density by means of a local channel gate. This standard architecture is subject to the scaling limit of the channel length and further restrictions due to access and contact resistances impeding the device performance. We propose a novel design, overcoming these issues by implementing additional local gates underneath the contact region which allow a full control of the Klein barrier taking place at the contact edge. In particular, our work demonstrates the GHz operation of transistors driven by independent contact gates. We benchmark the standard channel and novel contact gating and report for the later dynamical transconductance levels at the state of the art. Our finding may find applications in electronics and optoelectronics whenever there is need to control independently the Fermi level and the electrostatic potential of electronic sources or to get rid of cumbersome local channel gates. PMID:26879709

  18. NDT applications of non-contact thermosonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Zhi; Tao, Ning; Feng, Lichun; Zhang, Cunlin

    2014-02-01

    Thermosonics or SonicIR has been proven an effective NDT method, in which ultrasonic welding horn is pushed against the tested sample under certain force through a piece of coupling material. Due to the mechanical contact between horn and sample, it may damage the contacted surface, especially for some brittle or fragile samples. In this study, the conventional horn in a small size was replaced by a much bigger horn to avoid the direct contact of horn with the sample. The tested sample could be positioned up to several centimeters away from the bottom or beside of the horn, heat is generated at the defect location under the excitation of ultrasonic field, its heating mechanism is similar with contact thermosonics, the infrared camera could be positioned wherever is convenient to monitor the variation of the surface temperature. The presented experimental results show that the non-contact thermosonics has some potential in NDT application.

  19. Contact gating at GHz frequency in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmart, Q.; Inhofer, A.; Boukhicha, M.; Yang, W.; Rosticher, M.; Morfin, P.; Garroum, N.; Fève, G.; Berroir, J.-M.; Plaçais, B.

    2016-02-01

    The paradigm of graphene transistors is based on the gate modulation of the channel carrier density by means of a local channel gate. This standard architecture is subject to the scaling limit of the channel length and further restrictions due to access and contact resistances impeding the device performance. We propose a novel design, overcoming these issues by implementing additional local gates underneath the contact region which allow a full control of the Klein barrier taking place at the contact edge. In particular, our work demonstrates the GHz operation of transistors driven by independent contact gates. We benchmark the standard channel and novel contact gating and report for the later dynamical transconductance levels at the state of the art. Our finding may find applications in electronics and optoelectronics whenever there is need to control independently the Fermi level and the electrostatic potential of electronic sources or to get rid of cumbersome local channel gates.

  20. Mixed formulation for frictionless contact problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Kim, Kyun O.

    1989-01-01

    Simple mixed finite element models and a computational precedure are presented for the solution of frictionless contact problems. The analytical formulation is based on a form of Reissner's large rotation theory of the structure with the effects of transverse shear deformation included. The contact conditions are incorporated into the formulation by using a perturbed Lagrangian approach with the fundamental unknowns consisting of the internal forces (stress resultants), the generalized displacements, and the Lagrange multipliers associated with the contact conditions. The element characteristic array are obtained by using a modified form of the two-field Hellinger-Reissner mixed variational principle. The internal forces and the Lagrange multipliers are allowed to be discontinuous at interelement boundaries. The Newton-Raphson iterative scheme is used for the solution of the nonlinear algebraic equations, and the determination of the contact area and the contact pressures.

  1. Dewetting films with inclined contact lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Peng; Li, Lei; Lu, Xi-Yun

    2015-02-01

    A partially wetting plate withdrawn from a liquid reservoir causes the deposition of a liquid film that is characterized by inclined contact lines. It has been experimentally indicated that the normal component of the contact-line velocity relative to the plate remains constant and is independent of the inclination angles, a fact that has never theoretically been justified. We demonstrate, in the framework of lubrication theory, that the speed-angle independence is only approximate and the normal velocity actually exhibits a weak decrease with the inclination angle of the contact line. This correlation is attributed to the variation of the effective separation of microscopic and macroscopic length scales. In addition, the inclination of the contact line results in a tangential flux of the liquid, which is confined in the vicinity of the contact line. Simple scaling relations are provided for both the normal velocity and the tangential flux.

  2. Contact lenses and the work environment.

    PubMed

    Mäkitie, J

    1984-01-01

    Controversial opinions have been presented about the use of contact lenses in industrial environments. Work environments contain few obstacles to the use of contact lenses, but many occupations are associated with the risk of excessive difficulties, spoilation , irritation, or complications. From the radiant energy the shorter (280 nm) ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths and the longer (1300 nm) infra-red (IR) wavelengths are absorbed by contact lenses, the absorption increases their temperature and may cause corneal complications. Protective glasses, however, absorb more than 99.5% of the UV and IR energy and thus provide sufficient protection for contact lens wearers exposed to UV or IR radiation. The advantages and risks of contact lenses in industrial work are discussed. PMID:6328841

  3. Current indications for scleral contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Foss, A J; Trodd, T C; Dart, J K

    1994-04-01

    Scleral contact lenses have been largely superseded by corneal contact lenses, but they still retain a role as a treatment of choice for a small group of patients who have tried other types of contact lens wear without success and who are not good candidates for surgery. We performed a cross sectional survey of 44 patients attending clinics at Moorfields Eye Hospital who were successful long-term scleral contact lens wearers and reviewed their indications. Twenty-one patients had been fit to improve visual acuity, 20 for therapeutic indications, and three for cosmetic reasons. Scleral lenses were most useful were with patients with ocular surface disorders, such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and for visual rehabilitation of patients with grossly irregular corneal topography. All patients were benefiting from scleral contact lens wear, and none had serious complications as a result of the scleral lens wear. We conclude that all ophthalmic departments should have access to these lenses. PMID:8044976

