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Sample records for 435-66 petroleum oil

  1. Base Oils from Petroleum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prince, R. J.

    The source, composition and suitability of crude oils for base oil production are reviewed. The physical and chemical properties of alkanes, naphthenes and aromatics and their characteristics for lubricant applications are examined. Properties and applications of various base oils are defined and specified. Production of conventional mineral oils is described, including the various processes to remove wax and other deleterious substances, followed by increasingly severe hydrogenation to produce base oils of increased quality and performance. The API categorization of mineral base oils, either direct from the refinery or after hydrotreatment of increasing severity, is described, together with sub-categories.

  2. ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADABILITY OF NON-PETROLEUM OILS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has demonstrated that vegetable oils are amenable to anaerobic biodegradation. This is in contrast to petroleum oils. Vegetable oils are already oxygenated because they are composed of fatty acids and glycerols, which contribute to the biodegradability. A strategy has be...

  3. Allocating petroleum products during oil supply disruptions.

    PubMed

    Bezdek, R H; Taylor, W B

    1981-06-19

    Four options for allocating a long-term, severe shortfall of petroleum imports are analyzed: oil price and allocation controls, coupon gasoline rationing, variable gasoline tax and rebate, and no oil price controls with partial rebates. Each of these options is evaluated in terms of four criteria: microeconomic effects, macroeconomic effects, equity, and practical problems. The implications of this analysis for energy contingency planning are discussed. PMID:17746245

  4. Comparison of BOD relationships for typical edible and petroleum oils

    SciTech Connect

    Groenewold, J.C.; Pico, R.F.; Watson, K.S.

    1982-04-01

    A laboratory program was undertaken to measure various wastewater parameters of selected edible oils and those of kerosene, 2 fuel oil, machine oil and mineral oil. Analysis was by direct measurement of oil-water emulsions. Experimental work demonstrated that edible oils are considerably more biodegradable than petroleum oils, making them easier to treat in industrial wastewater. (JMT)

  5. Petroleum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, T. R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This review of petroleum covers: crude oil; fuels, gaseous and liquid; lubricants, oils, and greases; asphalts, bitumens, tars, and pitches; hydrocarbons; physical properties; metals in oil; nonmetallic elements and heterocompounds; and analytical methods and apparatus. (MVL)

  6. High severity pyrolysis of shale and petroleum gas oil mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Leftin, H.P.; Newsome, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    Light gas oil and heavy gas oil from Paraho shale oil and their mixtures with a petroleum light gas oil were pyrolyzed in the presence of steam at 880-900/sup 0/C and contact times between 60 and 90 ms in a nonisothermal bench-scale pyrolysis reactor. Blending of petroleum LGO into the shale oil feeds provided product yields that were the weighted linear combination of the yields of the individual components of the blends. Partial denitrogenation and a pronounced decrease in the rate of coke deposition on the reactor walls were observed when petroleum gas oil was blended with the shale gas oils.

  7. Dispersion Of Crude Oil And Petroleum Products In Freshwater

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research was to investigate the relationship between dispersion effectiveness in freshwater and the surfactant composition for fresh and weathered crude oil. Although limited research on the chemical dispersion of crude oil and petroleum products in freshwat...

  8. HFRR investigation of biobased and petroleum based oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biobased oils come in a wide range of chemical structures as do petroleum based oils. In addition, a distinct structural difference exists between these two broad categories of oils. Previous work has shown that, in spite of the structural differences, these two categories of oils display similar pr...

  9. Co-processing of carbonaceous solids and petroleum oil

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, Avinash; Greene, Marvin I.

    1992-01-01

    In a process for producing distillates from coal by a first stage thermal liquefaction followed by a catalytic hydrogenation, liquefaction solvent is added at points spaced over the length of the thermal liquefaction heater. Coal may be co-processed with petroleum oil by adding pre-hydrogenated oil to the first stage or unhydrogenated oil to the second stage.

  10. AEROBIC BIODEGRADABILITY AND TOXICITY OF NON-PETROLEUM OILS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vegetable oil spills are a widely known phenomenon, but are the least understood. These spills can be as devastating to the environment as petroleum oil spills. Previous laboratory research results have indicated that as vegetable oils degrade aerobically, the aqueous solutions b...

  11. Vegetable oils as a petroleum replacement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current dependence of the world economy on petroleum cannot be sustained in the long run. Petroleum is expected to be depleted in the foreseeable future. In addition, the use of petroleum causes carbon dioxide emissions leading to global warming. Renewable sources need to be explored. One of the...

  12. Forecasting Crude Oil Spot Price Using OECD Petroleum Inventory Levels

    EIA Publications

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a short-term monthly forecasting model of West Texas Intermediate crude oil spot price using Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) petroleum inventory levels.

  13. THE SOLAR TRANSFORMITY OF OIL AND PETROLEUM NATURAL GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents an emergy evaluation of the biogeochemical process of petroleum formation. Unlike the previous calculation, in which the transformity of crude oil was back calculated from the relative efficiency of electricity production and factors relating coal to transport...

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF A MULTIDETECTOR PETROLEUM OIL-IN-WATER MONITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research report describes an effort to develop a prototype petroleum oil-in-water monitoring system that will continuously measure oil (whether free, suspended, dissolved, or emulsified) in water carrying a variety of potential interfering substances. An extensive desk-top s...

  15. 75 FR 11841 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Short Supply Regulations, Petroleum (Crude Oil)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... Regulations, Petroleum (Crude Oil) AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... petroleum (crude oil) and is used by licensing officers to determine the exporter's compliance with the...

  16. Bacterial communities in petroleum oil in stockpiles.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Nobuyuki; Yagi, Kazuhiro; Sato, Daisuke; Watanabe, Noriko; Kuroishi, Takeshi; Nishimoto, Kana; Yanagida, Akira; Katsuragi, Tohoru; Kanagawa, Takahiro; Kurane, Ryuichiro; Tani, Yoshiki

    2005-02-01

    Bacterial communities in crude-oil samples from Japanese oil stockpiles were investigated by 16S rRNA gene cloning, followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. 16S rRNA genes were successfully amplified by PCR after isooctane treatment from three kinds of crude-oil sample collected at four oil stockpiles in Japan. DGGE profiles showed that bacteria related to Ochrobactrum anthropi, Burkholderia cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Propionibacterium acnes, and Brevundimonas diminuta were frequently detected in most crude-oil samples. The bacterial communities differed in the sampling time and layer. Among the predominant bacteria detected in the crude oil, only three species were found for bacteria isolated on agar plates and were related to Burkholderia, Stenotrophomonas, and Propionibacterium, while Ochrobactrum sp. could not be isolated although this species seemed to be the most abundant bacterium in crude oil from the DGGE profiles. Using an archaea-specific primer set, methanogens were found in crude-oil sludge but not in crude-oil samples, indicating that methanogens might be involved in sludge formation in oil stockpiles. PMID:16233771

  17. Petroleum mineral oil refining and evaluation of cancer hazard.

    PubMed

    Mackerer, Carl R; Griffis, Larry C; Grabowski Jr, John S; Reitman, Fred A

    2003-11-01

    Petroleum base oils (petroleum mineral oils) are manufactured from crude oils by vacuum distillation to produce several distillates and a residual oil that are then further refined. Aromatics including alkylated polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) are undesirable constituents of base oils because they are deleterious to product performance and are potentially carcinogenic. In modern base oil refining, aromatics are reduced by solvent extraction, catalytic hydrotreating, or hydrocracking. Chronic exposure to poorly refined base oils has the potential to cause skin cancer. A chronic mouse dermal bioassay has been the standard test for estimating carcinogenic potential of mineral oils. The level of alkylated 3-7-ring PAC in raw streams from the vacuum tower must be greatly reduced to render the base oil noncarcinogenic. The processes that can reduce PAC levels are known, but the operating conditions for the processing units (e.g., temperature, pressure, catalyst type, residence time in the unit, unit engineering design, etc.) needed to achieve adequate PAC reduction are refinery specific. Chronic dermal bioassays provide information about whether conditions applied can make a noncarcinogenic oil, but cannot be used to monitor current production for quality control or for conducting research or developing new processes since this test takes at least 78 weeks to conduct. Three short-term, non-animal assays all involving extraction of oil with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) have been validated for predicting potential carcinogenic activity of petroleum base oils: a modified Ames assay of a DMSO extract, a gravimetric assay (IP 346) for wt. percent of oil extracted into DMSO, and a GC-FID assay measuring 3-7-ring PAC content in a DMSO extract of oil, expressed as percent of the oil. Extraction with DMSO concentrates PAC in a manner that mimics the extraction method used in the solvent refining of noncarcinogenic oils. The three assays are described, data demonstrating the

  18. In vitro red blood cell assay for oxidant toxicity of petroleum oil

    SciTech Connect

    Couillard, C.M.; Leighton, F.A. )

    1993-05-01

    Petroleum oil has caused hemolytic anemia in birds and mammals. In birds, an oxidant damage on circulating red cells has been identified as the primary toxic effect of ingested petroleum oils. An in vitro red blood cell assay was developed to discriminate among the oxidant activities of different petroleum oils. The assay used rabbit red blood cells with a rat liver enzyme system and formation of methemoglobin was measured as an indicator of oxidant damage to the red cells. The assay was applied to five different petroleum oils and to naphthalene, a petroleum hydrocarbon known to cause hemolytic anemia. Different petroleum oils differed in their capacity to induce methemoglobin formation. Methemoglobin levels varied from 2.9% with Arabian light crude oil to 6.2% with South Louisiana crude oil. Naphthalene induced formation of up to 37% methemoglobin. Naphthalene and the five petroleum oils generated methemoglobin only in the presence of liver enzymes.

  19. Plant oils as feedstock alternatives to petroleum - A short survey of potential oil crop platforms.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Anders S

    2009-06-01

    Our society is highly depending on petroleum for its activities. About 90% is used as an energy source for transportation and for generation of heat and electricity and the remaining as feedstocks in the chemical industry. However, petroleum is a finite source as well as causing several environmental problems such as rising carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Petroleum therefore needs to be replaced by alternative and sustainable sources. Plant oils and oleochemicals derived from them represent such alternative sources, which can deliver a substantial part of what is needed to replace the petroleum used as feedstocks. Plant derived feedstock oils can be provided by two types of oil qualities, multi-purpose and technical oils. Multi-purpose oils represent oil qualities that contain common fatty acids and that can be used for both food and feedstock applications. Technical oil qualities contain unusual fatty acids with special properties gained from their unique molecular structure and these types of oils should only be used for feedstock applications. As a risk mitigation strategy in the selection of crops, technical oil qualities should therefore preferably be produced by oil crop platforms dedicated for industrial usage. This review presents a short survey of oil crop platforms to be considered for either multi-purpose or technical oils production. Included among the former platforms are some of the major oil crops in cultivation such as oil palm, soybean and rapeseed. Among the later are those that could be developed into dedicated industrial platforms such as crambe, flax, cotton and Brassica carinata. The survey finishes off by highlighting the potential of substantial increase in plant oil production by developing metabolic flux platforms, which are starch crops converted into oil crops. PMID:19375482

  20. The integrated petroleum, oil lubricants data system for the military

    SciTech Connect

    Purdy, E.M.

    1994-02-01

    This report describes a proposed system of a comprehensive database that identifies the correct petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) required to operate, maintain, and sustain all army equipment. The POL products identified by the system for each item ofequipment will represent the optimum POL basic load components. Equivalent alternative products wil be identified to account for possible shortages of the recommended materials, and compatibility data for host nation support agreements will also be available.

  1. Recycling used palm oil and used engine oil to produce white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-abbas, Mustafa Hamid; Ibrahim, Wan Aini Wan; Sanagi, Mohd. Marsin

    2012-09-01

    Recycling waste materials produced in our daily life is considered as an additional resource of a wide range of materials and it conserves the environment. Used engine oil and used cooking oil are two oils disposed off in large quantities as a by-product of our daily life. This study aims at providing white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel from the disposed oils. Toxic organic materials suspected to be present in the used engine oil were separated using vacuum column chromatography to reduce the time needed for the separation process and to avoid solvent usage. The compounds separated were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and found to contain toxic aromatic carboxylic acids. Used cooking oils (thermally cracked from usage) were collected and separated by vacuum column chromatography. White bio oil produced was examined by GC-MS. The white bio oil consists of non-toxic hydrocarbons and is found to be a good alternative to white mineral oil which is significantly used in food industry, cosmetics and drugs with the risk of containing polycyclic aromatic compounds which are carcinogenic and toxic. Different portions of the used cooking oil and used engine were mixed to produce several blends for use as heavy oil fuels. White bio oil was used to produce bio petroleum diesel by blending it with petroleum diesel and kerosene. The bio petroleum diesel produced passed the PETRONAS flash point and viscosity specification test. The heat of combustion of the two blends of heavy fuel produced was measured and one of the blends was burned to demonstrate its burning ability. Higher heat of combustion was obtained from the blend containing greater proportion of used engine oil. This study has provided a successful recycled alternative for white bio oil, bio petroleum fuel and diesel which can be an energy source.

  2. Crude oil accountability at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-04

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) is responsible for purchasing and storing crude oil to mitigate the impact of future disruptions of crude oil imports. The audit objective was to determine whether the SPR Project Management office's (SPRPMO) policies, procedures, and practices provided reasonable assurance of the adequacy and correctness of the data and documentation pertaining to the SPR's crude oil receipts, transfers, and sales for Fiscal Years (FY) 1989, 1990, and 1991. Our audit disclosed that SPRPMO'S: (1) Accounting records for crude oil inventories did not provide for capitalizing all significant and identifiable costs, and (2) crude oil transactions were not supported by adequate documentation. These conditions occurred because: (a) SPRPMO had not complied with US Department of Energy (DOE) accounting guidance, (b) its supervisory personnel were not adequately reviewing the work of subordinates, and (c) its managers were unaware that procedures on documenting adjustments to delivery reports did not comply with the General Accounting Office's internal control standards. As a result, while all costs were recorded in the general ledger, the category for capitalized cost of crude oil inventories was understated by at least $131.7 million. We recommend that SPRPMO adjust its accounting records to more accurately reflect the actual cost of crude oil inventories, and strengthen documentary controls. SPRPMO's management generally concurred with the findings and associated recommendations. However, they were of the opinion that existing DOE accounting guidance did not adequately recognize the unique issues relating to crude oil inventories.

  3. Crude oil accountability at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-04

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) is responsible for purchasing and storing crude oil to mitigate the impact of future disruptions of crude oil imports. The audit objective was to determine whether the SPR Project Management office`s (SPRPMO) policies, procedures, and practices provided reasonable assurance of the adequacy and correctness of the data and documentation pertaining to the SPR`s crude oil receipts, transfers, and sales for Fiscal Years (FY) 1989, 1990, and 1991. Our audit disclosed that SPRPMO`S: (1) Accounting records for crude oil inventories did not provide for capitalizing all significant and identifiable costs, and (2) crude oil transactions were not supported by adequate documentation. These conditions occurred because: (a) SPRPMO had not complied with US Department of Energy (DOE) accounting guidance, (b) its supervisory personnel were not adequately reviewing the work of subordinates, and (c) its managers were unaware that procedures on documenting adjustments to delivery reports did not comply with the General Accounting Office`s internal control standards. As a result, while all costs were recorded in the general ledger, the category for capitalized cost of crude oil inventories was understated by at least $131.7 million. We recommend that SPRPMO adjust its accounting records to more accurately reflect the actual cost of crude oil inventories, and strengthen documentary controls. SPRPMO`s management generally concurred with the findings and associated recommendations. However, they were of the opinion that existing DOE accounting guidance did not adequately recognize the unique issues relating to crude oil inventories.

  4. 15 CFR 754.3 - Petroleum products not including crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.3 Petroleum products not including crude oil. (a) License requirement. As indicated... required to all destinations, including Canada, for the export of petroleum products, excluding crude oil..., other than crude oil, will be denied, unless the President makes a finding required by the...

  5. Review of oil families and their petroleum systems of the Williston Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lillis, Paul G.

    2013-01-01

    Oil bulk properties such as API gravity, sulfur content, and pour point are much underutilized in the recent geochemical literature and are found to be useful here in differentiating oil families. The Red River petroleum system has two oil families that can be differentiated based on pour point. The oils in the Madison petroleum system can be divided into two families based on API gravity-sulfur content relationships, with one family derived from Type II-S kerogen and the other family derived from Type II kerogen with medium sulfur content. The Tyler petroleum system of the Williston Basin may be distinguished from the Heath-Tyler petroleum system in central Montana based on differences in geology and petroleum geochemistry, with Tyler petroleum system oils having a higher pour point and lower sulfur content.

  6. CHARACTERISTICS OF SPILLED OILS, FUELS, AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS: 1. COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF SELECTED OILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multicomponent composition and corresponding physical properties data of crude oils and petroleum products are needed as input to environmental fate simulations. Complete sets of such data, however, are not available in the literature due to the complexity and expense of making t...

  7. Studies on water-in-oil products from crude oils and petroleum products.

    PubMed

    Fingas, Merv; Fieldhouse, Ben

    2012-02-01

    Water-in-oil mixtures such as emulsions, often form and complicate oil spill countermeasures. The formation of water-in-oil mixtures was studied using more than 300 crude oils and petroleum products. Water-in-oil types were characterized by resolution of water at 1 and 7 days, and some after 1 year. Rheology measurements were carried out at the same intervals. The objective of this laboratory study was to characterize the formed water-in-oil products and relate these properties to starting oil properties. Analysis of the starting oil properties of these water-in-oil types shows that the existence of each type relates to the starting oil viscosity and its asphaltene and resin contents. This confirms that water-in-oil emulsification is a result of physical stabilization by oil viscosity and chemical stabilization by asphaltenes and resins. This stabilization is illustrated using simple graphical techniques. Four water-in-oil types exist: stable, unstable, meso-stable and entrained. Each of these has distinct physical properties. PMID:22183525

  8. Use of Kinematic Viscosity Data for the Evaluation of the Molecular Weight of Petroleum Oils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maroto, J. A.; Quesada-Perez, M.; Ortiz-Hernandez, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    A new laboratory procedure for the evaluation of the mean molecular weight (mean relative molecular mass) of petroleum oils with high accuracy is described. The density and dynamic viscosity of three commercial petroleum oils are measured at different temperatures. These experimental data are used to calculate the kinematic viscosity as a function…

  9. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves. Annual report of operations, Fiscal year 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    During fiscal year 1992, the reserves generated $473 million in revenues, a $181 million decrease from the fiscal year 1991 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $200 million, resulting in net cash flow of $273 million, compared with $454 million in fiscal year 1991. From 1976 through fiscal year 1992, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated more than $15 billion in revenues and a net operating income after costs of $12.5 billion. In fiscal year 1992, production at the Naval Petroleum Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 26 million barrels of crude oil, 119 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 164 million gallons of natural gas liquids. From April to November 1992, senior managers from the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves held a series of three workshops in Boulder, Colorado, in order to build a comprehensive Strategic Plan as required by Secretary of Energy Notice 25A-91. Other highlights are presented for the following: Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1--production achievements, crude oil shipments to the strategic petroleum reserve, horizontal drilling, shallow oil zone gas injection project, environment and safety, and vanpool program; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2--new management and operating contractor and exploration drilling; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3--steamflood; Naval Oil Shale Reserves--protection program; and Tiger Team environmental assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.

  10. Annual report of operations. [Naval Petroleum Reserves No. 1, 2, 3; oil shale reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves during FY 1980 deliver 59,993,213 bbl of crude oil and substantial quantities of natural gas, butane, propane and natural gasoline to the United States market. During September, Naval Petroleum Reserve oil was utilized to resume filling the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. During FY 1980, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills, became the largest producing oil field in California and the second largest producing field in the United States. Production at the end of September was 165,000 bbl/d; production is expected to peak at about 190,000 bbl/d early in calender year 1982. Production from Naval Petroleum Reserves Nos. 2 and 3 in California and Wyoming, contributed 1,101,582 and 1,603,477 bbl of crude oil to the market, respectively. Enhanced oil recovery work has been inititated at Naval Petroleum Reserve no. 3. Total revenues from the Naval Petroleum Reserves during FY 1980 were 1.6 billion. The three Naval Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado and Utah have substantial potential. In addition to containing approximately 2.5 billion bbl recoverable shale oil. They probably contain significant quantities of conventional oil and gas.

  11. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve: United States energy security, oil politics, and petroleum reserves policies in the twentieth century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaubouef, Bruce Andre

    The history of U.S. petroleum reserves policies in the twentieth century, including the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program, provides a case study of the economic and political aspects of national security, and shows the ways in which the American political economy influences national security. One key problem plagued federal petroleum reserve programs and proposals throughout the twentieth century. In a political economy which traditionally placed strong emphasis upon the sanctity of private property and free markets, could the government develop an emergency petroleum reserve policy despite opposition from the private sector? Previous literature on the SPR and oil-stockpiling programs has largely disregarded the historical perspective, focusing instead upon econometric models, suggesting future oil-stockpiling policy options. This study will also make conclusions about the future of governmental oil-stockpiling policies, particularly with regard to the SPR program, but it will do so informed by a systematic history of the emergency petroleum reserve impulse in the twentieth century. Through a study of the emergency petroleum reserve impulse, one can see how the American political economy of oil and energy changed over the twentieth century. As petroleum became crucial to the military and then economic security of the United States, the federal government sought to develop emergency petroleum reserves first for the military, then for the civilian economy. But while the American petroleum industry could deliver the energy "goods" to American energy consumers at a reasonable price, the companies reigned supreme in the political equation. While that was true, federal petroleum reserve programs and proposals conflicted with and were overwhelmed by the historic American tradition of individual economic and private property rights. The depletion of American petroleum reserves changed that political equation, and the ensuing energy crises of the 1970s not only

  12. In-situ LIF Analysis of Biological and Petroleum-based Hydraulic Oils on Soil

    PubMed Central

    Lemke, Matthias; Fernández-Trujillo, Rebeca; Löhmannsröben, Hans-Gerd

    2005-01-01

    Absorption and fluorescence properties of 4 hydraulic oils (3 biological and 1 petroleum-based) were investigated. In-situ LIF (laser-induced fluorescence) analysis of the oils on a brown sandy loam soil was performed. With calibration, quantitative detection was achieved. Estimated limits of detection were below ca. 500 mg/kg for the petroleum-based oil and ca. 2000 mg/kg for one biological oil. A semi-quantitative classification scheme is proposed for monitoring of the biological oils. This approach was applied to investigate the migration of a biological oil in soil-containing compartments, namely a soil column and a soil bed.

  13. Ultrasonic desorption of petroleum hydrocarbons from crude oil contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianbing; Song, Xinyuan; Hu, Guangji; Thring, Ronald Wallen

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic irradiation was applied to improve the desorption of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) in crude oil from three types of soil. Soil A was an Ottawa sand, while soil B and soil C were fine soils that contained 27.6% and 55.3% of silt and clay contents, respectively. It was found that the ultrasonic desorption was highly related to soil types, with the highest and the lowest desorption occurring in coarse soil (i.e., soil A) and finer soil (i.e., soil C), respectively. Under the experimental conditions, the maximum ultrasonic desorption enhancement of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) reached 22% for soil A, 61% for soil B, and 49% for soil C, respectively. The maximum enhancement on the F2 (n-C10 to n-C16), F3 (n-C16 to n-C34), and F4 (n-C34 to n-C50) fractions of PHC reached 91, 44, and 51% for soil B, and 90, 38, and 31% for soil C, respectively. The desorption enhancement also illustrated an increasing trend with initial soil TPH concentration. PMID:23705614

  14. Midinfrared optical properties of petroleum oil aerosols. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gurton, K.P.; Bruce, C.W.

    1994-08-01

    The mass normalized absorption and extinction coefficients were measured for fog oil aerosol at 3.4 micrometers with a combined photoacoustic and transmissometer system. An extinction spectral profile was determined over a range of infrared (IR) wavelengths from 2.7 to 4.0 micrometers by an IR scanning transmissometer. The extinction spectrum was mass normalized by referencing it to the photoacoustic portion of the experiment. A corresponding Mie calculation was conducted and compared with the above measurements. Agreement is good for the most recent optical coefficients. An extrapolation of this data to other similar petroleum products such as kerosene or diesel fuel that exhibit similar bulk absorption characteristics were briefly examined.

  15. Oil atlas: National Petroleum Technology Office activities across the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Tiedemann, H.A.

    1998-03-01

    Petroleum imports account for the largest share of the US trade deficit. Over one-third of the 1996 merchandise trade deficit is attributed to imported oil. The good news is that substantial domestic oil resources, both existing and yet-to-be-discovered, can be recovered using advanced petroleum technologies. The Energy Information Agency estimates that advanced technologies can yield 10 billion additional barrels, equal to $240 billion in import offsets. The US Department of Energy`s National Petroleum Technology Office works with industry to develop advanced petroleum technologies and to transfer successful technologies to domestic oil producers. This publication shows the locations of these important technology development efforts and lists DOE`s partners in this critical venture. The National Petroleum Technology Office has 369 active technology development projects grouped into six product lines: Advanced Diagnostics and Imaging Systems; Advanced Drilling, Completion, and Stimulation; Reservoir Life Extension and Management; Emerging Processing Technology Applications; Effective Environmental Protection; and Crosscutting Program Areas.

  16. Material and methods for oil spill control and cleanup and extinguishing petroleum fires

    SciTech Connect

    States, J. B.

    1981-02-03

    A dispersal medium is described for cleaning of oil spills and the like and extinguishing petroleum fires. Its major quantitative part consists of a household liquid detergent and also contains eucalyptus oil, bovine urine, alfalfa and vitamin b-6. Methods of oil spill clean-up and fire extinguishing are also described.

  17. 15 CFR 754.3 - Petroleum products not including crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Petroleum products not including crude... (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SHORT SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.3 Petroleum products not including crude oil. (a) License requirement. As...

  18. 15 CFR 754.3 - Petroleum products not including crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Petroleum products not including crude... (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SHORT SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.3 Petroleum products not including crude oil. (a) License requirement. As...

  19. 15 CFR 754.3 - Petroleum products not including crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Petroleum products not including crude... (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SHORT SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.3 Petroleum products not including crude oil. (a) License requirement. As...

  20. 15 CFR 754.3 - Petroleum products not including crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Petroleum products not including crude... (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SHORT SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.3 Petroleum products not including crude oil. (a) License requirement. As...

  1. 76 FR 5107 - Regulation of Oil-Bearing Hazardous Secondary Materials From the Petroleum Refining Industry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... From the Petroleum Refining Industry Processed in a Gasification System To Produce Synthesis Gas..., ``Regulation of Oil-Bearing ] Hazardous Secondary Materials from the Petroleum Refining Industry Processed in a... Refining Industry Processed in a Gasification System to Produce Synthesis Gas'' (Gasification Rule)....

  2. Naval petroleum and oil shale reserves: Annual report of operations, FY 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Production and reserves, development and exploration, revenues and expenditures, sales, environment and safety, and litigation are discussed for naval petroleum reserves numbers one through three and for naval oil shale reserves. 28 figs., 21 tabs. (ACT)

  3. How Specific Microbial Communities Benefit the Oil Industry: Biorefining and Bioprocessing for Upgrading Petroleum Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ajay

    Recent advances in molecular biology of microbes have made possible in exploring and engineering improved biocatalysts (microbes and enzymes) suitable for the oil biorefining and recovery processes (Monticello, 2000; Van Hamme et al., 2003; Kilbane, 2006). Crude oil contains about 0.05-5% sulphur, 0.5-2.1% nitrogen and heavy metals such as nickel and vanadium associated with the asphaltene fraction. High temperature- and pressure-requiring expensive hydrotreatment processes are generally used to remove sulphur and nitrogen compounds from petroleum. Biorefining processes to improve oil quality have gained lots of interest and made a significant progress in the last two decades (Le Borgne and Quintero, 2003) and is the focus of this chapter.

  4. 78 FR 33103 - Call For Nominations and Comments for the 2013 National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska Oil and Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... tracts for oil and gas leasing for the 2013 National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPR-A) oil and...

  5. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves annual report of operations for fiscal year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    During fiscal year 1996, the Department of Energy continued to operate Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 in California and Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 in Wyoming through its contractors. In addition, natural gas operations were conducted at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3. All productive acreage owned by the Government at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 in California was produced under lease to private companies. The locations of all six Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves are shown in a figure. Under the Naval Petroleum Reserves Production Act of 1976, production was originally authorized for six years, and based on findings of national interest, the President was authorized to extend production in three-year increments. President Reagan exercised this authority three times (in 1981, 1984, and 1987) and President Bush authorized extended production once (in 1990). President Clinton exercised this authority in 1993 and again in October 1996; production is presently authorized through April 5, 2000. 4 figs. 30 tabs.

  6. 76 FR 68502 - National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2011 and Notice of Availability of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... Bureau of Land Management National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2011 and Notice of Availability of the Detailed Statement of Sale for Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2011 in the National Petroleum... Management's (BLM) Alaska State Office hereby notifies the public it will hold an oil and gas lease sale...

  7. 77 FR 61022 - Notice of National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2012 and Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2012 and Notice of Availability of the Detailed Statement of Sale for Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2012 in the National... notifies the public that it will hold a National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska oil and gas lease sale...

  8. 78 FR 59952 - Notice of National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2013 and Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2013 and Notice of Availability of the Detailed Statement of Sale for Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2013 in the National... National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska oil and gas lease sale bid opening for tracts in the National...

  9. Allegations of diversion and substitution of crude oil. Bayou Choctaw Storage Site, Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-30

    Investigation did not substantiate allegations that crude oil destined for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage site at Bayou Choctaw was diverted to private use and some other material substituted in its place. However, recommendations are made for handling intermediate transport and storage systems for crude oil to tighten security aspects. (PSB)

  10. 49 CFR 172.327 - Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Bulk packaging used to transport petroleum crude oil containing hydrogen sulfide (i.e., sour crude oil... hydrogen sulfide vapors may occur. (b) The border of the square-on-point must be black or red on a white or...., manhole, loading head) where exposure to hydrogen sulfide vapors may occur. The label, tag, or sign...

  11. 49 CFR 172.327 - Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Bulk packaging used to transport petroleum crude oil containing hydrogen sulfide (i.e., sour crude oil... hydrogen sulfide vapors may occur. (b) The border of the square-on-point must be black or red on a white or...., manhole, loading head) where exposure to hydrogen sulfide vapors may occur. The label, tag, or sign...

  12. 49 CFR 172.327 - Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Bulk packaging used to transport petroleum crude oil containing hydrogen sulfide (i.e., sour crude oil... hydrogen sulfide vapors may occur. (b) The border of the square-on-point must be black or red on a white or...., manhole, loading head) where exposure to hydrogen sulfide vapors may occur. The label, tag, or sign...

  13. 49 CFR 172.327 - Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Bulk packaging used to transport petroleum crude oil containing hydrogen sulfide (i.e., sour crude oil... hydrogen sulfide vapors may occur. (b) The border of the square-on-point must be black or red on a white or...., manhole, loading head) where exposure to hydrogen sulfide vapors may occur. The label, tag, or sign...

  14. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves. Annual report of operations, fiscal year 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) in California and Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3) in Wyoming continued to be operated at their maximum efficient rates of production during FY 1983. The Government-owned portion of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 in California continued to be leased to private operators as it has been for over 50 years, with the Government receiving a royalty share of production from the leases. All of the Government's share of crude oil produced at the Petroleum Reserves during FY 1983 was sold to the Department of Defense, while natural gas and natural gas liquids were sold competitively on the open market. FY 1983 revenues from the three Naval Petroleum Reserves totaled over $1.5 billion in general receipts and Windfall Profit Taxes. Program expenditures totaled approximately $220 million. The drilling of new wells continued to be an important factor in maintaining the production of NPR-1 and NPR-3 at maximum efficient rates, and it is expected that the primary drilling phase will be concluded in FY 1984. None of the three Naval Oil Shale Reserves has been developed on a commercial scale, and activities concerning these Reserves now focus on identifying potential problems that might restrict development should economic or strategic conditions make it desirable to tap these oil shale resources. Overall, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves program continues to benefit from excellent management, and effective and economic field operations.

  15. Heat Transfer Properties of a Series of Oxidized and Unoxidized Vegetable Oils in Comparison with Petroleum Oil-Based Quenchants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Ester Carvalho; Canale, Lauralice C. F.; Sarmiento, G. Sánchez; Agaliotis, Eliana; Carrara, Juan C.; Schicchi, Diego S.; Totten, George E.

    2013-07-01

    Vegetable oils, especially soybean oil, exhibit substantially poorer thermal-oxidative stability than commercially available petroleum oil quenchant formulations. Therefore, to achieve any commercially interesting performance, vegetable oils must be stabilized by the addition of antioxidant inhibitors. This work describes the ability of two commercially available antioxidants, Irganox L 57 and Irganox L 109, to stabilize soybean oil against thermal-oxidative degradation. In addition, the effect of antioxidant stabilization on quenching performance was evaluated by determining the profile of heat transfer coefficient variation throughout the quenching process at different times after being subjected to an accelerated thermal-oxidation aging test. The results of this work are discussed here.

  16. Upgrading and Refining of Crude Oils and Petroleum Products by Ionizing Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zaikin, Yuriy A; Zaikina, Raissa F

    2016-06-01

    A general trend in the oil industry is a decrease in the proven reserves of light crude oils so that any increase in future oil exploration is associated with high-viscous sulfuric oils and bitumen. Although the world reserves of heavy oil are much greater than those of sweet light oils, their exploration at present is less than 12 % of the total oil recovery. One of the main constraints is very high expenses for the existing technologies of heavy oil recovery, upgrading, transportation, and refining. Heavy oil processing by conventional methods is difficult and requires high power inputs and capital investments. Effective and economic processing of high viscous oil and oil residues needs not only improvements of the existing methods, such as thermal, catalytic and hydro-cracking, but the development of new technological approaches for upgrading and refining of any type of problem oil feedstock. One of the perspective approaches to this problem is the application of ionizing irradiation for high-viscous oil processing. Radiation methods for upgrading and refining high-viscous crude oils and petroleum products in a wide temperature range, oil desulfurization, radiation technology for refining used oil products, and a perspective method for gasoline radiation isomerization are discussed in this paper. The advantages of radiation technology are simple configuration of radiation facilities, low capital and operational costs, processing at lowered temperatures and nearly atmospheric pressure without the use of any catalysts, high production rates, relatively low energy consumption, and flexibility to the type of oil feedstock. PMID:27573274

  17. Applications of Biosurfactants in the Petroleum Industry and the Remediation of Oil Spills

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Rita de Cássia F. S.; Almeida, Darne G.; Rufino, Raquel D.; Luna, Juliana M.; Santos, Valdemir A.; Sarubbo, Leonie Asfora

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons are important energy resources. However, petroleum is also a major pollutant of the environment. Contamination by oil and oil products has caused serious harm, and increasing attention has been paid to the development and implementation of innovative technologies for the removal of these contaminants. Biosurfactants have been extensively used in the remediation of water and soil, as well as in the main stages of the oil production chain, such as extraction, transportation, and storage. This diversity of applications is mainly due to advantages such as biodegradability, low toxicity and better functionality under extreme conditions in comparison to synthetic counterparts. Moreover, biosurfactants can be obtained with the use of agro-industrial waste as substrate, which helps reduce overall production costs. The present review describes the potential applications of biosurfactants in the oil industry and the remediation of environmental pollution caused by oil spills. PMID:25029542

  18. Marine Oil-Degrading Microorganisms and Biodegradation Process of Petroleum Hydrocarbon in Marine Environments: A Review.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jianliang; Yu, Yang; Bai, Yu; Wang, Liping; Wu, Yanan

    2015-08-01

    Due to the toxicity of petroleum compounds, the increasing accidents of marine oil spills/leakages have had a significant impact on our environment. Recently, different remedial techniques for the treatment of marine petroleum pollution have been proposed, such as bioremediation, controlled burning, skimming, and solidifying. (Hedlund and Staley in Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51:61-66, 2001). This review introduces an important remedial method for marine oil pollution treatment-bioremediation technique-which is considered as a reliable, efficient, cost-effective, and eco-friendly method. First, the necessity of bioremediation for marine oil pollution was discussed. Second, this paper discussed the species of oil-degrading microorganisms, degradation pathways and mechanisms, the degradation rate and reaction model, and the factors affecting the degradation. Last, several suggestions for the further research in the field of marine oil spill bioremediation were proposed. PMID:25917503

  19. Applications of biosurfactants in the petroleum industry and the remediation of oil spills.

    PubMed

    de Cássia F S Silva, Rita; Almeida, Darne G; Rufino, Raquel D; Luna, Juliana M; Santos, Valdemir A; Sarubbo, Leonie Asfora

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons are important energy resources. However, petroleum is also a major pollutant of the environment. Contamination by oil and oil products has caused serious harm, and increasing attention has been paid to the development and implementation of innovative technologies for the removal of these contaminants. Biosurfactants have been extensively used in the remediation of water and soil, as well as in the main stages of the oil production chain, such as extraction, transportation, and storage. This diversity of applications is mainly due to advantages such as biodegradability, low toxicity and better functionality under extreme conditions in comparison to synthetic counterparts. Moreover, biosurfactants can be obtained with the use of agro-industrial waste as substrate, which helps reduce overall production costs. The present review describes the potential applications of biosurfactants in the oil industry and the remediation of environmental pollution caused by oil spills. PMID:25029542

  20. Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopic study of crude petroleum oils: influence of chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Ryder, Alan G

    2004-05-01

    The fluorescence of crude petroleum oils is sensitive to changes in chemical composition and many different fluorescence methods have been used to characterize crude oils. The use of fluorescence lifetimes to quantitatively characterize oil composition has practical advantages over steady-state measurements, but there have been comparatively few studies in which the lifetime behavior is correlated with gross chemical compositional data. In this study, the fluorescence lifetimes for a series of 23 crude petroleum oils with American Petroleum Institute (API) gravities of between 10 and 50 were measured at several emission wavelengths (450-785 nm) using a 380 nm light emitting diode (LED) excitation source. It was found that the intensity average fluorescence lifetime (tau) at any emission wave-length does not correlate well with either API gravity or aromatic concentration. However, it was found that tau is strongly negatively correlated with both the polar and sulfur concentrations and positively correlated with the corrected alkane concentration. This indicates that the fluorescence behavior of crude petroleum oils is governed primarily by the concentration of quenching species. All the strong lifetime-concentration correlations are nonlinear and show a high degree of scatter, especially for medium to light oils with API gravities of between 25 and 40. The degree of scatter is greatest for oils where the concentrations (wt %) of the polar fraction is approximately 10 +/- 4%, the asphaltene component is approximately 1 +/- 0.5%, and sulfur is 0.5 +/- 0.4%. This large degree of scatter precludes the use of average fluorescence lifetime data obtained with 380 nm excitation for the accurate prediction of the common chemical compositional parameters of crude petroleum oils. PMID:15165340

  1. Upgrading of petroleum oil feedstocks using alkali metals and hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09

    A method of upgrading an oil feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the oil feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase separable from the organic oil feedstock material. The upgradant hydrocarbon bonds to the oil feedstock material and increases the number of carbon atoms in the product. This increase in the number of carbon atoms of the product increases the energy value of the resulting oil feedstock.

  2. Residues of petroleum hydrocarbons in tissues of sea turtles exposed to the IXTOC I oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, R.J.; Belisle, A.A.; Sileo, L.

    1983-01-01

    Sea turtles found dead when the Ixtoc I oil spill reached Texas waters were necropsied and tissues were analyzed for residues of petroleum hydrocarbons. Two of the three turtles were in poor flesh, but had no apparent oil-caused lesions. There was evidence of oil in all tissues examined and indications that the exposure had been chronic. Comparisons with results of studies done on birds indicate consumption of 50,000 ppm or more of oil in the diet. Some possible mechanisms of mortality are suggested.

  3. 33 CFR 155.1052 - Response plan development and evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... operating. An oil spill removal organization may not be listed in the plan unless the oil spill removal... evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a primary cargo. 155.1052 Section 155.1052 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL...

  4. 33 CFR 155.1052 - Response plan development and evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... operating. An oil spill removal organization may not be listed in the plan unless the oil spill removal... evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a primary cargo. 155.1052 Section 155.1052 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL...

  5. 33 CFR 155.1052 - Response plan development and evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... operating. An oil spill removal organization may not be listed in the plan unless the oil spill removal... evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a primary cargo. 155.1052 Section 155.1052 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL...

  6. 33 CFR 155.1052 - Response plan development and evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... operating. An oil spill removal organization may not be listed in the plan unless the oil spill removal... evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a primary cargo. 155.1052 Section 155.1052 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL...

  7. 33 CFR 155.1052 - Response plan development and evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... operating. An oil spill removal organization may not be listed in the plan unless the oil spill removal... evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a primary cargo. 155.1052 Section 155.1052 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL...

  8. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves annual report of operations, fiscal year 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) in California and Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3) in Wyoming continued to be produced at their maximum efficient rates of production during FY 1984. All of the producing acreage on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (NPR-2) in California continued to be leased to private operators as it has been for over 50 years, with the Government receiving a royalty share of production from the lessees. Of major importance in FY 1984 was an investigation by the Department of Energy leading to a determination by the President to extend production at NPR-1 and NPR-3 for 3 years beyond April 5, 1985. Most of the Government's share of crude oil produced at the Petroleum Reserves during FY 1984 was sold on the open market through competitive bidding, as was natural gas and associated natural gas liquids. All of the crude oil produced at NPR-3 and approximately 17% of the crude oil produced at NPR-1 were sold to the Department of Defense. Revenues from the three Naval Petroleum Reserves in FY 1984 totaled $1.4 billion in general receipts and Windfall Profit Taxes. Program expenditures totaled approximately $130 million. At NPR-1, 30 wells were drilled during FY 1984. At NPR-3, 40 wells were drilled, including one with a special rig on loan from the Department's Nevada Operations Office. Emphasis at both NPR-1 and NPR-3 is being placed on slowing declining production levels and increasing recoverable reserves through secondary and tertiary recovery techniques. At NPR-1, work continued on a steam injection project for heavy oil recovery, which was initiated in FY 1983. At NPR-3, testing and evaluation continued on the two enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects using the in-situ combustion and polymer-enhanced waterflood techniques. None of the three Naval Oil Shale Reserves has been developed on a commercial scale. 16 figures.

  9. Naval petroleum and oil shale reserves: Annual report of operations, Fiscal Year 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Market prices for curde oil experienced their greatest decline in history during 1986, with substantial effect on the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves. Sales procedures which had served the Department well in prior years during periods when oil prices were stable or rising were found inadequate to cope with these declines, and new sales procedures were developed and implemented. Congressional concern that the Government receive fair prices from Naval Petroleum Reserves (NPR) petroleum sales also led to Public Law No. 99-413, enacted on August 29, 1986, which amended title 10, United States Code, Chapter 641. This law sets a minimum price, using two criteria, under which petroleum from the NPR cannot be sold. Notwithstanding the decline in oil and gas prices, revenues from the sale of NPR petroleum totaled $763 million in 1986. Although this represented a 41% decline from 1985 receipts, the 1986 revenues well exceeded net program expenditures of $157 million. Because of the decline in prevailing oil prices during the second quarter of 1986, major cost reductions of $3.4 million were implemented at NPR-3, and even greater reductions are planned for 1987 to ensure the profitability of that field. The decline in energy prices also affected plans to protect natural gas underlying Naval Oil Shale Reserve No. 3 (NOSR-3). Two of 14 planned wells were drilled and are available for production. Unfortunately, efforts to sell gas from these wells have been unsuccessful, and further drilling has been delayed until the gas market is stronger. 16 figs., 20 tabs.

  10. Oil removal from petroleum sludge using bacterial culture with molasses substrate at temperature variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni'matuzahroh, Puspitasari, Alvin Oktaviana; Pratiwi, Intan Ayu; Fatimah, Sumarsih, Sri; Surtiningsih, Tini; Salamun

    2016-03-01

    The study aims to reveal the potency of biosurfactant-producing bacterial culture with molasses as substrate growth in releasing oil from the petroleum sludge at temperature variations. Bacteria used consisted of (Acinetobacter sp. P2(1), Pseudomonas putida T1(8), Bacillus subtilis 3KP and Micrococcus sp. L II 61). The treatments were tested at 40°C, 50°C and 60 °C for 7 days of incubation. Synthetic surfactant (Tween 20) was used as a positive control and molasses as a negative control. Release of petroleum hydrocarbons from oil sludge was expressed in percentage of oil removal from oil sludge (%). Data were analyzed statistically using the Analysis of Variance (α = 0.05) and continued with Games-Howell test. The kinds of bacterial cultures, incubation temperature and combination of both affected the percentage of oil removal. The abilities of Bacillus subtilis 3KP and Micrococcus sp. LII 61cultures in oil removal from oil sludge at the temperature exposure of 60°C were higher than Tween 20. Both of bacterial cultures grown on molasses can be proposed as a replacement for synthetic surfactant to clean up the accumulation of oil sludge in a bottom of oil refinery tank.

