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Sample records for 42-metre european extremely

  1. European Extremely Large Telescope: progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamai, R.; Spyromilio, J.

    2014-07-01

    The European Extremely Large Telescope is a project of the European Southern Observatory to build and operate a 40-m class optical near-infrared telescope. The telescope design effort is largely concluded and construction contracts are being placed with industry and academic/research institutes for the various components. The siting of the telescope in Northern Chile close to the Paranal site allows for an integrated operation of the facility providing significant economies. The progress of the project in various areas is presented in this paper and references to other papers at this SPIE meeting are made.

  2. Impact of climate change on European weather extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchez, Aurelie; Forryan, Alex; Hirschi, Joel; Sinha, Bablu; New, Adrian; Freychet, Nicolas; Scaife, Adam; Graham, Tim

    2015-04-01

    An emerging science consensus is that global climate change will result in more extreme weather events with concomitant increasing financial losses. Key questions that arise are: Can an upward trend in natural extreme events be recognised and predicted at the European scale? What are the key drivers within the climate system that are changing and making extreme weather events more frequent, more intense, or both? Using state-of-the-art coupled climate simulations from the UK Met Office (HadGEM3-GC2, historical and future scenario runs) as well as reanalysis data, we highlight the potential of the currently most advanced forecasting systems to progress understanding of the causative drivers of European weather extremes, and assess future frequency and intensity of extreme weather under various climate change scenarios. We characterize European extremes in these simulations using a subset of the 27 core indices for temperature and precipitation from The Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (Tank et al., 2009). We focus on temperature and precipitation extremes (e.g. extremes in daily and monthly precipitation and temperatures) and relate them to the atmospheric modes of variability over Europe in order to establish the large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns that are conducive to the occurrence of extreme precipitation and temperature events. Klein Tank, Albert M.G., and Francis W. Zwiers. Guidelines on Analysis of Extremes in a Changing Climate in Support of Informed Decisions for Adaptation. WMO-TD No. 1500. Climate Data and Monitoring. World Meteorological Organization, 2009.

  3. The European Extremely Large Telescope: the Arne way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spyromilio, J.

    2008-04-01

    The European Extremely Large telescope project is in phase B and scheduled to present a construction proposal to the ESO Council by the end of 2009 or early 2010. The telescope baseline is for a fully steerable 42-m, segmented primary, 5 mirror design, fully adaptive system with Nasmyth and coude foci. This paper describes the current state of affairs with the European ELT and, in view of this conference celebrating Arne Ardeberg's contributions to astronomy, contains the occasional, totally incomplete, retrospective to earlier work in the field focusing on a single paper by Ardeberg et al in 1996.

  4. How to assess extreme weather impacts - case European transport network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leviäkangas, P.

    2010-09-01

    To assess the impacts of climate change and preparing for impacts is a process. This process we must understand and learn to apply. EWENT (Extreme Weather impacts on European Networks of Transport) will be a test bench for one prospective approach. It has the following main components: 1) identifying what is "extreme", 2) assessing the change in the probabilities, 3) constructing the causal impact models, 4) finding appropriate methods of pricing and costing, 5) finding alternative strategy option, 6) assessing the efficiency of strategy option. This process follows actually the steps of standardized risk management process. Each step is challenging, but if EWENT project succeeds to assess the extreme weather impacts on European transport networks, it is one possible benchmark how to carry out similar analyses in other regions and on country level. EWENT approach could particularly useful for weather and climate information service providers, offering tools for transport authorities and financiers to assess weather risks, and then rationally managing the risks. EWENT project is financed by the European Commission and participated by met-service organisations and transport research institutes from different parts of Europe. The presentation will explain EWENT approach in detail and bring forth the findings of the first work packages.

  5. Extreme weather impacts on European networks of transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leviakangas, P.

    2012-04-01

    The EWENT project addresses the European Union (EU) policies and strategies related to climate change, with a particular focus on extreme weather impacts on the EU transportation system. This project is funded by the Seventh Framework Programme (Transports, call ID FPT7-TPT-2008-RTD-1). EWENT Work Package 1 (WP1) focuses particularly on identification and definition of extreme weather events within the European transport system. In the context of the EWENT project, the following definition for extreme weather events related to transport systems was used: "Extreme events are generally rare events. The events cause the exceeding of maximum values and/or pre-existing (measured) high (low) thresholds of certain weather parameters and generate impacts that are harmful to any part of the transport system (infrastructures, operations, vehicles, passengers or cargo)". Weather has major impacts on transportation. EWENT WP1 used three different approaches to assess the impacts and consequences extreme weather phenomena cause to the transport system. Firstly, an extensive traditional review of the professional literature has been carried out. Secondly, media mining has been done in order to obtain more empirical data and assess which transport modes in different parts of Europe seem to be most affected. Thirdly, a compilation of specific case studies on past extreme incidents has been prepared, helping to assess the specific consequences of certain phenomena. EWENT WP1 introduces a review of extreme weather phenomena and identifies their impacts and consequences on European transport system. All modes of transport are covered. Critical threshold values for most relevant weather phenomena that affect different transport modes have been established. The related impacts and consequences result in deterioration in the service level of transportation system. A dozen different impact mechanisms have been charted. The collaborators in the team for this part of the EWENT Project are

  6. Recent Extremes in European Climate: Assessment, Case Studies and Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiou, P.; Vautard, R.; D'Andrea, F.; Cattiaux, J.; Naveau, P.; Ciais, P.; Garnier, E.

    2008-12-01

    During the last centuries and up to the present decade, extreme climate events have certainly had larger economic impacts than any trend of temperature in Europe. In addition to an intrinsic scientific interest, their study is thus essential for society. One of the challenges of their investigation is that, depending on their definition, extreme climate events potentially have a behavior that is not connected to the secular temperature trend in a simple fashion. This presentation will review the statistical assessments of extremes in Europe, focusing on surface temperature, precipitation, and their connections with large-scale features of the atmospheric circulation. In particular, the questions of modeling their severity and frequency will be discussed in the first part of the presentation. I will then give two kinds of examples of European climate extremes: summer heatwaves and droughts, and winter warm waves. The mechanisms leading to such phenomena will be explored, and I will examine some of the impacts on the biosphere that were recently observed. In order to provide a long term perspective of those events, examples of historical droughts in France will be presented and connected with proxy records of temperature. It appears that the mechanisms that are favored for present-day climate might still have been valid during the past centuries. To conclude, new challenges for dynamical and statistical modeling will be explored.

  7. Extreme European winter storms - a new event set approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Philip; Osinski, Robert; Leckebusch, Gregor C.; Ulbrich, Uwe; Bedacht, Ernst; Faust, Eberhard; Miesen, Peter; Frank, Helmut; Schulz, Jan-Peter

    2010-05-01

    Due to their severe impacts and damages, including the loss of life, the robust assessment of European winter storms is a major scientific and socio-economic task. A basic concept of this research effort presented here is to incorporate besides observed (real) storms additionally potential (not necessarily real) storms, which could have hit Europe, in an European storm event catalogue. From this event set realistic extreme value statistic parameters could be estimated. In a first step relevant storm events are identified from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis datasets ERA40 (1958-2002) and ERA-INTERIM (1989-2009). Furthermore the identified events are classified using an adequate storm severity index (SSI). For the enlargement of the sample size for statistical analyses, additional potential storm events simulated by the Ensemble Prediction System (EPS) of ECMWF will be identified and classified. This allows to estimate SSI return periods up to several hundred years. From the identified and classified storm events in ERA40, ERA-INTERIM and EPS a specific sub-sample will be selected. For the selected events a dynamical atmospheric modeling chain consisting of the operational global and regional numerical weather prediction models (GME and COSMO-EU) of the German Weather Service (DWD) will be applied. In COSMO-EU different dynamical cores as well as different diagnostic schemes for wind gusts will be used to further increase the sample size. The resulting high resolution wind and gust fields form the basis for statistical extreme value analyses, and additionally for the development of a statistical transfer function for wind fields generated by relatively coarse resolution models into high resolution wind and gust fields. An outline of the project objectives and methods as well as first results will be presented.

  8. Characterization of extreme sea level at the European coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizalde, Alberto; Jorda, Gabriel; Mathis, Moritz; Mikolajewicz, Uwe

    2015-04-01

    Extreme high sea levels arise as a combination of storm surges and particular high tides events. Future climate simulations not only project changes in the atmospheric circulation, which induces changes in the wind conditions, but also an increase in the global mean sea level by thermal expansion and ice melting. Such changes increase the risk of coastal flooding, which represents a possible hazard for human activities. Therefore, it is important to investigate the pattern of sea level variability and long-term trends at coastal areas. In order to analyze further extreme sea level events at the European coast in the future climate projections, a new setup for the global ocean model MPIOM coupled with the regional atmosphere model REMO is prepared. The MPIOM irregular grid has enhanced resolution in the European region to resolve the North and the Mediterranean Seas (up to 11 x 11 km at the North Sea). The ocean model includes as well the full luni-solar ephemeridic tidal potential for tides simulation. To simulate the air-sea interaction, the regional atmospheric model REMO is interactively coupled to the ocean model over Europe. Such region corresponds to the EuroCORDEX domain with a 50 x 50 km resolution. Besides the standard fluxes of heat, mass (freshwater), momentum and turbulent energy input, the ocean model is also forced with sea level pressure, in order to be able to capture the full variation of sea level. The hydrological budget within the study domain is closed using a hydrological discharge model. With this model, simulations for present climate and future climate scenarios are carried out to study transient changes on the sea level and extreme events. As a first step, two simulations (coupled and uncoupled ocean) driven by reanalysis data (ERA40) have been conducted. They are used as reference runs to evaluate the climate projection simulations. For selected locations at the coast side, time series of sea level are separated on its different

  9. European Extremely Large Telescope Site Characterization III: Ground Meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, Antonia M.; Vázquez Ramió, Héctor; Vernin, Jean; Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana; Sarazin, Marc; Trinquet, Hervé; Delgado, José Miguel; Jiménez Fuensalida, Jesús; Reyes, Marcos; Benhida, Abdelmajid; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; García Lambas, Diego; Hach, Youssef; Lazrek, Mohamed; Lombardi, Gianluca; Navarrete, Julio; Recabarren, Pablo; Renzi, Victor; Sabil, Mohammed; Vrech, Rubén

    2014-04-01

    Both meteorology and optical conditions are crucial for selecting the best site to host extremely large telescopes such as the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) and the European project (E-ELT). For the E-ELT, a year-long meteorological campaign was performed at our two reference sites, the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM) and Cerro Ventarrones (very close to the VLT site at Paranal), and at other sites also considered as alternatives to the reference sites: Aklim, Macón, and Izaña (Observatorio del Teide; OT). In this article, we present a statistical analysis of the ground meteorological properties recorded at these sites, making use of automatic weather stations (AWSs) equipped with standard meteorological sensors providing the air temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, wind speed, and wind direction, using standard procedures across all sites. Meteorology offers but one discriminant in the complicated question of where to site such a major facility as the E-ELT (other factors being seeing, local geology, the economics of the logistics, etc.), both for determining the feasibility of telescope and instrumentation design and construction and for determining the useful observing time. However, the final decision of where to locate a major telescope depends in part on all these—and other—considerations and not on any one criterion alone. In summary, for 90% of the nighttime, the wind speed is lower than 18 m s-1, the telescope operational limit at all the sites except Macón. For this reason, Macón was discarded in the final site selection as, for 25% of the time, the wind speed is greater than 17 m s-1. The smallest nighttime temperature gradient is at ORM, whereas the lowest mean relative humidity value is reached at the Ventarrones site. Izaña was discarded in the site selection study from the very beginning due to lack of funding to install further site-testing equipement (e.g., Multi-Aperture Scintillation Sensor-Differential Image

  10. Extreme storm activity in North Atlantic and European region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyazilova, N.

    2010-09-01

    The extreme storm activity study over North Atlantic and Europe includes the analyses of extreme cyclone (track number, integral cyclonic intensity) and extreme storm (track number) during winter and summer seasons in the regions: 1) 55°N-80N, 50°W-70°E; 2) 30°N-55°N, 50°W-70°E. Extreme cyclones were selected based on cyclone centre pressure (P<=970 mbar). Extreme storms were selected from extreme cyclones based on wind velocity on 925 mbar. The Bofort scala was used for this goal. Integral cyclonic intensity (for region) includes the calculation cyclone centers number and sum of MSLP anomalies in cyclone centers. The analyses based on automated cyclone tracking algorithm, 6-hourly MSLP and wind data (u and v on 925 gPa) from the NCEP/NCAR reanalyses from January 1948 to March 2010. The comparision of mean, calculated for every ten years, had shown, that in polar region extreme cyclone and storm track number, and integral cyclonic intensity gradually increases and have maximum during last years (as for summer, as for winter season). Every ten years means for summer season are more then for winter season, as for polar, as for tropical region. Means (ten years) for tropical region are significance less then for polar region.

  11. The secondary mirror concept for the European Extremely Large Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Michael; Cayrel, Marc; Bonnet, Henri; Ciattaglia, Emanuela; Esselborn, Michael; Koch, Franz; Kurlandczyk, Herve; Pettazzi, Lorenzo; Rakich, Andrew; Sedghi, Babak

    2014-07-01

    The E-ELT is an active and adaptive 39-m telescope, with an anastigmat optical solution (5 mirrors including two flats), currently being developed by the European Southern Observatory (ESO). The convex 4-metre-class secondary mirror (M2) is a thin Zerodur meniscus passively supported by an 18 point axial whiffletree. A warping harness system allows to correct low order deformations of the M2 Mirror. Laterally the mirror is supported on 12 points along the periphery by pneumatic jacks. Due to its high optical sensitivity and the telescope gravity deflections, the M2 unit needs to allow repositioning the mirror during observation. Considering its exposed position 30m above the primary, the M2 unit has to provide good wind rejection. The M2 concept is described and major performance characteristics are presented.

  12. Cutoff low systems and their relevance to large-scale extreme precipitation in the European Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awan, N. K.; Formayer, H.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we attempt to highlight the relevance of cutoff low systems (CoLs) to large-scale heavy precipitation events within the Alpine region which often lead to catastrophic flooding. The main results of this study are (1) a detailed climatology (1971-1999) of CoLs for the European region, (2) contribution of CoLs to extreme precipitation events in the European Alpine region, (3) identification of regions within the European Alps most affected by extreme precipitation caused by CoLs, and (4) identification of regions where presence of CoLs is related to extreme precipitation in the Alpine region. The findings of this paper suggest that CoLs have a significant correlation with extreme precipitation events and strongly influence the climate of the Alpine region. The total contribution of CoLs to large-scale heavy precipitation events ranges between 20 and 95 % and is most pronounced in the northern and eastern parts of the Alps. More than 80 % of the events occur in the summer season. The area around the Alps and West of Spain (over the Atlantic Ocean) is the most affected region. The location of the center of CoLs that affect the Alpine region most occur on the northern and southern sides of the Alpine ridge.

  13. Is the dynamics of European Temperature extremes well represented in CMIP5 historical simulations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Castro, Carmen; Faranda, Davide; Noël, Thomas; Yiou, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    Temperatures extreme events (heatwaves/cold spells) have severe impacts on humans and ecosystems. Such events have increased in Europe within the last decades either in frequency or intensity and, because of their implications, it is important to compute returns periods of temperatures extremes. Here, we analyse and quantify the biases in European temperature extremes in historical simulations (1900-1999) using model simulations of the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) and comparing them to the 20th Century Reanalysis (20CR) dataset. Several authors already found some inconsistencies between models and reanalysis. In order to investigate whether this lack of consistency is due to the different dynamical representation in climate simulation, we use the recurrence technique developed in Faranda and Vaienti 2013 to compute return levels of temperature extremes. We show that with respect to the traditional approaches, the recurrence technique is sensitive to the change in the size of the selection window of extremes due to the conditions imposed by the dynamics. Eventually, we study the regions which show robust biases with respect to all the techniques investigating the possible origins. To assess whether the biases are due to the resolution, we compare our results as well with regional simulations within the European Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (EURO-CORDEX). Resolution does not change the order of magnitude of biases but their locations.

  14. Combined dendro-documentary evidence of Central European hydroclimatic springtime extremes over the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büntgen, Ulf; Brázdil, Rudolf; Heussner, Karl-Uwe; Hofmann, Jutta; Kontic, Raymond; Kyncl, Tomáš; Pfister, Christian; Chromá, Kateřina; Tegel, Willy

    2011-12-01

    A predicted rise in anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and associated effects on the Earth's climate system likely imply more frequent and severe weather extremes with alternations in hydroclimatic parameters expected to be most critical for ecosystem functioning, agricultural yield, and human health. Evaluating the return period and amplitude of modern climatic extremes in light of pre-industrial natural changes is, however, limited by generally too short instrumental meteorological observations. Here we introduce and analyze 11,873 annually resolved and absolutely dated ring width measurement series from living and historical fir ( Abies alba Mill.) trees sampled across France, Switzerland, Germany, and the Czech Republic, which continuously span the AD 962-2007 period. Even though a dominant climatic driver of European fir growth was not found, ring width extremes were evidently triggered by anomalous variations in Central European April-June precipitation. Wet conditions were associated with dynamic low-pressure cells, whereas continental-scale droughts coincided with persistent high-pressure between 35 and 55°N. Documentary evidence independently confirms many of the dendro signals over the past millennium, and further provides insight on causes and consequences of ambient weather conditions related to the reconstructed extremes. A fairly uniform distribution of hydroclimatic extremes throughout the Medieval Climate Anomaly, Little Ice Age and Recent Global Warming may question the common believe that frequency and severity of such events closely relates to climate mean stages. This joint dendro-documentary approach not only allows extreme climate conditions of the industrial era to be placed against the backdrop of natural variations, but also probably helps to constrain climate model simulations over exceptional long timescales.

  15. Performance of the Fourier transform reconstructor for the European Extremely Large Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montilla, I.; Reyes, M.; Le Louarn, M.; Marichal-Hernández, J. G.; Rodríguez-Ramos, J. M.; Rodríguez-Ramos, L. F.

    2008-07-01

    The forthcoming Extremely Large Telescopes, and the new generation of Extreme Adaptive Optics systems, carry on a boost in the number of actuators that makes the real-time correction of the atmospheric aberration computationally challenging. It is necessary to study new algorithms for performing Adaptive Optics at the required speed. Among the last generation algorithms that are being studied, the Fourier Transform Reconstructor (FTR) appears as a promising candidate. Its feasibility to be used for Single-Conjugate Adaptive Optics has been extensively proved by Poyneer et al.[1] As part of the activities supported by the ELT Design Study (European Community's Framework Programme 6) we have studied the performance of this algorithm applied to the case of the European ELT, in two different cases: single-conjugate and ground-layer adaptive optics and we are studying different approaches to apply it to the more complex multi-conjugate case. The algorithm has been tested on ESO's OCTOPUS software, which simulates the atmosphere, the deformable mirror, the sensor and the closed-loop control. The performance has been compared with other algorithms as well as their response in the presence of noise and with various atmospheric conditions. The good results on performance and robustness, and the possibility of parallelizing the algorithm (shown by Rodríguez-Ramos and Marichal-Hernández) make it an excellent alternative to the typically used Matrix-Vector Multiply algorithm.

  16. Monte Carlo modelling of multiconjugate adaptive optics performance on the European Extremely Large Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basden, A. G.

    2015-11-01

    The performance of a wide-field adaptive optics system depends on input design parameters. Here we investigate the performance of a multiconjugate adaptive optics system design for the European Extremely Large Telescope, using an end-to-end Monte Carlo adaptive optics simulation tool, DASP (Durham adaptive optics simulation platform). We consider parameters such as the number of laser guide stars, sodium layer depth, wavefront sensor pixel scale, number of deformable mirrors (DMs), mirror conjugation and actuator pitch. We provide potential areas where costs savings can be made, and investigate trade-offs between performance and cost. We conclude that a six-laser guide star system using three DMs seems to be a sweet spot for performance and cost compromise.

  17. Simulating observations with HARMONI: the integral field spectrograph for the European Extremely Large Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieleniewski, Simon; Thatte, Niranjan; Kendrew, Sarah; Houghton, Ryan; Tecza, Matthias; Clarke, Fraser; Fusco, Thierry; Swinbank, Mark

    2014-07-01

    With the next generation of extremely large telescopes commencing construction, there is an urgent need for detailed quantitative predictions of the scientific observations that these new telescopes will enable. Most of these new telescopes will have adaptive optics fully integrated with the telescope itself, allowing unprecedented spatial resolution combined with enormous sensitivity. However, the adaptive optics point spread function will be strongly wavelength dependent, requiring detailed simulations that accurately model these variations. We have developed a simulation pipeline for the HARMONI integral field spectrograph, a first light instrument for the European Extremely Large Telescope. The simulator takes high-resolution input data-cubes of astrophysical objects and processes them with accurate atmospheric, telescope and instrumental effects, to produce mock observed cubes for chosen observing parameters. The output cubes represent the result of a perfect data reduc- tion process, enabling a detailed analysis and comparison between input and output, showcasing HARMONI's capabilities. The simulations utilise a detailed knowledge of the telescope's wavelength dependent adaptive op- tics point spread function. We discuss the simulation pipeline and present an early example of the pipeline functionality for simulating observations of high redshift galaxies.

  18. Estimating statistics of European wet and dry spells and associated precipitation extremes - interannual variability and trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolina, O.; Simmer, C.; Belyaev, K.; Gulev, S.; Koltermann, K. P.

    2013-12-01

    Probability distributions of the durations of wet and dry spells were modeled by applying truncated geometric distribution. It has been also extended to the fractional truncated geometric distribution which allows for the discrimination between the roles of a changing number of wet days and of a regrouping of wet and dry days in forming synoptic structure of precipitation. Analyses were performed using 2 collections of daily rain gauge data namely ECA (about 1000 stations) and regional German DWD network (more than 6000 stations) for the period from 1950 to 2009. Wet spells exhibit a statistically significant lengthening over northern Europe and central European Russia, which is especially pronounced in winter when the mean duration of wet periods increased by 15%-20%. In summer wet spells become shorter over Scandinavia and northern Russia. The duration of dry spells decreases over Scandinavia and southern Europe in both winter and summer. Climate tendencies in extreme wet and dry spell durations may not necessarily follow those in mean characteristics. The changing numbers of wet days cannot explain the long-term variability in the duration of wet and dry periods. The observed changes are mainly due to the regrouping of wet and dry days. The tendencies in duration of wet and dry spells have been analyzed for a number of European areas. Over the Netherlands both wet and dry periods are extended in length during the cold and the warm season. A simultaneous shortening of wet and dry periods is found in southern Scandinavia in summer. Over France and central southern Europe during both winter and summer and over the Scandinavian Atlantic coast in summer, opposite tendencies in the duration of wet and dry spells were identified. Growing durations of wet spells are associated with more intense precipitation events while precipitation during shorter wet spells become weaker. Both analyses of relatively coarse resolution ECA data and high resolution DWD station network

  19. Performance Comparison of the European Storm Surge Models and Chaotic Model in Forecasting Extreme Storm Surges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siek, M. B.; Solomatine, D. P.

    2009-04-01

    Storm surge modeling has rapidly developed considerably over the past 30 years. A number of significant advances on operational storm surge models have been implemented and tested, consisting of: refining computational grids, calibrating the model, using a better numerical scheme (i.e. more realistic model physics for air-sea interaction), implementing data assimilation and ensemble model forecasts. This paper addresses the performance comparison between the existing European storm surge models and the recently developed methods of nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory in forecasting storm surge dynamics. The chaotic model is built using adaptive local models based on the dynamical neighbours in the reconstructed phase space of observed time series data. The comparison focused on the model accuracy in forecasting a recently extreme storm surge in the North Sea on November 9th, 2007 that hit the coastlines of several European countries. The combination of a high tide, north-westerly winds exceeding 50 mph and low pressure produced an exceptional storm tide. The tidal level was exceeded 3 meters above normal sea levels. Flood warnings were issued for the east coast of Britain and the entire Dutch coast. The Maeslant barrier's two arc-shaped steel doors in the Europe's biggest port of Rotterdam was closed for the first time since its construction in 1997 due to this storm surge. In comparison to the chaotic model performance, the forecast data from several European physically-based storm surge models were provided from: BSH Germany, DMI Denmark, DNMI Norway, KNMI Netherlands and MUMM Belgium. The performance comparison was made over testing datasets for two periods/conditions: non-stormy period (1-Sep-2007 till 14-Oct-2007) and stormy period (15-Oct-2007 till 20-Nov-2007). A scalar chaotic model with optimized parameters was developed by utilizing an hourly training dataset of observations (11-Sep-2005 till 31-Aug-2007). The comparison results indicated the chaotic

  20. Support for site testing of the European Extremely Large Telescope: precipitable water vapor over Paranal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerber, Florian; Querel, Richard R.; Hanuschik, Reinhard W.; Chacón, Arlette; Caneo, Marta; Cortes, Lissette; Cure, Michel; Illanes, Lizett; Naylor, David A.; Smette, Alain; Sarazin, Marc; Rabanus, David; Tompkins, Gregory

    2010-07-01

    In support of characterization of potential sites for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) the European Southern Observatory (ESO), the Institute for Space Imaging Science (ISIS) and the astrometeorology group of the Universidad Valparaiso have jointly established an improved understanding of atmospheric precipitable water vapour (PWV) above ESO's La Silla Paranal Observatory. In a first step, 8 years worth of high resolution near-IR spectra taken with VLT-UVES have been statistically analysed to reconstruct the PWV history above Paranal. To this end a radiative transfer model of Earth's atmosphere (BTRAM) developed by ISIS has been used. A median PWV of 2.1 mm is found for Paranal based on UVES data covering the period 2001-2008. Furthermore we conclude that Paranal can serve as a reference site for Northern Chile due to the stable atmospheric conditions in the region. The median offset between Paranal and Armazones is derived to be 0.3 mm, but local arbitrary variations of a few tenths of a mm between the sites have been found by measurement. In order to better understand the systematics involved two dedicated campaigns were conducted in August and November 2009. Several methods for determining the water column were employed, including radiosonde launches, continuous measurements by infrared radiometer, and VLT instruments operating at various wavelengths: CRIRES, UVES, VISIR and X-shooter. In a first for astronomical instruments all methods have been evaluated with respect to the radiosondes, the established standard in atmospheric research. Agreement between the radiosondes and the IR radiometer (IRMA) is excellent while all other astronomical methods covering a wavelength range from 700 - 20000 nm have also been successfully validated in a quantitative manner. All available observations were compared to satellite estimates of water vapour above the observatory in an attempt to ground-truth the satellite data. GOES can successfully be used for site

  1. Extreme Heat Wave over European Russia in Summer 2010: Anomaly or a Manifestation of Climatic Trend?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razuvaev, V.; Groisman, P. Y.; Bulygina, O.; Borzenkova, I.

    2010-12-01

    Extraordinary temperature anomalies over European Russia (ER) in summer 2010 raised a legitimate question in the title of this presentation. A 60-days-long hot anticyclonic weather system with daily temperature anomalies as high as +10K and no or negligible amount of rainfall first decimated crops in the forest-steppe zone of ER, gradually dried wetlands in the forest zone and, finally, caused numerous natural and anthropogenic fires that at the time of this abstract preparation have not yet been extinguished. The extreme heat, lack of precipitation, and forest fires have caused hundreds of deaths and multimillion dollars in property losses. Indirect losses of lives due to this weather anomaly, with the ensuing fires and related air pollution, as well as the absence of air conditioning in apartments has yet to be estimated. The center of European Russia was well covered by meteorological observations for the past 130 years. These data, historical weather records (yearbooks or "letopisi" , which were carried on in the major Russian monasteries), and finally, dendroclimatological information, all show that this summer temperature anomaly was well above all known extremes in the past 1000 years. Like ocean waves and ocean tides, weather and climate variability go together strengthening (or mitigating) each other. We shall show the precursors of the current outbreak using principally the most accurate meteorological records of the past century updated to 2009 (at the Session, the 2010 data will also be presented). While a careful analyses of these records and thoughtful analyses of recent similar temperature outbreaks in Western Europe could not prevent the occurrence of this disaster, the lessons learned from these analyses (a) would warn about its increasing probability and (b) mitigation and adaptation measures could well be made to reduce its negative consequences. Among our arguments are: (1)There is a century-long tendency of reduction of equator minus pole

  2. European Research on life in extreme environments, setting up research priorities and coordinating the community: the CAREX project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rettberg, P.; Ellis-Evans, C.; Prieur, D.; Loreto, F.; Walter, N.; Le Bris, N.; Elster, J.; Amils, R.; Marteinsson, V.

    2008-09-01

    Life in Extreme Environments is an emerging area of research in which Europe has considerable expertise but a relatively fragmented research infrastructure. The science of such environments has enormous relevance for our knowledge of the diversity and environmental limits of microbial, plant and animal life and the novel strategies employed for survival and growth. Such studies are essential in understanding how life established on the early Earth and in assessing the possibilities for life on other planetary bodies. These environments are also a rich source of novel exploitable compounds. At the European level, there is a need for better coordination of life in extreme environments research, the FP7-funded CAREX project aims to address this need by developing a clearly identifiable, dynamic and durable community. Establishing this community will encourage greater interdisciplinarity and increasing knowledge of extreme environments. It will provide a target for young career scientists and allow a more focussed dialogue with other science areas, with funding agencies, with industrial groups and with international organisations outside Europe. CAREX will last for three years and with a wide scope covering microbial life, plant adaptation and animal adaptation to various marine, polar, terrestrial extreme environments as well as outer space. CAREX's outputs will include a strategic roadmap for European life in extreme environments research (including enabling technologies), diverse opportunities for knowledge transfer, standardisation of methodologies, encouragement and support for early career scientists and a network of links to relevant organisations. These deliverables together with improved community networking, supported by newsletters, promotional leaflets, a series of science publications and an interactive web portal, will help consolidate the community and its identity. Outcomes will be facilitated through science/technology workshops, diverse forums, field

  3. A probabilistic risk assessment for the vulnerability of the European carbon cycle to weather extremes: the ecosystem perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolinski, S.; Rammig, A.; Walz, A.; von Bloh, W.; van Oijen, M.; Thonicke, K.

    2015-03-01

    Extreme weather events are likely to occur more often under climate change and the resulting effects on ecosystems could lead to a further acceleration of climate change. But not all extreme weather events lead to extreme ecosystem response. Here, we focus on hazardous ecosystem behaviour and identify coinciding weather conditions. We use a simple probabilistic risk assessment based on time series of ecosystem behaviour and climate conditions. Given the risk assessment terminology, vulnerability and risk for the previously defined hazard are estimated on the basis of observed hazardous ecosystem behaviour. We apply this approach to extreme responses of terrestrial ecosystems to drought, defining the hazard as a negative net biome productivity over a 12-month period. We show an application for two selected sites using data for 1981-2010 and then apply the method to the pan-European scale for the same period, based on numerical modelling results (LPJmL for ecosystem behaviour; ERA-Interim data for climate). Our site-specific results demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method, using the SPEI to describe the climate condition. The site in Spain provides an example of vulnerability to drought because the expected value of the SPEI is 0.4 lower for hazardous than for non-hazardous ecosystem behaviour. In northern Germany, on the contrary, the site is not vulnerable to drought because the SPEI expectation values imply wetter conditions in the hazard case than in the non-hazard case. At the pan-European scale, ecosystem vulnerability to drought is calculated in the Mediterranean and temperate region, whereas Scandinavian ecosystems are vulnerable under conditions without water shortages. These first model-based applications indicate the conceptual advantages of the proposed method by focusing on the identification of critical weather conditions for which we observe hazardous ecosystem behaviour in the analysed data set. Application of the method to empirical time

  4. Vulnerability and resilience of European ecosystems towards extreme climatic events: The ecosystem perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thonicke, Kirsten; Rolinski, Susanne; Walz, Ariane; von Bloh, Werner; van Oijen, Marcel; Davin, Edouard; Vieli, Barla; Kato, Tomomichi; Beer, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Extremes of meteorological events may but do not have to cause damages in ecosystems. Climate change is expected to have a strong impact on the resilience and stability of ecosystems worldwide. So far, the impacts of trends and extremes of physical drivers on ecosystems have generally been studied regardless of the extremeness of the ecosystem response. We base our analysis on a Probabilistic Risk Assessment concept of Van Oijen et al. (2013) quantifying the vulnerability of vegetation dynamics in relation to the extremeness of meteorological drivers such as temperature, precipitation or drought indices. Here, the definition of extreme, hazardous weather conditions is based on the ecosystem response. Instead of searching for extreme meteorological events, we define extreme ecosystem responses in terms of threshold levels of carbon uptake, and search for the meteorological conditions which are responsible. Having defined hazardous events in this way, we quantify the vulnerability or resilience of ecosystems to such hazards. We apply this approach on results of different vegetation models (such as LPJmL, Orchidee, JSBACH or CLM4) and the forest model BASFOR using climatic input for Europe from the WATCH-ERAI-REMO climate dataset with the SRES A1B emission scenario. Our results show that under current climatic conditions, the southern part of Europe already suffers severe heat and drought stress which is reflected in our approach by vulnerability values being high for precipitation, relatively high for the SPEI index, moderately high for temperature and quite high for the consecutive dry days. Thus, hazard occurrence is frequent enough to determine ecosystem vulnerability but this depends on the definition of the threshold of hazardous ecosystem responses. Vulnerability values in the Mediterranean increase towards the end of the 21st century for all models indicating that a tipping point towards drought damages has been reached for the chosen climate scenario.

  5. Extreme European heat waves since 1950 with Heat Wave Magnitude Index and their occurrence in the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Simone; Dosio, Alessandro; Sillmann, Jana

    2015-04-01

    Heat waves are defined as prolonged periods of extremely hot weather and their magnitude and frequency are expected to increase in the future under climate change. Here we grade the heat waves occurred in Europe since 1950, by means of the Heat Wave Magnitude Index (HWMI) applied to daily maximum temperature from European Observation dataset (E-OBS). As shown in many studies the worst event in the last decades occurred in Russia in 2010. However many other heat waves, as shown here and documented in literature and also in newspapers, occurred in different European regions in the past 64 years. In addition, predictions from ten models from the COordinated Regional climate Downscaling EXperiment (CORDEX) under different IPCC AR5 scenarios, suggest an increased probability of occurrence of extreme heat waves by the end of the century. In particular, under the most severe scenario, events of the same severity, as the 2010 Russian heat wave, will become the norm and are projected to occur as often as every two years in the studied region.

  6. Desiccation and Mortality Dynamics in Seedlings of Different European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Populations under Extreme Drought Conditions.

    PubMed

    Bolte, Andreas; Czajkowski, Tomasz; Cocozza, Claudia; Tognetti, Roberto; de Miguel, Marina; Pšidová, Eva; Ditmarová, Ĺubica; Dinca, Lucian; Delzon, Sylvain; Cochard, Hervè; Ræbild, Anders; de Luis, Martin; Cvjetkovic, Branislav; Heiri, Caroline; Müller, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    European beech (Fagus sylvatica L., hereafter beech), one of the major native tree species in Europe, is known to be drought sensitive. Thus, the identification of critical thresholds of drought impact intensity and duration are of high interest for assessing the adaptive potential of European beech to climate change in its native range. In a common garden experiment with one-year-old seedlings originating from central and marginal origins in six European countries (Denmark, Germany, France, Romania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Spain), we applied extreme drought stress and observed desiccation and mortality processes among the different populations and related them to plant water status (predawn water potential, ΨPD) and soil hydraulic traits. For the lethal drought assessment, we used a critical threshold of soil water availability that is reached when 50% mortality in seedling populations occurs (LD50SWA). We found significant population differences in LD50SWA (10.5-17.8%), and mortality dynamics that suggest a genetic difference in drought resistance between populations. The LD50SWA values correlate significantly with the mean growing season precipitation at population origins, but not with the geographic margins of beech range. Thus, beech range marginality may be more due to climatic conditions than to geographic range. The outcome of this study suggests the genetic variation has a major influence on the varying adaptive potential of the investigated populations. PMID:27379105

  7. Desiccation and Mortality Dynamics in Seedlings of Different European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Populations under Extreme Drought Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bolte, Andreas; Czajkowski, Tomasz; Cocozza, Claudia; Tognetti, Roberto; de Miguel, Marina; Pšidová, Eva; Ditmarová, Ĺubica; Dinca, Lucian; Delzon, Sylvain; Cochard, Hervè; Ræbild, Anders; de Luis, Martin; Cvjetkovic, Branislav; Heiri, Caroline; Müller, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    European beech (Fagus sylvatica L., hereafter beech), one of the major native tree species in Europe, is known to be drought sensitive. Thus, the identification of critical thresholds of drought impact intensity and duration are of high interest for assessing the adaptive potential of European beech to climate change in its native range. In a common garden experiment with one-year-old seedlings originating from central and marginal origins in six European countries (Denmark, Germany, France, Romania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Spain), we applied extreme drought stress and observed desiccation and mortality processes among the different populations and related them to plant water status (predawn water potential, ΨPD) and soil hydraulic traits. For the lethal drought assessment, we used a critical threshold of soil water availability that is reached when 50% mortality in seedling populations occurs (LD50SWA). We found significant population differences in LD50SWA (10.5–17.8%), and mortality dynamics that suggest a genetic difference in drought resistance between populations. The LD50SWA values correlate significantly with the mean growing season precipitation at population origins, but not with the geographic margins of beech range. Thus, beech range marginality may be more due to climatic conditions than to geographic range. The outcome of this study suggests the genetic variation has a major influence on the varying adaptive potential of the investigated populations. PMID:27379105

  8. The spatial structure of European wind storms as characterized by bivariate extreme-value Copulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonazzi, A.; Cusack, S.; Mitas, C.; Jewson, S.

    2012-05-01

    The winds associated with extra-tropical cyclones are amongst the costliest natural perils in Europe. Re/insurance companies typically have insured exposure at multiple locations and hence the losses they incur from any individual storm crucially depend on that storm's spatial structure. Motivated by this, this study investigates the spatial structure of the most extreme windstorms in Europe. The data consists of a carefully constructed set of 135 of the most damaging storms in the period 1972-2010. Extreme value copulas are applied to this data to investigate the spatial dependencies of gusts. The copula method is used to investigate three aspects of windstorms. First, spatial maps of expected hazard damage between large cities and their surrounding areas are presented. Second, we demonstrate a practical application of the copula method to benchmark catalogues of artificial storms for use in the re/insurance sector. Third, the copula-based method is used to investigate the sensitivity of spatially aggregated damage to climate variability. The copula method allows changes to be expressed in terms of storm frequency, local intensity, and storm spatial structure and gives a more detailed view of how climate variability may affect multi-location risk in Europe.

  9. APE: the Active Phasing Experiment to test new control system and phasing technology for a European Extremely Large Optical Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonte, F.; Yaitskova, N.; Derie, F.; Constanza, A.; Brast, R.; Buzzoni, B.; Delabre, B.; Dierickx, P.; Dupuy, C.; Esteves, R.; Frank, C.; Guisard, S.; Karban, R.; Koenig, E.; Kolb, J.; Nylund, M.; Noethe, L.; Surdej, I.; Courteville, A.; Wilhelm, R.; Montoya, L.; Reyes, M.; Esposito, S.; Pinna, E.; Dohlen, K.; Ferrari, M.; Langlois, M.

    2005-08-01

    The future European Extremely Large Telescope will be composed of one or two giant segmented mirrors (up to 100 m of diameter) and of several large monolithic mirrors (up to 8 m in diameter). To limit the aberrations due to misalignments and defective surface quality it is necessary to have a proper active optics system. This active optics system must include a phasing system to limit the degradation of the PSF due to misphasing of the segmented mirrors. We will present the lastest design and development of the Active Phasing Experiment that will be tested in laboratory and on-sky connected to a VLT at Paranal in Chile. It includes an active segmented mirror, a static piston plate to simulate a secondary segmented mirror and of four phasing wavefront sensors to measure the piston, tip and tilt of the segments and the aberrations of the VLT. The four phasing sensors are the Diffraction Image Phase Sensing Instrument developed by Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, the Pyramid Phasing Sensor developed by Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory, the Shack-Hartmann Phasing Sensor developed by the European Southern Observatory and the Zernike Unit for Segment phasing developed by Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille. A reference measurement of the segmented mirror is made by an internal metrology developed by Fogale Nanotech. The control system of Active Phasing Experiment will perform the phasing of the segments, the guiding of the VLT and the active optics of the VLT. These activities are included in the Framework Programme 6 of the European Union.

  10. Instrumentation studies for a European extremely large telescope: a strawman instrument suite and implications for telescope design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Adrian P. G.; Hawarden, Timothy G.; Atad, Eli; Ramsay-Howat, Suzanne K.; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Bacon, Roland; Redfern, R. Michael

    2004-07-01

    Plans for a European Extremely Large Telescope are quite well advanced. However examination of instrument designs has thus far been directed only at covering the anticipated science requirements and has had little impact on telescope design considerations. Nevertheless, the provision of a suitable environment for instruments is a critical part of the design of all large telescopes. We illustrate this point with examples from recent experience. A Work Package, part of a proposed Design Study for a European ELT under the European Union's Framework Programme 6 (FP6), will explore this issue, while also developing designs for a scientifically credible instrument suite. For three instruments mechanical and optical design studies will be carried out in sufficient detail clearly to identify design drivers for the telescope. These are a wide-field seeing limited or ground-layer AO-corrected (GLAO) optical/NIR spectrometer, WFSPEC; an MCAO-corrected O/NIR Multi-Object Multi-field Spectrometer-Imager, MOMSI, which offers particularly daunting challenges; and a mid-infrared high-resolution AO-corrected Imager-Spectrometer instrument, MIDIR. Five instrument designs will be examined in less detail: an extreme-AO (XAO) corrected coronagraphic imager-spectrometer known as Planet Finder (the goal of which is the detection and characterization of terrestrial exo-planets); a very high resolution spectrometer, HISPEC; a high time-resolution instrument, HITRI, intended to allow photometry, polarimetry and phase-resolved spectroscopy of faint rapidly varying objects; a fast-response broad-band multi-function instrument known as GRB-catcher; and a sub-millimeter imager, SCUBA-3. A separate small study will seek innovative designs not included in the main suite. Another will initiate the program by examining the requirements of atmospheric dispersion correction (ADC) for 30 to 100-m diffraction-limited telescopes, which may require active sensing and, possibly, "adaptive" correction on

  11. Understanding and predicting the impact of extreme storms events on European coastlines: the MICORE approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciavola, P.

    2009-04-01

    Both the EU and The United Nations are now taking seriously the predicted climate change scenarios of the IPCC. Of particular relevance to Integrated Coastal Zone Management is the predicted increase in the intensity and frequency of powerful storm events characterised by larger peak wind speeds and consequently larger waves. Engineering has usually been favoured in the past as the best option for disaster mitigation at the coast. However, most engineering works are constrained by economics, and a compromise is sought between the potential threat to lives and property and the resources available for design and construction. Furthermore, the design of structures is based on predicted extreme events which themselves are subject to uncertainty, especially in a rapidly changing global climate. The huge damage to the city of New Orleans by Hurricane Katrina illustrates clearly what can go wrong when the engineering design is subjected to forcing beyond its design limits and when civil evacuation and management plans fail. The proposed paper will address the issue of encouraging and facilitating exchange of information on storm impacts produced by nationally funded projects in Member States; establishing robust data management and data quality control and engaging with stakeholders and end users to optimise dissemination strategies. It will heavily rely on the information produced by the MICORE Project (FP7 contract 202798), using and enlarging the database collated by the project regarding the characteristics of extreme storm events occurred in the last 50 years. The MICORE project (www.micore.eu) will provide the knowledge necessary to assess the present day risks and to study the economic and social impact of future severe storm events. Together, these elements will have an important strategic impact on the safety of the people living in coastal areas and upon decision processes aimed at minimising the economic consequences of extreme events. The project will also

  12. Support for site testing of the European Extremely Large Telescope: precipitable water vapor over La Silla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querel, Richard R.; Kerber, Florian; Lo Curto, Gaspare; Thomas-Osip, Joanna E.; Prieto, Gabriel; Chacón, Arlette; Cuevas, Omar; Pozo, Diana; Marín, Julio; Naylor, David A.; Curé, Michel; Sarazin, Marc S.; Guirao, Carlos; Avila, Gerardo

    2010-07-01

    The European Southern Observatory (ESO), the Institute for Space Imaging Science (ISIS) and the AstroMeteorology group at the Universidad de Valparaiso collaborated on a project to understand the precipitable water vapour (PWV) over the La Silla Paranal Observatory. Both La Silla and Paranal were studied with the goal of using them as reference sites to evaluate potential E-ELT sites. As ground-based infrared astronomy matures, our understanding of the atmospheric conditions over the observatories becomes paramount, specifically water vapour since it is the principle source of atmospheric opacity at infrared wavelengths. Several years of archival optical spectra (FEROS) have been analysed to reconstruct the PWV history above La Silla using an atmospheric radiative transfer model (BTRAM) developed by ISIS. In order to better understand the systematics involved, a dedicated atmospheric water vapour measurement campaign was conducted in May 2009 in close collaboration with Las Campanas observatory and the GMT site testing team. Several methods of determining the water column were employed, including radiosonde launches, continuous measurements by infrared radiometers (IRMA), a compact echelle spectrograph (BACHES) and several high-resolution optical echelle spectrographs (FEROS, HARPS and MIKE). All available observations were compared to concurrent satellite estimates of water vapour in an attempt to ground-truth the satellite data. We present a comparison of the methods used, and results from the archival study and measurement campaign. A mean PWV of 3.4 ± 2.4 mm is found for La Silla using FEROS data covering the period 2005-2009. Important lessons on the strengths and limitations of satellite data are presented. The value of a stand-alone high time resolution PWV monitor has been demonstrated in the context of parallel observations from Las Campanas and La Silla.

  13. Regional Aerosol Optical Properties and Radiative Impact of the Extreme Smoke Event in the European Arctic in Spring 2006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lund Myhre, C.; Toledano, C.; Myhre, G.; Stebel, K.; Yttri, K.; Aaltonen, V.; Johnsrud, M.; Frioud, M.; Cachorro, V.; deFrutos, A.; Lihavainen, H.; Campbell, J.; Chaikovsky, A.; Shiobara, M.; Welton, E.; Torseth, K.

    2007-01-01

    In spring 2006 a special meteorological situation occurred in the European Arctic region giving record high levels of air pollution. The synoptic situation resulted in extensive transport of pollution predominantly from agricultural fires in Eastern Europe into the Arctic region and record high air-pollution levels were measured at the Zeppelin observatory at Ni-Alesun(78deg 54'N, 11deg 53'E) in the period from 25 April to 12 May. In the present study we investigate the optical properties of the aerosols from this extreme event and we estimate the radiative forcing of this episode. We examine the aerosol optical properties from the source region and into the European Arctic and explore the evolution of the episode and the changes in the optical properties. A number of sites in Eastern Europe, Northern Scandinavia and Svalbard are included in the study. In addition to AOD measurements, we explored lidar measurements from Minsk, ALOMAR (Arctic Lidar Observatory for Middle Atmosphere Research at Andenes) and Ny-Alesund. For the AERONET sites included (Minsk, Toravere, Hornsund) we have further studied the evolution of the aerosol size. Importantly, at Svalbard it is consistency between the AERONET measurements and calculations of single scattering albedo based on aerosol chemical composition. We have found strong agreement between the satellite dally MODIS AOD and the ground-based AOD observations. This agreement is crucial for the radiative forcing calculations. We calculate a strong negative radiative forcing for the most polluted days employing the analysed ground based data, MODIS AOD and a multi-stream model for radiative transfer of solar radiation.

  14. Computational performance comparison of wavefront reconstruction algorithms for the European Extremely Large Telescope on multi-CPU architecture.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lu; Fedrigo, Enrico; Béchet, Clémentine; Brunner, Elisabeth; Pirani, Werther

    2012-06-01

    The European Southern Observatory (ESO) is studying the next generation giant telescope, called the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). With a 42 m diameter primary mirror, it is a significant step from currently existing telescopes. Therefore, the E-ELT with its instruments poses new challenges in terms of cost and computational complexity for the control system, including its adaptive optics (AO). Since the conventional matrix-vector multiplication (MVM) method successfully used so far for AO wavefront reconstruction cannot be efficiently scaled to the size of the AO systems on the E-ELT, faster algorithms are needed. Among those recently developed wavefront reconstruction algorithms, three are studied in this paper from the point of view of design, implementation, and absolute speed on three multicore multi-CPU platforms. We focus on a single-conjugate AO system for the E-ELT. The algorithms are the MVM, the Fourier transform reconstructor (FTR), and the fractal iterative method (FRiM). This study enhances the scaling of these algorithms with an increasing number of CPUs involved in the computation. We discuss implementation strategies, depending on various CPU architecture constraints, and we present the first quantitative execution times so far at the E-ELT scale. MVM suffers from a large computational burden, making the current computing platform undersized to reach timings short enough for AO wavefront reconstruction. In our study, the FTR provides currently the fastest reconstruction. FRiM is a recently developed algorithm, and several strategies are investigated and presented here in order to implement it for real-time AO wavefront reconstruction, and to optimize its execution time. The difficulty to parallelize the algorithm in such architecture is enhanced. We also show that FRiM can provide interesting scalability using a sparse matrix approach. PMID:22695596

  15. A probabilistic risk assessment for the vulnerability of the European carbon cycle to extreme events: the ecosystem perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolinski, S.; Rammig, A.; Walz, A.; Thonicke, K.; von Bloh, W.; van Oijen, M.

    2014-06-01

    Extreme meteorological events are most likely to occur more often with climate change, leading to a further acceleration of climate change through potentially devastating effects on terrestrial ecosystems. But not all extreme meteorological events lead to extreme ecosystem response. Unlike most current studies, we therefore focus on pre-defined hazardous ecosystem behaviour and the identification of coinciding meteorological conditions, instead of expected ecosystem damage for a pre-defined meteorological event. We use a simple probabilistic risk assessment based on time series of ecosystem behaviour and meteorological conditions. Given the risk assessment terminology, vulnerability and risk for the previously defined hazard are, thus, estimated on the basis of observed hazardous ecosystem behaviour. We first adapt this generic approach to extreme responses of terrestrial ecosystems to drought and high temperatures, with defining the hazard as a negative net biome productivity over a 12 months period. Further, we show an instructive application for two selected sites using data for 1981-2010; and then apply the method on pan-European scale addressing the 1981-2010 period and future projections for 2071-2100, both based on numerical modelling results (LPJmL for ecosystem behaviour; REMO-SRES A1B for climate). Our site-specific results demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method, using the SPEI index to describe the meteorological condition. They also provide examples for their interpretation in case of vulnerability to drought for Spain with the expected value of the SPEI being 0.4 lower for hazardous than for non-hazardous ecosystem behaviour, and of non-vulnerability for Northern Germany, where the expected drought index value for hazard observations relates to wetter conditions than for the non-hazard observations. The pan-European assessment shows that significant results could be obtained for large areas within Europe. For 2071-2100 they indicate a

  16. Application of hybrid uncertainty assessment approaches to data on extremely damaging torrent events in the European Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Candace; Keiler, Margreth

    2016-04-01

    In general, the inclusion of uncertainty information can be further improved upon. The Numerical Unit Spread Assessment Pedigree (NUSAP) approach was previously proposed to provide a holistic framework to express both aleatoric and epistemic uncertainties in disaster loss data. Additionally, a workflow has been recently proposed to identify inconsistencies in volunteered geographic information (VGI). The approaches, if found to be feasible, provide a viable alternative for studies where it is not possible to conduct absolute validation. The application of both aforementioned approaches will be conducted as an integral part of a three year study on quantifying the vulnerability of built structures in the European Alps. Firstly, an extended database of loss data associated with extreme torrent events in Switzerland and Austria will be collected and standardized. Recommendations will then be made based on the application of the aforementioned approaches to minimize the uncertainties associated with each stage of the study. This is accomplished by identifying, quantifying, and ranking the contributing sources of uncertainty. Results from the assessment focus research efforts on the most problematic or weakest project components. By providing a detailed and comprehensive overview of the sources and nature of the uncertainties with the application of the combined methods, participants (i.e. scientists, stakeholders, policy and decision makers) can become more aware of their interaction with the data at different stages, thereby supporting a more transparent and extended peer review process.

  17. Design of a prototype position actuator for the primary mirror segments of the European Extremely Large Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, A.; Morante, E.; Viera, T.; Núñez, M.; Reyes, M.

    2010-07-01

    European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) based in 984 primary mirror segments achieving required optical performance; they must position relatively to adjacent segments with relative nanometer accuracy. CESA designed M1 Position Actuators (PACT) to comply with demanding performance requirements of EELT. Three PACT are located under each segment controlling three out of the plane degrees of freedom (tip, tilt, piston). To achieve a high linear accuracy in long operational displacements, PACT uses two stages in series. First stage based on Voice Coil Actuator (VCA) to achieve high accuracies in very short travel ranges, while second stage based on Brushless DC Motor (BLDC) provides large stroke ranges and allows positioning the first stage closer to the demanded position. A BLDC motor is used achieving a continuous smoothly movement compared to sudden jumps of a stepper. A gear box attached to the motor allows a high reduction of power consumption and provides a great challenge for sizing. PACT space envelope was reduced by means of two flat springs fixed to VCA. Its main characteristic is a low linear axial stiffness. To achieve best performance for PACT, sensors have been included in both stages. A rotary encoder is included in BLDC stage to close position/velocity control loop. An incremental optical encoder measures PACT travel range with relative nanometer accuracy and used to close the position loop of the whole actuator movement. For this purpose, four different optical sensors with different gratings will be evaluated. Control strategy show different internal closed loops that work together to achieve required performance.

  18. Extreme events in total ozone over the Northern mid-latitudes: an analysis based on long-term data sets from five European ground-based stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieder, Harald E.; Jancso, Leonhardt M.; Rocco, Stefania Di; Staehelin, Johannes; Maeder, Joerg A.; Peter, Thomas; Ribatet, Mathieu; Davison, Anthony C.; de Backer, Hugo; Koehler, Ulf; Krzyścin, Janusz; Vaníček, Karel

    2011-11-01

    We apply methods from extreme value theory to identify extreme events in high (termed EHOs) and low (termed ELOs) total ozone and to describe the distribution tails (i.e. very high and very low values) of five long-term European ground-based total ozone time series. The influence of these extreme events on observed mean values, long-term trends and changes is analysed. The results show a decrease in EHOs and an increase in ELOs during the last decades, and establish that the observed downward trend in column ozone during the 1970-1990s is strongly dominated by changes in the frequency of extreme events. Furthermore, it is shown that clear ‘fingerprints’ of atmospheric dynamics (NAO, ENSO) and chemistry [ozone depleting substances (ODSs), polar vortex ozone loss] can be found in the frequency distribution of ozone extremes, even if no attribution is possible from standard metrics (e.g. annual mean values). The analysis complements earlier analysis for the world's longest total ozone record at Arosa, Switzerland, confirming and revealing the strong influence of atmospheric dynamics on observed ozone changes. The results provide clear evidence that in addition to ODS, volcanic eruptions and strong/moderate ENSO and NAO events had significant influence on column ozone in the European sector.

  19. Optical design trade-offs of the multi conjugate adaptive optics relay for the European Extremely Large Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombini, Matteo; Diolaiti, Emiliano; De Rosa, Adriano

    2014-08-01

    The scope of this paper is to describe some possible design concepts of the post optical relay inside the multi conjugate adaptive optics module for the European Extremely Large Telescope. The module is planned to be placed at the Nasmyth focus of the telescope. The optical relay must re-image the telescope focal plane with diffraction limited performance and low geometric distortion, for a field of view of 75" and for a wavelength range between 0.8 and 2.4μm. A technical annular field of view with inner diameter of 75" and outer diameter of 160" to search 3 for natural guide stars is also required. Wavefront sensing is performed by means of 6 laser guide stars arranged on a circle of at least 120" diameter while wavefront correction is performed by two deformable mirrors inside the relay, in addition to the telescope adaptive mirror. The final optical design will be a trade-off among adaptive optics performance, optical interface requirements, mechanical interface requirements and technological feasibility of key hardware components. The size of the deformable mirrors and the image quality of the layer conjugates are important design drivers, related to the design of the collimating optics after the input focal plane and to the deformable mirrors tilt respect to the chief ray. The optical interface at the output focal plane must be acceptable for the client instruments, in terms of field curvature, focal ratio and exit pupil position. The number of optical surfaces inside the relay has to be as small as possible to limit thermal background. Splitting of the laser guide star channel from the science light channel may be achieved either in wavelength, by means of a dichroic placed close to a pupil image, or in field, by means of an perforated dichroic placed at an intermediate focal plane. The laser guide star beams have to be focused with acceptable optical performance on a fixed image plane compensating the effects of the sodium layer range variation with Zenith

  20. Overview of Best Practices in Mitigating the Impact of Natural Disasters and Extreme Weather Phenomena on European Aviation - The MOWE-IT Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muehlhausen, Thorsten; Kreuz, Michael; Temme, Annette; Nokkala, Marko; Nurmi, Pertti; Perrels, Adriaan; Hyvarinen, Otto; Yuga, Ilkka; Pylkko, Pirkko; Kral, Stephan; Schaetter, Frank; Bartsch, Mariana; Wiens, Marcus; Michaelides, Silas; Tymvios, Filippos; Papadakis, Matheos; Athanasatos, Spyros

    2014-05-01

    The European transport system has shown various degrees of vulnerability to external shocks such as severe weather events, which have partially or, in some cases, totally shut down part of the transport system. Under climate change conditions, the identification of Best Practices within the European area and the proposal of short, medium and long term solutions in order to deal with induced disruptions are vital to upkeep the efficiency and integrity of the European transport network. The MOWE-IT (Management of weather events in the transport system) project is a continuation of the work performed in up-to-date European projects such as the EWENT, WEATHER and ECCONET projects. Its aim is to identify such existing best practices and to develop methodologies in order to assist transport operators, authorities and transport system users to mitigate the impact of natural disasters and extreme weather phenomena on transport system performance. While the MOWE-IT project covers a wide number of transportation modes such as road, rail, marine transport, aviation and inland waterways, in this current work, an overview of the project's work performed in the aviation sector in Europe is presented. The MOWE-IT project is funded by the European Union, under its 7th Framework Programme (TRANSPORT SUPPORT ACTIONS).

  1. The role of regional climate model setup in simulating two extreme precipitation events in the European Alpine region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awan, Nauman Khurshid; Gobiet, Andreas; Suklitsch, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In this study we have investigated the role of domain settings and model's physics in simulating two extreme precipitation events. Four regional climate models, all driven with a re-analysis dataset were used to create an ensemble of 61 high-resolution simulations by varying physical parameterization schemes, domain sizes, nudging and nesting techniques. The two discussed events are three-day time slices taken from approximately 15-months long climate simulations. The results show that dynamical downscaling significantly improves the spatial characteristics such as correlation, variability as well as location and intensity of maximum precipitation. Spatial variability, which is underestimated by most of the simulations can be improved by choosing suitable vertical resolution, convective and microphysics scheme. The results further suggest that for studies focusing on extreme precipitation events relatively small domains or nudging could be advantageous. However, a final conclusion on this issue would be premature, since only two extreme precipitation events are considered.

  2. The role of regional climate model setup in simulating two extreme precipitation events in the European Alpine region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awan, Nauman Khurshid; Gobiet, Andreas; Suklitsch, Martin

    2014-09-01

    In this study we have investigated the role of domain settings and model's physics in simulating two extreme precipitation events. Four regional climate models, all driven with a re-analysis dataset were used to create an ensemble of 61 high-resolution simulations by varying physical parameterization schemes, domain sizes, nudging and nesting techniques. The two discussed events are three-day time slices taken from approximately 15-months long climate simulations. The results show that dynamical downscaling significantly improves the spatial characteristics such as correlation, variability as well as location and intensity of maximum precipitation. Spatial variability, which is underestimated by most of the simulations can be improved by choosing suitable vertical resolution, convective and microphysics scheme. The results further suggest that for studies focusing on extreme precipitation events relatively small domains or nudging could be advantageous. However, a final conclusion on this issue would be premature, since only two extreme precipitation events are considered.

  3. Impact of past and future climate variability and extreme events on carbon loss in European arable agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balkovic, Juraj; van der Velde, Marijn; Khabarov, Nikolay; Beer, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Predictions of climate models suggest an increase in climate variability and an increased probability in the occurrence of extreme weather events during this century. The expected increase in variability of meteorological variables such as temperature and precipitation will impact the productive functions as well as the ecosystem services agricultural systems provide, including the storage of soil organic carbon. Here we use a methodology and specifically tailored climate datasets that were developed in the EU FP7 CARBO-Extreme project to analyze the effect of increased climate variability on long term soil organic carbon sequestration, erosion and crop production in Europe. We quantified the changing impact of extreme events on carbon dynamics and soil organic carbon loss from agricultural soil cultivated with wheat, barley, maize and rye in Europe for the period from 1900-2100. In separate simulations we specifically address the potential losses of soil carbon associated with erosion. We further characterized the effect of CO2 fertilization on crop growth. Preliminary results indicate a growing contribution of extreme weather generally lowering biomass production and crop yields in Europe, albeit with regional variations. This decrease will lead to a relatively lower input of organic matter into the soil and generally lower soil organic carbon stocks. Yet, in areas characterized by relatively drier conditions the decomposition of organic material and thus heterotrophic transpiration is reduced which can result in a net accumulation of soil organic matter. Finally, we attempted to identify the cropland area susceptible to increased carbon loss due to climate extremes by unraveling the relative contribution of the combined spatial fingerprint of physiographic characteristics and climate extremes over Europe.

  4. No snow for Christmas: the impact of the 2015 extreme winter on CO2 fluxes in European mountain grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremonese, Edoardo; Galvagno, Marta; Hammerle, Albin; Filippa, Gianluca; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2016-04-01

    The increasing frequency in extreme climate events is very likely to impact the Alps since this region is characterized by very sensitive ecosystems. Typical alpine ecosystems such as mountain grasslands, show a strong seasonality in carbon uptake and release mostly driven by the onset and the end of the snow season. Extreme climate events, such as long warm and/or dry periods, could change typical snow cover temporal pattern, thereby altering the duration of the period of CO2 uptake and release. In recent years many studies have analyzed the impact of delayed or anticipated snowmelt on alpine plant phenology, growth and carbon cycling. However, little is known on the effects of a delayed onset of the snow season. During 2015 the whole planet witnessed several record-breaking warm spells which exceptionally warmed the Alps where the temperature anomaly reached +4°C during both the autumn and winter periods. In particular, the onset of the 2015 winter in the Alps was marked by one of the most prolonged lack of snow in years. In this study, we investigate and discuss the impact of the altered temperature and precipitation pattern during the autumn/winter 2015 on the net ecosystem CO2 exchange of mountain grasslands at high and low altitudes measured by means of the eddy covariance method. In particular we test the following hypotheses: (i) The presence of a snowpack impedes plant photosynthesis, while without a snowpack, plant net CO2 uptake may be possible even during wintertime provided temperatures are warm enough. (ii) Below a snowpack, soil temperatures are around zero degrees Celsius, allowing for microbial activity resulting in intermediate soil respiration; without a snow cover soil temperatures may be either lower or higher than zero degrees Celsius, decreasing or increasing soil respiration. The magnitude and direction of the net ecosystem CO2 exchange of mountain grassland ecosystems is governed by the complex interplay of the factors addressed in

  5. 1.4 kyrs of flash flood events in the Southern European Alps: implications for extreme precipitation patterns and forcing over the north-western Mediterranean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, B.; Arnaud, F.; Sabatier, P.; Crouzet, C.; Brisset, E.; Guiter, F.; Reyss, J. L.; Chaumillon, E.; Tachikawa, K.; Bard, E.; Delannoy, J. J.

