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Sample records for 401-5978 ferc contact

  1. 76 FR 52647 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-583); Comment Request; Submitted for OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Internet through FERC's homepage using the ``eLibrary'' link. For user assistance, contact... financial resources expended to generate, maintain, retain, disclose, or provide the information including... Energy Regulatory Commission Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-583); Comment...

  2. 78 FR 9679 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-60, FERC-61, & FERC-555A); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... information collections [FERC-60 (Annual Report of Centralized Service Companies), FERC-61 (Narrative Description of Service Company Functions), and FERC- 555A (Preservation of Records Companies and Service Companies Subject to PUHCA \\1\\)] to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review of the...

  3. 77 FR 35667 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-567); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ... collection FERC-567, Gas Pipeline Certificates: Annual Reports of System Flow Diagrams and System Capacity to... CONTACT: Ellen Brown may be reached by email at DataClearance@FERC.gov , by telephone at (202) 502-8663...: Annual Reports of System Flow Diagrams and System Capacity. OMB Control No.: 1902-0005. Type of...

  4. 76 FR 35872 - Commission Information Collection Activities (Ferc-603); Comment Request; Submitted for OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... using the ``eLibrary'' link. For user assistance, contact ferconlinesupport@ferc.gov or toll-free at.... Critical infrastructure means existing and proposed systems and assets, whether physical or virtual,...

  5. 75 FR 61455 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-582); Comment Request; Submitted for OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Internet through FERC's homepage using the ``eLibrary'' link. For user assistance, contact... Description: Public Land States/Non-Public Land States (Rectangular or Non Rectangular Survey System Lands...

  6. 78 FR 69843 - Commission Information Collection Activities (Ferc-Ferc-549d); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ... fax at (202) 273-0873. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Quarterly Transportation and Storage Report... Energy Regulatory Commission Commission Information Collection Activities (Ferc-Ferc-549d); Comment Request; Extension AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, DOE. ACTION: Notice of...

  7. 78 FR 24188 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-500 and FERC-505); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... give equal consideration to preserving energy conservation, the protection, mitigation of damage to... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-500 and FERC-...

  8. 78 FR 64484 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-511 and FERC-515); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-511 and FERC- 515); Comment Request AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Request for comments. SUMMARY:...

  9. 77 FR 25156 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-65, FERC-65A, and FERC-65B); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... requires the filing to include the names of special-purpose subsidiaries (which provide non-power goods and... generate, maintain, retain, or disclose or provide information to or for a Federal agency. For further... Energy Regulatory Commission Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-65, FERC-65A, and...

  10. 77 FR 69615 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-715); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... annually: \\1\\ 16 U.S.C. 8241. Contact information for the FERC-715; Base case power flow data (if it does not participate in the development and use of regional power flow data); Transmission system maps and... reliability and security of the nation's bulk power system. OER oversees the development and review...

  11. 77 FR 53877 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-715); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... annually: \\1\\ 16 U.S.C. 824l. Contact information for the FERC-715; Base case power flow data (if it does not participate in the development and use of regional power flow data); Transmission system maps and... consolidation and mergers; The adequacy of supply and; Reliability of nation's transmission grid. The...

  12. 78 FR 11167 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-592); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal... Conduct for Transmission Provider; and Marketing Affiliates of Interstate Pipelines), to the Office of.../submission-guide.asp . For user assistance contact FERC Online Support by email at...

  13. 77 FR 56636 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-500 & FERC-505); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... request for comments. SUMMARY: In compliance with the requirements of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995... Water Projects with Greater than 5 Megawatt Capacity (FERC-500) and Application for License/Relicense for Water Projects with 5 Megawatt or Less Capacity (FERC-505). DATES: Comments on the collections...

  14. 77 FR 64495 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-922); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-922); Comment Request... Regulatory Commission (Commission or FERC) is submitting the new information collection FERC-922... information are due by November 21, 2012. ADDRESSES: Comments filed with OMB, identified by FERC-922,...

  15. 77 FR 8245 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-65, FERC-65A, and FERC-65B); Comment Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... through the Commission's Web site. Type of Respondents: Public utility companies, natural gas companies... utilities, the name of natural gas companies in the holding company system, and the names of service... utility or natural gas company. Companies seeking this exemption file the FERC-65A. Commission...

  16. 78 FR 24187 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC Form 6-Q); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC Form 6-Q); Comment... Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission or FERC) is submitting the information collection FERC Form...

  17. 78 FR 54880 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-551); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ...) 273-0873. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Reporting of Flow Volume and Capacity by Interstate... Energy Regulatory Commission Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-551); Comment Request... Regulatory Commission (Commission or FERC) is submitting the information collection FERC-551, Reporting...

  18. 75 FR 7466 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-912 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, 44 U.S.C. 3507, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission or FERC) has submitted the FERC-912 \\1\\ to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review of the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  19. 75 FR 5061 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC Form Nos. 6 and 6-Q); Comment Request; Extensions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... information reported on the annual FERC Form 6 and quarterly FERC Form 6-Q provides FERC, as well as customers... jurisdictional entities assists the Commission in its analysis of profitability, efficiency, risk and in...

  20. 18 CFR 366.4 - FERC-65, notification of holding company status, FERC-65A, exemption notification, and FERC-65B...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... NATURAL GAS ACT BOOKS AND RECORDS Definitions and Provisions Under PUHCA 2005, the Federal Power Act and... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false FERC-65, notification... Section 366.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION,...

  1. 18 CFR 366.4 - FERC-65, notification of holding company status, FERC-65A, exemption notification, and FERC-65B...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... NATURAL GAS ACT BOOKS AND RECORDS Definitions and Provisions Under PUHCA 2005, the Federal Power Act and... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false FERC-65, notification... Section 366.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION,...

  2. 18 CFR 366.4 - FERC-65, notification of holding company status, FERC-65A, exemption notification, and FERC-65B...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... NATURAL GAS ACT BOOKS AND RECORDS Definitions and Provisions Under PUHCA 2005, the Federal Power Act and... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false FERC-65, notification... Section 366.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION,...

  3. 18 CFR 366.4 - FERC-65, notification of holding company status, FERC-65A, exemption notification, and FERC-65B...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... NATURAL GAS ACT BOOKS AND RECORDS Definitions and Provisions Under PUHCA 2005, the Federal Power Act and... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false FERC-65, notification... Section 366.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION,...

  4. 18 CFR 366.4 - FERC-65, notification of holding company status, FERC-65A, exemption notification, and FERC-65B...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... NATURAL GAS ACT BOOKS AND RECORDS Definitions and Provisions Under PUHCA 2005, the Federal Power Act and... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false FERC-65, notification... Section 366.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION,...

  5. 76 FR 5799 - Notice of Commissioners and Staff Attendance at FERC Leadership Development Program Induction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commissioners and Staff Attendance at FERC Leadership Development...: FERC Leadership Development Program Induction Ceremony: 888 First Street, NE., Washington, DC 20426... Leadership Development Program. Kimberly D. Bose, Secretary. BILLING CODE 6717-01-P...

  6. FERC dismisses return to reregulation despite setbacks and skepticism

    SciTech Connect

    2008-04-15

    Disappointed with performance of competitive electricity markets, some politicians are in favor of returning to more regulatory oversight. A recent report points to selective evidence indicating that consumers in states with deregulated energy markets pay considerably more for electricity. The chairman of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission recently declared that the U.S. 'isn't going to change its policy of allowing competitive markets to determine prices.' Strictly speaking, FERC has little to say or do when it comes to state-level regulation of electricity markets; that's the prerogative of local legislatures. Nevertheless, what FERC says does matter.

  7. Oil pipeline regulation: has the FERC finally slain the Minotaur

    SciTech Connect

    Coburn, L.L.

    1985-01-01

    Opinion 154-B of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) is supposed to resolve a 14-year legal tangle for the oil pipeline industry. The author examines whether the Opinion will clarify the confusion and reduce the litigation burden, and concludes that it will not. Opinion 154-B will ensure that litigation continues. Case-specific proceedings must occur for each of the pipelines under FERC jurisdiction to answer the questions, notably rate of return, left unanswered in the Opinion. Among the factors the author considers are rate base, capital structure, rate of return, and taxes. 8 figures, 2 tables.

  8. 75 FR 35003 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC Form No. 580); Request; Submitted for OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... Report.'' FERC Response: The information collected in the EIA-923 and FERC Form No. 1 is insufficient for the Commission to meet its statutory requirements related to AACs. Both the EIA-923 and FERC Form No... contract. In contrast, the EIA-923 form collects fuel information by supplier, and, in some cases,...

  9. 78 FR 58296 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-604); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... Regulatory Commission (Commission or FERC) is submitting the information collection FERC-604 (Cash Management Agreements) to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review of the information collection... at (202) 502-8663, and by fax at (202) 273-0873. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: FERC-604,...

  10. Implications of the Bangor Hydro decision on FERC relicensings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pizzi, L.

    1997-01-01

    In the next 15 years, over 400 existing nonfederal dams will require new licenses by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) in order to continue operations. In many cases, state or federal agencies have a unique opportunity to condition the hydropower licenses to protect environmental values. In 1996, the Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit issued an opinion striking down a mandatory license condition imposed by the U.S. Department of the Interior in a FERC relicensing. The case, Bangor Hydro-Electric Company v.Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, is instructive for agencies regarding the procedures to be followed in imposing mandatory FERC licensing conditions in the future. After Bangor Hydro, agencies should: (1) support their decisions by substantial evidence in the FERC record, (2) request applicant studies to support agency decisions and allow public comment on the decisions as a means to test the facts and analysis, and (3) consider intervening in a case to defend the condition on appeal. Bangor Hydro also raises, but does not decide, the issue of whether the agency imposing the mandatory condition should engage in balancing the economics of the hydropower project with the public resources affected by the project.

  11. 76 FR 46781 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC Form 1 and FERC Form 1F); Comment Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ..., and 3Q \\2\\. The FERC Annual/Quarterly Report Forms provide the Commission, as well as others, with an... financial and operating report submitted for electric rate regulation and financial audits. Major is defined as having (1) One million Megawatt hours or more; (2) 100 megawatt hours of annual sales for...

  12. Stranded investment, prices and privacy factor in FERC rulings

    SciTech Connect

    O`Driscoll, M.

    1993-07-16

    The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission upheld its rejection of United Illuminating Co.`s bid to recover stranded investment costs. Since UI has no wholesale customers, it is a matter best left to state regulators, FERC said. UI`s stranded investment recovery plan was part of the company`s transmission access tariff, which provides for open access transmission service at cost-based rates. FERC ordered UI to delete the stranded investment provisions, saying UI was trying to recover in its wholesale transmission rates the costs of generation facility investments that were incurred to provide service to retail customers that leave its system, reasoning that UI was seeking protection from what may be legitimate retail franchise competition, which is a state matter. UI, however, said deleting the stranded investment provision would preclude it from arguing in an individual rate filling under the transmission tariff that stranded investment costs should be borne by the wheeling customer.

  13. 75 FR 71123 - Notice of Commissioners and Staff Attendance at FERC/NARUC Collaborative on Smart Response Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... Smart Response Meeting November 12, 2010. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC or Commission... meeting: FERC/NARUC Collaborative on Smart Response: Omni Hotel at CNN Center, 100 CNN Center, Atlanta,...

  14. 18 CFR 260.8 - System flow diagrams: Format No. FERC 567.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false System flow diagrams: Format No. FERC 567. 260.8 Section 260.8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY...) § 260.8 System flow diagrams: Format No. FERC 567. (a) Each Major natural gas pipeline company, having...

  15. 75 FR 71097 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-919); Comment Request; Submitted for OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... may be reached by e-mail at DataClearance@FERC.gov , by telephone at (202) 502-8663, and by fax at... obtaining data pertaining to loads, generation resources, planned outages, remote generation, and power... its 60-day notice, FERC estimated the total average annual cost burden for respondents filing the...

  16. 18 CFR 131.31 - FERC Form No. 561, Annual report of interlocking positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false FERC Form No. 561, Annual report of interlocking positions. 131.31 Section 131.31 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... regulations: enter in space 4 the complete FERC docket number of such authorization; enter in space 5...

  17. 77 FR 19009 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-552); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ... information collection, FERC-552, Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions. DATES: Comments on the collection... (202) 273-0873. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: FERC-552, Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions... Code of Federal Regulations 1320.3(b)(1). [[Page 19010

  18. 75 FR 5066 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC Form 60,1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... information (including balance sheet, assets, liabilities, billing and charges for associated and non... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC Form 60,\\1\\ FERC-61,...

  19. 18 CFR 131.31 - FERC Form No. 561, Annual report of interlocking positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND PUBLIC UTILITY REGULATORY POLICIES ACT OF 1978 FORMS § 131.31 FERC Form No. 561, Annual report of interlocking... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false FERC Form No....

  20. 18 CFR 131.31 - FERC Form No. 561, Annual report of interlocking positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND PUBLIC UTILITY REGULATORY POLICIES ACT OF 1978 FORMS § 131.31 FERC Form No. 561, Annual report of interlocking... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false FERC Form No....

  1. 18 CFR 131.31 - FERC Form No. 561, Annual report of interlocking positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND PUBLIC UTILITY REGULATORY POLICIES ACT OF 1978 FORMS § 131.31 FERC Form No. 561, Annual report of interlocking... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false FERC Form No....

  2. 18 CFR 357.4 - FERC Form No. 6-Q, Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT ANNUAL SPECIAL OR PERIODIC REPORTS: CARRIERS SUBJECT TO PART I OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 357.4 FERC Form... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false FERC Form No....

  3. 78 FR 63172 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-733); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... public comment on the proposed information collection FERC-733, Demand Response/Time-Based Rate Programs...: Title: FERC-733, Demand Response/Time-Based Rate Programs and Advanced Metering OMB Control No.: To be determined Type of Request: Approval of a new survey of demand response and time-based rate programs...

  4. FERC Order No. 451: freedom (almost) for old gas

    SciTech Connect

    Shoneman, C.H.; McConnell, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    Order No. 451 represents the final step in the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) continuing effort to loosen its regulatory reins over the gas industry and make it more competitive. Significant changes have been made in the Commission's regulations governing transportation, pricing, and abandonment, all of which were the subject of the Notices of Inquiry (NOIs) issued by the Commission in late 1984 and early 1985. Order Nos. 436 and 451, however, must survive judicial review. There are also numerous remnants of the old regulatory structure that need to be adjusted, and the new structure will certainly need fine tuning. Only after this is accomplished and the Commission's orders are approved by the courts, will the new gas market be able to function as envisioned by the Commission.

  5. 75 FR 21623 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC Form Nos. 6 and 6-Q); Comment Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... FERC, as well as customers, investors and others, an important tool to help identify emerging trends... profitability, efficiency, risk and in its overall monitoring. A summary of the comment received (from the...

  6. 76 FR 30930 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-512); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ..., or financial resources expended to generate, maintain, retain, or disclose or provide the information... information, including the validity of the methodology and assumptions used; (3) ways to enhance the quality... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-512);...

  7. 78 FR 16487 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-556); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-556); Comment Request AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, DOE. ACTION: Comment request. SUMMARY: In compliance...

  8. 78 FR 47310 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-582); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ..., power marketers) subject to these annual charges must submit FERC-582 data to the Commission by April 30... utilities and power marketers. Estimate of Annual Burden \\7\\: The Commission estimates the total...

  9. 78 FR 13657 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-577); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... of information technology. Dated: February 21, 2013. Kimberly D. Bose, Secretary. BILLING CODE 6717... Energy Regulatory Commission Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-577); Comment Request; Extension AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, DOE. ] ACTION: Notice of information collection...

  10. 78 FR 45919 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC Form 80); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ..._submission@omb.gov . Attention: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Desk Officer. The Desk Officer may also... total estimated annual cost burden to respondents is $35,070 . \\2\\ FERC divides the responses...

  11. 76 FR 52646 - Commision Information Collection Activities [FERC-588]; Comment Request; Submitted for OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Commision Information Collection Activities ; Comment Request; Submitted for... Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission or FERC) has submitted the information collection described below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review of the information collection...

  12. 78 FR 49490 - Commission Information Collection Activities (Ferc-511); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Commission Information Collection Activities (Ferc-511); Comment Request; Extension AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, DOE. ACTION: Notice of information collection...

  13. Research report: Summary of key state issues of FERC orders 888 and 889

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, K.; Burns, R.E.; Graniere, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s (FERC) Order 888 is perhaps the most important and far reaching FERC electricity order in decades. The consequences on the structure of the industry and how the industry is regulated are significant departures from past methods and regulatory philosophy. This will undoubtedly have a dramatic impact on the manner in which state public utility commissions, which are also undergoing or considering dramatic change, regulate their jurisdictional electric utilities. This report summarizes and discusses the actions that the FERC is taking and their profound repercussions on the industry and state commissions. The report is not a comprehensive summary of the entire order. Rather, it is intended to highlight the order`s more important features and discuss what this could mean for the states. The report is organized into eight sections; the first seven address Order 888 and the last section (section 8) addresses Order 889. Section 1 through 5 summarize and discuss the main features of Order 888. Section 6 (on jurisdiction) and Section 7 (on property rights) interpret the likely consequences of the order. Section 8, summarizes the FERC`s Open Access Same Time System (OASIS) and discusses some concerns about its real-world application.

  14. Test for abuse under NGPA Section 601(c)(2): Office of Consumers' Counsel v. FERC

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    A review of fraud and abuse challenge against the Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA) section 601, which allows the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to control the prices pipeline companies pay. The author explores the statutory background of the case, FERC's authority to interpret provisions of the NGPA in the area of take-or-pay problems, and court opinions. He concludes by outlining approaches for applying the fraud and abuse test, and views the guaranteed pass-through exception of fraud, abuse, or similar grounds as a valuable enforcement tool for FERC. As the terms become better defined, pipelines will be able to structure their business activities to avoid situations likely to lead to fraud or abuse charges. Both FERC and the natural gas industry will benefit from further development of the standard.

  15. 18 CFR 141.51 - FERC Form No. 714, Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS... and file the applicable schedules in FERC Form No. 714 with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false FERC Form No....

  16. Considerations for State Regulators and Policymakers in a Post-FERC Order 745 World

    SciTech Connect

    Cappers, Peter; Satchwell, Andy

    2015-02-01

    By vacating the Federal Energy Commission's (FERC) Order 745 in Electric Power Supply Association vs. FERC (EPSA, 2014) the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C Circuit injected uncertainty into the future of demand response (DR) resources in U.S. wholesale markets. Many possible future scenarios in which DR continues to be available to provide capacity for resource adequacy would need to rely on a potential checkerboard of policies promulgated by state utility commissions. However, the states that will be most directly impacted by the potential implications from the EPSA ruling are precisely those that have the fewest policies currently in place to promote retail program development.

  17. 76 FR 34216 - Commission Information Collection Activities (Ferc-521), Proposed Collection; Comment Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Commission Information Collection Activities (Ferc-521), Proposed Collection... comment on the specific aspects of the information collection described below. DATES: Comments in consideration of the collection of information are due July 13, 2011. ADDRESSES: Comments may be filed...

  18. 78 FR 61983 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-555); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-09

    ... methodology as before. However, we are updating the figures due to current cost information and differences in... extension of the FERC-555 information collection requirements with no changes to the current reporting...) (C)x(D) 509 1 509 5,218 2,655,962 The total estimated annual cost burden to respondents is...

  19. 78 FR 11868 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Meeting The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) hereby gives notice that members of...

  20. 75 FR 56082 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-725E); Comment Request; Submitted for OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... to make a paper filing. Documents filed electronically via the Internet must be prepared in an.../esubscription.asp . All comments may be viewed, printed or downloaded remotely via the Internet through FERC's... buttresses the Commission's efforts to strengthen the reliability of the interstate grid through the...

  1. 77 FR 28861 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-585); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ...) the accuracy of the agency's estimate of the burden and cost of the collection of information... Energy Regulatory Commission Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-585); Comment Request... requirements of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, 44 United States Code (U.S.C.) 3507(a)(1)(D), the...

  2. 77 FR 26537 - Notice of Commissioners and Staff Attendance at FERC Leadership Development Program Graduation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commissioners and Staff Attendance at FERC Leadership Development... Leadership Development Program Graduation/Induction Ceremony: 888 First Street NE., Washington, DC 20426. May... 2012 Leadership Development Program and graduate 15 employees from the 2011 program. Dated: April...

  3. 18 CFR 260.8 - System flow diagrams: Format No. FERC 567.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false System flow diagrams: Format No. FERC 567. 260.8 Section 260.8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS...

  4. 18 CFR 260.8 - System flow diagrams: Format No. FERC 567.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false System flow diagrams: Format No. FERC 567. 260.8 Section 260.8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS...

  5. 18 CFR 260.8 - System flow diagrams: Format No. FERC 567.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false System flow diagrams: Format No. FERC 567. 260.8 Section 260.8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS...

  6. 77 FR 24189 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-725); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... Compliance...... 1 1 76,837 76,837 Standards Development....... 1 1 51,834 51,834 Other Reporting 1 1 1 2,080.... Abstract: The Commission uses the information collected under the requirements of FERC-725 \\1\\ to implement the statutory provisions of Section 215 of the Federal Power Act (FPA).\\2\\ \\1\\ ``Electric......

  7. 78 FR 34093 - California Independent System Operator Corporation; Notice of FERC Staff Attendance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... meetings are available on the CAISO's Web site, www.caiso.com . June 6, 2013--Energy Imbalance Market... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission California Independent System Operator Corporation; Notice of FERC...

  8. 77 FR 53878 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-714); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... comment on the currently approved information collection, Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and...: FERC-714: Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report. OMB Control No.: 1902-0140... changes to the current reporting requirements. Abstract: The Federal Power Act authorizes the...

  9. 78 FR 24402 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC Form 80); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... Regulations 1320.3. \\2\\ FERC divides the responses per respondent by six because this collection occurs once... 20426 (Attention: Information Clearance Officer) and Office of Management and Budget (OMB), email to oira__submission@omb.eop.gov ; or mail to OMB, Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs,...

  10. 77 FR 40347 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-552); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ...: Title: FERC Form 552, Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions. OMB Control No.: 1902-0242. Type of... (Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions) to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review of the... provide greater transparency concerning the use of indices to price natural gas and how well index...

  11. 78 FR 26766 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC Form 580); Comment Request; Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... on Fuel and Energy Purchase Practices). DATES: Comments on the collections of information are due.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Interrogatory on Fuel and Energy Purchase Practices (FERC Form No. 580). OMB... Commission collected ``Interrogatory on Fuel and Energy Purchase Practices'' data every other year. \\2\\...

  12. 18 CFR 357.2 - FERC Form No. 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Report of Oil Pipeline Companies. 357.2 Section 357.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL.... 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies. (a) Who must file. (1) Each pipeline carrier subject to... the Commission copies of FERC Form No. 6, “Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies,” pursuant to...

  13. 18 CFR 357.4 - FERC Form No. 6-Q, Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies. 357.4 Section 357.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... No. 6-Q, Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies. (a) Prescription. The quarterly financial report form of oil pipeline companies, designated as FERC Form No. 6-Q, is prescribed for the...

  14. 18 CFR 357.2 - FERC Form No. 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Report of Oil Pipeline Companies. 357.2 Section 357.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL.... 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies. (a) Who must file. (1) Each pipeline carrier subject to... the Commission copies of FERC Form No. 6, “Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies,” pursuant to...

  15. 18 CFR 357.2 - FERC Form No. 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Report of Oil Pipeline Companies. 357.2 Section 357.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL.... 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies. (a) Who must file. (1) Each pipeline carrier subject to... the Commission copies of FERC Form No. 6, “Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies,” pursuant to...

  16. 18 CFR 357.2 - FERC Form No. 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Report of Oil Pipeline Companies. 357.2 Section 357.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL.... 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies. (a) Who must file. (1) Each pipeline carrier subject to... the Commission copies of FERC Form No. 6, “Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies,” pursuant to...

  17. 18 CFR 357.2 - FERC Form No. 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Report of Oil Pipeline Companies. 357.2 Section 357.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL.... 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies. (a) Who must file. (1) Each pipeline carrier subject to... the Commission copies of FERC Form No. 6, “Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies,” pursuant to...

  18. 18 CFR 357.4 - FERC Form No. 6-Q, Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies. 357.4 Section 357.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... No. 6-Q, Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies. (a) Prescription. The quarterly financial report form of oil pipeline companies, designated as FERC Form No. 6-Q, is prescribed for the...

  19. 18 CFR 357.4 - FERC Form No. 6-Q, Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... must be properly completed and verified. Filing on electronic media pursuant to § 385.2011 of this... FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT ANNUAL SPECIAL OR PERIODIC REPORTS: CARRIERS SUBJECT TO PART I OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 357.4 FERC...

  20. 18 CFR 357.4 - FERC Form No. 6-Q, Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... must be properly completed and verified. Filing on electronic media pursuant to § 385.2011 of this... FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT ANNUAL SPECIAL OR PERIODIC REPORTS: CARRIERS SUBJECT TO PART I OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 357.4 FERC...

  1. 77 FR 6550 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-725A); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... to reliably transfer energy in the near-term transmission planning horizon. FAC-013-2 imposes... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-725A); Comment...

  2. 75 FR 19630 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC Form 80); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... will send an automatic acknowledgement to the sender's e-mail address upon receipt of eFiled comments... receiving automatic notification of activity in this docket may do so through eSubscription at http://www..., printed or downloaded remotely through FERC's eLibrary at:...

  3. 75 FR 57744 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-555); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... out its responsibilities in implementing the statutory provisions of sections 301, 304 and 309 of the... issued AI99-2-000, an Accounting Issuance providing guidance on records storage media. Specifically, FERC... issuance of the final rule and the accounting guidance, and, it is expected that jurisdictional...

  4. 18 CFR 260.1 - FERC Form No. 2, Annual report for Major natural gas companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... report for Major natural gas companies. 260.1 Section 260.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.1 FERC Form No. 2, Annual report for Major natural gas companies....

  5. 18 CFR 260.401 - FERC Form No. 552, Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions. 260.401 Section 260.401 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.401 FERC Form No. 552, Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions....

  6. 18 CFR 260.1 - FERC Form No. 2, Annual report for Major natural gas companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... report for Major natural gas companies. 260.1 Section 260.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.1 FERC Form No. 2, Annual report for Major natural gas companies....

  7. 18 CFR 260.401 - FERC Form No. 552, Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions. 260.401 Section 260.401 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.401 FERC Form No. 552, Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions....

  8. 18 CFR 260.401 - FERC Form No. 552, Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions. 260.401 Section 260.401 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.401 FERC Form No. 552, Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions....

  9. 18 CFR 260.1 - FERC Form No. 2, Annual report for Major natural gas companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... report for Major natural gas companies. 260.1 Section 260.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.1 FERC Form No. 2, Annual report for Major natural gas companies....

  10. 18 CFR 260.401 - FERC Form No. 552, Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions. 260.401 Section 260.401 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.401 FERC Form No. 552, Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions....

  11. 18 CFR 260.401 - FERC Form No. 552, Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions. 260.401 Section 260.401 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.401 FERC Form No. 552, Annual Report of Natural Gas Transactions....

  12. 18 CFR 260.1 - FERC Form No. 2, Annual report for Major natural gas companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... report for Major natural gas companies. 260.1 Section 260.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.1 FERC Form No. 2, Annual report for Major natural gas companies....

  13. 18 CFR 260.1 - FERC Form No. 2, Annual report for Major natural gas companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... report for Major natural gas companies. 260.1 Section 260.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.1 FERC Form No. 2, Annual report for Major natural gas companies....

  14. 77 FR 77069 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-730); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... public comment on the currently approved information collection, FERC-730, Report of Transmission Investment Activity. DATES: Comments on the collection of information are due March 1, 2013. ADDRESSES: You...: Title: Report of Transmission Investment Activity. OMB Control No.: 1902-0239. Type of Request:...

  15. 18 CFR 141.300 - FERC Form No. 715, Annual Transmission Planning and Evaluation Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false FERC Form No. 715... Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, FEDERAL POWER... access to, CEII, shall apply in the event of a challenge to a CEII designation or a request for access...

  16. 75 FR 7465 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-730); Comment Request; Submitted for OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... cost of delivered power through reducing transmission congestion. In response to EPAct 2005, in Docket... INFORMATION: The FERC-730, ``Report of Transmission Investment Activity'' (OMB Control No. 1902-0239) is filed... transmission projects. Filing requirements are specified in 18 CFR 35.35(h). Actual and planned...

  17. 77 FR 50683 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... Arkansas, Inc. Docket No. ER11-2131 Entergy Arkansas, Inc. Docket No. ER11-2132 Entergy Gulf States, Louisiana, LLC. Docket No. ER11-2133 Entergy Gulf States, Louisiana, LLC. Docket No. ER11-2134 Entergy... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State...

  18. 77 FR 12283 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    .... Docket No. ER11-2132 Entergy Gulf States, Louisiana, LLC. Docket No. ER11-2133 Entergy Gulf States... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee.... Entergy Regional State Committee Meeting February 29, 2012 (1 pm-5 pm), March 1, 2012 (8 am-12 pm)....

  19. 78 FR 69661 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... Transmission System Operator, Inc. Entergy Arkansas, Inc........ Docket No. ER12-1384 Entergy Gulf States........... Docket No. ER14-73 Entergy Arkansas, Inc........ Docket No. ER14-75 Entergy Gulf States Docket No. ER14... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State...

  20. 77 FR 33212 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ...-2131 Entergy Arkansas, Inc. Docket No. ER11-2132 Entergy Gulf States, Louisiana, LLC Docket No. ER11-2133 Entergy Gulf States, Louisiana, LLC Docket No. ER11-2134 Entergy Mississippi, Inc. Docket No. ER11... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State...

  1. 77 FR 58375 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    .... Docket No. ER11-2132, Entergy Gulf States, Louisiana, LLC Docket No. ER11-2133, Entergy Gulf States... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee... efforts. Entergy Regional State Committee Working Group and Stakeholder Meeting September 25, 2012...

  2. Two-Phased Approach to Synchronize the FERC-USACE Processes for Authorizing Non-Federal Hydropower Projects

    SciTech Connect

    2016-07-01

    Publication summarizing how the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and Federal Regulatory Energy Commission (FERC) have developed a two-phased, coordinated approach to regulating non-federal hydropower projects.

  3. Four olive branches: What the FERC bestowed on PUCs in Order 888

    SciTech Connect

    Hanger, J.R.

    1996-10-01

    Where others see conflict, a Pennsylvania commissioner finds a peace offering, not a grab for power. The jurisdictional issues posed by Order 888 continue to breed tension between federal and state officials. Unfortunately, most of this tension too often elevates form over substance. This jurisdictional tension shifts the focus of decisionmaking from securing the benefits of competition to preserving regulatory turf. In Order 888, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) extends four important olive branches to those states that want to introduce customer choice at the retail level. While these olive branches are not a fundamental concession by the FERC, state officials should pursue them before attacking Order 888 for its broad claims over jurisdiction.

  4. Contact dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Dermatitis - contact; Allergic dermatitis; Dermatitis - allergic; Irritant contact dermatitis; Skin rash - contact dermatitis ... There are 2 types of contact dermatitis. Irritant dermatitis: This ... can be by contact with acids, alkaline materials such as soaps ...

  5. Assessing the "need to negotiate" in FERC licensing consultations: a study of two hydropower projects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coughlan, Beth A. K.; Burkardt, Nina; Fulton, David

    1993-01-01

    We investigated the “need to negotiate” in a comparative case study of multi-agency negotiations in the FERC licensing process. Researchers interviewed participants in two cases involving environmental consultations and asked about parties' level of need to negotiate throughout the process. Participants identified a need to negotiate, and when this need was strongly felt, there was an increased opportunity for an agreement to be reached. An intense need to negotiate by all parties is not a prerequisite to successful agreements. When key participants have a strong need to negotiate, they can instigate negotiations and encourage the involvement of other parties.

  6. 18 CFR 141.1 - FERC Form No. 1, Annual report of Major electric utilities, licensees and others.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false FERC Form No. 1, Annual report of Major electric utilities, licensees and others. 141.1 Section 141.1 Conservation of Power and... instrumentality engaged in generation, transmission, distribution, or sale of electric energy, however...

  7. 18 CFR 141.1 - FERC Form No. 1, Annual report of Major electric utilities, licensees and others.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false FERC Form No. 1, Annual report of Major electric utilities, licensees and others. 141.1 Section 141.1 Conservation of Power and... instrumentality engaged in generation, transmission, distribution, or sale of electric energy, however...

  8. 75 FR 63168 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Southwest Power Pool ICT Stakeholder Policy Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Southwest Power Pool ICT Stakeholder Policy Committee Meeting and the Entergy Regional State Committee Meeting October 6, 2010. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...

  9. 76 FR 13613 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the ICT Stakeholders Policy Committee and Entergy Regional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the ICT Stakeholders Policy Committee and Entergy Regional State Committee Meetings The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) hereby gives notice that members of its...

  10. 75 FR 41858 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Southwest Power Pool ICT Stakeholder Policy Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Southwest Power Pool ICT Stakeholder Policy Committee Meeting July 12, 2010. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby gives notice that members of its staff may attend...

  11. 75 FR 23262 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Southwest Power Pool ICT Stakeholder Policy Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Southwest Power Pool ICT Stakeholder Policy Committee Meeting and the Entergy Regional State Committee Meeting April 26, 2010. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby...

  12. 76 FR 62804 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Work Group and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... outreach efforts. Entergy Regional State Committee Work Group and Stakeholder Meeting October 19, 2011 (9 a... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Work Group and Stakeholder Meeting The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby gives notice that...

  13. 77 FR 3765 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Work Group and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Work Group and Stakeholder Meeting The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby gives notice that members... outreach efforts. Entergy Regional State Committee Working Group and Stakeholders Meeting January 26,...

  14. 76 FR 67727 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Work Group and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Work Group and Stakeholder Meeting The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby gives notice that...

  15. 75 FR 42747 - Smart Grid Update; Notice of Commissioner and Staff Attendance at FERC/NARUC Collaborative on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Smart Grid Update; Notice of Commissioner and Staff Attendance at FERC/NARUC Collaborative on Smart Response Meeting July 15, 2010. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby gives.../NARUC Collaborative on Smart Response: Sacramento Convention Center, 1400 J Street, Sacramento, CA...

  16. 76 FR 49764 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy ICT Transmission Planning Summit and Entegry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy ICT Transmission Planning... Commission's ongoing outreach efforts. Entergy ICT Transmission Planning Summit August 23, 2011 (8 a.m.-5...

  17. 18 CFR 131.80 - FERC Form No. 556, Certification of qualifying facility (QF) status for a small power production...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Section 131.80 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND PUBLIC UTILITY REGULATORY POLICIES ACT OF 1978 FORMS... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false FERC Form No....

  18. 18 CFR 131.80 - FERC Form No. 556, Certification of qualifying facility (QF) status for a small power production...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 131.80 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND PUBLIC UTILITY REGULATORY POLICIES ACT OF 1978 FORMS... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false FERC Form No....

  19. 18 CFR 131.80 - FERC Form No. 556, Certification of qualifying facility (QF) status for a small power production...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Section 131.80 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND PUBLIC UTILITY REGULATORY POLICIES ACT OF 1978 FORMS... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false FERC Form No....

  20. 18 CFR 131.80 - FERC Form No. 556, Certification of qualifying facility (QF) status for a small power production...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Section 131.80 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND PUBLIC UTILITY REGULATORY POLICIES ACT OF 1978 FORMS... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false FERC Form No....

  1. 18 CFR 260.300 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 260.300 Section 260... ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.300 FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. (a)...

  2. 18 CFR 260.2 - FERC Form No. 2-A, Annual report for Nonmajor natural gas companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Annual report for Nonmajor natural gas companies. 260.2 Section 260.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.2 FERC Form No. 2-A, Annual report for Nonmajor natural...

  3. 18 CFR 141.400 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 141.400 Section 141..., licensees, and natural gas companies. (a) Prescription. The quarterly report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies, designated as FERC Form No. 3-Q, is prescribed for the...

  4. 18 CFR 260.300 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 260.300 Section 260... ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.300 FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. (a)...

  5. 18 CFR 260.300 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 260.300 Section 260... ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.300 FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. (a)...

  6. 18 CFR 260.2 - FERC Form No. 2-A, Annual report for Nonmajor natural gas companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., Annual report for Nonmajor natural gas companies. 260.2 Section 260.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.2 FERC Form No. 2-A, Annual report for Nonmajor natural...

  7. 18 CFR 141.400 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 141.400 Section 141..., licensees, and natural gas companies. (a) Prescription. The quarterly report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies, designated as FERC Form No. 3-Q, is prescribed for the...

  8. 18 CFR 260.300 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 260.300 Section 260... ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.300 FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. (a)...

  9. 18 CFR 260.2 - FERC Form No. 2-A, Annual report for Nonmajor natural gas companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Annual report for Nonmajor natural gas companies. 260.2 Section 260.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.2 FERC Form No. 2-A, Annual report for Nonmajor natural...

  10. 18 CFR 141.400 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 141.400 Section 141..., licensees, and natural gas companies. (a) Prescription. The quarterly report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies, designated as FERC Form No. 3-Q, is prescribed for the...