  4. Contact Patterns among High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Fournet, Julie; Barrat, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Face-to-face contacts between individuals contribute to shape social networks and play an important role in determining how infectious diseases can spread within a population. It is thus important to obtain accurate and reliable descriptions of human contact patterns occurring in various day-to-day life contexts. Recent technological advances and the development of wearable sensors able to sense proximity patterns have made it possible to gather data giving access to time-varying contact networks of individuals in specific environments. Here we present and analyze two such data sets describing with high temporal resolution the contact patterns of students in a high school. We define contact matrices describing the contact patterns between students of different classes and show the importance of the class structure. We take advantage of the fact that the two data sets were collected in the same setting during several days in two successive years to perform a longitudinal analysis on two very different timescales. We show the high stability of the contact patterns across days and across years: the statistical distributions of numbers and durations of contacts are the same in different periods, and we observe a very high similarity of the contact matrices measured in different days or different years. The rate of change of the contacts of each individual from one day to the next is also similar in different years. We discuss the interest of the present analysis and data sets for various fields, including in social sciences in order to better understand and model human behavior and interactions in different contexts, and in epidemiology in order to inform models describing the spread of infectious diseases and design targeted containment strategies. PMID:25226026

  5. Silicone oil contamination and electrical contact resistance degradation of low-force gold contacts.

    SciTech Connect

    Dugger, Michael Thomas; Dickrell, Daniel John, III

    2006-02-01

    Hot-switched low-force gold electrical contact testing was performed using a nanomechanical test apparatus to ascertain the sensitivity of simulated microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) contact to silicone oil contamination. The observed cyclic contact resistance degradation was dependent on both closure rate and noncontact applied voltage. The decomposition of silicone oil from electrical arcing was hypothesized as the degradation mechanism.

  6. 78 FR 30303 - National Contact Center; Submission for OMB Review; National Contact Center Customer Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... in the Federal Register at 78 FR 14549, on March 6, 2013. No comments were received. DATES: Submit... ADMINISTRATION National Contact Center; Submission for OMB Review; National Contact Center Customer Evaluation Survey AGENCY: Contact Center Services, Federal Citizen Information Center, Office of Citizen...

  7. 75 FR 6032 - National Contact Center; Submission for OMB Review; National Contact Center Customer Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... renewal of a previously approved information collection requirement regarding the National Contact Center customer evaluation survey. A request for public comments was published in the Federal Register at 74 FR... ADMINISTRATION National Contact Center; Submission for OMB Review; National Contact Center Customer...

  8. Toward patient-specific articular contact mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Ateshian, Gerard A.; Henak, Corinne R.; Weiss, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanics of contacting cartilage layers is fundamentally important to understanding the development, homeostasis and pathology of diarthrodial joints. Because of the highly nonlinear nature of both the materials and the contact problem itself, numerical methods such as the finite element method are typically incorporated to obtain solutions. Over the course of five decades, we have moved from an initial qualitative understanding of articular cartilage material behavior to the ability to perform complex, three-dimensional contact analysis, including multiphasic material representations. This history includes the development of analytical and computational contact analysis methods that now provide the ability to perform highly nonlinear analyses. Numerical implementations of contact analysis based on the finite element method are rapidly advancing and will soon enable patient-specific analysis of joint contact mechanics using models based on medical image data. In addition to contact stress on the articular surfaces, these techniques can predict variations in strain and strain through the cartilage layers, providing the basis to predict damage and failure. This opens up exciting areas for future research and application to patient-specific diagnosis and treatment planning applied to a variety of pathologies that affect joint function and cartilage homeostasis. PMID:25698236

  9. Numerical analysis of human dental occlusal contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos, F. S.; Las Casas, E. B.; Godoy, G. C. D.; Meireles, A. B.

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain real contact areas, forces, and pressures acting on human dental enamel as a function of the nominal pressure during dental occlusal contact. The described development consisted of three steps: characterization of the surface roughness by 3D contact profilometry test, finite element analysis of micro responses for each pair of main asperities in contact, and homogenization of macro responses using an assumed probability density function. The inelastic deformation of enamel was considered, adjusting the stress-strain relationship of sound enamel to that obtained from instrumented indentation tests conducted with spherical tip. A mechanical part of the static friction coefficient was estimated as the ratio between tangential and normal components of the overall resistive force, resulting in μd = 0.057. Less than 1% of contact pairs reached the yield stress of enamel, indicating that the occlusal contact is essentially elastic. The micro-models indicated an average hardness of 6.25GPa, and the homogenized result for macroscopic interface was around 9GPa. Further refinements of the methodology and verification using experimental data can provide a better understanding of processes related to contact, friction and wear of human tooth enamel.

  10. Coupled thermoelastic analysis of fretting contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganapathy, Harish

    Fretting fatigue is the contact phenomenon occurring when two bodies in contact experience oscillatory loads. The surface tribology and contact stress evolution in a fretting contact has been studied using coupled thermoelastic analysis. Both, an aluminum and titanium alloy have been studied. Full-field real-time in-situ temperature maps of the contact region and its vicinity have been obtained using a multi-element infrared camera. The distinguishing features of the contact including the sliding regime, partial slip contact, bulk stress effects, boundary conditions effects etc. have been successfully captured using temperature measurement of the order of millikelvin. The coupled thermoclastic response of aluminum and titanium alloy has been successfully characterized, including the mean stress effect. A full coupled thermoelastic finite element model with Coulomb friction, frictional heating and gap conductance, has been used to predict the experimental temperatures. Changes in loads and changes in the coefficient of friction produce changes in different areas of the temperature field. The coupled thermoelastic effect may be used as a powerful tool to guide the march towards the complete understanding of the phenomenon of fretting. The method has been successfully used to guide the finite element analysis of a lap joint specimen.