    2012-04-01

    the general moisture, the hydrology of large rivers and temperature patterns of the south-western European region, i.e. a low flood activity during the warm/dry MCA and conversely during the cold/wet Little Ice Age (LIA). At a sub-centennial scale, a high variability of the flood frequency is superimposed to the general increase during the LIA and appeared in phase with solar maximum. Moreover peaks of flood frequency seem to be correlated with negative autumnal NAO phases, in agreement with previous paleoflood reconstructions of Mediterranean Spanish rivers. Finally the comparison of flood frequency patterns from north-western Mediterranean sites suggests a 50-150 years oscillation mode, probably related to a NAO-like pattern, in two main NW Mediterranean atmospheric circulation patterns triggering extreme precipitations either over the Southern Alps or the Cevennes-Vivarais region.

  6. High resolution climate projections to assess the future vulnerability of European urban areas to climatological extreme events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallmann, Joachim; Wagner, Sven; Emeis, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    Results from high resolution 7-km WRF regional climate model (RCM) simulations are used to analyse changes in the occurrence frequencies of heat waves, of precipitation extremes and of the duration of the winter time freezing period for highly populated urban areas in Central Europe. The projected climate change impact is assessed for 11 urban areas based on climate indices for a future period (2021-2050) compared to a reference period (1971-2000) using the IPCC AR4 A1B Scenario as boundary conditions. These climate indices are calculated from daily maximum, minimum and mean temperatures as well as precipitation amounts. By this, the vulnerability of these areas to future climate conditions is to be investigated. The number of heat waves, as well as the number of single hot days, tropical nights and heavy precipitation events is projected to increase in the near future. In addition, the number of frost days is significantly decreased. Probability density functions of monthly mean summer time temperatures show an increase of the 95th percentile of about 1-3 °C for the future compared with the reference period. The projected increase of cooling and decrease of heating degree days indicate the possible impact on urban energy consumption under future climate conditions.

  7. An experimental station for advanced research on condensed matter under extreme conditions at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility - BM29 beamline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipponi, Adriano; Borowski, Michael; Bowron, Daniel T.; Ansell, Stuart; Di Cicco, Andrea; De Panfilis, Simone; Itiè, Jean-Paul

    2000-06-01

    We describe state-of-the-art experimental techniques using the beamline BM29 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). This station exploits the unique characteristics of an ESRF bending magnet source to provide a tunable, collimated, x-ray beam to perform high quality x-ray absorption spectroscopy within the energy range of E=5-75 keV using Si(111), Si(311), and Si(511) crystal pairs. Energy scans can be performed over this wide energy range with excellent reproducibility, stability and resolution, usually better than ΔE/E≃5×10-5. The experimental setup has been exploited to study condensed matter under extreme conditions. We describe here two sample environment devices; the L' Aquila-Camerino oven for high-temperature studies up to 3000 K in high vacuum and the Paris-Edinburgh press suitable for high-pressure high-temperature studies in the range 0.1-7 GPa and temperatures up to 1500 K. These devices can be integrated in an experimental setup which combines various control and detection systems suitable to perform x-ray absorption spectroscopy, x-ray absorption temperature scans, and energy scanning x-ray diffraction (ESXD). The ESXD setup is based on a scintillator detector behind a fixed angle collimator aligned to the sample. The combination of these three measurements, which can be performed in rapid sequence on the sample during the experiment, provides an essential tool for structural investigations and in situ sample characterization.

  8. How extreme are extremes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucchi, Marco; Petitta, Marcello; Calmanti, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    High temperatures have an impact on the energy balance of any living organism and on the operational capabilities of critical infrastructures. Heat-wave indicators have been mainly developed with the aim of capturing the potential impacts on specific sectors (agriculture, health, wildfires, transport, power generation and distribution). However, the ability to capture the occurrence of extreme temperature events is an essential property of a multi-hazard extreme climate indicator. Aim of this study is to develop a standardized heat-wave indicator, that can be combined with other indices in order to describe multiple hazards in a single indicator. The proposed approach can be used in order to have a quantified indicator of the strenght of a certain extreme. As a matter of fact, extremes are usually distributed in exponential or exponential-exponential functions and it is difficult to quickly asses how strong was an extreme events considering only its magnitude. The proposed approach simplify the quantitative and qualitative communication of extreme magnitude

  9. The Time-resolved and Extreme-conditions XAS (TEXAS) facility at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility: the energy-dispersive X-ray absorption spectroscopy beamline ID24.

    PubMed

    Pascarelli, S; Mathon, O; Mairs, T; Kantor, I; Agostini, G; Strohm, C; Pasternak, S; Perrin, F; Berruyer, G; Chappelet, P; Clavel, C; Dominguez, M C

    2016-01-01

    The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility has recently made available to the user community a facility totally dedicated to Time-resolved and Extreme-conditions X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy--TEXAS. Based on an upgrade of the former energy-dispersive XAS beamline ID24, it provides a unique experimental tool combining unprecedented brilliance (up to 10(14) photons s(-1) on a 4 µm × 4 µm FWHM spot) and detection speed for a full EXAFS spectrum (100 ps per spectrum). The science mission includes studies of processes down to the nanosecond timescale, and investigations of matter at extreme pressure (500 GPa), temperature (10000 K) and magnetic field (30 T). The core activities of the beamline are centered on new experiments dedicated to the investigation of extreme states of matter that can be maintained only for very short periods of time. Here the infrastructure, optical scheme, detection systems and sample environments used to enable the mission-critical performance are described, and examples of first results on the investigation of the electronic and local structure in melts at pressure and temperature conditions relevant to the Earth's interior and in laser-shocked matter are given. PMID:26698085

  10. Stellar Family Portrait Takes Imaging Technique to New Extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-12-01

    Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning a 42-metre European Extremely Large optical/near-infrared Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become "the world's biggest eye on the sky".

  11. An extreme cytoplasmic bottleneck in the modern European cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) is not reflected in decreased levels of nuclear diversity

    PubMed Central

    Provan, J.; Powell, W; Dewar, H.; Bryan, G.; Machray, G. C.; Waugh, R.

    1999-01-01

    We have used the polymorphic chloroplast (cp) and nuclear simple sequence repeats (SSRs) to analyse levels of cytoplasmic and nuclear diversity in the gene pool of the European cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum). Primers designed from the complete chloroplast sequence of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) were used to amplify polymorphic products in a range of potato cultivars. Combining the data from seven polymorphic cpSSR loci gave 26 haplotypes, one of which (haplotype A) accounted for 151 out of the 178 individuals studied and corresponded to the T-type cytoplasm previously identified in cultivated potatoes using chloroplast restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Phylogenetic and diversity analyses of the relationships between cpSSR haplotypes confirmed much higher levels of cytoplasmic diversity outwith the T-type group. Diversity levels at eight nuclear SSR loci, however, were not significantly different between cytoplasmic groups, suggesting a severe maternal bottleneck in the evolution of the modern cultivated potato. These results highlight the importance in quantifying levels of cytoplasmic as well as nuclear diversity and confirm the need for a change in breeding practices to increase levels of non-T-type cytoplasm in the cultivated gene pool, thus helping reduce problems associated with pollen sterility. This may be facilitated by germplasm analysis using cpSSRs, which will allow efficient selection of diverse cytoplasm donors.

  12. Effects of extreme experimental drought and rewetting on CO2 and CH4 exchange in mesocosms of 14 European peatlands with different nitrogen and sulfur deposition.

    PubMed

    Estop-Aragonés, Cristian; Zając, Katarzyna; Blodau, Christian

    2016-06-01

    The quantitative impact of intense drought and rewetting on gas exchange in ombrotrophic bogs is still uncertain. In particular, we lack studies investigating multitudes of sites with different soil properties and nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) deposition under consistent environmental conditions. We explored the timing and magnitude of change in CO2 (Respiration, Gross Primary Production - GPP, and Net Exchange - NE) and CH4 fluxes during an initial wet, a prolonged dry (~100 days), and a subsequent wet period (~230 days) at 12 °C in 14 Sphagnum peat mesocosms collected in hollows from bogs in the UK, Ireland, Poland, and Slovakia. The relationship of N and S deposition with GPP, respiration, and CH4 exchange was investigated. Nitrogen deposition increased CO2 fluxes and GPP more than respiration, at least up to about 15 kg N ha(-1)  yr(-1) . All mesocosms became CO2 sources during drying and most of them when the entire annual period was considered. Response of GPP to drying was faster than that of respiration and contributed more to the change in NE; the effect was persistent and few sites recovered "predry" GPP by the end of the wet phase. Respiration was higher during the dry phase, but did not keep increasing as WT kept falling and peaked within the initial 33 days of drying; the change was larger when differences in humification with depth were small. CH4 fluxes strongly peaked during early drought and water table decline. After rewetting, methanogenesis recovered faster in dense peats, but CH4 fluxes remained low for several months, especially in peats with higher inorganic reduced sulfur content, where sulfate was generated and methanogenesis remained suppressed. Based on a range of European sites, the results support the idea that N and S deposition and intense drought can substantially affect greenhouse gas exchange on the annual scale. PMID:26810035

  13. Extreme Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colvin, Jeff; Larsen, Jon

    2013-11-01

    Acknowledgements; 1. Extreme environments: what, where, how; 2. Properties of dense and classical plasmas; 3. Laser energy absorption in matter; 4. Hydrodynamic motion; 5. Shocks; 6. Equation of state; 7. Ionization; 8. Thermal energy transport; 9. Radiation energy transport; 10. Magnetohydrodynamics; 11. Considerations for constructing radiation-hydrodynamics computer codes; 12. Numerical simulations; Appendix: units and constants, glossary of symbols; References; Bibliography; Index.

  14. Extreme Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nott, Jonathan

    2006-04-01

    The assessment of risks posed by natural hazards such as floods, droughts, earthquakes, tsunamis or cyclones, is often based on short-term historical records that may not reflect the full range or magnitude of events possible. As human populations grow, especially in hazard-prone areas, methods for accurately assessing natural hazard risks are becoming increasingly important. In Extreme Events Jonathan Nott describes the many methods used to reconstruct such hazards from natural long-term records. He demonstrates how long-term (multi-century to millennial) records are essential in gaining a realistic understanding of the variability of natural hazards, and how short-term historical records can often misrepresent the likely risks associated with natural hazards. This book will form a useful resource for students taking courses covering natural hazards and risk assessment. It will also be valuable for urban planners, policy makers and non-specialists as a guide to understanding and reconstructing long-term records of natural hazards. Explains mechanisms that cause extreme events and discusses their prehistoric records Describes how to reconstruct long-term records of natural hazards in order to make accurate risk assessments Demonstrates that natural hazards can follow cycles over time and do not occur randomly

  15. European Mistletoe

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov Key References American mistletoe. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on July 7, 2009. European mistletoe. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on July ...

  16. European Community.

    PubMed

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well. PMID:12177941

  17. Extreme Scale Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Pak C.; Shen, Han-Wei; Pascucci, Valerio

    2012-05-08

    Extreme-scale visual analytics (VA) is about applying VA to extreme-scale data. The articles in this special issue examine advances related to extreme-scale VA problems, their analytical and computational challenges, and their real-world applications.

  18. Evolutions from extremality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    We examine the evolution of extremal spherically symmetric black holes, developing both general theory as well as the specific cases of (charged) null dust and massless scalar field spacetimes. As matter accretes onto extremal marginally trapped tubes, they generically evolve to become nonextremal, with the initial extremal horizon bifurcating into inner and outer nonextremal horizons. At the start of this process arbitrarily slow matter accretion can cause a geometrically invariant measure of horizon growth to jump from zero to infinity. We also consider dynamical horizons that are extremal throughout their evolution and see that such spacetimes contain two extremal black hole horizons: an inner isolated one and an outer dynamical one. We compare these extremal dynamical horizons with the dynamical extreme event horizon spacetimes of Murata, Reall and Tanahashi.

  19. Extreme solar energetic particle events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainio, Rami; Afanasiev, Alexandr; Battarbee, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Properties of extreme solar energetic particle (SEP) events, here defined as those leading to ground level enhancements (GLEs) of cosmic rays, are reviewed. We review recent efforts on modeling SEP acceleration to relativistic energies and present simulation results on particle acceleration at shocks driven by fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in different types of coronal magnetic structures and turbulent downstream compression regions. Based on these modeling results, we discuss the possible role of solar and CME parameters in the lack of GLEs during the present sunspot cycle. This work has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 637324 (HESPERIA). The Academy of Finland is thanked for financial support.

  20. Extreme events: dynamics, statistics and prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghil, M.

    2011-12-01

    In this talk, I will review work on extreme events, their causes and consequences, by a group of European and American researchers involved in a three-year project on these topics. The review covers theoretical aspects of time series analysis and of extreme value theory, as well as of the deterministic modeling of extreme events, via continuous and discrete dynamic models. The applications include climatic, seismic and socio-economic events, along with their prediction. Two important results refer to (i) the complementarity of spectral analysis of a time series in terms of the continuous and the discrete part of its power spectrum; and (ii) the need for coupled modeling of natural and socio-economic systems. Both these results have implications for the study and prediction of natural hazards and their human impacts.

  1. Extreme events: dynamics, statistics and prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghil, M.; Yiou, P.; Hallegatte, S.; Malamud, B. D.; Naveau, P.; Soloviev, A.; Friederichs, P.; Keilis-Borok, V.; Kondrashov, D.; Kossobokov, V.; Mestre, O.; Nicolis, C.; Rust, H. W.; Shebalin, P.; Vrac, M.; Witt, A.; Zaliapin, I.

    2011-05-01

    We review work on extreme events, their causes and consequences, by a group of European and American researchers involved in a three-year project on these topics. The review covers theoretical aspects of time series analysis and of extreme value theory, as well as of the deterministic modeling of extreme events, via continuous and discrete dynamic models. The applications include climatic, seismic and socio-economic events, along with their prediction. Two important results refer to (i) the complementarity of spectral analysis of a time series in terms of the continuous and the discrete part of its power spectrum; and (ii) the need for coupled modeling of natural and socio-economic systems. Both these results have implications for the study and prediction of natural hazards and their human impacts.

  2. Atmospheric Extreme Events in the North Atlantic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzke, C.

    2012-04-01

    An important part of European weather and climate are storms. European winter storms cause economic damage and insurance losses on the order of billions of Euro per year. European winter storms rank as the second highest cause of global natural catastrophe insurance loss. Many of these hazard events are not independent; for instance, severe storms can occur in trains of storms. Recent examples of such subsequently occurring storms include January 2008 (Paula and Resi) and March 2008 (Emma, Johanna and Kirsten). Each of these trains of storms caused damages on the order of ~€1bn. Extreme value statistics are based on the premise that extreme events are iid but this is rarely the case in natural systems where extreme events tend to cluster. Thus, no account is taken of memory and correlation that characterise many natural time series; this fundamentally limits our ability to forecast and to estimate return periods of extreme events. In my presentation I will discuss two possible causes of this clustering: (i) The propensity of extreme events to depend on large-scale circulation regimes and (ii) the long-range correlation properties of surface windspeeds enhances the likelihood of extreme events to cluster. These two characteristics affect the return periods of atmospheric extreme events and thus insurance pricing.

  3. 21st Birthday Drinking: Extremely Extreme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutledge, Patricia C.; Park, Aesoon; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite public recognition of the hazards of 21st birthday drinking, there is little empirical information concerning its prevalence, severity, and risk factors. Data from a sample of 2,518 college students suggest that 21st birthday drinking poses an extreme danger: (a) 4 of every 5 participants (83%) reported drinking to celebrate, (b) birthday…

  4. How extreme is extreme hourly precipitation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papalexiou, Simon Michael; Dialynas, Yannis G.; Pappas, Christoforos

    2016-04-01

    The importance of accurate representation of precipitation at fine time scales (e.g., hourly), directly associated with flash flood events, is crucial in hydrological design and prediction. The upper part of a probability distribution, known as the distribution tail, determines the behavior of extreme events. In general, and loosely speaking, tails can be categorized in two families: the subexponential and the hyperexponential family, with the first generating more intense and more frequent extremes compared to the latter. In past studies, the focus has been mainly on daily precipitation, with the Gamma distribution being the most popular model. Here, we investigate the behaviour of tails of hourly precipitation by comparing the upper part of empirical distributions of thousands of records with three general types of tails corresponding to the Pareto, Lognormal, and Weibull distributions. Specifically, we use thousands of hourly rainfall records from all over the USA. The analysis indicates that heavier-tailed distributions describe better the observed hourly rainfall extremes in comparison to lighter tails. Traditional representations of the marginal distribution of hourly rainfall may significantly deviate from observed behaviours of extremes, with direct implications on hydroclimatic variables modelling and engineering design.

  5. Climate extremes and the carbon cycle (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichstein, M.; Bahn, M.; Ciais, P.; Mahecha, M. D.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Zscheischler, J.

    2013-12-01

    The terrestrial biosphere is a key component of the global carbon cycle and its carbon balance is strongly influenced by climate. Ongoing environmental changes are thought to increase global terrestrial carbon uptake. But evidence is mounting that rare climate extremes can lead to a decrease in ecosystem carbon stocks and therefore have the potential to negate the expected increase in terrestrial carbon uptake. Here we explore the mechanisms and impacts of climate extremes on the terrestrial carbon cycle, and propose a pathway to improve our understanding of present and future impacts of climate extremes on the terrestrial carbon budget. In addition to direct impact on the carbon fluxes of photosynthesis and respiration via extreme temperature and (or) drought, effects of extreme events may also lead to lagged responses, such as wildfires triggered by heat waves and droughts, or pest and pathogen outbreaks following wind-throw caused by heavy storms, reduced plant health due to drought stress or due to less frequent cold extremes in presently cold regions. One extreme event can potentially override accumulated previous carbon sinks, as shown by the Western European 2003 heat wave.. Extreme events have the potential to affect the terrestrial ecosystem carbon balance through a single factor, or as a combination of factors. Climate extremes can cause carbon losses from accumulated stocks, as well as long-lasting impacts on (e.g. lagged effects) on plant growth and mortality, extending beyond the duration of the extreme event itself. The sensitivity of terrestrial ecosystems and their carbon balance to climate change and extreme events varies according to the type of extreme, the climatic region, the land cover, and the land management. Extreme event impacts are very relevant in forests due to the importance of lagged and memory effects on tree growth and mortality, the longevity of tree species, the large forest carbon stocks and their vulnerability, as well as the

  6. Extremity x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    An extremity x-ray is an image of the hands, wrist, feet, ankle, leg, thigh, forearm humerus or upper arm, hip, shoulder ... term "extremity" often refers to a human limb. X-rays are a form of radiation that passes through ...

  7. Bivariate extreme value distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elshamy, M.

    1992-01-01

    In certain engineering applications, such as those occurring in the analyses of ascent structural loads for the Space Transportation System (STS), some of the load variables have a lower bound of zero. Thus, the need for practical models of bivariate extreme value probability distribution functions with lower limits was identified. We discuss the Gumbel models and present practical forms of bivariate extreme probability distributions of Weibull and Frechet types with two parameters. Bivariate extreme value probability distribution functions can be expressed in terms of the marginal extremel distributions and a 'dependence' function subject to certain analytical conditions. Properties of such bivariate extreme distributions, sums and differences of paired extremals, as well as the corresponding forms of conditional distributions, are discussed. Practical estimation techniques are also given.

  8. Survival of extreme opinions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Jiann-wien; Huang, Ding-wei

    2009-12-01

    We study the survival of extreme opinions in various processes of consensus formation. All the opinions are treated equally and subjected to the same rules of changing. We investigate three typical models to reach a consensus in each case: (A) personal influence, (B) influence from surroundings, and (C) influence to surroundings. Starting with uniformly distributed random opinions, our calculated results show that the extreme opinions can survive in both models (A) and (B), but not in model (C). We obtain a conclusion that both personal influence and passive adaptation to the environment are not sufficient enough to eradicate all the extreme opinions. Only the active persuasion to change the surroundings eliminates the extreme opinions completely.

  9. Improving extreme value statistics.

    PubMed

    Shekhawat, Ashivni

    2014-11-01

    The rate of convergence in extreme value statistics is nonuniversal and can be arbitrarily slow. Further, the relative error can be unbounded in the tail of the approximation, leading to difficulty in extrapolating the extreme value fit beyond the available data. We introduce the T method, and show that by using simple nonlinear transformations the extreme value approximation can be rendered rapidly convergent in the bulk, and asymptotic in the tail, thus fixing both issues. The transformations are often parametrized by just one parameter, which can be estimated numerically. The classical extreme value method is shown to be a special case of the proposed method. We demonstrate that vastly improved results can be obtained with almost no extra cost. PMID:25493780

  10. Extreme environments and exobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedmann, E. I.

    1993-01-01

    Ecological research on extreme environments can be applied to exobiological problems such as the question of life on Mars. If life forms (fossil or extant) are found on Mars, their study will help to solve fundamental questions about the nature of life on Earth. Extreme environments that are beyond the range of adaptability of their inhabitants are defined as "absolute extreme". Such environments can serve as terrestrial models for the last stages of life in the history of Mars, when the surface cooled down and atmosphere and water disappeared. The cryptoendolithic microbial community in porous rocks of the Ross Desert in Antarctica and the microbial mats at the bottom of frozen Antarctic lakes are such examples. The microbial communities of Siberian permafrost show that, in frozen but stable communities, long-term survival is possible. In the context of terraforming Mars, selected microorganisms isolated from absolute extreme environments are considered for use in creation of a biological carbon cycle.

  11. Hardware removal - extremity

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007644.htm Hardware removal - extremity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Surgeons use hardware such as pins, plates, or screws to help ...

  12. Synoptic conditions during wintertime temperature extremes in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassano, John J.; Cassano, Elizabeth N.; Seefeldt, Mark W.; Gutowski, William J.; Glisan, Justin M.

    2016-04-01

    The large-scale atmospheric state associated with widespread wintertime warm and cold extremes in southern Alaska was identified using 1989 to 2007 European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Interim Re-Analysis (ERA-I) data. Extremes were defined as days with the coldest and warmest 1% of daily temperatures. Widespread extreme events were identified for days when at least 25 50 km grid cells in the study domain met the extreme temperature criteria. A total of 55 cold and 74 warm extreme days were identified in 19 winters. Composites of the atmospheric state from 5 days before through the day of the extreme events were analyzed to assess the large-scale atmospheric state associated with the extremes. The method of self-organizing maps (SOMs) was used to identify the range of sea level pressure (SLP) patterns present in the ERA-I December-February data, and these SLP patterns were then used to stratify the extreme days by their large-scale atmospheric circulation. Composites for all warm or cold extreme days showed less intense features than those for specific SLP patterns. In all of the composites temperature advection, strongest at 700 hPa, and anomalous longwave radiation were the primary factors that led to the extreme events. The anomalous downwelling longwave radiation was due to either reduced cloud cover, during cold extremes, or to increased cloud cover, during warm extremes. The SOM composites provided additional insight into the temporal evolution of the extreme days and highlighted different portions of southern Alaska most likely to experience temperature extremes for a given SOM SLP pattern.

  13. Extreme Programming: Maestro Style

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Jeffrey; Fox, Jason; Rabe, Kenneth; Shu, I-Hsiang; Powell, Mark

    2009-01-01

    "Extreme Programming: Maestro Style" is the name of a computer programming methodology that has evolved as a custom version of a methodology, called extreme programming that has been practiced in the software industry since the late 1990s. The name of this version reflects its origin in the work of the Maestro team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory that develops software for Mars exploration missions. Extreme programming is oriented toward agile development of software resting on values of simplicity, communication, testing, and aggressiveness. Extreme programming involves use of methods of rapidly building and disseminating institutional knowledge among members of a computer-programming team to give all the members a shared view that matches the view of the customers for whom the software system is to be developed. Extreme programming includes frequent planning by programmers in collaboration with customers, continually examining and rewriting code in striving for the simplest workable software designs, a system metaphor (basically, an abstraction of the system that provides easy-to-remember software-naming conventions and insight into the architecture of the system), programmers working in pairs, adherence to a set of coding standards, collaboration of customers and programmers, frequent verbal communication, frequent releases of software in small increments of development, repeated testing of the developmental software by both programmers and customers, and continuous interaction between the team and the customers. The environment in which the Maestro team works requires the team to quickly adapt to changing needs of its customers. In addition, the team cannot afford to accept unnecessary development risk. Extreme programming enables the Maestro team to remain agile and provide high-quality software and service to its customers. However, several factors in the Maestro environment have made it necessary to modify some of the conventional extreme

  14. Electronics for Extreme Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, J. U.; Cressler, J.; Li, Y.; Niu, G.

    2001-01-01

    Most of the NASA missions involve extreme environments comprising radiation and low or high temperatures. Current practice of providing friendly ambient operating environment to electronics costs considerable power and mass (for shielding). Immediate missions such as the Europa orbiter and lander and Mars landers require the electronics to perform reliably in extreme conditions during the most critical part of the mission. Some other missions planned in the future also involve substantial surface activity in terms of measurements, sample collection, penetration through ice and crust and the analysis of samples. Thus it is extremely critical to develop electronics that could reliably operate under extreme space environments. Silicon On Insulator (SOI) technology is an extremely attractive candidate for NASA's future low power and high speed electronic systems because it offers increased transconductance, decreased sub-threshold slope, reduced short channel effects, elimination of kink effect, enhanced low field mobility, and immunity from radiation induced latch-up. A common belief that semiconductor devices function better at low temperatures is generally true for bulk devices but it does not hold true for deep sub-micron SOI CMOS devices with microscopic device features of 0.25 micrometers and smaller. Various temperature sensitive device parameters and device characteristics have recently been reported in the literature. Behavior of state of the art technology devices under such conditions needs to be evaluated in order to determine possible modifications in the device design for better performance and survivability under extreme environments. Here, we present a unique approach of developing electronics for extreme environments to benefit future NASA missions as described above. This will also benefit other long transit/life time missions such as the solar sail and planetary outposts in which electronics is out open in the unshielded space at the ambient space

  15. Extreme Convective Weather in Future Decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadian, Alan; Burton, Ralph; Groves, James; Blyth, Alan; Warner, James; Holland, Greg; Bruyere, Cindy; Done, James; Thielen, Jutta

    2016-04-01

    WISER (Weather Climate Change Impact Study at Extreme Resolution) is a project designed to analyse changes in extreme weather events in a future climate, using a weather model (WRF) which is able to resolve small scale processes. Use of a weather model is specifically designed to look at convection which is of a scale which cannot be resolved by climate models. The regional meso-scale precipitation events, which are critical in understanding climate change impacts will be analysed. A channel domain outer model, with a resolution of ~ 20km in the outer domain drives an inner domain of ~ 3 km resolution. Results from 1989-1994 and 2020-2024 and 2030-2034 will be presented to show the effects of extreme convective events over Western Europe. This presentation will provide details of the project. It will present data from the 1989-1994 ERA-interim and CCSM driven simulations, with analysis of the future years as defined above. The representation of pdfs of extreme precipitation, Outgoing Longwave Radiation and wind speeds, with preliminary comparison with observations will be discussed. It is also planned to use the output to drive the EFAS (European Flood model) to examine the predicted changes in quantity and frequency of severe and hazardous convective rainfall events and leading to the frequency of flash flooding due to heavy convective precipitation.

  16. Adventure and Extreme Sports.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Andrew Thomas; Rao, Ashwin

    2016-03-01

    Adventure and extreme sports often involve unpredictable and inhospitable environments, high velocities, and stunts. These activities vary widely and include sports like BASE jumping, snowboarding, kayaking, and surfing. Increasing interest and participation in adventure and extreme sports warrants understanding by clinicians to facilitate prevention, identification, and treatment of injuries unique to each sport. This article covers alpine skiing and snowboarding, skateboarding, surfing, bungee jumping, BASE jumping, and whitewater sports with emphasis on epidemiology, demographics, general injury mechanisms, specific injuries, chronic injuries, fatality data, and prevention. Overall, most injuries are related to overuse, trauma, and environmental or microbial exposure. PMID:26900120

  17. Extremal entanglement witnesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Leif Ove; Hauge, Andreas; Myrheim, Jan; Sollid, Per Øyvind

    2015-02-01

    We present a study of extremal entanglement witnesses on a bipartite composite quantum system. We define the cone of witnesses as the dual of the set of separable density matrices, thus TrΩρ≥0 when Ω is a witness and ρ is a pure product state, ρ=ψψ† with ψ=ϕ⊗χ. The set of witnesses of unit trace is a compact convex set, uniquely defined by its extremal points. The expectation value f(ϕ,χ)=TrΩρ as a function of vectors ϕ and χ is a positive semidefinite biquadratic form. Every zero of f(ϕ,χ) imposes strong real-linear constraints on f and Ω. The real and symmetric Hessian matrix at the zero must be positive semidefinite. Its eigenvectors with zero eigenvalue, if such exist, we call Hessian zeros. A zero of f(ϕ,χ) is quadratic if it has no Hessian zeros, otherwise it is quartic. We call a witness quadratic if it has only quadratic zeros, and quartic if it has at least one quartic zero. A main result we prove is that a witness is extremal if and only if no other witness has the same, or a larger, set of zeros and Hessian zeros. A quadratic extremal witness has a minimum number of isolated zeros depending on dimensions. If a witness is not extremal, then the constraints defined by its zeros and Hessian zeros determine all directions in which we may search for witnesses having more zeros or Hessian zeros. A finite number of iterated searches in random directions, by numerical methods, leads to an extremal witness which is nearly always quadratic and has the minimum number of zeros. We discuss briefly some topics related to extremal witnesses, in particular the relation between the facial structures of the dual sets of witnesses and separable states. We discuss the relation between extremality and optimality of witnesses, and a conjecture of separability of the so-called structural physical approximation (SPA) of an optimal witness. Finally, we discuss how to treat the entanglement witnesses on a complex Hilbert space as a subset of the

  18. Extreme black hole holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, Thomas Edward

    The connection between black holes in four dimensions and conformal field theories (CFTs) in two dimensions is explored, focusing on zero temperature (extreme) black holes and their low-temperature cousins. It is shown that extreme black holes in a theory of quantum gravity are holographically dual to field theories living in two dimensions without gravity, and that the field theory reproduces a variety of black hole phenomena in detail. The extreme black hole/CFT correspondence is derived from a symmetry analysis near the horizon of a Kerr black hole with mass M and maximal angular momentum J=M 2. The asymptotic symmetry generators form one copy of the Virasoro algebra with central charge c=12J, which implies that the near-horizon quantum states are identical to those of a two-dimensional CFT. We discuss extensions of this result to near-extreme black holes and cosmological horizons. Astrophysical black holes are never exactly extremal, but the black hole GRS1915+105 observed through X-ray and radio telescopy is likely within 1% of the extremal spin, suggesting that this extraordinary and well studied object is approximately dual to a two-dimensional CFT with c˜1079. As evidence for the correspondence, microstate counting in the CFT is used to derive the Bekenstein-Hawking area law for the Kerr entropy, S=Horizon area/4. Furthermore, the correlators in the dual CFT are shown to reproduce the scattering amplitudes of a charged scalar or spin-½ field by a near-extreme Kerr-Newman black hole, and a neutral spin-1 or spin-2 field by a near-extreme Kerr black hole. Scattering amplitudes probe the vacuum of fields living on the black hole background. For scalars, bound superradiant modes lead to an instability, while for fermions, it is shown that the bound superradiant modes condense and form a Fermi sea which extends well outside the ergosphere. Assuming no further instabilities, the low energy effective theory near the black hole is described by ripples in the

  19. The waviness of the extratropical jet and daily weather extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röthlisberger, Matthias; Martius, Olivia; Pfahl, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    In recent years the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes have experienced a large number of weather extremes with substantial socio-economic impact, such as the European and Russian heat waves in 2003 and 2010, severe winter floods in the United Kingdom in 2013/2014 and devastating winter storms such as Lothar (1999) and Xynthia (2010) in Central Europe. These have triggered an engaged debate within the scientific community on the role of human induced climate change in the occurrence of such extremes. A key element of this debate is the hypothesis that the waviness of the extratropical jet is linked to the occurrence of weather extremes, with a wavier jet stream favouring more extremes. Previous work on this topic is expanded in this study by analyzing the linkage between a regional measure of jet waviness and daily temperature, precipitation and wind gust extremes. We show that indeed such a linkage exists in many regions of the world, however this waviness-extremes linkage varies spatially in strength and sign. Locally, it is strong only where the relevant weather systems, in which the extremes occur, are affected by the jet waviness. Its sign depends on how the frequency of occurrence of the relevant weather systems is correlated with the occurrence of high and low jet waviness. These results go beyond previous studies by noting that also a decrease in waviness could be associated with an enhanced number of some weather extremes, especially wind gust and precipitation extremes over western Europe.

  20. [Biobanks European infrastructure].

    PubMed

    Kinkorová, Judita; Topolčan, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Biobanks are structured repositories of human tissue samples connected with specific information. They became an integral part of personalized medicine in the new millennium. At the European research area biobanks are isolated not well coordinated and connected to the network. European commission supports European infrastructure BBMRI-ERIC (Biobanks and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure European Research Infrastructure Consortium), consortium of 54 members with more than 225 associated organizations, largely biobanks from over 30 countries. The aim is to support biomedical research using stored samples. Czech Republic is a member of the consortium as a national node BBMRI_CZ, consisting of five partners. PMID:27256149

  1. Hydrological extremes and security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundzewicz, Z. W.; Matczak, P.

    2015-04-01

    Economic losses caused by hydrological extremes - floods and droughts - have been on the rise. Hydrological extremes jeopardize human security and impact on societal livelihood and welfare. Security can be generally understood as freedom from threat and the ability of societies to maintain their independent identity and their functional integrity against forces of change. Several dimensions of security are reviewed in the context of hydrological extremes. The traditional interpretation of security, focused on the state military capabilities, has been replaced by a wider understanding, including economic, societal and environmental aspects that get increasing attention. Floods and droughts pose a burden and serious challenges to the state that is responsible for sustaining economic development, and societal and environmental security. The latter can be regarded as the maintenance of ecosystem services, on which a society depends. An important part of it is water security, which can be defined as the availability of an adequate quantity and quality of water for health, livelihoods, ecosystems and production, coupled with an acceptable level of water-related risks to people, environments and economies. Security concerns arise because, over large areas, hydrological extremes - floods and droughts - are becoming more frequent and more severe. In terms of dealing with water-related risks, climate change can increase uncertainties, which makes the state's task to deliver security more difficult and more expensive. However, changes in population size and development, and level of protection, drive exposure to hydrological hazards.

  2. Going to Extremes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project which gave students a chance to explore the idea of using "extreme" materials in a sculpture. While the process was, at times, challenging and stressful for teacher and student alike, the results proved that, with proper planning, even young students can independently demonstrate multiple solutions…

  3. Climate Extremes and Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mote, Philip

    2009-10-01

    In October 2005, as the United States still was reeling from Hurricane Katrina in August and as the alphabet was too short to contain all of that year's named Atlantic tropical storms (Hurricane Wilma was forming near Jamaica), a timely workshop in Bermuda focused on climate extremes and society (see Eos, 87(3), 25, 17 January 2006). This edited volume, which corresponds roughly to the presentations given at that workshop, offers a fascinating look at the critically important intersection of acute climate stress and human vulnerabilities. A changing climate affects humans and other living things not through the variable that most robustly demonstrates the role of rising greenhouse gases—globally averaged temperature—but through local changes, especially changes in extremes. The first part of this book, “Defining and modeling the nature of weather and climate extremes,” focuses on natural science. The second part, “Impacts of weather and climate extremes,” focuses on societal impacts and responses, emphasizing an insurance industry perspective because a primary sponsor of the workshop was the Risk Prediction Initiative, whose aim is to “support scientific research on topics of interest to its sponsors” (p. 320).

  4. Optimization using Extremal Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettcher, Stefan

    2001-03-01

    We explore a new heuristic for finding high-quality solutions to NP-hard optimization problems which we have recently introduced [see ``Nature's Way of Optimizing," Artificial Intelligence 119, 275-286 (2000) and cond-mat/0010337]. The method, called extremal optimization, is inspired by self-organized criticality, a concept introduced to describe emergent complexity in physical systems. Extremal optimization successively replaces extremely undesirable elements of a single sub-optimal solution with new, random ones. Large fluctuations ensue that efficiently explore many local optima. With only one adjustable parameter, its performance has proved competitive with more elaborate methods, especially near phase transitions which are believed to contain the hardest instances. In particular, extremal optimization is superior to simulated annealing in the partitioning of sparse graphs, it finds the overlap of all ground-states at the phase transition of the 3-coloring problem, and it provides independent confirmation for the ground-state energy of spin glasses, previously obtained with elaborate genetic algorithms.

  5. THE EXTREME HOSTS OF EXTREME SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Neill, James D.; Quimby, Robert; Ofek, Eran; Wyder, Ted K.; Martin, D. Christopher; Barlow, Tom A.; Foster, Karl; Friedman, Peter G.; Morrissey, Patrick; Sullivan, Mark; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Howell, D. Andrew; Nugent, Peter; Seibert, Mark; Overzier, Roderik; Neff, Susan G.; Schiminovich, David; Bianchi, Luciana; Donas, Jose; Heckman, Timothy M.

    2011-01-20

    We use GALEX ultraviolet (UV) and optical integrated photometry of the hosts of 17 luminous supernovae (LSNe, having peak M{sub V} < -21) and compare them to a sample of 26, 000 galaxies from a cross-match between the SDSS DR4 spectral catalog and GALEX interim release 1.1. We place the LSN hosts on the galaxy NUV - r versus M{sub r} color-magnitude diagram (CMD) with the larger sample to illustrate how extreme they are. The LSN hosts appear to favor low-density regions of the galaxy CMD falling on the blue edge of the blue cloud toward the low-luminosity end. From the UV-optical photometry, we estimate the star formation history of the LSN hosts. The hosts have moderately low star formation rates (SFRs) and low stellar masses (M{sub *}) resulting in high specific star formation rates (sSFR). Compared with the larger sample, the LSN hosts occupy low-density regions of a diagram plotting sSFR versus M{sub *} in the area having higher sSFR and lower M{sub *}. This preference for low M{sub *}, high sSFR hosts implies that the LSNe are produced by an effect having to do with their local environment. The correlation of mass with metallicity suggests that perhaps wind-driven mass loss is the factor that prevents LSNe from arising in higher-mass, higher-metallicity hosts. The massive progenitors of the LSNe (>100 M{sub sun}), by appearing in low-SFR hosts, are potential tests for theories of the initial mass function that limit the maximum mass of a star based on the SFR.

  6. Probabilistic forecasting of extreme weather events based on extreme value theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van De Vyver, Hans; Van Schaeybroeck, Bert

    2016-04-01

    Extreme events in weather and climate such as high wind gusts, heavy precipitation or extreme temperatures are commonly associated with high impacts on both environment and society. Forecasting extreme weather events is difficult, and very high-resolution models are needed to describe explicitly extreme weather phenomena. A prediction system for such events should therefore preferably be probabilistic in nature. Probabilistic forecasts and state estimations are nowadays common in the numerical weather prediction community. In this work, we develop a new probabilistic framework based on extreme value theory that aims to provide early warnings up to several days in advance. We consider the combined events when an observation variable Y (for instance wind speed) exceeds a high threshold y and its corresponding deterministic forecasts X also exceeds a high forecast threshold y. More specifically two problems are addressed:} We consider pairs (X,Y) of extreme events where X represents a deterministic forecast, and Y the observation variable (for instance wind speed). More specifically two problems are addressed: Given a high forecast X=x_0, what is the probability that Y>y? In other words: provide inference on the conditional probability: [ Pr{Y>y|X=x_0}. ] Given a probabilistic model for Problem 1, what is the impact on the verification analysis of extreme events. These problems can be solved with bivariate extremes (Coles, 2001), and the verification analysis in (Ferro, 2007). We apply the Ramos and Ledford (2009) parametric model for bivariate tail estimation of the pair (X,Y). The model accommodates different types of extremal dependence and asymmetry within a parsimonious representation. Results are presented using the ensemble reforecast system of the European Centre of Weather Forecasts (Hagedorn, 2008). Coles, S. (2001) An Introduction to Statistical modelling of Extreme Values. Springer-Verlag.Ferro, C.A.T. (2007) A probability model for verifying deterministic

  7. European auxiliary propulsion, 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, L. B.

    1972-01-01

    The chemical and electric auxiliary propulsion technology of the United Kingdom, France, and West Germany is discussed in detail, and the propulsion technology achievements of Italy, India, Japan, and Russia are reviewed. A comparison is presented of Shell 405 catalyst and a European spontaneous hydrazine catalyst called CNESRO I. Finally, conclusions are drawn regarding future trends in European auxiliary propulsion technology development.

  8. Overview of the biology of extreme events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutschick, V. P.; Bassirirad, H.

    2008-12-01

    Extreme events have, variously, meteorological origins as in heat waves or precipitation extremes, or biological origins as in pest and disease eruptions (or tectonic, earth-orbital, or impact-body origins). Despite growing recognition that these events are changing in frequency and intensity, a universal model of ecological responses to these events is slow to emerge. Extreme events, negative and positive, contrast with normal events in terms of their effects on the physiology, ecology, and evolution of organisms, hence also on water, carbon, and nutrient cycles. They structure biogeographic ranges and biomes, almost surely more than mean values often used to define biogeography. They are challenging to study for obvious reasons of field-readiness but also because they are defined by sequences of driving variables such as temperature, not point events. As sequences, their statistics (return times, for example) are challenging to develop, as also from the involvement of multiple environmental variables. These statistics are not captured well by climate models. They are expected to change with climate and land-use change but our predictive capacity is currently limited. A number of tools for description and analysis of extreme events are available, if not widely applied to date. Extremes for organisms are defined by their fitness effects on those organisms, and are specific to genotypes, making them major agents of natural selection. There is evidence that effects of extreme events may be concentrated in an extended recovery phase. We review selected events covering ranges of time and magnitude, from Snowball Earth to leaf functional loss in weather events. A number of events, such as the 2003 European heat wave, evidence effects on water and carbon cycles over large regions. Rising CO2 is the recent extreme of note, for its climatic effects and consequences for growing seasons, transpiration, etc., but also directly in its action as a substrate of photosynthesis

  9. Extremal quantum cloning machines

    SciTech Connect

    Chiribella, G.; D'Ariano, G. M.; Perinotti, P.; Cerf, N.J.

    2005-10-15

    We investigate the problem of cloning a set of states that is invariant under the action of an irreducible group representation. We then characterize the cloners that are extremal in the convex set of group covariant cloning machines, among which one can restrict the search for optimal cloners. For a set of states that is invariant under the discrete Weyl-Heisenberg group, we show that all extremal cloners can be unitarily realized using the so-called double-Bell states, whence providing a general proof of the popular ansatz used in the literature for finding optimal cloners in a variety of settings. Our result can also be generalized to continuous-variable optimal cloning in infinite dimensions, where the covariance group is the customary Weyl-Heisenberg group of displacement000.

  10. Rehabilitation in extremity fractures.

    PubMed

    Moskowitz, E

    1975-03-01

    General principles in the rehabilitation of a patient with an extremity fracture include: treat the patient, not the x-ray; move all joints not immobilized; prevent disuse atrophy; use gravity to assist in mobilizing a joint; stabilize proximal joints to avoid reverse action of biarticular muscles; permit early protected weight bearing until adequate joint mobility is achieved; appropriately instruct the patient in a home program, and avoid all stretching. PMID:1114932

  11. Penetrating extremity trauma.

    PubMed

    Ivatury, Rao R; Anand, Rahul; Ordonez, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    Penetrating extremity trauma (PET) usually becomes less important when present along with multiple truncal injuries. The middle eastern wars documented the terrible mortality and morbidity resulting from PET. Even in civilian trauma, PET can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. There are now well-established principles in the evaluation and management of vascular, bony, soft tissue, and neurologic lesions that will lead to a reduction of the poor outcomes. This review will summarize some of these recent concepts. PMID:25413177

  12. On extreme geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cid, Consuelo; Palacios, Judith; Saiz, Elena; Guerrero, Antonio; Cerrato, Yolanda

    2014-10-01

    Extreme geomagnetic storms are considered as one of the major natural hazards for technology-dependent society. Geomagnetic field disturbances can disrupt the operation of critical infrastructures relying on space-based assets, and can also result in terrestrial effects, such as the Quebec electrical disruption in 1989. Forecasting potential hazards is a matter of high priority, but considering large flares as the only criterion for early-warning systems has demonstrated to release a large amount of false alarms and misses. Moreover, the quantification of the severity of the geomagnetic disturbance at the terrestrial surface using indices as Dst cannot be considered as the best approach to give account of the damage in utilities. High temporal resolution local indices come out as a possible solution to this issue, as disturbances recorded at the terrestrial surface differ largely both in latitude and longitude. The recovery phase of extreme storms presents also some peculiar features which make it different from other less intense storms. This paper goes through all these issues related to extreme storms by analysing a few events, highlighting the March 1989 storm, related to the Quebec blackout, and the October 2003 event, when several transformers burnt out in South Africa.

  13. The European Spallation Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindroos, M.; Bousson, S.; Calaga, R.; Danared, H.; Devanz, G.; Duperrier, R.; Eguia, J.; Eshraqi, M.; Gammino, S.; Hahn, H.; Jansson, A.; Oyon, C.; Pape-Møller, S.; Peggs, S.; Ponton, A.; Rathsman, K.; Ruber, R.; Satogata, T.; Trahern, G.

    2011-12-01

    In 2003 the joint European effort to design a European Spallation Source (ESS) resulted in a set of reports, and in May 2009 Lund was agreed to be the ESS site. The ESS Scandinavia office has since then worked on setting all the necessary legal and organizational matters in place so that the Design Update and construction can be started in January 2011, in collaboration with European partners. The Design Update phase is expected to end in 2012, to be followed by a construction phase, with first neutrons expected in 2018-2019.

  14. Metagenomics of extreme environments.

    PubMed

    Cowan, D A; Ramond, J-B; Makhalanyane, T P; De Maayer, P

    2015-06-01

    Whether they are exposed to extremes of heat or cold, or buried deep beneath the Earth's surface, microorganisms have an uncanny ability to survive under these conditions. This ability to survive has fascinated scientists for nearly a century, but the recent development of metagenomics and 'omics' tools has allowed us to make huge leaps in understanding the remarkable complexity and versatility of extremophile communities. Here, in the context of the recently developed metagenomic tools, we discuss recent research on the community composition, adaptive strategies and biological functions of extremophiles. PMID:26048196

  15. Upper Extremity Regional Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Joseph M.; Gerancher, J.C.; Hebl, James R.; Ilfeld, Brian M.; McCartney, Colin J.L.; Franco, Carlo D.; Hogan, Quinn H.

    2009-01-01

    Brachial plexus blockade is the cornerstone of the peripheral nerve regional anesthesia practice of most anesthesiologists. As part of the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine’s commitment to providing intensive evidence-based education related to regional anesthesia and analgesia, this article is a complete update of our 2002 comprehensive review of upper extremity anesthesia. The text of the review focuses on (1) pertinent anatomy, (2) approaches to the brachial plexus and techniques that optimize block quality, (4) local anesthetic and adjuvant pharmacology, (5) complications, (6) perioperative issues, and (6) challenges for future research. PMID:19282714

  16. Mineralogy under extreme conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, Jinfu

    2012-02-07

    We have performed measurements of minerals based on the synchrotron source for single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, inelastic scattering, spectroscopy and radiography by using diamond anvil cells. We investigated the properties of iron (Fe), iron-magnesium oxides (Fe, Mg)O, silica(SiO{sub 2}), iron-magnesium silicates (Fe, Mg)SiO{sub 3} under simulated high pressure-high temperature extreme conditions of the Earth's crust, upper mantle, low mantle, core-mantle boundary, outer core, and inner core. The results provide a new window on the investigation of the mineral properties at Earth's conditions.

  17. Spatial and temporal patterns of hydrological extremes in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Julia; Perdigão, Rui A. P.

    2015-04-01

    At a catchment scale, the hydrological characteristics of extreme events such as floods and droughts vary considerably across Europe. However, extreme events are also governed by large-scale physical processes that can influence the hydrological response of larger regions beyond catchment or national boundaries. To analyse such extreme events at a regional scale, a hydrological database for Europe, consisting of daily data from over 5000 stations, has been assembled. The database is a result of existing datasets of European coverage amended and complemented by a collaborative effort as part of a joint European flood research agreement based on the exchange of data, models, staff and expertise. The developed database allows an analysis of the influence of large scale drivers such as climate on the spatial patterns of floods and droughts across Europe. The timing of extreme events in Europe is a key variable in understanding the main processes governing flood and drought events. In this contribution, regional similarities and differences of hydrological extremes in Europe are analysed and the resulting characteristic spatio-temporal patterns of floods and droughts are presented separately and compared with one another.

  18. European PTTI report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordara, Franco; Grimaldi, Sabrina; Leschiutta, Sigfrido

    1994-01-01

    Time and frequency metrology in Europe presents some peculiar features in its three main components: research on clocks, comparisons and dissemination methods, and dissemination services. Apart from the usual activities of the national metrological laboratories, an increasing number of cooperation between the European countries are promoted inside some European organizations, such as the ECC, EFTA, EUROMET, and WECC. Cooperation between these organizations is covered. The present, evolving situation will be further influenced by the recent political changes in Eastern Europe.

  19. Solar extreme events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Hugh S.

    2015-08-01

    Solar flares and CMEs have a broad range of magnitudes. This review discusses the possibility of “extreme events,” defined as those with magnitudes greater than have been seen in the existing historical record. For most quantitative measures, this direct information does not extend more than a century and a half into the recent past. The magnitude distributions (occurrence frequencies) of solar events (flares/CMEs) typically decrease with the parameter measured or inferred (peak flux, mass, energy etc. Flare radiation fluxes tend to follow a power law slightly flatter than S-2, where S represents a peak flux; solar particle events (SPEs) follow a still flatter power law up to a limiting magnitude, and then appear to roll over to a steeper distribution, which may take an exponential form or follow a broken power law. This inference comes from the terrestrial 14C record and from the depth dependence of various radioisotope proxies in the lunar regolith and in meteorites. Recently major new observational results have impacted our use of the relatively limited historical record in new ways: the detection of actual events in the 14C tree-ring records, and the systematic observations of flares and “superflares” by the Kepler spacecraft. I discuss how these new findings may affect our understanding of the distribution function expected for extreme solar events.

  20. "Triangular" extremal dilatonic dyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal'tsov, Dmitri; Khramtsov, Mikhail; Orlov, Dmitri

    2015-04-01

    Explicit dyonic solutions in four-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory are known only for three particular values of the dilaton coupling constant: a = 0 , 1 ,√{ 3}. However, numerical evidence was presented on existence of dyons admitting an extremal limit in theories with more general sequence of dilaton couplings a =√{ n (n + 1) / 2 } labeled by an integer n. Apart from the lower members n = 0 , 1 , 2, this family of theories does not have motivation from supergravity/string theory, and analytical origin of the above sequence remained unclear so far. We fill the gap showing that this formula follows from analyticity of the dilaton function at the AdS2 ×S2 event horizon of the extremal dyonic black hole, with n being the leading dilaton power in the Taylor expansion. We also derive generalization of this rule for asymptotically anti-de Sitter dyonic black holes with spherical, planar and hyperbolic topology of the horizon.

  1. AstRoMap European Astrobiology Roadmap

    PubMed Central

    Horneck, Gerda; Westall, Frances; Grenfell, John Lee; Martin, William F.; Gomez, Felipe; Leuko, Stefan; Lee, Natuschka; Onofri, Silvano; Tsiganis, Kleomenis; Saladino, Raffaele; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Palomba, Ernesto; Harrison, Jesse; Rull, Fernando; Muller, Christian; Strazzulla, Giovanni; Brucato, John R.; Rettberg, Petra; Capria, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The European AstRoMap project (supported by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme) surveyed the state of the art of astrobiology in Europe and beyond and produced the first European roadmap for astrobiology research. In the context of this roadmap, astrobiology is understood as the study of the origin, evolution, and distribution of life in the context of cosmic evolution; this includes habitability in the Solar System and beyond. The AstRoMap Roadmap identifies five research topics, specifies several key scientific objectives for each topic, and suggests ways to achieve all the objectives. The five AstRoMap Research Topics are • Research Topic 1: Origin and Evolution of Planetary Systems• Research Topic 2: Origins of Organic Compounds in Space• Research Topic 3: Rock-Water-Carbon Interactions, Organic Synthesis on Earth, and Steps to Life• Research Topic 4: Life and Habitability• Research Topic 5: Biosignatures as Facilitating Life Detection It is strongly recommended that steps be taken towards the definition and implementation of a European Astrobiology Platform (or Institute) to streamline and optimize the scientific return by using a coordinated infrastructure and funding system. Key Words: Astrobiology roadmap—Europe—Origin and evolution of life—Habitability—Life detection—Life in extreme environments. Astrobiology 16, 201–243. PMID:27003862

  2. Supernovae and cosmology with future European facilities.

    PubMed

    Hook, I M

    2013-06-13

    Prospects for future supernova surveys are discussed, focusing on the European Space Agency's Euclid mission and the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), both expected to be in operation around the turn of the decade. Euclid is a 1.2 m space survey telescope that will operate at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, and has the potential to find and obtain multi-band lightcurves for thousands of distant supernovae. The E-ELT is a planned, general-purpose ground-based, 40-m-class optical-infrared telescope with adaptive optics built in, which will be capable of obtaining spectra of type Ia supernovae to redshifts of at least four. The contribution to supernova cosmology with these facilities will be discussed in the context of other future supernova programmes such as those proposed for DES, JWST, LSST and WFIRST. PMID:23630381

  3. Making instruments work on the European ELT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casali, Mark M.; Gonzalez, Juan Carlos; D'Odorico, Sandro

    2008-07-01

    The title of this paper was chosen to highlight the fact that the installation and operation of instrumentation on Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) will not be entirely simple or straightforward. The cost of construction and operation of ELTs will be such that substantial pressures will develop for proportional increases in the level of performance of the instrumentation, using as much of the electromagnetic information arriving at the focal plane as possible. This in turn will require complex instruments using adaptive optics, multiple channels or highly spatially multiplexed instruments. In the case of the European ELT, it will be a facility much in demand by ESOs 4000+ community of astronomers. The instrument infrastructure must therefore be able to accommodate the full range of projects likely to be undertaken. In this paper, we will discuss the instrument interfaces and infrastructure as envisioned in the current baseline for the European ELT and the requirements underpinning them.

  4. Future precipitation extremes during summer monsoon in southern Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahid, Maida; Lucarini, Valerio

    2016-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events are considered as a hydro-meteorological hazard resulting in colossal damage worldwide. In Pakistan, the extreme precipitation events have increased in the recent decades particularly in the southern part (Sindh province). This region did not receive substantial amount of precipitation earlier, but now experiencing urban flooding almost every year causing loss of life, property, crops and infrastructure. The region lacks the information regarding the recurrence of extreme precipitation events. Therefore, there is a strong need for a reliable information of extremes over the upcoming decades for better regional planning. Although statistical methods based on extreme value theory (EVT) are the most relevant ones to study the extremes, but they are never been applied in Pakistan. To address this shortcoming, we use the peak over threshold (POT) approach to compute the return levels (RLs) of precipitation extremes, and also identify the regions most prone to them. In this study, we analyzed the summer monsoon daily precipitation measured at nine weather stations of Pakistan Meteorological Department over the period 1980-2013. The summer monsoon (JJAS) is preferred for the analysis, because most of the extreme precipitation occurs during this period. We apply POT approach to model the daily precipitation above a selected threshold for each station. Then, we estimate return levels (RLs) of precipitation extremes during summer monsoon in southern Pakistan (Sindh) for the next 5, 25, 50 and 100-years. Lastly, we compare the 5-years with 100-years RLs to indicate the stations most vulnerable to precipitation extremes in future. This work is funded by the Climate KIC, European Institute of Innovation and Technology, Germany.

  5. Extreme Scale Computational Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoemaker, Deirdre

    2009-11-01

    We live in extraordinary times. With increasingly sophisticated observatories opening up new vistas on the universe, astrophysics is becoming more complex and data-driven. The success in understanding astrophysical systems that are inherently multi-physical, nonlinear systems demands realism in our models of the phenomena. We cannot hope to advance the realism of these models to match the expected sophistication of future observations without extreme-scale computation. Just one example is the advent of gravitational wave astronomy. Detectors like LIGO are about to make the first ever detection of gravitational waves. The gravitational waves are produced during violent events such as the merger of two black holes. The detection of these waves or ripples in the fabric of spacetime is a formidable undertaking, requiring innovative engineering, powerful data analysis tools and careful theoretical modeling. I will discuss the computational and theoretical challenges ahead in our new understanding of physics and astronomy where gravity exhibits its strongest grip on our spacetime.

  6. Investigating NARCCAP Precipitation Extremes via Bivariate Extreme Value Theory (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, G. B.; Cooley, D. S.; Sain, S. R.; Bukovsky, M. S.; Mearns, L. O.

    2013-12-01

    We introduce methodology from statistical extreme value theory to examine the ability of reanalysis-drive regional climate models to simulate past daily precipitation extremes. Going beyond a comparison of summary statistics such as 20-year return values, we study whether the most extreme precipitation events produced by climate model simulations exhibit correspondence to the most extreme events seen in observational records. The extent of this correspondence is formulated via the statistical concept of tail dependence. We examine several case studies of extreme precipitation events simulated by the six models of the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) driven by NCEP reanalysis. It is found that the NARCCAP models generally reproduce daily winter precipitation extremes along the Pacific coast quite well; in contrast, simulation of past daily summer precipitation extremes in a central US region is poor. Some differences in the strength of extremal correspondence are seen in the central region between models which employ spectral nudging and those which do not. We demonstrate how these techniques may be used to draw a link between extreme precipitation events and large-scale atmospheric drivers, as well as to downscale extreme precipitation simulated by a future run of a regional climate model. Specifically, we examine potential future changes in the nature of extreme precipitation along the Pacific coast produced by the pineapple express (PE) phenomenon. A link between extreme precipitation events and a "PE Index" derived from North Pacific sea-surface pressure fields is found. This link is used to study PE-influenced extreme precipitation produced by a future-scenario climate model run.

  7. The New European Wind Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik

    2013-04-01

    The New European Wind Atlas 1. European wind resource assessment through a ERA-NET Plus project 1.1 The new EU Atlas The Commission decided earlier this year to issue an ERA-NET Plus call for the creation and publication of a new EU wind atlas. The atlas will cover Member states as well as Member states' exclusive economic zones, both onshore and offshore. It involved the launch of a single joint call for proposals by promoters of national and/or regional programmes, thereby allowing a more efficient use of existing financial resources. Therefore the funding scheme is that of ERA-NET Plus which implies that at least 5 MS shall commit at least 1 million Euros each and the Commission tops up with on third of the MS contribution. Basically it is the MS research programmes that will execute the project but an important part of the project is to create "open project development platforms" with associated protocols allowing a wider range of scientists worldwide to contribute. The project has a duration of 5 years. The decision on the new wind atlas was taken after several years of work by the European Wind Energy Technology Platform and the European Energy Research Alliances' Joint programme for Wind Energy. 2. Structure of the project The project will be structured around three areas of work, to be implemented in parallel: 2.1 Creation and publication of a European wind atlas in electronic form, which will include the underlying data and a new EU wind climate database. The database will at a minimum include: Wind resources and their associated uncertainty; Extreme wind; Turbulence characteristics; Adverse weather conditions; Predictability for short term prediction; Guidelines. 2.2 Development of dynamical downscaling methodologies and open-source models. The developed downscaling methodologies and models will be fully documented and made public available and will be used to produce overview maps of wind resources and relevant data at several heights and a horizontal

  8. European Education, European Citizenship? On the Role of Education in Constructing Europeanness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollikainen, Aaro

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the role of the European Union (EU) education programs in fostering a sense of European citizenship. Addresses the five meanings given to the concept of European citizenship: (1) recognition of European heritage; (2) EU loyalty; (3) right of free movement; (4) political participation; and (5) active citizenship. (CMK)

  9. Brazil to Join the European Southern Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-12-01

    The Federative Republic of Brazil has yesterday signed the formal accession agreement paving the way for it to become a Member State of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Following government ratification Brazil will become the fifteenth Member State and the first from outside Europe. On 29 December 2010, at a ceremony in Brasilia, the Brazilian Minister of Science and Technology, Sergio Machado Rezende and the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw signed the formal accession agreement aiming to make Brazil a Member State of the European Southern Observatory. Brazil will become the fifteen Member State and the first from outside Europe. Since the agreement means accession to an international convention, the agreement must now be submitted to the Brazilian Parliament for ratification [1]. The signing of the agreement followed the unanimous approval by the ESO Council during an extraordinary meeting on 21 December 2010. "Joining ESO will give new impetus to the development of science, technology and innovation in Brazil as part of the considerable efforts our government is making to keep the country advancing in these strategic areas," says Rezende. The European Southern Observatory has a long history of successful involvement with South America, ever since Chile was selected as the best site for its observatories in 1963. Until now, however, no non-European country has joined ESO as a Member State. "The membership of Brazil will give the vibrant Brazilian astronomical community full access to the most productive observatory in the world and open up opportunities for Brazilian high-tech industry to contribute to the European Extremely Large Telescope project. It will also bring new resources and skills to the organisation at the right time for them to make a major contribution to this exciting project," adds ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) telescope design phase was recently completed and a major review was

  10. WFPDB: European Plate Archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsvetkov, Milcho

    2007-08-01

    The Wide-Field Plate Database (WFPDB) gives an inventory of all wide-field (>~ 1 sq. deg) photographic observations archived in astronomical institutions over the world. So it facilitates and stimulates their use and preservation as a valuable source of information for future investigations in astronomy. At present WFPDB manages plate-index information for 25% of all existing plates providing on-line access from Sofia (http://www.skyarchive.org/search) and in CDS, Strasbourg. Here we present the new development of WFPDB as an instrument for searching of long term brightness variations of different sky objects stressing on the European photographic plate collections (from existing 2 million wide-field plates more than 55% are in Europe: Germany, Russia, Ukraine, Italy, Czech Republic, etc.). We comment examples of digitization (with flatbed scanners) of the European plate archives in Sonneberg, Pulkovo, Asiago, Byurakan, Bamberg, etc. and virtual links of WFPDB with European AVO, ADS, IBVS.

  11. European Universe Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, P.; Miley, G.; Westra van Holthe, F.; Schrier, W.; Reed, S.