  11. 18 CFR 260.300 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 260.300 Section 260... ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.300 FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. (a)...

  12. 18 CFR 141.400 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 141.400 Section 141..., licensees, and natural gas companies. (a) Prescription. The quarterly report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies, designated as FERC Form No. 3-Q, is prescribed for the...

  13. 18 CFR 260.2 - FERC Form No. 2-A, Annual report for Nonmajor natural gas companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Annual report for Nonmajor natural gas companies. 260.2 Section 260.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.2 FERC Form No. 2-A, Annual report for Nonmajor natural...

  14. 18 CFR 260.2 - FERC Form No. 2-A, Annual report for Nonmajor natural gas companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Annual report for Nonmajor natural gas companies. 260.2 Section 260.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.2 FERC Form No. 2-A, Annual report for Nonmajor natural...

  15. 18 CFR 141.400 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 141.400 Section 141..., licensees, and natural gas companies. (a) Prescription. The quarterly report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies, designated as FERC Form No. 3-Q, is prescribed for the...

  16. 77 FR 47630 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Working Group and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    .... ER11-2132 Entergy Gulf States, Louisiana, LLC Docket No. ER11-2133 Entergy Gulf States, Louisiana, LLC... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee... Commission's ongoing outreach efforts. Entergy Regional State Committee Working Group and Stakeholder...

  17. 77 FR 21979 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Working Group and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... Gulf States, Louisiana, LLC. Docket No. ER11-2133 Entergy Gulf States, Louisiana, LLC. Docket No. ER11... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee... Commission's ongoing outreach efforts. Entergy Regional State Committee Working Group and Stakeholder...

  18. 77 FR 15097 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Working Group and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ...-2131 Entergy Arkansas, Inc. Docket No. ER11-2132 Entergy Gulf States, Louisiana, LLC. Docket No. ER11-2133 Entergy Gulf States, Louisiana, LLC. Docket No. ER11-2134 Entergy Mississippi, Inc. Docket No... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State...

  19. Contact Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Media contacts Advertising contacts AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2017 American Academy ... prohibited without prior written permission. AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2017 American Academy ...

  20. Telocyte's contacts.

    PubMed

    Faussone-Pellegrini, Maria-Simonetta; Gherghiceanu, Mihaela

    2016-07-01

    Telocytes (TC) are an interstitial cell type located in the connective tissue of many organs of humans and laboratory mammals. By means of homocellular contacts, TC build a scaffold whose meshes integrity and continuity are guaranteed by those contacts having a mechanical function; those contacts acting as sites of intercellular communication allow exchanging information and spreading signals. Heterocellular contacts between TC and a great variety of cell types give origin to mixed networks. TC, by means of all these types of contacts, their interaction with the extracellular matrix and their vicinity to nerve endings, are part of an integrated system playing tissue/organ-specific roles.

  1. A Review of Recent RTO Benefit-Cost Studies: Toward MoreComprehensive Assessments of FERC Electricity RestructuringPolicies

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joseph H.; Lesieutre, Bernard C.

    2005-12-01

    During the past three years, government and private organizations have issued more than a dozen studies of the benefits and costs of Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs). Most of these studies have focused on benefits that can be readily estimated using traditional production-cost simulation techniques, which compare the cost of centralized dispatch under an RTO to dispatch in the absence of an RTO, and on costs associated with RTO start-up and operation. Taken as a whole, it is difficult to draw definitive conclusions from these studies because they have not examined potentially much larger benefits (and costs) resulting from the impacts of RTOs on reliability management, generation and transmission investment and operation, and wholesale electricity market operation. This report: (1) Describes the history of benefit-cost analysis of FERC electricity restructuring policies; (2)Reviews current practice by analyzing 11 RTO benefit-cost studies that were published between 2002 and 2004 and makes recommendations to improve the documentation of data and methods and the presentation of findings in future studies that focus primarily on estimating short-run economic impacts; and (3) Reviews important impacts of FERC policies that have been overlooked or incompletely treated by recent RTO benefit-cost studies and the challenges to crafting more comprehensive assessments of these impacts based on actual performance, including impacts on reliability management, generation and transmission investment and operation, and wholesale electricity market operation.

  2. Contact hysteroscopy.

    PubMed

    Baggish, M S; Barbot, J

    1983-06-01

    In 1907 innovations in optics and illumination made by Maximilian Nitze were applied to hysteroscopy by Charles David, who wrote a treatise of hysteroscopy. David improved illumination by placing an electric incandescent bulb at the intrauterine end of his endoscope and also sealed the distal end of the tube with a piece of glass. The history of the contact endoscope that the authors personally used is connected to the invention by Vulmiere (1952) of a revolutionary illumination process in endoscopy--the "cold light" process. The components of cold light consist of a powerful external light source that is transmitted via a special optical guide into the endometrial cavity. The 1st application of his principle (1963) was an optical trochar contained in a metallic sheath. This simple endoscope was perfected, and in 1973 Barbot and Parent, in France, began to use it to examine the uterine cavity. Discussion focuses on methods, instrumentation, method for examination (grasping the instrument, setup, light source, anesthesia, dilatation, technique, and normal endometrium); cervical neoplasia; nonneoplastic lesions of the endometrium (endometrial polyp, submucous myoma, endometrial hyperplasia); intrauterine device localization; neoplastic lesions of the endometrium; precursors (adenocarcinoma); hysteroscopy in pregnancy (embryoscopy, hydatidiform mole, postpartum hemorrhage, incomplete abortion, spontaneous abortion, induced abortions, and amnioscopy); and examinations of children and infants. The contact endoscope must make light contact with the structure to be viewed. The principles of contact endoscopy depend on an interpretation of color, contour, vascular pattern, and a sense of touch. These are computed together and a diagnosis is made on the basis of previously learned clinical pathologic correlations. The contact endoscope is composed of 3 parts: an optical guide; a cylindric chamber that collects and traps ambient light; and a magnifying eyepiece. The phase of

  3. Types of Contact Lenses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Devices Consumer Products Contact Lenses Types of Contact Lenses Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Orthokeratology (Ortho-K) Decorative (Plano) Contact Lenses Soft Contact Lenses Soft contact lenses are made of soft, ...

  4. Prioritized Contact Transport Stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Walter Lee, Jr. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A detection process, contact recognition process, classification process, and identification process are applied to raw sensor data to produce an identified contact record set containing one or more identified contact records. A prioritization process is applied to the identified contact record set to assign a contact priority to each contact record in the identified contact record set. Data are removed from the contact records in the identified contact record set based on the contact priorities assigned to those contact records. A first contact stream is produced from the resulting contact records. The first contact stream is streamed in a contact transport stream. The contact transport stream may include and stream additional contact streams. The contact transport stream may be varied dynamically over time based on parameters such as available bandwidth, contact priority, presence/absence of contacts, system state, and configuration parameters.

  5. EDITORIAL: Close contact Close contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-07-01

    The development of scanning probe techniques, such as scanning tunnelling microscopy [1], has often been touted as the catalyst for the surge in activity and progress in nanoscale science and technology. Images of nanoscale structural detail have served as an invaluable investigative resource and continue to fascinate with the fantastical reality of an intricate nether world existing all around us, but hidden from view of the naked eye by a disparity in scale. As is so often the case, the invention of the scanning tunnelling microscope heralded far more than just a useful new apparatus, it demonstrated the scope for exploiting the subtleties of electronic contact. The shrinking of electronic devices has been a driving force for research into molecular electronics, in which an understanding of the nature of electronic contact at junctions is crucial. In response, the number of experimental techniques in molecular electronics has increased rapidly in recent years. Scanning tunnelling microscopes have been used to study electron transfer through molecular films on a conducting substrate, and the need to monitor the contact force of scanning tunnelling electrodes led to the use of atomic force microscopy probes coated in a conducting layer as studied by Cui and colleagues in Arizona [2]. In this issue a collaboration of researchers at Delft University and Leiden University in the Netherlands report a new device architecture for the independent mechanical and electrostatic tuning of nanoscale charge transport, which will enable thorough studies of molecular transport in the future [3]. Scanning probes can also be used to pattern surfaces, such as through spatially-localized Suzuki and Heck reactions in chemical scanning probe lithography. Mechanistic aspects of spatially confined Suzuki and Heck chemistry are also reported in this issue by researchers in Oxford [4]. All these developments in molecular electronics fabrication and characterization provide alternative

  6. Proposed modifications to the Lower Mokelumne River Project, California: FERC Project No. 2916-004. Final environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This final environmental impact statement (FEIS) has been prepared for the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) to consider modifications to the existing Lower Mokelumne River Project (LMRP) (FERC Project No. 2916-004) in California. Chinook salmon and steelhead trout populations in the lower Mokelumne River have experienced recent declines and fish kills associated, in part, with discharges from Camanche Dam. The California Department of Fish and Game and the California Sportfishing Protection Alliance have asked the Commission to investigate and correct these problems. A wide range of different mitigation actions has been proposed by parties participating in the scoping of this proceeding, and staff has evaluated these proposed actions in this assessment. The staff is recommending a combination of flow and non-flow modifications to the existing license, including new minimum flow and minimum pool elevation requirements at Camanche Reservoir, ramping rates on dam releases, interim attraction and out-migrant spike flows, instream habitat improvements, and a series of studies and monitoring to determine feasible means for solving off-site fish passage problems.

  7. Contact Lens Risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health and Consumer Devices Consumer Products Contact Lenses Contact Lens Risks Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... redness blurred vision swelling pain Serious Hazards of Contact Lenses Symptoms of eye irritation can indicate a ...

  8. Contact Lens Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Contact Lens Care Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... 1088, www.fda.gov/medwatch Learn More about Contact Lens Care Other Tips on Contact Lenses Decorative ...

  9. Contact Lenses for Vision Correction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Glasses & Contacts Contact Lenses Sections Contact Lenses for Vision Correction Proper ... to Know About Contact Lenses Colored Contact Lenses Contact Lenses for Vision Correction Written by: Kierstan Boyd ...

  10. Contact Us about Asbestos

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    How to contact EPA for more information on asbestos, including state and regional contacts, EPA’s Asbestos Abatement/Management Ombudsman and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Assistance Information Service (TSCA Hotline).

  11. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Sep. 26, 2013 It ... the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By ...

  12. Contact Lenses on Submarines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    NAVAL SUBMARINE MEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY SUBMARINE BASE, GROTON, CONN. REPORT NUMBER 1048 CONTACT LENSES ON SUBMARINES... CONTACT LENSES ON SUBMARINES by James F. Socks, CDR, MSC, USN NAVAL SUBMARINE MEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY REPORT NUMBER 1048 NAVAL MEDICAL RESEARCH...DRSCHLAB Approved for public release; distribution unlimited SUMMARY PAGE PROBLEM To determine the feasibility of wearing contact lenses aboard

  13. Glasses and Contact Lenses

    MedlinePlus

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Glasses and Contact Lenses KidsHealth > For Kids > Glasses and Contact Lenses Print A A A What's in this ... together the way they should. But eyeglasses or contact lenses, also called corrective lenses, can help most ...

  14. Contact lens in keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Rathi, Varsha M; Mandathara, Preeji S; Dumpati, Srikanth

    2013-01-01

    Contact lenses are required for the visual improvement in patients with keratoconus. Various contact lens options, such as rigid gas permeable (RGP) lenses, soft and soft toric lenses, piggy back contact lenses (PBCL), hybrid lenses and scleral lenses are availble. This article discusses about selection of a lens depending on the type of keratoconus and the fitting philosophies of various contact lenses including the starting trial lens. A Medline search was carried out for articles in the English language with the keywords keratoconus and various contact lenses such as Rose k lens, RGP lens, hybrid lens, scleral lens and PBCL. PMID:23925325

  15. [Immunology of contact allergy].

    PubMed

    Martin, S F

    2011-10-01

    Contact allergy is a skin disease that is caused by the reaction of the immune system to low molecular weight chemicals. A hallmark of contact allergens is their chemical reactivity, which is not exhibited by toxic irritants. Covalent binding of contact allergens to or complex formation with proteins is essential for the activation of the immune system. As a consequence antigenic epitopes are formed, which are recognized by contact allergen-specific T cells. The generation of effector and memory T cells causes the high antigen specificity and the repeated antigen-specific skin reaction of contact allergy. New findings reveal that the less specific reaction of the innate immune system to contact allergens closely resembles the reaction to an infection. Therefore, contact allergy can be viewed as an immunologic misunderstanding since the skin contact with chemical allergens is interpreted as an infection. The growing understanding of the molecular and cellular pathologic mechanisms of contact allergy can aid the development of specific therapies and of in vitro alternatives to animal testing for the identification of contact allergens.

  16. Non-contact measurement of contact wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Yaxing; Ye, Xuemei; Li, Zhongke; Yue, Kaiduan

    2008-12-01

    The overhead contact system is the power supply unit of the electric locomotive. This article is to introduce our newly developed method to measure the height and pull out value of the contact wire. A carema dolly which can move on railway is applied to bear the weight of the measure equipment; two linear CCD cameras are installed on the dolly symmetrically about the midline of two rails. While the dolly move along the railway, two CCD cameras grasp the image synchronously, and a computer real-time process the images, the height and pull out value can be calculate out from the images.

  17. [Periorbital contact eczema].

    PubMed

    Worm, M; Sterry, W

    2005-11-01

    Periorbital contact eczema is most commonly the result of an allergic contact dermatitis whereas other eczematous skin diseases like atopic eczema or seborrheic eczema occur less frequently. Also, other diseases like autoimmune disorders or rosacea need to be considered. Allergic contact dermatitis is a T-cell-mediated immunological response towards ubiquitous contact allergens. Activated T-cells migrate through the vessels into the skin and produce several inflammatory mediators. Epicutaneous patch testing is an important tool for the diagnosis of contact allergy whereby the allergens are analysed in terms of their ability to induce eczematous skin reaction. Until now the short-term use of corticosteroids are is employed for the treatment of allergic contact eczema. Modern substances with an optimal therapeutic index should rather be used.

  18. Contact angle hysteresis explained.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lichao; McCarthy, Thomas J

    2006-07-04

    A view of contact angle hysteresis from the perspectives of the three-phase contact line and of the kinetics of contact line motion is given. Arguments are made that advancing and receding are discrete events that have different activation energies. That hysteresis can be quantified as an activation energy by the changes in interfacial area is argued. That this is an appropriate way of viewing hysteresis is demonstrated with examples.

  19. Soft contact lenses

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, R. L.; VanLeeuwen, Wm. N.

    1972-01-01

    A series of 55 patients were fitted with a new type of hydrophilic soft contact lens. These were found more comfortable than hard contact lenses and they had a protective and pain-relieving action in cases of chronic corneal disease. Vision was not as good as with hard contact lenses and a greater potential danger of infection was found. They are preferred by many patients despite the noticeable thick edge and the difficulty of obtaining an identical replacement. PMID:5042887

  20. Optical contact micrometer

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Steven D.

    2014-08-19

    Certain examples provide optical contact micrometers and methods of use. An example optical contact micrometer includes a pair of opposable lenses to receive an object and immobilize the object in a position. The example optical contact micrometer includes a pair of opposable mirrors positioned with respect to the pair of lenses to facilitate viewing of the object through the lenses. The example optical contact micrometer includes a microscope to facilitate viewing of the object through the lenses via the mirrors; and an interferometer to obtain one or more measurements of the object.

  1. Colors and contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Foti, Caterina; Romita, Paolo; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of skin diseases relies on several clinical signs, among which color is of paramount importance. In this review, we consider certain clinical presentations of both eczematous and noneczematous contact dermatitis in which color plays a peculiar role orientating toward the right diagnosis. The conditions that will be discussed include specific clinical-morphologic subtypes of eczematous contact dermatitis, primary melanocytic, and nonmelanocytic contact hyperchromia, black dermographism, contact chemical leukoderma, and others. Based on the physical, chemical, and biologic factors underlying a healthy skin color, the various skin shades drawing a disease picture are thoroughly debated, stressing their etiopathogenic origins and histopathologic aspects.

  2. 75 FR 15424 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-538, FERC-539, FERC-577, FERC-606, and FERC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... uses of man's environment and the maintenance and enhancement of long term productivity; and any... technology and systems for the purposes of collecting, validating, verifying, processing, maintaining... the cost for information technology. Indirect or overhead costs are costs incurred by an...

  3. Factor XII Contact Activation.

    PubMed

    Naudin, Clément; Burillo, Elena; Blankenberg, Stefan; Butler, Lynn; Renné, Thomas

    2017-03-27

    Contact activation is the surface-induced conversion of factor XII (FXII) zymogen to the serine protease FXIIa. Blood-circulating FXII binds to negatively charged surfaces and this contact to surfaces triggers a conformational change in the zymogen inducing autoactivation. Several surfaces that have the capacity for initiating FXII contact activation have been identified, including misfolded protein aggregates, collagen, nucleic acids, and platelet and microbial polyphosphate. Activated FXII initiates the proinflammatory kallikrein-kinin system and the intrinsic coagulation pathway, leading to formation of bradykinin and thrombin, respectively. FXII contact activation is well characterized in vitro and provides the mechanistic basis for the diagnostic clotting assay, activated partial thromboplastin time. However, only in the past decade has the critical role of FXII contact activation in pathological thrombosis been appreciated. While defective FXII contact activation provides thromboprotection, excess activation underlies the swelling disorder hereditary angioedema type III. This review provides an overview of the molecular basis of FXII contact activation and FXII contact activation-associated disease states.

  4. Noneczematous Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Foti, Caterina; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Irritant or allergic contact dermatitis usually presents as an eczematous process, clinically characterized by erythematoedematovesicous lesions with intense itching in the acute phase. Such manifestations become erythematous-scaly as the condition progresses to the subacute phase and papular-hyperkeratotic in the chronic phase. Not infrequently, however, contact dermatitis presents with noneczematous features. The reasons underlying this clinical polymorphism lie in the different noxae and contact modalities, as well as in the individual susceptibility and the various targeted cutaneous structures. The most represented forms of non-eczematous contact dermatitis include the erythema multiforme-like, the purpuric, the lichenoid, and the pigmented kinds. These clinical entities must obviously be discerned from the corresponding “pure” dermatitis, which are not associated with contact with exogenous agents. PMID:24109520

  5. Allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Becker, Detlef

    2013-07-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a frequent inflammatory skin disease. The suspected diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms, a plausible contact to allergens and a suitable history of dermatitis. Differential diagnoses should be considered only after careful exclusion of any causal contact sensitization. Hence, careful diagnosis by patch testing is of great importance. Modifications of the standardized test procedure are the strip patch test and the repeated open application test. The interpretation of the SLS (sodium lauryl sulfate) patch test as well as testing with the patients' own products and working materials are potential sources of error. Accurate patch test reading is affected in particular by the experience and individual factors of the examiner. Therefore, a high degree of standardization and continuous quality control is necessary and may be supported by use of an online patch test reading course made available by the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group. A critical relevance assessment of allergic patch test reactions helps to avoid relapses and the consideration of differential diagnoses. Any allergic test reaction should be documented in an allergy ID card including the INCI name, if appropriate. The diagnostics of allergic contact dermatitis is endangered by a seriously reduced financing of patch testing by the German statutory health insurances. Restrictive regulations by the German Drug Law block the approval of new contact allergens for routine patch testing. Beside the consistent avoidance of allergen contact, temporary use of systemic and topical corticosteroids is the therapy of first choice.

  6. Telescopic vision contact lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Eric J.; Beer, R. Dirk; Arianpour, Ashkan; Ford, Joseph E.

    2011-03-01

    We present the concept, optical design, and first proof of principle experimental results for a telescopic contact lens intended to become a visual aid for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), providing magnification to the user without surgery or external head-mounted optics. Our contact lens optical system can provide a combination of telescopic and non-magnified vision through two independent optical paths through the contact lens. The magnified optical path incorporates a telescopic arrangement of positive and negative annular concentric reflectors to achieve 2.8x - 3x magnification on the eye, while light passing through a central clear aperture provides unmagnified vision.

  7. Optical contacting of quartz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, L. L.

    1982-01-01

    The strength of the bond between optically contacted quartz surfaces was investigated. The Gravity Probe-B (GP-B) experiment to test the theories of general relativity requires extremely precise measurements. The quartz components of the instruments to make these measurements must be held together in a very stable unit. Optical contacting is suggested as a possible method of joining these components. The fundamental forces involved in optical contacting are reviewed and relates calculations of these forces to the results obtained in experiments.

  8. Occupational Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis accounts for 90% of all cases of work-related cutaneous disorders. It can be divided into irritant contact dermatitis, which occurs in 80% of cases, and allergic contact dermatitis. In most cases, both types will present as eczematous lesions on exposed parts of the body, notably the hands. Accurate diagnosis relies on meticulous history taking, thorough physical examination, careful reading of Material Safety Data Sheets to distinguish between irritants and allergens, and comprehensive patch testing to confirm or rule out allergic sensitization. This article reviews the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of occupational contact dermatitis and provides diagnostic guidelines and a rational approach to management of these often frustrating cases. PMID:20525126

  9. SAM Technical Contacts

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These technical contacts are available to help with questions regarding method deviations, modifications, sample problems or interferences, quality control requirements, the use of alternative methods, or the need to address analytes or sample types.

  10. Fragrance allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Judy; Zug, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    Fragrances are a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in Europe and in North America. They can affect individuals at any age and elicit a spectrum of reactions from contact urticaria to systemic contact dermatitis. Growing recognition of the widespread use of fragrances in modern society has fueled attempts to prevent sensitization through improved allergen identification, labeling, and consumer education. This review provides an overview and update on fragrance allergy. Part 1 discusses the epidemiology and evaluation of suspected fragrance allergy. Part 2 reviews screening methods, emerging fragrance allergens, and management of patients with fragrance contact allergy. This review concludes by examining recent legislation on fragrances and suggesting potential additions to screening series to help prevent and detect fragrance allergy.

  11. Contact air abrasion.

    PubMed

    Porth, R

    1999-05-01

    The advantages of contact air abrasion techniques are readily apparent. The first, of course, is the greatly increased ease of use. Working with contact also tends to speed the learning curve by giving the process a more natural dental feel. In addition, as one becomes familiar with working with a dust stream, the potential for misdirecting the air flow is decreased. The future use of air abrasion for deep decay removal will make this the treatment of choice for the next millennium.

  12. Contact dermatitis complicating pinnaplasty.

    PubMed

    Singh-Ranger, G; Britto, J A; Sommerlad, B C

    2001-04-01

    Proflavine allergy is uncommon, occurring in approximately 6% of patients attending contact dermatitis clinics. Proflavine wool is used by many surgeons in the UK as a dressing that can be moulded to conform to the contours of a corrected prominent ear. It may have bacteriostatic properties. We present a case where contact dermatitis in response to proflavine developed after pinnaplasty. This caused diagnostic confusion, a lengthened hospital stay and an unsightly hypertrophic scar.

  13. The impact of contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finney, B.

    1986-10-01

    Scenarios of the impact on human society of radio contact with an extraterrestrial civilization are presented. Some believe that contact with advanced extraterrestrials would quickly devastate the human spirit, while others believe that these super-intelligent beings would show the inhabitants of the earth how to live in peace. It is proposed that the possible existence of extraterrestrial civilizations and the development of means of studying and communicating with them need to be considered.

  14. ELECTRIC CONTACT MEANS

    DOEpatents

    Grear, J.W. Jr.

    1959-03-10

    A switch adapted to maintain electrical connections under conditions of vibration or acceleration is described. According to the invention, thc switch includes a rotatable arm carrying a conductive bar arranged to close against two contacts spaced in the same plane. The firm and continuous engagement of the conductive bar with the contacts is acheived by utilizeing a spring located betwenn the vbar and athe a rem frzme and slidable mounting the bar in channel between two arms suspendef from the arm frame.

  15. Lettuce contact allergy.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-02-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present new data on lettuce contact allergy and review the literature. Lettuce is weakly allergenic, and occupational cases are mainly reported. Using aimed patch testing in Compositae-allergic patients, two recent Danish studies showed prevalence rates of positive lettuce reactions of 11% and 22%. The majority of cases are non-occupational, and may partly be caused by cross-reactivity. The sesquiterpene lactone mix seems to be a poor screening agent for lettuce contact allergy, as the prevalence of positive reactions is significantly higher in non-occupationally sensitized patients. Because of the easy degradability of lettuce allergens, it is recommended to patch test with freshly cut lettuce stem and supplement this with Compositae mix. As contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis may present as dermatitis, it is important to perform prick-to-prick tests, and possibly scratch patch tests as well. Any person who is occupationally exposed to lettuce for longer periods, especially atopics, amateur gardeners, and persons keeping lettuce-eating pets, is potentially at risk of developing lettuce contact allergy.

  16. The contact caveat: negative contact predicts increased prejudice more than positive contact predicts reduced prejudice.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Fiona Kate; Paolini, Stefania; Pedersen, Anne; Hornsey, Matthew J; Radke, Helena R M; Harwood, Jake; Rubin, Mark; Sibley, Chris G

    2012-12-01

    Contact researchers have largely overlooked the potential for negative intergroup contact to increase prejudice. In Study 1, we tested the interaction between contact quantity and valence on prejudice toward Black Australians (n = 1,476), Muslim Australians (n = 173), and asylum seekers (n = 293). In all cases, the association between contact quantity and prejudice was moderated by its valence, with negative contact emerging as a stronger and more consistent predictor than positive contact. In Study 2, White Americans (n = 441) indicated how much positive and negative contact they had with Black Americans on separate measures. Although both quantity of positive and negative contact predicted racism and avoidance, negative contact was the stronger predictor. Furthermore, negative (but not positive) contact independently predicted suspicion about Barack Obama's birthplace. These results extend the contact hypothesis by issuing an important caveat: Negative contact may be more strongly associated with increased racism and discrimination than positive contact is with its reduction.

  17. Focusing on Contact Lens Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Focusing on Contact Lens Safety Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... substantial consumer injury. Back to top Types of Contact Lenses General categories Soft contact lenses. These are ...

  18. Allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Alikhan, Ali; Maibach, Howard I

    2014-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is one of the most important dermatologic disorders worldwide - it can cause significant morbidity and decreased quality of life, as well as having major economic implications and loss of vocational productivity. Patch testing is the most important discovery in allergic contact dermatitis and the best diagnostic modality to date; the thin-layer rapid- use epicutaneous (TRUE) test is a more recent patch test development which has improved the convenience and feasibility of the test. The future of allergic contact dermatitis is bright as we continue to learn more about the science of the disorder, as well as ways to improve diagnosis and patient care. Furthermore, it is important to remember, in this global age, that cooperation between health care providers worldwide is essential.

  19. [Contact glass tonometer].

    PubMed

    Kanngiesser, H; Robert, Y; Dekker, P

    1996-10-01

    This paper present a tonometer incorporated in a contact lens, which allows simultaneous measurement of intraocular pressure and performance ophthalmoscopy. The tonometer can record the pulse curve continuously, which can give us an indication of any circulatory problem. The device is therefore expected to yield additional information useful for the diagnosis of early glaucoma. Te device has three force sensors built in, which allow continuous measurement of the force exerted on the eye surface by the contact lens. The force of the contact lens on the eye can be altered and makes the adjustment of different eye pressures possible. These induced changes of the eye pressure and their influence on the fundus can be checked. We have taken some measurements on enucleated human eyes to compare our device with a Statham tansducer in the vitreous. We found a good correlation. We are currently taking measurements in volunteers. The clinical relevance of these observations and measurements will be examined in a future study.

  20. Shoe allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Matthys, Erin; Zahir, Amir; Ehrlich, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Foot dermatitis is a widespread condition, affecting men and women of all ages. Because of the location, this condition may present as a debilitating problem to those who have it. Allergic contact dermatitis involving the feet is frequently due to shoes or socks. The allergens that cause shoe dermatitis can be found in any constituent of footwear, including rubber, adhesives, leather, dyes, metals, and medicaments. The goal of treatment is to identify and minimize contact with the offending allergen(s). The lack of product information released from shoe manufacturers and the continually changing trends in footwear present a challenge in treating this condition. The aim of this study is to review the current literature on allergic contact shoe dermatitis; clinical presentation, allergens, patch testing, and management will be discussed. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were used for the search, with a focus on literature updates from the last 15 years.

  1. Acrylate Systemic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Sauder, Maxwell B; Pratt, Melanie D

    2015-01-01

    Acrylates, the 2012 American Contact Dermatitis Society allergen of the year, are found in a range of products including the absorbent materials within feminine hygiene pads. When fully polymerized, acrylates are nonimmunogenic; however, if not completely cured, the monomers can be potent allergens.A 28-year-old woman is presented, who had her teeth varnished with Isodan (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, France) containing HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) with no initial reaction. Approximately 1 month later, the patient developed a genital dermatitis secondary to her feminine hygiene pads. The initial reaction resolved, but 5 months later, the patient developed a systemic contact dermatitis after receiving a second varnishing.The patient was dramatically patch test positive to many acrylates. This case demonstrates a reaction to likely unpolymerized acrylates within a feminine hygiene pad, as well as broad cross-reactivity or cosensitivity to acrylates, and possibly a systemic contact dermatitis with systemic re-exposure to unpolymerized acrylates.

  2. Spa contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Yankura, Jessica A; Marks, James G; Anderson, Bryan E; Adams, David R

    2008-01-01

    Potassium monopersulfate (MPS) is widely used in spa and pool "shock" treatments, yet contact dermatitis associated with MPS has been rarely reported. A patient presented with a generalized scattered dermatitis from the neck down that worsened after spa use. Patch testing elicited a ++ reaction to ammonium persulfate. Contact with ammonium persulfate was ruled out; however, MPS, which can cross-react with ammonium persulfate, was found to be the active ingredient in the patient's spa shock treatments. The dermatitis cleared after the patient switched to a hydrogen peroxide-based shock treatment.

  3. Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kostner, Lisa; Anzengruber, Florian; Guillod, Caroline; Recher, Mike; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Navarini, Alexander A

    2017-02-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common skin disease caused by a T cell-mediated immune reaction to usually innocuous allergens. ACD can have grave medical and socioeconomic consequences. ACD and irritant contact dermatitis often occur together. A detailed history and clinical examination are crucial and guide patch testing, which is the gold standard to diagnose ACD. T-cell clones persisting in the skin may explain the tendency of ACD to relapse even after years of allergen avoidance. Traditional treatments for ACD are topical steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, phototherapy, retinoids (including the recent alitretinoin), and immunosuppressants. Targeted therapies are lacking.

  4. Have Confidence in Contact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Richard J.; Turner, Rhiannon N.

    2010-01-01

    In an article in the May-June 2009 "American Psychologist," we discussed a new approach to reducing prejudice and encouraging more positive intergroup relations (Crisp & Turner, 2009). We named the approach imagined intergroup contact and defined it as "the mental simulation of a social interaction with a member or members of an outgroup category"…

  5. Compact contacting device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acharya, Arun (Inventor); Gottzmann, Christian F. (Inventor); Lockett, Michael J. (Inventor); Schneider, James S. (Inventor); Victor, Richard A. (Inventor); Zawierucha, Robert (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus comprising a rotatable mass of structured packing for mass or heat transfer between two contacting fluids of different densities wherein the packing mass is made up of corrugated sheets of involute shape relative to the axis of the packing mass and form a logarithmic spiral curved counter to the direction of rotation.

  6. Contact: Releasing the news

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinotti, Roberto

    The problem of mass behavior after man's future contacts with other intelligences in the universe is not only a challenge for social scientists and political leaders all over the world, but also a cultural time bomb as well. In fact, since the impact of CETI (Contact with Extraterrestrial Intelligence) on human civilization, with its different cultures, might cause a serious socio-anthropological shock, a common and predetermined worldwide strategy is necessary in releasing the news after the contact, in order to keep possible manifestations of fear, panic and hysteria under control. An analysis of past studies in this field and of parallel historical situations as analogs suggests a definite "authority crisis" in the public as a direct consequence of an unexpected release of the news, involving a devastating "chain reaction" process (from both the psychological and sociological viewpoints) of anomie and maybe the collapse of today's society. The only way to prevent all this is to prepare the world's public opinion concerning contact before releasing the news, and to develop a long-term strategy through the combined efforts of scientists, political leaders, intelligence agencies and the mass media, in order to create the cultural conditions in which a confrontation with ETI won't affect mankind in a traumatic way. Definite roles and tasks in this multi-level model are suggested.

  7. Disproportionate Minority Contact.

    PubMed

    Fix, Rebecca L; Cyperski, Melissa A; Burkhart, Barry R

    2017-04-01

    The overrepresentation of racial/ethnic minorities within the criminal justice system relative to their population percentage, a phenomenon termed disproportionate minority contact, has been examined within general adult and adolescent offender populations; yet few studies have tested whether this phenomenon extends to juvenile sexual offenders (JSOs). In addition, few studies have examined whether offender race/ethnicity influences registration and notification requirements, which JSOs are subject to in some U.S. states. The present study assessed for disproportionate minority contact among general delinquent offenders and JSOs, meaning it aimed to test whether the criminal justice system treats those accused of sexual and non-sexual offenses differently by racial/ethnic group. Furthermore, racial/ethnic group differences in risk, legal classification, and sexual offending were examined for JSOs. Results indicated disproportionate minority contact was present among juveniles with non-sexual offenses and JSOs in Alabama. In addition, offense category and risk scores differed between African American and European American JSOs. Finally, registration classifications were predicted by offending characteristics, but not race/ethnicity. Implications and future directions regarding disproportionate minority contact among JSOs and social and legal policy affecting JSOs are discussed.

  8. Lubrication Of Nonconformal Contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeng, Yeau-Ren

    1991-01-01

    Report discusses advances in knowledge of lubrication of nonconformal contacts in bearings and other machine elements. Reviews previous developments in theory of lubrication, presents advances in theory of lubrication to determine minimum film thickness, and describes experiments designed to investigate one of regimes of lubrication for ball bearings.

  9. Thermal Contact Conductance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salerno, Louis J.; Kittel, Peter

    1997-01-01

    The performance of cryogenic instruments is often a function of their operating temperature. Thus, designers of cryogenic instruments often are required to predict the operating temperature of each instrument they design. This requires accurate thermal models of cryogenic components which include the properties of the materials and assembly techniques used. When components are bolted or otherwise pressed together, a knowledge of the thermal performance of such joints are also needed. In some cases, the temperature drop across these joints represents a significant fraction of the total temperature difference between the instrument and its cooler. While extensive databases exist on the thermal properties of bulk materials, similar databases for pressed contacts do not. This has often lead to instrument designs that avoid pressed contacts or to the over-design of such joints at unnecessary expense. Although many people have made measurements of contact conductances at cryogenic temperatures, this data is often very narrow in scope and even more often it has not been published in an easily retrievable fashion, if published at all. This paper presents a summary of the limited pressed contact data available in the literature.

  10. Contact-resistance process cliff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pina, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    Several approaches were investigated to obtain a measure of the quality of the contact resistance between metal and a diffused or polysilicon layer. These approaches have included the use of both short and very long contact strings as well as arays of contacts with different sizes to determine the contact resistance process cliff. Results from these approaches are discussed.

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis in children.

    PubMed

    Fontana, E; Belloni Fortina, A

    2014-12-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease (delayed type hypersensitivity reaction) that accounts for up to 20% of all childhood dermatitis. Allergic contact dermatitis represents a clinical manifestation of contact sensitization and usually occurs at skin sites that have come into contact with the allergen. The clinical features of allergic contact dermatitis are itchy eczematous lesions. Prevalence of contact sensitization varies between 27% and 96% of children with suspected contact dermatitis. The relationship between contact sensitization and atopic dermatitis has been widely discussed but only conflicting data have been reported. Epicutaneous patch testing is the gold standard for the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. The most common allergens detected in children are: metals, topical medicaments, fragrances, and preservatives. The first line management of allergic contact dermatitis in children is to avoid the offending allergens identified with the patch test and a topical corticosteroid therapy.

  12. [Contact dermatitis from Agave americana].

    PubMed

    de la Cueva, Pablo; González-Carrascosa, Mateo; Campos, Minia; Leis, Vicente; Suárez, Ricardo; Lázaro, Pablo

    2005-10-01

    Numerous plant species and their derivatives can cause skin reactions through a variety of mechanisms: irritative contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, contact urticaria and photodermatitis. We present a case of irritative contact dermatitis after exposure to the sap of Agave americana. The skin symptoms in this case have only been described on rare occasions; although this condition usually presents with a papulovesicular rash, in this patient it appeared as purpuric lesions in the contact area.