  11. Selective LPCVD tungsten for contact barrier applications

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, R.A.; Green, M.L.; Gallagher, P.K.; Ali, Y.S.

    1986-09-01

    This study assesses the use of selective LPCVD tungsten as a contact barrier in VLSI circuits. Measurements of the contact resistance and leakage current are evaluated as a function of variations in W deposition parameters, implant type, implant dosage, and metallization heat-treatment. Addition of SiF/sub 4/ to alter the equilibrium of the displacement reaction is seen to cause minimal erosion and encroachment of the Si contacts as well as produce low and thermally stable contact resistance to both n/sup +/ and p/sup +/ diffusions. For surface doping concentrations of 1.44 x 10/sup 20/ cm/sup -3/ As and 0.62 x 10/sup 20/ cm/sup -3/B, measured values for the contact resistance for 2.0 ..mu..m sized vias are near 30..cap omega... Such values are quite compatible with high performance CMOS device requirements. Further reductions in these values are achieved with use of a self-aligned PtSi/W contact barrier metallization. The contact resistance for 2.0 ..mu..m sized vias are, in this case, near 4 and 15..cap omega.. for the n/sup +/ and p/sup +/ diffusions, respectively. Sporadic leakage across shallow n/sup +//P-Tub junctions remains, however, a serious problem associated with this selective LPCVD W process. Understanding the origin of this leakage and eliminating it can lead to numerous applications of this technology in VLSI manufacturing.

  12. Tear calcium levels and contact lens wear.

    PubMed Central

    Winder, A F; Ruben, M; Sheraidah, G A

    1977-01-01

    Hydrophilic contact lens spoliation can be associated with the deposition of calcium salts. The relationship between the concentration of calcium in tear fluid and contact lens use has been studied in healthy volunteers and in patients using various forms of hard and soft contact lenses, tear samples being collected with Schirmer strips and with lenses in situ. Methods are suggested for correcting data on calcium per strip to concentration when this cannot be directly determined. Further data were obtained by direct extraction of freshly removed soft contact lenses. The collected results indicate some variation in tear calcium concentrations, but values are unrelated to use of contact lens and type of lens fitted, and to the rates of tear flow with our procedures for collection. Local calcium concentrations are unlikely therefore to be a significant primary factor in soft contact lens spoliation, but the enlargement of the tear pool associated with the use of a soft contact lens does greatly increase the amount of calcium present, and this may be a factor in secondary deposition. PMID:911735

  13. Tear calcium levels and contact lens wear.

    PubMed

    Winder, A F; Ruben, M; Sheraidah, G A

    1977-08-01

    Hydrophilic contact lens spoliation can be associated with the deposition of calcium salts. The relationship between the concentration of calcium in tear fluid and contact lens use has been studied in healthy volunteers and in patients using various forms of hard and soft contact lenses, tear samples being collected with Schirmer strips and with lenses in situ. Methods are suggested for correcting data on calcium per strip to concentration when this cannot be directly determined. Further data were obtained by direct extraction of freshly removed soft contact lenses. The collected results indicate some variation in tear calcium concentrations, but values are unrelated to use of contact lens and type of lens fitted, and to the rates of tear flow with our procedures for collection. Local calcium concentrations are unlikely therefore to be a significant primary factor in soft contact lens spoliation, but the enlargement of the tear pool associated with the use of a soft contact lens does greatly increase the amount of calcium present, and this may be a factor in secondary deposition. PMID:911735

  14. Dynamics of the Molten Contact Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonin, Ain A.; Schiaffino, Stefano

    1996-01-01

    In contrast to the ordinary contact line problem, virtually no information is available on the similar problem associated with a molten material spreading on a solid which is below the melt's fusion point. The latter is a more complex problem which heat transfer and solidification take place simultaneously with spreading, and requires answers not only for the hot melt's advance speed over the cold solid as a function of contact angle, but also for how one is to predict the point of the molten contact line's arrest by freezing. This issues are of importance in evolving methods of materials processing. The purpose of our work is to develop, based on both experiments and theory, an understanding of the dynamic processes that occur when a molten droplet touches a subcooled solid, spreads partly over it by capillary action, and freezes. We seek answers to the following basic questions. First, what is the relationship between the melt's contact line speed and the apparent (dynamic) contact angle? Secondly, at what point will the contact line modon be arrested by freezing? The talk will describe three components of our work: (1) deposition experiments with small molten droplets; (2) investigation of the dynamics of the molten contact line by means of a novel forced spreading method; and (3) an attempt to provide a theoretical framework for answering the basic questions posed above.

  15. Epidemic contact tracing via communication traces.

    PubMed

    Farrahi, Katayoun; Emonet, Rémi; Cebrian, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Traditional contact tracing relies on knowledge of the interpersonal network of physical interactions, where contagious outbreaks propagate. However, due to privacy constraints and noisy data assimilation, this network is generally difficult to reconstruct accurately. Communication traces obtained by mobile phones are known to be good proxies for the physical interaction network, and they may provide a valuable tool for contact tracing. Motivated by this assumption, we propose a model for contact tracing, where an infection is spreading in the physical interpersonal network, which can never be fully recovered; and contact tracing is occurring in a communication network which acts as a proxy for the first. We apply this dual model to a dataset covering 72 students over a 9 month period, for which both the physical interactions as well as the mobile communication traces are known. Our results suggest that a wide range of contact tracing strategies may significantly reduce the final size of the epidemic, by mainly affecting its peak of incidence. However, we find that for low overlap between the face-to-face and communication interaction network, contact tracing is only efficient at the beginning of the outbreak, due to rapidly increasing costs as the epidemic evolves. Overall, contact tracing via mobile phone communication traces may be a viable option to arrest contagious outbreaks. PMID:24787614