  11. Heavy Oil Database from the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Heavy Oil Database resulted from work funded by DOE and performed at the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER). It contains information on more than 500 resevoirs in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. The information was collected in 1992 and updated periodically through 2003. Save the zipped file to your PC, then open to access the data.

  12. Elastohydrodynamic properties of blends of plant-based and petroleum-based oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-based oils are mostly triglycerides but can also be esters of long chain fatty acids and fatty alcohols. They are renewable and biodegradable materials, and display certain lubrication characteristics that are superior to petroleum-based products. However, for some applications, plant-based ...

  13. EARLY WARNING MARINE WATER SUPPLY PROTECTION STRATEGY: THE THREAT OF OIL SPILL (PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON) CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oil spills resulting from the twice-grounded freighter New Carissa on the Central Oregon coast in the spring of 1999 caused substantial concern regarding potential petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) contamination of Coos Bay, Alsea Bay and Yaquina Bay estuaries and resident seawater fac...

  14. Weathering and the fallout plume of heavy oil from strong petroleum seeps near Coal Oil Point, CA.

    PubMed

    Farwell, Christopher; Reddy, Christopher M; Peacock, Emily; Nelson, Robert K; Washburn, Libe; Valentine, David L

    2009-05-15

    The Coal Oil Point (COP) seeps offshore Goleta, CA, are estimated to release 20-25 tons of oil daily, providing an ideal natural laboratory to investigate the fate of oil in the coastal ocean. To address the long-term fate of COP oil, we collected 15 sediment samples down current from the seeps and quantified petroleum content and individual biomarkers using traditional and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. Similarities in the distributions of hopane biomarkers link the oil in the sediments to fresh seep oil (n=5) and underlying reservoirs (n=3), although sediment oil is heavily weathered. The spatial distribution of oil forms a plume along the continental shelf that we suggest represents a chronic fallout pattern for heavy oil from the persistent surface slicks; average surface currents appear to modulate the distribution of the fallout over a period of 0.4-5 days. The extent of hydrocarbon loss is consistent for all sediments, indicating a common limit to oil weathering with contributions from evaporation, biodegradation, and dissolution. Considering the amount of oil and quantity of sediment impacted, we estimate a sediment oil burden of 0.3 x 10(12) to 3 x 10(12) g in the study area, equivalent to 8-80 spills of the Exxon Valdez accident of 1989. PMID:19544852

  15. Brine-in-crude-oil emulsions at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve.

    SciTech Connect

    Nemer, Martin B.; Lord, David L.; MacDonald, Terry L.

    2013-10-01

    Metastable water-in-crude-oil emulsion formation could occur in a Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) cavern if water were to flow into the crude-oil layer at a sufficient rate. Such a situation could arise during a drawdown from a cavern with a broken-hanging brine string. A high asphaltene content (> 1.5 wt %) of the crude oil provides the strongest predictor of whether a metastable water-in-crude-oil emulsion will form. However there are many crude oils with an asphaltene content > 1.5 wt % that don't form stable emulsions, but few with a low asphaltene content that do form stable emulsions. Most of the oils that form stable emulsions are %E2%80%9Csour%E2%80%9D by SPR standards indicating they contain total sulfur > 0.50 wt %.

  16. Role of entrained droplet oil on the bioavailability of petroleum substances in aqueous exposures.

    PubMed

    Redman, A D

    2015-08-15

    Bioavailability of petroleum substances is a complex issue that is affected by substance composition, the physicochemical properties of the individual constituents, and the exposure preparation system. The present study applies mechanistic fate and effects models to characterize the role of droplet oil on dissolved exposure and predicted effects from both neat and weathered crude oils, and refined fuel oils. The main effect from droplet oil is input of additional dissolved hydrocarbons to the exposure system following preparation of the initial stock solution. Toxicity was characterized using toxic units (TU) and shows that replenishment of bioavailable hydrocarbons by droplets in toxicity tests with low droplet content (e.g., <1mg/L) is negligible, consistent with typical exposure conditions following open ocean oil spills. Further, the use of volumetric exposure metrics (e.g., mg/L) introduces considerable variability and the bioavailability-based metrics (e.g., TUs) provide a more consistent basis for understanding oil toxicity data. PMID:26072047

  17. Forensic identification of spilled biodiesel and its blends with petroleum oil based on fingerprinting information.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zeyu; Hollebone, Bruce P; Wang, Zhendi; Yang, Chun; Brown, Carl; Landriault, Mike

    2013-06-01

    A case study is presented for the forensic identification of several spilled biodiesels and its blends with petroleum oil using integrated forensic oil fingerprinting techniques. The integrated fingerprinting techniques combined SPE with GC/MS for obtaining individual petroleum hydrocarbons (aliphatic hydrocarbons, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and their alkylated derivatives and biomarkers), and biodiesel hydrocarbons (fatty acid methyl esters, free fatty acids, glycerol, monoacylglycerides, and free sterols). HPLC equipped with evaporative scattering laser detector was also used for identifying the compounds that conventional GC/MS could not finish. The three environmental samples (E1, E2, and E3) and one suspected source sample (S2) were dominant with vegetable oil with high acid values and low concentration of fatty acid methyl ester. The suspected source sample S2 was responsible for the three spilled samples although E1 was slightly contaminated by petroleum oil with light hydrocarbons. The suspected source sample S1 exhibited with the high content of glycerol, low content of glycerides, and high polarity, indicating its difference from the other samples. These samples may be the separated byproducts in producing biodiesel. Canola oil source is the most possible feedstock for the three environmental samples and the suspected source sample S2. PMID:23495249

  18. Tolerance of adult mallards to subacute ingestion of crude petroleum oil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.

    1981-01-01

    Adult male mallards were fed untreated mash or mash containing 1.5% Prudhoe Bay crude oil for 7 days ad lib. During the initial 24 h of exposure to crude petroleum oil, ducks consumed less mash (P less than 0.05) and lost approx. 3.5% of their initial body weight (P less than 0.05), however, neither intake nor body weight differ between groups on days 2-7. Plasma samples collected between 09.00 and 10.00 h on days 0, 1, 3, or 7 indicated that corticosterone, glucose, thyroxine, total protein, and uric acid concentrations, and the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE) were not affected by treatment. These findings suggest that adult mallards may be able to tolerate large quantities of crude petroleum oil mixed in their diet (approx. 25 ml over a 7-day period) without overt or biochemical indications of distress.

  19. Oil recovery from petroleum sludge through ultrasonic assisted solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guangji; Li, Jianbing; Huang, Shuhui; Li, Yubao

    2016-09-18

    The effect of ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) process on oil recovery from refinery oily sludge was examined in this study. Two types of UAE treatment including UAE probe (UAEP) system and UAE bath (UAEB) system were investigated. Their oil recovery efficiencies were compared to that of mechanical shaking extraction (MSE). Three solvents including cyclohexane (CHX), ethyl acetate (EA), and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) were examined as the extraction solvents. The influence of experimental factors on oil and solvent recovery was investigated using an orthogonal experimental design. Results indicated that solvent type, solvent-to-sludge (S/S) ratio, and treatment duration could have significant effects on oil recovery in UAE treatment. Under the optimum conditions, UAEP treatment can obtain an oil recovery of 68.8% within 20 s, which was higher than that (i.e., 62.0%) by MSE treatment after 60 min' extraction. UAEB treatment can also obtain a promising oil recovery within shorter extraction duration (i.e., 15 min) than MSE. UAE was thus illustrated as an effective and improved approach for oily sludge recycling. PMID:27294566

  20. Separation and identification of mutagenic constituents of petroleum substitutes. [In coal- and shale-derived oils

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.R.; Ho, C.H.; Rao, T.K.; Clark, B.R.; Epler, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    A study combining chemical separations, mutagenicity testing, and spectroscopic identifications is underway to isolate and identify mutagens in coal- and shale-derived oils. Ether-aqueous partition combined with Sephadex LH-20 chromatography of the resulting neutral fraction is introduced as a preferred class fractionation procedure. The uniquely important role of polycyclic aromatic primary amines in the mutagenicity of petroleum substitutes is reviewed. Questions are raised concerning the role of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the mutagenicity of the neutral fraction of petroleum substitutes.

  1. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves. Annual report of operations, Fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    During fiscal year 1993, the reserves generated $440 million in revenues, a $33 million decrease from the fiscal year 1992 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $207 million, resulting in net cash flow of $233 million, compared with $273 million in fiscal year 1992. From 1976 through fiscal year 1993, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated $15.7 billion in revenues for the US Treasury, with expenses of $2.9 billion. The net revenues of $12.8 billion represent a return on costs of 441 percent. See figures 2, 3, and 4. In fiscal year 1993, production at the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 25 million barrels of crude oil, 123 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 158 million gallons of natural gas liquids. The Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves has embarked on an effort to identify additional hydrocarbon resources on the reserves for future production. In 1993, in cooperation with the US Geological Survey, the Department initiated a project to assess the oil and gas potential of the program`s oil shale reserves, which remain largely unexplored. These reserves, which total a land area of more than 145,000 acres and are located in Colorado and Utah, are favorably situated in oil and gas producing regions and are likely to contain significant hydrocarbon deposits. Alternatively the producing assets may be sold or leased if that will produce the most value. This task will continue through the first quarter of fiscal year 1994.

  2. Petroleum industry in Illinois, 1984. Oil and gas developments. Waterflood operations

    SciTech Connect

    Van Den Berg, J.; Treworgy, J.D.; Elyn, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The report includes statistical information regarding the petroleum industry in Illinois during 1984. Illinois produced 28,873,000 barrels of crude oil in 1984. The value of this crude is estimated to be $830 million. New test holes drilled for oil and gas numbered 2732 - 4.1% more than in 1983. These tests resulted in 1575 oil wells, 21 gas wells, and 1136 dry holes. In addition, 28 former dry holes were reworked or deepened and completed as producers, and 9 former producers were reworked or deepened and completed as producers in new pay zones. In oil and gas exploration and development, including service wells and structure tests, total footage drilled in 1984 was 6,868,485 feet, 5.5% more than in 1983. Ten oil fields, 50 new pay zones in fields, and 51 extensions to fields were discovered in 1984.

  3. Biological treatment process for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil field produced waters

    SciTech Connect

    Tellez, G.; Khandan, N.

    1995-12-31

    The feasibility of removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil fields produced waters using biological treatment was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Based on previous laboratory studies, a field-scale prototype system was designed and operated over a period of four months. Two different sources of produced waters were tested in this field study under various continuous flow rates ranging from 375 1/D to 1,800 1/D. One source of produced water was an open storage pit; the other, a closed storage tank. The TDS concentrations of these sources exceeded 50,000 mg/l; total n-alkanes exceeded 100 mg/l; total petroleum hydrocarbons exceeded 125 mg/l; and total BTEX exceeded 3 mg/l. Removals of total n-alkanes, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and BTEX remained consistently high over 99%. During these tests, the energy costs averaged $0.20/bbl at 12 bbl/D.

  4. Petroleum geochemistry of Texas and Oklahoma oils from the Marathon/Ouachita fold belt

    SciTech Connect

    Curiale, J.A. )

    1991-03-01

    The Marathon uplift of west Texas and the Ouachita Mountains of Oklahoma and Arkansas comprise the surface expressions of a Paleozoic orogenic belt extending across the south-central United States. A century of petroleum exploration in the Marathon and Ouachita exposures has yielded several oil discoveries. In this study, detailed molecular, elemental, and isotopic data are presented for nine Texas oils, five Oklahoma oils, and four Oklahoma solid bitumens, all associated with thrust belt rocks of the Marathons and Ouachitas. Oil-oil and oil-solid bitumen correlations are proposed, and the character of the organic matter in the source rock(s) is deduced from the chemistry of the oils and solid bitumens. All 18 samples are sourced from the same (or very similar) organic matter. This indicates that they are probably cogenetic, despite geographic separations of hundreds of miles. Chemical differences in these samples derive from secondary effects, including biodegradation (e.g., solid bitumens) and differing levels of thermal maturity. The occurrence of unusual chemical compounds (certain bisnor- and trisnor-hopanes) in all samples probably indicates the presence of anaerobic bacteria in the depositional environment. Source deductions from oil chemistry suggest that an Ordovician unit is responsible for these oils and solid bitumens. This conclusion is consistent with previous literature suggesting an Upper Ordovician source for Oklahoma Ouachita oils and supports tectonic reconstructions of the region during Ordovician time.

  5. Environmental assessment of oil degasification at four Strategic Petroleum Reserve facilities in Texas and Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to treat gassy oil at four Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) storage sites to lower the gas content of the stored crude oil and help ensure safe transfer of the oil during drawdown. The crude oil is stored underground in caverns created in salt domes. The degree of gassiness of the oil varies substantially among sites and among caverns within a site. This environmental assessment describes the proposed degasification operation, its alternatives, and potential environmental impacts. The need for degasification has arisen because over time, gases, principally methane and nitrogen, have migrated into and become dissolved in the stored crude oil. This influx of gas has raised the crude oil vapor pressure above limits required by safety and emission guidelines. When oil is drawn from the caverns, excess gases may come out of solution. Based on preliminary data from an ongoing sampling program, between 200 and 350 million of the 587 million barrels of crude oil stored at these four sites would require processing to remove excess gas. Degasification, a commonly used petroleum industry process, would be done at four crude oil storage facilities: Bryan Mound and Big Hill in Texas, and West Hackberry and Bayou Choctaw in Louisiana. DOE would use a turnkey services contract for engineering, procurement, fabrication, installation, operation and maintenance of two degasification plants. These would be installed initially at Bryan Mound and West Hackberry. Degasification would be complete in less than three years of continuous operations. This report summarizes the environmental impacts of this gasification process.

  6. SUPRI (Stanford University Petroleum Research Institute) heavy oil research program

    SciTech Connect

    Brigham, W.E.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Aziz, K.; Castanier, L.

    1990-01-01

    This report is a summary of the work performed under Department of Energy contract FG19-87BC14126 during the period February 22, 1987 to February 21, 1990. During that period the Stanford University Petroleum Research Institute has published twenty-two technical reports and professional papers. This report presents in general terms the scope of work of SUPRI which is divided in five main projects: reservoir properties, in-situ combustion, improvement of steam injection by additives, well-to-well formation evaluation, and field support services. The results obtained during the period of performance of the contract are then presented in the form of abstracts from the technical reports and papers written during the period of performance.

  7. Oil reserve: Status of strategic petroleum reserve activities as of September 30, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This report covers activities related to the Department of Energy's progress in developing, operating, and filling the Strategic Petroleum Reserve during FY 1986. Some of the highlights are (1) funds apportioned in the oil account for FY 1987 to provide for a purchase level of 35,000 barrels of crude oil per day at an estimated cost of $16.45 per barrel; (2) DOE plans to acquire 8,000 barrels of oil per day from the Naval Petroleum Reserve and transfer it by pipeline from Bakersfield, California, to the West Hackberry, Louisiana SPR storage site with total delivered costs to be about $16 per barrel; (3) the decision whether to acquire additional crude oil from Mexico beyond purchases to be made through Oct. 31, 1986; and (4) as of Sept. 30, 1986, the SPR inventory totaled 506.4 million barrels. During the quarter DOE added 4.6 million barrels of crude oil to the SPR. The oil fill rate during the quarter averaged about 50,000 barrels per day.

  8. Petroleum source rock potential and crude oil correlation in Great Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, F.G.; Claypool, G.E.

    1985-05-01

    Petroleum source beds in the Great Basin region include marine Paleozoic rocks and nonmarine upper Mesozoic and lower Cenozoic rocks. Potential source beds have been identified in continental-rise deposits of the Ordovician Vinini and Devonian Woodruff formations if the eastern part of the Roberts Mountains allochthon (Antler orogene), in central and north-central Nevada; in flysch-trough and prodelta-basin deposits of the Mississippian Chainman Shale and equivalent rocks of the Antler foreland basin, in Nevada and western Utah; and in lake-basin deposits of the Cretaceous Neward Canyon Formation and the Paleogene Sheep Pass and Elko formations and equivalent rocks, in central and eastern Nevada. Oil fields in the Great Basin are located with Neogene-Quaternary basins that formed during neogene basin-range block faulting. Most of the oil shows and crude oils analyzed can be correlated with Mississippian or paleogene source rocks. The Mississippian Chainman Shale is confirmed as the major petroleum source rock, having generated the oil in the Trap Spring, Bacon Flat, and Grant Canyon fields in Railroad Valley and the Blackburn field in Pine Valley. The Paleogene Sheep Pass Formation is the source of the oil in the Eagle Springs field and probably the Current field in Railroad Valley. Oil occurrences in the northern Great Basin are believed to be derived from two or more other Tertiary lacustrine sequences.

  9. 75 FR 39579 - Notice of National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2010 and Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2010 and... Petroleum Reserve-- Alaska AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management's Alaska State Office hereby notifies the public it will hold a National...

  10. Acute toxicity of selected crude and refined shale oil derived and petroleum-derived substances

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.H.; Haschek, W.M.; Witschi, H.

    1980-01-01

    General information was obtained on the toxicity of selected samples of crude Paraho shale oil and some of its derivatives, some crude petroleums, and 3 refined petroleum products. Five tests were used to determine the acute toxicity of these substances: acute lethality in mice following oral or intraperitoneal administration of a single dose; acute dermal toxicity of a single dose in rats; delayed-type allergic contact hypersensitivity in guinea pigs; primary eye irritation and primary skin irritation of a single dose in rabbits. Histopathologic changes induced in mice following intraperitoneal injection of a single large dose of crude shale oil and two of its hydrotreated derivatives were examined. Studies also have been initiated to examine the tumor inducing potential of selected samples. The test system used was the mouse lung adenoma bioassay. The present report describes our findings and shows that all compounds tested have very low or no acute toxic effects in laboratory animals.

  11. Cuba's oil crisis spells trouble for Castro; Opportunity for foreign petroleum investment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-06

    This paper reports on Cuba's oil crisis which presents long term woes for the government of Fidel Castro but new opportunities for foreign petroleum investment. That's the main thesis of a study by East-West Center (EWC), Honolulu. Since the cutoff of subsidized oil supplies from the former Soviet Union at the first of the year, Cuba has endured a crippling loss of export revenues and draconian energy rationing measures at home. The Soviets had reduced oil supplies to Cuba since 1989 after decades of providing the Castro government with subsidized oil supplies. Former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev exempted Cuba from paying market prices for Soviet oil in 1991 while requiring that of Soviet trading partners in eastern Europe. With the collapse of Communism in the former U.S.S.R., however, oil supplies from that region are available to Cuba only at market prices and for hard currency. That has triggered a crisis in the Western Hemisphere's sole Communist regime as Cuba's gross special product - equivalent to GNP - fell by 5% in 1990 and a further 20% in 1991. The foreign exchange loss of $1.6 billion stemming from the loss of Soviet subsidized oil supplies exceeds that of total foreign exchange earnings from all other sources. If Cuba imports oil in 1989 volumes at current prices, its oil import tab alone will be $1.3 billion, EWC projects.

  12. Simple analytical test and a formula to predict the potential for dermal carcinogenicity from petroleum oils

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, J.M.; Dimeler, G.R.; Basil, E.W.; Wilkins, G.W.; Nutter, J.S.

    1987-11-01

    A correlation for predicting dermal carcinogenicity of petroleum oils in laboratory animals has been developed using two simple analytical tests. The tests are the Food and Drug Administration test (FDA) commonly used to measure white oil purity, and a viscosity test. In the correlation, FDA is a measure of aromaticity, and viscosity is used to account for molecular weight. The FDA test alone appears to be comparable to other predictors now in use, but incorporating viscosity significantly increases the accuracy of predicting dermal carcinogenicity. A formula is proposed, using both the FDA test results and viscosity, that predicts the percentage of mice which will develop neoplastic skin tumors.

  13. Analysis of Petroleum Technology Advances Through Applied Research by Independent Oil Producers

    SciTech Connect

    Brashear, Jerry P.; North, Walter B.; Thomas Charles P.; Becker, Alan B.; Faulder, David D.

    2000-01-12

    Petroleum Technology Advances Through Applied Research by Independent Oil Producers is a program of the National Oil Research Program, U.S. Department of Energy. Between 1995 and 1998, the program competitively selected and cost-shared twenty-two projects with small producers. The purpose was to involve small independent producers in testing technologies of interest to them that would advance (directly or indirectly) one or more of four national program objectives: (1) Extend the productive life of reservoirs; (2) Increase production and/or reserves; (3) Improve environmental performance; and (4) Broaden the exchange of technology information.

  14. Incidence of Myelodysplastic Syndrome in UK Petroleum Distribution and Oil Refinery Workers, 1995–2011

    PubMed Central

    Sorahan, Tom; Mohammed, Nuredin

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) experienced by cohorts of 16,467 petroleum distribution workers and 28,554 oil refinery workers has been investigated. Study subjects were all those male employees first employed at one of 476 UK petroleum distribution centres or eight UK oil refineries in the period 1946–1974; all subjects had a minimum of twelve months employment with some employment after 1st January, 1951. Observed numbers (Obs) of MDS cases were compared with expectations based on national incidence rates for the period 1995–2011. The overall standardised registration ratio (SRR) was 73 (Obs = 17) in petroleum distribution workers for the age-range 15–84 years, and 77 (Obs = 21) for the age-range 15–99 years. The overall SRR was 81 (Obs = 29) in oil refinery workers for the age-range 15–84 years, and 83 (Obs = 36) for the age-range 15–99 years. More detailed analyses were carried out in terms of year of registration, period from hire, decade of hire, and duration of employment. The overall SRR findings did not provide clear evidence for the presence of an occupational cancer hazard, and provide no support for the hypothesis that low-level benzene exposure has an important effect on the risks of MDS. PMID:27164123

  15. Incidence of Myelodysplastic Syndrome in UK Petroleum Distribution and Oil Refinery Workers, 1995-2011.

    PubMed

    Sorahan, Tom; Mohammed, Nuredin

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) experienced by cohorts of 16,467 petroleum distribution workers and 28,554 oil refinery workers has been investigated. Study subjects were all those male employees first employed at one of 476 UK petroleum distribution centres or eight UK oil refineries in the period 1946-1974; all subjects had a minimum of twelve months employment with some employment after 1st January, 1951. Observed numbers (Obs) of MDS cases were compared with expectations based on national incidence rates for the period 1995-2011. The overall standardised registration ratio (SRR) was 73 (Obs = 17) in petroleum distribution workers for the age-range 15-84 years, and 77 (Obs = 21) for the age-range 15-99 years. The overall SRR was 81 (Obs = 29) in oil refinery workers for the age-range 15-84 years, and 83 (Obs = 36) for the age-range 15-99 years. More detailed analyses were carried out in terms of year of registration, period from hire, decade of hire, and duration of employment. The overall SRR findings did not provide clear evidence for the presence of an occupational cancer hazard, and provide no support for the hypothesis that low-level benzene exposure has an important effect on the risks of MDS. PMID:27164123

  16. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves annual report of operations, Fiscal year 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    During FY 1991 the Reserves generating $654 million in revenues, a $52 million increase from the Fy 1990 revenues, reflecting the increase in FY 1991 oil prices during the Gulf War. Total costs were $200 million, resulting in net cash flow of $454 million, compared with $423 million in FY 1990. Revenues for FY 1992 are expected to decrease, reflecting a decrease in production and prices. In FY 1991, production at the NPRs at maximum efficient rates yielded 28 million barrels of crude oil, 125 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 183 million gallons of natural gas liquids. Additional highlights on the following topics are included: legislative change, Naval Petroleum Reserve-1 (NPR-1) exploration, NPR-1 horizontal drilling, NPR-1 shallow oil zone gas injection project, NPR-1 FY 1991-1997 long range plan, NPR-1 environment and safety, NPR-2 exploration drilling, NPR-3 steamflood, Naval Oil Shale Reserves gas migration prevention.

  17. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves annual report of operations, Fiscal year 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    During FY 1991 the Reserves generating $654 million in revenues, a $52 million increase from the Fy 1990 revenues, reflecting the increase in FY 1991 oil prices during the Gulf War. Total costs were $200 million, resulting in net cash flow of $454 million, compared with $423 million in FY 1990. Revenues for FY 1992 are expected to decrease, reflecting a decrease in production and prices. In FY 1991, production at the NPRs at maximum efficient rates yielded 28 million barrels of crude oil, 125 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 183 million gallons of natural gas liquids. Additional highlights on the following topics are included: legislative change, Naval Petroleum Reserve-1 (NPR-1) exploration, NPR-1 horizontal drilling, NPR-1 shallow oil zone gas injection project, NPR-1 FY 1991-1997 long range plan, NPR-1 environment and safety, NPR-2 exploration drilling, NPR-3 steamflood, Naval Oil Shale Reserves gas migration prevention.

  18. Oil prices vs hurdle rates for upstream petroleum operations

    SciTech Connect

    Petrie, T.A.

    1986-08-01

    The relationship between rising or falling oil prices and general levels of interest rates is graphically evident in the capital market moves for energy securities of 1973-1974, 1979-1980, and 1986. In turn, the resulting overall changes in the cost of capital became the determining basis for hurdle rates on new drilling exploration and exploitation. The relationships are complicated by lag time considerations in capital markets as well as by the dynamics of public policy with respect to energy and tax matters. Nevertheless, recent evidence of markedly higher volatility in commodity values suggests greater return cushions will be required by investment funds in the energy sector.

  19. Petroleum Systems and Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas, Navarro and Taylor Groups, Western Gulf Province, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey Western Gulf Province Assessment Team

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The USGS recently completed an assessment of undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Late Cretaceous Navarro and Taylor Groups in the Western Gulf Province in Texas (USGS Province 5047). The Navarro and Taylor Groups have moderate potential for undiscovered oil resources and good potential for undiscovered gas resources. This assessment is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). The USGS used this geologic framework to define one total petroleum system and five assessment units. Five assessment units were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered oil and gas resources.

  20. Removal of oil from oil-in-saltwater emulsions by adsorption onto nano-alumina functionalized with petroleum vacuum residue.

    PubMed

    Franco, Camilo A; Nassar, Nashaat N; Cortés, Farid B

    2014-11-01

    Formation water from oilfields is one of the major environmental issues related to the oil industry. This research investigated oil adsorption onto nanoparticles of hydrophobic alumina and alumina nanoparticles functionalized with a petroleum vacuum residue (VR) at 2 and 4wt% to reduce the amount of oil in oil-saltwater emulsions at different pH values (5, 7 and 9). The initial concentration of crude oil in water ranged from 100 to 500mg/L. The change in oil concentration after adsorption was determined using a UV-vis spectrophotometer. The results indicated that all of the systems performed more effectively at a pH of 7 and using Al/4VR material. The oil adsorption was higher for neutral and acid systems compared with basic ones, and it was improved by increasing the amount of VR on the surface of the alumina. Additionally, the amount of NaCl adsorbed onto nanoparticles was estimated for different mixtures. The adsorption equilibrium and kinetics were evaluated using the Dubinin-Astakhov model, the Brunauer-Emmet-Teller model, and pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order models, with a better fitting to the Brunauer-Emmet-Teller model and pseudo-second-order model. PMID:25112913

  1. Futures markets and petroleum supply. A study of heating oil futures

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, R.D.

    1986-04-02

    The study evaluates the month-to-month performance of the wholesale heating oil market in the East Coast region over the past three winters as influenced by the price of heating oil futures traded on the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) for New York Harbor delivery. The economic basis for the analysis is derived from a conceptual model of petroleum refiner and marketer behavior. In this model, futures trading and cash market plans are described as being jointly formulated to maximize profits and minimize risk. A comparison of price and inventory levels indicated by the model for a ''no futures'' and a ''futures'' case provides an indication of how the introduction of futures trading may have influenced petroleum markets. The study demonstrates that the ''no futures'' model provides a better explanation of actual cash market prices than does the ''futures'' model, but that the ''futures'' model provides a better explanation of inventory levels. Estimates of inventory change support a finding that petroleum suppliers are using futures to manage risk in a manner consistent with the ''futures'' model described in this paper. The fact that the ''no futures'' model provides a marginally better explanation of cash prices, however, suggests that risk attitudes still influence the petroleum supply and demand decisions of many market participants. The ''no futures'' model always performs best when the futures price is used to represent price expectations, underscoring the importance of the futures market as an information source, even to those businesses that do not trade in futures. At the same time, the magnitudes of the differences between the ''futures'' and the ''no futures'' estimates of cash prices and primary inventory change are very small, suggesting the overall influence of futures trading on petroleum supply has not been great. This conclusion is consistent with industry reports that refiners are only peripherally in the refined product futures markets.

  2. Petroleum reservoir engineering support for the Office of Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-10-01

    In accordance with the ''Procedures for the Determination and Approval of Maximum Efficient Rates of Production from the Naval Petroleum Reserves'' issued by the Office of Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves, US Department of Energy, dated January 1985, the proposed MER for the NWS A4-A6 reservoirs is herewith submitted. The subject Task Assignment was explicit as to certain operational restraints within which the MER determinations were to be made. In the case of the NWS A4-A6 reservoirs, these restraints were limited to a specification of the water injection rates, i.e., gradually building up to and maintaining an injection rate of 22,000 barrels water per day. Accordingly, the proposed MER results in an average of 8575 BOA/D for the six-month period ending March 31, 1987, and 8662 BOA/D for the nine-month period ending mid-year 1987. We believe that these rates will be both attainable and sustainable, and will be a reasonable target which is justified in terms of both maximizing ultimate recovery and providing a suitable economic return. The study was performed in the manner prescribed by the Department of Energy. It was based on the reservoir study which was made by Evans, Carey and Crozier, and which had an effective date of May 1, 1986. The proposed MER differs from that in the study only as a result of injection rates which vary slightly from those assumed in the latter. Each of the sections of this MER proposal contains a discussion, if appropriate, plus such graphical or tabular presentations as are necessary to explain and/or support the conclusions contained therein.

  3. Estimating the capability of microalgae to physiological acclimatization and genetic adaptation to petroleum and diesel oil contamination.

    PubMed

    Romero-Lopez, Julia; Lopez-Rodas, Victoria; Costas, Eduardo

    2012-11-15

    There is increasing scientific interest in how phytoplankton reacts to petroleum contamination, since crude oil and its derivatives are generating extensive contamination of aquatic environments. However, toxic effects of short-term petroleum exposure are more widely known than the adaptation of phytoplankton to long-term petroleum exposure. An analysis of short-term and long-term effects of petroleum exposure was done using experimental populations of freshwater (Scenedesmus intermedius and Microcystis aeruginosa) and marine (Dunaliella tertiolecta) microalgae isolated from pristine sites without crude oil product contamination. These strains were exposed to increased levels of petroleum and diesel oil. Short-term exposure to petroleum or diesel oil revealed a rapid inhibition of photosynthetic performance and cell proliferation in freshwater and marine phytoplankton species. A broad degree of inter-specific variation in lethal contamination level was observed. When different strains were exposed to petroleum or diesel oil over the long-term, the cultures showed massive destruction of the sensitive cells. Nonetheless, after further incubation, some cultures were able to grow again due to cells that were resistant to the toxins. By means of a fluctuation analysis, discrimination between cells that had become resistant due to physiological acclimatization and resistant cells arising from rare spontaneous mutations was accomplished. In addition, an analysis was done as to the maximum capacity of adaptation to a gradual contamination process. An experimental ratchet protocol was used, which maintains a strong selection pressure in a temporal scale up to several months over very large experimental populations of microalgae. Microalgae are able to survive to petroleum contamination as a result of physiological acclimatization without genetic changes. However, when petroleum concentration exceeds the physiological limits, survival depends exclusively on the occurrence on

  4. Fire flood method for recovering petroleum from oil reservoirs of low permeability and temperature

    DOEpatents

    Kamath, Krishna

    1984-08-14

    The present invention is directed to a method of enhanced oil recovery by fire flooding petroleum reservoirs characterized by a temperature of less than the critical temperature of carbon dioxide, a pore pressure greater than the saturated vapor pressure of carbon dioxide at said temperature (87.7.degree. F. at 1070 psia), and a permeability in the range of about 20 to 100 millidarcies. The in situ combustion of petroleum in the reservoir is provided by injecting into the reservoir a combustion supporting medium consisting essentially of oxygen, ozone, or a combination thereof. The heat of combustion and the products of this combustion which consist essentially of gaseous carbon dioxide and water vapor sufficiently decrease the viscosity of oil adjacent to fire front to form an oil bank which moves through the reservoir towards a recovery well ahead of the fire front. The gaseous carbon dioxide and the water vapor are driven into the reservoir ahead of the fire front by pressure at the injection well. As the gaseous carbon dioxide cools to less than about 88.degree. F. it is converted to liquid which is dissolved in the oil bank for further increasing the mobility thereof. By using essentially pure oxygen, ozone, or a combination thereof as the combustion supporting medium in these reservoirs the permeability requirements of the reservoirs are significantly decreased since the liquid carbon dioxide requires substantially less voidage volume than that required for gaseous combustion products.

  5. Tiger Team Assessment of the Navel Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This report documents the Tiger Team Assessment of the Naval Petroleum Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming (NPOSR-CUW). NPOSR-CUW consists of Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 3 located near Casper, Wyoming; Naval Oil Shale Reserve Number I and Naval Oil Shale Reserve Number 3 located near Rifle, Colorado; and Naval Oil Shale Reserve Number 2 located near Vernal, Utah, which was not examined as part of this assessment. The assessment was comprehensive, encompassing environment, safety, and health (ES H) and quality assurance (QA) disciplines; site remediation; facilities management; and waste management operations. Compliance with applicable Federal, state, and local regulations; applicable DOE Orders; best management practices; and internal NPOSR-CUW requirements was assessed. The NPOSR-CUW Tiger Team Assessment is part of a larger, comprehensive DOE Tiger Team Independent Assessment Program planned for DOE facilities. The objective of the initiative is to provide the Secretary with information on the compliance status of DOE facilities with regard to ES H requirements, root causes for noncompliance, adequacy of DOE and contractor ES H management programs, response actions to address the identified problem areas, and DOE-wide ES H compliance trends and root causes.

  6. Tiger Team Assessment of the Navel Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This report documents the Tiger Team Assessment of the Naval Petroleum Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming (NPOSR-CUW). NPOSR-CUW consists of Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 3 located near Casper, Wyoming; Naval Oil Shale Reserve Number I and Naval Oil Shale Reserve Number 3 located near Rifle, Colorado; and Naval Oil Shale Reserve Number 2 located near Vernal, Utah, which was not examined as part of this assessment. The assessment was comprehensive, encompassing environment, safety, and health (ES&H) and quality assurance (QA) disciplines; site remediation; facilities management; and waste management operations. Compliance with applicable Federal, state, and local regulations; applicable DOE Orders; best management practices; and internal NPOSR-CUW requirements was assessed. The NPOSR-CUW Tiger Team Assessment is part of a larger, comprehensive DOE Tiger Team Independent Assessment Program planned for DOE facilities. The objective of the initiative is to provide the Secretary with information on the compliance status of DOE facilities with regard to ES&H requirements, root causes for noncompliance, adequacy of DOE and contractor ES&H management programs, response actions to address the identified problem areas, and DOE-wide ES&H compliance trends and root causes.

  7. Options for reducing oil content of sludge from a petroleum wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Tae-Soon; Lee, Jae-Young

    2015-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants at petroleum refineries often produce substantial quantities of sludge with relatively high concentrations of oil. Disposal of this waste is costly, in part because the high oil content requires use of secure disposal methods akin to handling of hazardous wastes. This article examines the properties of oily sludge and evaluates optional methods for reducing the oil content of this sludge to enable use of lower cost disposal methods. To reduce the oil content or break the structure of oily sludge, preliminary lab-scale experiments involving mechanical treatment, surfactant extraction, and oxidation are conducted. By applying surfactants, approximately 36% to 45% of oils are extracted from oily sludge. Of this, about 33% of oils are rapidly oxidised via radiation by an electron beam within 10 s of exposure. The Fenton reaction is effective for destruction of oily sludge. It is also found that 56% of oils were removed by reacting oily sludge with water containing ozone of 0.5 mg l(-1) over a period of 24 h. Oxidation using ozone thus can also be effectively used as a pretreatment for oily sludge. PMID:26261236

  8. U.S. Department of Energy Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves combined financial statements, September 30, 1996 and 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves (NPOSR) produces crude oil and associated hydrocarbons from the Naval Petroleum Reserves (NPR) numbered 1, 2, and 3, and the Naval Oil Shale Reserves (NOSR) numbered 1, 2, and 3 in a manner to achieve the greatest value and benefits to the US taxpayer. NPOSR consists of the Naval Petroleum Reserve in California (NPRC or Elk Hills), which is responsible for operations of NPR-1 and NPR-2; the Naval Petroleum Oil Shale Reserve in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming (NPOSR-CUW), which is responsible for operations of NPR-3, NOSR-1, 2, and 3 and the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC); and NPOSR Headquarters in Washington, DC, which is responsible for overall program direction. Each participant shares in the unit costs and production of hydrocarbons in proportion to the weighted acre-feet of commercially productive oil and gas formations (zones) underlying the respective surface lands as of 1942. The participating shares of NPR-1 as of September 30, 1996 for the US Government and Chevron USA, Inc., are listed. This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Department of Energy`s (Department) Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves (NPOSR) financial statements as of September 30, 1996.

  9. Diversity and similarity of microbial communities in petroleum crude oils produced in Asia.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Kunio; Maki, Hideaki; Nakayama, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Toshiaki; Nomura, Nobuhiko; Uchiyama, Hiroo; Kitaoka, Motomitsu

    2008-11-01

    To understand microbial communities in petroleum crude oils, we precipitated DNA using high concentrations of 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (isooctane) and purified. Samples of DNA from five crude oils, (Middle East, 3; China, 1; and Japan, 1) were characterized based upon their 16S rRNA gene sequences after PCR amplification and the construction of clone libraries. We detected 48 eubacterial species, one cyanobacterium, and one archaeon in total. The microbial constituents were diverse in the DNA samples. Most of the bacteria affiliated with the sequences of the three oils from the Middle East comprised similar mesophilic species. Acinetobacter, Propionibacterium, Sphingobium and a Bacillales were common. In contrast, the bacterial communities in Japanese and Chinese samples were unique. Thermophilic Petrotoga-like bacteria (11%) and several anaerobic-thermophilic Clostridia- and Synergistetes-like bacteria (20%) were detected in the Chinese sample. Different thermophiles (12%) and Clostridia (2%) were detected in the Japanese sample. PMID:18997416

  10. Direct hydro-liquefaction of sawdust in petroleum ether and comprehensive bio-oil products analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Song, Linhua; Wu, Pingping; Liu, Yan; Li, Qingyin; Yan, Zifeng

    2014-03-01

    The effect of temperature, time, hydrogen pressure and amount of catalyst on production distribution and the bio-oil yield obtained from the direct liquefaction of sawdust in the petroleum ether (60-90°C) are investigated. The highest sawdust conversion obtained was 72.32% with a bio-oil yield of 47.69% were obtained at 370°C, 40min and 5wt.% catalyst content with the initial H2 pressure of 3.0MPa. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) approach was utilized to analyze the non-volatile fraction. In this study, the composition of bio-oil could be analyzed in an unprecedented detail through a combination of GC-MS and FT-ICR MS techniques. PMID:24445192

  11. Evaluation of oil removal efficiency and enzymatic activity in some fungal strains for bioremediation of petroleum-polluted soils

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Petroleum pollution is a global disaster and there are several soil cleaning methods including bioremediation. Methods In a field study, fugal strains were isolated from oil-contaminated sites of Arak refinery (Iran) and their growth ability was checked in potato dextrose agar (PDA) media containing 0-10% v/v crude oil, the activity of three enzymes (Catalase, Peroxidase and Phenol Oxidase) was evaluated in the fungal colonies and bioremediation ability of the fungi was checked in the experimental pots containing 3 kg sterilized soil and different concentrations of petroleum (0-10% w/w). Results Four fungal strains, Acromonium sp., Alternaria sp., Aspergillus terreus and Penicillium sp., were selected as the most resistant ones. They were able to growth in the subjected concentrations and Alternaria sp. showed the highest growth ability in the petroleum containing media. The enzyme assay showed that the enzymatic activity was increased in the oil-contaminated media. Bioremediation results showed that the studied fungi were able to decrease petroleum pollution. The highest petroleum removing efficiency of Aspergillus terreus, Penicillium sp., Alternaria sp. and Acromonium sp. was evaluated in the 10%, 8%, 8% and 2% petroleum pollution respectively. Conclusions Fungi are important microorganisms in decreasing of petroleum pollution. They have bioremediation potency that is related to their enzymatic activities. PMID:23369665

  12. Recalcitrance and degradation of petroleum biomarkers upon abiotic and biotic natural weathering of Deepwater Horizon oil.

    PubMed

    Aeppli, Christoph; Nelson, Robert K; Radović, Jagoš R; Carmichael, Catherine A; Valentine, David L; Reddy, Christopher M

    2014-06-17

    Petroleum biomarkers such as hopanoids, steranes, and triaromatic steroids (TAS) are commonly used to investigate the source and fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in the environment based on the premise that these compounds are resistant to biotic and abiotic degradation. To test the validity of this premise in the context of the Deepwater Horizon disaster, we investigated changes to these biomarkers as induced by natural weathering of crude oil discharged from the Macondo Well (MW). For surface slicks collected from May to June in 2010, and other oiled samples collected on beaches in the northern Gulf of Mexico from July 2010 until August 2012, hopanoids with up to 31 carbons as well as steranes and diasteranes were not systematically affected by weathering processes. In contrast, TAS and C32- to C35-homohopanes were depleted in all samples relative to 17α(H),21β(H)-hopane (C30-hopane). Compared to MW oil, C35-homohopanes and TAS were depleted by 18 ± 10% and 36 ± 20%, respectively, in surface slicks collected from May to June 2010, and by 37 ± 9% and 67 ± 10%, respectively, in samples collected along beaches from April 2011 through August 2012. Based on patterns of relative losses of individual compounds, we hypothesize biodegradation and photooxidation as main degradation processes for homohopanes and TAS, respectively. This study highlights that (i) TAS and homohopanes can be degraded within several years following an oil spill, (ii) the use of homohopanes and TAS for oil spill forensics must account for degradation, and (iii) these compounds provide a window to parse biodegradation and photooxidation during advanced stages of oil weathering. PMID:24831878

  13. Bioaccumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in fiddler crabs (Uca minax) exposed to weathered MC-252 crude oil alone and in mixture with an oil dispersant.

    PubMed

    Chase, Darcy A; Edwards, Donn S; Qin, Guangqiu; Wages, Mike R; Willming, Morgan M; Anderson, Todd A; Maul, Jonathan D

    2013-02-01

    The Deepwater Horizon accident in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a sustained release of crude oil, and weathered oil was reported to have washed onto shorelines and marshes along the Gulf coast. One strategy to minimize effects of tarballs, slicks, and oil sheen, and subsequent risk to nearshore ecosystem resources was to use oil dispersants (primarily Corexit® 9500) at offshore surface and deepwater locations. Data have been generated reporting how Corexit® 9500 and other dispersants may alter the acute toxicity of crude oil (Louisiana sweet crude) to marine organisms. However, it remains unknown how oil dispersants may influence bioaccumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in nearshore crustaceans. We compare bioaccumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in fiddler crabs (Uca minax) from exposures to the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of weathered Mississippi Canyon 252 oil (~30 d post spill) and chemically-enhanced WAF when mixed with Corexit® EC9500A. Whole body total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations were greater than background for both treatments after 6h of exposure and reached steady state at 96 h. The modeled TPH uptake rate was greater for crabs in the oil only treatment (k(u)=2.51 mL/g/h vs. 0.76 mL/g/h). Furthermore, during the uptake phase TPH patterns in tissues varied between oil only and oil+dispersant treatments. Steady state bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were 19.0 mL/g and 14.1 mL/g for the oil only and oil+Corexit treatments, respectively. These results suggest that the toxicokinetic mechanisms of oil may be dependent on oil dispersion (e.g., smaller droplet sizes). The results also indicate that multiple processes and functional roles of species should be considered for understanding how dispersants influence bioavailability of petroleum hydrocarbons. PMID:23268140

  14. Results of the Weeks Island Strategic Petroleum Reserve Oil Leak Risk Assessment Study

    SciTech Connect

    Molecke, M.A.; Hinkebein, T.E.; Bauer, S.J.; Linn, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluated multiple, long-term environmental oil-contamination risk scenarios that could result from the potential leakage of UP to 1.5 million barrels of crude oil entombed in the Weeks Island SPR mine following site decommissioning and abandonment, and up to 100 years thereafter. This risk assessment also provides continuity with similar risk evaluations performed earlier and documented in the 1995 DOE Environmental Assessment for Decommissioning the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Weeks Island Facility (EA). This current study was requested by the DOE to help them determine if their previous Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI), in the EA, is still valid or needs to be rescinded. Based on the calculated environmental risk results (in terms of clean-up and remediation expenses) presented in this risk assessment, including the calculated average likelihoods of oil release and potential oil-leakage volumes, none of the evaluated risk events would appear to satisfy the definition of significant environmental impact in National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) terminology. The DOE may combine these current results with their earlier evaluations and interpretations in the 1995 EA in order to assess whether the existing FONSI is still accurate, acceptable, and valid. However, from a risk evaluation standpoint, the assessment of impacts appears to be the same whether only 10,000 to 30,000 barrels of crude oil (as considered in the 1995 EA), or up to 1.5 million barrels of oil (as considered herein) are abandoned in the Weeks Island SPR facility.