  13. Contact Graph Routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Contact Graph Routing (CGR) is a dynamic routing system that computes routes through a time-varying topology of scheduled communication contacts in a network based on the DTN (Delay-Tolerant Networking) architecture. It is designed to enable dynamic selection of data transmission routes in a space network based on DTN. This dynamic responsiveness in route computation should be significantly more effective and less expensive than static routing, increasing total data return while at the same time reducing mission operations cost and risk. The basic strategy of CGR is to take advantage of the fact that, since flight mission communication operations are planned in detail, the communication routes between any pair of bundle agents in a population of nodes that have all been informed of one another's plans can be inferred from those plans rather than discovered via dialogue (which is impractical over long one-way-light-time space links). Messages that convey this planning information are used to construct contact graphs (time-varying models of network connectivity) from which CGR automatically computes efficient routes for bundles. Automatic route selection increases the flexibility and resilience of the space network, simplifying cross-support and reducing mission management costs. Note that there are no routing tables in Contact Graph Routing. The best route for a bundle destined for a given node may routinely be different from the best route for a different bundle destined for the same node, depending on bundle priority, bundle expiration time, and changes in the current lengths of transmission queues for neighboring nodes; routes must be computed individually for each bundle, from the Bundle Protocol agent's current network connectivity model for the bundle s destination node (the contact graph). Clearly this places a premium on optimizing the implementation of the route computation algorithm. The scalability of CGR to very large networks remains a research topic

  14. Contact dynamics math model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaese, John R.; Tobbe, Patrick A.

    1986-01-01

    The Space Station Mechanism Test Bed consists of a hydraulically driven, computer controlled six degree of freedom (DOF) motion system with which docking, berthing, and other mechanisms can be evaluated. Measured contact forces and moments are provided to the simulation host computer to enable representation of orbital contact dynamics. This report describes the development of a generalized math model which represents the relative motion between two rigid orbiting vehicles. The model allows motion in six DOF for each body, with no vehicle size limitation. The rotational and translational equations of motion are derived. The method used to transform the forces and moments from the sensor location to the vehicles' centers of mass is also explained. Two math models of docking mechanisms, a simple translational spring and the Remote Manipulator System end effector, are presented along with simulation results. The translational spring model is used in an attempt to verify the simulation with compensated hardware in the loop results.

  15. Occupational protein contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Barbaud, Annick; Poreaux, Claire; Penven, Emmanuelle; Waton, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis is generally caused by haptens but can also be induced by proteins causing mainly immunological contact urticaria (ICU); chronic hand eczema in the context of protein contact dermatitis (PCD). In a monocentric retrospective study, from our database, only 31 (0.41%) of patients with contact dermatitis had positive skin tests with proteins: 22 had occupational PCD, 3 had non-occupational PCD, 5 occupational ICU and 1 cook had a neutrophilic fixed food eruption (NFFE) due to fish. From these results and analysis of literature, the characteristics of PCD can be summarized as follows. It is a chronic eczematous dermatitis, possibly exacerbated by work, suggestive if associated with inflammatory perionyxix and immediate erythema with pruritis, to be investigated when the patient resumes work after a period of interruption. Prick tests with the suspected protein-containing material are essential, as patch tests have negative results. In case of multisensitisation revealed by prick tests, it is advisable to analyse IgE against recombinant allergens. A history of atopy, found in 56 to 68% of the patients, has to be checked for. Most of the cases are observed among food-handlers but PCD can also be due to non-edible plants, latex, hydrolysed proteins or animal proteins. Occupational exposure to proteins can thus lead to the development of ICU. Reflecting hypersensitivity to very low concentrations of allergens, investigating ICU therefore requires caution and prick tests should be performed with a diluted form of the causative protein-containing product. Causes are food, especially fruit peel, non-edible plants, cosmetic products, latex, animals.

  16. Electron Device Contact Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    from van der Pauw measurements ......................................... 110 5.2 M’odel of a MS contact with an interfacial oxide layer. 116 6.1 I-V...Process ............................ .76 4.3 Diffused Layer Data Determined from van der Pauw 77 Measurements... van der Pauw measurement was performed and a value of diffused layer sheet resistivity was obtained. Junction lapping and staining was then used to

  17. Metal Contacts in Semiconductors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    surfaces, Pnotoelectron spe troscopy, Auger electron spectro- I scopy, Schottky barriers, ohmic contacts, Defects in semiconductors, Cadmium * telluride...Indium phosphide, Gallium arsenide, Gallium Selenide . j 20. ABSTR ACT (roothat ow rees esh " neceay and td..ity by block -. b*w) SThe application of...angstroms. Also, provided one eliminates the systems where cadmium outdiffusion into high work function metals occurs then good agreement between the

  18. Contact stress sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kotovsky, Jack [Oakland, CA

    2012-02-07

    A contact stress sensor includes one or more MEMS fabricated sensor elements, where each sensor element of includes a thin non-recessed portion, a recessed portion and a pressure sensitive element adjacent to the recessed portion. An electric circuit is connected to the pressure sensitive element. The circuit includes a thermal compensator and a pressure signal circuit element configured to provide a signal upon movement of the pressure sensitive element.

  19. Contact stress sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kotovsky, Jack

    2014-02-11

    A method for producing a contact stress sensor that includes one or more MEMS fabricated sensor elements, where each sensor element of includes a thin non-recessed portion, a recessed portion and a pressure sensitive element adjacent to the recessed portion. An electric circuit is connected to the pressure sensitive element. The circuit includes a pressure signal circuit element configured to provide a signal upon movement of the pressure sensitive element.

  20. Contact dermatitis in children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Contact dermatitis in pediatric population is a common but (previously) under recognized disease. It is usually divided into the allergic and the irritant forms. The diagnosis is usually obtained with the patch test technique after conducting a thorough medical history and careful physical examination but patch testing in infants may be particularly difficult, and false-positive reactions may occur. This study also provides an overview of the most common allergens in pediatric population and discusses various therapeutic modalities. PMID:20205907

  1. Dual contact pogo pin assembly

    DOEpatents

    Hatch, Stephen McGarry

    2016-06-21

    A contact assembly includes a base and a pair of electrical contacts supported by the base. A first end of the first electrical contact corresponds to a first end of the base and is configured to engage a first external conductive circuit element. A first end of the second electrical contact also corresponds to the first end of the base and is configured to engage a second external conductive circuit element. The first contact and the second contact are electrically isolated from one another and configured to compress when engaging an external connector element. The base includes an aperture positioned on a second end of the base outboard of a second end of the first and second electrical contacts. The aperture presents a narrowing shape with a wide mouth distal the electrical contacts and a narrow internal through-hole proximate the electrical contacts.

  2. Dual contact pogo pin assembly

    DOEpatents

    Hatch, Stephen McGarry

    2015-01-20

    A contact assembly includes a base and a pair of electrical contacts supported by the base. A first end of the first electrical contact corresponds to a first end of the base and is configured to engage a first external conductive circuit element. A first end of the second electrical contact also corresponds to the first end of the base and is configured to engage a second external conductive circuit element. The first contact and the second contact are electrically isolated from one another and configured to compress when engaging an external connector element. The base includes an aperture positioned on a second end of the base outboard of a second end of the first and second electrical contacts. The aperture presents a narrowing shape with a wide mouth distal the electrical contacts and a narrow internal through-hole proximate the electrical contacts.

  3. Contact dermatitis in printing tradesmen.

    PubMed

    Nethercott, J R; Nosal, R

    1986-05-01

    During a 2-year period in Toronto, Canada, 21 printing tradesmen with contact dermatitis were evaluated. 67% had allergic contact dermatitis; 29% due to ultraviolet-cured ink components. Irritant contact dermatitis accounted for 37% of the cases. The prognosis in printing tradesmen with contact dermatitis is guarded, except for those with allergic contact dermatitis due to UV-cured components, as the tradesmen who were sensitized to other contactants eventually left the trade. Offset lithography was associated with the problem in 18 of the 21 cases. A brief outline is given of the printing processes in common use.

  4. Adhesive Contact Sweeper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Jonathan D.

    1993-01-01

    Adhesive contact sweeper removes hair and particles vacuum cleaner leaves behind, without stirring up dust. Also cleans loose rugs. Sweeper holds commercially available spools of inverted adhesive tape. Suitable for use in environments in which air kept free of dust; optics laboratories, computer rooms, and areas inhabited by people allergic to dust. For carpets, best used in tandem with vacuum cleaner; first pass with vacuum cleaner removes coarse particles, and second pass with sweeper extracts fine particles. This practice extends useful life of adhesive spools.

  5. Adhesion in hydrogel contacts.

    PubMed

    Torres, J R; Jay, G D; Kim, K-S; Bothun, G D

    2016-05-01

    A generalized thermomechanical model for adhesion was developed to elucidate the mechanisms of dissipation within the viscoelastic bulk of a hyperelastic hydrogel. Results show that in addition to the expected energy release rate of interface formation, as well as the viscous flow dissipation, the bulk composition exhibits dissipation due to phase inhomogeneity morphological changes. The mixing thermodynamics of the matrix and solvent determines the dynamics of the phase inhomogeneities, which can enhance or disrupt adhesion. The model also accounts for the time-dependent behaviour. A parameter is proposed to discern the dominant dissipation mechanism in hydrogel contact detachment.

  6. Adhesion in hydrogel contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, J. R.; Jay, G. D.; Kim, K.-S.; Bothun, G. D.

    2016-05-01

    A generalized thermomechanical model for adhesion was developed to elucidate the mechanisms of dissipation within the viscoelastic bulk of a hyperelastic hydrogel. Results show that in addition to the expected energy release rate of interface formation, as well as the viscous flow dissipation, the bulk composition exhibits dissipation due to phase inhomogeneity morphological changes. The mixing thermodynamics of the matrix and solvent determines the dynamics of the phase inhomogeneities, which can enhance or disrupt adhesion. The model also accounts for the time-dependent behaviour. A parameter is proposed to discern the dominant dissipation mechanism in hydrogel contact detachment.

  7. Contact dermatitis to methylisothiazolinone*

    PubMed Central

    Scherrer, Maria Antonieta Rios; Rocha, Vanessa Barreto; Andrade, Ana Regina Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Methylisothiazolinone (MI) is a preservative found in cosmetic and industrial products. Contact dermatitis caused by either methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI or Kathon CG) or MI has shown increasing frequency. The latter is preferably detected through epicutaneous testing with aqueous MI 2000 ppm, which is not included in the Brazilian standard tray. We describe a series of 23 patients tested using it and our standard tray. A case with negative reaction to MCI/MI and positive to MI is emphasized. PMID:26734880

  8. Contact dermatitis in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olumide, Y M

    1985-05-01

    Nickel is the most important sensitizer in Lagos, with an incidence of 12.3% of 453 patients tested. There was no sex difference, as the wearing of necklaces and bracelets was equally fashionable among both sexes. Housewife eczema is not common, probably because of hardening. Dermatitis from additives in the processing of leather and rubber footwear was the next most common. Chromate sensitivity comes usually from leather or cement. Cultural and climatic factors are mainly responsible for differences in the incidence of contact dermatitis found in Lagos from other countries.

  9. Contact Control, Version 1

    SciTech Connect

    von Sternberg, Alex

    2016-07-21

    The contact control code is a generalized force control scheme meant to interface with a robotic arm being controlled using the Robot Operating System (ROS). The code allows the user to specify a control scheme for each control dimension in a way that many different control task controllers could be built from the same generalized controller. The input to the code includes maximum velocity, maximum force, maximum displacement, and a control law assigned to each direction and the output is a 6 degree of freedom velocity command that is sent to the robot controller.

  10. Contact Lenses in the Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, David W.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes results of a three-item questionnaire returned by 43 Michigan institutions expressing views on wearing contact lenses in chemical laboratories. Questions focused on eye protection, type of protection, and use of contact lenses. (SK)

  11. Polyurethane toilet seat contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Turan, Hakan; Saricaoğlu, Hayriye; Turan, Ayşegül; Tunali, Sükran

    2011-01-01

    Polyurethane chemicals are produced by the reaction of isocyanates and they may cause allergic contact dermatitis or precipitate asthma attacks. Contact dermatitis to polyurethane toilet seat has not been reported before. Herein we present a case of allergic contact dermatitis to polyurethane toilet seat.

  12. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jenny L.

    2010-01-01

    Epicutaneous patch testing is the gold standard method for the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. Despite this knowledge, many clinical dermatologists do not offer patch testing in their offices or offer testing with only a limited number of allergens. Introduced in 1995, the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test originally contained 23 allergens and one control. In 2007, five additional allergens were added. This United States Food and Drug Administration-approved patch testing system made patch testing more convenient, and after its introduction, more dermatologists offered patch testing services. However, the number of allergens in the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test remains relatively low. Every two years, the North American Contact Dermatitis Group collects and reports the data from patch testing among its members to a standardized series of allergens. In 2005-2006, the Group used a series of 65 allergens. Of the top 30 allergens reported in 2005-2006, 10 were not included in the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test. Knowledge of and testing for additional allergens such as these may increase patch testing yield. PMID:20967194

  13. Contact position sensor using constant contact force control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturdevant, Jay (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A force control system (50) and method are provided for controlling a position contact sensor (10) so as to produce a constant controlled contact force therewith. The system (50) includes a contact position sensor (10) which has a contact probe (12) for contacting the surface of a target to be measured and an output signal (V.sub.o) for providing a position indication thereof. An actuator (30) is provided for controllably driving the contact position sensor (10) in response to an actuation control signal (I). A controller (52) receives the position indication signal (V.sub.o) and generates in response thereto the actuation control signal (I) so as to provide a substantially constant selective force (F) exerted by the contact probe (12). The actuation drive signal (I) is generated further in response to substantially linear approximation curves based on predetermined force and position data attained from the sensor (10) and the actuator (30).

  14. Dynamic contact angle analysis of silicone hydrogel contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Read, Michael Leonard; Morgan, Philip Bruce; Kelly, Jeremiah Michael; Maldonado-Codina, Carole

    2011-07-01

    Contact angle measurements are used to infer the clinical wetting characteristics of contact lenses. Such characterization has become more commonplace since the introduction of silicone hydrogel contact lens materials, which have been associated with reduced in vivo wetting due to the inclusion of siloxane-containing components. Using consistent methodology and a single investigator, advancing and receding contact angles were measured for 11 commercially available silicone hydrogel contact lens types with a dynamic captive bubble technique employing customized, fully automated image analysis. Advancing contact angles were found to range between 20° and 72° with the lenses falling into six statistically discrete groupings. Receding contact angles fell within a narrower range, between 17° and 22°, with the lenses segregated into three groups. The relationship between these laboratory measurements and the clinical performance of the lenses requires further investigation.

  15. Contact sensing from force measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bicchi, Antonio; Salisbury, J. K.; Brock, David L.

    1993-01-01

    This article addresses contact sensing (i.e., the problem of resolving the location of a contact, the force at the interface, and the moment about the contact normals). Called 'intrinsic' contact sensing for the use of internal force and torque measurements, this method allows for practical devices that provide simple, relevant contact information in practical robotic applications. Such sensors have been used in conjunction with robot hands to identify objects, determine surface friction, detect slip, augment grasp stability, measure object mass, probe surfaces, and control collision and for a variety of other useful tasks. This article describes the theoretical basis for their operation and provides a framework for future device design.

  16. Equilibrium contact angle or the most-stable contact angle?

    PubMed

    Montes Ruiz-Cabello, F J; Rodríguez-Valverde, M A; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M A

    2014-04-01

    It is well-established that the equilibrium contact angle in a thermodynamic framework is an "unattainable" contact angle. Instead, the most-stable contact angle obtained from mechanical stimuli of the system is indeed experimentally accessible. Monitoring the susceptibility of a sessile drop to a mechanical stimulus enables to identify the most stable drop configuration within the practical range of contact angle hysteresis. Two different stimuli may be used with sessile drops: mechanical vibration and tilting. The most stable drop against vibration should reveal the changeless contact angle but against the gravity force, it should reveal the highest resistance to slide down. After the corresponding mechanical stimulus, once the excited drop configuration is examined, the focus will be on the contact angle of the initial drop configuration. This methodology needs to map significantly the static drop configurations with different stable contact angles. The most-stable contact angle, together with the advancing and receding contact angles, completes the description of physically realizable configurations of a solid-liquid system. Since the most-stable contact angle is energetically significant, it may be used in the Wenzel, Cassie or Cassie-Baxter equations accordingly or for the surface energy evaluation.

  17. Reducing contact resistance in graphene devices through contact area patterning.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua T; Franklin, Aaron D; Farmer, Damon B; Dimitrakopoulos, Christos D

    2013-04-23

    Performance of graphene electronics is limited by contact resistance associated with the metal-graphene (M-G) interface, where unique transport challenges arise as carriers are injected from a 3D metal into a 2D-graphene sheet. In this work, enhanced carrier injection is experimentally achieved in graphene devices by forming cuts in the graphene within the contact regions. These cuts are oriented normal to the channel and facilitate bonding between the contact metal and carbon atoms at the graphene cut edges, reproducibly maximizing "edge-contacted" injection. Despite the reduction in M-G contact area caused by these cuts, we find that a 32% reduction in contact resistance results in Cu-contacted, two-terminal devices, while a 22% reduction is achieved for top-gated graphene transistors with Pd contacts as compared to conventionally fabricated devices. The crucial role of contact annealing to facilitate this improvement is also elucidated. This simple approach provides a reliable and reproducible means of lowering contact resistance in graphene devices to bolster performance. Importantly, this enhancement requires no additional processing steps.

  18. Contact angle and local wetting at contact line.

    PubMed

    Li, Ri; Shan, Yanguang

    2012-11-06

    This theoretical study was motivated by recent experiments and theoretical work that had suggested the dependence of the static contact angle on the local wetting at the triple-phase contact line. We revisit this topic because the static contact angle as a local wetting parameter is still not widely understood and clearly known. To further clarify the relationship of the static contact angle with wetting, two approaches are applied to derive a general equation for the static contact angle of a droplet on a composite surface composed of heterogeneous components. A global approach based on the free surface energy of a thermodynamic system containing the droplet and solid surface shows the static contact angle as a function of local surface chemistry and local wetting state at the contact line. A local approach, in which only local forces acting on the contact line are considered, results in the same equation. The fact that the local approach agrees with the global approach further demonstrates the static contact angle as a local wetting parameter. Additionally, the study also suggests that the wetting described by the Wenzel and Cassie equations is also the local wetting of the contact line rather than the global wetting of the droplet.

  19. Point contacts in encapsulated graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Handschin, Clevin; Fülöp, Bálint; Csonka, Szabolcs; Makk, Péter; Blanter, Sofya; Weiss, Markus; Schönenberger, Christian; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi

    2015-11-02

    We present a method to establish inner point contacts with dimensions as small as 100 nm on hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) encapsulated graphene heterostructures by pre-patterning the top-hBN in a separate step prior to dry-stacking. 2- and 4-terminal field effect measurements between different lead combinations are in qualitative agreement with an electrostatic model assuming point-like contacts. The measured contact resistances are 0.5–1.5 kΩ per contact, which is quite low for such small contacts. By applying a perpendicular magnetic field, an insulating behaviour in the quantum Hall regime was observed, as expected for inner contacts. The fabricated contacts are compatible with high mobility graphene structures and open up the field for the realization of several electron optical proposals.

  20. Electron Device Contact Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    resistance of the contact Barrier height (I-V or C-V method) I-V characteristic Auger spectroscopy analysis will be made in an attempt to relate the atomic ...in the n-type layer can be given as [20]. C(x) = Cs erfc (25) where D = diffusion coefficient of the dopant atom in GaAs t = time of diffusion Cs...tunneling, assuming a uniform doping of C givess 2cs (IT)I ! 2(12) (8.85) (10 -14) W u (.6)(oI)(loT B (0.9 - 0) W 3.5 x 10-6 cm. The actual Sn atom doping

  1. Contact allergy to dimethacrylate.

    PubMed

    Vaswani, Ravi; Kim, Soon Ja; Sanchez, Adrian; Vaswani, Surender

    2012-01-01

    Contact allergy to methacrylates is uncommon. We present a 55-year-old woman with a 10-year history of persistent pruritus and burning sensation of the gums every time she wore her dentures. Initially she developed swelling and erythema of the face soon after the dentures were placed on the gums. These symptoms abated after a barrier liner was applied between her gums and the dentures. However, the burning sensation and pruritus of the gums progressively worsened and she started to develop blisters on the gums. The skin allergen patch test was 3+ positive with erythema, edema, papules, ulceration, and pruritus for the denture component dimethacrylate. The diagnosis was supported by the patient's medical history, notably positive patch test, and complete amelioration of the symptoms upon cessation of dimethacrylate denture usage.

  2. Contact dermatitis to Alstroemeria.

    PubMed

    Santucci, B; Picardo, M; Iavarone, C; Trogolo, C

    1985-04-01

    A study was carried out on 50 workers in a floriculture centre to evaluate the incidence of contact dermatitis to Alstroemeria. 3 subjects gave positive reactions to aqueous and ethanolic extracts of cut flowers, stems and leaves. By column chromatography, the allergen was isolated and its chemical structure identified as 6-tuliposide A by proton magnetic resonance and carbon-13 magnetic resonance. Only 6-tuliposide A was isolated from cut flowers, and this gave positive reactions when patch tested at 0.01%; a-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone at 10(-5) (v/v) was positive in the same 3 subjects. Other lactones (gamma-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone, alantolactone, isoalantolactone) were negative at all concentrations used.

  3. Wireless Measurement of Contact and Motion Between Contact Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2007-01-01

    This method uses a magnetic-field- response contact sensor that is designed to identify surface contact and motion between contact locations. The sensor has three components: (1) a capacitor-inductor circuit with two sets of electrical contact pads, (2) a capacitor with a set of electrical contact pads, and (3) an inductor with a set of electrical contact pads. A unique feature of this sensor is that it is inherently multifunctional. Information can be derived from analyzing such sensor response attributes as amplitude, frequency, and bandwidth. A change in one attribute can be due to a change in a physical property of a system. A change in another attribute can be due to another physical property, which has no relationship to the first one.

  4. Hysteresis during contact angles measurement.

    PubMed

    Diaz, M Elena; Fuentes, Javier; Cerro, Ramon L; Savage, Michael D

    2010-03-15

    A theory, based on the presence of an adsorbed film in the vicinity of the triple contact line, provides a molecular interpretation of intrinsic hysteresis during the measurement of static contact angles. Static contact angles are measured by placing a sessile drop on top of a flat solid surface. If the solid surface has not been previously in contact with a vapor phase saturated with the molecules of the liquid phase, the solid surface is free of adsorbed liquid molecules. In the absence of an adsorbed film, molecular forces configure an advancing contact angle larger than the static contact angle. After some time, due to an evaporation/adsorption process, the interface of the drop coexists with an adsorbed film of liquid molecules as part of the equilibrium configuration, denoted as the static contact angle. This equilibrium configuration is metastable because the droplet has a larger vapor pressure than the surrounding flat film. As the drop evaporates, the vapor/liquid interface contracts and the apparent contact line moves towards the center of the drop. During this process, the film left behind is thicker than the adsorbed film and molecular attraction results in a receding contact angle, smaller than the equilibrium contact angle.

  5. Contact dermatitis: allergic and irritant.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cher-Han; Rasool, Sarah; Johnston, Graham A

    2014-01-01

    Facial contact dermatitis is frequently encountered in medical practice in both male and female patients. Identifying the underlying cause can be challenging, and the causative agent may be overlooked if it is not considered during the assessment of a patient. The two main types of contact dermatitis are irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). The mechanisms and common causative agents vary for both ICD and ACD, but the clinical picture is often similar, particularly for chronic disease. Facial contact dermatitis can be successfully treated by avoiding the causative agent. In this review, we focus on the clinical assessment of a patient with facial contact dermatitis and the mechanisms of both ICD and ACD. Common causative agents, including emerging allergens, are discussed in detail, and suggestions are made regarding the management of patients with proven ICD or ACD of the face.

  6. Wearable telescopic contact lens.

    PubMed

    Arianpour, Ashkan; Schuster, Glenn M; Tremblay, Eric J; Stamenov, Igor; Groisman, Alex; Legerton, Jerry; Meyers, William; Amigo, Goretty Alonso; Ford, Joseph E

    2015-08-20

    We describe the design, fabrication, and testing of a 1.6 mm thick scleral contact lens providing both 1× and 2.8× magnified vision paths, intended for use as a switchable eye-borne telescopic low-vision aid. The F/9.7 telescopic vision path uses an 8.2 mm diameter annular entrance pupil and 4 internal reflections in a polymethyl methacrylate precision optic. This gas-impermeable insert is contained inside a smooth outer casing of rigid gas-permeable polymer, which also provides achromatic correction for refraction at the curved lens face. The unmagnified F/4.1 vision path is through the central aperture of the lens, with additional transmission between the annular telescope rings to enable peripheral vision. We discuss potential solutions for providing oxygenation for an extended wear version of the lens. The prototype lenses were characterized using a scale-model human eye, and telescope functionality was confirmed in a small-scale clinical (nondispensed) demonstration.

  7. Noise of sliding rough contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bot, Alain

    2017-01-01

    This article is a discussion about the origin of friction noise produced when rubbing solids having rough surfaces. We show that noise emerges from numerous impacts into the contact between antagonist asperities of surfaces. Prediction of sound sources reduces to a statistical problem of contact mechanics. On the other hand, contact is also responsible of dissipation of vibration. This leads to the paradoxical result that the noise may not be proportional to the number of sources.

  8. Point contact silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Richard M.

    1987-01-01

    A new type of silicon solar cell has been developed. It is called the point-contact cell because the metal semiconductor contacts are restricted to an array of small points on the back of the cell. The point contact cell has recently demonstrated 22 percent conversion efficiency at one sun and 27.5 percent at 100 suns under an AM1.5 spectrum.

  9. [Occlusal contact principles in prosthodontics].

    PubMed

    Wang, Meiqing

    2012-12-01

    The occlusion contact, which is engaged in many dental clinical scopes, is the primary subject in the field of dental occlusion. Prosthodontics is one of the fields that are involved in with this subject, including the static relation (the occlusal contacts in intercuspal occlusion) and the dynamic relation (such as that in chewing movement). Not only the restorations, but also the abutments, that have to be properly managed to obtain a harmony occlusal contact relationship.

  10. Method for forming metal contacts

    DOEpatents

    Reddington, Erik; Sutter, Thomas C; Bu, Lujia; Cannon, Alexandra; Habas, Susan E; Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Ginley, David S; Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria

    2013-09-17

    Methods of forming metal contacts with metal inks in the manufacture of photovoltaic devices are disclosed. The metal inks are selectively deposited on semiconductor coatings by inkjet and aerosol apparatus. The composite is heated to selective temperatures where the metal inks burn through the coating to form an electrical contact with the semiconductor. Metal layers are then deposited on the electrical contacts by light induced or light assisted plating.

  11. Ohmic Contacts to Semiconducting Diamond

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-01

    after approxi- mately 30 minutes. Analysis using Auger electron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction established the...adherent wire bonds. To test the contacts for bondability, 10-mil gold wires were bonded to the contacts by using an ultrasonic ball bonder. Pull-to...resistance of the ohmic contacts (reference 4). We have chosen to use the circular transmission line geometry and analysis first proposed by Reeves

  12. Electrical contact resistance in filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiang-Fa; Zhou, Zhengping; Zhou, Wang-Min

    2012-05-01

    Electrical contact resistance (ECR) influences the electrochemical performance of porous electrodes made of stacked discrete materials (e.g., carbon nanotubes, nanofibers, etc.) for use in supercapacitors and rechargeable batteries. This study establishes a simple elasticity-conductivity model for the ECR of filaments in adhesive contact. The elastic deformation and size of electrical contact zone of the filaments are determined by using an adhesive contact model of filaments, and the ECR of adhesive filaments is obtained in explicit form. Dependencies of the ECR upon the filament geometries, surface energy, and elasticity are examined.

  13. Ion Implanted Passivated Contacts for Interdigitated Back Contacted Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Young, David L.; Nemeth, William; LaSalvia, Vincenzo; Reedy, Robert; Bateman, Nicholas; Stradins, Pauls

    2015-06-14

    We describe work towards an interdigitated back contacted (IBC) solar cell utilizing ion implanted, passivated contacts. Formation of electron and hole passivated contacts to n-type CZ wafers using tunneling SiO2 and ion implanted amorphous silicon (a-Si) are described. P and B were ion implanted into intrinsic amorphous Si films at several doses and energies. A series of post-implant anneals showed that the passivation quality improved with increasing annealing temperatures up to 900 degrees C. The recombination parameter, Jo, as measured by a Sinton lifetime tester, was Jo ~ 14 fA/cm2 for Si:P, and Jo ~ 56 fA/cm2 for Si:B contacts. The contact resistivity for the passivated contacts, as measured by TLM patterns, was 14 milliohm-cm2 for the n-type contact and 0.6 milliohm-cm2 for the p-type contact. These Jo and pcontact values are encouraging for forming IBC cells using ion implantation to spatially define dopants.

  14. Contact line and contact angle dynamics in superhydrophobic channels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junfeng; Kwok, Daniel Y

    2006-05-23

    The dynamics of the wetting and movement of a three-phase contact line confined between two superhydrophobic surfaces were studied using a mean-field free-energy lattice Boltzmann model. Principle features of superhydrophobic surfaces, such as trapped vapor/air between rough microstructures, high contact angles, reduced contact angle hysteresis, and low resistance to fluid flow, were all observed. Movement of the three-phase contact line over a well-patterned superhydrophobic surface displays a periodic stick-jump-slip behavior, while the dynamic contact angle changes accordingly from maximum to minimum. Two regimes were found for the flow velocity as a function of surface roughness and can be related directly to the balance between driving force and flow resistance. This work provides a better understanding of dynamic wetting and fluid flow behaviors over superhydrophobic surfaces and hence could be useful in related applications.

  15. Molecular dynamics study of contact mechanics: contact area and interfacial separation from small to full contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chunyan; Persson, Bo

    2008-03-01

    We report a molecular dynamics study of the contact between a rigid solid with a randomly rough surface and an elastic block with a flat surface. We study the contact area and the interfacial separation from small contact (low load) to full contact (high load). For small load the contact area varies linearly with the load and the interfacial separation depends logarithmically on the load [1-4]. For high load the contact area approaches to the nominal contact area (i.e., complete contact), and the interfacial separation approaches to zero. The present results may be very important for soft solids, e.g., rubber, or for very smooth surfaces, where complete contact can be reached at moderate high loads without plastic deformation of the solids. References: [1] C. Yang and B.N.J. Persson, arXiv:0710.0276, (to appear in Phys. Rev. Lett.) [2] B.N.J. Persson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 125502 (2007) [3] L. Pei, S. Hyun, J.F. Molinari and M.O. Robbins, J. Mech. Phys. Sol. 53, 2385 (2005) [4] M. Benz, K.J. Rosenberg, E.J. Kramer and J.N. Israelachvili, J. Phy. Chem. B.110, 11884 (2006)

  16. Contact modeling for robotics applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lafarge, R.A.; Lewis, C.

    1998-08-01

    At Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), the authors are developing the ability to accurately predict motions for arbitrary numbers of bodies of arbitrary shapes experiencing multiple applied forces and intermittent contacts. In particular, the authors are concerned with the simulation of systems such as part feeders or mobile robots operating in realistic environments. Preliminary investigation of commercial dynamics software packages led them to the conclusion that they could use commercial software to provide everything they needed except for the contact model. They found that ADAMS best fit their needs for a simulation package. To simulate intermittent contacts, they need collision detection software that can efficiently compute the distances between non-convex objects and return the associated witness features. They also require a computationally efficient contact model for rapid simulation of impact, sustained contact under load, and transition to and from contact conditions. This paper provides a technical review of a custom hierarchical distance computation engine developed at Sandia, called the C-Space Toolkit (CSTk). In addition, they describe an efficient contact model using a non-linear damping term developed by SNL and Ohio State. Both the CSTk and the non-linear damper have been incorporated in a simplified two-body testbed code, which is used to investigate how to correctly model the contact using these two utilities. They have incorporated this model into the ADAMS software using the callable function interface. An example that illustrates the capabilities of the 9.02 release of ADAMS with their extensions is provided.

  17. Fabricating customized hydrogel contact lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childs, Andre; Li, Hao; Lewittes, Daniella M.; Dong, Biqin; Liu, Wenzhong; Shu, Xiao; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Hao F.

    2016-10-01

    Contact lenses are increasingly used in laboratories for in vivo animal retinal imaging and pre-clinical studies. The lens shapes often need modification to optimally fit corneas of individual test subjects. However, the choices from commercially available contact lenses are rather limited. Here, we report a flexible method to fabricate customized hydrogel contact lenses. We showed that the fabricated hydrogel is highly transparent, with refractive indices ranging from 1.42 to 1.45 in the spectra range from 400 nm to 800 nm. The Young’s modulus (1.47 MPa) and hydrophobicity (with a sessile drop contact angle of 40.5°) have also been characterized experimentally. Retinal imaging using optical coherence tomography in rats wearing our customized contact lenses has the quality comparable to the control case without the contact lens. Our method could significantly reduce the cost and the lead time for fabricating soft contact lenses with customized shapes, and benefit the laboratorial-used contact lenses in pre-clinical studies.

  18. Fabricating customized hydrogel contact lens

    PubMed Central

    Childs, Andre; Li, Hao; Lewittes, Daniella M.; Dong, Biqin; Liu, Wenzhong; Shu, Xiao; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Hao F.

    2016-01-01

    Contact lenses are increasingly used in laboratories for in vivo animal retinal imaging and pre-clinical studies. The lens shapes often need modification to optimally fit corneas of individual test subjects. However, the choices from commercially available contact lenses are rather limited. Here, we report a flexible method to fabricate customized hydrogel contact lenses. We showed that the fabricated hydrogel is highly transparent, with refractive indices ranging from 1.42 to 1.45 in the spectra range from 400 nm to 800 nm. The Young’s modulus (1.47 MPa) and hydrophobicity (with a sessile drop contact angle of 40.5°) have also been characterized experimentally. Retinal imaging using optical coherence tomography in rats wearing our customized contact lenses has the quality comparable to the control case without the contact lens. Our method could significantly reduce the cost and the lead time for fabricating soft contact lenses with customized shapes, and benefit the laboratorial-used contact lenses in pre-clinical studies. PMID:27748361

  19. Forcing contact inhibition of locomotion.

    PubMed

    Roycroft, Alice; Mayor, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    Contact inhibition of locomotion drives a variety of biological phenomenon, from cell dispersion to collective cell migration and cancer invasion. New imaging techniques have allowed contact inhibition of locomotion to be visualised in vivo for the first time, helping to elucidate some of the molecules and forces involved in this phenomenon.

  20. Fabricating customized hydrogel contact lens.

    PubMed

    Childs, Andre; Li, Hao; Lewittes, Daniella M; Dong, Biqin; Liu, Wenzhong; Shu, Xiao; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Hao F

    2016-10-17

    Contact lenses are increasingly used in laboratories for in vivo animal retinal imaging and pre-clinical studies. The lens shapes often need modification to optimally fit corneas of individual test subjects. However, the choices from commercially available contact lenses are rather limited. Here, we report a flexible method to fabricate customized hydrogel contact lenses. We showed that the fabricated hydrogel is highly transparent, with refractive indices ranging from 1.42 to 1.45 in the spectra range from 400 nm to 800 nm. The Young's modulus (1.47 MPa) and hydrophobicity (with a sessile drop contact angle of 40.5°) have also been characterized experimentally. Retinal imaging using optical coherence tomography in rats wearing our customized contact lenses has the quality comparable to the control case without the contact lens. Our method could significantly reduce the cost and the lead time for fabricating soft contact lenses with customized shapes, and benefit the laboratorial-used contact lenses in pre-clinical studies.

  1. 78 FR 25431 - Revised Information Collection Activities (FERC-545, FERC-549, and FERC-550); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... 221100--Electric Power Generation, Transmission and Distribution, at http://bls.gov/oes/current/naics4...ID=13174100 ) and in Revisions to Electric Quarterly Report Filing Process, Order No. 770, 77 Fed.../hour for support staff.\\4\\ \\3\\ 5 CFR 1320 (2012). \\4\\ The estimated burden on electric utilities...

  2. Contact dermatitis in military personnel.

    PubMed

    Dever, Tara T; Walters, Michelle; Jacob, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Military personnel encounter the same allergens and irritants as their civilian counterparts and are just as likely to develop contact dermatitis from common exposures encountered in everyday life. In addition, they face some unique exposures that can be difficult to avoid owing to their occupational duties. Contact dermatitis can be detrimental to a military member's career if he or she is unable to perform core duties or avoid the inciting substances. An uncontrolled contact dermatitis can result in the member's being placed on limited-duty (ie, nondeployable) status, needing a job or rate change, or separation from military service. We present some common causes of contact dermatitis in military personnel worldwide and some novel sources of contact dermatitis in this population that may not be intuitive.

  3. Elastohydrodynamic lubrication of elliptical contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    The determination of the minimum film thickness within contact is considered for both fully flooded and starved conditions. A fully flooded conjunction is one in which the film thickness is not significantly changed when the amount of lubricant is increased. The fully flooded results presented show the influence of contact geometry on minimum film thickness as expressed by the ellipticity parameter and the dimensionless speed, load, and materials parameters. These results are applied to materials of high elastic modulus (hard EHL), such as metal, and to materials of low elastic modulus(soft EHL), such as rubber. In addition to the film thickness equations that are developed, contour plots of pressure and film thickness are given which show the essential features of elastohydrodynamically lubricated conjunctions. The crescent shaped region of minimum film thickness, with its side lobes in which the separation between the solids is a minimum, clearly emerges in the numerical solutions. In addition to the 3 presented for the fully flooded results, 15 more cases are used for hard EHL contacts and 18 cases are used for soft EHL contacts in a theoretical study of the influence of lubricant starvation on film thickness and pressure. From the starved results for both hard and soft EHL contacts, a simple and important dimensionless inlet boundary distance is specified. This inlet boundary distance defines whether a fully flooded or a starved condition exists in the contact. Contour plots of pressure and film thickness in and around the contact are shown for conditions.