  16. Resistivity of Rotated Graphite-Graphene Contacts.

    PubMed

    Chari, Tarun; Ribeiro-Palau, Rebeca; Dean, Cory R; Shepard, Kenneth

    2016-07-13

    Robust electrical contact of bulk conductors to two-dimensional (2D) material, such as graphene, is critical to the use of these 2D materials in practical electronic devices. Typical metallic contacts to graphene, whether edge or areal, yield a resistivity of no better than 100 Ω μm but are typically >10 kΩ μm. In this Letter, we employ single-crystal graphite for the bulk contact to graphene instead of conventional metals. The graphite contacts exhibit a transfer length up to four-times longer than in conventional metallic contacts. Furthermore, we are able to drive the contact resistivity to as little as 6.6 Ω μm(2) by tuning the relative orientation of the graphite and graphene crystals. We find that the contact resistivity exhibits a 60° periodicity corresponding to crystal symmetry with additional sharp decreases around 22° and 39°, which are among the commensurate angles of twisted bilayer graphene. PMID:27243333

  17. Electrical contact resistance degradation of a hot-switched simulated metal MEMS contact.

    SciTech Connect

    Dugger, Michael Thomas; Dickrell, Daniel John, III

    2005-03-01

    Electrical contact resistance testing was performed by hot-switching a simulated gold-platinum metal microelectromechanical systems contact. The experimental objective was to determine the sensitivity of the contact resistance degradation to current level and environment. The contact resistance increased sharply after 100 hot-switched cycles in air. Hot-switching at a reduced current and in nitrogen atmosphere curtailed contact resistance degradation by several orders of magnitude. The mechanism responsible for the resistance degradation was found to be arc-induced decomposition of adsorbed surface contaminants.

  18. Exploring the Nature of Contact Freezing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselev, A. A.; Hoffmann, N.; Duft, D.; Leisner, T.

    2012-12-01

    The freezing of supercooled water droplets upon contact with aerosol particles (contact nucleation of ice) is the least understood mechanism of ice formation in atmospheric clouds. Although experimental evidences suggest that some aerosols can be better IN in the contact than in the immersion mode (that is, triggering ice nucleation at higher temperature), no final explanation of this phenomena currently exists. On the other hand, the contact freezing is believed to be responsible for the enhanced rate of secondary ice formation occasionally observed in LIDAR measurements in the cold mixed phase clouds. Recently we have been able to show that the freezing of supercooled droplets electrodynamically levitated in the laminar flow containing mineral dust particles (kaolinite) is a process solely governed by a rate of collisions between the supercooled droplet and the aerosol particles. We have shown that the probability of droplet freezing on a single contact with aerosol particle may differ over an order of magnitude for kaolinite particles having different genesis and morphology. In this presentation we extend the study of contact nucleation of ice and compare the IN efficiency measured for DMA-selected kaolinite, illite and hematite particles. We show that the freezing probability increases towards unity as the temperature decreases and discuss the functional form of this temperature dependence. We explore the size dependence of the contact freezing probability and show that it scales with the surface area of the particles, thus resembling the immersion freezing behavior. However, for all minerals investigated so far, the contact freezing has been shown to dominate over immersion freezing on the short experimental time scales. Finally, based on the combined ESEM and electron microprobe analysis, we discuss the significance of particle morphology and variability of chemical composition on its IN efficiency in contact mode.

  19. Contact urticaria syndrome caused by haptens

    PubMed Central

    Panaszek, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    In the group of urticaria, contact urticaria syndrome is a particular variety. In these patients, appearance of typical skin lesions is preceded by contact of the skin and mucous membranes with various inhaled allergens, nutrients or contact details. Furthermore, symptoms connected with contact urticaria syndrome are characterized by gradual, stepwise waveform, which can be easily generalized – patients may develop systemic symptoms similar to those found in the angioedema, asthma or anaphylactic shock. It is an attribute of contact urticaria syndrome in the course of which potentially life-threatening symptoms may develop after contact of the skin with the allergen. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood; both immunological and non-immunological mechanisms are taken into account, therefore contact urticaria syndrome can be classified into two categories – allergic and non-allergic. An intriguing phenomenon seems to be the immediate reaction after exposure to low molecular weight allergens – haptens, such as metals, which are usually the cause of delayed allergic reactions. Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation indicating a coincidence of the onset of allergy with contract with allergen, and helpful exposure tests. Treatment consists of supportive antihistamines and corticosteroids – locally and systemically. In the case of anaphylaxis, appropriate treatment intensification of the integration of pressor amines and hydration is necessary. It is also regarded that prevention is advisable, which consists of relevant information to avoid situations connected with contact with well-known factors. In this paper we describe a case of a 57-year-old female admitted to the Department of Internal Medicine, Geriatrics and Allergology, Medical University in Wroclaw to undergo diagnostic tests of chronic urticaria and angioedema. According to information obtained from the clinical presentation and after the diagnostic procedures, contact urticaria syndrome

  20. Electronic transport through nanotube contacts and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buia, Calin Ioan