  15. Analysis of crude oil vapor pressures at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve.

    SciTech Connect

    Rudeen, David Keith; Lord, David L.

    2005-08-01

    Crude oil storage caverns at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) are solution-mined from subsurface salt domes along the U.S. Gulf Coast. While these salt domes exhibit many attractive characteristics for large-volume, long-term storage of oil such as low cost for construction, low permeability for effective fluids containment, and secure location deep underground, they also present unique technical challenges for maintaining oil quality within delivery standards. The vapor pressures of the crude oils stored at SPR tend to increase with storage time due to the combined effects of geothermal heating and gas intrusion from the surrounding salt. This presents a problem for oil delivery offsite because high vapor-pressure oil may lead to excessive atmospheric emissions of hydrocarbon gases that present explosion hazards, health hazards, and handling problems at atmospheric pressure. Recognizing this potential hazard, the U.S. Department of Energy, owner and operator of the SPR, implemented a crude oil vapor pressure monitoring program that collects vapor pressure data for all the storage caverns. From these data, DOE evaluates the rate of change in vapor pressures of its oils in the SPR. Moreover, DOE implemented a vapor pressure mitigation program in which the oils are degassed periodically and will be cooled immediately prior to delivery in order to reduce the vapor pressure to safe handling levels. The work described in this report evaluates the entire database since its origin in 1993, and determines the current levels of vapor pressure around the SPR, as well as the rate of change for purposes of optimizing both the mitigation program and meeting safe delivery standards. Generally, the rate of vapor pressure increase appears to be lower in this analysis than reported in the past and, problematic gas intrusion seems to be limited to just a few caverns. This being said, much of the current SPR inventory exceeds vapor pressure delivery guidelines and must be

  16. Correlation of mutagenic potencies of various petroleum oils and oil coal tar mixtures with DNA adduct levels in vitro.

    PubMed

    Reddy, M V; Blackburn, G R; Schreiner, C A; Mackerer, C R

    1997-08-01

    An in vitro system was utilized to measure DNA adduct-forming ability of petroleum oils and oil coal tar mixtures to define correlations between DNA adduct levels and their mutagenic potencies. The system consisted of reaction of dimethyl sulfoxide extracts of oils with calf thymus DNA in the presence of Aroclor-induced hamster liver microsomes for 30 min. Following DNA extraction, DNA adducts were measured by the nuclease P1-enhanced postlabeling assay coupled with two-dimensional polyethyleneimine (PEI)-cellulose TLC. Thin layer plates showed putative aromatic DNA adducts, with levels ranging from 60 to 1400 adducts per 10(9) DNA nucleotides. TLC mobilities suggested adducts to be aromatic compounds containing 4 or more rings. A good correlation (coefficient of correlation = 0.91) was observed between DNA adduct levels and Salmonella mutagenicity for 19 oils. All 19 samples tested produced DNA adducts. To expedite the TLC procedure, adducts were resolved by one-dimensional TLC and the radioactivity measured using a mechanical scanner. Results were comparable to those obtained by two-dimensional TLC and quantification after scraping. Our data show that the in vitro incubation system coupled with the postlabeling adduct assay is a useful screening method to identify mutagenic and potentially carcinogenic oils. PMID:9288888

  17. Hydrodynamic thickness of petroleum oil adsorbed layers in the pores of reservoir rocks.

    PubMed

    Alkafeef, Saad F; Algharaib, Meshal K; Alajmi, Abdullah F

    2006-06-01

    The hydrodynamic thickness delta of adsorbed petroleum (crude) oil layers into the pores of sandstone rocks, through which the liquid flows, has been studied by Poiseuille's flow law and the evolution of (electrical) streaming current. The adsorption of petroleum oil is accompanied by a numerical reduction in the (negative) surface potential of the pore walls, eventually stabilizing at a small positive potential, attributed to the oil macromolecules themselves. After increasing to around 30% of the pore radius, the adsorbed layer thickness delta stopped growing either with time or with concentrations of asphaltene in the flowing liquid. The adsorption thickness is confirmed with the blockage value of the rock pores' area determined by the combination of streaming current and streaming potential measurements. This behavior is attributed to the effect on the disjoining pressure across the adsorbed layer, as described by Derjaguin and Churaev, of which the polymolecular adsorption films lose their stability long before their thickness has approached the radius of the rock pore. PMID:16414057

  18. A study of the effects of enhanced oil recovery agents on the quality of Strategic Petroleum Reserves crude oil. [Physical and chemical interactions of Enhanced Oil Recovery reagents with hydrocarbons present in petroleum

    SciTech Connect

    Kabadi, V.N.

    1992-10-01

    The project was initiated on September 1, 1990. The objective of the project was to carry out a literature search to estimate the types and extents of long time interactions of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents, such as surfactants, caustics and polymers, with crude oil. This information is necessary to make recommendations about mixing EOR crude oil with crude oils from primary and secondary recovery processes in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Data were sought on both adverse and beneficial effects of EOR agents that would impact handling, transportation and refining of crude oil. An extensive literature search has been completed, and the following informations has been compiled: (1) a listing of existing EOR test and field projects; (2) a listing of currently used EOR agents; and (3) evidence of short and long term physical and chemical interactions of these EOR-agents with hydrocarbons, and their effects on the quality of crude oil at long times. This information is presented in this report. Finally some conclusions are derived and recommendations are made. Although the conclusions are based mostly on extrapolations because of lack of specific data, it is recommended that the enhancement of the rates of biodegradation of oil catalyzed by the EOR agents needs to be further studied. There is no evidence of substantial long term effects on crude oil because of other interactions. Some recommendations are also made regarding the types of studies that would be necessary to determine the effect of certain EOR agents on the rates of biodegradation of crude oil.

  19. Petroleum Systems and Geologic Assessment of Oil and Gas in the Bighorn Basin Province, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey Bighorn Basin Province Assessment Team

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Bighorn Basin Province, which encompasses about 6.7 million acres in north-central Wyoming and southern Montana. The assessment is based on the geologic elements of each total petroleum system defined in the province, including petroleum source rocks (source-rock maturation, petroleum generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and traps (trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined two total petroleum systems: (1) Phosphoria, and (2) Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite. Within these two systems, eight assessment units (AU) were defined, and undiscovered oil and gas resources were quantitatively estimated within each AU.

  20. Distribution of oil and grease and petroleum hydrocarbons in the Straits of Johor, Peninsular Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, A.R.; Bakar, R.A.; Woon, W.C.

    1996-07-01

    The Straits of Johor is a narrow stretch of water separating Peninsular Malaysia from Singapore. The two land masses bordering the Straits of Johor are characterized by a wide range of landscapes and activities. On the Malaysian side, which constitutes the state of Johor, lies the state capital as well as a rapidly developing international seaport, in the vicinity of a major industrial area. The eastern portion of the state bordering the straits is relatively undeveloped, comprising of wetland forests. On the Singapore side, apart from a power-generating facility, much of northern Singapore which borders the straits is undeveloped. The Straits of Johor and nearby-waters also represent an important area for fishing and aquaculture activities. Fish traps are a common sight along the length of the straits. Oil pollution has been identified as the major contribution to the deterioration of the marine water quality in the Straits of Johor. Shipping activities involving tankers and other vessels plying the Straits of Malacca, have been recognized as a source of petroleum hydrocarbons in these waters. Land-based industrial and urban sources also contribute to the overall oil pollution load in these waters. In recognizing the need for baseline data in assessing environmental pollution, the Department of Environment has been conducting pollution monitoring programs since 1976, at numerous sampling stations situated in the major river systems of the nation, as well as coastal areas,. including the Straits of Johor. However, as far as oil pollution is concerned, these programs have been restricted to measuring oil and grease. The present study was undertaken to determine petroleum hydrocarbons, as well as oil and grease in water and sediments along the near- coastal areas of the Straits of Johor and near-by waters. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Petroleum systems of the San Joaquin Basin Province, California -- geochemical characteristics of oil types: Chapter 9 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lillis, Paul G.; Magoon, Leslie B.

    2007-01-01

    New analyses of 120 oil samples combined with 139 previously published oil analyses were used to characterize and map the distribution of oil types in the San Joaquin Basin, California. The results show that there are at least four oil types designated MM, ET, EK, and CM. Most of the oil from the basin has low to moderate sulfur content (less than 1 weight percent sulfur), although a few unaltered MM oils have as much as 1.2 weight percent sulfur. Reevaluation of source rock data from the literature indicate that the EK oil type is derived from the Eocene Kreyenhagen Formation, and the MM oil type is derived, in part, from the Miocene to Pliocene Monterey Formation and its equivalent units. The ET oil type is tentatively correlated to the Eocene Tumey formation of Atwill (1935). Previous studies suggest that the CM oil type is derived from the Late Cretaceous to Paleocene Moreno Formation. Maps of the distribution of the oil types show that the MM oil type is restricted to the southern third of the San Joaquin Basin Province. The composition of MM oils along the southern and eastern margins of the basin reflects the increased contribution of terrigenous organic matter to the marine basin near the Miocene paleoshoreline. EK oils are widely distributed along the western half of the basin, and ET oils are present in the central and west-central areas of the basin. The CM oil type has only been found in the Coalinga area in southwestern Fresno County. The oil type maps provide the basis for petroleum system maps that incorporate source rock distribution and burial history, migration pathways, and geologic relationships between hydrocarbon source and reservoir rocks. These petroleum system maps were used for the 2003 U.S. Geological Survey resource assessment of the San Joaquin Basin Province.

  2. Slow Radio-Frequency Processing of Large Oil Shale Volumes to Produce Petroleum-Like Shale Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, A K

    2003-08-20

    A process is proposed to convert oil shale by radio frequency heating over a period of months to years to create a product similar to natural petroleum. Electrodes would be placed in drill holes, either vertical or horizontal, and a radio frequency chosen so that the penetration depth of the radio waves is of the order of tens to hundreds of meters. A combination of excess volume production and overburden compaction drives the oil and gas from the shale into the drill holes, where it is pumped to the surface. Electrical energy for the process could be provided initially by excess regional capacity, especially off-peak power, which would generate {approx}3 x 10{sup 5} bbl/day of synthetic crude oil, depending on shale grade. The electricity cost, using conservative efficiency assumptions, is $4.70 to $6.30/bbl, depending on grade and heating rate. At steady state, co-produced gas can generate more than half the electric power needed for the process, with the fraction depending on oil shale grade. This would increase production to 7.3 x 10{sup 5} bbl/day for 104 l/Mg shale and 1.6 x 10{sup 6} bbl/day for 146 l/Mg shale using a combination of off-peak power and power from co-produced gas.

  3. Production of rhamnolipids and diesel oil degradation by bacteria isolated from soil contaminated by petroleum.

    PubMed

    Leite, Giuseppe G F; Figueirôa, Juciane V; Almeida, Thiago C M; Valões, Jaqueline L; Marques, Walber F; Duarte, Maria D D C; Gorlach-Lira, Krystyna

    2016-03-01

    Biosurfactants are microbial secondary metabolites. The most studied are rhamnolipids, which decrease the surface tension and have emulsifying capacity. In this study, the production of biosurfactants, with emphasis on rhamnolipids, and diesel oil degradation by 18 strains of bacteria isolated from waste landfill soil contaminated by petroleum was analyzed. Among the studied bacteria, gram-positive endospore forming rods (39%), gram positive rods without endospores (17%), and gram-negative rods (44%) were found. The following methods were used to test for biosurfactant production: oil spreading, emulsification, and hemolytic activity. All strains showed the ability to disperse the diesel oil, while 77% and 44% of the strains showed hemolysis and emulsification of diesel oil, respectively. Rhamnolipids production was observed in four strains that were classified on the basis of the 16S rRNA sequences as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Only those strains showed the rhlAB gene involved in rhamnolipids synthesis, and antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, P. aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Erwinia carotovora, and Ralstonia solanacearum. The highest production of rhamnolipids was 565.7 mg/L observed in mineral medium containing olive oil (pH 8). With regard to the capacity to degrade diesel oil, it was observed that 7 strains were positive in reduction of the dye 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (2,6-DCPIP) while 16 had the gene alkane mono-oxygenase (alkB), and the producers of rhamnolipids were positive in both tests. Several bacterial strains have shown high potential to be explored further for bioremediation purposes due to their simultaneous ability to emulsify, disperse, and degrade diesel oil. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:262-270, 2016. PMID:26588432

  4. Abundance and diversity of soil petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading microbial communities in oil exploring areas.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuyin; Wang, Jie; Liao, Jingqiu; Xie, Shuguang; Huang, Yi

    2015-02-01

    Alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the commonly detected petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants in soils in oil exploring areas. Hydrocarbon-degrading genes are useful biomarks for estimation of the bioremediation potential of contaminated sites. However, the links between environmental factors and the distribution of alkane and PAH metabolic genes still remain largely unclear. The present study investigated the abundances and diversities of soil n-alkane and PAH-degrading bacterial communities targeting both alkB and nah genes in two oil exploring areas at different geographic regions. A large variation in the abundances and diversities of alkB and nah genes occurred in the studied soil samples. Various environmental variables regulated the spatial distribution of soil alkane and PAH metabolic genes, dependent on geographic location. The soil alkane-degrading bacterial communities in oil exploring areas mainly consisted of Pedobacter, Mycobacterium, and unknown alkB-harboring microorganisms. Moreover, the novel PAH-degraders predominated in nah gene clone libraries from soils of the two oil exploring areas. This work could provide some new insights towards the distribution of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms and their biodegradation potential in soil ecosystems. PMID:25236802

  5. Transition metal catalysis in the generation of petroleum: A genetic anomaly in Ordovician oils

    SciTech Connect

    Mango, F.D. )

    1992-10-01

    The transition metals, captured from sedimentary waters by chlorophyll, have been proposed as the catalytic agents that convert n-alkane biolipids into the rearranged light hydrocarbons in petroleum. Certain ancient oils (Ordovician) display a depletion in chlorophyll, suggesting that they may have been derived from sedimentary rocks also depleted in transition metals. These oils show anomalously high concentrations of n-heptane relative to their respective rearranged isoalkane and cycloalkane products. This extraordinary enrichment in light n-alkanes appears unique to the chlorophyll-deficient Ordovician oils. The high concentrations of n-heptane may have resulted from the thermal cracking of higher n-alkanes, which are known to be dominant components of the kerogenous precursors to the Ordovician oils. However, the methylhexanes, which have no thermolytic precursors enriched in the kerogenous source, show a proportionate increase in concentration. The contention, therefore, that thermal cracking might explain the n-heptane anomaly is untenable since a kerogenous starting material enriched in n-alkanes and depleted in isoalkanes cannot reasonably crack to a light hydrocarbon product enriched in both n-alkanes and isoalkanes. According to a postulated catalytic cycle, n-alkane and isoalkane concentrations are controlled by the relative rates of two divergent pathways. If the various transition metals that may catalyze these reactions differ in activity, then a unique distribution of metals created by a chlorophyll deficiency could explain the Ordovician anomaly.

  6. Application of high-temperature simulated distillation to the residuum oil supercritical extraction process in petroleum refining

    PubMed

    Raia; Villalanti; Subramanian; Williams

    2000-01-01

    The gas chromatographic method of high-temperature simulated distillation (HTSD) is described, and the results are presented for the application of HTSD to the characterization of petroleum refinery feed and products from solvent deasphalting operations. Results are presented for refinery residual feed, deasphalted oil, and asphaltene fractions from the residual oil supercritical extraction process. Asphaltene removal from petroleum residuum using solvent deasphalting results in the improved quality and high recovery of deasphalted oil product for use as lube oil, fluid catalytic cracking, or hydrocracker feedstocks. The HTSD procedure presented here proves valuable for characterizing the fractions from the deasphalting process to obtain the percentage yield with boiling point data over the range from approximately 36 degrees C (97 degrees F) to 733 degrees C (1352 degrees F), which covers the boiling range of n-paraffins of carbon number C5 to C108. PMID:10654784

  7. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data.

  8. 77 FR 28617 - Call for Nominations and Comments for the 2012 National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ...The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Alaska State Office, under the authority of 43 CFR 3131.2, is issuing a call for nominations and comments on tracts for oil and gas leasing for the 2012 National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPR-A) oil and gas lease sale. Available tracts are within the Northeast and Northwest Planning Areas of the NPR-A. A map of the NPR-A showing available areas is online......

  9. 76 FR 36145 - Call for Nominations and Comments for the 2011 National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ...The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Alaska State Office, under the authority of 43 CFR 3131.2, is issuing a call for nominations and comments on tracts for oil and gas leasing for the 2011 National Petroleum Reserve--Alaska (NPR-A) oil and gas lease sale. Available tracts are within the Northeast and Northwest Planning Areas of the NPR-A. Maps of the NPR-A showing available areas are online at......

  10. Technological Change and Its Labor Impact in Five Energy Industries. Coal Mining/Oil and Gas Extraction/Petroleum Refining/Petroleum Pipeline Transportation/Electric and Gas Utilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This bulletin appraises major technological changes emerging in five American industries (coal mining, oil and gas extraction, petroleum refining, petroleum pipeline transportation, and electric and gas utilities) and discusses the impact of these changes on productivity and occupations over the next five to ten years. Its separate reports on each…

  11. Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3, Naval Oil Shale Reserves Nos. 1, 2, 3: Site environmental report, CY 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.

    1990-05-01

    A site environmental report on the Naval Petroleum reserve in Wyoming ({number sign}3) and the Naval Oil Shale Reserve in Colorado and Utah ({number sign}1,2,3) is presented. A brief site characterization precedes a summary on compliance assessment with environmental policy concerning waste management, environmental quality, and spill prevention/control measures. 6 figs., 6 tabs. (CBS).

  12. Geomechanical analysis to predict the oil leak at the wellbores in Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Byoung Yoon

    2014-02-01

    Oil leaks were found in wellbores of Caverns 105 and 109 at the Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. According to the field observations, two instances of casing damage occurred at the depth of the interbed between the caprock bottom and salt top. A three dimensional finite element model, which contains wellbore element blocks and allows each cavern to be configured individually, is constructed to investigate the wellbore damage mechanism. The model also contains element blocks to represent interface between each lithology and a shear zone to examine the interbed behavior in a realistic manner. The causes of the damaged casing segments are a result of vertical and horizontal movements of the interbed between the caprock and salt dome. The salt top subsides because the volume of caverns below the salt top decrease with time due to salt creep closure, while the caprock subsides at a slower rate because the caprock is thick and stiffer. This discrepancy yields a deformation of the well. The deformed wellbore may fail at some time. An oil leak occurs when the wellbore fails. A possible oil leak date of each well is determined using the equivalent plastic strain failure criterion. A well grading system for a remediation plan is developed based on the predicted leak dates of each wellbore.

  13. Benzene and total hydrocarbon exposures in the upstream petroleum oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Verma, D K; Johnson, D M; McLean, J D

    2000-01-01

    Occupational exposures to benzene and total hydrocarbons (THC) in the Canadian upstream petroleum industry are described in this article. A total of 1547 air samples taken by 5 oil companies in various sectors (i.e., conventional oil/gas, conventional gas, heavy oil processing, drilling and pipelines) were evaluated and summarized. The data includes personal long- and short-term samples and area long-term samples. The percentage of samples over the occupational exposure limit (OEL) of 3.2 mg/m3 or one part per million for benzene, for personal long-term samples ranges from 0 to 0.7% in the different sectors, and area long-term samples range from 0 to 13%. For short-term personal samples, the exceedance for benzene is at 5% with respect to the OEL of 16 mg/m3 or five parts per million in the conventional gas sector and none in the remaining sectors. THC levels were not available for all sectors and had limited data points in others. The percentage exceedance of the OEL of 280 mg/m3 or 100 parts per million for THC as gasoline ranged from 0 to 2.6% for personal long-term samples. It is recommended that certain operations such as glycol dehydrators be carefully monitored and that a task-based monitoring program be included along with the traditional long- and short-term personal exposure sampling. PMID:10782197

  14. Methanogenic degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in subsurface environments remediation, heavy oil formation, and energy recovery.

    PubMed

    Gray, N D; Sherry, A; Hubert, C; Dolfing, J; Head, I M

    2010-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are common constituents of surface, shallow, and deep-subsurface environments. Under anaerobic conditions, hydrocarbons can be degraded to methane by methanogenic microbial consortia. This degradation process is widespread in the geosphere. In comparison with other anaerobic processes, methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation is more sustainable over geological time scales because replenishment of an exogenous electron acceptor is not required. As a consequence, this process has been responsible for the formation of the world's vast deposits of heavy oil, which far exceed conventional oil assets such as those found in the Middle East. Methanogenic degradation is also a potentially important component of attenuation in hydrocarbon contamination plumes. Studies of the organisms, syntrophic partnerships, mechanisms, and geochemical signatures associated with methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation have identified common themes and diagnostic markers for this process in the subsurface. These studies have also identified the potential to engineer methanogenic processes to enhance the recovery of energy assets as biogenic methane from residual oils stranded in petroleum systems. PMID:20602990

  15. Cracking of simulated oil refinery off-gas over a coal char, petroleum coke, and quartz

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Zhang; Jin-hu Wu; Dong-ke Zhang

    2008-03-15

    The cracking of oil refinery off-gas, simulated with a gas mixture containing methane (51%), ethylene (21.4%), ethane (21.1%), and propane (6.5%), over a coal char, petroleum coke, and quartz, respectively, has been studied in a fixed bed reactor. The experiments were performed at temperatures between 850 and 1000{sup o}C and at atmospheric pressure. The results show that the conversions of all species considered increased with increasing temperature. Ethane and propane completely decomposed over all three bed materials in the temperature range investigated. However, the higher initial conversion rates of methane and ethylene cracking at all temperatures were observed only over the coal char and not on the petroleum coke and quartz, indicating a significant catalytic effect of the coal char on methane and ethylene cracking. Methane and ethylene conversions decreased with reaction time due to deactivation of the coal char by carbon deposition on the char surface and, in the later stage of a cracking experiment, became negative, suggesting that methane and ethylene had been formed during the cracking of ethane and propane. 16 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Reflectance spectra of crude oils and refined petroleum products on a variety of common substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, C. Scott; Krekeler, Mark P. S.

    2010-04-01

    A variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products were applied to ten common terrestrial substrates with the goal of developing a set of representative reflectance spectra for hydrocarbon-substrate combinations. Similar to previous studies, each hydrocarbon darkened the substrates and produced hydrocarbon absorption features near 1200, 1690-1770, and 2270-2400 nm, along with a host of other minor features in the VIS/NIR/SWIR portion of the spectrum. Some substrate absorption features interfered with hydrocarbon absorptions, complicating spectral signatures. The reflectance spectra varied directly with the amount of liquid on the substrate. Liquid-saturated samples were left to age and regularly re-measured, establishing a relationship between evaporative loss for volatile and semivolatile products and sample reflectance. The results outline temporal windows of opportunity and minimum detection thresholds for volatiles. They also provide a means for remotely distinguishing 1) water from petroleum products on some substrates and 2) some similar hydrocarbons from one another based on their volatility.

  17. Laser measurement of the spectral extinction coefficients of fluorescent, highly absorbing liquids. [crude petroleum oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.

    1982-01-01

    A conceptual method is developed to deduce rapidly the spectral extinction coefficient of fluorescent, highly absorbing liquids, such as crude or refined petroleum oils. The technique offers the advantage of only requiring one laser wavelength and a single experimental assembly and execution for any specific fluorescent liquid. The liquid is inserted into an extremely thin wedge-shaped cavity for stimulation by a laser from one side and flurescence measurement on the other side by a monochromator system. For each arbitrarily selected extinction wavelength, the wedge is driven slowly to increasing thicknesses until the fluorescence extinguishes. The fluorescence as a function of wedge thickness permits a determination of the extinction coefficient using an included theoretical model. When the monochromator is set to the laser emission wavelength, the extinction coefficient is determined using the usual on-wavelength signal extinction procedure.

  18. Investigation of oil injection into brine for the strategic petroleum reserve : hydrodynamics experiments with simulant liquids.

    SciTech Connect

    Castaneda, Jaime N.; Shollenberger, Kim Ann; Torczynski, John Robert; Cote, Raymond O.; Barney, Jeremy; O'Hern, Timothy John

    2003-10-01

    An experimental program is being conducted to study a proposed approach for oil reintroduction in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The goal is to assess whether useful oil is rendered unusable through formation of a stable oil-brine emulsion during reintroduction of degassed oil into the brine layer in storage caverns. This report documents the first stage of the program, in which simulant liquids are used to characterize the buoyant plume that is produced when a jet of crude oil is injected downward from a tube into brine. The experiment consists of a large transparent vessel that is a scale model of the proposed oil injection process at the SPR. An oil layer is floated on top of a brine layer. Silicon oil (Dow Corning 200{reg_sign} Fluid, 5 cSt) is used as the simulant for crude oil to allow visualization of the flow and to avoid flammability and related concerns. Sodium nitrate solution is used as the simulant for brine because it is not corrosive and it can match the density ratio between brine and crude oil. The oil is injected downward through a tube into the brine at a prescribed depth below the oil-brine interface. Flow rates are determined by scaling to match the ratio of buoyancy to momentum between the experiment and the SPR. Initially, the momentum of the flow produces a downward jet of oil below the tube end. Subsequently, the oil breaks up into droplets due to shear forces, buoyancy dominates the flow, and a plume of oil droplets rises to the interface. The interface is deflected upward by the impinging oil-brine plume. Two different diameter injection tubes were used (1/2-inch and 1-inch OD) to vary the scaling. Use of the 1-inch injection tube also assured that turbulent pipe flow was achieved, which was questionable for lower flow rates in the 1/2-inch tube. In addition, a 1/2-inch J-tube was used to direct the buoyant jet upwards rather than downwards to determine whether flow redirection could substantially reduce the oil-plume size and the

  19. Aerobic biodegradation process of petroleum and pathway of main compounds in water flooding well of Dagang oil field.

    PubMed

    Cai, Minmin; Yao, Jun; Yang, Huaijun; Wang, Ruixia; Masakorala, Kanaji

    2013-09-01

    Aerobic biodegradation of crude oil and its pathways were investigated via in vitro culture and GC-MS analysis in water flooding wells of Dagang oil field. The in vitro aerobic culture lasted 90 days when 99.0% of n-alkanes and 43.03-99.9% of PAHs were degraded and the biomarkers and their ratios were changed. The spectra of components in the residual oil showed the similar biodegradation between aerobic process of 90 days and degradation in reservoir which may last for some millions years, and the potential of serious aerobic biodegradation of petroleum in reservoir. 24 Metabolites compounds were separated and identified from aerobic culture, including fatty acid, naphthenic acid, aromatic carboxylic acid, unsaturated acid, alcohols, ketones and aldehydes. The pathways of alkanes and aromatics were proposed, which suggests that oxidation of hydrocarbon to organic acid is an important process in the aerobic biodegradation of petroleum. PMID:23867530

  20. 2010 updated assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houseknecht, D.W.; Bird, K.J.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.; Attanasi, E.D.; Garrity, C.P.; Schenk, C.J.; Charpentier, R.R.; Pollastro, R.M.; Cook, T.A.; and Klett, T.R.

    2010-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 896 million barrels of oil (MMBO) and about 53 trillion cubic feet (TCFG) of nonassociated natural gas in conventional, undiscovered accumulations within the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska and adjacent State waters. The estimated volume of undiscovered oil is significantly lower than estimates released in 2002, owing primarily to recent exploration drilling that revealed an abrupt transition from oil to gas and reduced reservoir quality in the Alpine sandstone 15-20 miles west of the giant Alpine oil field. The National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) has been the focus of oil exploration during the past decade, stimulated by the mid-1990s discovery of the adjacent Alpine field-the largest onshore oil discovery in the United States during the past 25 years. Recent activities in NPRA, including extensive 3-D seismic surveys, six Federal lease sales totaling more than $250 million in bonus bids, and completion of more than 30 exploration wells on Federal and Native lands, indicate in key formations more gas than oil and poorer reservoir quality than anticipated. In the absence of a gas pipeline from northern Alaska, exploration has waned and several petroleum companies have relinquished assets in the NPRA. This fact sheet updates U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimates of undiscovered oil and gas in NPRA, based on publicly released information from exploration wells completed during the past decade and on the results of research that documents significant Cenozoic uplift and erosion in NPRA. The results included in this fact sheet-released in October 2010-supersede those of a previous assessment completed by the USGS in 2002.

  1. Petroleum coke adsorption as a water management option for oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Zubot, Warren; MacKinnon, Michael D; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Smith, Daniel W; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2012-06-15

    Water is integral to both operational and environmental aspects of the oil sands industry. A water treatment option based on the use of petroleum coke (PC), a by-product of bitumen upgrading, was examined as an opportunity to reduce site oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) inventories and net raw water demand. Changes in OSPW quality when treated with PC included increments in pH levels and concentrations of vanadium, molybdenum, and sulphate. Constituents that decreased in concentration after PC adsorption included total acid-extractable organics (TAO), bicarbonate, calcium, barium, magnesium, and strontium. Changes in naphthenic acids (NAs) speciation were observed after PC adsorption. A battery of bioassays was used to measure the OSPW toxicity. The results indicated that untreated OSPW was toxic towards Vibrio fischeri and rainbow trout. However, OSPW treated with PC at appropriate dosages was not acutely toxic towards these test organisms. Removal of TAO was found to be an adsorption process, fitting the Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm models. For TAO concentrations of 60 mg/L, adsorption capacities ranged between 0.1 and 0.46 mg/g. This study demonstrates that freshly produced PC from fluid cokers provides an effective treatment of OSPW in terms of key constituents' removal and toxicity reduction. PMID:22575375

  2. Investigation of oil injection into brine for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve : hydrodynamics and mixing experiments with SPR liquids.

    SciTech Connect

    Castaneda, Jaime N.; Cote, Raymond O.; Torczynski, John Robert; O'Hern, Timothy John

    2004-05-01

    An experimental program was conducted to study a proposed approach for oil reintroduction in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The goal was to assess whether useful oil is rendered unusable through formation of a stable oil-brine emulsion during reintroduction of degassed oil into the brine layer in storage caverns. An earlier report (O'Hern et al., 2003) documented the first stage of the program, in which simulant liquids were used to characterize the buoyant plume that is produced when a jet of crude oil is injected downward into brine. This report documents the final two test series. In the first, the plume hydrodynamics experiments were completed using SPR oil, brine, and sludge. In the second, oil reinjection into brine was run for approximately 6 hours, and sampling of oil, sludge, and brine was performed over the next 3 months so that the long-term effects of oil-sludge mixing could be assessed. For both series, the experiment consisted of a large transparent vessel that is a scale model of the proposed oil-injection process at the SPR. For the plume hydrodynamics experiments, an oil layer was floated on top of a brine layer in the first test series and on top of a sludge layer residing above the brine in the second test series. The oil was injected downward through a tube into the brine at a prescribed depth below the oil-brine or sludge-brine interface. Flow rates were determined by scaling to match the ratio of buoyancy to momentum between the experiment and the SPR. Initially, the momentum of the flow produces a downward jet of oil below the tube end. Subsequently, the oil breaks up into droplets due to shear forces, buoyancy dominates the flow, and a plume of oil droplets rises to the interface. The interface was deflected upward by the impinging oil-brine plume. Videos of this flow were recorded for scaled flow rates that bracket the equivalent pumping rates in an SPR cavern during injection of degassed oil. Image-processing analyses were

  3. A combination of solvent extraction and freeze thaw for oil recovery from petroleum refinery wastewater treatment pond sludge.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guangji; Li, Jianbing; Hou, Haobo

    2015-01-01

    A combination of solvent extraction and freeze thaw was examined for recovering oil from the high-moisture petroleum refinery wastewater treatment pond sludge. Five solvents including cyclohexane (CHX), dichloromethane (DCM), methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), ethyl acetate (EA), and 2-propanol (2-Pro) were examined. It was found that these solvents except 2-Pro showed a promising oil recovery rate of about 40%, but the recycling of DCM solvent after oil extraction was quite low. Three solvents (CHX, MEK and EA) were then selected for examining the effect of freeze/thaw treatment on improving the quality of recovered oil. This treatment increased the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content in recovered oil from about 40% to 60% for both MEK and EA extractions, but little effect was observed for CHX extraction. Although the solid residue after oil recovery had a significantly decreased TPH content, a high concentration of heavy metals was observed, indicating that this residue may require proper management. In general, the combination of solvent extraction with freeze/thaw is effective for high-moisture oily hazardous waste treatment. PMID:25464326

  4. Jurassic-Cretaceous Composite Total Petroleum System and Geologic Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources of the North Cuba Basin, Cuba

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey North Cuba Basin Assessment Team

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the world. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the North Cuba Basin. The assessment is based on the geologic elements of the total petroleum system (TPS) defined in the province, including petroleum source rocks (source-rock maturation, generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and petroleum traps (Trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined a Jurassic-Cretaceous Total Petroleum System in the North Cuba Basin Province. Within this TPS, three assessment units were defined and assessed for undiscovered oil and gas resources.

  5. Organic geochemistry and petrology of oil source rocks, Carpathian Overthrust region, southeastern Poland - Implications for petroleum generation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kruge, M.A.; Mastalerz, Maria; Solecki, A.; Stankiewicz, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    The organic mailer rich Oligocene Menilite black shales and mudstones are widely distributed in the Carpathian Overthrust region of southeastern Poland and have excellent hydrocarbon generation potential, according to TOC, Rock-Eval, and petrographic data. Extractable organic matter was characterized by an equable distribution of steranes by carbon number, by varying amounts of 28,30-dinor-hopane, 18??(H)-oleanane and by a distinctive group of C24 ring-A degraded triterpanes. The Menilite samples ranged in maturity from pre-generative to mid-oil window levels, with the most mature in the southeastern portion of the study area. Carpathian petroleum samples from Campanian Oligocene sandstone reservoirs were similar in biomarker composition to the Menilite rock extracts. Similarities in aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon distributions between petroleum asphaltene and source rock pyrolyzates provided further evidence genetically linking Menilite kerogens with Carpathian oils.

  6. Report to Congress on the feasibility of establishing a heating oil component to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 2: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    Nine appendices to the main report are included in this volume. They are: Northeastern US distillate supply systems; New England fuel oil storage capacities and inventories; Characteristics of the northeast natural gas market; Documentation of statistical models and calculation of benefits; Regional product reserve study; Other countries` experience with refined product storage; Global refining supply demand appraisal; Summary of federal authorities relevant to the establishment of petroleum product reserves; Product stability and turnover requirements.

  7. Report to Congress on the feasibility of establishing a heating oil component to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    In the Autumn of 1996, consumers and Members of Congress from the Northeast expressed concern about high prices for heating oil and historically low levels of inventories. Some Members of Congress advocated building a Federal inventory of heating oil as part of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Regional reserves are authorized as part of the SPR for import dependent regions by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. In response, the Department of Energy (DOE) proposed a series of studies related to heating fuels, including a study of the desirability, feasibility, and cost of creating a Federal reserve containing distillate fuel. This report documents that study.

  8. Assessment of Appalachian basin oil and gas resources:Devonian shale - Middle and Upper Paleozoic Total Petroleum System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milici, Robert C.; Swezey, Christopher S.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an assessment of the technically recoverable undiscovered hydrocarbon resources of the Appalachian Basin Province. The assessment province includes parts of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia and Alabama. The assessment was based on six major petroleum systems, which include strata that range in age from Cambrian to Pennsylvanian. The Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic Total Petroleum System (TPS) extends generally from New York to Tennessee. This petroleum system has produced a large proportion of the oil and natural gas that has been discovered in the Appalachian basin since the drilling of the Drake well in Pennsylvania in 1859. For assessment purposes, the TPS was divided into 10 assessment units (plays), 4 of which were classified as conventional and 6 as continuous. The results were reported as fully risked fractiles (F95, F50, F5 and the Mean), with the fractiles indicating the probability of recovery of the assessment amount. Products reported were oil (millions of barrels of oil, MMBO), gas (billions of cubic feet of gas, BCFG), and natural gas liquids (millions of barrels of natural gas liquids, MMBNGL). The mean estimates for technically recoverable undiscovered hydrocarbons in the TPS are: 7.53 MMBO, 31,418.88 BCFG (31.42 trillion cubic feet) of gas, and 562.07 MMBNGL.

  9. Parasitism in marine fish after chronic exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons in the laboratory and to the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, R.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Crude oil or its water soluble components are known to induce histopathological effects in fish following chronic exposure. Fish tend to harbor a variety of parasites, most of which under natural conditions cause little or no apparent harm. However, after chronic exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, the prevalence and intensity of parasitism increases substantially. Trichodinid ciliates are mainly ectoparasitic protozoans on the fills of fish. Since a previous study showed that chronic exposure to crude oil fractions resulted in increased parasitism, a study was initiated to ascertain the relationship between trichodinid infections and exposure of fish to crude oil or its fractions in the laboratory and subsequently, in the Gulf of Alaska following the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

  10. Assessment of Appalachian Basin Oil and Gas Resources: Utica-Lower Paleozoic Total Petroleum System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, Robert T.

    2008-01-01

    The Utica-Lower Paleozoic Total Petroleum System (TPS) is an important TPS identified in the 2002 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources in the Appalachian basin province (Milici and others, 2003). The TPS is named for the Upper Ordovician Utica Shale, which is the primary source rock, and for multiple lower Paleozoic sandstone and carbonate units that are the important reservoirs. Upper Cambrian through Upper Silurian petroleum-bearing strata that constitute the Utica-Lower Paleozoic TPS thicken eastward from about 2,700 ft at the western margin of the Appalachian basin to about 12,000 ft at the thrust-faulted eastern margin of the Appalachian basin. The Utica-Lower Paleozoic TPS covers approximately 170,000 mi2 of the Appalachian basin from northeastern Tennessee to southeastern New York and from central Ohio to eastern West Virginia. The boundary of the TPS is defined by the following geologic features: (1) the northern boundary (from central Ontario to northeastern New York) extends along the outcrop limit of the Utica Shale-Trenton Limestone; (2) the northeastern boundary (from southeastern New York, through southeastern Pennsylvania-western Maryland-easternmost West Virginia, to northern Virginia) extends along the eastern limit of the Utica Shale-Trenton Limestone in the thrust-faulted eastern margin of the Appalachian basin; (3) the southeastern boundary (from west-central and southwestern Virginia to eastern Tennessee) extends along the eastern limit of the Trenton Limestone in the thrust-faulted eastern margin of the Appalachian basin; (4) the southwestern boundary (from eastern Tennessee, through eastern Kentucky, to southwestern Ohio) extends along the approximate facies change from the Trenton Limestone with thin black shale interbeds (on the east) to the equivalent Lexington Limestone without black shale interbeds (on the west); (5) the northern part of the boundary in southwestern Ohio

  11. A study of the effects of enhanced oil recovery agents on the quality of Strategic Petroleum Reserves crude oil. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Kabadi, V.N.

    1992-10-01

    The project was initiated on September 1, 1990. The objective of the project was to carry out a literature search to estimate the types and extents of long time interactions of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents, such as surfactants, caustics and polymers, with crude oil. This information is necessary to make recommendations about mixing EOR crude oil with crude oils from primary and secondary recovery processes in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Data were sought on both adverse and beneficial effects of EOR agents that would impact handling, transportation and refining of crude oil. An extensive literature search has been completed, and the following informations has been compiled: (1) a listing of existing EOR test and field projects; (2) a listing of currently used EOR agents; and (3) evidence of short and long term physical and chemical interactions of these EOR-agents with hydrocarbons, and their effects on the quality of crude oil at long times. This information is presented in this report. Finally some conclusions are derived and recommendations are made. Although the conclusions are based mostly on extrapolations because of lack of specific data, it is recommended that the enhancement of the rates of biodegradation of oil catalyzed by the EOR agents needs to be further studied. There is no evidence of substantial long term effects on crude oil because of other interactions. Some recommendations are also made regarding the types of studies that would be necessary to determine the effect of certain EOR agents on the rates of biodegradation of crude oil.

  12. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-26

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  13. Role of reservoir engineering in the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, M.K.; Bird, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    The geology and reservoir-engineering data were integrated in the 2002 U.S. Geological Survey assessment of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA). VVhereas geology defined the analog pools and fields and provided the basic information on sizes and numbers of hypothesized petroleum accumulations, reservoir engineering helped develop necessary equations and correlations, which allowed the determination of reservoir parameters for better quantification of in-place petroleum volumes and recoverable reserves. Seismic- and sequence-stratigraphic study of the NPRA resulted in identification of 24 plays. Depth ranges in these 24 plays, however, were typically greater than depth ranges of analog plays for which there were available data, necessitating the need for establishing correlations. The basic parameters required were pressure, temperature, oil and gas formation volume factors, liquid/gas ratios for the associated and nonassociated gas, and recovery factors. Finally, the re sults of U.S. Geological Survey deposit simulation were used in carrying out an economic evaluation, which has been separately published. Copyright ?? 2005. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  14. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  15. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PPM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o. b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  16. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  17. Profiles of Reservoir Properties of Oil-Bearing Plays for Selected Petroleum Provinces in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freeman, P.A.; Attanasi, E.D.

    2016-01-01

    Each province profile figure consists of five strip charts and a boxplot. The five strip charts display for individual plays the following reservoir-fluid and reservoir properties: A, oil density (American Petroleum Institute [API] gravity in degrees); B, computed pseudo-Dykstra-Parsons coefficient; C, reservoir porosity (in percent); D, reservoir permeability (in millidarcies); and E, estimates of the original oil in place (OOIP) per unit volume of reservoir rock (in barrels per acre-foot). The OOIP per unit volume of reservoir rock is an indicator of the relative richness of the oil reservoir and is derived from estimates in the CRD of OOIP, reservoir acreage, and net pay. The net pay is the interval of productive reservoir rock. The same data for OOIP per unit volume are graphed as a strip chart (E) and a boxplot (F).

  18. [Oil pollution status expressed as the fraction of dissolved and dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons].

    PubMed

    Acuña-González, Jenaro; Vargas-Zamora, José A; Gómez-Ramírez, Eddy; García-Céspedes, Jairo

    2004-12-01

    Four coastal ecosystems with contrasting characteristics were sampled in Costa Rica (2000-2002). Oil pollution status, expressed as the fraction of dissolved/dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons related to chrysene equivalents, was determined by the molecular fluorescence analytical technique. A total of 130 water samples were taken, from the Caribbean (Moín Bay), and from the Pacific (Bahía Culebra, Gulf of Nicoya and Dulce Gulf). On one occasion, seven samples along the Puntarenas estuary were also analysed. In Moín the mean and standard deviation were 0.10 microg x L(-1) +/- 0.18 micro x L(-1), ranging from non detectable (nd) to 0.65 microg x L(-1). For the Pacific ecosystems the total range was from nd to 0.37 microg x L(-1). In Bahia Culebra no fluorescence signals were obtained. In the Gulf of Nicoya the mean and standard deviation were 0.04 microg x L(-1) +/- 0.09 microg x L(-1), from nd to 0.33 microg x L(-1). Values in Dulce Gulf were 0.05 microg x L(-1) +/- 0.11 microg x L(-1), from nd to 0.37 microg x L(-1). Along the Puntarenas estuary the range was 0.17 to 5.91 microg x L(-1), with a mean of 1.21 microg x L(-1) and a standard deviation of +/- 2.10 microg x L(-1). The four coastal ecosystems had concentrations below the 10 microg x L(-1) limit for polluted oceanic areas. The Puntarenas estuary reflects the influence of antropogenic activities from and around the City of Puntarenas. These levels are considered low for inshore waters. PMID:17465131

  19. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. The feature article is entitled ``The Second Oxygenated Gasoline Season.`` 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  20. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  1. CHARACTERISTICS OF SPILLED OILS, FUELS, AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS: 3A. SIMULATION OF OIL SPILLS AND DISPERSANTS UNDER CONDITIONS OF UNCERTAINTY

    EPA Science Inventory

    At the request of the US EPA Oil Program Center, ERD is developing an oil spill model that focuses on fate and transport of oil components under various response scenarios. This model includes various simulation options, including the use of chemical dispersing agents on oil sli...