    2011-10-01

    The European Universe Awareness (EU-UNAWE) programme uses the beauty and grandeur of the cosmos to encourage young children, particularly those from underprivileged backgrounds, to develop an interest in science and technology and to foster a sense of global citizenship. EU-UNAWE is already active in 40 countries and comprises a global network of almost 500 astronomers, teachers and other educators. The programme was recently awarded a grant of 1.9 million euros by the European Union so that it can be further developed in five European countries and South Africa. The grant will be used to organise teacher training workshops and to develop educational materials, such as an astronomy news service for children and games. During this presentation we will outline some of the biggest achievements of EU-UNAWE to date and discuss future plans for the programme.

  12. Workshop on Extreme Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundell, Carole; Sullivan, Mark

    2012-04-01

    abstract-type="normal">SummaryNever before has there been such a wealth of versatile ground- and space-based facilities with which to detect variable emission across the electromagnetic spectrum and beyond, to non-EM signals such as neutrinos and gravitational waves, to probe the most extreme phenomena in the Universe. The variable sky is already providing a wealth of new and surprising observations of phenomena such as GRBs, SNe and AGN that are pushing current theories beyond the state of the art. Multi-messenger follow-up will soon become de rigeur, and upcoming radio and optical all-sky transient surveys will revolutionise the study of the transient Universe. In addition to the technical and data challenges presented by such surveys, a major new challenge will be the interpretation of the wealth of available data and the identification of the underlying physics of new classes of variable (and potentially exotic) objects. Theoretical predictions will be vital for interpreting these future transient discoveries. The goal of this workshop was to bring together theorists and observers in order to identify unexplored synergies across three main research areas of extreme physics: gamma-ray bursts, supernovæ and, more generically, relativistic jets. It aimed to discuss key outstanding questions in these rapidly moving fields, such as the composition and acceleration of GRB and AGN jets, GRB progenitors and central engines, the origin of the wide range of observed variability time-scales in GRB prompt and after-glow light curves and related cosmological applications, the physics of the newly-discovered ultra-luminous SN-like optical transients-as well as to speculate on what we might hope to discover with future technology. The workshop absorbed two 90-minute sessions, selecting 3 main science topics (Relativistic Jets, GRBs and SNe) which it organised as structured discussions driven by a series of short but provocative questions. The final session featured a panel

  13. Extremely Large Telescope Project Selected in ESFRI Roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-10-01

    In its first Roadmap, the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) choose the European Extremely Large Telescope (ELT), for which ESO is presently developing a Reference Design, as one of the large scale projects to be conducted in astronomy, and the only one in optical astronomy. The aim of the ELT project is to build before the end of the next decade an optical/near-infrared telescope with a diameter in the 30-60m range. ESO PR Photo 40/06 The ESFRI Roadmap states: "Extremely Large Telescopes are seen world-wide as one of the highest priorities in ground-based astronomy. They will vastly advance astrophysical knowledge allowing detailed studies of inter alia planets around other stars, the first objects in the Universe, super-massive Black Holes, and the nature and distribution of the Dark Matter and Dark Energy which dominate the Universe. The European Extremely Large Telescope project will maintain and reinforce Europe's position at the forefront of astrophysical research." Said Catherine Cesarsky, Director General of ESO: "In 2004, the ESO Council mandated ESO to play a leading role in the development of an ELT for Europe's astronomers. To that end, ESO has undertaken conceptual studies for ELTs and is currently also leading a consortium of European institutes engaged in studying enabling technologies for such a telescope. The inclusion of the ELT in the ESFRI roadmap, together with the comprehensive preparatory work already done, paves the way for the next phase of this exciting project, the design phase." ESO is currently working, in close collaboration with the European astronomical community and the industry, on a baseline design for an Extremely Large Telescope. The plan is a telescope with a primary mirror between 30 and 60 metres in diameter and a financial envelope of about 750 m Euros. It aims at more than a factor ten improvement in overall performance compared to the current leader in ground based astronomy: the ESO Very Large

  14. European security and France

    SciTech Connect

    deRose, A.

    1985-01-01

    A French authority on security argues for new European initiatives in the face of the ''danger represented by Soviet military power deployed in support of an imperialistic ideology.'' His proposals, including the strengthening of conventional forces without abandoning the option of the first use of nuclear weapons, are meant to give substance to President Mitterrand's declaration in 1983: ''The European nations now need to realize that their defense is also their responsibility....'' A part of the increasingly important debate in France over defense policy in Europe.

  15. Detectors in Extreme Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Blaj, G.; Carini, G.; Carron, S.; Haller, G.; Hart, P.; Hasi, J.; Herrmann, S.; Kenney, C.; Segal, J.; Tomada, A.

    2015-08-06

    Free Electron Lasers opened a new window on imaging the motion of atoms and molecules. At SLAC, FEL experiments are performed at LCLS using 120Hz pulses with 1012 - 1013 photons in 10 femtoseconds (billions of times brighter than the most powerful synchrotrons). This extreme detection environment raises unique challenges, from obvious to surprising. Radiation damage is a constant threat due to accidental exposure to insufficiently attenuated beam, focused beam and formation of ice crystals reflecting the beam onto the detector. Often high power optical lasers are also used (e.g., 25TW), increasing the risk of damage or impeding data acquisition through electromagnetic pulses (EMP). The sample can contaminate the detector surface or even produce shrapnel damage. Some experiments require ultra high vacuum (UHV) with strict design, surface contamination and cooling requirements - also for detectors. The setup is often changed between or during experiments with short turnaround times, risking mechanical and ESD damage, requiring work planning, training of operators and sometimes continuous participation of the LCLS Detector Group in the experiments. The detectors used most often at LCLS are CSPAD cameras for hard x-rays and pnCCDs for soft x-rays.

  16. Extreme ultraviolet lithography machine

    DOEpatents

    Tichenor, Daniel A.; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Haney, Steven J.; Sweeney, Donald W.

    2000-01-01

    An extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) machine or system for producing integrated circuit (IC) components, such as transistors, formed on a substrate. The EUVL machine utilizes a laser plasma point source directed via an optical arrangement onto a mask or reticle which is reflected by a multiple mirror system onto the substrate or target. The EUVL machine operates in the 10-14 nm wavelength soft x-ray photon. Basically the EUV machine includes an evacuated source chamber, an evacuated main or project chamber interconnected by a transport tube arrangement, wherein a laser beam is directed into a plasma generator which produces an illumination beam which is directed by optics from the source chamber through the connecting tube, into the projection chamber, and onto the reticle or mask, from which a patterned beam is reflected by optics in a projection optics (PO) box mounted in the main or projection chamber onto the substrate. In one embodiment of a EUVL machine, nine optical components are utilized, with four of the optical components located in the PO box. The main or projection chamber includes vibration isolators for the PO box and a vibration isolator mounting for the substrate, with the main or projection chamber being mounted on a support structure and being isolated.

  17. Stacked Extreme Learning Machines.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hongming; Huang, Guang-Bin; Lin, Zhiping; Wang, Han; Soh, Yeng Chai

    2015-09-01

    Extreme learning machine (ELM) has recently attracted many researchers' interest due to its very fast learning speed, good generalization ability, and ease of implementation. It provides a unified solution that can be used directly to solve regression, binary, and multiclass classification problems. In this paper, we propose a stacked ELMs (S-ELMs) that is specially designed for solving large and complex data problems. The S-ELMs divides a single large ELM network into multiple stacked small ELMs which are serially connected. The S-ELMs can approximate a very large ELM network with small memory requirement. To further improve the testing accuracy on big data problems, the ELM autoencoder can be implemented during each iteration of the S-ELMs algorithm. The simulation results show that the S-ELMs even with random hidden nodes can achieve similar testing accuracy to support vector machine (SVM) while having low memory requirements. With the help of ELM autoencoder, the S-ELMs can achieve much better testing accuracy than SVM and slightly better accuracy than deep belief network (DBN) with much faster training speed. PMID:25361517

  18. Understanding water extremes with caution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stehlík, Milan; Stehlíková, Silvia; Torres, Sebastián

    2016-06-01

    We discuss a sensitive topic, how to scientifically estimate extremes in water quality managements. Such extremes are incorporating establishment of thresholds or levels of certain chemicals in the drinking water. In particular, we address the water fluoridation and quality of drinking water in Chile. Statistical approaches demonstrating the necessary background of water manager will be given in a survey exposition to establish link between statistics of extremes and practice.

  19. Upper Extremity Amputations and Prosthetics

    PubMed Central

    Ovadia, Steven A.; Askari, Morad

    2015-01-01

    Upper extremity amputations are most frequently indicated by severe traumatic injuries. The location of the injury will determine the level of amputation. Preservation of extremity length is often a goal. The amputation site will have important implications on the functional status of the patient and options for prosthetic reconstruction. Advances in amputation techniques and prosthetic reconstructions promote improved quality of life. In this article, the authors review the principles of upper extremity amputation, including techniques, amputation sites, and prosthetic reconstructions. PMID:25685104

  20. Downscaling precipitation extremes in a complex Alpine catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobler, C.

    2012-04-01

    Climate change is expected to have significant effects on the frequency and intensity of heavy precipitation events. Assessing the impacts of climate change on precipitation extremes is a challenging task. On the one hand, the output of Regional Climate Models (RCMs) is subjected to systematic biases in the case of precipitation, especially in a complex mountain topography, and on the other hand, yet only a few statistical downscaling techniques are known to downscale precipitation extremes reliably. In this investigation two statistical downscaling approaches were applied to simulate precipitation extremes in the Alpine part of the Lech catchment. The first one, Expanded Downscaling (EDS), is a perfect prognosis approach that is based on regression. EDS has been calibrated and validated using large-scale predictor variables derived from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis dataset and local station data. The EDS model was then applied to downscale the output of two GCMs (ECHAM5, HadGEM2) for current (1971-2000) and future (2071-2100) time horizons, forced with the SRES A1B emission scenario. The second approach is the Long Ashton Research Station Weather Generator (LARS-WG) which can be characterized as a change factor conditioned weather generator. LARS-WG was calibrated on local station data only and then applied to downscale the output of five different GCM-RCM combinations to meteorological stations. The RCMs have a horizontal resolution of ~25 km and were obtained from the ENSEMBLES project of the European Union. In order to assess precipitation extremes with higher return values, a generalized extreme value distribution was applied to the data. Confidence intervals were calculated by using the non-parametric bootstrapping technique. The results show that both downscaling approaches reproduce observed precipitation extremes fairly well. Even for very extreme precipitation events such as the 20-year event a good agreement

  1. Extreme Events and Energy Providers: Science and Innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiou, P.; Vautard, R.

    2012-04-01

    Most socio-economic regulations related to the resilience to climate extremes, from infrastructure or network design to insurance premiums, are based on a present-day climate with an assumption of stationarity. Climate extremes (heat waves, cold spells, droughts, storms and wind stilling) affect in particular energy production, supply, demand and security in several ways. While national, European or international projects have generated vast amounts of climate projections for the 21st century, their practical use in long-term planning remains limited. Estimating probabilistic diagnostics of energy user relevant variables from those multi-model projections will help the energy sector to elaborate medium to long-term plans, and will allow the assessment of climate risks associated to those plans. The project "Extreme Events for Energy Providers" (E3P) aims at filling a gap between climate science and its practical use in the energy sector and creating in turn favourable conditions for new business opportunities. The value chain ranges from addressing research questions directly related to energy-significant climate extremes to providing innovative tools of information and decision making (including methodologies, best practices and software) and climate science training for the energy sector, with a focus on extreme events. Those tools will integrate the scientific knowledge that is developed by scientific communities, and translate it into a usable probabilistic framework. The project will deliver projection tools assessing the probabilities of future energy-relevant climate extremes at a range of spatial scales varying from pan-European to local scales. The E3P project is funded by the Knowledge and Innovation Community (KIC Climate). We will present the mechanisms of interactions between academic partners, SMEs and industrial partners for this project. Those mechanisms are elementary bricks of a climate service.

  2. Extreme horizontal branch stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heber, U.

    A review is presented on the properties, origin and evolutionary links of hot subluminous stars which are generally believed to be extreme Horizontal Branch stars or closely related objects. They exist both in the disk and halo populations (globular clusters) of the Galaxy. Amongst the field stars a large fraction of sdBs are found to reside in close binaries. The companions are predominantly white dwarfs, but also low mass main sequence stars are quite common. Systems with sufficiently massive white dwarf companions may qualify as Supernova Ia progenitors. Recently evidence has been found that the masses of some unseen companions might exceed the Chandrasekhar mass, hence they must be neutron stars or black holes. Even a planet has recently been detected orbiting the pulsating sdB star V391 Peg. Quite to the opposite,in globular clusters, only very few sdB binaries amongst are found indicating that the dominant sdB formation processes is different in a dense environment. Binary population synthesis models identify three formation channels, (i) stable Roche lobe overflow, (ii) one or two common envelope ejection phases and (iii) the merger of two helium white dwarfs. The latter channel may explain the properties of the He-enriched subluminous O stars, the hotter sisters of the sdB stars, because their binary fraction is lower than that of the sdBs by a factor of ten or more. The rivaling ''late hot flasher'' scenario is also discussed. Pulsating subluminous B (sdB) stars play an important role for asteroseismology as this technique has already led to mass determinations for a handful of stars. A unique hyper-velocity sdO star moving so fast that it is unbound to the Galaxy has probably been ejected by the super-massive black hole in the Galactic centre.

  3. Extreme Environments: Why NASA?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, M. A.

    2002-12-01

    Life on our planet is the only known example in the universe and so we are relegated to this planet for the study of life. However, life may be a natural consequence of planet formation, and so the study of the origin, evolution, distribution and future of life may be greatly informed by planetary exploration. Astrobiology has adopted several approaches to study life on Earth, for deducing our origins, for determining the likelihood of life elsewhere, and for enabling the search for evidence of past or present life. The first approach has been the Exobiology Program, centered around understanding the origins of life and which supports individual investigator research. Second has been the construction of consortia-type research in which researchers from different disciplines focus on a larger problem. This structure began with NASA Specialized Centers of Research and Training and has grown to include the Astrobiology Institute - a collection of competitively selected groups of researchers attacking problems in Astrobiology as individual teams and as a consolidated Institute. With the formation of an intellectual basis for exploring for life elsewhere, Astrobiology has initiated the competitive research and development program in instrument development (Astrobiology Science and Technology for Instrument Development [ASTID] Program) that would enable future mission instruments for the exploration of planetary bodies in the search for prebiotic chemistry, habitable environments (past or present), biomarkers, and possibly life itself. However, the act of exploring requires robust instrumentation, mobile robotic platforms, efficient operations, and a high level of autonomy. To this end, Astrobiology has started a new research activity that promotes scientifically-driven robotic exploration of extreme environments on Earth that are analogous to suspected habitable environments on other planetary bodies. The program is called Astrobiology Science and Technology for

  4. Teaching European Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raento, Pauliina

    2008-01-01

    The political, cultural and social make-up of Europe is changing fast. A new European identity is under construction, but old contradictions and diversity challenge its contents, forms and boundaries. Migration, the changing role of the nation-state and Europe's regions, the reshaping of politico-administrative and perceptional boundaries, the…

  5. The European VLBI network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schilizzi, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    The capabilities of the European very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) network are summarized. The range of baseline parameters, sensitivities, and recording and other equipment available are included. Plans for upgrading the recording facilities and the use of geostationary satellites for signal transfer and clock synchronization are discussed.

  6. European Music Year 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexanderson, Thomas; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Articles concerning music are included in this newsletter dedicated to cultural venture to be jointly carried out by the Council of Europe and the European communities. Many events will mark Music Year 1985, including concerts, dance performances, operas, publications, recordings, festivals, exhibitions, competitions, and conferences on musical…

  7. Multilingualism in European Workplaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnarsson, Britt-Louise

    2014-01-01

    This state-of-the-art article includes a review of past and recent studies on multilingualism at work in European environments. One aim is to provide the reader with a cross-cultural picture of workplace studies on various languages in Europe, another to discuss both positive and problem-based accounts of multilingualism at work. The overview…

  8. European Civilization. Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppert, Ella C.; Halac, Dennis

    The instructional materials in this teaching guide for Course II, Unit IV, follow and build upon a previous sequential course described in SO 003 169 offering ninth grade students a study on the development of Western European Civilization. Focus is upon four periods of high development: The High Middle Ages (12th Century), The Renaissance (15th…

  9. Denitrification by extremely halophilic bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, L. I.; Tomlinson, G. A.

    1985-01-01

    Extremely halophilic bacteria were isolated from widely separated sites by anaerobic enrichment in the presence of nitrate. The anaerobic growth of several of these isolates was accompanied by the production of nitrite, nitrous oxide, and dinitrogen. These results are a direct confirmation of the existence of extremely halophilic denitrifying bacteria, and suggest that such bacteria may be common inhabitants of hypersaline environments.

  10. Gender, Education, Extremism and Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the complex relationships between gender, education, extremism and security. After defining extremism and fundamentalism, it looks first at the relationship of gender to violence generally, before looking specifically at how this plays out in more extremist violence and terrorism. Religious fundamentalism is also shown to have…

  11. Scientists attack European MRI rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Margaret

    2010-08-01

    A report by the European Science Foundation (ESF) has sharply criticized a European Union (EU) directive on electromagnetic fields, arguing that limits on workers' exposure will have "potentially disastrous" consequences for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

  12. Modeling extreme risks in ecology.

    PubMed

    Burgman, Mark; Franklin, James; Hayes, Keith R; Hosack, Geoffrey R; Peters, Gareth W; Sisson, Scott A

    2012-11-01

    Extreme risks in ecology are typified by circumstances in which data are sporadic or unavailable, understanding is poor, and decisions are urgently needed. Expert judgments are pervasive and disagreements among experts are commonplace. We outline approaches to evaluating extreme risks in ecology that rely on stochastic simulation, with a particular focus on methods to evaluate the likelihood of extinction and quasi-extinction of threatened species, and the likelihood of establishment and spread of invasive pests. We evaluate the importance of assumptions in these assessments and the potential of some new approaches to account for these uncertainties, including hierarchical estimation procedures and generalized extreme value distributions. We conclude by examining the treatment of consequences in extreme risk analysis in ecology and how expert judgment may better be harnessed to evaluate extreme risks. PMID:22817845

  13. Extremal properties of random trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.; Majumdar, Satya N.

    2001-09-01

    We investigate extremal statistical properties such as the maximal and the minimal heights of randomly generated binary trees. By analyzing the master evolution equations we show that the cumulative distribution of extremal heights approaches a traveling wave form. The wave front in the minimal case is governed by the small-extremal-height tail of the distribution, and conversely, the front in the maximal case is governed by the large-extremal-height tail of the distribution. We determine several statistical characteristics of the extremal height distribution analytically. In particular, the expected minimal and maximal heights grow logarithmically with the tree size, N, hmin~vmin ln N, and hmax~vmax ln N, with vmin=0.373365... and vmax=4.31107..., respectively. Corrections to this asymptotic behavior are of order O(ln ln N).

  14. Representing Extremes in Agricultural Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruane, Alex

    2015-01-01

    AgMIP and related projects are conducting several activities to understand and improve crop model response to extreme events. This involves crop model studies as well as the generation of climate datasets and scenarios more capable of capturing extremes. Models are typically less responsive to extreme events than we observe, and miss several forms of extreme events. Models also can capture interactive effects between climate change and climate extremes. Additional work is needed to understand response of markets and economic systems to food shocks. AgMIP is planning a Coordinated Global and Regional Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Agricultural Production and Food Security with an aim to inform the IPCC Sixth Assessment Report.

  15. Extreme Mean and Its Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swaroop, R.; Brownlow, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    Extreme value statistics obtained from normally distributed data are considered. An extreme mean is defined as the mean of p-th probability truncated normal distribution. An unbiased estimate of this extreme mean and its large sample distribution are derived. The distribution of this estimate even for very large samples is found to be nonnormal. Further, as the sample size increases, the variance of the unbiased estimate converges to the Cramer-Rao lower bound. The computer program used to obtain the density and distribution functions of the standardized unbiased estimate, and the confidence intervals of the extreme mean for any data are included for ready application. An example is included to demonstrate the usefulness of extreme mean application.

  16. The European Mobile System (EMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jongejans, A.; Rogard, R.; Mistretta, I.; Ananasso, F.

    1993-01-01

    The European Space Agency is presently procuring an L band payload in order to promote a regional European L band system coping with the specific needs of the European market. The payload, and the two communications systems to be supported, are described below. The potential market for EMS in Europe is discussed.

  17. Education and European integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, John

    1992-11-01

    The main purpose of this article is to discuss the implications for education and training of the movement towards integration in Europe in the historic context of the creation of a single market within the European Community (EC) and the end of the Communist regimes in Central and Eastern Europe. The experience of the EC is used to illustrate trends and problems in the development of international cooperation in education and training. Common concerns and priorities throughout the new Europe are then identified and discussed. These include the pursuit of quality in schooling, efforts to serve the interests of disadvantaged learners, and the treatment of European Studies in the curriculum, including the improvement of the teaching of foreign languages.

  18. Telemedicine and European law.

    PubMed

    Callens, Stefaan

    2003-01-01

    A Directive of the European Union was first published in 2000, which dealt with telemedicine as part of its provisions. This E-Commerce Directive, as it became known, was subjected to further study which revealed some problems relative to the practice of telemedicine. Among the subjects discussed in this paper are those of privacy, data protection, free movement of services, the impact of electronic communication and ethical issues. PMID:15074761

  19. The European Spallation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Peggs, S; Eshraqi, M; Hahn, H; Jansson, A; Lindroos, M; Ponton, A; Rathsman, K; Trahern, G; Bousso, S; Calaga, R; Devanz, G; Duperrier, R D; Eguia, J; Gammino, S; Moller, S P; Oyon, C; Ruber, R.J.M.Y.; Satogata, T

    2011-03-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a 5 MW, 2.5 GeV long pulse proton linac, to be built and commissioned in Lund, Sweden. The Accelerator Design Update (ADU) project phase is under way, to be completed at the end of 2012 by the delivery of a Technical Design Report. Improvements to the 2003 ESS design will be summarised, and the latest design activities will be presented.

  20. Flood risk mapping at European scale.

    PubMed

    Barredo, J I; de Roo, A; Lavalle, C

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this article is to illustrate a framework for flood risk mapping at pan-European scale produced by the Weather-Driven Natural Hazards (WDNH) action of the EC-JRC-IES. Early results are presented in the form of flood risk index maps. We assess several flood risk factors that contribute to the occurrence of flood disasters. Among the causal factors of a flood disaster one is triggering a natural event in the form of extreme precipitation and consequently extreme river discharge and extreme flood water levels. The threatening natural event represents the hazard component in our assessment. Furthermore exposure and vulnerability are anthropogenic factors that contribute also to flood risk. In the proposed approach, flood risk is considered on the light of exposure, vulnerability and hazard. We use a methodology with a marked territorial approach for the assessment of the flood risk. Hence, based on mathematical calculations, risk is the product of hazard, exposure and vulnerability. Improvements on datasets availability and spatial scale are foreseen in the next phases of this study. This study is also a contribution to the discussion about the need for communication tools between the natural hazard scientific community and the political and decision making players in this field. PMID:17851200

  1. Influence of Climate Change on Extreme Weather Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. L.; Wehner, M. F.

    2013-12-01

    The increasing frequency of extreme weather events raises the question of to what extent such events can be attributed to human causes. Within the climate literature, an approach has been developed based on a quantity known as the fraction of attributable risk, or FAR. The essence of this approach is to estimate the probability of the extreme event of interest from parallel runs of climate models under either anthropogenic or natural conditions; the two probabilities are then combined to produce the FAR. However, a number of existing approaches either make questionable assumptions about estimating extreme event probabilites (e.g. inappropriate assumption of the normal distribution) or ignore the differences between climate models and observational data. Here, we propose an approach based on extreme value theory, incorporated into a hierarchical model to account for differences among climate models. A related technique, based on the same modeling approach, leads to quantitative estimates of how the probability of an extreme event will change under future projected climate change. We illustrate the method with examples related to the European heatwave of 2003, the Russian heatwave of 2010, and the Texas/Oklahoma heatwave and drought of 2011.

  2. Impacts of climate extremes on activity sectors stakeholders' perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundzewicz, Z. W.; Giannakopoulos, C.; Schwarb, M.; Stjernquist, I.; Schlyter, P.; Szwed, M.; Palutikof, J.

    2008-06-01

    Significant changes in the climatic system have been observed, which may be attributed to human-enhanced greenhouse effect. Even stronger changes are projected for the future, impacting in an increasing way on human activity sectors. The present contribution, prepared in the framework of the MICE (Modelling the Impact of Climate Extremes) Project of the European Union, reviews how climate change may impact on winter tourism in the Alpine region, intense precipitation and flood potential in central Europe, forest damage in Scandinavia and beach holidays in the Mediterranean coast. Impacts are likely to be serious and largely adverse. Due to a lack of adequate information and lack of broadly accepted and reliable mathematical models describing the impact of changes in climate extremes on these activity sectors, it has been found useful to use expert judgement based impact assessment. Accordingly, regional mini-workshops were organized serving as platforms for communication between scientists and stakeholders, vehicles for dissemination of the state-of-the-art of the scientific understanding and for learning stakeholders’ view on extreme events, their impacts and the preparedness system. Stakeholders had the opportunity to react to the scientific results and to reflect on their perception of the likely impacts of projected changes in extremes on relevant activity sectors and the potential to adapt and avert adverse consequences. The results reported in this paper present the stakeholders’ suggestions for essential information on different extreme event impacts and their needs from science.

  3. Nonparametric Spatial Models for Extremes: Application to Extreme Temperature Data.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Montserrat; Henry, John; Reich, Brian

    2013-03-01

    Estimating the probability of extreme temperature events is difficult because of limited records across time and the need to extrapolate the distributions of these events, as opposed to just the mean, to locations where observations are not available. Another related issue is the need to characterize the uncertainty in the estimated probability of extreme events at different locations. Although the tools for statistical modeling of univariate extremes are well-developed, extending these tools to model spatial extreme data is an active area of research. In this paper, in order to make inference about spatial extreme events, we introduce a new nonparametric model for extremes. We present a Dirichlet-based copula model that is a flexible alternative to parametric copula models such as the normal and t-copula. The proposed modelling approach is fitted using a Bayesian framework that allow us to take into account different sources of uncertainty in the data and models. We apply our methods to annual maximum temperature values in the east-south-central United States. PMID:24058280

  4. Lower extremity muscle perforator flaps for lower extremity reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hallock, Geoffrey G

    2004-10-01

    A true muscle perforator flap is distinguished by the requisite intramuscular dissection of its musculocutaneous perforator to capture the same musculocutaneous territory but with total exclusion of the muscle, and thereby results in minimal functional impairment. Adhering to this definition, several lower extremity donor sites now are available, each with specific attributes especially useful for consideration in the treatment of lower extremity defects. In this author's experience over the past two decades, 20 lower extremity muscle perforator flaps using multiple donor sites proved advantageous for lower extremity coverage problems as either a local pedicled flap or as a microsurgical tissue transfer. Significant complications occurred in 30 percent of flaps (six of 20) in that further intervention was required. Venous insufficiency and bulkiness were found to be the major inherent shortcomings. However, giant flaps, lengthy and large-caliber vascular pedicles, and the possibility for combined flaps were important assets. The choice of a lower extremity muscle perforator flap for lower extremity reconstruction limited the surgical intervention and morbidity to a single body region. PMID:15457022

  5. Statistic analysis of annual total ozone extremes for the period 1964-1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krzyscin, Janusz W.

    1994-01-01

    Annual extremes of total column amount of ozone (in the period 1964-1988) from a network of 29 Dobson stations have been examined using the extreme value analysis. The extremes have been calculated as the highest deviation of daily mean total ozone from its long-term monthly mean, normalized by the monthly standard deviations. The extremes have been selected from the direct-Sun total ozone observations only. The extremes resulting from abrupt changes in ozone (day to day changes greater than 20 percent) have not been considered. The ordered extremes (maxima in ascending way, minima in descending way) have been fitted to one of three forms of the Fisher-Tippet extreme value distribution by the nonlinear least square method (Levenberg-Marguard method). We have found that the ordered extremes from a majority of Dobson stations lie close to Fisher-Tippet type III. The extreme value analysis of the composite annual extremes (combined from averages of the annual extremes selected at individual stations) has shown that the composite maxima are fitted by the Fisher-Tippet type III and the composite minima by the Fisher-Tippet type I. The difference between the Fisher-Tippet types of the composite extremes seems to be related to the ozone downward trend. Extreme value prognoses for the period 1964-2014 (derived from the data taken at: all analyzed stations, the North American, and the European stations) have revealed that the prognostic extremes are close to the largest annual extremes in the period 1964-1988 and there are only small regional differences in the prognoses.

  6. Muscles of the Lower Extremity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Muscular System » Muscle Groups » Lower Extremity Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...

  7. Extreme events in computational turbulence

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, P. K.; Zhai, X. M.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.

    2015-01-01

    We have performed direct numerical simulations of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence in a periodic box with 8,1923 grid points. These are the largest simulations performed, to date, aimed at improving our understanding of turbulence small-scale structure. We present some basic statistical results and focus on “extreme” events (whose magnitudes are several tens of thousands the mean value). The structure of these extreme events is quite different from that of moderately large events (of the order of 10 times the mean value). In particular, intense vorticity occurs primarily in the form of tubes for moderately large events whereas it is much more “chunky” for extreme events (though probably overlaid on the traditional vortex tubes). We track the temporal evolution of extreme events and find that they are generally short-lived. Extreme magnitudes of energy dissipation rate and enstrophy occur simultaneously in space and remain nearly colocated during their evolution. PMID:26424452

  8. Biophotonics: a European perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, Thierry; Cochard, Jacques; Breussin, Frédéric

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present work is to determine the opportunities and challenges for Biophotonics business development in Europe for the next five years with a focus on sensors and systems: for health diagnostics and monitoring; for air, water and food safety and quality control. The development of this roadmap was initiated and supported by EPIC (The European Photonics Industry Consortium). We summarize the final roadmap data: market application segments and trends, analysis of the market access criteria, analysis of the technology trends and major bottlenecks and challenges per application.

  9. Eastern European risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Honey, J.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Here the authors assess Eastern European risk management practices through the evaluation of the nuclear power plants in the region. This evaluation is limited to the Soviet-designed and -built VVER-440 pressurized water reactors (PWRs) that are currently operating in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Russia, and the Ukraine and until recently operated at Greifswald in the former East Germany. This evaluation is based on the basic design of the plants, a safety evaluation of the Greifswald facility by representatives from the Federal Republic of Germany and personal visits by the author to Greifswald and Loviisa.

  10. Influence of spatial and temporal scales in identifying temperature extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eck, Christel M.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Mulder, Vera L.; Regnier, Pierre A. G.

    2016-04-01

    Extreme heat events are becoming more frequent. Notable are severe heatwaves such as the European heatwave of 2003, the Russian heat wave of 2010 and the Australian heatwave of 2013. Surface temperature is attaining new maxima not only during the summer but also during the winter. The year of 2015 is reported to be a temperature record breaking year for both summer and winter. These extreme temperatures are taking their human and environmental toll, emphasizing the need for an accurate method to define a heat extreme in order to fully understand the spatial and temporal spread of an extreme and its impact. This research aims to explore how the use of different spatial and temporal scales influences the identification of a heat extreme. For this purpose, two near-surface temperature datasets of different temporal scale and spatial scale are being used. First, the daily ERA-Interim dataset of 0.25 degree and a time span of 32 years (1979-2010). Second, the daily Princeton Meteorological Forcing Dataset of 0.5 degree and a time span of 63 years (1948-2010). A temperature is considered extreme anomalous when it is surpassing the 90th, 95th, or the 99th percentile threshold based on the aforementioned pre-processed datasets. The analysis is conducted on a global scale, dividing the world in IPCC's so-called SREX regions developed for the analysis of extreme climate events. Pre-processing is done by detrending and/or subtracting the monthly climatology based on 32 years of data for both datasets and on 63 years of data for only the Princeton Meteorological Forcing Dataset. This results in 6 datasets of temperature anomalies from which the location in time and space of the anomalous warm days are identified. Comparison of the differences between these 6 datasets in terms of absolute threshold temperatures for extremes and the temporal and spatial spread of the extreme anomalous warm days show a dependence of the results on the datasets and methodology used. This stresses

  11. Linking Extreme Weather Events and Extreme ENSO States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlwitz, J.; Hoerling, M. P.; Xu, T.; Hoell, A.; Cheng, L.; Wolter, K.

    2015-12-01

    To what extent are the risks of extreme weather events over the contiguous US, such as heavy precipitation, heat and cold waves, conditioned by the state of tropical east Pacific SSTs? Further, do extreme magnitudes of El Niño and La Niña events exert a unique and particularly strong controlling effect on weather extremes? Here, we utilize both observations and multi-model large ensemble historical simulations to characterize the behavior of 5-day maximum precipitation distributions. We focus on relations between ENSO impacts on seasonal means and weather extremes, and explore the distinction between effects based on ENSO phase and intensity. For the cold season (November to April), overall ENSO impacts on mean precipitation are shown to be consistent with observations. This signal includes enhanced seasonal mean precipitation over the southern part of the U.S. and central Great Plains during El Niño, and enhanced seasonal mean precipitation over the Midwest during La Nina. We further demonstrate how these signals change under the influence of the most extreme ENSO events, conditions that are difficult to verify from observations owing to small sample sizes, but are modeled via large ensemble methods. The statistics of 5-day maximum precipitation, with a focus on 20-year return levels that characterizes rare but potentially damaging events, are examined. We demonstrate substantial differences in changes in the risk of extreme 5-day precipitation and the seasonal mean precipitation signal, especially in such regions as California, and the western Great Plains including the Front Range of the Rockies from Montana to New Mexico. The plausibility of such behavior is discussed via physical considerations and by examining the structural uncertainty in such outcomes across three different climate models.

  12. WRF-Cordex simulations for Europe: mean and extreme precipitation for present and future climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, Rita M.; Soares, Pedro M. M.; Miranda, Pedro M. A.

    2013-04-01

    The Weather Research and Forecast (WRF-ARW) model, version 3.3.1, was used to perform the European domain Cordex simulations, at 50km resolution. A first simulation, forced by ERA-Interim (1989-2009), was carried out to evaluate the models performance to represent the mean and extreme precipitation in present European climate. This evaluation is based in the comparison of WRF results against the ECAD regular gridded dataset of daily precipitation. Results are comparable to recent studies with other models for the European region, at this resolution. For the same domain a control and a future scenario (RCP8.5) simulation was performed to assess the climate change impact on the mean and extreme precipitation. These regional simulations were forced by EC-EARTH model results, and, encompass the periods from 1960-2006 and 2006-2100, respectively.

  13. Are hourly precipitation extremes increasing faster than daily precipitation extremes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbero, Renaud; Fowler, Hayley; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Lenderink, Geert

    2016-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events appear to be increasing with climate change in many regions of the world, including the United States. These extreme events have large societal impacts, as seen during the recent Texas-Oklahoma flooding in May 2015 which caused several billion in damages and left 47 deaths in its path. Better understanding of past changes in the characteristics of extreme rainfall events is thus critical for reliable projections of future changes. Although it has been documented in several studies that daily precipitation extremes are increasing across parts of the contiguous United States, very few studies have looked at hourly extremes. However, this is of primary importance as recent studies on the temperature scaling of extreme precipitation have shown that increases above the Clausius-Clapeyron (~ 7% °C‑1) are possible for hourly precipitation. In this study, we used hourly precipitation data (HPD) from the National Climatic Data Center and extracted more than 1,000 stations across the US with more than 40 years of data spanning the period 1950-2010. As hourly measurements are often associated with a range of issues, the data underwent multiple quality control processes to exclude erroneous data. While no significant changes were found in annual maximum precipitation using both hourly and daily resolution datasets, significant increasing trends in terms of frequency of episodes exceeding present-day 95th percentiles of wet hourly/daily precipitation were observed across a significant portion of the US. The fraction of stations with significant increasing trends falls outside the confidence interval range during all seasons but the summer. While less than 12% of stations exhibit significant trends at the daily scale in the wintertime, more than 45% of stations, mostly clustered in central and Northern United States, show significant increasing trends at the hourly scale. This suggests that short-duration storms have increased faster than daily

  14. Study of extreme nuclear shapes in extreme conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Sudhee Ranjan

    2014-08-14

    Studies of extreme nuclear shapes have always fascinated scientists and are being pursued quite strongly over the years. Nuclei present themselves with interesting shapes and structures at different conditions of spin, excitation and also with the number of neutrons and/or protons in them. Gamma decays from the Giant dipole Resonances in nuclei can probe directly their shapes at different extreme conditions by looking at their resonant line-shapes, e.g., Jacobi shapes and shape-transitions, super/hyper-deformation etc. Similar such studies, done for the first time, using the LAMBDA high energy gamma spectrometer developed at VECC, is discussed here.

  15. Study of extreme nuclear shapes in extreme conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Sudhee Ranjan

    2014-08-01

    Studies of extreme nuclear shapes have always fascinated scientists and are being pursued quite strongly over the years. Nuclei present themselves with interesting shapes and structures at different conditions of spin, excitation and also with the number of neutrons and/or protons in them. Gamma decays from the Giant dipole Resonances in nuclei can probe directly their shapes at different extreme conditions by looking at their resonant line-shapes, e.g., Jacobi shapes and shape-transitions, super/hyper-deformation etc. Similar such studies, done for the first time, using the LAMBDA high energy gamma spectrometer developed at VECC, is discussed here.

  16. EAC: The European Astronauts Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripoll, Andres

    The newly established European Astronauts Centre (EAC) in Cologne represents the European Astronauts Home Base and will become a centre of expertise on European astronauts activities. The paper gives an overview of the European approach to man-in-space, describes the European Astronauts Policy and presents the major EAC roles and responsibilities including the management of selection, recruitment and flight assignment of astronauts; the astronauts support and medical surveillance; the supervision of the astronauts' non-flight assignments; crew safety; the definition of the overall astronauts training programme; the scheduling and supervision of the training facilities; the implementation of Basic Training; the recruitment, training and certification of instructors, and the interface to NASA in the framework of the Space Station Freedom programme. An overview is given on the organisation of EAC, and on the European candidate astronauts selection performed in 1991.

  17. Understanding extreme winds in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Gudrun Nina

    2015-04-01

    Iceland is a fairly windy country, due to it's location adjacent the North Atlantic storm track. The orography of the island is rugged, mountains are steep and fjords and valleys narrow, and this impacts local winds. Thus, mountain wind phenomena such as low level jets, gap winds, down-slope wind storms, mountain waves and wind wakes are common. To increase our knowledge of the behaviour of wind in Iceland an extreme value analysis was conducted based on observations from 61 automatic weather stations, applying the Peak Over Threshold technique on maximum daily wind speed and maximum daily wind gust at each site. The time series included at least 10 years of data and the threshold was chosen as the 0.9 quantile of maximum mean wind speed/maximum wind gust at each location. Among the results is the larger impact the local orography has on the extreme wind gusts compared to the mean wind. With extreme value models in place, a few significant weather events were selected from recent years and the observed wind speeds compared to the models in order to evaluate how extreme the events were and how large area they impacted. Actually, in most of these events the observed wind speed only turned out to be extreme at a few stations, emphasising the local effects. However, in an event from December 2007, when the observed maximum wind speed exceeded 23 m/s in most of western Iceland, the event was estimated as rare at a number of weather stations. Clearly this gives indication for further studying this particular weather event. An automatic system has been set up, running once an hour, comparing observed wind measurements to the extreme value models and producing maps of the return periods for all sites. This system gives us the possibility to, on a daily basis, evaluate the extremeness of each situation and simultaneously increase our knowledge of extreme wind behaviour in Iceland. This work is a foundation for studying changes in extreme winds in Iceland.

  18. Transverse deformations of extreme horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Carmen; Lucietti, James

    2016-04-01

    We consider the inverse problem of determining all extreme black hole solutions to the Einstein equations with a prescribed near-horizon geometry. We investigate this problem by considering infinitesimal deformations of the near-horizon geometry along transverse null geodesics. We show that, up to a gauge transformation, the linearised Einstein equations reduce to an elliptic PDE for the extrinsic curvature of a cross-section of the horizon. We deduce that for a given near-horizon geometry there exists a finite dimensional moduli space of infinitesimal transverse deformations. We then establish a uniqueness theorem for transverse deformations of the extreme Kerr horizon. In particular, we prove that the only smooth axisymmetric transverse deformation of the near-horizon geometry of extreme Kerr, such that cross-sections of the horizon are marginally trapped surfaces, corresponds to that of the extreme Kerr black hole. Furthermore, we determine all smooth and biaxisymmetric transverse deformations of the near-horizon geometry of the five-dimensional extreme Myers-Perry black hole with equal angular momenta. We find a three parameter family of solutions such that cross-sections of the horizon are marginally trapped, which is more general than the known black hole solutions. We discuss the possibility that they correspond to new five-dimensional vacuum black holes.

  19. A European perspective on maize history.

    PubMed

    Tenaillon, Maud Irène; Charcosset, Alain

    2011-03-01

    Maize was domesticated at least 8700 years ago in the highlands of Mexico. Genome-wide studies have greatly contributed to shed light into the diffusion of maize through the Americas from its center of origin. Also the presence of two European introductions in southern and northern Europe is now established. Such a spread was accompanied by an extreme diversification, and adaptation to the long days and low temperatures of temperate climates has been a key step in maize evolution. Linkage mapping and association mapping have successfully led to the identification of a handful set of the genetic factors that have contributed to maize adaptation, opening the way to new discoveries. Ultimately, these alleles will contribute to sustain breeding efforts to meet the new challenges raised by the evolution of mankind. PMID:21377617

  20. European Conference on Health Economics.

    PubMed

    Malmivaara, Antti

    2010-12-01

    The biennial European Conference on Health Economics was held in Finland this year, at the Finlandia Hall in the centre of Helsinki. The European conferences rotate among European countries and fall between the biennial world congresses organized by the International Health Economics Association (iHEA). A record attendance of approximately 800 delegates from 50 countries around the world were present at the Helsinki conference. The theme of the conference was 'Connecting Health and Economics'. All major topics of health economics were covered in the sessions. For the first time, social care economics was included in the agenda of the European Conference as a session of its own. PMID:21155696

  1. Functional metagenomics of extreme environments.

    PubMed

    Mirete, Salvador; Morgante, Verónica; González-Pastor, José Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    The bioprospecting of enzymes that operate under extreme conditions is of particular interest for many biotechnological and industrial processes. Nevertheless, there is a considerable limitation to retrieve novel enzymes as only a small fraction of microorganisms derived from extreme environments can be cultured under standard laboratory conditions. Functional metagenomics has the advantage of not requiring the cultivation of microorganisms or previous sequence information to known genes, thus representing a valuable approach for mining enzymes with new features. In this review, we summarize studies showing how functional metagenomics was employed to retrieve genes encoding for proteins involved not only in molecular adaptation and resistance to extreme environmental conditions but also in other enzymatic activities of biotechnological interest. PMID:26901403

  2. Extreme, expedition, and wilderness medicine.

    PubMed

    Imray, Christopher H E; Grocott, Michael P W; Wilson, Mark H; Hughes, Amy; Auerbach, Paul S

    2015-12-19

    Extreme, expedition, and wilderness medicine are modern and rapidly evolving specialties that address the spirit of adventure and exploration. The relevance of and interest in these specialties are changing rapidly to match the underlying activities, which include global exploration, adventure travel, and military deployments. Extreme, expedition, and wilderness medicine share themes of providing best available medical care in the outdoors, especially in austere or remote settings. Early clinical and logistics decision making can often have important effects on subsequent outcomes. There are lessons to be learned from out-of-hospital care, military medicine, humanitarian medicine, and disaster medicine that can inform in-hospital medicine, and vice-versa. The future of extreme, expedition, and wilderness medicine will be defined by both recipients and practitioners, and empirical observations will be transformed by evidence-based practice. PMID:26738718

  3. Extreme hydrological events and security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundzewicz, Z. W.; Matczak, P.

    2015-06-01

    Economic losses caused by hydrological extremes - floods and droughts - have been on the rise, worldwide. Hydrological extremes jeopardize human security and cause serious threats to human life and welfare and societal livelihood. Floods and droughts can undermine societies' security, understood as freedom from threat and the ability of societies to maintain their independent identity and their functional integrity against forces of change. Several dimensions of security are reviewed in the context of hydrological extremes. Floods and droughts pose a burden and serious challenges to the state, responsible to sustain economic development, societal and environmental security - the maintenance of ecosystem services, on which a society depends. It is shown that reduction of risk of hydrological disasters improves human security.

  4. Extending medium-range predictability of extreme hydrological events in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Lavers, David A.; Pappenberger, Florian; Zsoter, Ervin

    2014-01-01

    Widespread flooding occurred across northwest Europe during the winter of 2013/14, resulting in large socioeconomic damages. In the historical record, extreme hydrological events have been connected with intense water vapour transport. Here we show that water vapour transport has higher medium-range predictability compared with precipitation in the winter 2013/14 forecasts from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. Applying the concept of potential predictability, the transport is found to extend the forecast horizon by 3 days in some European regions. Our results suggest that the breakdown in precipitation predictability is due to uncertainty in the horizontal mass convergence location, an essential mechanism for precipitation generation. Furthermore, the predictability increases with larger spatial averages. Given the strong association between precipitation and water vapour transport, especially for extreme events, we conclude that the higher transport predictability could be used as a model diagnostic to increase preparedness for extreme hydrological events. PMID:25387309

  5. A New Impetus for European Youth. European Commission White Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium).

    Despite their highly divergent situations, young people largely share the same values, ambitions, and difficulties. Despite the more complex social and economic context in which young Europeans are currently living, they are well equipped to adapt. National and European policymakers must facilitate this process of change by making young people…

  6. Extreme Conditions Modeling Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    Coe, R. G.; Neary, V. S.; Lawson, M. J.; Yu, Y.; Weber, J.

    2014-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) hosted the Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Extreme Conditions Modeling (ECM) Workshop in Albuquerque, NM on May 13th-14th, 2014. The objective of the workshop was to review the current state of knowledge on how to model WECs in extreme conditions (e.g. hurricanes and other large storms) and to suggest how U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and national laboratory resources could be used to improve ECM methods for the benefit of the wave energy industry.

  7. Pan-European catalogue of flood events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parajka, Juraj; Mangini, Walter; Viglione, Alberto; Hundecha, Yeshewatesfa; Ceola, Serena

    2016-04-01

    There have been numerous extreme flood events observed in Europe in the past years. One of the way to improve our understanding about causing flood generation mechanisms is to analyse spatial and temporal variability of a large number of flood events. The aim of this study is to present a pan-European catalogue of flood events developed within the SWITCH-ON EU Project. The flood events are identified from daily discharge observations at 1315 stations listed in Global Runoff Data Centre database. The average length of discharge time-series for selected stations is 54 years. For each event, basin boundary and additional hydrological and weather characteristics are extracted. Hydrological characteristics are extracted from the pan-European HYPE model simulations. Precipitation, together with the corresponding proportions of rainfall and snowfall, snowmelt, and evapotranspiration are computed as total amounts between the event start date and event peak date. Soil moisture, soil moisture deficit, and basin accumulated snow water equivalent are computed for the event start date. Weather characteristics are derived from the weather circulation pattern catalogue developed within COST 733 Project. The results are generated in an open data access and tools framework which allows reproduction and extension of results to other regions. More information about the analysis and project are available at: http://www.water-switch-on.eu/lab.html.

  8. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Analysis of European Archaeological M. leprae DNA

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Claire L.; Lockwood, Diana N. J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Leprosy was common in Europe eight to twelve centuries ago but molecular confirmation of this has been lacking. We have extracted M. leprae ancient DNA (aDNA) from medieval bones and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typed the DNA, this provides insight into the pattern of leprosy transmission in Europe and may assist in the understanding of M. leprae evolution. Methods and Findings Skeletons have been exhumed from 3 European countries (the United Kingdom, Denmark and Croatia) and are dated around the medieval period (476 to 1350 A.D.). we tested for the presence of 3 previously identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 10 aDNA extractions. M. leprae aDNA was extracted from 6 of the 10 bone samples. SNP analysis of these 6 extractions were compared to previously analysed European SNP data using the same PCR assays and were found to be the same. Testing for the presence of SNPs in M. leprae DNA extracted from ancient bone samples is a novel approach to analysing European M. leprae DNA and the findings concur with the previously published data that European M. leprae strains fall in to one group (SNP group 3). Conclusions These findings support the suggestion that the M. leprae genome is extremely stable and show that archaeological M. leprae DNA can be analysed to gain detailed information about the genotypic make-up of European leprosy, which may assist in the understanding of leprosy transmission worldwide. PMID:19847306

  9. How Cells Endure Extreme Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    One of natures most gripping feats of survival is now better understood. For the first time, Berkeley Lab scientists observed the chemical changes in individual cells that enable them to survive in conditions that should kill them. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2009/07/07/cells-endure-extremes/

  10. Quorum Sensing in Extreme Environments

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Kate; Charlesworth, James C.; LeBard, Rebecca; Visscher, Pieter T.; Burns, Brendan P.

    2013-01-01

    Microbial communication, particularly that of quorum sensing, plays an important role in regulating gene expression in a range of organisms. Although this phenomenon has been well studied in relation to, for example, virulence gene regulation, the focus of this article is to review our understanding of the role of microbial communication in extreme environments. Cell signaling regulates many important microbial processes and may play a pivotal role in driving microbial functional diversity and ultimately ecosystem function in extreme environments. Several recent studies have characterized cell signaling in modern analogs to early Earth communities (microbial mats), and characterization of cell signaling systems in these communities may provide unique insights in understanding the microbial interactions involved in function and survival in extreme environments. Cell signaling is a fundamental process that may have co-evolved with communities and environmental conditions on the early Earth. Without cell signaling, evolutionary pressures may have even resulted in the extinction rather than evolution of certain microbial groups. One of the biggest challenges in extremophile biology is understanding how and why some microbial functional groups are located where logically they would not be expected to survive, and tightly regulated communication may be key. Finally, quorum sensing has been recently identified for the first time in archaea, and thus communication at multiple levels (potentially even inter-domain) may be fundamental in extreme environments. PMID:25371335

  11. Extreme precipitation: Increases all round

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingram, William

    2016-05-01

    Globally, extreme rainfall is expected to increase with warming, but regional changes over land have been less certain. Now research shows that this intense precipitation has increased across both the wetter and the drier parts of the continents, and will continue to do so as global warming continues.

  12. Astrobiology: Life in Extreme Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaur, Preeti

    2011-01-01

    Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the universe. It seeks to answer two important scientific questions: how did we get here and are we alone in the universe? Scientists begin by studying life on Earth and its limits. The discovery of extremophiles on Earth capable of surviving extremes encourages the…

  13. Tetrasulfide extreme pressure lubricant additives

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, L.E.; Kenney, H.E.; Schwab, A.W.

    1980-08-19

    A novel class of compounds has been prepared comprising the tetrasulfides of /sup 18/C hydrocarbons, /sup 18/C fatty acids, and /sup 18/C fatty and alkyl and triglyceride esters. These tetrasulfides are useful as extreme pressure lubricant additives and show potential as replacements for sulfurized sperm whale oil.

  14. Applied extreme-value statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Kinnison, R.R.

    1983-05-01

    The statistical theory of extreme values is a well established part of theoretical statistics. Unfortunately, it is seldom part of applied statistics and is infrequently a part of statistical curricula except in advanced studies programs. This has resulted in the impression that it is difficult to understand and not of practical value. In recent environmental and pollution literature, several short articles have appeared with the purpose of documenting all that is necessary for the practical application of extreme value theory to field problems (for example, Roberts, 1979). These articles are so concise that only a statistician can recognise all the subtleties and assumptions necessary for the correct use of the material presented. The intent of this text is to expand upon several recent articles, and to provide the necessary statistical background so that the non-statistician scientist can recognize and extreme value problem when it occurs in his work, be confident in handling simple extreme value problems himself, and know when the problem is statistically beyond his capabilities and requires consultation.

  15. European Schoolnet: Enabling School Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scimeca, Santi; Dumitru, Petru; Durando, Marc; Gilleran, Anne; Joyce, Alexa; Vuorikari, Riina

    2009-01-01

    School networking is increasingly important in a globalised world, where schools themselves can be actors on an international stage. This article builds on the activities and experience of the longest established European initiative in this area, European Schoolnet (EUN), a network of 31 Ministries of Education. First, we offer an introduction…

  16. What Audience for European Television?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendelbo, Harald Arni

    This discussion of the audience for European television argues that satellite television has taken an upside-down approach, i.e., it has begun by focusing on the hardware, and then the software, before checking to see if there would be a user at the end of the line willing to pay for the whole operation. "European television" is then defined as…

  17. The European Dimension in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Directorate of Education, Culture and Sport, Documentation Section.

    This paper addresses concerns about a European dimension in education that has been created by the enlargement of the European Union (EU) (the inclusion of Austria, Finland, and Sweden) and the gradual transformations of institutions into a future federal state. Sections of the paper include: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Defining the European…

  18. European Sail Tower SPS concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seboldt, W.; Klimke, M.; Leipold, M.; Hanowski, N.

    2001-03-01

    Based on a DLR-study in 1998/99 on behalf of ESA/ESTEC called "System Concepts, Architectures and Technologies for Space Exploration and Utilization (SE&U)" a new design for an Earth-orbiting Solar Power Satellite (SPS) has been developed. The design is called "European Sail Tower SPS" and consists mainly of deployable sail-like structures derived from the ongoing DLR/ESA solar sail technology development activity. Such a SPS satellite features an extremely light-weight and large tower-like orbital system and could supply Europe with significant amounts of electrical power generated by photovoltaic cells and subsequently transmitted to Earth via microwaves. In order to build up the sail tower, 60 units - each consisting of a pair of square-shaped sails - are moved from LEO to GEO with electric propulsion and successively assembled in GEO robotically on a central strut. Each single sail has dimensions of 150m × 150 m and is automatically deployed, using four diagonal light-weight carbon fiber (CFRP) booms which are initially rolled up on a central hub. The electric thrusters for the transport to GEO could also be used for orbit and attitude control of the assembled tower which has a total length of about 15 km and would be mainly gravity gradient stabilized. Employing thin film solar cell technology, each sail is used as a solar array and produces an electric power in orbit of about 3.7 MW e. A microwave antenna with a diameter of 1 km transmits the power to a 10 km rectenna on the ground. The total mass of this 450 MW SPS is about 2100 tons. First estimates indicate that the costs for one kWh delivered in this way could compete with present day energy costs, if launch costs would decrease by two orders of magnitude. Furthermore, mass production and large numbers of installed SPS systems must be assumed in order to lower significantly the production costs and to reduce the influence of the expensive technology development. The paper presents the technical concept

  19. An American Construction of European Education Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silova, Iveta; Brehm, William C.

    2010-01-01

    The construction of the European education space has typically been attributed to European education policy makers, institutions, and networks. Rarely do scholars consider the role of outside, non-European actors in shaping the terrain of European education thought and practice. This article considers the construction of the European education…

  20. Performance testing of extremity dosimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Harty, R.; Reece, W.D.; Hooker, C.D.

    1987-06-01

    The Health Physics Society Standing Committee (HPSSC) Working Group on Performance Testing of Extremity Dosimeters has issued a draft of a proposed standard for extremity dosimeters. The draft standard proposes methods to be used for testing dosimetry systems that determine occupational radiation dose to the extremities and the performance criterion used to determine compliance. The draft standard has been evaluated by testing the performance of existing processors of extremity dosimeters against the standard's proposed criterion. The proposed performance criterion is: absolute value of B + S less than or equal to 0.35, where B is the bias (calculated as the average of the performance quotients) of 15 dosimeter measurements and S is the standard deviation of the performance quotients. Dosimeter performance was tested in seven irradiation categories: low-energy photons (general and accident dosimetry), high-energy photons (general and accident dosimetry), beta particles, neutrons, and a mixture category. Twenty-one types of extremity dosimeters (both finger ring and wrist/ankle dosimeters) were received from 11 processors. The dosimeters were irradiated by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to specific dose levels in one or more of the seven categories as specified in the draft standard and were returned to the processors. The processors evaluated the doses and returned the results to PNL for analysis. The results were evaluated against the performance criterion specified in the draft standard. The results indicate that approximately 60% of both the finger ring and the wrist/ankle dosimeters met the performance criterion. Two-thirds of the dosimeters that did not meet the performance criterion had large biases (ranging from 0.25 to 0.80) but small standard deviations (less than 0.15). 21 refs., 3 figs., 20 tabs.

  1. The Extreme Universe Space Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Jim; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This talk will describe the Extreme Universe Space Observatory (EUSO) mission. EUSO is an ESA mission to explore the most powerful energy sources in the universe. The mission objectives of EUSO are to investigate EECRs, those with energies above 3x10(exp 19) eV, and very high-energy cosmic neutrinos. These objectives are directly related to extreme conditions in the physical world and possibly involve the early history of the big bang and the framework of GUTs. EUSO tackles the basic problem posed by the existence of these extreme-energy events. The solution could have a unique impact on fundamental physics, cosmology, and/or astrophysics. At these energies, magnetic deflection is thought to be so small that the EECR component would serve as the particle channel for astronomy. EUSO will make the first measurements of EAS from space by observing atmospheric fluorescence in the Earth's night sky. With measurements of the airshower track, EUSO will determine the energy and arrival direction of these extreme-energy events. EUSO will make high statistics observations of CRs beyond the predicted GZK cutoff energy and widen the channel for high-energy neutrino astronomy. The energy spectra, arrival directions, and shower profiles will be analyzed to distinguish the nature of these events and search for their sources. With EUSO data, we will have the possibility to discover a local EECR source, test Z-burst scenarios and other theories, and look for evidence of the breakdown of the relativity principle at extreme Lorentz factors.

  2. Extremal higher spin black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bañados, Máximo; Castro, Alejandra; Faraggi, Alberto; Jottar, Juan I.

    2016-04-01

    The gauge sector of three-dimensional higher spin gravities can be formulated as a Chern-Simons theory. In this context, a higher spin black hole corresponds to a flat connection with suitable holonomy (smoothness) conditions which are consistent with the properties of a generalized thermal ensemble. Building on these ideas, we discuss a definition of black hole extremality which is appropriate to the topological character of 3 d higher spin theories. Our definition can be phrased in terms of the Jordan class of the holonomy around a non-contractible (angular) cycle, and we show that it is compatible with the zero-temperature limit of smooth black hole solutions. While this notion of extremality does not require supersymmetry, we exemplify its consequences in the context of sl(3|2) ⊕ sl(3|2) Chern-Simons theory and show that, as usual, not all extremal solutions preserve supersymmetries. Remarkably, we find in addition that the higher spin setup allows for non-extremal supersymmetric black hole solutions. Furthermore, we discuss our results from the perspective of the holographic duality between sl(3|2) ⊕ sl(3|2) Chern-Simons theory and two-dimensional CFTs with W (3|2) symmetry, the simplest higher spin extension of the N = 2 super-Virasoro algebra. In particular, we compute W (3|2) BPS bounds at the full quantum level, and relate their semiclassical limit to extremal black hole or conical defect solutions in the 3 d bulk. Along the way, we discuss the role of the spectral flow automorphism and provide a conjecture for the form of the semiclassical BPS bounds in general N = 2 two-dimensional CFTs with extended symmetry algebras.

  3. Climate Networks and Extreme Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurths, J.

    2014-12-01

    We analyse some climate dynamics from a complex network approach. This leads to an inverse problem: Is there a backbone-like structure underlying the climate system? For this we propose a method to reconstruct and analyze a complex network from data generated by a spatio-temporal dynamical system. This approach enables us to uncover relations to global circulation patterns in oceans and atmosphere. The global scale view on climate networks offers promising new perspectives for detecting dynamical structures based on nonlinear physical processes in the climate system. Moreover, we evaluate different regional climate models from this aspect. This concept is also applied to Monsoon data in order to characterize the regional occurrence of extreme rain events and its impact on predictability. Changing climatic conditions have led to a significant increase in magnitude and frequency of spatially extensive extreme rainfall events in the eastern Central Andes of South America. These events impose substantial natural hazards for population, economy, and ecology by floods and landslides. For example, heavy floods in Bolivia in early 2007 affected more than 133.000 households and produced estimated costs of 443 Mio. USD. Here, we develop a general framework to predict extreme events by combining a non-linear synchronization technique with complex networks. We apply our method to real-time satellite-derived rainfall data and are able to predict a large amount of extreme rainfall events. Our study reveals a linkage between polar and subtropical regimes as responsible mechanism: Extreme rainfall in the eastern Central Andes is caused by the interplay of northward migrating frontal systems and a low-level wind channel from the western Amazon to the subtropics, providing additional moisture. Frontal systems from the Antarctic thus play a key role for sub-seasonal variability of the South American Monsoon System.

  4. Experiments on extreme states of matter towards HIF at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, Boris; Varentsov, Dmitry

    2014-01-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe (FAIR) will provide worldwide unique accelerator and experimental facilities allowing for a large variety of unprecedented frontier research in extreme state of matter physics and applied science. Indeed, it is the largest basic research project on the roadmap of the European Strategy Forum of Research Infrastructures (ESFRI), and it is cornerstone of the European Research Area. FAIR offers to scientists from the whole world an abundance of outstanding research opportunities, broader in scope than any other contemporary large-scale facility worldwide. More than 2500 scientists are involved in setting up and exploiting the FAIR facility. They will push the frontiers of our knowledge in plasma, nuclear, atomic, hadron and applied physics far ahead, with important implications also for other fields in science such as cosmology, astro and particle physics, and technology. It includes 14 initial experiments, which form the four scientific pillars of FAIR. The main thrust of intense heavy ion and laser beam-matter interaction research focuses on the structure and evolution of extreme state of matter on both a microscopic and on a cosmic scale.

  5. Experiments on extreme states of matter towards HIF at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, Boris; Varentsov, Dmitry

    2013-11-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe (FAIR) will provide worldwide unique accelerator and experimental facilities allowing for a large variety of unprecedented frontier research in extreme state of matter physics and applied science. Indeed, it is the largest basic research project on the roadmap of the European Strategy Forum of Research Infrastructures (ESFRI), and it is cornerstone of the European Research Area. FAIR offers to scientists from the whole world an abundance of outstanding research opportunities, broader in scope than any other contemporary large-scale facility worldwide. More than 2500 scientists are involved in setting up and exploiting the FAIR facility. They will push the frontiers of our knowledge in plasma, nuclear, atomic, hadron and applied physics far ahead, with important implications also for other fields in science such as cosmology, astro and particle physics, and technology. It includes 14 initial experiments, which form the four scientific pillars of FAIR. The main thrust of intense heavy ion and laser beam-matter interaction research focuses on the structure and evolution of extreme state of matter on both a microscopic and on a cosmic scale.