    2003-10-01

    Carbon nanotubes are materials with amazing mechanical and electronic properties, which makes them suitable for building nanoscale electronic devices and circuits. However, their electronic transport properties are not yet fully understood. In this study we aim to investigate the electronic transport through nanotube/nanotube contacts. Our calculations are based on Land auer-Buttiker formalism. The transmission function is computed using a Green's functions technique and a tight-binding hamiltonian. Two types of geometries are considered: parallel contact and concentric contact. Additionally we analyze the behavior of a nanotube Y-junction. We find that out of all the properties of individual nanotubes, chirality and symmetry have the most important effect on the electronic transport. As a rule, armchair/armchair and metallic zigzag/zigzag contacts show the best conduction. This is explained by the perfect in-registry atomic arrangement they can provide. The contact length and the local arrangement of the atoms in the contact area are factors that further influence the conductance. We found that in optimal conditions (i.e. in-registry atomic arrangement), a contact length of ˜10 nm is enough to achieve the same conductance as a perfect nanotube. Beyond that the conductance is modulated by quantum interference effects, due to the formation of a resonant cavity in the contact area. For concentric contacts, the states between which the electron hops when passing from one tube to the other must have compatible rotational symmetries, otherwise, the corresponding conduction channel will be suppressed. This results can be used to predict the electronic transport through various setups, including nanotube bundles and multiwall nanotubes.

  1. Characterization of the quality of metal-graphene contact with contact end resistance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shaoqing; Mao, Dacheng; Muhammad, Asif; Peng, Songang; Zhang, Dayong; Shi, Jingyuan; Jin, Zhi

    2016-07-01

    The quality of metal-graphene contact has a great influence on the performance of graphene-based electronic devices. In this paper, a simple, fast and accurate method is introduced to evaluate the quality of metal-graphene contact, which is based on measuring the contact end resistance. Using this method, the effect of rapid thermal annealing on the metal-graphene contact is investigated. It is common observation that before the rapid thermal annealing, contact end resistance has a large variation showing that the metal-graphene contact is in a relatively unstable state when the device is just prepared. After the rapid thermal annealing treatment, contact end resistances show a good consistency for all the devices. The results of contact end resistance are consistent with the images of scanning electron microscope observed before and after the rapid thermal annealing, which indicates that using the contact end resistance to evaluate the quality of metal-graphene contact is an efficient and effective way to predict the contact quality.

  2. Photometric solutions of some contact ASAS binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gezer, İ.; Bozkurt, Z.

    2016-04-01

    We present the first light curve solution of 6 contact binary systems which are chosen from the ASAS catalog. The photometric elements and the estimated absolute parameters of all systems are obtained with the light curve analyses. We calculated the values of degree of contact for the systems. The location of the targets on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and the mass-radius plane is compared to the other well-known contact binaries and the evolutionary status of the systems are also discussed.

  3. Contact resistance of 500 mesh regenerator screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, A. C.; Ravikumar, K. V.; Frederking, T. H. K.

    The electrical contact resistance of stainless steel screen stacks at room temperature and at liquid nitrogen temperature has been measured as a function of externally applied mechanical load (weight). The data show a nearly linear voltage versus current function at small loads (up to 100 mA). The force has been varied up to a specific load of 1 N cm -2. From the data the (apparent) thermal conductance is deduced via the Lorenz number and via the (average) elastically deformed contact domain area of the Hertz theory. The conductances obtained appear to be consistent with literature data for thermal contact conductances of similar systems.

  4. Thermal contact conductance of nominaly flat surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yüncü, H.

    2006-11-01

    The variation of thermal conductance of contact has been investigated as a function of apparent contact pressure experimentally. Experimental data has been obtained for steel, brass, copper and aluminum test pieces having different surface roughness over a wide range of contact pressures. Experimental results are compared with the theoretical predictions of an existing theory. Comparison revealed good agreement of trend with the experimental data, however, numerical values vary widely. Theory can predict the experimental results within an over-all error of less than 35%.

  5. A space-compatible angular contact encoder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flew, A. R.

    1985-12-01

    An electromechanical digital position encoder, based on existing commercial technology, for spacecraft applications is described. The device contains electrical wiping contacts, a gear mechanism, and plain and rolling-element bearings all operating without wet lubrication. Designed to function continuously for 10 years, certain contacts will perform in excess of 20 million cycles. To investigate the performance of these contacts, automatic test equipment was designed to monitor the accuracy of 8192 separate output conditions on a regular basis throughout an accelerated-life thermal vacuum test. The equipment also checks for missing bits and edge noise and logs any errors that are found.

  6. Algorithms for Contact in a Mulitphysics Environment

    2001-12-19

    Many codes require either a contact capability or a need to determine geometric proximity of non-connected topological entities (which is a subset of what contact requires). ACME is a library to provide services to determine contact forces and/or geometric proximity interactions. This includes generic capabilities such as determining points in Cartesian volumes, finding faces in Cartesian volumes, etc. ACME can be run in single or multi-processor mode (the basic algorithms have been tested up tomore » 4500 processors).« less

  7. Contact binary stars as standard candles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klagyivik, P.; Csizmadia, Sz.

    2004-06-01

    Rucinski (1996) suggested to use contact binary stars as standard candles. We investigated the properties of contact binary stars in order to search for possibility of their using as standard candles. For this purpose a catalogue of their light curve solution was compiled and on the basis of the catalogue data we calculated the rate of energy transfer between the two components. This allowed us to determine the mass-luminosity relation of the primary as well as secondary components in a contact binary and using Kepler's third law and the strict geometry a very reliable distance determination method was developed.

  8. Hertzian contact in two and three dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    The basic solution to the problem of mechanical contact between elastically deforming solids was proposed by Hertz over a century ago and has been used by tribologists and others ever since in a steadily increasing number of applications. While the theoretical development is not conceptually difficult and treatments exist to suit all tastes, it is nonetheless interesting to trace the relationships among the solutions in different dimensions. Such an approach is used herein to shed light on the curious and sometimes perplexing behavior of line contacts. A number of the more frequently used contact expressions together as a convenient reference and for comparative purposes.