  2. Extraction of whole versus ground source rocks: Fundamental petroleum geochemical implications including oil-source rock correlation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, L.C.; Clayton, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    In petroleum geochemistry, extractable hydrocarbons (HCs) in source rocks have typically been studied by grinding the rock to a fine powder (???100 mesh) and then extracting the HCs from the rock with a solvent. This procedure carries the implicit assumption that the HCs are homogeneously distributed throughout the rock. However, sequential Soxhlet extractions of whole (unpowdered) source rocks have shown that progressive extracts from the same rock can be quite different and may not even correlate with each other. A crude oil-like material clearly has been fractionated from indigenous bitumen in these rocks, has moved to cracks and parting laminae in the rocks, is ready for expulsion from the rocks, and is thus most accessible to the first extracting solvents. This process, which we believe is largely due to HC gases and carbon dioxide generated over all maturation ranks in source rocks, carries petroleum geochemical implications of a fundamental nature for oil-source rock correlations and gives insight into primary migration mechanisms, origin of oil deposits, and use of maturity and organic-facies indices. ?? 1992.

  3. Concentrations in human blood of petroleum hydrocarbons associated with the BP/Deepwater Horizon oil spill, Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sammarco, Paul W; Kolian, Stephan R; Warby, Richard A F; Bouldin, Jennifer L; Subra, Wilma A; Porter, Scott A

    2016-04-01

    During/after the BP/Deepwater Horizon oil spill, cleanup workers, fisherpersons, SCUBA divers, and coastal residents were exposed to crude oil and dispersants. These people experienced acute physiological and behavioral symptoms and consulted a physician. They were diagnosed with petroleum hydrocarbon poisoning and had blood analyses analyzed for volatile organic compounds; samples were drawn 5-19 months after the spill had been capped. We examined the petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in the blood. The aromatic compounds m,p-xylene, toluene, ethylbenzene, benzene, o-xylene, and styrene, and the alkanes hexane, 3-methylpentane, 2-methylpentane, and iso-octane were detected. Concentrations of the first four aromatics were not significantly different from US National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey/US National Institute of Standards and Technology 95th percentiles, indicating high concentrations of contaminants. The other two aromatics and the alkanes yielded equivocal results or significantly low concentrations. The data suggest that single-ring aromatic compounds are more persistent in the blood than alkanes and may be responsible for the observed symptoms. People should avoid exposure to crude oil through avoidance of the affected region, or utilizing hazardous materials suits if involved in cleanup, or wearing hazardous waste operations and emergency response suits if SCUBA diving. Concentrations of alkanes and PAHs in the blood of coastal residents and workers should be monitored through time well after the spill has been controlled. PMID:25998020

  4. Final report study of alternatives for future operations of the naval petroleum and oil shale reserves NPR-2, California

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has asked Gustavson Associates, Inc. to serve as an Independent Petroleum Consultant under contract DE-AC01-96FE64202. This authorizes a study and recommendations regarding future development of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (NPR-2) in Kern County, California. The report that follows is the Phase II Final Report for that study. Additional details are provided in the Addendum (the Phase I Property Description and Fact Finding Report). The key property elements that positively affect the estimated value of NPR-2 include the following: royalty income from producing oil and gas leases, rental income from non-producing oil and gas leases, income from grazing or leasing of grazing rights, potential income from oil and gas leasing on exploratory (or nonprospective) acreage, potential value of trading surface real estate as ranch land for sheep grazing (10,044 acres), and town lots for residential or commercial development (16.7 acres). Key elements that negatively impact the estimated value include: environmental assessment costs, operating budgets, and lease sale expenses.

  5. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System, Taranaki Basin Assessment Unit, New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wandrey, Craig J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2013-01-01

    The Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System coincident Taranaki Basin Assessment Unit was recently assessed for undiscovered technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) World Energy Resources Project, World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 487 million barrels of oil, 9.8 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 408 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  6. Feasibility report on alternative methods for cooling cavern oils at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve.

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, Bruce L.; Lord, David L.; Hadgu, Teklu

    2005-06-01

    Oil caverns at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) are subjected to geothermal heating from the surrounding domal salt. This process raises the temperature of the crude oil from around 75 F upon delivery to SPR to as high as 130 F after decades of storage. While this temperature regime is adequate for long-term storage, it poses challenges for offsite delivery, with warm oil evolving gases that pose handling and safety problems. SPR installed high-capacity oil coolers in the mid-1990's to mitigate the emissions problem by lowering the oil delivery temperature. These heat exchanger units use incoming raw water as the cooling fluid, and operate only during a drawdown event where incoming water displaces the outgoing oil. The design criteria for the heat exchangers are to deliver oil at 100 F or less under all drawdown conditions. Increasing crude oil vapor pressures due in part to methane intrusion in the caverns is threatening to produce sufficient emissions at or near 100 F to cause the cooled oil to violate delivery requirements. This impending problem has initiated discussion and analysis of alternative cooling methods to bring the oil temperature even lower than the original design basis of 100 F. For the study described in this report, two alternative cooling methods were explored: (1) cooling during a limited drawdown, and (2) cooling during a degas operation. Both methods employ the heat exchangers currently in place, and do not require extra equipment. An analysis was run using two heat transfer models, HEATEX, and CaveMan, both developed at Sandia National Laboratories. For cooling during a limited drawdown, the cooling water flowrate through the coolers was varied from 1:1 water:oil to about 3:1, with an increased cooling capacity of about 3-7 F for the test cavern Bryan Mound 108 depending upon seasonal temperature effects. For cooling in conjunction with a degas operation in the winter, cavern oil temperatures for the test cavern Big Hill 102 were

  7. Evaluation of western shale-oil residue as an additive to petroleum asphalt for use as a pavement crack and joint sealant material

    SciTech Connect

    Harnsberger, P.M.; Wolf, J.M.; Robertson, R.E.

    1992-11-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a preliminary evaluation of using a distillation residue from Green River Formation (western) shale oil as an additive to a petroleum asphalt for use as a crack and joint filler material in portland cement concrete and asphaltic pavements. A commercially available rubberized asphalt crack and joint filler material was also tested for comparison. ASTM specification tests for sealant materials used in concrete and asphalt pavements were performed on the sealant materials. Portland cement concrete briquets prepared with an asphalt material sandwiched between two concrete wafers were tested in a stress-relaxation experiment to evaluate the relaxation and recovery properties of the sealant materials. The results show that the shale-oil modified petroleum asphalts and the neat petroleum asphalt do not pass the extension portion of the ASTM test; however, there is indication of improvement in the adhesive properties of the shale-oil modified asphalts. There is also evidence that the addition of shale-oil residue to the petroleum asphalt, especially at the 20% level, improves the relaxation and recovery properties compared with the petroleum asphalt.

  8. Representative Bulk Composition of Oil Types for the 2002 U.S. Geological Survey Resource Assessment of National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lillis, Paul G.

    2004-01-01

    Bulk oil composition is an important economic consideration of a petroleum resource assessment. Geological and geochemical interpretations from previous North Slope studies combined with recently acquired geochemical data are used to predict representative oil gravity (?API) and sulfur content (wt.% S) of the oil types for the 2002 U.S. Geological Survey resource assessment of the National Petroleum Reserve of Alaska (NPRA). The oil types are named after their respective source rock units and include Kuna-Lisburne, Shublik-Otuk, Kingak-Blankenship, and Pebble-GRZ-Torok. The composition of the oil (24?API, 1.6 wt.% S) in the South Barrow 12 well was selected as representative of Kuna-Lisburne oil. The average gravity and sulfur values (23?API and 1.6 wt.% S, respectively) of the Kuparuk field were selected to be representative of Shublik-Otuk oil type. The composition of the oil (39?API, 0.3 wt.% S) from the Alpine field discovery well (ARCO Bergschrund 1) was selected to be representative of Kingak-Blankenship oil. The oil composition (37?API, 0.1 wt.% S) of Tarn field was considered representative of the Pebble-GRZ-Torok oil type in NPRA.

  9. Anicteric hepatoxicity: a potential health risk of occupational exposures in Nigerian petroleum oil refining and distribution industry

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Literature abounds linking one’s job to certain unpalatable health outcomes. Since exposures to hazardous conditions in industrial environments often results in sundry health effects among workers, we embarked on this study to investigate the hepatic health effects of occupational activities in the petroleum refining and distribution industry. Method Biochemical markers of liver functions were assayed in plasma, using Reflotron dry chemistry spectrophotometric system. The study was conducted on randomly selected workers of Port Harcourt Refining Company (PHRC) and Pipelines and Petroleum Product Marketing Company (PPMC) both in Alesa-Eleme near Port Harcourt, Nigeria, as well as non-oil work civil servants serving as control subjects. Result and conclusion Results showed that, bilirubin ranged 0.3-1.6 mg/dl with a mean of 0.66±0.20mg/dl among the oil workers as against 0.5-1.00mg/dl with a mean of 0.58±0.13mg/dl in non-oil workers, Alkaline phosphatase ranged 50.00-296.00u/l (mean: 126.21±39.49u/l) in oil workers as against 40.20-111u/l (mean: 66.83±18.54u/l) for non-oil workers, Aspartic transaminases (AST) ranged 5.80-140.20u/l (mean: 21.81±11.49u/l) in oil workers against 18.00-44.00u/l (mean: 26.89±6.99u/l) for non-oil workers, while Alanine transaminases (ALT) ranged 4.90-86.00u/l (mean: 22.14±11.28u/l) in oil workers as against 10.00-86.60u/l (mean: 22.30±10.22u/l) for the non-oil workers. A close study of the results revealed that although the mean values for all the studied parameters were still within the parametric reference ranges, however, relative to the referents, there were significant increases (P<0.05) in plasma bilirubin (though anicteric) and alkaline phosphatase that was not matched with a corresponding increase in the plasma transaminases, suggesting a possibility that toxic anicteric hepatoxicity is part of the potential health effects of sundry exposures in the Nigeria petroleum oil refining and distribution industry

  10. Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Canadian Oil Sands Products: Implications for U.S. Petroleum Fuels.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hao; Brandt, Adam R; Yeh, Sonia; Englander, Jacob G; Han, Jeongwoo; Elgowainy, Amgad; Wang, Michael Q

    2015-07-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) regulations affecting U.S. transportation fuels require holistic examination of the life-cycle emissions of U.S. petroleum feedstocks. With an expanded system boundary that included land disturbance-induced GHG emissions, we estimated well-to-wheels (WTW) GHG emissions of U.S. production of gasoline and diesel sourced from Canadian oil sands. Our analysis was based on detailed characterization of the energy intensities of 27 oil sands projects, representing industrial practices and technological advances since 2008. Four major oil sands production pathways were examined, including bitumen and synthetic crude oil (SCO) from both surface mining and in situ projects. Pathway-average GHG emissions from oil sands extraction, separation, and upgrading ranged from ∼6.1 to ∼27.3 g CO2 equivalents per megajoule (in lower heating value, CO2e/MJ). This range can be compared to ∼4.4 g CO2e/MJ for U.S. conventional crude oil recovery. Depending on the extraction technology and product type output of oil sands projects, the WTW GHG emissions for gasoline and diesel produced from bitumen and SCO in U.S. refineries were in the range of 100-115 and 99-117 g CO2e/MJ, respectively, representing, on average, about 18% and 21% higher emissions than those derived from U.S. conventional crudes. WTW GHG emissions of gasoline and diesel derived from diluted bitumen ranged from 97 to 103 and 96 to 104 g CO2e/MJ, respectively, showing the effect of diluent use on fuel emissions. PMID:26054375

  11. Disentangling oil weathering at a marine seep using GC x GC: broad metabolic specificity accompanies subsurface petroleum biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Wardlaw, George D; Arey, J Samuel; Reddy, Christopher M; Nelson, Robert K; Ventura, G Todd; Valentine, David L

    2008-10-01

    Natural seeps contribute nearly half of the oil entering the coastal ocean. However, environmental fate studies generally monitor fewer than 5% of these petroleum compounds. Hence, the rates and relevance of physical, chemical, and biological weathering processes are unknown for the large majority of hydrocarbons, both released from natural seeps and also from human activities. To investigate the specific compositional changes occurring in petroleum during subsurface degradation and submarine seepage, we studied the natural oil seeps offshore Santa Barbara, California with comprehensive, two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC). With this technique, we quantified changes in the molecular diversity and abundance of hydrocarbons between subsurface reservoirs, a proximal sea floor seep, and the sea surface overlying the seep. We also developed methods to apportion hydrocarbon mass losses due to biodegradation, dissolution, and evaporation, for hundreds of tracked compounds that ascended from the subsurface to the sea floor to the sea surface. The results provide the first quantitative evidence of broad metabolic specificity for anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation in the subsurface and reveal new trends of rapid hydrocarbon evaporation at the sea surface. This study establishes GC x GC as a powerful technique for differentiating biological and physical weathering processes of complex mixtures at a molecular level. PMID:18939542

  12. Naphthenic acids speciation and removal during petroleum-coke adsorption and ozonation of oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Gamal El-Din, Mohamed; Fu, Hongjing; Wang, Nan; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Pérez-Estrada, Leonidas; Drzewicz, Przemysław; Martin, Jonathan W; Zubot, Warren; Smith, Daniel W

    2011-11-01

    The Athabasca Oil Sands industry produces large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) as a result of bitumen extraction and upgrading processes. Constituents of OSPW include chloride, naphthenic acids (NAs), aromatic hydrocarbons, and trace heavy metals, among other inorganic and organic compounds. To address the environmental issues associated with the recycling and/or safe return of OSPW into the environment, water treatment technologies are required. This study examined, for the first time, the impacts of pretreatment steps, including filtration and petroleum-coke adsorption, on ozonation requirements and performance. The effect of the initial OSPW pH on treatment performance, and the evolution of ozonation and its impact on OSPW toxicity and biodegradability were also examined. The degradation of more than 76% of total acid-extractable organics was achieved using a semi-batch ozonation system at a utilized ozone dose of 150 mg/L. With a utilized ozone dose of 100 mg/L, the treated OSPW became more biodegradable and showed no toxicity towards Vibrio fischeri. Changes in the NA profiles in terms of carbon number and number of rings were observed after ozonation. The filtration of the OSPW did not improve the ozonation performance. Petroleum-coke adsorption was found to be effective in reducing total acid-extractable organics by a 91%, NA content by an 84%, and OSPW toxicity from 4.3 to 1.1 toxicity units. The results of this study indicate that the combination of petroleum-coke adsorption and ozonation is a promising treatment approach to treat OSPW. PMID:21907388

  13. Assessment of the Mesaverde Total Petroleum System in Southwestern Wyoming Province: a petroleum system approach to assessing undiscovered oil and gas resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in a recent assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Southwestern Wyoming Province using a Total Petroleum System (TPS) approach, estimated a mean of 84.6 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG), 131 million barrels of oil (MMBO) and 2.6 billion barrels of natural gas liquids (BBNGL) that have the potential to be added to reserves over the next 30 years. Only a fraction of this, however, may be economically recoverable . Of the total estimate of 84.6 TCFG, a mean of 25.78 TCFG is in continuous-type reservoirs in the Mesaverde TPS. The Mesaverde TPS is defined as all reservoirs predominantly containing gas derived from the Mesaverde Group east of the pinchout of the Lewis Shale, which acts as a top seal separating the Mesaverde TPS from the overlying Lewis TPS. Continuous-type reservoirs in the Mesaverde TPS were subdivided into the Almond Continuous Gas Assessment Unit (AU) (mean of 13.35 TCFG), Rock Springs-Ericson Continuous Gas AU (mean of 12.18 TCFG), and the Mesaverde Coalbed Gas AU (mean of 0.25 TCFG). Geologic analysis was used to determine the favorable ?sweet spots? for potential gas resources. The Almond AU has been heavily explored at depths less than 11,000 ft, thus additions to reserves will most likely be the result of infill drilling in existing fields and the discovery of sweet spots at depths greater than 11,000 ft. There is much uncertainty in the size of undiscovered resource in the Rock Springs-Ericson AU because potential reservoirs are only sparsely explored. Only a small fraction of in-place coal-bed gas is considered to be recoverable because of low permeability and problems posed by produced water.

  14. Strategic Petroleum Reserve, West Hackberry oil storage cavern fire and spill of September 21, 1978: an environmental assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A

    1980-02-29

    This report summarizes an environmental assessment of the fire and oil spill at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve site, West Hackberry, Louisiana. Subjective identification of oil contaminated habitats was supported by a more rigorous classification of samples utilizing discriminant analysis. Fourteen contaminated stations were identified along the shore of Black Lake just north and west of Wellpad 6, encompassing approximately 9 hectares. Seasonal variation in the structures of marsh and lake bottom communities in this contaminated area were not generally distinguishable from that of similar communities in uncontaminated habitats along the southern and southeastern shores of Black Lake. The major impact of spilled oil on the marsh vegetation was to accelerate the natural marsh deterioration which will eventually impact animals dependent on marsh vegetation for habitat structure. Vanadium, the predominate trace metal in the oil, and pyrogenic products due to the fire were found at the most distant sampling site (5 km) from Cavern 6 during Phase I, but were not detected downwind of the fire in excess of background levels in the later phases. Remote sensing evaluation of vegetation under the plume also indicated that stress existed immediately after the fire, but had disappeared by the end of the 1-year survey.

  15. On the nature and origin of acidic species in petroleum. 1. Detailed acid type distribution in a California crude oil.

    SciTech Connect

    Tomczyk, N. A.; Winans, R. E.; Shinn, J. H.; Robinson, R. C.; Chemistry; Chevron Research and Technology Co.

    2001-11-21

    Acidity in crude oils has long been a problem for refining. Knowledge of the detailed chemical composition of the acids responsible for corrosion can facilitate identification of problem crude oils and potentially lead to improved processing options for corrosive oils. A highly aerobically biodegraded crude from the San Joaquin Valley, which has a long history of causing corrosion problems during refining, was the subject of this study. The oil was first extracted with base, then acidified and extracted with petroleum ether. A portion of the resulting acid fraction was methylated. The unmethylated extract was analyzed by FTIR, NMR, and the methylated sample was analyzed by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Over 96% of the ions observed in HRMS have been assigned reliable formulas. Considerably greater functionality is seen in this sample than would be presumed from the 'naphthenic acid' title typically assigned to these species. Although over 60% of the compounds contained two or more oxygens, compounds containing only oxygen heteroatoms accounted for less than 10% of the acidic compounds identified. Approximately one-half of the species contained nitrogen and about one-fourth contained sulfur. It is believed that microbial degradation is a major source of these acidic components. It was also observed that acid species with higher degrees of heteroatom substitution generally also had a higher degree of saturation than those species having less heteroatoms, possibly due to impeded migration of highly substituted, less-saturated species.

  16. Strategic petroleum reserve (SPR): oil-storage cavern, Sulphur Mines 6 certification tests and analysis. [Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Beasley, R.R.

    1982-04-01

    Well leak tests and a cavern pressure test were conducted in June and July 1981 and indicated that oil leakage from the cavern is unlikely to exceed the DOE criterion if oil is stored at near atmospheric wellhead brine pressures and higher pressures are only used for short periods of oil fill and withdrawal. The data indicate that cavern structural failure during oil storage is unlikely and that there was no leakage from cavern 6 to the adjacent cavern 7. Because of the proximity of cavern 6 to cavern 7, it is recommended that a similar type of oil be stored in these two caverns.

  17. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming, Casper, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    This report presents the preliminary environmental findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming (NPOSR-CUW) conducted June 6 through 17, 1988. NPOSR consists of the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3) in Wyoming, the Naval Oil Shale Reserves No. 1 and 3 (NOSR-1 and NOSR-3) in Colorado and the Naval Oil Shale Reserve No. 2 (NOSR-2) in Utah. NOSR-2 was not included in the Survey because it had not been actively exploited at the time of the on-site Survey. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, lead and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team specialists are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with NPOSR. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at NPOSR and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team has developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing specific environmental problems identified at NOSR-3 during the on-site Survey. There were no findings associated with either NPR-3 or NOSR-1 that required Survey-related sampling and Analysis. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the Environmental Survey Summary report. The Summary Report will reflect the final determinations of the NPOSR-CUW Survey and the other DOE site-specific Surveys. 110 refs., 38 figs., 24 tabs.

  18. Biomarker chemistry and flux quantification methods for natural petroleum seeps and produced oils, offshore southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenson, T.D.; Leifer, Ira; Wong, Florence L.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Campbell, Pamela L.; Lam, Angela; Hostettler, Frances D.; Greinert, Jens; Finlayson, David P.; Bradley, Eliza S.; Luyendyk, Bruce P.

    2011-01-01

    Sustained, natural oil seepage from the seafloor is common off southern California, and is of great interest to resource managers, who are tasked with distinguishing natural from anthropogenic oil sources. The major purpose of this study was to build upon the work previously funded by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that has refined the oil-fingerprinting process to enable differentiation of the highly similar Monterey Formation oils from Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) production and adjacent natural seeps. In these initial studies, biomarker and stable carbon isotope ratios were used to infer the age, lithology, organic-matter input, and depositional environment of the source rocks for 388 samples of produced crude oil, seep oil, and tarballs mainly from coastal California. The analysis resulted in a predictive model of oil source families that could be applied to samples of unknown origin.

  19. Acaricidal activity of petroleum ether extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil and its four fractions separated by column chromatography against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi larvae in vitro.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yunxia; Shi, Dongxia; Yin, Zhongqiong; Guo, Jianhong; Jia, Renyong; Xu, Jiao; Song, Xu; Lv, Cheng; Fan, Qiaojia; Liang, Xiaoxia; Shi, Fei; Ye, Gang; Zhang, Wei

    2012-04-01

    The petroleum ether extract of neem oil and its four fractions separated by column chromatography was diluted at different concentrations with liquid paraffin. The acaricidal bioassay was conducted using a dipping method. The results indicated that the median lethal concentration (LC50) of the petroleum ether extract (at the concentration of 500.0ml/l) was 70.9ml/l, 24h after treatment. At concentrations of 500.0, 250.0, 125.0, 62.5 and 31.2ml/l, the median lethal times (LT50) of the petroleum ether extract were 8.7, 8.8, 10.8, 11.5 and 13.1h, respectively. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) showed that the petroleum ether extract of neem oil separated into four fractions (F1-F4). Acaricidal activity of 68.3% and 100.0% in the F2 and F4 was confirmed. These results suggest that petroleum ether extracts of neem oil and its four fractions possess useful acaricidal activity in vitro. PMID:22349080

  20. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographical regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US.

  1. An air quality emission inventory of offshore operations for the exploration and production of petroleum by the Mexican oil industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villasenor, R.; Magdaleno, M.; Quintanar, A.; Gallardo, J. C.; López, M. T.; Jurado, R.; Miranda, A.; Aguilar, M.; Melgarejo, L. A.; Palmerín, E.; Vallejo, C. J.; Barchet, W. R.

    An air quality screening study was performed to assess the impacts of emissions from the offshore operations of the oil and gas exploration and production by Mexican industry in the Campeche Sound, which includes the states of Tabasco and Campeche in southeast Mexico. The major goal of this study was the compilation of an emission inventory (EI) for elevated, boom and ground level flares, processes, internal combustion engines and fugitive emissions. This inventory is so far the most comprehensive emission register that has ever been developed for the Mexican petroleum industry in this area. The EI considered 174 offshore platforms, the compression station at Atasta, and the Maritime Ports at Dos Bocas and Cayo Arcas. The offshore facilities identified as potential emitters in the area were the following: (1) trans-shipment stations, (2) a maritime floating port terminal, (3) drilling platforms, (4) crude oil recovering platforms, (5) crude oil production platforms, (6) linking platforms, (7) water injection platforms, (8) pumping platforms, (9) shelter platforms, (10) telecommunication platforms, (11) crude oil measurement platforms, and (12) flaring platforms. Crude oil storage tanks, helicopters and marine ship tankers were also considered to have an EI accurate enough for air quality regulations and mesoscale modeling of atmospheric pollutants. Historical ambient data measure at two onshore petroleum facilities were analyzed to measure air quality impacts on nearby inhabited coastal areas, and a source-receptor relationship for flares at the Ixtoc marine complex was performed to investigate health-based standards for offshore workers. A preliminary air quality model simulation was performed to observe the transport and dispersion patterns of SO 2, which is the main pollutant emitted from the offshore platforms. The meteorological wind and temperature fields were generated with CALMET, a diagnostic meteorological model that used surface observations and upper

  2. US Department of Energy Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves combined financial statements and management overview and supplemental financial and management information, September 30, 1995 and 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-15

    This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountant`s audit of the Department of Energy`s (Department) Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves (NPOSR) financial statements as of September 30, 1995. The auditors have expressed an unqualified opinion on the 1995 statements. Their reports on the NPOSR internal control structure and compliance with laws and regulations are also provided.

  3. Biotransformation of petroleum hydrocarbons and microbial communities in seawater with oil dispersions and copepod feces.

    PubMed

    Størdal, Ingvild Fladvad; Olsen, Anders Johny; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Netzer, Roman; Altin, Dag; Brakstad, Odd Gunnar

    2015-12-30

    To determine biotransformation of components in crude oil dispersions in the presence of feces from marine copepods, dispersed oil was incubated alone, with the addition of clean or oil-containing feces. We hypothesized that the feces would contribute with nutrients to bacteria, and higher concentrations of oil-degrading bacteria, respectively. Presence of clean feces resulted in higher degradation of aromatic oil compounds, but lower degradation of n-alkanes. Presence of oil-containing feces resulted in higher degradation of n-alkanes. The effect of clean feces on aromatic compounds are suggested to be due to higher concentrations of nutrients in the seawater where aromatic degradation takes place, while the lower degradation of n-alkanes are suggested to be due to a preference by bacteria for feces over these compounds. Large aggregates were observed in oil dispersions with clean feces, which may cause sedimentation of un-weathered lipophilic oil compounds towards the seafloor if formed during oil spills. PMID:26494249

  4. Detection of natural oil seeps as a guide to petroleum exploration using new generation remote sensor data

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R.N.

    1989-03-01

    The remote-sensing literature gives ample reference to oil-seep related anomalies and their use as exploration guides. Little technical evidence has been published examining the cause-and-effect relationship between surface signature and petroleum traps. An attempt was made to detect spectral signatures (tonal and textural) related to known natural oil seeps to establish criteria for remote detection of additional seeps in frontier areas. Sites included a variety of physical settings where surface expression of geologic structure, topography, vegetation, and degree of field development were varied to determine the hypothetical potential for discovery by remote-sensing techniques. Test sites included known shallow fields in Indonesia, oil sands in northern Alberta, and giant fields in the Middle East and western US. Results indicated tonal data recorded by Landsat helped discriminate possible unique (i.e. seep-related) but site-dependent signatures. SPOT 10-m resolution panchromatic data were most useful for detecting subtle textural signatures that are possibly seep related. Additional information is being analyzed, and intersite correlations between surface and sensor are being examined.

  5. Electrical Conductivity Of Carbon Pellets Prepared From Mixtures Of Pyropolymers From Oil Palm Bunches and Petroleum Green Coke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deraman, M.; Awitdrus, Talib, I. A.; Omar, R.; Jumali, M. H.; Ishak, M. M.; Saad, S. K. M.; Taer, E.; Saman, M. M.; Farma, R.; Yunus, R. M.

    2010-12-01

    Green pellets (GPs), prepared at different compression pressures (cs = 6, 7.5 and 12 metric tonne) from mixtures containing self-adhesive carbon grains (sacg) from the oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and different percentages (pr = 0 to 90%) of a non self-adhesive powder of petroleum green coke (ppgc), were carbonized (800° C) and activated with CO2 to produce carbon pellets (CPs). The measured electrical conductivity (σ) of the CP for all cs showed a curve having a minimum value at pr around 50%, indicating that the conducting phase displays a nonlinear σ- pr relationship. A significant increase in the σ due to CO2 activation was observed. For a sufficienctly high cs, an existence of a pr range in which the σ varies linearly with the density was also observed. These results provide some new information for modifying the electrical conductivity of carbon derived from the sacg from EFB or other types of biomass.

  6. Petroleum geology of Giant oil and gas fields in Turpan Basin Xinjiang China

    SciTech Connect

    Boliang, Hu; Jiajing, Yang,

    1995-08-01

    Turpan Basin is the smallest and the last development basin in three big basins of Xinjiang autonomous region, P.R. China. Since April, 1989, the Shanshan oilfield was discovered, the Oinling, Wenjisang, Midang, Baka, Qiudong and North Putaogou fields were discovered. In 1994, the crude oil productivity of Turpan Basin was a Million tons, with an estimated output of 3 million tons per year by 1995; obviously a key oil productive base in the west basins of China, Tarim, Jungar, Chaidam, Hexi, Erduos and Sichuan Basins. The Turpan Basin is an intermontane basin in a eugeosyncline foldbelt of the north Tianshan Mountains. The oil and gas was produced from the payzone of the Xishanyao, Sanjianfang and Qiketai Formatiosn of the Middle Jurassic series. The geochemical characteristics of the crude oil and gas indicate they derive from the Middle to Lower Jurassic coal series, in which contains the best oil-prone source rocks in the basin.

  7. U-Th-Pb in petroleum by LA-ICP-MS: Source rocks-crude oils comparison.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourlan, Alexandra T.; Ricard, Estelle; Prinzhofer, Alain; Christophe, Pecheyran; Donard, Olivier X. C.

    2010-05-01

    The U, Th elemental and Pb isotopic ratios in petroleum source rocks have been determined for the first time and compared with crude oils from different regions in the World using a femtosecond laser ablation (high ablation rates) coupled to an ICP-MS and direct analysis of digested samples on ICP-MS. The advantage of femtosecond compared to nanosecond laser ablation is that it drastically reduces thermal effects, minimizes isotope and elemental fractionation and matrix effects during chemical analysis of solid samples. Fs-Laser Ablation coupled to an ICP-MS is therefore a potentially valuable tool for the determination of trace metals in crude oils as well as in solid samples such as source rocks. The principal problems encountered arise from the lack of isotopic lead standards in organic matrixes and the heterogeneity of source rocks which contain sulphides with high natural U and Th concentrations. Therefore, to determine exactly the U, Th and Pb contents in source rocks, two analytical techniques have to be compared. In one, the use of the laser ablation allows us to analyze in-situ small parts of the organic materials and to determine the proportions of two end members: pure kerogene and pure sulphides. In the other, the use of the conventional dissolution of the same pellets involves total consumption of the sample and gives an average value of the isotopic lead ratios and U, Th and Pb concentrations of the bulk sample. For the two cases a "sample-standard bracketing" procedure was applied using NIST 612 glass standard for ablation and NIST 981 in aqueous solution for the mineralization. Due to the lack of organic matrix standards, the fs-LA-ICP-MS technique produces only qualitative trace element (U, Th and Pb) and isotopic analysis of source rocks. Our results obtained on both crude oils and associated source rocks have shown that Th, U, Pb systematics determined using the two analytical methods (mineralization of kerogen directly analyzed on ICP-MS or MC

  8. H. R. 4564: a bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 to provide a deduction and special net operating loss rules with respect to certain losses on domestic crude oil, to increase tariffs on petroleum and petroleum products, to require the Strategic Petroleum Reserve to be filled with stripper well oil, and to eliminate certain restrictions on the sale of natural gas and on the use of natural gas and oil. Introduced in the House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, April 10, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The Secure Energy Supply Act of 1986 amends the Internal Revenue Code of 1954. Title I provides a deduction and special net operating loss treatment for certain losses on crude oil. Title II increases tariffs on petroleum and petroleum products, the revenues of which will cover authorized refunds. Title III provides that only stripper well oil or oil exchanged for stripper well oil will be used to fill the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Title IV removes wellhead price controls and repeals Natural Gas Act jurisdiction over certain first sales of natural gas. Later titles repeal certain restrictions on the use of natural gas and petroleum, repeal incremental pricing requirements, and promote flexibility in rescheduling or marking down troubled loans. The bill was referred to the House Committees on Ways and Means, Energy and Commerce, and Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs.

  9. Enhanced recovery of petroleum

    SciTech Connect

    Buinicky, E.P.; Estes, J.H.

    1980-09-16

    An enhanced oil recovery method comprising injecting an aqueous ammonium bisulfite (NH/sub 4/HSO/sub 3/) solution into a petroleum-bearing earth formation, heating said injected aqueous solution to a temperature in the range of about 120*-300* F., or higher in the presence of said petroleum-bearing earth formation, flowing said aqueous solution through said petroleum bearing earth formation to drive petroleum to a recovery well, and producing increased amounts of petroleum from said earth formation through said recovery well.

  10. Toxicity of ingested crude petroleum oil to marine birds: pathology and pathogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Leighton, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    A series of experiments was carried out to identify toxic effects of ingested Prudhoe Bay crude oil in nestling herring gulls (Larus argentatus) and Atlantic puffins (Fratercula arctica). Wild-caught birds were brought to the laboratory, maintained on a marine diet and given oral doses of oil. Initial results identified anemia as a toxic effect of oil ingestion and subsequent experiments focussed on the erythron as a target tissue. Hemolytic anemia with Heinz bodies in red blood cells ocurred in gulls and puffins that ingested greater than or equal to 10 ml oil per kg per day for 4-5 days. Anemia developed precipitously as a hemolytic crisis. Structural lesions in red cells included Heinz body formation, anisocytosis, severe distortions of cell shape, plasma membrane crenulation, mineralization of mitochondria, formation of abnormal cytoplasmic vesicles, and both abnormally high and abnormally low cytoplasmic density. These data permitted correlative evaluation of ultrastructural and biochemical changes in red cells experiencing oxidant stress due to oil ingestion. Several other lesions occurred on both oil-dosed and control birds but were significantly more prevalent in the former. These lesions were focal adrenal necrosis, depletion of adrenal lipid, depletion of lymphocytes in thymus and bursa of Fabricius, and virus infection of the bursa of Fabricius. These latter lesions suggested immunosuppression in oil-dosed birds. In a pilot study, oral doses of disulfiram prevented the usual induction of hepatic mixed-function oxidases caused by ingestion of oil by gulls, and also prevented development of Heinz bodies and of increased GSH in red cells of gulls given large oral doses of oil.

  11. Report to the President on agreements and programs relating to the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The Department of Energy monitors commercial natural gas production activities along the boundaries of Naval Oil Shale Reserve No. 1 and Naval Oil Shale Reserve No. 3, which are located in Garfield County, Colorado, and were created in the early part of this century to provide a future source of shale oil for the military. In response to the private sector`s drilling of natural gas wells along the south and southwest boundaries of the Reserves, which began in the early 1980`s, the Department developed a Natural Gas Protection Program to protect the Government`s resources from drainage due to the increasing number of commercial gas wells contiguous to Naval Oil Shale Reserve No. 3. This report provides an update of the Gas Protection Program being implemented and the agreements that have been placed in effect since December 19, 1991, and also includes the one communitized well containing Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 lands. The Protection Program employs two methods to protect the Government`s resources: (1) sharing with the private sector in the costs and production of wells by entering into ``communitization`` agreements; and (2) drilling wholly-owned Government wells to ``offset`` commercial wells that threaten to drain natural gas from the Reserves. The methods designed to protect the Government`s resources are achieving their objective of abating gas drainage and migration. As a result of the Protection Program, the Department of Energy is able to produce natural gas and either sell its share on the open market or transfer it for use at Government facilities. The Natural Gas Protection Program is a reactive, ongoing program that is continually revised as natural gas transportation constraints, market conditions, and nearby commercial production activities change.

  12. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum product sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  13. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-15

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product Sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  14. Analysis of heavy oils: Method development and application to Cerro Negro heavy petroleum

    SciTech Connect

    Carbognani, L.; Hazos, M.; Sanchez, V. ); Green, J.A.; Green, J.B.; Grigsby, R.D.; Pearson, C.D.; Reynolds, J.W.; Shay, J.Y.; Sturm, G.P. Jr.; Thomson, J.S.; Vogh, J.W.; Vrana, R.P.; Yu, S.K.T.; Diehl, B.H.; Grizzle, P.L.; Hirsch, D.E; Hornung, K.W.; Tang, S.Y.

    1989-12-01

    On March 6, 1980, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ministry of Energy and Mines of Venezuela (MEMV) entered into a joint agreement which included analysis of heavy crude oils from the Venezuelan Orinoco oil belt.The purpose of this report is to present compositional data and describe new analytical methods obtained from work on the Cerro Negro Orinoco belt crude oil since 1980. Most of the chapters focus on the methods rather than the resulting data on Cerro Negro oil, and results from other oils obtained during the verification of the method are included. In addition, published work on analysis of heavy oils, tar sand bitumens, and like materials is reviewed, and the overall state of the art in analytical methodology for heavy fossil liquids is assessed. The various phases of the work included: distillation and determination of routine'' physical/chemical properties (Chapter 1); preliminary separation of >200{degree}C distillates and the residue into acid, base, neutral, saturated hydrocarbon and neutral-aromatic concentrates (Chapter 2); further separation of acid, base, and neutral concentrates into subtypes (Chapters 3-5); and determination of the distribution of metal-containing compounds in all fractions (Chapter 6).

  15. Petroleum marketing annual 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. For this publication, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication dates.

  16. Distribution and concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons associated with the BP/Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sammarco, Paul W; Kolian, Steve R; Warby, Richard A F; Bouldin, Jennifer L; Subra, Wilma A; Porter, Scott A

    2013-08-15

    We examined the geographic extent of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in sediment, seawater, biota, and seafood during/after the BP/Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (April 20-July 15, 2010; 28.736667°N, -88.386944°W). TPH, PAHs, and 12 compound classes were examined, particularly C1-benzo(a)anthracenes/chrysenes, C-2-/C-4-phenanthrenes/anthracenes, and C3-naphthalenes. Sediment TPH, PAHs, and all classes peaked near Pensacola, Florida, and Galveston, Texas. Seawater TPH peaked off Pensacola; all of the above classes peaked off the Mississippi River, Louisiana and Galveston. Biota TPH and PAHs peaked near the Mississippi River; C-3 napthalenes peaked near the spill site. Seafood TPH peaked near the spill site, with PAHs and all classes peaking near Pensacola. We recommend that oil concentrations continued to be monitored in these media well after the spill has ceased to assist in defining re-opening dates for fisheries; closures should be maintained until hydrocarbon levels are deemed within appropriate limits. PMID:23831318

  17. Petroleum supply monthly, February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly presents data describing the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders; operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data are divided into two sections: Summary statistics and Detailed statistics.

  18. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  19. Improved oil recovery using bacteria isolated from North Sea petroleum reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Davey, R.A.; Lappin-Scott, H.

    1995-12-31

    During secondary oil recovery, water is injected into the formation to sweep out the residual oil. The injected water, however, follows the path of least resistance through the high-permeability zones, leaving oil in the low-permeability zones. Selective plugging of these their zones would divert the waterflood to the residual oil and thus increase the life of the well. Bacteria have been suggested as an alternative plugging agent to the current method of polymer injection. Starved bacteria can penetrate deeply into rock formations where they attach to the rock surfaces, and given the right nutrients can grow and produce exo-polymer, reducing the permeability of these zones. The application of microbial enhanced oil recovery has only been applied to shallow, cool, onshore fields to date. This study has focused on the ability of bacteria to enhance oil recovery offshore in the North Sea, where the environment can be considered extreme. A screen of produced water from oil reservoirs (and other extreme subterranean environments) was undertaken, and two bacteria were chosen for further work. These two isolates were able to grow and survive in the presence of saline formation waters at a range of temperatures above 50{degrees}C as facultative anaerobes. When a solution of isolates was passed through sandpacks and nutrients were added, significant reductions in permeabilities were achieved. This was confirmed in Clashach sandstone at 255 bar, when a reduction of 88% in permeability was obtained. Both isolates can survive nutrient starvation, which may improve penetration through the reservoir. Thus, the isolates show potential for field trials in the North Sea as plugging agents.

  20. Petroleum marketing monthly, December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-05

    This publication provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. It presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include domestic first purchase price, f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude, and refiners` acquisition cost of crude. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane.

  1. Petroleum marketing annual, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This publication contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  2. Petroleum Marketing Annual, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-18

    This report contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for us by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 13 figs., 51 tabs.

  3. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1995 with data for March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-16

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Summary Statistics Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption.

  4. Petroleum marketing monthly with data for April 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-05

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data on the Petroleum Marketing Monthly. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption.

  5. Water plasmas for the revalorisation of heavy oils and cokes from petroleum refining.

    PubMed

    Hueso, José L; Rico, Víctor J; Cotrino, José; Jiménez-Mateos, J M; González-Elipe, Agustín R

    2009-04-01

    This work investigates the possibility of using plasmas to treat high boiling point and viscous liquids (HBPVL) and cokes resulting as secondary streams from the refining of oil. For their revalorisation, the use of microwave (MW) induced plasmas of water is proposed, as an alternative to more conventional processes (i.e., catalysis, pyrolysis, combustion, etc.). As a main result, this type of energetic cold plasma facilitates the conversion at room temperature of the heavy aromatic oils and cokes into linear hydrocarbons and synthesis gas, commonly defined as syngas (CO + H2 gas mixture). The exposure of the coke to this plasma also facilitates the removal of the sulfur present in the samples and leads to the formation on their surface of a sort of carbon fibers and rods network and new porous structures. Besides, optical emission measurements have provided direct evidence of the intermediates resulting from the fragmentation of the heavy oils and cokes during their exposure to the water plasma. Furthermore, the analysis of the mass spectra patterns suggests a major easiness to break the aromatic bonds mainly contained in the heavy oils. Therefore, an innovative method for the conversion of low value residues from oil-refining processes is addressed. PMID:19452916

  6. The evaluation of several corrosion mitigation strategies for oil coolers used by the strategic petroleum reserve.

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkebein, Thomas E.; Levin, Bruce L.; Enos, David George

    2004-10-01

    The goal of this study was to first establish the fitness for service of the carbon steel based oil coolers presently located at the Bryan Mound and West Hackberry sites, and second, to compare quantitatively the performance of two proposed corrosion mitigation strategies. To address these goals, a series of flow loops were constructed to simulate the conditions present within the oil coolers allowing the performance of each corrosion mitigation strategy, as well as the baseline performance of the existing systems, to be assessed. As prior experimentation had indicated that the corrosion and fouling was relatively uniform within the oil coolers, the hot and cold side of the system were simulated, representing the extremes of temperature observed within a typical oil cooler. Upon completion of the experiment, the depth of localized attack observed on carbon steel was such that perforation of the tube walls would likely result within a 180 day drawdown procedure at West Hackberry. Furthermore, considering the average rate of wall recession (from LPR measurements), combined with the extensive localized attack (pitting) which occurred in both environments, the tubing wall thickness remaining after 180 days would be less than that required to contain the operating pressures of the oil coolers for both sites. Finally, the inhibitor package, while it did reduce the measured corrosion rate in the case of the West Hackberry solutions, did not provide a sufficient reduction in the observed attack to justify its use.

  7. Assessment of Appalachian Basin Oil and Gas Resources: Carboniferous Coal-bed Gas Total Petroleum System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milici, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    The Carboniferous Coal-bed Gas Total Petroleum System, lies within the central and northern parts of the Appalachian coal field. It consists of five assessment units (AU): the Pocahontas Basin in southwestern Virginia, southern West Virginia, and eastern Kentucky, the Central Appalachian Shelf in Tennessee, eastern Kentucky and southern West Virginia, East Dunkard (Folded) in western Pennsylvania and northern West Virginia, West Dunkard (Unfolded) in Ohio and adjacent parts of Pennsylvania and West Virginia, and the Appalachian Anthracite and Semi-Anthracite AU in Pennsylvania and Virginia. Of these, only the Pocahontas Basin and West Dunkard (Folded) AU were assessed quantitatively by the U.S. Geological survey in 2002 as containing about 3.6 and 4.8 Tcf of undiscovered, technically recoverable gas, respectively (Milici and others, 2003). In general, the coal beds of this Total Petroleum System, which are both the source rock and reservoir, were deposited together with their associated sedimentary strata in Mississippian and Pennsylvanian (Carboniferous) time. The generation of biogenic (microbial) gas probably began almost immediately as the peat deposits were first formed. Microbial gas generation is probably occurring at present to some degree throughout the basin, where the coal beds are relatively shallow and wet. With sufficient depth of burial, compaction, and coalification during the late Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic, the coal beds were heated sufficiently to generate thermogenic gas in the eastern part of the Appalachian basin. Trap formation began initially with the deposition of the paleopeat deposits during the Mississippian, and continued into the Late Pennsylvanian and Permian as the Appalachian Plateau strata were deformed during the Alleghanian orogeny. Seals are the connate waters that occupy fractures and larger pore spaces within the coal beds as well as the fine-grained siliciclastic sedimentary strata that are intercalated with the coal. The

  8. Gas chromatographic analysis of petroleum associated condensate oil with simultaneous determination of some characteristic physical parameters.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, N E

    2008-01-01

    A method is developed for the analysis of associated condensate by capillary gas chromatography (GC) with simultaneous determination of its major physical characteristic parameters. The method aims at the qualitative and quantitative determination of C(2)-C(36) alkanes, methylcyclopentane, cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene. This composition is according to the petroleum companies demand. The method is used for the simultaneous determination of the condensate average molecular weight, density, carbon-to-hydrogen ratio, and boiling range. The data obtained by the method has a good agreement with those obtained by other methods. The literature methods cited later used a simulated distillation method to obtain the hydrocarbon distribution spectrum of the given condensate sample. The obtained results revealed that the GC capillary method used is most rapid and accurate for achieving the demanded analytical report. PMID:18492346

  9. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world, in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  10. Molecular Analysis of the Bacterial Communities in Crude Oil Samples from Two Brazilian Offshore Petroleum Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Korenblum, Elisa; Souza, Diogo Bastos; Penna, Monica; Seldin, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    Crude oil samples with high- and low-water content from two offshore platforms (PA and PB) in Campos Basin, Brazil, were assessed for bacterial communities by 16S rRNA gene-based clone libraries. RDP Classifier was used to analyze a total of 156 clones within four libraries obtained from two platforms. The clone sequences were mainly affiliated with Gammaproteobacteria (78.2% of the total clones); however, clones associated with Betaproteobacteria (10.9%), Alphaproteobacteria (9%), and Firmicutes (1.9%) were also identified. Pseudomonadaceae was the most common family affiliated with these clone sequences. The sequences were further analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 81 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) grouped at 97% stringency. Richness estimators also calculated by MOTHUR indicated that oil samples with high-water content were the most diverse. Comparison of bacterial communities present in these four samples using LIBSHUFF and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated that the water content significantly influenced the community structure only of crude oil obtained from PA. Differences between PA and PB libraries were observed, suggesting the importance of the oil field as a driver of community composition in this habitat. PMID:22319534

  11. REDUCTION OF USE OF PETROLEUM ENERGY RESOURCES BY CONVERSION OF WASTE COOKING OILS INTO DIESEL FUEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project has a dual objective of providing hands-on experience to undergraduate engineering students and producing biodiesel fuel from a used cooking oil feedstock. The project consists of three phases: Phase I - process development and construction of a pilot plant; Phase...