  6. A Grand Vision for European Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-09-01

    Today, and for the first time, astronomers share their global Science Vision for European Astronomy in the next two decades. This two-year long effort by the ASTRONET network of funding agencies, sponsored by the European Commission and coordinated by INSU-CNRS, underscores Europe's ascension to world leadership in astronomy and its will to maintain that position. It will be followed in just over a year by a prioritised roadmap for the observational facilities needed to implement the Vision. Implementation of these plans will ensure that Europe fully contributes to Mankind's ever deeper understanding of the wonders of our Universe. astronet logo "This is a great opportunity to help create a vibrant long-term future for astronomy and science" says Tim de Zeeuw (Leiden Observatory, The Netherlands) who led this community-wide effort. The ASTRONET Science Vision provides a comprehensive overview of the most important scientific questions that European astronomy should address in the next twenty years. The four key questions are the extremes of the Universe, from the nature of the dark matter and dark energy that comprise over 95% of the Universe to the physics of extreme objects such as black holes, neutron stars, and gamma-ray bursts; the formation of galaxies from the first seeds to our Milky Way; the formation of stars and planets and the origin of life; and the crucial question of how do we (and our Solar System) fit in the global picture. These themes reach well beyond the realm of traditional astronomy into the frontiers of physics and biology. The Vision identifies the major new facilities that will be needed to achieve these goals, but also stresses the need for parallel developments in theory and numerical simulations, high-performance computing resources, efficient astronomical data archiving and the European Virtual Observatory, as well as in laboratory astrophysics. "This report is a key input for the even more challenging task of developing a prioritised

  7. Projections of extreme storm surge levels along Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vousdoukas, Michalis I.; Voukouvalas, Evangelos; Annunziato, Alessandro; Giardino, Alessio; Feyen, Luc

    2016-02-01

    Storm surges are an important coastal hazard component and it is unknown how they will evolve along Europe's coastline in view of climate change. In the present contribution, the hydrodynamic model Delft3D-Flow was forced by surface wind and atmospheric pressure fields from a 8-member climate model ensemble in order to evaluate dynamics in storm surge levels (SSL) along the European coastline (1) for the baseline period 1970-2000; and (2) during this century under the Representative Concentration Pathways RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Validation simulations, spanning from 2008 to 2014 and driven by ERA-Interim atmospheric forcing, indicated good predictive skill (0.06 m < RMSE < 0.29 m and 10 % < RMSE < 29 % for 110 tidal gauge stations across Europe). Peak-over-threshold extreme value analysis was applied to estimate SSL values for different return periods, and changes of future SSL were obtained from all models to obtain the final ensemble. Values for most scenarios and return periods indicate a projected increase in SSL at several locations along the North European coastline, which is more prominent for RCP8.5 and shows an increasing tendency towards the end of the century for both RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Projected SSL changes along the European coastal areas south of 50°N show minimal change or even a small decrease, with the exception of RCP8.5 under which a moderate increase is projected towards the end of the century. The present findings indicate that the anticipated increase in extreme total water levels due to relative sea level rise (RSLR), can be further enforced by an increase of the extreme SSL, which can exceed 30 % of the RSLR, especially for the high return periods and pathway RCP8.5. This implies that the combined effect could increase even further anticipated impacts of climate change for certain European areas and highlights the necessity for timely coastal adaptation and protection measures. The dataset is publicly available under this link: http://data.jrc.ec.europa.eu/collection/LISCOAST.

  8. European Citizenship and European Union Expansion: Perspectives on Europeanness and Citizenship Education from Britain and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Chris; Busher, Hugh; Lawson, Tony; Acun, Ismail; Goz, Nur Leman

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses some perspectives on citizenship education in Turkey and Britain in the context of current contested discourses on the nature of European identity and of the European Union (EU). It is based on data collected during an EU-funded student teacher exchange programme between three universities in Turkey and Leicester University…

  9. Moving in extreme environments: what's extreme and who decides?

    PubMed

    Cotter, James David; Tipton, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Humans work, rest and play in immensely varied extreme environments. The term 'extreme' typically refers to insufficiency or excess of one or more stressors, such as thermal energy or gravity. Individuals' behavioural and physiological capacity to endure and enjoy such environments varies immensely. Adverse effects of acute exposure to these environments are readily identifiable (e.g. heat stroke or bone fracture), whereas adverse effects of chronic exposure (e.g. stress fractures or osteoporosis) may be as important but much less discernable. Modern societies have increasingly sought to protect people from such stressors and, in that way, minimise their adverse effects. Regulations are thus established, and advice is provided on what is 'acceptable' exposure. Examples include work/rest cycles in the heat, hydration regimes, rates of ascent to and duration of stay at altitude and diving depth. While usually valuable and well intentioned, it is important to realise the breadth and importance of limitations associated with such guidelines. Regulations and advisories leave less room for self-determination, learning and perhaps adaptation. Regulations based on stress (e.g. work/rest cycles relative to WBGT) are more practical but less direct than those based on strain (e.g. core temperature), but even the latter can be substantively limited (e.g. by lack of criterion validation and allowance for behavioural regulation in the research on which they are based). Extreme Physiology & Medicine is publishing a series of reviews aimed at critically examining the issues involved with self- versus regulation-controlled human movement acutely and chronically in extreme environments. These papers, arising from a research symposium in 2013, are about the impact of people engaging in such environments and the effect of rules and guidelines on their safety, enjoyment, autonomy and productivity. The reviews will cover occupational heat stress, sporting heat stress, hydration, diving

  10. Characteristics of Extreme Summer Convection over equatorial America and Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuluaga, M. D.; Houze, R.

    2013-12-01

    Fourteen years of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) version 7 data for June-August show the temporal and spatial characteristics of extreme convection over equatorial regions of the American and African continents. We identify three types of extreme systems: storms with deep convective cores (contiguous convective 40 dBZ echoes extending ≥10 km in height), storms with wide convective cores (contiguous convective 40 dBZ echoes with areas >1,000 km2) and storms with broad stratiform regions (stratiform echo >50,000 km2). European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) reanalysis is used to describe the environmental conditions around these forms of extreme convection. Storms with deep convective cores occur mainly over land: in the equatorial Americas, maximum occurrence is in western Mexico, Northern Colombia and Venezuela; in Africa, the region of maximum occurrence is a broad zone enclosing the central and west Sudanian Savanna, south of the Sahel region. Storms with wide convective radar echoes occur in these same general locations. In the American sector, storms with broad stratiform precipitation regions (typifying robust mesoscale convective systems) occur mainly over the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean and the Colombia-Panama bight. In the African sector, storms with broad stratiform precipitation areas occur primarily over the eastern tropical Atlantic Ocean near the coast of West Africa. ECMWF reanalyses show how the regions of extreme deep convection associated with both continents are located mainly in regions affected by diurnal heating and influenced by atmospheric jets in regions with strong humidity gradients. Composite analysis of the synoptic conditions leading to the three forms of extreme convection provides insights into the forcing mechanisms in which these systems occur. These analyses show how the monsoonal flow directed towards the Andes slopes is mainly what concentrates the occurrence of extreme

  11. Europeans: an endangered species?

    PubMed

    Von Cube, A

    1986-10-01

    Below replacement fertility has become the norm in 21 of Europe's 27 countries. Their average total fertility rate is 1.69. This trend has raised concerns about insufficient numbers in the economically active population and prospective personnel shortages in the military. In the Federal Republic of Germany, fertility has been below replacement for the past 17 years and its 1985 total fertility rate of 1.28 is a record low. Only a few European countries (Bulgaria, France, and Romania) have explicitly pronatalist policies. Other nations (Belgium, Finland, Luxembourg, and the German Democratic Republic) have instituted a progressive system of child allowances, increasing payments with each additional birth. Ironically, policies that seek to promote social opportunities for women, such as participation in the labor force, are likely to reduce fertility even farther. Without increased services such as reasonably priced housing, child care centers, and economic incentives to compensate women for lost opportunity costs in the labor market, policies that seek to increase fertility will not succeed. Policy options that were once available to increase fertility (for example, prohibiting abortion) are no longer socially acceptable. New policies will have to be developed through research on the determinants of fertility behavior in postindustrial societies. PMID:12315251

  12. Method for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOEpatents

    Felter, T. E.; Kubiak, G. D.

    2000-01-01

    A method of producing a patterned array of features, in particular, gate apertures, in the size range 0.4-0.05 .mu.m using projection lithography and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. A high energy laser beam is used to vaporize a target material in order to produce a plasma which in turn, produces extreme ultraviolet radiation of a characteristic wavelength of about 13 nm for lithographic applications. The radiation is transmitted by a series of reflective mirrors to a mask which bears the pattern to be printed. The demagnified focused mask pattern is, in turn, transmitted by means of appropriate optics and in a single exposure, to a substrate coated with photoresists designed to be transparent to EUV radiation and also satisfy conventional processing methods.

  13. Method for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOEpatents

    Felter, T. E.; Kubiak, Glenn D.

    1999-01-01

    A method of producing a patterned array of features, in particular, gate apertures, in the size range 0.4-0.05 .mu.m using projection lithography and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. A high energy laser beam is used to vaporize a target material in order to produce a plasma which in turn, produces extreme ultraviolet radiation of a characteristic wavelength of about 13 nm for lithographic applications. The radiation is transmitted by a series of reflective mirrors to a mask which bears the pattern to be printed. The demagnified focused mask pattern is, in turn, transmitted by means of appropriate optics and in a single exposure, to a substrate coated with photoresists designed to be transparent to EUV radiation and also satisfy conventional processing methods.

  14. On causality of extreme events

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Multiple metrics have been developed to detect causality relations between data describing the elements constituting complex systems, all of them considering their evolution through time. Here we propose a metric able to detect causality within static data sets, by analysing how extreme events in one element correspond to the appearance of extreme events in a second one. The metric is able to detect non-linear causalities; to analyse both cross-sectional and longitudinal data sets; and to discriminate between real causalities and correlations caused by confounding factors. We validate the metric through synthetic data, dynamical and chaotic systems, and data representing the human brain activity in a cognitive task. We further show how the proposed metric is able to outperform classical causality metrics, provided non-linear relationships are present and large enough data sets are available. PMID:27330866

  15. The 2014 Silba Precipitation Extreme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasol, Dubravka; Ólafsson, Haraldur

    2015-04-01

    On 30 July 2014 a 24 h precipitation record of 218 mm was set at the island of Silba in the N-Adriatic Sea. The precipitation was of convective nature and significantly less precipitation was recorded only small distances away, at the coast of mainland Croatia. The event is reproduced numerically and discussed in terms of dynamics and predictability. On a large scale, the precipitation extreme was associated with a slow-moving upper tropospheric low that formed over the N-Atlantic several days earlier. At lower levels, there were humid mediterranean airmasses. On a smaller scale, there are indications that the extreme convection may have been triggered by an orographic disturbance.

  16. The Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welsh, Barry Y.

    1991-01-01

    The Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) is a NASA astronomy mission which will operate in the 70-760A spectral band. The science payload consists of three grazing incidence scanning telescopes and an EUV spectrometer/deep survey instrument. An overview of the planned mission profile is given, and the instrumentation which comprises the science payload is discussed. The EUVE is scheduled for launch in late August 1991.

  17. [Genes for extreme violent behaviour?].

    PubMed

    Jordan, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    A new genetic study focussing on the degree of violence in criminals and using both candidate gene and GWAS approaches finds statistically significant associations of extreme violent behaviour with low activity alleles of monoamine oxydase A (MAOA) and with the CD13 gene. However, the alleles implicated are common in the general population, thus they cannot be causal, and only represent potential indicators of increased risk. PMID:25658738

  18. Paediatric personnel extremity dose study.

    PubMed

    Gallet, J M C; Reed, M H

    2002-03-01

    Concern has been expressed in paediatric radiology regarding the magnitude of the extremity dose received by attending personnel during routine fluoroscopic procedures and CT. Common procedures that may be of short duration in adults can be quite the opposite in paediatric patients. The extremities of attending personnel are more likely to be exposed to the primary beam and for a longer period of time owing to a variety of reasons such as assisting in the procedure or physically restraining the patient during the examination. During the period mid 1998 to mid 2000, two paediatric radiologists, four senior radiographers and two paediatric nurses were monitored using ring thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs). Each participant wore the ring TLD on either the left or right ring finger, depending on which hand the individual favoured. Left/right asymmetrical studies were not conducted, nor were records kept of whether an examination used a grid or gridless technique. Initial apprehension about higher paediatric fluoroscopic and CT extremity doses was dispelled as a result of this quantitative dosimetric study. PMID:11932219

  19. Attribution of climate extreme events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenberth, Kevin E.; Fasullo, John T.; Shepherd, Theodore G.

    2015-08-01

    There is a tremendous desire to attribute causes to weather and climate events that is often challenging from a physical standpoint. Headlines attributing an event solely to either human-induced climate change or natural variability can be misleading when both are invariably in play. The conventional attribution framework struggles with dynamically driven extremes because of the small signal-to-noise ratios and often uncertain nature of the forced changes. Here, we suggest that a different framing is desirable, which asks why such extremes unfold the way they do. Specifically, we suggest that it is more useful to regard the extreme circulation regime or weather event as being largely unaffected by climate change, and question whether known changes in the climate system's thermodynamic state affected the impact of the particular event. Some examples briefly illustrated include 'snowmaggedon' in February 2010, superstorm Sandy in October 2012 and supertyphoon Haiyan in November 2013, and, in more detail, the Boulder floods of September 2013, all of which were influenced by high sea surface temperatures that had a discernible human component.

  20. Upper extremity injuries in golf.

    PubMed

    Bayes, Matthew C; Wadsworth, L Tyler

    2009-04-01

    Golf is an asymmetric sport with unique patterns of injury depending upon the skill level. Higher handicap players typically experience injuries that result from swing mechanics, whereas lower handicap and professional players have overuse as the major cause of their injuries. The majority of shoulder injuries affecting golfers occur in the nondominant shoulder. Common shoulder injuries include subacromial impingement, rotator cuff pathology, glenohumeral instability, and arthritis involving the acromioclavicular and/or glenohumeral joints. Lead arm elbow pain resulting from lateral epicondylosis (tennis elbow) is the leading upper extremity injury in amateur golfers. Tendon injury is the most common problem seen in the wrist and forearm of the golfer. Rehabilitation emphasizing improvement in core muscle streng is important in the treatment of golf injury. Emerging treatments for tendinopathy include topical nitrates, ultrasound-guided injection of therapeutic substances, and eccentric rehabilitation. There is evidence supporting physiotherapy, and swing modification directed by a teaching professional, for treatment of upper extremity golf injuries. This article focuses on upper extremity injuries in golf, including a discussion of the epidemiology, causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of injuries occurring in the shoulder, elbow, wrist, and hand. PMID:20048492

  1. Typologies of Extreme Longevity Myths

    PubMed Central

    Young, Robert D.; Desjardins, Bertrand; McLaughlin, Kirsten; Poulain, Michel; Perls, Thomas T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Political, national, religious, and other motivations have led the media and even scientists to errantly accept extreme longevity claims prima facie. We describe various causes of false claims of extraordinary longevity. Design and Methods. American Social Security Death Index files for the period 1980–2009 were queried for individuals with birth and death dates yielding ages 110+ years of age. Frequency was compared to a list of age-validated supercentenarians maintained by the Gerontology Research Group who died during the same time period. Age claims of 110+ years and the age validation experiences of the authors facilitated a list of typologies of false age claims. Results. Invalid age claim rates increase with age from 65% at age 110-111 to 98% by age 115 to 100% for 120+ years. Eleven typologies of false claims were: Religious Authority Myth, Village Elder Myth, Fountain of Youth Myth (substance), Shangri-La Myth (geographic), Nationalist Pride, Spiritual Practice, Familial Longevity, Individual and/or Family Notoriety, Military Service, Administrative Entry Error, and Pension-Social Entitlement Fraud. Conclusions. Understanding various causes of false extreme age claims is important for placing current, past, and future extreme longevity claims in context and for providing a necessary level of skepticism. PMID:21461047

  2. Global Weirding? - Using Very Large Ensembles and Extreme Value Theory to assess Changes in Extreme Weather Events Today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, F. E. L.; Mitchell, D.; Sippel, S.; Black, M. T.; Dittus, A. J.; Harrington, L. J.; Mohd Saleh, N. H.

    2014-12-01

    A shift in the distribution of socially-relevant climate variables such as daily minimum winter temperatures and daily precipitation extremes, has been attributed to anthropogenic climate change for various mid-latitude regions. However, while there are many process-based arguments suggesting also a change in the shape of these distributions, attribution studies demonstrating this have not currently been undertaken. Here we use a very large initial condition ensemble of ~40,000 members simulating the European winter 2013/2014 using the distributed computing infrastructure under the weather@home project. Two separate scenarios are used:1. current climate conditions, and 2. a counterfactual scenario of "world that might have been" without anthropogenic forcing. Specifically focusing on extreme events, we assess how the estimated parameters of the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution vary depending on variable-type, sampling frequency (daily, monthly, …) and geographical region. We find that the location parameter changes for most variables but, depending on the region and variables, we also find significant changes in scale and shape parameters. The very large ensemble allows, furthermore, to assess whether such findings in the fitted GEV distributions are consistent with an empirical analysis of the model data, and whether the most extreme data still follow a known underlying distribution that in a small sample size might otherwise be thought of as an out-lier. The ~40,000 member ensemble is simulated using 12 different SST patterns (1 'observed', and 11 best guesses of SSTs with no anthropogenic warming). The range in SSTs, along with the corresponding changings in the NAO and high-latitude blocking inform on the dynamics governing some of these extreme events. While strong tele-connection patterns are not found in this particular experiment, the high number of simulated extreme events allows for a more thorough analysis of the dynamics than has been

  3. Extreme weather events and global crop production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, D. K.; Gerber, J. S.; West, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme weather events can lead to significant loss in crop production and even trigger global price spikes. However it is still not clear where exactly and what types of extreme events have resulted in sharp declines in crop production. Neither is it clear how frequently such extreme events have resulted in extreme crop production losses. Using extreme event metrics with a newly developed high resolution and long time series of crop statistics database we identify the frequency and type of extreme event driven crop production losses globally at high resolutions. In this presentation we will present our results as global maps identifying the frequency and type of extreme weather events that resulted in extreme crop production losses and quantify the losses. Understanding how extreme events affects crop production is critical for managing risk in the global food system

  4. Outcomes for extremely premature infants.

    PubMed

    Glass, Hannah C; Costarino, Andrew T; Stayer, Stephen A; Brett, Claire M; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for 7 years and is now approximately 11.39%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23 to 24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal estimated date of confinement. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (<1000 g) remain at high risk for death and disability with 30% to 50% mortality and, in survivors, at least 20% to 50% risk of morbidity. The introduction of continuous positive airway pressure, mechanical ventilation, and exogenous surfactant increased survival and spurred the development of neonatal intensive care in the 1970s through the early 1990s. Routine administration of antenatal steroids during premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91% and 95% (compared with 85%-89%) avoids excess mortality; however, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending. The development of neonatal neurocritical intensive care units may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow-up to detect and address

  5. Prospect for extreme field science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, T.

    2009-11-01

    The kind of laser extreme light infrastructure (ELI) provides will usher in a class of experiments we have only dreamed of for years. The characteristics that ELI brings in include: the highest intensity ever, large fluence, and relatively high repetition rate. A personal view of the author on the prospect of harnessing this unprecedented opportunity for advancing science of extreme fields is presented. The first characteristic of ELI, its intensity, will allow us to access, as many have stressed already, extreme fields that hover around the Schwinger field or at the very least the neighboring fields in which vacuum begins to behave as a nonlinear medium. In this sense, we are seriously probing the “material” property of vacuum and thus the property that theory of relativity itself described and will entail. We will probe both special theory and general theory of relativity in regimes that have been never tested so far. We may see a glimpse into the reach of relativity or even its breakdown in some extreme regimes. We will learn Einstein and may even go beyond Einstein, if our journey is led. Laser-driven acceleration both by the laser field itself and by the wakefield that is triggered in a plasma is huge. Energies, if not luminosity, we can access, may be unprecedented going far beyond TeV. The nice thing about ELI is that it has relatively high repetition rate and average fluence as compared with other extreme lasers. This high fluence can be a key element that leads to applications to high energy physics, such as gamma-gamma collider driver experiment, and some gamma ray experiments that may be relevant in the frontier of photo-nuclear physics, and atomic energy applications. Needless to say, high fluence is one of most important features that industrial and medical applications may need. If we are lucky, we may see a door opens at the frontier of novel physics that may not be available by any other means. Finally, as the last lecture of this workshop the

  6. Advanced Instrumentation for Extreme Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Melin, Alexander M; Kisner, Roger; Fugate, David L

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) is pursuing embedded instrumentation and controls (I&C) technology for next generation nuclear power generation applications. Embedded systems encompass a wide range of configurations and technologies; we define embedding in this instance as the integration of the sensors and the control system design into the component design using a systems engineering process. Embedded I&C systems are often an essential part of developing new capabilities, improving reliability, enhancing performance, and reducing operational costs. The new intrinsically safe, more efficient, and cost effective reactor technologies (Next Generation Nuclear Plant and Small Modular Reactors) require the development and application of new I&C technologies. These new designs raise extreme environmental challenges such as high temperatures (over 700 C) and material compatibility (e.g., molten salts). The desired reliability and functionality requires measurements in these extreme conditions including high radiation environments which were not previously monitored in real time. The DOE/NE Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) program currently has several projects investigating I&C technologies necessary to make these reactor designs realizable. The project described in this paper has the specific goal of investigating embedded I&C with the following objectives: 1.Explore and quantify the potential gains from embedded I&C improved reliability, increased performance, and reduced cost 2.Identify practical control, sensing, and measurement techniques for the extreme environments found in high-temperature reactors 3.Design and fabricate a functional prototype high-temperature cooling pump for molten salts represents target demonstration of improved performance, reliability, and widespread usage There are many engineering challenges in the design of a high-temperature liquid salt cooling pump. The pump and motor are in direct contact with

  7. North Atlantic Ocean drivers of the 2015 European heat wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchez, Aurélie; Frajka-Williams, Eleanor; Josey, Simon A.; Hirschi, Joël; Evans, Gwyn

    2016-04-01

    Major European heat waves have occurred on several occasions in the past two decades, including the summer of 2015, with dramatic socioeconomic impacts and in a globally warming world, heat waves are expected to become longer, more frequent and more intense. Nevertheless, our understanding of heat wave causes remains at a basic level, limiting the usefulness of event prediction. We show that 2015 was the most extreme heat wave in central Europe in the past 35 years. We find that the heat wave was preceded by cold mid-latitude North Atlantic Ocean surface temperatures, which contributed to its development. In order to explain the genesis of the cold ocean anomaly, we consider surface heat loss, ocean heat content and wind driven upwelling. The anomaly is primarily due to extreme ocean heat loss in the preceding two winters and re-emergent cold ocean water masses. Further analysis indicates that this ocean anomaly was a driver for the 2015 heat wave as it favoured a stationary position of the Jet Stream, which steered Atlantic cyclones away from central Europe towards northern Europe. The cold Atlantic anomaly was also present during the most devastating European heat waves since the 1980s indicating that it is a common factor in the development of these extreme events.

  8. Moving in extreme environments: extreme loading; carriage versus distance.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Samuel J E; Helge, Jørn W; Schütz, Uwe H W; Goldman, Ralph F; Cotter, James D

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses human capacity for movement in the context of extreme loading and with it the combined effects of metabolic, biomechanical and gravitational stress on the human body. This topic encompasses extreme duration, as occurs in ultra-endurance competitions (e.g. adventure racing and transcontinental races) and expeditions (e.g. polar crossings), to the more gravitationally limited load carriage (e.g. in the military context). Juxtaposed to these circumstances is the extreme metabolic and mechanical unloading associated with space travel, prolonged bedrest and sedentary lifestyle, which may be at least as problematic, and are therefore included as a reference, e.g. when considering exposure, dangers and (mal)adaptations. As per the other reviews in this series, we describe the nature of the stress and the associated consequences; illustrate relevant regulations, including why and how they are set; present the pros and cons for self versus prescribed acute and chronic exposure; describe humans' (mal)adaptations; and finally suggest future directions for practice and research. In summary, we describe adaptation patterns that are often U or J shaped and that over time minimal or no load carriage decreases the global load carrying capacity and eventually leads to severe adverse effects and manifest disease under minimal absolute but high relative loads. We advocate that further understanding of load carrying capacity and the inherent mechanisms leading to adverse effects may advantageously be studied in this perspective. With improved access to insightful and portable technologies, there are some exciting possibilities to explore these questions in this context. PMID:27110357

  9. European Neutron Activation System.

    2013-01-11

    Version 03 EASY-2010 (European Activation System) consists of a wide range of codes, data and documentation all aimed at satisfying the objective of calculating the response of materials irradiated in a neutron flux. The main difference from the previous version is the upper energy limit, which has increased from 20 to 60 MeV. It is designed to investigate both fusion devices and accelerator based materials test facilities that will act as intense sources of high-energymore » neutrons causing significant activation of the surrounding materials. The very general nature of the calculational method and the data libraries means that it is applicable (with some reservations) to all situations (e.g. fission reactors or neutron sources) where materials are exposed to neutrons below 60 MeV. EASY can be divided into two parts: data and code development tools and user tools and data. The former are required to develop the latter, but EASY users only need to be able to use the inventory code FISPACT and be aware of the contents of the EAF library (the data source). The complete EASY package contains the FISPACT-2007 inventory code, the EAF-2003, EAF-2005, EAF-2007 and EAF-2010 libraries, and the EASY User Interface for the Window version. The activation package EASY-2010 is the result of significant development to extend the upper energy range from 20 to 60 MeV so that it is capable of being used for IFMIF calculations. The EAF-2010 library contains 66,256 reactions, almost five times more than in EAF-2003 (12,617). Deuteron-induced and proton-induced cross section libraries are also included, and can be used with EASY to enable calculations of the activation due to deuterons and proton [2].« less

  10. European MEMS foundries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomon, Patric R.

    2003-01-01

    According to the latest release of the NEXUS market study, the market for MEMS or Microsystems Technology (MST) is predicted to grow to $68B by the year 2005, with systems containing these components generating even higher revenues and growth. The latest advances in MST/MEMS technology have enabled the design of a new generation of microsystems that are smaller, cheaper, more reliable, and consume less power. These integrated systems bring together numerous analog/mixed signal microelectronics blocks and MEMS functions on a single chip or on two or more chips assembled within an integrated package. In spite of all these advances in technology and manufacturing, a system manufacturer either faces a substantial up-front R&D investment to create his own infrastructure and expertise, or he can use design and foundry services to get the initial product into the marketplace fast and with an affordable investment. Once he has a viable product, he can still think about his own manufacturing efforts and investments to obtain an optimized high volume manufacturing for the specific product. One of the barriers to successful exploitation of MEMS/MST technology has been the lack of access to industrial foundries capable of producing certified microsystems devices in commercial quantities, including packaging and test. This paper discusses Multi-project wafer (MPW) runs, requirements for foundries and gives some examples of foundry business models. Furthermore, this paper will give an overview on MST/MEMS services that are available in Europe, including pure commercial activities, European project activities (e.g. Europractice), and some academic services.

  11. Final report of coordination and cooperation with the European Union on embankment failure analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There has been an emphasis in the European Union (EU) community on the investigation of extreme flood processes and the uncertainties related to these processes. Over a 3-year period, the EU and the U.S. dam safety community (1) coordinated their efforts and collected information needed to integrate...

  12. [French European military haemovigilance guidelines].

    PubMed

    Sailliol, A; Clavier, B; Cap, A; Ausset, S

    2010-12-01

    European military transfusion services follow operational guidelines established by their respective national health systems and conform with European Union directives and NATO standards as applicable to member countries. Certain features are common to all of these standards, especially the pre-selection of volunteer, almost exclusively unpaid donors. NATO requirements are very close to European guidelines, with the exception that NATO permits the use of blood products collected in emergency conditions in theater when circumstances allow no better option. Blood product traceability exists for every country but is not always centralized or computerized. Serious adverse event reporting relies on national haemovigilance networks. Military considerations become important mainly in overseas operations, where the overall policy is to implement the relevant national, European or NATO guidelines with adjustments made for unique wartime circumstances and the risk/benefit ratio for the individual patient needing a transfusion. PMID:21051263

  13. Diurnal wind variability under heatwaves and extreme drought periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Pedro A.; Vilöguerau de Arellano, Jordi; Fidel González-Rouco, J.; Navarro, Jorge; Montávez, Juan P.; García-Bustamante, Elena; Dudhia, Jimy

    2010-05-01

    Extreme weather situations produce strong impacts on society, infrastructures and ecosystems. The drought and heatwave that affected Europe in the summer of 2003 produced enormous socioeconomic implications. The anticyclonic conditions and a deficit of soil moisture availability led to the extremely high surface air temperatures registered. Several studies have shown that the characteristics of the 2003 European summer will be more frequent, more intense and longer lasting in the future. Therefore, determining atmospheric flow patterns during the heat wave and drought of 2003 is necessary in order to assess potential modifications in the circulations due to associated warmer and drier conditions. However, the effects that the extreme weather situation of the summer of 2003 produced on the surface wind have received little attention. In this work, we examine changes in the wind field due to the heatwave and drought conditions that occurred in Europe during the summer of 2003. Our analysis, based on observations and high resolution mesoscale modelling, shows a 22 % decrease in the wind diurnal cycle for summer 2003 values compared to a climatological series based on the period from 1992-2004. We discuss the wind diurnal variability in terms of the synoptic scale atmospheric conditions, and of the mesoscale and boundary layer dynamic contribution influenced by the lower values in the soil moisture. The results suggest the synoptic conditions as the main reason of the wind field change and that these are modulated by the moisture conditions of the soil.

  14. Synoptic and meteorological drivers of extreme ozone concentrations over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, N.; Sillmann, J.; Schnell, J. L.; Rust, H. W.; Butler, T.

    2016-02-01

    The present work assesses the relationship between local and synoptic meteorological conditions and surface ozone concentration over Europe in spring and summer months, during the period 1998-2012 using a new interpolated data set of observed surface ozone concentrations over the European domain. Along with local meteorological conditions, the influence of large-scale atmospheric circulation on surface ozone is addressed through a set of airflow indices computed with a novel implementation of a grid-by-grid weather type classification across Europe. Drivers of surface ozone over the full distribution of maximum daily 8 h average values are investigated, along with drivers of the extreme high percentiles and exceedances or air quality guideline thresholds. Three different regression techniques are applied: multiple linear regression to assess the drivers of maximum daily ozone, logistic regression to assess the probability of threshold exceedances and quantile regression to estimate the meteorological influence on extreme values, as represented by the 95th percentile. The relative importance of the input parameters (predictors) is assessed by a backward stepwise regression procedure that allows the identification of the most important predictors in each model. Spatial patterns of model performance exhibit distinct variations between regions. The inclusion of the ozone persistence is particularly relevant over southern Europe. In general, the best model performance is found over central Europe, where the maximum temperature plays an important role as a driver of maximum daily ozone as well as its extreme values, especially during warmer months.

  15. Synoptic and meteorological drivers of extreme ozone concentrations over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, Noelia Felipe; Sillmann, Jana; Schnell, Jordan L.; Rust, Henning W.; Butler, Tim

    2016-04-01

    The present work assesses the relationship between local and synoptic meteorological conditions and surface ozone concentration over Europe in spring and summer months, during the period 1998-2012 using a new interpolated data set of observed surface ozone concentrations over the European domain. Along with local meteorological conditions, the influence of large-scale atmospheric circulation on surface ozone is addressed through a set of airflow indices computed with a novel implementation of a grid-by-grid weather type classification across Europe. Drivers of surface ozone over the full distribution of maximum daily 8-hour average values are investigated, along with drivers of the extreme high percentiles and exceedances or air quality guideline thresholds. Three different regression techniques are applied: multiple linear regression to assess the drivers of maximum daily ozone, logistic regression to assess the probability of threshold exceedances and quantile regression to estimate the meteorological influence on extreme values, as represented by the 95th percentile. The relative importance of the input parameters (predictors) is assessed by a backward stepwise regression procedure that allows the identification of the most important predictors in each model. Spatial patterns of model performance exhibit distinct variations between regions. The inclusion of the ozone persistence is particularly relevant over Southern Europe. In general, the best model performance is found over Central Europe, where the maximum temperature plays an important role as a driver of maximum daily ozone as well as its extreme values, especially during warmer months.

  16. [European general practice research agenda].

    PubMed

    Mäntyselkä, Pekka; Koskela, Tuomas

    2014-01-01

    The EGPRN (European General Practice Research Network) research agenda is a review compiling the strengths and areas of development of European general practice, based on a systematic literature survey and its versatile analysis. The research agenda is a framework paper sharpening the definition and functions of general practice as well as its significance for researchers and decisionmakers. The agenda is useful in structuring the research, evaluation of research needs, strengthening of infrastructure and strategic planning of new research. PMID:24961062

  17. Climate Extreme Events over Northern Eurasia in Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulygina, O.; Korshunova, N. N.; Razuvaev, V. N.; Groisman, P. Y.

    2014-12-01

    spring and autumn. Reducing the number of days with extremely low air temperatures dominated in all seasons. At the same time, the number of days with abnormally low air temperatures has increased in Middle Volga region and south of Western Siberia. In most parts of European Russia observed increase in the number of days with heavy snowfalls.

  18. Spatio-temporal dynamics and synoptic characteristics of wet and drought extremes in Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utkuzova, Dilyara; Khan, Valentina

    2015-04-01

    Synoptical-statistical analysis has been conducted using SPI index calculated for 478 stations with records from 1966 through 2013. Different parameters of SPI frequency distribution and long-term tendencies were calculated as well as spatial characteristics indicating drought and wetness propagation. Results of analysis demonstrate that during last years there is a tendency of increasing of the intensity of draught and wetness extremes over Russia. There are fewer droughts in the northern regions. The drought propagation for the European territory of Russia is decreasing in June and August, and increasing in July. The situation is opposite for the wetness tendencies. For the Asian territory of Russia, the drought propagation is significantly increasing in July along with decreasing wetness trend. Synoptic conditions favorable for the formation of wet and drought extremes were identified by comparing synoptic charts with the spatial patterns of SPI. For synoptic analysis, episodes of extremely wet (6 episodes for the APR and 7 episodes for the EPR) and drought (6 episodes for the APR and 6 for the EPR) events were classified using A. Katz' typology of weather regimes. For European part of Russia, extreme DROUGHT events are linked to the weather type named "MIXED", for Asian part of Russia - the type "CENTRAL". For European part of Russia, extreme WET events associated with "CENTRAL" type. There is a displacement of the planetary frontal zone into southward direction approximately for 5-25 degrees relatively to normal climatological position during WET extreme events linked to «EASTERN» classification type. Intercomparison of SPI calculated on the base of NOAA NCEP CPC CAMS for the same period and with the resolution 0,5 degree, month precipitation data, Era-Interim Daily fields archive for the period 1979-2014 with the resolution 0,5 degree reanalysis and observational precipitation data was done. The results of comparative analysis has been discussed.

  19. EDITORIAL: The 15th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics The 15th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozic, Mirjana; Man'ko, Margarita; Arsenovic, Dusan

    2009-07-01

    The development of quantum optics was part and parcel of the formation of modern physics following the fundamental work of Max Planck and Albert Einstein, which gave rise to quantum mechanics. The possibility of working with pure quantum objects, like single atoms and single photons, has turned quantum optics into the main tool for testing the fundamentals of quantum physics. Thus, despite a long history, quantum optics nowadays remains an extremely important branch of physics. It represents a natural base for the development of advanced technologies, like quantum information processing and quantum computing. Previous Central European Workshops on Quantum Optics (CEWQO) took place in Palermo (2007), Vienna (2006), Ankara (2005), Trieste (2004), Rostock (2003), Szeged (2002), Prague (2001), Balatonfüred (2000), Olomouc (1999), Prague (1997), Budmerice (1995, 1996), Budapest (1994) and Bratislava (1993). Those meetings offered excellent opportunities for the exchange of knowledge and ideas between leading scientists and young researchers in quantum optics, foundations of quantum mechanics, cavity quantum electrodynamics, photonics, atom optics, condensed matter optics, and quantum informatics, etc. The collaborative spirit and tradition of CEWQO were a great inspiration and help to the Institute of Physics, Belgrade, and the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, as the organizers of CEWQO 2008. The 16th CEWQO will take place in 2009 in Turku, Finland, and the 17th CEWQO will be organized in 2010 in St Andrews, United Kingdom. The 15th CEWQO was organized under the auspices and support of the Ministry of Science of the Republic of Serbia, the Serbian Physical Society, the European Physical Society with sponsorship from the University of Belgrade, the Central European Initiative, the FP6 Program of the European Commission under INCO project QUPOM No 026322, the FP7 Program of the European Commission under project NANOCHARM, Europhysics Letters (EPL), The European

  20. Gravity and Extreme Magnetism SMEX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism SMEX mission will be the first mission to catalogue the X-ray polarisation of many astrophysical objects including black-holes and pulsars. This first of its kind mission is enabled by the novel use of a time projection chamber as an X-ray polarimeter. The detector has been developed over the last 5 years, with the current effort charged toward a demonstration of it's technical readiness to be at level 6 prior to the preliminary design review. This talk will describe the design GEMS polarimeter and the results to date from the engineering test unit.

  1. Materials Response under extreme conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Remington, B A; Lorenz, K T; Pollaine, S; McNaney, J M

    2005-10-06

    Solid state experiments at extreme pressures, 10-100 GPa (0.1-1 Mbar) and strain rates (10{sup 6}-10{sup 8} s{sup -1}) are being developed on high-energy laser facilities. The goal is an experimental capability to test constitutive models for high-pressure, solid-state strength for a variety of materials. Relevant constitutive models are discussed, and our progress in developing a quasi-isentropic, ramped-pressure, shockless drive is given. Designs to test the constitutive models with experiments measuring perturbation growth due to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in solid-state samples are presented.

  2. Communication path for extreme environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Charles C. (Inventor); Betts, Bradley J. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Methods and systems for using one or more radio frequency identification devices (RFIDs), or other suitable signal transmitters and/or receivers, to provide a sensor information communication path, to provide location and/or spatial orientation information for an emergency service worker (ESW), to provide an ESW escape route, to indicate a direction from an ESW to an ES appliance, to provide updated information on a region or structure that presents an extreme environment (fire, hazardous fluid leak, underwater, nuclear, etc.) in which an ESW works, and to provide accumulated thermal load or thermal breakdown information on one or more locations in the region.

  3. Extreme Events: The Indian Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murty, K. S.

    2008-05-01

    The geographical situation of India is such that it experiences varied types of climate in different parts of the country and invariably the natural events, extreme and normal, would affect such areas that are prone to them. Cyclones hit the eastern coast, while floods affect mostly northern India, while earthquakes hit any part of the country, particuarly when itbecame evident after the 1967 earthquake of Koyna that the peninsular part toois prone to seismic events. The National Commission on Floods estimated that nearly 40 millionn hectares of land is prone to flooding, which could rise to60 million soon. The cropped area thus affected annually is about 10 millionhectares. On an average 1500 lives are lost during floods annually, while the damage to property could run into billions of dollars. The total loss on account of floods damage to crops is estimated at about Rs 53,000 crores(crore= 100 lakhs), during the period 1953-1998. The other extreme natural event is drought which affects large parts of the country, except the northeast. Both floods and droughts can hit different parts of the country during the same period. The 2001 earthquake that hit Gujarat is perhaps the severest and studies on that event are still in progress. The 2004 tsunami which hit large parts of southeast Asia did not spare India. Its southern coast was battered and many lives were lost. In fact some geogrphic landmarks were lost, while some of the cities have suffered a shift in their position. It was estimated that about 1.2 billion dollars were required ro meet the rehabilitation and relief measures. The seismic zone map of India thus had to be revised more often than before. Apart from these, extreme rainfall has also caused floods in urban areas as in Mumbai in 2005, but this was mostly because of lack of proper drainage system and the existing system proved ineffective. Human hand in such cases is evident. There are systems working to forecast floods, cyclones, and droughts, though

  4. Extreme Geomagnetic Storms - 1868 - 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vennerstrom, S.; Lefevre, L.; Dumbović, M.; Crosby, N.; Malandraki, O.; Patsou, I.; Clette, F.; Veronig, A.; Vršnak, B.; Leer, K.; Moretto, T.

    2016-05-01

    We present the first large statistical study of extreme geomagnetic storms based on historical data from the time period 1868 - 2010. This article is the first of two companion papers. Here we describe how the storms were selected and focus on their near-Earth characteristics. The second article presents our investigation of the corresponding solar events and their characteristics. The storms were selected based on their intensity in the aa index, which constitutes the longest existing continuous series of geomagnetic activity. They are analyzed statistically in the context of more well-known geomagnetic indices, such as the Kp and Dcx/Dst index. This reveals that neither Kp nor Dcx/Dst provide a comprehensive geomagnetic measure of the extreme storms. We rank the storms by including long series of single magnetic observatory data. The top storms on the rank list are the New York Railroad storm occurring in May 1921 and the Quebec storm from March 1989. We identify key characteristics of the storms by combining several different available data sources, lists of storm sudden commencements (SSCs) signifying occurrence of interplanetary shocks, solar wind in-situ measurements, neutron monitor data, and associated identifications of Forbush decreases as well as satellite measurements of energetic proton fluxes in the near-Earth space environment. From this we find, among other results, that the extreme storms are very strongly correlated with the occurrence of interplanetary shocks (91 - 100 %), Forbush decreases (100 %), and energetic solar proton events (70 %). A quantitative comparison of these associations relative to less intense storms is also presented. Most notably, we find that most often the extreme storms are characterized by a complexity that is associated with multiple, often interacting, solar wind disturbances and that they frequently occur when the geomagnetic activity is already elevated. We also investigate the semiannual variation in storm occurrence

  5. Will extreme climatic events facilitate biological invasions?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extreme climatic events, such as intense heat waves, hurricanes, floods and droughts, can dramatically affect ecological and evolutionary processes, and more extreme events are projected with ongoing climate change. However, the implications of these events for biological invasions, which themselves...

  6. The Extremes of Quasar Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Variability is one of the key observational properties of quasars, and it can be used as a probe of their fueling, physics, and evolution. A new generation of synoptic sky surveys, in combination with the novel data analytics tools, offers unprecedented data sets for the studies of quasars in the time domain. I will illustrate this with examples from the Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey (CRTS), which has an open and growing archive of 500 million light curves, including 350,000 spectroscopically confirmed quasars, with the time baselines ranging from 10 minutes to 10 years. I will discuss a new approach to discover quasars using a combination of variability and mid-IR colors from WISE, which results in a catalog of over a million quasar candidates. I will then discuss quasars with extreme, anomolous light curves, including quasars that have gone through extreme brightening events over the past decade with concordant large changes in their spectroscopic properties. I will also discuss a small subset of quasars with periodic light curves which we interpret as a signature of close (milliparsec scale) supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries.

  7. Medical homicide and extreme negligence.

    PubMed

    Duncanson, Emily; Richards, Virginia; Luce, Kasey M; Gill, James R

    2009-03-01

    Deaths that occur during medical care for the treatment of a disease are rarely certified as homicides. Some "medical" deaths, however, have been criminally prosecuted for manslaughter, reckless endangerment, or reckless homicide. We describe 5 deaths due to medical complications that underwent criminal prosecution. Three of the deaths were certified as homicides. Deaths certified as homicides due to the actions (or inactions) of a caregiver occur in 3 circumstances. The first is when the medical caregiver intentionally causes the death of the patient. The second is a death due to treatment by an unlicensed fraud or quack. The final circumstance is due to extreme medical negligence that involves a gross and wanton disregard for the well-being of the patient and is the most controversial in the medical community. The law defines reckless endangerment as the conscious disregard of a known substantial likelihood of injury to the patient. Criminal neglect typically is defined as the failure to provide timely, safe, adequate, and appropriate services, treatment, and/or care to a patient. In instances of extreme medical negligence, a homicide manner of death is appropriate because the fatality is due to the criminal acts (or inactions) of another. It also furthers one of the major goals of the medicolegal death investigation system, which is to safeguard the public health. PMID:19237847

  8. Dome cities for extreme environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Raymond S.; Schwartz, Milton

    1992-01-01

    Extreme environments whether they be the frigid nights of the polar regions, the burning sands of the desert, or the harsh environment of space pose interesting challenges to the architect, the engineer, and the constructor in their efforts to create habitats for mankind. In space, the goals are to provide radiation protection while also providing an aesthetic living environment for long duration missions. Because of the need to provide both radiation protection and options for expansion of base facilities, a unique structural system which separates the radiation protection systems from the pressure envelope of the habitats was created. The system uses cable networks in a tensioned structural system, which supports the lunar regolith used for shielding above the facilities. The system is modular, easily expandable, and simple to construct. Additional innovations include the use of rock melting perpetrators for piles and anchoring deadmen, and various sized craters to provide side shielding. The reflective properties of the fabric used in the membrane are utilized to provide diffuse illumination. The use of craters along with the suspended shielding allows the dome to be utilized in fashions similar to those proposed by various designers unaware of the Moon's hostile radiation environment. Additional topics addressed deal with construction techniques for large domes, i.e., on the order of 100's to 1000's of meters, thermal control, the integration of tertiary water treatment schemes with architectural design, human factors, and its implications for the design of habitats for long term use in extreme environments.

  9. Dome cities for extreme environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Raymond S.; Schwartz, Milton

    Extreme environments whether they be the frigid nights of the polar regions, the burning sands of the desert, or the harsh environment of space pose interesting challenges to the architect, the engineer, and the constructor in their efforts to create habitats for mankind. In space, the goals are to provide radiation protection while also providing an aesthetic living environment for long duration missions. Because of the need to provide both radiation protection and options for expansion of base facilities, a unique structural system which separates the radiation protection systems from the pressure envelope of the habitats was created. The system uses cable networks in a tensioned structural system, which supports the lunar regolith used for shielding above the facilities. The system is modular, easily expandable, and simple to construct. Additional innovations include the use of rock melting perpetrators for piles and anchoring deadmen, and various sized craters to provide side shielding. The reflective properties of the fabric used in the membrane are utilized to provide diffuse illumination. The use of craters along with the suspended shielding allows the dome to be utilized in fashions similar to those proposed by various designers unaware of the Moon's hostile radiation environment. Additional topics addressed deal with construction techniques for large domes, i.e., on the order of 100's to 1000's of meters, thermal control, the integration of tertiary water treatment schemes with architectural design, human factors, and its implications for the design of habitats for long term use in extreme environments.

  10. Extreme Low Aspect Ratio Stellarators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroz, Paul

    1997-11-01

    Recently proposed Spherical Stellarator (SS) concept [1] includes the devices with stellarator features and low aspect ratio, A <= 3.5, which is very unusual for stellarators (typical stellarators have A ≈ 7-10 or above). Strong bootstrap current and high-β equilibria are two distinguished elements of the SS concept leading to compact, steady-state, and efficient fusion reactor. Different coil configurations advantageous for the SS have been identified and analyzed [1-6]. In this report, we will present results on novel stellarator configurations which are unusual even for the SS approach. These are the extreme-low-aspect-ratio-stellarators (ELARS), with the aspect ratio A ≈ 1. We succeeded in finding ELARS configurations with extremely compact, modular, and simple design compatible with significant rotational transform (ι ≈ 0.1 - 0.15), large plasma volume, and good particle transport characteristics. [1] P.E. Moroz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 651 (1996); [2] P.E. Moroz, Phys. Plasmas 3, 3055 (1996); [3] P.E. Moroz, D.B. Batchelor et al., Fusion Tech. 30, 1347 (1996); [4] P.E. Moroz, Stellarator News 48, 2 (1996); [5] P.E. Moroz, Plasma Phys. Reports 23, 502 (1997); [6] P.E. Moroz, Nucl. Fusion 37, No. 8 (1997). *Supported by DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-97ER54395.

  11. Atlantic Ocean forcing of North American and European summer climate.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Rowan T; Hodson, Daniel L R

    2005-07-01

    Recent extreme events such as the devastating 2003 European summer heat wave raise important questions about the possible causes of any underlying trends, or low-frequency variations, in regional climates. Here, we present new evidence that basin-scale changes in the Atlantic Ocean, probably related to the thermohaline circulation, have been an important driver of multidecadal variations in the summertime climate of both North America and western Europe. Our findings advance understanding of past climate changes and also have implications for decadal climate predictions. PMID:15994552

  12. Min and Max Extreme Interval Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jance, Marsha L.; Thomopoulos, Nick T.

    2011-01-01

    The paper shows how to find the min and max extreme interval values for the exponential and triangular distributions from the min and max uniform extreme interval values. Tables are provided to show the min and max extreme interval values for the uniform, exponential, and triangular distributions for different probabilities and observation sizes.

  13. Representing ozone extremes in European megacities: the importance of resolution in a global chemistry climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, Z. S.; Russo, M. R.; Pyle, J. A.

    2014-04-01

    The continuing growth of the world's urban population has led to an increasing number of cities with more than 10 million inhabitants. The higher emissions of pollutants, coupled to higher population density, makes predictions of air quality in these megacities of particular importance from both a science and a policy perspective. Global climate models are typically run at coarse resolution to enable both the efficient running of long time integrations, and the ability to run multiple future climate scenarios. However, when considering surface ozone concentrations at the local scale, coarse resolution can lead to inaccuracies arising from the highly nonlinear ozone chemistry and the sensitivity of ozone to the distribution of its precursors on smaller scales. In this study, we use UM-UKCA, a global atmospheric chemistry model, coupled to the UK Met Office Unified Model, to investigate the impact of model resolution on tropospheric ozone, ranging from global to local scales. We focus on the model's ability to represent the probability of high ozone concentrations in the summer and low ozone concentrations, associated with polluted megacity environments, in the winter, and how this varies with horizontal resolution. We perform time-slice integrations with two model configurations at typical climate resolution (CR, ~150 km) and at a higher resolution (HR, ~40 km). The CR configuration leads to overestimation of ozone concentrations on both regional and local scales, while it gives broadly similar results to the HR configuration on the global scale. The HR configuration is found to produce a more realistic diurnal cycle of ozone concentrations and to give a better representation of the probability density function of ozone values in urban areas such as the megacities of London and Paris. We find the observed differences in model behaviour between CR and HR configurations to be largely caused by chemical differences during the winter and meteorological differences during the summer.

  14. Representing ozone extremes in European megacities: the importance of resolution in a global chemistry climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, Z. S.; Russo, M. R.; Pyle, J. A.

    2013-10-01

    The continuing growth of the world's urban population has led to an increasing number of cities with more than 10 million inhabitants. The higher emissions of pollutants, coupled to higher population density, makes predictions of air quality in these megacities of particular importance from both a science and a policy perspective. Global climate models are typically run at coarse resolution to enable both the efficient running of long time integrations, and the ability to run multiple future climate scenarios. However, when considering surface ozone concentrations at the local scale, coarse resolution can lead to inaccuracies arising from the highly non-linear ozone chemistry and the sensitivity of ozone to the distribution of its precursors on smaller scales. In this study, we use UM-UKCA, a global atmospheric chemistry model, coupled to the UK Met Office Unified Model, to investigate the impact of model resolution on tropospheric ozone, ranging from global to local scales. We focus on the model's ability to represent the probability of high ozone concentrations in the summer and low ozone concentrations, associated with polluted megacity environments, in the winter, and how this varies with horizontal resolution. We perform time-slice integrations with two model configurations at typical climate resolution (CR, ~150 km) and at a higher resolution (HR, ~40 km). The CR configuration leads to overestimation of ozone concentrations on both regional and local scales, while it gives broadly similar results to the HR configuration on the global scale. The HR configuration is found to produce a more realistic diurnal cycle of ozone concentrations and to give a better representation of the probability density function of ozone values in urban areas such as the megacities of London and Paris. We discuss the possible causes for the observed difference in model behaviour between CR and HR configurations and estimate the relative contribution of chemical and meteorological factors at the different scales.

  15. Modelling the multi-conjugate adaptive optics system of the European Extremely Large Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, L.; Arcidiacono, C.; Bregoli, G.; Diolaiti, E.; Butler, R. C.; Foppiani, I.; Lombini, M.; Patti, M.; Ciliegi, P.

    MAORY is the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Module for the E-ELT. The baseline design assumes six sodium Laser Guide Stars and three Natural Guide Stars for wavefront sensing. Three deformable mirrors, including the telescope adaptive mirror M4, are optically conjugated to different altitudes in the atmosphere to achieve compensation of the atmospheric turbulence effects over an extended Field of View. In preparation for the project phase-B we are analyzing different critical aspects of such a system. We are developing a versatile and modular end-to-end simulation code that makes use of GPUs to obtain high-fidelity modelling of the system performance and, in parallel, a semplified code for the analysis of the effects induced by the temporal variation of the sodium layer where the artificial laser guide stars are generated. An overview of the work in progress will be given.

  16. Extreme warm temperatures alter forest phenology and productivity in Europe.

    PubMed

    Crabbe, Richard A; Dash, Jadu; Rodriguez-Galiano, Victor F; Janous, Dalibor; Pavelka, Marian; Marek, Michal V

    2016-09-01

    Recent climate warming has shifted the timing of spring and autumn vegetation phenological events in the temperate and boreal forest ecosystems of Europe. In many areas spring phenological events start earlier and autumn events switch between earlier and later onset. Consequently, the length of growing season in mid and high latitudes of European forest is extended. However, the lagged effects (i.e. the impact of a warm spring or autumn on the subsequent phenological events) on vegetation phenology and productivity are less explored. In this study, we have (1) characterised extreme warm spring and extreme warm autumn events in Europe during 2003-2011, and (2) investigated if direct impact on forest phenology and productivity due to a specific warm event translated to a lagged effect in subsequent phenological events. We found that warmer events in spring occurred extensively in high latitude Europe producing a significant earlier onset of greening (OG) in broadleaf deciduous forest (BLDF) and mixed forest (MF). However, this earlier OG did not show any significant lagged effects on autumnal senescence. Needleleaf evergreen forest (NLEF), BLDF and MF showed a significantly delayed end of senescence (EOS) as a result of extreme warm autumn events; and in the following year's spring phenological events, OG started significantly earlier. Extreme warm spring events directly led to significant (p=0.0189) increases in the productivity of BLDF. In order to have a complete understanding of ecosystems response to warm temperature during key phenological events, particularly autumn events, the lagged effect on the next growing season should be considered. PMID:27152990

  17. Skeletal fluorosis in immobilized extremities.

    PubMed

    Rosenquist, J B

    1975-11-01

    The effect of immobilization on skeletal fluorosis was studied in growing rabbits. One hind leg was immobilized by an external fixation device extending below the wrist joint and above the knee joint, the extremity being in a straight position after severance of the sciatic nerve. The animals, aged 7 weeks at the beginning of the experiment, were given 10 mg of fluoride per kg body weight and day during 12 weeks. In the tibiae, development of the skeletal fluorosis was more irregular than that observed in previous studies of normally active animals, being most excessive in the mobile bone. The immobilization effect was most profound in the femora as the cortical thickness and the femur score were significantly higher than those in the mobile femora. It was suggested that an altered muscular activity was the reason for the observed changes. PMID:1189918

  18. Carbon tetrachloride under extreme conditions.

    PubMed

    Pravica, Michael; Sneed, Daniel; Wang, Yonggang; Smith, Quinlan; Subrahmanyam, Garimella

    2014-05-21

    We report on three experiments on carbon tetrachloride subjected to extreme conditions. In the first experiment, Raman spectra of CCl4 were acquired up to 28 GPa. Evidence was observed for at least two new phases of CCl4 above 14 GPa (phase VI) and above 22 GPa (phase VII). Decompression of the sample showed no evidence of pressure-induced decomposition. In the second experiment, a synchrotron x-ray diffraction study was performed up to 30 GPa verifying phase V and potential phases above 14 (VI) and 22 GPa (VII), respectively. In the third study, we examined irradiated CCl4 using synchrotron infrared spectroscopy to reduce fluorescent contamination. Some sort of carbon allotrope appears as a byproduct suggesting the following reaction with hard x-rays: CCl4+ hν → C + 2Cl2. PMID:24852546

  19. Observing extreme SFXTs with XMM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozzo, Enrico

    2013-10-01

    We propose a 130 ks-long XMM-Newton observation of the most extreme among the Supergiant Fast X-ray Transient, IGR J17544 2619, to unveil the mechanism regulating the unique behavior of these objects in the X-ray domain. This deep observation with XMM will secure: (i) enough sensitivity to study with the required accuracy soft spectral components, which are the most reliable tracers of the donor wind structure and can be used to efficiently probe the accretion flow geometry in wind-fed systems; (ii) catch at least one bright burst and 7-10 smaller flares, permitting an accurate spectral and statistical analysis of the triggering mechanism; (iii) measure pulsations down to pulsed fractions of 4-5% and spin periods of 3-4 ks, expected for magnetars in binaries.

  20. Advances in upper extremity prosthetics.

    PubMed

    Zlotolow, Dan A; Kozin, Scott H

    2012-11-01

    Until recently, upper extremity prostheses had changed little since World War II. In 2006, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency responded to an increasing number of military amputees with the Revolutionizing Prosthetics program. The program has yielded several breakthroughs both in the engineering of new prosthetic arms and in the control of those arms. Direct brain-wave control of a limb with 22° of freedom may be within reach. In the meantime, advances such as individually powered digits have opened the door to multifunctional full and partial hand prostheses. Restoring sensation to the prosthetic limb remains a major challenge to full integration of the limb into a patient's self-image. PMID:23101609

  1. Weather extremes could affect agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-05-01

    As Earth's climate warms, agricultural producers will need to adapt. Changes, especially increases in extreme events, are already having an impact on food production, according to speakers at a 1 May session on agriculture and food security at the AGU Science Policy Conference. Christopher Field, director of the Department of Global Ecology at the Carnegie Institution for Science of Washington, D. C., pointed out the complex factors that come into play in understanding food security, including spatially varying controls and stresses, incomplete models, and the potential for threshold responses. Factors that are likely to cause problems include increasing population; increasing preference for meat, which needs more land and energy inputs to produce; climate change; and increasing use of agricultural lands for biomass energy.

  2. Carbon tetrachloride under extreme conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Pravica, Michael Sneed, Daniel; Wang, Yonggang; Smith, Quinlan; Subrahmanyam, Garimella

    2014-05-21

    We report on three experiments on carbon tetrachloride subjected to extreme conditions. In the first experiment, Raman spectra of CCl{sub 4} were acquired up to 28 GPa. Evidence was observed for at least two new phases of CCl{sub 4} above 14 GPa (phase VI) and above 22 GPa (phase VII). Decompression of the sample showed no evidence of pressure-induced decomposition. In the second experiment, a synchrotron x-ray diffraction study was performed up to 30 GPa verifying phase V and potential phases above 14 (VI) and 22 GPa (VII), respectively. In the third study, we examined irradiated CCl{sub 4} using synchrotron infrared spectroscopy to reduce fluorescent contamination. Some sort of carbon allotrope appears as a byproduct suggesting the following reaction with hard x-rays: CCl{sub 4}+ hν → C + 2Cl{sub 2}.

  3. Zipf law: an extreme perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2016-04-01

    Extreme value theory (EVT) asserts that the Fréchet law emerges universally from linearly scaled maxima of collections of independent and identically distributed random variables that are positive-valued. Observations of many real-world sizes, e.g. city-sizes, give rise to the Zipf law: if we rank the sizes decreasingly, and plot the log-sizes versus the log-ranks, then an affine line emerges. In this paper we present an EVT approach to the Zipf law. Specifically, we establish that whenever the Fréchet law emerges from the EVT setting, then the Zipf law follows. The EVT generation of the Zipf law, its universality, and its associated phase transition, are analyzed and described in detail.

  4. Extreme luminosity imaging conical spectrograph

    SciTech Connect

    Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Mitchell, M. D.; Chandler, K. M.; Douglass, J. D.; McBride, R. D.; Jackson, D. P.; Hammer, D. A.

    2006-10-15

    A new configuration for a two-dimensional (2D) imaging x-ray spectrograph based on a conically bent crystal is introduced: extreme luminosity imaging conical spectrograph (ELICS). The ELICS configuration has important advantages over spectrographs that are based on cylindrically and spherically bent crystals. The main advantages are that a wide variety of large-aperture crystals can be used, and any desired magnification in the spatial direction (the direction orthogonal to spectral dispersion) can be achieved by the use of different experimental arrangements. The ELICS can be set up so that the detector plane is almost perpendicular to the incident rays, a good configuration for time-resolved spectroscopy. ELICSs with mica crystals of 45x90 mm{sup 2} aperture have been successfully used for imaging on the XP and COBRA pulsed power generators, yielding spectra with spatial resolution in 2D of Z pinches and X pinches.