  4. Wraparound-contact solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baraona, C. R.; Klucher, T. M.; Thornhill, J. W.; Scott-Monck, J.

    1979-01-01

    Positive and negative electrical contacts are on back surface of wraparound-contact solar cell. With both terminals on nonilluminated side, cells can be connected back-to-back, and interconnection of many cells can be automated by using printed-circuit techniques. Cells are made by screen-printing layer of dielectric around edge of cell and extending top contact over dielectric to back surface. Wraparound also facilitates application of transparent covers and encapsulants. Efficiencies of cells are in excess of seventeen percent.

  5. Contact Pressure and Shear Stress Analysis on Conforming Contact Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Haruo; Imou, Akitoshi

    Two methods to solve a conforming contact problem are proposed. First method is general and can be applicable to the contact case between elastic arbitrary shape bodies. For verification FEA is performed on the convex-concave sphere contact, and the result of this method is well corresponding to the FEA result. However, the accuracy deteriorates when the mesh aspect ratio is extremely large. This phenomenon is caused by the usage of numerical integration for the calculation of influence coefficient. The second method is devised to avoid this problem, while this improved method is applicable only to the case when the contact area can be considered to be on a cylinder surface. By using this method, the contact pressure can be obtained without the deterioration even in the case of edge load occurring between ball bearing race shoulder and ball. The results of the contact pressure and the shear stress that is necessary for bearing life estimation are compared with the FEA result, which showed well correspondence.

  6. Medical management of contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Alexandroff, A B; Johnston, G A

    2009-10-01

    Allergic and irritant contact dermatitis are important dermatological problems. Although the frequencies of positive reactions to a number of allergens have decreased during last 30 years because of better avoidance (and at least in part due to improved legislation), contact allergy to other agents is rising. The medical treatment starts from a correct identification of triggers of contact dermatitis which could allow patients to reduce or avoid exposure to these agents in future. A good clinical history, examination and immunological tests including patch testing are of crucial importance at this stage. Further management includes emollients, topical and oral corticosteroids, topical calcineurin inhibitors, azathioprine and ciclosporin. Methotrexate and alitretinoin are recent additions to the armamentarium of dermatologists who manage contact dermatitis.

  7. EPA Alternative Dispute Resolution Contacts

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The success of EPA's ADR efforts depends on a network of talented and experienced professionals in Headquarters offices and EPA Regions. For Agency-wide ADR information, please contact the Conflict Prevention and Resolution Center.

  8. Transition metal contacts to graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Politou, Maria De Gendt, Stefan; Heyns, Marc; Asselberghs, Inge; Radu, Iuliana; Conard, Thierry; Richard, Olivier; Martens, Koen; Huyghebaert, Cedric; Tokei, Zsolt; Lee, Chang Seung; Sayan, Safak

    2015-10-12

    Achieving low resistance contacts to graphene is a common concern for graphene device performance and hybrid graphene/metal interconnects. In this work, we have used the circular Transfer Length Method (cTLM) to electrically characterize Ag, Au, Ni, Ti, and Pd as contact metals to graphene. The consistency of the obtained results was verified with the characterization of up to 72 cTLM structures per metal. Within our study, the noble metals Au, Ag and Pd, which form a weaker bond with graphene, are shown to result in lower contact resistance (Rc) values compared to the more reactive Ni and Ti. X-ray Photo Electron Spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy characterization for the latter have shown the formation of Ti and Ni carbides. Graphene/Pd contacts show a distinct intermediate behavior. The weak carbide formation signature and the low Rc values measured agree with theoretical predictions of an intermediate state of weak chemisorption of Pd on graphene.

  9. Racial Disparity in Police Contacts

    PubMed Central

    Crutchfield, Robert D.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; McGlynn, Anne; Catalano, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    Criminologists agree the race disparity in arrests cannot be fully explained by differences in criminal behavior. We examine social environment factors that may lead to racial differences in police contact in early adolescence, including family, peers, school, and community. Data are from 331 8th-grade students. Blacks were almost twice as likely as Whites to report a police contact. Blacks reported more property crime but not more violent crime than Whites. Police contacts were increased by having a parent who had been arrested, a sibling involved in criminal activity, higher observed reward for negative behavior, having school disciplinary actions, and knowing adults who engaged in substance abuse or criminal behavior. Race differences in police contacts were partially attributable to more school discipline. PMID:24363956

  10. Pose and motion from contact

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Y.B.; Erdmann, M.

    1999-05-01

    In the absence of vision, grasping an object often relies on tactile feedback from the fingertips. As the finger pushes the object, the fingertip can feel the contact point move. If the object is known in advance, from this motion the finger may infer the location of the contact point on the object, and thereby, the object pose. This paper primarily investigates the problem of determining the pose (orientation and position) and motion (velocity and angular velocity) of a planar object with known geometry from such contact motion generated by pushing. A dynamic analysis of pushing yields a nonlinear system that relates through contact the object pose and motion to the finger motion. The contact motion on the fingertip thus encodes certain information about the object pose. Nonlinear observability theory is employed to show that such information is sufficient for the finger to observe not only the pose, but also the motion of the object. Therefore, a sensing strategy can be realized as an observer of the nonlinear dynamic system. Two observers are subsequently introduced. The first observer, based on the work of Gautheir, Hammouri, and Othman (1992), has its gain determined by the solution of a Lyapunov-like equation; it can be activated at any time instant during a push. The second observer, based on Newton`s method, solves for the initial (motionless) object pose from three intermediate contact points during a push. Under the Coulomb-friction model, the paper deals with support friction in the plane and/or contact friction between the finger and the object. Extensive simulations have been done to demonstrate the feasibility of the two observers. Preliminary experiments (with an Adept robot) have also been conducted. A contact sensor has been implemented using strain gauges.

  11. Method for lubricating contacting surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Dugger, Michael T [Tijeras, NM; Ohlhausen, James A [Albuquerque, NM; Asay, David B [Boalsburg, PA; Kim, Seong H [State College, PA

    2011-12-06

    A method is provided for tribological lubrication of sliding contact surfaces, where two surfaces are in contact and in motion relative to each other, operating in a vapor-phase environment containing at least one alcohol compound at a concentration sufficiently high to provide one monolayer of coverage on at least one of the surfaces, where the alcohol compound continuously reacts at the surface to provide lubrication.

  12. [Contact lens care and maintenance].

    PubMed

    Bloise, L

    2017-03-29

    All contact lenses with replacement schedules longer than daily must be maintained. At each step of their use, the lenses may be contaminated. Contact lens solutions perform the essential functions of cleaning, decontaminating and preserving the lenses to prevent infectious problems and improve wearing comfort. Contact lens contamination essentially comes from hands, cleaning solutions, cases, water and the environment. The pathogenic microorganisms are mainly Gram-negative bacteria, fungi and amoebae. Contact lens deposits may or may not have an organic origin. Their presence increases the risk of infection because they serve as a nutrient matrix for microbes, and they are responsible for wearing discomfort. Contact lens solutions differ in their composition, their mechanism of action and the concentration of the various agents. To prescribe the best lens care system to each wearer and for each material, it is necessary to be very familiar with them. Maintenance is the main cause of discomfort with contact lenses, either through improper use, solution-material incompatibility, or a reaction of the wearer to the components.

  13. RF Sputtering of Gold Contacts On Niobium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, D. W.

    1983-01-01

    Reliable gold contacts are deposited on niobium by combination of RF sputtering and photolithography. Process results in structures having gold only where desired for electrical contact. Contacts are stable under repeated cycling from room temperature to 4.2 K and show room-temperature contact resistance as much as 40 percent below indium contacts made by thermalcompression bonding.

  14. Solar cell with back side contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J; Wanlass, Mark Woodbury; Clews, Peggy J

    2013-12-24

    A III-V solar cell is described herein that includes all back side contacts. Additionally, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact compoud semiconductor layers of the solar cell other than the absorbing layer of the solar cell. That is, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact passivating layers of the solar cell.

  15. Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Sections Contact Lens-Related ... About Contact Lenses Proper Care of Contact Lenses Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Written by: Kierstan Boyd ...

  16. Measuring The Contact Resistances Of Photovoltaic Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    Simple method devised to measure contact resistances of photovoltaic solar cells. Method uses readily available equipment and applicable at any time during life of cell. Enables evaluation of cell contact resistance, contact-end resistance, contact resistivity, sheet resistivity, and sheet resistivity under contact.

  17. Crane-Load Contact Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert; Mata, Carlos; Cox, Robert

    2005-01-01

    An electronic instrument has been developed as a prototype of a portable crane-load contact sensor. Such a sensor could be helpful in an application in which the load rests on a base in a horizontal position determined by vertical alignment pins (see Figure 1). If the crane is not positioned to lift the load precisely vertically, then the load can be expected to swing once it has been lifted clear of the pins. If the load is especially heavy, large, and/or fragile, it could hurt workers and/or damage itself and nearby objects. By indicating whether the load remains in contact with the pins when it has been lifted a fraction of the length of the pins, the crane-load contact sensor helps the crane operator determine whether it is safe to lift the load clear of the pins: If there is contact, then the load is resting against the sides of the pins and, hence, it may not be safe to lift; if contact is occasionally broken, then the load is probably not resting against the pins, so it should be safe to lift. It is assumed that the load and base, or at least the pins and the surfaces of the alignment holes in the load, are electrically conductive, so the instrument can use electrical contact to indicate mechanical contact. However, DC resistance cannot be used as an indicator of contact for the following reasons: The load and the base are both electrically grounded through cables (the load is grounded through the lifting cable of the crane) to prevent discharge of static electricity. In other words, the DC resistance between the load and the pins is always low, as though they were always in direct contact. Therefore, instead of DC resistance, the instrument utilizes the AC electrical impedance between the pins and the load. The signal frequency used in the measurement is high enough (.1 MHz) that the impedance contributed by the cables and the electrical ground network of the building in which the crane and the base are situated is significantly greater than the contact

  18. Ferromagnetic tunnel contacts to graphene: Contact resistance and spin signal

    SciTech Connect

    Cubukcu, M.; Laczkowski, P.; Vergnaud, C.; Marty, A.; Attané, J.-P.; Notin, L.; Vila, L. Jamet, M.; Martin, M.-B.; Seneor, P.; Anane, A.; Deranlot, C.; Fert, A.; Auffret, S.; Ducruet, C.

    2015-02-28

    We report spin transport in CVD graphene-based lateral spin valves using different magnetic contacts. We compared the spin signal amplitude measured on devices where the cobalt layer is directly in contact with the graphene to the one obtained using tunnel contacts. Although a sizeable spin signal (up to ∼2 Ω) is obtained with direct contacts, the signal is strongly enhanced (∼400 Ω) by inserting a tunnel barrier. In addition, we studied the resistance-area product (R.A) of a variety of contacts on CVD graphene. In particular, we compared the R.A products of alumina and magnesium oxide tunnel barriers grown by sputtering deposition of aluminum or magnesium and subsequent natural oxidation under pure oxygen atmosphere or by plasma. When using an alumina tunnel barrier on CVD graphene, the R.A product is high and exhibits a large dispersion. This dispersion can be highly reduced by using a magnesium oxide tunnel barrier, as for the R.A value. This study gives insight in the material quest for reproducible and efficient spin injection in CVD graphene.

  19. On the structure of contact binaries. I - The contact discontinuity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shu, F. H.; Lubow, S. H.; Anderson, L.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of the interior structure of contact binaries is reviewed, and a simple resolution of the difficulties which plague the theory is suggested. It is proposed that contact binaries contain a contact discontinuity between the lower surface of the common envelope and the Roche lobe of the cooler star. This discontinuity is maintained against thermal diffusion by fluid flow, and the transition layer is thin to the extent that the dynamical time scale is short in comparison with the thermal time scale. The idealization that the transition layer has infinitesimal thickness allows a simple formulation of the structure equations which are closed by appropriate jump conditions across the discontinuity. The further imposition of the standard boundary conditions suffices to define a unique model for the system once the chemical composition, the masses of the two stars, and the orbital separation are specified.

  20. SARS Patients and Their Close Contacts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fact Sheet for SARS Patients and Their Close Contacts Format: Select one PDF [256 KB] Recommend on ... that are not now known. What does "close contact" mean? In the context of SARS, close contact ...

  1. 78 FR 30303 - National Contact Center; Submission for OMB Review; National Contact Center Customer Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... ADMINISTRATION National Contact Center; Submission for OMB Review; National Contact Center Customer Evaluation Survey AGENCY: Contact Center Services, Federal Citizen Information Center, Office of Citizen Services... requirement regarding the National Contact Center customer evaluation surveys. In this request, the...

  2. 78 FR 14549 - National Contact Center; Information Collection; National Contact Center Customer Evaluation Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION National Contact Center; Information Collection; National Contact Center Customer Evaluation Survey AGENCY: Contact Center Services, Federal Citizen Information Center, Office of Citizen Services... requirement regarding the National Contact Center customer evaluation surveys. In this request, the...

  3. Marine Bioinspired Underwater Contact Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Sean K; Sodano, Antonio; Cunningham, Dylan J; Huang, Sharon S; Zalicki, Piotr J; Shin, Seunghan; Ahn, B Kollbe

    2016-05-09

    Marine mussels and barnacles are sessile biofouling organisms that adhere to a number of surfaces in wet environments and maintain remarkably strong bonds. Previous synthetic approaches to mimic biological wet adhesive properties have focused mainly on the catechol moiety, present in mussel foot proteins (mfps), and especially rich in the interfacial mfps, for example, mfp-3 and -5, found at the interface between the mussel plaque and substrate. Barnacles, however, do not use Dopa for their wet adhesion, but are instead rich in noncatecholic aromatic residues. Due to this anomaly, we were intrigued to study the initial contact adhesion properties of copolymerized acrylate films containing the key functionalities of barnacle cement proteins and interfacial mfps, for example, aromatic (catecholic or noncatecholic), cationic, anionic, and nonpolar residues. The initial wet contact adhesion of the copolymers was measured using a probe tack testing apparatus with a flat-punch contact geometry. The wet contact adhesion of an optimized, bioinspired copolymer film was ∼15.0 N/cm(2) in deionized water and ∼9.0 N/cm(2) in artificial seawater, up to 150 times greater than commercial pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) tapes (∼0.1 N/cm(2)). Furthermore, maximum wet contact adhesion was obtained at ∼pH 7, suggesting viability for biomedical applications.

  4. Contact tracing and disease control.

    PubMed Central

    Eames, Ken T D; Keeling, Matt J

    2003-01-01

    Contact tracing, followed by treatment or isolation, is a key control measure in the battle against infectious diseases. It is an extreme form of locally targeted control, and as such has the potential to be highly efficient when dealing with low numbers of cases. For this reason it is frequently used to combat sexually transmitted diseases and new invading pathogens. Accurate modelling of contact tracing requires explicit information about the disease-transmission pathways from each individual, and hence the network of contacts. Here, pairwise-approximation methods and full stochastic simulations are used to investigate the utility of contact tracing. A simple relationship is found between the efficiency of contact tracing necessary for eradication and the basic reproductive ratio of the disease. This holds for a wide variety of realistic situations including heterogeneous networks containing core-groups or super-spreaders, and asymptomatic individuals. Clustering (transitivity) within the transmission network is found to destroy the relationship, requiring lower efficiency than predicted. PMID:14728778

  5. Contact electrification of insulating materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacks, Daniel J.; Mohan Sankaran, R.

    2011-11-01

    The electrostatic charge that is generated when two materials are contacted or rubbed and then separated is a well-known physical process that has been studied for more than 2500 years. Contact electrification occurs in many contexts, both natural and technological. For example, in dust storms the collisions between particles lead to electrostatic charging and in extreme cases, extraordinary lightning displays. In electrophotography, toner particles are intentionally charged to guide their deposition in well-defined patterns. Despite such a long history and so many important consequences, a fundamental understanding of the mechanism behind contact electrification remains elusive. An open question is what type of species are transferred between the surfaces to generate charge—experiments suggest various species ranging from electrons to ions to nanoscopic bits of material, and theoretical work suggests that non-equilibrium states may play an important role. Another open question is the contact electrification that occurs when two insulating materials with identical physical properties touch—since there is no apparent driving force, it is not clear why charge transfer occurs. A third open question involves granular systems—models and experiments have shown that a particle-size dependence for the charging often exists. In this review, we discuss the fundamental aspects of contact electrification and highlight recent research efforts aimed at understanding these open questions.

  6. Antibacterial surface design - Contact kill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Rajbir; Liu, Song

    2016-08-01

    Designing antibacterial surfaces has become extremely important to minimize Healthcare Associated Infections which are a major cause of mortality worldwide. A previous biocide-releasing approach is based on leaching of encapsulated biocides such as silver and triclosan which exerts negative impacts on the environment and potentially contributes to the development of bacterial resistance. This drawback of leachable compounds led to the shift of interest towards a more sustainable and environmentally friendly approach: contact-killing surfaces. Biocides that can be bound onto surfaces to give the substrates contact-active antibacterial activity include quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), quaternary phosphoniums (QPs), carbon nanotubes, antibacterial peptides, and N-chloramines. Among the above, QACs and N-chloramines are the most researched contact-active biocides. We review the engineering of contact-active surfaces using QACs or N-chloramines, the modes of actions as well as the test methods. The charge-density threshold of cationic surfaces for desired antibacterial efficacy and attempts to combine various biocides for the generation of new contact-active surfaces are discussed in detail. Surface positive charge density is identified as a key parameter to define antibacterial efficacy. We expect that this research field will continue to attract more research interest in view of the potential impact of self-disinfective surfaces on healthcare-associated infections, food safety and corrosion/fouling resistance required on industrial surfaces such as oil pipes and ship hulls.

  7. Dermatitis, contact on the cheek (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin inflammation (dermatitis) on the cheek caused by contact with a substance that produced an allergic reaction (allergen). Contact dermatitis causes redness, itching, and small blisters (vesicles).

  8. Contacts de langues et representations (Language Contacts and Representations).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthey, Marinette, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    Essays on language contact and the image of language, entirely in French, include: "Representations 'du' contexte et representations 'en' contexte? Eleves et enseignants face a l'apprentissage de la langue" ("Representations 'of' Context or Representations 'in' Context? Students and Teachers Facing Language Learning" (Laurent…

  9. Rolling Contact Force Energy Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BRACCIALI, A.; CASCINI, G.

    2000-09-01

    Knowledge of the forces at the wheel-rail contact is fundamental to estimate the consequences in terms of noise and vibration. The traditional use of strain gauges mounted on the wheel web and axle is not capable of determining the high-frequency content of the contact force. Measurements made on the rail are characterized by the spatial variability of input-output transfer functions which makes it difficult to estimate the contact force by simple inversion of the point frequency response function. In this study the problem of rolling contact force reconstruction has been approached through the following steps: (i) the track has been characterized precisely for a finite length by the analysis of the time series of several impacts supplied with an instrumented hammer by using an ARMAX model that proved to be capable of modelling the vertical dynamics of the rail up to 5 kHz; (ii) the response of the rail has been simulated with a random force acting on the system, and the variability of the transfer function has been taken into account by distributing the force on adjacent elements; (iii) the simulated response has been compared with the rail acceleration measured for the passage of several trains; (iv) the wheel-rail contact force has been estimated with a closed-loop algorithm. It has thus been possible to reconstruct the13octave power spectrum of contact forces with a simple and stable iterative procedure. Forces reconstructed from different sensors were found to be practically the same for a given wheel; forces from nominally similar wheels are statistically examined and partial results of comparisons made on different rolling stock are shown.

  10. Methylisothiazolinone contact allergy: a review.

    PubMed

    Lundov, M D; Krongaard, T; Menné, T L; Johansen, J D

    2011-12-01

    In the early 2000s the preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI) was released as an individual preservative for industrial products and, in 2005, it was permitted for use in cosmetic products. Up until then MI had been used only in combination with methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI). MCI/MI is one of the most frequent causes of preservative contact allergy and early studies showed that both MI and MCI are sensitizers. The prevalence of MI contact allergy is already around 1·5% and sources of exposure are associated with occupation, cosmetic products or household products. Use of MI in industrial products is not restricted and cases of occupational contact allergy to MI, e.g. in painters, are reported. The frequency of use of MI in cosmetics is low, around 1%, while up to 16·5% of household products were preserved with MI. We found 19 (1·5%) out of 1272 cosmetic products labelled with MI, primarily rinse-off products, and analysed the concentration of MI by high-performance-liquid-chromatography the ultraviolet and mass spectrometry detection. The use concentration ranged between 2 and 100 ppm. Repeated exposure to MI showed that many patients allergic to MI reacted to 50 ppm which is half the maximum permitted concentration of MI in cosmetics. The recent cases and prevalence studies on MI contact allergy could be the first sign of an epidemic of MI contact allergy. The development in prevalence of MI contact allergy should be closely monitored by including MI in the European Baseline Series at 2000 ppm.

  11. Point contact silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    The construction of a 22.2% efficient single-crystal silicon solar cell fabricated at Stanford University is described. The cell dimensions were 3 x 5 mm and 100 microns thick with a base lifetime of 500 microseconds. The cell featured light trapping between a texturized top surface and a reflective bottom surface, small point contact diffusions, alternating between n-type and p-type in a polka-dot pattern on the bottom surface, and a surface passivation on all surfaces between contact regions.

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis and cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Shannon; Zippin, Jonathan

    2012-10-01

    Contact dermatitis is a common dermatologic condition that can result from exposure to allergens at home or at work. Cosmetics represent a large diverse group of products that Americans apply to their skin to treat disease or enhance beauty. With increased use of cosmetics, the rate of sensitization to many allergenic components has increased. We review the more common allergens present in cosmetics as well as the types of cosmetics that are known to contain them. With proper education and patch testing, dermatologists will be able to identify contact allergies to cosmetic ingredients and help patients avoid the offending products.

  13. Thermal and electrical contact conductance studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vansciver, S. W.; Nilles, M.

    1985-01-01

    Prediction of electrical and thermal contact resistance for pressed, nominally flat contacts is complicated by the large number of variables which influence contact formation. This is reflected in experimental results as a wide variation in contact resistances, spanning up to six orders of magnitude. A series of experiments were performed to observe the effects of oxidation and surface roughness on contact resistance. Electrical contact resistance and thermal contact conductance from 4 to 290 K on OFHC Cu contacts are reported. Electrical contact resistance was measured with a 4-wire DC technique. Thermal contact conductance was determined by steady-state longitudinal heat flow. Corrections for the bulk contribution ot the overall measured resistance were made, with the remaining resistance due solely to the presence of the contact.

  14. Contact urticaria, allergic contact dermatitis, and photoallergic contact dermatitis from oxybenzone.

    PubMed

    Landers, Maeran; Law, Sandra; Storrs, Frances J

    2003-03-01

    There is little literature regarding conventional patch tests and photopatch tests to oxybenzone resulting in both immediate- and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. A patient was patch-tested and photopatch-tested to various sunscreen chemicals. Both immediate- and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions were observed with oxybenzone. The positive patch tests were also photoaccentuated. Oxybenzone, a common sunscreen allergen, can result in both contact urticaria and delayed-type hypersensitivity on both conventional patch testing and photopatch testing. Allergic contact dermatitis to sunscreen chemicals has traditionally included contact urticaria, allergic contact dermatitis, and photoallergic contact dermatitis. Due to the recognition of p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) and its esters as sensitizers, the presence of benzophenones in "PABA-free" sunscreens has become more prevalent, especially in sunscreens with a sun protection factor (SPF) greater than 8. In our patient, immediate- and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions were seen to oxybenzone (2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, 2-benzoyl-5-methoxyphenol, benzophenone-3, Eusolex 4360, Escalol 567, EUSORB 228, Spectra-Sorb UV-9, Uvinul M-40) upon conventional patch testing and photopatch testing.

  15. Imaging surface contacts: Power law contact distributions and contact stresses in quartz, calcite, glass and acrylic plastic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieterich, J.H.; Kilgore, B.D.

    1996-01-01

    A procedure has been developed to obtain microscope images of regions of contact between roughened surfaces of transparent materials, while the surfaces are subjected to static loads or undergoing frictional slip. Static loading experiments with quartz, calcite, soda-lime glass and acrylic plastic at normal stresses to 30 MPa yield power law distributions of contact areas from the smallest contacts that can be resolved (3.5 ??m2) up to a limiting size that correlates with the grain size of the abrasive grit used to roughen the surfaces. In each material, increasing normal stress results in a roughly linear increase of the real area of contact. Mechanisms of contact area increase are by growth of existing contacts, coalescence of contacts and appearance of new contacts. Mean contacts stresses are consistent with the indentation strength of each material. Contact size distributions are insensitive to normal stress indicating that the increase of contact area is approximately self-similar. The contact images and contact distributions are modeled using simulations of surfaces with random fractal topographies. The contact process for model fractal surfaces is represented by the simple expedient of removing material at regions where surface irregularities overlap. Synthetic contact images created by this approach reproduce observed characteristics of the contacts and demonstrate that the exponent in the power law distributions depends on the scaling exponent used to generate the surface topography.

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis to cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Park, Michelle E; Zippin, Jonathan H

    2014-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetic products is an increasing concern given the continual creation and introduction of new cosmetics to the public. This article presents an overview of how to evaluate a patient for patch testing, including common areas for cosmetic-induced dermatitis, common cosmetic allergens, and proper management.

  17. Non-contact ECG monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Alexey S.; Erlikh, Vadim V.; Kodkin, Vladimir L.; Keller, Andrei V.; Epishev, Vitaly V.

    2016-03-01

    The research is dedicated to non-contact methods of electrocardiography. The authors describe the routine of experimental procedure and suggest the approach to solving the problems which arise at indirect signal recording. The paper presents the results of experiments conducted by the authors, covers the flow charts of ECG recorders and reviews the drawbacks of filtering methods used in foreign equivalents.

  18. Barrier/Cu contact resistivity

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, J.S.; Nicolet, M.A.; Angyal, M.S.; Lilienfeld, D.; Shacham-Diamand, Y.; Smith, P.M.

    1995-10-17

    The specific contact resistivity of Cu with ({alpha} + {beta})-Ta, TiN, {alpha}-W, and amorphous-Ta{sub 36}Si{sub 14}N{sub 50} barrier films is measured using a novel four-point-probe approach. Geometrically, the test structures consist of colinear sets of W-plugs to act as current and voltage probes that contact the bottom of a planar Cu/barrier/Cu stack. Underlying Al interconnects link the plugs to the current source and voltmeter. The center-to-center distance of the probes ranges from 3 to 200 {micro}m. Using a relation developed by Vu et al., a contact resistivity of roughly 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} {Omega} cm{sup 2} is obtained for all tested barrier/Cu combinations. By reflective-mode small-angle X-ray scattering, the similarity in contact resistivity among the barrier films may be related to interfacial impurities absorbed from the deposition process.

  19. Ohmic contacts to semiconducting diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeidler, James R.; Taylor, M. J.; Zeisse, Carl R.; Hewett, C. A.; Delahoussaye, Paul R.

    1990-10-01

    Work was carried out to improve the electron beam evaporation system in order to achieve better deposited films. The basic system is an ion pumped vacuum chamber, with a three-hearth, single-gun e-beam evaporator. Four improvements were made to the system. The system was thoroughly cleaned and new ion pump elements, an e-gun beam adjust unit, and a more accurate crystal monitor were installed. The system now has a base pressure of 3 X 10(exp -9) Torr, and can easily deposit high-melting-temperature metals such as Ta with an accurately controlled thickness. Improved shadow masks were also fabricated for better alignment and control of corner contacts for electrical transport measurements. Appendices include: A Thermally Activated Solid State Reaction Process for Fabricating Ohmic Contacts to Semiconducting Diamond; Tantalum Ohmic Contacts to Diamond by a Solid State Reaction Process; Metallization of Semiconducting Diamond: Mo, Mo/Au, and Mo/Ni/Au; Specific Contact Resistance Measurements of Ohmic Contracts to Diamond; and Electrical Activation of Boron Implanted into Diamond.

  20. Contact symmetries and Hamiltonian thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Bravetti, A.; Lopez-Monsalvo, C.S.; Nettel, F.

    2015-10-15

    It has been shown that contact geometry is the proper framework underlying classical thermodynamics and that thermodynamic fluctuations are captured by an additional metric structure related to Fisher’s Information Matrix. In this work we analyse several unaddressed aspects about the application of contact and metric geometry to thermodynamics. We consider here the Thermodynamic Phase Space and start by investigating the role of gauge transformations and Legendre symmetries for metric contact manifolds and their significance in thermodynamics. Then we present a novel mathematical characterization of first order phase transitions as equilibrium processes on the Thermodynamic Phase Space for which the Legendre symmetry is broken. Moreover, we use contact Hamiltonian dynamics to represent thermodynamic processes in a way that resembles the classical Hamiltonian formulation of conservative mechanics and we show that the relevant Hamiltonian coincides with the irreversible entropy production along thermodynamic processes. Therefore, we use such property to give a geometric definition of thermodynamically admissible fluctuations according to the Second Law of thermodynamics. Finally, we show that the length of a curve describing a thermodynamic process measures its entropy production.

  1. Electrical contact tool set station

    DOEpatents

    Byers, M.E.

    1988-02-22

    An apparatus is provided for the precise setting to zero of electrically conductive cutting tools used in the machining of work pieces. An electrically conductive cylindrical pin, tapered at one end to a small flat, rests in a vee-shaped channel in a base so that its longitudinal axis is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the machine's spindle. Electronic apparatus is connected between the cylindrical pin and the electrically conductive cutting tool to produce a detectable signal when contact between tool and pin is made. The axes of the machine are set to zero by contact between the cutting tool and the sides, end or top of the cylindrical pin. Upon contact, an electrical circuit is completed, and the detectable signal is produced. The tool can then be set to zero for that axis. Should the tool contact the cylindrical pin with too much force, the cylindrical pin would be harmlessly dislodged from the vee-shaped channel, preventing damage either to the cutting tool or the cylindrical pin. 5 figs.

  2. Interfacial closure of contacting surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieutord, F.; Rauer, C.; Moriceau, H.

    2014-08-01

    Understanding the contact between solid surfaces is a long-standing problem which has a strong impact on the physics of many processes such as adhesion, friction, lubrication and wear. Experimentally, the investigation of solid/solid interfaces remains challenging today, due to the lack of experimental techniques able to provide sub-nanometer scale information on interfaces buried between millimeters of materials. Yet, a strong interest exists improving the modeling of contact mechanics of materials in order to adjust their interface properties (e.g., thermal transport, friction). We show here that the essential features of the residual gap between contacting surfaces can be measured using high energy X-ray synchrotron reflectivity. The presence of this nano-gap is general to the contact of solids. In some special case however, it can be removed when attractive forces take over repulsive contributions, depending on both height and wavelength of asperity distributions (roughness). A criterion for this instability is established in the standard case of van der Waals attractive forces and elastic asperity compression repulsive forces (Hertz model). This collapse instability is confirmed experimentally in the case of silicon direct bonding, using high-energy X-ray synchrotron reflectivity and adhesion energy measurements. The possibility to achieve fully closed interfaces at room temperature opens interesting perspectives to build stronger assemblies with smaller thermal budgets.

  3. [Allergic contact eczema to ninhydrin].

    PubMed

    Schlacke, K H; Fuchs, T

    1989-01-01

    Use of a surgical marking pen to indicate test areas on the skin during epicutaneous evaluation caused eczema in three female patients undergoing patch testing. Close scrutiny of the individual components of this surgical marking pen revealed contact dermatitis to ninhydrine, a substance whose allergenic potential has hardly been noted in the relevant literature.

  4. Computing Contact Stresses In Gear Teeth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, Fred B.; Somprakit, Paisan; Huston, Ronald L.

    1995-01-01

    Improved method of computing contact stresses in gear teeth accounts for complicating effects like those of static and sliding friction. Provides iterative procedure for determination of contact region and nodal contact forces along with contact stresses. Method based on equations and computational procedure incorporating these effects routinely.

  5. Beyond contact: intergroup contact in the context of power relations.

    PubMed

    Saguy, Tamar; Dovidio, John F; Pratto, Felicia

    2008-03-01

    This work investigated how group-based power affects the motivations and preferences that members of advantaged and disadvantaged groups bring to situations of contact. To measure the preferred content of interactions, desires to address particular topics in intergroup contact were assessed for both experimental groups (Study 1) and real groups (Study 2). As predicted, across both studies, the desire to talk about power was greater among members of disadvantaged than of advantaged groups. This difference was mediated by motivation for change in group-based power. Study 2 further demonstrated that more highly identified members of disadvantaged groups wanted to talk about power more. Members of advantaged groups generally preferred to talk about commonalities between the groups more than about group-based power, and this desire was greater with higher levels of identification. However, perceiving that their group's advantage was illegitimate increased the desire of advantaged group members to address power in intergroup interactions.

  6. Improved Electrical Contact For Dowhhole Drilling Networks

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Dahlgren, Scott; Fox, Joe; Sneddon, Cameron

    2005-08-16

    An electrical contact system for transmitting information across tool joints while minimizing signal reflections that occur at the tool joints includes a first electrical contact comprising an annular resilient material. An annular conductor is embedded within the annular resilient material and has a surface exposed from the annular resilient material. A second electrical contact is provided that is substantially equal to the first electrical contact. Likewise, the second electrical contact has an annular resilient material and an annular conductor. The two electrical contacts configured to contact one another such that the annular conductors of each come into physical contact. The annular resilient materials of each electrical contact each have dielectric characteristics and dimensions that are adjusted to provide desired impedance to the electrical contacts.

  7. Chain Of Test Contacts For Integrated Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieneweg, Udo

    1989-01-01

    Test structure forms chain of "cross" contacts fabricated together with large-scale integrated circuits. If necessary, number of such chains incorporated at suitable locations in integrated-circuit wafer for determination of fabrication yield of contacts. In new structure, resistances of individual contacts determined: In addition to making it possible to identify local defects, enables generation of statistical distributions of contact resistances for prediction of "parametric" contact yield of fabrication process.

  8. PREFACE: Non-contact AFM Non-contact AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giessibl, Franz J.; Morita, Seizo

    2012-02-01

    This special issue is focussed on high resolution non-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM). Non-contact atomic force microscopy was established approximately 15 years ago as a tool to image conducting and insulating surfaces with atomic resolution. Since 1998, an annual international conference has taken place, and although the proceedings of these conferences are a useful source of information, several key developments warrant devoting a special issue to this subject. In the theoretic field, the possibility of supplementing established techniques such as scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and Kelvin probe microscopy with atomically resolved force micrsoscopy poses many challenges in the calculation of contrast and contrast reversal. The surface science of insulators, self-assembled monolayers and adsorbates on insulators is a fruitful field for the application of non-contact AFM: several articles in this issue are devoted to these subjects. Atomic imaging and manipulation have been pioneered using STM, but because AFM allows the measurement of forces, AFM has had a profound impact in this field as well. Three-dimensional force spectroscopy has allowed many important insights into surface science. In this issue a combined 3D tunneling and force microscopy is introduced. Non-contact AFM typically uses frequency modulation to measure force gradients and was initially used mainly in a vacuum. As can be seen in this issue, frequency modulation is now also used in ambient conditions, allowing better spatial and force resolution. We thank all of the contributors for their time and efforts in making this special issue possible. We are also very grateful to the staff of IOP Publishing for handling the administrative aspects and for steering the refereeing process. Non-contact AFM contents Relation between the chemical force and the tunnelling current in atomic point contacts: a simple model Pavel Jelínek, Martin Ondrácek and Fernando Flores Theoretical simulation of

  9. Sensing with Superconducting Point Contacts

    PubMed Central

    Nurbawono, Argo; Zhang, Chun

    2012-01-01

    Superconducting point contacts have been used for measuring magnetic polarizations, identifying magnetic impurities, electronic structures, and even the vibrational modes of small molecules. Due to intrinsically small energy scale in the subgap structures of the supercurrent determined by the size of the superconducting energy gap, superconductors provide ultrahigh sensitivities for high resolution spectroscopies. The so-called Andreev reflection process between normal metal and superconductor carries complex and rich information which can be utilized as powerful sensor when fully exploited. In this review, we would discuss recent experimental and theoretical developments in the supercurrent transport through superconducting point contacts and their relevance to sensing applications, and we would highlight their current issues and potentials. A true utilization of the method based on Andreev reflection analysis opens up possibilities for a new class of ultrasensitive sensors. PMID:22778630

  10. Remedial Action Contacts Directory - 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This document, which was prepared for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration (ER), is a directory of 2628 individuals interested or involved in environmental restoration and/or remedial actions at radioactively contaminated sites. This directory contains a list of mailing addresses and phone numbers of DOE operations, area, site, project, and contractor offices; an index of DOE operations, area, site, project, and contractor office sorted by state; a list of individuals, presented by last name, facsimile number, and e-mail address; an index of affiliations presented alphabetically, with individual contacts appearing below each affiliation name; and an index of foreign contacta sorted by country and affiliation. This document was generated from the Remedial Action Contacts Database, which is maintained by the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC).