  12. Effect of leachability on environmental risk assessment for naturally occurring radioactive materials in petroleum oil fields.

    PubMed

    Rajaretnam, G; Spitz, H B

    2000-02-01

    Elevated concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), including 238U, 232Th, and their progeny found in underground geologic deposits, are often encountered during crude oil recovery. Radium, the predominant radionuclide brought to the surface with the crude oil and produced water, co-precipitates with barium in the form of complex compounds of sulfates, carbonates, and silicates found in sludge and scale. These NORM deposits are highly stable and very insoluble under ambient conditions at the earth's surface. However, the co-precipitated radium matrix is not thermodynamically stable at reducing conditions which may enable a fraction of the radium to eventually be released to the environment. Although the fate of radium in uranium mill tailings has been studied extensively, the leachability of radium from crude oil NORM deposits exposed to acid-rain and other aging processes is generally unknown. The leachability of radium from NORM contaminated soil collected at a contaminated oil field in eastern Kentucky was determined using extraction fluids having wide range of pH reflecting different extreme environmental conditions. The average 226Ra concentration in the samples of soil subjected to leachability testing was 32.56 Bq g(-1) +/- 0.34 Bq g(-1). The average leaching potential of 226Ra observed in these NORM contaminated soil samples was 1.3% +/- 0.46% and was independent of the extraction fluid. Risk assessment calculations using the family farm scenario show that the annual dose to a person living and working on this NORM contaminated soil is mainly due to external gamma exposure and radon inhalation. However, waterborne pathways make a non-negligible contribution to the dose for the actual resident families living on farmland with the type of residual NORM contamination due to crude oil recovery operations. PMID:10647985

  13. Executive Summary -- assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the San Joaquin Basin Province of California, 2003: Chapter 1 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gautier, Donald L.; Scheirer, Allegra Hosford; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Peters, Kenneth E.; Magoon, Leslie B.; Lillis, Paul G.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; French, Christopher D.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an assessment of the oil and gas resource potential of the San Joaquin Basin Province of California (fig. 1.1). The assessment is based on the geologic elements of each Total Petroleum System defined in the province, including hydrocarbon source rocks (source-rock type and maturation and hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined five total petroleum systems and ten assessment units within these systems. Undiscovered oil and gas resources were quantitatively estimated for the ten assessment units (table 1.1). In addition, the potential was estimated for further growth of reserves in existing oil fields of the San Joaquin Basin.

  14. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This publication the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data presented are divided into Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  15. IR detector for hydrocarbons concentration measurement in emissions during petroleum and oil products storage and transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilyev, Andrey O.; Shemanin, Valeriy G.; Chartiy, Pavel V.

    2011-10-01

    A double beam IR detector is developed for light hydrocarbons concentration measurement in emissions from storage vessels during oil and oil products storage and transportation. It was concluded on the basis of chromatogram that main crude losses from evaporation are the share of hydrocarbons light ends from methane to decane. Detector operation is based on spectral transparency measurement in the infrared spectra absorption range. Operational wavelength of infrared radiation makes 3.4 μm. measurement principle is based on concentration calculation proceed from molecule absorption cross-section, optical path length between light emitted diode and reference and signal photodiodes as well as from value of measured signal transmitted through gaging volume. The novel of offering device is an actual paraffin hydrocarbons concentration measurement in emissions and continuous and automatic environment quality control.

  16. Technical constraints limiting application of enhanced oil recovery techniques to petroleum production in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    In the interval since the publication in September 1980 of the technical constraints that inhibit the application of enhanced oil recovery techniques in the United States, there has been a large number of successful field trials of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques. The Department of Energy has shared the costs of 28 field demonstrations of EOR with industry, and the results have been made available to the public through DOE documents, symposiums and the technical literature. This report reexamines the constraints listed in 1980, evaluates the state-of-the-art and outlines the areas where more research is needed. Comparison of the 1980 constraints with the present state-of-the-art indicates that most of the constraints have remained the same; however, the constraints have become more specific. 26 references, 6 tables.

  17. Identification of nonhydrocarbon aromatic compounds in the gas oil fraction of Kuwait petroleum

    SciTech Connect

    Ijam, M.J.; Arif, S.F. )

    1992-01-01

    The amounts of individual components in the nonhydrocarbon aromatic portion of a Kuwait gas oil boiling in the range from 218 to 345C are reported. Twenty-eight nonhydrocarbon aromatic components were isolated and identified from their separated fractions. The majority are C{sub 1}-C{sub 5} benzo- and dibenzothiophenes. The compounds were isolated principally by using preparative scale high performance liquid chromatography, and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography supplemented by mass spectrometry.

  18. Polycyclic hydrocarbon biomarkers confirm selective incorporation of petroleum in soil and kangaroo rat liver samples near an oil well blowout site in the western San Joaquin Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, I.; Lu, S.T.; Lee, R.P.; Warrick, G.

    1996-05-01

    Following an accidental oil well blow out at an oil field in the western part of the San Joaquin Valley, soil samples and specimens of Heermann`s kangaroo rats (Dipodomys heermanni) were collected from two oil-impacted areas and one control area. Fingerprinting by GC-MS and quantitative evaluation of metabolized petroleum hydrocarbons was performed on oil, soil extracts, and rat livers. A liver from a domestically raised rabbit was used as an experimental control. The results show that there is no significant incorporation of PAHs or low molecular weight n-alkanes (C{sub 13}--C{sub 25}) into the liver tissues. The C{sub 25}--C{sub 35} n-alkane range for all soil samples, kangaroo rat livers, and rabbit liver, is dominated by a high abundance of C{sub 27}, C{sub 29}, C{sub 31}, and C{sub 33} hydrocarbons typical of epicuticular plant waxes. In all liver tissue samples, squalene, the cholesterol precursor, is the dominant hydrocarbon. Although evidence is lacking for metabolism of PAHs and paraffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, very strong evidence is available for incorporation of a set of polycyclic hydrocarbons (biomarkers) belonging to the terpane, sterane, and monoaromatic and triaromatic sterane families, identified by ion monitoring at 191, 217, 253, and 231 m/z, respectively. Because these hydrocarbons are not known to exist in the biosphere, but are only synthesized during oil- and coal-forming processes, their presence in the liver samples constitutes proof for crude oil incorporation into tissues. This conclusion is further substantiated by the selective incorporation of only the 20S enantiomer of C{sub 28} and C{sub 29} steranes and aromatic steranes into the livers, with the exclusion of the 20R enantiomer. The results from the study conclusively demonstrate that polycyclic hydrocarbon biomarkers provide excellent indices for proof of petroleum exposure and metabolism in some terrestrial herbivores.

  19. Integrated oil and reservoir database system for geological and petroleum engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, K.Y.; Schneider, R.; Sepehrnoori, K.; Lake, L.W.

    1984-08-01

    As the data available to explorers and operators increase and when timeliness and accuracy of record keeping are of concern, the need for a more efficient data handling technique has prompted research in the application of database technology in the oil industry. In this thesis, a database is developed to cover areas in exploration, drilling, production, scout tickets and well logs. Salient characteristics of wells and reservoirs are investigated and a global structure is obtained. The relationship between well and reservoir is found to be a many-to-many type. Out of the three widely accepted data models (hierarchical, network, and relational), the relational model was chosen in our approach because of its easiness to use and ability to implement the many-to-many relationship. A set of criteria for evaluation of logical database design methodologies is presented and a modified entity-relationship approach is used. The global structure of the database is implemented in VAX/VMS INGRES, a commercial relational database management system. The database model and the data dictionary are tested through an application to the data of two reservoirs provided by Conoco Oil Inc. and Shell Oil Co. 88 references, 27 figures, 9 tables.

  20. Integrated oil and reservoir database system for geological and petroleum engineering. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, K.Y.; Schneider, R.; Sepehrnoori, K.; Lake, L.W.

    1984-12-01

    As the data available to explorers and operators increase and when timeliness and accuracy of record keeping are of concern, the need for a more efficient data handling technique has prompted research in the applications of database technology in the oil industry. In this thesis, a database is developed to cover areas in exploration, drilling, production, scout tickets and well logs. Salient characteristics of wells and reservoirs are investigated and a global structure is obtained. The relationship between well and reservoir is found to be a many-to-many type. Out of the three widely accepted data models (hierarchical, network, and relational), the relational model was chosen in our approach because of its easiness to use and ability to implement the many-to-many relationship. A set of criteria for evaluation of logical database design methodologies is presented and a modified entity-relationship approach is used. The global structure of the database is implemented in VAX/VMS INGRES, a commercial relational database management system. The database model and the data dictionary are tested through an application to the data of two reservoirs provided by Conoco Oil Inc. and Shell Oil Co. 88 references, 27 figures, 9 tables.

  1. Chemical Principles Revisited: Petroleum Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris; Kolb, Kenneth E.

    1979-01-01

    Presents an historical review of the role of petroleum in world history and information on the chemistry of petroleum. It is suggested that petroleum chemistry be discussed since within the next two decades oil and gas will provide the major portion of U.S. energy. (Author/SA)

  2. Controls of oil family distribution and composition in nonmarine petroleum systems: A case study from Inner Mongolia Erlian basin, Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhelong; Liu, Guangdi; Huang, Zhilong; Lu, Xuejun; Luo, Qiang; Ding, Xiujian

    2014-10-01

    The Erlian basin is a continental rift basin located in Inner Mongolia, Northern China. It is a typical representative of Cretaceous Northeast Asian Rift System, which includes many small petroliferous basins in Mongolia Republic and Northern China. Although Lower Cretaceous source rocks are understood to be most important in the Erlian petroleum systems, the precise identification of these source rock intervals and their determination on oil families distribution and composition are poorly understood in this tectonically complicated, nonmarine basin. New bulk data have been gathered from source rock intervals, oil sands and crude oil samples in eight main oil-producing subbasins. Geochemical analyses indicate that Lower Cretaceous Aershan formation (K1ba) and Tengger 1 formation (K1bt1) are two main source intervals in the Erlian basin and their source rock facies vary from profundal lacustrine to marginal lacustrine according to biomarker and trace elements calibration, the profundal lacustrine facies is characterised by brackish water and anoxic environment, which is similar to their correlative oils (Family 1 oils). The marginal lacustrine facies is characterised by freshwater and suboxic environment, which sourced the most common Family 2 oils. Meanwhile, different maturation processes exercise the second control on oil groups and their compositions, the profundal lacustrine source rocks characterised by their sulphur-rich kerogens lead to two oil groups (group 1 and group 2 oils), whose maturity range from low to normal; while, the marginal lacustrine source rock only lead to normal-maturity oils. At last, biodegradation affected the composition of a certain oils and formed group 4 heavy oils. In addition, short migration distance in small subbasins made the contamination or fractionation less notable in the Erlian basin.

  3. Enzymatic bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons by fungal consortia enriched from petroleum contaminated soil and oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Balaji, V; Arulazhagan, P; Ebenezer, P

    2014-05-01

    The present study focuses on fungal strains capable of secreting extracellular enzymes by utilizing hydrocarbons present in the contaminated soil. Fungal strains were enriched from petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil samples collected from Chennai city, India. The potential fungi were isolated and screened for their enzyme secretion such as lipase, laccase, peroxidase and protease and also evaluated fungal enzyme mediated PAHs degradation. Total, 21 potential PAHs degrading fungi were isolated from PAHs contaminated soil, which belongs to 9 genera such as Aspergillus, Curvularia, Drechslera, Fusarium, Lasiodiplodia, Mucor Penicillium, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, and two oilseed-associated fungal genera such as Colletotrichum and Lasiodiplodia were used to test their efficacy in degradation of PAHs in polluted soil. Maximum lipase production was obtained with P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1 under optimized cultural condition, which utilized PAHs in contaminated soil as sole carbon source. Fungal strains, P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1, as consortia, used in the present study were capable of degrading branched alkane isoprenoids such as pristine (C17) and pyrene (C18) present in PAHs contaminated soil with high lipase production. The fungal consortia acts as potential candidate for bioremediation of PAHs contaminated environments. PMID:24813008

  4. Simultaneous high performance liquid chromatographic determination of vanadium, nickel, iron and copper in crude petroleum oils using bis(acetylpivalylmethane)ethylenediimine as a complexing reagent.

    PubMed

    Khuhawar, M Y; Lanjwani, S N

    1996-05-01

    A method is described for the simultaneous high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) determination of copper, iron, nickel and vanadium, based on complexation of analytes by bis(acetylpivalylmethane)ethylenediimine (H(2)APM(2)en) followed by solvent extraction and HPLC separation on a reversed-phase. C-18, 5 microm column with UV detection at 260 nm. The method has been applied to the determination of metals in crude petroleum oils collected from the South Indus Basin oil fields. The results obtained are compared with those obtained by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. PMID:18966546

  5. Organic constituents in sour condensates from shale-oil and petroleum-crude runs at Sohio's Toledo refinery: identification and wastewater-control-technology considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Wingender, R J; Harrison, W; Raphaelian, L A

    1981-02-01

    Samples of sour condensate generated from the continuous processing of both crude shale oil and petroleum crude were collected and extracted with methylene chloride. The extracts were analyzed using capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry at Argonne National Laboratory and Radian Corporation. Qualitatively, the predominant types of organic compounds present in the shale-oil sour condensate were pyridines and anilines; semiquantitatively, these compounds were present at a concentration of 5.7 ppM, or about 78% of the total concentration of components detected. In contrast, straight-chain alkanes were the predominant types of compounds found in the sour condensate produced during isocracking of conventional crude oil. The approximate concentration of straight-chain alkanes, 8.3 ppM, and of other branched and/or unsaturated hydrocarbons, 6.8 ppM, amounted to 88% of the total concentration of components detected in the sour condensate from the petroleum-crude run. Nitrogen compounds in the shale-oil sour condensate may necessitate alterations of the sour water and refinery wastewater-treatment facilities to provide for organics degradation and to accommodate the potentially greater ammonia loadings. This would include use of larger amounts of caustic to enhance ammonia removal by steam stripping. Possible problems associated with biological removal of organic-nitrogen compounds should be investigated in future experimental shale-oil refining runs.

  6. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-10

    This report for March 1995, provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly. A glossary is included.

  7. Oiling the system: How activities and the state shaped the politics of petroleum development in Tabasco, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Heather Dawn

    This dissertation analyzes the social, economic and political processes that accompanied the development of petroleum resources in Tabasco, Mexico. Through an historical examination of the case of Tabasco, I explore the general question of how and why state-led development becomes a contested terrain. Why does this sort of activism flourish during some time periods and not others? Under what conditions are relatively marginalized people able to effectively challenge the sort of domination inherent in state-led development plans? To what extent can activists succeed at reshaping the course of development? I argue that protest of state-led development is not necessarily linked to the pace or absolute impact of the social, environmental and economic changes being promoted. Instead, what is most central is the degree to which activists can successfully portray state-led development as an unjust process that contributes to inequality. However, the fact that activists are always constrained by the limits of existing state discourse seriously constrains the range of actions open to marginalized people. In the case of oil development in Tabasco, while activists were free to challenge the uneven distribution of rents, they have not been able to challenge the process itself. Indeed, the promise of material progress is common ground for both activists and the state. I conclude my dissertation with the observation that just as state discourses simultaneously create and limit possibilities for citizen protest, so social movement discourses simultaneously push for change and solidify the existing inequitable social structures.

  8. The effects of Fenton process on the removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from oily sludge in Shiraz oil refinery, Iran

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to the high concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in oily sludge and their environmental hazards, the concern regarding their effects on health and the environment has increased. The main objective of this research was focused on evaluating the feasibility of using Fenton process in removing TPH in oily sludge from Shiraz oil refinery, Southern Iran. Results To determine optimum conditions, four different parameters were assessed at four different levels using Taguchi method. According to data, the optimum conditions were as follows: the reaction time of 1 hour, H2O2 to sample mass ratio of 15, H2O2 to Fe (II) molar ratio of 10 and pH of 5. The maximum TPH reduction rate was 36.47%. Because of the semi-solid nature of the sample and the hydroxyl radicals mainly generated in the aqueous solution, TPH reduction rate greatly improved by adding water. Ultimately, by adding 40 ml water per gram of the oily sludge under optimized conditions, the reduction rate of 73.07% was achieved. Conclusions The results demonstrated that this method can be used as a pre-treatment method for the oily sludge. Moreover, a complementary treatment is necessary to reach the standard limit. PMID:24422994

  9. Petroleum supply monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  10. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  11. Petroleum marketing monthly, November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-09

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed costs of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  12. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-22

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, education institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  13. Petroleum marketing monthly, January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  14. Petroleum marketing monthly, February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-25

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  15. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-10

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  16. Petroleum marketing monthly, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-12

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  17. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-15

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  18. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 49 tabs.

  19. Chapter 5. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources-Lower Cretaceous Travis Peak and Hosston formations, Jurassic Smackover interior salt basins total petroleum system, in the East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyman, T.S.; Condon, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    The petroleum assessment of the Travis Peak and Hosston Formations was conducted by using a total petroleum system model. A total petroleum system includes all of the important elements of a hydrocarbon fluid system needed to develop oil and gas accumulations, including source and reservoir rocks, hydrocarbon generation, migration, traps and seals, and undiscovered accumulations. A total petroleum system is mappable and may include one or more assessment units. For each assessment unit, reservoir rocks contain similar geology, exploration characteristics, and risk. The Jurassic Smackover Interior Salt Basins Total Petroleum System is defined for this assessment to include (1) Upper Jurassic Smackover carbonates and calcareous shales and organic-rich shales of the Upper Jurassic Bossier Shale of the Cotton Valley Group and (2) Lower Cretaceous Travis Peak and Hosston Formations. The Jurassic Smackover Interior Salt Basins Total Petroleum System includes three conventional Travis Peak-Hosston assessment units: Travis Peak-Hosston Gas and Oil (AU 50490205), Travis Peak-Hosston Updip Oil (AU 50490206), and Travis Peak-Hosston Hypothetical Updip Oil (AU 50490207). A fourth assessment unit, the Hosston Hypothetical Slope-Basin Gas Assessment Unit, was named and numbered (AU 50490208) but not geologically defined or quantitatively assessed owing to a lack of data. Together, assessment units 50490205 to 50490207 are estimated to contain a mean undiscovered conventional resource of 29 million barrels of oil, 1,136 billion cubic feet of gas, and 22 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  20. 31 CFR 561.319 - Petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Petroleum products. 561.319 Section... Definitions § 561.319 Petroleum products. The term petroleum products includes unfinished oils, liquefied petroleum gases, pentanes plus, aviation gasoline, motor gasoline, naphtha-type jet fuel, kerosene-type...

  1. 31 CFR 561.319 - Petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Petroleum products. 561.319 Section... Definitions § 561.319 Petroleum products. The term petroleum products includes unfinished oils, liquefied petroleum gases, pentanes plus, aviation gasoline, motor gasoline, naphtha-type jet fuel, kerosene-type...

  2. 31 CFR 561.319 - Petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Petroleum products. 561.319 Section... Definitions § 561.319 Petroleum products. The term petroleum products includes unfinished oils, liquefied petroleum gases, pentanes plus, aviation gasoline, motor gasoline, naphtha-type jet fuel, kerosene-type...

  3. Isotopic Evidence for Oil Sands Petroleum Coke in the Peace-Athabasca Delta.

    PubMed

    Jautzy, Josué J; Ahad, Jason M E; Gobeil, Charles; Smirnoff, Anna; Barst, Benjamin D; Savard, Martine M

    2015-10-20

    The continued growth of mining and upgrading activities in Canada's Athabasca oil sands (AOS) region has led to concerns about emissions of contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Whereas a recent increase in PAH emissions has been demonstrated within around 50 km of the main center of surface mining and upgrading operations, the exact nature of the predominant source(s) and the geographical extent of the deposition are still under debate. Here, we report a century-long source apportionment of PAHs using dual (δ(2)H, δ(13)C) compound-specific isotope analysis on phenanthrene deposited in a lake from the Athabasca sector of the Peace-Athabasca Delta situated ∼150 km downstream (north) of the main center of mining operations. The isotopic signatures in the core were compared to those of the main potential sources in this region (i.e., unprocessed AOS bitumen, upgrader residual coke, forest fires, coal, gasoline and diesel soot). A significant concurrent increase (∼55.0‰) in δ(2)H and decrease (∼1.5‰) in δ(13)C of phenanthrene over the last three decades pointed to an increasingly greater component of petcoke-derived PAHs. This study is the first to quantify long-range (i.e., >100 km) transport of a previously under-considered anthropogenic PAH source in the AOS region. PMID:26404505

  4. Explaining EIA Crude Oil and Petroleum Product Price Data and Comparing with Other U.S. Government Data Sources, 2001 to 2010

    EIA Publications

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the sampling frames and basic data collection methods for petroleum price data reported by Energy Information Administration (EIA) and other Government agencies. In addition, it compares and contrasts annual average prices reported by EIA with comparable prices from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) CPI (Consumer Price Indexes) for the retail prices of residential No. 2 distillate, on-highway diesel fuel and motor gasoline (all grades.) Further, it compares refiner wholesale/resale prices for No. 2 fuel oil, No. 2 diesel fuel, motor gasoline (all grades,) kerosene-type jet fuel and residual fuel oil reported by EIA with comparable prices from the BLS PPI (Producer Price Index.) A discussion of the various crude oil prices and spot/futures prices published by EIA and other Government agencies is also included in the article.

  5. A brief history of oil and gas exploration in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California: Chapter 3 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takahashi, Kenneth I.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2007-01-01

    The Golden State got its nickname from the Sierra Nevada gold that lured so many miners and settlers to the West, but California has earned much more wealth from so-called “black gold” than from metallic gold. The San Joaquin Valley has been the principal source for most of the petroleum produced in the State during the past 145 years. In attempting to assess future additions to petroleum reserves in a mature province such as the San Joaquin Basin, it helps to be mindful of the history of resource development. In this chapter we present a brief overview of the long and colorful history of petroleum exploration and development in the San Joaquin Valley. This chapter relies heavily upon the work of William Rintoul, who wrote extensively on the history of oil and gas exploration in California and especially in the San Joaquin Valley. No report on the history of oil and gas exploration in the San Joaquin Valley would be possible without heavily referencing his publications. We also made use of publications by Susan Hodgson and a U.S. Geological Survey Web site, Natural Oil and Gas Seeps in California (http://seeps.wr.usgs.gov/seeps/index.html), for much of the material describing the use of petroleum by Native Americans in the San Joaquin Valley. Finally, we wish to acknowledge the contribution of Don Arnot, who manages the photograph collection at the West Kern Oil Museum in Taft, California. The collection consists of more than 10,000 photographs that have been scanned and preserved in digital form on CD-ROM. Many of the historical photographs used in this paper are from that collection. Finally, to clarify our terminology, we use the term “San Joaquin Valley” when we refer to the geographical or topographical feature and the term “San Joaquin Basin” when we refer to geological province and the rocks therein.

  6. Behavior of Re and Os during contact between an aqueous solution and oil: Consequences for the application of the Re-Os geochronometer to petroleum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdaoui, Fatima; Michels, Raymond; Reisberg, Laurie; Pujol, Magali; Poirier, Yannick

    2015-06-01

    Several recent studies have raised the exciting possibility that oils can be dated using the Re-Os radioisotope system. However the exact nature of the events dated by this technique often remains unclear. Geochronologic interpretation of Re-Os data for oils is hampered by our limited knowledge of how these metals behave in petroleum systems. In particular, it is difficult to understand how isotopic homogenization, an essential prerequisite for the development of an isochronal relationship, can be achieved at the scale of a petroleum basin. The mechanisms capable of fractionating the Re/Os ratio in a suite of oils are also poorly understood. For this reason, we have performed an experimental study aimed at investigating the behavior of Re and Os during a particularly widespread phenomenon in petroleum systems, the interaction of formation waters with oils during migration. Contact experiments between natural oils and aqueous solutions enriched in Re and/or Os were carried out for varying lengths of time (6 h to 5 months), at different temperatures (25-150 °C), over a wide range of metal concentrations in the enriched solution (0.001-100 μg/g for Re; 1 and 10 ng/g for Os). In addition, the effect of oil composition on Re-Os exchange at the water-oil interface was examined by testing two oils with very different properties. All of our results demonstrate that Re and Os are transferred massively and very rapidly from the aqueous solution to the organic phase. This is true regardless of temperature or oil composition. It is also true for a very wide range of metal concentrations in the aqueous solution, up to an apparent saturation level that exceeds natural concentrations in oils by several orders of magnitude. Given the efficiency of Re and Os transfer from water to oil demonstrated here, and assuming that our findings are applicable to natural conditions, water/oil ratios of only about 250 would be needed to explain the Re and Os contents of most oils, based on

  7. Audit of controls over crude oil production under Public Law 94-258 Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills, California. [Compliance with legislation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-04-25

    The Naval Petroleum Reserves Production Act of 1976 (Public Law 94-258) requires the Secretary to produce oil and gas from the Reserve at the Maximum Efficient Rate (MER) developed consistent with sound engineering practices. MER is defined as ''the maximum sustainable daily oil or gas rate from a reservoir which will permit economic development and depletion of that reservoir without detriment to the ultimate recovery.'' MER is determined through analyses and calculations using defined factors and parameters acquired through standard oil field testing procedures. Economic development and depletion of a reservoir without detriment to ultimate recovery means that production rates should not cause loss of originally obtainable petroleum and that revenues should exceed the cost of production. The purpose of the audit was to determine if the Department had adhered to the MER limitation on production at the Reserve as required by Public Law 94-258. Our review disclosed that production rates at the Reserve were not developed through engineering-based MER calculations. Production for the past seven years has exceeded the MER calculated by the Reserve's own engineers and principal consultants. According to studies prepared by the Department's technical engineers and consultants, between 90 and 130 million barrels of otherwise recoverable oil is at risk of being lost through overproduction over the life of the Reserve. Based on the average market value of $18 per barrel on March 6, 1986, the value of this oil was between $1.60 billion and $2.30 billion. We estimate that about half of the oil at risk of loss could yet be recovered if Reserve management develops and implements valid engineering-based MERs. 11 refs.

  8. Green house emissions, inventories and evaluation of marine environment visa vis offshore oil field development activities Bombay high (west coast) upstream petroleum sector, India

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, J.S.; Ahmed, S.; Negi, C.V.S.; Nainwal, D.R.

    1996-12-31

    Wide use of petroleum products contributes significant amount of emission to the global environment and hence maintaining emission inventories are of great importance while assessing the global green house emissions. The present paper describes a brief account of green house emission and inventories for CO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x}, HC particulate and SO{sub 2} emissions generated due to upstream petroleum sector activities viz. discharges of gaseous emission, combustion of Natural Gas anti HSD from production and drilling facilities of Bombay offshore area located in Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) west coast of India. Besides, authors have also given an account on west coast marine base line status including impact of oil field activities on marine ecosystem.

  9. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves Combined Financial Statements September 30, 1994 and 1993 and Management Overview and Supplemental Financial and Management Information

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountant`s audit of the Department of Energy`s (Department) Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves (NPOSR) financial statements as of September 30, 1994. The auditors have expressed an unqualified opinion on the 1994 statements. Their reports on the NPOSR internal control structure and on compliance with laws and regulations, and management letter on addressing needed improvements are also provided. NPOSR consists of petroleum reserves in California and Wyoming, and oil shale reserves in Colorado and Utah. The Government`s interests in NPOSR are managed by the Department through its headquarters office in Washington, D.C. In addition, the Department has site offices in both California and Wyoming that are responsible for contractor oversight functions. Daily operations are conducted under contract by two management and operating contractors. By law, NPOSR was authorized to produce crude oil at the maximum efficient rate for six years. The law allowed production to be extended for three year periods, provided that the President of the United States certified that continued maximum production was in the best interest of the nation. The current three year period ends on April 5, 1997. Additional information about NPOSR is provided in the overview and notes to the financial statements.

  10. Phase II - final report study of alternatives for future operations of the naval petroleum and oil shale reserves NOSR 1 & 3, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has asked Gustavson Associates, Inc. to serve as an Independent Petroleum Consultant under contract DE-AC01-96FE64202. This authorizes a study and recommendations regarding future development of Naval Petroleum Oil Shales Reserves Nos. 1 and 3 (NOSR 1 and 3) in Garfield County, Colorado (Figure 0.1). The report that follows is the Phase II Final Report for that study. Additional details are provided in the Addendum (the Phase 1 Property Description and Fact Finding Report). The key property elements that positively affect the estimated value of NOSR 1 and 3 include the following: working interest income from producing oil and gas leases, income from grazing or leasing of grazing rights, potential income from oil and gas leasing on exploratory (or nonprospective) acreage, potential value of trading surface real estate as ranch land for livestock grazing (56,577 acres). Key elements that negatively impact the estimated value include: environmental assessment costs, gas prices, operating budgets, and lease sale expenses.

  11. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1999, with data for April 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: initial estimates; summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 70 tabs.

  12. Petroleum marketing monthly, October 1998, with data for July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Summary statistics; Crude oil prices; Prices of petroleum products; Volumes of petroleum products; and Prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  13. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1999 with data for December 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  14. Petroleum marketing monthly, January 1999 with data for October 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  15. Petroleum marketing monthly, December 1998 with data for September 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  16. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1999, with data for March 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Initial Estimates; Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  17. Petroleum marketing monthly, February 1999 with data for November 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in six sections: Initial Estimates; Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  18. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1998, with data for February 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides Information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  19. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1998, with data for June 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  20. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1999, with data for February 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Initial Estimates; Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  1. Petroleum marketing monthly, November 1998, with data for August 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Summary statistics; Crude oil prices; Prices of petroleum products; Volumes of petroleum products; and Prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  2. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1998, with data from March 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  3. Petroleum marketing monthly: August 1998, with data for May 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  4. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1998 with data for April 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  5. Petroleum systems of the San Joaquin Basin Province -- geochemical characteristics of gas types: Chapter 10 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lillis, Paul G.; Warden, Augusta; Claypool, George E.; Magoon, Leslie B.

    2008-01-01

    The San Joaquin Basin Province is a petroliferous basin filled with predominantly Late Cretaceous to Pliocene-aged sediments, with organic-rich marine rocks of Late Cretaceous, Eocene, and Miocene age providing the source of most of the oil and gas. Previous geochemical studies have focused on the origin of the oil in the province, but the origin of the natural gas has received little attention. To identify and characterize natural gas types in the San Joaquin Basin, 66 gas samples were analyzed and combined with analyses of 15 gas samples from previous studies. For the purpose of this resource assessment, each gas type was assigned to the most likely petroleum system. Three general gas types are identified on the basis of bulk and stable carbon isotopic composition—thermogenic dry (TD), thermogenic wet (TW) and biogenic (B). The thermogenic gas types are further subdivided on the basis of the δ13C values of methane and ethane and nitrogen content into TD-1, TD-2, TD-Mixed, TW-1, TW-2, and TW-Mixed. Gas types TD-1 and TD-Mixed, a mixture of biogenic and TD-1 gases, are produced from gas fields in the northern San Joaquin Basin. Type TD-1 gas most likely originated from the Late Cretaceous to Paleocene Moreno Formation, a gas-prone source rock. The biogenic component of the TD-Mixed gas existed in the trap prior to the influx of thermogenic gas. For the assessment, these gas types were assigned to the Winters- Domengine Total Petroleum System, but subsequent to the assessment were reclassified as part of the Moreno-Nortonville gas system. Dry thermogenic gas produced from oil fields in the southern San Joaquin Basin (TD-2 gas) most likely originated from the oil-prone source rock of Miocene age. These samples have low wetness values due to migration fractionation or biodegradation. The thermogenic wet gas types (TW-1, TW-2, TW-Mixed) are predominantly associated gas produced from oil fields in the southern and central San Joaquin Basin. Type TW-1 gas most likely

  6. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve program was set into motion by the 1975 Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). By 1990, 590 million barrels of oil had been placed in storage. Salt domes along the Gulf Coast offered ideal storage. Both sweet'' and sour'' crude oil have been acquired using various purchase options. Drawdown, sale, and distribution of the oil would proceed according to guidelines set by EPCA in the event of a severe energy supply disruption. (SM)

  7. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-26

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  8. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-29

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: Petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  9. Appalachian basin oil and natural gas: stratigraphic framework, total petroleum systems, and estimated ultimate recovery: Chapter C.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, Robert T.; Milici, Robert C.; Swezey, Christopher S.; Trippi, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    The most recent U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Appalachian basin was completed in 2002 (Milici and others, 2003). This assessment was based on the total petroleum system (TPS), a concept introduced by Magoon and Dow (1994) and developed during subsequent studies such as those by the U.S. Geological Survey World Energy Assessment Team (2000) and by Biteau and others (2003a,b). Each TPS is based on specific geologic elements that include source rocks, traps and seals, reservoir rocks, and the generation and migration of hydrocarbons. This chapter identifies the TPSs defined in the 2002 Appalachian basin oil and gas assessment and places them in the context of the stratigraphic framework associated with regional geologic cross sections D–D′ (Ryder and others, 2009, which was re-released in this volume, chap. E.4.1) and E–E′ (Ryder and others, 2008, which was re-released in this volume, chap. E.4.2). Furthermore, the chapter presents a recent estimate of the ultimate recoverable oil and natural gas in the basin.

  10. Geology of the Volga-Ural petroleum province and detailed description of the Ramashkino and Arlan oil fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, James A.; Clarke, James W.

    1983-01-01

    The Volga-Ural petroleum province is in general coincident with the Volga-Ural regional high, a broad upwarp of the east-central part of the Russian (East European) platform. The central part of the province is occupied by the Tatar arch, which contains the major share of the oil fields of the province. The Perm-Bashkir arch forms the northeastern part of the regional high, and the Zhigulevsko-Orenburg arch makes up the southern part. These arches are separated from one another by elongate downwarps. The platform cover overlies an Archean crystalline basement and consists of seven main sedimentation cycles as follows: 1) Riphean (lower Bavly) continental sandstone, shale, and conglomerate beds from 500 to 5,000 m thick deposited in aulacogens. 2) Vendian (upper Bavly) continental and marine shale and sandstone up to 3,000 m thick. 3) Middle Devonian-Tournaisian transgressive deposits, which are sandstone, siltstone, and shale in the lower part and carbonates with abundant reefs in the upper; thickness is 300-1,000 m. In the upper carbonate part is the Kamsko-Kinel trough system, which consists of narrow interconnected deep-water troughs. 4) The Visean-Namurian-Bashkirian cycle, which began with deposition of Visean clastics that draped over reefs of the previous cycle and filled in an erosional relief that had formed in some places on the sediments of the previous cycle. The Visean clastics are overlain by marine carbonates. Thickness of the cycle is 50-800 m. 5) Early Moscovian-Early Permian terrigenous clastic deposits and marine carbonate beds 1,000-3,000 m thick. 6) The late Early Permian-Late Permian cycle, which reflects maximum growth of the Ural Mountains and associated Ural foredeep. Evaporites were first deposited, then marine limestones and dolomites, which intertongue eastward with clastic sediments from the Ural Mountains. 7) Continental redbeds of Triassic age and mixed continental and marine elastic beds of Jurassic and Cretaceous age, which were

  11. Study of alternatives for future operations of the naval petroleum and oil shale reserves, NOSR-2, Uintah and Carbon Counties, Utah. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has asked Gustavson Associates, Inc. to serve as an Independent Petroleum Consultant and authorized a study and recommendations regarding future development of Naval Oil Shale Reserve No. 2 (NOSR-2) in Uintah and Carbon Counties, Utah. The US owns 100% of the mineral rights and about 60% of the surface rights in NOSR-2. The Ute Indian Tribe owns the other 40% of the surface. This 88,890-acre tract was set aside as an oil shale reserve for the US Navy by an Executive Order of President Wilson in 1916. Management of NOSR-2 is the responsibility of DOE. No drilling for oil and gas has occurred on the property and no production has been established. No reserves are present, although the area is hypothesized to overlay gas resources. Mapping by the US Geological Survey and others has resulted in speculative seismic leads for structures that may or may not hold conventional oil and gas. All of the mineral rights (including oil shale) must be considered exploratory and the mineral rights must be valued accordingly. The opinion recommended to maximize value to the US is Option 4, sale of the interest of the US of all or part of NOSR-2. Evaluation of this option results in an estimated value which is more than three times greater than the next highest estimated value, for Option 2, transfer to the Department of the Interior for leasing.

  12. CSM petroleum Engineering Department

    SciTech Connect

    Van Kirk, C.

    1984-10-01

    The Petroleum Engineering (PE) Department at the Colorado School of Mines is the second oldest such engineering department in the world, having been founded in 1918, one year after the program at Penn State University was begun. The PE Department at CSM has enjoyed a strong worldwide reputation from its earliest beginnings to the present time. The discipline of petroleum engineering is taught in only a few universities, generally in American oil producing states and foreign countries having significant interests in petroleum. Approximately 25 US universities offer degrees in PE, while an equal number of universities in foreign countries do so. The operation of the Department is discussed.

  13. Vegetable oil based grease formulations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental concerns have brought forward vegetable oils as alternatives to more expensive synthetic lubricant base oils and less environmental friendly petroleum base stocks, in moderate operating conditions. Vegetable oils are becoming an obvious choice for potential replacement of petroleum ba...

  14. S. 2375: a bill to disapprove of certain deferrals of Strategic Petroleum Reserve budget authority, to authorize additional appropriations with respect to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, and to increase oil import fees. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, April 28, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this bill is to disapprove of certain deferrals of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) budget authority, to authorize additional appropriations to the SPR, and to increase oil import fees. The bill authorizes $1 billion for fiscal years 1987, 88, and 89 for crude oil acquisitions for the SPR and $163 million for storage and related facility construction during 1987. It also instructs the Energy Secretary to cease production from the Naval Petroleum Reserve at Elk Hills for six months to allow the reservoir depletion to stabilize.

  15. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-14

    This document designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and for the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  16. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-10

    This publication is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  17. Petroleum marketing monthly, October 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-31

    This report gives information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides crude oil cost statistics and refined petroleum products sales statistics for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  18. Petroleum catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, B.

    1996-10-01

    Catalysis reaches almost every major industrial chemical process in place today and spans production of fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals to commodity plastics and gasoline. The catalytic upgrading of crude oil for example renders chemicals, fuels, lubricants, and even coke for steel production. The initial conversion point for all these end products is the petroleum refinery. While there are a variety of catalytic schemes in the modern refinery, four key processes make up the mainstay of refinery operations: Catalytic Cracking, Alkylation, Reforming, and Isomerization. A brief history and outline of the processes will be given followed by a more detailed discussion of the catalysis. It is intended that a knowledge of both the catalytic chemistry and catalytic materials useful in these reactions may be garnered along with a broader view of the importance of catalysis in modern industrial chemistry.

  19. Environmental assessment of a proposed steam flood of the Shallow Oil Zone, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills), Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The US Department of Energy proposes to develop a limited enhanced oil recovery project in the Shallow Oil Zone at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) Elk Hills. The project would employ steam forced into the oil-bearing formation through injector wells, and would involve two phases. The initiation of the second phase would be dependent on the economic success of the first phase. The total project would require the drilling of 22 new wells in a 45-acre area supporting seven existing production wells. It would also require construction of various surface facilities including a tank setting (gas-oil separation system), steam generators, and a water treatment plant. Adverse environmental impacts associated with the proposed steam flood project would include the effects on vegetation, wildlife and land-use resulting from the total reconfiguration of the topography within the project bondaries. Other adverse impacts include the emission of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and particulates from steam generators, vehicles and associated surface facilities. Minor adverse impacts include localized noise and dust during constuction, and reduction of visual quality. 48 refs., 7 figs., 10 tabs.

  20. Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey San Juan Basin Assessment Team

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimated undiscovered oil and gas resources that have the potential for additions to reserves in the San Juan Basin Province, New Mexico and Colorado. Paleozoic rocks were not appraised. The last oil and gas assessment for the province was in 1995. There are several important differences between the 1995 and 2002 assessments. The area assessed is smaller than that in the 1995 assessment. This assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in the San Juan Basin Province also used a slightly different approach in the assessment, and hence a number of the plays defined in the 1995 assessment are addressed differently in this report. After 1995, the USGS has applied a total petroleum system (TPS) concept to oil and gas basin assessments. The TPS approach incorporates knowledge of the source rocks, reservoir rocks, migration pathways, and time of generation and expulsion of hydrocarbons; thus the assessments are geologically based. Each TPS is subdivided into one or more assessment units, usually defined by a unique set of reservoir rocks, but which have in common the same source rock. Four TPSs and 14 assessment units were geologically evaluated, and for 13 units, the undiscovered oil and gas resources were quantitatively assessed.

  1. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report is submitted in accordance with section 165(b) of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended, which requires that the Secretary of Energy submit quarterly reports to Congress on Activities undertaken with respect to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This August 15, 1990, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1990, through June 30, 1990. 3 tabs.

  2. Establishing a reliable source of fuel for Department of Defense requirements: Effective petroleum, oil, and lubricant financial managment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, T.F.

    1981-12-01

    The Defense Fuel Supply Center (DFSC) is the management and procurement agency for petroleum for the Department of Defense. Its mission is to procure refined petroleum products to meet military service requirements worldwide and federal requirements within the United States. The procurement options analyzed are divided into two categories -- direct and indirect methods of acquiring products. Through the analysis discussed, it will be shown that the only viable solution to DFSC's problem lies in purchasing the desired quantities using direct acquisition methods by reducing the cost incurred to a refiner for supplying military products.

  3. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1990

    SciTech Connect

    1990-06-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly describe (PSM) the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply.'' Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  4. Petroleum Supply Monthly, July 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-28

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  5. Chapter 3: Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources in the Phosphoria Total Petroleum System of the Wind River Basin Province, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirschbaum, M.A.; Lillis, P.G.; Roberts, L.N.R.