  5. Extreme Geohazards: Reducing Disaster Risk and Increasing Resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plag, Hans-Peter; Stein, Seth; Brocklebank, Sean; Jules-Plag, Shelley; Campus, Paola

    2014-05-01

    Extreme natural hazards have the potential to cause global disasters and to lead to an escalation of the global sustainability crisis. Floods and droughts pose threats that could reach planetary extent, particularly through secondary economic and social impacts. Earthquakes and tsunamis cause disasters that could exceed the immediate coping capacity of the global economy, particularly in hazardous areas containing megacities, that can be particularly vulnerable to natural hazards if proper emergency protocols and infrastructures are not set in place. Recent events illustrate the destruction extreme hazards can inflict, both directly and indirectly, through domino effects resulting from the interaction with the built environment. Unfortunately, the more humanity learns to cope with relatively frequent (50 to 100 years) natural hazard events, the less concerns remain about the low-probability (one in a few hundred or more years) high-impact events. As a consequence, threats from low-probability extreme floods, droughts, and volcanic eruptions are not appropriately accounted for in Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) discussions. With the support of the European Science Foundation (ESF), the Geohazards Community of Practice (GHCP) of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) has developed a White Paper (WP) on the risk associated with low-probability, high-impact geohazards. These events are insufficiently addressed in risk management, although their potential impacts are comparable to those of a large asteroid impact, a global pandemic, or an extreme drought. The WP aims to increase awareness of the risk associated with these events as a basis for a comprehensive risk management. Extreme geohazards have occurred regularly throughout the past, but mostly did not cause major disasters because the exposure of human assets to such hazards and the global population density were much lower than today. The most extreme events during the last 2,000 years would cause today unparalleled

  6. Upper extremity deep vein thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Saseedharan, Sanjith; Bhargava, Sunil

    2012-01-01

    A 56-year-old female, recently (3 months) diagnosed with chronic kidney disease (CKD), on maintenance dialysis through jugular hemodialysis lines with a preexisting nonfunctional mature AV fistula made at diagnosis of CKD, presented to the hospital for a peritoneal dialysis line. The recently inserted indwelling dialysis catheter in left internal jugular vein had no flow on hemodialysis as was the right-sided catheter which was removed a day before insertion of the left-sided line. The left-sided line was removed and a femoral hemodialysis line was cannulated for maintenance hemodialysis, and the next day, a peritoneal catheter was inserted in the operation theater. However, 3 days later, there was progressive painful swelling of the left hand and redness with minimal numbness. The radial artery pulsations were felt. There was also massive edema of forearm, arm and shoulder region on the left side. Doppler indicated a steal phenomena due to a hyperfunctioning AV fistula for which a fistula closure was done. Absence of relief of edema prompted a further computed tomography (CT) angiogram (since it was not possible to evaluate the more proximal venous segments due to edema and presence of clavicle). Ct angiogram revealed central vein thrombosis for which catheter-directed thrombolysis and venoplasty was done resulting in complete resolution of signs and symptoms. Upper extremity DVT (UEDVT) is a very less studied topic as compared to lower extremity DVT and the diagnostic and therapeutic modalities still have substantial areas that need to be studied. We present a review of the present literature including incidences, diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for this entity. Data Sources: MEDLINE, MICROMEDEX, The Cochrane database of Systematic Reviews from 1950 through March 2011. PMID:22624098

  7. Gut Microbiota and Extreme Longevity.

    PubMed

    Biagi, Elena; Franceschi, Claudio; Rampelli, Simone; Severgnini, Marco; Ostan, Rita; Turroni, Silvia; Consolandi, Clarissa; Quercia, Sara; Scurti, Maria; Monti, Daniela; Capri, Miriam; Brigidi, Patrizia; Candela, Marco

    2016-06-01

    The study of the extreme limits of human lifespan may allow a better understanding of how human beings can escape, delay, or survive the most frequent age-related causes of morbidity, a peculiarity shown by long-living individuals. Longevity is a complex trait in which genetics, environment, and stochasticity concur to determine the chance to reach 100 or more years of age [1]. Because of its impact on human metabolism and immunology, the gut microbiome has been proposed as a possible determinant of healthy aging [2, 3]. Indeed, the preservation of host-microbes homeostasis can counteract inflammaging [4], intestinal permeability [5], and decline in bone and cognitive health [6, 7]. Aiming at deepening our knowledge on the relationship between the gut microbiota and a long-living host, we provide for the first time the phylogenetic microbiota analysis of semi-supercentenarians, i.e., 105-109 years old, in comparison to adults, elderly, and centenarians, thus reconstructing the longest available human microbiota trajectory along aging. We highlighted the presence of a core microbiota of highly occurring, symbiotic bacterial taxa (mostly belonging to the dominant Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Bacteroidaceae families), with a cumulative abundance decreasing along with age. Aging is characterized by an increasing abundance of subdominant species, as well as a rearrangement in their co-occurrence network. These features are maintained in longevity and extreme longevity, but peculiarities emerged, especially in semi-supercentenarians, describing changes that, even accommodating opportunistic and allochthonous bacteria, might possibly support health maintenance during aging, such as an enrichment and/or higher prevalence of health-associated groups (e.g., Akkermansia, Bifidobacterium, and Christensenellaceae). PMID:27185560

  8. Results of the EURADOS extremity dosemeter intercomparison 2009.

    PubMed

    Stadtmann, H; Grimbergen, T W M; Figel, M; Romero, A M; McWhan, A F

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents the results of an intercomparison for extremity dosemeters organised by the European radiation dosimetry group in 2009. In total, 59 systems were tested during this exercise including ring, stall and wrist dosemeters. A total of 1652 dosemeters were irradiated in the selected fields of photons and beta radiation qualities on appropriate phantoms (ISO finger and pillar phantom) in the dose quantity H(p)(0.07). All irradiations were carried out in selected accredited reference dosemetry laboratories (Seibersdorf Laboratories, Austria and IRSN, France). The results show that, especially at low-energy beta radiations ((85)Kr) and for beta irradiations with large angles of incidence (60°), many tested systems show pronounced under responses. On the other hand, for photon irradiations down to energies of 16 keV most systems showed good results. A participants meeting was held at IM2010 with discussion on both general aspects of this intercomparison and specific problems. PMID:21196458

  9. Historical changes in frequency of extreme floods in Prague

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elleder, L.

    2015-10-01

    This study presents a flood frequency analysis for the Vltava River catchment using a major profile in Prague. The estimates of peak discharges for the pre-instrumental period of 1118-1824 based on documentary sources were carried out using different approaches. 187 flood peak discharges derived for the pre-instrumental period augmented 150 records for the instrumental period of 1825-2013. Flood selection was based on Q10 criteria. Six flood-rich periods in total were identified for 1118-2013. Results of this study correspond with similar studies published earlier for some central European catchments, except for the period around 1750. Presented results indicate that the territory of the present Czech Republic might have experienced extreme floods in the past, comparable - with regard to peak discharge (higher than or equal to Q10) and frequency - to the flood events recorded recently.

  10. Technologies for producing segments for extremely large telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, D.; Atkins, C.; Baker, I.; Evans, R.; Hamidi, S.; Harris, P.; Li, H.; Messelink, W.; Mitchell, J.; Parry-Jones, M.; Rees, P.; Yu, G.

    2011-09-01

    We describe progress on a novel process-chain being used to produce eight 1.4m hexagonal segments as prototypes for the European Extremely Large Telescope - a Master Spherical Segment as a reference, and seven aspheric segments. A new pilot plant integrates a bespoke full-aperture test-tower designed and built by OpTIC Glyndwr, with a Zeeko 1.6m polishing machine. The process chain starts with aspherising hexagonal segments on the Cranfield BoX™ grinder, followed by smoothing, corrective-polishing and edge-rectification using the Zeeko CNC platform. The paper describes the technology and progress, and anticipates how the process-chain is expected to evolve through the seven segments to increase both process-speed and surface-quality.

  11. Interactions between European Citizenship and Language Learning among Adolescent Europeans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennebry, Mairin

    2011-01-01

    Recent enlargement of the European Union (EU) has created debate as to the suitability of current structures and policies for effectively engaging citizens and developing social cohesion. Education and specifically modern foreign language (MFL) teaching are argued by the literature to play a key role in equipping young people to interact and…

  12. Extreme hydrometeorological events and climate change predictions in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millán, Millán M.

    2014-10-01

    Field meteorological data collected in several European Commission projects (from 1974 to 2011) were re-analysed in the context of a perceived reduction in summer storms around the Western Mediterranean Basin (WMB). The findings reveal some hitherto overlooked processes that raise questions about direct impacts on European hydrological cycles, e.g., extreme hydrometeorological events, and about the role of feedbacks on climate models and climate predictions. For instance, the summer storms are affected by land-use changes along the coasts and mountain slopes. Their loss triggers a chain of events that leads to an Accumulation Mode (AM) where water vapour and air pollutants (ozone) become stacked in layers, up to 4000(+) m, over the WMB. The AM cycle can last 3-5 consecutive days, and recur several times each month from mid May to late August. At the end of each cycle the accumulated water vapour can feed Vb track events and generate intense rainfall and summer floods in Central Europe. Venting out of the water vapour that should have precipitated within the WMB increases the salinity of the sea and affects the Atlantic-Mediterranean Salinity valve at Gibraltar. This, in turn, can alter the tracks of Atlantic Depressions and their frontal systems over Atlantic Europe. Another effect is the greenhouse heating by water vapour and photo-oxidants (e.g., O3) when layered over the Basin during the AM cycle. This increases the Sea Surface Temperature (SST), and the higher SST intensifies torrential rain events over the Mediterranean coasts in autumn. All these processes raise research questions that must be addressed to improve the meteorological forecasting of extreme events, as well as climate model predictions.

  13. Defining management units for European captive aardvarks.

    PubMed

    Pohlová, Ludmila; Schepsky, Pauline; Lehmann, Thomas; Hochkirch, Axel; Masopustová, Renata; Simek, Jaroslav; Schoo, Wineke; Vodička, Roman; Robovský, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The Aardvark (Orycteropus afer) is a very unique, but relatively widespread African mammal. Although some morphological variation has been observed between forest and savannah populations and among different African regions, they are all considered as a single species. However, no modern taxonomic revision is available. All captive aardvarks in Europe are believed to stem from wild born animals from Namibia, but recently several new wild-caught aardvarks from Tanzania have been integrated into the captive population. This raises the question, whether these specimens should be interbred with the existing captive population or whether there is a risk of outbreeding depression. We studied the genetic structure of the captive populations by sequencing two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b and 16S rRNA) to assess the degree of genetic differentiation between the two source regions. Our data suggest that the aardvarks kept in European zoos belong to the same phylogenetic (mitochondrial) lineage as the differentiation in the two studied mitochondrial markers was extremely low. A more comprehensive analysis of a larger sample with well documented origin (covering the complete geographic range) and with more sensitive genetic markers is needed to infer any final conclusions concerning the aardvark's taxonomy and identification of suitable aardvark management units. PMID:25185761

  14. Management of tritium European Spallation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Ene, D.; Andersson, K.; Jensen, M.; Nielsen, S.; Severin, G.

    2015-03-15

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) will produce tritium via spallation and activation processes during operational activities. Within the location of ESS facility in Lund, Sweden site it is mandatory to demonstrate that the management strategy of the produced tritium ensures the compliance with the country regulation criteria. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the different aspects of the tritium management in ESS facility. Besides the design parameter study of the helium coolant purification system of the target the consequences of the tritium releasing into the environment were also analyzed. Calculations show that the annual release of tritium during the normal operations represents a small fraction from the estimated total dose. However, more refined calculations of migration of activated-groundwater should be performed for higher hydraulic conductivities, with the availability of the results on soil examinations. With the assumption of 100% release of tritium to the atmosphere during the occurring of the extreme accidents, it was found as well that the total dose complies with the constraint. (authors)

  15. Extreme Rainfall In A City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nkemdirim, Lawrence

    Cities contain many structures and activities that are vulnerable to severe weather. Heavy precipitation cause floods which can damage structures, compromise transportation and water supply systems, and slow down economic and social activities. Rain induced flood patterns in cities must be well understood to enable effective placement of flood control and other regulatory measures. The planning goal is not to eliminate all floods but to reduce their frequency and resulting damage. Possible approaches to such planning include probability based extreme event analysis. Precipitation is normally the most variable hydrologic element over a given area. This variability results from the distribution of clouds and in cloud processes in the atmosphere, the storm path, and the distribution of topographical features on the ground along path. Some studies suggest that point rainfall patterns are also affected by urban industrial effects hence some agreement that cities are wetter than the country surrounding them. However, there are still questions regarding the intra- urban distribution of precipitation. The sealed surfaces, urban structures, and the urban heat anomaly increase convection in cities which may enhance the generation of clouds. Increased dust and gaseous aerosols loads are effective condensation and sublimation nuclei which may also enhance the generation of precipitation. Based on these associations, the greatest amount of convection type rainfall should occur at city center. A study of summer rainfall in Calgary showed that frequencies of trace amounts of rainfall and events under 0.2mm are highest downtown than elsewhere. For amounts greater than than 0.2 mm, downtown sites were not favored. The most compelling evidence for urban-industrial precipitation enhancement came from the Metromex project around St. Loius, Missouri where maximum increases of between 5 to 30 per cent in summer rainfall downwind of the city was linked to urbanization and

  16. Polyimide Resins Resist Extreme Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Spacecraft and aerospace engines share a common threat: high temperature. The temperatures experienced during atmospheric reentry can reach over 2,000 F, and the temperatures in rocket engines can reach well over 5,000 F. To combat the high temperatures in aerospace applications, Dr. Ruth Pater of Langley Research Center developed RP-46, a polyimide resin capable of withstanding the most brutal temperatures. The composite material can push the service temperature to the limits of organic materials. Designed as an environmentally friendly alternative to other high-temperature resins, the RP-46 polyimide resin system was awarded a 1992 "R&D 100" award, named a "2001 NASA Technology of the Year," and later, due to its success as a spinoff technology, "2004 NASA Commercial Invention of the Year." The technology s commercial success also led to its winning the Langley s "Paul F. Holloway Technology Transfer Award" as well as "Richard T. Whitcom Aerospace Technology Transfer Award" both for 2004. RP-46 is relatively inexpensive and it can be readily processed for use as an adhesive, composite, resin molding, coating, foam, or film. Its composite materials can be used in temperatures ranging from minus 150 F to 2,300 F. No other organic materials are known to be capable of such wide range and extreme high-temperature applications. In addition to answering the call for environmentally conscious high-temperature materials, RP-46 provides a slew of additional advantages: It is extremely lightweight (less than half the weight of aluminum), chemical and moisture resistant, strong, and flexible. Pater also developed a similar technology, RP-50, using many of the same methods she used with RP-46, and very similar in composition to RP-46 in terms of its thermal capacity and chemical construction, but it has different applications, as this material is a coating as opposed to a buildable composite. A NASA license for use of this material outside of the Space Agency as well as

  17. Remembrance of ecohydrologic extremes past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Band, L. E.; Hwang, T.

    2013-12-01

    Ecohydrological systems operate at time scales that span several orders of magnitude. Significant processes and feedbacks range from subdaily physiologic response to meteorological drivers, to soil forming and geomorphic processes ranging up through 10^3-10^4 years. While much attention in ecohydrology has focused on ecosystem optimization paradigms, these systems can show significant transience in structure and function, with apparent memory of hydroclimate extremes and regime shifts. While optimization feedbacks can be reconciled with system transience, a better understanding of the time scales and mechanisms of adjustment to increased hydroclimate variability and to specific events is required to understand and predict dynamics and vulnerability of ecosystems. Under certain circumstances of slowly varying hydroclimate, we hypothesize that ecosystems can remain adjusted to changing climate regimes, without displaying apparent system memory. Alternatively, rapid changes in hydroclimate and increased hydroclimate variability, amplified with well expressed non-linearity in the processes controlling feedbacks between water, carbon and nutrients, can move ecosystems far from adjusted states. The Coweeta Hydrological Laboratory is typical of humid, broadleaf forests in eastern North America, with a range of forest biomes from northern hardwoods at higher elevations, to oak-pine assemblages at lower elevations. The site provides almost 80 years of rainfall-runoff records for a set of watersheds under different management, along with multi-decadal forest plot structural information, soil moisture conditions and stream chemistry. An initial period of multi-decadal cooling, was followed by three decades of warming and increased hydroclimate variability. While mean temperature has risen over this time period, precipitation shows no long term trends in the mean, but has had a significant rise in variability with repeated extreme drought and wet periods. Over this latter

  18. Reconstructing Indo-European Syllabification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Andrew Miles

    2010-01-01

    The chief concern of this dissertation is to investigate a fundamental, yet unsolved problem within the phonology of Proto-Indo-European (PIE): the process of syllabification. I show that by analyzing the much more easily reconstructable word-edge clusters we may predict which types of consonant clusters can occur word-medially, provided that we…

  19. The European NEO Coordination Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perozzi, E.; Borgia, B.; Micheli, M.

    An operational approach to NEO (Near-Earth Object) hazard monitoring has been developed at European level within the framework of the Space Situational Awareness Program (SSA) of the European Space Agency (ESA). Through federating European assets and profiting of the expertise developed in European Universities and Research Centers, it has been possible to start the deployment of the so-called SSA NEO Segment. This initiative aims to provide a significant contribution to the worldwide effort to the discovery, follow-up and characterization of the near-Earth object population. A major achievement has been the inauguration in May 2013 of the ESA NEO Coordination Centre located at ESRIN (Frascati, Italy). The goal of the NEOCC Precursor Service operations is twofold: to make available updated information on the NEO population and the associated hazard and to contribute to optimize the NEO observational efforts. This is done by maintaining and improving a Web Portal publicly available at http://neo.ssa.esa.int and by performing follow-up observations through a network of collaborating telescopes and facilities. An overview of the SSA-NEO System and a summary of the first two years of NEOCC operations is presented.

  20. European Curricula, Xenophobia and Warfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulby, David

    1997-01-01

    Examines school and university curricula in Europe and the extent of their influence on xenophobia. Considers the pluralistic nature of the European population. Discusses the role of curriculum selection and language policy in state efforts to promote nationalism. Assesses the role of curricular systems in the actual encouragement of warfare,…

  1. Beyond "Ability": Some European Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrigley, Terry

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on European approaches to differentiation that do not entail fatalistic determinism. It describes two challenging initiatives in Denmark, where democratic learning and learning for democracy are enshrined in law. Other examples come from Germany, from the Bielefeld laboratory school and a sixth form college, where planning for…

  2. Attitudes of Europeans toward Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ageing International, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Two Commission of European Communities surveys of people over age 15 and of those over 60 demonstrated a widespread belief that older people deserve public support and services and face employment discrimination. Socioeconomic factors influenced older people's sense of security and life satisfaction. Positive intergenerational attitudes appeared.…

  3. OER: A European Policy Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alquézar Sabadie, Jesús Maria; Castaño Muñoz, Jonatan; Puni, Yves; Redecker, Christine; Vuorikari, Riina

    2014-01-01

    The potential benefits of OER have led many European governments to implement policies supporting their creation and use. This chapter aims to put these OER policies in context, discussing their focus and scope and highlighting challenges and bottlenecks. On the basis of the analysis of the current state of the art, it is argued that one of main…

  4. The European Board of Orthodontists.

    PubMed

    Cozzani, Mauro; Weiland, Frank

    2016-06-01

    The multiplicity of nations, languages and differing ways and levels of specialized orthodontic education in Europe lead to the need for an objective review of the quality of orthodontic care. To this purpose, The European Board of Orthodontists (EBO) was introduced. This article gives an overview of the objectives of the EBO, its development and the requirements for membership. PMID:27066742

  5. Adolescent Leisure across European Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, August; Schaffner, Brigitta

    2003-01-01

    Examined variations in adolescent time use within Europe and their relation to culture, focusing on organization of free time, most frequent leisure activities, and resulting emotional states. Found that European adolescents spent free time in a range of activities, including electronic media, computer games, playing musical instruments, reading,…

  6. EMSO: European multidisciplinary seafloor observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favali, Paolo; Beranzoli, Laura

    2009-04-01

    EMSO has been identified by the ESFRI Report 2006 as one of the Research Infrastructures that European members and associated states are asked to develop in the next decades. It will be based on a European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the aim of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes, providing long time series data for the different phenomenon scales which constitute the new frontier for study of Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry, and ocean processes. The development of an underwater network is based on past EU projects and is supported by several EU initiatives, such as the on-going ESONET-NoE, aimed at strengthening the ocean observatories' scientific and technological community. The EMSO development relies on the synergy between the scientific community and industry to improve European competitiveness with respect to countries such as USA, Canada and Japan. Within the FP7 Programme launched in 2006, a call for Preparatory Phase (PP) was issued in order to support the foundation of the legal and organisational entity in charge of building up and managing the infrastructure, and coordinating the financial effort among the countries. The EMSO-PP project, coordinated by the Italian INGV with participation by 11 institutions from as many European countries, started in April 2008 and will last four years.

  7. BSE : the European regulatory context.

    PubMed

    Chalus, T; Peutz, I

    2000-10-01

    The Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy crisis provoked a fundamental re-appraisal of the way in which the European Community approaches matters of food safety. Between 28 July 1989, when restrictions on the dispatch of certain live cattle from the UK starte PMID:12631966

  8. Phased Retirement: The European Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swank, Constance

    This report provides United States corporate and union policymakers with practical information on one alternative work pattern for older employees--phased retirement--from European colleagues who already have implemented or negotiated specific phasing programs. An introduction provides details on the collection of information from companies in…

  9. Current issues in European migration.

    PubMed

    Straubhaar, T; Wolter, A

    1996-01-01

    The authors examine recent migration patterns into and within the European Union. Issues involving asylum and migration policy are discussed, and problems caused by differing naturalization practices in different countries are considered. Skill patterns of migrants and problems in labor markets are also investigated. PMID:12321414

  10. European tests on materials outgassing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwaal, A.

    1977-01-01

    With a view to international coordination of spacecraft materials, a number of European firms and institutes performed outgassing tests on identical materials at 125 C in high vacuum. The outgassing data obtained with the different types of equipment is presented and both the results and the critical parameters are discussed.

  11. The European Location Framework - from National to European

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauknerova, E.; Sidlichovsky, P.; Urbanas, S.; Med, M.

    2016-06-01

    The European Location Framework (ELF) means a technical infrastructure which will deliver authoritative, interoperable geospatial reference data from all over Europe for analysing and understanding information connected to places and features. The ELF has been developed and set up through the ELF Project, which has been realized by a consortium of partners (public, private and academic organisations) since March 2013. Their number increased from thirty to forty in the year 2016, together with a project extension from 36 to 44 months. The project is co-funded by the European Commission's Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme (CIP) and will end in October 2016. In broad terms, the ELF Project will deliver a unique gateway to the authoritative reference geospatial information for Europe (harmonised pan-European maps, geographic and land information) sourced from the National Mapping and Cadastral Authorities (NMCAs) around Europe and including transparent licensing. This will be provided as an online ELF web service that will deliver an up-to-date topographic base map and also as view & download services for access to the ELF datasets. To develop and build up the ELF, NMCAs are accompanied and collaborate with several research & academia institutes, a standardisation body, system integrators, software developers and application providers. The harmonisation is in progress developing and triggering a number of geo-tools like edge-matching, generalisation, transformation and others. ELF will provide also some centralised tools like Geo Locator for searching location based on geographical names, addresses and administrative units, and GeoProduct Finder for discovering the available web-services and licensing them. ELF combines national reference geo-information through the ELF platform. ELF web services will be offered to users and application developers through open source (OSKARI) and proprietary (ArcGIS Online) cloud platforms. Recently, 29 NMCAs plus the

  12. Gravity and Extreme Magnetism SMEX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swank, Jean; Kallman, Timothy R.; Jahoda, Keith M.

    2008-01-01

    Gas accreting ont,o black holes and neutron stars form a dynamic system generating X-rays with spectroscopic signatures and varying on time scales determined by the system. The radiation from various parts of these systems is surely polarized and compact sources have been calculated to give rise to net polarization from the unresolved sum of the radiation from the systems. Polarization has been looked to for some time as also bearing the imprint of strong gravity and providing complementary information that could resolve ambiguities between the physical models that can give rise to frequencies, time delays, and spectra. In the cases of both stellar black holes and supermassive black holes the net polarizations predicted for probable disk and corona models are less than 10 needed. This sensitivity can be achieved, even for sources as faint as 1 milliCrab, in the Gravity and Extreme Magnetism SMEX (GEMS) mission that uses foil mirrors and Time Projection Chamber detectors. Similarities have been pointed out between the timing and the spectral characteristics of low mass X-ray binaries and stellar black hole sources. Polarization measurements for these sources could play a role in determining the configuration of the disk and the neutron star.

  13. Masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Cardinale, G; Goldsmith, J; Kearney, P A; Larson, C; Moore, C E; Prisbrey, S; Tong, W; Vernon, S P; Weber, F; Yan, P-Y

    1998-09-01

    In extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), the technology specific requirements on the mask are a direct consequence of the utilization of radiation in the spectral region between 10 and 15 nm. At these wavelengths, all condensed materials are highly absorbing and efficient radiation transport mandates the use of all-reflective optical systems. Reflectivity is achieved with resonant, wavelength-matched multilayer (ML) coatings on all of the optical surfaces - including the mask. The EUV mask has a unique architecture - it consists of a substrate with a highly reflective ML coating (the mask blank) that is subsequently over-coated with a patterned absorber layer (the mask). Particulate contamination on the EUVL mask surface, errors in absorber definition and defects in the ML coating all have the potential to print in the lithographic process. While highly developed technologies exist for repair of the absorber layer, no viable strategy for the repair of ML coating defects has been identified. In this paper the state-of-the-art in ML deposition technology, optical inspection of EUVL mask blank defects and candidate absorber patterning approaches are reviewed.

  14. Lightcurves of Extreme Debris Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieke, George; Meng, Huan; Su, Kate

    2012-12-01

    We have recently discovered that some planetary debris disks with extreme fractional luminosities are variable on the timescale of a few years. This behavior opens a new possibility to understand planet building. Two of the known variable disks are around solar-like stars in the age range of 30 to 100+ Myr, which is the expected era of the final stages of terrestrial planet building. Such variability can be attributed to violent collisions (up to ones on the scale of the Moon-forming event between the proto-Earth and another proto-planet). The collisional cascades that are the aftermaths of these events can produce large clouds of tiny dust grains, possibly even condensed from silica vapor. A Spitzer pilot program has obtained the lightcurve of such a debris disk and caught two minor outbursts. Here we propose to continue the lightcurve monitoring with higher sampling rates and to expand it to more disks. The proposed time domain observations are a new dimension of debris disk studies that can bring unique insight to their evolution, providing important constraints on the collisional and dynamical models of terrestrial planet formation.

  15. The Extreme Case of Magnetars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    2011-01-01

    Magnetars are magnetically powered rotating neutron stars with extreme magnetic fields (over 10(exp 14) Gauss). They were discovered in the X- and gamma-rays where they predominantly emit their radiation. Very few sources (roughly 18) have been found since their discovery in 1987. NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope was launched June 11, 2009; since then the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) recorded emission from four magnetar sources. Two of these were brand new sources, SGR J0501+4516, discovered with Swift and extensively monitored with Swift and GBM, SGR J0418+5729, discovered with GBM and the Interplanetary Network (IPN). A third was SGR J1550-5418, a source originally classified as an Anomalous X-ray Pulsar (AXP 1E1547.0-5408), but exhibiting a very prolific outburst with over 400 events recorded in January 2009. In my talk I will give a short history of magnetars and describe how this, once relatively esoteric field, has emerged as a link between several astrophysical areas including Gamma-Ray Bursts. Finally, I will describe the exciting new results of Fermi in this field and the current status of our knowledge of the magnetar population properties and magnetic fields.

  16. Extreme times for volatility processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoliver, Jaume; Perelló, Josep

    2007-04-01

    Extreme times techniques, generally applied to nonequilibrium statistical mechanical processes, are also useful for a better understanding of financial markets. We present a detailed study on the mean first-passage time for the volatility of return time series. The empirical results extracted from daily data of major indices seem to follow the same law regardless of the kind of index thus suggesting an universal pattern. The empirical mean first-passage time to a certain level L is fairly different from that of the Wiener process showing a dissimilar behavior depending on whether L is higher or lower than the average volatility. All of this indicates a more complex dynamics in which a reverting force drives volatility toward its mean value. We thus present the mean first-passage time expressions of the most common stochastic volatility models whose approach is comparable to the random diffusion description. We discuss asymptotic approximations of these models and confront them to empirical results with a good agreement with the exponential Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model.

  17. Extremely Large Cusp Diamagnetic Cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Fritz, T. A.

    2002-05-01

    Extremely large diamagnetic cavities with a size of as large as 6 Re have been observed in the dayside high-altitude cusp regions. Some of the diamagnetic cavities were independent of the IMF directions, which is unexpected by the current MHD (or ISM) models, suggesting that the cusp diamagnetic cavities are different from the magnetospheric sash, which provides a challenge to the existing MHD (or ISM) models. Associated with these cavities are ions with energies from 40 keV up to 8 MeV. The charge state distribution of these cusp cavity ions was indicative of their seed populations being a mixture of the ionospheric and the solar wind particles. The intensities of the cusp cavity energetic ions were observed to increase by as large as four orders of the magnitudes. During high solar wind pressure period on April 21, 1999, the POLAR spacecraft observed lower ion flux in the dayside high-latitude magnetosheath than that in the neighbouring cusp cavities. These observations indicate that the dayside high-altitude cusp diamagnetic cavity is a key region for transferring the solar wind energy, mass, and momentum into the Earth's magnetosphere. These energetic particles in the cusp diamagnetic cavity together with the cusp's connectivity have significant global impacts on the geospace environment research and will be shedding light on the long-standing unsolved fundamental issue about the origins of the energetic particles in the ring current and in upstream ion events.

  18. Extremely large cusp diamagnetic cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Fritz, T.; Siscoe, G.

    Extremely large diamagnetic cavities with a size of as large as 6 Re have been observed in the dayside high-altitude cusp regions. These diamagnetic cavities are always there day by day. Some of the diamagnetic cavities have been observed in the morningside during intervals when the IMF By component was positive (duskward), suggesting that the cusp diamagnetic cavities are different from the magnetospheric sash predicted by MHD simulations. Associated with these cavities are ions with energies from 40 keV up to 8 MeV. The charge state distribution of these cusp cavity ions was indicative of their seed populations being a mixture of the ionospheric and the solar wind particles. The intensities of the cusp cavity energetic ions were observed to increase by as large as four orders of the magnitudes. These observations indicate that the dayside high-altitude cusp diamagnetic cavity is a key region for transferring the solar wind energy, mass, and momentum into the Earth's magnetosphere. These energetic particles in the cusp diamagnetic cavity together with the cusp's connectivity to the entire magnetopause may have significant global impacts on the geospace environment. They will possibly be shedding light on the long-standing unsolved fundamental issue about the origins of the energetic particles in the ring current and in the regions upstream of the subsolar magnetopause where energetic ion events frequently are observed.

  19. Extreme Mechanics of Growing Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhl, Ellen

    2013-03-01

    Growth is a distinguishing feature of all living things. Unlike standard materials, living matter can autonomously respond to alterations in its environment. As a result of a continuous ultrastructural turnover and renewal of cells and extracellular matrix, living matter can undergo extreme changes in composition, size, and shape within the order of months, weeks, or days. While hard matter typically adapts by increasing its density to grow strong, soft matter adapts by increasing its volume to grow large. Here we provide a state-of-the-art review of growing matter, and compare existing mathematical models for growth and remodeling of living systems. Applications are plentiful ranging from plant growth to tumor growth, from asthma in the lungs to restenosis in the vasculature, from plastic to reconstructive surgery, and from skeletal muscle adaptation to heart failure. Using these examples, we discuss current challenges and potential future directions. We hope to initiate critical discussions around the biophysical modeling of growing matter as a powerful tool to better understand biological systems in health and disease. This research has been supported by the NSF CAREER award CMMI 0952021.

  20. Driving Extreme Efficiency to Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbesi, Karina

    2014-03-01

    The rapid development of extremely energy efficient appliances and equipment is essential to curtail catastrophic climate disruption. This will require the on-going development of products that apply all best-practices and that take advantage of the synergies of hybridization and building integration. Beyond that, it requires the development of new disruptive technologies and concepts. To facilitate these goals, in 2011 the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the U.S. Department of Energy launched the Max Tech and Beyond Design Competition for Ultra-Low-Energy-Use Appliances and Equipment. Now in its third year, the competition supports faculty-lead student design teams at U.S. universities to develop and test new technology prototypes. This talk describes what the competition and the Max Tech Program are doing to drive such rapid technology progress and to facilitate the entry to the market of successful Max Tech prototypes. The talk also initiates a discussion of physicists' unique role in driving that technology progress faster and farther. Emerging Technologies, Building Technologies Office, U.S. Department of Energy.

  1. Extreme Programming in a Research Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, William A.; Kleb, William L.

    2002-01-01

    This article explores the applicability of Extreme Programming in a scientific research context. The cultural environment at a government research center differs from the customer-centric business view. The chief theoretical difficulty lies in defining the customer to developer relationship. Specifically, can Extreme Programming be utilized when the developer and customer are the same person? Eight of Extreme Programming's 12 practices are perceived to be incompatible with the existing research culture. Further, six of the nine 'environments that I know don't do well with XP' apply. A pilot project explores the use of Extreme Programming in scientific research. The applicability issues are addressed and it is concluded that Extreme Programming can function successfully in situations for which it appears to be ill-suited. A strong discipline for mentally separating the customer and developer roles is found to be key for applying Extreme Programming in a field that lacks a clear distinction between the customer and the developer.

  2. Rising Mediterranean Sea Surface Temperatures Amplify Extreme Summer Precipitation in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Volosciuk, Claudia; Maraun, Douglas; Semenov, Vladimir A.; Tilinina, Natalia; Gulev, Sergey K.; Latif, Mojib

    2016-01-01

    The beginning of the 21st century was marked by a number of severe summer floods in Central Europe associated with extreme precipitation (e.g., Elbe 2002, Oder 2010 and Danube 2013). Extratropical storms, known as Vb-cyclones, cause summer extreme precipitation events over Central Europe and can thus lead to such floodings. Vb-cyclones develop over the Mediterranean Sea, which itself strongly warmed during recent decades. Here we investigate the influence of increased Mediterranean Sea surface temperature (SST) on extreme precipitation events in Central Europe. To this end, we carry out atmosphere model simulations forced by average Mediterranean SSTs during 1970–1999 and 2000–2012. Extreme precipitation events occurring on average every 20 summers in the warmer-SST-simulation (2000–2012) amplify along the Vb-cyclone track compared to those in the colder-SST-simulation (1970–1999), on average by 17% in Central Europe. The largest increase is located southeast of maximum precipitation for both simulated heavy events and historical Vb-events. The responsible physical mechanism is increased evaporation from and enhanced atmospheric moisture content over the Mediterranean Sea. The excess in precipitable water is transported from the Mediterranean Sea to Central Europe causing stronger precipitation extremes over that region. Our findings suggest that Mediterranean Sea surface warming amplifies Central European precipitation extremes. PMID:27573802

  3. Rising Mediterranean Sea Surface Temperatures Amplify Extreme Summer Precipitation in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Volosciuk, Claudia; Maraun, Douglas; Semenov, Vladimir A; Tilinina, Natalia; Gulev, Sergey K; Latif, Mojib

    2016-01-01

    The beginning of the 21st century was marked by a number of severe summer floods in Central Europe associated with extreme precipitation (e.g., Elbe 2002, Oder 2010 and Danube 2013). Extratropical storms, known as Vb-cyclones, cause summer extreme precipitation events over Central Europe and can thus lead to such floodings. Vb-cyclones develop over the Mediterranean Sea, which itself strongly warmed during recent decades. Here we investigate the influence of increased Mediterranean Sea surface temperature (SST) on extreme precipitation events in Central Europe. To this end, we carry out atmosphere model simulations forced by average Mediterranean SSTs during 1970-1999 and 2000-2012. Extreme precipitation events occurring on average every 20 summers in the warmer-SST-simulation (2000-2012) amplify along the Vb-cyclone track compared to those in the colder-SST-simulation (1970-1999), on average by 17% in Central Europe. The largest increase is located southeast of maximum precipitation for both simulated heavy events and historical Vb-events. The responsible physical mechanism is increased evaporation from and enhanced atmospheric moisture content over the Mediterranean Sea. The excess in precipitable water is transported from the Mediterranean Sea to Central Europe causing stronger precipitation extremes over that region. Our findings suggest that Mediterranean Sea surface warming amplifies Central European precipitation extremes. PMID:27573802

  4. The extreme runoff index for flood early warning in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfieri, L.; Pappenberger, F.; Wetterhall, F.

    2014-06-01

    Systems for the early detection of floods over continental and global domains have a key role in providing a quick overview of areas at risk, raise the awareness and prompt higher detail analyses as the events approach. However, the reliability of these systems is prone to spatial inhomogeneity, depending on the quality of the underlying input data and local calibration. This work proposes a simple approach for flood early warning based on ensemble numerical predictions of surface runoff provided by weather forecasting centers. The system is based on a novel indicator, referred to as an extreme runoff index (ERI), which is calculated from the input data through a statistical analysis. It is designed for use in large or poorly gauged domains, as no local knowledge or in situ observations are needed for its setup. Daily runs over 32 months are evaluated against calibrated hydrological simulations for all of Europe. Results show skillful flood early warning capabilities up to a 10-day lead time. A dedicated analysis is performed to investigate the optimal timing of forecasts to maximize the detection of extreme events. A case study for the central European floods of June 2013 is presented and forecasts are compared to the output of a hydro-meteorological ensemble model.

  5. Improving Predictions and Management of Hydrological Extremes through Climate Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Hurk, Bart; Wijngaard, Janet; Pappenberger, Florian; Bouwer, Laurens; Weerts, Albrecht; Buontempo, Carlo; Doescher, Ralf; Manez, Maria; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Hananel, Cedric; Ercin, Ertug; Hunink, Johannes; Klein, Bastian; Pouget, Laurent; Ward, Philip

    2016-04-01

    The EU Roadmap on Climate Services can be seen as a result of convergence between the society's call for "actionable research", and the climate research community providing tailored data, information and knowledge. However, although weather and climate have clearly distinct definitions, a strong link between weather and climate services exists that is not explored extensively. Stakeholders being interviewed in the context of the Roadmap consider climate as a far distant long term feature that is difficult to consider in present-day decision taking, which is dominated by daily experience with handling extreme events. It is argued that this experience is a rich source of inspiration to increase society's resilience to an unknown future. A newly started European research project, IMPREX, is built on the notion that "experience in managing current day weather extremes is the best learning school to anticipate consequences of future climate". This paper illustrates possible ways to increase the link between information and services addressing weather and climate time scales by discussing the underlying concepts of IMPREX and its expected outcome.

  6. [Injury mechanisms in extreme violence settings].

    PubMed

    Arcaute-Velazquez, Fernando Federico; García-Núñez, Luis Manuel; Noyola-Vilallobos, Héctor Faustino; Espinoza-Mercado, Fernando; Rodríguez-Vega, Carlos Eynar

    2016-01-01

    Extreme violence events are consequence of current world-wide economic, political and social conditions. Injury patterns found among victims of extreme violence events are very complex, obeying several high-energy injury mechanisms. In this article, we present the basic concepts of trauma kinematics that regulate the clinical approach to victims of extreme violence events, in the hope that clinicians increase their theoretical armamentarium, and reflecting on obtaining better outcomes. PMID:27036670

  7. Extreme Deep White Matter Hyperintensity Volumes Are Associated with African American Race

    PubMed Central

    Nyquist, Paul A.; Bilgel, Murat S.; Gottesman, Rebbecca; Yanek, Lisa R.; Moy, Taryn F.; Becker, Lewis C.; Cuzzocreo, Jennifer; Prince, Jerry; Yousem, David M.; Becker, Diane M.; Kral, Brian G.; Vaidya, Dhananjay

    2014-01-01

    Background African Americans (AAs) have a higher prevalence of extreme ischemic white matter hyperintesities (WMH) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) than do European Americans based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) score. Ischemic white matter disease, limited to the deep white matter, may be biologically distinct from disease in other regions and may reflect a previously observed trend toward increased risk of subcortical lacunar infarcts in AA. We hypothesized that extreme deep WMH volume (DWMV) or periventricular volume (PV) may also have higher prevalence in AAs. Thus, we studied extreme CHS scores and extreme DWMV and PV in a healthy population enriched for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Methods We imaged the brains of 593 subjects who were first degree relatives of probands with early onset coronary disease prior to 60 years of age. WMHs were manually delineated on 3T cranial MRI by a trained radiology reader the location and volume of lesions were characterized using automated software. DWMV and PV were measured directly with automated software and the CHS score was determined by a Neuro-radiologist. Volumes were characterized as being in the upper 25% versus lower 75% of total lesion volume. Volumes in the upper quartile vs. the remaining were examined for AA versus European American (EA) race using multiple logistic regression (GEE adjusted for family relatedness) and adjusted for major vascular disease risk factors including age ≥ 55 years vs. younger than 55, sex, current smoking, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and LDL>160. Results Participants were 58% women and 37% AA, with a mean age of 51.5±11.0 years (range, 29-74 years). AAs had significantly higher odds of having extreme DWMV (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2-2.9; p=0.0076) independent of age, sex, hypertension, and all other risk factors. AAs also had significantly higher odds of having extreme CHS scores ≥3 (OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-3.6; p=0.025). Extreme PV was not significantly

  8. [Physician assessment of aptitude for driving in the European Union].

    PubMed

    Lentaigne de Logivière, Xavier; Jardé, Olivier; Manaouil, Cécile

    2015-09-01

    Road safety is for several years a major public health issue, given the number of casualties and annual deaths caused by road accidents in France or Europe. European directives of 2006 and 2009 were aimed harmonized community practices for the conduct, including medically. We studied the laws in force in each of the 28 countries of the European Union to make an inventory of the organization on this subject. The results showed that 25 countries introduce, at least once, including 21 medical check regularly. Age is the main factor that motivates control. The frequency of examinations increases with the age of the driver. In other countries, a sworn statement of the absence of pathology is enough. Although a medical examination is mostly carried out systematically, it the content is extremely variable, ranging from a simple vision test to a full review with psycho test. Management of professional secrecy is approached differently in different countries, although predominantly an exemption exists in the event of discovery of the inability of a patient. We note that there is a great diversity in the medical screening modalities unsuited to driving. These systems will be harmonized to comply with the wishes of European directives. PMID:25960438

  9. Diet-induced phenotypic plasticity in European eel (Anguilla anguilla).

    PubMed

    De Meyer, Jens; Christiaens, Joachim; Adriaens, Dominique

    2016-02-01

    Two phenotypes are present within the European eel population: broad-heads and narrow-heads. The expression of these phenotypes has been linked to several factors, such as diet and differential growth. The exact factors causing this dimorphism, however, are still unknown. In this study, we performed a feeding experiment on glass eels from the moment they start to feed. Eels were either fed a hard diet, which required biting and spinning behavior, or a soft diet, which required suction feeding. We found that the hard feeders develop a broader head and a larger adductor mandibulae region than eels that were fed a soft diet, implying that the hard feeders are capable of larger bite forces. Next to this, soft feeders develop a sharper and narrower head, which could reduce hydrodynamic drag, allowing more rapid strikes towards their prey. Both phenotypes were found in a control group, which were given a combination of both diets. These phenotypes were, however, not as extreme as the hard or the soft feeding group, indicating that some specimens are more likely to consume hard prey and others soft prey, but that they do not selectively eat one of both diets. In conclusion, we found that diet is a major factor influencing head shape in European eel and this ability to specialize in feeding on hard or soft prey could decrease intra-specific competition in European eel populations. PMID:26847560

  10. Generalized extreme gust wind speeds distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, E.; Yeung, C.

    2002-01-01

    Since summer 1996, the US wind engineers are using the extreme gust (or 3-s gust) as the basic wind speed to quantify the destruction of extreme winds. In order to better understand these destructive wind forces, it is important to know the appropriate representations of these extreme gust wind speeds. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine the most suitable extreme value distributions for the annual extreme gust wind speeds recorded in large selected areas. To achieve this objective, we are using the generalized Pareto distribution as the diagnostic tool for determining the types of extreme gust wind speed distributions. The three-parameter generalized extreme value distribution function is, thus, reduced to either Type I Gumbel, Type II Frechet or Type III reverse Weibull distribution function for the annual extreme gust wind speeds recorded at a specific site.With the considerations of the quality and homogeneity of gust wind data collected at more than 750 weather stations throughout the United States, annual extreme gust wind speeds at selected 143 stations in the contiguous United States were used in the study. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Real World: Analog Testing in Extreme Environments

    NASA Video Gallery

    See how NASA uses analog testing to simulate space exploration. Explore extreme environments like the Aquarius underwater laboratory in Key Largo, Florida. Find out how scientists use mathematical ...

  12. Controlling extreme events on complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Zhong; Huang, Zi-Gang; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2014-08-01

    Extreme events, a type of collective behavior in complex networked dynamical systems, often can have catastrophic consequences. To develop effective strategies to control extreme events is of fundamental importance and practical interest. Utilizing transportation dynamics on complex networks as a prototypical setting, we find that making the network ``mobile'' can effectively suppress extreme events. A striking, resonance-like phenomenon is uncovered, where an optimal degree of mobility exists for which the probability of extreme events is minimized. We derive an analytic theory to understand the mechanism of control at a detailed and quantitative level, and validate the theory numerically. Implications of our finding to current areas such as cybersecurity are discussed.

  13. European Cargo Ship Launches to Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    The European Space Agency's third Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV-3) launched atop an Ariane 5 rocket from the European space port in Kourou, French Guiana, at 12:34 a.m. EDT Friday, beginning a si...

  14. New head picked for European Spallation Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The UK physicist John Womersley is to become the next director-general of the €1.8bn European Spallation Source (ESS), which is currently being built in Lund, Sweden, by a 17-member consortium of European countries.

  15. European physics impact - to a first approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starckx, Senne

    2013-05-01

    Physics-based industries contributed around 14%, or €3800bn, to the total value of the European economy in 2010 - exceeding that of the construction and retail sectors combined - according to a report by the European Physical Society (EPS).

  16. European psychotraumatology – alongside the recent European history

    PubMed Central

    Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines a personal reflection of experiences within the field of traumatic stress, especially in relation to specific events, which affected the author's professional life. Conclusions for further challenges for European Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ESTSS) are delineated. ESTSS's role in the global network of traumatic stress societies is discussed. This is a personal view of Brigitte Lueger-Schuster, president of ESTSS on behalf of the 20th birthday of ESTSS. PMID:23755321

  17. Plasmons under extreme dimensional confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitering, Hanno

    2012-02-01

    In our studies, we explore how surface and bulk plasmons emerge under extreme dimensional confinement, i.e., dimensions that are orders of magnitude smaller than those employed in `nanoplasmonics'. Atomically-smooth ultrathin Mg films were epitaxially grown on Si(111), allowing for atomically-precise tuning of the plasmon response.ootnotetextM.M. "Ozer, E.J. Moon, A.G. Eguiluz, and H.H. Weitering, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 197601 (2011). While the single-particle states in these 3-12 monolayer (ML) thick films consist of a series of two-dimensional subbands, the bulk-plasmon response is like that of a thin slice carved from bulk Mg subject to quantum-mechanical boundary conditions. Remarkably, this bulk-like behavior persists all the way down to 3 ML. In the 3-12 ML thickness range, bulk loss spectra are dominated by the n=1 and n=2 normal modes, consistent with the excitation of plasmons involving quantized electronic subbands. The collective response of the thinnest films is furthermore characterized by a thickness-dependent spectral weight transfer from the high-energy collective modes to the low-energy single-particle excitations, until the bulk plasmon ceases to exist below 3 ML. Surface- and multipole plasmon modes even persist down to 2 ML. These results are striking manifestations of the role of quantum confinement on plasmon resonances in precisely controlled nanostructures. They furthermore suggest the intriguing possibility of tuning resonant plasmon frequencies via precise dimensional control.

  18. Magnetotactic Bacteria from Extreme Environments

    PubMed Central

    Bazylinski, Dennis A.; Lefèvre, Christopher T.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) represent a diverse collection of motile prokaryotes that biomineralize intracellular, membrane-bounded, tens-of-nanometer-sized crystals of a magnetic mineral called magnetosomes. Magnetosome minerals consist of either magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4) and cause cells to align along the Earth’s geomagnetic field lines as they swim, a trait called magnetotaxis. MTB are known to mainly inhabit the oxic–anoxic interface (OAI) in water columns or sediments of aquatic habitats and it is currently thought that magnetosomes function as a means of making chemotaxis more efficient in locating and maintaining an optimal position for growth and survival at the OAI. Known cultured and uncultured MTB are phylogenetically associated with the Alpha-, Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria classes of the phylum Proteobacteria, the Nitrospirae phylum and the candidate division OP3, part of the Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia-Chlamydiae (PVC) bacterial superphylum. MTB are generally thought to be ubiquitous in aquatic environments as they are cosmopolitan in distribution and have been found in every continent although for years MTB were thought to be restricted to habitats with pH values near neutral and at ambient temperature. Recently, however, moderate thermophilic and alkaliphilic MTB have been described including: an uncultured, moderately thermophilic magnetotactic bacterium present in hot springs in northern Nevada with a probable upper growth limit of about 63 °C; and several strains of obligately alkaliphilic MTB isolated in pure culture from different aquatic habitats in California, including the hypersaline, extremely alkaline Mono Lake, with an optimal growth pH of >9.0. PMID:25369742

  19. Magnetotactic Bacteria from Extreme Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazylinski, Dennis A.; Lefère, Christopher T.

    2013-03-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) represent a diverse collection of motile prokaryotes that biomineralize intracellular, membrane-bounded, tens-of-nanometer-sized crystals of a magnetic mineral called magnetosomes. Magnetosome minerals consist of either magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4) and cause cells to align along the Earth's geomagnetic field lines as they swim, a trait called magnetotaxis. MTB are known to mainly inhabit the oxic-anoxic interface (OAI) in water columns or sediments of aquatic habitats and it is currently thought that magnetosomes function as a means of making chemotaxis more efficient in locating and maintaining an optimal position for growth and survival at the OAI. Known cultured and uncultured MTB are phylogenetically associated with the Alpha-, Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria classes of the phylum Proteobacteria, the Nitrospirae phylum and the candidate division OP3, part of the Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia-Chlamydiae (PVC) bacterial superphylum. MTB are generally thought to be ubiquitous in aquatic environments as they are cosmopolitan in distribution and have been found in every continent although for years MTB were thought to be restricted to habitats with pH values near neutral and at ambient temperature. Recently, however, moderate thermophilic and alkaliphilic MTB have been described including: an uncultured, moderately thermophilic magnetotactic bacterium present in hot springs in northern Nevada with a probable upper growth limit of about 63 °C; and several strains of obligately alkaliphilic MTB isolated in pure culture from different aquatic habitats in California, including the hypersaline, extremely alkaline Mono Lake, with an optimal growth pH of >9.0.

  20. Magnetotactic bacteria from extreme environments.

    PubMed

    Bazylinski, Dennis A; Lefèvre, Christopher T

    2013-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) represent a diverse collection of motile prokaryotes that biomineralize intracellular, membrane-bounded, tens-of-nanometer-sized crystals of a magnetic mineral called magnetosomes. Magnetosome minerals consist of either magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4) and cause cells to align along the Earth's geomagnetic field lines as they swim, a trait called magnetotaxis. MTB are known to mainly inhabit the oxic-anoxic interface (OAI) in water columns or sediments of aquatic habitats and it is currently thought that magnetosomes function as a means of making chemotaxis more efficient in locating and maintaining an optimal position for growth and survival at the OAI. Known cultured and uncultured MTB are phylogenetically associated with the Alpha-, Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria classes of the phylum Proteobacteria, the Nitrospirae phylum and the candidate division OP3, part of the Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia-Chlamydiae (PVC) bacterial superphylum. MTB are generally thought to be ubiquitous in aquatic environments as they are cosmopolitan in distribution and have been found in every continent although for years MTB were thought to be restricted to habitats with pH values near neutral and at ambient temperature. Recently, however, moderate thermophilic and alkaliphilic MTB have been described including: an uncultured, moderately thermophilic magnetotactic bacterium present in hot springs in northern Nevada with a probable upper growth limit of about 63 °C; and several strains of obligately alkaliphilic MTB isolated in pure culture from different aquatic habitats in California, including the hypersaline, extremely alkaline Mono Lake, with an optimal growth pH of >9.0. PMID:25369742

  1. Drought as a Catalyst for Early Medieval European Subsistence Crises and Violence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludlow, Francis; Cook, Edward; Kostick, Conor; McCormick, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Tree-ring records provide one of most reliable means of reconstructing past climatic conditions, from longer-term multi-decadal fluctuations in temperature and precipitation to inter-annual variability, including years that experienced extreme weather. When combined with written records of past societal behaviour and the incidence of major societal stresses (e.g., famine, disease, and conflict), such records hold the potential to shed new light on historical interactions between climate and society. Recent years have seen the continued development of long dendroclimatic reconstructions, including, most recently the development of the Old World Drought Atlas (OWDA; Cook et al., 2015) which for the first time makes available a robust reconstruction of spring-summer hydroclimatic conditions and extremes for the greater European region, including the entirety of the Dark Ages. In this paper, we examine the association between hydroclimatic extremes identified in the OWDA and well-dated reports of severe drought in early medieval European annals and chronicles, and find a clear statistical correspondence, further confirming the accuracy of the OWDA and its importance as an independent record of hydroclimatic extremes, a resource that can now be drawn upon in both paleoclimatology and studies of climatic impacts on human society. We proceed to examine the association between hydroclimatic extremes identified in the OWDA and the incidence of a range of major societal stresses (scarcity and famine, epidemic disease, and mass human mortality) drawn from an exhaustive survey of early medieval European annals and chronicles. The outcome of this comparison firmly implicates drought as a significant driver of major societal stresses during early medieval times. Using a record of the violent killings of societal elites recorded on a continuous annual basis in medieval Irish monastic annals, we further examine the role of hydroclimatic extremes as triggers in medieval violence

  2. How Is European Governance Configuring the EHEA?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magalhães, António; Veiga, Amélia; Sousa, Sofia; Ribeiro, Filipa

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the interaction between the European dimension driven by the creation of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) and the development of national reforms to fulfil that objective. On the basis of data gathered in eight countries involved in EuroHESC project TRUE (Transforming European Universities), the curricular and the…

  3. Our European Neighbours. Vocational Training No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocational Training, 1989

    1989-01-01

    This document addresses vocational training in European countries. The document contains the following articles: (1) "Dear Readers" (Ernst Piehl and Georges Dupont); (2) "Interview with Lord Plumb, President of the European Parliament" (Georges Dupont); "The European Community's 'Ostpolitik'" (Horst G. Krenzler); "Opening up to the East in the…

  4. Europeanizing Education: Governing a New Policy Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawn, Martin; Grek, Sotiria

    2012-01-01

    The study of common and diverse effects in the field of education across Europe is a growing field of inquiry and research. It is the result of many actions, networks and programmes over the last few decades and the development of common European education policies. "Europeanizing Education" describes the origins of European education policy, as…

  5. European Initiatives in Postgraduate Education in Gerontology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rijsselt, Rene J. T.; Parkatti, Terttu; Troisi, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes three innovative European initiatives in postgraduate education in gerontology. The first is the European Masters Program in Gerontology (EuMaG), developed as an interdisciplinary joint program, supported and delivered by 22 European universities. Second, the Nordplus initiative to increase mobility of students and staff in…

  6. European Community Databases: Online to Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Colin

    1989-01-01

    Describes three groups of databases sponsored by the European Communities Commission: Eurobases, a textual database of the contents of the "Official Journal" of the European Community; the European Community Host Organization (ECHO) databases, which offer multilingual information about Europe; and statistical databases. Information on access and…

  7. ETUDE - European Trade Union Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creanor, Linda; Walker, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Describes transnational distance learning activities among European trade union educators carried out as part of the European Trade Union Distance Education (ETUDE) project, supported by the European Commission. Highlights include the context of international trade union distance education; tutor training course; tutors' experiences; and…

  8. Analyzing Spatiotemporal Patterns of Extreme Precipitation Events in Southeastern Anatolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozcan, O.; Bookhagen, B.; Musaoglu, N.

    2013-10-01

    Extreme environmental events, such as floods, droughts, rainstorms, and strong winds have severe consequences for human society. Changes in extreme weather and climate events have significant impacts and are among the most serious challenges to society in coping with a changing climate. The cost of damage caused by extreme climate events is rising all over the world. The European Environment Agency (EEA) report ("Climate Change, Impacts and Vulnerabilities in Europe 2012") stated that the cost of damage had increased from € 9 billion in the 1980s to € 13 billions in the 2000s. In the United States, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) reported that 188 billion in damage was caused by the severe weather events in 2011 and 2012. Understanding and identifying hydrometeorologic extreme events and their changes through time are key in sustaining agriculture and socio-economic development. Planning for weather-related emergencies, agricultural and reservoir management and insurance risk calculations, all rely on knowledge of the frequency of these extreme events. The assessment of extreme precipitation is an important problem in hydrologic risk analysis and design. Erosion and removal of the fertile soil layer through hydroclimatic extreme events is also a serious problem in semi-arid to arid regions, especially in mediterranean climates. Accurate measurements of precipitation on a variety of space and time scales are important to climate scientists and decision makers, including hydrologists, agriculturalists and emergency managers. The historical record of precipitation observations is limited mostly to land areas where rain gauges can be deployed, and measurements from those instruments are sparse over large and meteorologically important regions of the Turkey, such as over the Southeastern Anatolia Region. While rain gauge measurements are often used to tune hydrologic models, they are limited by their spatial coverage. Remote sensing

  9. Extreme Geohazards: Reducing the Disaster Risk and Increasing Resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plag, Hans-Peter; Stein, Seth; Brocklebank, Sean; Jules-Plag, Shelley; Marsh, Stuart; Campus, Paola

    2013-04-01

    Extreme geohazards have the potential to escalate the global sustainability crisis and put us close to the boundaries of the safe operating space for humanity. Exposure of human assets to geohazards has increased dramatically in recent decades, and the sensitivity of the built environment and the embedded socio-economic fabric have changed. We are putting the urban environment, including megacities, in harm's way. Paradoxically, innovation during recent decades, in particular, urban innovation, has increased the disaster risk and coupled this risk to the sustainability crisis. Only more innovation can reduce disaster risk and lead us out of the sustainability crisis. Extreme geohazards (volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis) that occurred regularly throughout the last few millennia mostly did not cause major disasters because population density was low and the built environment was not sprawling into hazardous areas to the same extent as today. Similar extreme events today would cause unparalleled damage on a global scale and could worsen the sustainability crisis. Simulation of these extreme hazards under present conditions can help to assess the disaster risk. The Geohazards Community of Practice of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) with support from the European Science Foundation is preparing a white paper assessing the contemporary disaster risks associated with extreme geohazards and developing a vision for science and society to engage in deliberations addressing this risk (see http://www.geohazcop.org/projects/extgeowp). Risk awareness and monitoring is highly uneven across the world, and this creates two kinds of problems. Firstly, potential hazards are much more closely monitored in wealthy countries than in the developing world. But the largest hazards are global in nature, and it is critical to get as much forewarning as possible to develop an effective response. The disasters and near-misses of the past show that adherence to scientific

  10. Two Extremely Hot Exoplanets Caught in Transit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-05-01

    VLT Measures Properties of New Jupiter-Size Objects in Very Close Orbits Summary A European team of astronomers [1] are announcing the discovery and study of two new extra-solar planets (exoplanets). They belong to the OGLE transit candidate objects and could be characterized in detail. This trebles the number of exoplanets discovered by the transit method; three such objects are now known. The observations were performed in March 2004 with the FLAMES multi-fiber spectrograph on the 8.2-m VLT Kueyen telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile). They enabled the astronomers to measure accurate radial velocities for forty-one stars for which a temporary brightness "dip" had been detected by the OGLE survey. This effect might be the signature of the transit in front of the star of an orbiting planet, but may also be caused by a small stellar companion. For two of the stars (OGLE-TR-113 and OGLE-TR-132), the measured velocity changes revealed the presence of planetary-mass companions in extremely short-period orbits. This result confirms the existence of a new class of giant planets, designated "very hot Jupiters" because of their size and very high surface temperature. They are extremely close to their host stars, orbiting them in less than 2 (Earth) days. The transit method for detecting exoplanets will be "demonstrated" for a wide public on June 8, 2004, when planet Venus passes in front of the solar disc, cf. the VT-2004 programme. PR Photo 14a/04: Sky Field with OGLE-TR-113 PR Photo 14b/04: Sky Field with OGLE-TR-132 PR Photo 14c/04: Brightness "Dips" Caused by Two Transiting Exoplanets PR Photo 14d/04: Velocity Variations Caused by Two Transiting Exoplanets PR Photo 14e/04: Properties of Known Transiting Exoplanets Discovering other Worlds During the past decade, astronomers have learned that our Solar System is not unique, as more than 120 giant planets orbiting other stars were discovered by radial-velocity surveys (cf. ESO PR 13/00, ESO PR 07/01, and ESO

  11. LEMUR: Large European module for solar Ultraviolet Research. European contribution to JAXA's Solar-C mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teriaca, Luca; Andretta, Vincenzo; Auchère, Frédéric; Brown, Charles M.; Buchlin, Eric; Cauzzi, Gianna; Culhane, J. Len; Curdt, Werner; Davila, Joseph M.; Del Zanna, Giulio; Doschek, George A.; Fineschi, Silvano; Fludra, Andrzej; Gallagher, Peter T.; Green, Lucie; Harra, Louise K.; Imada, Shinsuke; Innes, Davina; Kliem, Bernhard; Korendyke, Clarence; Mariska, John T.; Martínez-Pillet, Valentin; Parenti, Susanna; Patsourakos, Spiros; Peter, Hardi; Poletto, Luca; Rutten, Robert J.; Schühle, Udo; Siemer, Martin; Shimizu, Toshifumi; Socas-Navarro, Hector; Solanki, Sami K.; Spadaro, Daniele; Trujillo-Bueno, Javier; Tsuneta, Saku; Dominguez, Santiago Vargas; Vial, Jean-Claude; Walsh, Robert; Warren, Harry P.; Wiegelmann, Thomas; Winter, Berend; Young, Peter

    2012-10-01

    The solar outer atmosphere is an extremely dynamic environment characterized by the continuous interplay between the plasma and the magnetic field that generates and permeates it. Such interactions play a fundamental role in hugely diverse astrophysical systems, but occur at scales that cannot be studied outside the solar system. Understanding this complex system requires concerted, simultaneous solar observations from the visible to the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and soft X-rays, at high spatial resolution (between 0.1'' and 0.3''), at high temporal resolution (on the order of 10 s, i.e., the time scale of chromospheric dynamics), with a wide temperature coverage (0.01 MK to 20 MK, from the chromosphere to the flaring corona), and the capability of measuring magnetic fields through spectropolarimetry at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Simultaneous spectroscopic measurements sampling the entire temperature range are particularly important. These requirements are fulfilled by the Japanese Solar-C mission (Plan B), composed of a spacecraft in a geosynchronous orbit with a payload providing a significant improvement of imaging and spectropolarimetric capabilities in the UV, visible, and near-infrared with respect to what is available today and foreseen in the near future. The Large European Module for solar Ultraviolet Research (LEMUR), described in this paper, is a large VUV telescope feeding a scientific payload of high-resolution imaging spectrographs and cameras. LEMUR consists of two major components: a VUV solar telescope with a 30 cm diameter mirror and a focal length of 3.6 m, and a focal-plane package composed of VUV spectrometers covering six carefully chosen wavelength ranges between 170 Å and 1270 Å. The LEMUR slit covers 280'' on the Sun with 0.14'' per pixel sampling. In addition, LEMUR is capable of measuring mass flows velocities (line shifts) down to 2 km s - 1 or better. LEMUR has been proposed to ESA as the European contribution to the Solar

  12. Making Citizens, Being European? European Symbolism in Slovenian Citizenship Education Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banjac, Marinko; Pušnik, Tomaž

    2015-01-01

    Citizenship education has been an important part of the European Union's (EU) agenda to integrate a European dimension into schools' curricula. The usage of European symbolism in citizenship education curriculum material has been an especially important (yet understudied) means not only to promote a distinct European identity and increase…

  13. European Biospheric Network Takes Off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovkin, Victor; Reick, Christian; van Bodegom, Peter

    2010-04-01

    Opening Symposium of the TERRABITES Network; Hamburg, Germany, 9-11 February 2010; The huge amount of recently acquired information about the functioning of the terrestrial biosphere and the ever increasing spatial resolution of Earth system models call for a new level of integrating efforts among biosphere modelers, developers of ecological theory, and data-gathering communities. Responding to this call, a new European network, Terrestrial Biosphere in the Earth System (TERRABITES), held its opening symposium in Germany. The meeting was organized jointly with another recently founded European network, Advancing the Integrated Monitoring of Trace Gas Exchange Between Biosphere and Atmosphere (ABBA). Almost 100 scientific contributions covered the latest advances in modeling ecophysiological and biogeochemical processes; analyses of model constraints set by measurements of water and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes, including carbon isotopes; and new perspectives in using remote sensing data for evaluation of global terrestrial biosphere models.

  14. Security Economics and European Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Ross; Böhme, Rainer; Clayton, Richard; Moor, Tyler

    In September 2007, we were awarded a contract by the European Network and Information Security Agency (ENISA) to investigate failures in the market for secure electronic communications within the European Union, and come up with policy recommendations. In the process, we spoke to a large number of stakeholders, and held a consultative meeting in December 2007 in Brussels to present draft proposals, which established most had wide stakeholder support. The formal outcome of our work was a detailed report, “Security Economics and the Internal Market”, published by ENISA in March 2008. This paper presents a much abridged version: in it, we present the recommendations we made, along with a summary of our reasoning.