  11. Sensing with superconducting point contacts.

    PubMed

    Nurbawono, Argo; Zhang, Chun

    2012-01-01

    Superconducting point contacts have been used for measuring magnetic polarizations, identifying magnetic impurities, electronic structures, and even the vibrational modes of small molecules. Due to intrinsically small energy scale in the subgap structures of the supercurrent determined by the size of the superconducting energy gap, superconductors provide ultrahigh sensitivities for high resolution spectroscopies. The so-called Andreev reflection process between normal metal and superconductor carries complex and rich information which can be utilized as powerful sensor when fully exploited. In this review, we would discuss recent experimental and theoretical developments in the supercurrent transport through superconducting point contacts and their relevance to sensing applications, and we would highlight their current issues and potentials. A true utilization of the method based on Andreev reflection analysis opens up possibilities for a new class of ultrasensitive sensors.

  12. Contact charge-transfer lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Dharamsi, A.N.; Tulip, J.

    1981-07-01

    A mechanism for sustaining population inversions in contact charge-transfer complexes in which the ground electronic state is not bound is described. The mechanism relies on picosecond radiationless depletion of the lower laser state. This generates an inversion even when the ground-state potential curve, as plotted against the donor-acceptor distance, is not repulsive vertically below the excited state minimum. Contact charge-transfer lasers would offer high gain, high-energy density, and tunable sources of coherent radiation in the uv and visible. A method for pumping such a laser is examined and applied to the pyrrole-oxygen complex. A rate equation analysis is done and estimates for gain and energy density are presented.

  13. Contact microscopy with synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Panessa-Warren, B.J.

    1985-10-01

    Soft x-ray contact microscopy with synchrotron radiation offers the biologist and especially the microscopist, a way to morphologically study specimens that could not be imaged by conventional TEM, STEM or SEM methods (i.e. hydrated samples, samples easily damaged by an electron beam, electron dense samples, thick specimens, unstained low contrast specimens) at spatial resolutions approaching those of the TEM, with the additional possibility to obtain compositional (elemental) information about the sample as well. Although flash x-ray sources offer faster exposure times, synchrotron radiation provides a highly collimated, intense radiation that can be tuned to select specific discrete ranges of x-ray wavelengths or specific individual wavelengths which optimize imaging or microanalysis of a specific sample. This paper presents an overview of the applications of x-ray contact microscopy to biological research and some current research results using monochromatic synchrotron radiation to image biological samples. 24 refs., 10 figs.

  14. Contact lenses for infant aphakia.

    PubMed Central

    Amaya, L G; Speedwell, L; Taylor, D

    1990-01-01

    We prospectively studied for three years the optical correction by contact lenses of 83 aphakic infants (141 eyes) who generally also had systemic and other ocular anomalies: 85% of the patients tolerated the lens wear for the whole study period. Complications occurred in 46 eyes and led to cessation of lens wear in two cases. Ten patients abandoned the lenses for other reasons. Thirty-four eyes needed subsequent intraocular surgery, mostly minor, and nine patients had strabismus surgery. Contact lenses are a versatile, safe, successful, and cost effective treatment for aphakia in infancy against which, before their widespread introduction for primary optical correction of infant aphakia, other methods of aphakic treatment need to be compared. PMID:2322512

  15. Contact dermatitis caused by preservatives.

    PubMed

    Yim, Elizabeth; Baquerizo Nole, Katherine L; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Preservatives are biocidal chemicals added to food, cosmetics, and industrial products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. They are usually nontoxic and inexpensive and have a long shelf life. Unfortunately, they commonly cause contact dermatitis. This article reviews the most important classes of preservatives physicians are most likely to encounter in their daily practice, specifically isothiazolinones, formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, and parabens. For each preservative mentioned, the prevalence of sensitization, clinical presentation of contact dermatitis, patch testing concentrations, cross reactions, and related legislation will be discussed. Mandatory labeling of preservatives is required in some countries, but not required in others. Until policies are made, physicians and patients must be proactive in identifying potential sensitizers and removing their use. We hope that this article will serve as a guide for policy makers in creating legislation and future regulations on the use and concentration of certain preservatives in cosmetics and industrial products.

  16. Heat transport through atomic contacts.

    PubMed

    Mosso, Nico; Drechsler, Ute; Menges, Fabian; Nirmalraj, Peter; Karg, Siegfried; Riel, Heike; Gotsmann, Bernd

    2017-02-06

    Heat transport and dissipation at the nanoscale severely limit the scaling of high-performance electronic devices and circuits. Metallic atomic junctions serve as model systems to probe electrical and thermal transport down to the atomic level as well as quantum effects that occur in one-dimensional (1D) systems. Whereas charge transport in atomic junctions has been studied intensively in the past two decades, heat transport remains poorly characterized because it requires the combination of a high sensitivity to small heat fluxes and the formation of stable atomic contacts. Here we report heat-transfer measurements through atomic junctions and analyse the thermal conductance of single-atom gold contacts at room temperature. Simultaneous measurements of charge and heat transport reveal the proportionality of electrical and thermal conductance, quantized with the respective conductance quanta. This constitutes a verification of the Wiedemann-Franz law at the atomic scale.

  17. Protein contact dermatitis - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Barata, Ana Rita Rodrigues; Conde-Salazar, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Protein contact dermatitis is a skin condition not well known and underdiagnosed by dermatologists, resulting from an IgE-mediated allergic reaction. Clinically it presents as a chronic hand and/or forearms eczema of occupational origin, especially in professionals who work as food handlers. Epicutaneous tests are negative, and to diagnose this condition it is necessary to perform immediate-type allergy tests. The most sensitive and practical is the prick-by-prick test with food that the patient refers to cause intense itching after immediate skin contact. Treatment is symptomatic, and it is mandatory to avoid the responsible allergen, wearing plastic gloves and even sometimes leaving the workplace for symptom resolution. PMID:24068135

  18. Elbow Dislocations in Contact Sports.

    PubMed

    Morris, Mark S; Ozer, Kagan

    2017-02-01

    Elbow dislocations are more common in athletes than in the general population. Simple elbow dislocations should be managed with early range of motion and early return to sport, even with high-level contact athletes. Patients with instability on examination or with complex elbow dislocations may require surgical intervention. Overall, the outcomes after simple elbow dislocations are excellent and athletes should be able to return to play without significant limitations.

  19. Forces between membranes approaching contact.

    PubMed

    Parsegian, V A

    1981-01-01

    Cell stickiness to surfaces is recognized as an important concern in tests of red cell filterability. Many forces need to be considered in order to think about the sources of cell sticking. As cell membranes are brought together they experience successively the domination of several classes of forces van der Waals attraction, electrostatic repulsion, hydration repulsion, and specific charge-charge interactions at contact. The behaviour of each of these forces is described in the context of red cell adhesion.

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis to Alstroemeria.

    PubMed

    Marks, J G

    1988-06-01

    Two female florists developed dermatitis of the fingertips. Patch testing revealed allergic contact dermatitis to the flower, Alstroemeria, used in floral arrangements. They had positive patch tests to portions of Alstroemeria, and to tuliposide A, the allergen in this plant. Vinyl gloves were not helpful since tuliposide A readily penetrates through these gloves. Nitrile gloves may be protective since they prevented positive patch test to tuliposide A.

  1. Contact | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    For more information about the Office of Cancer Genomics, please contact: Office of Cancer Genomics National Cancer Institute 31 Center Drive, 10A07 Bethesda, Maryland 20892-2580 Phone: (301) 451-8027 Fax: (301) 480-4368 Email: ocg@mail.nih.gov *Please note that this site will not function properly in Internet Explorer unless you completely turn off the Compatibility View*

  2. Contact allergy to cocamidopropyl betaine.

    PubMed

    de Groot, A C; van der Walle, H B; Weyland, J W

    1995-12-01

    Cocamidopropyl betaine is an amphoteric surfactant used increasingly in cosmetic products. We describe 20 cases of cosmetic allergy to cocamidopropyl betaine; all were caused by shampoo or shower gel. 8 patients were hairdressers, who had occupational allergic contact dermatitis from shampoos. We recommend patch testing cocamidopropyl betaine 1% aq. routinely in hairdressers with dermatitis of the hands, and in all patients suspected of suffering from cosmetic allergy.

  3. Immunotherapy of allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Spiewak, Radoslaw

    2011-08-01

    The term 'immunotherapy' refers to treating diseases by inducing, enhancing or suppressing immune responses. As allergy is an excessive, detrimental immune reaction to otherwise harmless environmental substances, immunotherapy of allergic disease is aimed at the induction of tolerance toward sensitizing antigens. This article focuses on the historical developments, present state and future outlook for immunotherapy with haptens as a therapeutic modality for allergic contact dermatitis. Inspired by the effectiveness of immunotherapy in respiratory allergies, attempts were undertaken at curing allergic contact dermatitis by means of controlled administration of the sensitizing haptens. Animal and human experiments confirmed that tolerance to haptens can be induced most effectively when the induction of tolerance precedes attempted sensitization. In real life, however, therapy is sought by people who are already sensitized and an effective reversal of hypersensitivity seems more difficult to achieve. Decades of research on Rhus hypersensitivity led to a conclusion that immunotherapy can suppress Rhus dermatitis, however, only to a limited degree, for a short period of time, and at a high risk of side effects, which makes this method therapeutically unprofitable. Methodological problems with most available studies of immunotherapy of contact allergy to nickel make any definite conclusions impossible at this stage.

  4. Nickel contact hypersensitivity in children.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, Nanette B; Licht, Jonah; Friedler, Suzanne; Sethi, Shika; Laude, Teresita A

    2002-01-01

    Nickel allergic contact dermatitis is the most prevalent allergy in North America, with an incidence of 14.3%. It is on the rise from 10 years ago, when the incidence was 10%. This has been presumed to represent an increased exposure to nickel in the environment-especially in costume jewelry and belt buckles. We examined a group of 30 pediatric patients who had either a personal history of umbilical or wrist dermatitis, or a family history of nickel allergic contact dermatitis. All of these patients had a positive patch test to nickel sulfate 5%. Moreover, 50% of patients had an id reaction; all of these patients had positive patch tests that were papular in nature, similar to their papular id reaction. We posit that the presence of a positive family history may be a positive predictor of nickel allergic contact dermatitis, requiring nickel avoidance, especially in atopic children. Based on the high level of positive reactions in patients with umbilical dermatitis and an id reaction, patch testing to nickel in these patients is most likely to yield a useful result. Knowledge of reactivity to nickel would then allow parents and patients to initiate nickel avoidance earlier in life.

  5. Cryptosporidiosis associated with animal contacts.

    PubMed

    Stantic-Pavlinic, Mirjana; Xiao, Lihua; Glaberman, Scott; Lal, Altaf A; Orazen, Toni; Rataj-Verglez, Aleksandra; Logar, Jernej; Berce, Ingrid

    2003-02-28

    Transmission of Cryptosporidium sp. within the general public was studied. We were looking for a possible risk of infection associated with animal contacts. Investigation of the animal contacts of affected individuals led to the formulation of the hypothesis that animals are a source of cryptosporidiosis. The research was done in the Region of Ljubljana, an area with 587,000 inhabitants during a period of three years. Stool specimens of 338 persons with acute enteric diseases were positive for Cryptosporidium sp. Diagnosis was done with an immunofluorescence test and modified Ziel-Neelsen staining. Processing of statistical data was done with the medical software application EPI INFO 6. According to our questionnaire, direct contact with animals occurred in 49 of the 338 cases of cryptosporidiosis, and was more frequently registered in males (Odds ratio = 1.96). Subgenotyping analysis revealed the presence of two subgenotypes of Cryptosporidium parvum bovine (GPB and GPC) in humans. These data indicate that genetic heterogeneity in C. parvum bovine genotype exists in a localized area and that farm animals can be a source of infection.

  6. Direct-Write Contacts: Metallization and Contact Formation; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    van Hest, M. F. A. M.; Curtis, C. J.; Miedaner, A.; Pasquarelli, R. M.; Kaydonova, T.; Hersh, P.; Ginley, D. S.

    2008-05-01

    Using direct-write approaches in photovoltaics for metallization and contact formation can significantly reduce the cost per watt of producing photovoltaic devices. Inks have been developed for various materials, such as Ag, Cu, Ni and Al, which can be used to inkjet print metallizations for various kinds of photovoltaic devices. Use of these inks results in metallization with resistivities close to those of bulk materials. By means of inkjet printing a metallization grid can be printed with better resolution, i.e. smaller lines, than screen-printing. Also inks have been developed to deposit transparent conductive oxide films by means of ultrasonic spraying.

  7. Specific Contact Resistance Measurements of Ohmic Contacts to Diamond

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    AD-A262 818 a.vi tm te (11o ckiaa AGENCY USE CNLY re.j. b"IAI 2 REPORT DATS 3 i4 ý’ * : ..... .. February 1993 l , qf-r 4 T71 a AND SUBT’LE. SPECIFIC...rectify rnq and :1 i diamondi tl- ’o *been reported in the- literature 1-I paper measurements, of the specitic conatact inccc o.f ohmic ln tacts to...conducting layer. The contact resistance in these struc- tures is analyzed using the transmission line model [15. The primary drawback to

  8. Solar cell contact formation using laser ablation

    DOEpatents

    Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David D.; Cousins, Peter John

    2015-07-21

    The formation of solar cell contacts using a laser is described. A method of fabricating a back-contact solar cell includes forming a poly-crystalline material layer above a single-crystalline substrate. The method also includes forming a dielectric material stack above the poly-crystalline material layer. The method also includes forming, by laser ablation, a plurality of contacts holes in the dielectric material stack, each of the contact holes exposing a portion of the poly-crystalline material layer; and forming conductive contacts in the plurality of contact holes.

  9. Solar cell contact formation using laser ablation

    DOEpatents

    Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David D.; Cousins, Peter John

    2014-07-22

    The formation of solar cell contacts using a laser is described. A method of fabricating a back-contact solar cell includes forming a poly-crystalline material layer above a single-crystalline substrate. The method also includes forming a dielectric material stack above the poly-crystalline material layer. The method also includes forming, by laser ablation, a plurality of contacts holes in the dielectric material stack, each of the contact holes exposing a portion of the poly-crystalline materiat layer; and forming conductive contacts in the plurality of contact holes.

  10. Solar cell contact formation using laser ablation

    DOEpatents

    Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David; Cousins, Peter

    2012-12-04

    The formation of solar cell contacts using a laser is described. A method of fabricating a back-contact solar cell includes forming a poly-crystalline material layer above a single-crystalline substrate. The method also includes forming a dielectric material stack above the poly-crystalline material layer. The method also includes forming, by laser ablation, a plurality of contacts holes in the dielectric material stack, each of the contact holes exposing a portion of the poly-crystalline material layer; and forming conductive contacts in the plurality of contact holes.

  11. Towards an optimal contact metal for CNTFETs.

    PubMed

    Fediai, Artem; Ryndyk, Dmitry A; Seifert, Gotthard; Mothes, Sven; Claus, Martin; Schröter, Michael; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2016-05-21

    Downscaling of the contact length Lc of a side-contacted carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNTFET) is challenging because of the rapidly increasing contact resistance as Lc falls below 20-50 nm. If in agreement with existing experimental results, theoretical work might answer the question, which metals yield the lowest CNT-metal contact resistance and what physical mechanisms govern the geometry dependence of the contact resistance. However, at the scale of 10 nm, parameter-free models of electron transport become computationally prohibitively expensive. In our work we used a dedicated combination of the Green function formalism and density functional theory to perform an overall ab initio simulation of extended CNT-metal contacts of an arbitrary length (including infinite), a previously not achievable level of simulations. We provide a systematic and comprehensive discussion of metal-CNT contact properties as a function of the metal type and the contact length. We have found and been able to explain very uncommon relations between chemical, physical and electrical properties observed in CNT-metal contacts. The calculated electrical characteristics are in reasonable quantitative agreement and exhibit similar trends as the latest experimental data in terms of: (i) contact resistance for Lc = ∞, (ii) scaling of contact resistance Rc(Lc); (iii) metal-defined polarity of a CNTFET. Our results can guide technology development and contact material selection for downscaling the length of side-contacts below 10 nm.

  12. Some Bubble and Contact Problems,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-21

    the two points s, and I - st, with s1 to be found in the range 0< s1 < 2. Then (3.1 )holds only in the intervalsO - s <s, and I -sI < s < 1, while...0, 0(si) = r-/2, 0() = 0, J cos (s) ds= 0, 0and 0, continuous at s,. (3.4) These six conditions suffice to determine sl, R and the two integration...of the studies reported in the two preceding sections, I believed that it should be possible to obtain steeper waves by enforcing contact of adjacent

  13. Bibliometrics, dermatology and contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Derek R

    2008-09-01

    Although the fields of bibliometrics and citation analysis have existed for many years, relatively few studies have specifically focused on the dermatological literature. This article reviews citation-based research in the dermatology journals, with a particular interest in manuscripts that have included Contact Dermatitis as part of their analysis. Overall, it can be seen that the rise of bibliometrics during the mid-20th century and its subsequent application to dermatology has provided an interesting insight into the progression of research within our discipline. Further investigation of citation trends and top-cited papers in skin research periodicals would certainly help complement the current body of knowledge.

  14. Seeking Contact: Issues to Consider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaud, M.

    Seeking contact with extraterrestrial intelligence is a species enterprise that should be conducted with our shared interests in mind. We must reflect on the full range of possible outcomes; we cannot opt out of the potential consequences of actions taken by small numbers of our fellow humans. Until we have empirical evidence about alien technological civilizations, we can reason about them only by analogy with our own history and behaviour. Given that record, some degree of prudence is in order. To conduct this debate more rationally, we must free our thinking of excessively binary stereotypes.

  15. Contact dermatitis: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Ronni; Orion, Edith; Ruocco, Eleonora; Baroni, Adone; Ruocco, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    The history of contact dermatitis (CD) is inseparable from the history of the patch test, and the patch test is inseparable from the pioneer in the field, Josef Jadassohn (1860-1936). Despite the fact that we have been diagnosing, treating, and investigating the condition for more than 100 years, there are still many unsolved questions and controversies, which show no signs of coming to an end in the foreseeable future. This contribution reviews and highlights some of the disagreements and discrepancies associated with CD. For example: • What is the real sensitizer in balsam of Peru, one of the most common allergens, and what, if any, is the value of a low-balsam diet? • Is benzalkonium chloride, which has well-known and undisputed irritant properties, a contact allergen as well? • Is cocamidopropyl betaine (CABP) a common contact allergen and what is the actual sensitizer in CABP allergy the molecule itself, or impurities, or intermediaries in its synthesis? • How can the significant differences in the prevalence of sensitization of formaldehyde (FA, a common cause of contact allergy) between the United States (8%-9%) and Europe (2%-3%) be explained? • What is the relationship between formaldehyde releasers (FRs) allergy and an FA allergy? Should we recommend that FA-allergic patients also avoid FRs, and, if so, to what extent? • What is the true frequency of lanolin allergy? This issue remains enigmatic despite the expenditure of thousands of dollars and the innumerable hours spent investigating this subject. • What is the basis behind the so-called "lanolin paradox"? This label was coined in 1996 and is still a matter of controversy. • Is there such a thing as systemic CD from nickel, and, if so, to what extent? Is there a cross-reactivity or concomitant sensitization between nickel and cobalt?These are some of the controversial problems discussed. We have selected the ones that we consider to be of special interest and importance to the

  16. Frictionless contact of aircraft tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Kyun O.; Tanner, John A.; Noor, Ahmed K.

    1989-01-01

    A computational procedure for the solution of frictionless contact problems of spacecraft tires was developed using a two-dimensional laminated anisotropic shell theory incorporating the effects of variations in material and geometric parameters, transverse shear deformation, and geometric nonlinearities to model the nose-gear tire of a space shuttle. Numerical results are presented for the case when the nose-gear tire is subjected to inflation pressure and pressed against a rigid pavement. The results are compared with experimental results obtained at NASA Langley, demonstrating a high accuracy of the model and the effectiveness of the computational procedure.

  17. Residual contact restraints in cryogenics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cretegny, J. F.; Demonicault, J. M.

    The use of residual stress measurements to evaluate the state of cryogenic turbomachines, whose surfaces are worn by the working conductions in dry contact, is addressed. Their contribution to the understanding of the reasons of possible ruptures is considered. It is stated that residual stress measurements should be used as a complementary tool rather than as input data for models. It is shown, thanks to two examples concerning the ball bearings and splines of the liquid hydrogen turbopump of the Vulcain engine, what can be expected from such techniques. Total exploitation of the results has still to be done, but preliminary results are quite encouraging.

  18. Allergic contact dermatitis to chloroxylenol.

    PubMed

    Berthelot, Cindy; Zirwas, Matthew J

    2006-09-01

    Chloroxylenol, also known as p-chloro-m-xylenol (PCMX), is a compound that has been used as a preservative in cosmetics and as an active agent in antimicrobial soaps. We present two patients with allergic contact dermatitis from PCMX, confirmed by positive (+++) patch-test reactions at 48 and 72 hours, identification of PCMX in a soap and in a hand cream used by the patients, and improvement following withdrawal of the incriminating products. The mechanism of action, structure, antimicrobial activity, and dangers of PCMX are reviewed.

  19. Thermal Conductances Of Metal Contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salerno, L. J.; Kittel, P.; Scherkenbach, F. E.; Spivak, A. L.

    1988-01-01

    Report presents results of measurements of thermal conductances of aluminum and stainless-steel contacts at temperatures from 1.6 to 6.0 K. Measurement apparatus includes gearmotor assembly connected to rocker arm by music wire to load sample pair with forces up to 670 N. Heater placed above upper sample. Germanium resistance thermometers in upper and lower samples measured temperature difference across interface over range of heater powers from 0.1 to 10.0 mW. The thermal conductance calculated from temperature difference. Measurements provide data for prediction of thermal conductances of bolted joints in cryogenic infrared instruments.

  20. Contact stresses calculated for miniature slip rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albright, F. G.; Domerest, K. E.; Horton, J. C.

    1965-01-01

    Using mathematical formulations to plot the graphs of the contact preload versus the Hertzian load, calculations of unit loading of the preloaded brushes on slip rings can be made. This optimizes the design of contact brushes and miniature slip rings.

  1. Clean Cities Program Contacts (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet provides contact information for program staff of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program, as well as contact information for the nearly 100 local Clean Cities coalitions across the country.

  2. Ensuring Safe Use of Contact Lens Solution

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Ensuring Safe Use of Contact Lens Solution Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... back to top Dos and Don'ts for Contact Lens Wearers DO: Always wash your hands before ...

  3. Inferring Epidemic Contact Structure from Phylogenetic Trees

    PubMed Central

    Leventhal, Gabriel E.; Kouyos, Roger; Stadler, Tanja; von Wyl, Viktor; Yerly, Sabine; Böni, Jürg; Cellerai, Cristina; Klimkait, Thomas; Günthard, Huldrych F.; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Contact structure is believed to have a large impact on epidemic spreading and consequently using networks to model such contact structure continues to gain interest in epidemiology. However, detailed knowledge of the exact contact structure underlying real epidemics is limited. Here we address the question whether the structure of the contact network leaves a detectable genetic fingerprint in the pathogen population. To this end we compare phylogenies generated by disease outbreaks in simulated populations with different types of contact networks. We find that the shape of these phylogenies strongly depends on contact structure. In particular, measures of tree imbalance allow us to quantify to what extent the contact structure underlying an epidemic deviates from a null model contact network and illustrate this in the case of random mixing. Using a phylogeny from the Swiss HIV epidemic, we show that this epidemic has a significantly more unbalanced tree than would be expected from random mixing. PMID:22412361

  4. Piecing Together the Patchwork of Contact Sites.

    PubMed

    Gatta, Alberto T; Levine, Tim P

    2017-03-01

    Contact sites are places where two organelles join together to carry out a shared activity requiring nonvesicular communication. A large number of contact sites have been discovered, and almost any two organelles can contact each other. General rules about contacts include constraints on bridging proteins, with only a minority of bridges physically creating contacts by acting as 'tethers'. The downstream effects of contacts include changing the physical behaviour of organelles, and also forming biochemically heterogeneous subdomains. However, some functions typically localized to contact sites, such as lipid transfer, have no absolute requirement to be situated there. Therefore, the key aspect of contacts is the directness of communication, which allows metabolic channelling and collective regulation.

  5. Inferring epidemic contact structure from phylogenetic trees.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Gabriel E; Kouyos, Roger; Stadler, Tanja; Wyl, Viktor von; Yerly, Sabine; Böni, Jürg; Cellerai, Cristina; Klimkait, Thomas; Günthard, Huldrych F; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Contact structure is believed to have a large impact on epidemic spreading and consequently using networks to model such contact structure continues to gain interest in epidemiology. However, detailed knowledge of the exact contact structure underlying real epidemics is limited. Here we address the question whether the structure of the contact network leaves a detectable genetic fingerprint in the pathogen population. To this end we compare phylogenies generated by disease outbreaks in simulated populations with different types of contact networks. We find that the shape of these phylogenies strongly depends on contact structure. In particular, measures of tree imbalance allow us to quantify to what extent the contact structure underlying an epidemic deviates from a null model contact network and illustrate this in the case of random mixing. Using a phylogeny from the Swiss HIV epidemic, we show that this epidemic has a significantly more unbalanced tree than would be expected from random mixing.

  6. High efficiency wraparound contact solar cells /HEWACS/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillanders, M.; Opjorden, R.

    1980-01-01

    A cell technology, producing high efficiency wrap-around contact solar cells (HEWACS), with both electrical contacts on the back and AMO conversion efficiencies of almost 15%, is presented. A flow chart indicating the baseline process sequence along with the process changes is given. Tests checking for coating delamination and contact integrity, those measuring contact strength, and thermal cycle tests, successfully demonstrated that this cell technology is ready to be moved to the pilot production stage.

  7. Microscale hydrodynamics near moving contact lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garoff, Stephen; Chen, Q.; Rame, Enrique; Willson, K. R.

    1994-01-01

    The hydrodynamics governing the fluid motions on a microscopic scale near moving contact lines are different from those governing motion far from the contact line. We explore these unique hydrodynamics by detailed measurement of the shape of a fluid meniscus very close to a moving contact line. The validity of present models of the hydrodynamics near moving contact lines as well as the dynamic wetting characteristics of a family of polymer liquids are discussed.

  8. Techniques for Solution- Assisted Optical Contacting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeVine, Glenn; Ware, Brent; Wuchenich, Danielle M.; Spero, Robert E.; Klipstein, William M.; McKenzie, Kirk

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses a solution-assisted contacting technique for optical contacting. An optic of surface flatness Lambda/20 was successfully contacted with one of moderate surface quality, or Lambda/4. Optics used were both ultra-low expansion (ULE) glass (Lambda/4 and Lambda/20) and fused silica (Lambda/20). A stainless steel template of the intended interferometer layout was designed and constructed with three contact points per optic. The contact points were all on a common side of the template. The entire contacting jig was tilted at about 30 . Thus, when the isopropanol was applied, each optic slid due to gravity, resting on the contact points. All of the contacting was performed in a relatively dusty laboratory. A number of successful contacts were achieved where up to two or three visible pieces of dust could be seen. These were clearly visible due to refraction patterns between the optic and bench. On a number of optics, the final step of dropping isopropyl between the surfaces was repeated until a successful contact was achieved. The new procedures realized in this work represent a simplification for optical contacting in the laboratory. They will both save time and money spent during the contacting process, and research and development phases. The techniques outlined are suitable for laboratory experiments, research, and initial development stages.

  9. Sinterless Formation Of Contacts On Indium Phosphide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weizer, Victor G.; Fatemi, Navid S.

    1995-01-01

    Improved technique makes it possible to form low-resistivity {nearly equal to 10(Sup-6) ohm cm(Sup2)} electrical contacts on indium phosphide semiconductor devices without damaging devices. Layer of AgP2 40 Angstrom thick deposited on InP before depositing metal contact. AgP2 interlayer sharply reduces contact resistance, without need for sintering.

  10. 7 CFR 1737.10 - Initial contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Initial contact. 1737.10 Section 1737.10 Agriculture... Preapplication Stage § 1737.10 Initial contact. Initial loan applicants seeking assistance should write the Rural.... Existing borrowers initiate the contact directly with their assigned field representative....

  11. 7 CFR 1737.10 - Initial contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Initial contact. 1737.10 Section 1737.10 Agriculture... Preapplication Stage § 1737.10 Initial contact. Initial loan applicants seeking assistance should write the Rural.... Existing borrowers initiate the contact directly with their assigned field representative....

  12. 7 CFR 1737.10 - Initial contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Initial contact. 1737.10 Section 1737.10 Agriculture... Preapplication Stage § 1737.10 Initial contact. Initial loan applicants seeking assistance should write the Rural.... Existing borrowers initiate the contact directly with their assigned field representative....

  13. 7 CFR 1710.400 - Initial contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Initial contact. 1710.400 Section 1710.400... Requirements and Procedures for Loans § 1710.400 Initial contact. (a) Loan applicants that do not have... outstanding loans should contact their assigned RUS general field representative (GFR) or, in the case of...

  14. 7 CFR 1710.400 - Initial contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Initial contact. 1710.400 Section 1710.400... Requirements and Procedures for Loans § 1710.400 Initial contact. (a) Loan applicants that do not have... outstanding loans should contact their assigned RUS general field representative (GFR) or, in the case of...

  15. 7 CFR 1710.400 - Initial contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Initial contact. 1710.400 Section 1710.400... Requirements and Procedures for Loans § 1710.400 Initial contact. (a) Loan applicants that do not have... outstanding loans should contact their assigned RUS general field representative (GFR) or, in the case of...

  16. 7 CFR 1737.10 - Initial contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Initial contact. 1737.10 Section 1737.10 Agriculture... Preapplication Stage § 1737.10 Initial contact. Initial loan applicants seeking assistance should write the Rural.... Existing borrowers initiate the contact directly with their assigned field representative....

  17. 7 CFR 1737.10 - Initial contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Initial contact. 1737.10 Section 1737.10 Agriculture... Preapplication Stage § 1737.10 Initial contact. Initial loan applicants seeking assistance should write the Rural.... Existing borrowers initiate the contact directly with their assigned field representative....

  18. 7 CFR 1710.400 - Initial contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Initial contact. 1710.400 Section 1710.400... Requirements and Procedures for Loans § 1710.400 Initial contact. (a) Loan applicants that do not have... outstanding loans should contact their assigned RUS general field representative (GFR) or, in the case of...

  19. 7 CFR 1710.400 - Initial contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Initial contact. 1710.400 Section 1710.400... Requirements and Procedures for Loans § 1710.400 Initial contact. (a) Loan applicants that do not have... outstanding loans should contact their assigned RUS general field representative (GFR) or, in the case of...

  20. Substantially oxygen-free contact tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, James F. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A device for arc welding is provided in which a continuously-fed electrode wire is in electrical contact with a contact tube. The contact tube is improved by using a substantially oxygen-free conductive alloy in order to reduce the amount of electrical erosion.

  1. Substantially Oxygen-Free Contact Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, James F. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A device for arc welding is provided in which a continuously-fed electrode wire is in electrical contact with a contact tube. The contact tube is improved by using a substantially oxygen-free conductive alloy in order to reduce the amount of electrical erosion.

  2. Spectral flow dissipation in superconducting point contacts.

    SciTech Connect

    Kopnin, N. B.; Vinokur, V. M.; Materials Science Division; Helsinki Univ. of Technology; L. D. Landau Inst. for Theoretical Physics

    2003-03-15

    We find that multiple Andreev reflections mediating the transport in superconducting point contacts are strongly affected by a small amount of impurities in the area of the contact. We also argue that the model based on Zener transitions within independent conducting channels is not suitable for kinetic processes in multichannel contacts.

  3. [Contact allergies in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Mahler, V

    2015-09-01

    The percentage of seniors (> 65 years of age) in the general population continues to rise. Their sensitization profile may be influenced by lifelong work-related and nonwork-related exposures and comorbidities requiring local or systemic treatment. Recent analysis of the IVDK (Information Network of Departments of Dermatology) cohort concerning the most frequently recognized contact allergens in the age group above 65 (2009-2013: N = 14,841) revealed significant differences compared to the age group up to 65 years of age. The top 10 contact allergens recognized in individuals older than 65 years were the following: fragrance mix, Myroxylon pereirae (Balsam of Peru), nickel (II) sulfate, fragrance mix II, colophony, propolis, methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI), lanolin alcohol, Amerchol L 101, tert-butylhydroquinone. Sensitization to nickel was significantly less frequent, while sensitizations to fragrance mix and Balsam of Peru were significantly more frequent than in the age group up to 65 years of age. The percentage of patients with leg dermatitis was 25.9 % in the age group above 65 (versus 5.8 % in the age group up to 65 years of age). The analysis of the subgroup over 65 years of age with and without ulcer/stasis dermatitis/chronic venous insufficiency displayed remarkable differences in sensitization frequencies against ingredients of topical ointments (lanolin alcohol, Amerchol L 101, and tert-butylhydroquinone). If these comorbidities exist, patch testing of the topical ointment series parallel to the standard series is worthwhile.

  4. Relaxation damping in oscillating contacts

    PubMed Central

    Popov, M.; Popov, V.L.; Pohrt, R.

    2015-01-01

    If a contact of two purely elastic bodies with no sliding (infinite coefficient of friction) is subjected to superimposed oscillations in the normal and tangential directions, then a specific damping appears, that is not dependent on friction or dissipation in the material. We call this effect “relaxation damping”. The rate of energy dissipation due to relaxation damping is calculated in a closed analytic form for arbitrary axially-symmetric contacts. In the case of equal frequency of normal and tangential oscillations, the dissipated energy per cycle is proportional to the square of the amplitude of tangential oscillation and to the absolute value of the amplitude of normal oscillation, and is dependent on the phase shift between both oscillations. In the case of low frequency tangential oscillations with superimposed high frequency normal oscillations, the dissipation is proportional to the ratio of the frequencies. Generalization of the results for macroscopically planar, randomly rough surfaces as well as for the case of finite friction is discussed. PMID:26549011

  5. Contact dermatitis from a prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Carla A; Gaspari, Anthony; Goldner, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    Patients wearing a prosthesis face a wide variety of medical problems. Skin complications have long been recognized, but their prevalence is still unknown. The most frequently reported disorders are allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), acroangiodermatitis, epidermoid cysts, epidermal hyperplasia, follicular hyperkeratosis, verrucous hyperplasia, bullous diseases, hyperhidrosis, infections, malignancies, and ulcerations. Contact dermatitis represents one-third of the dermatoses in amputees wearing prostheses. All patients who are suspected of having ACD should be patch tested with standard allergen series as well as materials from the patient's own prosthesis, topical medicaments, moisturizers, and cosmetics. We report a patient with an ACD to mixed dialkyl thiourea present in the rubber parts of his below-the-knee prosthesis. Thiourea derivates are used as accelerators in the manufacture of chloroprene rubber and as fixatives in photography and photocopy paper. Allergy to thiourea is relatively uncommon; different studies have shown a prevalence of 0.7% up to 2.4% in patch-tested patients. Thiourea derivates are often the allergic sources in ACD involving high-grade rubber products made of neoprene such as diving suits, protective goggles, knee braces, and continuous positive airway pressure masks. They are also present in the rubber material of prostheses, as in the case of our patient.

  6. Obituary--rigid contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Efron, Nathan

    2010-10-01

    Scleral and corneal rigid lenses represented 100 per cent of the contact lens market immediately prior to the invention of soft lenses in the mid-1960s. In the United Kingdom today, rigid lenses comprise 2 per cent of all new lens fits. Low rates of rigid lens fitting are also apparent in 27 other countries which have recently been surveyed. Thus, the 1998 prediction of the author that rigid lenses--also referred to as 'rigid gas permeable' (RGP) lenses or 'gas permeable' (GP) lenses--would be obsolete by the year 2010 has essentially turned out to be correct. In this obituary, the author offers 10 reasons for the demise of rigid lens fitting: initial rigid lens discomfort; intractable rigid lens-induced corneal and lid pathology; extensive soft lens advertising; superior soft lens fitting logistics; lack of rigid lens training opportunities; redundancy of the rigid lens 'problem solver' function; improved soft toric and bifocal/varifocal lenses; limited uptake of orthokeratology; lack of investment in rigid lenses; and the emergence of aberration control soft lenses. Rigid lenses are now being fitted by a minority of practitioners with specialist skills/training. Certainly, rigid lenses can no longer be considered as a mainstream form of contact lens correction. May their dear souls (bulk properties) rest in peace.