    2007-01-01

    The Phosphoria Total Petroleum System (TPS) encompasses the entire Wind River Basin Province, an area of 4.7 million acres in central Wyoming. The source rocks most likely are black, organic-rich shales of the Meade Peak and Retort Phosphatic Shale Members of the Permian Phosphoria Formation located in the Wyoming and Idaho thrust belt to the west and southwest of the province. Petroleum was generated and expelled during Jurassic and Cretaceous time in westernmost Wyoming and is interpreted to have migrated into the province through carrier beds of the Pennsylvanian Tensleep Sandstone where it was preserved in hypothesized regional stratigraphic traps in the Tensleep and Permian Park City Formation. Secondary migration occurred during the development of structural traps associated with the Laramide orogeny. The main reservoirs are in the Tensleep Sandstone and Park City Formation and minor reservoirs are in the Mississippian Madison Limestone, Mississippian-Pennsylvanian Amsden Formation, Triassic Chugwater Group, and Jurassic Nugget Sandstone and Sundance Formation. The traps are sealed by shale or evaporite beds of the Park City, Amsden, and Triassic Dinwoody Formations, Triassic Chugwater Group, and Jurassic Gypsum Spring Formation. A single conventional oil and gas assessment unit (AU), the Tensleep-Park City AU, was defined for the Phosphoria TPS. Both the AU and TPS cover the entire Wind River Basin Province. Oil is produced from 18 anticlinal fields, the last of which was discovered in 1957, and the possibility of discovering new structural oil accumulations is considered to be relatively low. Nonassociated gas is produced from only two fields, but may be underexplored in the province. The discovery of new gas is more promising, but will be from deep structures. The bulk of new oil and gas accumulations is dependent on the discovery of hypothesized stratigraphic traps in isolated carbonate reservoirs of the Park City Formation. Mean resource estimates for

  6. Environmental impacts of oil production on soil, bedrock, and vegetation at the U.S. Geological Survey Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research site A, Osage County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otton, J.K.; Zielinski, R.A.; Smith, B.D.; Abbott, M.M.; Keeland, B.D.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is investigating the impacts of oil and gas production on soils, groundwater, surface water, and ecosystems in the United States. Two sites in northeastern Oklahoma (sites A and B) are presently being investigated under the Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research project. Oil wells on the lease surrounding site A in Osage County, Oklahoma, produced about 100,000 bbl of oil between 1913 ard 1981. Prominent production features on the 1.5-ha (3.7-ac) site A include a tank battery, an oil-filled trench, pipelines, storage pits for both produced water and oil, and an old power unit. Site activities and historic releases have left open areas in the local oak forest adjacent to these features and a deeply eroded salt scar downslope from the pits that extends to nearby Skiatook Lake. The site is underlain by surficial sediments comprised of very fine-grained eolian sand and colluvium as much as 1.4 m (4.6 ft) thick, which, in turn, overlie flat-lying, fractured bedrock comprised of sandstone, clayey sandstone, mudstone, and shale. A geophysical survey of ground conductance and concentration measurements of aqueous extracts (1:1 by weight) of core samples taken in the salt scar and adjacent areas indicate that unusual concentrations of NaCl-rich salt are present at depths to at least 8 m (26 ft) in the bedrock; however, little salt occurs in the eolian sand. Historic aerial photographs, anecdotal reports from oil-lease operators, and tree-ring records indicate that the surrounding oak forest was largely established after 1935 and thus postdates the majority of surface damage at the site. Blackjack oaks adjacent to the salt scar have anomalously elevated chloride (>400 ppm) in their leaves and record the presence of NaCl-rich salt or salty water in the shallow subsurface. The geophysical measurements also indicate moderately elevated conductance beneath the oak forest adjoining the salt scar. Copyright ?? 2005. The American Association of

  7. Magnetic susceptibility of petroleum fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivakhnenko, O. P.; Potter, D. K.

    2003-04-01

    Technological progress in petroleum exploration, production and processing requires a profound knowledge of the magnetic properties of the petroleum fluids. However, as far as we know there are not widely available constants of magnetic susceptibility for the majority of petroleum fluids. We have therefore measured the mass magnetic susceptibility (χ_m) of several petroleum fluids (such as crude oils, refined oil fractions, and formation waters) from local and worldwide sites. The magnetic features of natural reservoir petroleum fluids, together with fluids connected with the petroleum industry (such as drilling fluids etc.), fall into the following categories: diamagnetic solutions, paramagnetic suspensions and ferromagnetic "ferrofluid" suspensions. In the current investigations we have concentrated on the natural reservoir fluids, which are generally diamagnetic. There were distinct differences between the χ_m of the crude oils and the formation waters, with the oils having generally a more negative value of χ_m. The magnetic susceptibility of the oils appears to be related to their main physical and chemical properties, such as density, composition of group hydrocarbons, sulphur content and concentration of organometallic compounds. Low acidity and low sulphur oils have more negative values of χ_m. Light fractions of crude oil consisting mainly of paraffinic and naphtenic hydrocarbons are the most diamagnetic. The content of the less diamagnetic aromatics increases in the kerosene and gas oil fractions, and results in an increase in the magnetic susceptibility. Also, the magnetic susceptibility of the heavy oil fraction has a significantly higher χ_m than the light fractions, which appears to be connected with a higher concentration of paramagnetic components in the heavy fraction. The χ_m of the oil from various oil provinces were compared and found to be different. It seems that values of χ_m reflect specific features of the geological conditions for

  8. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Petroleum Products Supply Module

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    The Petroleum Products Supply Module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model provides forecasts of petroleum refinery inputs (crude oil, unfinished oils, pentanes plus, liquefied petroleum gas, motor gasoline blending components, and aviation gasoline blending components) and refinery outputs (motor gasoline, jet fuel, distillate fuel, residual fuel, liquefied petroleum gas, and other petroleum products).

  9. Removal of organic compounds and trace metals from oil sands process-affected water using zero valent iron enhanced by petroleum coke.

    PubMed

    Pourrezaei, Parastoo; Alpatova, Alla; Khosravi, Kambiz; Drzewicz, Przemysław; Chen, Yuan; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2014-06-15

    The oil production generates large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), referring to the water that has been in contact with oil sands or released from tailings deposits. There are concerns about the environmental impacts of the release of OSPW because of its toxicity. Zero valent iron alone (ZVI) and in combination with petroleum coke (CZVI) were investigated as environmentally friendly treatment processes for the removal of naphthenic acids (NAs), acid-extractable fraction (AEF), fluorophore organic compounds, and trace metals from OSPW. While the application of 25 g/L ZVI to OSPW resulted in 58.4% removal of NAs in the presence of oxygen, the addition of 25 g petroleum coke (PC) as an electron conductor enhanced the NAs removal up to 90.9%. The increase in ZVI concentration enhanced the removals of NAs, AEF, and fluorophore compounds from OSPW. It was suggested that the electrons generated from the oxidation of ZVI were transferred to oxygen, resulting in the production of hydroxyl radicals and oxidation of NAs. When OSPW was de-oxygenated, the NAs removal decreased to 17.5% and 65.4% during treatment with ZVI and CZVI, respectively. The removal of metals in ZVI samples was similar to that obtained during CZVI treatment. Although an increase in ZVI concentration did not enhance the removal of metals, their concentrations effectively decreased at all ZVI loadings. The Microtox(®) bioassay with Vibrio fischeri showed a decrease in the toxicity of ZVI- and CZVI-treated OSPW. The results obtained in this study showed that the application of ZVI in combination with PC is a promising technology for OSPW treatment. PMID:24681364

  10. Petroleum formation and occurrence

    SciTech Connect

    Tissot, B.P.; Welte, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    This edition (second edition) has been expanded by 160 pages over the first edition. The book is divided into five parts: (1) the production and accumulation of organic matter: a geological perspective; (2) the fate of organic matter in sedimentary basins: generation of oil and gas; (3) the migration and accumulation of oil and gas; (4) the composition and classification of crude oils and the influence of geological factors; and (5) oil and gas exploration: application of the principles of petroleum generation and migration.

  11. Glossary: Chapter 29 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Schmoker, James W.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Ahlbrandt, Thomas S.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2007-01-01

    Selected terms of particular importance to the U.S. Geological Survey assessment of undiscovered resources in total petroleum systems are defined here. The definitions are intended to be generally explanatory rather than strictly technical. No attempt has been made to include a detailed listing of common industry definitions.

  12. Comment on "Behavior of Re and Os during contact between an aqueous solution and oil: Consequences for the application of the Re-Os geochronometer to petroleum" [Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 158 (2015) 1-21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jia; Li, Zhen; Wang, Xuan-ce

    2016-08-01

    In a recent study, Mahdaoui et al. (2015) simulated the contact of oil with Re/Os-bearing aqueous fluids in petroleum reservoirs and concluded that both metals could be rapidly and substantially enriched in the oil fraction. These findings could have significant geological ramifications for the use of rhenium-osmium (Re-Os) geochronology in the age-dating of oil deposits. However, the lack of data reproducibility between parallel experiments and misused parameter of "recovery rate" has cast doubt on the main conclusions of the paper. Re-analyses of the raw data provided sufficient evidence to suggest that in petroleum basins with very low abundances of Re and Os, the extraction of these metals to oil is unlikely to be a geologically instantaneous process as the authors implied in their study. In addition, the possibility of reactor leakage in the contacting experiments cannot be completely ruled out.

  13. 31 CFR 561.318 - Petroleum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Petroleum. 561.318 Section 561.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... § 561.318 Petroleum. The term petroleum (also known as crude oil) means a mixture of hydrocarbons...

  14. 31 CFR 561.318 - Petroleum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Petroleum. 561.318 Section 561.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... § 561.318 Petroleum. The term petroleum (also known as crude oil) means a mixture of hydrocarbons...

  15. Geology and oil and gas assessment of the Todilto Total Petroleum System, San Juan Basin Province, New Mexico and Colorado: Chapter 3 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ridgley, J.L.; Hatch, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    Organic-rich, shaly limestone beds, which contain hydrocarbon source beds in the lower part of the Jurassic Todilto Limestone Member of the Wanakah Formation, and sandstone reservoirs in the overlying Jurassic Entrada Sandstone, compose the Todilto Total Petroleum System (TPS). Source rock facies of the Todilto Limestone were deposited in a combined marine-lacustrine depositional setting. Sandstone reservoirs in the Entrada Sandstone were deposited in eolian depositional environments. Oil in Todilto source beds was generated beginning in the middle Paleocene, about 63 million years ago, and maximum generation of oil occurred in the middle Eocene. In the northern part of the San Juan Basin, possible gas and condensate were generated in Todilto Limestone Member source beds until the middle Miocene. The migration distance of oil from the Todilto source beds into the underlying Entrada Sandstone reservoirs was short, probably within the dimensions of a single dune crest. Traps in the Entrada are mainly stratigraphic and diagenetic. Regional tilt of the strata to the northeast has influenced structural trapping of oil, but also allowed for later introduction of water. Subsequent hydrodynamic forces have influenced the repositioning of the oil in some reservoirs and flushing in others. Seals are mostly the anhydrite and limestone facies of the Todilto, which thin to as little as 10 ft over the crests of the dunes. The TPS contains only one assessment unit, the Entrada Sandstone Conventional Oil Assessment Unit (AU) (50220401). Only four of the eight oil fields producing from the Entrada met the 0.5 million barrels of oil minimum size used for this assessment. The AU was estimated at the mean to have potential additions to reserves of 2.32 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 5.56 billion cubic feet of natural gas (BCFG), and 0.22 million barrels of natural gas liquids (MMBNGL).

  16. Bioaugmentation with Petroleum-Degrading Consortia Has a Selective Growth-Promoting Impact on Crop Plants Germinated in Diesel Oil-Contaminated Soil.

    PubMed

    Graj, Weronika; Lisiecki, Piotr; Szulc, Alicja; Chrzanowski, Lukasz; Wojtera-Kwiczor, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Rhizoremediation is a complex type of green clean-up technology that involves both plants and the rhizosphere-associated microorganisms to decompose hazardous compounds. The success of the strategy strongly depends on plant tolerance towards the pollutant, as well as plant's interactions with the rhizospheric microbes. The microorganisms may be stimulated by the secreted root exudates, which results in an increased breakdown of contaminants in the rhizosphere. The main goal of this study was to establish a potential rhizoremediation combination for a diesel-polluted site. Inoculation of plant roots or seeds with indigenous rhizospheric populations is a common approach in the rhizoremediation. However, we introduced hydrocarbon-degrading consortia (M10, R3, and K52) that were previously isolated from crude oil-contaminated soil instead of indigenous microbes. Bioaugmentation with these petroleum degraders was applied to screen four high biomass crop species (Indian mustard, alfalfa, high erucic acid rapeseed, HEAR, and low erucic acid rapeseed, LEAR) for their tolerance towards diesel oil. At no pollution, a promoting effect of M10 bacteria could be observed on germination and root elongation of all plant species. Moreover, M10 consortiums increased the germination index at 6,000 mg diesel oil per kilogram dry soil in the case of Indian mustard, alfalfa, and HEAR. The latter species was found to increment its dry weight upon bioaugmentation with M10 bacteria and all diesel oil treatments (6,000 and 24,000 mg diesel oil per kilogram dry soil). The initial results indicate HEAR and the M10 bacterial consortium as a promising plant-microbe tandem for a long-term rhizoremediation process. PMID:24078757

  17. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report is published for the use of Members of Congress, Federal agencies, State agencies, industry, and the general public. Publication of this report is in keeping with responsibilities given the Energy Information Administration in Public Law 95-91. The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  18. Polycyclic hydrocarbon biomarkers confirm selective incorporation of petroleum in kangaroo rat liver samples near oil well blowout site

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, I.; Lu, Shan-tan; Lee, Ru-po; Warrick, G.

    1996-12-31

    In June 1994, a well blowout occurred at an oil field in the western, part of the San Joaquin Valley, resulting in deposition of crude oil south of the well. Some light oil spray was found up to 13.6 km from the well, but the most heavily affected area was within 0.8 km of the site. Because the location contains habitats for several threatened and endangered species, an evaluation of damages to natural resources was initiated soon after the well was capped. As part of the assessment of damages to wildlife, an investigation was conducted to determine whether kangaroo rats had ingested crude oil hydrocarbons from the spill.

  19. The abundance and distribution of diamondoids in biodegraded oils from the San Joaquin Valley: Implications for biodegradation of diamondoids in petroleum reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wei, Z.; Moldowan, J.M.; Peters, K.E.; Wang, Y.; Xiang, W.

    2007-01-01

    The biodegradability of diamondoids was investigated using a collection of crude oil samples from the San Joaquin Valley, California, that had been biodegraded to varying extent in the reservoir. Our results show that diamondoids are subjected to biodegradation, which is selective as well as stepwise. Adamantanes are generally more susceptible to biodegradation than other diamondoids, such as diamantanes and triamantanes. We report a possible pathway for the microbial degradation of adamantane. This cage hydrocarbon possibly breaks down to a metabolic intermediate through the action of microbes at higher levels of biodegradation in petroleum reservoirs. Microbial alteration has only a minor effect on diamondoid abundance in oil at low levels of biodegradation. Our results suggest that most diamondoids (with the exception of adamantane) are resistant to biodegradation, like the polycyclic terpanes (e.g. C19-C24 tricyclic terpanes, hopanes, gammacerane, oleananes, Ts, Tm, C29 Ts), steranes and diasteranes. Microbial alteration of diamondoids has a negligible impact on the quantification of oil cracking achieved using the diamondoid-biomarker method. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Petroleum Supply Monthly, August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) district movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-28

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  2. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-27

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum supply annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  3. Petroleum supply monthly, September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administrations for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics. 65 tabs.

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  5. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  6. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-15

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  7. Petroleum Marketing Monthly, January 1991. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-09

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 55 tabs.

  8. Petroleum marketing monthly, November 1991. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 53 tabs.

  9. Evaluation of the 90-day inhalation toxicity of petroleum and oil shale JP-5 jet fuel. Technical report, July 1977-July 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Gaworski, C.L.; MacEwen, J.D.; Vernot, E.H.; Haun, C.C.; Leahy, H.F.

    1985-04-01

    Subchronic 90-day inhalation studies were conducted to compare the toxicity of Petroleum and Oil Shale derived JP-5 jet fuel. Beagle dogs, Fischer 344 rats, and C57BL/6 mice were continuously exposed to JP-5 at concentrations of 150 mg/m cum and 750 mg/cum 3. Unexposed control groups were also maintained. All dogs and a portion of each rodent group were sacrificed and examined at exposure termination. Remaining rodents were held for observation up to 21 months postexposure. The most significant exposure related effect occurred in male rats, where JP-5 produced nephropathy characterized by hyaline droplets, necrosis, and intratubular casts. Accentuated tubular degeneration and medullary mineralization were noted in exposed rats held for long-term postexposure observation. Female rats were free of significant JP-5 related renal damage. Consistent with the pathologic changes in male rats exposed to 750 mg/cu m 3 were increased kidney weight and increased serum creatinine and BUN levels. Reduced body weight gains also occurred in male rats exposed to JP-5. No pathologic lesions were observed in dogs exposed to JP-5. Hepatocellular vacuolization and fatty change occurred in mice exposed to JP-5 from either source and in rats exposed to Shale JP-5. The results of this study suggest that there are no substantial differences between Petroleum and Shale JP-5.

  10. Petroleum marketing monthly with data for January 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This publication provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. Statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales are presented. Data on crude oil include the domestic purchase price, the free on board and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oils and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: (1) summary statistics, (2) crude oil prices, (3) prices of petroleum products, (4) volumes of petroleum products, and (5) prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 50 tabs.

  11. Population, petroleum, and politics: Mexico at the crossroads. Part 2. The potentials and problems of Mexican oil resources.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, C F

    1980-01-01

    The 2 most important factors which will influence Mexico's future economic development are the country's overpopulation problem and the manner in which the country's oil reserves are exploited. This document describes the historical development of Mexico's oil industry and the current struggle of the government to ensure that the oil resources contribute toward the sound economic development of the country. The government expropriated foreign oil companies in 1938 and today most of the oil operations in Mexico are conducted by the state controlled Pemex Company. In recent years extensive oil reserves were discovered in Mexico and the country is now in the position of having large oil reserves at a time when oil prices are increasing. Known crude oil reserves are estimated at 31 billion barrels; however, an unconfirmed report by Pemex in 1980 placed the known reserves at 50 billion barrels. In the past the management of Pemex was corrupt and inefficient and many top positions in the company were filled by retired politicians. The recent appointment of Jose Andres de Oteyza as Chairman of the Board and of Jorge Diaz Serrano as the Director-General should greatly improve Pemex operations. In developing the country's oil industry the government wants 1) to keep production low enough to offset inflation and to preserve the resource but 2) to produce enough oil so that the country has sufficient funds for investment and for operating needed social programs. The government may not be able to keep oil production down to acceptable levels. It may be forced to increase oil exports to compensate for its growing reliance on imported food and other imported products. In recent years Mexico's industrial productivity and its agricultural production declined. The government wants to avoid being placed in the position where it will be forced to trade large quantities of oil for needed food. The current government is promoting investment in agriculture and industrial development in

  12. Influence of resinous compounds in petroleum oils on formation of protective films by additives with labeled atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Faradzhev, K.F.

    1988-09-01

    The role of resinous compounds present in oil media in terms of their effects of protective film formation and corrosive wear of metal is investigated. Radioactive additives consisting of barium salts of an alkylphenol sulfide and an alkylphenol disulfide, containing a functional group of sulfur 35, were synthesized. These additives were added to the test oil in an amount of 3%. In most cases, the additives tend to form more stable films on the metal surface when they are used in oils containing resinous compounds than when they are used in individual groups of hydrocarbons. The quantity and efficiency of the protective film formed by the additive depends not only on the hydrocarbon structure of the oil hydrocarbons, but also on the quality of the additive, the nature of the metal, and the content of resinous compounds in the oil and the structure of these compounds.

  13. A speculative look at the future of the American Petroleum Industry based on a full-cycle analysis of the American Whale Oil Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.L. Jr.

    1995-09-01

    A full-cycle, industry-scale look at the American whaling industry of the 19th century suggests a number of comparisons with the American petroleum industry of the 20th century. Using the King Hubbert production profile for extraction industries as a guide, both industries show a similar business life span. An understanding of the history of American whaling will, perhaps, gives us a more complete understanding of the history of the American petroleum industry. The rise of the American whaling industry to the premier investment opportunity of its day is little known to most in today`s oil and gas industry. Yet, we all know that abundant and inexpensive crude oil was a key factor in its demise. From a careful study of the history of the American whaling industry a set of factors (or stages of transition), common to similar extraction industries, can be developed, which may help investors and workers determine the state of health of our industry: (1) defection of highly skilled personnel to other, comparable, technical industries; (2) discovery and initial development of a replacement commodity; (3) major calamity, which adversely affects the industry in terms of significant loss of working capital and/or resources; (4) loss of sufficient investment capital to continue resource addition; (5) rapid development of a replacement commodity with attendant decrease in per unit price to a position lower than the primary commodity; (6) significant loss of market share by the primary commodity; and (7) end of the primary commodity as a major economic force.

  14. Oil-impregnated outcrops and their relationship to petroleum generation in late Paleozoic Eagle basin, northwestern Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Waechter, N.B. )

    1989-09-01

    Oil-impregnated outcrops of Mississippian and Pennsylvanian rocks are present in widely separated areas of the Eagle basin. Along the northeast margin of the fault-bounded Eagle basin, oil-impregnated arkosic sandstones of the lower Minturn Formation (Desmoinesian) are interbedded with black, organic-rich shales that provided a local source for the oil. Algal mounds in the lower Minturn Formation in this area contain oil residue. Oil residue is also present in the Mississippian Leadville formation in several parts of the basin, both in paleokarst-related vugs and intergranular porosity in oolite grainstones. The Leadville formation was sourced by overlying organic-rich shales of the Belden Formation (Morrowan-Atokan). Under Pennsylvanian-Permian arkosic sandstones near the southwestern margin of the basin are not adjacent to potential source rocks. The Schoolhouse Tongue of the Weber Sandstone is heavily stained in many areas over its 50 mi of outcrop exposure. Numerous arkosic sandstones in the underlying Maroon Formation are also sained. Faults bounding intrabasinal horst blocks were conduits for upward oil migration, and the horsts may have provided the trap. Oil is also present in overlying Triassic and Jurassic sands in this area, supporting the theory of vertical migration up faults. Oil residue is also present in the Maroon Formation 40 mi to the southeast in the Crystal River Valley. Secondary porosity from dissolution of calcite cement preceded oil emplacement. Beaching of normally red-brown sandstones is ubiquitous with the oil residue and probably represents reduction and partial removal of iron by acidic, reducing fluids generated from the Belden Shale.

  15. The Second Colloquium on Petroleum Engineering Education

    SciTech Connect

    Willhite, G.P.; Forney, R.H.

    1993-11-30

    This paper describes findings from the Second Colloquium on Petroleum engineering Education. The purpose of this colloquium was to provide a forum for petroleum engineering educators and representatives from industry and government to explore critical issues facing petroleum engineering education as we move into the 21st Century. It was expected that the colloquium would identify areas where changes are needed in petroleum engineering education, to best prepare students for careers in the oil and gas industry or other, related industries.

  16. Petroleum supply annual 1995: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The {ital Petroleum Supply Annual} contains information on supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. It reflects data collected from the petroleum industry during 1995 through monthly surveys, and it is divided into 2 volumes. This volume contains three sections: summary statistics, detailed statistics, and selected refinery statistics, each with final annual data. (The other volume contains final statistics for each month and replaces data previously published in the {ital Petroleum Supply Monthly}).

  17. Petroleum geology of heavy oil in the Oriente basin of Ecuador: Exploration and exploitation challenge for the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Leadholm, R.H. )

    1990-05-01

    Published Ecuadorian government forecasts suggest that Oriente basin light oil (21-32{degree} API) production may start to decline in the early to mid-1990s. To maintain stabilized production into the next century, heavy oil reserves (10-20{degree} API) will have to be aggressively exploited. The Oriente's undeveloped proven plus probable heavy reserves are substantial and are expected to exceed 0.5 billion bbl. A recent discovery made by Conoc Ecuador Ltd., operator of Block 16 for a group which consists of O.P.I.C., Maxus, Nomeco, Murphy and Canam, is a good model for future exploration and exploitation of heavy oil in the remote eastern regions of the basin. Amo-1 tested a low-relief anticline (less than 100 ft vertical closure) and encountered 10-20{degree} API oil in five Cretaceous sandstone reservoirs (8,000-10,000 ft depth). Cumulative test production was 1,062 BOPD. Subsequent drilling along the trend resulted in three additional discoveries. The Cretaceous sands were transported from the Brazilian shield by the westward flowing proto-Amazon River and were deposited in fluviodeltaic, tidal, and high-energy marginal marine environments. Air permeabilities are high and geometric mean values approaching several darcies. Porosities average 18-22% in generally well-consolidated sands. The heavy oils are the result of mild biodegradation and/or expulsion from a thermally immature source. Oil-to-oil correlations suggest that all of the basin oils have the same or similar origin, probably marine calcareous shales of the Cretaceous Napo formation. The Block 16 project will provide a major step toward the strategic exploitation of the Oriente basin's heavy oil reserves, when it comes on stream in the early 1990s.

  18. Property description and fact-finding report for NPR-3 Natrona County, Wyoming. Addendum to 22 August 1996 study of alternatives for future operations of the naval petroleum and oil shale reserves NPR-3

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has asked Gustavson Associates, Inc. to serve as an Independent Petroleum Consultant under contract DE-AC01-96FE64202. This authorizes a study and recommendations regarding future development of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3) in Natrona County, Wyoming. The report that follows is the Phase I fact-finding and property description for that study. The United States of America owns 100 percent of the mineral rights and surface rights in 9,321-acre NPR-3. This property comprises the Teapot Dome oil field and related production, processing and other facilities. Discovered in 1914, this field has 632 wells producing 1,807 barrels of oil per day. Production revenues are about $9.5 million per year. Remaining recoverable reserves are approximately 1.3 million barrels of oil. Significant plugging and abandonment (P&A) and environmental liabilities are present.

  19. World petroleum systems with Jurassic source rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Klemme, H.D. )

    1993-11-08

    Fourteen petroleum systems with Upper Jurassic source rocks contain one quarter of the world's discovered oil and gas. Eleven other systems with Lower and Middle Jurassic source rocks presently have a minor but significant amount of discovered oil and gas. The purpose of this article is to review the systems geologically, describe their location in space and time on a continental scale, estimate their relative petroleum system recovery efficiencies, and outline the effect their essential elements and processes have on their petroleum plumbing.

  20. Petroleum biodegradation in marine environments.

    PubMed

    Harayama, S; Kishira, H; Kasai, Y; Shutsubo, K

    1999-08-01

    Petroleum-based products are the major source of energy for industry and daily life. Petroleum is also the raw material for many chemical products such as plastics, paints, and cosmetics. The transport of petroleum across the world is frequent, and the amounts of petroleum stocks in developed countries are enormous. Consequently, the potential for oil spills is significant, and research on the fate of petroleum in a marine environment is important to evaluate the environmental threat of oil spills, and to develop biotechnology to cope with them. Crude oil is constituted from thousands of components which are separated into saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes. Upon discharge into the sea, crude oil is subjected to weathering, the process caused by the combined effects of physical, chemical and biological modification. Saturates, especially those of smaller molecular weight, are readily biodegraded in marine environments. Aromatics with one, two or three aromatic rings are also efficiently biodegraded; however, those with four or more aromatic ring are quite resistant to biodegradation. The asphaltene and resin fractions contain higher molecular weight compounds whose chemical structures have not yet been resolved. The biodegradability of these compounds is not yet known. It is known that the concentrations of available nitrogen and phosphorus in seawater limit the growth and activities of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms in a marine environment. In other words, the addition of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers to an oil-contaminated marine environment can stimulate the biodegradation of spilled oil. This notion was confirmed in the large-scale operation for bioremediation after the oil spill from the Exxon Valdez in Alaska. Many microorganisms capable of degrading petroleum components have been isolated. However, few of them seem to be important for petroleum biodegradation in natural environments. One group of bacteria belonging to the genus

  1. National strategic petroleum reserve.

    PubMed

    Davis, R M

    1981-08-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve is intended to reduce the vulnerability of the United States to interruptions in the oil supply from foreign sources. Storage for 248 million barrels of crude oil in salt caverns and mines, with equipment for pumping and distribution, was constructed and operationally tested in a 4-year period. Its present inventory is the largest known crude oil reserve in the world. Facilities for expanding the reserve's capacity by another 290 million barrels are being developed by solution-mining in salt domes. PMID:17847458

  2. Environmental assessment for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Big Hill facility storage of commercial crude oil project, Jefferson County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    The Big Hill SPR facility located in Jefferson County, Texas has been a permitted operating crude oil storage site since 1986 with benign environmental impacts. However, Congress has not authorized crude oil purchases for the SPR since 1990, and six storage caverns at Big Hill are underutilized with 70 million barrels of available storage capacity. On February 17, 1999, the Secretary of Energy offered the 70 million barrels of available storage at Big Hill for commercial use. Interested commercial users would enter into storage contracts with DOE, and DOE would receive crude oil in lieu of dollars as rental fees. The site could potentially began to receive commercial oil in May 1999. This Environmental Assessment identified environmental changes that potentially would affect water usage, power usage, and air emissions. However, as the assessment indicates, changes would not occur to a major degree affecting the environment and no long-term short-term, cumulative or irreversible impacts have been identified.

  3. Petroleum geology and total petroleum systems of the Widyan Basin and Interior Platform of Saudi Arabia and Iraq

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fox, James E.; Ahlbrandt, Thomas S.

    2002-01-01

    The Widyan Basin-Interior Platform Province (2023) ranks 17th in the world, exclusive of the United States, with 62.5 billion barrels of oil equivalent of total petroleum endowment (cumulative production plus remaining petroleum plus estimated mean undiscovered volumes). Mean estimates of undiscovered petroleum for the province, which includes both Paleozoic and Jurassic petroleum systems as well as portions of three additional total petroleum systems from adjacent provinces, are 21.22 billion barrels of oil, 94.75 trillion cubic feet of gas (15.8 billion barrels of oil equivalent), and 6.85 billion barrels of natural gas liquids. The Paleozoic total petroleum system is dominantly gas prone, whereas the volumetrically larger Jurassic total petroleum system is oil prone - resulting in the characterization of the province as an oil province. The discovery maturity for the province is a relatively low 31 percent, meaning that much of the province petroleum potential lies in the future.

  4. Adsorptive removal of oil spill from oil-in-fresh water emulsions by hydrophobic alumina nanoparticles functionalized with petroleum vacuum residue.

    PubMed

    Franco, Camilo A; Cortés, Farid B; Nassar, Nashaat N

    2014-07-01

    Oil spills on fresh water can cause serious environmental and economic impacts onshore activities affecting those who exploit freshwater resources and grassland. Alumina nanoparticles functionalized with vacuum residue (VR) were used as a low-cost and high hydrophobic nanosorbents. The nanomaterial resulting showed high adsorption affinity and capacity of oil from oil-in-freshwater emulsion. The effects of the following variables on oil removal were investigated, namely: contact times, solution pH, initial oil concentrations, temperature, VR loadings and salinity. Kinetic studies showed that adsorption was fast and equilibrium was achieved in less than 30 min. The amount adsorbed of oil was higher for neutral system compared to acidic or basic medium. Increasing the VR loading on nanoparticle surface favored the adsorption. Results of this study showed that oil removal for all systems evaluated had better performance at pH value of 7 using nano-alumina functionalized with 4 wt% VR. Adsorption equilibrium and kinetics were evaluated using the Polanyi theory-based Dubinin-Ashtakhov (DA) model, and pseudo-first and pseudo-second order-models, respectively. PMID:24776679

  5. Petroleum fingerprinting with organic markers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hostettler, Frances D.; Lorenson, T.D.; Bekins, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Petroleum fingerprinting is an invaluable tool in forensic geochemistry. This article summarizes applications of fingerprinting in several oil spills and natural oil seepages that we have studied during the last 25 years. It shows how each unique chemical fingerprint can be used to correlate or differentiate oils. Fingerprints can provide information about processes in the environment that impact oils such as weathering and microbial degradation. They can be used to evaluate organic matter that contributed to oils, and classify oils with regard to the geological framework of their source, such as evaluating geological facies, age, lithology, and depositional environment.

  6. Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery - Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baroni, M.

    1995-09-01

    Phase I results of a C0{sub 2}-assisted oil recovery demonstration project in selected Cypress Sandstone reservoirs at Mattoon Field, Illinois are reported. The design and scope of this project included C0{sub 2} injectvity testing in the Pinnell and Sawyer units, well stimulaton treatments with C0{sub 2} in the Strong unit and infill well drilling, completion and oil production. The field activities were supported by extensive C0{sub 2}-oil-water coreflood experiments, CO{sub 2} oil-phase interaction experiments, and integrated geologic modeling and reservoir simulations. The progress of the project was made public through presentations at an industry meeting and a DOEs contractors` symposium, through quarterly reports and one-to-one consultations with interested operators. Phase II of this project was not implemented. It would have been a water-alternating-gas (WAG) project of longer duration.

  7. 78 FR 57407 - Approval of Altol Petroleum Product Service, as a Commercial Gauger

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ...Notice is hereby given, pursuant to CBP regulations, that Altol Petroleum Product Service, has been approved to gauge petroleum, petroleum products, organic chemicals and vegetable oils for customs purposes for the next three years as of March 4,...

  8. 78 FR 57406 - Approval of Altol Petroleum Product Service, as a Commercial Gauger

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ...Notice is hereby given, pursuant to CBP regulations, that Altol Petroleum Product Service, has been approved to gauge petroleum, petroleum products, organic chemicals and vegetable oils for customs purposes for the next three years as of February 25,...

  9. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-15

    This August 15, 1991, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1991, through June 30, 1991. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facilities development program is proceeding on schedule. The Reserve's capacity is currently 726 million barrels. A total of 5.5 million barrels of new gross cavern volume was developed at Big Hill and Bayou Choctaw during the quarter. There were no crude oil deliveries to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve during the calendar quarter ending June 30, 1991. Acquisition of crude oil for the Reserve has been suspended since August 2, 1990, following the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq. As of June 30, 1991, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve inventory was 568.5 million barrels. The reorganization of the Office of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve became effective June 28, 1991. Under the new organization, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Project Management Office in Louisiana will report to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program Office in Washington rather than the Oak Ridge Field Office in Tennessee. 2 tabs.

  10. Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve serves as one of our most important investments in reducing the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur and a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975, (Public Law 94-163) as amended, to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the first quarter of calendar year 1994, including: (1) inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; (2) fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; (3) average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; (4) current and projected storage capacity; (5) analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; (6) funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and (7) major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  11. Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas, Cotton Valley group and Travis Peak-Hosston formations, East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces of the northern Gulf Coast region. Chapters 1-7.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The USGS recently completed an assessment of undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Cotton Valley Group and Travis Peak and Hosston Formations in the East Texas Basin and Louisiana-Mississippi Salt Basins Provinces in the Gulf Coast Region (USGS Provinces 5048 and 5049). The Cotton Valley Group and Travis Peak and Hosston Formations are important because of their potential for natural gas resources. This assessment is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). The USGS used this geologic framework to define one total petroleum system and eight assessment units. Seven assessment units were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered oil and gas resources.

  12. Evaluation of energies of interaction correlated with observed stabilities and rheological properties of asphalt-aggregate mixtures of western shale-oil residue as a modifier to petroleum asphalt

    SciTech Connect

    Tauer, J.E.; Ensley, E.K.; Harnsberger, P.M.; Robertson, R.E.

    1993-02-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a preliminary evaluation of improving bonding and aging characteristics using a distillation residue from the Green River Formation (western) shale oil as a modifier to a petroleum asphalt for use as a crack and joint filler material in portland cement concrete and asphaltic pavements. This study was to examine the differences in moisture damage resistance and adhesion properties, as measured by bonding energy, of shale-oil modified asphalts compared with non-modified asphalts. The shale-oil modified asphalts mechanical properties were not expected to match those of the rubberized asphalt. A commercially available rubberized asphalt crack and joint filler material was also tested only for comparison of mechanical properties. Portland cement concrete briquets prepared with an asphalt material sandwiched between two concrete wafers were tested in a stress-relaxation type of experiment to evaluate the relaxation and recovery properties of the sealant materials. Energy of interaction (bonding energy) measurements were performed on asphalt materials with portland cement concrete, two silicate aggregates, and a limestone aggregate to evaluate the compatibility of the asphalt materials with various aggregates. The results show that the shale-oil modified petroleum asphalt improved the relaxation time, percent recovery, and bonding energy compared with the petroleum asphalt.

  13. Annual petroleum review. Volume 1. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-07-01

    Each year the California Energy Commission prepares the Annual Petroleum Review for the Governor and the Legislature for the purpose of conveying information about the current status of the supply and demand of petroleum products in California. The document is submitted under the provisions of the Petroleum Industry Information Reporting Act of 1980 (PIIRA), which directs the Commission to collect relevant information from petroleum companies operating in California and from other sources. This year the report has been divided into three separate documents: (1) the Executive Summary, (2) Volume 1, the Annual Petroleum Review report, and (3) Volume 2, the 1982 Annual Petroleum Review data section. Volume 1 contains background papers on: Outer Continental Shelf development, crude oil and gasoline pricing and industry supply and demand projections for 1983, natural gas policy and fuel switching, thermally enhanced oil recovery, and crude oil severance tax. 20 figures, 39 tables.

  14. Norwegian petroleum guide

    SciTech Connect

    Christie, H.B.

    1984-01-01

    This is about the comprehensive guide to Norwegian oil and gas activities, very useful to anyone in the industry. Material includes political guidelines, control institutions, work possibilities and licenses, working environment law, employer and employee organizations, national insurance, taxes, communication, rescue operations and standby. Contents: Oil and the economy; Petroleum technology research; Responsibilities of different authorities; The Labour Inspection Directorate; The Health Directorate Offshore Office; The Coastal Directorate; Helicopter traffic; The Norwegian Petroleum Directorate; The Maritime Directorate; Det norske Veritas; The Norwegian Waterways and Electricity Board; The State Institute for Radiation Hygiene; The State Explosive Inspection; Work possibilities in the North Sea; Working environment legislation on the Continental Shelf; Collective bargaining agreements, labor conflicts and the right to organize; Taxation Rules; National health insurance and the petroleum activity; Occupational injuries on the Norwegian Continental Shelf; Company insurances; The private pension scheme; Other types of insuracne common among oil companies; The rescue service in Norway; Oganizations within the oil industry offshore and onshore; and Law of aliens admission to the Kindgom.

  15. Toxicity of petroleum crude oils and their effect on xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme activities in the chicken embryo in ovo

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.Z.; O'Brien, P.J.; Payne, J.F.; Rahimtula, A.D.

    1986-01-01

    Microliter quantities of a Prudhoe Bay crude oil (PBCO) applied to the shell of fertile chick eggs during various stages of development induced cytochrome P-450 levels and mixed-function oxidase activities within the liver of the embryo. PBCO (5 ..mu..l) applied on Day 11 of incubation was found to maximally induce within 24 hr embryo hepatic cytochrome P-450 levels (fourfold), naphthalene hydroxylase (sixfold), benzo(a)pyrene 3-hyroxylase (14-fold), and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (24-fold). Glutathione S-transferase was not induced. Crude oils are known to be highly toxic to avian embryos, especially during the early stages of development. The LD/sub 50/ of PBCO and Hibernia crude oil applied to the egg shell on Day 8 of incubation was found to be 1.3 and 2.2 ..mu..l, respectively. Mixed-function oxidase-dependent metabolism of crude oil components may be required for toxicity since administration of 20 ..mu..g of disulfiram in dioxane 1 hr prior to application of 1.3 ..mu..l of PBCO reduced embryo mortality from 60 to 20%.

  16. Comparing the Lubricity of Biofuels Obtained from Pyrolysis and Alcoholysis of Soybean Oil and their Blends with Petroleum Diesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A diesel-like fuel was synthesized by a pyrolysis method using only an edible soybean oil as starting material (PD). Some physical properties of the material were studied, neat, and in blends with both high sulfur (HSD) and low sulfur (LSD) diesel fuels, and compared with blends of biodiesel (BD) w...

  17. Petroleum marketing monthly, April 1996 with data for January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-02

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane.

  18. Petroleum marketing monthly, October 1997 with data for July 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  19. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1996 with data for December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-08

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane.

  20. Petroleum marketing monthly, January 1998 with data for October 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  1. Petroleum marketing monthly, January 1996 with data for October 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-04

    The Petroleum Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane.

  2. Petroleum marketing monthly, April 1997 with data for January 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  3. Petroleum marketing monthly, February 1997 with data for November 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  4. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1997 with data for June 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  5. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1998, with data for December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  6. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1997 with data for March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  7. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1997 with data for February 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  8. Petroleum marketing monthly, November 1997 with data for August 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  9. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Mmmm of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Hydrocarbon, Aliphatic Hydrocarbon, Aliphatic Naphtha, Naphthol Spirits, Petroleum Spirits, Petroleum Oil... Naphtha, Light Aromatic Naphtha, Light Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Light...

  10. LANDSAT Study of Alteration Aureoles in Surface Rocks Overlying Petroleum Deposits. [Cement and Davenport oil fields, Oklahoma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donovan, T. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A series of low altitude underflight remote sensing experiments were flown at Cement and Davenport oil fields, Oklahoma. An experimental algorithm which employs a sinusoidal stretch of brightness values was developed and applied to a January 1973 scene (bands 4, 5, and 6) of Cement. The results, although not spectacular, are extremely encouraging and for the first time demonstrate that the alteration anomaly at Cement may be defined through enhanced LANDSAT images.

  11. Extraction and solubilization of crude oil and volatile petroleum hydrocarbons by purified humic and fulvic acids and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate.

    PubMed

    Eljack, Mahmoud D; Hussam, Abul

    2014-01-01

    Solubilization of crude oil (Fula, Sudan) in water demonstrates humic acid (HA), completely dissolves oil with a solubilization efficiency of 1600 g oil /g HA. The order of solubilization increases: HA > HA+ FA (fulvic acid) > FA > SDBS (sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate). Synthetic surfactant like, SDBS, exhibits the lowest efficiency even with 23 times the concentration of FA or HA. Extraction of diesel contaminated sand and GC-MS analysis show that HA and FA exhibit 50-90% extraction efficiency for C10-C22 at pH 11.9 with just one extraction. SDBS exhibits the least removal efficiency (<1%) for normal hydrocarbons. The effect of pH on extraction with HA by its micelles such as the surface active property was found to be greater than that for FA. On the basis of critical concentration, the extraction efficiencies with FA and HA are 1287 and 11453 times compared to SDBS, respectively, for the least extracted hydrocarbon at pH 10.8. The HSGC experiments showed that the solubilization efficiency of alkylbenzenes in gasoline (Shell 87) increases almost linearly with FA concentration with a slight deviation at 5-6 μM FA. About 35-60% of alkylbenzenes in gasoline were solubilized and partitioned at the highest FA concentration (15 μM) studied. Both studies with gasoline and diesel show similar extraction efficiencies even at 227-fold increased FA with diesel. PMID:25320849

  12. Method for enchanced recovery of petroleum

    SciTech Connect

    Buinicky, E.P.; Estes, J.H.

    1980-09-23

    An enhanced oil recovery method comprising injecting an aqueous solution of ammonium salts selected from the group consisting of ammonium sulfite, ammonium bisulfite, and mixtures thereof into a petroleum-bearing earth formation, heating said injected aqueous solution to a temperature in the range of about 120/sup 0/-300/sup 0/F., or higher in the presence of said petroleum-bearing earth formation, flowing said heated aqueous solution through said petroleum bearing earth formation to drive petroleum to a recovery well, and producing increased amounts of petroleum from said earth formation through said recovery well.

  13. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Vvvv of... - Default Organic HAP Contents of Petroleum Solvent Groups

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Petroleum Solvent Groups 6 Table 6 to Subpart VVVV of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Contents of Petroleum Solvent Groups As specified in § 63.5758(a)(6), when detailed organic HAP content..., Naphthol Spirits, Petroleum Spirits, Petroleum Oil, Petroleum Naphtha, Solvent Naphtha, Solvent Blend.) 3...

  14. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Vvvv of... - Default Organic HAP Contents of Petroleum Solvent Groups

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Petroleum Solvent Groups 6 Table 6 to Subpart VVVV of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Contents of Petroleum Solvent Groups As specified in § 63.5758(a)(6), when detailed organic HAP content..., Naphthol Spirits, Petroleum Spirits, Petroleum Oil, Petroleum Naphtha, Solvent Naphtha, Solvent Blend.) 3...

  15. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Vvvv of... - Default Organic HAP Contents of Petroleum Solvent Groups

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Petroleum Solvent Groups 6 Table 6 to Subpart VVVV of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Petroleum Solvent Groups As specified in § 63.5758(a)(6), when detailed organic HAP content data for solvent..., Petroleum Spirits, Petroleum Oil, Petroleum Naphtha, Solvent Naphtha, Solvent Blend.) 3 1% Xylene,...

  16. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Vvvv of... - Default Organic HAP Contents of Petroleum Solvent Groups

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Petroleum Solvent Groups 6 Table 6 to Subpart VVVV of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Contents of Petroleum Solvent Groups As specified in § 63.5758(a)(6), when detailed organic HAP content..., Naphthol Spirits, Petroleum Spirits, Petroleum Oil, Petroleum Naphtha, Solvent Naphtha, Solvent Blend.) 3...

  17. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve serves as one of the most important investments in reducing the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the third quarter of calendar year 1993, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; fill rate for the quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; current and projected storage capacity and plans to accelerate the acquisition or construction of such capacity; analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated. Samples of the oil revealed two problems that, although readily correctable, have reduced the availability of some of the oil inventory for drawdown in the near-term. These problems are: (1) a higher-than-normal gas content in some of the crude oil, apparently from years of intrusion of methane form the surrounding salt formation; and (2) elevated temperatures of some of the crude oil, due to geothermal heating, that has increased the vapor pressure of the oil. Investigations are proceeding to determine the extent to which gas intrusion and geothermal heating are impacting the availability of oil for drawdown. Preliminary designs have been developed for systems to mitigate both problems.