  15. Traceability from a European perspective.

    PubMed

    Schwägele, F

    2005-09-01

    At pan-European level there is a need for traceability systems giving information on origin, processing, retailing and final destination of foodstuffs. Such systems shall enhance consumer confidence in food; enable the regulatory authorities to identify and to withdraw health hazardous and non-consumable foodstuffs from the market. Animal feeds are an element in this "food-to-farm" approach to public health. Such feedstuffs are preliminary elements of some foods for human consumption, and hence are an inherent element of the food chain. A harmonised pan-European food traceability protocol would greatly assist authorities in detecting fraud as well as dangerous substances. The food chain comprises a range of sequential and parallel stages bridging the full spectrum from agricultural production to the consumable foodstuffs by consumers. EU legislation on traceability and the technologies needed to implement this system for meat and meat products are the focus of this paper. PMID:22064062

  16. Biosimilar insulins: a European perspective.

    PubMed

    DeVries, J H; Gough, S C L; Kiljanski, J; Heinemann, L

    2015-05-01

    Biosimilar insulins are likely to enter clinical practice in Europe in the near future. It is important that clinicians are familiar with and understand the concept of biosimilarity and how a biosimilar drug may differ from its reference product. The present article provides an overview of biosimilars, the European regulatory requirements for biosimilars and safety issues. It also summarizes the current biosimilars approved in Europe and the key clinical issues associated with the use of biosimilar insulins. PMID:25376600

  17. Biosimilar insulins: a European perspective

    PubMed Central

    DeVries, J H; Gough, S C L; Kiljanski, J; Heinemann, L

    2015-01-01

    Biosimilar insulins are likely to enter clinical practice in Europe in the near future. It is important that clinicians are familiar with and understand the concept of biosimilarity and how a biosimilar drug may differ from its reference product. The present article provides an overview of biosimilars, the European regulatory requirements for biosimilars and safety issues. It also summarizes the current biosimilars approved in Europe and the key clinical issues associated with the use of biosimilar insulins. PMID:25376600

  18. Role of extreme events in vegetation dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extreme climatic events challenge the capacity of vegetation models, including Dynamic Global Vegetation Models, to predict changes in plant species dynamics at local and regional spatial scales and over time periods relevant to ecologists and managers. Extreme climatic events are defined as large,...

  19. Complex Plasma Research Under Extreme Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ishihara, Osamu

    2008-09-07

    Complex plasma research under extreme conditions is described. The extreme conditions include low-dimensionality for self-organized structures of dust particles, dust magnetization in high magnetic field, criticality in phase transition, and cryogenic environment for Coulomb crystals and dust dynamics.

  20. Recent Developments in Statistical Downscaling of Extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertig, E.

    2014-12-01

    Based on the output of general circulation models (GCMs) regionalization techniques are usually applied to obtain fine-scale climate change information. Different types of regionalization techniques have been developed which comprise regional climate models and statistical downscaling approaches such as conditional weather generators, artificial neural networks, synoptic studies, and transfer functions. In the scope of climate variability and climate change the variations and changes of extremes are of special importance. Extreme events are not only of scientific interest but also have a profound impact on society. For the statistical downscaling of extremes, promising approaches have been introduced and/or developed further in the last few years. Aspects of recent developments in the scope of statistical downscaling of extremes will be presented. In this context, various approaches to downscale extremes, particularly those associated with extreme precipitation events, will be discussed. Key problems related to statistical downscaling of extremes will be addressed. Furthermore, information on Working Group 4 "Extremes" of the EU COST action VALUE (www.value-cost.eu) will be provided. VALUE systematically validates and develops downscaling methods for climate change research in order to improve regional climate change scenarios for use in climate impact studies.

  1. Generalized IRT Models for Extreme Response Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Kuan-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Extreme response style (ERS) is a systematic tendency for a person to endorse extreme options (e.g., strongly disagree, strongly agree) on Likert-type or rating-scale items. In this study, we develop a new class of item response theory (IRT) models to account for ERS so that the target latent trait is free from the response style and the tendency…

  2. Extreme events: The art of attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Friederike E. L.

    2016-04-01

    A high-impact weather event that occurred at the end of a decade of weather extremes led to the emergence of extreme event attribution science. The challenge is now to move on to assessing the actual risks, rather than simply attributing meteorological variables to climate change.

  3. Surface atmospheric extremes (Launch and transportation areas)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The effects of extreme values of surface and low altitude atmospheric parameters on space vehicle design, tests, and operations are discussed. Atmospheric extremes from the surface to 150 meters for geographic locations of interest to NASA are given. Thermal parameters (temperature and solar radiation), humidity, pressure, and atmospheric electricity (lighting and static) are presented. Weather charts and tables are included.

  4. The Nature and Characteristics of Youthful Extremism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubok, Iu. A.; Chuprov, V. I.

    2010-01-01

    Extremism is an acute problem of the present day. Moods of extremism are manifested in all spheres of the life and activities of young people--in education, work, business, political life, and leisure activity. They can be found in both individual and group social self-determination and are influenced by the immediate social environment as well as…

  5. EPE The Extreme Physics Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Michael; Elvis, Martin; Bookbinder, Jay; Brenneman, Laura; Bulbul, Esra; Nulsen, Paul; Patnaude, Dan; Smith, Randall; Bandler, Simon; Okajima, Takashi; Ptak, Andy; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Danner, Rolf; Daily, Dean; Fraser, George; Willingale, Richard; Miller, Jon; Turner, T. J.; Risalti, Guido; Galeazzi, Massimiliano

    2012-01-01

    The Extreme Physics Explorer (EPE) is a mission concept that will address fundamental and timely questions in astrophysics which are primary science objectives of IXO. The reach of EPE to the areas outlined in NASA RFI NNH11ZDA018L is shown as a table. The dark green indicates areas in which EPE can do the basic IXO science, and the light green areas where EPE can contribute but will not reach the full IXO capability. To address these science questions, EPE will trace orbits close to the event horizon of black holes, measure black hole spin in active galactic nuclei (AGN), use spectroscopy to characterize outflows and the environment of AGN, map bulk motions and turbulence in galaxy clusters, and observe the process of cosmic feedback where black holes inject energy on galactic and intergalactic scales. EPE gives up the high resolution imaging of IXO in return for lightweight, high TRL foil mirrors which will provide >20 times the effective area of ASTRO-H and similar spatial resolution, with a beam sufficient to study point sources and nearby galaxies and clusters. Advances in micro-calorimeters allow improved performance at high rates with twice the energy resolution of ASTRO-H. A lower TRL option would provide 200 times the area of ASTRO-H using a micro-channel plate optic (MCPO) and a deployable optical bench. Both options are in the middle range of RFI missions at between $600M and $1000M. The EPE foil optic has direct heritage to ASTRO-H, allowing robust cost estimates. The spacecraft is entirely off the shelf and introduces no difficult requirements. The mission could be started and launched in this decade to an L2 orbit, with a three-year lifetime and consumables for 5 years. While ASTRO-H will give us the first taste of high-resolution, non-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, it will be limited to small numbers of objects in many categories. EPE will give us the first statistically significant samples in each of these categories.

  6. Microrover Design for Extreme Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, R.; van Winnendael, M.

    2003-04-01

    With the emergence of ESA's BepiColombo cornerstone mission to the Planet Mercury, a new class of operational environment has become relevant for the design of planetary surface systems. In the past years, Mars was a primary focus for planetary landers, planetary mobility elements such as rovers or moles, and payload instruments. The typical environmental conditions were characterized by a temperature range between -120 and +20°C, low atmospheric pressure in the range of 7 hPa, and a dust/regolith environment. For a Mercury mission including a planetary landing, this situation can change dramatically, depending on the landing site and landing season. Local temperatures can be as low as -170°C in shadow or during night, and they can easily reach 200 to 250°C in sun light, even in temperate zones, e.g. at high latitudes of 85°. Such an environment is of course a particular challenge for both, the payload instruments and the accommodating microrobotic system. The strong limitation in size, mass, and power does not allow to apply classical, large sized passive thermal control mechanisms, or to implement active thermal control techniques with high power demand. The situation is even worse, if - as in the case of the BepiColombo Surface Element - the system is powered by primary batteries, resulting in a severe limitation of energy and on-surface life time. In the last years, the Nanokhod microrover has been developed to the state of an advanced laboratory model with the primary focus of an Mars mission application. For BepiColombo, Nanokhod became part of the lander's model payload. As a consequence, the related ESA technology development activity "Robotic Technology for Planetary Exploration" (RTPE) has been re-oriented towards a Mercury mission application. This paper presents the results of the RTPE activity in the context of an application of the Nanokhod microrover in an extreme environment. It describes the design approach, focusing on the thermal and

  7. Progress in European CELSS activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoog, A. I.

    1987-01-01

    The European Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) activities started in the late 1970's with system analysis and feasibility studies of Biological Life Support Systems (BLSS). The initiation for CELSS came from the industry side in Europe, but since then planning and hardware feasibility analyses have been initiated also from customer/agency side. Despite this, it is still too early to state that a CELSS program as a concerted effort has been agreed upon in Europe. However, the general CELSS objectives were accepted as planning and possible development goals for the European effort for manned space activities, and as experimental planning topics in the life sciences community for the next decades. It is expected that ecological life support systems can be tested and implemented on a space station towards the end of this century or early in the next. For the European activities a possible scenario can be projected based on ongoing life support system development activities and the present life sciences goals.

  8. International Heliophysical Year: European Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briand, C.

    2007-08-01

    The First European General Assembly of the "International Heliophysical Year" (IHY) took place at the headquarters of the Centre Nationial de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) in Paris, France, 10-13 January 2006. There were 113 participants representing 27 nations. The science concerned with the International Heliophysical Year programme was first illustrated. Then, the status of current instruments as well as practical information on the campaign management policy was given. Twenty European National Coordinators described the progress of their IHY activities. Representatives from Egypt, Angola and the coordinator of the Balkan, Black and Caspian Sea Region also reported on the progress of IHY activities in their respective regions. People from the IHY Secretariat provided a summary of the global IHY efforts including the United Nations Basic Space Sciences Program. In the education and public outreach front, a variety of activities have been planned: TV and radio shows, board games on space weather, specific programmes for schools and universities, workshops for teachers are some of the actions that were presented by the delegates. Beyond of these national and individual initiatives, specific activities requiring European coordination were discussed. This paper provides an extended summary of the main talks and discussions that held during the meeting.

  9. Third European Stroke Science Workshop.

    PubMed

    Dichgans, Martin; Planas, Anna M; Biessels, Geert Jan; van der Worp, Bart; Sudlow, Cathie; Norrving, Bo; Lees, Kennedy; Mattle, Heinrich P

    2016-07-01

    Lake Eibsee, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, November 19 to 21, 2015: The European Stroke Organization convened >120 stroke experts from 27 countries to discuss latest results and hot topics in clinical, translational, and basic stroke research. Since its inception in 2011, the European Stroke Science Workshop has become a cornerstone of European Stroke Organization's academic activities and major highlight for researchers in the field. Participants include stroke researchers at all career stages who convene for plenary lectures and discussions, thus facilitating crosstalk among researchers from different fields. As in previous years, the workshop was organized into 7 scientific sessions each focusing on a major research topic. All sessions started with a keynote lecture that provided an overview on current developments and set the scene for the following presentations. The latter were short focused talks on a timely topic and included the most recent findings, including unpublished data. A new element at this year's meeting was a hot topic session in which speakers had to present a provocative concept or update sharply within 5 minutes. In the following, we summarize the key contents of the meeting. The program is provided in the online-only Data Supplement. PMID:27283200

  10. European rendezvous and docking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pairot, J. M.; Frezet, M.; Tailhades, J.; Fehse, W.; Tobias, A.; Getzschmann, A.

    This paper first describes the major design drivers and the key features of the European RendezVous and Docking System Concept. Stemming from technology activities led by the European Space Agency (ESA) with European Industry and National Space Agencies since the beginning of the eighties, the concept has been developed and integrated in the frame of an ESA RVD System Pre-Development Programme initiated at ESTEC in 1989, with MATRA as main contractor. The objective is to verify the overall concept and the main elements within a RVD Proof of Concept Programme in order to provide an early proof of validity to the user projects, the first of which will be the Hermes manned space shuttle. The selected mission scenarii, the RVD functions addressed and the overall system architecture are described. The results of supporting safety, performance and operations analyses are presented. The paper further presents the verification objectives and the major results obtained in the RVD System Pre-Development Programme. This verification approach involves hardware breadboards, software prototypes, development of test facilities in four main development areas: test of RV sensors on a 6 d.o.f. kinematic test facility, test of a docking mechanism front-end mock-up on the docking dynamics test facility, closed-loop test of a prototype RV control software, test of man-in-the-loop concept involving both supervisory control and manual control modes.

  11. EMSO: European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favali, Paolo; Partnership, Emso

    2010-05-01

    EEMSO, an ESFRI Research Infrastructure, is the European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the scientific objective of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes through long time series appropriate to the scale of the phenomena, constituting the new frontier of studying Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry and ocean processes. EMSO will reply also to the need expressed in the frame of GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) to develop a marine segment integrated in the in situ and satellite global monitoring system. The EMSO infrastructure will extend the coverage to the sea of the monitoring, integrating the land-based networks with multidisciplinary seafloor measurements. With this aim the two European research infrastructures EPOS (European Plate Observing System) and EMSO can operate in coordination in order to increase the mutual benefits. EMSO is presently at the stage of Preparatory Phase, funded in the EC FP7. The EMSO status, the perspectives and relations with other existing or incoming sensor networks and data infrastructures are outlined.

  12. Hydrological extremes in the Aksu-Tarim River Basin: Mid-latitude dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borth, Hartmut; Tao, Hui; Fraedrich, Klaus; Schneidereit, Andrea; Zhu, Xiuhua

    2016-04-01

    Analyses of precipitation (1961-2010) from 39 meteorological stations in the Tarim River Basin revealed a trend from dryer towards wetter conditions induced by an increase of the number of wet extremes. A first (1961-1986) and second (1987-2010) period are the basis for a dynamical analysis of changing drought and wetness extremes which are closely related to cyclonic activity over the European continent and circulation anomalies in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes. Wave train, cyclone tracks, water flux and potential vorticity (PV) front analysis of the wet and dry months show the following result: (1) The extreme wet and dry cases in winter and summer are characterized by distinguished wave train patterns upstream of the Tarim River Basin. All wave trains originate in the Atlantic-European sector pointing towards wave train dynamics as one possible mechanism underlying the connection patterns observed. (2) The selected extreme cases show that exceptional precipitation events can be connected to characteristic cyclone tracks and a PV front in the upper troposphere even if cyclone tracks never cross the Tarim Basin. Extremely wet winters are characterized by cyclone tracks close to the western and northern boundary of the Tarim Basin whereas, during extremely dry winters, such cyclone tracks are absent. Wet summers are characterized by long-lived cyclonic anomalies at the north western corner of the Tarim River Basin [see also (3)]. During dry summers such anomalies are absent. (3) On a more local level the hydrological extreme events are linked to special dynamical structures of the upper tropospheric PV front. In winter strong (extreme) precipitation is connected to a strong non-linear wave development or a wave-breaking event over the Tarim River Basin. Together with non-linear wave development moisture and precipitation areas are advected towards the Tarim River Basin. In dry winters the upper tropospheric PV front is much more zonally oriented and wave

  13. Circulation types classification for the Iberian Peninsula and relationships with observed relative extreme values of temperature and precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Montes, S.; Rodrigo, F. S.; Seubert, S.; Hertig, E.; Philipp, A.

    2010-09-01

    Temperature and precipitation extremes have a major impact in the Iberian Peninsula on multiple sectors, and changes in their frequency are very likely linked to changes in the atmospheric circulation. By means of the COST733 software, daily mean SLP reconstructions from the project EMULATE for the period 1850-2003 have been used for classifying daily circulation types (hereafter CTs) using a simulated annealing clustering technique. On the other hand 25 long series (between 70 and 150 years) of daily precipitation, and maximum and minimum temperature across the Iberian Peninsula are considered for the study. In order to get a better understanding of the relationships between atmospheric circulation and local occurrences of extremes, a small window centred in the Iberian Peninsula was preferred rather than a large North Atlantic- European window. A PCA t-mode analysis of the SLP data was previously performed to determine a suitable number of clusters for each 3-months season. An index has been defined for each CT to measure its mean efficiency to conduce to extreme values at a specific location. This index is the ratio between percentages among extreme days and among non-extreme days in the period avaiable. Results demonstrate quite skill for the seasonal classifications in relating local extremes to some types, showing as well clear regional behaviours in the CTs more related to such extremes. The relationship between atmospheric CTs and daily extreme precipitation is even better explained (only few CTs are conducive to heavy precipitation) than for daily temperature extremes. The existence of significant trends in the temporal frequency of a few CTs is discussed, as well as their within type temporal variations in association to local extremes. Higher resolution grids of atmospheric parameter, such as the new 20th Century Reanalysis (V2) will be considered for further researches. References: Philipp, A., Della-Marta, P.M., Jacobeit, J., Fereday, D., Jones, P

  14. European Space Science Scales New Heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-06-01

    been approved by all ESA's Member States. Outside Europe, the stability and solidity of Horizon 2000 have made ESA an extremely credible and reliable partner, arousing ever greater interest in international - including transatlantic - co-operation. Given that the first results look positive, it makes sense to think about continuing the work done to date. Which is why this year, half-way through Horizon 2000, it is time to look ahead to the next twenty-year period and embark on the follow-up programme which will lead to further missions being carried out between 2006 and 2016. At ESA Council meeting to be held in October in Toulouse, European ministers responsible for space will therefore have to take a decision on a "Horizon 2000 PLUS " programme designed to ensure successful European space science over a further ten-year period. The proposal being put forward by ESA's directorate of scientific programmes involves setting up three large-scale missions: * a mission to explore Mercury, the least known of the inner solar planets, 60iln of whose surface has yet to be mapped * an interferometry observatory designed to map the sky a hundred times more accurately than the Hipparcos satellite * a gravitational observatory able to pick up the space time waves emitted by the universe at the precise moment of the Big Bang. In parallel four medium-size missions - their content still to be defined - would be carried out. As with its forerunner, Horizon 2000 PLUS has been defined on the basis of proposals submitted by the scientific community following open competition. In all, I10 mission concepts were proposed by a total of 2500 scientists. These were then examined by peer-review groups, involving 75 scientists in all who announced their final choice on I October 1994. The agency is proposing to start preparing for Horizon 2000 PLUS on the basis of level funding up to the year 2000. This means that ESA would undertake to conduct preliminary Horizon 2000 PLUS technological studies

  15. U.S., European ALMA Partners Award Prototype Antenna Contracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-03-01

    The U.S. and European partners in the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) project have awarded contracts to U.S. and Italian firms, respectively, for two prototype antennas. ALMA is a planned telescope array, expected to consist of 64 millimeter-wave antennas with 12-meter diameter dishes. The array will be built at a high-altitude, extremely dry mountain site in Chile's Atacama desert, and is scheduled to be completed sometime in this decade. On February 22, 2000, Associated Universities Inc. (AUI) signed an approximately $6.2 million contract with Vertex Antenna Systems, of Santa Clara, Calif., for construction of one prototype ALMA antenna. AUI operates the U.S. National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) for the National Science Foundation under a cooperative agreement. The European partners contracted with the consortium of European Industrial Engineering and Costamasnaga, of Mestre, Italy, on February 21, 2000, for the production of another prototype. (Mestre is located on the inland side of Venice.) The two antennas must meet identical specifications, but will inherently be of different designs. This will ensure that the best possible technologies are incorporated into the final production antennas. Only one of the designs will be selected for final production. Several technical challenges must be met for the antennas to perform to ALMA specifications. Each antenna must have extremely high surface accuracy (25 micrometers, or one-third the diameter of a human hair, over the entire 12-meter diameter). This means that, when completed, the surface accuracy of the ALMA dishes will be 20 times greater than that of the Very Large Array (VLA) antennas, and about 50 times greater than dish antennas for communications or radar. The ALMA antennas must also have extremely high pointing accuracy (0.6 arcseconds). An additional challenge is that the antennas, when installed at the ALMA site in Chile, will be exposed to the ravages of weather at 16,500 feet (5000 meters

  16. The AGIPD System for the European XFEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, Laura; Becker, J.; Dinapoli, R. D.; Fretwurst, E.; Goettlicher, P.; Graafsma, H.; Greiffenberg, D.; Gronewald, M.; Henrich, B.; Hirsemann, H.; Jack, S.; Klanner, R.; Klyuev, A.; Krueger, H.; Marras, A.; Mozzanica, A.; Rah, S.; Schmitt, B.; Shi, X.; Trunk, U.; Schwandt, J.; Zhang, J.

    2013-05-01

    The European XFEL will generate extremely brilliant pulses of X-rays organized in pulse trains consisting of 2700 pulses <100 fs long, with <1012 photons, and with a 220 ns spacing. The pulse trains are running at a 10Hz repetition rate. The detector to be used under these conditions will have to face several challenges: the dynamic range has to cover the detection of single photons and extend up to <104 photons/pixel/pulse in the same image, framing rates of 4.5 MHz (220 ns) are required in order to record one image per pulse, and as many images as possible have to be recorded during the pulse trains. Due to the high flux, the detector will have to withstand a dose up to 1GGy integrated over 3 years. To meet these challenges a consortium, consisting of Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Paul-Scherrer-Institut (PSI), University of Hamburg and University of Bonn, is developing the Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector (AGIPD). It is a hybrid-pixel detector, featuring a charge integrating amplifier with dynamic gain switching to cope with the extended dynamic range, and an analogue on-pixel memory for image storage at the required 4.5 MHz frame rate. The readout chip consists of 64×64 pixels of (200μm)2, 8×2 of these readout chips are bump-bonded to a monolithic silicon sensor to form the basic module with 512 × 128 pixels. 4 of these modules are stacked to form a quadrant of the 1k ×1k detector system. Each quadrant is independently moveable in order to adjust a central hole, needed for the direct beam to pass through. Special designs are employed for both the sensor and the readout chip to withstand the integrated dose for 3 years.

  17. Quasinormal modes of extremal black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richartz, Maurício

    2016-03-01

    The continued fraction method (also known as Leaver's method) is one of the most effective techniques used to determine the quasinormal modes of a black hole. For extremal black holes, however, the method does not work (since, in such a case, the event horizon is an irregular singular point of the associated wave equation). Fortunately, there exists a modified version of the method, devised by Onozawa et al. [Phys. Rev. D 53, 7033 (1996)], which works for neutral massless fields around an extremal Reissner-Nordström black hole. In this paper, we generalize the ideas of Onozawa et al. to charged massless perturbations around an extremal Reissner-Nordström black hole and to neutral massless perturbations around an extremal Kerr black hole. In particular, the existence of damped modes is analyzed in detail. Similarities and differences between the results of the original continued fraction method for near extremal black holes and the results of the new continued fraction method for extremal black holes are discussed. Mode stability of extremal black holes is also investigated.

  18. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and ‘pestilence’ associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations. PMID:26168924

  19. Changes in Concurrent Precipitation and Temperature Extremes

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Zengchao; AghaKouchak, Amir; Phillips, Thomas J.

    2013-08-01

    While numerous studies have addressed changes in climate extremes, analyses of concurrence of climate extremes are scarce, and climate change effects on joint extremes are rarely considered. This study assesses the occurrence of joint (concurrent) monthly continental precipitation and temperature extremes in Climate Research Unit (CRU) and University of Delaware (UD) observations, and in 13 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate simulations. Moreover, the joint occurrences of precipitation and temperature extremes simulated by CMIP5 climate models are compared with those derived from the CRU and UD observations for warm/wet, warm/dry, cold/wet, and cold/dry combinations of joint extremes. The number of occurrences of these four combinations during the second half of the 20th century (1951–2004) is assessed on a common global grid. CRU and UD observations show substantial increases in the occurrence of joint warm/dry and warm/wet combinations for the period 1978–2004 relative to 1951–1977. The results show that with respect to the sign of change in the concurrent extremes, the CMIP5 climate model simulations are in reasonable overall agreement with observations. The results reveal notable discrepancies between regional patterns and the magnitude of change in individual climate model simulations relative to the observations of precipitation and temperature.

  20. Threshold modeling of extreme spatial rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibaud, E.; Davison, A.

    2013-12-01

    Complex events such as sustained extreme precipitation have major effects on human populations and environmental sustainability, and there is a growing interest in modeling them realistically. For risk assessment based on spatial quantities such as the total amount of rainfall falling over a region, it is necessary to properly model the dependence among extremes over that region, based on data from perhaps only a few sites within it. We propose an approach to spatial modeling of extreme rainfall, based on max-stable processes fitted using partial duration series and a censored threshold likelihood function. The resulting models are coherent with classical extreme-value theory and allow the consistent treatment of spatial dependence of rainfall using ideas related to those of classical geostatistics. The method can be used to produce simulations needed for hydrological models, and in particular for the generation of spatially heterogeneous extreme rainfall fields over catchments. We illustrate the ideas through data from the Val Ferret watershed in the Swiss Alps, based on daily cumulative rainfall totals recorded at 24 stations for four summers, augmented by a longer series from nearby. References: Davison, A. C., Huser, R., Thibaud, E. (2013). Geostatistics of Dependent and Asymptotically Independent Extremes, Mathematical Geosciences, vol. 45, num. 5, p. 511-529, 2013, doi:10.1007/s11004-013-9469-y Thibaud, E., Mutzner, R., Davison A. C. (2013, to appear). Threshold modeling of extreme spatial rainfall, Water Resources Research, doi:10.1002/wrcr.20329

  1. Understanding hydrological extremes in the Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mård, Johanna; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano

    2016-04-01

    Hydrological extremes, from floods to droughts, pose one of the greatest challenges of the 21st century. Many of these challenges are associated with societal interactions with water, as people control or impact hydrological systems in a multitude of ways while they are also being affected and shaped by hydrological extremes, depending on their response to drought and flood events. However, the fact that the human and natural components of freshwater systems interact and co-evolve over time is often not taken into account. There is a need to study the two-way coupling between hydrology and society within a more comprehensive framework for hydrological extremes to anticipate future trajectories in a rapidly changing world. We present an interdisciplinary framework (and concepts) to identify internal controlling variables, processes and feedbacks, and the external system drivers and disturbances of the coupled human-water system with regard to hydrological extremes. To achieve this, the study (i) synthesizes existing research on coupled human-water system focusing on floods and droughts, (ii) analyzes hydrological extremes that have already occurred and their spatiotemporal patterns to investigate what patterns are observed in different regions of the world, and (iii) systematically describe the observed hydrological extremes, their causes and the interactions and feedbacks between hydrology and society. Advancing our understanding of mechanisms and feedbacks driving hydrological extremes is essential to better anticipate how the coupled human-water system will respond to future environmental change.

  2. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and 'pestilence' associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations. PMID:26168924

  3. Changes in Concurrent Precipitation and Temperature Extremes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hao, Zengchao; AghaKouchak, Amir; Phillips, Thomas J.

    2013-08-01

    While numerous studies have addressed changes in climate extremes, analyses of concurrence of climate extremes are scarce, and climate change effects on joint extremes are rarely considered. This study assesses the occurrence of joint (concurrent) monthly continental precipitation and temperature extremes in Climate Research Unit (CRU) and University of Delaware (UD) observations, and in 13 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate simulations. Moreover, the joint occurrences of precipitation and temperature extremes simulated by CMIP5 climate models are compared with those derived from the CRU and UD observations for warm/wet, warm/dry, cold/wet, and cold/dry combinations of joint extremes.more » The number of occurrences of these four combinations during the second half of the 20th century (1951–2004) is assessed on a common global grid. CRU and UD observations show substantial increases in the occurrence of joint warm/dry and warm/wet combinations for the period 1978–2004 relative to 1951–1977. The results show that with respect to the sign of change in the concurrent extremes, the CMIP5 climate model simulations are in reasonable overall agreement with observations. The results reveal notable discrepancies between regional patterns and the magnitude of change in individual climate model simulations relative to the observations of precipitation and temperature.« less

  4. Route to extreme events in excitable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnatak, Rajat; Ansmann, Gerrit; Feudel, Ulrike; Lehnertz, Klaus

    2014-08-01

    Systems of FitzHugh-Nagumo units with different coupling topologies are capable of self-generating and -terminating strong deviations from their regular dynamics that can be regarded as extreme events due to their rareness and recurrent occurrence. Here we demonstrate the crucial role of an interior crisis in the emergence of extreme events. In parameter space we identify this interior crisis as the organizing center of the dynamics by employing concepts of mixed-mode oscillations and of leaking chaotic systems. We find that extreme events occur in certain regions in parameter space, and we show the robustness of this phenomenon with respect to the system size.

  5. Computed Tomography Angiography of the Lower Extremities.

    PubMed

    Cook, Tessa Sundaram

    2016-01-01

    CT angiography (CTA) of the lower extremities is an important and versatile, noninvasive tool for diagnosis as well as surgical or endovascular interventional planning. Although lower extremity CTA is most commonly performed in patients with peripheral artery disease or trauma affecting the lower extremities, it also plays a role in the workup of nonischemic etiologies such as vasculitis, aneurysms, and congenital vascular malformations. CT scan protocols should adjust bolus timing and multiphasic imaging to account for the clinical question of interest, and 3-dimensional postprocessing plays an important role in the visualization and interpretation of these high-resolution imaging examinations. PMID:26654395

  6. European missile aerodynamics and developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregoriou, G.

    1980-04-01

    The joint development of new generation missiles by many European countries not only minimizes the costs and the technological risks for each individual country, but also increases the degree of weapons systems standardization within NATO. Focal points of research in recent years include: (1) jet influence on the dispersion of artillery rockets; (2) problems associated with the vertical launch of missiles; and (3) air intakes of ramjets. These areas are examined with respect to their significance in missile design. Some characteristic theoretical and measurement results are given.

  7. Pedestrian Injuries By Source: Serious and Disabling Injuries in US and European Cases

    PubMed Central

    Mallory, Ann; Fredriksson, Rikard; Rosén, Erik; Donnelly, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    US and European pedestrian crash cases were analyzed to determine frequency of injury by body region and by the vehicle component identified as the injury source. US pedestrian data was drawn from the Pedestrian Crash Data Study (PCDS). European pedestrian data was drawn from the German In-Depth Accident Study (GIDAS). Results were analyzed in terms of both serious injury (AIS 3+) and disabling injury estimated with the Functional Capacity Index (FCI). The results are presented in parallel for a more complete international perspective on injuries and injury sources. Lower extremity injury from bumper impact and head&face injury from windshield impact were the most frequent combinations for both serious and disabling injuries. Serious lower extremity injuries from bumper contact occurred in 43% of seriously injured pedestrian cases in US PCDS data and 35% of European GIDAS cases. Lower-extremity bumper injuries also account for more than 20% of disability in both datasets. Serious head &face injuries from windshield contact occur in 27% of PCDS and 15% of GIDAS serious injury cases. While bumper impacts primarily result in lower extremity injury and windshield impacts are most often associated with head & face injuries, the hood and hood leading edge are responsible for serious and disabling injuries to a number of different body regions. Therefore, while it is appropriate to focus on lower extremity injury when studying bumper performance and on head injury risk when studying windshield impact, pedestrian performance of other components may require better understanding of injury risk for multiple body regions. PMID:23169112

  8. Analysis of extreme summers and prior late winter/spring conditions in central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Träger-Chatterjee, C.; Müller, R. W.; Bendix, J.

    2013-05-01

    Drought and heat waves during summer in mid-latitudes are a serious threat to human health and agriculture and have negative impacts on the infrastructure, such as problems in energy supply. The appearance of such extreme events is expected to increase with the progress of global warming. A better understanding of the development of extremely hot and dry summers and the identification of possible precursors could help improve existing seasonal forecasts in this regard, and could possibly lead to the development of early warning methods. The development of extremely hot and dry summer seasons in central Europe is attributed to a combined effect of the dominance of anticyclonic weather regimes and soil moisture-atmosphere interactions. The atmospheric circulation largely determines the amount of solar irradiation and the amount of precipitation in an area. These two variables are themselves major factors controlling the soil moisture. Thus, solar irradiation and precipitation are used as proxies to analyse extreme sunny and dry late winter/spring and summer seasons for the period 1958-2011 in Germany and adjacent areas. For this purpose, solar irradiation data from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast 40-yr and interim re-analysis dataset, as well as remote sensing data are used. Precipitation data are taken from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project. To analyse the atmospheric circulation geopotential data at 850 hPa are also taken from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast 40-yr and interim re-analysis datasets. For the years in which extreme summers in terms of high solar irradiation and low precipitation are identified, the previous late winter/spring conditions of solar irradiation and precipitation in Germany and adjacent areas are analysed. Results show that if the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is not very intensely developed, extremely high solar irradiation amounts, together with extremely low precipitation

  9. Golf injuries of the upper extremity.

    PubMed

    Wiesler, Ethan R; Lumsden, Boyd

    2005-01-01

    Golf has demonstrated increasing popularity and with this heightened enthusiasm has come an increased awareness of the significant number of injuries associated with playing golf. While back injuries represent the most commonly injured specific body part, upper extremity injuries are most frequent overall and the most likely to result in loss of play. Patterns of injury differ based on level of play and time spent playing or practicing golf. Among golf professionals, the hand/wrist is the most commonly injured upper extremity structure. Among amateurs, the elbow is most commonly injured. The vast majority of upper extremity injuries are due to overuse. Age, ability, equipment, and swing mechanics also play contributing roles. Most upper extremity golf injuries can be successfully treated with appropriate cessation or modification of play, anti-inflammatory modalities, and rehabilitation. Surgical treatment is rarely required, but if needed can prove successful in a high percentage of patients. PMID:15766435

  10. Controlling extreme events on complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Zhong; Huang, Zi-Gang; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Extreme events, a type of collective behavior in complex networked dynamical systems, often can have catastrophic consequences. To develop effective strategies to control extreme events is of fundamental importance and practical interest. Utilizing transportation dynamics on complex networks as a prototypical setting, we find that making the network “mobile” can effectively suppress extreme events. A striking, resonance-like phenomenon is uncovered, where an optimal degree of mobility exists for which the probability of extreme events is minimized. We derive an analytic theory to understand the mechanism of control at a detailed and quantitative level, and validate the theory numerically. Implications of our finding to current areas such as cybersecurity are discussed. PMID:25131344

  11. Controlling extreme events on complex networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Zhong; Huang, Zi-Gang; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Extreme events, a type of collective behavior in complex networked dynamical systems, often can have catastrophic consequences. To develop effective strategies to control extreme events is of fundamental importance and practical interest. Utilizing transportation dynamics on complex networks as a prototypical setting, we find that making the network "mobile" can effectively suppress extreme events. A striking, resonance-like phenomenon is uncovered, where an optimal degree of mobility exists for which the probability of extreme events is minimized. We derive an analytic theory to understand the mechanism of control at a detailed and quantitative level, and validate the theory numerically. Implications of our finding to current areas such as cybersecurity are discussed. PMID:25131344

  12. NASA Measures Extreme Precipitation From Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    From Jan. 25 through Feb. 3, IMERG data estimated that the most extreme precipitation over the United States during this period was over 200mm (7.9 inches) in an area where stormy weather frequentl...

  13. Forecaster's dilemma: Extreme events and forecast evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerch, Sebastian; Thorarinsdottir, Thordis; Ravazzolo, Francesco; Gneiting, Tilmann

    2015-04-01

    In discussions of the quality of forecasts in the media and public, attention often focuses on the predictive performance in the case of extreme events. Intuitively, accurate predictions on the subset of extreme events seem to suggest better predictive ability. However, it can be demonstrated that restricting conventional forecast verification methods to subsets of observations might have unexpected and undesired effects and may discredit even the most skillful forecasters. Hand-picking extreme events is incompatible with the theoretical assumptions of established forecast verification methods, thus confronting forecasters with what we refer to as the forecaster's dilemma. For probabilistic forecasts, weighted proper scoring rules provide suitable alternatives for forecast evaluation with an emphasis on extreme events. Using theoretical arguments, simulation experiments and a case study on probabilistic forecasts of wind speed over Germany, we illustrate the forecaster's dilemma and the use of weighted proper scoring rules.

  14. Astronomy and the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, S.

    1994-01-01

    The extreme ultraviolet wave band (100 to 912 angstroms) was thought until recently to be useless to astronomy, primarily because the opacity of the interstellar medium would prevent observations at these wavelengths. However, the interstellar medium has been found to be markedly inhomogeneous in both density and ionization state and the sun is fortunately located in a region of low extreme ultraviolet opacity. The Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer, launched in June 1992, has surveyed the sky in this wave band and has detected a wide variety of astronomical sources at considerable distances, including some extragalactic objects. Studies in the extreme ultraviolet band have already begun to increase our understanding of the contents of the universe.

  15. Laboratory Investigations of the Extreme Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Pisin

    2003-08-06

    Recent years have seen tremendous progress in our understanding of the extreme universe, which in turn points to even deeper questions to be further addressed. History has shown that the symbiosis between direct observations and laboratory investigation is instrumental in the progress of astrophysics. Current frontier astrophysical phenomena related to particle astrophysics and cosmology typically involve one or more of the following conditions: (1) extremely high energy events; (2) very high density, high temperature processes; (3) super strong field environments. Laboratory experiments using high intensity lasers and particle beams can calibrate astrophysical observation or detection processes, investigate the underlying dynamics of astrophysical phenomena, and probe into fundamental physics in extreme limits. We give examples of possible laboratory experiments that investigate into the extreme universe.

  16. Hidden conformal symmetry of extremal black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Bin; Long Jiang; Zhang Jiaju

    2010-11-15

    We study the hidden conformal symmetry of extremal black holes. We introduce a new set of conformal coordinates to write the SL(2,R) generators. We find that the Laplacian of the scalar field in many extremal black holes, including Kerr(-Newman), Reissner-Nordstrom, warped AdS{sub 3}, and null warped black holes, could be written in terms of the SL(2,R) quadratic Casimir. This suggests that there exist dual conformal field theory (CFT) descriptions of these black holes. From the conformal coordinates, the temperatures of the dual CFTs could be read directly. For the extremal black hole, the Hawking temperature is vanishing. Correspondingly, only the left (right) temperature of the dual CFT is nonvanishing, and the excitations of the other sector are suppressed. In the probe limit, we compute the scattering amplitudes of the scalar off the extremal black holes and find perfect agreement with the CFT prediction.

  17. Extreme space weather studies: Addressing societal needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngwira, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme space weather events can adversely impact the operations of critical modern-day technological infrastructure such as high-voltage electric power transmission grids. Understanding of coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere dynamics under extreme solar wind driving conditions is still a major challenge mainly because of a lack of data during such time intervals. This presentation will highlight some of the past and on-going investigations on extreme space weather events, and how these investigations are used to address societal needs. Particularly, I will describe how first principles physics-based 3-D global MHD models are playing a major role in advancing our knowledge on extreme geomagnetically induced currents. These MHD models represent a very important component of attempts to understand the response of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system to varying solar wind conditions.

  18. Characteristics of Extreme Auroral Charging Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Willis, Emily; Parker, Linda Neergaard

    2014-01-01

    Today’s presentation describes preliminary results from a study of extreme auroral charging in low Earth orbit. Goal of study is to document characteristics of auroral charging events of importance to spacecraft design, operations, and anomaly investigations.

  19. Extremal dynamics and punctuated co-evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneppen, Kim

    1995-02-01

    Extremal dynamics opens up a new way for understanding the coherence that is observed in some large non-equilibrium systems. Extremal dynamics is characterized by quasistatic motion where only one part of the large system is active at a given instant: the part where a local variable assumes a global extremum value. Extremal dynamics may apply when the parts of the system nearly always are caught in metastable states. Examples from physics may include earthquakes, fluid invasion in porous media and possibly also dynamical roughening of interfaces. We discuss a simple model of extremal dynamics and its application to biological macroevolution. The model can be formulated as an ecology of adapting interacting species. The environment of any given species is affected by other species; hence it may change with time. For low mutation rate the model ecology expands at a self-organized critical state where periods of statis alternate with avalanches of evolutionary changes.

  20. Nonstationary risk analysis of climate extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez-Demoulin, V.; Davison, A. C.; Suveges, M.

    2009-04-01

    There is growing interest in the modelling of the size and frequency of rare events in a changing climate. Standard models for extreme events are based on the modelling of annual maxima or exceedances over high or under low thresholds: in either case appropriate probability distributions are fitted to the data, and extrapolation to rare events is based on the fitted models. Very often, however, extremal models do not take full advantage of techniques that are standard in other domains of statistics. Smoothing methods are now well-established in many domains of statistics, and are increasingly used in analysis of extremal data. The crucial idea of smoothing is to replace a simple linear or quadratic form of dependence of one variable on another by a more flexible form, and thus to 'allow the data to speak for themselves,ánd thus, perhaps, to reveal unexpected features. There are many approaches to smoothing in the context of linear regression, of which the use of spline smoothing and of local polynomial modelling are perhaps the most common. Under the first, a basis of spline functions is used to represent the dependence; often this is called generalised additive modelling. Under the second, polynomial models are fitted locally to the data, resulting in a more flexible overall fit. The selection of the degree of smoothing is crucial, and there are automatic ways to do this. The talk will describe some applications of smoothing to data on temperature extremes, elucidating the relation between cold winter weather in the Alps and the North Atlantic Oscillation, and changes in the lengths of usually hot and cold spells in Britain. The work mixes classical models for extremes, generalised additive modelling, local polynomial smoothing, and the bootstrap. References Chavez-Demoulin, V. and Davison, A. C. (2005) Generalized additive modelling of sample extremes. Applied Statistics, 54, 207-222. Süveges, M. (2007) Likelihood estimation of the extremal index. Extremes, 10

  1. A Millennial Challenge: Extremism in Uncertain Times

    PubMed Central

    Fiske, Susan T.

    2014-01-01

    This comment highlights the relevance and importance of the uncertainty-extremism topic, both scientifically and societally, identifies common themes, locates this work in a wider scientific and social context, describes what we now know and what we still do not, acknowledges some limitations, foreshadowing future directions, and discusses some potential policy relevance. Common themes emerge around the importance of social justice as sound anti-extremism policy. PMID:24511155

  2. Anaerobic Life at Extremely High Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetter, Karl O.

    1984-12-01

    Continental and submarine solfataric fields turned out to contain various extremely thermophilic anaerobic organisms which all belong to the archaebacteria. They are living autotrophically on sulphur, hydrogen and CO2 or by methanogenesis or heterotrophically on different organic substrates by sulphur respiration or, less frequently, by fermentation. The most extremely thermophilic isolates are growing between 80 and 110°C with an optimum around 105°C.

  3. Preconditioned iterations to calculate extreme eigenvalues

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, C.W.; Petrova, S.

    1994-12-31

    Common iterative algorithms to calculate a few extreme eigenvalues of a large, sparse matrix are Lanczos methods or power iterations. They converge at a rate proportional to the separation of the extreme eigenvalues from the rest of the spectrum. Appropriate preconditioning improves the separation of the eigenvalues. Davidson`s method and its generalizations exploit this fact. The authors examine a preconditioned iteration that resembles a truncated version of Davidson`s method with a different preconditioning strategy.

  4. Hydrometeorological signatures of global extreme precipitation events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, Efrat; Kushnir, Yochanan

    2015-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events are one of the main causes of flooding, a global phenomenon with high ecological and societal impact. The current research is aimed on characterizing space-time features and weather patterns of global extreme precipitation events and on identifying the most influential parameters controlling the generation of floods from these events. This is an on-going research and results of the first part will be presented. We use the term "global extreme precipitation event" to refer to an event producing high precipitation amounts over large areas, with a scale in the order of tens of kilometers, and with a typical time interval of 1 day; further, such events have a low frequency of occurrence in the region in which they are observed. The presented analysis is based on precipitation estimates from the GPCP dataset and on atmospheric data from the ERA-Interim database. A procedure for detecting extreme events was developed and applied for a 15 years record (1997-2012). Spatial-temporal features, surface characteristics and parameters characterizing the atmospheric environment were computed for all the extreme events. Examination of the extreme events according to their seasonal and spatial distribution reveals clustering around cores that follow general circulation systems (e.g., northern and southern winter storm tracks, ITCZ, the Monsoon and others). Moreover, some unique features of these extreme cores are revealed by analyzing their sea vs. land location, comparing southern and northern hemisphere cores and others. The unique meteorological characteristics of extreme event clusters are identified using standard and centered composite analyses. The main finding of this ongoing research will be presented.

  5. Extreme waves at Filyos, southern Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilyay, E.; Ozbahceci, B. O.; Yalciner, A. C.

    2011-03-01

    A wave measurement project was carried out for a new port planned in Filyos, in the Western Black Sea region of Turkey. The measurement at a depth of 12.5 m lasted for a period of two years and 7949 records were obtained. During the analysis, it was noticed that there were 209 records in which H/Hs ratio was higher than 2.0. These higher waves in a record are called extreme waves in this study. Although the purpose of wave measurement is not to investigate extreme waves, it is believed that studying these unexpected waves could be interesting. Therefore, detailed statistical and spectral analyses on the extreme waves were done for the records. The analyses results show that the distribution of surface profiles of the records containing extreme waves deviates from Gaussian distribution with the negative skewness changing between -0.01 and -0.4 and with the high kurtosis in the range of 3.1-4.2. Although the probability of occurrence of the extreme waves is over-predicted by the Rayleigh distribution, a higher ratio of Hs/ηrms indicates that the wave height distribution can be represented by Rayleigh. The average value of the slope of the frequency spectrum at the high frequency range is proportional to f-9 which is much steeper than the typical wind-wave frequency power law, f-4, -5. The directional spreading is measured with the parameter Smax and it is in the range of 5-70 for the extreme wave records. The wave and current interaction was also investigated and it was found that in most cases, extreme waves occur when the wave and the current are almost aligned. Furthermore, it is observed that extreme waves appear within a group of high waves.

  6. Flexible diaphragm-extreme temperature usage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerma, Guillermo (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A diaphragm suitable for extreme temperature usage, such as encountered in critical aerospace applications, is fabricated by a unique method, and of a unique combination of materials. The materials include multilayered lay-ups of diaphragm materials sandwiched between layers of bleeder fabrics. After being formed in the desired shape on a mold, they are vacuum sealed and then cured under pressure, in a heated autoclave. A bond capable of withstanding extreme temperatures are produced.

  7. Test fields cannot destroy extremal black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natário, José; Queimada, Leonel; Vicente, Rodrigo

    2016-09-01

    We prove that (possibly charged) test fields satisfying the null energy condition at the event horizon cannot overspin/overcharge extremal Kerr–Newman or Kerr–Newman–anti de Sitter black holes, that is, the weak cosmic censorship conjecture cannot be violated in the test field approximation. The argument relies on black hole thermodynamics (without assuming cosmic censorship), and does not depend on the precise nature of the fields. We also discuss generalizations of this result to other extremal black holes.

  8. Evaluating environmental joint extremes for the offshore industry using the conditional extremes model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewans, Kevin; Jonathan, Philip

    2014-02-01

    Understanding extreme ocean environments and their interaction with fixed and floating structures is critical for the design of offshore and coastal facilities. The joint effect of various ocean variables on extreme responses of offshore structures is fundamental in determining the design loads. For example, it is known that mean values of wave periods tend to increase with increasing storm intensity, and a floating system responds in a complex way to both variables. Specification of joint extremes in design criteria has often been somewhat ad hoc, being based on fairly arbitrary combinations of extremes of variables estimated independently. Such approaches are even outlined in design guidelines. Mathematically more consistent estimates of the joint occurrence of extreme environmental variables fall into two camps in the offshore industry - response-based and response-independent. Both are outlined here, with emphasis on response-independent methods, particularly those based on the conditional extremes model recently introduced by (Heffernan and Tawn, 2004), which has a solid theoretical motivation. We illustrate an application of the conditional extremes model to joint estimation of extreme storm peak significant wave height and peak period at a northern North Sea location, incorporating storm direction as a model covariate. We also discuss joint estimation of extreme current profiles with depth off the North West Shelf of Australia. Methods such as the conditional extremes model provide valuable additions to the metocean engineer's toolkit.

  9. Neutron bomb and European defense

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, W.

    1980-08-15

    France's development of the controversial neutron bomb is in line with the US goal of flexible response to a Soviet threat in Europe. US neutron bomb production is on a standby basis pending agreement among the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) members for deployment. Controversy over the bomb centers on its anti-personnel nature, which many see as immoral in comparison with weapons that primarily damage property. Opponents also see it as lowering the nuclear threshold and increasing the chance of nuclear war. Supporters view the bomb as a tactical weapon to be used on a limited scale as a last resort. If Germany's Chancellor Schmidt fails to negotiate a limit to European nuclear arms deployment with the Soviet Union, neutron-bomb production in the US and France will most likely proceed. The prospects for including European nuclear weapons in the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) III are jeopardized by the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the failure of an early SALT II ratification. 17 references. (DCK)

  10. European Hands-on Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, Rosa; Ferlet, Roger; Gómez de Castro, Ana I.; Hill, Robert; Horellou, Cathy; Mankiewicz, Lech; Melchior, Anne-Laure; Metaxa, Margarita; Zanazzi, Alessandra

    2007-08-01

    Hands-on Universe is a project born at UC@Berkeley. A project devoted to enrich the teaching of Astronomy within the classroom environment with a different approach, more connected to the new technologies. Its main goals are not only to promote the use of such technologies but also to reawaken on students the taste for STEM (Science, technologies, engineering and math) related issues and also to increase their scientific culture. Eight countries in Europe decided to adopt the method and, funded by MINERVA, formed the European Hands-on Universe. Several resources were produced and a data reduction software developed http://www.euhou.net/.Other European countries are interested and should join this coordinated effort in the near future. At an international level there are 20 countries using this approach. There are plans to develop scientific cooperation among these countries. Pilot scientific research projects in schools are being tested in EU-HOU schools, Russia and USA. There is also a game being developed to be used as a new tool for teaching scientific content in the classroom environment. An effort to develop an international network of scientific / educational collaboration is the next step.

  11. The European preexposure prophylaxis revolution

    PubMed Central

    Cairns, Gus; McCormack, Sheena; Molina, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review The review describes the European epidemic and the challenges in moving from clinical trials of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to routine practice. Recent findings Two European trials conducted in gay and other MSM and transgender women reported a high and consistent reduction in HIV incidence using oral PrEP with tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC). The incidence of HIV infection in the control group was much higher than anticipated, based on routine surveillance data in MSM, in spite of the highest standard of HIV prevention available. Summary Recent results have highlighted the urgent need to make PrEP available to key populations in Europe as an additional prevention tool. Gilead has not yet submitted an application to use TDF/FTC as PrEP in Europe. Although regulatory approval would accelerate implementation, countries are already dispensing TDF/FTC as postexposure prophylaxis without this. Services for prevention are diverse across countries ranging from free, walk-in services for the diagnosis and treatment of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, to insurance-dependent reimbursement of private clinical services. Momentum is gathering in Europe with PrEP demonstration projects in MSM and a growing demand from community organizations. Each Member State urgently needs to identify their key populations and determine the service best placed to provide this new prevention strategy within a comprehensive prevention package. PMID:26599164

  12. Summer Schools for European teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Rosa M.

    The Summer Schools have been organised by the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE) for European teachers. The first was organised in La Seu d'Urgell, Spain, the second was organised in 1998 in Fregene, Italy and the third in 1999, during the week of the eclipse in Briey, France, on the line of total darkness. We had a cloudy eclipse, but fortunately we could observe it. We are preparing the 4th one next July in Tavira, Portugal. A group of 50 participants are involved in each Summer School. In the last one the participants were from 14 countries. The activities are organised in General Lectures, Working Groups and Workshops to reduced groups and day and night Observations. To increase communication, each Summer School has three official languages: the language of the host country, English and another well-known by the participants. The proceedings are published beforehand with all the contents to facilitate participation. Each paper appears in English and another language. The activities are organised in General Lectures, Working Groups and Workshops to reduced groups and day and night Observations. To increase communication, each Summer School has three official languages: the language of the host country, English and another well-known by the participants. The proceedings are published beforehand with all the contents to facilitate participation. Each paper appears in English and another language.

  13. Participation in European water policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ast, J. A.; Boot, S. P.

    This paper considers the possibilities for interactive policy-making in European water management. In the new European Water Framework Directive, public information and consultation are major elements in the procedure (process) that leads to River Basin Management Plans. In general, decision making in integrated water management should not be limited to the application of models and desk studies. Important decisions need a high level of participation. In this interactive approach, visions, ideas, patterns of behaviour and solutions to perceived problems of different societal actors can be identified and incorporated into the decision-making process. For example, farmer organisations, environmental groups and associations of house owners, but also individual citizens often have various and differing ideas about measures that change the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of a river basin. Well-organised interaction has two main potential advantages: The quality of the decision will be higher because specific knowledge of people involved and their different views are taken into consideration. The interaction enables exchange of information which can lead to a better understanding of the ins and outs of the specific situation and in this way contribute to public support. By means of two examples of water related policy issues in Europe, i.e. economic approaches in the water framework directive and Integrated Product Policy, various opportunities for pluralistic as well as corporatist types of participation in modern water management are presented and discussed.

  14. The new European Hubble archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marchi, Guido; Arevalo, Maria; Merin, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The European Hubble Archive (hereafter eHST), hosted at ESA's European Space Astronomy Centre, has been released for public use in October 2015. The eHST is now fully integrated with the other ESA science archives to ensure long-term preservation of the Hubble data, consisting of more than 1 million observations from 10 different scientific instruments. The public HST data, the Hubble Legacy Archive, and the high-level science data products are now all available to scientists through a single, carefully designed and user friendly web interface. In this talk, I will show how the the eHST can help boost archival research, including how to search on sources in the field of view thanks to precise footprints projected onto the sky, how to obtain enhanced previews of imaging data and interactive spectral plots, and how to directly link observations with already published papers. To maximise the scientific exploitation of Hubble's data, the eHST offers connectivity to virtual observatory tools, easily integrates with the recently released Hubble Source Catalog, and is fully accessible through ESA's archives multi-mission interface.

  15. Policymaking in European healthy cities.

    PubMed

    de Leeuw, Evelyne; Green, Geoff; Spanswick, Lucy; Palmer, Nicola

    2015-06-01

    This paper assesses policy development in, with and for Healthy Cities in the European Region of the World Health Organization. Materials for the assessment were sourced through case studies, a questionnaire and statistical databases. They were compiled in a realist synthesis methodology, applying theory-based evaluation principles. Non-response analyses were applied to ascertain the degree of representatives of the high response rates for the entire network of Healthy Cities in Europe. Further measures of reliability and validity were applied, and it was found that our material was indicative of the entire network. European Healthy Cities are successful in developing local health policy across many sectors within and outside government. They were also successful in addressing 'wicked' problems around equity, governance and participation in themes such as Healthy Urban Planning. It appears that strong local leadership for policy change is driven by international collaboration and the stewardship of the World Health Organization. The processes enacted by WHO, structuring membership of the Healthy City Network (designation) and the guidance on particular themes, are identified as being important for the success of local policy development. PMID:26069314

  16. What weather features produce extreme precipitation globally?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowdy, Andrew; Catto, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    Extreme precipitation (defined as above the 99th percentile) has been examined previously in relation to a number of different weather events. Such events include cyclones, fronts, and thunderstorms. However, previous studies have not examined various combinations of these weather events, which highlights the potential for an improved understanding of what causes extreme precipitation. Here we make use of objective cyclone and front identification methods and a global dataset of lightning strikes, to examine different combinations of cyclone, front and thunderstorm events to provide a comprehensive climatological examination of observed extreme precipitation events throughout the world. This method allows a number of novel concepts to be explored, with results showing that the highest risk of extreme precipitation occurs for a type of "triple storm" event characterised by the simultaneous occurrence of a cyclone, front and thunderstorm. The physical properties of the various different combinations of weather systems are examined in relation to the occurrence of extreme precipitation. The results presented here are intended to lead to better preparedness for the impacts of extreme precipitation throughout the world including in relation to disaster risk reduction.

  17. Acclimatization and tolerance to extreme altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, J. B.

    1993-01-01

    During the last ten years, two major experiments have elucidated the factors determining acclimatization and tolerance to extreme altitude (over 7000 m). These were the American Medical Research Expedition to Everest, and the low pressure chamber simulation, Operation Everest II. Extreme hyperventilation is one of the most important responses to extreme altitude. Its chief value is that it allows the climber to maintain an alveolar PO2 which keeps the arterial PO2 above dangerously low levels. Even so, there is evidence of residual impairment of central nervous system function after ascents to extreme altitude, and maximal oxygen consumption falls precipitously above 7000 m. The term 'acclimatization' is probably not appropriate for altitudes above 8000 m, because the body steadily deteriorates at these altitudes. Tolerance to extreme altitude is critically dependent on barometric pressure, and even seasonal changes in pressure probably affect climbing performance near the summit of Mt Everest. Supplementary oxygen always improves exercise tolerance at extreme altitudes, and rescue oxygen should be available on climbing expeditions to 8000 m peaks.

  18. Seams issues in European transmission investments

    SciTech Connect

    Buijs, Patrik; Bekaert, David; Belmans, Ronnie

    2010-12-15

    European policy goals are challenging for transmission networks, requiring investments in cross-border capacity. Despite those goals, an increased awareness of the need for investments and the voluntary cooperation among countries sharing the challenges, a regulatory gap between national and European interests persists. Further development of a European cross-border planning and financing framework is required. U.S. experiences may serve as food for thought. (author)

  19. European virtual campus for biomedical engineering EVICAB.

    PubMed

    Malmivuo, Jaakko A; Nousiainen, Juha O; Lindroos, Kari V

    2007-01-01

    European Commission has funded building a curriculum on Biomedical Engineering to the Internet for European universities under the project EVICAB. EVICAB forms a curriculum which will be free access and available free of charge. Therefore, in addition to the European universities, it will be available worldwide. EVICAB will make high quality education available for everyone, not only for the university students, and facilitate the development of the discipline of Biomedical Engineering. PMID:18002654

  20. A millisecond pulsar in an extremely wide binary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassa, C. G.; Janssen, G. H.; Stappers, B. W.; Tauris, T. M.; Wevers, T.; Jonker, P. G.; Lentati, L.; Verbiest, J. P. W.; Desvignes, G.; Graikou, E.; Guillemot, L.; Freire, P. C. C.; Lazarus, P.; Caballero, R. N.; Champion, D. J.; Cognard, I.; Jessner, A.; Jordan, C.; Karuppusamy, R.; Kramer, M.; Lazaridis, K.; Lee, K. J.; Liu, K.; Lyne, A. G.; McKee, J.; Osłowski, S.; Perrodin, D.; Sanidas, S.; Shaifullah, G.; Smits, R.; Theureau, G.; Tiburzi, C.; Zhu, W. W.

    2016-08-01

    We report on 22 yrs of radio timing observations of the millisecond pulsar J1024$-$0719 by the telescopes participating in the European Pulsar Timing Array (EPTA). These observations reveal a significant second derivative of the pulsar spin frequency and confirm the discrepancy between the parallax and Shklovskii distances that has been reported earlier. We also present optical astrometry, photometry and spectroscopy of 2MASS J10243869$-$0719190. We find that it is a low-metallicity main-sequence star (K7V spectral type, $\\mathrm{[M/H]}=-1.0$, $T_\\mathrm{eff}=4050\\pm50$ K) and that its position, proper motion and distance are consistent with those of PSR J1024$-$0719. We conclude that PSR J1024$-$0719 and 2MASS J10243869$-$0719190 form a common proper motion pair and are gravitationally bound. The gravitational interaction between the main-sequence star and the pulsar accounts for the spin frequency derivatives, which in turn resolves the distance discrepancy. Our observations suggest that the pulsar and main-sequence star are in an extremely wide ($P_\\mathrm{b}>200$ yr) orbit. Combining the radial velocity of the companion and proper motion of the pulsar, we find that the binary system has a high spatial velocity of $384\\pm45$ km s$^{-1}$ with respect to the local standard of rest and has a Galactic orbit consistent with halo objects. Since the observed main-sequence companion star cannot have recycled the pulsar to millisecond spin periods, an exotic formation scenario is required. We demonstrate that this extremely wide-orbit binary could have evolved from a triple system that underwent an asymmetric supernova explosion, though find that significant fine-tuning during the explosion is required. Finally, we discuss the implications of the long period orbit on the timing stability of PSR J1024$-$0719 in light of its inclusion in pulsar timing arrays.

  1. A millisecond pulsar in an extremely wide binary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassa, C. G.; Janssen, G. H.; Stappers, B. W.; Tauris, T. M.; Wevers, T.; Jonker, P. G.; Lentati, L.; Verbiest, J. P. W.; Desvignes, G.; Graikou, E.; Guillemot, L.; Freire, P. C. C.; Lazarus, P.; Caballero, R. N.; Champion, D. J.; Cognard, I.; Jessner, A.; Jordan, C.; Karuppusamy, R.; Kramer, M.; Lazaridis, K.; Lee, K. J.; Liu, K.; Lyne, A. G.; McKee, J.; Osłowski, S.; Perrodin, D.; Sanidas, S.; Shaifullah, G.; Smits, R.; Theureau, G.; Tiburzi, C.; Zhu, W. W.

    2016-08-01

    We report on 22 yr of radio timing observations of the millisecond pulsar J1024-0719 by the telescopes participating in the European Pulsar Timing Array (EPTA). These observations reveal a significant second derivative of the pulsar spin frequency and confirm the discrepancy between the parallax and Shklovskii distances that has been reported earlier. We also present optical astrometry, photometry and spectroscopy of 2MASS J10243869-0719190. We find that it is a low-metallicity main-sequence star (K7V spectral type, [M/H] = -1.0, Teff = 4050 ± 50 K) and that its position, proper motion and distance are consistent with those of PSR J1024-0719. We conclude that PSR J1024-0719 and 2MASS J10243869-0719190 form a common proper motion pair and are gravitationally bound. The gravitational interaction between the main-sequence star and the pulsar accounts for the spin frequency derivatives, which in turn resolves the distance discrepancy. Our observations suggest that the pulsar and main-sequence star are in an extremely wide (Pb > 200 yr) orbit. Combining the radial velocity of the companion and proper motion of the pulsar, we find that the binary system has a high spatial velocity of 384 ± 45 km s-1 with respect to the local standard of rest and has a Galactic orbit consistent with halo objects. Since the observed main-sequence companion star cannot have recycled the pulsar to millisecond spin periods, an exotic formation scenario is required. We demonstrate that this extremely wide-orbit binary could have evolved from a triple system that underwent an asymmetric supernova explosion, though find that significant fine-tuning during the explosion is required. Finally, we discuss the implications of the long period orbit on the timing stability of PSR J1024-0719 in light of its inclusion in pulsar timing arrays.