  7. Contact Printing of Arrayed Microstructures

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Luikart, Alicia M.; Sims, Christopher E.; Allbritton, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    A novel contact printing method utilizing a sacrificial layer of polyacrylic acid (PAA) was developed to selectively modify the upper surfaces of arrayed microstructures. The method was characterized by printing polystyrene onto SU-8 microstructures to create an improved substrate for a cell-based microarray platform. Experiments measuring cell growth SU-8 arrays modified with polystyrene and fibronectin demonstrated improved growth of NIH 3T3 (93% vs. 38%), HeLa (97% vs. 77%), and HT1080 (76% vs. 20%) cells relative to that for the previously used coating method. In addition, use of the PAA sacrificial layer permitted the printing of functionalized polystyrene, carboxylate polystyrene nanospheres, and silica nanospheres onto the arrays in a facile manner. Finally, a high concentration of extracellular matrix materials (ECM), such as collagen (5 mg/mL) and gelatin (0.1%), was contact printed onto the array structures using as little as 5 μL of the ECM reagent and without the formation of a continuous film bridge across the microstructures. Murine embryonic stem cells cultured on arrays printed with this gelatin-hydrogel remained in an undifferentiated state indicating an adequate surface gelatin layer to maintain these cells over time. PMID:20425106

  8. Rolling Contact Fatigue of Ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Wereszczak, Andrew A; Wang, W.; Wang, Y.; Hadfield, M.; Kanematsu, W.; Kirkland, Timothy Philip; Jadaan, Osama M.

    2006-09-01

    High hardness, low coefficient of thermal expansion and high temperature capability are properties also suited to rolling element materials. Silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) has been found to have a good combination of properties suitable for these applications. However, much is still not known about rolling contact fatigue (RCF) behavior, which is fundamental information to assess the lifetime of the material. Additionally, there are several test techniques that are employed internationally whose measured RCF performances are often irreconcilable. Due to the lack of such information, some concern for the reliability of ceramic bearings still remains. This report surveys a variety of topics pertaining to RCF. Surface defects (cracks) in Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and their propagation during RCF are discussed. Five methods to measure RCF are then briefly overviewed. Spalling, delamination, and rolling contact wear are discussed. Lastly, methods to destructively (e.g., C-sphere flexure strength testing) and non-destructively identify potential RCF-limiting flaws in Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} balls are described.

  9. Contact Stress of Modified Curvilinear Gears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Cheng; Gu, Ming-Lune

    2010-10-01

    The contact characteristics of a modified curvilinear gear set were investigated based on finite element analysis in this study. Firstly, the mathematical model of the modified curvilinear gears was developed based on the theory of gearing. Then a solid model of a modified curvilinear gear set was built by utilizing computer-aided design software. Finite element analysis enabled us to investigate the contact stress of a contact teeth pair. The variation and distribution of the contact stresses and bending stresses are also studied under different gear design parameters. Finally, illustrative examples were presented to demonstrate the contact characteristics of the modified curvilinear gears.

  10. Complementary Barrier Infrared Detector (CBIRD) Contact Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.; Hill, Cory J.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the CBIRD detector is enhanced by using new device contacting methods that have been developed. The detector structure features a narrow gap adsorber sandwiched between a pair of complementary, unipolar barriers that are, in turn, surrounded by contact layers. In this innovation, the contact adjacent to the hole barrier is doped n-type, while the contact adjacent to the electron barrier is doped p-type. The contact layers can have wider bandgaps than the adsorber layer, so long as good electrical contacts are made to them. If good electrical contacts are made to either (or both) of the barriers, then one could contact the barrier(s) directly, obviating the need for additional contact layers. Both the left and right contacts can be doped either n-type or ptype. Having an n-type contact layer next to the electron barrier creates a second p-n junction (the first being the one between the hole barrier and the adsorber) over which applied bias could drop. This reduces the voltage drop over the adsorber, thereby reducing dark current generation in the adsorber region.

  11. Salt deposition at particle contact points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Xiaodong; Evitts, Richard W.; Besant, Robert W.; Kennell, Glyn F.

    2015-09-01

    Caking may occur when granular potash fertilizer with a moisture content greater than 0.25 % (w/w) undergoes drying. Since cake strength is proportional to the mass of crystal deposited per unit volume near contact points (and other factors) the modelling of mass deposition near contact points is important. The Young-Laplace equation for the air-salt-solution interface is used to determine the geometry of a 2-D planar saline film between two cubic potash particles. A 2-D theoretical model is developed and applied for ion diffusion and deposition near the contact point during drying. The numerical predictions of ion diffusion in an initially saturated salt illustrate the transient spatial distribution of new KCl deposits along the solid surfaces near the contact line. These results indicate the average salt deposition commences at the air-liquid-solid intersection, where the liquid film is thinnest, and moves toward the particle contact point with increasing area averaged KCl deposits, causing the formation of crystal deposits and bridges near contact points. It is concluded that the average salt deposit height increases inversely with distance from the contact point and decreases with initial contact angle of the contact region, but the deposition is nearly independent of the evaporation or drying rate near each contact region. Caking strength depends on, among other parameters, the amount of salt deposition near contact points.

  12. Fingertip contact influences human postural control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeka, J. J.; Lackner, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    Touch and pressure stimulation of the body surface can strongly influence apparent body orientation, as well as the maintenance of upright posture during quiet stance. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between postural sway and contact forces at the fingertip while subjects touched a rigid metal bar. Subjects were tested in the tandem Romberg stance with eyes open or closed under three conditions of fingertip contact: no contact, touch contact (< 0.98 N of force), and force contact (as much force as desired). Touch contact was as effective as force contact or sight of the surroundings in reducing postural sway when compared to the no contact, eyes closed condition. Body sway and fingertip forces were essentially in phase with force contact, suggesting that fingertip contact forces are physically counteracting body sway. Time delays between body sway and fingertip forces were much larger with light touch contact, suggesting that the fingertip is providing information that allows anticipatory innervation of musculature to reduce body sway. The results are related to observations on precision grip as well as the somatosensory, proprioceptive, and motor mechanisms involved in the reduction of body sway.

  13. Contact kinematics of biomimetic scales

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Ranajay; Ebrahimi, Hamid; Vaziri, Ashkan

    2014-12-08

    Dermal scales, prevalent across biological groups, considerably boost survival by providing multifunctional advantages. Here, we investigate the nonlinear mechanical effects of biomimetic scale like attachments on the behavior of an elastic substrate brought about by the contact interaction of scales in pure bending using qualitative experiments, analytical models, and detailed finite element (FE) analysis. Our results reveal the existence of three distinct kinematic phases of operation spanning linear, nonlinear, and rigid behavior driven by kinematic interactions of scales. The response of the modified elastic beam strongly depends on the size and spatial overlap of rigid scales. The nonlinearity is perceptible even in relatively small strain regime and without invoking material level complexities of either the scales or the substrate.

  14. Contact dermatitis in Alstroemeria workers.

    PubMed

    van der Mei, I A; de Boer, E M; Bruynzeel, D P

    1998-09-01

    Hand dermatitis is common in workers in the horticultural industry. This study determined the prevalence of hand dermatitis in workers of Alstroemeria cultivation, investigated how many workers had been sensitized by tulipalin A (the allergen in Alstroemeria) and took stock of a wide range of determinants of hand dermatitis. The 12-month period prevalence of major hand dermatitis amounted to 29.5% whereas 7.4% had minor dermatitis. Of these workers, 52.1% were sensitized for tulipalin A. Several personal and work-related determinants played a role in the multifactorial aetiology of hand dermatitis. Factors which showed a significant relationship with major hand dermatitis were: female sex, atopic dermatitis, chapped hands and the frequency of washing hands. It may be concluded that the Alstroemeria workers are a population at risk of developing contact dermatitis and it might be useful to carry out an educational campaign to lower the high prevalence.

  15. Interdigitated back contact solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundstrom, M. S.; Schwartz, R. J.

    1980-08-01

    The interdigitated back contact solar cell (IBC cell) was shown to possess a number of advantages for silicon solar cells, which operate at high concentration. A detailed discussion of the factors which need to be considered in the analysis of semiconducting devices which utilize heavily doped regions such as those which are found in solar cells in both the emitter and in the back surface field regions is given. This discussion covers the questions of: how to handle degeneracy, how to compute carrier concentrations in the absence of knowledge of the details of the band structure under heavily doped conditions, and how to reconcile the usual interpretation of heavy doping as a rigid shift of the bands with the band tailing and impurity level conduction models. It also discusses the reasons for the observed discrepancies between various experimental measurements of bandgap narrowing.

  16. Contact process with temporal disorder.

    PubMed

    Barghathi, Hatem; Vojta, Thomas; Hoyos, José A

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the influence of time-varying environmental noise, i.e., temporal disorder, on the nonequilibrium phase transition of the contact process. Combining a real-time renormalization group, scaling theory, and large scale Monte-Carlo simulations in one and two dimensions, we show that the temporal disorder gives rise to an exotic critical point. At criticality, the effective noise amplitude diverges with increasing time scale, and the probability distribution of the density becomes infinitely broad, even on a logarithmic scale. Moreover, the average density and survival probability decay only logarithmically with time. This infinite-noise critical behavior can be understood as the temporal counterpart of infinite-randomness critical behavior in spatially disordered systems, but with exchanged roles of space and time. We also analyze the generality of our results, and we discuss potential experiments.

  17. Contact process with temporal disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barghathi, Hatem; Vojta, Thomas; Hoyos, José A.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the influence of time-varying environmental noise, i.e., temporal disorder, on the nonequilibrium phase transition of the contact process. Combining a real-time renormalization group, scaling theory, and large scale Monte-Carlo simulations in one and two dimensions, we show that the temporal disorder gives rise to an exotic critical point. At criticality, the effective noise amplitude diverges with increasing time scale, and the probability distribution of the density becomes infinitely broad, even on a logarithmic scale. Moreover, the average density and survival probability decay only logarithmically with time. This infinite-noise critical behavior can be understood as the temporal counterpart of infinite-randomness critical behavior in spatially disordered systems, but with exchanged roles of space and time. We also analyze the generality of our results, and we discuss potential experiments.

  18. Single-contact tunneling thermometry

    DOEpatents

    Maksymovych, Petro

    2016-02-23

    A single-contact tunneling thermometry circuit includes a tunnel junction formed between two objects. Junction temperature gradient information is determined based on a mathematical relationship between a target alternating voltage applied across the junction and the junction temperature gradient. Total voltage measured across the junction indicates the magnitude of the target alternating voltage. A thermal gradient is induced across the junction. A reference thermovoltage is measured when zero alternating voltage is applied across the junction. An increasing alternating voltage is applied while measuring a thermovoltage component and a DC rectification voltage component created by the applied alternating voltage. The target alternating voltage is reached when the thermovoltage is nullified or doubled by the DC rectification voltage depending on the sign of the reference thermovoltage. Thermoelectric current and current measurements may be utilized in place of the thermovoltage and voltage measurements. The system may be automated with a feedback loop.

  19. International rigid contact lens prescribing.

    PubMed

    Efron, Nathan; Morgan, Philip B; Helland, Magne; Itoi, Motozumi; Jones, Deborah; Nichols, Jason J; van der Worp, Eef; Woods, Craig A

    2010-06-01

    Rigid lenses have been fitted less since the introduction of soft lenses nearly 40 years ago. Data that we have gathered from annual contact lens fitting surveys conducted in Australia, Canada, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, the UK and the USA between 2000 and 2008 facilitate an accurate characterization of the pattern of the decline of rigid lens fitting during the first decade of this century. There is a trend for rigid lenses to be utilized primarily for refitting those patients who are already successful rigid lens wearers-most typically older females being refit with higher Dk materials. Rigid lenses are generally fitted on a full-time basis (four or more days of wear per week) without a planned replacement schedule. Orthokeratology is especially popular in the Netherlands, but is seldom prescribed in the other countries surveyed.

  20. 75 FR 6032 - National Contact Center; Submission for OMB Review; National Contact Center Customer Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... ADMINISTRATION National Contact Center; Submission for OMB Review; National Contact Center Customer Evaluation... renewal of a previously approved information collection requirement regarding the National Contact Center... 20405. Please cite OMB Control No. 3090-0278, National Contact Center Customer Evaluation Survey, in...

  1. Contact resistance at planar metal contacts on bilayer graphene and effects of molecular insertion layers.

    PubMed

    Nouchi, Ryo

    2017-03-01

    The possible origins of metal-bilayer graphene (BLG) contact resistance are investigated by taking into consideration the bandgap formed by interfacial charge transfer at the metal contacts. Our results show that a charge injection barrier (Schottky barrier) does not contribute to the contact resistance because the BLG under the contacts is always degenerately doped. We also showed that the contact-doping-induced increase in the density of states (DOS) of BLG under the metal contacts decreases the contact resistance owing to enhanced charge carrier tunnelling at the contacts. The contact doping can be enhanced by inserting molecular dopant layers into the metal contacts. However, carrier tunnelling through the insertion layer increases the contact resistance, and thus, alternative device structures should be employed. Finally, we showed that the inter-band transport by variable range hopping via in-gap states is the largest contributor to contact resistance when the carrier type of the gated channel is opposite to the contact doping carrier type. This indicates that the strategy of contact resistance reduction by the contact-doping-induced increase in the DOS is effective only for a single channel transport branch (n- or p-type) depending on the contact doping carrier type.

  2. A 3D contact analysis approach for the visualization of the electrical contact asperities

    PubMed Central

    Swingler, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    The electrical contact is an important phenomenon that should be given into consideration to achieve better performance and long term reliability for the design of devices. Based upon this importance, the electrical contact interface has been visualized as a ‘‘3D Contact Map’’ and used in order to investigate the contact asperities. The contact asperities describe the structures above and below the contact spots (the contact spots define the 3D contact map) to the two conductors which make the contact system. The contact asperities require the discretization of the 3D microstructures of the contact system into voxels. A contact analysis approach has been developed and introduced in this paper which shows the way to the 3D visualization of the contact asperities of a given contact system. For the discretization of 3D microstructure of contact system into voxels, X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) method is used in order to collect the data of a 250 V, 16 A rated AC single pole rocker switch which is used as a contact system for investigation. PMID:28105383

  3. Contact resistance at planar metal contacts on bilayer graphene and effects of molecular insertion layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouchi, Ryo

    2017-03-01

    The possible origins of metal–bilayer graphene (BLG) contact resistance are investigated by taking into consideration the bandgap formed by interfacial charge transfer at the metal contacts. Our results show that a charge injection barrier (Schottky barrier) does not contribute to the contact resistance because the BLG under the contacts is always degenerately doped. We also showed that the contact-doping-induced increase in the density of states (DOS) of BLG under the metal contacts decreases the contact resistance owing to enhanced charge carrier tunnelling at the contacts. The contact doping can be enhanced by inserting molecular dopant layers into the metal contacts. However, carrier tunnelling through the insertion layer increases the contact resistance, and thus, alternative device structures should be employed. Finally, we showed that the inter-band transport by variable range hopping via in-gap states is the largest contributor to contact resistance when the carrier type of the gated channel is opposite to the contact doping carrier type. This indicates that the strategy of contact resistance reduction by the contact-doping-induced increase in the DOS is effective only for a single channel transport branch (n- or p-type) depending on the contact doping carrier type.

  4. Contact angle hysteresis of microbead suspensions.

    PubMed

    Waghmare, Prashant R; Mitra, Sushanta K

    2010-11-16

    Microbead suspensions are often used in microfluidic devices for transporting biomolecules. An experimental investigation on the wettability of microbead suspension is presented in this study. The variation in the surface tension and the equilibrium contact angle with the change in the volume fraction of the microbead is presented here. The surface tension of the microbead suspension is measured with the pendant drop technique, whereas the dynamic contact angle measurements, i.e., advancing and receding contact angles, are measured with the sessile drop technique. An equilibrium contact angle of a suspension with particular volume fraction is determined by computing an average over the measured advancing and receding contact angles. It is observed that the surface tension and the equilibrium contact angle determined from advancing and receding contact angles vary with the magnitude of the microbeads volume fraction in the suspension. A decrease in the surface tension with an increase in the volume fraction of the microbead suspension is observed. The advancement and the recession in contact line for dynamic contact angle measurements are achieved with the motorized dosing mechanism. For microbead suspensions, the advancement of the contact line is faster as compared to the recession of the contact line for the same flow rate. The presence of microbeads assists in the advancement and the recession of the contact line of the suspension. A decrease in the equilibrium contact angles with an increase in the microbead suspension volume fraction is observed. Inclusion of microbeads in the suspension increases the wetting capability for the considered combination of the microbead suspension and substrate. Finally, empirical correlations for the surface tension and the contact angle of the suspension as a function of microbead volume fraction are proposed. Such correlations can readily be used to develop mechanistic models for the capillary transport of microbead

  5. Towards an optimal contact metal for CNTFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fediai, Artem; Ryndyk, Dmitry A.; Seifert, Gotthard; Mothes, Sven; Claus, Martin; Schröter, Michael; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2016-05-01

    Downscaling of the contact length Lc of a side-contacted carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNTFET) is challenging because of the rapidly increasing contact resistance as Lc falls below 20-50 nm. If in agreement with existing experimental results, theoretical work might answer the question, which metals yield the lowest CNT-metal contact resistance and what physical mechanisms govern the geometry dependence of the contact resistance. However, at the scale of 10 nm, parameter-free models of electron transport become computationally prohibitively expensive. In our work we used a dedicated combination of the Green function formalism and density functional theory to perform an overall ab initio simulation of extended CNT-metal contacts of an arbitrary length (including infinite), a previously not achievable level of simulations. We provide a systematic and comprehensive discussion of metal-CNT contact properties as a function of the metal type and the contact length. We have found and been able to explain very uncommon relations between chemical, physical and electrical properties observed in CNT-metal contacts. The calculated electrical characteristics are in reasonable quantitative agreement and exhibit similar trends as the latest experimental data in terms of: (i) contact resistance for Lc = ∞, (ii) scaling of contact resistance Rc(Lc); (iii) metal-defined polarity of a CNTFET. Our results can guide technology development and contact material selection for downscaling the length of side-contacts below 10 nm.Downscaling of the contact length Lc of a side-contacted carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNTFET) is challenging because of the rapidly increasing contact resistance as Lc falls below 20-50 nm. If in agreement with existing experimental results, theoretical work might answer the question, which metals yield the lowest CNT-metal contact resistance and what physical mechanisms govern the geometry dependence of the contact resistance. However, at

  6. Dynamic contact angle measurements on superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Kavehpour, H. Pirouz; Rothstein, Jonathan P.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the dynamic advancing and receding contact angles of a series of aqueous solutions were measured on a number of hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces using a modified Wilhelmy plate technique. Superhydrophobic surfaces are hydrophobic surfaces with micron or nanometer sized surface roughness. These surfaces have very large static advancing contact angles and little static contact angle hysteresis. In this study, the dynamic advancing and dynamic receding contact angles on superhydrophobic surfaces were measured as a function of plate velocity and capillary number. The dynamic contact angles measured on a smooth hydrophobic Teflon surface were found to obey the scaling with capillary number predicted by the Cox-Voinov-Tanner law, θD3 ∝ Ca. The response of the dynamic contact angle on the superhydrophobic surfaces, however, did not follow the same scaling law. The advancing contact angle was found to remain constant at θA = 160∘, independent of capillary number. The dynamic receding contact angle measurements on superhydrophobic surfaces were found to decrease with increasing capillary number; however, the presence of slip on the superhydrophobic surface was found to result in a shift in the onset of dynamic contact angle variation to larger capillary numbers. In addition, a much weaker dependence of the dynamic contact angle on capillary number was observed for some of the superhydrophobic surfaces tested.

  7. Tear analysis in contact lens wearers.

    PubMed Central

    Farris, R L

    1985-01-01

    Tear analysis in contact lens wearers was compared with tear analysis in aphakics without contact lens wear and normal phakic patients. Subjects were divided into five groups: group 1, aphakic without contact lens; group 2, phakic with daily-wear hard contact lens; group 3, phakic with daily-wear soft contact lens; group 4, phakic with extended-wear soft contact lens; and group 5, aphakic with extended-wear soft contact lens. The experimental groups were compared with age- and sex-matched control groups for statistical analysis of tear variables by means of the Student's t-test. The variables measured were tear osmolarity, tear albumin, and lysozyme and lactoferrin concentrations in basal and reflex tears. Highly significant elevations of tear osmolarity were found in aphakic subjects without contact lenses. Less significant differences in tear osmolarity were found in phakic subjects with hard daily-wear lenses or with extended-wear soft lenses. Tear albumin, lysozyme, and lactoferrin in basal and reflex tears were not significantly different in the different groups of contact lens wearers or in the group of aphakic subjects without contact lenses compared with their control groups. Individual variations in tear albumin, lysozyme, and lactoferrin appeared to be responsible for the inability to demonstrate significant differences in tear composition in association with the wearing of different types of contact lenses. Older and aphakic patients demonstrated a tendency to have increased concentrations of proteins in the tears compared with younger, phakic contact lens wearers and normal controls without contact lenses. PMID:3914131

  8. Contact angle measurement on rough surfaces.

    PubMed

    Meiron, Tammar S; Marmur, Abraham; Saguy, I Sam

    2004-06-15

    A new method for the measurement of apparent contact angles at the global energy minimum on real surfaces has been developed. The method consists of vibrating the surface, taking top-view pictures of the drop, monitoring the drop roundness, and calculating the contact angle from the drop diameter and weight. The use of the new method has been demonstrated for various rough surfaces, all having the same surface chemistry. In order to establish the optimal vibration conditions, the proper ranges for the system parameters (i.e., drop volume, vibration time, frequency of vibration, and amplitude of vibration) were determined. The reliability of the method has been demonstrated by the fact that the ideal contact angles of all surfaces, as calculated from the Wenzel equation using the measured apparent contact angles, came out to be practically identical. This ideal contact angle has been compared with three methods of calculation from values of advancing and receding contact angles.

  9. Contact Dermatitis for the Practicing Allergist.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, David I

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of important practice recommendations from the recently updated Contact Dermatitis Practice Parameter. This updated parameter provides essential recommendations pertaining to clinical history, physical examination, and patch testing evaluation of patients suspected of allergic contact dermatitis. In addition to providing guidance for performing and interpreting closed patch testing, the updated parameter provides concrete recommendations for assessing metal hypersensitivity in patients receiving prosthetic devices, for evaluating workers with occupational contact dermatitis, and also for addressing allergic contact dermatitis in children. Finally, the document provides practical recommendations useful for educating patients regarding avoidance of exposure to known contact sensitizers in the home and at work. The Contact Dermatitis Parameter is designed as a practical, evidence-based clinical tool to be used by allergists and dermatologists who routinely are called upon to evaluate patients with skin disorders.

  10. Technology Transfer: A Contact Sport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paynter, Nina P.

    1995-01-01

    Technology transfer is a dynamic process, involving dynamic people as the bridge between NASA Langley Research Center and the outside world. This bridge, for nonaerospace applications, is known as the Technology Applications Group. The introduction of new innovations and expertise where they are needed occurs through a 'push' and 'pull' process. A 'push' occurs when a new technology is first developed with high commercial potential and then a company is found to licence or further develop the technology. The 'pull' process occurs through problem statements. A company or group will submit a written statement of what they need and the shortcomings of commercially available technology. The Technology Transfer Team (T3) reviews these problem statements and decides where NASA LaRC can offer assistance. A researcher or group of researchers are then identified who can help solve the problem and they are put in contact with the company. Depending upon the situation in either method, a Space Act Agreement (SAA), or outline of the responsibilities for each party, is developed.

  11. Contact dermatoses in metal workers.

    PubMed

    Papa, G; Romano, A; Quaratino, D; Di Fonso, M; Viola, M; Sernia, S; Boccia, I; Di Gioacchino, M; Venuti, A; Calvieri, S

    2000-01-01

    We studied 150 metal workers occupationally exposed to metals and metalworking fluids (MWFs) to determine the prevalence and nature of contact dermatitis. 150 office workers were used as non-exposed control group. Questionnaires were administered to evaluate occupational and non-occupational exposure. All subjects underwent a dermatological examination and patch-testing with standard allergen series and MWFs used in the plant. Twenty-eight metal workers (18.6%) presented minor skin disorders involving the hands (vs. only 2% of the controls), ten (6.6%) had major disorders (similar to the figure for the control group - 5.4%), and 112 (74.8%) had no lesions, as opposed to 92.6% of the control group. Positive patch tests were found in ten metal workers: eight had major skin disorders (six to nickel, cobalt and chromium, one to nickel and cobalt, one to nickel) and the remaining two were asymptomatic (one positive for nickel and chromium, one for nickel). Among the controls there were three cases of positivity, all among asymptomatic subjects. Patch tests with MWFs were negative. The prevalence of dermatoses among the metal workers was significantly higher than that of controls (p<0.01), and all cases of allergy in this group were provoked by metals themselves.

  12. Charmonia in a contact interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedolla, Marco A.; Cobos-Martínez, J. J.; Bashir, Adnan

    2015-09-01

    For the flavor-singlet heavy quark system of charmonia, we compute the masses of the ground state mesons in four different channels: pseudoscalar [ηc(1 S )], vector [J /Ψ (1 S )], scalar [χc0(1P )] and axial vector [χc 1(1 P )], as well as the weak decay constants of the ηc(1 S ) and J /Ψ (1 S ) and the charge radius of ηc(1 S ). The framework for this analysis is provided by a symmetry-preserving Schwinger-Dyson equation (SDE) treatment of a vector×vector contact interaction. The results found for the meson masses and the weak decay constants, for the spin-spin combinations studied, are in fairly good agreement with experimental data and earlier model calculations based upon Schwinger-Dyson and Bethe-Salpeter equations involving sophisticated interaction kernels. The charge radius of ηc(1 S ) is consistent with the results from refined SDE studies and lattice quantum chromodynamics.

  13. Apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis on liquid infused surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semprebon, Ciro; McHale, Glen; Kusumaatmaja, Halim

    We theoretically investigate the apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis of a droplet placed on a liquid infused surface. We show that the apparent contact angle is not uniquely defined by material parameters, but also has a strong dependence on the relative size between the droplet and its surrounding wetting ridge formed by the infusing liquid. We derive a closed form expression for the contact angle in the limit of vanishing wetting ridge, and compute the correction for small but finite ridge, which corresponds to an effective line tension term. We also predict contact angle hysteresis on liquid infused surfaces generated by the pinning of the contact lines by the surface corrugations. Our analytical expressions for both the apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis can be interpreted as `weighted sums' between the contact angles of the infusing liquid relative to the droplet and surrounding gas phases, where the weighting coefficients are given by ratios of the fluid surface tensions.

  14. Apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis on liquid infused surfaces.

    PubMed

    Semprebon, Ciro; McHale, Glen; Kusumaatmaja, Halim

    2016-12-21

    We theoretically investigate the apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis of a droplet placed on a liquid infused surface. We show that the apparent contact angle is not uniquely defined by material parameters, but also has a dependence on the relative size between the droplet and its surrounding wetting ridge formed by the infusing liquid. We derive a closed form expression for the contact angle in the limit of vanishing wetting ridge, and compute the correction for small but finite ridge, which corresponds to an effective line tension term. We also predict contact angle hysteresis on liquid infused surfaces generated by the pinning of the contact lines by the surface corrugations. Our analytical expressions for both the apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis can be interpreted as 'weighted sums' between the contact angles of the infusing liquid relative to the droplet and surrounding gas phases, where the weighting coefficients are given by ratios of the fluid surface tensions.

  15. 75 FR 61479 - Western Passage OCGenTM

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  17. Enhanced End-Contacts by Helium Ion Bombardment to Improve Graphene-Metal Contacts

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Kunpeng; Su, Yajuan; Zhan, Jun; Shahzad, Kashif; Zhu, Huilong; Zhao, Chao; Luo, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Low contact resistance between graphene and metals is of paramount importance to fabricate high performance graphene-based devices. In this paper, the impact of both defects induced by helium ion (He+) bombardment and annealing on the contact resistance between graphene and various metals (Ag, Pd, and Pt) were systematically explored. It is found that the contact resistances between all metals and graphene are remarkably reduced after annealing, indicating that not only chemically adsorbed metal (Pd) but also physically adsorbed metals (Ag and Pt) readily form end-contacts at intrinsic defect locations in graphene. In order to further improve the contact properties between Ag, Pd, and Pt metals and graphene, a novel method in which self-aligned He+ bombardment to induce exotic defects in graphene and subsequent thermal annealing to form end-contacts was proposed. By using this method, the contact resistance is reduced significantly by 15.1% and 40.1% for Ag/graphene and Pd/graphene contacts with He+ bombardment compared to their counterparts without He+ bombardment. For the Pt/graphene contact, the contact resistance is, however, not reduced as anticipated with He+ bombardment and this might be ascribed to either inappropriate He+ bombardment dose, or inapplicable method of He+ bombardment in reducing contact resistance for Pt/graphene contact. The joint efforts of as-formed end-contacts and excess created defects in graphene are discussed as the cause responsible for the reduction of contact resistance.

  18. Ohmic contact to GaAs semiconductor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hovel, H. J.; Woodall, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    Multimetallic layers produce stable, low-resistance contacts for p-type GaAs and p-type GaAlAs devices. Contacts present no leakage problems, and their series resistance is too small to measure at 1 Sun intensity. Ohmic contacts are stable and should meet 20-year-life requirement at 150 C for GaAs combined photothermal/photovoltaic concentrators.

  19. Contact angle measurements under thermodynamic equilibrium conditions.

    PubMed

    Lages, Carol; Méndez, Eduardo

    2007-08-01

    The precise control of the ambient humidity during contact angle measurements is needed to obtain stable and valid data. For a such purpose, a simple low-cost device was designed, and several modified surfaces relevant to biosensor design were studied. Static contact angle values for these surfaces are lower than advancing contact angles published for ambient conditions, indicating that thermodynamic equilibrium conditions are needed to avoid drop evaporation during the measurements.

  20. Process design for Al backside contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Chalfoun, L.L.; Kimerling, L.C.

    1995-08-01

    It is known that properly alloyed aluminum backside contacts can improve silicon solar cell efficiency. To use this knowledge to fullest advantage, we have studied the gettering process that occurs during contact formation and the microstructure of the contact and backside junction region. With an understanding of the alloying step, optimized fabrication processes can be designed. To study gettering, single crystal silicon wafers were coated with aluminim on both sides and subjected to heat treatments. Results are described.

  1. Dynamic ultrasonic contact detection using acoustic emissions.

    PubMed

    Turner, S L; Rabani, A; Axinte, D A; King, C W

    2014-03-01

    For a non-contact ultrasonic material removal process, the control of the standoff position can be crucial to process performance; particularly where the requirement is for a standoff of the order of <20 μm. The standoff distance relative to the surface to be machined can be set by first contacting the ultrasonic tool tip with the surface and then withdrawing the tool to the required position. Determination of this contact point in a dynamic system at ultrasonic frequencies (>20 kHz) is achieved by force measurement or by detection of acoustic emissions (AE). However, where detection of distance from a surface must be determined without contact taking place, an alternative method must be sought. In this paper, the effect of distance from contact of an ultrasonic tool is measured by detection of AE through the workpiece. At the point of contact, the amplitude of the signal at the fundamental frequency increases significantly, but the strength of the 2nd and 3rd harmonic signals increases more markedly. Closer examination of these harmonics shows that an increase in their intensities can be observed in the 10 μm prior to contact, providing a mechanism to detect near contact (<10 μm) without the need to first contact the surface in order to set a standoff.

  2. Stress evaluations under rolling/sliding contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kannel, J. W.; Tevaarwerk, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    The state of stress beneath traction drive type of contacts were analyzed. Computing stresses and stress reversals on various planes for points beneath the surface were examined. The effect of tangential and axial friction under gross slip conditions is evaluated with the models. Evaluations were performed on an RC (rolling contact) tester configuration and it is indicated that the classical fatigue stresses are not altered by friction forces typical of lubricated contact. Higher values of friction can result in surface shear reversal that exceeds the stresses at the depth of maximum shear reversal under rolling contact.

  3. Contact EPA Region 9 (Pacific Southwest)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Contact EPA Region 9, Pacific Southwest: 24-hour report of violations and emergencies, environmental complaint tip line, Environmental Information Center, Library, Reception, Employee Locator, Media, Press, Public Affairs.

  4. Stresses and deformations in elliptical contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.

    1980-01-01

    Topics presented deal with defining conformal and nonconformal surfaces, curvature sum and difference, and surface and subsurface stresses in elliptical contacts. Load-deflection relationships for nonconformal contacts are developed. The deformation within the contact is, among other things, a function of the ellipticity parameter and elliptic integrals of the first and second kinds. Simplified expressions that allow quick calculations of the deformation to be made simply from a knowledge of the applied load, the material properties, and the geometry of the contacting elements are presented.

  5. Contact Formation (Hg, CD)Te

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    AD-A21 7 088 0 a CONTACT FORMATION ON (HG, CD )TE FINAL REPORT W.A. BECK AND G.D. DAVIS V C ELECTE , I DECEMBER 1989 JAN22 1990 U.S. ARMY RESEARCH...27709-2211 I N I 11. TITLE (Include Security Clasification) Contact Formation on (Hg, CD )Te (u) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) W.A. Beck and G.D. Davis 13a...whereas the 1/f noise of the Au contacts originated at th i/" Cd )Te interface or in the underlying (Hg, Cd )Te, the 1/f noise of the Al contacts orig.L

  6. BISON Contact Improvements CASL FY14 Report

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, B. W.; Hales, J. D.; Gaston, D. R.; Karpeev, D. A.; Williamson, R. L.; Novascone, S. R.; Perez, D. M.; Gardner, R. J.; Gamble, K. A.

    2014-09-01

    The BISON code is the foundation for multiple fuel performance modeling efforts, and is currently under heavy development. For a variety of fuel forms, the effects of heat conduction across a gap and mechanical contact between components of a fuel system are very significant. It is thus critical that BISON have robust capabilities for enforcement of thermal and mechanical contact. BISON’s solver robustness has generally been quite good before mechanical contact between the fuel and cladding occurs, but there have been significant challenges obtaining converged solutions once that contact occurs and the solver begins to enforce mechanical contact constraints. During the current year, significant development effort has been focused on the enforcement of mechanical contact to provide improved solution robustness. In addition to this work to improve mechanical contact robustness, an investigation into questionable results attributable to thermal contact has been performed. This investigation found that the order of integration typically used on the surfaces involved in thermal contact was not sufficiently high. To address this problem, a new option was provided to permit the use of a different integration order for surfaces, and new usage recommendations were provided.

  7. Optical contacting for gravity probe star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, J. J.; Zissa, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    A star-tracker telescope, constructed entirely of fused silica elements optically contacted together, has been proposed to provide submilliarc-second pointing accuracy for Gravity Probe. A bibliography and discussion on optical contacting (the bonding of very flat, highly polished surfaces without the use of adhesives) are presented. Then results from preliminary experiments on the strength of optical contacts including a tensile strength test in liquid helium are discussed. Suggestions are made for further study to verify an optical contacting method for the Gravity Probe star-tracker telescope.

  8. 78 FR 28214 - Gainesville Renewable Energy Center, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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  20. Beta atomic contacts: identifying critical specific contacts in protein binding interfaces.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Kwoh, Chee Keong; Hoi, Steven C H

    2013-01-01

    Specific binding between proteins plays a crucial role in molecular functions and biological processes. Protein binding interfaces and their atomic contacts are typically defined by simple criteria, such as distance-based definitions that only use some threshold of spatial distance in previous studies. These definitions neglect the nearby atomic organization of contact atoms, and thus detect predominant contacts which are interrupted by other atoms. It is questionable whether such kinds of interrupted contacts are as important as other contacts in protein binding. To tackle this challenge, we propose a new definition called beta (β) atomic contacts. Our definition, founded on the β-skeletons in computational geometry, requires that there is no other atom in the contact spheres defined by two contact atoms; this sphere is similar to the van der Waals spheres of atoms. The statistical analysis on a large dataset shows that β contacts are only a small fraction of conventional distance-based contacts. To empirically quantify the importance of β contacts, we design βACV, an SVM classifier with β contacts as input, to classify homodimers from crystal packing. We found that our βACV is able to achieve the state-of-the-art classification performance superior to SVM classifiers with distance-based contacts as input. Our βACV also outperforms several existing methods when being evaluated on several datasets in previous works. The promising empirical performance suggests that β contacts can truly identify critical specific contacts in protein binding interfaces. β contacts thus provide a new model for more precise description of atomic organization in protein quaternary structures than distance-based contacts.