  9. Hybrid emitter all back contact solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Loscutoff, Paul; Rim, Seung

    2016-04-12

    An all back contact solar cell has a hybrid emitter design. The solar cell has a thin dielectric layer formed on a backside surface of a single crystalline silicon substrate. One emitter of the solar cell is made of doped polycrystalline silicon that is formed on the thin dielectric layer. The other emitter of the solar cell is formed in the single crystalline silicon substrate and is made of doped single crystalline silicon. The solar cell includes contact holes that allow metal contacts to connect to corresponding emitters.

  10. Allergic contact dermatitis: Patient management and education.

    PubMed

    Mowad, Christen M; Anderson, Bryan; Scheinman, Pamela; Pootongkam, Suwimon; Nedorost, Susan; Brod, Bruce

    2016-06-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common diagnosis resulting from exposure to a chemical or chemicals in a patient's personal care products, home, or work environment. Once patch testing has been performed, the education and management process begins. After the causative allergens have been identified, patient education is critical to the proper treatment and management of the patient. This must occur if the dermatitis is to resolve. Detailed education is imperative, and several resources are highlighted. Photoallergic contact dermatitis and occupational contact dermatitis are other considerations a clinician must keep in mind. PMID:27185422

  11. Evaluation of the electrical contact area in contact-mode scanning probe microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Celano, Umberto E-mail: u.celano@gmail.com; Chintala, Ravi Chandra; Vandervorst, Wilfried; Hantschel, Thomas; Giammaria, Guido; Conard, Thierry; Bender, Hugo

    2015-06-07

    The tunneling current through an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip is used to evaluate the effective electrical contact area, which exists between tip and sample in contact-AFM electrical measurements. A simple procedure for the evaluation of the effective electrical contact area is described using conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) in combination with a thin dielectric. We characterize the electrical contact area for coated metal and doped-diamond tips operated at low force (<200 nN) in contact mode. In both cases, we observe that only a small fraction (<10 nm{sup 2}) of the physical contact (∼100 nm{sup 2}) is effectively contributing to the transport phenomena. Assuming this reduced area is confined to the central area of the physical contact, these results explain the sub-10 nm electrical resolution observed in C-AFM measurements.

  12. Evaluation of the electrical contact area in contact-mode scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celano, Umberto; Hantschel, Thomas; Giammaria, Guido; Chintala, Ravi Chandra; Conard, Thierry; Bender, Hugo; Vandervorst, Wilfried

    2015-06-01

    The tunneling current through an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip is used to evaluate the effective electrical contact area, which exists between tip and sample in contact-AFM electrical measurements. A simple procedure for the evaluation of the effective electrical contact area is described using conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) in combination with a thin dielectric. We characterize the electrical contact area for coated metal and doped-diamond tips operated at low force (<200 nN) in contact mode. In both cases, we observe that only a small fraction (<10 nm2) of the physical contact (˜100 nm2) is effectively contributing to the transport phenomena. Assuming this reduced area is confined to the central area of the physical contact, these results explain the sub-10 nm electrical resolution observed in C-AFM measurements.

  13. Eutectic Contact Inks for Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, B.

    1985-01-01

    Low-resistance electrical contacts formed on solar cells by melting powders of eutectic composition of semiconductor and dopant. Process improves cell performance without subjecting cell to processing temperatures high enough to degrade other characteristics.

  14. 5 CFR 2600.102 - Contact information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... numbers. OGE's main telephone number is 202-482-9300. Persons who are deaf or speech impaired may contact OGE at the following TDD (Telecommunications Device for the Deaf and Speech Impaired) number:...

  15. 5 CFR 2600.102 - Contact information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... numbers. OGE's main telephone number is 202-482-9300. Persons who are deaf or speech impaired may contact OGE at the following TDD (Telecommunications Device for the Deaf and Speech Impaired) number:...

  16. 5 CFR 2600.102 - Contact information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... numbers. OGE's main telephone number is 202-482-9300. Persons who are deaf or speech impaired may contact OGE at the following TDD (Telecommunications Device for the Deaf and Speech Impaired) number:...

  17. 5 CFR 2600.102 - Contact information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... numbers. OGE's main telephone number is 202-482-9300. Persons who are deaf or speech impaired may contact OGE at the following TDD (Telecommunications Device for the Deaf and Speech Impaired) number:...

  18. Molecular junctions: Single-molecule contacts exposed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Richard J.; Higgins, Simon J.

    2015-05-01

    Using a scanning tunnelling microscopy-based method it is now possible to get an atomistic-level description of the most probable binding and contact configuration for single-molecule electrical junctions.

  19. Nanoparticle derived contacts for photovoltaic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ginley, D.S.

    1999-10-20

    Contacts are becoming increasingly important as PV devices move to higher efficiency and lower cost. The authors present an approach to developing contacts using nanoparticle-based precursors. Both elemental, alloy and compound nanoparticles can be employed for contacts. Ink based approaches can be utilized at low temperatures and utilize direct write techniques such as ink jet and screen printing. The ability to control the composition of the nanoparticle allows improved control of the contact metallurgy and the potential for thermodynamically stable interfaces. A key requirement is the ability to control the interface between particles and between particles and the substrate. The authors illustrate some of these principals with recent results on Al, Cu and (Hg,Cu)Te. They show that for the elemental materials control of the surface can prevent oxide formation and act as glue to control the reactivity of the nanoparticles.