  2. The role of large-scale atmospheric flow and Rossby wave breaking in the evolution of extreme windstorms over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanley, John; Caballero, Rodrigo

    2012-11-01

    We investigate the relationship between large-scale atmospheric flow and the evolution of the most extreme windstorms affecting Western Continental Europe. The 25 most destructive Western Continental European wind storms are selected from a 43-year climatology. 22 of these storms are grouped as having a similar trajectory and evolution. We show that these storms typically occur during particularly strong and persistent positive NAO anomalies which peak approximately 2 days before the storms' peak intensity; the NAO pattern then shifts eastward to a position over the European continent when the storms strike Europe. A temporal composite of potential temperature on the 2-PVU surface suggests that this NAO shift is the result of simultaneous cyclonic and anticyclonic wave breaking penetrating further to the east than during a typical high-NAO event. This creates an extremely intense, zonally-orientated jet over the North Atlantic whose baroclinicity favours explosive intensification of storms while steering them into Western Continental Europe.

  3. Neurodevelopmental problems and extremes in BMI

    PubMed Central

    Tajnia, Armin; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lundström, Sebastian; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Nilsson, Thomas; Råstam, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background. Over the last few decades, an increasing number of studies have suggested a connection between neurodevelopmental problems (NDPs) and body mass index (BMI). Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) both seem to carry an increased risk for developing extreme BMI. However, the results are inconsistent, and there have been only a few studies of the general population of children. Aims. We had three aims with the present study: (1) to define the prevalence of extreme (low or high) BMI in the group of children with ADHD and/or ASDs compared to the group of children without these NDPs; (2) to analyze whether extreme BMI is associated with the subdomains within the diagnostic categories of ADHD or ASD; and (3) to investigate the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to BMI in boys and girls at ages 9 and 12. Method. Parents of 9- or 12-year-old twins (n = 12,496) were interviewed using the Autism—Tics, ADHD and other Comorbidities (A-TAC) inventory as part of the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS). Univariate and multivariate generalized estimated equation models were used to analyze associations between extremes in BMI and NDPs. Results. ADHD screen-positive cases followed BMI distributions similar to those of children without ADHD or ASD. Significant association was found between ADHD and BMI only among 12-year-old girls, where the inattention subdomain of ADHD was significantly associated with the high extreme BMI. ASD scores were associated with both the low and the high extremes of BMI. Compared to children without ADHD or ASD, the prevalence of ASD screen-positive cases was three times greater in the high extreme BMI group and double as much in the low extreme BMI group. Stereotyped and repetitive behaviors were significantly associated with high extreme BMIs. Conclusion. Children with ASD, with or without coexisting ADHD, are more prone to have low or high extreme BMIs than children

  4. Ongoing climatic extreme dynamics in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordov, E. P.; Shulgina, T. M.; Okladnikov, I. G.; Titov, A. G.

    2013-12-01

    Ongoing global climate changes accompanied by the restructuring of global processes in the atmosphere and biosphere are strongly pronounced in the Northern Eurasia regions, especially in Siberia. Recent investigations indicate not only large changes in averaged climatic characteristics (Kabanov and Lykosov, 2006, IPCC, 2007; Groisman and Gutman, 2012), but more frequent occurrence and stronger impacts of climatic extremes are reported as well (Bulygina et al., 2007; IPCC, 2012: Climate Extremes, 2012; Oldenborh et al., 2013). This paper provides the results of daily temperature and precipitation extreme dynamics in Siberia for the last three decades (1979 - 2012). Their seasonal dynamics is assessed using 10th and 90th percentile-based threshold indices that characterize frequency, intensity and duration of climatic extremes. To obtain the geographical pattern of these variations with high spatial resolution, the sub-daily temperature data from ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis and daily precipitation amounts from APHRODITE JMA dataset were used. All extreme indices and linear trend coefficients have been calculated using web-GIS information-computational platform Climate (http://climate.scert.ru/) developed to support collaborative multidisciplinary investigations of regional climatic changes and their impacts (Gordov et al., 2012). Obtained results show that seasonal dynamics of daily temperature extremes is asymmetric for tails of cold and warm temperature extreme distributions. Namely, the intensity of warming during cold nights is higher than during warm nights, especially at high latitudes of Siberia. The similar dynamics is observed for cold and warm day-time temperatures. Slight summer cooling was observed in the central part of Siberia. It is associated with decrease in warm temperature extremes. In the southern Siberia in winter, we also observe some cooling mostly due to strengthening of the cold temperature extremes. Changes in daily precipitation extremes

  5. Projections of Climate Extremes in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrandrea, M. D.; Tebaldi, C.; Snyder, C.; Schneider, S. H.

    2008-12-01

    In the next few decades, it is likely that California must face the challenge of coping with increased impacts from extreme events such as heatwaves, wildfires, droughts, and floods. Such events can cause significant damages, and are responsible for a large fraction of near-term climate-related impacts every year. Some extreme events have already very likely changed in frequency and intensity over the past several decades, and these changes are expected to continue with relatively small changes in average conditions. We synthesize existing research to characterize current understanding of the direct impacts of extreme events across sectors, as well as the interactions between sectors as they are affected by extreme events. We also produce new projections of changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme events in the future across climate models, emissions scenarios, and downscaling methods for producing regional climate information, for each county in California. We evaluate historical and projected changes for a suite of temperature and precipitation-based climate indicators, and we conduct a return level analysis to investigate projected changes in extreme temperatures. Finally, we include an analysis of the future likelihood of events similar in magnitude to specific historical events, such as the July 2006 heat wave. Consistent with other studies, we find significant increases in the frequency and magnitude of both maximum and minimum temperature extremes in many areas, with the magnitude of change dependent on the magnitude of projected emissions and overall temperature increase. For example, in many regions of California, at least a ten-fold increase in frequency is projected for extreme temperatures currently estimated to occur once every 100 years, even under a moderate emissions scenario (SRES B1). Under a higher emissions scenario (SRES A2), these temperatures are projected to occur close to annually in most regions. Also consistent with other studies

  6. The Pace of Perceivable Extreme Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, X.; Gan, T. Y.

    2015-12-01

    When will the signal of obvious changes in extreme climate emerge over climate variability (Time of Emergence, ToE) is a key question for planning and implementing measures to mitigate the potential impact of climate change to natural and human systems that are generally adapted to potential changes from current variability. We estimated ToEs for the magnitude, duration and frequency of global extreme climate represented by 24 extreme climate indices (16 for temperature and 8 for precipitation) with different thresholds of the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio based on projections of CMIP5 global climate models under RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 for the 21st century. The uncertainty of ToE is assessed by using 3 different methods to calculate S/N for each extreme index. Results show that ToEs of the projected extreme climate indices based on the RCP4.5 climate scenarios are generally projected to happen about 20 years later than that for the RCP8.5 climate scenarios. Under RCP8.5, the projected magnitude, duration and frequency of extreme temperature on Earth will all exceed 2 standard deviations by 2100, and the empirical 50th percentile of the global ToE for the frequency and magnitude of hot (cold) extreme are about 2040 and 2054 (2064 and 2054) for S/N > 2, respectively. The 50th percentile of global ToE for the intensity of extreme precipitation is about 2030 and 2058 for S/N >0.5 and S/N >1, respectively. We further evaluated the exposure of ecosystems and human societies to the pace of extreme climate change by determining the year of ToE for various extreme climate indices projected to occur over terrestrial biomes, marine realms and major urban areas with large populations. This was done by overlaying terrestrial, ecoregions and population maps with maps of ToE derived, to extract ToEs for these regions. Possible relationships between GDP per person and ToE are also investigated by relating the mean ToE for each country and its average value of GDP per person.

  7. European security, nuclear weapons and public confidence

    SciTech Connect

    Gutteridge, W.

    1982-01-01

    This book presents papers on nuclear arms control in Europe. Topics considered include political aspects, the balance of power, nuclear disarmament in Europe, the implications of new conventional technologies, the neutron bomb, theater nuclear weapons, arms control in Northern Europe, naval confidence-building measures in the Baltic, the strategic balance in the Arctic Ocean, Arctic resources, threats to European stability, developments in South Africa, economic cooperation in Europe, European collaboration in science and technology after Helsinki, European cooperation in the area of electric power, and economic cooperation as a factor for the development of European security and cooperation.

  8. Developments in international/European health law.

    PubMed

    Abbing, Henriette D C Roscam

    2009-03-01

    International (European) organizations have impact on health law. The most recent developments are: a revision of the world Medical's Association Declaration of Helsinki, a proposal for a Directive (European Commission) on standards of quality and safety of human organs intended for transplantation, accompanied by a ten point action plan; a proposal (European Commission) for a Directive on the application of patients' rights in cross-border health care; a proposal (European commission) for a Directive on information to the general public on medicinal products subject to medical prescription. PMID:19353913

  9. The Revised European Social Fund and Action to Combat Unemployment in the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandamme, Francois

    1984-01-01

    The tasks of the European Social Fund, the European Economic Community's social policy instrument, were reviewed in l983 in the light of the worsening unemployment situation and the priority placed on employment and vocational training policies. (Author/SSH)

  10. EMSO: European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favali, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    EMSO, a Research Infrastructure listed within ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) Roadmap (Report 2006, http://cordis.europa.eu/esfri/roadmap.htm), is the European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the scientific objective of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes through long time series appropriate to the scale of the phenomena, constituting the new frontier of studying Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry and ocean processes. The development of an underwater network is based on previous EU-funded projects since early '90 and is being supported by several EU initiatives, as the on-going ESONET-NoE, coordinated by IFREMER (2007-2011, http://www.esonet-emso.org/esonet-noe/), and aims at gathering together the Research Community of the Ocean Observatories. In 2006 the FP7 Capacities Programme launched a call for Preparatory Phase (PP) projects, that will provide the support to create the legal and organisational entities in charge of managing the infrastructures, and coordinating the financial effort among the countries. Under this call the EMSO-PP project was approved in 2007 with the coordination of INGV and the participation of other 11 Institutions of 11 countries. The project has started in April 2008 and will last 4 years. The EMSO is a key-infrastructure both for Ocean Sciences and for Solid Earth Sciences. In this respect it will enhance and complement profitably the capabilities of other European research infrastructures such as EPOS, ERICON-Aurora Borealis, and SIOS. The perspective of the synergy among EMSO and other ESFRI Research Infrastructures will be outlined. EMSO Partners: IFREMER-Institut Français de Recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer (France, ref. Roland Person); KDM-Konsortium Deutsche Meeresforschung e.V. (Germany, ref. Christoph

  11. EMSO: European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favali, P.; Partnership, Emso

    2009-04-01

    EMSO, a Research Infrastructure listed within ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) Roadmap), is the European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the scientific objective of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes through long time series appropriate to the scale of the phenomena, constituting the new frontier of studying Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry and ocean processes. EMSO will reply also to the need expressed in the frame of GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) to develop a marine segment integrated in the in situ and satellite global monitoring system. The EMSO development relays upon the synergy between the scientific community and the industry to improve the European competitiveness with respect to countries like USA/Canada, NEPTUNE, VENUS and MARS projects, Taiwan, MACHO project, and Japan, DONET project. In Europe the development of an underwater network is based on previous EU-funded projects since early '90, and presently supported by EU initiatives. The EMSO infrastructure will constitute the extension to the sea of the land-based networks. Examples of data recorded by seafloor observatories will be presented. EMSO is presently at the stage of Preparatory Phase (PP), funded in the EC FP7 Capacities Programme. The project has started in April 2008 and will last 4 years with the participation of 12 Institutions representing 12 countries. EMSO potential will be significantly increased also with the interaction with other Research Infrastructures addressed to Earth Science. 2. IFREMER-Institut Français de Recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer (France, ref. Roland Person); KDM-Konsortium Deutsche Meeresforschung e.V. (Germany, ref. Christoph Waldmann); IMI-Irish Marine Institute (Ireland, ref. Michael Gillooly); UTM-CSIC-Unidad de

  12. Assessing European wild fire vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oehler, F.; Oliveira, S.; Barredo, J. I.; Camia, A.; Ayanz, J. San Miguel; Pettenella, D.; Mavsar, R.

    2012-04-01

    Wild fire vulnerability is a measure of potential socio-economic damage caused by a fire in a specific area. As such it is an important component of long-term fire risk management, helping policy-makers take informed decisions about adequate expenditures for fire prevention and suppression, and to target those regions at highest risk. This paper presents a first approach to assess wild fire vulnerability at the European level. A conservative approach was chosen that assesses the cost of restoring the previous land cover after a potential fire. Based on the CORINE Land Cover, a restoration cost was established for each land cover class at country level, and an average restoration time was assigned according to the recovery capacity of the land cover. The damage caused by fire was then assessed by discounting the cost of restoring the previous land cover over the restoration period. Three different vulnerability scenarios were considered assuming low, medium and high fire severity causing different levels of damage. Over Europe, the potential damage of wild land fires ranges from 10 - 13, 732 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for low fire severity, 32 - 45,772 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for medium fire severity and 54 - 77,812 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for high fire severity. The least vulnerable are natural grasslands, moors and heathland and sclerophyllous vegetation, while the highest cost occurs for restoring broad-leaved forest. Preliminary validation comparing these estimates with official damage assessments for past fires shows reasonable results. The restoration cost approach allows for a straightforward, data extensive assessment of fire vulnerability at European level. A disadvantage is the inherent simplification of the evaluation procedure with the underestimation of non-markets goods and services. Thus, a second approach has been developed, valuing individual wild land goods and services and assessing their annual flow which is lost for a certain period of time in case of a fire event. However

  13. Impacts of Climate Change On The Occurrence of Extreme Events: The Mice Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palutikof, J. P.; Mice Team

    It is widely accepted that climate change due to global warming will have substan- tial impacts on the natural environment, and on human activities. Furthermore, it is increasingly recognized that changes in the severity and frequency of extreme events, such as windstorm and flood, are likely to be more important than changes in the average climate. The EU-funded project MICE (Modelling the Impacts of Climate Extremes) commenced in January 2002. It seeks to identify the likely changes in the occurrence of extremes of rainfall, temperature and windstorm due to global warm- ing, using information from climate models as a basis, and to study the impacts of these changes in selected European environments. The objectives are: a) to evaluate, by comparison with gridded and station observations, the ability of climate models to successfully reproduce the occurrence of extremes at the required spatial and temporal scales. b) to analyse model output with respect to future changes in the occurrence of extremes. Statistical analyses will determine changes in (i) the return periods of ex- tremes, (ii) the joint probability of extremes (combinations of damaging events such as windstorm followed by heavy rain), (iii) the sequential behaviour of extremes (whether events are well-separated or clustered) and (iv) the spatial patterns of extreme event occurrence across Europe. The range of uncertainty in model predictions will be ex- plored by analysing changes in model experiments with different spatial resolutions and forcing scenarios. c) to determine the impacts of the predicted changes in extremes occurrence on selected activity sectors: agriculture (Mediterranean drought), commer- cial forestry and natural forest ecosystems (windstorm and flood in northern Europe, fire in the Mediterranean), energy use (temperature extremes), tourism (heat stress and Mediterranean beach holidays, changes in the snow pack and winter sports ) and civil protection/insurance (windstorm and flood

  14. Addressing Extremes within the WCRP - GEWEX Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oevelen, P. J.; Stewart, R.; Detemmerman, V.

    2008-12-01

    For large international coordination programs such as the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) as part of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) it is difficult to strike a good balance between enabling as much international involvement as is possible and desirable and the achievability of the objectives. WCRP has decided that "Extremes Research" is one of several areas where it would like to see its efforts strengthened and scientific research pushed forward. The foci that are being selected should be phrased such that they are practical and achievable within a time span of 1 to 3 years. Preferably these foci build upon the expertise from cross WCRP activities and are not restricted to single core project activities. In this presentation an overview will be given of the various activities within GEWEX that are related to extremes and which ones would be most ideal to be addressed as WCRP foci from a GEWEX perspective. The rationale and context of extreme research will be presented as well links to other national and international programs. "Extremes Research" as a topic is attractive since it has a high societal relevance and impact. However, numerous definitions of extremes exist and they are being used in widely varying contexts making it not always clear of what exactly is being addressed. This presentation will give an outlook on what can be expected research wise in the near future based upon the outcomes of the Extremes Workshop organised last June in Vancouver in the context of the Coordinated Energy and water cycle Observations Project (CEOP) as part of GEWEX. In particular it will be shown how these activities, which will only address certain types of extremes, can be linked to adaptation and mitigation efforts taking place in other organisations and by national and international bodies.

  15. Extreme Storm Surges in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goennert, G.; Buß, Th.; Mueller, O.; Thumm, S.

    2009-04-01

    Extreme Storm Surges in the North Sea Gabriele Gönnert, Olaf Müller, Thomas Buß and Sigrid Thumm Climate Change will cause a rise of the sea level and probably more frequent and more violent storm surges. This has serious consequences for the safety of people as well as for their values and assets behind the dikes. It is therefore inevitable to first assess how sea level rise and an extreme storm surge event designes. In a second step it is possible to determine the risk for specific locations and develop strategies. The Project XtremRisk - Extreme Storm Surges at the North Sea Coast and in Estuaries. Risk calculation and risk strategies, funded by the German Federal Government will help answering these questions. The „Source-Pathway-Receptor" Concept will be used as a basis for risk analysis and development of new strategies. The Project offers methods to assess the development of extreme events under the conditions of today. Under conditions reflecting the climate change it will be tried to design an extreme event. For these three main points will be considered: a) Analysis and calculation of each factor, which produce a storm surge and its maximum level occurring in the last 100 years. These are: - maximum surge level: surge (due to the wind), - influence of the tide and the interaction between surge and tide, - influence of external surges , b) The hydrodynamics of a storm surge cause nonlinear effects in the interaction of the named factors. These factors and effects will both be taken into account to calculate the magnitude of the extreme storm surge. This step is very complex and need additional examination by numerical models. c) Analysis of the different scenarios to mean sea level rise and to the increase of wind speed due to the climate change. The presentation will introduce methods and show first results of the analysis of extreme events and the mean sea level rise.

  16. Eukaryotic diversity at pH extremes

    PubMed Central

    Amaral-Zettler, Linda A.

    2013-01-01

    Extremely acidic (pH < 3) and extremely alkaline (pH > 9) environments support a diversity of single-cell and to a lesser extent, multicellular eukaryotic life. This study compared alpha and beta diversity in eukaryotic communities from seven diverse aquatic environments with pH values ranging from 2 to 11 using massively-parallel pyrotag sequencing targeting the V9 hypervariable region of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. A total of 946 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were recovered at a 6% cut-off level (94% similarity) across the sampled environments. Hierarchical clustering of the samples segregated the communities into acidic and alkaline groups. Similarity percentage (SIMPER) analysis followed by indicator OTU analysis (IOA) and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) were used to determine which characteristic groups of eukaryotic taxa typify acidic or alkaline extremes and the extent to which pH explains eukaryotic community structure in these environments. Spain's Rio Tinto yielded the fewest observed OTUs while Nebraska Sandhills alkaline lakes yielded the most. Distinct OTUs, including metazoan OTUs, numerically dominated pH extreme sites. Indicator OTUs included the diatom Pinnularia and unidentified opisthokonts (Fungi and Filasterea) in the extremely acidic environments, and the ciliate Frontonia across the extremely alkaline sites. Inferred from NMDS, pH explained only a modest fraction of the variation across the datasets, indicating that other factors influence the underlying community structure in these environments. The findings from this study suggest that the ability for eukaryotes to adapt to pH extremes over a broad range of values may be rare, but further study of taxa that can broadly adapt across diverse acidic and alkaline environments, respectively present good models for understanding adaptation and should be targeted for future investigations. PMID:23335919

  17. Near future changes of extremes and compound extremes on the regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedlmeier, Katrin; Feldmann, Hendrik; Schädler, Gerd

    2013-04-01

    Reliable knowledge of near future changes of extreme and compound extreme events on the regional scale is of great importance for impact studies and planning of adaptation/mitigation strategies. Different types of extremes might intensify each other, e.g. heat waves and droughts via evapotranspiration and heat flux. Compared to projections for the end of the century, the climate change and variation signals for the near future are weaker and more contaminated by to natural variations. On the other hand several studies (e.g. Feldmann et al. [1]) have shown that extremes are likely to undergo more pronounced changes than mean values. To derive reliable estimates of these changes, ensembles of simulations are a useful method since the larger number of data allows for a better estimate of probability density function parameters and higher signal-to-noise ratios which are especially needed for the analysis of extreme events and compound extremes. Furthermore, using ensembles enables an assessment of the uncertainty of the deduced changes. Our work is based on an ensemble of high resolution regional climate simulations with a resolution of 7 km with the COSMO-CLM regional climate model using different global driving data. Our ensemble is enlarged by results from the ENSEMBLES project, thus also including different regional and global driving models. Changes between a control period (1971-200) and the near future (2011-2040) are assessed with a special focus on central Europe. The analysis focuses on extreme events related to temperature and precipitation such as heat and cold waves or dry spells with a subsequent examination of compound extreme events. Compound extreme events are defined as the simultaneous or successive occurrence of two or more extreme events (IPCC Special Report on extreme events, 2012), e.g. the simultaneous occurrence of dry periods and heat waves or cold spells and extreme precipitation. Extremes are expressed in terms of return values and

  18. Historical changes in Australian temperature extremes as inferred from extreme value distribution analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaolan L.; Trewin, Blair; Feng, Yang; Jones, David