  1. Metal Contacts on Low-Dimensional Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Hui

    As the scaling of the microelectronics is reaching nano regime, low-dimensional materials have been of increasing interest for future electronics applications. The low-dimensional materials, such as Si nanowires (SiNWs), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), not only provide small body for further-scaled devices but also bring about new intrinsic properties for application in future optoelectronics, spintronics and so on. However, the small dimensions add significant difficulty for reducing contact resistance in the nanoelectronic devices. This dissertation presents a study of the metal contacts on low-dimensional materials. The focus of this work is on SiNWs and monolayer or few-layer MoS2. First, the metal contact on SiNW field effect transistors (FETs) was studied with a gate assisted Kelvin structure. In this work, I fabricated ambipolar SiNW FETs with Al contacts. The ambipolar characteristics and the gate assisted Kelvin structure enabled the measurement of the contact properties of both electron and hole flows at the same contact. In this work I found that the contact performance is affected by the carrier type that flows in the channel as well as the current direction. In addition, an inverter was designed and realized on a single SiNW leveraged by the ambipolar FET characteristics. Then, I have studied metal contacts on MoS2, which is one of typical two-dimensional semiconductors. In the first part of this work, Ag and Ti contacts on exfoliated MoS2 monolayers and few-layers are fabricated, characterized and analyzed. Based on the current-voltage (I-V) measurement, surface morphology and Raman spectroscopic measurement, I found that interface morphology plays an important role on the contact performance in MoS2 FETs. In the second part of this work, gate-assisted contact measurement was carried out on chemical vapor deposited low-dimensional MoS 2 layers. The contact resistance and current crowding have been

  2. Evaluation of Contact Separation Force Testing as a Screening Methodology for Electrical Socket Contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Chris; Greenwell, Chris; Brusse, jay; Krus, Dennis; Leidecker, Henning

    2009-01-01

    During system level testing intermittent and permanent open circuit failures of mated, crimp removable, electrical contact pairs were experienced. The root cause of the failures was determined to be low (but not zero) contact forces applied by the socket contact tines against the engaging pin. The low contact force reduces the effectiveness of the wiping action of the socket tines against the pin. The observed failure mode may be produced when insufficient wiping during mate, demate and small relative movement in use allows for the accumulation of debris or insulating films that electrically separate the contact pair. The investigation identified at least three manufacturing process control problems associated with the socket contacts that enabled shipment of contacts susceptible to developing low contact forces: (1) Improper heat treatment of the socket tines resulting in plastic rather than elastic behavior; (2) Overly thinned socket tines at their base resulting in reduced pin retention forces; (3) insufficient screening tests to identify parts susceptible to the aforementioned failure mechanisms. The results from an extensive screening program of socket contacts utilizing the industry standard contact separation force test procedures are described herein. The investigation shows this method to be capable of identifying initially weak sockets. However, sockets whose contact retention forces may degrade during use may not be screened out by pin retention testing alone. Further investigations are required to correlate low contact retention forces with increased electrical contact resistance in the presence of insulating films that may accumulate in the use environment.

  3. Multibody dynamic simulation of knee contact mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Bei, Yanhong; Fregly, Benjamin J.

    2006-01-01

    Multibody dynamic musculoskeletal models capable of predicting muscle forces and joint contact pressures simultaneously would be valuable for studying clinical issues related to knee joint degeneration and restoration. Current three-dimensional multi-body knee models are either quasi-static with deformable contact or dynamic with rigid contact. This study proposes a computationally efficient methodology for combining multibody dynamic simulation methods with a deformable contact knee model. The methodology requires preparation of the articular surface geometry, development of efficient methods to calculate distances between contact surfaces, implementation of an efficient contact solver that accounts for the unique characteristics of human joints, and specification of an application programming interface for integration with any multibody dynamic simulation environment. The current implementation accommodates natural or artificial tibiofemoral joint models, small or large strain contact models, and linear or nonlinear material models. Applications are presented for static analysis (via dynamic simulation) of a natural knee model created from MRI and CT data and dynamic simulation of an artificial knee model produced from manufacturer’s CAD data. Small and large strain natural knee static analyses required 1 min of CPU time and predicted similar contact conditions except for peak pressure, which was higher for the large strain model. Linear and nonlinear artificial knee dynamic simulations required 10 min of CPU time and predicted similar contact force and torque but different contact pressures, which were lower for the nonlinear model due to increased contact area. This methodology provides an important step toward the realization of dynamic musculoskeletal models that can predict in vivo knee joint motion and loading simultaneously. PMID:15564115

  4. Contact angle hysteresis on fluoropolymer surfaces.

    PubMed

    Tavana, H; Jehnichen, D; Grundke, K; Hair, M L; Neumann, A W

    2007-10-31

    Contact angle hysteresis of liquids with different molecular and geometrical properties on high quality films of four fluoropolymers was studied. A number of different causes are identified for hysteresis. With n-alkanes as probe liquids, contact angle hysteresis is found to be strongly related to the configuration of polymer chains. The largest hysteresis is obtained with amorphous polymers whereas the smallest hysteresis occurs for polymers with ordered molecular chains. This is explained in terms of sorption of liquid by the solid and penetration of liquid into the polymer film. Correlation of contact angle hysteresis with the size of n-alkane molecules supports this conclusion. On the films of two amorphous fluoropolymers with different molecular configurations, contact angle hysteresis of one and the same liquid with "bulky" molecules is shown to be quite different. On the surfaces of Teflon AF 1600, with stiff molecular chains, the receding angles of the probe liquids are independent of contact time between solid and liquid and similar hysteresis is obtained for all the liquids. Retention of liquid molecules on the solid surface is proposed as the most likely cause of hysteresis in these systems. On the other hand, with EGC-1700 films that consist of flexible chains, the receding angles are strongly time-dependent and the hysteresis is large. Contact angle hysteresis increases even further when liquids with strong dipolar intermolecular forces are used. In this case, major reorganization of EGC-1700 chains due to contact with the test liquids is suggested as the cause. The effect of rate of motion of the three-phase line on the advancing and receding contact angles, and therefore contact angle hysteresis, is investigated. For low viscous liquids, contact angles are independent of the drop front velocity up to approximately 10 mm/min. This agrees with the results of an earlier study that showed that the rate-dependence of the contact angles is an issue only

  5. Screen printed interdigitated back contact solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraona, C. R.; Mazaris, G. A.; Chai, A. T.

    1984-10-01

    Interdigitated back contact solar cells are made by screen printing dopant materials onto the back surface of a semiconductor substrate in a pair of interdigitated patterns. These dopant materials are then diffused into the substrate to form junctions having configurations corresponding to these patterns. Contacts having configurations which match the patterns are then applied over the junctions.

  6. Screen printed interdigitated back contact solar cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baraona, C. R.; Mazaris, G. A.; Chai, A. T. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Interdigitated back contact solar cells are made by screen printing dopant materials onto the back surface of a semiconductor substrate in a pair of interdigitated patterns. These dopant materials are then diffused into the substrate to form junctions having configurations corresponding to these patterns. Contacts having configurations which match the patterns are then applied over the junctions.

  7. Data Qualification Report: Borehole Straigraphic Contacts

    SciTech Connect

    R.W. Clayton; C. Lum

    2000-04-18

    The data set considered here is the borehole stratigraphic contacts data (DTN: M09811MWDGFM03.000) used as input to the Geologic Framework Model. A Technical Assessment method used to evaluate these data with a two-fold approach: (1) comparison to the geophysical logs on which the contacts were, in part, based; and (2) evaluation of the data by mapping individual units using the entire data set. Qualification of the geophysical logs is being performed in a separate activity. A representative subset of the contacts data was chosen based on importance of the contact and representativeness of that contact in the total data set. An acceptance window was established for each contact based on the needs of the data users. Data determined to be within the acceptance window were determined to be adequate for their intended use in three-dimensional spatial modeling and were recommended to be Qualified. These methods were chosen to provide a two-pronged evaluation that examines both the origin and results of the data. The result of this evaluation is a recommendation to qualify all contacts. No data were found to lie outside the pre-determined acceptance window. Where no geophysical logs are available, data were evaluated in relation to surrounding data and by impact assessment. These data are also recommended to be qualified. The stratigraphic contact data contained in this report (Attachment VII; DTN: M00004QGFMPICK.000) are intended to replace the source data, which will remain unqualified.

  8. Effects of insoles contact on static balance

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ju Yong; Ryu, Young Uk; Yi, Chae Woo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effect of the degree of the contact area between the insoles and soles on static balance. [Subjects and Methods] Thirteen healthy male and female adults voluntarily participated. All of the subjects wore three different types of insoles (no orthotic insole, partial contact, full contact) in the present experiment. The subjects were instructed to place both feet parallel to each other and maintain static balance for 30 seconds. Center of pressure parameters (range, total distance, and mean velocity) were analyzed. [Results] The results show that the anteroposterior range and mediolateral (ML) total distance and velocity decreased when orthotic insoles with partial contact or full contact were used in comparison to when a flat insole (no orthotic insole) was used. Also, the ML range and total distance were lower with full contact than in the other two conditions. These results indicate that static balance improves as the degree of contact between the soles and insoles increases. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggests that using insoles with increased sole contact area would improve static balance ability. PMID:27190460

  9. 2 CFR 225.55 - Information contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Information contact. 225.55 Section 225.55 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF... GOVERNMENTS (OMB CIRCULAR A-87) § 225.55 Information contact. Further information concerning this part may...

  10. 2 CFR 225.55 - Information contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Information contact. 225.55 Section 225.55 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR STATE, LOCAL, AND INDIAN TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS (OMB CIRCULAR A-87) § 225.55 Information contact....

  11. 2 CFR 220.45 - Information contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Information contact. 220.45 Section 220.45 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF... CIRCULAR A-21) § 220.45 Information contact. Further information concerning this part may be obtained...

  12. 15 CFR 23.2 - Contact person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Contact person. 23.2 Section 23.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce USE OF PENALTY MAIL IN THE LOCATION AND RECOVERY OF MISSING CHILDREN § 23.2 Contact person. Tim Coss, Office of Administrative Services...

  13. 2 CFR 220.45 - Information contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Information contact. 220.45 Section 220.45 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF... CIRCULAR A-21) § 220.45 Information contact. Further information concerning this part may be obtained...

  14. 2 CFR 230.50 - Information contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Information contact. 230.50 Section 230.50 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-122) § 230.50 Information contact. Further...

  15. 2 CFR 230.50 - Information contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Information contact. 230.50 Section 230.50 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF... CIRCULAR A-122) § 230.50 Information contact. Further information concerning this part may be obtained...

  16. 2 CFR 230.50 - Information contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Information contact. 230.50 Section 230.50 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF... CIRCULAR A-122) § 230.50 Information contact. Further information concerning this part may be obtained...

  17. 2 CFR 220.45 - Information contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Information contact. 220.45 Section 220.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-21) § 220.45 Information contact. Further information concerning...

  18. 2 CFR 230.50 - Information contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Information contact. 230.50 Section 230.50 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF... CIRCULAR A-122) § 230.50 Information contact. Further information concerning this part may be obtained...

  19. 15 CFR 23.2 - Contact person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Contact person. 23.2 Section 23.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce USE OF PENALTY MAIL IN THE LOCATION AND RECOVERY OF MISSING CHILDREN § 23.2 Contact person. Tim Coss, Office of Administrative Services...

  20. 15 CFR 23.2 - Contact person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contact person. 23.2 Section 23.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce USE OF PENALTY MAIL IN THE LOCATION AND RECOVERY OF MISSING CHILDREN § 23.2 Contact person. Tim Coss, Office of Administrative Services...

  1. 2 CFR 225.55 - Information contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Information contact. 225.55 Section 225.55 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF... GOVERNMENTS (OMB CIRCULAR A-87) § 225.55 Information contact. Further information concerning this part may...

  2. 15 CFR 23.2 - Contact person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Contact person. 23.2 Section 23.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce USE OF PENALTY MAIL IN THE LOCATION AND RECOVERY OF MISSING CHILDREN § 23.2 Contact person. Tim Coss, Office of Administrative Services...

  3. 2 CFR 225.55 - Information contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Information contact. 225.55 Section 225.55 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF... GOVERNMENTS (OMB CIRCULAR A-87) § 225.55 Information contact. Further information concerning this part may...

  4. 5 CFR 2600.102 - Contact information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Contact information. 2600.102 Section... AND FUNCTIONS OF THE OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS § 2600.102 Contact information. (a) Address. The... numbers. OGE's main telephone number is 202-482-9300. Persons who are deaf or speech impaired may...

  5. 15 CFR 23.2 - Contact person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Contact person. 23.2 Section 23.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce USE OF PENALTY MAIL IN THE LOCATION AND RECOVERY OF MISSING CHILDREN § 23.2 Contact person. Tim Coss, Office of Administrative Services...

  6. 2 CFR 220.45 - Information contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Information contact. 220.45 Section 220.45 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF... CIRCULAR A-21) § 220.45 Information contact. Further information concerning this part may be obtained...

  7. 5 CFR 2600.102 - Contact information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Contact information. 2600.102 Section... AND FUNCTIONS OF THE OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS § 2600.102 Contact information. (a) Address. The... numbers. OGE's main telephone number is 202-482-9300. Persons who are deaf or speech impaired may...

  8. 3-2-1 Contact Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Television Workshop, New York, NY.

    This guide to the television program 3-2-1 Contact covers 20 theme weeks. The program is designed to bring students into closer contact with the science and technology in their everyday lives. This guide includes: (1) a brief introduction to the contents of each week's shows; (2) a detailed discussion of each week's primary concepts as well as…

  9. Implicit variational principle for contact Hamiltonian systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kaizhi; Wang, Lin; Yan, Jun

    2017-02-01

    We establish an implicit variational principle for the contact Hamiltonian systems generated by the Hamiltonian H(x, u, p) with respect to the contact 1-form α =\\text{d}u-p\\text{d}x under Tonelli and Lipschitz continuity conditions.

  10. Contact Hunger, The Beginning of Psychological Starvation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair, Donald C.

    1971-01-01

    The author contends that to be human is to have deep needs for contact, to become aware of these needs and to seek to have them satisfied in self and in others in appropriate ways. Counseling is a process in which contact can be established and these needs satisfied. (Author/CG)

  11. Contact micromechanics in granular media with clay

    SciTech Connect

    Ita, Stacey Leigh

    1994-08-01

    Many granular materials, including sedimentary rocks and soils, contain clay particles in the pores, grain contacts, or matrix. The amount and location of the clays and fluids can influence the mechanical and hydraulic properties of the granular material. This research investigated the mechanical effects of clay at grain-to-grain contacts in the presence of different fluids. Laboratory seismic wave propagation tests were conducted at ultrasonic frequencies using spherical glass beads coated with Montmorillonite clay (SWy-1) onto which different fluids were adsorbed. For all bead samples, seismic velocity increased and attenuation decreased as the contact stiffnesses increased with increasing stress demonstrating that grain contacts control seismic transmission in poorly consolidated and unconsolidated granular material. Coating the beads with clay added stiffness and introduced viscosity to the mechanical contact properties that increased the velocity and attenuation of the propagating seismic wave. Clay-fluid interactions were studied by allowing the clay coating to absorb water, ethyl alcohol, and hexadecane. Increasing water amounts initially increased seismic attenuation due to clay swelling at the contacts. Attenuation decreased for higher water amounts where the clay exceeded the plastic limit and was forced from the contact areas into the surrounding open pore space during sample consolidation. This work investigates how clay located at grain contacts affects the micromechanical, particularly seismic, behavior of granular materials. The need for this work is shown by a review of the effects of clays on seismic wave propagation, laboratory measurements of attenuation in granular media, and proposed mechanisms for attenuation in granular media.

  12. RACIAL CONTACT, PERSONALITY, AND GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ABNER, EDWARD V.; LEWIT, DAVID W.

    THIS STUDY TESTS THE HYPOTHESIS THAT BIRACIAL GROUPS IN WHICH RACEMATES WERE PAIRED FOR DIRECT CONTACT WOULD PERFORM BETTER THAN THOSE IN WHICH RACEMATES WERE ISOLATED. IT ALSO ASSUMED THAT ETHNOCENTRIC SUBJECTS WOULD PERFORM BETTER WITH CONTACT WITH A RACEMATE, AND THAT AGGRESSIVE SUBJECTS WOULD GET ALONG WELL WITHOUT IT. THE SUBJECTS WERE BOYS…

  13. Effective discrimination between biologically relevant contacts and crystal packing contacts using new determinants.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiesi; Guo, Yanzhi; Fu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yu; Li, Wenling; Li, Menglong

    2014-11-01

    In the structural models determined by X-ray crystallography, contacts between molecules can be divided into two categories: biologically relevant contacts and crystal packing contacts. With the growth in the number and quality of available large crystal packing contacts structures, distinguishing crystal packing contacts from biologically relevant contacts remains a difficult task, which can lead to wrong interpretation of structural models. In this study, we performed a systematic analysis on the biologically relevant contacts and crystal packing contacts. The analysis results reveal that biologically contacts are more tightly packed than crystal packing contacts. This property of biologically contacts may contribute to the formation of their interfacial core region. Meanwhile, the differences between the core and surface region of biologically contacts in amino acid composition and evolutionary measure are more dramatic than crystal packing contacts and these differences appear to be useful in distinguishing these two categories of contacts. On the basis of the features derived from our analysis, we developed a random forest model to classify biological relevant contacts and crystal packing contacts. Our method can achieve a high receiver operating curve of 0.923 in the 5-fold cross-validation and accuracies of 91.4% and 91.7% for two different test sets. Moreover, in a comparison study, our model outperforms other existing methods, such as DiMoVo, Pita, Pisa, and Eppic. We believe that this study will provide useful help in the validation of oligomeric proteins and protein complexes. The model and all data used in this paper are freely available at http://cic.scu.edu.cn/bioinformatics/bio-cry.zip.

  14. Contact gating at GHz frequency in graphene

    PubMed Central

    Wilmart, Q.; Inhofer, A.; Boukhicha, M.; Yang, W.; Rosticher, M.; Morfin, P.; Garroum, N.; Fève, G.; Berroir, J.-M.; Plaçais, B.

    2016-01-01

    The paradigm of graphene transistors is based on the gate modulation of the channel carrier density by means of a local channel gate. This standard architecture is subject to the scaling limit of the channel length and further restrictions due to access and contact resistances impeding the device performance. We propose a novel design, overcoming these issues by implementing additional local gates underneath the contact region which allow a full control of the Klein barrier taking place at the contact edge. In particular, our work demonstrates the GHz operation of transistors driven by independent contact gates. We benchmark the standard channel and novel contact gating and report for the later dynamical transconductance levels at the state of the art. Our finding may find applications in electronics and optoelectronics whenever there is need to control independently the Fermi level and the electrostatic potential of electronic sources or to get rid of cumbersome local channel gates. PMID:26879709

  15. Mixed formulation for frictionless contact problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Kim, Kyun O.

    1989-01-01

    Simple mixed finite element models and a computational precedure are presented for the solution of frictionless contact problems. The analytical formulation is based on a form of Reissner's large rotation theory of the structure with the effects of transverse shear deformation included. The contact conditions are incorporated into the formulation by using a perturbed Lagrangian approach with the fundamental unknowns consisting of the internal forces (stress resultants), the generalized displacements, and the Lagrange multipliers associated with the contact conditions. The element characteristic array are obtained by using a modified form of the two-field Hellinger-Reissner mixed variational principle. The internal forces and the Lagrange multipliers are allowed to be discontinuous at interelement boundaries. The Newton-Raphson iterative scheme is used for the solution of the nonlinear algebraic equations, and the determination of the contact area and the contact pressures.

  16. Reliable measurement of the receding contact angle.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, Juuso T; Huhtamäki, Tommi; Ikkala, Olli; Ras, Robin H A

    2013-03-26

    Surface wettability is usually evaluated by the contact angle between the perimeter of a water drop and the surface. However, this single measurement is not enough for proper characterization, and the so-called advancing and receding contact angles also need to be measured. Measuring the receding contact angle can be challenging, especially for extremely hydrophobic surfaces. We demonstrate a reliable procedure by using the common needle-in-the-sessile-drop method. Generally, the contact line movement needs to be followed, and true receding movement has to be distinguished from "pseudo-movement" occurring before the receding angle is reached. Depending on the contact angle hysteresis, the initial size of the drop may need to be surprisingly large to achieve a reliable result. Although our motivation for this work was the characterization of superhydrophobic surfaces, we also show that this method works universally ranging from hydrophilic to superhydrophobic surfaces.

  17. Tear exchange and contact lenses: a review.

    PubMed

    Muntz, Alex; Subbaraman, Lakshman N; Sorbara, Luigina; Jones, Lyndon

    2015-01-01

    Tear exchange beneath a contact lens facilitates ongoing fluid replenishment between the ocular surface and the lens. This exchange is considerably lower during the wear of soft lenses compared with rigid lenses. As a result, the accumulation of tear film debris and metabolic by-products between the cornea and a soft contact lens increases, potentially leading to complications. Lens design innovations have been proposed, but no substantial improvement in soft lens tear exchange has been reported. Researchers have determined post-lens tear exchange using several methods, notably fluorophotometry. However, due to technological limitations, little remains known about tear hydrodynamics around the lens and, to-date, true tear exchange with contact lenses has not been shown. Further knowledge regarding tear exchange could be vital in aiding better contact lens design, with the prospect of alleviating certain adverse ocular responses. This article reviews the literature to-date on the significance, implications and measurement of tear exchange with contact lenses.

  18. Nanodrop contact angles from molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravipati, Srikanth; Aymard, Benjamin; Yatsyshin, Petr; Galindo, Amparo; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2016-11-01

    The contact angle between three phases being in thermodynamic equilibrium is highly sensitive to the nature of the intermolecular forces as well as to various fluctuation effects. Determining the Young contact angle of a sessile drop sitting on a substrate from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations is a highly non-trivial task. Most commonly employed methods for finding droplet contact angles from MD simulation data either require large numbers of particles or are system-dependent. We propose a systematic geometry based methodology for extracting the contact angle from simulated sessile droplets by analysing an appropriately coarse-grained density field. To demonstrate the method, we consider Lennard-Jones (LJ) and SPC/E water nanodroplets of different sizes sitting on planar LJ walls. Our results are in good agreement with Young contact angle values computed employing test-area perturbation method.

  19. Tear exchange and contact lenses: A review

    PubMed Central

    Muntz, Alex; Subbaraman, Lakshman N.; Sorbara, Luigina; Jones, Lyndon

    2015-01-01

    Tear exchange beneath a contact lens facilitates ongoing fluid replenishment between the ocular surface and the lens. This exchange is considerably lower during the wear of soft lenses compared with rigid lenses. As a result, the accumulation of tear film debris and metabolic by-products between the cornea and a soft contact lens increases, potentially leading to complications. Lens design innovations have been proposed, but no substantial improvement in soft lens tear exchange has been reported. Researchers have determined post-lens tear exchange using several methods, notably fluorophotometry. However, due to technological limitations, little remains known about tear hydrodynamics around the lens and, to-date, true tear exchange with contact lenses has not been shown. Further knowledge regarding tear exchange could be vital in aiding better contact lens design, with the prospect of alleviating certain adverse ocular responses. This article reviews the literature to-date on the significance, implications and measurement of tear exchange with contact lenses. PMID:25575892

  20. Surface Contact Model for Comets and Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackmore, Lars James C.; Trease, Brian P.; Acikmese, Behcet; Mandic, Milan; Carson, John M.

    2011-01-01

    A contact force model was developed for use in touch and go (TAG) surface sampling simulations on small celestial bodies such as comets and asteroids. In TAG scenarios, a spacecraft descending toward the surface of a small body comes into contact with the surface for a short duration of time, collects material samples with a sampler device, and then ascends to leave the surface. The surface contact required 6-DOF (degrees of freedom) dynamics models due to coupling of the attitude and translation dynamics during the contact. The model described here is for contact scenarios that utilize a rotating brush wheel sampler (BWS) to collect surface material. The model includes stiffness and damping of the surface material during BWS vertical motion, lateral friction from the BWS dragging across the surface, and lateral shear from the rotating BWS scooping the surface material. This model is useful for any mission to asteroids or comets that incorporates surface sampling operations.

  1. Silicone oil contamination and electrical contact resistance degradation of low-force gold contacts.

    SciTech Connect

    Dugger, Michael Thomas; Dickrell, Daniel John, III

    2006-02-01

    Hot-switched low-force gold electrical contact testing was performed using a nanomechanical test apparatus to ascertain the sensitivity of simulated microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) contact to silicone oil contamination. The observed cyclic contact resistance degradation was dependent on both closure rate and noncontact applied voltage. The decomposition of silicone oil from electrical arcing was hypothesized as the degradation mechanism.

  2. Contact angle hysteresis, adhesion, and marine biofouling.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Donald L; Brady, Robert F; Lam, Karen; Schmidt, Dale C; Chaudhury, Manoj K

    2004-03-30

    Adhesive and marine biofouling release properties of coatings containing surface-oriented perfluoroalkyl groups were investigated. These coatings were prepared by cross-linking a copolymer of 1H,1H,2H,2H-heptadecafluorodecyl acrylate and acrylic acid with a copolymer of poly(2-isopropenyl-2-oxazoline) and methyl methacrylate at different molar ratios. The relationships between contact angle, contact angle hysteresis, adhesion, and marine biofouling were studied. Adhesion was determined by peel tests using pressure-sensitive adhesives. The chemical nature of the surfaces was studied by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Resistance to marine biofouling of an optimized coating was studied by immersion in seawater and compared to previous, less optimized coatings. The adhesive release properties of the coatings did not correlate well with the surface energies of the coatings estimated from the static and advancing contact angles nor with the amount of fluorine present on the surface. The adhesive properties of the surfaces, however, show a correlation with water receding contact angles and contact angle hysteresis (or wetting hysteresis) resulting from surface penetration and surface reconstruction. Coatings having the best release properties had both the highest cross-link density and the lowest contact angle hysteresis. An optimized coating exhibited unprecedented resistance to marine biofouling. Water contact angle hysteresis appears to correlate with marine biofouling resistance.

  3. High Reynolds number oscillating contact lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ziyuan; Schultz, William W.; Perlin, Marc

    1999-11-01

    Stainless steel, instead of Ting and Perlin's (1995) glass, is used in vertically oscillating plate experiments for a large range of Reynolds numbers. We used the non-wetting stainless steel to minimize the static meniscus that we ignore in our analysis. Except for the different static contact angle serving as an initial condition, the dynamic features in both cases are similar. In low Reynolds number oscillation, a pinned-edge condition can appropriately describe the contact line motion. In high Reynolds number oscillation, contact-line behavior becomes nonlinear and very complicated. The periodic, non-sinusoidal motion exhibits three types of motion: stick (associated with contact angle hysteresis), partial stick, and total slip. Increasing the Reynolds number, reduces the hysteresis phenomenon that still cannot be ignored. An edge condition allowing both the static range and dynamic interface behavior uses a slip coefficient mode that varies with time, stroke amplitude and frequency by introducing additional harmonic modes. Using this edge condition, we calculate the dynamic contact angle and the contact-line position for both stick and slip motion and compare them to our experimental data. Results show that the inviscid, linearized boundary-value problem combined with our slip coefficient model provides an improved prediction of the contact-line behavior.

  4. Resistivity of Rotated Graphite-Graphene Contacts.

    PubMed

    Chari, Tarun; Ribeiro-Palau, Rebeca; Dean, Cory R; Shepard, Kenneth

    2016-07-13

    Robust electrical contact of bulk conductors to two-dimensional (2D) material, such as graphene, is critical to the use of these 2D materials in practical electronic devices. Typical metallic contacts to graphene, whether edge or areal, yield a resistivity of no better than 100 Ω μm but are typically >10 kΩ μm. In this Letter, we employ single-crystal graphite for the bulk contact to graphene instead of conventional metals. The graphite contacts exhibit a transfer length up to four-times longer than in conventional metallic contacts. Furthermore, we are able to drive the contact resistivity to as little as 6.6 Ω μm(2) by tuning the relative orientation of the graphite and graphene crystals. We find that the contact resistivity exhibits a 60° periodicity corresponding to crystal symmetry with additional sharp decreases around 22° and 39°, which are among the commensurate angles of twisted bilayer graphene.

  5. Dynamics of the Molten Contact Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonin, Ain A.; Schiaffino, Stefano

    1996-01-01

    In contrast to the ordinary contact line problem, virtually no information is available on the similar problem associated with a molten material spreading on a solid which is below the melt's fusion point. The latter is a more complex problem which heat transfer and solidification take place simultaneously with spreading, and requires answers not only for the hot melt's advance speed over the cold solid as a function of contact angle, but also for how one is to predict the point of the molten contact line's arrest by freezing. This issues are of importance in evolving methods of materials processing. The purpose of our work is to develop, based on both experiments and theory, an understanding of the dynamic processes that occur when a molten droplet touches a subcooled solid, spreads partly over it by capillary action, and freezes. We seek answers to the following basic questions. First, what is the relationship between the melt's contact line speed and the apparent (dynamic) contact angle? Secondly, at what point will the contact line modon be arrested by freezing? The talk will describe three components of our work: (1) deposition experiments with small molten droplets; (2) investigation of the dynamics of the molten contact line by means of a novel forced spreading method; and (3) an attempt to provide a theoretical framework for answering the basic questions posed above.

  6. Pressure dependence of the contact angle.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiyu; Farouk, T; Ward, C A

    2007-06-07

    When a liquid and its vapor contact a smooth, homogeneous surface, Gibbsian thermodynamics indicates that the contact angle depends on the pressure at the three-phase line of an isothermal system. When a recently proposed adsorption isotherm for a solid-vapor interface is combined with the equilibrium conditions and the system is assumed to be in a cylinder where the liquid-vapor interface can be approximated as spherical, the contact-angle-pressure relation can be made explicit. It indicates that a range of contact angles can be observed on a smooth homogeneous surface by changing the pressure at the three-phase line, but it also indicates that the adsorption at the solid-liquid interface is negative, and leads to the prediction that the contact angle increases with pressure. The predicted dependence of the contact angle on pressure is investigated experimentally in a system that has an independent mechanism for determining when thermodynamic equilibrium is reached. The predictions are in agreement with the measurements. The results provide a possible explanation for contact angle hysteresis.

  7. Phylodynamics on local sexual contact networks.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, David A; Kouyos, Roger; Günthard, Huldrych F; Stadler, Tanja

    2017-03-01

    Phylodynamic models are widely used in infectious disease epidemiology to infer the dynamics and structure of pathogen populations. However, these models generally assume that individual hosts contact one another at random, ignoring the fact that many pathogens spread through highly structured contact networks. We present a new framework for phylodynamics on local contact networks based on pairwise epidemiological models that track the status of pairs of nodes in the network rather than just individuals. Shifting our focus from individuals to pairs leads naturally to coalescent models that describe how lineages move through networks and the rate at which lineages coalesce. These pairwise coalescent models not only consider how network structure directly shapes pathogen phylogenies, but also how the relationship between phylogenies and contact networks changes depending on epidemic dynamics and the fraction of infected hosts sampled. By considering pathogen phylogenies in a probabilistic framework, these coalescent models can also be used to estimate the statistical properties of contact networks directly from phylogenies using likelihood-based inference. We use this framework to explore how much information phylogenies retain about the underlying structure of contact networks and to infer the structure of a sexual contact network underlying a large HIV-1 sub-epidemic in Switzerland.

  8. Toward patient-specific articular contact mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Ateshian, Gerard A.; Henak, Corinne R.; Weiss, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanics of contacting cartilage layers is fundamentally important to understanding the development, homeostasis and pathology of diarthrodial joints. Because of the highly nonlinear nature of both the materials and the contact problem itself, numerical methods such as the finite element method are typically incorporated to obtain solutions. Over the course of five decades, we have moved from an initial qualitative understanding of articular cartilage material behavior to the ability to perform complex, three-dimensional contact analysis, including multiphasic material representations. This history includes the development of analytical and computational contact analysis methods that now provide the ability to perform highly nonlinear analyses. Numerical implementations of contact analysis based on the finite element method are rapidly advancing and will soon enable patient-specific analysis of joint contact mechanics using models based on medical image data. In addition to contact stress on the articular surfaces, these techniques can predict variations in strain and strain through the cartilage layers, providing the basis to predict damage and failure. This opens up exciting areas for future research and application to patient-specific diagnosis and treatment planning applied to a variety of pathologies that affect joint function and cartilage homeostasis. PMID:25698236

  9. Numerical analysis of human dental occlusal contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos, F. S.; Las Casas, E. B.; Godoy, G. C. D.; Meireles, A. B.

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain real contact areas, forces, and pressures acting on human dental enamel as a function of the nominal pressure during dental occlusal contact. The described development consisted of three steps: characterization of the surface roughness by 3D contact profilometry test, finite element analysis of micro responses for each pair of main asperities in contact, and homogenization of macro responses using an assumed probability density function. The inelastic deformation of enamel was considered, adjusting the stress-strain relationship of sound enamel to that obtained from instrumented indentation tests conducted with spherical tip. A mechanical part of the static friction coefficient was estimated as the ratio between tangential and normal components of the overall resistive force, resulting in μd = 0.057. Less than 1% of contact pairs reached the yield stress of enamel, indicating that the occlusal contact is essentially elastic. The micro-models indicated an average hardness of 6.25GPa, and the homogenized result for macroscopic interface was around 9GPa. Further refinements of the methodology and verification using experimental data can provide a better understanding of processes related to contact, friction and wear of human tooth enamel.

  10. Exploring the Nature of Contact Freezing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselev, A. A.; Hoffmann, N.; Duft, D.; Leisner, T.

    2012-12-01

    The freezing of supercooled water droplets upon contact with aerosol particles (contact nucleation of ice) is the least understood mechanism of ice formation in atmospheric clouds. Although experimental evidences suggest that some aerosols can be better IN in the contact than in the immersion mode (that is, triggering ice nucleation at higher temperature), no final explanation of this phenomena currently exists. On the other hand, the contact freezing is believed to be responsible for the enhanced rate of secondary ice formation occasionally observed in LIDAR measurements in the cold mixed phase clouds. Recently we have been able to show that the freezing of supercooled droplets electrodynamically levitated in the laminar flow containing mineral dust particles (kaolinite) is a process solely governed by a rate of collisions between the supercooled droplet and the aerosol particles. We have shown that the probability of droplet freezing on a single contact with aerosol particle may differ over an order of magnitude for kaolinite particles having different genesis and morphology. In this presentation we extend the study of contact nucleation of ice and compare the IN efficiency measured for DMA-selected kaolinite, illite and hematite particles. We show that the freezing probability increases towards unity as the temperature decreases and discuss the functional form of this temperature dependence. We explore the size dependence of the contact freezing probability and show that it scales with the surface area of the particles, thus resembling the immersion freezing behavior. However, for all minerals investigated so far, the contact freezing has been shown to dominate over immersion freezing on the short experimental time scales. Finally, based on the combined ESEM and electron microprobe analysis, we discuss the significance of particle morphology and variability of chemical composition on its IN efficiency in contact mode.

  11. Evaluation of metal-nanowire electrical contacts by measuring contact end resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hongsik; Beresford, Roderic; Ha, Ryong; Choi, Heon-Jin; Shin, Hyunjung; Xu, Jimmy

    2012-06-01

    It is known, but often unappreciated, that the performance of nanowire (NW)-based electrical devices can be significantly affected by electrical contacts between electrodes and NWs, sometimes to the extent that it is really the contacts that determine the performance. To correctly understand and design NW device operation, it is thus important to carefully measure the contact resistance and evaluate the contact parameters, specific contact resistance and transfer length. A four-terminal pattern or a transmission line model (TLM) pattern has been widely used to measure contact resistance of NW devices and the TLM has been typically used to extract contact parameters of NW devices. However, the conventional method assumes that the electrical properties of semiconducting NW regions covered by a metal are not changed after electrode formation. In this study, we report that the conventional methods for contact evaluation can give rise to considerable errors because of an altered property of the NW under the electrodes. We demonstrate that more correct contact resistance can be measured from the TLM pattern rather than the four-terminal pattern and correct contact parameters including the effects of changed NW properties under electrodes can be evaluated by using the contact end resistance measurement method.

  12. Sensitivity of medial and lateral knee contact force predictions to frontal plane alignment and contact locations.

    PubMed

    Saliba, Christopher M; Brandon, Scott C E; Deluzio, Kevin J

    2017-03-12

    Musculoskeletal models are increasingly used to estimate medial and lateral knee contact forces, which are difficult to measure in vivo. The sensitivity of contact force predictions to modeling parameters is important to the interpretation and implication of results generated by the model. The purpose of this study was to quantify the sensitivity of knee contact force predictions to simultaneous errors in frontal plane knee alignment and contact locations under different dynamic conditions. We scaled a generic musculoskeletal model for N=23 subjects' stature and radiographic knee alignment, then perturbed frontal plane alignment and mediolateral contact locations within experimentally-possible ranges of 10° to -10° and 10 to -10mm, respectively. The sensitivity of first peak, second peak, and mean medial and lateral knee contact forces to knee adduction angle and contact locations was modeled using linear regression. Medial loads increased, and lateral loads decreased, by between 3% and 6% bodyweight for each degree of varus perturbation. Shifting the medial contact point medially increased medial loads and decreased lateral loads by between 1% and 4% bodyweight per millimeter. This study demonstrates that realistic measurement errors of 5mm (contact distance) or 5° (frontal plane alignment) could result in a combined 50% BW error in subject specific contact force estimates. We also show that model sensitivity varies between subjects as a result of differences in gait dynamics. These results demonstrate that predicted knee joint contact forces should be considered as a range of possible values determined by model uncertainty.

  13. Evaluation of the electrical contact area in contact-mode scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celano, Umberto; Hantschel, Thomas; Giammaria, Guido; Chintala, Ravi Chandra; Conard, Thierry; Bender, Hugo; Vandervorst, Wilfried

    2015-06-01

    The tunneling current through an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip is used to evaluate the effective electrical contact area, which exists between tip and sample in contact-AFM electrical measurements. A simple procedure for the evaluation of the effective electrical contact area is described using conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) in combination with a thin dielectric. We characterize the electrical contact area for coated metal and doped-diamond tips operated at low force (<200 nN) in contact mode. In both cases, we observe that only a small fraction (<10 nm2) of the physical contact (˜100 nm2) is effectively contributing to the transport phenomena. Assuming this reduced area is confined to the central area of the physical contact, these results explain the sub-10 nm electrical resolution observed in C-AFM measurements.