  20. Theory of reciprocating contact for viscoelastic solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putignano, Carmine; Carbone, Giuseppe; Dini, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    A theory of reciprocating contacts for linear viscoelastic materials is presented. Results are discussed for the case of a rigid sphere sinusoidally driven in sliding contact with a viscoelastic half-space. Depending on the size of the contact, the frequency and amplitude of the reciprocating motion, and on the relaxation time of the viscoelastic body, we establish that the contact behavior may range from the steady-state viscoelastic solution, in which traction forces always oppose the direction of the sliding rigid punch, to a more elaborate trend, which is due to the strong interaction between different regions of the path covered during the reciprocating motion. Practical implications span a number of applications, ranging from seismic engineering to biotechnology.

  1. NES: How to Contact the NES Team

    NASA Video Gallery

    Learn how to get your questions answered by contacting the NASA Explorer Schools team through email or toll-free telephone. You may use the FAQs to find information about the project. There is also...

  2. The contact area dependent interfacial thermal conductance

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chenhan; Wei, Zhiyong; Bi, Kedong; Yang, Juekuan; Chen, Yunfei; Wang, Jian

    2015-12-15

    The effects of the contact area on the interfacial thermal conductance σ are investigated using the atomic Green’s function method. Different from the prediction of the heat diffusion transport model, we obtain an interesting result that the interfacial thermal conductance per unit area Λ is positively dependent on the contact area as the area varies from a few atoms to several square nanometers. Through calculating the phonon transmission function, it is uncovered that the phonon transmission per unit area increases with the increased contact area. This is attributed to that each atom has more neighboring atoms in the counterpart of the interface with the increased contact area, which provides more channels for phonon transport.

  3. 2 CFR 230.50 - Information contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-122) § 230.50 Information contact. Further information concerning this part may be obtained...

  4. 2 CFR 220.45 - Information contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-21) § 220.45 Information contact. Further information concerning this part may be obtained...

  5. 2 CFR 225.55 - Information contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR STATE, LOCAL, AND INDIAN TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS (OMB CIRCULAR A-87) § 225.55 Information contact. Further information concerning this part may...

  6. Charge Redistribution and Transport in Molecular Contacts.

    PubMed

    Corso, Martina; Ondráček, Martin; Lotze, Christian; Hapala, Prokop; Franke, Katharina J; Jelínek, Pavel; Pascual, J Ignacio

    2015-09-25

    The forces between two single molecules brought into contact, and their connection with charge transport through the molecular junction, are studied here using non contact AFM, STM, and density functional theory simulations. A carbon monoxide molecule approaching an acetylene molecule (C_{2}H_{2}) initially feels weak attractive electrostatic forces, partly arising from charge reorganization in the presence of molecular . We find that the molecular contact is chemically passive, and protects the electron tunneling barrier from collapsing, even in the limit of repulsive forces. However, we find subtle conductance and force variations at different contacting sites along the C_{2}H_{2} molecule attributed to a weak overlap of their respective frontier orbitals. PMID:26451568

  7. Thermal Conductances of Pressed Copper Contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salerno, L.; Kittel, P.; Spivak, A.

    1986-01-01

    Report describes investigation of thermal conductivities of smooth copper contacts pressed together at liquid-helium temperatures. Investigation prompted by need for accurate thermal models for infrared detectors and other cryogenic instruments.

  8. Recent Trends in Occupational Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Wiszniewska, Marta; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2015-07-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) remains prevalent among workers and impacts quality of life and workability. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent advances in occupational contact dermatitis as well as potential hazardous agents in the workplaces causing OCD. The review covers new developments in the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, and management of occupational contact dermatitis. This article also provides updated information on the prevalence of work-related skin symptoms and on new contact allergens among working population. It is emphasized that in the context of prevention of OCD, special attention should be focused on the identified high-risk occupational groups, especially healthcare workers and hairdressers starting with the apprentices. Current approaches include working out the standards and guidelines to improve the education, knowledge, diagnosis, and management of OCD based on a multidisciplinary team of medical specialists and an employer. PMID:26143395

  9. Identity Theft: A Study in Contact Centres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moir, Iain; Weir, George R. S.

    This paper explores the recent phenomenon of identity theft. In particular, it examines the contact centre environment as a mechanism for this to occur. Through a survey that was conducted amongst forty-five contact centre workers in the Glasgow area we determined that contact centres can and do provide a mechanism for identity theft. Specifically, we found a particularly high incidence of agents who had previously dealt with phone calls that they considered suspicious. Furthermore, there are agents within such environments who have previously been offered money in exchange for customers' details, or who know of fellow workers who received such offers. Lastly, we identify specific practices within contact centres that may contribute to the likelihood of identity theft.

  10. Contact characteristics for YBCO bulk superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Naoki; Sakai, Tomokazu; Sawa, Koichiro; Tomita, Masaru; Murakami, Masato

    2003-10-01

    We have studied the contact characteristics of two resin-impregnated YBCO (a composite of YBa 2Cu 3O y and Y 2BaCuO 5) bulk superconductors in mechanical contact. A switching phenomenon could be observed at a threshold current or a transfer current value in the V- I curves of the YBCO contact. The transfer current exceeded the previous value of 13.5 A at 77 K in the contact when the sample surfaces were carefully polished. The present results suggest that a pair of YBCO blocks might be applicable to the mechanical persistent current switch for superconducting magnetic energy storage and other superconducting systems run in a persistent current mode.

  11. Diffusion-Barrier Contacts For Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, Paul M.; Pool, Frederick S.; Nicolet, Marc; Iles, Peter A.