  18. Petroleum supply monthly, with data from June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The Petroleum Supply Division (PSD) of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) collects and published information on petroleum supply and disposition in the United States. The information is collected through a series of surveys that make up the Petroleum Supply Reporting System (PSRS). The PSRS data are published in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM), and Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). This report presents information on crude oil production, crude oil imports and exports, refinery operations, natural gas processing, transportation, and oxygenate data.

  19. Economic Geology (Oil & Gas)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geotimes, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Briefly reviews the worldwide developments in petroleum geology in 1971, including exploration, new fields, and oil production. This report is condensed from the October Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. (PR)

  20. Petroleum marketing monthly with data for October 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    This publication presents statistical data on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales. Data on petroleum include the domestic first purchase price, landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane.

  1. Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve reduces the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument and an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the second quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current and projected storage capacity, analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  2. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1995 with data for June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-31

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  3. Petroleum marketing monthly, April 1999, with data for January 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly. 56 tabs.

  4. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1996 with data for February 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-02

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  5. Petroleum marketing monthly, October 1995 with data for July 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-03

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost Of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  6. Petroleum marketing monthly with data for September 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures and accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  7. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1995 with data for February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-09

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  8. Petroleum marketing monthly with data for May 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  9. Enhanced withdrawal of polychlorinated biphenyls: A comparison of colestipol, mineral oil, propylene glycol, and petroleum jelly with or without restricted feeding

    SciTech Connect

    Polin, D.; Underwood, M.; Lehning, E.; Olson, B.; Bursian, S. )

    1989-07-01

    Meat type chickens were fed a commercial mixture of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), Aroclor 1254, at 10 ppm for 14 days, then treated for 21 days to hasten the withdrawal of PCB with either mineral oil (MO), petroleum jelly (PJ), propylene glycol (PG), or colestipol (CO) at 5% of the diet, or at 10% of the diet when restricted to 50% of control intake (50% FR). Whole carcass analyses for PCB revealed that MO + 50% FR reduced PCB to 1.91 mg/bird, or 32% of the body burden (5.96 mg) in nontreated chickens previously fed PCB, whereas those restricted in feed intake by 50% (50% FR) had almost no change (6.44 mg/bird) in body burdens. The PJ, PG, and CO in combination with 50% FR reduced body burdens of PCB to 47, 57, and 77%, respectively, of the control value. When treated with MO, PJ, PG, or CO alone (no 50% FR), chickens had body burdens reduced to only 67 to 90% of control, depending on th compound. Thus, feed restriction was necessary for the MO and PJ to have their greatest effect. Carcass lipid values and body weight gains were markedly reduced by the feed restriction. The CO reduced carcass lipid in nonrestricted chickens by 30%.

  10. Tri-Tek (Petroleum Horticultural Oil) and Beauveria bassiana: Use in Eradication Strategies for Bemisia tabaci Mediterranean Species in UK Glasshouses

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbertson, Andrew G. S.; Collins, Debbie A.

    2015-01-01

    The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a pest of global importance on both outdoor and glasshouse crops. To date, B. tabaci has not become established in the UK. The UK holds Protected Zone status against this pest and, as a result, B. tabaci entering on plant material is subjected to a policy of eradication. Mediterranean species is now the most prevalent Bemisia species entering the UK. Increasing neonicotinoid resistance is becoming increasingly widespread and problematic with this species. As a result, this continues to pose problems for eradication strategies. The current study investigates the efficacy of Tri-Tek (a petroleum horticultural oil awaiting UK registration) and the fungus Beauveria bassiana to act as control agents against Mediterranean species in UK glasshouses. Tri-Tek provided 100% egg mortality compared to 74% for B. bassiana. When tested against second instar larvae, mortalities of 69% and 65% respectively were achieved. Both products can be successfully “tank-mixed”. A tank-mix application provided 95.5% mortality of second instar larvae under glasshouse conditions. The potential integration of both products into current Bemisia eradication strategies in UK glasshouses is discussed. PMID:26463071

  11. Tri-Tek (Petroleum Horticultural Oil) and Beauveria bassiana: Use in Eradication Strategies for Bemisia tabaci Mediterranean Species in UK Glasshouses.

    PubMed

    Cuthbertson, Andrew G S; Collins, Debbie A

    2015-01-01

    The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a pest of global importance on both outdoor and glasshouse crops. To date, B. tabaci has not become established in the UK. The UK holds Protected Zone status against this pest and, as a result, B. tabaci entering on plant material is subjected to a policy of eradication. Mediterranean species is now the most prevalent Bemisia species entering the UK. Increasing neonicotinoid resistance is becoming increasingly widespread and problematic with this species. As a result, this continues to pose problems for eradication strategies. The current study investigates the efficacy of Tri-Tek (a petroleum horticultural oil awaiting UK registration) and the fungus Beauveria bassiana to act as control agents against Mediterranean species in UK glasshouses. Tri-Tek provided 100% egg mortality compared to 74% for B. bassiana. When tested against second instar larvae, mortalities of 69% and 65% respectively were achieved. Both products can be successfully "tank-mixed". A tank-mix application provided 95.5% mortality of second instar larvae under glasshouse conditions. The potential integration of both products into current Bemisia eradication strategies in UK glasshouses is discussed. PMID:26463071

  12. Producing Light Oil from a Frozen Reservoir: Reservoir and Fluid Characterization of Umiat Field, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Hanks, Catherine

    2012-12-31

    Umiat oil field is a light oil in a shallow, frozen reservoir in the Brooks Range foothills of northern Alaska with estimated oil-in-place of over 1 billion barrels. Umiat field was discovered in the 1940’s but was never considered viable because it is shallow, in the permafrost, and far from any transportation infrastructure. The advent of modern drilling and production techniques has made Umiat and similar fields in northern Alaska attractive exploration and production targets. Since 2008 UAF has been working with Renaissance Alaska Inc. and, more recently, Linc Energy, to develop a more robust reservoir model that can be combined with rock and fluid property data to simulate potential production techniques. This work will be used to by Linc Energy as they prepare to drill up to 5 horizontal wells during the 2012-2013 drilling season. This new work identified three potential reservoir horizons within the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation: the Upper and Lower Grandstand sands, and the overlying Ninuluk sand, with the Lower Grandstand considered the primary target. Seals are provided by thick interlayered shales. Reserve estimates for the Lower Grandstand alone range from 739 million barrels to 2437 million barrels, with an average of 1527 million bbls. Reservoir simulations predict that cold gas injection from a wagon-wheel pattern of multilateral injectors and producers located on 5 drill sites on the crest of the structure will yield 12-15% recovery, with actual recovery depending upon the injection pressure used, the actual Kv/Kh encountered, and other geologic factors. Key to understanding the flow behavior of the Umiat reservoir is determining the permeability structure of the sands. Sandstones of the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation consist of mixed shoreface and deltaic sandstones and mudstones. A core-based study of the sedimentary facies of these sands combined with outcrop observations identified six distinct facies associations with distinctive permeability

  13. Petroleum marketing monthly, October 1991. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-10

    This report is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner's acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 55 tabs.

  14. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1990. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-11

    This report is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, education institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 55 tabs.

  15. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-30

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas -- the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided from other sources.

  16. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-28

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures ih the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas - - the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided firom other sources.

  17. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1084 through 1994.

  18. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-27

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  19. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international data. The report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent 12 months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1996; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1996; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996.

  20. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  1. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. Word oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  2. Direct determination of metallic elements in crude oils and petroleum products by GF-AAS using a two solvent mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Platteau, O.

    1994-12-31

    The very low detection limits attainable for element determinations by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) is of particular interest to directly analyze metallic elements in materials difficult to handle, for which sample preparation procedures are troublesome and time-consuming. Crude oils and their by-products known as {open_quote}black products{close_quote} are this type of materials. Both the wet and dry ashing procedures, currently applied to obtain an aqueous solution containing the elements of interest, are lengthy and have a high probability for sample contamination by the addition of reagents and sample handling. The simple dilution with an adequate solvent is by far a better alternative but, the results obtained by some authors show a significant dependence on the matrix. Also, in these determinations organometallic compounds soluble in the selected solvent must be used as standards, these materials are expensive, many are unstable and their similarity to a typical organic matrix is highly questionable. As an alternative to these procedures, a two solvent mixture have been tested which allows the use of aqueous inorganic solutions of standards to perform the elements determinations by GF-AAS. The mixture is composed of 2,6-dimethyl-4-heptanone (DEBK) and isopropanol (ISOPOH). It has been established that a mixture of DIBK/lSOPOH (1+4) can tolerate up to 30% of water by volume. Determinations of V and Ni by GF-AAS in samples of crude oil dissolved in the mentioned solvents mixture and those prepared by dry ashing as well as by X-ray fluorescence analysis, show good recoveries for the proposed method. The results for Ni were acceptable only after the addition of a solution of 1500 ppm Pd 10% (m/V) or dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DRSA) as matrix modifiers to the sample (1+4, V/V) in the graphite furnace.

  3. Phillips Petroleum`s Seastar Project

    SciTech Connect

    Upchurch, J.L.; Money, R.P.

    1997-02-01

    On May 1, 1995 Phillips Petroleum`s Seastar Project began production as the first cluster-type subsea development in the Gulf of Mexico. Seastar production reached approximately 60 million cubic feet of gas per day (mmscfd) in November 1995 with the completion of a second {open_quotes}sales{close_quotes} line (a pipeline that transports the petroleum to shore) at the Vermilion Block 386-B host platform. Currently, the field is producing 40 to 50 mmscfd and plans are on schedule for the addition of a third producing well during the first quarter of 1997. All of the subsea equipment was installed using a drilling vessel and onboard ROV support. The Seastar project began in 1987 when Phillips and its partners leased Garden Banks Blocks 70 and 71, located 110 miles south of Cameron Louisiana. The partnership drilled two wells in 1990 that discovered noncommercial hydrocarbon reserves. Following a reevaluation of the seismic data, Phillips assumed 100 percent ownership in the leases and drilled Garden Banks 71 No. 2, which discovered 350 feet of {open_quotes}pay{close_quotes} sand (oil resource) in March 1993. The initial phase of the project consisted of two satellite subsea trees tied back to a four-slot retrievable subsea manifold in 760 feet of water. Commingled gas production is delivered via dual subsea pipelines to a host platform processing facility in 300 feet of water 13 miles away in Vermilion Block 386-B, thence via sales lines to shore.

  4. Petroleum hydrocarbons in near-surface seawater of Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill II: Analysis of caged mussels. Air/water study number 3. Subtidal study number 3a. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Short, J.W.; Harris, P.M.

    1995-07-01

    Mussels (Mytilus trossulus) were deployed at 22 locations inside Prince William Sound and 16 locations outside the Sound at depths of 1, 5 and 25 m for 2 to 8 weeks to determine the biological availability and persistence of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons from the Exxon Valdez Oil (EVO) spill. Four successive deployments were made in 1989, and two each in 1990 and 1991. Mussels were analyzed for 27 alkane and 43 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) analytes. PAH concentrations derived from EVO in mussels decreased with depth, time, and distance from heavily oiled beaches. Hydrocarbon accumulation derived from EVO by deployed mussels indicates petroleum hydrocarbons were available to subsurface marine fauna the summer following the spill, which may be a route of oil ingestion exposure by fauna at high trophic levels.

  5. Strategic petroleum reserve planning and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Leiby, P.N.

    1996-06-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) is a government-owned stockpile of crude oil intended to serve as a buffer against possible oil market disruptions. The overall purpose of this project is to develop and apply improved models and tools for SPR management. Current project efforts emphasize developing new modeling tools to explicitly and flexibly portray oil market uncertainty and SPR planning risk.

  6. Petroleum: An energy profile. [CONTAINS GLOSSARY

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This publication is intended as a general reference about petroleum: its origins, production, refining, marketing, and use. This report presents an overview of refined petroleum products and their use, crude oil reserves and production, refining technology and US refining capacity, the development and operation of petroleum markets, and foreign trade. A statistical supplement, an appendix describing refining operations, a glossary, and bibliographic references for additional sources of information are also included. 36 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Burial history, thermal maturity, and oil and gas generation history of petroleum systems in the Wind River Basin Province, central Wyoming: Chapter 6 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas resources in the Wind River Basin Province, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, Laura N.R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Lewan, Michael D.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    Burial history, thermal maturity, and timing of oil and gas generation were modeled for eight key source rock units at nine well locations throughout the Wind River Basin Province. Petroleum source rocks include the Permian Phosphoria Formation, the Cretaceous Mowry Shale, Cody Shale, and Mesaverde, Meeteetse, and Lance Formations, and the Tertiary (Paleocene) Fort Union Formation, including the Waltman Shale Member. Within the province boundary, the Phosphoria is thin and only locally rich in organic carbon. Phosphoria oil produced from reservoirs in the province is thought to have migrated from the Wyoming and Idaho thrust belt. Locations (wells) selected for burial history reconstructions include three in the deepest parts of the province (Adams OAB-17, Bighorn 1-5, and Coastal Owl Creek); three at intermediate depths (Hells Half Acre, Shell 33X-10, and West Poison Spider); and three at relatively shallow locations (Young Ranch, Amoco Unit 100, and Conoco-Coal Bank). The thermal maturity of source rocks is greatest in the deep northern and central parts of the province and decreases to the south and east toward the basin margins. The results of the modeling indicate that, in the deepest areas, (1) peak petroleum generation from Cretaceous rocks occurred from Late Cretaceous through middle Eocene time, and (2) onset of oil generation from the Waltman Shale Member occurred from late Eocene to early Miocene time. Based on modeling results, gas generation from the cracking of Phosphoria oil reservoired in the Park City Formation reached a peak in the late Paleocene/early Eocene (58 to 55 Ma) only in the deepest parts of the province. The Mowry Shale and Cody Shale (in the eastern half of the basin) contain a mix of Type-II and Type-III kerogens. Oil generation from predominantly Type-II source rocks of these units in the deepest parts of the province reached peak rates during the latest Cretaceous to early Eocene (65 to 55 Ma). Only in these areas of the basin did

  8. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Pppp of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... aliphatic or aromatic. b Mineral Spirits 135, Mineral Spirits 150 EC, Naphtha, Mixed Hydrocarbon, Aliphatic Hydrocarbon, Aliphatic Naphtha, Naphthol Spirits, Petroleum Spirits, Petroleum Oil, Petroleum Naphtha, Solvent... Naphtha, Light Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Light Aromatic Solvent....

  9. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Mmmm of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... aliphatic or aromatic. b Mineral Spirits 135, Mineral Spirits 150 EC, Naphtha, Mixed Hydrocarbon, Aliphatic Hydrocarbon, Aliphatic Naphtha, Naphthol Spirits, Petroleum Spirits, Petroleum Oil, Petroleum Naphtha, Solvent... Naphtha, Light Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Light Aromatic Solvent....

  10. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Mmmm of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... aliphatic or aromatic. b Mineral Spirits 135, Mineral Spirits 150 EC, Naphtha, Mixed Hydrocarbon, Aliphatic Hydrocarbon, Aliphatic Naphtha, Naphthol Spirits, Petroleum Spirits, Petroleum Oil, Petroleum Naphtha, Solvent... Naphtha, Light Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Light Aromatic Solvent....

  11. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1990. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-27

    Data presented in this report describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 12 figs., 54 tabs.

  12. Petroleum Supply Monthly, September 1990. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Whited, D.; Jacobus, P.

    1990-11-28

    Data presented in this PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 12 figs., 46 tabs.

  13. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1991. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-30

    Data presented in this report describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importer, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics 14 figs., 56 tabs.

  14. Combustion of petroleum coke dust as a partial substitute for natural gas and oil in the alumina trihydrate calcination process

    SciTech Connect

    Desgroseillers, B.; Perron, J.; Laurin, P.; Menard, O.; Martin, J.

    1996-10-01

    In the Saguenay region, Alcan operates two coke calcination rotary kilns to supply with calcined coke its prebaked anode and Soderberg paste smelters. The annual production is approximately 220,000 t of calcined coke. For the last few years, the unwanted emissions of under calcined coke dust (UCCD) emitted from the kilns along with the hot gas reaches approximately 16,000 t per year. A maximum of 6,000 t of UCCD are recycled in fabrication processes. In the search of new possibilities to recycle and sell the remaining 10,000 t the possibility of using this UCCD as a heating source ion other processes has emerged, particularly for the calcination of alumina trihydrate. A feasibility study on the combustion as well as a plant trial showed the benefits of burning this UCCD in two 60 t/h capacity calcination units. In fact, appreciable savings in natural gas or oil, as well as increased energetic efficiency (gain of 6%) were observed in the calcination units. Furthermore, the impact on quality of the metallurgical alumina is negligible. These results can be explained partly by the use of a solid combustible which presents longer combustion time compared to natural gas. The combustion zones are therefore extended, favoring the heat transfer to the solid during calcination.

  15. Petroleum supply annual 1993. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This publication contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1993 through annual and monthly surveys. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1993.

  16. SYSTEMS CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF PETROLEUM POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The application of an established mathematical treatment useful for the characterization and identification of petroleum pollutants is described. Using discriminant analysis of relevant infrared spectrophotometric data, 99% of numerous known and unknown oil samples have been corr...

  17. Phase II - final report study of alternatives for future operations of the naval petroleum and oil shale reserves NPR-3, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has asked Gustavson Associates, Inc. to serve as an Independent Petroleum Appraiser under contract DE-AC01-96FE64202. This authorizes a study and recommendations regarding future development of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3) in Natrona County, Wyoming. The report that follows is the Phase II Final Report for that study.

  18. Oil Industry, Solar Energy Industry, and Mining Occupations. Curriculum for Petroleum, Mining and Solar Energy Secretaries. July 1, 1977-June 30, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Gloria E.

    This document is a packet of instructional materials for training secretaries and clerks for the petroleum, mining, and solar energy fields. Developed by Eastern New Mexico University and the New Mexico State Department of Vocational Education, and aimed at New Mexico industry, the curriculum is divided into three units of petroleum, mining, and…

  19. Early Cretaceous to Paleocene North American Drainage Reorganization and Sediment Routing from Detrital Zircons: Significance to the Alberta Oil Sands and Gulf of Mexico Petroleum Provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Detrital zircons (DZs) represent a powerful tool for reconstructing continental paleodrainage. This paper uses new DZ data from Lower Cretaceous strata of the Alberta foreland basin, and Upper Cretaceous and Cenozoic strata of the Gulf of Mexico passive margin, to reconstruct paleodrainage and sediment routing, and illustrate significance to giant hydrocarbon systems. DZ populations from the Lower Cretaceous Mannville Group of Alberta and Saskatchewan infer a continental-scale river system that routed sediment from the eastern 2/3rds of North America to the Boreal Sea. Aptian McMurray Formation fluvial sands were derived from a drainage sourced in the Appalachians that was similar in scale to the modern Amazon. Albian fluvial sandstones of the Clearwater and Grand Rapids Formations were derived from the same Appalachian-sourced drainage area, which had expanded to include tributaries from the Cordilleran arc of the northwest US and southwest Canada. DZ populations from the Gulf of Mexico coastal plain complement this view, showing that only the southern US and Appalachian-Ouachita cordillera was integrated with the Gulf through the Late Cretaceous. However, by the Paleocene, drainage from the US Western Cordillera to the Appalachians had been routed to the Gulf of Mexico, establishing the template for sediment routing that persists today. The paleodrainage reorganization and changes in sediment routing described above played key roles in establishment of the Alberta oil sands and Gulf of Mexico as giant petroleum provinces. Early Cretaceous routing of a continental-scale fluvial system to the Alberta foreland provided large and contiguous fluvial point-bar sand bodies that became economically viable reservoirs, whereas mid- to late Cretaceous drainage reorganization routed greatly increased sediment loads to the Gulf of Mexico, which loaded the shelf, matured source rocks, and drove the gravitational and salt tectonics that helped establish the working hydrocarbon

  20. Assessment of Appalachian basin oil and gas resources: Devonian gas shales of the Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic Total Petroleum System: Chapter G.9 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milici, Robert C.; Swezey, Christopher S.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the results of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of the technically recoverable undiscovered natural gas resources in Devonian shale in the Appalachian Basin Petroleum Province of the eastern United States. These results are part of the USGS assessment in 2002 of the technically recoverable undiscovered oil and gas resources of the province. This report does not use the results of a 2011 USGS assessment of the Devonian Marcellus Shale because the area considered in the 2011 assessment is much greater than the area of the Marcellus Shale described in this report. The USGS assessment in 2002 was based on the identification of six total petroleum systems, which include strata that range in age from Cambrian to Pennsylvanian. The Devonian gas shales described in this report are within the Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic Total Petroleum System, which extends generally from New York to Tennessee. This total petroleum system is divided into ten assessment units (plays), four of which are classified as conventional and six as continuous. The Devonian shales described in this report make up four of these continuous assessment units. The assessment results are reported as fully risked fractiles (F95, F50, F5, and the mean); the fractiles indicate the probability of recovery of the assessment amount. The products reported are oil, gas, and natural gas liquids. The mean estimates for technically recoverable undiscovered hydrocarbons in the four gas shale assessment units are 12,195.53 billion cubic feet (12.20 trillion cubic feet) of gas and 158.91 million barrels of natural gas liquids

  1. Petroleum Technology: From Refinery To Home, Business, and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shewell, John A.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the application of petroleum technology and presents activities designed to raise students' awareness of the importance of petroleum-based products in their lives. Includes a handout designed to help students understand the refining processes in which the crude oil from the drill site is transformed into nearly 6,000 petroleum-based…

  2. Eocene Total Petroleum System -- North and East of the Eocene West Side Fold Belt Assessment Unit of the San Joaquin Basin Province: Chapter 19 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gautier, Donald L.; Hosford Scheirer, Allegra

    2009-01-01

    The North and East of Eocene West Side Fold Belt Assessment Unit (AU) of the Eocene Total Petroleum System of the San Joaquin Basin Province comprises all hydrocarbon accumulations within the geographic and stratigraphic limits of this confirmed AU. Oil and associated gas accumulations occur in Paleocene through early middle Miocene marine to nonmarine sandstones found on the comparatively stable northeast shelf of the basin. The assessment unit is located north and east of the thickest accumulation of Neogene sediments and the west side fold belt. The area enclosed by the AU has been affected by only mild deformation since Eocene time. Traps containing known accumulations are mostly low-relief domes, anticlines, and up-dip basin margin traps with faulting and stratigraphic components. Map boundaries of the assessment unit are shown in figures 19.1 and 19.2; this assessment unit replaces the Northeast Shelf of Neogene Basin play 1006, the East Central Basin and Slope North of Bakersfield Arch play 1010, and part of the West Side Fold Belt Sourced by Pre-middle Miocene Rocks play 1005 considered by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in their 1995 National Assessment (Beyer, 1996). Stratigraphically, the AU includes rocks from the uppermost crystalline basement to the topographic surface. In the region of overlap with the Central Basin Monterey Diagenetic Traps Assessment Unit, the North and East of Eocene West Side Fold Belt AU extends from basement rocks to the top of the Temblor Formation (figs. 19.3 and 19.4). In map view, the northern boundary of the assessment unit corresponds to the northernmost extent of Eocene-age Kreyenhagen Formation. The northeast boundary is the eastern limit of possible oil reservoir rocks near the eastern edge of the basin. The southeast boundary corresponds to the pinch-out of Stevens sand of Eckis (1940) to the south, which approximately coincides with the northern flank of the Bakersfield Arch (fig. 19.1). The AU is bounded on the

  3. Detecting and discriminating petroleum and petroleum products from water on terrestrial backgrounds with hyperspectral remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, C. Scott

    Petroleum and petroleum product spills are frequent and as both Hurricane Katrina and the Deepwater Horizon accident demonstrated, they can be catastrophic. A prominent portion of the response is mapping the extent to which oil has reached both shoreline and inland areas. Yet, petroleum and water--when present on common substrates such as sand, concrete, and vegetation--are often difficult to distinguish in panchromatic and multispectral imagery. This research demonstrates how hyperspectral remote sensing, also known as imaging spectroscopy, provides petroleum detection and discrimination from water on terrestrial backgrounds. Utilizing spectral libraries, it also performs material identification and successfully discriminates some petroleum products from one another as a means of further classification and mapping spill extent. To achieve these goals, this effort collected spectral signatures of four crude oils and five refined petroleum products on ten common terrestrial substrates and compared them to water on the same backgrounds over a period of 1-90 days, depending on liquid volatility. The result is the first publicly available spectral library for petroleum and petroleum products on terrestrial substrates in the reflective portion of the electromagnetic spectrum (400-2500 nm) for use in petroleum spill detection and response. It also establishes a baseline for the use of imaging spectroscopy as a technique for confident, accurate petroleum detection in the terrestrial environment. Using common material identification algorithms, the spectra were successfully applied to airborne hyperspectral data from the Hurricane Katrina disaster in 2005 as a proof-of-concept for discriminating petroleum from water.

  4. A Computerized Petroleum Geology Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Louise E.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a package of computer programs developed to implement an oil exploration game that gives undergraduate students practical experience in applying theoretical principles of petroleum geology. The programs facilitate management of the game by the instructor and enhance the learning experience. (Author/MBR)

  5. Petroleum marketing monthly, December 1996 with data for September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This report provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  6. Petroleum supply annual 1993. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1993 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1993, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Below is a description of each section in Volume 1 of the PSA.

  7. Petroleum supply annual 1994. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-22

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1994 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1994, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Below is a description of each section in Volume 1 of the PSA.

  8. Petroleum supply annual, 1997. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1997 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1997, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 48 tabs.

  9. Structural framework, stratigraphy, and petroleum geology of the area of oil and gas lease Sale No. 49 on the U.S. Atlantic continental shelf and slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattick, Robert E.; Hennessy, Jacqueline L.

    1980-01-01

    On September 23, 1977, the U.S. Department of the Interior announced the tentative selection of 136 tracts for Sale No. 49 of oil and gas leases in the Baltimore Canyon Trough on the U.S. Atlantic Continental Shelf and Slope. This report summarizes the geology and petroleum potential of the area. The Baltimore Canyon Trough is an elongate, seaward-opening sedimentary basin filled by as much as 14 km of Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks. The basin first formed under the New Jersey shelf and gradually spread west and south as the area subsided after the rifting that formed the Atlantic basin. Rocks of the Triassic and Jurassic Systems together are more than 8 km thick in a depocenter areally restricted to the northern part of the trough. Basal Jurassic rocks are apparently nonmarine sedimentary rocks bedded with evaporite deposits. Direct evidence that some salt is in the basal Jurassic section comes from the Houston Oil and Minerals 676-1 well, which penetrated salt at a depth of about 3.8 km. During the Middle and Late Jurassic, more open marine conditions prevailed than in the Early Jurassic, and carbonate banks and reefs formed discontinuously along the seaward side of the shelf. Sand flats likely occupied the central part of the shelf, and these probably graded shoreward into nonmarine red beds that accumulated in a bordering coastal plain. Thick nonmarine sands and silty shales of Late Jurassic age were deposited in what is now the nearshore and midshelf area. These sedimentary rocks probably grade into thick marine carbonate rocks near the present shelf edge. During the Cretaceous, less sediment accumulated (about 4 km) than during the Jurassic, and most was deposited during Early Cretaceous time. The Cretaceous units show two main trends through time-a diminishing rate of sediment accumulation and an increase in marine character of sediments. During the Middle and Late Cretaceous, calcareous sand and mud filled the basin, buried the shelf-edge reefs and

  10. Petroleum marketing monthly with data for April 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    This publication provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free on board price and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The data provided are compiled from six Energy Information Administration survey forms. 50 tabs.

  11. Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Annual/quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-16

    Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94-163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual and quarterly reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This report combines the fourth quarter 1993 Quarterly Report with the 1993 Annual Report. Key activities described include appropriations; life extension planning; expansion planning; Strategic Petroleum Reserve oil acquisition; the oil stabilization program; and the refined petroleum product reserve test programs. Sections of this report also describe the program mission; the storage facility development program; environmental compliance; budget and finance; and drawdown and distribution.

  12. Petroleum supply monthly with data for June 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    Data presented in this publication describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United states and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the U.S. The report includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Both summary and detailed statistics are presented. 16 figs., 56 tabs.

  13. Strategic Petroleum Reserve annual/quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-16

    During 1992 the Department continued planning activities for the expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve to one billion barrels. A draft Environmental Impact Statement for the five candidate sites was completed in October 1992, and a series of public hearings was held during December 1992. Conceptual design engineering activities, life cycle cost estimates and geotechnical studies to support the technical requirements for an Strategic Petroleum Reserve Plan Amendment were essentially completed in December 1992. At the end of 1992, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil inventory was 574.7 million barrels and an additional 1.7 million barrels was in transit to the Reserve. During 1992 approximately 6.2 million barrels of crude oil were acquired for the Reserve. A Department of Energy Tiger Team Environmental, Safety and Health (ES&H) Assessment was conducted at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve from March 9 through April 10, 1992. In general, the Tiger Team found that Strategic Petroleum Reserve activities do not pose undue environmental, safety or health risks. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve`s Final Corrective Action Plan, prepared in response to the Tiger Team assessment, was submitted for Department approval in December 1992. On November 18, 1992, the Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy selected DynMcDennott Petroleum Operations Company to provide management and operating services for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve for a period of 5 years commencing April 1, 1993. DynMcDermott will succeed Boeing Petroleum Services, Inc.

  14. Petroleum supply annual 1996: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1996 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Capacity; each with final annual data. The summary statistics section show 16 years of data depicting the balance between supply, disposition and ending stocks for various commodities including crude oil, motor gasoline, distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, jet fuel propane/propylene, and liquefied petroleum gases. The detailed statistics section provide 1996 detailed statistics on supply and disposition, refinery operations, imports and exports, stocks, and transportation of crude oil and petroleum products. The refinery capacity contain listings of refineries and associated crude oil distillation and downstream capacities by State, as of January 1, 1997, as well as summaries of corporate refinery capacities and refinery storage capacities. In addition, refinery receipts of crude oil by method of transportation for 1996 are provided. Also included are fuels consumed at refineries, and lists of shutdowns, sales, reactivations, and mergers during 1995 and 1996. 16 figs., 59 tabs.

  15. The petroleum exponential (again)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The U.S. production and reserves of liquid and gaseous petroleum have declined since 1960, at least in the lower 48 states. This decline stems from decreased discovery rates, as predicted by M. King Hubbert in the mid-1950's. Hubbert's once unpopular views were based on statistical analysis of the production history of the petroleum industry, and now, even with inclusion of the statistical perturbation caused by the Prudhoe Bay-North Alaskan Slope discovery (the largest oil field ever found in the United States), it seems clear again that production is following the exponential curve to depletion of the resource—to the end of the ultimate yield of petroleum from wells in the United States.In a recent report, C. Hall and C. Cleveland of Cornell University show that large atypical discoveries, such as the Prudhoe Bay find, are but minor influences on what now appears to be the crucial intersection of two exponentials [Science, 211, 576-579, 1981]: the production-per-drilled-foot curve of Hubbert, which crosses zero production no later than the year 2005; the other, a curve that plots the energy cost of drilling and extraction with time; that is, the cost-time rate of how much oil is used to drill and extract oil from the ground. The intersection, if no other discoveries the size of the Prudhoe Bay field are made, could be as early as 1990, the end of the present decade. The inclusion of each Prudhoe-Bay-size find extends the year of intersection by only about 6 years. Beyond that point, more than one barrel of petroleum would be expended for each barrel extracted from the ground. The oil exploration-extraction and refining industry is currently the second most energy-intensive industry in the U.S., and the message seems clear. Either more efficient drilling and production techniques are discovered, or domestic production will cease well before the end of this century if the Hubbert analysis modified by Hall and Cleveland is correct.

  16. Recent Advances in Petroleum Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Singh, Ajay; Ward, Owen P.

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular biology have extended our understanding of the metabolic processes related to microbial transformation of petroleum hydrocarbons. The physiological responses of microorganisms to the presence of hydrocarbons, including cell surface alterations and adaptive mechanisms for uptake and efflux of these substrates, have been characterized. New molecular techniques have enhanced our ability to investigate the dynamics of microbial communities in petroleum-impacted ecosystems. By establishing conditions which maximize rates and extents of microbial growth, hydrocarbon access, and transformation, highly accelerated and bioreactor-based petroleum waste degradation processes have been implemented. Biofilters capable of removing and biodegrading volatile petroleum contaminants in air streams with short substrate-microbe contact times (<60 s) are being used effectively. Microbes are being injected into partially spent petroleum reservoirs to enhance oil recovery. However, these microbial processes have not exhibited consistent and effective performance, primarily because of our inability to control conditions in the subsurface environment. Microbes may be exploited to break stable oilfield emulsions to produce pipeline quality oil. There is interest in replacing physical oil desulfurization processes with biodesulfurization methods through promotion of selective sulfur removal without degradation of associated carbon moieties. However, since microbes require an environment containing some water, a two-phase oil-water system must be established to optimize contact between the microbes and the hydrocarbon, and such an emulsion is not easily created with viscous crude oil. This challenge may be circumvented by application of the technology to more refined gasoline and diesel substrates, where aqueous-hydrocarbon emulsions are more easily generated. Molecular approaches are being used to broaden the substrate specificity and increase the rates and

  17. CHARACTERISTICS OF SPILLED OILS, FUELS, AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS: 2A. DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS DATA FOR A SUITE OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS - THE EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE, VOLATILIZATION, AND ENERGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical dispersants are used in oil spill response operations to enhance the dispersion of oil slicks at sea as small oil droplets in the water column. To assess the impacts of dispersant usage on oil spills, US EPA is developing a simulation model called the EPA Research Object...

  18. Petroleum and the Environment: Teaching about Petroleum and the Future of Energy Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Travis; Camphire, Geoffrey

    2005-01-01

    Students live in a world that is powered by petroleum and other energy resources to an unsurpassed degree. The United States today consumes more than 24% of all the energy used in the world--and about 60% of this energy is provided by petroleum (oil and natural gas). The availability of abundant, inexpensive energy is the main reason that the…

  19. Petroleum supply monthly with data from January 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  20. Petroleum supply monthly with data for March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1998, with data for March 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  2. Petroleum marketing monthly: September 1996, with data for June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Detailed statistics for crude oil, including the price of imported crude oil by country of origin, by gravity, and by crude stream. To aid the reader in determining the market changes, the majority of the tables show data for the report month and previous months for the current year, and the report month for the previous year. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  3. 29 CFR 779.360 - Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales. 779.360... Establishments Liquefied-Petroleum-Gas and Fuel Oil Dealers § 779.360 Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas... ultimate consumer of liquefied-petroleum-gas, whether delivered in portable cylinders or in bulk to...

  4. 29 CFR 779.360 - Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales. 779.360... Establishments Liquefied-Petroleum-Gas and Fuel Oil Dealers § 779.360 Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas... ultimate consumer of liquefied-petroleum-gas, whether delivered in portable cylinders or in bulk to...

  5. 29 CFR 779.360 - Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales. 779.360... Establishments Liquefied-Petroleum-Gas and Fuel Oil Dealers § 779.360 Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas... ultimate consumer of liquefied-petroleum-gas, whether delivered in portable cylinders or in bulk to...

  6. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Other Petroleum Products Consumption Model

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    The other petroleum product consumption module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide U.S. consumption forecasts for 6 petroleum product categories: asphalt and road oil, petrochemical feedstocks, petroleum coke, refinery still gas, unfinished oils, and other miscvellaneous products

  7. 40 CFR 112.9 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan Requirements for onshore oil production...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Requirements for Petroleum Oils and Non-Petroleum Oils, Except Animal Fats and Oils and Greases, and Fish and Marine Mammal Oils; and Vegetable Oils (Including Oils from... Countermeasure Plan Requirements for onshore oil production facilities (excluding drilling and...

  8. 40 CFR 112.9 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan Requirements for onshore oil production...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Requirements for Petroleum Oils and Non-Petroleum Oils, Except Animal Fats and Oils and Greases, and Fish and Marine Mammal Oils; and Vegetable Oils (Including Oils from... Countermeasure Plan Requirements for onshore oil production facilities (excluding drilling and...

  9. 40 CFR 112.9 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan Requirements for onshore oil production...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Requirements for Petroleum Oils and Non-Petroleum Oils, Except Animal Fats and Oils and Greases, and Fish and Marine Mammal Oils; and Vegetable Oils (Including Oils from... Countermeasure Plan Requirements for onshore oil production facilities (excluding drilling and...

  10. Prebiotic Petroleum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Mekki-Berrada

    2014-12-01

    This short communication summarizes a global and continuous reflection on the origins of life. "Prebiotic Petroleum" assumes that " the class of most complex molecules of life that may have geochemical and abiotic origin is the class of fatty acids with long aliphatic chains" and proposes a physical process for the formation of liposomes. Developments following the workshop start from the idea that the liposomes also acquire ion exchange channels physically during their forming process.

  11. Prebiotic petroleum.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mekki-Berrada

    2014-12-01

    This short communication summarizes a global and continuous reflection on the origins of life. "Prebiotic Petroleum" assumes that "the class of most complex molecules of life that may have geochemical and abiotic origin is the class of fatty acids with long aliphatic chains" and proposes a physical process for the formation of liposomes. Developments following the workshop start from the idea that the liposomes also acquire ion exchange channels physically during their forming process. PMID:25743765

  12. Contributions in petroleum geology and engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, A.H.; Koederitz, L.; Honarpour, M. )

    1989-01-01

    This book discusses petroleum reservoir components and properties. The contents include: Systems of units. Reservoir Rocks. Reservoir fluids. Relative permeability and capillarity. Reservoir volume and fluid flow. Naturally fractured reservoirs. Natural production mechanisms. Prediction of oil and gas recovery. Analysis of well performance. Gas-condensate reservoirs. Enhanced oil recovery processes.

  13. sup 14 C ages of hydrothermal petroleum and carbonate in Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California: implications for oil generation, expulsion, and migration

    SciTech Connect

    Peter, J.M.; Peltonen, P.; Scott, S.D. ); Simoneit, B.R.T.; Kawka, O.E. )

    1991-03-01

    {sup 14}C dates have been obtained by accelerator mass spectrometry and by conventional techniques from hydrothermally derived petroleum, calcite, and vent water from the southern trough of Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California. The ages for petroleum range from 4240 to 5705 B.P., whereas those for calcite range from 7340 to 33,168 B.P. The CO{sub 2} in a sample of hydrothermal vent fluid (24% end member) yielded an apparent age of 14,820 B.P., which is within the calcite age range. These are not true ages, but rather they reflect the age of carbon within these materials. The data indicate that the conversion of sedimentary organic matter to petroleum occurs very rapidly and that the petroleum is mobilized from sedimentary organic matter in the upper 30 m of the sediment column ({le}500 m thick) underlying the sea-floor deposits. The large difference in ages between the petroleum and most of the calcites indicates that the carbon source in the calcites is more complex. The inorganic carbon pool probably originates from the dissolution of older detrital carbonates and autochthonous biogenic carbonates in the shallow sediments, and/or the decarboxylation of organic matter at greater depth, with a magmatic component of dead carbon.

  14. Indigenous Precambrian petroleum revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, G.E.; Kaczor, M.J.; McArthur, R.E.

    1980-10-01

    Irrefutable evidence of fossil remains from Precambrian sediments and proved petroleum reserves in upper Proterozoic (Riphean-Vendian) strata of the Irkutsk basin, USSR, suggest that unmetamorphosed Precambrian sedimentary rocks should be a focus for hydrocarbon exploration. Since 1965, a dramatic increase in publications which document worldwide occurrences of Precambrian life forms discloses that, by the end of the Proterozoic, organic evolution had produced diversified assemblages of relatively highly developed macroorganisms and microorganisms. Some of these organisms have generated crude oil in the Nonesuch Shale of northern Michigan and kerogen in stromatolitic carbonate rocks in Africa Kerogen has been extracted from approx. 2300-m.y. old Transvaal (Africa) stromatolitic limestone containing coccoid and complex filamentous cyanophytes. Also, aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons have been obtained from the approx. 2800-m.y. old Bulawayan stromatolitic limestone of Rhodesia. Additional evidence indicates that commercial reserves of petroleum from Precambrian strata are possible. An oil discovery in Lower Cambrian rocks in 1962, at Markovo in the Irkutsk basin of the Siberian platform area, led to four noncommercial and eight commercial fields producing from Lower Cambrian and Upper Proterozoic strata.

  15. Pannonian Basin Province, Central Europe (Province 4808) -Petroleum Geology, Total Petroleum Systems, and Petroleum Resource Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolton, Gordon L.

    2006-01-01

    This report deals with the Pannonian Basin Province of Central Europe and summarizes the petroleum geology, which was the basis for assessment, and presents results of that assessment. The Pannonian Basin Province consists of a large compound extensional basin of Neogene age overlying Paleogene basins and interior elements of the greater Alpine foldbelt. Within it, six total petroleum systems (TPS) are defined and six assessment units established for estimation of undiscovered oil and gas resources. Other speculative TPSs were identified but not included for quantitative assessment within this study.

  16. Economics and regulation of petroleum futures markets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    Because the futures market in petroleum products is a relatively recent phenomenon, the implications of public policies formulated for that market have not yet been fully explored. To provide the Office of Competition of the Department of Energy (DOE) with sufficient information to assess policy alternatives, Resource Planning Associates, Inc. (RPA) was asked to analyze the development of the futures market in No. 2 oil, assess the potential for futures markets in other petroleum products, and identify policy alternatives available to DOE. To perform this analysis, the criteria for a viable futures market was established first. Then, the experience to date with the 18-month-old futures market in No. 2 oil was examined, and the potential for viable futures markets in No. 6 oil, gasoline, jet fuel, and crude oil was assessed. Finally, how existing DOE regulations and prospective actions might affect petroleum futures market development was investigated.

  17. Unconventional petroleum: a current awareness bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Grissom, M.C.

    1983-10-30

    The summaries in this bulletin cover both secondary and tertiary recovery of petroleum and the following topics under Oil Shales and Tar Sands: reserves and exploration; site geology and hydrology; drilling, fracturing, and mining; oil production, recovery, and refining; properties and composition; direct uses and by-products; health and safety; marketing and economics; waste research and management; environmental aspects; and regulations. These summaries and older citations to information on petroleum, oil shales, and tar sands back to the 1960's are available for on-line searching and retrieval on the Energy Data Base using the DOE/RECON system or commercial on-line retrieval systems. Retrospective searches can be made on any aspect of petroleum, oil shales, or tar sands, or customized profiles can be developed to provide current information for each user's needs.

  18. A four-dimensional petroleum systems model for the San Joaquin Basin Province, California: Chapter 12 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Kenneth E.; Magoon, Leslie B.; Lampe, Carolyn; Scheirer, Allegra Hosford; Lillis, Paul G.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2008-01-01

    A calibrated numerical model depicts the geometry and three-dimensional (3-D) evolution of petroleum systems through time (4-D) in a 249 x 309 km (155 x 192 mi) area covering all of the San Joaquin Basin Province of California. Model input includes 3-D structural and stratigraphic data for key horizons and maps of unit thickness, lithology, paleobathymetry, heat flow, original total organic carbon, and original Rock-Eval pyrolysis hydrogen index for each source rock. The four principal petroleum source rocks in the basin are the Miocene Antelope shale of Graham and Williams (1985; hereafter referred to as Antelope shale), the Eocene Kreyenhagen Formation, the Eocene Tumey formation of Atwill (1935; hereafter referred to as Tumey formation), and the Cretaceous to Paleocene Moreno Formation. Due to limited Rock-Eval/total organic carbon data, the Tumey formation was modeled using constant values of original total organic carbon and original hydrogen index. Maps of original total organic carbon and original hydrogen index were created for the other three source rocks. The Antelope shale was modeled using Type IIS kerogen kinetics, whereas Type II kinetics were used for the other source rocks. Four-dimensional modeling and geologic field evidence indicate that maximum burial of the three principal Cenozoic source rocks occurred in latest Pliocene to Holocene time. For example, a 1-D extraction of burial history from the 4-D model in the Tejon depocenter shows that the bottom of the Antelope shale source rock began expulsion (10 percent transformation ratio) about 4.6 Ma and reached peak expulsion (50 percent transformation ratio) about 3.6 Ma. Except on the west flank of the basin, where steep dips in outcrop and seismic data indicate substantial uplift, little or no section has been eroded. Most petroleum migration occurred during late Cenozoic time in distinct stratigraphic intervals along east-west pathways from pods of active petroleum source rock in the Tejon and

  19. Geology, sequence stratigraphy, and oil and gas assessment of the Lewis Shale Total Petroleum System, San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado: Chapter 5 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dubiel, R.F.