  14. Evaluation of the electrical contact area in contact-mode scanning probe microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Celano, Umberto E-mail: u.celano@gmail.com; Chintala, Ravi Chandra; Vandervorst, Wilfried; Hantschel, Thomas; Giammaria, Guido; Conard, Thierry; Bender, Hugo

    2015-06-07

    The tunneling current through an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip is used to evaluate the effective electrical contact area, which exists between tip and sample in contact-AFM electrical measurements. A simple procedure for the evaluation of the effective electrical contact area is described using conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) in combination with a thin dielectric. We characterize the electrical contact area for coated metal and doped-diamond tips operated at low force (<200 nN) in contact mode. In both cases, we observe that only a small fraction (<10 nm{sup 2}) of the physical contact (∼100 nm{sup 2}) is effectively contributing to the transport phenomena. Assuming this reduced area is confined to the central area of the physical contact, these results explain the sub-10 nm electrical resolution observed in C-AFM measurements.

  15. Systemic contact dermatitis from propolis ingestion.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eujin; Lee, Jeong Deuk; Cho, Sang Hyun

    2011-02-01

    Propolis, also known as bee glue, is a substance collected by worker bees and it is used as a material for constructing and maintaining their beehives. It has been used topically and orally by humans for its anti-inflammatory properties. However, the growing use of propolis has been paralleled by reports of allergic contact dermatitis as a reaction to the substance. Contact dermatitis with generalized cutaneous manifestations elicited by propolis ingestion has not been previously reported. Here we report on the first case of systemic contact dermatitis from propolis ingestion in a 36-year-old woman.

  16. [Correction of keratoconus with soft contact lenses].

    PubMed

    Koos, D; Bitea, M J

    1989-01-01

    The authors present their experience in using soft contact lenses in 33 eyes with keratoconus (18 patients). Adaptation was possible only when the doctor-patient collaboration was good. Visual acuity (VA) of 0.4-1 was obtained in 85% cases versus 42.5% when glasses were used. In the period under observation no case of VA decrease was recorded. The subjects tolerated well the contact lenses. The specialty literature contains data indicating not only the optical role of the contact lenses but also their therapeutic, tectorial role.

  17. Hertzian contact in two and three dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    The basic solution to the problem of mechanical contact between elastically deforming solids was proposed by Hertz over a century ago and has been used by tribologists and others ever since in a steadily increasing number of applications. While the theoretical development is not conceptually difficult and treatments exist to suit all tastes, it is nonetheless interesting to trace the relationships among the solutions in different dimensions. Such an approach is used herein to shed light on the curious and sometimes perplexing behavior of line contacts. A number of the more frequently used contact expressions together as a convenient reference and for comparative purposes.

  18. Optical contact approach to laser rod support.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurski, T. R.

    1972-01-01

    The successful application of an optical contact is described between a ruby laser rod that has no mechanical support and a sapphire rod. The contact is found to be durable in the environmental conditions associated with a high-power pulsed ruby laser. The described contact technique makes it possible to construct a laser oscillator using an ellipsoidal pump mirror that does not employ dielectric coatings in the cavity. Another advantage consists in that the ruby laser is not shaded from the pump light by mounting jigs at its ends.

  19. Hybrid emitter all back contact solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Loscutoff, Paul; Rim, Seung

    2016-04-12

    An all back contact solar cell has a hybrid emitter design. The solar cell has a thin dielectric layer formed on a backside surface of a single crystalline silicon substrate. One emitter of the solar cell is made of doped polycrystalline silicon that is formed on the thin dielectric layer. The other emitter of the solar cell is formed in the single crystalline silicon substrate and is made of doped single crystalline silicon. The solar cell includes contact holes that allow metal contacts to connect to corresponding emitters.

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis: Patient management and education.

    PubMed

    Mowad, Christen M; Anderson, Bryan; Scheinman, Pamela; Pootongkam, Suwimon; Nedorost, Susan; Brod, Bruce

    2016-06-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common diagnosis resulting from exposure to a chemical or chemicals in a patient's personal care products, home, or work environment. Once patch testing has been performed, the education and management process begins. After the causative allergens have been identified, patient education is critical to the proper treatment and management of the patient. This must occur if the dermatitis is to resolve. Detailed education is imperative, and several resources are highlighted. Photoallergic contact dermatitis and occupational contact dermatitis are other considerations a clinician must keep in mind.

  1. Frictional contact of two rotating elastic disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrik, V. I.; Ulitko, A. F.

    2007-10-01

    We study the problem of constrained uniform rotation of two precompressed elastic disks made of different materials with friction forces in the contact region taken into account. The exact solution of the problem is obtained by the Wiener-Hopf method. An important stage in the study of rolling of elastic bodies is the Hertz theory [1] of contact interaction of elastic bodies with smoothly varying curvature in the contact region under normal compression. Friction in the contact region is assumed to be negligible. If there are tangential forces and the friction in the contact region is taken into account, then the picture of contact interaction of elastic bodies changes significantly. Although the normal contact stress distribution strictly follows the Hertz theory for bodies with identical elastic properties and apparently slightly differs from the Hertz diagram for bodies made of different materials, the presence of tangential stresses results in the splitting of the contact region into the adhesion region and the slip region. This phenomenon was first established by Reynolds [2], who experimentally discovered slip regions near points of material entry in and exit from the contact region under constrained rolling of an aluminum cylinder on a rubber base. The theoretical justification of the partial slip phenomenon in the contact region, discovered by Reynolds [2], can be found in Carter [3] and Fromm [4]. Moreover, Fromm presents a complete solution of the problem of constrained uniform rotation of two identical disks. Apparently, Fromm was the first to consider the so-called "clamped" strain and postulated that slip is absent at the point at which the disk materials enter the contact region. Ishlinskii [5, 6] gave an engineering solution of the problem on slip in the contact region under rolling friction. Considering the problem on a rigid disk rolling on an elastic half-plane, we model this problem by an infinite set of elastic vertical rods using Winkler

  2. Contact allergy to cinnamon: case report.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Steve; Avon, Sylvie Louise

    2008-06-01

    Allergic contact stomatitis is a rare disorder that is unfamiliar to most clinicians. The vast majority of cases are associated with consumption of products containing cinnamaldehyde or cinnamon essential oil, which are used as flavourings because of their pleasant taste and sensation of freshness. We report here the case of a patient who was diagnosed with alllergic contact stomatitis due to cinnamon-flavoured chewing gum. The clinical features of allergic contact stomatitis, which may occur indiscriminately on any of the oral mucosa, include edema and erythroplakic, ulcerous or hyperkeratotic changes, generally accompanied by a burning sensation. The histopathologic aspect of allergic contact stomatitis is nonspecific but tends to support the clinical diagnosis. Treatment generally consists of eliminating the causal agent. To avoid unnecessary diagnostic procedures and treatments, it is important for clinicians to recognize this disorder to be able to diagnose it quickly and accurately.

  3. Contact-eutectic-lens fabrication technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, F. G.; Yue, A. S.; Yu, J. G.

    1975-01-01

    Method enables use of crystal or semiconductor materials with selective spectral-response characteristics (ultraviolet, visible, or infrared wavelengths) in fabrication of contact lenses, reading glasses, and photographic processing equipment.

  4. Self-Contact for Rods on Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Heijden, G. H. M.; Peletier, M. A.; Planqué, R.

    2006-11-01

    We study self-contact phenomena in elastic rods that are constrained to lie on a cylinder. By choosing a particular set of variables to describe the rod centerline the variational setting is made particularly simple: the strain energy is a second-order functional of a single scalar variable, and the self-contact constraint is written as an integral inequality. Using techniques from ordinary differential equation theory (comparison principles) and variational calculus (cut-and-paste arguments) we fully characterize the structure of constrained minimizers. An important auxiliary result states that the set of self-contact points is continuous, a result that contrasts with known examples from contact problems in free rods.

  5. Theory of reciprocating contact for viscoelastic solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putignano, Carmine; Carbone, Giuseppe; Dini, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    A theory of reciprocating contacts for linear viscoelastic materials is presented. Results are discussed for the case of a rigid sphere sinusoidally driven in sliding contact with a viscoelastic half-space. Depending on the size of the contact, the frequency and amplitude of the reciprocating motion, and on the relaxation time of the viscoelastic body, we establish that the contact behavior may range from the steady-state viscoelastic solution, in which traction forces always oppose the direction of the sliding rigid punch, to a more elaborate trend, which is due to the strong interaction between different regions of the path covered during the reciprocating motion. Practical implications span a number of applications, ranging from seismic engineering to biotechnology.

  6. NES: How to Contact the NES Team

    NASA Video Gallery

    Learn how to get your questions answered by contacting the NASA Explorer Schools team through email or toll-free telephone. You may use the FAQs to find information about the project. There is also...

  7. Front contact solar cell with formed emitter

    DOEpatents

    Cousins, Peter John [Menlo Park, CA

    2012-07-17

    A bipolar solar cell includes a backside junction formed by an N-type silicon substrate and a P-type polysilicon emitter formed on the backside of the solar cell. An antireflection layer may be formed on a textured front surface of the silicon substrate. A negative polarity metal contact on the front side of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the substrate, while a positive polarity metal contact on the backside of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the polysilicon emitter. An external electrical circuit may be connected to the negative and positive metal contacts to be powered by the solar cell. The positive polarity metal contact may form an infrared reflecting layer with an underlying dielectric layer for increased solar radiation collection.

  8. Front contact solar cell with formed emitter

    DOEpatents

    Cousins, Peter John

    2014-11-04

    A bipolar solar cell includes a backside junction formed by an N-type silicon substrate and a P-type polysilicon emitter formed on the backside of the solar cell. An antireflection layer may be formed on a textured front surface of the silicon substrate. A negative polarity metal contact on the front side of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the substrate, while a positive polarity metal contact on the backside of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the polysilicon emitter. An external electrical circuit may be connected to the negative and positive metal contacts to be powered by the solar cell. The positive polarity metal contact may form an infrared reflecting layer with an underlying dielectric layer for increased solar radiation collection.

  9. [Use of rigid gas permeable contact lenses].

    PubMed

    Habela, M

    1992-01-01

    By application of contact lenses destined for a extended wearing, for preservation of a normal structure and metabolism of the cornea a considerable permeability of the contact lens for oxygen is necessary (Dk/L 75-80). The actually most popular in the world soft contact lenses have no such parameters. The application of rigid lenses produced from materials of high permeability for oxygen enables the extended wearing without substantial disturbances of the corneal metabolism. The paper presents a new generation of fluoro-silicone acrylates used for the production of contact lenses permeable for oxygen. Discussed are the problems connected with the adjusting of these lenses, their tolerance and influence on the corneal metabolism.

  10. Nanoparticle derived contacts for photovoltaic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ginley, D.S.

    1999-10-20

    Contacts are becoming increasingly important as PV devices move to higher efficiency and lower cost. The authors present an approach to developing contacts using nanoparticle-based precursors. Both elemental, alloy and compound nanoparticles can be employed for contacts. Ink based approaches can be utilized at low temperatures and utilize direct write techniques such as ink jet and screen printing. The ability to control the composition of the nanoparticle allows improved control of the contact metallurgy and the potential for thermodynamically stable interfaces. A key requirement is the ability to control the interface between particles and between particles and the substrate. The authors illustrate some of these principals with recent results on Al, Cu and (Hg,Cu)Te. They show that for the elemental materials control of the surface can prevent oxide formation and act as glue to control the reactivity of the nanoparticles.

  11. Contact-resistance test probes: A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, C. H.; Maxwell, J. H.; Mc Dermott, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    Devices are used in inspection of contact resistance in plated connectors after assembly into cables. System permits rapid inspection of connectors when mating connectors or special apparatus are not available, and enables source of excessive resistance to be precisely determined.

  12. Contact-Allergic Reactions to Cosmetics

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, An

    2011-01-01

    Contact-allergic reactions to cosmetics may be delayed-type reactions such as allergic and photo-allergic contact dermatitis, and more exceptionally also immediate-type reactions, that is, contact urticaria. Fragrances and preservative agents are the most important contact allergens, but reactions also occur to category-specific products such as hair dyes and other hair-care products, nail cosmetics, sunscreens, as well as to antioxidants, vehicles, emulsifiers, and, in fact, any possible cosmetic ingredient. Patch and prick testing to detect the respective culprits remains the golden standard for diagnosis, although additional tests might be useful as well. Once the specific allergens are identified, the patients should be informed of which products can be safely used in the future. PMID:21461388

  13. Eutectic Contact Inks for Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, B.

    1985-01-01

    Low-resistance electrical contacts formed on solar cells by melting powders of eutectic composition of semiconductor and dopant. Process improves cell performance without subjecting cell to processing temperatures high enough to degrade other characteristics.

  14. NUMERICAL MODELING OF CATHODE CONTACT MATERIAL DENSIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Koeppel, Brian J.; Liu, Wenning N.; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2011-11-01

    Numerical modeling was used to simulate the constrained sintering process of the cathode contact layer during assembly of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). A finite element model based on the continuum theory for sintering of porous bodies was developed and used to investigate candidate low-temperature cathode contact materials. Constitutive parameters for various contact materials under investigation were estimated from dilatometry screening tests, and the influence of processing time, processing temperature, initial grain size, and applied compressive stress on the free sintering response was predicted for selected candidate materials. The densification behavior and generated stresses within a 5-cell planar SOFC stack during sintering, high temperature operation, and room temperature shutdown were predicted. Insufficient constrained densification was observed in the stack at the proposed heat treatment, but beneficial effects of reduced grain size, compressive stack preload, and reduced thermal expansion coefficient on the contact layer densification and stresses were observed.

  15. The contact area dependent interfacial thermal conductance

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chenhan; Wei, Zhiyong; Bi, Kedong; Yang, Juekuan; Chen, Yunfei; Wang, Jian

    2015-12-15

    The effects of the contact area on the interfacial thermal conductance σ are investigated using the atomic Green’s function method. Different from the prediction of the heat diffusion transport model, we obtain an interesting result that the interfacial thermal conductance per unit area Λ is positively dependent on the contact area as the area varies from a few atoms to several square nanometers. Through calculating the phonon transmission function, it is uncovered that the phonon transmission per unit area increases with the increased contact area. This is attributed to that each atom has more neighboring atoms in the counterpart of the interface with the increased contact area, which provides more channels for phonon transport.

  16. Thermal Conductances of Pressed Copper Contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salerno, L.; Kittel, P.; Spivak, A.

    1986-01-01

    Report describes investigation of thermal conductivities of smooth copper contacts pressed together at liquid-helium temperatures. Investigation prompted by need for accurate thermal models for infrared detectors and other cryogenic instruments.

  17. Identity Theft: A Study in Contact Centres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moir, Iain; Weir, George R. S.

    This paper explores the recent phenomenon of identity theft. In particular, it examines the contact centre environment as a mechanism for this to occur. Through a survey that was conducted amongst forty-five contact centre workers in the Glasgow area we determined that contact centres can and do provide a mechanism for identity theft. Specifically, we found a particularly high incidence of agents who had previously dealt with phone calls that they considered suspicious. Furthermore, there are agents within such environments who have previously been offered money in exchange for customers' details, or who know of fellow workers who received such offers. Lastly, we identify specific practices within contact centres that may contribute to the likelihood of identity theft.

  18. Allergic Contact Dermatitis Induced by Textile Necklace

    PubMed Central

    Nygaard, Uffe; Kralund, Henrik Højgrav; Sommerlund, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis to textile dyes is considered to be a rare phenomenon. A recent review reported a prevalence of contact allergy to disperse dyes between 0.4 and 6.7%. The relevance of positive patch testing was not reported in all studies. Textile dye allergy is easily overlooked and is furthermore challenging to investigate as textile dyes are not labelled on clothing. In this report, we present a case of allergic contact dermatitis to a textile necklace. The patch test showed strong reactions to the necklace and the azo dyes Disperse Orange 1 and Disperse Yellow 3. Despite the European legislation and the reduced use of disperse dyes in Third World countries, disperse azo dyes still induce new cases of allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:24348384

  19. Rubella contact tracing associated with air travel.

    PubMed

    Kim, Curi; Chavez, Pollyanna; Pierce, Abbi; Murray, Andrew; Sander, Molly; Kenyon, Cynthia; Sharangpani, Ruta; Abernathy, Emily; Icenogle, Joseph; Kutty, Preeta K; Redd, Susan B; Gallagher, Kathleen; Neatherlin, John; Marienau, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This report reviews U.S. guidelines for the identification of persons exposed to rubella during air travel. In response to an individual with rubella who traveled on multiple flights, CDC conducted an airline contact investigation that was expanded beyond customary protocol to assess if current operating procedures are adequate. Of 250 potentially exposed airline passengers, 215 (86%) were contacted and none developed a rubella-like rash, arguing against the need to notify passengers beyond the standard protocol in most cases.

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis from formaldehyde textile resins.

    PubMed

    Reich, Hilary C; Warshaw, Erin M

    2010-01-01

    Formaldehyde-based resins have been used to create permanent-press finishes on fabrics since the 1920s. These resins have been shown to be potent sensitizers in some patients, leading to allergic contact dermatitis. This review summarizes the history of formaldehyde textile resin use, the diagnosis and management of allergic contact dermatitis from these resins, and current regulation of formaldehyde resins in textiles.

  1. Contact dermatitis from beryllium in dental alloys.

    PubMed

    Haberman, A L; Pratt, M; Storrs, F J

    1993-03-01

    An increasing number of metals with the potential to cause allergic contact dermatitis have found their way into dental alloys for economic and practical reasons. 2 patients are reported who developed gingivitis adjacent to the Rexillium III alloy in their dental prostheses. Patch testing demonstrated positive reactions to beryllium sulfate, a component of the alloy. Components of dental alloys and the mechanism of the contact dermatitis are discussed.

  2. Contact angle hysteresis at the nanometer scale.

    PubMed

    Delmas, Mathieu; Monthioux, Marc; Ondarçuhu, Thierry

    2011-04-01

    Using atomic force microscopy with nonconventional carbon tips, the pinning of a liquid contact line on individual nanometric defects was studied. This mechanism is responsible for the occurrence of the contact angle hysteresis. The presence of weak defects which do not contribute to the hysteresis is evidenced for the first time. The dissipated energy associated with strong defects is also measured down to values in the range of kT, which correspond to defect sizes in the order of 1 nm.

  3. Skin contact electrodes for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Eggins, B R

    1993-04-01

    Skin contact electrodes require electrolyte gels between the skin and the electrode in order to ensure good electrical contact. The effect of different types of electrolyte gel on skin impedance was studied. The main types of gels used were wet gels, karaya-gum based hydrogels and synthetic copolymer-based hydrogels [2-acrylamide-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid-N,N'-methylenebis(acrylamide) copolymers]. The effect of variation in gel composition on the impedance of the skin was investigated.

  4. MRCK_3D contact detonation algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Rougier, Esteban; Munjiza, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale Combined Finite-Discrete Element Methods (FEM-DEM) and Discrete Element Methods (DEM) simulations involving contact of a large number of separate bod ies need an efficient, robust and flexible contact detection algorithm. In this work the MRCK-3D search algorithm is outlined and its main CPU perfonnances are evaluated. One of the most important aspects of this newly developed search algorithm is that it is applicable to systems consisting of many bodies of different shapes and sizes.

  5. Reconstructing contact network parameters from viral phylogenies

    PubMed Central

    McCloskey, Rosemary M.; Liang, Richard H.; Poon, Art F.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Models of the spread of disease in a population often make the simplifying assumption that the population is homogeneously mixed, or is divided into homogeneously mixed compartments. However, human populations have complex structures formed by social contacts, which can have a significant influence on the rate of epidemic spread. Contact network models capture this structure by explicitly representing each contact which could possibly lead to a transmission. We developed a method based on approximate Bayesian computation (ABC), a likelihood-free inference strategy, for estimating structural parameters of the contact network underlying an observed viral phylogeny. The method combines adaptive sequential Monte Carlo for ABC, Gillespie simulation for propagating epidemics though networks, and a kernel-based tree similarity score. We used the method to fit the Barabási-Albert network model to simulated transmission trees, and also applied it to viral phylogenies estimated from ten published HIV sequence datasets. This model incorporates a feature called preferential attachment (PA), whereby individuals with more existing contacts accumulate new contacts at a higher rate. On simulated data, we found that the strength of PA and the number of infected nodes in the network can often be accurately estimated. On the other hand, the mean degree of the network, as well as the total number of nodes, was not estimable with ABC. We observed sub-linear PA power in all datasets, as well as higher PA power in networks of injection drug users. These results underscore the importance of considering contact structures when performing phylodynamic inference. Our method offers the potential to quantitatively investigate the contact network structure underlying viral epidemics. PMID:27818787

  6. On contact problems of elasticity theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalandiya, A. I.

    1986-01-01

    Certain contact problems are reviewed in the two-dimensional theory of elasticity when round bodies touch without friction along most of the boundary and, therefore, Herz' hypothesis on the smallness of the contact area cannot be used. Fundamental equations were derived coinciding externally with the equation in the theory of a finite-span wing with unkown parameter. These equations are solved using Multhopp's well-known technique, and numerical calculations are performed in specific examples.

  7. Spatial analyses of wildlife contact networks

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Stephen; Abbasi, Babak; Shah, Shrupa; Telfer, Sandra; Begon, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Datasets from which wildlife contact networks of epidemiological importance can be inferred are becoming increasingly common. A largely unexplored facet of these data is finding evidence of spatial constraints on who has contact with whom, despite theoretical epidemiologists having long realized spatial constraints can play a critical role in infectious disease dynamics. A graph dissimilarity measure is proposed to quantify how close an observed contact network is to being purely spatial whereby its edges are completely determined by the spatial arrangement of its nodes. Statistical techniques are also used to fit a series of mechanistic models for contact rates between individuals to the binary edge data representing presence or absence of observed contact. These are the basis for a second measure that quantifies the extent to which contacts are being mediated by distance. We apply these methods to a set of 128 contact networks of field voles (Microtus agrestis) inferred from mark–recapture data collected over 7 years and from four sites. Large fluctuations in vole abundance allow us to demonstrate that the networks become increasingly similar to spatial proximity graphs as vole density increases. The average number of contacts, , was (i) positively correlated with vole density across the range of observed densities and (ii) for two of the four sites a saturating function of density. The implications for pathogen persistence in wildlife may be that persistence is relatively unaffected by fluctuations in host density because at low density is low but hosts move more freely, and at high density is high but transmission is hampered by local build-up of infected or recovered animals. PMID:25411407

  8. Spatial analyses of wildlife contact networks.

    PubMed

    Davis, Stephen; Abbasi, Babak; Shah, Shrupa; Telfer, Sandra; Begon, Mike

    2015-01-06

    Datasets from which wildlife contact networks of epidemiological importance can be inferred are becoming increasingly common. A largely unexplored facet of these data is finding evidence of spatial constraints on who has contact with whom, despite theoretical epidemiologists having long realized spatial constraints can play a critical role in infectious disease dynamics. A graph dissimilarity measure is proposed to quantify how close an observed contact network is to being purely spatial whereby its edges are completely determined by the spatial arrangement of its nodes. Statistical techniques are also used to fit a series of mechanistic models for contact rates between individuals to the binary edge data representing presence or absence of observed contact. These are the basis for a second measure that quantifies the extent to which contacts are being mediated by distance. We apply these methods to a set of 128 contact networks of field voles (Microtus agrestis) inferred from mark-recapture data collected over 7 years and from four sites. Large fluctuations in vole abundance allow us to demonstrate that the networks become increasingly similar to spatial proximity graphs as vole density increases. The average number of contacts, 〈k〉, was (i) positively correlated with vole density across the range of observed densities and (ii) for two of the four sites a saturating function of density. The implications for pathogen persistence in wildlife may be that persistence is relatively unaffected by fluctuations in host density because at low density 〈k〉 is low but hosts move more freely, and at high density 〈k〉 is high but transmission is hampered by local build-up of infected or recovered animals.

  9. Piezoviscosity In Lubrication Of Nonconformal Contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeng, Yeau-Ren; Hamrock, Bernard J.; Brewe, David E.

    1988-01-01

    Developments in theory of lubrication. Analysis of piezoviscous-rigid regime of lubrication of two ellipsoidal contacts. Begins with Reynolds equation for point contact. Equation nondimensionalized using Roelands empirical formula and Dowson and Higginson formula. Equation solved numerically. Solutions obtained for full spectrum of conditions to find effects of dimensionless load, speed, parameters of lubricated and lubricating materials, and angle between direction of rolling and direction of entrainment of lubricant.

  10. Tea tree oil attenuates experimental contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Wallengren, Joanna

    2011-07-01

    Herbs and minerals have been used in clinical dermatology for hundreds of years and herbal ingredients are becoming increasingly popular with the public in treatment of various dermatological conditions characterised by inflammation and pruritus. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of traditional topical therapeutic agents with a moderate potency topical glucocorticoid on experimental contact dermatitis and contact urticaria. The effects of ichthammol 10% pet, zinc oxide 20% pet, camphor 20% pet, levomenthol 10% pet, tea tree oil 20 or 50% and clobetason butyrate 0.05% ointment were studied in the following experimental models: elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis to nickel, irritant contact dermatitis to benzalkonium chloride, and in immediate reactions to histamine and benzoic acid (non-immunological contact utricaria) respectively. Delayed reactions were evaluated using a clinical scoring system and immediate reactions were estimated by planimetry. Histamine-induced pruritus was evaluated using VAS. Tea tree oil reduced allergic contact dermatitis by 40.5% (p = 0.003), zinc oxide by 17.4% (p = 0.04) and clobetason butyrate by 23.5% (p = 0.01). Zinc oxide reduced histamine induced flare by 18.5% (p = 0.01), ichthammol by 19.2% (p = 0.02) and clobetason butyrate by 44.1% (p = 0.02). Irritant contact dermatitis and non-immunological contact urticaria were not influenced by the pre-treatments. Pruritus induced by histamine also remained unchanged. In conclusion, tea tree oil seems to be a more effective anti-eczematic agent than zinc oxide and clobetasone butyrate, while clobetasone butyrate is superior to both ichthammol and zinc oxide in topical treatment of urticarial reactions.

  11. A Drug-Eluting Contact Lens

    PubMed Central

    Ciolino, Joseph B.; Hoare, Todd R.; Iwata, Naomi G.; Behlau, Irmgard; Dohlman, Claes H.; Langer, Robert; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To formulate and characterize a drug-eluting contact lens designed to provide extended, controlled release of a drug. Methods Prototype contact lenses were created by coating PLGA (poly[lactic-co-glycolic acid]) films containing test compounds with pHEMA (poly[hydroxyethyl methacrylate]) by ultraviolet light polymerization. The films, containing encapsulated fluorescein or ciprofloxacin, were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Release studies were conducted in phosphate-buffered saline at 37°C with continuous shaking. Ciprofloxacin eluted from the contact lens was studied in an antimicrobial assay to verify antimicrobial effectiveness. Results After a brief and minimal initial burst, the prototype contact lenses demonstrated controlled release of the molecules studied, with zero-order release kinetics under infinite sink conditions for over 4 weeks. The rate of drug release was controlled by changing either the ratio of drug to PLGA or the molecular mass of the PLGA used. Both the PLGA and the pHEMA affected release kinetics. Ciprofloxacin released from the contact lenses inhibited ciprofloxacin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus at all time-points tested. Conclusions A prototype contact lens for sustained drug release consisting of a thin drug-PLGA film coated with pHEMA could be used as a platform for ocular drug delivery with widespread therapeutic applications. PMID:19136709

  12. A 3D Contact Smoothing Method

    SciTech Connect

    Puso, M A; Laursen, T A

    2002-05-02

    Smoothing of contact surfaces can be used to eliminate the chatter typically seen with node on facet contact and give a better representation of the actual contact surface. The latter affect is well demonstrated for problems with interference fits. In this work we present two methods for the smoothing of contact surfaces for 3D finite element contact. In the first method, we employ Gregory patches to smooth the faceted surface in a node on facet implementation. In the second method, we employ a Bezier interpolation of the faceted surface in a mortar method implementation of contact. As is well known, node on facet approaches can exhibit locking due to the failure of the Babuska-Brezzi condition and in some instances fail the patch test. The mortar method implementation is stable and provides optimal convergence in the energy of error. In the this work we demonstrate the superiority of the smoothed versus the non-smoothed node on facet implementations. We also show where the node on facet method fails and some results from the smoothed mortar method implementation.

  13. Consensus contact prediction by linear programming.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin; Bu, Dongbo; Li, Shuai Cheng; Li, Ming; Xu, Jinbo

    2007-01-01

    Protein inter-residue contacts are of great use for protein structure determination or prediction. Recent CASP events have shown that a few accurately predicted contacts can help improve both computational efficiency and prediction accuracy of the ab inito folding methods. This paper develops an integer linear programming (ILP) method for consensus-based contact prediction. In contrast to the simple "majority voting" method assuming that all the individual servers are equal and independent, our method evaluates their correlations using the maximum likelihood method and constructs some latent independent servers using the principal component analysis technique. Then, we use an integer linear programming model to assign weights to these latent servers in order to maximize the deviation between the correct contacts and incorrect ones; our consensus prediction server is the weighted combination of these latent servers. In addition to the consensus information, our method also uses server-independent correlated mutation (CM) as one of the prediction features. Experimental results demonstrate that our contact prediction server performs better than the "majority voting" method. The accuracy of our method for the top L/5 contacts on CASP7 targets is 73.41%, which is much higher than previously reported studies. On the 16 free modeling (FM) targets, our method achieves an accuracy of 37.21%.

  14. Contact mechanics of piezoelectric ultrasonic motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallaschek, Jörg

    1998-06-01

    Piezoelectric ultrasonic motors are driven by tangential stresses in the interface between stator and rotor. These stresses are generated by the elliptical motion of the material points of the stator or rotor surface and depend on frictional processes in the contact area. The contact mechanics of piezoelectric ultrasonic motors determines the operational characteristics, like rotational speed and torque or transmitted mechanical power and efficiency. Wear properties and lifetime of piezoelectric ultrasonic motors are also determined by contact mechanics. The goal of the present paper is to summarize the state of the art in the understanding of some fundamental processes governing the contact mechanics of piezoelectric ultrasonic motors. After a short introduction, a survey of publications devoted to the subject will be given. Then, an attempt will be made to classify the mechanical models, which were developed in order to explain the contact mechanics of piezoelectric ultrasonic motors, according to the physical effects which have been taken into account in their derivation. Some results concerning the choice of proper contact materials, wear and lifetime of ultrasonic motors will be addressed in a separate section. Finally a summary and outlook will be given and open questions for future research will be formulated.

  15. Reduction technique for tire contact problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Peters, Jeanne M.

    1995-01-01

    A reduction technique and a computational procedure are presented for predicting the tire contact response and evaluating the sensitivity coefficients of the different response quantities. The sensitivity coefficients measure the sensitivity of the contact response to variations in the geometric and material parameters of the tire. The tire is modeled using a two-dimensional laminated anisotropic shell theory with the effects of variation in geometric and material parameters, transverse shear deformation, and geometric nonlinearities included. The contact conditions are incorporated into the formulation by using a perturbed Lagrangian approach with the fundamental unknowns consisting of the stress resultants, the generalized displacements, and the Lagrange multipliers associated with the contact conditions. The elemental arrays are obtained by using a modified two-field, mixed variational principle. For the application of the reduction technique, the tire finite element model is partitioned into two regions. The first region consists of the nodes that are likely to come in contact with the pavement, and the second region includes all the remaining nodes. The reduction technique is used to significantly reduce the degrees of freedom in the second region. The effectiveness of the computational procedure is demonstrated by a numerical example of the frictionless contact response of the space shuttle nose-gear tire, inflated and pressed against a rigid flat surface.

  16. Dynamics of the Molten Contact Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonin, Ain A.; Duthaler, Gregg; Liu, Michael; Torresola, Javier; Qiu, Taiqing

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this program is to develop a basic understanding of how a molten material front spreads over a solid that is below its melting point, arrests, and freezes. Our hope is that the work will contribute toward a scientific knowledge base for certain new applications involving molten droplet deposition, including the "printing" of arbitrary three-dimensional objects by precise deposition of individual molten microdrops that solidify after impact. Little information is available at this time on the capillarity-driven motion and arrest of molten contact line regions. Schiaffino and Sonin investigated the arrest of the contact line of a molten microcrystalline wax spreading over a subcooled solid "target" of the same material. They found that contact line arrest takes place at an apparent liquid contact angle that depends primarily on the Stefan number S=c(T(sub f) -T(sub t)/L based on the temperature difference between the fusion point and the target temperature, and proposed that contact line arrest occurs when the liquid's dynamic contact angle approaches the angle of attack of the solidification front just behind the contact line. They also showed, however, that the conventional continuum equations and boundary conditions have no meaningful solution for this angle. The solidification front angle is determined by the heat flux just behind the contact line, and the heat flux is singular at that point. By comparing experiments with numerical computations, Schiaffino and Sonin estimated that the conventional solidification model must break down within a distance of order 0.1 - 1 microns of the contact line. The physical mechanism for this breakdown is as yet undetermined, and no first-principles theory exists for the contact angle at arrest. Schiaffino and Sonin also presented a framework for understanding how to moderate Weber number molten droplet deposition in terms of similarity laws and experimentation. The study is based on experiments with three molten

  17. Contact mechanisms and design principles for Schottky contacts to group-III nitrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, S. Noor

    2005-03-01

    Contact mechanisms and design principles for Schottky contacts to group-III nitrides have been studied. These contacts, made generally by using simple principles and past experiences, suffer from serious drawbacks. The importance of various parameters such as surface morphology, surface treatment, metal/semiconductor interactions at the interface, thermal stability, minimization of doping by metal deposition and etching, elimination of edge electric field, etc., for them has been thoroughly investigated. Several design principles have been proposed. Both theoretical and experimental data have been presented to justify the validity of the proposed contact mechanisms and design principles. While theoretical calculations provide fundamental physics underlying heavy doping, leakage, etc., the experimental data provide verification of the contact mechanisms and design principles. The proposed principles are general enough to be applicable to most, if not all, Schottky contacts.

  18. Contact resistance improvement by the modulation of peripheral length to area ratio of graphene contact pattern

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Chunhum; Lee, Sangchul; Lee, Sang Kyung; Noh, Jin Woo; Park, Woojin; Lee, Young Gon; Hwang, Hyeon Jun; Ham, Moon-Ho; Kang, Chang Goo; Lee, Byoung Hun

    2015-05-25

    High contact resistance between graphene and metal is a major huddle for high performance electronic device applications of graphene. In this work, a method to improve the contact resistance of graphene is investigated by varying the ratio of peripheral length and area of graphene pattern under a metal contact. The contact resistance decreased to 0.8 kΩ·μm from 2.1 kΩ·μm as the peripheral length increased from 312 to 792 μm. This improvement is attributed to the low resistivity of edge-contacted graphene, which is 8.1 × 10{sup 5} times lower than that of top-contacted graphene.

  19. Investigation into Contact Resistance And Damage of Metal Contacts Used in RF-MEMS Switches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    Aactualelastic = 4P E ′ √ σ β (2.21) Maugis [168] also reports an interesting result of Greenwood and Williamson’s work. The ratio of plastically deformed...contact could be made before cycling. There is no such predictive ability, even with the state- of -the-art MEMS switches on the market today. Also, as...Investigation into Contact Resistance and Damage of Metal Contacts used in RF-MEMS Switches DISSERTATION Kevin W. Gilbert, Lieutenant Colonel, USAF

  20. The Micromechanics of the Moving Contact Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Minsub; Lichter, Seth; Lin, Chih-Yu; Perng, Yeong-Yan

    1996-01-01

    The proposed research is divided into three components concerned with molecular structure, molecular orientation, and continuum averages of discrete systems. In the experimental program, we propose exploring how changes in interfacial molecular structure generate contact line motion. Rather than rely on the electrostatic and electrokinetic fields arising from the molecules themselves, we augment their interactions by an imposed field at the solid/liquid interface. By controling the field, we can manipulate the molecular structure at the solid/liquid interface. In response to controlled changes in molecular structure, we observe the resultant contact line motion. In the analytical portion of the proposed research we seek to formulate a system of equations governing fluid motion which accounts for the orientation of fluid molecules. In preliminary work, we have focused on describing how molecular orientation affects the forces generated at the moving contact line. Ideally, as assumed above, the discrete behavior of molecules can be averaged into a continuum theory. In the numerical portion of the proposed research, we inquire whether the contact line region is, in fact, large enough to possess a well-defined average. Additionally, we ask what types of behavior distinguish discrete systems from continuum systems. Might the smallness of the contact line region, in itself, lead to behavior different from that in the bulk? Taken together, our proposed research seeks to identify and accurately account for some of the molecular dynamics of the moving contact line, and attempts to formulate a description from which one can compute the forces at the moving contact line.