    1996-01-01

    Electrically conductive diffusion barriers of TaSiN prevent diffusion of metal from overlying metal contacts into underlying silicon during processing at high temperature, improving performance during subsequent use in low-intensity light at low temperature.

  12. Front contact solar cell with formed emitter

    DOEpatents

    Cousins, Peter John

    2014-11-04

    A bipolar solar cell includes a backside junction formed by an N-type silicon substrate and a P-type polysilicon emitter formed on the backside of the solar cell. An antireflection layer may be formed on a textured front surface of the silicon substrate. A negative polarity metal contact on the front side of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the substrate, while a positive polarity metal contact on the backside of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the polysilicon emitter. An external electrical circuit may be connected to the negative and positive metal contacts to be powered by the solar cell. The positive polarity metal contact may form an infrared reflecting layer with an underlying dielectric layer for increased solar radiation collection.

  13. Front contact solar cell with formed emitter

    DOEpatents

    Cousins, Peter John

    2012-07-17

    A bipolar solar cell includes a backside junction formed by an N-type silicon substrate and a P-type polysilicon emitter formed on the backside of the solar cell. An antireflection layer may be formed on a textured front surface of the silicon substrate. A negative polarity metal contact on the front side of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the substrate, while a positive polarity metal contact on the backside of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the polysilicon emitter. An external electrical circuit may be connected to the negative and positive metal contacts to be powered by the solar cell. The positive polarity metal contact may form an infrared reflecting layer with an underlying dielectric layer for increased solar radiation collection.

  14. Critical behaviours of contact near phase transitions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y.-Y.; Jiang, Y.-Z.; Guan, X.-W.; Zhou, Qi

    2014-01-01

    A central quantity of importance for ultracold atoms is contact, which measures two-body correlations at short distances in dilute systems. It appears in universal relations among thermodynamic quantities, such as large momentum tails, energy and dynamic structure factors, through the renowned Tan relations. However, a conceptual question remains open as to whether or not contact can signify phase transitions that are insensitive to short-range physics. Here we show that, near a continuous classical or quantum phase transition, contact exhibits a variety of critical behaviours, including scaling laws and critical exponents that are uniquely determined by the universality class of the phase transition, and a constant contact per particle. We also use a prototypical exactly solvable model to demonstrate these critical behaviours in one-dimensional strongly interacting fermions. Our work establishes an intrinsic connection between the universality of dilute many-body systems and universal critical phenomena near a phase transition. PMID:25346226

  15. Formula Gives Better Contact-Resistance Values

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieneweg, Udo; Hannaman, David J.

    1988-01-01

    Lateral currents in contact strips taken into account. Four-terminal test structures added to intergrated circuits to enable measurement of interfacial resistivities of contacts between thin conducting layers. Thin-film model simplified quasi-two-dimensional potential model that accounts adequately for complicated three-dimensional, nonuniform current densitites. Effects of nonuniformity caused by lateral current flow in strips summarized in equivalent resistance Rs and voltage Vs.

  16. Piezoviscosity In Lubrication Of Nonconformal Contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeng, Yeau-Ren; Hamrock, Bernard J.; Brewe, David E.

    1988-01-01

    Developments in theory of lubrication. Analysis of piezoviscous-rigid regime of lubrication of two ellipsoidal contacts. Begins with Reynolds equation for point contact. Equation nondimensionalized using Roelands empirical formula and Dowson and Higginson formula. Equation solved numerically. Solutions obtained for full spectrum of conditions to find effects of dimensionless load, speed, parameters of lubricated and lubricating materials, and angle between direction of rolling and direction of entrainment of lubricant.

  17. Treatment of warts with contact allergens.

    PubMed

    Word, Andrew P; Nezafati, Kaveh A; Cruz, Ponciano D

    2015-01-01

    Contact immunotherapy is an increasingly used, effective means of treating cutaneous viral warts. Dinitrochlorobenzene, diphencyprone, and squaric acid dibutylester are the most frequently used modalities, showing slight variances in adverse effect profiles and efficacy. All of these agents serve as safe treatment modalities when administered according to the guidelines recommended herein. We review the value of contact immunotherapy in the treatment of cutaneous viral warts. PMID:25581668

  18. Corn contact urticaria in a nurse.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wendy; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2007-05-01

    A 33-year-old nurse presented with persistent hand dermatitis. Radioallergosorbent tests showed moderate to strong reactions to latex, avocado and banana. Despite avoidance of latex gloves, she failed to improve. Patch testing was negative. Prick testing showed a negative reaction to latex, but a strong reaction to corn, with relevance to cornstarch powder present in many medical examination gloves. She was diagnosed with corn contact urticaria, irritant contact dermatitis and type I hypersensitivity to latex fruits. PMID:17535205

  19. On contact problems of elasticity theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalandiya, A. I.

    1986-01-01

    Certain contact problems are reviewed in the two-dimensional theory of elasticity when round bodies touch without friction along most of the boundary and, therefore, Herz' hypothesis on the smallness of the contact area cannot be used. Fundamental equations were derived coinciding externally with the equation in the theory of a finite-span wing with unkown parameter. These equations are solved using Multhopp's well-known technique, and numerical calculations are performed in specific examples.

  20. Military aviation: a contact lens review.

    PubMed

    Lattimore, M R

    1990-10-01

    The military aviation communities have benefitted from the development of advanced electro-optical avionics systems. One drawback that has emerged is an increasing system incompatibility with traditional spectacle visual corrections. An alternative solution to the refractive error correction problem that some services have been investigating is that of contact lens wear. Since this much-debated topic is currently of command interest, a general overview of contact lens issues is presented as a framework for future discussions. PMID:2241737