    2013-02-01

    Abstract This study develops a generalized <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value (GEV) distribution analysis approach, namely, a GEV tree approach that allows for both stationary and nonstationary cases. This approach is applied to a century-long homogenized daily temperature data set for Australia to assess changes in temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span> from 1910 to 2010. Changes in 20 year return values are estimated from the most suitable GEV distribution chosen from a GEV tree. Twenty year return values of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> low minimum temperature are found to have warmed strongly over the century in most parts of the continent. There is also a tendency toward warming of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> high maximum temperatures, but it is weaker than that for minimum temperatures, with the majority of stations not showing significant trends. The observed changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures are broadly consistent with observed changes in mean temperatures and in the frequency of temperatures above the ninetieth and below the tenth percentile (i.e., <span class="hlt">extreme</span> indices). The GEV tree analysis provides insight into behavior of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> with re-occurrence times of several years to decades that are of importance to engineering design/applications, while <span class="hlt">extreme</span> indices represent moderately <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events with re-occurrence times of a year or shorter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1999AdSpR..23..381H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1999AdSpR..23..381H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">European</span> activities in exobiology in earth orbit: results and perspectives</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Horneck, G.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>A large portion of <span class="hlt">European</span> activities in Earth orbit have concentrated on studies of the responses of resistant microbes to the harsh environment of space with the aim of providing experimental evidence testing the hypothesis that interplanetary transfer of life is possible. Various types of microorganisms, such as bacterial or fungal spores, as well as viruses and biomolecules, such as DNA, amino acids and liposomes, have been exposed to selected and combined space conditions outside the Earth's magnetic field (Apollo 16) or in low Earth orbit (Spacelab 1, Spacelab D2, ERA on EURECA, LDEF, BIOPAN on FOTON). Space parameters, such as high vacuum, intense solar ultraviolet radiation, different components of the cosmic radiation field and temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span> affected the genetic stability of the organisms in space, leading to increased mutation rates, DNA damage and inactivation. Extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was the most lethal factor. If shielded against the influx of solar UV, spores of Bacillus subtilis survived for more than 5 years in space. Future research will be directed towards long-term studies of microbes in artificial meteorites, as well as of microbial communities from special ecological niches, such as endolithic and endoevaporitic ecosystems. For these studies, the <span class="hlt">European</span> Space Agency will provide the facility EXPOSE to be accommodated on the External Platform of the International Space Station during the Early Utilization Phase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3135015','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3135015"><span id="translatedtitle">Genital Schistosomiasis in <span class="hlt">European</span> Women</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Catteau, Xavier; Fakhri, Anass; Albert, Valérie; Doukoure, Brahima; Noël, Jean-Christophe</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) is an isolated chronic form of schistosomiasis. Although most infections occur in residents of endemic areas, it has been clearly documented that brief freshwater exposure is sufficient to establish infection; thus, travellers may also be infected. The clinical manifestations of FGS are nonspecific, and lesions may mimic any neoplastic or infectious process in the female genital tract. It is important to take a careful history and physical examination, making sure to consider travel history in endemic areas. The diagnosis is confirmed by microscopy with egg identification or by serology. The standard of care for treatment is a single dose of oral praziquantel which avoids complications and substantial morbidity. Herein, we report a rare and original case of FGS in a <span class="hlt">European</span> woman. PMID:21776398</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.jstor.org/stable/info/1940216','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.jstor.org/stable/info/1940216"><span id="translatedtitle">Postfledging survival of <span class="hlt">European</span> starlings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Krementz, D.G.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>We tested the hypotheses that mass at fledging and fledge date within the breeding season affect postfledging survival in <span class="hlt">European</span> Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Nestlings were weighed on day 18 after hatch and tagged with individually identifiable patagial tags. Fledge date was recorded. Marked fledglings were resighted during weekly two-day intensive observation periods for 9 weeks postfledging. Post-fledging survival and sighting probabilities were estimated for each of four groups (early or late fledging by heavy or light fledging mass). Body mass was related to post-fledging survival for birds that fledged early. Results were not clear-cut for relative fledge date, although there was weak evidence that this also influenced survival. Highest survival probability estimates occurred in the EARLY-HEAVY group, while the lowest survival estimate occurred in the LATE-LIGHT group. Sighting probabilities differed significantly among groups, emphasizing the need to estimate and compare survival using models which explicitly incorporate sighting probabilities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JHyd..528..503V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JHyd..528..503V"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">European</span> scale climate information services for water use sectors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Donnelly, Chantal; Strömbäck, Lena; Capell, René; Ludwig, Fulco</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>This study demonstrates a climate information service for pan-<span class="hlt">European</span> water use sectors that are vulnerable to climate change induced hydrological changes, including risk and safety (disaster preparedness), agriculture, energy (hydropower and cooling water use for thermoelectric power) and environment (water quality). To study the climate change impacts we used two different hydrological models forced with an ensemble of bias-corrected general circulation model (GCM) output for both the lowest (2.6) and highest (8.5) representative concentration pathways (RCP). Selected indicators of water related vulnerability for each sector were then calculated from the hydrological model results. Our results show a distinct north-south divide in terms of climate change impacts; in the south the water availability will reduce while in the north water availability will increase. Across different climate models precipitation and streamflow increase in northern Europe and decrease in southern Europe, but the latitude at which this change occurs varies depending on the GCM. Hydrological <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are increasing over large parts of Europe. The agricultural sector will be affected by reduced water availability (in the south) and increased drought. Both streamflow and soil moistures droughts are projected to increase in most parts of Europe except in northern Scandinavia and the Alps. The energy sector will be affected by lower hydropower potential in most <span class="hlt">European</span> countries and reduced cooling water availability due to higher water temperatures and reduced summer river flows. Our results show that in particular in the Mediterranean the pressures are high because of increasing drought which will have large impacts on both the agriculture and energy sectors. In France and Italy this is combined with increased flood hazards. Our results show important impacts of climate change on <span class="hlt">European</span> water use sectors indicating a clear need for adaptation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513897W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513897W"><span id="translatedtitle">Multidecadal oscillations in rainfall and hydrological <span class="hlt">extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Willems, Patrick</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Many studies have anticipated a worldwide increase in the frequency and intensity of precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and floods since the last decade(s). Natural variability by climate oscillations partly determines the observed evolution of precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Based on a technique for the identification and analysis of changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> quantiles, it is shown that hydrological <span class="hlt">extremes</span> have oscillatory behaviour at multidecadal time scales. Results are based on nearly independent <span class="hlt">extremes</span> extracted from long-term historical time series of precipitation intensities and river flows. Study regions include Belgium - The Netherlands (Meuse basin), Ethiopia (Blue Nile basin) and Ecuador (Paute basin). For Belgium - The Netherlands, the past 100 years showed larger and more hydrological <span class="hlt">extremes</span> around the 1910s, 1950-1960s, and more recently during the 1990-2000s. Interestingly, the oscillations for southwestern Europe are anti-correlated with these of northwestern Europe, thus with oscillation highs in the 1930-1940s and 1970s. The precipitation oscillation peaks are explained by persistence in atmospheric circulation patterns over the North Atlantic during periods of 10 to 15 years. References: Ntegeka V., Willems P. (2008), 'Trends and multidecadal oscillations in rainfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, based on a more than 100 years time series of 10 minutes rainfall intensities at Uccle, Belgium', Water Resources Research, 44, W07402, doi:10.1029/2007WR006471 Mora, D., Willems, P. (2012), 'Decadal oscillations in rainfall and air temperature in the Paute River Basin - Southern Andes of Ecuador', Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 108(1), 267-282, doi:0.1007/s00704-011-0527-4 Taye, M.T., Willems, P. (2011). 'Influence of climate variability on representative QDF predictions of the upper Blue Nile Basin', Journal of Hydrology, 411, 355-365, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.10.019 Taye, M.T., Willems, P. (2012). 'Temporal variability of hydro-climatic <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the Blue Nile basin', Water</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613307H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613307H"><span id="translatedtitle">Detection and attribution of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather disasters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huggel, Christian; Stone, Dáithí; Hansen, Gerrit</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Single disasters related to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events have caused loss and damage on the order of up to tens of billions US dollars over the past years. Recent disasters fueled the debate about whether and to what extent these events are related to climate change. In international climate negotiations disaster loss and damage is now high on the agenda, and related policy mechanisms have been discussed or are being implemented. In view of funding allocation and effective risk reduction strategies detection and attribution to climate change of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events and disasters is a key issue. Different avenues have so far been taken to address detection and attribution in this context. Physical climate sciences have developed approaches, among others, where variables that are reasonably sampled over climatically relevant time periods and related to the meteorological characteristics of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event are examined. Trends in these variables (e.g. air or sea surface temperatures) are compared between observations and climate simulations with and without anthropogenic forcing. Generally, progress has been made in recent years in attribution of changes in the chance of some single <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events to anthropogenic climate change but there remain important challenges. A different line of research is primarily concerned with losses related to the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events over time, using disaster databases. A growing consensus is that the increase in asset values and in exposure are main drivers of the strong increase of economic losses over the past several decades, and only a limited number of studies have found trends consistent with expectations from climate change. Here we propose a better integration of existing lines of research in detection and attribution of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events and disasters by applying a risk framework. Risk is thereby defined as a function of the probability of occurrence of an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather event, and the associated consequences</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..1616589S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..1616589S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">PRACE - The <span class="hlt">European</span> HPC Infrastructure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stadelmeyer, Peter</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The mission of PRACE (Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe) is to enable high impact scientific discovery and engineering research and development across all disciplines to enhance <span class="hlt">European</span> competitiveness for the benefit of society. PRACE seeks to realize this mission by offering world class computing and data management resources and services through a peer review process. This talk gives a general overview about PRACE and the PRACE research infrastructure (RI). PRACE is established as an international not-for-profit association and the PRACE RI is a pan-<span class="hlt">European</span> supercomputing infrastructure which offers access to computing and data management resources at partner sites distributed throughout Europe. Besides a short summary about the organization, history, and activities of PRACE, it is explained how scientists and researchers from academia and industry from around the world can access PRACE systems and which education and training activities are offered by PRACE. The overview also contains a selection of PRACE contributions to societal challenges and ongoing activities. Examples of the latter are beside others petascaling, application benchmark suite, best practice guides for efficient use of key architectures, application enabling / scaling, new programming models, and industrial applications. The Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe (PRACE) is an international non-profit association with its seat in Brussels. The PRACE Research Infrastructure provides a persistent world-class high performance computing service for scientists and researchers from academia and industry in Europe. The computer systems and their operations accessible through PRACE are provided by 4 PRACE members (BSC representing Spain, CINECA representing Italy, GCS representing Germany and GENCI representing France). The Implementation Phase of PRACE receives funding from the EU's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreements RI-261557, RI-283493 and RI</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Research+AND+educational&id=EJ1039183','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Research+AND+educational&id=EJ1039183"><span id="translatedtitle">EERA and Its <span class="hlt">European</span> Conferences on Educational Research: A Patchwork of Research on <span class="hlt">European</span> Educational Research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Keiner, Edwin; Hofbauer, Susann</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The process of Europeanisation is closely linked to the process of an emerging <span class="hlt">European</span> Educational Research Area and an education research identity. The <span class="hlt">European</span> Conferences on Educational Research (ECER), <span class="hlt">European</span> Educational Research Association (EERA) and its networks are involved in new directions and strands of educational research in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Importance+AND+Place+AND+International+AND+Students&pg=5&id=EJ845159','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Importance+AND+Place+AND+International+AND+Students&pg=5&id=EJ845159"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">European</span> Dimension in Education: Exploring Pupils' Perceptions at Three <span class="hlt">European</span> Schools</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Savvides, Nicola</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This article outlines some themes that have emerged from research investigating the <span class="hlt">European</span> dimension in education at three <span class="hlt">European</span> Schools. It focuses on pupils' perceptions of the conditions in place at these schools that make a significant contribution to the <span class="hlt">European</span> dimension. Findings are presented on the school environment and community,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H43E1555L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H43E1555L"><span id="translatedtitle">Water Cycle <span class="hlt">Extremes</span>: from Observations to Decisions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lawford, R. G.; Unninayar, S.; Berod, D.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extremes</span> in the water cycle (droughts and floods) pose major challenges for water resource managers and emergency services. These challenges arise from observational and prediction systems, advisory services, impact reduction strategies, and cleanup and recovery operations. The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) through its Water Strategy ("GEOSS Water Strategy: from observations to decisions") is seeking to provide systems that will enable its members to more effectively meet their information needs prior to and during an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event. This presentation reviews the wide range of impacts that arise from <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the water cycle and the types of data and information needed to plan for and respond to these <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. It identifies the capabilities and limitations of current observational and analysis systems in defining the scale, timing, intensity and impacts of water cycle <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and in directing society's response to them. This summary represents an early preliminary assessment of the global and regional information needs of water resource managers and begins to outline a strategy within GEO for using Earth Observations and ancillary information to address these needs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4437297','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4437297"><span id="translatedtitle">How does public opinion become <span class="hlt">extreme</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ramos, Marlon; Shao, Jia; Reis, Saulo D. S.; Anteneodo, Celia; Andrade, José S.; Havlin, Shlomo; Makse, Hernán A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We investigate the emergence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> opinion trends in society by employing statistical physics modeling and analysis on polls that inquire about a wide range of issues such as religion, economics, politics, abortion, extramarital sex, books, movies, and electoral vote. The surveys lay out a clear indicator of the rise of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> views. The precursor is a nonlinear relation between the fraction of individuals holding a certain <span class="hlt">extreme</span> view and the fraction of individuals that includes also moderates, e.g., in politics, those who are “very conservative” versus “moderate to very conservative” ones. We propose an activation model of opinion dynamics with interaction rules based on the existence of individual “stubbornness” that mimics empirical observations. According to our modeling, the onset of nonlinearity can be associated to an abrupt bootstrap-percolation transition with cascades of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> views through society. Therefore, it represents an early-warning signal to forecast the transition from moderate to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> views. Moreover, by means of a phase diagram we can classify societies according to the percolative regime they belong to, in terms of critical fractions of extremists and people’s ties. PMID:25989484</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JPhCS..75a2074S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JPhCS..75a2074S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> wind turbine response during operation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sørensen, John D.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>Estimation of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> response values is very important for structural design of wind turbines. Due to the influence of control system and nonlinear structural behavior the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> response is usually assessed based on simulation of turbulence time series. In this paper the problem of statistical load extrapolation is considered using techniques from structural reliability theory. Different simulation techniques to estimate <span class="hlt">extreme</span> response characteristics are described and compared, including crude Monte Carlo simulation, Importance Sampling, and splitting methods such as the Russian Roulette and the Double and Clump algorithm. A statistically consistent technique is described for including statistical uncertainty and assessing the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> 50-year response using simulated time series and conditioned on the model parameters. The peak over threshold method together with the Maximum Likelihood Method provides a tool to obtain consistent estimates incl. the statistical uncertainty. An illustrative example indicates that the statistical uncertainty is important compared to the coefficient of variation of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> response when the number of 10 minutes simulations at each mean wind speed is limited to 10.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4175251','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4175251"><span id="translatedtitle">Upper <span class="hlt">Extremity</span> Problems in Doner Kebab Masters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Taspinar, Ozgur; Kepekci, Muge; Ozaras, Nihal; Aydin, Teoman; Guler, Mustafa</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>[Purpose] Doner kebab is a food specific to Turkey; it is a cone-shaped meat placed vertically on a high stand. The doner kebab chefs stand against the meat and cut it by using both of their upper <span class="hlt">extremities</span>. This work style may lead to recurrent trauma and correspondingly the upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> problems. The aim of this study was to investigate the upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> disorders of doner chefs. [Subjects and Methods] Doner kebab chefs were selected as the study group, and volunteers who were not doner kebab chefs and didn’t exert intense effort with upper <span class="hlt">extremities</span> their business lives were selected as the control group. A survey form was prepared to obtain data about the participants’ ages, working experience (years), daily work hours, work at a second job, diseases, drug usage, and any musculoskeletal (lasting at least 1 week) complaint in last 6 months. [Results] A total of 164 individuals participated in the study, 82 doner chefs and 82 volunteers. In 20.6% of the study group and 15.6% of the control group, an upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> musculoskeletal system disorder was detected. Lateral epicondylitis was more frequently statistically significant in the work group. [Conclusion] Hand pain and lateral epicondylitis are more frequent in doner chefs than in other forms of business. PMID:25276030</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015NatSR...510032R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015NatSR...510032R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">How does public opinion become <span class="hlt">extreme</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ramos, Marlon; Shao, Jia; Reis, Saulo D. S.; Anteneodo, Celia; Andrade, José S.; Havlin, Shlomo; Makse, Hernán A.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>We investigate the emergence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> opinion trends in society by employing statistical physics modeling and analysis on polls that inquire about a wide range of issues such as religion, economics, politics, abortion, extramarital sex, books, movies, and electoral vote. The surveys lay out a clear indicator of the rise of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> views. The precursor is a nonlinear relation between the fraction of individuals holding a certain <span class="hlt">extreme</span> view and the fraction of individuals that includes also moderates, e.g., in politics, those who are “very conservative” versus “moderate to very conservative” ones. We propose an activation model of opinion dynamics with interaction rules based on the existence of individual “stubbornness” that mimics empirical observations. According to our modeling, the onset of nonlinearity can be associated to an abrupt bootstrap-percolation transition with cascades of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> views through society. Therefore, it represents an early-warning signal to forecast the transition from moderate to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> views. Moreover, by means of a phase diagram we can classify societies according to the percolative regime they belong to, in terms of critical fractions of extremists and people’s ties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26052277','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26052277"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Metal Music and Anger Processing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sharman, Leah; Dingle, Genevieve A</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The claim that listening to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> music causes anger, and expressions of anger such as aggression and delinquency have yet to be substantiated using controlled experimental methods. In this study, 39 <span class="hlt">extreme</span> music listeners aged 18-34 years were subjected to an anger induction, followed by random assignment to 10 min of listening to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> music from their own playlist, or 10 min silence (control). Measures of emotion included heart rate and subjective ratings on the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS). Results showed that ratings of PANAS hostility, irritability, and stress increased during the anger induction, and decreased after the music or silence. Heart rate increased during the anger induction and was sustained (not increased) in the music condition, and decreased in the silence condition. PANAS active and inspired ratings increased during music listening, an effect that was not seen in controls. The findings indicate that <span class="hlt">extreme</span> music did not make angry participants angrier; rather, it appeared to match their physiological arousal and result in an increase in positive emotions. Listening to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> music may represent a healthy way of processing anger for these listeners. PMID:26052277</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4439552','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4439552"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Metal Music and Anger Processing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sharman, Leah; Dingle, Genevieve A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The claim that listening to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> music causes anger, and expressions of anger such as aggression and delinquency have yet to be substantiated using controlled experimental methods. In this study, 39 <span class="hlt">extreme</span> music listeners aged 18–34 years were subjected to an anger induction, followed by random assignment to 10 min of listening to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> music from their own playlist, or 10 min silence (control). Measures of emotion included heart rate and subjective ratings on the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS). Results showed that ratings of PANAS hostility, irritability, and stress increased during the anger induction, and decreased after the music or silence. Heart rate increased during the anger induction and was sustained (not increased) in the music condition, and decreased in the silence condition. PANAS active and inspired ratings increased during music listening, an effect that was not seen in controls. The findings indicate that <span class="hlt">extreme</span> music did not make angry participants angrier; rather, it appeared to match their physiological arousal and result in an increase in positive emotions. Listening to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> music may represent a healthy way of processing anger for these listeners. PMID:26052277</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH42A..01I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH42A..01I"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling, Forecasting and Mitigating <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Earthquakes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ismail-Zadeh, A.; Le Mouel, J.; Soloviev, A.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Recent earthquake disasters highlighted the importance of multi- and trans-disciplinary studies of earthquake risk. A major component of earthquake disaster risk analysis is hazards research, which should cover not only a traditional assessment of ground shaking, but also studies of geodetic, paleoseismic, geomagnetic, hydrological, deep drilling and other geophysical and geological observations together with comprehensive modeling of earthquakes and forecasting <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> earthquakes (large magnitude and rare events) are manifestations of complex behavior of the lithosphere structured as a hierarchical system of blocks of different sizes. Understanding of physics and dynamics of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events comes from observations, measurements and modeling. A quantitative approach to simulate earthquakes in models of fault dynamics will be presented. The models reproduce basic features of the observed seismicity (e.g., the frequency-magnitude relationship, clustering of earthquakes, occurrence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> seismic events). They provide a link between geodynamic processes and seismicity, allow studying <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, influence of fault network properties on seismic patterns and seismic cycles, and assist, in a broader sense, in earthquake forecast modeling. Some aspects of predictability of large earthquakes (how well can large earthquakes be predicted today?) will be also discussed along with possibilities in mitigation of earthquake disasters (e.g., on 'inverse' forensic investigations of earthquake disasters).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EP%26S...67..153N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EP%26S...67..153N"><span id="translatedtitle">Statistical analysis of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> auroral electrojet indices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nakamura, Masao; Yoneda, Asato; Oda, Mitsunobu; Tsubouchi, Ken</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> auroral electrojet activities can damage electrical power grids due to large induced currents in the Earth, degrade radio communications and navigation systems due to the ionospheric disturbances and cause polar-orbiting satellite anomalies due to the enhanced auroral electron precipitation. Statistical estimation of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> auroral electrojet activities is an important factor in space weather research. For this estimation, we utilize <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value theory (EVT), which focuses on the statistical behavior in the tail of a distribution. As a measure of auroral electrojet activities, auroral electrojet indices AL, AU, and AE, are used, which describe the maximum current strength of the westward and eastward auroral electrojets and the sum of the two oppositely directed in the auroral latitude ionosphere, respectively. We provide statistical evidence for finite upper limits to AL and AU and estimate the annual expected number and probable intensity of their <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. We detect two different types of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> AE events; therefore, application of the appropriate EVT analysis to AE is difficult.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010EGUGA..1211973M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010EGUGA..1211973M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the amazon basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marengo, José; Mendes, David</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather and climate events have significant impacts and are among the most serious challenges to society in coping with a changing climate (CCSP, 2008). Indeed, according to IPCC AR4, confidence has increased that some <span class="hlt">extremes</span> will become more frequent, more widespread and/or more intense during the 21st century . Until recently, there had been little published work on rainfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in South America, and emphasis has been given to the La Plata Basin, where data coverage is much better. In this study, we use the indices of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> derived by the WMO and used for the IPCC AR4 applied to 100 stations in Amazon Basin for the period from 1971 to 2005, with focus on rainfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. The quality control involved carefully evaluating numerous detailed graphs of daily data to detect evidence of possible quality issues with the data as well as statistically identifying outliers. Each outlier or potential data problem was manually validated using metadata information of our climate data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25989484','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25989484"><span id="translatedtitle">How does public opinion become <span class="hlt">extreme</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ramos, Marlon; Shao, Jia; Reis, Saulo D S; Anteneodo, Celia; Andrade, José S; Havlin, Shlomo; Makse, Hernán A</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We investigate the emergence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> opinion trends in society by employing statistical physics modeling and analysis on polls that inquire about a wide range of issues such as religion, economics, politics, abortion, extramarital sex, books, movies, and electoral vote. The surveys lay out a clear indicator of the rise of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> views. The precursor is a nonlinear relation between the fraction of individuals holding a certain <span class="hlt">extreme</span> view and the fraction of individuals that includes also moderates, e.g., in politics, those who are "very conservative" versus "moderate to very conservative" ones. We propose an activation model of opinion dynamics with interaction rules based on the existence of individual "stubbornness" that mimics empirical observations. According to our modeling, the onset of nonlinearity can be associated to an abrupt bootstrap-percolation transition with cascades of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> views through society. Therefore, it represents an early-warning signal to forecast the transition from moderate to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> views. Moreover, by means of a phase diagram we can classify societies according to the percolative regime they belong to, in terms of critical fractions of extremists and people's ties. PMID:25989484</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18646651','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18646651"><span id="translatedtitle">The courage to care: nurses facing the moral <span class="hlt">extreme</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sefer, Ellen Ben</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Many <span class="hlt">European</span> nurses were caught up in the horror of what happened to Jewish people during the Second World War, trapped in ghettoes and concentration camps. The advanced age of the nurses, however, decreases the number of firsthand accounts available. This paper reports on the experience of nurses in one camp, Westerbork, in the Netherlands, highlighting their work and relating their stories. Facing <span class="hlt">extreme</span> suffering, they chose to care about others when it would have been easier to distance themselves. Until recently, historians' interest in medical practices in the transit and concentration camps has centered on medicine and sanitation. Utilisation of a nursing framework allows new material that has previously been overlooked to provide a broader understanding of the context of health care within the camps. Westerbork is an ideal camp to study since it had a genuine hospital with medicines and equipment available and a number of wards that provided care. Data collection was through oral interviews, archival documents and literature. The conclusion is that these nurses provide powerful role models of care that are as significant today as they were then. PMID:18646651</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015exon.conf..517G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015exon.conf..517G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics Eli-Np Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gales, S.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The development of high power lasers and the combination of such novel devices with accelerator technology has enlarged the science reach of many research fields, in particular High energy, Nuclear and Astrophysics as well as societal applications in Material Science, Nuclear Energy and Medicine. The <span class="hlt">European</span> Strategic Forum for Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) has selected a proposal based on these new premises called "ELI" for <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Light Infrastructure. ELI will be built as a network of three complementary pillars at the frontier of laser technologies. The ELI-NP pillar (NP for Nuclear Physics) is under construction near Bucharest (Romania) and will develop a scientific program using two 10 PW class lasers and a Back Compton Scattering High Brilliance and Intense Low Energy Gamma Beam , a marriage of Laser and Accelerator technology at the frontier of knowledge. In the present paper, the technical description of the facility, the present status of the project as well as the science, applications and future perspectives will be discussed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=industrial&pg=7&id=ED538054','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=industrial&pg=7&id=ED538054"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">European</span> Industrial Doctorates: Marie Curie Actions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>European Commission, 2012</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">European</span> industrial doctorates are joint doctoral training projects funded by the <span class="hlt">European</span> Union (EU) and open to all research fields. The project brings together an academic participant (university, research institution, etc.) and a company. They have to be established in two different EU Member States or associated countries. Associated partners…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4044800','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4044800"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">European</span> standards of Haemophilia Centres</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Giangrande, Paul; Calizzani, Gabriele; Menichini, Ivana; Candura, Fabio; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Makris, Michael</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Introduction The <span class="hlt">European</span> haemophilia community of professionals and patients has agreed on the principles of haemophilia care to address comprehensive optimal delivery of care which is nowadays scattered throughout Europe. Many of the health facilities call themselves Haemophilia Centres despite their variation in size, expertise and services provided. Only a small number of countries have Haemophilia Centre accreditation systems in place. Methods In the framework of the <span class="hlt">European</span> Haemophilia Network project, following an inclusive process of stakeholder involvement, the <span class="hlt">European</span> Guidelines for the certification of haemophilia centres have been developed in order to set quality standards for <span class="hlt">European</span> Haemophilia Centres and criteria for their certification. Results The Guidelines define the standards and criteria for the designation of two levels of care delivery: <span class="hlt">European</span> Haemophilia Treatment Centres, providing local routine care, and <span class="hlt">European</span> Haemophilia Comprehensive Care Centres, providing specialised and multi-disciplinary care and functioning as tertiary referral centres. Additionally, they define standards about general requirements, patient care, provision of an advisory service and establishment of network of clinical and specialised services. Conclusions The implementation of the <span class="hlt">European</span> Guidelines for the certification of Haemophilia Centres will contribute to the reduction of health inequalities through the standardisation of quality of care in <span class="hlt">European</span> Union Member States and could represent a model to be taken into consideration for other rare disease groups. PMID:24922293</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=learn+AND+adult+AND+people&id=EJ1002083','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=learn+AND+adult+AND+people&id=EJ1002083"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">European</span> Vision for Adult Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Waddington, Sue; Tuckett, Alan; Boucher, Fiona</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The National Institute of Adult Continuing Education (NIACE) is the UK national coordinator for the <span class="hlt">European</span> Agenda for Adult Learning, with the challenge of creating a coherent message across the four countries to inform <span class="hlt">European</span> cooperation on adult learning. To start the debate, the journal staff asked Sue Waddington, Alan Tuckett, and Fiona…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=european+AND+higher+AND+education&pg=5&id=EJ745692','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=european+AND+higher+AND+education&pg=5&id=EJ745692"><span id="translatedtitle">The Bologna Process: Transforming <span class="hlt">European</span> Higher Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Floud, Roderick</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>This article describes and discusses the Bologna Process, an agreement among the education ministries and the universities and colleges of 45 <span class="hlt">European</span> countries to create the <span class="hlt">European</span> Higher Education Area (EHEA) by 2010. At the core of the agreement is the decision that all higher education institutions in Europe will adopt the three-tiered…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED450731.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED450731.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The Future of Copyright Management: <span class="hlt">European</span> Perspectives.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Battisti, Michele</p> <p></p> <p>This paper presents <span class="hlt">European</span> perspectives on the future of copyright management. The first section is an overview of intellectual property rights in Europe, including differences between copyright countries and "droit d'auteur" countries. The second section addresses <span class="hlt">European</span> Community legal policy, including examples related to the directives for…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Nests&pg=2&id=EJ1039179','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Nests&pg=2&id=EJ1039179"><span id="translatedtitle">Transnational Lives in <span class="hlt">European</span> Educational Research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lawn, Martin</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Transnational collaboration by educational researchers in Europe has grown fast since the mid-1990s and the means to support it have become more easily accessible. A study of the growth of the <span class="hlt">European</span> Educational Research Association (EERA) since its foundation in the mid-1990s shows how transnational research in <span class="hlt">European</span> education began, and how…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=johannes+AND+bauer&id=EJ606725','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=johannes+AND+bauer&id=EJ606725"><span id="translatedtitle">Universal Services in the <span class="hlt">European</span> Union.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bauer, Johannes M.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Discusses universal service policies in the <span class="hlt">European</span> Union. Topics include information access; the demise of the public service model; the effects of competition on universal service; financing; national implementation of member states; programs for schools and libraries; and pertinent Web sites on <span class="hlt">European</span> universal service policy. (LRW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=usa+AND+numbers&pg=2&id=EJ740045','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=usa+AND+numbers&pg=2&id=EJ740045"><span id="translatedtitle">Report from the <span class="hlt">European</span> Prison Education Association</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Behan, Cormac</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents updates on the recent activities of the <span class="hlt">European</span> Prison Education Association. The main activity of the Association during the quarter has been the biennial conference, "Challenges for <span class="hlt">European</span> Prison Education: Let's make the changes together," which was held in Sofia, Bulgaria. The conference was open to prison educators…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED443134.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED443134.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The Words That Buoy the <span class="hlt">European</span> Impulse.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hogenraad, Robert; Tousignant, Nathalie; Castano, Emanuele; Bestgen, Yves; Dumoulin, Michel</p> <p></p> <p>With a view on analyzing the deeper trends in the <span class="hlt">European</span> discourse that will shape the <span class="hlt">European</span> Union's (EU's) future, a study examined 121 speeches made by EU political leaders over the period 1985-1997 and concorded and statisticized which words were used, how often, where, and when with the help of a computer-aided content analysis engine.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Journal+AND+Monetary+AND+Economics&pg=4&id=EJ795032','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Journal+AND+Monetary+AND+Economics&pg=4&id=EJ795032"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">European</span> and Intercultural Dimension in Greek Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Damanakis, Michael</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Negotiations concerning Greece's accession into the <span class="hlt">European</span> Union began as early as 1961, when a cooperation agreement was signed between Greece and the <span class="hlt">European</span> Economic Community. These negotiations were concluded 20 years later, on 1 January 1981, when Greece became the tenth full member of the EU. The next major step in Greece's progress…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=single-sequence&id=EJ743456','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=single-sequence&id=EJ743456"><span id="translatedtitle">Mathematics Teaching in Four <span class="hlt">European</span> Countries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Andrews, Paul; Sayers, Judy</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>This article discusses a comparative study, funded by the <span class="hlt">European</span> Union, of the teaching of mathematics in five <span class="hlt">European</span> countries, (Flanders, England, Finland, Hungary and Spain) to students in the upper primary (ages 10-12) and lower secondary (12-14) years. These ages were chosen as they represent a time when many students' experiences of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=green+AND+marketing&pg=4&id=ED318412','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=green+AND+marketing&pg=4&id=ED318412"><span id="translatedtitle">Implications of 1992 for <span class="hlt">European</span> Telecommunications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Muller, Jurgen</p> <p></p> <p>This paper analyzes the effect of the unified single market of 1992 on <span class="hlt">European</span> telecommunications. The major policy aspects of the <span class="hlt">European</span> Economic Commission's Green Paper on "The Development of the Common Market for Telecommunications Services and Equipment" are highlighted, and the effects of these policies in the equipment market are…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Peter+AND+Pan&pg=3&id=ED276284','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Peter+AND+Pan&pg=3&id=ED276284"><span id="translatedtitle">Internationalisms--Identical Vocabularies in <span class="hlt">European</span> Languages.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Braun, Peter</p> <p></p> <p>Linguistic history has described borrowing in the <span class="hlt">European</span> languages as a process exclusive to one language at any given time. However, it is more likely that there is a core of common loan words, or internationalisms, in many <span class="hlt">European</span> languages. These internationalisms have come from a variety of sources: the historic interrelatedness of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4451900','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4451900"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">European</span> Rabbits as Reservoir for Coxiella burnetii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>González-Barrio, David; Maio, Elisa; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We studied the role of <span class="hlt">European</span> rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as a reservoir for Coxiella burnetii in the Iberian region. High individual and population seroprevalences observed in wild and farmed rabbits, evidence of systemic infections, and vaginal shedding support the reservoir role of the <span class="hlt">European</span> rabbit for C. burnetii. PMID:25988670</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1245434-extreme_seastate_contour_v1','SCIGOV-ESTSC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1245434-extreme_seastate_contour_v1"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span>_SeaState_Contour_v1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-10-19</p> <p>This software generates environmental contours of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> sea states using buoy observations of significant wave height and energy period or peak period. The code transforms these observations using principal component analysis (PCA) to create an uncorrelated representation of the data. The subsequent components are modeled using probability distributions and parameter fitting functions. The inverse first-order reliability method (I-FORM) is then applied to these models in order to generate an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event contour based on amore » given return period (i.e., 100 years).The subsequent contour is then transformed back into the original input space defined by the variables of interest in order to create an environmental contour of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> sea states.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSH21C4129P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSH21C4129P"><span id="translatedtitle">Pushing the Envelope of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Space Weather</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pesnell, W. D.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Space Weather events are large solar flares or geomagnetic storms, which can cost billions of dollars to recover from. We have few examples of such events; the Carrington Event (the solar superstorm) is one of the few that had superlatives in three categories: size of solar flare, drop in Dst, and amplitude of aa. Kepler observations show that stars similar to the Sun can have flares releasing millions of times more energy than an X-class flare. These flares and the accompanying coronal mass ejections could strongly affect the atmosphere surrounding a planet. What level of solar activity would be necessary to strongly affect the atmosphere of the Earth? Can we map out the envelope of space weather along the evolution of the Sun? What would space weather look like if the Sun stopped producing a magnetic field? To what <span class="hlt">extreme</span> should Space Weather go? These are the <span class="hlt">extremes</span> of Space Weather explored in this talk.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16..726V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16..726V"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent and future <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation over Ukraine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vyshkvarkova, Olena; Voskresenskaya, Elena</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The aim of study is to analyze the parameters of precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and inequality over Ukraine in recent climate epoch and their possible changes in the future. Data of observations from 28 hydrometeorological stations over Ukraine and output of GFDL-CM3 model (CMIP5) for XXI century were used in the study. The methods of concentration index (J. Martin-Vide, 2004) for the study of precipitation inequality while the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation indices recommended by the ETCCDI - for the frequency of events. Results. Precipitation inequality on the annual and seasonal scales was studied using estimated CI series for 1951-2005. It was found that annual CI ranges vary from 0.58 to 0.64. They increase southward from the north-west (forest zone) and the north-east (forest steppe zone) of Ukraine. CI maxima are located in the coastal regions of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. Annual CI spatial distribution indicates that the contribution of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation into annual totals is most significant at the boundary zone between steppe and marine regions. At the same time precipitation pattern at the foothill of Carpathian Mountains is more homogenous. The CI minima (0.54) are typical for the winter season in foothill of Ukrainian Carpathians. The CI maxima reach 0.71 in spring at the steppe zone closed to the Black Sea coast. It should be noted that the greatest ranges of CI maximum and CI minimum deviation are typical for spring. It is associated with patterns of cyclone trajectories in that season. The most territory is characterized by tendency to decrease the contribution of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation into the total amount (CI linear trends are predominantly negative in all seasons). Decadal and interdecadal variability of precipitation inequality associated with global processes in ocean-atmosphere system are also studied. It was shown that precipitation inequality over Ukraine on 10 - 15 % stronger in negative phase of Pacific Decadal Oscillation and in positive phase</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH32A..01H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH32A..01H"><span id="translatedtitle">The Engineering for Climate <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> Partnership</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Holland, G. J.; Tye, M. R.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Hurricane Sandy and the recent floods in Thailand have demonstrated not only how sensitive the urban environment is to the impact of severe weather, but also the associated global reach of the ramifications. These, together with other growing <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather impacts and the increasing interdependence of global commercial activities point towards a growing vulnerability to weather and climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. The Engineering for Climate <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> Partnership brings academia, industry and government together with the goals encouraging joint activities aimed at developing new, robust, and well-communicated responses to this increasing vulnerability. Integral to the approach is the concept of 'graceful failure' in which flexible designs are adopted that protect against failure by combining engineering or network strengths with a plan for efficient and rapid recovery if and when they fail. Such an approach enables optimal planning for both known future scenarios and their assessed uncertainty.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015ESS.....311801T&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015ESS.....311801T&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extremes</span> of Population Estimated from Kepler Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Traub, Wesley A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">extremes</span> of exoplanet population (0.5 to 16 Earth radii, 0.5 to 512 days period) are estimated from Kepler observations by comparing the observed numbers of planets at each radius and period against a simulation that accounts for the probability of transit and the estimated instrument sensitivity. By assuming that the population can be modeled as a function of period times a function of radius, and further assuming that these functions are broken power laws, sufficient leverage is gained such that the well-measured short-period <span class="hlt">extreme</span> of the planet distribution can effectively be used as a template for the less-well sampled long-period <span class="hlt">extreme</span>. The resulting population distribution over this full range of radius and period provides a challenge to models of the origin and evolution of planetary systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997PhRvD..55.7680H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997PhRvD..55.7680H"><span id="translatedtitle">Evolution of near-<span class="hlt">extremal</span> black holes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hawking, S. W.; Taylor-Robinson, M. M.</p> <p>1997-06-01</p> <p>Near-<span class="hlt">extreme</span> black holes can lose their charge and decay by the emission of massive Bogomol'ni-Prasad-Sommerfield charged particles. We calculate the greybody factors for low-energy charged and neutral scalar emission from four- and five-dimensional near <span class="hlt">extremal</span> Reissner-Nordström black holes. We use the corresponding emission rates to obtain ratios of the rates of loss of excess energy by charged and neutral emission, which are moduli independent, depending only on the integral charges and the horizon potentials. We consider scattering experiments, finding that evolution towards a state in which the integral charges are equal is favored, but neutral emission will dominate the decay back to <span class="hlt">extremality</span> except when one charge is much greater than the others. The implications of our results for the agreement between black hole and D-brane emission rates and for the information loss puzzle are then discussed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/872688','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/872688"><span id="translatedtitle">Photoresist composition for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet lithography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Felter, T. E.; Kubiak, G. D.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>A method of producing a patterned array of features, in particular, gate apertures, in the size range 0.4-0.05 .mu.m using projection lithography and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. A high energy laser beam is used to vaporize a target material in order to produce a plasma which in turn, produces <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet radiation of a characteristic wavelength of about 13 nm for lithographic applications. The radiation is transmitted by a series of reflective mirrors to a mask which bears the pattern to be printed. The demagnified focused mask pattern is, in turn, transmitted by means of appropriate optics and in a single exposure, to a substrate coated with photoresists designed to be transparent to EUV radiation and also satisfy conventional processing methods. A photoresist composition for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet radiation of boron carbide polymers, hydrochlorocarbons and mixtures thereof.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6148E..06M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6148E..06M"><span id="translatedtitle">New solutions for innovative <span class="hlt">extremely</span> large telescopes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marchiori, Gianpietro; Rampini, Francesco; Salinari, Piero</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>The new generation of <span class="hlt">Extremely</span> Large Telescopes, may require the identification of new construction technologies, in order to improve the stiffness to weight ratio of the structure, to introduce higher damping while maintaining under control the construction and maintenance costs. The identification of new construction technologies and the consequent development of the materials used, may allow to obtain a leading technological instrument able to meet also the most <span class="hlt">extreme</span> scientific requests, and able to adapt to the new requests that might be raised along the life of the telescope. The control of the weight of the structure is <span class="hlt">extremely</span> important also for the dimensioning of the auxiliary structures such as drives, bearings, shafts, hard stops, counterweight, stow pins, hydrostatics support systems, etc., for energy management, and for the problems related to pre-assembly, disassembly in factory and erection on site. In this preliminary study we consider a light weight floating telescope structure made of composite materials and plastic foams.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1245434','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1245434"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span>_SeaState_Contour_v1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-10-19</p> <p>This software generates environmental contours of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> sea states using buoy observations of significant wave height and energy period or peak period. The code transforms these observations using principal component analysis (PCA) to create an uncorrelated representation of the data. The subsequent components are modeled using probability distributions and parameter fitting functions. The inverse first-order reliability method (I-FORM) is then applied to these models in order to generate an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event contour based on a given return period (i.e., 100 years).The subsequent contour is then transformed back into the original input space defined by the variables of interest in order to create an environmental contour of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> sea states.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CMaPh.336.1167G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CMaPh.336.1167G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extremal</span> Bundles on Calabi-Yau Threefolds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gao, Peng; He, Yang-Hui; Yau, Shing-Tung</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>We study constructions of stable holomorphic vector bundles on Calabi-Yau threefolds, especially those with exact anomaly cancellation which we call <span class="hlt">extremal</span>. By going through the known databases we find that such examples are rare in general and can be ruled out for the spectral cover construction for all elliptic threefolds. We then introduce a general Hartshorne-Serre construction and use it to find <span class="hlt">extremal</span> bundles of general ranks and study their stability, as well as computing their Chern numbers. Based on both existing and our new constructions, we revisit the DRY conjecture for the existence of stable sheaves on Calabi-threefolds, and provide theoretical and numerical evidence for its correctness. Our construction can be easily generalized to bundles with no <span class="hlt">extremal</span> conditions imposed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19025501','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19025501"><span id="translatedtitle">Viper fangs: functional limitations of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> teeth.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cundall, David</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The fangs of vipers are <span class="hlt">extremely</span> long, rotating, hollow teeth. Analysis of video records of more than 750 strikes recorded at 60 or 250 frames per second for 285 individuals representing 86 species in 31 genera shows that vipers reposition fangs after initial contact with prey in more than a third of the strikes. Repositioning resulted when fangs missed prey entirely or hit prey regions that did not permit adequate penetration. The prevalence of repositioning, even among species that normally release prey, suggests strong selective pressure for rapid neuromotor response to fang placement error. The rapidity of repositioning suggests the existence of (a) fine-scale sensory detection of fang penetration depth, (b) rapid modulation of contraction of antagonistic muscles, and (c) possibly neurological modifications to shorten transmission time between sensory input and motor output. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> fang length has apparently coevolved with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> functions. PMID:19025501</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4145313','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4145313"><span id="translatedtitle">Microbial communities evolve faster in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Li, Sheng-Jin; Hua, Zheng-Shuang; Huang, Li-Nan; Li, Jie; Shi, Su-Hua; Chen, Lin-Xing; Kuang, Jia-Liang; Liu, Jun; Hu, Min; Shu, Wen-Sheng</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Evolutionary analysis of microbes at the community level represents a new research avenue linking ecological patterns to evolutionary processes, but remains insufficiently studied. Here we report a relative evolutionary rates (rERs) analysis of microbial communities from six diverse natural environments based on 40 metagenomic samples. We show that the rERs of microbial communities are mainly shaped by environmental conditions, and the microbes inhabiting <span class="hlt">extreme</span> habitats (acid mine drainage, saline lake and hot spring) evolve faster than those populating benign environments (surface ocean, fresh water and soil). These findings were supported by the observation of more relaxed purifying selection and potentially frequent horizontal gene transfers in communities from <span class="hlt">extreme</span> habitats. The mechanism of high rERs was proposed as high mutation rates imposed by stressful conditions during the evolutionary processes. This study brings us one stage closer to an understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms underlying the adaptation of microbes to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments. PMID:25158668</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015FrP.....3...17S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015FrP.....3...17S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extremism</span> without extremists: Deffuant model with emotions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sobkowicz, Pawel</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The frequent occurrence of extremist views in many social contexts, often growing from small minorities to almost total majority, poses a significant challenge for democratic societies. The phenomenon can be described within the sociophysical paradigm. We present a modified version of the continuous bounded confidence opinion model, including a simple description of the influence of emotions on tolerances, and eventually on the evolution of opinions. Allowing for psychologically based correlation between the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> opinions, high emotions and low tolerance for other people's views leads to quick dominance of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> views within the studied model, without introducing a special class of agents, as has been done in previous works. This dominance occurs even if the initial numbers of people with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> opinions is very small. Possible suggestions related to mitigation of the process are briefly discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15149088','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15149088"><span id="translatedtitle">Entomopathogenic nematodes in the <span class="hlt">European</span> biocontrol market.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ehlers, R U</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>In Europe total revenues in the biocontrol market have reached approximately 200 million Euros. The sector with the highest turn-over is the market for beneficial invertebrates with a 55% share, followed by microbial agents with approximately 25%. Annual growth rates of up to 20% have been estimated. Besides microbial plant protection products that are currently in the process of re-registration, several microbial products have been registered or are in the process of registration, following the EU directive 91/414. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) are exceptionally safe biocontrol agents. Until today, they are exempted from registration in most <span class="hlt">European</span> countries, the reason why SMEs were able to offer economically reasonable nematode-based products. The development of technology for mass production in liquid media significantly reduced the product costs and accelerated the introduction of nematode products in tree nurseries, ornamentals, strawberries, mushrooms, citrus and turf. Progress in storage and formulation technology has resulted in high quality products which are more resistant to environmental <span class="hlt">extremes</span> occurring during transportation to the user. The cooperation between science, industry and extension within the EU COST Action 819 has supported the development of quality control methods. Today four companies produce EPN in liquid culture, offering 8 different nematode species. Problems with soil insects are increasing. Grubs, like Melolontha melolontha and other scarabaeidae cause damage in orchards and turf. Since the introduction of the Western Corn Rootworm Diabrotica virgifera into Serbia in 1992, this pests as spread all over the Balkan Region and has reached Italy, France and Austria. These soil insect pests are potential targets for EPN. The development of insecticide resistance has opened another sector for EPN. Novel adjuvants used to improve formulation of EPN have enabled the foliar application against Western Flower Thrips and Plutella</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3267250','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3267250"><span id="translatedtitle">Anterior preperitoneal repair of <span class="hlt">extremely</span> large inguinal hernias: An alternative technique☆☆☆</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Koning, Giel G.; Vriens, Patrick W.H.E.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>INTRODUCTION Standard open anterior inguinal hernia repair is nowadays performed using a soft mesh to prevent recurrence and to minimalize postoperative chronic pain. To further reduce postoperative chronic pain, the use of a preperitoneal placed mesh has been suggested. In <span class="hlt">extremely</span> large hernias, the lateral side of the mesh can be insufficient to fully embrace the hernial sac. We describe the use of two preperitoneal placed meshes to repair <span class="hlt">extremely</span> large hernias. This ‘Butterfly Technique’ has proven to be useful. Hernias were classified according to hernia classification of the <span class="hlt">European</span> Hernia Society (EHS) during operation. <span class="hlt">Extremely</span> large indirect hernias were repaired by using two inverted meshes to cover the deep inguinal ring both medial and lateral. Follow up was at least 6 months. VAS pain score was assessed in all patients during follow up. Outcomes of these Butterfly repairs were evaluated. Medical drawings were made to illustrate this technique. A Total of 689 patients underwent anterior hernia repair 2006–2008. PRESENTATION OF CASE Seven male patients (1%) presented with <span class="hlt">extremely</span> large hernial sacs. All these patients were men. Mean age 69.9 years (range: 63–76), EHS classifications of hernias were all unilateral. Follow up was at least 6 months. Recurrence did not occur after repair. Chronic pain was not reported. Discussion Open preperitoneal hernia repair of <span class="hlt">extremely</span> large hernias has not been described. The seven patients were trated with this technique uneventfully. No chronic pain occurred. CONCLUSION The Butterfly Technique is an easy and safe alternative in anterior preperitoneal repair of <span class="hlt">extremely</span> large inguinal hernias. PMID:22288042</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7540N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7540N"><span id="translatedtitle">Will climate change increase the risk for critical infrastructure failures in Europe due to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nissen, Katrin; Ulbrich, Uwe</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>An event based detection algorithm for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation is applied to a multi-model ensemble of regional climate model simulations. The algorithm determines extent, location, duration and severity of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events. We assume that precipitation in excess of the local present-day 10-year return value will potentially exceed the capacity of the drainage systems that protect critical infrastructure elements. This assumption is based on legislation for the design of drainage systems which is in place in many <span class="hlt">European</span> countries. Thus, events exceeding the local 10-year return value are detected. In this study we distinguish between sub-daily events (3 hourly) with high precipitation intensities and long-duration events (1-3 days) with high precipitation amounts. The climate change simulations investigated here were conducted within the EURO-CORDEX framework and exhibit a horizontal resolution of approximately 12.5 km. The period between 1971-2100 forced with observed and scenario (RCP 8.5 and RCP 4.5) greenhouse gas concentrations was analysed. Examined are changes in event frequency, event duration and size. The simulations show an increase in the number of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events for the future climate period over most of the area, which is strongest in Northern Europe. Strength and statistical significance of the signal increase with increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. This work has been conducted within the EU project RAIN (Risk Analysis of Infrastructure Networks in response to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814528G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814528G"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of GRACE daily gravity solutions for hydrological <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in selected river basins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gouweleeuw, Ben; Güntner, Andreas; Gain, Animesh; Gruber, Christian; Flechtner, Frank; Kvas, Andreas; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Water storage anomalies from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission (2002-present) have been shown to be a unique descriptor of large-scale hydrological <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. However, possibly due to its coarse temporal (monthly to weekly) and spatial (> 150.000 km2) resolution, the comprehensive information from GRACE on total water storage variations has rarely been evaluated for flood or drought monitoring or forecasting so far. In the context of the Horizon 2020 funded <span class="hlt">European</span> Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management (EGSIEM) project, we evaluate two approaches to solve the spatio-temporal variations of the Earth's gravity field as daily solutions through comparison to selected historical <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events in medium-large river basins (Ganges-Brahmaputra, Lower Mekong, Danube, Elbe). These comparisons show that highs and lows of GRACE-derived total water storage are closely related to the occurrence of hydrological <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and serve as an early indicator of these events. The degree to which the daily GRACE solutions contain high-frequent temporal hydrological information, e.g. individual flood peaks, is related to the size of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMNH13B1149G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMNH13B1149G"><span id="translatedtitle">Biological <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Events - Past, Present, and Future</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gutschick, V. P.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Biological <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events span wide ranges temporally and spatially and in type - population dieoffs, extinctions, ecological reorganizations, changes in biogeochemical fluxes, and more. Driving variables consist in meteorology, tectonics, orbital changes, anthropogenic changes (land-use change, species introductions, reactive N injection into the biosphere), and evolution (esp. of diseases). However, the mapping of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the drivers onto biological <span class="hlt">extremes</span> as organismal responses is complex, as laid out originally in the theoretical framework of Gutschick and BassiriRad (New Phytologist [2003] 100:21-42). Responses are nonlinear and dependent on (mostly unknown and) complex temporal sequences - often of multiple environmental variables. The responses are species- and genotype specific. I review <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events over from past to present over wide temporal scales, while noting that they are not wholly informative of responses to the current and near-future drivers for at least two reasons: 1) the current combination of numerous environmental <span class="hlt">extremes</span> - changes in CO2, temperature, precipitation, reactive N, land fragmentation, O3, etc. -is unprecedented in scope, and 2) adaptive genetic variation for organismal responses is constrained by poorly-characterized genetic structures (in organisms and populations) and by loss of genetic variation by genetic drift over long periods. We may expect radical reorganizations of ecosystem and biogeochemical functions. These changes include many ecosystem services in flood control, crop pollination and insect/disease control, C-water-mineral cycling, and more, as well as direct effects on human health. Predictions of such changes will necessarily be very weak in the critical next few decades, given the great deal of observation, experimentation, and theory construction that will be necessary, on both organisms and drivers. To make the research efforts most effective will require extensive, insightful planning, beginning</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26350511','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26350511"><span id="translatedtitle">Phenotypic <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in rare variant study designs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peloso, Gina M; Rader, Daniel J; Gabriel, Stacey; Kathiresan, Sekar; Daly, Mark J; Neale, Benjamin M</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Currently, next-generation sequencing studies aim to identify rare and low-frequency variation that may contribute to disease. For a given effect size, as the allele frequency decreases, the power to detect genes or variants of interest also decreases. Although many methods have been proposed for the analysis of such data, study design and analytic issues still persist in data interpretation. In this study we present sequencing data for ABCA1 that has known rare variants associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). We contrast empirical findings from two study designs: a phenotypic <span class="hlt">extreme</span> sample and a population-based random sample. We found differing strengths of association with HDL-C across the two study designs (P=0.0006 with n=701 phenotypic <span class="hlt">extremes</span> vs P=0.03 with n=1600 randomly sampled individuals). To explore this apparent difference in evidence for association, we performed a simulation study focused on the impact of phenotypic selection on power. We demonstrate that the power gain for an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> phenotypic selection study design is much greater in rare variant studies than for studies of common variants. Our study confirms that studying phenotypic <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is critical in rare variant studies because it boosts power in two ways: the typical increases from <span class="hlt">extreme</span> sampling and increasing the proportion of relevant functional variants ascertained and thereby tested for association. Furthermore, we show that when combining statistical evidence through meta-analysis from an <span class="hlt">extreme</span>-selected sample and a second separate population-based random sample, power is lower when a traditional sample size weighting is used compared with weighting by the noncentrality parameter. PMID:26350511</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006ASSL..343..155B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006ASSL..343..155B"><span id="translatedtitle">EuroPlaNet: <span class="hlt">European</span> Planetology Network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Blanc, M.; Europlanet Coordinating Team</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Funded by the <span class="hlt">European</span> Commission under the FP6, Euro-PlaNet's goal is munity for maximizing the science produced by the international planetary missions with <span class="hlt">European</span> involvement. Formed by an initial consortium composed of about sixty laboratories throughout 17 different <span class="hlt">European</span> member and candidate countries, EuroPlaNet started in January 2005 for a period of four years. The main objective of EuroPlaNet is to achieve a long-term integration of Planetary Sciences in Europe through the networking of the <span class="hlt">European</span> research groups involved in this field. EuroPlaNet will develop and coordinate synergies between space observations, Earth-based observations, laboratory research, numerical simulations and databases development through six networking activities. EuroPlaNet will also develop, through specific outreach activities, including a multi-lingual approach, science communication on planetary observation and exploration programmes for the benefit of <span class="hlt">European</span> citizens, especially children and young people.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011LaPhy..21.1243R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011LaPhy..21.1243R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extremely</span> short pulses via resonantly induced transparency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Radeonychev, Y. V.; Polovinkin, V. A.; Kocharovskaya, O.</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>We study a novel method to produce <span class="hlt">extremely</span> short pulses of radiation in a resonant medium via induced transparency by means of adiabatic periodic modulation of atomic transition frequencies by far-off-resonant laser field, which causes linear Stark splitting of atomic energy levels resulting in partial transparency of an optically deep medium and drastic spectral modification of an incident resonant radiation. We find the regimes where the output spectrum corresponds to <span class="hlt">extremely</span> short pulses and discuss several possible experimental realizations of generation of attosecond pulses in Li2+ ions and femtosecond pulses in atomic hydrogen with commercially available facilities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070019317','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070019317"><span id="translatedtitle">Robust, Thin Optical Films for <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The environment of space presents scientists and engineers with the challenges of a harsh, unforgiving laboratory in which to conduct their scientific research. Solar astronomy and X-ray astronomy are two of the more challenging areas into which NASA scientists delve, as the optics for this high-tech work must be <span class="hlt">extremely</span> sensitive and accurate, yet also be able to withstand the battering dished out by radiation, <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperature swings, and flying debris. Recent NASA work on this rugged equipment has led to the development of a strong, thin film for both space and laboratory use.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1041403','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1041403"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Science (LBNL Science at the Theater)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ajo-Franklin, Caroline; Klein, Spencer; Minor, Andrew; Torok, Tamas</p> <p>2012-02-27</p> <p>On Feb. 27, 2012 at the Berkeley Repertory Theatre, four Berkeley Lab scientists presented talks related to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> science - and what it means to you. Topics include: Neutrino hunting in Antarctica. Learn why Spencer Klein goes to the ends of the Earth to search for these ghostly particles. From Chernobyl to Central Asia, Tamas Torok travels the globe to study microbial diversity in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments. Andrew Minor uses the world's most advanced electron microscopes to explore materials at ultrahigh stresses and in harsh environments. And microbes that talk to computers? Caroline Ajo-Franklin is pioneering cellular-electrical connections that could help transform sunlight into fuel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1113513T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1113513T"><span id="translatedtitle">Identification of victims in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Talipova, Yu.; Polukhina, O.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Catastrophic natural disasters including tsunami events are increased the frequency in last years. One of very important problems here is the identification of personality of the victims. Due to difficult identification of the dead bodies lied into water for a long time the analysis of tooth-jaw system is proposed to apply because teeth are <span class="hlt">extremely</span> stable to the destructive actions of environment. The method of identification of the age, sex and race of victims based on the mathematic model of pattern recognition and collected database is described. Some examples from <span class="hlt">extreme</span> sea wave events are analyzed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930039417&hterms=ultraviolet+astronomy&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2528ultraviolet%2Bastronomy%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930039417&hterms=ultraviolet+astronomy&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2528ultraviolet%2Bastronomy%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">Far and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet astronomy with ORFEUS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kraemer, G.; Barnstedt, J.; Eberhard, N.; Grewing, M.; Gringel, W.; Haas, C.; Kaelble, A.; Kappelmann, N.; Petrik, J.; Appenzeller, I.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>ORFEUS (Orbiting and Retrievable Far and <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Ultraviolet Spectrometer) is a 1 m normal incidence telescope for spectroscopic investigations of cosmic sources in the far and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet spectral range. The instrument will be integrated into the freeflyer platform ASTRO-SPAS. ORFEUS-SPAS is scheduled with STS ENDEAVOUR in September 1992. We describe the telescope with its two spectrometer and their capabilities i.e., spectral range, resolution and overall sensitivity. The main classes of objects to be observed with the instrument are discussed and two examples of simulated spectra for the white dwarf HZ43 and an O9-star in LMC are shown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009EOSTr..90..131X&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009EOSTr..90..131X&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Climate on Mediterranean Societies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xoplaki, Elena</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Climate <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> During Recent Millennia and Their Impact on Mediterranean Societies; Athens, Greece, 13-16 September 2008; Climatic <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the past few thousand years have severely affected societies throughout the Mediterranean region and have changed the outcome of historical events in some instances. Climatic extremes—droughts, floods, prolonged cold and heat—affect society in a variety of ways, operating through famine, disease, and social upheaval. These topics were discussed at an interdisciplinary symposium at the National and Kapodistrian University, in Greece, that brought together climatologists, paleoclimatologists, anthropologists, geologists, archaeologists, and historians working in the greater Mediterranean region.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CliPa..11.1453D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CliPa..11.1453D"><span id="translatedtitle">A tree-ring perspective on temporal changes in the frequency and intensity of hydroclimatic <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the territory of the Czech Republic since 761 AD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dobrovolný, P.; Rybníček, M.; Kolář, T.; Brázdil, R.; Trnka, M.; Büntgen, U.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>It is generally accepted that anthropogenic-induced climate change may affect the frequency and intensity of hydrological <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, together with a variety of subsequent impacts on ecosystems and human society. Proxy records that are absolutely dated and annually resolved are indispensable to a better understanding of temporal changes in the occurrence of floods and droughts. This contribution presents a new data set of 3194 oak (Quercus spp.) ring width samples from living trees and historical timbers, collected across the Czech Republic. A composite tree-ring width (TRW) chronology is developed that best captures the high-frequency <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over the past 1250 years. The temporal distribution of negative and positive <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is regular with no indication of clustering. The highest number of negative <span class="hlt">extremes</span> was found in the 19th century, while positive <span class="hlt">extremes</span> were most frequent in the 12th century. The lowest number of negative and positive <span class="hlt">extremes</span> occurred in the 18th and 13th centuries respectively. Negative and positive TRW <span class="hlt">extremes</span> were compared with the instrumental measurements back to 1805 AD, with documentary-based temperature and precipitation reconstructions from 1804 to 1500, and with documentary evidence before 1500 AD. Negative TRW <span class="hlt">extremes</span> coincided with above-average March-May and June-August temperature means and below-average precipitation totals. Positive <span class="hlt">extremes</span> coincided with higher summer precipitation, while temperatures were mostly normal. Mean sea level pressure (SLP) over the <span class="hlt">European</span>/North Atlantic sector suggested drought for the negative oak TRW <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, whereas the positive <span class="hlt">extremes</span> corresponded to wetter conditions overall. More consistent patterns of synoptic SLP were found for negative rather than for positive <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Reasons for the possible offset between the oak-based hydroclimatic <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and their counterparts from meteorological observations and documentary evidence may be manifold and emphasize the need for multi</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CliPD..11.3109D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CliPD..11.3109D"><span id="translatedtitle">A tree-ring perspective on temporal changes in the frequency and intensity of hydroclimatic <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the territory of the Czech Republic since 761 AD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dobrovolný, P.; Rybníček, M.; Kolář, T.; Brázdil, R.; Trnka, M.; Büntgen, U.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>It is generally accepted that anthropogenic-induced climate change may affect the frequency and intensity of hydrological <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, together with a variety of subsequent impacts on ecosystems and human society. Proxy records that are absolutely dated and annually resolved are indispensable to a better understanding of temporal changes in the occurrence of floods and droughts. This contribution presents a new dataset of 3194 oak (Quercus spp.) ring width samples from living trees and historical timbers, collected across the Czech Republic. A composite tree-ring width (TRW) chronology is developed that best captures the high-frequency <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over the past 1250 years. The temporal distribution of negative and positive <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is regular with no indication of clustering. The highest number of negative <span class="hlt">extremes</span> was found in the 19th century, while positive <span class="hlt">extremes</span> were most frequent in the 12th century. The lowest number of negative and positive <span class="hlt">extremes</span> occurred in the 18th and 13th centuries respectively. Negative and positive TRW <span class="hlt">extremes</span> were compared with the instrumental measurements back to 1805 AD, with documentary-based temperature and precipitation reconstructions from 1804 to 1500, and with documentary evidence before 1500 AD. Negative TRW <span class="hlt">extremes</span> coincided with above-average March-May and June-August temperature means and below-average precipitation totals. Positive <span class="hlt">extremes</span> coincided with higher summer precipitation, while temperatures were mostly normal. Mean sea level pressure (SLP) over the <span class="hlt">European</span>/North Atlantic sector suggested drought for the negative oak TRW <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, whereas the positive <span class="hlt">extremes</span> corresponded to wetter conditions overall. More consistent patterns of synoptic SLP were found for negative rather than for positive <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Reasons for the possible offset between the oak-based hydroclimatic <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and their counterparts from meteorological observations and documentary evidence may be manifold and emphasize the need for multi</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.2216F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.2216F"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and the carbon cycle - a review using an integrated approach with regional examples for forests & native ecosystems -</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Frank, D.; Reichstein, M.; Bahn, M.; Beer, C.; Ciais, P.; Mahecha, M.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Smith, P.; van Oijen, M.; Walz, A.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The terrestrial carbon cycle provides an important biogeochemical feedback to climate and is itself particularly susceptible to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> climate events. Climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> can override any (positive) effects of mean climate change as shown in <span class="hlt">European</span> and recent US-American heat waves and dry spells. They can impact the structure, composition, and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems and have the potential to cause rapid carbon losses from accumulated stocks. We review how climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> like severe droughts, heat waves, <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation or storms can cause direct impacts on the CO2 fluxes [e.g. due to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperature and/ or drought events] as well as lagged impacts on the carbon cycle [e.g. via an increased fire risk, or disease outbreaks and pest invasions]. The relative impact of the different climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> varies according to climate region and vegetation type. We present lagged effects on plant growth (and mortality) in the year(s) following an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event and their impacts on the carbon sequestration of forests and natural ecosystems. Comprehensive regional or even continental quantification with regard to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events is missing, and especially compound <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, the role of lagged effects and aspects of the return frequency are not studied enough. In a case study of a Mediterranean ecosystem we illustrate that the response of the net carbon balance at ecosystem level to regional climate change is hard to predict as interacting and partly compensating processes are affected and several processes which have the ability to substantially alter the carbon balance are not or not sufficiently represented in state-of-the-art biogeochemical models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12281366','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12281366"><span id="translatedtitle">Prospects for <span class="hlt">European</span> labour demand.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lindley, R M</p> <p>1988-07-01</p> <p>The impact of economic and technological trends upon the level and structure of labor demand is examined, exploring the methods used to model the labor market and making special reference to demography and technology. Evidence on recent and prospective changes in labor demand is reviewed for France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and the UK. The models used to explore future employment scenarios usually fail to incorporate the linkages required to fully analyze the various demographic-economic interactions. Further, this is not generally viewed as a limitation, given the time frame of most employment projections and their preoccupation with changes in the structure of labor demand. Medium-term multisectoral models tend to pay more attention to both demographic and technical change, but the treatment of both aspects is limited. The projections provide a framework for considering how both socioeconomic behavior and policy might change to achieve different outcomes. The greater a model's behavioral content, as expressed in its relationships between different variables, the greater the insight obtainable from simulation exercises. The 1st half of the 1970s was characterized by a reduction in German employment, representing the severest of <span class="hlt">European</span> reactions to the oil crisis. The 2nd half of the decade recorded rapid growth in Italy and the Netherlands. The 1980s started with marked declines in Germany and the UK. Overall, the net gains of the 1970s were lost in the recession following the 2nd oil crisis. In none of the 5 countries studied does any realistic prospect emerge of achieving full employment before 2000. The most optimistic outcome is that unemployment will decline only slowly, it at all. The growth of both new forms and areas of employment will not compensate sufficiently for the loss of jobs elsewhere and the growth of labor supply. The industrial sector will continue to experience change in favor of the service sector but at a slower rate than during</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5903Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5903Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial analysis of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation deficit as an index for atmospheric drought in Belgium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zamani, Sepideh; Van De Vyver, Hans; Gobin, Anne</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The growing concern among the climate scientists is that the frequency of weather <span class="hlt">extremes</span> will increase as a result of climate change. <span class="hlt">European</span> society, for example, is particularly vulnerable to changes in the frequency and intensity of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events such as heat waves, heavy precipitation, droughts, and wind storms, as seen in recent years [1,2]. A more than 50% of the land is occupied by managed ecosystem (agriculture, forestry) in Belgium. Moreover, among the many <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather conditions, drought counts to have a substantial impact on the agriculture and ecosystem of the affected region, because its most immediate consequence is a fall in crop production. Besides the technological advances, a reliable estimation of weather conditions plays a crucial role in improving the agricultural productivity. The above mentioned reasons provide a strong motivation for a research on the drought and its impacts on the economical and agricultural aspects in Belgium. The main purpose of the presented work is to map atmospheric drought Return-Levels (RL), as first insight for agricultural drought, employing spatial modelling approaches. The likelihood of future drought is studied on the basis of precipitation deficit indices for four vegetation types: water (W), grass (G), deciduous (D) and coniferous forests (C) is considered. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Value Theory (EVT) [3,4,5] as a branch of probability and statistics, is dedicated to characterize the behaviour of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> observations. The tail behaviour of the EVT distributions provide important features about return levels. EVT distributions are applicable in many study areas such as: hydrology, environmental research and meteorology, insurance and finance. Spatial Generalized <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Value (GEV) distributions, as a branch of EVT, are applied to annual maxima of drought at 13 hydro-meteorological stations across Belgium. Superiority of the spatial GEV model is that a region can be modelled merging the individual time series of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010aoel.confE8003M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010aoel.confE8003M"><span id="translatedtitle">CANARY: The NGS/LGS MOAO demonstrator for EAGLE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morris, Tim; Hubert, Zoltan; Myers, Richard; Gendron, Eric; Longmore, Andy; Rousset, Gerard; Talbot, Gordon; Fusco, Thierry; Dipper, Nigel; Vidal, Fabrice; Henry, David; Gratadour, Damien; Butterley, Tim; Chemla, Fanny; Guzman, Dani; Laporte, Phillipe; Younger, Eddy; Kellerer, Aglae; Harrison, Mark; Marteaud, Michel; Geng, Deli; Basden, Ali; Guesalaga, Andres; Dunlop, Colin; Todd, Steven; Robert, Clelia; Dee, Kevin; Dickson, Colin; Vedrenne, Nicolas; Greenaway, Alan; Stobie, Brian; Dalgarno, Heather; Skvarc, Jure</p> <p></p> <p>EAGLE is a multi-object 3D spectroscopy instrument currently under design for the <span class="hlt">42</span>-<span class="hlt">metre</span> <span class="hlt">European</span> <span class="hlt">Extremely</span> Large Telescope (E-ELT). EAGLE will use open-loop Multi-Object Adaptive Optics (MOAO) to provide partial AO correction across a wide (5-10 arcmin) field of view. The novelty of this scheme is such that on-sky demonstration is required prior to final construction of an E-ELT instrument. The CANARY project will implement a single channel of an MOAO system on the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope. The CANARY project is undergoing a phased development plan that starts with demonstration of low-order open-loop AO correction using first NGS then Rayleigh LGS tomography, moving to a demonstration of high-order open-loop AO correction using LGS tomography. This final stage will also include 2 DMs in a woofer-tweeter configuration similar to that of EAGLE when installed at the E-ELT. We describe the requirements for the various phases of MOAO demonstration, the corresponding CANARY configurations and capabilities and the current designs of the various subsystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Bacon%2c+AND+Francis&id=EJ1004364','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Bacon%2c+AND+Francis&id=EJ1004364"><span id="translatedtitle">"<span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Bold" in the Faculty Ranks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kuusisto, Stephen</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Boldness, defense, and the necessity of talking back remain as central to life with disability in one's time as in Francis Bacon's age. "Therefore all deformed persons are <span class="hlt">extreme</span> bold," Bacon wrote, "first, as in their own defence, as being exposed to scorn, but in process of time, by a general habit." Perhaps no word carries more weight in the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvD..91l6011N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvD..91l6011N"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extremal</span> surfaces in de Sitter spacetime</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Narayan, K.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>We study <span class="hlt">extremal</span> surfaces in de Sitter space in the Poincare slicing in the upper patch, anchored on spatial subregions at the future boundary I+, restricted to constant boundary Euclidean time slices (focusing on strip subregions). We find real <span class="hlt">extremal</span> surfaces of minimal area as the boundaries of past light-cone wedges of the subregions in question: these are null surfaces with vanishing area. We also find complex <span class="hlt">extremal</span> surfaces as complex extrema of the area functional, and the area is not always real valued. In dS4 the area is real. The area has structural resemblance with entanglement entropy in a dual conformal field theory. There are parallels with analytic continuation from the Ryu-Takayanagi expressions for holographic entanglement entropy in anti-de Sitter. We also discuss <span class="hlt">extremal</span> surfaces in the de Sitter (dS) black brane and the de Sitter "bluewall" studied previously. The dS4 black brane complex surfaces exhibit a real finite cutoff-independent extensive piece. In the bluewall geometry, there are real surfaces that go from one asymptotic universe to the other through the Cauchy horizons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ZNatA..60..335E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ZNatA..60..335E"><span id="translatedtitle">Multiobjective Optimization Of An <span class="hlt">Extremal</span> Evolution Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Elettreby, Mohamed Fathey</p> <p>2005-05-01</p> <p>We propose a two-dimensional model for a co-evolving ecosystem that generalizes the <span class="hlt">extremal</span> coupled map lattice model. The model takes into account the concept of multiobjective optimization. We find that the system is self-organized into a critical state. The distribution of avalanche sizes follows a power law.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.A45A..01G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.A45A..01G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Events: Dynamics, Statistics and Prediction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ghil, M.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>In this talk, I will review some recent work on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, their causes and consequences. The review covers theoretical aspects of time series analysis and of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value theory, as well as of the deterministic modeling of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, via continuous and discrete dynamic models. The applications include climatic, seismic and socio-economic events, along with their prediction. Two important results refer to (i) the complementarity of spectral analysis of a time series in terms of the continuous and the discrete part of its power spectrum; and (ii) the need for coupled modeling of natural and socio-economic systems. Both these results have implications for the study and prediction of natural hazards and their human impacts. US GDP data used in validating the vulnerability paradox found in a Non-Equilibrium Dynamical Model (NEDyM) for studying the impact of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events on a dynamic economy. The paradoxical result is that natural hazards affect more strongly an economy in expansion than when it is in a recession. The connection to the macroeconomic data is given by fluctuation-dissipation theory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title8-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title8-vol1-sec1240-58.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title8-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title8-vol1-sec1240-58.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">8 CFR 1240.58 - <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> hardship.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... deportation would result in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> hardship to the alien or to the alien's spouse, parent, or child, who is a... health condition of the alien or the alien's children, spouse, or parents and the availability of any... violence or have taken steps to leave an abusive household; and (6) The abuser's ability to travel to......</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711802S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711802S"><span id="translatedtitle">Multimodel Combination of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Precipitation Projections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schwartz Madsen, Bo; Ditlevsen, Peter; Feng, Tao</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>This study seeks to combine projections of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation from several RCMs into one single projection. Ensembles of models are increasingly used in climate science. Combining information from several models is a non-trivial task. Most often the models are averaged with equal weights, i.e. "one model, one vote". We seek a combination of models that exploits the strengths of each model. Here we fit a bayesian spatial model (BSM) to the <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in Denmark, both with data from observations and from RCMs. The parameters of the different BSMs are compared to evaluate the RCMs ability to represent <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation in Denmark. A BSM is also fitted to future RCM projections in the time periods 2021-2050 and 2071-2100. The parameters of the BSM from each RCM are weighted with respect to that RCM's internal variability, consensus with other RCMs, the variability of the real climate and the collective deviation of all RCMs from reality. With this weighting the combined BSM projects the future <span class="hlt">extremes</span> on the basis of all the models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC51D1004B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC51D1004B"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-model analysis of <span class="hlt">extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barsugli, J. J.; Brekke, L. D.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>This is a simple study that attempts to accomplish a decomposition of variance among emissions scenario, model, and internal variability for precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, analogous to what Hawkins and Sutton's work did for temperature and precipitation mean changes. Working with the CMIP3 multi model archive as a template for CMIP5 analysis, and proceeding with the GEV framework, we find striking differences among the climate models, investigate the independence of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> at nearby gridcells, the relationship between mean precipitation and <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. In addition we explore a regionalization technique to improve sampling, and to effectively separate sampling of noisy local conditions from sampling due to coherent large scale, long period climate variability. To investigate the role of internal variability we compare this analysis to a GEV analysis of a 40-member ensemble performed by scientists at NCAR. Presentation will focus on methodological issues in characterizing uncertainty in the multi-model ensemble. (For an overview of other findings from this study, see Brekke et al. submitted to the Hydrology session on "Uncertainties of Assessing Projected Changes in Precipitation <span class="hlt">Extremes</span>")</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMIN53B1568P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMIN53B1568P"><span id="translatedtitle">TECA: <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Climate Analytics on Petascale Platforms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Prabhat, M.; Byna, S.; Vishwanath, V.; Bethel, W.; Collins, W.; Wehner, M. F.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>We will cover recent developments under the TECA (Toolkit for <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Climate Analysis) project. We have developed capabilities to automatically detect and track Tropical Cyclones, Extra-Tropical Cyclones, Atmospheric Rivers and Blocking events in large climate datasets. The TECA framework enables such feature tracking codes to run at scale on modern petascale-class HPC platforms. We will review recent <span class="hlt">extreme</span> scale TECA runs: 150,000 cores on NERSC Cray XE6 Hopper and 300,000 cores of ALCF IBM BG/Q Mira. These runs were able to process TBs of simulation output, and extract statistics of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather phenomena in a 10s of minutes. This presentation will highlight Big Data management, Parallel I/O and optimization issues which need to be considered carefully when running jobs at these concurrencies. We will also present scientific results from running the TECA Tropical Cyclone detection code on a CAM5 multi-resolution dataset; these results have enabled us to characterize and assess the effect of resolution on reproducing <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather statistics.We will also present Extra-Tropical Cyclone detection results on the CAM5 CliVAR runs; these results indicate that the frequency of ETCs will decrease under future climate change scenarios. Time permitting, we will discuss novel feature detection capabilities (Blocking events) being incorporated into the TECA framework.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMNH53B..05C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMNH53B..05C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Magnitude Earthquakes and their Economical Consequences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chavez, M.; Cabrera, E.; Ashworth, M.; Perea, N.; Emerson, D.; Salazar, A.; Moulinec, C.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The frequency of occurrence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> magnitude earthquakes varies from tens to thousands of years, depending on the considered seismotectonic region of the world. However, the human and economic losses when their hypocenters are located in the neighborhood of heavily populated and/or industrialized regions, can be very large, as recently observed for the 1985 Mw 8.01 Michoacan, Mexico and the 2011 Mw 9 Tohoku, Japan, earthquakes. Herewith, a methodology is proposed in order to estimate the probability of exceedance of: the intensities of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> magnitude earthquakes, PEI and of their direct economical consequences PEDEC. The PEI are obtained by using supercomputing facilities to generate samples of the 3D propagation of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> earthquake plausible scenarios, and enlarge those samples by Monte Carlo simulation. The PEDEC are computed by using appropriate vulnerability functions combined with the scenario intensity samples, and Monte Carlo simulation. An example of the application of the methodology due to the potential occurrence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> Mw 8.5 subduction earthquakes on Mexico City is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870014890','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870014890"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extremely</span> Luminous Far-infrared Sources (ELFS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Harwit, Martin; Houck, James R.; Soifer, B. Thomas; Palumbo, Giorgio G. C.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) survey uncovered a class of <span class="hlt">Extremely</span> Luminous Far Infrared Sources (ELFS), exhibiting luminosities up to and occasionally exceeding 10 to the 12th power L sub 0. Arguments are presented to show that sources with luminosities L equal to or greater than 3 x 10 to the 10th power L sub 0 may represent gas rich galaxies in collision. The more conventional explanation of these sources as sites of <span class="hlt">extremely</span> active star formation fails to explain the observed low optical luminosities of ELFS as well as their high infrared excess. In contrast, a collisional model heats gas to a temperature of approx. 10 to the 6th power K where cooling takes place in the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet. The UV is absorbed by dust and converted into far infrared radiation (FIR) without generation of appreciable optical luminosity. Gas recombination as it cools generates a Lyman alpha photon only once for every two <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet approx. 50eV photons emitted by the 10 to the 6th power gas. That accounts for the high infrared excess. Finally, the model also is able to explain the observed luminosity distribution of ELFS as well as many other traits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ858952.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ858952.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">"<span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Programming" in a Bioinformatics Class</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kelley, Scott; Alger, Christianna; Deutschman, Douglas</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The importance of Bioinformatics tools and methodology in modern biological research underscores the need for robust and effective courses at the college level. This paper describes such a course designed on the principles of cooperative learning based on a computer software industry production model called "<span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Programming" (EP). The…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DokES.468..514B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DokES.468..514B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> morphogenesis in the central caucasus mountains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bulanov, S. A.; Karavaev, V. A.; Seminozhenko, S. S.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The results of field observations on exogenic morphogenesis in the upper reaches of the Cherek Balkarskii River (Kabardino-Balkaria) are presented. It is established that different components of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> morphogenetic process confined to the distribution area of unconsolidated Quaternary sediments are closely interrelated to form a peculiar geomorphological mechanism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.2870G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.2870G"><span id="translatedtitle">Global warming and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> storm surges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grinsted, Aslak</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>I will show empirical evidence for how global warming has changed <span class="hlt">extreme</span> storm surge statistics for different regions in the world. Are there any detectable changes beyond what we expect from sea level rise. What does this suggest about the future of hurricane surges such as from hurricane Katrina and superstorm Sandy?</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Security&pg=2&id=EJ1091390','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Security&pg=2&id=EJ1091390"><span id="translatedtitle">Security, <span class="hlt">Extremism</span> and Education: Safeguarding or Surveillance?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Davies, Lynn</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This article analyses how education is positioned in the current concerns about security and <span class="hlt">extremism</span>. This means firstly examining the different meanings of security (national, human and societal) and who provides security for whom. Initially, a central dilemma is acknowledged: that schooling appears to be simultaneously irrelevant to the huge…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740021934','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740021934"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface atmospheric <span class="hlt">extremes</span> (launch and transportation areas)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>Criteria are provided on atmospheric <span class="hlt">extremes</span> from the surface to 150 meters for geographical locations of interest to NASA. Thermal parameters (temperature and solar radiation), humidity, precipitation, pressure, and atmospheric electricity (lightning and static) are presented. Available data are also provided for the entire continental United States for use in future space programs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCC...5..652J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCC...5..652J"><span id="translatedtitle">Future population exposure to US heat <span class="hlt">extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jones, Bryan; O'Neill, Brian C.; McDaniel, Larry; McGinnis, Seth; Mearns, Linda O.; Tebaldi, Claudia</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> heat events are likely to become more frequent in the coming decades owing to climate change. Exposure to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> heat depends not only on changing climate, but also on changes in the size and spatial distribution of the human population. Here we provide a new projection of population exposure to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> heat for the continental United States that takes into account both of these factors. Using projections from a suite of regional climate models driven by global climate models and forced with the SRES A2 scenario and a spatially explicit population projection consistent with the socioeconomic assumptions of that scenario, we project changes in exposure into the latter half of the twenty-first century. We find that US population exposure to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> heat increases four- to sixfold over observed levels in the late twentieth century, and that changes in population are as important as changes in climate in driving this outcome. Aggregate population growth, as well as redistribution of the population across larger US regions, strongly affects outcomes whereas smaller-scale spatial patterns of population change have smaller effects. The relative importance of population and climate as drivers of exposure varies across regions of the country.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=flooding&pg=6&id=ED526753','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=flooding&pg=6&id=ED526753"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigating <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Lifestyles through Mangrove Transcriptomics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dassanayake, Maheshi</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Mangroves represent phylogenetically diverse taxa in tropical coastal terrestrial habitats. They are extremophiles, evolutionarily adapted to tolerate flooding, anoxia, high temperatures, wind, and high and <span class="hlt">extremely</span> variable salt conditions in typically resource-poor environments. The genetic basis for these adaptations is, however, virtually…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bolt&pg=3&id=EJ941223','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bolt&pg=3&id=EJ941223"><span id="translatedtitle">Multiscale Measurement of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Response Style</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bolt, Daniel M.; Newton, Joseph R.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This article extends a methodological approach considered by Bolt and Johnson for the measurement and control of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> response style (ERS) to the analysis of rating data from multiple scales. Specifically, it is shown how the simultaneous analysis of item responses across scales allows for more accurate identification of ERS, and more effective…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=violent&pg=6&id=EJ1009917','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=violent&pg=6&id=EJ1009917"><span id="translatedtitle">"REsilience," Violent <span class="hlt">Extremism</span> and Religious Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Miller, Joyce</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This article is an attempt to provide an educational justification for the British Government-funded project, "REsilience," on addressing contentious issues through religious education (RE) which was carried out by the RE Council of England and Wales. A number of issues relating to the inclusion of religiously inspired violent <span class="hlt">extremism</span> in the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4705733','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4705733"><span id="translatedtitle">Reliability of the mangled <span class="hlt">extremity</span> severity score in combat-related upper and lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> injuries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ege, Tolga; Unlu, Aytekin; Tas, Huseyin; Bek, Dogan; Turkan, Selim; Cetinkaya, Aytac</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background: Decision of limb salvage or amputation is generally aided with several trauma scoring systems such as the mangled <span class="hlt">extremity</span> severity score (MESS). However, the reliability of the injury scores in the settling of open fractures due to explosives and missiles is challenging. Mortality and morbidity of the <span class="hlt">extremity</span> trauma due to firearms are generally associated with time delay in revascularization, injury mechanism, anatomy of the injured site, associated injuries, age and the environmental circumstance. The purpose of the retrospective study was to evaluate the extent of <span class="hlt">extremity</span> injuries due to ballistic missiles and to detect the reliability of mangled <span class="hlt">extremity</span> severity score (MESS) in both upper and lower <span class="hlt">extremities</span>. Materials and Methods: Between 2004 and 2014, 139 Gustillo Anderson Type III open fractures of both the upper and lower <span class="hlt">extremities</span> were enrolled in the study. Data for patient age, fire arm type, transporting time from the field to the hospital (and the method), injury severity scores, MESS scores, fracture types, amputation levels, bone fixation methods and postoperative infections and complications retrieved from the two level-2 trauma center's data base. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the MESS were calculated to detect the ability in deciding amputation in the mangled limb. Results: Amputation was performed in 39 <span class="hlt">extremities</span> and limb salvage attempted in 100 <span class="hlt">extremities</span>. The mean followup time was 14.6 months (range 6–32 months). In the amputated group, the mean MESS scores for upper and lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> were 8.8 (range 6–11) and 9.24 (range 6–11), respectively. In the limb salvage group, the mean MESS scores for upper and lower <span class="hlt">extremities</span> were 5.29 (range 4–7) and 5.19 (range 3–8), respectively. Sensitivity of MESS in upper and lower <span class="hlt">extremities</span> were calculated as 80% and 79.4% and positive predictive values detected as 55.55% and 83.3%, respectively. Specificity of MESS score for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2442664','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2442664"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">European</span> National Society Cardiovascular Journals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Alfonso, F.; Ambrosio, G.; Pinto, F.J.; van der Wall, E.E.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Anesti Kondili MD, Djamaleddine Nibouche MD, Karlen Adamyan MD, Kurt Huber MD, Hugo Ector MD, Izet Masic MD, Rumiana Tarnovska MD, Mario Ivanusa MD, Vladimír Stane˘k MD, Jørgen Videbæk MD, Mohamed Hamed MD, Alexandras Laucevicius MD, Pirjo Mustonen MD, Jean-Yves Artigou MD, Ariel Cohen MD, Mamanti Rogava MD, Michael Böhm MD, Eckart Fleck MD, Gerd Heusch MD, Rainer Klawki MD, Panos Vardas MD, Christodoulos Stefanadis MD, József Tenczer MD, Massimo Chiariello MD, Aleksandras Laucevicius MD, Joseph Elias MD, Halima Benjelloun MD, Olaf Rødevand MD, Piotr Kul/akowski MD, Edvard Apetrei MD, Victor A. Lusov MD, Rafael G. Oganov MD, Velibor Obradovic MD, Gabriel Kamensky MD, Miran F. Kenda MD, Christer Höglund MD, Thomas F. Lüscher MD, René Lerch MD, Moufid Jokhadar MD, Habib Haouala MD, Vedat Sansoy MD, Valentin Shumakov MD, Adam Timmis MD. (<span class="hlt">European</span> National Society Cardiovascular Journals Editors, see Appendix for complete affiliations) PMID:18665206</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1816794L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1816794L"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">European</span> 2015 drought from a hydrological perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Laaha, Gregor; Gauster, Tobias; Delus, Claire; Vidal, Jean-Philippe</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The year 2015 was hot and dry in many <span class="hlt">European</span> countries. A timely assessment of its hydrological impacts constitutes a difficult task, because stream flow records are often not available within 2-3 years after recording. Moreover, monitoring is performed on a national or even provincial basis. There are still major barriers of data access, especially for eastern <span class="hlt">European</span> countries. Wherever data are available, their compatibility poses a major challenge. In two companion papers we summarize a collaborative initiative of members of UNESCO's FRIEND-Water program to perform a timely Pan-<span class="hlt">European</span> assessment of the 2015 drought. In this second part we analyse the hydrological perspective based on streamflow observations. We first describe the data access strategy and the assessment method. We than present the results consisting of a range of low flow indices calculated for about 800 gauges across Europe. We compare the characteristics of the 2015 drought with the average, long-term conditions, and with the specific conditions of the 2003 drought, which is often used as a worst-case benchmark to gauge future drought events. Overall, the hydrological 2015 drought is characterised by a much smaller spatial extend than the 2003 drought. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> streamflows are observed mainly in a band North of the Alps spanning from E-France to Poland. In terms of flow magnitude, Czech, E-Germany and N-Austria were most affected. In this region the low flows often had return periods of 100 years and more, indicating that the event was much more severe than the 2003 event. In terms of deficit volumes, the centre of the event was more oriented towards S-Germany. Based on a detailed assessment of the spatio-temporal characteristics at various scales, we are able to explain the different behaviour in these regions by diverging wetness preconditions in the catchments. This suggest that the sole knowledge of atmospheric indices is not sufficient to characterise hydrological drought events. We</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1813933T&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1813933T&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Historical influence of irrigation on climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thiery, Wim; Davin, Edouard L.; Lawrence, Dave; Hauser, Mathias; Seneviratne, Sonia I.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Land irrigation is an essential practice sustaining global food production and many regional economies. During the last decades, irrigation amounts have been growing rapidly. Emerging scientific evidence indicates that land irrigation substantially affects mean climate conditions in different regions of the world. However, a thorough understanding of the impact of irrigation on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> climatic conditions, such as heat waves, droughts or intense precipitation, is currently still lacking. In this context, we aim to assess the historical influence of irrigation on the occurrence of climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. To this end, two simulations are conducted over the period 1910-2010 with a state-of-the-art global climate model (the Community Earth System Model, CESM): a control simulation including all major anthropogenic and natural external forcings except for irrigation and a second experiment with transient irrigation enabled. The two simulations are evaluated for their ability to represent (i) hot, dry and wet <span class="hlt">extremes</span> using the HadEX2 and ERA-Interim datasets as a reference, and (ii) latent heat fluxes using LandFlux-EVAL. Assuming a linear combination of climatic responses to different forcings, the difference between both experiments approximates the influence of irrigation. We will analyse the impact of irrigation on a number of climate indices reflecting the intensity and duration of heat waves. Thereby, particular attention is given to the role of soil moisture changes in modulating climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Furthermore, the contribution of individual biogeophysical processes to the total impact of irrigation on hot <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is quantified by application of a surface energy balance decomposition technique to the 90th and 99th percentile surface temperature changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AdG.....7...91H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AdG.....7...91H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> precipitation events in NW Greece</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Houssos, E. E.; Bartzokas, A.</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>In this work, the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events in NW Greece are studied. The data used are daily precipitation totals recorded at the meteorological station of Ioannina University for the period 1970-2002. 156 days with precipitation totals above 35 mm (5% upper limit) are only considered. It is seen that, a minimum frequency of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events appears in the period 1986-1991, which is characterized by a high positive NAO index. For each of the 156 <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation days, at first, the mean sea level pressure pattern over Europe is constructed by using 273 grid point values. Using Factor Analysis, the dimensionality of the 156×273 data matrix is reduced to 156×5 (84% of the total variance) and then, Cluster Analysis is applied on the results of Factor Analysis. Thus, the 156 cases are grouped objectively to 11 clusters, revealing the main pressure patterns, which favour <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation in NW Greece. Seven of the patterns are encountered in winter and autumn, while three of them cover a period from autumn to spring and one appears mainly in summer. In all of them the cause of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation event is a low pressure system centred west of Greece or a low pressure trough extended eastwards or southwards up to Greece. In some cases the depression is so strong and extended that it covers the whole Europe and the Mediterranean. In the single summer pattern, rainfall is caused by an extension of the SW Asia thermal low up to the central Mediterranean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H43N..05R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H43N..05R"><span id="translatedtitle">Multivariate Bayesian Models of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Rainfall</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rahill-Marier, B.; Devineni, N.; Lall, U.; Farnham, D.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Accounting for spatial heterogeneity in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall has important ramifications in hydrological design and climate models alike. Traditional methods, including areal reduction factors and kriging, are sensitive to catchment shape assumptions and return periods, and do not explicitly model spatial dependence between between data points. More recent spatially dense rainfall simulators depend on newer data sources such as radar and may struggle to reproduce <span class="hlt">extremes</span> because of physical assumptions in the model and short historical records. Rain gauges offer the longest historical record, key when considering rainfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and changes over time, and particularly relevant in today's environment of designing for climate change. In this paper we propose a probabilistic approach of accounting for spatial dependence using the lengthy but spatially disparate hourly rainfall network in the greater New York City area. We build a hierarchical Bayesian model allowing <span class="hlt">extremes</span> at one station to co-vary with concurrent rainfall fields occurring at other stations. Subsequently we pool across the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall fields of all stations, and demonstrate that the expected catchment-wide events are significantly lower when considering spatial fields instead of maxima-only fields. We additionally demonstrate the importance of using concurrent spatial fields, rather than annual maxima, in producing covariance matrices that describe true storm dynamics. This approach is also unique in that it considers short duration storms - from one hour to twenty-four hours - rather than the daily values typically derived from rainfall gauges. The same methodology can be extended to include the radar fields available in the past decade. The hierarchical multilevel approach lends itself easily to integration of long-record parameters and short-record parameters at a station or regional level. In addition climate covariates can be introduced to support the relationship of spatial covariance with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21736748','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21736748"><span id="translatedtitle">Current <span class="hlt">european</span> regulatory perspectives on insulin analogues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Enzmann, Harald G; Weise, Martina</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Insulin analogues are increasingly considered as an alternative to human insulin in the therapy of diabetes mellitus. Insulin analogues (IAs) are chemically different from human insulin and may have different pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic properties. The significance of the modifications of the insulin molecule for the safety profile of IAs must be considered. This review describes the regulatory procedure and the expectations for the scientific content of <span class="hlt">European</span> marketing authorization applications for innovative IAs submitted to the <span class="hlt">European</span> Medicines Agency. Particular consideration is given to a potential cancer hazard. Specific regulatory guidance on how to address a possible carcinogenic or tumor promoting effect of innovative IAs in non-clinical studies is available. After marketing authorization, the factual access of patients to the new product will be determined to great extent by health technology assessment bodies, reimbursement decisions and the price. Whereas the marketing authorization is a <span class="hlt">European</span> decision, pricing and reimbursement are national or regional responsibilities. The assessment of benefit and risk by the <span class="hlt">European</span> Medicines Agency is expected to influence future decisions on price and reimbursement on a national or regional level. Collaborations between regulatory agencies and health technology assessment bodies have been initiated on <span class="hlt">European</span> and national level to facilitate the use of the <span class="hlt">European</span> Medicines Agency's benefit risk assessment as basis on which to build the subsequent health technology assessment. The option for combined or joint scientific advice procedures with regulators and health technology assessment bodies on <span class="hlt">European</span> level or on a national level in several <span class="hlt">European</span> Member States may help applicants to optimize their development program and dossier preparation in regard of both <span class="hlt">European</span> marketing authorization application and reimbursement decisions. PMID:21736748</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17457707','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17457707"><span id="translatedtitle">[Comparison of phantom limb pain or phantom <span class="hlt">extremity</span> sensation of upper and lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> amputations].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Uğur, Fatih; Akin, Aynur; Esmaoğlu, Aliye; Doğru, Kudret; Ors, Sevgi; Aydoğan, Harun; Gülcü, Nebahat; Boyaci, Adem</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the upper and the lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> amputations with regard to phantom pain, phantom sensation and stump pain. A questionnaire consisting of 23 questions was send to the patients who underwent upper or lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> amputation surgery between 1996- 2005. The patients were questioned for the presence of phantom pain and sensations and if they existed for the frequency, intensity, cause of amputation, pre-amputation pain, stump pain, usage of artificial limb. Totally 147 patients were included and the response rate was 70 %. The incidence of phantom pain in Upper <span class="hlt">Extremity</span> Group was 60 % and 65.8% in Lower <span class="hlt">Extremity</span> Group. The incidence of phantom sensations was 70.7% in Upper <span class="hlt">Extremity</span> Group and 75.6% in Lower <span class="hlt">Extremity</span> Group. There was no significant difference between two groups considering in phantom pain and phantom sensations. The phantom pain was significantly higher in patients who lost dominant hand, experienced pre amputation pain and suffered stump pain. There were no significant differences in regard to phantom pain and sensation between upper and lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> amputations. However the presence of preamputation pain, stump pain and amputation of dominant hand were found as risk factors for the development of phantom pain. PMID:17457707</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=idealism&pg=4&id=EJ830767','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=idealism&pg=4&id=EJ830767"><span id="translatedtitle">Educating against <span class="hlt">Extremism</span>: Towards a Critical Politicisation of Young People</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Davies, Lynn</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This paper is based on a recently published book, "Educating Against <span class="hlt">Extremism</span>" (Davies, "Educating Against <span class="hlt">Extremism</span>," 2008), which explores the potential role of schools in averting the more negative and violent forms of <span class="hlt">extremism</span> in a country. It examines the nature of <span class="hlt">extremism</span>; identity formation and radicalisation; religious belief, faith…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813861P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813861P"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Climate Index: a novel and multi-hazard index for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Petitta, Marcello; Calmanti, Sandro; Cucchi, Marco</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In this work we introduce the <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Climate Index (ECI): an objective, multi-hazard index capable of tracking changes in the frequency or magnitude of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events, thus indicating that a shift to a new climate regime is underway in a particular area. The main hazards covered by ECI are <span class="hlt">extreme</span> dry, wet and heat events, with the possibility of adding region-specific risk events such as tropical cyclones for the most vulnerable areas. It is on data coming from consistent, sufficiently long, high quality historical records and is standardized across broad geographical regions, so that <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events occurring under different climatic regimes in Africa can be comparable. The first step to construct such an index is to define single hazard indicators. In this first study we focused on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> dry/wet and heat events, using for their description respectively the well-known SPI (Standardized Precipitation Index) and an index developed by us, called SHI (Standardized Heat-waves Index). The second step consists in the development of a computational strategy to combine these, and possibly other indices, so that the ECI can describe, by means of a single indicator, different types of climatic <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. According to the methodology proposed in this paper, the ECI is defined by two statistical components: the ECI intensity, which indicates whether an event is <span class="hlt">extreme</span> or not; the angular component, which represent the contribution of each hazard to the overall intensity of the index. The ECI can thus be used to identify "<span class="hlt">extremes</span>" after defining a suitable threshold above which the events can be held as <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. In this paper, after describing the methodology we used for the construction of the ECI, we present results obtained on different African regions, using NCEP Reanalysis dataset for air temperature at sigma 0.995 level and CHIRP dataset for precipitations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ERL....11g4004D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ERL....11g4004D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Drivers of exceptionally cold North Atlantic Ocean temperatures and their link to the 2015 <span class="hlt">European</span> heat wave</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Duchez, Aurélie; Frajka-Williams, Eleanor; Josey, Simon A.; Evans, Dafydd G.; Grist, Jeremy P.; Marsh, Robert; McCarthy, Gerard D.; Sinha, Bablu; Berry, David I.; J-M Hirschi, Joël</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The North Atlantic and Europe experienced two <span class="hlt">extreme</span> climate events in 2015: exceptionally cold ocean surface temperatures and a summer heat wave ranked in the top ten over the past 65 years. Here, we show that the cold ocean temperatures were the most <span class="hlt">extreme</span> in the modern record over much of the mid-high latitude North-East Atlantic. Further, by considering surface heat loss, ocean heat content and wind driven upwelling we explain for the first time the genesis of this cold ocean anomaly. We find that it is primarily due to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ocean heat loss driven by atmospheric circulation changes in the preceding two winters combined with the re-emergence of cold ocean water masses. Furthermore, we reveal that a similar cold Atlantic anomaly was also present prior to the most <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">European</span> heat waves since the 1980s indicating that it is a common factor in the development of these events. For the specific case of 2015, we show that the ocean anomaly is linked to a stationary position of the Jet Stream that favours the development of high surface temperatures over Central Europe during the heat wave. Our study calls for an urgent assessment of the impact of ocean drivers on major <span class="hlt">European</span> summer temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in order to provide better advance warning measures of these high societal impact events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820014806','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820014806"><span id="translatedtitle">An overview on <span class="hlt">European</span> SPS activities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Reinhartz, K. K.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The organization of space and energy research in Europe is discussed. The <span class="hlt">European</span> situation is highlighted with emphasis on the dependency of energy imports and on the energy requirements of Europe. The status of SPS research in the countries that form the <span class="hlt">European</span> Space Agency was reviewed. It is concluded that in view of the unfavorable geographical and climatic situation of large parts of Europe, terrestrial solar energy conversion is unlikely to make a significant contribution to Europe's future energy supply. Thus, SPS development is of special interest to the <span class="hlt">European</span> community.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001JOM....53k..24G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001JOM....53k..24G"><span id="translatedtitle">Recycling policy in the <span class="hlt">european</span> union</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gaballah, I.; Kanari, N.</p> <p>2001-11-01</p> <p>Recycling in the <span class="hlt">European</span> Union (EU) has benefited from R&D efforts and strict environmental regulations of the EU’s members. Thanks to the adoption of sustainable development policies by the EU’s <span class="hlt">European</span> Institutions, economic incentives are expected to further strengthen the recycling industry. Moreover, the historical accumulation of non-ferrous metals in Europe will likely enhance secondary metal production. Also contributing to EU recycling is mining in East <span class="hlt">European</span> countries and the resulting industrial waste. The rate of growth of the recycling industry is expected to approach double digits for at least this decade.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712039B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712039B"><span id="translatedtitle">A new index quantifying the precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Busuioc, Aristita; Baciu, Madalina; Stoica, Cerasela</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Events of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation have a great impact on society. They are associated with flooding, erosion and landslides.Various indices have been proposed to quantify these <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events and they are mainly related to daily precipitation amount, which are usually available for long periods in many places over the world. The climate signal related to changes in the characteristics of precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is different over various regions and it is dependent on the season and the index used to quantify the precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. The climate model simulations and empirical evidence suggest that warmer climates, due to increased water vapour, lead to more intense precipitation events, even when the total annual precipitation is slightly reduced. It was suggested that there is a shift in the nature of precipitation events towards more intense and less frequent rains and increases in heavy rains are expected to occur in most places, even when the mean precipitation is not increasing. This conclusion was also proved for the Romanian territory in a recent study, showing a significant increasing trend of the rain shower frequency in the warm season over the entire country, despite no significant changes in the seasonal amount and the daily <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. The shower events counted in that paper refer to all convective rains, including torrential ones giving high rainfall amount in very short time. The problem is to find an appropriate index to quantify such events in terms of their highest intensity in order to extract the maximum climate signal. In the present paper, a new index is proposed to quantify the maximum precipitation intensity in an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation event, which could be directly related to the torrential rain intensity. This index is tested at nine Romanian stations (representing various physical-geographical conditions) and it is based on the continuous rainfall records derived from the graphical registrations (pluviograms) available at National</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6554D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6554D"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in annual temperature and precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the Carpathians since AD 1961</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Birsan, Marius-Victor; Magdalena Micu, Dana; Cheval, Sorin</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The Carpathians are the largest, longest, most twisted and fragmented segment of the Alpine system, stretching between latitudes 44°N and 50°N, and longitudes 17°E and 27°E. This <span class="hlt">European</span> mountain range is a climatically transitional region between major atmospheric circulation source areas of the Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea and continental Europe. The region is a <span class="hlt">European</span> biodiversity hotspot, containing over one third of all <span class="hlt">European</span> plant species. It is acknowledged that the mountain regions are particularly sensitive and vulnerable to climate change than any other regions located at the same latitudes. Observational studies on the variability and trends of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events suggest an overall consensus towards a significant increase in the frequency, duration and intensity of warm <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in most of these regions, including the Carpathians. 15 core indices, defined by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI), were computed in order to investigate the changes in annual temperature and precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, based on their known relevance for the infrastructure, human health and tourism activities in these mountains. The indices were computed from gridded daily datasets of minimum and maximum temperature and precipitation at 0.1° resolution (~10 km), available online within the framework of the project CarpatClim (www.carpatclim-eu.org) for the period 1961-2010. Changes in the annual temperature and precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the last five decades have been identified with the Mann-Kendall non-parametric trend test, at the 90% significance level (two-tail test). The results show decreasing trends in cold-related thermal indices, especially in the number of frost days, and increasing trends in warm-related ones. No consistent trend in precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> has been found. There is a generally uniform signal of significant increasing trends in the frequency of summer days across the Carpathians, with no obvious differences between</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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