    2013-01-01

    The Lewis Shale Total Petroleum System (TPS) in the San Juan Basin Province contains a continuous gas accumulation in three distinct stratigraphic units deposited in genetically related depositional environments: offshore-marine shales, mudstones, siltstones, and sandstones of the Lewis Shale, and marginal-marine shoreface sandstones and siltstones of both the La Ventana Tongue and the Chacra Tongue of the Cliff House Sandstone. The Lewis Shale was not a completion target in the San Juan Basin (SJB) in early drilling from about the 1950s through 1990. During that time, only 16 wells were completed in the Lewis from natural fracture systems encountered while drilling for deeper reservoir objectives. In 1991, existing wells that penetrated the Lewis Shale were re-entered by petroleum industry operators in order to fracture-stimulate the Lewis and to add Lewis gas production onto preexisting, and presumably often declining, Mesaverde Group production stratigraphically lower in the section. By 1997, approximately 101 Lewis completions had been made, both as re-entries into existing wells and as add-ons to Mesaverde production in new wells. Based on recent industry drilling and completion practices leading to successful gas production from the Lewis and because new geologic models indicate that the Lewis Shale contains both source rocks and reservoir rocks, the Lewis Shale TPS was defined and evaluated as part of this U.S. Geological Survey oil and gas assessment of the San Juan Basin. Gas in the Lewis Shale Total Petroleum System is produced from shoreface sandstones and siltstones in the La Ventana and Chacra Tongues and from distal facies of these prograding clastic units that extend into marine rocks of the Lewis Shale in the central part of the San Juan Basin. Reservoirs are in shoreface sandstone parasequences of the La Ventana and Chacra and their correlative distal parasequences in the Lewis Shale where both natural and artificially enhanced fractures produce

  20. Alaskan North Slope petroleum systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magoon, L.B.; Lillis, P.G.; Bird, K.J.; Lampe, C.; Peters, K.E.

    2003-01-01

    Six North Slope petroleum systems are identified, described, and mapped using oil-to-oil and oil-to-source rock correlations, pods of active source rock, and overburden rock packages. To map these systems, we assumed that: a) petroleum source rocks contain 3.2 wt. % organic carbon (TOC); b) immature oil-prone source rocks have hydrogen indices (HI) >300 (mg HC/gm TOC); c) the top and bottom of the petroleum (oil plus gas) window occur at vitrinite reflectance values of 0.6 and 1.0% Ro, respectively; and d) most hydrocarbons are expelled within the petroleum window. The six petroleum systems we have identified and mapped are: a) a southern system involving the Kuna-Lisburne source rock unit that was active during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous; b) two western systems involving source rock in the Kingak-Blankenship, and GRZ-lower Torok source rock units that were active during the Albian; and c) three eastern systems involving the Shublik-Otuk, Hue Shale and Canning source rock units that were active during the Cenozoic. The GRZ-lower Torok in the west is correlative with the Hue Shale to the east. Four overburden rock packages controlled the time of expulsion and gross geometry of migration paths: a) a southern package of Early Cretaceous and older rocks structurally-thickened by early Brooks Range thrusting; b) a western package of Early Cretaceous rocks that filled the western part of the foreland basin; c) an eastern package of Late Cretaceous and Paleogene rocks that filled the eastern part of the foreland basin; and d) an offshore deltaic package of Neogene rocks deposited by the Colville, Canning, and Mackenzie rivers. This petroleum system poster is part of a series of Northern Alaska posters on modeling. The poster in this session by Saltus and Bird present gridded maps for the greater Northern Alaskan onshore and offshore that are used in the 3D modeling poster by Lampe and others. Posters on source rock units are by Keller and Bird as well as

  1. Geology and sequence stratigraphy of undiscovered oil and gas resources in conventional and continuous petroleum systems in the Upper Cretaceous Eagle Ford Group and related strata, U.S. Gulf Coast Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dubiel, Russell F.; Pearson, Ofori N.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pearson, Krystal M.; Kinney, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the technically recoverable undiscovered oil and gas onshore and in State waters of the Gulf Coast region of the United States. The USGS defined three assessment units (AUs) with potential undiscovered conventional and continuous oil and gas resources in Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian to Turonian) strata of the Eagle Ford Group and correlative rocks. The assessment is based on geologic elements of a total petroleum system, including hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and traps (formation, timing, and seals). Conventional oil and gas undiscovered resources are in updip sandstone reservoirs in the Upper Cretaceous Tuscaloosa and Woodbine Formations (or Groups) in Louisiana and Texas, respectively, whereas continuous oil and continuous gas undiscovered resources reside in the middip and downdip Upper Cretaceous Eagle Ford Shale in Texas and the Tuscaloosa marine shale in Louisiana. Conventional resources in the Tuscaloosa and Woodbine are included in the Eagle Ford Updip Sandstone Oil and Gas AU, in an area where the Eagle Ford Shale and Tuscaloosa marine shale display vitrinite reflectance (Ro) values less than 0.6%. The continuous Eagle Ford Shale Oil AU lies generally south of the conventional AU, is primarily updip of the Lower Cretaceous shelf edge, and is defined by thermal maturity values within shales of the Eagle Ford and Tuscaloosa that range from 0.6 to 1.2% Ro. Similarly, the Eagle Ford Shale Gas AU is defined downdip of the shelf edge where source rocks have Ro values greater than 1.2%. For undiscovered oil and gas resources, the USGS assessed means of: 1) 141 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 502 billion cubic feet of natural gas (BCFG), and 4 million barrels of natural gas liquids (MMBNGL) in the Eagle Ford Updip Sandstone Oil and Gas AU; 2) 853 MMBO, 1707 BCFG, and 34 MMBNGL in the

  2. Effects of freshwater petroleum contamination on amphibian hatching and metamorphosis

    SciTech Connect

    Mahaney, P.A. . Dept. of Zoology)

    1994-02-01

    This study examined the effects of freshwater petroleum contamination on amphibian reproduction. The primary objectives were to assess the potential environmental and physiological impacts of runoff petroleum products on amphibians, using the green tree frog (Hyla cinerea) as a target species and engine crankcase oil as a contaminant. Egg hatching success, tadpole growth, and successful metamorphosis were measured in four concentrations of oil. The effects of oil on food source was also studied. Hatching success was not measurably influenced by the presence of oil. Tadpole and alga growth were negatively associated with the presence of oil. No tadpoles from the high concentration of oil treatments successfully metamorphosed.

  3. Biological Remediation of Petroleum Contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhad, Ramesh Chander; Gupta, Rishi

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are generated in the form of oily sludges and contaminated soils during crude oil transportation and processing. Although many physical, chemical and biological treatment technologies are available for petroleum contaminants petroleum contaminants in soil, biological methods have been considered the most cost-effective. Practical biological remediation methods typically involve direct use of the microbes naturally occurring in the contaminated environment and/or cultured indigenous or modified microorganisms. Environmental and nutritional factors, including the properties of the soil, the chemical structure of the hydrocarbon(s), oxygen, water, nutrient availability, pH, temperature, and contaminant bioavailability, can significantly affect the rate and the extent of hydrocarbon biodegradation hydrocarbon biodegradation by microorganisms in contaminated soils. This chapter concisely discusses the major aspects of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants.

  4. Petroleum 1996 - issues and trends

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Increasingly, users of the Energy Information Administration`s petroleum data and analytical reports have expressed an interest in a recurring report that takes a broad view of the petroleum sector. What is sought is some perspective on the complex interrelationships that comprise an industry and markets accounting for 40 percent of the energy consumed in the United States and ranging from the drilling rig in the oil field to the pump at the local gasoline station. This report comprehensively examines historical trends, and selectively focuses on major issues and the events they represent. It analyzes different dimensions of the industry and related markets in terms of how they relate to a common theme, in this case, the volatility in petroleum markets.

  5. Future petroleum energy resources of the world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.

    2002-01-01

    Is the world running out of oil? Where will future oil and gas supplies come from? To help answer these questions, in 2000 the U.S. Geological Survey completed a new world assessment, exclusive of the United States, of the undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources and potential additions to reserves from field growth.2 One hundred and twenty-eight provinces were assessed in a 100 man-year effort from 1995-2000. The assessed provinces included 76 priority provinces containing 95% of the world's discovered oil and gas and an additional 52 "boutique" provinces, many of which may be highly prospective. Total Petroleum Systems (TPS) were identified and described for each of these provinces along with associated Assessment Units (AU) that are the basic units for assessing undiscovered petroleum. The assessment process coupled geologic analysis with a probabilistic methodology to estimate remaining potential. Within the 128 assessed provinces were 159 TPS and 274 AU. For these provinces, the endowment of recoverable oil-which includes cumulative production, remaining reserves, reserve growth, and undiscovered resources-is estimated at about 3 trillion barrels of oil (TBO). The natural gas endowment is estimated at 2.6 trillion barrels of oil equivalent (TBOE). Oil reserves are currently 1.1 TBO; world consumption is about .028 TBO per year. Natural gas reserves are about 0.8 TBOE; world consumption is about 0.014 TBOE per year. Thus, without any additional discoveries of oil, gas or natural gas liquids, we have about 2 TBOE of proved petroleum reserves. Of the oil and gas endowment of about 5.6 TBOE, we estimate that the world has consumed about 1 TBOE, or 18%, leaving about 82% of the endowment to be utilized or found. Half of the world's undiscovered potential is offshore. Arctic basins with about 25% of undiscovered petroleum resources make up the next great frontier. An additional 279 provinces contain some oil and gas and, if considered, would increase the oil

  6. Source-rock geochemistry of the San Joaquin Basin Province, California: Chapter 11 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Kenneth E.; Magoon, Leslie B.; Valin, Zenon C.; Lillis, Paul G.

    2007-01-01

    Source-rock thickness and organic richness are important input parameters required for numerical modeling of the geohistory of petroleum systems. Present-day depth and thickness maps for the upper Miocene Monterey Formation, Eocene Tumey formation of Atwill (1935), Eocene Kreyenhagen Formation, and Cretaceous-Paleocene Moreno Formation source rocks in the San Joaquin Basin were determined using formation tops data from 266 wells. Rock-Eval pyrolysis and total organic carbon data (Rock-Eval/TOC) were collected for 1,505 rock samples from these source rocks in 70 wells. Averages of these data for each well penetration were used to construct contour plots of original total organic carbon (TOCo) and original hydrogen index (HIo) in the source rock prior to thermal maturation resulting from burial. Sufficient data were available to construct plots of TOCo and HIo for all source-rock units except the Tumey formation of Atwill (1935). Thick, organic-rich, oil-prone shales of the upper Miocene Monterey Formation occur in the Tejon depocenter in the southern part of the basin with somewhat less favorable occurrence in the Southern Buttonwillow depocenter to the north. Shales of the upper Miocene Monterey Formation generated most of the petroleum in the San Joaquin Basin. Thick, organic-rich, oil-prone Kreyenhagen Formation source rock occurs in the Buttonwillow depocenters, but it is thin or absent in the Tejon depocenter. Moreno Formation source rock is absent from the Tejon and Southern Buttonwillow depocenters, but thick, organic-rich, oil-prone Moreno Formation source rock occurs northwest of the Northern Buttonwillow depocenter adjacent to the southern edge of Coalinga field.

  7. Chapter 2. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources--Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley group, Jurassic Smackover interior salt basins total petroleum system, in the East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyman, T.S.; Condon, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Jurassic Smackover Interior Salt Basins Total Petroleum System is defined for this assessment to include (1) Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation carbonates and calcareous shales and (2) Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley Group organic-rich shales. The Jurassic Smackover Interior Salt Basins Total Petroleum System includes four conventional Cotton Valley assessment units: Cotton Valley Blanket Sandstone Gas (AU 50490201), Cotton Valley Massive Sandstone Gas (AU 50490202), Cotton Valley Updip Oil and Gas (AU 50490203), and Cotton Valley Hypothetical Updip Oil (AU 50490204). Together, these four assessment units are estimated to contain a mean undiscovered conventional resource of 29.81 million barrels of oil, 605.03 billion cubic feet of gas, and 19.00 million barrels of natural gas liquids. The Cotton Valley Group represents the first major influx of clastic sediment into the ancestral Gulf of Mexico. Major depocenters were located in south-central Mississippi, along the Louisiana-Mississippi border, and in northeast Texas. Reservoir properties and production characteristics were used to identify two Cotton Valley Group sandstone trends across northern Louisiana and east Texas: a high-permeability blanket-sandstone trend and a downdip, low-permeability massive-sandstone trend. Pressure gradients throughout most of both trends are normal, which is characteristic of conventional rather than continuous basin-center gas accumulations. Indications that accumulations in this trend are conventional rather than continuous include (1) gas-water contacts in at least seven fields across the blanket-sandstone trend, (2) relatively high reservoir permeabilities, and (3) high gas-production rates without fracture stimulation. Permeability is sufficiently low in the massive-sandstone trend that gas-water transition zones are vertically extensive and gas-water contacts are poorly defined. The interpreted presence of gas-water contacts within the Cotton Valley

  8. Assessment of Appalachian basin oil and gas resources: Utica-Lower Paleozoic Total Petroleum System: Chapter G.10 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Both conventional oil and gas resources and continuous (unconventional) gas resources are present in the UticaLower Paleozoic TPS. Conventional oil and gas resources in the Utica-Lower Paleozoic TPS were assessed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2002 in the following assessment units (AU): (1) the Lower Paleozoic Carbonates in Thrust Belt AU, (2) the Knox Unconformity AU, (3) the Black River-Trenton Hydrothermal Dolomite AU, and (4) the Lockport Dolomite AU. The total estimated undiscovered oil and gas resources for these four AUs, at a mean value, was about 46 million barrels of oil (MMBO) and about 3 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG), respectively. In contrast, continuous (unconventional) gas resources in the TPS were assessed by the USGS in 2002 in four AUs associated with the “Clinton” sandstone, Medina sandstone, Medina Group sandstones, Tuscarora Sandstone, and sandstones in the Queenston Shale. The total estimated undiscovered gas for these four AUs, at a mean value, was about 26.8 TCFG. A hypothetical Utica Shale AU for oil(?) and continuous gas is identified in this report. In 2012, the Utica Shale was recognized by the USGS as a continuous AU and was assessed by Kirschbaum and others (2012).

  9. Petroleum hydrocarbon-induced injury to subtidal marine sediment resources. Subtidal study number 1a. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    O`Clair, C.E.; Short, J.W.; Rice, S.D.

    1996-04-01

    To determine the distribution of oil in subtidal sediments after the Exxon Valdez oil spill we sampled sediments at six depths (0, 3, 6, 20, 40 and 100 m) at 53 locations in Prince William Sound and the northern Gulf of Alaska from 1989 to 1991. Results are based on 1278 sediment samples analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In 1989, the oil concentration was greatest in the Sound at 0 m. Outside the Sound, Exxon Valdez oil occurred at Chugach Bay, Hallo Bay, Katmai Bay, and Windy Bay in 1989. Hydrocarbons often matched Exxon Valdez oil less closely, oil was more patchily distributed, and the oil concentration decreased in sediments after 1989.

  10. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  11. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  12. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  13. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  14. Process for enhancing recovery of oil from oil-bearing earth formations

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.M.; Butler, J.R.

    1984-04-03

    A process is claimed for increasing recovery of oil from oil-bearing earth formations wherein H/sub 2/S from sour wellhead gas is oxidized to SO/sub 3/ which in turn is reacted with a petroleum hydrocarbon mixture to produce a petroleum sulfonate. The petroleum sulfonate is incorporated into an oil recovery enhancing fluid and introduced through an injection well into an oil-bearing earth formation to displace oil toward a production well.

  15. Petroleum supply monthly: September 1996, with data for July 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    Data presented in this report describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 56 tabs.

  16. Petroleum supply monthly, November 1996 with data for September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    Data presented in this report describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products fin the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  17. Petroleum supply monthly, December 1998 with data for October 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. 82 tabs.

  18. Elements of Australian petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Masters, C.D.; Scott, E.W.

    1986-05-01

    The petroleum geology of Australia reflects the existence of a large cratonic block broken away from India and Antarctica in the early Mesozoic and early Tertiary that has resulted in a rifted passive-margin character on the northwestern, western, and southern boundaries of the continent. Pre-breakup paleozoic sediments are widely distributed but commonly not deeply buried nor particularly thick, and hence contribute minimally to petroleum resource occurrence. Like their Asian neighbors, much of Australian petroleum geology is nonmarine and associated with marginal rift basins. The small Gippsland basin on the southeastern coast, which is responsible for more than 90% of oil and 28% of the gas discovered in Australia, derives its petroleum from nonmarine Eocene to Cretaceous graben-fill sediments, sealed and buried by Oligocene marine shales. The most active play in Australia is in the Eromanga depression of the Great Artesian basin, where nonmarine oil is trapped stratigraphically in small fields in Jurassic and Cretaceous sandstones. These Mesozoic sediments are sag-fill deposits above the Permian-Triassic Cooper basin, and are responsible for some 12% of the gas reserves in Australia. Offshore of the western coast, graben basins filled with late Paleozoic to Mesozoic sediments are prolific and gas-prone - 55% of reserves - owing to coaly source rocks. North Sea-type, Upper Jurassic grabens off the northwestern coast of Australia contain Kimmeridgian hot shales, but developmental drilling, following the initial Jabiru discovery, has yet to demonstrate large reserves.

  19. Petroleum supply monthly with data for September 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    Data presented in this document describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. This document contains information on oil production, imports, exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). When aggregated, the data reported by the various petroleum sectors in this report approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the U.S.

  20. Bolivian petroleum privatization taking shape

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-07

    Bolivia is boldly embracing a free market philosophy that extends to liberalization of the country`s petroleum sector. Although petroleum industry privatization is being considered by several South American countries, only Argentina has so far completely opened its oil sector and fully privatized its state oil company. The Bolivian government`s own version of privatization, capitalization, is a groundbreaking attempt to attract massive investment from the private sector without leaving the government open to accusations of stripping the country`s assets for short term electoral gain. The paper discusses the government`s strategy to sell the state owned company either as a single unit or to split it into upstream and downstream units. Questions still to be resolved, international interest in the move, bolivian potential, and the gas supply infrastructure are also discussed.

  1. Petroleum geology of Arabian Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Billo, S.M.

    1982-05-01

    Petroleum activities in the Arabian Peninsula show new trends in the 1980s. Petroleum exploration is intensified and huge discoveries are anticipated. A giant Jurassic gas field along the coast of the Arabian Gulf discovered recently tops 150 tcf, the largest single reserve ever. Other giant oil fields in the area are undergoing expansion in development and productivity. Today, the Peninsula, with a total area that surpasses one million square miles, produces and exports more oil and gas and has greater reserves than any other area in the world. The excellent reservoir rocks are located in the Jurassic and Cretaceous formations between the Arabian Shield and the Tethyan Seaway. They represent porous and permeable marine cyclical beds sealed by impervious shales and anhydrites. Reservoir sedimentology was affected by 2 orogenies during late Cretaceous and Pliocene time portrayed by the Cratonic area to the southwest and the orthogeosynclinal area to the northeast. The eastern part was little deformed by these movements.

  2. Assessment of Appalachian basin oil and gas resources: Carboniferous Coal-bed Gas Total Petroleum System: Chapter G.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milici, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Trap formation began with the deposition of the peat deposits during the Mississippian and continued into the Late Pennsylvanian and Permian, when strata of the Appalachian Plateaus were deformed during the Alleghanian orogeny. The seals are the connate waters that occupy fractures and larger pore spaces within the coal beds, as well as the fine-grained, siliciclastic sedimentary strata that are intercalated with the coal. The critical moment for the petroleum system occurred during the Alleghanian orogeny, when deformation resulted in the geologic structures in the eastern part of the Appalachian basin that enhanced fracture porosity within the coal beds. In places, burial by thrust sheets (thrust loading) in the Valley and Ridge physiographic province may have resulted in the additional generation of thermogenic coalbed methane in the Pennsylvania Anthracite region and in the semianthracite deposits of Virginia and West Virginia, although other explanations have been offered.

  3. Natural analogs in the petroleum industry

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.R.

    1995-09-01

    This article describes the use of natural analogues in petroleum exploration and includes numerous geologic model descriptions which have historically been used in the prediction of geometries and location of oil and gas accumulations. These geologic models have been passed down to and used by succeeding generations of petroleum geologists. Some examples of these geologic models include the Allan fault-plane model, porosity prediction, basin modelling, prediction of basin compartmentalization, and diagenesis.

  4. Petroleum supply annual 1998: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    The ``Petroleum Supply Annual`` (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1998 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1998, and replaces data previously published in the PSA. The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 59 tabs.

  5. South American oil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    GAO reviewed the petroleum industries of the following eight South American Countries that produce petroleum but are not major exporters: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Trinidad and Tobago. This report discusses the amount of crude oil the United States imports from the eight countries, expected crude oil production for these countries through the year 2010, and investment reforms that these countries have recently made in their petroleum industries. In general, although the United States imports some oil from these countries, as a group, the eight countries are currently net oil importers because combined domestic oil consumption exceeds oil production. Furthermore, the net oil imports are expected to continue to increase through the year 2010, making it unlikely that the United States will obtain increased oil shipments from these countries.

  6. Petroleum characterization by perfluorocarbon tracers

    SciTech Connect

    Senum, G.I.; Fajer, R.W. ); Harris, B.R. Jr. ); DeRose, W.E. ); Ottaviani, W.L. )

    1992-02-01

    Perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs), a class of six compounds, were used to help characterize the Shallow Oil Zone (SOZ) reservoir at the Naval Petroleum Reserve in California (NPRC) at Elk Hills. The SOZ reservoir is undergoing a pilot gas injection program to assess the technical feasibility and economic viability of injecting gas into the SOZ for improved oil recovery. PFTs were utilized in the pilot gas injection to qualitatively assess the extent of the pilot gas injection so as to determine the degree of gas containment within the SOZ reservoir.

  7. Pennsylvania's contribution to petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Dickey, P.A.

    1989-09-01

    John F. Carll of the Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania laid the foundations of both petroleum geology and reservoir engineering. J. P. Lesley, director of the Second Survey, had introduced structure contours when he was working in the anthracite fields. He pointed out that the great oil fields of Pennsylvania were in the only part of the state where there were no anticlines. I. C. White, another geologist with the Second Survey, emphasized the anticlinal theory adopted as a method of prospecting until the discovery of the Cushing field in Oklahoma in 1912. George Ashley, state geologist of Pennsylvanian in the 1930s and 1940s, said that after the gas companies had drilled all the anticlines there would still be the synclines. David White in 1915 noticed the relation between the metamorphosis (rank) of coal and the occurrence of oil and gas. This method (vitrinite reflectance) is now widely applied in the evaluation of basins. In the late 1930s, the resurvey of the Pennsylvania oil regions showed that the reservoirs were shoreline sands, probably barrier islands. In the 1950s the AAPG recommended a study of the recent sediments of the Mississippi delta by Scripps Institute of Oceanography. The ability to recognize depositional environments has caused a revolution in petroleum geology, and recently has been recognized by petroleum engineers as the key to reservoir characterization.

  8. India's petroleum privatization gathering speed

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-14

    Privatization of India's petroleum industry is seen as inevitable, even by the staunchest supporters of the state owned sector there. What has become clear is that the huge investments required for Indian exploration, refining, and marketing are beyond the scope of even the biggest state owned firms, such as Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC) and Indian Oil Corp. (IOC). A proposal was put forth last fall to offer Bombay High offshore oil fields to leading multinationals for redevelopment to stem the production slide in India's mainstay producing area. Some of those projects could entail capital outlays of as much as $1 billion. In another step to attract foreign investment to the petroleum sector, India last month decided to take steps for phased decontrol of domestic crude oil prices to bring them in line with world market levels and help set the stage for privatization of ONGC. The paper describes major projects, the slide in oil production, price changes, the need for privatization, and the lukewarm interest in exploration.

  9. Petroleum systems, resources of Southeast Asia, Australasia

    SciTech Connect

    Howes, J.

    1997-12-15

    The Southeast Asia-Australasia region has over 100 productive petroleum systems ranging in age from the Paleozoic to the Pliocene. Plate tectonics have played a fundamental role in controlling the distribution and character of the region`s petroleum systems. There is a clear division between those systems on the Eurasian plate and those on the Indo-Australian plate. The distribution of significant oil and gas resources is highly concentrated in just a few chrono-stratigraphic units. Early Tertiary Paleogene source rocks account for over 50% of the region`s in-place petroleum resources. This article summarizes the region`s systems and resources, and compares and contrasts some of their essential elements in Southeast Asia and Australasia. With average production of 3.2 million b/d of oil and 18 bscfd of gas, the region accounts for almost 6% of world oil and gas production.

  10. Winters-Domengine Total Petroleum System—Northern Nonassociated Gas Assessment Unit of the San Joaquin Basin Province: Chapter 21 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hosford Scheirer, Allegra; Magoon, Leslie B.

    2008-01-01

    The Northern Nonassociated Gas Assessment Unit (AU) of the Winters-Domengine Total Petroleum System of the San Joaquin Basin Province consists of all nonassociated gas accumulations in Cretaceous, Eocene, and Miocene sandstones located north of township 15 South in the San Joaquin Valley. The northern San Joaquin Valley forms a northwest-southeast trending asymmetrical trough. It is filled with an alternating sequence of Cretaceous-aged sands and shales deposited on Franciscan Complex, ophiolitic, and Sierran basement. Eocene-aged strata unconformably overlie the thick Cretaceous section, and in turn are overlain unconformably by nonmarine Pliocene-Miocene sediments. Nonassociated gas accumulations have been discovered in the sands of the Panoche, Moreno, Kreyenhagen, andDomengine Formations and in the nonmarine Zilch formation of Loken (1959) (hereafter referred to as Zilch formation). Most hydrocarbon accumulations occur in low-relief, northwest-southeast trending anticlines formed chiefly by differential compaction of sediment and by northeast southwest directed compression during the Paleogene (Bartow, 1991) and in stratigraphic traps formed by pinch out of submarine fan sands against slope shales. To date, 176 billion cubic feet (BCF) of nonassociated recoverable gas has been found in fields within the assessment unit (table 21.1). A small amount of biogenic gas forms near the surface of the AU. Map boundaries of the assessment unit are shown in figures 21.1 and 21.2; in plan view, this assessment unit is identical to the Northern Area Nonassociated Gas play 1007 considered by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in its 1995 National Assessment (Beyer, 1996). The AU is bounded on the east by the mapped limits of Cretaceous sandstone reservoir rocks and on the west by the east flank of the Diablo Range. The southern limit of the AU is the southernmost occurrence of nonassociated thermogenic-gas accumulations. The northern limit of the AU corresponds to the

  11. Oil and lipids biocatalysis: Past, present and future prospects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biocatalysts (enzymes) for both petroleum oil and vegetable oils are quite similar. In the 1960s, scientists were trying to convert the excess petroleum oil into single cell protein. After 1970, scientists focused on converting petroleum products to value-added products such as oxygenated products...

  12. International petroleum statistics report, November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-26

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1992; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1992: and OECD trade from 1982 through 1992.

  13. Petroleum Systems in the Austral Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Robbiano, J.; Arbe, H.

    1996-08-01

    The aggressive exploration activities pursued over the past five years, both onshore and offshore, have contributed to increase our knowledge about how the Petroleum Systems functioned within the basin. Three main Petroleum Systems were identified, and referred to as Jurassic, Lower Cretaceous and Aptian-Tertiary Petroleum Systems. The Jurassic P.S. is restricted to the volcanic, volcaniclastic and clastic sequences (known as Tobifera Series) related to the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean. Lacustrine to marine black shales give good source rock, locally developed; oil and gas, poorly developed, was trapped in fluvial to littoral sandstones, related to the same sedimentary cycle. The Lower Cretaceous P.S. represents the main petroleum system of the Austral Basin, and it is related to the main oil and gas accumulations today known within the basin. The lateral relation between the marine source rocks (Palermo Aike, Inoceramus Inferior, Pampa Rincon Formations) and the continental to littoral Springhill Formation in a transgressive signature indicates the extent of the migration from the oil kitchen, in the present deep location of the basin, to the shallow eastern flank of the Austral Basin. The cumulative production and reserves of this efficient petroleum system are more than 400 MM of petroleum and gas equivalent. The Aptian-Tertiary P.S. is related to the Margas Verdes source rock that has fed younger reservoirs which have developed since the Upper Cretaceous (?)-Palaeocene and could also feed Upper Oligocene sandstones, associated with low-stand system tracts. Commercial accumulations were tested in Campo Boleadoras and Maria Ines fields, towards the deepest zones of the Austral Basin. This petroleum system will figure prominently in exploration activities over the coming years, specifically in those areas where the main petroleum system is not laterally efficient.

  14. 40 CFR 52.1931 - Petroleum storage tank controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... section 15.211 in accordance with the schedule set forth below. (b) Tanks 121 and 122 for crude oil...) Tank 286 for crude oil storage at the Continental Pipe Line Company property in Oklahoma County...) The three 80,000 barrel capacity crude oil storage tanks at the Champlin Petroleum Company,...

  15. Is it clean or contaminated soil? Using petrogenic versus biogenic GC-FID chromatogram patterns to mathematically resolve false petroleum hydrocarbon detections in clean organic soils: a crude oil-spiked peat microcosm experiment.

    PubMed

    Kelly-Hooper, Francine; Farwell, Andrea J; Pike, Glenna; Kennedy, Jocelyn; Wang, Zhendi; Grunsky, Eric C; Dixon, D George

    2013-10-01

    The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) reference method for the Canada-wide standard (CWS) for petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) in soil provides chemistry analysis standards and guidelines for the management of contaminated sites. However, these methods can coextract natural biogenic organic compounds (BOCs) from organic soils, causing false exceedences of toxicity guidelines. The present 300-d microcosm experiment used CWS PHC tier 1 soil extraction and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) analysis to develop a new tier 2 mathematical approach to resolving this problem. Carbon fractions F2 (C10-C16), F3 (C16-C34), and F4 (>C34) as well as subfractions F3a (C16-C22) and F3b (C22-C34) were studied in peat and sand spiked once with Federated crude oil. These carbon ranges were also studied in 14 light to heavy crude oils. The F3 range in the clean peat was dominated by F3b, whereas the crude oils had approximately equal F3a and F3b distributions. The F2 was nondetectable in the clean peat but was a significant component in crude oil. The crude oil–spiked peat had elevated F2 and F3a distributions. The BOC-adjusted PHC F3 calculation estimated the true PHC concentrations in the spiked peat. The F2:F3b ratio of less than 0.10 indicated PHC absence in the clean peat, and the ratio of greater than or equal to 0.10 indicated PHC presence in the spiked peat and sand. Validation studies are required to confirm whether this new tier 2 approach is applicable to real-case scenarios. Potential adoption of this approach could minimize unnecessary ecological disruptions of thousands of peatlands throughout Canada while also saving millions of dollars in management costs. PMID:23703885

  16. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in conventional and continuous petroleum systems in the Upper Cretaceous Eagle Ford Group, U.S. Gulf Coast region, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dubiel, Russell F.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pearson, Ofori N.; Pearson, Krystal; Kinney, Scott A.; Lewan, Michael D.; Burke, Lauri; Biewick, Laura R.H.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed means of (1) 141 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 502 billion cubic feet of natural gas (BCFG), and 16 million barrels of natural gas liquids (MMBNGL) in the conventional Eagle Ford Updip Sandstone Oil and Gas Assessment Unit (AU); (2) 853 MMBO, 1,707 BCFG, and 34 MMBNGL in the continuous Eagle Ford Shale Oil AU; and (3) 50,219 BCFG and 2,009 MMBNGL in the continuous Eagle Ford Shale Gas AU in onshore lands and State waters of the Gulf Coast.

  17. Preparation of Northern Mid-Continent Petroleum Atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhard, Lee C.; Carr, Timothy R.; Watney, W. Lynn

    2003-02-24

    This report covers the fourth year of the Digital Petroleum Atlas (DPA) Project. The DPA is a longterm effort to develop a new methodology for efficient and timely access to the latest petroleum data and technology for the domestic oil and gas industry, research organizations and local governmental units. The DPA is a new and evolving approach to generating and publishing petroleum reservoir, field, play and basin studies.

  18. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1999, with data for January 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four petroleum supply publications produced by the Petroleum Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  19. Techniques for mapping the types, volumes, and distribution of clays in petroleum reservoirs and for determining their effects on oil production

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, B.

    1993-05-01

    This report presents the results of correlation of log signatures with information on distribution of the types and volumes of clays in sandstone pore spaces determined from detailed CT-scan, XRD, SEM, and thin section analyses of core samples from three sandstone reservoirs. The log signatures are then analyzed to determine if suitable mathematical/statistical parameter(s) could be calculated from the logs to determine their effects on permeability and oil production. The variability measures obtained from power spectral analysis of permeability and wireline log data in clayey formations have been correlated with oil production from two oil fields. Compared with the conventional measures of permeability variations like the Dykstra-Parsons coefficients, the new measure appears to correlate better with oil production.

  20. Techniques for mapping the types, volumes, and distribution of clays in petroleum reservoirs and for determining their effects on oil production. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, B.

    1993-05-01

    This report presents the results of correlation of log signatures with information on distribution of the types and volumes of clays in sandstone pore spaces determined from detailed CT-scan, XRD, SEM, and thin section analyses of core samples from three sandstone reservoirs. The log signatures are then analyzed to determine if suitable mathematical/statistical parameter(s) could be calculated from the logs to determine their effects on permeability and oil production. The variability measures obtained from power spectral analysis of permeability and wireline log data in clayey formations have been correlated with oil production from two oil fields. Compared with the conventional measures of permeability variations like the Dykstra-Parsons coefficients, the new measure appears to correlate better with oil production.

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1995 with data for January 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-30

    Data presented in this report for March 1995, describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  2. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1995 with data for June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-25

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  3. Microbial communities inhabiting oil-contaminated soils from two major oilfields in Northern China: Implications for active petroleum-degrading capacity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weimin; Dong, Yiran; Gao, Pin; Fu, Meiyan; Ta, Kaiwen; Li, Jiwei

    2015-06-01

    Although oilfields harbor a wide diversity of microorganisms with various metabolic potentials, our current knowledge about oil-degrading bacteria is limited because the vast majority of oil-degrading bacteria remain uncultured. In the present study, microbial communities in nine oil-contaminated soils collected from Daqing and Changqing, two of the largest oil fields in China, were characterized through highthroughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Bacteria related to the phyla Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were dominant in four and three samples, respectively. At the genus level, Alkanindiges, Arthrobacter, Pseudomonas, Mycobacterium, and Rhodococcus were frequently detected in nine soil samples. Many of the dominant genera were phylogenetically related to the known oil-degrading species. The correlation between physiochemical parameters within the microbial communities was also investigated. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that soil moisture, nitrate, TOC, and pH had an important impact in shaping the microbial communities of the hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. This study provided an in-depth analysis of microbial communities in oilcontaminated soil and useful information for future bioremediation of oil contamination. PMID:26025169

  4. SPILL PREVENTION, CONTROL AND COUNTERMEASURE PRACTICES AT SMALL PETROLEUM FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted of small petroleum production and petroleum products distribution facilities (stripper wells and bulk plants) to determine ability to comply with the oil pollution regulation (40 CFR Part 112). Four regions of the United States were covered: Texas/Oklahoma, ...

  5. Petroleum geology of marine evaporites

    SciTech Connect

    Billo, S.M. )

    1994-08-01

    The conditions necessary for evaporite deposition are also important with respect to genesis of source beds for petroleum. In a restricted basin marked by large-scale salt successions, it is presumed that the basin proper is separated from the open sea either by structural or physiographic barriers. These barriers may elevate the effective wave base so that much of the basin is in the stagnant zone or in reducing environment, where sediments rich in organic matter may be deposited. Such shallow barriers increase the conditions favorable for the generation of petroleum. Since marine evaporitic basins are not ideally closed systems, but are subject to influxes and perhaps refluxes of sea water or brine, much petroleum associated with evaporites is generated from dissolved and particulate organic matter swept from the normal marine into the evaporitic environments. Only carbonates precipitate in the mesosaline part (4-12% salinity) of such evaporitic environments. They are of great significance in source rock origin. The huge reserves of petroleum in the Mesozoic of the Middle East, and many other areas including the Michigan, Paradox, and Delaware basins, owe their origin to the thick sequences of carbonates and evaporites of the mesosaline environments. Repeated cycles of oil and gas formation in the stratigraphic record are related to tectonic, climatic, or eustatic events or both, and to increasing sedimentary overburden.

  6. Potential displacement of petroleum imports by solar energy technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deleon, P.; Jackson, B. L.; McNown, R. F.; Mahrenholz, G. J.

    1980-05-01

    The United States currently imports close to half of its petroleum requirements. The economic, social, and political costs of a foreign oil dependency are discussed. Development of alternative, domestic energy sources, such as solar energy technologies, which can displace foreign petroleum is discussed. It is estimated that by the year 2000, solar energy technologies can displace 3.6 quads of petroleum. This figure includes solar energy applications in utilities, industrial and agricultural process heat, and transportation. The estimate can be treated as a lower bound; if the United States were to achieve the proposed goal of 20 quads by 2000, the amount of displaced oil probably would be greater. Although all the displaced oil would not be imported, the reduction in imported petroleum would relieve many of the conditions that increase the present cost of foreign oil to the American consumer.

  7. A Computer-Assisted Laboratory Sequence for Petroleum Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, David N.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a competitive oil-play game for petroleum geology students. It is accompanied by a computer program written in interactive Fortran. The program, however, is not essential, but useful for adding more interest. (SA)

  8. Location and age of foraminifer samples examined by Chevron Petroleum Company paleontologists from more than 2,500 oil test wells in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabb, Earl E.

    2011-01-01

    Chevron Petroleum Company in 2001 donated an estimated 50,000 foraminifer slides, 5,000 well logs, geologic and surface locality maps, and paleontologic reports to the California Academy of Sciences and Stanford University for safekeeping, because they stopped or cut back exploration for petroleum deposits in California. The material was loaned to Earl Brabb temporarily so that information useful to the U.S. Geological Survey could be extracted. Among the estimated 5,000 well logs, more than 2,500 were printed on fragile Ozalid paper that had deteriorated by turning brown and hardening so that they could be easily damaged. These 2,516 well logs were scanned to provide a digital copy of the information. The 2,516 wells extend over an area from Eureka in Humboldt County south to the Imperial Valley and from the Pacific Ocean east to the eastern side of the Great Valley and the Los Angeles Basin. The wells are located in 410 7.5-minute quadrangle maps in 42 counties. The digital information herein preserves the data, makes the logs easily distributed to others interested in subsurface geology, and makes previously proprietary information widely available to the public for the first time.

  9. Data sources and compilation: Chapter 27 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Schmoker, James W.

    2007-01-01

    Geologic, production, and exploration/discovery-history data are used by the U.S. Geological Survey to aid in the assessment of petroleum resources. These data, as well as the broad knowledge and experience of the assessing geologists, are synthesized to provide, for each assessment unit, geologic and exploration models upon which estimates are made of the number and sizes of undiscovered accumulations for conventional assessment units or number and total recoverable volumes of untested cells for continuous assessment units (input data for resource calculations). Quantified geologic information and trends in production and exploration/discovery-history data with respect to time and exploration effort provide guides for the estimating parameters of variables recorded on the input-data forms (input data) used to calculate petroleum resources. An Assessment Review Team reviews proposed geologic and exploration models and input data for each assessment unit in formal assessment meetings. The Assessment Review Team maintains the accuracy and consistency of the assessment procedure during the formal assessment meetings.

  10. Natural oils as lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is currently an availability of vegetable oil lubricants, with the exception of engine oils. Vegetable oils are environmentally friendly, renewable, contribute to the reduction of our dependence on imported petroleum, and add value to the farmer. However, there are inherent weaknesses in veg...

  11. Ninety-day feeding study in Fischer-344 rats of highly refined petroleum-derived food-grade white oils and waxes.

    PubMed

    Smith, J H; Mallett, A K; Priston, R A; Brantom, P G; Worrell, N R; Sexsmith, C; Simpson, B J

    1996-01-01

    Subchronic 90-day feeding studies were conducted in male and female Fischer-344 (F-344) rats on highly refined white mineral oils and waxes representative of those used for food applications. The goal was to help clarify the mixed results found in other toxicity studies with laboratory animals. Seven white oils and 5 waxes were fed at dietary doses of 20,000, 2,000, 200, and 20 ppm and compared with control groups on untreated diet; toxicity was assessed at 90 days and also after a reversal period of 28 days and/or 85 days. Higher molecular-sized hydrocarbons (microcrystalline waxes and the higher viscosity oils) were without biological effects. Paraffin waxes and low- to midviscosity oils produced biological effects that were inversely related to molecular weight, viscosity, and melting point; oil type and processing did not appear to be determinants. Biological effects were more pronounced in females than in males. Effects occurred mainly in the liver and mesenteric lymph nodes and included increased organ weights, microscopic inflammatory changes, and evidence for the presence of saturated mineral hydrocarbons in affected tissues. Inflammation of the cardiac mitral valve was also observed at high doses in rats treated with paraffin waxes. Further studies are required to elucidate the mechanism for the responses observed and the relevance of these inflammatory responses in the F-344 rat to other species, including humans. PMID:8992612

  12. Development of a microbial process for the recovery of petroleum oil from depleted reservoirs at 91-96°C.

    PubMed

    Arora, Preeti; Ranade, Dilip R; Dhakephalkar, Prashant K

    2014-08-01

    A consortium of bacteria growing at 91°C and above (optimally at 96°C) was developed for the recovery of crude oil from declining/depleted oil reservoirs having temperature of more than 91°C. PCR-DGGE-Sequencing analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments of NJS-4 consortium revealed the presence of four strains identified as members of the genus Clostridium. The metabolites produced by NJS-4 consortium included volatile fatty acids, organic acids, surfactants, exopolysaccarides and CO2, which reduced viscosity, emulsified crude oil and increased the pressure that facilitated displacement of emulsified oil towards the surface. NJS-4 enhanced oil recovery by 26.7% and 10.1% in sand pack trials and core flood studies respectively in optimized nutrient medium comprised of sucrose and sodium acetate as carbon/energy source and urea as nitrogen source (pH 7-9, 96°C, and 4% salinity). Nutrient medium for MEOR was constituted using commercial grade cheap nutrients to improve the economic viability of MEOR process. PMID:24746769

  13. 33 CFR 155.5052 - Response plan development and evaluation criteria for nontank vessels carrying group V petroleum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements of 33 CFR 155.1052. ... evaluation criteria for nontank vessels carrying group V petroleum oil. 155.5052 Section 155.5052 Navigation... Response plan development and evaluation criteria for nontank vessels carrying group V petroleum...

  14. Vegetable oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is a technically competitive alternative to petroleum-derived diesel fuel. It can be obtained from commodity oils and fats such as soybean, sunflower, canola or tallow. However, the available amounts of these biodiesel feedstocks do not suffice to satisfy the long-term need for biodiesel...

  15. Effects of petroleum products on soil wettability

    SciTech Connect

    Anckner, W.H.; Powers, S.E.

    1996-10-01

    Wettability can greatly affect the distribution and flow of petroleum products through the subsurface. Petroleum engineers have noted that the sorption of high molecular weight polar molecules in crude oils can cause mineral surfaces to change front hydrophilic to hydrophobic. For this work, the hypothesis that similar effects could be important for petroleum products spilled in the environment was evaluated. Three different tests were used to evaluate the wettability of quartz surfaces after exposure to organic phase pollutants. Both purchased commercial petroleum products and samples collected from field-scale free-phase recovery operations were utilized. Results show that weakly water wetting to intermediate wetting conditions occurred after exposure to several of the samples. Products derived from the higher molecular weight fractions generally had a greater effect. Gasoline samples caused weakly water wetting conditions due to other additives, such as surfactants, which are included during the formulation of commercial gasolines.

  16. Petroleum Marketing Monthly, February 1985. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-04-01

    Petroleum product marketing data are reported for the United States, Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) Districts, and each of the 50 states for the current and previous month of 1985 and for a corresponding month in 1984. Some data are also summarized for each year from 1978 through 1984. Shown for individual petroleum products are sales prices, sales volumes, percentages of sales, and first sales for consumption. Data are given by type of seller (major refiners and other refiners/gas plant operators) and by type of sale (sales to end users and sales for resale). Data for the current month are preliminary. The collection methodology is described in the explanatory notes. A glossary is included. Title of the feature article is ''Petroleum Marketing Monthly Initiates Crude Oil Data Series''. 17 fig., 75 tabs.

  17. Petroleum supply annual 1998: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1998 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1998, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs.

  18. Petroleum supply annual 1996: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1996 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Capacity; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1996, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs.

  19. Petroleum supply annual 1994, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1994 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1994, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary.

  20. Petroleum supply annual 1995: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1995 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and selected Refinery Statistics each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1995, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary.