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Sample records for 45-84 years population-based

  1. Projections of population-based twinning rates through the year 2100.

    PubMed

    Oleszczuk, J J; Keith, D M; Keith, L G; Rayburn, W F

    1999-11-01

    To present the first compilation of population-based twinning rates published after the year 1990 and to project population-based twinning rates through the year 2100. We searched the Internet-based MEDLINE database for articles published after 1990 in which population-based twinning rates were described. We used population-based data from national statistical authorities from Australia, Austria, Canada, Finland, Hong Kong, Israel, Japan, Norway, Singapore and Sweden, published by Y. Imaizumi in a recent article. U.S. figures were based on data from the National Center for Health Statistics. Annual growth rates of twinning were calculated and graphed, making the assumption that these rates would remain constant throughout the next century. Our report presents the most recent population-based twinning rates. When projected through the year 2015, twinning rates reach figures that could best be described as derived from a Jules Verne novel: Sweden, in this model, would have four times more twin than singleton births. We strongly suggest that physicians reexamine their patterns of prescribing ovulation-inducing agents, which carry a greatly increased risk of multiple pregnancy.

  2. A population-based study of hospital care costs during five years after TIA and stroke

    PubMed Central

    Luengo-Fernandez, Ramon; Gray, Alastair M.; Rothwell, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Few studies have evaluated long-term costs after stroke onset, with almost no cost data for TIA. We studied hospital costs during the 5 years after TIA or stroke in a population-based study. Methods Patients from a UK population-based cohort study (Oxford Vascular Study) were recruited from 2002 to 2007. Analysis was based on follow-up until 2010. Hospital resource usage was obtained from patients’ hospital records and valued using 2008/09 unit costs. As not all patients had full 5-year follow-up, we used non-parametric censoring techniques. Results Among 485 TIA and 729 stroke patients ascertained and included, mean censor-adjusted 5-year hospital costs after index stroke were $25,741 (95% CI: 23,659-27,914), with costs varying considerably by severity: $21,134 after minor stroke, $33,119 after moderate stroke, and $28,552 after severe stroke. For the 239 surviving stroke patients who had reached final follow-up, mean costs were $24,383 (20,156-28,595), with over half of costs ($12,972) being incurred in the first year after the event. After index TIA, the mean censor-adjusted 5-year costs were $18,091 (15,947-20,258). A multivariate analysis showed that event severity, recurrent stroke and coronary events after the index event were independent predictors of 5-year costs. Differences by stroke subtype were mostly explained by stroke severity and subsequent events. Conclusions Long-term hospital costs after TIA and stroke are considerable, but are mainly incurred over the first year after the index event. Event severity and suffering subsequent stroke and coronary events after the index event accounted for much of the increase in costs. PMID:23160884

  3. Two-Year Outcomes of a Population-Based Intervention for Preschool Language Delay: An RCT.

    PubMed

    Wake, Melissa; Levickis, Penny; Tobin, Sherryn; Gold, Lisa; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Goldfeld, Sharon; Zens, Naomi; Le, Ha N D; Law, James; Reilly, Sheena

    2015-10-01

    We have previously shown short-term benefits to phonology, letter knowledge, and possibly expressive language from systematically ascertaining language delay at age 4 years followed by the Language for Learning intervention. Here, we report the trial's definitive 6-year outcomes. Randomized trial nested in a population-based ascertainment. Children with language scores >1.25 SD below the mean at age 4 were randomized, with intervention children receiving 18 1-hour home-based therapy sessions. Primary outcome was receptive/expressive language. Secondary outcomes were phonological, receptive vocabulary, literacy, and narrative skills; parent-reported pragmatic language, behavior, and health-related quality of life; costs of intervention; and health service use. For intention-to-treat analyses, trial arms were compared using linear regression models. Of 1464 children assessed at age 4, 266 were eligible and 200 randomized; 90% and 82% of intervention and control children were retained respectively. By age 6, mean language scores had normalized, but there was little evidence of a treatment effect for receptive (adjusted mean difference 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.2 to 5.7; P = .20) or expressive (0.8; 95% CI -1.6 to 3.2; P = .49) language. Of the secondary outcomes, only phonological awareness skills (effect size 0.36; 95% CI 0.08-0.65; P = .01) showed benefit. Costs were higher for intervention families (mean difference AU$4276; 95% CI: $3424 to $5128). Population-based intervention targeting 4-year-old language delay was feasible but did not have lasting impacts on language, possibly reflecting resolution in both groups. Long-term literacy benefits remain possible but must be weighed against its cost. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Natural history of heartburn: A 10-year population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Olafsdottir, Linda Bjork; Gudjonsson, Hallgrimur; Jonsdottir, Heidur Hrund; Thjodleifsson, Bjarni

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To study the natural history and prevalence of heartburn at a 10-year interval, and to study the effect of heartburn on various symptoms and activities. METHODS: A population-based postal study was carried out. Questionnaires were mailed to the same age- and gender-stratified random sample of the Icelandic population (aged 18-75 years) in 1996 and again in 2006. Subjects were classified with heartburn if they reported heartburn in the preceding year and/or week, based on the definition of heartburn. RESULTS: Heartburn in the preceding year was reported in 42.8% (1996) and 44.2% (2006) of subjects, with a strong relationship between those who experienced heartburn in both years. Heartburn in the preceding week was diagnosed in 20.8%. There was a significant relationship between heartburn, dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome. Individuals with a body mass index (BMI) below or higher than normal weight were more likely to have heartburn. Heartburn caused by food or beverages was reported very often by 20.0% of subjects. CONCLUSION: Heartburn is a common and chronic condition. Subjects with a BMI below or higher than normal weight are more likely to experience heartburn. Heartburn has a great impact on daily activities, sleep and quality of life. PMID:21350713

  5. Natural history of heartburn: a 10-year population-based study.

    PubMed

    Olafsdottir, Linda Bjork; Gudjonsson, Hallgrimur; Jonsdottir, Heidur Hrund; Thjodleifsson, Bjarni

    2011-02-07

    To study the natural history and prevalence of heartburn at a 10-year interval, and to study the effect of heartburn on various symptoms and activities. A population-based postal study was carried out. Questionnaires were mailed to the same age- and gender-stratified random sample of the Icelandic population (aged 18-75 years) in 1996 and again in 2006. Subjects were classified with heartburn if they reported heartburn in the preceding year and/or week, based on the definition of heartburn. Heartburn in the preceding year was reported in 42.8% (1996) and 44.2% (2006) of subjects, with a strong relationship between those who experienced heartburn in both years. Heartburn in the preceding week was diagnosed in 20.8%. There was a significant relationship between heartburn, dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome. Individuals with a body mass index (BMI) below or higher than normal weight were more likely to have heartburn. Heartburn caused by food or beverages was reported very often by 20.0% of subjects. Heartburn is a common and chronic condition. Subjects with a BMI below or higher than normal weight are more likely to experience heartburn. Heartburn has a great impact on daily activities, sleep and quality of life.

  6. A population-based study on dementia and stroke in 97 year olds.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Mats; Guo, Xinxin; Börjesson-Hanson, Anne; Liebetrau, Martin; Östling, Svante; Skoog, Ingmar

    2012-07-01

    the number of nonagenarians increases dramatically worldwide. to examine the prevalence of stroke/transient ischaemic attack (TIA) and dementia, their inter-relationship and their relation to 2-year mortality and institutionalisation in 97 year olds. a population-based sample of 97 year olds (n=591) was examined. Information on stroke/TIA was obtained from self-reports, key informants and hospital discharge registers. Dementia was diagnosed according to DSM-III-R criteria. the response rate was 65%. The prevalence of dementia was 32.7% in men and 59.3% in women (P<0.001). The prevalence of stroke/TIA was 21.5% (17.8% in men, 22.3% in women). Stroke/TIA was related to dementia in women (odds ratio=1.9, 95% CI: 1.2-3.0), but not in men. Dementia, but not stroke/TIA, was related to 2-year mortality and institutionalisation in logistic regression models. dementia was very common in this age group, and related to mortality and institutionalisation. Stroke/TIA in 97 year olds showed less association with dementia, mortality and institutionalisation than reported in studies of younger elderly populations. The finding that stroke was not associated with dementia in men needs to be taken cautiously due to the small number of men. The findings also emphasise that more studies are needed to scrutinise the aetiology of dementia in nonagenarians.

  7. Pediatric Sleep Disorders and Special Educational Need at 8 Years: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Trupti; Xu, Linzhi

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine associations between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and behavioral sleep problems (BSPs) through 5 years of age and special educational need (SEN) at 8 years. METHODS: Parents in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children reported on children’s snoring, witnessed apnea, and mouth-breathing at 6, 18, 30, 42, and 57 months, from which SDB symptom trajectories, or clusters, were derived. BSPs were based on report of ≥5 of 7 sleep behaviors at each of the 18-, 30-, 42-, and 57-month questionnaires. Parent report of SEN (yes/no) at 8 years was available for 11 049 children with SDB data and 11 467 children with BSP data. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to predict SEN outcome by SDB cluster and by cumulative report of SEN. RESULTS: Controlling for 16 putative confounders, previous history of SDB and BSPs was significantly associated with an SEN. BSPs were associated with a 7% increased odds of SEN (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.15), for each ∼1-year interval at which a BSP was reported. SDB, overall, was associated with a near 40% increased odds of SEN (95% CI 1.18–1.62). Children in the worst symptom cluster were 60% more likely to have an SEN (95% CI 1.23–2.08). CONCLUSIONS: In this population-based longitudinal study, history of either SDB or BSPs in the first 5 years of life was associated with increased likelihood of SEN at 8 years of age. Findings highlight the need for pediatric sleep disorder screening by early interventionists, early childhood educators, and health professionals. PMID:22945405

  8. Parity and 11-Year Serum Thyrotropin and Thyroid Autoantibody Change: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Bjergved, Lena; Carlé, Allan; Jørgensen, Torben; Perrild, Hans; Laurberg, Peter; Krejbjerg, Anne; Ovesen, Lars; Bülow Pedersen, Inge; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Knudsen, Nils

    2016-02-01

    A role for female reproductive factors in the pathogenesis of thyroid autoimmunity has been suggested. This study investigated the prospective association between parity, abortion, use of oral contraceptive pill (OCP), and use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), and 11-year change in serum thyrotropin (TSH), as well as change in thyroid peroxidase autoantibody (TPOAb) status. A random sample of 4649 people aged 18-65 years participated in a population-based study in the period 1997-1998. In the study presented here, 1749 non-pregnant women with no history of thyroid disease were included who participated in the 11-year follow-up examination in the period 2008-2010. Gynecological exposures were reported in a self-administered questionnaire at baseline and follow-up. TSH and TPOAb were measured at baseline and follow-up. Increased TPOAb status during follow-up was defined as a TPOAb below the assay cutoff (<30 kIU/L) at baseline and a TPOAb ≥30 kIU/L at follow-up. Multiple linear regression models were used, adjusted for age, smoking status, and urinary iodine excretion. An inverse association was found between the number of years on HRT and the risk (odds ratio) of increased TPOAb status during follow-up (0.735 [confidence interval 0.558-0.968], p = 0.03). However, this association was not statistically significant when applying the Bonferroni adjusted significance level. The remaining reproductive factors showed no statistically significant association with risk of increased TPOAb during follow-up. Furthermore, parity, abortions, use of OCP, HRT use, age at menarche, and being pre- or postmenopausal were not significantly associated with 11-year TSH change. No statistically significant association was found between the studied female reproductive measures and 11-year risk of TSH or TPO change. A possible protective role for HRT in the etiology of thyroid autoimmunity, however, deserves further research.

  9. Full dates (day, month, year) should be used in population-based cancer survival studies.

    PubMed

    Woods, Laura M; Rachet, Bernard; Ellis, Libby; Coleman, Michel P

    2012-10-01

    Accurate survival estimates are essential for monitoring cancer survival trends, for health care planning and for resource allocation. To obtain precise estimates of survival, full dates (day, month and year) rather than partial dates (month and year) are required. In some jurisdictions, however, cancer registries are constrained from providing full dates on the grounds of confidentiality. The bias resulting from the use of partial dates in the estimation and comparison of survival makes it impossible to determine precisely the differences in the risk of death from cancer between population groups or in successive calendar periods. Important operational arguments also exist against the use of incomplete dates for survival analysis, including increased workload for cancer registry staff and the introduction of avoidable complexity for quality control of survival data. Cancer survival is one of the most widely known outputs produced by population-based cancer registries, and it is a crucial metric for the comparative effectiveness of health services. The bodies that set data access guidelines must take a more balanced view of the risks and benefits of using full dates for the estimation of cancer survival.

  10. Head and Neck Cancer in a Developing Country: A Population-Based Perspective Across 8 Years

    PubMed Central

    Attar, Esra; Dey, Subhojit; Hablas, Ahmad; Seifeldin, Ibrahim A.; Ramadan, Mohamed; Rozek, Laura S.; Soliman, Amr S.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Head and Neck Cancer (HNC) has been studied in different regions of the world but little is known about its incidence patterns in the Middle East and Egypt. In this study from Egypt’s only population-based registry, we analyzed data from 1999-2006, to estimate incidence, incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) categorized by age, district and subsites. Overall urban incidence of HNC was twice or more that of rural incidence for both males (IRR = 2.59; 95% CI = 2.26, 2.97) and females (IRR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.64, 2.43). Highest urban-rural difference for males was seen in 40-49 years (IRR = 2.79; 95% CI = 1.92, 4.05) and for females in 30-39 years (IRR = 2.94; 95% CI = 1.60, 5.40). Among subsites, highest incidence among males was for larynx (1.53/105) and among females for gum and mouth (0.48/105). Maximum urban-rural difference in males was for paranasal sinus (IRR = 4.66; 95% CI = 1.88, 11.54) and in females for lip (IRR = 8.91; 95% CI = 1.89, 41.98). The study underscores the patterns of HNC incidence in Egypt while indicating the need for future analytical studies investigating specific risk factors of HNC in this population. PMID:20619719

  11. Trajectories of maternal depression: a 27-year population-based prospective study.

    PubMed

    Najman, J M; Plotnikova, M; Williams, G M; Alati, R; Mamun, A A; Scott, J; Wray, N; Clavarino, A M

    2017-02-01

    To identify distinct trajectories of depression experienced by a population-based sample of women over a 27-year period and to assess the validity of the derived trajectories. The Mater University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy is a birth cohort study which commenced in 1981. Women (N = 6753) were interviewed at their first clinic visit, at 6 months, then 5, 14, 21 and 27 years after the birth of their child, using the Delusions Symptoms - States Inventory. Some 3561 (52.7%) women were followed up at 27 years, with 3337 (49.4%) of the sample completing the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Depression trajectories over a 27-year period were identified using Latent Class Growth Modelling (LCGM). LCGM was used to identify respondents with similar patterns of depression over a 27-year period. At the 27-year follow-up women who completed the CIDI, were stratified according to their trajectory group membership. Three trajectory groups, each with different life-course patterns of depression were identified. The low/no symptoms of depression trajectory group comprised 48.4% of women. The mid-depression group (41.7%) had a consistent pattern of occasional symptoms of depression. The high/escalating trajectory group comprised 9.9% of the women in the study. We then examined each trajectory group based on their completion of the CIDI at the 27-year follow-up. Using the CIDI, 27.0% of women in the study had met the DSM-IV criteria for lifetime ever depression by their mean age of 46.5 years. The responses to the CIDI differed greatly for each of the trajectory groups, suggesting that the trajectories validly reflect different life histories of depression. The high/escalating trajectory group had an earlier age of first onset, more frequent episodes, longer duration of each episode of depression and experienced higher levels of impairment for their episodes of depression. For the high symptoms trajectory group, clinically significant depression is estimated

  12. Perceived weight discrimination in England: a population-based study of adults aged ⩾50 years

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, S E; Steptoe, A; Beeken, R J; Croker, H; Wardle, J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite a wealth of experimental studies on weight bias, little is known about weight discrimination at the population level. This study examined the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of perceived weight discrimination in a large population-based sample of older adults. Methods: Data were from 5307 adults in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing; a population-based cohort of men and women aged ⩾50 years. Weight discrimination was reported for five domains (less respect/courtesy; treated as less clever; poorer treatment in medical settings; poorer service in restaurants/stores; threatened/harassed) at wave 5 (2010–2011). Height and weight were measured at wave 4 (2008–2009). We used logistic regression to test the odds of weight discrimination in relation to weight status, age, sex, wealth, education and marital status. Results: Perceived weight discrimination in any domain was reported by 4.6% of participants, ranging from 0.8% in the normal-weight participants through 0.9, 6.7, 24.2 and 35.1% in individuals who were overweight or met criteria for class I, II and III obesity. Overall, and in each situation, odds of perceived weight discrimination were higher in younger and less wealthy individuals. There was no interaction between weight status and any socio-demographic variable. Relative to normal-weight participants, odds ratios for any perceived weight discrimination were 1.13 (95% confidence interval 0.53–2.40) in those who were overweight, 8.86 (4.65–16.88) in those with class I obesity, 35.06 (18.30–67.16) in class II obese and 56.43 (27.72–114.87) in class III obese. Conclusions: Our results indicate that rates of perceived weight discrimination are comparatively low in individuals who are overweight or have class I obesity, but for those with class II/III obesity, >10% had experienced discrimination in each domain, and >20% had been treated with less respect or courtesy. These findings have implications for public

  13. Perceived weight discrimination in England: a population-based study of adults aged ⩾50 years.

    PubMed

    Jackson, S E; Steptoe, A; Beeken, R J; Croker, H; Wardle, J

    2015-05-01

    Despite a wealth of experimental studies on weight bias, little is known about weight discrimination at the population level. This study examined the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of perceived weight discrimination in a large population-based sample of older adults. Data were from 5307 adults in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing; a population-based cohort of men and women aged ⩾50 years. Weight discrimination was reported for five domains (less respect/courtesy; treated as less clever; poorer treatment in medical settings; poorer service in restaurants/stores; threatened/harassed) at wave 5 (2010-2011). Height and weight were measured at wave 4 (2008-2009). We used logistic regression to test the odds of weight discrimination in relation to weight status, age, sex, wealth, education and marital status. Perceived weight discrimination in any domain was reported by 4.6% of participants, ranging from 0.8% in the normal-weight participants through 0.9, 6.7, 24.2 and 35.1% in individuals who were overweight or met criteria for class I, II and III obesity. Overall, and in each situation, odds of perceived weight discrimination were higher in younger and less wealthy individuals. There was no interaction between weight status and any socio-demographic variable. Relative to normal-weight participants, odds ratios for any perceived weight discrimination were 1.13 (95% confidence interval 0.53-2.40) in those who were overweight, 8.86 (4.65-16.88) in those with class I obesity, 35.06 (18.30-67.16) in class II obese and 56.43 (27.72-114.87) in class III obese. Our results indicate that rates of perceived weight discrimination are comparatively low in individuals who are overweight or have class I obesity, but for those with class II/III obesity, >10% had experienced discrimination in each domain, and >20% had been treated with less respect or courtesy. These findings have implications for public policy and highlight the need for effective interventions

  14. Breastfeeding and childhood asthma: a six-year population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Fredriksson, Pia; Jaakkola, Niina; Jaakkola, Jouni Jk

    2007-11-28

    The question of the protective effect of breastfeeding on development of asthma has raised substantial interest, but the scientific evidence of the optimal duration of breastfeeding is controversial. The authors elaborated the optimal duration of breastfeeding with respect to the risk of asthma primarily, and secondarily to the risk of persistent wheezing, cough and phlegm in school age in a population-based cohort study with the baseline in 1991 and follow-up in 1997. The study population comprised 1984 children aged 7 to 14 years at the end of the follow-up (follow-up rate 77). Information on breastfeeding was based on the baseline survey and information on the health outcomes at the follow-up. There was a U-shaped relation between breastfeeding and the outcomes with the lowest risk with breastfeeding from four to nine months for asthma and seven to nine months for persistent wheezing, cough and phlegm. Our results suggest a U shape relation between duration of breastfeeding and risk of asthma with an optimal duration of 4 to 6 months. A true concave relation would explain the inconsistent results from the previous studies.

  15. The effects of climate factors on scabies. A 14-year population-based study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jui-Ming; Wang, Hsiao-Wei; Chang, Fung-Wei; Liu, Yueh-Ping; Chiu, Feng-Hsiang; Lin, Yi-Chun; Cheng, Kuan-Chen; Hsu, Ren-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Scabies is a common infectious disease and can cause severe outbreaks if not controlled quickly. Besides personal contact history, environmental factors are also important. This study analyzed the effects of environmental climate factors on the incidence of scabies in Taiwan. We conducted a 14-year nationwide population-based study: a total of 14,883 patients with scabies infestation were enrolled. Monthly climate data were collected from Taiwan’s Central Weather Bureau, including data on temperature, relative humidity, total rainfall, total rain days, and total sunshine hours. The linear relationships between these climate factors and scabies infestations or other risk factors were examined by Pearson’s correlation analysis. Overall, the incidence of scabies was negatively correlated with temperature (γ = −0.152, p < 0.001), while being positively correlated with humidity (γ = 0.192, p < 0.001). This useful information may provide evidence for lowering humidity at nursing facilities, hospitals, and military camps with scabies infestations, which may help to reduce its spread and prevent outbreaks. PMID:27905271

  16. The effects of climate factors on scabies. A 14-year population-based study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jui-Ming; Wang, Hsiao-Wei; Chang, Fung-Wei; Liu, Yueh-Ping; Chiu, Feng-Hsiang; Lin, Yi-Chun; Cheng, Kuan-Chen; Hsu, Ren-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Scabies is a common infectious disease and can cause severe outbreaks if not controlled quickly. Besides personal contact history, environmental factors are also important. This study analyzed the effects of environmental climate factors on the incidence of scabies in Taiwan. We conducted a 14-year nationwide population-based study: a total of 14,883 patients with scabies infestation were enrolled. Monthly climate data were collected from Taiwan's Central Weather Bureau, including data on temperature, relative humidity, total rainfall, total rain days, and total sunshine hours. The linear relationships between these climate factors and scabies infestations or other risk factors were examined by Pearson's correlation analysis. Overall, the incidence of scabies was negatively correlated with temperature (γ = -0.152, p < 0.001), while being positively correlated with humidity (γ = 0.192, p < 0.001). This useful information may provide evidence for lowering humidity at nursing facilities, hospitals, and military camps with scabies infestations, which may help to reduce its spread and prevent outbreaks. © J.-M. Liu et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

  17. Increasing Incidence of Herpes Zoster Over a 60-year Period From a Population-based Study.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Kosuke; Yawn, Barbara P; Wollan, Peter; Harpaz, Rafael

    2016-07-15

    Temporal increases in the incidence of herpes zoster (HZ) have been reported but studies have examined short study periods, and the cause of the increase remains unknown. We examined the long-term trend of HZ. A population-based cohort study was conducted in Olmsted County, Minnesota, using data from 1945-1960 and 1980-2007. Medical records review of possible cases was performed to confirm incident cases of HZ, the patient's immune status, and prescribing of antivirals for HZ. We examined the relative change in the temporal trend in the incidence rates before and after the introduction of the varicella vaccination program. Of the 8017 patients with HZ, 58.7% were females and 6.6% were immunocompromised. The age- and sex-adjusted incidence rate of HZ increased from 0.76 per 1000 person-years (PY) (95% confidence interval [CI], .63-.89) in 1945-1949 to 3.15 per 1000 PY (95% CI, 3.04-3.26) in 2000-2007. The rate of increase across the time period was 2.5% per year after adjusting for age and sex (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 1.025 [95% CI, 1.023-1.026]; P < .001). The incidence of HZ significantly increased among all age groups and both sexes. We found no change in the rate of increase before vs after the introduction of the varicella vaccination program. The incidence of HZ has increased >4-fold over the last 6 decades. This increase is unlikely to be due to the introduction of varicella vaccination, antiviral therapy, or change in the prevalence of immunocompromised individuals. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Increasing Incidence of Herpes Zoster Over a 60-year Period From a Population-based Study

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Kosuke; Yawn, Barbara P.; Wollan, Peter; Harpaz, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Background. Temporal increases in the incidence of herpes zoster (HZ) have been reported but studies have examined short study periods, and the cause of the increase remains unknown. We examined the long-term trend of HZ. Methods. A population-based cohort study was conducted in Olmsted County, Minnesota, using data from 1945–1960 and 1980–2007. Medical records review of possible cases was performed to confirm incident cases of HZ, the patient's immune status, and prescribing of antivirals for HZ. We examined the relative change in the temporal trend in the incidence rates before and after the introduction of the varicella vaccination program. Results. Of the 8017 patients with HZ, 58.7% were females and 6.6% were immunocompromised. The age- and sex-adjusted incidence rate of HZ increased from 0.76 per 1000 person-years (PY) (95% confidence interval [CI], .63–.89) in 1945–1949 to 3.15 per 1000 PY (95% CI, 3.04–3.26) in 2000–2007. The rate of increase across the time period was 2.5% per year after adjusting for age and sex (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 1.025 [95% CI, 1.023–1.026]; P < .001). The incidence of HZ significantly increased among all age groups and both sexes. We found no change in the rate of increase before vs after the introduction of the varicella vaccination program. Conclusions. The incidence of HZ has increased >4-fold over the last 6 decades. This increase is unlikely to be due to the introduction of varicella vaccination, antiviral therapy, or change in the prevalence of immunocompromised individuals. PMID:27161774

  19. Herpes zoster as a risk factor for osteoporosis: A 15-year nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chieh-Hsin; Chai, Chee-Yin; Tung, Yi-Ching; Lu, Ying-Yi; Su, Yu-Feng; Tsai, Tai-Hsin; Tzou, Rong-Dar; Lin, Chih-Lung

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the risk of osteoporosis in patients with herpes zoster (HZ) infection using a nationwide population-based dataset. The Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database was used to compare data between 11,088 patients aged 20 to 49 years diagnosed with HZ during 1996 to 2010 and a control group of 11,088 patients without HZ. Both cohorts were followed up until the end of 2010 to measure the incidence of osteoporosis. Cox proportional-hazards regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to calculate hazard ratio and cumulative incidences of osteoporosis, respectively. The overall risk of osteoporosis was 4.55 times greater in the HZ group than in the control group (2.48 vs. 0.30 per 1000 person-years, respectively) after adjusting for age, gender, Charlson Comorbidity Index, and related comorbidities. Compared with controls, patients with HZ and subsequent postherpetic neuralgia had a 4.76-fold higher likelihood of developing osteoporosis (95% confidence interval: 2.44-9.29), which was a statistically significant difference (P <0.001). Osteoporosis risk factors included female gender, age, advanced Charlson Comorbidity Index, depression, and postherpetic neuralgia. This study identified HZ is associated with an increased osteoporosis risk. Further evaluation of the value of bone mineral density test in detecting osteoporosis after HZ may be suggested. HZ vaccination could also be evaluated to lower the incidence of HZ and possibly subsequent osteoporosis. Physicians should be alerted to this association to improve early identification of osteoporosis in patients with HZ.

  20. Shock in the emergency department; a 12 year population based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Holler, Jon Gitz; Henriksen, Daniel Pilsgaard; Mikkelsen, Søren; Rasmussen, Lars Melholt; Pedersen, Court; Lassen, Annmarie Touborg

    2016-06-30

    The knowledge of the frequency and associated mortality of shock in the emergency department (ED) is limited. The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, all-cause mortality and factors associated with death among patients suffering shock in the ED. Population-based cohort study at an University Hospital ED in Denmark from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2011. All patients aged ≥18 years living in the hospital catchment area with a first time ED presentation with shock (n = 1646) defined as hypotension (systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≤100 mmHg)) and ≥1 organ failures. Outcomes were annual incidence per 100,000 person-years at risk (pyar), all-cause mortality at 0-7, and 8-90 days and risk factors associated with death. We identified 1646 of 438,191 (0.4 %) ED patients with shock at arrival. Incidence of shock increased from 53.8 to 80.6 cases per 100,000 pyar. The 7-day, and 90-day mortality was 23.1 % (95 % CI: 21.1-25.1) and 40.7 % (95 % CI: 38.3-43.1), respectively. Independent predictors of 7-day mortality were: age (adjusted HR 1.03 (95 % CI: 1.03-1.04), and number of organ failures (≥3 organ failures; adjusted HR 3.13 95 % CI: 2.28-4.30). Age, comorbidity level and number of organ failure were associated with 90-day mortality. Shock is a frequent and critical finding in the ED, carrying a 7- and, 90- day mortality of 23.1 and 40.7 %, respectively. Age and number of organ failures are independent prognostic factors for death within 7 days, whereas age, comorbidity and organ failures are of significance within 8-90 days.

  1. Loss of independence in early Parkinson disease: A 5-year population-based incident cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bjornestad, Anders; Tysnes, Ole-Bjorn; Larsen, Jan Petter; Alves, Guido

    2016-10-11

    To determine the risk, predictors, and prognosis of independence loss and institutionalization in patients with early Parkinson disease (PD). We conducted a prospective population-based 5-year longitudinal study following 189 patients with incident PD and 174 controls matched for age, sex, and comorbidity. Health care status was assessed repeatedly with standardized interviews. More newly diagnosed patients with PD (15.9%) than controls (5.7%) were dependent in activities of daily living at baseline (relative risk [RR] 2.8, p = 0.004). During follow-up, 40.9% of the initially independent patients lost their independence vs 9.1% of controls (RR 4.5, p < 0.001). Higher age, shorter symptom duration, increasing motor severity, and presence of mild cognitive impairment at PD diagnosis independently predicted independence loss during follow-up. Dependency was irreversible in most (>95%) patients. Long-term care facility placement was needed in 8.8% of patients vs 0.6% of controls (RR 15.4, p = 0.001). More patients with PD admitted to long-term care facilities were fallers (RR 4.8, p < 0.001), had hallucinations (RR 4.4, p = 0.001), or had dementia (RR 4.2, p < 0.001) than home-dwelling patients. Once admitted to a long-term care facility, the age-adjusted RR for death during the study period was 5.5 (p = 0.002) vs patients never admitted and 25.1 (p < 0.001) vs controls. Patients with early PD face a substantially greater risk of independence loss and institutionalization than well-matched controls. Independence loss is irreversible in most patients and represents a sinister prognostic factor in early PD. These findings have implications for patient management and health care planning. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  2. Perinatal suicide in Ontario, Canada: a 15-year population-based study.

    PubMed

    Grigoriadis, Sophie; Wilton, Andrew S; Kurdyak, Paul A; Rhodes, Anne E; VonderPorten, Emily H; Levitt, Anthony; Cheung, Amy; Vigod, Simone N

    2017-08-28

    Death by suicide during the perinatal period has been understudied in Canada. We examined the epidemiology of and health service use related to suicides during pregnancy and the first postpartum year. In this retrospective, population-based cohort study, we linked health administrative databases with coroner death records (1994-2008) for Ontario, Canada. We compared sociodemographic characteristics, clinical features and health service use in the 30 days and 1 year before death between women who died by suicide perinatally, women who died by suicide outside of the perinatal period and living perinatal women. The perinatal suicide rate was 2.58 per 100 000 live births, with suicide accounting for 51 (5.3%) of 966 perinatal deaths. Most suicides occurred during the final quarter of the first postpartum year, with highest rates in rural and remote regions. Perinatal women were more likely to die from hanging (33.3% [17/51]) or jumping or falling (19.6% [10/51]) than women who died by suicide non-perinatally (p = 0.04). Only 39.2% (20/51) had mental health contact within the 30 days before death, similar to the rate among those who died by suicide non-perinatally (47.7% [762/1597]; odds ratio [OR] 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.40-1.25). Compared with living perinatal women matched by pregnancy or postpartum status at date of suicide, perinatal women who died by suicide had similar likelihood of non-mental health primary care and obstetric care before the index date but had a lower likelihood of pediatric contact (64.5% [20/31] v. 88.4% [137/155] at 30 days; OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.10-0.58). The perinatal suicide rate for Ontario during the period 1994-2008 was comparable to international estimates and represents a substantial component of Canadian perinatal mortality. Given that deaths by suicide occur throughout the perinatal period, all health care providers must be collectively vigilant in assessing risk. © 2017 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  3. Perinatal suicide in Ontario, Canada: a 15-year population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Grigoriadis, Sophie; Wilton, Andrew S.; Kurdyak, Paul A.; Rhodes, Anne E.; VonderPorten, Emily H.; Levitt, Anthony; Cheung, Amy; Vigod, Simone N.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Death by suicide during the perinatal period has been understudied in Canada. We examined the epidemiology of and health service use related to suicides during pregnancy and the first postpartum year. METHODS: In this retrospective, population-based cohort study, we linked health administrative databases with coroner death records (1994–2008) for Ontario, Canada. We compared sociodemographic characteristics, clinical features and health service use in the 30 days and 1 year before death between women who died by suicide perinatally, women who died by suicide outside of the perinatal period and living perinatal women. RESULTS: The perinatal suicide rate was 2.58 per 100 000 live births, with suicide accounting for 51 (5.3%) of 966 perinatal deaths. Most suicides occurred during the final quarter of the first postpartum year, with highest rates in rural and remote regions. Perinatal women were more likely to die from hanging (33.3% [17/51]) or jumping or falling (19.6% [10/51]) than women who died by suicide non-perinatally (p = 0.04). Only 39.2% (20/51) had mental health contact within the 30 days before death, similar to the rate among those who died by suicide non-perinatally (47.7% [762/1597]; odds ratio [OR] 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.40–1.25). Compared with living perinatal women matched by pregnancy or postpartum status at date of suicide, perinatal women who died by suicide had similar likelihood of non–mental health primary care and obstetric care before the index date but had a lower likelihood of pediatric contact (64.5% [20/31] v. 88.4% [137/155] at 30 days; OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.10–0.58). INTERPRETATION: The perinatal suicide rate for Ontario during the period 1994–2008 was comparable to international estimates and represents a substantial component of Canadian perinatal mortality. Given that deaths by suicide occur throughout the perinatal period, all health care providers must be collectively vigilant in assessing risk. PMID

  4. 10-year trajectories of depressive symptoms and risk of dementia: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Saira Saeed; Wolters, Frank J; Swanson, Sonja A; Koudstaal, Peter J; Hofman, Albert; Tiemeier, Henning; Ikram, M Arfan

    2016-07-01

    Late-life depressive symptoms have been extensively studied for their relationship with incident dementia, but have been typically assessed at a single timepoint. Such an approach neglects the course of depression, which, given its remitting and relapsing nature, might provide further insights into the complex association of depression with dementia. We therefore repeatedly measured depressive symptoms in a population of adults over a decade to study the subsequent risk of dementia. Our study was embedded in the Rotterdam Study, a population-based study of adults aged 55 years or older in Rotterdam (Netherlands), ongoing since 1990. The cohort is monitored continuously for major events by data linkage between the study database and general practitioners. We examined a cohort of participants who were free from dementia, but had data for depressive symptoms from at least one examination round in 1993-95, 1997-99, or 2002-04. We assessed depressive symptoms with the validated Dutch version of the Center for Epidemiology Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression. We used these data to identify 11-year trajectories of depressive symptoms by latent class trajectory modelling. We screened participants for dementia at each examination round and followed up participants for 10 years for incident dementia by latent trajectory from the third examination round to 2014. We calculated hazard ratios (HR) for dementia by assigned trajectory using two Cox proportional hazards models (model 1 adjusted for age and sex only, and model 2 adjusted additionally for APOEɛ4 carrier status, educational level, body-mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, cognitive score, use of antidepressants, and prevalent disease status at baseline). We repeated the analyses censoring for incident stroke, restricting to Alzheimer's disease as an outcome, and accounting for mortality as a competing risk for dementia. From 1993-2004, we obtained data for depressive

  5. Sixteen-Year Change in Acoustic-Admittance Measures among Older Adults: Data from a Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nondahl, David M.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Wiley, Terry L.; Tweed, Ted S.; Dalton, Dayna S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to measure the 16-year change in peak compensated static acoustic admittance (Peak Y[subscript tm]) in a population-based cohort of older adults, and to determine whether age was associated with any observed change in Peak Y[subscript tm]. Other tympanometric measures also were taken and analyzed.…

  6. Sixteen-Year Change in Acoustic-Admittance Measures among Older Adults: Data from a Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nondahl, David M.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Wiley, Terry L.; Tweed, Ted S.; Dalton, Dayna S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to measure the 16-year change in peak compensated static acoustic admittance (Peak Y[subscript tm]) in a population-based cohort of older adults, and to determine whether age was associated with any observed change in Peak Y[subscript tm]. Other tympanometric measures also were taken and analyzed.…

  7. Unemployment risk 2 years and 4 years following gastric cancer diagnosis: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Rottenberg, Yakir; Jacobs, Jeremy M; Ratzon, Navah Z; Grinshpun, Albert; Cohen, Miri; Uziely, Beatrice; de Boer, Angela G E M

    2017-02-01

    The needs of gastric cancer survivors have received limited attention. Returning to work after gastric cancer has not yet been described in a population-based study. We aimed to examine the unemployment risk at 2 and 4 years after gastric cancer. The present historical prospective cohort study included baseline measurements from the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics 1995 National Census, with follow-up until 2011. A group with gastric cancer and an age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched control group were sampled from the census population. Binary logistic regression analyses were used to assess odds ratios (ORs) for the study outcomes, controlling for socioeconomic factors, and employment status at 2 years before diagnosis. Data for 152 gastric cancer cases and 464 matched controls were analyzed. Those who died during the study period were excluded. Two years after diagnosis, 53.3 % of gastric cancer survivors and 43.8 % of controls were unemployed (p = 0.04); 4 years after diagnosis, 53.9 % of survivors, and 47.2 % of controls were unemployed (p = 0.15). In the adjusted models, gastric cancer was only associated with unemployment 2 years after diagnosis (OR = 1.47, 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 1.02-2.12). This association weakened and lost significance 4 years after diagnosis (OR = 1.42, 95 % CI = 0.89-2.28). Gastric cancer was not associated with decreased income at 2 (OR = 1.48, 95 % CI = 0.91-1.48) or 4 years (OR = 1.65, 95 % CI = 0.99-2.74) after diagnosis. Gastric cancer survivorship was associated with unemployment 2 years after diagnosis. Longer-term survivors may have the prospect of returning to work. For patients with cancer, returning to work may be an indicator for returning to a normal lifestyle after serious illness. This study highlights the need for early social support in gastric cancer survivors to promote faster recovery.

  8. Survival times in people with dementia: analysis from population based cohort study with 14 year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To provide estimates of survival after onset of dementia by age, sex, self reported health, disability, and severity of cognitive impairment. Design Analysis of participants from prospective population based cohort study in 1991-2003, with follow-up of dementia status in all individuals after two and six years (in one centre) and 10 years and in subsamples additionally at six and eight years and mortality until 2005. Setting Multicentre population based study in England and Wales: two rural and three urban centres. Participants 438 participants who developed dementia from a population based study of 13 004 individuals aged 65 years and over drawn from primary care population registers. Main outcome measures Sociodemographic factors, cognitive function, specific health conditions, and self reported health collected at each interview. Cox’s proportional hazards regression models were used to identify predictors of mortality from the selected variables in people who received diagnosis of dementia according the study’s criteria. Results By December 2005, 356 of the 438 (81%) participants who developed dementia during the study had died. Estimated median survival time from onset of dementia to death was 4.1 years (interquartile range 2.5-7.6) for men and 4.6 years (2.9-7.0) for women. There was a difference of nearly seven years in survival between the younger old and the oldest people with dementia: 10.7 (25th centile 5.6) for ages 65-69; 5.4 (interquartile range 3.4-8.3) for ages 70-79; 4.3 (2.8-7.0) for ages 80-89, and 3.8 (2.3-5.2) years for ages ≥90. Significant factors that predicted mortality in the presence of dementia during the follow-up included sex, age of onset, and disability. Conclusion These analyses give a population based estimated median survival for incident dementia of 4.5 years. Such estimates can be used for prognosis and planning for patients, carers, service providers, and policy makers. PMID:18187696

  9. Decline in admissions for childhood asthma, a 26-year period population-based study.

    PubMed

    Mikalsen, Ingvild Bruun; Skeiseid, Liliane; Tveit, Line Merete; Engelsvold, David Hugo; Øymar, Knut

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of childhood asthma has increased, although the rate of hospitalization for asthma seems to decrease. In Norway, the rate of hospital admission for childhood asthma from 1984 to 2000 increased. The aim of this study was to assess further trends in hospital admissions for childhood asthma up to 2010. A population-based study including children 1-13 yrs of age hospitalized for asthma during six periods from 1984/1985 to 2009/2010 in Rogaland, Norway, was performed. Medical records from 1536 admissions (1050 children) were studied; and gender, age, number of admissions, length of hospital stay, medications and symptoms were recorded. For all age groups, the rate of admissions per 10.000 increased from 20.1 in 1984/85 to 33.7 in 1989/90, but declined to 14.4 in 2009/2010. Rates were highest in boys (OR 1.87; 95% CI: 1.69, 2.09), younger age groups (OR 2.51; 2.38, 2.64) and decreased from 1984 to 2010 (OR 0.92; 0.88, 0.94). The rates of readmissions were higher than for primary admissions (OR 1.33; 1.19, 1.47). From 1984 to 2010, there was an increased use of inhaled corticosteroids prior to admission (6 to 51%) and started at discharge (7 to 37%), and systemic steroids given during admission (19 to 83%). There has been a substantial decline in the rate of hospital admissions for childhood asthma after 1989/1990, with major differences between age groups and genders. The decline could be due to improved care of children with asthma or a real reduction in asthma exacerbations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Predictors of ICU Admission and Outcomes 1 Year Post-Admission in Persons with IBD: A Population-based Study

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Allan; Peschken, Christine A.; Hitchon, Carol A.; Chen, Hui; Fransoo, Randy; Marrie, Ruth Ann

    2015-01-01

    Background: To determine predictors of intensive care unit (ICU) admission and to assess health care utilization (HCU) post-ICU admission among persons with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods: We matched a population-based database of Manitobans with IBD to a general population cohort on age, sex, and region of residence and linked these cohorts to a population-based ICU database. We compared the incidence rates of ICU admission among prevalent IBD cases according to HCU in the year before admission using generalized linear models adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic status, region, and comorbidity. Among incident cases of IBD who survived their first ICU admission, we compared HCU with matched controls who survived ICU admission. Results: Risk factors for ICU admission from the year before admission included cumulative corticosteroid use (incidence rate ratio, 1.006 per 100 mg of prednisone; 95% confidence interval, 1.004–1.008) and IBD-related surgery (incidence rate ratio, 2.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.99–3.92). Use of immunomodulatory therapies within 1 year, or surgery for IBD beyond 1 year prior, were not associated with ICU admission. In those who used corticosteroids and immunomodulatory medications in the year before ICU admission, the use of immunomodulatory medications conferred a 30% risk reduction in ICU admission (incidence rate ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.50–0.97). Persons with IBD who survived ICU admission had higher HCU in the year following ICU discharge than controls. Conclusions: Corticosteroid use and surgery within the year are associated with ICU admission in IBD while immunomodulatory therapy is not. Surviving ICU admission is associated with high HCU in the year post-ICU discharge. PMID:25989339

  11. The incidence and prevalence of pterygium in South Korea: A 10-year population-based Korean cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Moonjung; Kim, Sung Soo

    2017-01-01

    Although numerous population-based studies have reported the prevalences and risk factors for pterygium, information regarding the incidence of pterygium is scarce. This population-based cohort study aimed to evaluate the South Korean incidence and prevalence of pterygium. We retrospectively obtained data from a nationally representative sample of 1,116,364 South Koreans in the Korea National Health Insurance Service National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC). The associated sociodemographic factors were evaluated using multivariable Cox regression analysis, and the hazard ratios and confidence intervals were calculated. Pterygium was defined based on the Korean Classification of Diseases code, and surgically removed pterygium was defined as cases that required surgical removal. We identified 21,465 pterygium cases and 8,338 surgically removed pterygium cases during the study period. The overall incidences were 2.1 per 1,000 person-years for pterygium and 0.8 per 1,000 person-years for surgically removed pterygium. Among subjects who were ≥40 years old, the incidences were 4.3 per 1,000 person-years for pterygium and 1.7 per 1,000 person-years for surgically removed pterygium. The overall prevalences were 1.9% for pterygium and 0.6% for surgically removed pterygium, and the prevalences increased to 3.8% for pterygium and 1.4% for surgically removed pterygium among subjects who were ≥40 years old. The incidences of pterygium decreased according to year. The incidence and prevalence of pterygium were highest among 60–79-year-old individuals. Increasing age, female sex, and living in a relatively rural area were associated with increased risks of pterygium and surgically removed pterygium in the multivariable Cox regression analysis. Our analyses of South Korean national insurance claims data revealed a decreasing trend in the incidence of pterygium during the study period. PMID:28346495

  12. A population-based study of hospital care costs during 5 years after transient ischemic attack and stroke.

    PubMed

    Luengo-Fernandez, Ramon; Gray, Alastair M; Rothwell, Peter M

    2012-12-01

    Few studies have evaluated long-term costs after stroke onset, with almost no cost data for transient ischemic attack (TIA). We studied hospital costs during the 5 years after TIA or stroke in a population-based study. Patients from a United Kingdom population-based cohort study (Oxford Vascular Study) were recruited from 2002 to 2007. Analysis was based on follow-up until 2010. Hospital resource usage was obtained from patient hospital records and valued using 2008/2009 unit costs. Because not all patients had full 5-year follow-up, we used nonparametric censoring techniques. Among 485 TIA and 729 stroke patients ascertained and included, mean censor-adjusted 5-year hospital costs after index stroke were $25,741 (95% confidence interval, 23,659-27,914), with costs varying considerably by severity: $21,134 after minor stroke; $33,119 after moderate stroke; and $28,552 after severe stroke. For the 239 surviving stroke patients who had reached final follow-up, mean costs were $24,383 (95% confidence interval, 20,156-28,595), with more than half of costs ($12,972) being incurred in the first year after the event. After index TIA, the mean censor-adjusted 5-year costs were $18,091 (95% confidence interval, 15,947-20,258). A multivariate analysis showed that event severity, recurrent stroke, and coronary events after the index event were independent predictors of 5-year costs. Differences by stroke subtype were mostly explained by stroke severity and subsequent events. Long-term hospital costs after TIA and stroke are considerable, but they are mainly incurred during the first year after the index event. Event severity and experiencing subsequent stroke and coronary events after the index event accounted for much of the increase in costs.

  13. Unemployment risk at 2 and 4 years following colorectal cancer diagnosis: a population based study.

    PubMed

    Rottenberg, Yakir; Ratzon, Navah Z; Cohen, Miri; Hubert, Ayala; Uziely, Beatrice; de Boer, Angela G E M

    2016-12-01

    About half of colorectal patients are diagnosed less than 65 years of age and they have a relatively high cure rate. However, little is known about their employment and related risk factors. The aim of the current study was to clarify the association between colorectal cancer (CRC) and subsequent risk of being unemployed. A historical prospective cohort study included baseline socio-demographic measurements of age, sex, ethnicity, residential socio-economic position and education from the 1995 Israeli National Census, cancer incidence between 2000 and 2007 and employment data between 1998 and 2011. Binary logistic regression analyses were used to assess odds ratios for unemployment, while controlling for socio-economic measurements and employment status at 2 years prior to diagnosis. The final study population included 885 colorectal patients and 2646 healthy controls. After controlling for confounders, positive associations were found between stages II (odds ratio [OR] = 1.91, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.31-2.76 or III (OR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.13-2.54) and increased risk for unemployment at 2 years. At 4 years follow-up, stages I (OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.11-2.19), II (OR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.09-2.26) and III (OR = 2.28, 95% CI: 1.55-3.37) were associated with increased risk for unemployment. Higher risk was seen among rectal cancer patients and among patients aged ≤50 years old at the time of cancer diagnosis. CRC patients are at increased long-term risk for unemployment, especially among rectal cancer and younger patients. The clinical ramifications of our findings emphasise the importance of an accurate evaluation and attention to unemployment status during the care of these patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Subsequent fracture rates in a nationwide population-based cohort study with a 10-year perspective.

    PubMed

    Hansen, L; Petersen, K D; Eriksen, S A; Langdahl, B L; Eiken, P A; Brixen, K; Abrahamsen, B; Jensen, J-E B; Harsløf, T; Vestergaard, P

    2015-02-01

    Fractures after the age of 50 are frequently observed in Denmark, and many of these may be osteoporotic. This study examined the incidence of all and subsequent fractures in a 10-year period from 2001 to 2011. The incidence of subsequent fractures was high, especially following hip fracture. The purpose of this study is to examine patterns of subsequent fractures and mortality rates over a 10-year period in patients already suffering from fracture. The study was designed as a nationwide, register-based follow-up study. Patients were included if diagnosed with an index fracture (ICD-10 codes: S22.x, S32.x, S42.x, S52.x, S62.x, S72.x, S82.x, S92.x, T02.x, T08.x, T10.x and T12.x) between January 1st, 2001 and December 31st, 2001 and if older than 50 years at time of fracture. The patients were investigated for future subsequent fractures from January 1st, 2002 to December 31st, 2011. In this study, we demonstrated that patients with fractures (especially hip fractures) have a high risk of subsequent fractures, especially hip fracture. Other fractures, which are not commonly considered as osteoporotic fractures, such as lower leg, were frequently observed in the 10 years following index fracture. The cumulative incidence proportion (CIP) of subsequent fractures during the 10-year follow-up period was high for all recurrent fractures (9-46 %). Subsequent hip fracture, regardless of index fracture, had the highest CIP across the study period, ranging from 9 to 40 %. Appendicular fractures were often followed by a recurrent fracture, or subsequent fractures at a more proximal location in the same limb, i.e. forearm fractures were followed by humerus fractures. These results have not been previously demonstrated to this extent, and according to our knowledge, no previous studies have estimated cumulative 10-year subsequent fracture incidences for any non-hip fractures. Patients suffering a fracture (and especially a hip fracture) have a high incidence of subsequent

  15. High-risk HPV infection after five years in a population-based cohort of Chilean women

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The need to review cervical cancer prevention strategies has been triggered by the availability of new prevention tools linked to human papillomavirus (HPV): vaccines and screening tests. To consider these innovations, information on HPV type distribution and natural history is necessary. This is a five-year follow-up study of gynecological high-risk (HR) HPV infection among a Chilean population-based cohort of women. Findings A population-based random sample of 969 women from Santiago, Chile aged 17 years or older was enrolled in 2001 and revisited in 2006. At both visits they answered a survey on demographics and sexual history and provided a cervical sample for HPV DNA detection (GP5+/6+ primer-mediated PCR and Reverse line blot genotyping). Follow-up was completed by 576 (59.4%) women; 45 (4.6%) refused participation; most losses to follow-up were women who were unreachable, no longer eligible or had missing samples. HR-HPV prevalence increased by 43%. Incidence was highest in women < 20 years of age (19.4%) and lowest in women > 70 (0%); it was three times higher among women HR-HPV positive versus HPV negative at baseline (25.5% and 8.3%; OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.8-8.0). Type-specific persistence was 35.3%; it increased with age, from 0% in women < 30 years of age to 100% in women > 70. An enrollment Pap result ASCUS or worse was the only risk factor for being HR-HPV positive at both visits. Conclusions HR-HPV prevalence increased in the study population. All HR-HPV infections in women < 30 years old cleared, supporting the current recommendation of HR-HPV screening for women > 30 years. PMID:22087645

  16. Ten-year incidence and prevalence of clinically diagnosed blepharitis in South Korea: a nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rim, Tyler Hyungtaek; Kang, Min Jae; Choi, Moonjung; Seo, Kyoung Yul; Kim, Sung Soo

    2017-07-01

    Blepharitis is one of the most common conditions. However, no study has yet evaluated the epidemiology by evaluating a large population-based sample. To evaluate the incidence and prevalence of clinically diagnosed blepharitis in South Korea. Nationwide population-based study. We investigated the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort, a representative one million-sample of the Korean population, for patients diagnosed with blepharitis according to the Korean Classification of Diseases. Annual and overall incidence and prevalence of blepharitis during the study period (2004-2013) were estimated after excluding chronic blepharitis patients, diagnosed during 2002-2003. Sociodemographic factors and comorbidities associated with blepharitis were evaluated using Cox proportional hazard regression. The first occurrence of blepharitis. A total of 1 116 363 individuals over 9 698 118 person-years were evaluated (mean follow up: 8.7 years) from 2004 to 2013. The overall incidence was 1.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.1-1.1) per 100 person-years. The incidence increased with time (0.9 vs. 1.3 per 100 person-years, in 2004 and 2013, respectively) and was higher in female patients (1.3 vs. 0.9 per 100 person-years, respectively). The overall prevalence was 8.1% (95% confidence interval: 8.0-8.1) among subjects aged 40 years or older. Chalazion, gastritis, Sjögren's syndrome, pterygium, rosacea, prostatic hypertrophy, atopy, irritable bowel disease and peptic ulcer were associated with an increased incidence of blepharitis in the multivariable Cox model. We found that blepharitis was a relatively common disease and is associated with various ocular and systemic conditions. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  17. Psychotic symptoms and paranoid ideation in a population-based sample of 95-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Ostling, Svante; Börjesson-Hanson, Anne; Skoog, Ingmar

    2007-12-01

    To examine the 1-year prevalence of psychotic symptoms and schizophrenia in nondemented 95-year-olds, and to examine the relation between psychotic symptoms and other psychiatric symptoms, sensory impairments, and cognitive functioning. The representative sample was 95-year-olds living in Göteborg, Sweden (N = 338). Individuals with dementia were excluded (N = 175), leaving 163 subjects for this study. This was a cross-sectional population study, including psychiatric and physical examinations, cognitive tests, and interviews with close informants. Diagnosis of schizophrenia, psychotic symptoms, paranoid ideation and dementia according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Revision (DSM-III) were measured. Cognitive function was tested with the Mini-Mental State Exam. Other psychiatric symptoms were measured by the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale. The one-year prevalence of any psychotic symptom was 7.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.8-12.5); including hallucinations 6.7% (95% CI 3.4-11.8) and delusions 0.6% (95% CI 0.0-3.4). Four (2.4%) individuals fulfilled DSM-III-R criteria for schizophrenia. Individuals with psychotic symptoms or paranoid ideation did not differ regarding cognitive functioning compared with individuals without these symptoms. Individuals with hallucinations and paranoid ideation had an increased frequency of previous paranoid personality traits compared with individuals without psychotic symptoms and paranoid ideation. No individuals with psychotic symptoms had a formal thought disorder, incoherence of speech, or flat affect. The authors found a high prevalence of psychotic symptoms, paranoid ideation, and schizophrenia in the very old. Most of the symptoms were elucidated by information from key informants, illustrating the importance of including relatives in the evaluation of elderly persons.

  18. Disability and multimorbidity in women older than 50 years: a population-based household survey.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Luiza Borges; Baccaro, Luiz Francisco; de Souza Santos Machado, Vanessa; Pinto-Neto, Aarão Mendes; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of disability and associated factors in Brazilian women older than 50 years. We conducted a cross-sectional study (in the form of a population survey) of 622 women older than 50 years and residing in Campinas, Brazil. Disability was assessed through a questionnaire with seven items and defined as "being completely unable to perform any of them." Independent variables included self-perception of health, sociodemographic data, health-related habits, and morbidities. Statistical analysis was carried out by χ(2) test and Poisson regression. The mean age of women was 64.1 years, and the prevalence of disability was 43.4%. Age (prevalence ratio [PR], 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03), fear of falling (PR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.17-2.16), higher body mass index (PR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01-1.05), personal history of myocardial infarction (PR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.06-1.76), smoking more than 15 cigarettes per day (PR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.04-1.72), hospitalization in the past year (PR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.03-1.62), multimorbidity (PR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.02-2.02), and use of any medication prescribed by a doctor (PR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.02-2.41) were associated with a higher prevalence of disability. Self-perception of health as good/very good (PR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.52-0.86), use of alternative medications (PR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.33-0.90), and more years of schooling (PR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.45-0.93) were associated with a lower prevalence of disability. The results improve our understanding of the factors associated with disability in Brazilian women and may help identify those who need multidisciplinary support to reduce effects on quality of life.

  19. Nutritional status and survival among old adults: an 11-year population-based longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Shakersain, B; Santoni, G; Faxén-Irving, G; Rizzuto, D; Fratiglioni, L; Xu, W

    2016-03-01

    The impact of nutritional status on survival among community-dwelling older adults is unclear. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and association of poor nutritional status, including malnutrition and risk for malnutrition defined by the Mini-Nutritional Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF) with survival, and to explore the role of relevant biomarkers (hemoglobin, albumin and C-reactive protein) in this association. This study included 3041 participants aged ⩾ 60 in the Swedish National study on Aging and Care-Kungsholmen. On the basis of the total score in MNA-SF, nutritional status for each participant was assessed as normal (score 12-14), risk for malnutrition (8-11) or malnutrition (<8). Over an 11-year follow-up, survival status was observed. Data were analysed using logistic regression, flexible parametric survival and Laplace models. Of all the participants, 51 (1.7%) had malnutrition and 751 (24.7%) were at risk for malnutrition. The multi-adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of mortality was 2.40 (1.56-3.67; P<0.001) for malnutrition and 1.49 (1.29-1.71; P<0.001) for risk for malnutrition. The median ages at death of participants with malnutrition and risk for malnutrition were ~3 and 1.5 years shorter than those with normal nutritional status, respectively, whereas malnutrition or risk for malnutrition together with abnormal biomarker (hemoglobin and albumin) levels was related to 1 year more shortened survival. Malnutrition and risk for malnutrition are highly prevalent and significantly associated with a shorter survival. Poor nutritional status in combination with abnormalities in the biomarkers is associated with even more shortened survival.

  20. Bicycle injury events among older adults in Northern Sweden: a 10-year population based study.

    PubMed

    Scheiman, Simeon; Moghaddas, Hossein S; Björnstig, Ulf; Bylund, Per-Olof; Saveman, Britt-Inger

    2010-03-01

    Bicycles are a common mode of transportation and injured bicyclists cause a substantial burden on the medical sector. In Sweden, about half of fatally injured bicyclists are 65 years or older. This study analyzes the injury mechanisms, injuries, and consequences among bicyclists 65 years or older and compare with younger bicyclists (< or =64) and older adults as passenger car drivers, to give a basis for an injury preventive discussion for this age group. Umeå University Hospital's primary catchments area had 142,000 inhabitants in 2006. Nearly all injured road users in the well-defined geographic area are treated at this hospital and a 10-year data set (N=456) of injured bicyclists aged 65+ from the hospital's continuous injury registration (1997-2006) was analyzed. The results show that the annual injury incidence was 2.4 and 2.2 per 1000 men and women, respectively, aged 65 or older. For men the incidence rate was constant in the three age groups 65-74, 75-84 and 85+, while it decreased strongly for women. The incidence rate for old adults as passenger car drivers and younger bicyclists was 1.0 and 4.6, respectively. Most frequent injury mechanisms were falls when getting on or off a bicycle (20%) and by potholes or irregularities on the ground, edge of a sidewalk, or similar (13%). Only 6% were hit by cars, trucks, or buses. Half of the injured suffered fractures or dislocations, and 10% suffered concussion or more serious intracranial injuries. Getting on or off the bicycle caused most fractures (especially a high fraction of the hip and femur fractures) and resulted in 27% of all inpatient days in hospital. Three individuals died. One-third of the injured were treated as inpatients for a total of 1413 days (on average 9 days), with 69% of the days being caused by fractures. The cost for out- and inpatient acute treatment was approximately USD 4700 (SEK 33,000) per injured. The results merit an interest for this target group; bicycle injuries among older

  1. Cannabis use, depression and anxiety: A 3-year prospective population-based study.

    PubMed

    Danielsson, Anna-Karin; Lundin, Andreas; Agardh, Emilie; Allebeck, Peter; Forsell, Yvonne

    2016-03-15

    Whether or not cannabis use may increase the risk for depression and/or anxiety is not clear. For one thing, it has not been possible to draw a definitive conclusion regarding the direction of causality, i.e. whether cannabis use increases the risk for depression/anxiety or vice versa. This study aimed at examining possible associations between cannabis use, depression and anxiety, using all three measures as both exposure and outcome. Data were obtained from a longitudinal cohort study comprising 8598 Swedish men and women, aged 20-64, with a three-year-follow-up. Adjusted for sex and age, cannabis use at baseline was associated with an increased relative risk (RR) for depression and anxiety at follow-up, with RR=1.22 [1.06-1.42 Cl 95%] for depression and RR=1.38 [1.26-1.50 Cl 95%] for anxiety. Adjusted for all confounders (alcohol and illicit drug use, education, family tension, place of upbringing), the associations were no longer statistically significant; RR=0.99 [0.82-1.17 Cl 95%] for depression and RR=1.09 [0.98-1.20 Cl 95%] for anxiety. Age-adjusted, reporting depression or anxiety at baseline increased the risk of cannabis onset at follow-up three years later; RR=1.62 [1.28-2.03 CI 95%] and RR=1.63 [1.28-2.08 CI 95%] respectively. However, adjusted for other illicit drug use the associations were no longer statistically significant. Lack of information on frequency of cannabis use and of age of initiation of use. We found no longitudinal associations between cannabis use and incidence of depression/anxiety, or between depression/anxiety and later cannabis use onset. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Improving outcomes after laparoscopic appendectomy: a population-based, 12-year trend analysis of 7446 patients.

    PubMed

    Brügger, Lukas; Rosella, Laura; Candinas, Daniel; Güller, Ulrich

    2011-02-01

    Laparoscopic appendectomy for acute appendicitis has become increasingly used over the past decade. The objective of this trend analysis is to assess whether clinical outcomes after laparoscopic appendectomy have improved over the past 12 years. This analysis is based on the prospective database of the Swiss Association of Laparoscopic and Thoracoscopic Surgery. All patients undergoing emergency laparoscopic appendectomy for acute appendicitis from 1995 to 2006 were included. The following outcomes were assessed for each of the 12 years: conversion rates, intraoperative complications, surgical postoperative complications, general postoperative complications, rate of reoperations, and length of hospital stay. Unadjusted and risk-adjusted multivariable analyses were performed. Statistical significance was set at a level of P < 0.05. All statistical tests were 2-sided. Data from 7446 patients undergoing laparoscopic appendectomy for acute appendicitis were prospectively collected. Over the period of observation, the conversion rate decreased significantly from 2.2% to 1.2% (P(trend)< 0.001), as did intraoperative complications (from 3.1% to 0.7%; P(trend)< 0.001), surgical postoperative complications (from 6.1% to 1.9%; P(trend)< 0.001), general postoperative complications (from 4.9% to 1.5%; P(trend)< 0.001), and rates of reoperations (from 3.4% to 0.7%; P(trend)< 0.001). Average postoperative length of hospital stay also significantly decreased from 4.9 to 3.5 days (P(trend)< 0.001). Our investigation provides compelling evidence that intraoperative complications, surgical and general postoperative complications, conversion rates, rates of reoperations, and average length of hospital stay have significantly decreased over the past decade in patients undergoing surgery for acute appendicitis. The present trend analysis is the first one in the literature encompassing more than a decade and reporting clinical outcomes after laparoscopic appendectomy for acute

  3. Age-related hearing loss and dementia: a 10-year national population-based study.

    PubMed

    Su, Peijen; Hsu, Chih-Chao; Lin, Hung-Ching; Huang, Wei-Shin; Yang, Tsung-Lin; Hsu, Wei-Ting; Lin, Cheng-Li; Hsu, Chung-Yi; Chang, Kuang-Hsi; Hsu, Yi-Chao

    2017-05-01

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) is postulated to affect dementia. Our study aims to investigate the relationship between ARHL and the prevalence, and 10-year incidence of dementia in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). We selected patients diagnosed with ARHL from the NHIRD. A comparison cohort comprising of patients without ARHL was frequency-matched by age, sex, and co-morbidities, and the occurrence of dementia was evaluated in both cohorts. The ARHL cohort consisted of 4108 patients with ARHL and the control cohort consisted of 4013 frequency-matched patients without ARHL. The incidence of dementia [hazard ratio (HR), 1.30; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.14-1.49); P = 0.002] was higher among ARHL patients. Cox models showed that being female (HR, 1.34; 95% CI 1.07-1.68), as well as having co-morbidities, including chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, rheumatoid arthritis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, stroke, head injury, chronic kidney disease, coronary artery disease, alcohol abuse/dependence, and tobacco abuse/dependence (HR, 1.27; 95% CI 1.11-1.45), were independent risk factors for dementia in ARHL patients. We found ARHL may be one of the early characteristics of dementia, and patients with hearing loss were at a higher risk of subsequent dementia. Clinicians should be more sensitive to dementia symptoms within the first 2 years following ARHL diagnosis. Further clinical studies of the relationship between dementia and ARHL may be necessary.

  4. Epidemiological and mortality trends in infective endocarditis, a 17-year population-based prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Chiavarelli, Mario; Scalese, Marco; Nencioni, Cesira; Valentini, Silvia; Guerrini, Francesco; D’Aiello, Incoronata; Picchi, Andrea; De Sensi, Francesco; Habib, Gilbert

    2017-01-01

    Background The population at risk, the clinical and microbiological features of infective endocarditis (IE) have changed. Aim of our study was to evaluate the contemporary epidemiological trends, over a 17-year period in a definite region of Tuscany, Italy, to analyze the clinical outcomes and associated prognostic factors. Methods From 1 January 1998 to 31 December 2014, all patients with a definite diagnosis of IE were prospectively entered in a data-base. The Health-Care system data-base was interrogated to capture patients who could have been missed. The final dataset derived by the merging of the two data-bases. Results Incidence rate of IE was 4.6/100,000/y with a significant linear incidence increase. In hospitalized patients the incidence was 1.27/1,000 admissions. Over age 65 incidence rate was 11.7/100,000/y. Male/female ratio was 1.54:1. A temporal trend towards an increase in the mean population age was found (P=0.033). There was an increase in the incidence of Health-care associated IE, P=0.016. The most common microorganisms were staphylococcus aureus (25%) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (22%). In-hospital mortality was 24%. A trend towards an increase in mortality rate was found (P=0.055). Independent predictors of mortality were older age, S. aureus infection, heart failure, septic shock and persistent bacteremia. Conclusions Our study confirms an increasing mortality trend in IE, although with a borderline significance. Elderly forms are associated with poor prognosis and higher than 1-year mortality rate even in the multivariate analysis. Ageing population, increase in healthcare-associated and staphylococcal infections, may explain the rise of IE incidence and of the mortality trend. PMID:28164010

  5. Vascular risk factors and dementia in the general population aged >85 years: prospective population-based study.

    PubMed

    Rastas, Sari; Pirttilä, Tuula; Mattila, Kimmo; Verkkoniemi, Auli; Juva, Kati; Niinistö, Leena; Länsimies, Esko; Sulkava, Raimo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between dementia and common vascular risk factors including blood pressure, blood lipids, homocysteine and diabetes mellitus in a population of very old people. This study is a 9-year follow-up prospective population-based study monitoring 339 non-demented subjects aged 85 years or over in the city of Vantaa, Southern Finland. During the follow-up, those individuals with diabetes mellitus at the baseline and new incident stroke had a higher probability for developing dementia. History of hypertension or higher level of education were associated with a lower probability of dementia. It seems that the contribution of vascular risk factors to the risk of dementia may be age-dependent and their role in the very old subjects may be mediated through their influence on cerebrovascular morbidity. Thus, prevention of stroke and diabetes mellitus may reduce the risk of cognitive decline in the very old.

  6. Handgrip Strength: A Population-Based Study of Norms and Age Trajectories for 3- to 17-Year-Olds.

    PubMed

    Bohannon, Richard W; Wang, Ying-Chih; Bubela, Deborah; Gershon, Richard C

    2017-04-01

    To provide normative values and equations for grip strength obtained from a population-based sample of individuals 3 to 17 years of age. This cross-sectional study used grip strength data from 2706 participants (49.2% males, 91% right-hand dominant) in the normative phase of the National Institutes of Health Toolbox project. Analyses showed greater strength in the dominant hand in boys and with each yearly increase in age. Normative data are presented separately for each side, sex, and age. Separate regression equations using age and weight as explanatory variables of grip strength are provided for each side by sex. The normative data can serve as a guide for interpreting grip strength measurements. The trajectories can be used to investigate the effect of various pathologies and conditions on grip strength during physical maturation.

  7. The association between personal income and aging: A population-based 13-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Yu; Chen, Chia-Yu; Tsao, Chueh-Yung; Hsu, Kuang-Hung

    Population aging is set to increase the elder dependency ratio, causing a rapid increase in healthcare expenditures and financial burden on the government. This study aims to construct an aging score from age-related diseases and to perform longitudinal analyses to examine the association between personal income and aging. A total of 86,838 subjects drawn from a community with 384,617 residents in northern Taiwan were examined. Personal income and aging-related diseases were measured from the National Health Insurance database during 1997-2010. Multiple linear regression and stratified analyses were used. Our results indicate that subjects with low personal income (defined as monthly income ≤610 USD) can have high aging scores as calculated by selected aging-related diseases. In stratified analyses, moreover, subjects with low personal income tended to have higher aging scores across different anthropometric groups. The association was particularly evident in subjects >60years old, and they were noted across multiple strata, including those of catastrophic illness as well as type of primary care setting. This study found evidence for association between low income and aging in a population with compulsory health insurance program, where accessibility barriers were low in terms of health care resources and personal socioeconomic status. The economic inequity causes difference in aging process, which deserves for future interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Causes and risk factors for mortality within 1 year after obesity surgery in a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tao, Wenjing; Plecka-Östlund, Magdalena; Lu, Yunxia; Mattsson, Fredrik; Lagergren, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    The use of obesity surgery has increased during the past decade. There is a need for population-based assessments of causes and risk factors for postoperative mortality. The objective of this study was to assess causes and risk factors for 1-year mortality after obesity surgery. This nationwide retrospective population-based cohort study included essentially all obesity surgery patients in Sweden from 1980-2010. Data were collected from Swedish national registries and medical records. Patient characteristics, co-morbidities, and surgical procedures were assessed in relation to 1-year mortality through multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression, providing hazard ratios (HR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for age, sex, surgical procedure, surgical access, and co-morbidity. Among 22,487 obesity surgery patients the 1-year cumulative mortality was .38% (n = 85). Follow-up of cohort was complete. Median time of postoperative death was 45 days. Main causes of death included cardiopulmonary complications (myocardial infarction [n = 14; 16%], pulmonary embolism [n = 12; 14%], sudden cardiac arrest [n = 11; 13%]), and anastomotic leak (n = 12; 14%). Male sex (HR = 2.31; 95% CI 1.48-3.60), diabetes (HR = 2.47; 95% CI 1.44-4.23), and congestive heart failure (HR = 4.82; 95% CI 2.25-10.35) were independently associated with increased 1-year mortality, while age, hypertension, cerebrovascular disease, coronary heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and surgical procedure were not. Open surgery entailed an increased mortality compared to laparoscopic surgery from 2000-2010 (HR = 2.72; 95% CI 1.53-4.83), but not from 1990-1999 (HR = .39; 95% CI .11-1.32). Although the absolute risk of mortality is low, the increased relative risk of mortality associated with male sex, diabetes, congestive heart failure, and open surgical access could influence clinical decision making. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published

  9. SLE disease patterns in a Danish population-based lupus cohort: an 8-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Laustrup, H; Voss, A; Green, A; Junker, P

    2010-03-01

    In 1995 all systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients in the county of Funen were retrieved from four separate and independent sources as part of an 8-year prospective study to determine the pattern of disease activity and damage accumulation in a community based lupus cohort of predominantly Scandinavian ancestry. Incident cases were subsequently identified by surveillance of these sources. Established and new cases underwent annual, structured interviews, clinical examination and blood sampling. The Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Diseases Activity Index SLEDAI and Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics SLICC scores were calculated. Flares were defined as modified - SLEDAI >or= 4. The annual flare rate in definite SLE (D-SLE) was 0.21 (95%CI 0.18-0.24) versus 0.03 (95%CI 0.01-0.07) in incomplete SLE (I-SLE). Forty-three per cent of the entire study population had no disease exacerbations. Infections requiring hospital admission and thrombocytopenia were significantly more frequent among patients with relapsing disease (p < 0.04-0.01). Patients with flares had slightly shorter disease duration and were younger at disease onset than patients with a quiescent course. The most recently diagnosed patients had the lowest annual rate of damage accrual. According to flare rate, two major subsets of almost equal size were identified - one having a long quiescent course, the other exhibiting relapses alternating with remissions. An increased risk of flares was associated with short disease duration and younger age at disease onset, infections requiring hospital admission and thrombocytopenia. Temporal damage increment was the lowest in the most recently diagnosed patients.

  10. Population Based National Tuberculosis Prevalence Survey among Adults (>15 Years) in Pakistan, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Qadeer, Ejaz; Fatima, Razia; Yaqoob, Aashifa; Tahseen, Sabira; Ul Haq, Mahboob; Ghafoor, Abdul; Asif, Muhammad; Straetemans, Masja; Tiemersma, Edine W.

    2016-01-01

    Background We aimed to determine the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) amongst the adult population in 2010–2011 in Pakistan. Method A nationwide cross-sectional survey with multistage cluster sampling was conducted among adults (≥15 years) in 95 clusters in 2010–2011. All consenting participants were screened for cough and by chest X-ray. Participants with presumptive TB submitted two sputum samples for smear microscopy, culture, and molecular testing if needed. The TB prevalence estimates were adjusted for missing data and the cluster design. Result Of 131,329 eligible individuals, 105,913 (81%) participated in the survey, of whom 10,471 (9.9%) were eligible for sputum examination. We found 341 bacteriologically positive TB cases of whom 233 had sputum smear-positive TB. The adjusted prevalence estimates for smear and bacteriologically positive TB were 270/100,000 (95% confidence interval (CI) 217–323), and 398/100,000 (95% CI 333–463), respectively. Only 61% of the diagnosed TB cases screened positive on symptoms (cough >2wks), whereas the other TB cases were detected based on X-ray abnormalities. The TB prevalence increased with age and was 1.8 times higher among men than women. The prevalence-to-notification ratio of smear-positive TB was 3.1 (95% CI 2.5–3.7), was higher among men than women, and increased with age. Conclusion Our data suggest that there is under-detection and/or -notification of TB, especially among men and elderly. TB control should be strengthened specifically in these risk groups. X-ray examination should be combined with symptom screening to enhance case detection. PMID:26863617

  11. Does Ethnicity Affect Where People with Cancer Die? A Population-Based 10 Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Koffman, Jonathan; Ho, Yuen King; Davies, Joanna; Gao, Wei; Higginson, Irene J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Ageing is a growing issue for people from UK black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) groups. The health experiences of these groups are recognised as a ‘tracer’ to measure success in end of life patient-preferred outcomes that includes place of death (PoD). Aim To examine patterns in PoD among BAME groups who died of cancer. Material and Methods Mortality data for 93,375 cancer deaths of those aged ≥65 years in London from 2001–2010 were obtained from the UK Office for National Statistics (ONS). Decedent's country of birth was used as a proxy for ethnicity. Linear regression examined trends in place of death across the eight ethnic groups and Poisson regression examined the association between country of birth and place of death. Results 76% decedents were born in the UK, followed by Ireland (5.9%), Europe(5.4%) and Caribbean(4.3%). Most deaths(52.5%) occurred in hospital, followed by home(18.7%). During the study period, deaths in hospital declined with an increase in home deaths; trend for time analysis for those born in UK(0.50%/yr[0.36–0.64%]p<0.001), Europe (1.00%/yr[0.64–1.30%]p<0.001), Asia(1.09%/yr[0.94–1.20%]p<0.001) and Caribbean(1.03%/yr[0.72–1.30%]p<0.001). However, time consistent gaps across the geographical groups remained. Following adjustment hospital deaths were more likely for those born in Asia(Proportion ratio(PR)1.12[95%CI1.08–1.15]p<0.001) and Africa(PR 1.11[95%CI1.07–1.16]p<0.001). Hospice deaths were less likely for those born in Asia(PR 0.73 [0.68–0.80] p<0.001), Africa (PR 0.83[95%CI0.74–0.93]p<0.001), and ‘other’ geographical regions (PR0.90[95% 0.82–0.98]p<0.001). Home deaths were less likely for those born in the Caribbean(PR0.91[95%CI 0.85–0.98]p<0.001). Conclusions Location of death varies by country of birth. BAME groups are more likely to die in a hospital and less likely to die at home or in a hospice. Further investigation is needed to determine whether these differences result from

  12. Incidence and outcome of epilepsy syndromes with onset in the first year of life: A retrospective population-based study.

    PubMed

    Gaily, Eija; Lommi, Markus; Lapatto, Risto; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina

    2016-10-01

    Population-based studies on infantile epilepsy syndromes are scarce. Our aim was to provide syndrome-specific data on the incidence and outcome of epilepsy in a population-based cohort of infants with epilepsy onset in the first year. Included were all infants born in 1997 through 2006 whose epileptic seizures started before 12 months of age and who were residents of the Helsinki University Hospital district at the time of seizure onset. Patients were ascertained from hospital statistics, and all patient charts were reviewed. A reevaluation of the epilepsy syndromes, age at onset, etiology, and outcome at 24 months of age was based on data abstracted from the patient files. Inclusion criteria were fulfilled by 158 infants, of whom 92% were followed until age 24 months or death. The incidence of epilepsy in the first year was 124 of 100,000. An epilepsy syndrome recognized by the revised organization of epilepsies by ILAE was identified in 58% of the patients. The most common syndromes were West syndrome (41/100,000) and benign familial or nonfamilial infantile epilepsy (22/100,000). Etiology was structural-metabolic in 35%, genetic in 17%, and unknown in 48%. Early age at onset was associated with structural-metabolic etiology. Seven infants (4.4%) died before age 2 years. One infant with an SCN2A mutation died of sudden unexplained death in epilepsy (SUDEP). At 24 months, 58% of all children included in the cohort were seizure-free, and 46% had both seizure freedom and age-appropriate cognitive development. Age at onset was not associated with outcome when etiology was controlled for. Benign familial and nonfamilial infantile epilepsy appears to be more common than previously suggested, second only to West syndrome. Early age at onset is not an independent risk factor for poor outcome. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  13. Prevalence and Persistence of Sleep Disordered Breathing Symptoms in Young Children: A 6-Year Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bonuck, Karen A.; Chervin, Ronald D.; Cole, Timothy J.; Emond, Alan; Henderson, John; Xu, Linzhi; Freeman, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To describe the prevalence, persistence, and characteristics associated with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) symptoms in a population-based cohort followed from 6 months to 6.75 years. Design: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Setting: England, 1991-1999. Participants: 12,447 children in ALSPAC with parental report of apnea, snoring, or mouth-breathing frequency on any one of 7 questionnaires. Measurements: Symptom prevalence rates—assessed as “Always” and “Habitually”—are reported at 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.75, 5.75, and 6.75 years of age. The proportion of children in whom symptoms develop, persist or abate between observation points is reported. Exploratory multivariate analyses identified SDB risk factors at 1.5, 4.75, and 6.75 years. Results: The prevalence of apnea (“Always”) is 1%-2% at all ages assessed. In contrast, snoring “Always” ranges from 3.6% to 7.7%, and snoring “Habitually” ranges from 9.6% to 21.2%, with a notable increase from 1.5- 2.5 years. At 6 years old, 25% are habitual mouth-breathers. The “Always” and “Habitual” incidence of each symptom between time points is 1%-5% and 5%-10%, respectively. In multivariate analyses of combined symptoms, socioeconomic factors have stronger, more persistent effects upon increased SDB risk than gestational age, gender, or race (aside from 1.5 years); adenoidectomy decreases risk by 40%-50%. Conclusions: This is the first natural history study of the primary symptoms of SDB across a key 6-year period in the development of SDB symptoms. Snoring rates are higher and spike earlier than previously reported. Symptoms are dynamic, suggesting the need for early and continued vigilance in early childhood. Citation: Bonuck KA; Chervin RD; Cole TJ; Emond A; Henderson J; Xu L; Freeman K. Prevalence and persistence of sleep disordered breathing symptoms in young children: a 6-year population-based cohort study. SLEEP 2011;34(7):875-884. PMID

  14. Subsequent Malignant Neoplasms in a Population-Based Cohort of Pediatric Cancer Patients: A Focus on the First 5 Years.

    PubMed

    Pole, Jason D; Gu, Lan Ying; Kirsh, Victoria; Greenberg, Mark L; Nathan, Paul C

    2015-10-01

    The purpose was to describe the development of subsequent malignant neoplasms (SMN) among a population-based cohort of pediatric cancer patients, with a focus on SMNs that occurred within the first 5 years from diagnosis. The cohort was identified from POGONIS, an active provincial registry. Cohort members were Ontario residents ages 0 to 14.9 years at primary diagnosis between January 1985 and December 2008. SMNs that developed <18 years were captured by POGONIS, whereas SMNs diagnosed later were identified through linkage. Cumulative incidence and standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were calculated, and proportional hazards models were estimated to examine factors associated with SMN development. A total of 7,920 patients were eligible. 2.4% (188/7,920) developed 197 SMNs. Mean follow-up time was 10.7 years (SD = 7.6 years; range, 0.0-26.4 years) with mean time to SMN of 8.5 years (SD = 6.3 years; range, 0.0-24.9 years). The SIR for the development of a SMN was 9.9 [95% confidence interval (CI), 8.6-11.4]. 40.6% of SMNs (80/197) developed within 5 years. Early SMNs were more likely to be leukemia and lymphoma. Factors associated with early SMN were primary diagnosis of a bone tumor (OR, 4.88; 95% CI, 1.52-15.60), exposure to radiotherapy (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.02-3.22), and the highest dose of epipodophyllotoxin (OR, 3.74; 95% CI, 1.88-7.42). Over 40% of SMNs diagnosed in childhood cancer patients occurred in the first 5 years after diagnosis, suggesting a need for early and ongoing surveillance. The early development of certain SMNs reinforces the need for early and continued surveillance at all stages for pediatric cancer patients. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Trends in incidence for gestational trophoblastic disease over the last 20 years in a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Eysbouts, Y K; Bulten, J; Ottevanger, P B; Thomas, C M G; Ten Kate-Booij, M J; van Herwaarden, A E; Siebers, A G; Sweep, F C G J; Massuger, L F A G

    2016-01-01

    Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) represents a heterogeneous group of disorders. Wide variations in incidence rates are reported worldwide, probably explained by a lack of centralized databases and heterogeneity in case definition. The aim of the present study was to determine the trends in incidence of GTD in the last 20 years with the use of population-based data. Data on patients with pathologically confirmed diagnosis of GTD between 1994 and 2013 were obtained from PALGA, a nationwide archive containing all pathology reports in the Netherlands. In the 20-year period 6343 cases were registered with GTD, representing an overall incidence rate of 1.67 per 1000 deliveries per year. An initial rise in incidence rate was seen over the first 10 years (0.075 per year, 95% CI 0.040-0.109), followed by a stabilization from 2004 to 2013 (increase per year 0.011, 95% CI -0.017-0.040). Although partial hydatidiform mole (HM) was more common in earlier years, complete and partial HM reached comparable incidence rates of 0.68 and 0.64 per 1000 deliveries respectively from 2009 onwards. In the last decade, unspecified HM diagnosis declined significantly from 0.14 per 1000 deliveries in 2003 to 0.03 per 1000 deliveries (per year -0.011, CI -0.016-0.06), suggesting improved diagnostic analyses. After an initial rise in GTD incidence in the Netherlands rates remained steady from 2004 onwards. As pathological confirmation is currently the norm and advanced pathological techniques are now widely available, true steady incidence rates may have been reached. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A 5.5-year surveillance of esophageal and gastric cardia precursors after a population-based screening in China.

    PubMed

    Wen, Denggui; Zhang, Liwei; Wang, Xiaoling; Li, Yongwei; Ma, Caifeng; Liu, Xu; Zhang, Junli; Wen, Xiaoduo; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Fuzhi; Wang, Shijie; Shan, Baoen

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to estimate the time to precursor progression and to identify significant predicators. One hundred thirty-three precursor and 311 normal cases detected in a population-based screening were surveyed for 5.5 years. Precursor progression was defined as worsening of dysplasia or development of a new precursor. Time to precursor progression was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Significant predicators were estimated by Cox proportional regression. Of the 133 precursor cases, 33.08% (44/133) progressed or recurred, 30.08% (40/133) persisted, and 36.84% (49/133) regressed; of the 311 normal subjects, 13.50% (42/311) developed a precursor. Progression occurred significantly earlier and more frequently with ncreasing histology: with mind dysplasia (mD), 7.8% progressed by 1 year and 23.3% progressed by 5 year; with moderate dysplasia (MD), 18% progressed by 1 year and 70% progressed by 5 years; and with severe dysplasia, 50% progressed by 1 year and 100% progressed by 5 years. The difference between any two groups was significant. In addition, the marginal Lugol-stained mucosa at endoscopic mucosal resection had a progressing risk similar to that of MD, and basal cell hyperplasia was similar to that of mD. Significant predicators for precursor progression included male sex (hazard ratio and 95% CI: 2.74 (1.63-4.60)), age over 50 years (2.31 (1.33-4.02)), family history of upper gastrointestinal cancer (UGIC) (1.56 (1.00-2.45)), multifocal dysplasia (5.11 (3.01-8.68)), and baseline histology. Sex, age, family history of UGIC, multifocal dysplasia, and baseline histology are significant independent predicators for precursor progression. Patients after endoscopic mucosal resection should be continuously surveyed. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Increased risk for stroke in burn patients: a population-based one-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Chung, Shiu-Dong; Chen, Chin-Shyan; Lin, Herng-Ching; Kang, Jiunn-Horng

    2014-02-01

    The study aimed to explore the frequency and risk of stroke following hospitalization for burn through the analysis of a population-based dataset in Taiwan. We identified 692 hospitalized subjects who had received a diagnosis of burn. We randomly selected 2768 comparison subjects to match the study subjects by sex and age group. We individually tracked each subject for one year identifying all those who received a diagnosis of stroke during that period. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed to calculate the longitudinal hazard of stroke between the two cohorts. We found that the incidence rate of stroke during the one-year follow-up period was 6.65 (95% CI: 4.92-8.79) per 100 person-years and 2.75 (95% CI: 2.18-3.42) per 100 person-years for study cohort and comparison cohort, respectively. After adjusting for urbanization level, monthly income, geographic region, hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, hyperlipidemia, and chronic kidney disease, and censoring the cases that died from non-stroke causes, the hazard ratio (HR) for stroke during the one-year follow-up period for study cohort was 2.52 (95% CI=1.73-3.68, P<0.001) that of comparison subjects. We further analyzed the HR of stroke according to the extent of burned body surface area (<10%, 10-29%, and >29%). We found that there was no significant difference in the risk of stroke during the one-year follow-up period among these three groups of subjects. We found that burn victims were at higher risk for subsequent stroke that matched comparison subjects during one-year follow-up. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  18. Percentile Values of Physical Fitness Levels among Polish Children Aged 7 to 19 Years--a Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Dobosz, Janusz; Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Viciana, Jesús

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the study was to report gender and age-specific percentile values for fourteen commonly used field-based physical fitness tests among a national representative sample of Polish children aged 7 to 19 years. A descriptive cross-sectional and population-based study examines the physical fitness among a random and large national representative sample of schoolchildren aged 7 to 19 years in Poland. A sample of 49,281 children and adolescents (25,687 boys and 23,594 girls) was assessed by the EUROFIT fitness test battery, the International Committee on the Standardization of Physical Fitness Tests and Cooper Test of physical fitness. The LMS statistical method was used. Smoothed gender and age-specific percentiles for the physical fitness tests in boys and girls aged 7 to 19 years are reported and expressed as both tabulated and curves values (2.3rd, 9th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 91st, and 97.7th). Figures showed greater physical fitness levels in boys, except for the flamingo balance, sit-and-reach, and stand-and-reach tests, in which girls performed slightly better. There was also a trend towards increased physical fitness levels as the age increased in both boys and girls. The percentile values provided will enable the correct interpretation and monitoring of fitness status of Polish children. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.

  19. Elaboration of the Environmental Stress Hypothesis–Results from a Population-Based 6-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Matthias; Jekauc, Darko; Worth, Annette; Woll, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to contribute to the elaboration of the Environmental Stress Hypothesis framework by testing eight hypotheses addressing the direct impact of gross motor coordination problems in elementary-school on selected physical, behavioral and psychosocial outcomes in adolescence. Results are based on a longitudinal sample of 940 participants who were (i) recruited as part of a population-based representative survey on health, physical fitness and physical activity in childhood and adolescence, (ii) assessed twice within 6 years, between the ages of 6 and 10 years old as well as between the ages of 12 and 16 years old (Response Rate: 55.9%) and (iii) classified as having gross motor coordination problems (N = 115) or having no gross motor coordination problems (N = 825) at baseline. Motor tests from the Körperkoordinationstest, measures of weight and height, a validated physical activity questionnaire as well as the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire were conducted. Data were analyzed by use of binary logistic regressions. Results indicated that elementary-school children with gross motor coordination problems show a higher risk of persistent gross motor coordination problems (OR = 7.99, p < 0.001), avoiding organized physical activities (OR = 1.53, p < 0.05), an elevated body mass (OR = 1.78, p < 0.05), bonding with sedentary peers (OR = 1.84, p < 0.01) as well as emotional (OR = 1.73, p < 0.05) and conduct (OR = 1.79, p < 0.05) problems in adolescence in comparison to elementary-school children without gross motor coordination problems. However, elementary-school children with gross motor coordination problems did not show a significantly higher risk of peer problems (OR = 1.35, p = 0.164) or diminished prosocial behavior (OR = 1.90, p = 0.168) in adolescence, respectively in comparison to elementary-school children without gross motor coordination problems. This study is the first to provide population-based longitudinal data ranging from

  20. Epilepsy-Related Mortality is Low in Children: A 30 Year Population-Based Study in Olmsted County, MN

    PubMed Central

    Nickels, Katherine C.; Grossardt, Brandon R.; Wirrell, Elaine C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Epilepsy is a common childhood neurologic disorder, affecting 0.5 to1% of children. Increased mortality occurs due to progression of underlying disease, seizure-related accidents, suicide, status epilepticus, aspiration during seizures, and sudden unexplained death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Previous studies show mortality rates of 2.7 to 6.9 per 1000 person-years (Berg et al., 2004, Sillanpaa & Shinnar, 2010). Potential risk factors include poor seizure control, intractable epilepsy, status epilepticus, tonic-clonic seizures, mental retardation, and remote symptomatic cause of epilepsy (Berg et al., 2004, Sillanpaa & Shinnar, 2010, Walczak et al., 2001). Few population-based studies of mortality and SUDEP in childhood-onset epilepsy have been published. The purpose of this study is to report mortality and SUDEP from a 30 year population-based cohort of children with epilepsy. Methods The Medical Diagnostic Index of the Rochester Epidemiology Project was searched for all codes related to seizure and convulsion in children living in Olmsted County, Minnesota and of ages birth through 17 years from 1980 through 2009. The medical records of these children were reviewed to identify all those with new-onset epilepsy, and to abstract other baseline and follow-up information. Potential risk factors including seizure type, epilepsy syndrome, history of status epilepticus, the presence and severity of neurologic impairment, and epilepsy outcome was reviewed. Epilepsy outcome was characterized by seizure frequency, number of anti-seizure medications (AEDs) used, and number of AEDs failed due to lack of efficacy, and epilepsy intractability at 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20 years after epilepsy onset. We followed all children through their most recent visit to determine vital status, cause of death, and whether autopsy was performed. Key Findings From 1980 to 2009, there were 467 children age birth through 17 years diagnosed with epilepsy while residents of Olmsted County, MN

  1. The burden of premature mortality in Spain using standard expected years of life lost: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Measures of premature mortality have been used to guide debates on future health priorities and to monitor the population health status. Standard expected years of life lost (SEYLL) is one of the methods used to assess the time lost due to premature death. This article affords an overview of premature mortality in Spain for the year 2008. Methods A population-based study was conducted estimating SEYLL by sex and age groups. SEYLL, a key component of the disability-adjusted life years measure of disease burden, was calculated using Princeton West standard life tables with life expectancy at birth fixed at 80 years for males and 82.5 years for females. Population data and specific death records were obtained from the official registers of the National Institute of Statistics. All data were analysed and prepared in GesMor and Epidat software packages. Results The burden of premature mortality was estimated at 2.1 million SEYLL when age at death is taken into account. Males lost 60.9% and females lost 39.1% of total SEYLL. Malignant tumors (34.5%) and cardiovascular diseases (24.0%) were the leading categories in terms of SEYLL. Ischaemic heart disease (8.5%) and lung cancers (8.0%) were the most common specific causes of SEYLL followed by cerebrovascular diseases (5.9%), colorectal cancer (4.1%), road traffic accidents (3.5%), Alzheimer and other dementias (2.9%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (2.8%), breast cancer (2.8%) and suicides (2.6%). Conclusions In Spain, premature mortality was essentially due to chronic non-communicable diseases. Data provided in this study are relevant for a more balanced health agenda aimed at reducing the burden of premature mortality. This study also represents a first step in estimating the overall burden of disease in terms of premature death and disability. PMID:21989453

  2. The national burden of cerebrovascular diseases in Spain: a population-based study using disability-adjusted life years.

    PubMed

    Catalá-López, Ferrán; Fernández de Larrea-Baz, Nerea; Morant-Ginestar, Consuelo; Álvarez-Martín, Elena; Díaz-Guzmán, Jaime; Gènova-Maleras, Ricard

    2015-04-20

    The aim of the present study was to determine the national burden of cerebrovascular diseases in the adult population of Spain. Cross-sectional, descriptive population-based study. We calculated the disability-adjusted life years (DALY) metric using country-specific data from national statistics and epidemiological studies to obtain representative outcomes for the Spanish population. DALYs were divided into years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs) and years of life lived with disability (YLDs). DALYs were estimated for the year 2008 by applying demographic structure by sex and age-groups, cause-specific mortality, morbidity data and new disability weights proposed in the recent Global Burden of Disease study. In the base case, neither YLLs nor YLDs were discounted or age-weighted. Uncertainty around DALYs was tested using sensitivity analyses. In Spain, cerebrovascular diseases generated 418,052 DALYs, comprising 337,000 (80.6%) YLLs and 81,052 (19.4%) YLDs. This accounts for 1,113 DALYs per 100,000 population (men: 1,197 and women: 1,033) and 3,912 per 100,000 in those over the age of 65 years (men: 4,427 and women: 2,033). Depending on the standard life table and choice of social values used for calculation, total DALYs varied by 15.3% and 59.9% below the main estimate. Estimates provided here represent a comprehensive analysis of the burden of cerebrovascular diseases at a national level. Prevention and control programmes aimed at reducing the disease burden merit further priority in Spain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Early Respiratory Infections and Dental Caries in the First 27 Years of Life: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Jaakkola, Maritta S.; Näyhä, Simo; Hugg, Timo T.; Jaakkola, Jouni J. K.

    2016-01-01

    Early-life respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and dental caries are among the most common infectious diseases worldwide. The relations between early RTIs and development of caries in permanent teeth have not been studied earlier. We assessed childhood RTIs as potential predictors of caries in young adulthood in a 20-year prospective population-based cohort study (The Espoo Cohort Study). Information on lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) that had required hospitalization was retrieved from the National Hospital Discharge Registry (n = 1623). Additional information on LRTIs and upper RTIs (URTIs) was assessed based on the questionnaire reports that covered the preceding 12 months. Caries was measured as the number of teeth with fillings (i.e. filled teeth, FT) reported in the 20-year follow-up questionnaire. The absolute and relative excess numbers of FT were estimated applying negative binomial regression. The mean number of FT in young adulthood was 1.4 greater among subjects who had experienced LRTIs requiring hospitalization before the age of 2 years (SD 4.8) compared to those without any such infections (SD 3.4), and the adjusted relative excess number of FT was 1.5 (95% CI 1.0–2.2). LRTIs up to 7 years were associated with an absolute increase of 0.9 in the mean FT number, the adjusted relative excess being 1.3 (1.0–1.8). Also the questionnaire-based LRTIs (adjusted relative excess 1.3; 95% CI 0.9–1.8) and URTIs (adjusted relative excess 1.4, 1.0–1.8) before the age of 2 years predicted higher occurrence of FT. Findings suggest that early RTIs have a role in the development of dental caries in permanent teeth. PMID:27936203

  4. Sleep patterns in children with ADHD: a population-based cohort study from birth to 11 years.

    PubMed

    Scott, Nicola; Blair, Peter S; Emond, Alan M; Fleming, Peter J; Humphreys, Joanna S; Henderson, John; Gringras, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Associations between sleep duration and disturbance in infancy and early childhood and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder diagnoses were investigated. Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a population-based prospective longitudinal birth-cohort study of children born in 1991-1992 in South-West England, were employed. Eight thousand, one hundred and ninety-five children were assessed using the Development and Well-Being Assessment. One hundred and seventy-three cases (2.1%) met criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Parental report at eight time points showed children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder slept less than peers. Absolute differences were small and mainly restricted to night-time sleep, with no strong evidence of differences from controls, except at 69 months [5 years 9 months; 12 min (95% CI: 5-19), P = 0.001], at 81 months [6 years 9 months; 15 min (95% CI: 8-22), P < 0.001] and at 115 months [9 years 7 months; 11 min (95% CI: 4-18), P = 0.001]. The attention deficit hyperactivity disorder group had more night-waking at every age, significant from about 5 years. When tracking children's sleep along a normative centiles chart, a shift in sleep duration from one centile to a lower centile was a useful predictor of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Age-specific decreases of >1SD in sleep duration across adjacent time points was a significant predictor of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder at 3-5 years (P = 0.047). In children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, shorter sleep duration and sleep disturbances appear early and predate the usual age of clinical diagnosis. The rate of change of sleep duration relative to an individual, rather than absolute sleep duration at any stage, may prove beneficial in identifying increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  5. Ownership and use of wireless telephones: a population-based study of Swedish children aged 7–14 years

    PubMed Central

    Söderqvist, Fredrik; Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael; Hansson Mild, Kjell

    2007-01-01

    Background Recent years have seen a rapid increase in the use of mobile phones and other sources of microwave radiation, raising concerns about possible adverse health effects. As children have longer expected lifetime exposures to microwaves from these devices than adults, who started to use them later in life, they are a group of special interest. Methods We performed a population-based study to assess ownership and use of mobile phones and cordless phones among children aged 7–14 years. A questionnaire comprising 24 questions was sent to 2000 persons selected from the Swedish population registry using a stratified sampling scheme. Results The response rate was 71.2%. Overall, 79.1% of the respondents reported mobile phone access, and 26.7% of them talked for 2 minutes or more per day. Of those who reported mobile phone access, only 5.9% reported use of hands-free equipment. Use of cordless phones was reported by 83.8% of the respondents and 38.5% of them talked for 5 minutes or more per day. Girls generally reported more frequent use than boys. Conclusion This study showed that most children had access to and used mobile and cordless phones early in life and that there was a rapid increase in use with age. It also showed very low use of hands-free equipment among children with mobile phone access, and finally that girls talked significantly more minutes per day using mobile and cordless phones than boys did. PMID:17561999

  6. Ownership and use of wireless telephones: a population-based study of Swedish children aged 7-14 years.

    PubMed

    Söderqvist, Fredrik; Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael; Hansson Mild, Kjell

    2007-06-11

    Recent years have seen a rapid increase in the use of mobile phones and other sources of microwave radiation, raising concerns about possible adverse health effects. As children have longer expected lifetime exposures to microwaves from these devices than adults, who started to use them later in life, they are a group of special interest. We performed a population-based study to assess ownership and use of mobile phones and cordless phones among children aged 7-14 years. A questionnaire comprising 24 questions was sent to 2000 persons selected from the Swedish population registry using a stratified sampling scheme. The response rate was 71.2%. Overall, 79.1% of the respondents reported mobile phone access, and 26.7% of them talked for 2 minutes or more per day. Of those who reported mobile phone access, only 5.9% reported use of hands-free equipment. Use of cordless phones was reported by 83.8% of the respondents and 38.5% of them talked for 5 minutes or more per day. Girls generally reported more frequent use than boys. This study showed that most children had access to and used mobile and cordless phones early in life and that there was a rapid increase in use with age. It also showed very low use of hands-free equipment among children with mobile phone access, and finally that girls talked significantly more minutes per day using mobile and cordless phones than boys did.

  7. No increases in the rate of undescended testis in Hungary during the last 50 years: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Mavrogenis, Stelios; Ács, Nándor; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2015-08-01

    Undescended testis (cryptorchidism) is a common structural birth defect, i.e. congenital abnormality of the male genital organs and increasing trend in its birth prevalence was reported in some countries. The aim of this study was to analyze the recorded annual birth prevalence of isolated undescended testis (IUT) in the population-based large dataset of the Hungarian Congenital Abnormality Registry for the period between 1962 and 2011, i.e. during the last 50 years. Cases with IUT reported after births were evaluated, and their annual rate per 1000 live-births was calculated. The rates of cases with IUT were compared with the so-called true rate of IUT measured in a previous clinical-epidemiological study based on the personal examination of 10,203 newborn infants. The birth prevalence of cases with recorded IUT in Hungary was lower than expected based on the true rate of IUT. Thus the two waves in the rate of IUT were connected with the different completeness of reporting. In conclusion the birth prevalence of cases with IUT in Hungary did not indicate a real increasing trend during the last 50 years.

  8. Subsequent Total Joint Arthroplasty After Primary Total Knee or Hip Arthroplasty: A 40-Year Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Thomas L; Maradit Kremers, Hilal; Schleck, Cathy D; Larson, Dirk R; Berry, Daniel J

    2017-03-01

    Despite the large increase in total hip arthroplasties and total knee arthroplasties, the incidence and prevalence of additional contralateral or ipsilateral joint arthroplasty are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of additional joint arthroplasty after a primary total hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty. This historical cohort study identified population-based cohorts of patients who underwent primary total hip arthroplasty (n = 1,933) or total knee arthroplasty (n = 2,139) between 1969 and 2008. Patients underwent passive follow-up through their medical records beginning with the primary total hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty. We assessed the likelihood of undergoing a subsequent total joint arthroplasty, including simultaneous and staged bilateral procedures. Age, sex, and calendar year were evaluated as potential predictors of subsequent arthroplasty. During a mean follow-up of 12 years after an initial total hip arthroplasty, we observed 422 contralateral total hip arthroplasties (29% at 20 years), 76 contralateral total knee arthroplasties (6% at 10 years), and 32 ipsilateral total knee arthroplasties (2% at 20 years). Younger age was a significant predictor of contralateral total hip arthroplasty (p < 0.0001), but not a predictor of the subsequent risk of total knee arthroplasty. During a mean follow-up of 11 years after an initial total knee arthroplasty, we observed 809 contralateral total knee arthroplasties (45% at 20 years), 31 contralateral total hip arthroplasties (3% at 20 years), and 29 ipsilateral total hip arthroplasties (2% at 20 years). Older age was a significant predictor of ipsilateral or contralateral total hip arthroplasty (p < 0.001). Patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty can be informed of a 30% to 45% chance of a surgical procedure in a contralateral cognate joint and about a 5% chance of a surgical procedure in noncognate joints within 20 years of

  9. The Incidence of Acute Traumatic Tendon Injuries in the Hand and Wrist: A 10-Year Population-based Study

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Johanna P.; Nguyen, Jesse T.; Sonnema, Anne J. M.; Nguyen, Emily C.; Amadio, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute traumatic tendon injuries of the hand and wrist are commonly encountered in the emergency department. Despite the frequency, few studies have examined the true incidence of acute traumatic tendon injuries in the hand and wrist or compared the incidences of both extensor and flexor tendon injuries. Methods We performed a retrospective population-based cohort study of all acute traumatic tendon injuries of the hand and wrist in a mixed urban and rural Midwest county in the United States between 2001-2010. A regional epidemiologic database and medical codes were used to identify index cases. Epidemiologic information including occupation, year of injury, mechanism of injury and the injured tendon and zone were recorded. Results During the 10-year study period there was an incidence rate of 33.2 injuries per 100,000 person-years. There was a decreasing rate of injury during the study period. Highest incidence of injury occurred at 20-29 years of age. There was significant association between injury rate and age, and males had a higher incidence than females. The majority of cases involved a single tendon, with extensor tendon injuries occurring more frequently than flexor tendons. Typically, extensor tendon injuries involved zone three of the index finger, while flexor tendons involved zone two of the index finger. Work-related injuries accounted for 24.9% of acute traumatic tendon injuries. The occupations of work-related injuries were assigned to major groups defined by the 2010 Standard Occupational Classification structure. After assigning these patients' occupations to respective major groups, the most common groups work-related injuries occurred in construction and extraction occupations (44.2%), food preparation and serving related occupations (14.4%), and transportation and material moving occupations (12.5%). Conclusions Epidemiology data enhances our knowledge of injury patterns and may play a role in the prevention and treatment of future

  10. A population-based study on phobic fears and DSM-IV specific phobia in 70-year olds.

    PubMed

    Sigström, Robert; Östling, Svante; Karlsson, Björn; Waern, Margda; Gustafson, Deborah; Skoog, Ingmar

    2011-01-01

    This population-based study reports on the prevalence and characteristics of specific phobia (SP) and phobic fears in an elderly population. A representative population sample of Swedish 70-year-olds without dementia (N = 558) was examined using semi-structured interviews. Phobic fears included fear of animals, natural environment, specific situations, blood-injection-injury and 'other'. Mental disorders, including SP, were diagnosed according to DSM-IV. Phobic fears (71.0% vs. 37.9%) and SP (13.8% vs. 4.5%) were more common in women than in men. Among those with phobic fears, more than 80% reported onset before age 21. Of those with SP, 35.7% had another DSM-IV diagnosis compared to 8.5% of those reporting no fear. Fear of specific situations and 'other' fears were related to SP and other anxiety disorders. SP was related to lower global functioning. We conclude that specific phobia in the elderly should receive attention from health professionals as it is common and associated with a decrease in global functioning.

  11. Predictors of 5-year local, regional, and distant recurrent events in a population-based cohort of breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Fung, Filgen; Cornacchi, Sylvie D; Vanniyasingam, Thuva; Dao, Dyda; Thabane, Lehana; Simunovic, Marko; Hodgson, Nicole; O'Brien, Mary Ann; Reid, Susan; Heller, Barbara; Lovrics, Peter J

    2017-02-01

    The study purpose was to identify tumor and surgeon predictors of local recurrence (LR), regional recurrence (RR), and distant metastasis (DM) after breast cancer (BC) surgery in a population-based cohort. Consecutive BC surgical cases from 12 hospitals in South Central Ontario between May 2006 and October 2006 were included. Data collected on chart review included patient and tumor factors, surgery type, adjuvant treatment, surgeon specialty, surgeon case volume, and practice type. Univariate and multivariable survival analyses were performed. Median follow-up was 5.5 years for 402 patients (97% of sample). LR, RR, and DM occurred in 18 (4.5%), 10 (2.5%), and 47 (12%) patients, respectively. Significant predictors of BC recurrence (LR or RR or DM) were tumor size and grade, nodal status, and lymphovascular invasion on multivariable analysis. Tumor factors such as size, grade, lymphovascular invasion, and nodal status predicted BC recurrence, while practice type, surgeon specialty, and case volume did not. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Enterobius vermicularis infection in schoolchildren: a large-scale survey 6 years after a population-based control.

    PubMed

    Wang, L-C; Hwang, K-P; Chen, E-R

    2010-01-01

    Pinworm infection remains prevalent in children in many parts of the world. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of this infection in schoolchildren in Taiwan after the termination of the 15-year population-based control project in 2001. Our results showed that 2.4% of 118 190 children in 385 primary schools were found to have enterobiasis by two-consecutive-day adhesive cellophane perianal swabs. The prevalences were significantly different in the 25 counties/cities surveyed (0.6-6.6%). A significantly higher prevalence was found in boys (2.6%) than in girls (2.2%) and the prevalence decreased by grade from 3.8% in grade 1 to 1.0% in grade 6. In the primary schools, 9.1% had positive rates 10%. In addition, pinworm infection was found to be significantly associated with the socioeconomic status, personal hygiene and sanitary conditions of the children. The results indicate that the overall prevalence of enterobiasis remains at a low level after the control programme was transferred to the local governments.

  13. Mortality among elder abuse victims in rural Malaysia: A two-year population-based descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Raudah Mohd; Hairi, Noran Naqiah; Choo, Wan Yuen; Hairi, Farizah Mohd; Sooryanarayana, Rajini; Ahmad, Sharifah Nor; Abdul Razak, Inayah; Peramalah, Devi; Abdul Aziz, Suriyati; Mohammad, Zaiton Lal; Mohamad, Rosmala; Mohd Ali, Zainudin; Bulgiba, Awang

    2017-01-01

    Our study aims at describing mortality among reported elder abuse experiences in rural Malaysia. This is a population-based cohort study with a multistage cluster sampling method. Older adults in Kuala Pilah (n = 1,927) were interviewed from November 2013 to May 2014. Mortality was traced after 2 years using the National Registration Department database. Overall, 139 (7.2%) respondents died. Fifteen (9.6%) abuse victims died compared to 124 (7.0%) not abused. Mortality was highest with financial abuse (13%), followed by psychological abuse (10.8%). There was a dose-response relationship between mortality and clustering of abuse: 7%, 7.7%, and 14.0% for no abuse, one type, and two types or more, respectively. Among abuse victims, 40% of deaths had ill-defined causes, 33% were respiratory-related, and 27% had cardiovascular and metabolic origin. Results suggest a link between abuse and mortality. Death proportions varied according to abuse subtypes and gender.

  14. The incidence and outcome of concealed pregnancies among hospital deliveries: an 11-year population-based study in South Glamorgan.

    PubMed

    Nirmal, D; Thijs, I; Bethel, J; Bhal, P S

    2006-02-01

    Denial of pregnancy has been implicated in potentially jeopardising prenatal care and subsequent safe planned deliveries. This population-based study of hospital deliveries over an 11-year period, reveals that concealed pregnancies have an incidence of one in 2,500 deliveries. Among this cohort, 12% were married and 58% were multiparous with 8% having had a previous caesarean section. Some 20% of women had a medical disorder complicating the antenatal period. There was a preponderance of concealed pregnancies in the winter months compared with booked deliveries (p = 0.02). Mode of delivery was similar between the booked and concealed pregnancies with a low incidence of maternal morbidity in the latter. Prematurity rates (p = 0.0002) were significantly higher in the concealed pregnancy cohort. A total of 20% of infants had depressed Apgar scores at 1 min and 8% at 5 min. There was no documentation of counselling or follow-up in this group. Despite the low incidence of maternal morbidity, these women should be regarded as high-risk labour due to the increased perinatal morbidity. Greater effort needs to be made towards ensuring these women have adequate counselling and follow-up during the postnatal period.

  15. Sleep apnea and the subsequent risk of Parkinson’s disease: a 3-year nationwide population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Ping-Song; Lai, Chiou-Lian; Chou, Yii-Her; Chang, Wei-Pin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Sleep apnea (SA)-induced chronic intermittent hypoxia increases oxidative stress and inflammation, which may contribute to the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease (PD). This study evaluated the risk of PD following SA diagnosis. Patients and methods This was a 3-year nationwide population-based matched cohort study using claims data from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD), Taiwan. We analyzed 1,944 patients diagnosed as having SA between 1997 and 2005 and a matched cohort of 9,720 non-SA patients from the NHIRD. Patients with a history of PD were excluded. Each patient was followed up for 3 years to evaluate subsequent PD development. Results Of the 11,664 patients, 17 (0.9%) and 38 (0.4%) from the SA and matched non-SA cohorts, respectively, were subsequently diagnosed as having PD during follow-up. After adjustments for potential confounders, the SA cohort had a 1.85-fold higher risk of PD than the non-SA cohort (95% confidence interval [CI] =1.02–3.35; P=0.042). After age and sex stratification, PD development was independently associated with SA only in men (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 2.26; 95% CI =1.11–4.63; P<0.05) and in patients aged ≥60 years (adjusted HR, 1.93; 95% CI =1.01–3.71; P<0.05). Conclusion Our study suggests that patients with SA are at an increased longitudinal risk of PD. Furthermore, age and male sex are independently associated with the risk of PD. PMID:28408829

  16. Erosive tooth wear among 12-year-old schoolchildren: a population-based cross-sectional study in Montevideo, Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Alvarez Loureiro, Licet; Fabruccini Fager, Anunzziatta; Alves, Luana Severo; Alvarez Vaz, Ramón; Maltz, Marisa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, extent, severity, intraoral distribution and risk indicators for erosive tooth wear (ETW) among 12-year-old schoolchildren from Montevideo, Uruguay. A population-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted using a representative sample of 1,136 12-year-old schoolchildren attending public and private schools. Parents answered questions on socioeconomic status and general health. Schoolchildren answered questions on dietary and oral hygiene habits. Two calibrated examiners recorded ETW on permanent teeth according to the Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE) score system. Logistic regression models were performed to assess the association between the predictor variables and the prevalence of ETW (overall and severe ETW). Odds ratios (OR) and the respective 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. The prevalence of ETW was 52.9%, being mild erosion (BEWE = 1) in the vast majority of cases (48.5%). Severe erosion (BEWE ≥2) was detected in 4.4% of schoolchildren. The overall prevalence of ETW differed significantly between categories of gender and socioeconomic status, but only between gender in the severe ETW analysis. The overall extent of ETW was significantly different between categories of gender, socioeconomic status, and swish before swallow. The extent of severe ETW differed between categories of swish before swallow and brushing frequency. In the logistic regression analysis, no association was found between the studied variables and the overall prevalence of ETW. Males were more likely to have severe ETW than females (OR = 3.22, 95% CI = 1.50-6.89). ETW may be considered a public health problem among 12-year-old-Uruguayan schoolchildren.

  17. Intimate relationships and childbearing after adolescent depression: a population-based 15 year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, U; Bohman, H; Hjern, A; von Knorring, L; Paaren, A; Olsson, G; von Knorring, A-L

    2011-08-01

    Adolescent depression is associated with a range of interpersonal adversities. We hypothesized that depressed adolescents are at subsequent increased risk of problems related to intimate relationships and childbearing in adulthood, and used longitudinal data to examine this. A population-based investigation of depression in 16 to 17 year olds was followed up after 15 years, at around the age of 30 years. Comparisons were made between adolescents with depression (n = 361, 78% females) and non-depressed peers (n = 248, 77% females). Data from both national registers and personal interviews were used. At follow-up, the former depressed and non-depressed adolescents had become parents to a similar extent. The former depressed females were more likely than the non-depressed females to report abortion, miscarriage, intimate partner violence and sexually transmitted disease. They also reported a higher number of intimate relationships and were more likely to have divorced and to be registered as single mothers. Depressed females with a comorbid disruptive disorder had a particularly poor outcome. In the depressed females without a disruptive disorder, only those who subsequently had recurrent depressions in adulthood were at increased risk of poor outcome. There was no indication that the formerly depressed males were at increased risk of subsequent problems related to intimate relationships. Females with adolescent depression subsequently have problems related to intimate relationships and childbearing. Disruptive disorders and recurrence of depression appear to be instrumental in this association. Attention should be given to intimate relationship problems and sexual and reproductive health issues in young women with depression.

  18. Home Dampness and Molds, Parental Atopy, and Asthma in Childhood: A Six-Year Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Jaakkola, Jouni J. K.; Hwang, Bing-Fang; Jaakkola, Niina

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies of how parental atopy and exposure to dampness and molds contribute to the risk of asthma have been mainly cross-sectional or prevalent case–control studies, where selection and information bias and temporality constitute problems. We assessed longitudinally the independent and joint effects of parental atopy and exposure to molds in dwellings on the development of asthma in childhood. We conducted a population-based, 6-year prospective cohort study of 1,984 children 1–7 years of age at the baseline in 1991 (follow-up rate, 77%). The study population included 1,916 children without asthma at baseline and complete outcome information. The data collection included a baseline and follow-up survey. The outcome of interest was development of asthma during the study period. The studied determinants were parental allergic diseases and four indicators of exposure at baseline: histories of water damage, presence of moisture and visible molds, and perceived mold odor in the home. A total of 138 (7.2%) children developed asthma during the study period, resulting in an incidence rate of 125 cases per 10,000 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI), 104–146]. In Poisson regression adjusting for confounding, parental atopy [adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.52; 95% CI, 1.08–2.13] and the presence of mold odor in the home reported at baseline (adjusted IRR 2.44; 95% CI, 1.07–5.60) were independent determinants of asthma incidence, but no apparent interaction was observed. The results of this cohort study with assessment of exposure before the onset of asthma strengthen the evidence on the independent effects of parental atopy and exposure to molds on the development of asthma. PMID:15743728

  19. Changes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Genotype Families Over 20 Years in a Population-Based Study in Northern Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, Judith R.; Alghamdi, Saad; Mallard, Kim; McNerney, Ruth; Ndlovu, Richard; Munthali, Lumbani; Houben, Rein M.; Fine, Paul E. M.; French, Neil; Crampin, Amelia C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite increasing interest in possible differences in virulence and transmissibility between different genotypes of M. tuberculosis, very little is known about how genotypes within a population change over decades, or about relationships to HIV infection. Methods and Principal Findings In a population-based study in rural Malawi we have examined smears and cultures from tuberculosis patients over a 20-year period using spoligotyping. Isolates were grouped into spoligotype families and lineages following previously published criteria. Time trends, HIV status, drug resistance and outcome were examined by spoligotype family and lineage. In addition, transmissibility was examined among pairs of cases with known epidemiological contact by assessing the proportion of transmissions confirmed for each lineage, on the basis of IS6110 RFLP similarity of the M tuberculosis strains. 760 spoligotypes were obtained from smears from 518 patients from 1986–2002, and 377 spoligotypes from cultures from 347 patients from 2005–2008. There was good consistency in patients with multiple specimens. Among 781 patients with first episode tuberculosis, the majority (76%) had Lineage 4 (“European/American”) strains; 9% had Lineage 3 (“East-African/Indian”); 8% Lineage 1 (“Indo-Oceanic”); and 2% Lineage 2 (“East-Asian”); others unclassifiable. Over time the proportion of Lineage 4 decreased from >90% to 60%, with an increase in the other 3 lineages (p<0.001). Lineage 1 strains were more common in those with HIV infection, even after adjusting for age, sex and year. There were no associations with drug resistance or outcome, and no differences by lineage in the proportion of pairs in which transmission was confirmed. Conclusions This is the first study to describe long term trends in the four M. tuberculosis lineages in a population. Lineage 4 has probably been longstanding in this population, with relatively recent introductions and spread of Lineages1–3

  20. Incidence of herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia in Italy: Results from a 3-years population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Iannazzo, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herpes Zoster (HZ) and its main complication, post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN), represent important public health issues because of their relevant burden among older adults. However, data on the epidemiology of HZ and PHN in Italy are very limited. A population-based study was performed by seeking for cases of HZ and PHN, occurred in the period 2013-2015, in the clinical charts of 56 General Practitioners working in 4 Italian Regions (Liguria, Puglia, Toscana and Veneto). The main objective of the study was to estimate the incidence of HZ and the proportion of PHN (at 1 and 3 mo from the onset of HZ; PHN1 and PHN3) among people aged ≥ 50 y. Overall, 598 cases of HZ were identified over 93,146 person-years of observation, thus corresponding to an overall incidence of 6.42 (IC95%: 5.93 – 6.95) HZ cases per 1,000 person-years. The incidence of HZ increased with age and was higher in female than in male. In total, 22.7%, 12.7%, and 2.4% of HZ cases suffered PHN at 1 and 3 mo and 1 y from the onset of acute episode. The proportions of these complications significantly increased with age, with the peak occurring in people aged ≥ 85 y. Four per cent of patients suffered ophthalmic zoster. The study provided an update of the epidemiological burden of HZ and PHN in Italy, confirming the relevant burden of the disease in the elderly population. The study was funded by the Italian Ministry of Health, Center for Disease Prevention and Control (CCM) in 2013. PMID:27925843

  1. Dental erosion among 12-year-old schoolchildren: a population-based cross-sectional study in South Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, Luana Severo; Brusius, Carolina Doege; Damé-Teixeira, Nailê; Maltz, Marisa; Susin, Cristiano

    2015-12-01

    To assess the epidemiology and risk indicators for dental erosion among 12-year-old schoolchildren in South Brazil. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Porto Alegre, Brazil, using a representative sample of 12-year-old schoolchildren (n = 1,528). Dental erosion was recorded according to the Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE) index. Parents answered questions on socio-economic status, brushing frequency and general health. Schoolchildren answered questions on dietary habits. Anthropometric data were collected. Statistical analysis included logistic and Poisson regression models. The prevalence of dental erosion was 15% [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 13.6-16.5], being mainly mild erosion. Boys [odds ratio (OR) = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.17-2.10], private school attendees (OR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.01-2.06) and schoolchildren reporting the daily consumption of soft drinks (OR = 5.04, 95% CI: 1.17-21.71) were more likely to have at least one tooth with dental erosion. Gender [boys, rate ratio (RR) = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.28-2.17], type of school (private, RR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.53-2.35), the consumption of soft drinks (sometimes: RR = 5.27, 95% CI: 1.46-19.05; daily: RR = 6.82, 95% CI: 1.39-33.50) and the daily consumption of lemon (RR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.11-2.00) were significantly associated with the number of affected surfaces. The present study found a moderate prevalence of dental erosion among young schoolchildren, with mild erosion being the most prevalent condition. Socio demographic variables and dietary habits were associated with dental erosion in this population. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.

  2. 20-Years of Population-Based Cancer Registration in Hepatitis B and Liver Cancer Prevention in The Gambia, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bah, Ebrima; Carrieri, Maria Patrizia; Hainaut, Pierre; Bah, Yusupha; Nyan, Ousman; Taal, Makie

    2013-01-01

    Background The Gambia Hepatitis Intervention Study (GHIS) was designed as a randomised control trial of infant hepatitis B vaccination applied to public health policy, with the main goal of preventing primary liver cancer later in adult life in The Gambia. To that effect, the National Cancer Registry of The Gambia (NCR), a population-based cancer registry (PBCR), was established in 1986 to actively collect data on all cancer diagnosis nation-wide. We extracted 20-years (1990-2009) of data to assess for the first time, the evolution of the most common cancers, also describe and demonstrate the role of the PBCR in a hepatitis B and liver cancer prevention programme in this population. Methods and Findings We estimated Age-Standardised Incidence Rates (ASR (W)) of the most common cancers registered during the period by gender. The registration period was divided into four 5-year intervals and incidence rates were estimated for each interval. The most common cancers in males were liver, prostate, lung plus bronchus, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and stomach, accounting for 60%, 5%, 4%, 5% and 3%, respectively. Similarly, cancers of the cervix uteri, liver, breast and NHL, were the most common in females, accounting for 33%, 24%, 11% and 4% of the female cancers, respectively. Conclusions Cancer incidence has remained relatively stable over time, but as shown elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa the disease is a threat in The Gambia. The infection related cancers which are mostly preventable (HBV in men and HPV/HIV in women) were the most common. At the moment the data is not enough to detect an effect of hepatitis B vaccination on liver cancer incidence in The Gambia. However, we observed that monitoring case occurrence through PBCR is a key public health pre-requisite for rational planning and implementation of targeted interventions for improving the health of the population. PMID:24098724

  3. Short-Term Heart Rate Variability in a Population-Based Sample of 10-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Jarrin, Denise C.; Poirier, Paul; Séguin, Louise; Tremblay, Richard E.; Montplaisir, Jacques Y.; Paradis, Gilles; Séguin, Jean R.

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a non-invasive quantitative marker of cardiac autonomic function derived from continuous electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings. Normative HRV values and development factors have not been established in pediatric populations. The objective was to derive referent time- and frequency-domain HRV values for a population-based sample of children. Children aged 9–11 years (N = 1,036) participated in the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development cohort cardiovascular health screening. Registered nurses measured anthropometrics (height, weight) and children wore an ambulatory Holter monitor to continuously record an ECG signal. HRV variables included time (SDNN, pNN50, RMSSD, SDANN) and frequency (HF, LF, LF/HF ratio) domain variables. Normative HRV values, stratified by age, sex, and heart rate, are presented. Greater heart rate (βavg = −0.60, Ravg2=0.39), pubertal maturation (βavg = −0.11, Ravg2=0.01), later ECG recording times (βavg = −0.19, Ravg2=0.07), and higher diastolic blood pressure (βavg = −0.11, Ravg2=0.01) were significantly associated with reduced HRV in 10-year-old children. The normative HRV values permit clinicians to monitor, describe, and establish pediatric nosologies in primary care and research settings, which may improve treatment of diseases associated with HRV in children. By better understanding existing values, the practical applicability of HRV among clinicians will be enhanced. Lastly, developmental (e.g., puberty) and procedural (e.g., recording time) factors were identified that will improve recording procedures and interpretation of results. PMID:25056158

  4. Use of Primary Care during the Year before Childhood Cancer Diagnosis: A Nationwide Population-Based Matched Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahrensberg, Jette Møller; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Vedsted, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objective Childhood cancer is rare and symptoms tend to be unspecific and vague. Using the utilization of health care services as a proxy for symptoms, the present study seeks to determine when early symptoms of childhood cancer are seen in general practice. Methods A population-based matched comparative study was conducted using nationwide registry data. As cases, all children in Denmark below 16 years of age (N = 1,278) diagnosed with cancer (Jan 2002-Dec 2008) were included. As controls, 10 children per case matched on gender and date of birth (N = 12,780) were randomly selected. The utilization of primary health care services (daytime contacts, out-of-hours contacts and diagnostic procedures) during the year preceding diagnosis/index date was measured for cases and controls. Results During the six months before diagnosis, children with cancer used primary care more than the control cohort. This excess use grew consistently and steadily towards the time of diagnosis with an IRR = 3.19 (95%CI: 2.99–3.39) (p<0.0001) during the last three months before diagnosis. Children with Central Nervous System (CNS) tumours had more contacts than other children during the entire study period. The use of practice-based diagnostic tests and the number of out-of-hours contacts began to increase four to five months before cancer diagnosis. Conclusions The study shows that excess health care use, a proxy for symptoms of childhood cancer, occurs months before the diagnosis is established. Children with lymphoma, bone tumour or other solid tumours had higher consultation rates than the controls in the last five months before diagnosis, whereas children with CNS tumour had higher consultation rates in all twelve months before diagnosis. More knowledge about early symptoms and the diagnostic pathway for childhood cancer would be clinically relevant. PMID:23554980

  5. Autism after Adolescence: Population-Based 13- to 22-Year Follow-Up Study of 120 Individuals with Autism Diagnosed in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billstedt, Eva; Gillberg, Carina; Gillberg, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Background: Prospective population-based follow-up study of 120 individuals with autism followed from childhood to adulthood. Methods: Individuals with autism, diagnosed in childhood, were followed prospectively for a period of 13-22 years and re-evaluated at ages 17-40 years. The instruments used at follow-up were the DISCO, WAIS-R, WISC-III,…

  6. Spring cleaning as a safety risk: results of a population-based study in two consecutive years

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    families, especially young women, regarding the scope and importance of spring cleaning safety can be suggested as the first population-based strategy to decrease the incidence of these injuries. PMID:21819609

  7. Birth prevalence for congenital limb defects in the northern Netherlands: a 30-year population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Reported birth prevalences of congenital limb defects (CLD) vary between countries: from 13/10,000 in Finland for the period 1964–1977 to 30.4/10,000 births in Scotland from 1964–1968. Epidemiological studies permit the timely detection of trends in CLD and of associations with other birth defects. The aim of this study is to describe the birth prevalence of CLD in the northern Netherlands. Methods In a population-based, epidemiological study we investigated the birth prevalences of CLD for 1981–2010. Data were collected by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies in the northern Netherlands (EUROCAT-NNL). We excluded malpositions, club foot, and dislocation/dysplasia of hips or knees. Trends were analysed for the 19-year period 1992–2010 using χ2 tests, as well as CLD association with anomalies affecting other organs. Results The birth prevalence of CLD was 21.1/10,000 births for 1981–2010. There was an overall decrease in non-syndromic limb defects (P = 0.023) caused by a decrease in the prevalence of non-syndromic syndactyly (P < 0.01) in 1992–2010. Of 1,048 children with CLD, 55% were males, 57% had isolated defects, 13% had multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), and 30% had a recognised syndrome. The upper:lower limb ratio was 2:1, and the left:right side ratio was 1.2:1. Cardiovascular and urinary tract anomalies were common in combination with CLD (37% and 25% of cases with MCA). Digestive-tract anomalies were significantly associated with CLD (P = 0.016). Conclusions The birth prevalence of CLD in the northern Netherlands was 21.1/10,000 births. The birth prevalence of non-syndromic syndactyly dropped from 5.2/10,000 to 1.1/10,000 in 1992–2010. PMID:24237863

  8. Prevalence of Fracture in Healthy Iranian Children Aged 9–18 Years and Associated Risk Factors; A Population Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Jeddi, Marjan; Dabbaghmanesh, Mohammad Hossein; Kharmandar, Alireza; Ranjbar Omrani, Gholamhossein; Bakhshayeshkaram, Marzieh

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of fractures and associated risk factors in healthy Iranian children and adolescents. Methods: In this cross sectional population based study, 478 healthy Iranian children and adolescents aged 9–18 years old participated. Baseline data and bone mineral content and density have been determined. One questionnaire was completed for all individuals including previous history of fracture, its location, and level of trauma. Albumin, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, and vitamin D levels were measured. Results: We found a prevalence of 12.9% for fracture. (34.5% for girls and 65.5% for boys); about 71% suffered long bone fracture with distal forearm as the most common site. Totally 58% of the boys and 54% of the girls had fracture with low-energy trauma. The fracture group had lower bone mineral apparent density in the lumbar spine (0.19±0.04 vs. 0.20±0.03, p=0.04), lower serum albumin (4.6±0.5 vs 4.8±0.4, p=0.02), and higher serum alkaline phosphatase level (446±174 vs. 361±188, p=0.02) compared with non-fracture subjects. By logistic regression analysis, we found a significant association for sex, and bone mineral content of the lumbar spine with fracture (p=0.003, p=0.039). Conclusion: Compared to other studies, our subjects had lower rate of fracture. We found an association between low bone density and fracture in children and adolescents. This finding has important implications for public health. Further research may contribute to recognition of preventive measures. PMID:28246621

  9. Consuming More of Daily Caloric Intake at Dinner Predisposes to Obesity. A 6-Year Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bo, Simona; Musso, Giovanni; Beccuti, Guglielmo; Fadda, Maurizio; Fedele, Debora; Gambino, Roberto; Gentile, Luigi; Durazzo, Marilena; Ghigo, Ezio; Cassader, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives It has been hypothesized that assuming most of the caloric intake later in the day leads to metabolic disadvantages, but few studies are available on this topic. Aim of our study was to prospectively examine whether eating more of the daily caloric intake at dinner leads to an increased risk of obesity, hyperglycemia, metabolic syndrome, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Subjects/Methods 1245 non-obese, non-diabetic middle-aged adults from a population-based cohort underwent a 3-day food record questionnaire at enrollment. Anthropometric values, blood pressure, blood metabolic variables, and estimated liver fat were measured at baseline and at 6-year follow-up. Design Prospective cohort study. Results Subjects were divided according to tertiles of percent daily caloric intake at dinner. A significant increase in the incidence rate of obesity (from 4.7 to 11.4%), metabolic syndrome (from 11.1 to 16.1%), and estimated NAFLD (from 16.5 to 23.8%) was observed from the lower to higher tertile. In a multiple logistic regression model adjusted for multiple covariates, subjects in the highest tertile showed an increased risk of developing obesity (OR = 2.33; 95% CI 1.17–4.65; p = 0.02), metabolic syndrome (OR = 1.52; 95% CI 1.01–2.30; p = 0.04), and NAFLD (OR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.10–2.22; p = 0.01). Conclusions Consuming more of the daily energy intake at dinner is associated with an increased risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and NAFLD. PMID:25250617

  10. Forgoing dental care for economic reasons in Switzerland: a six-year cross-sectional population-based study.

    PubMed

    Guessous, Idris; Theler, Jean-Marc; Durosier Izart, Claire; Stringhini, Silvia; Bodenmann, Patrick; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Wolff, Hans

    2014-09-30

    While oral health is part of general health and well-being, oral health disparities nevertheless persist. Potential mechanisms include socioeconomic factors that may influence access to dental care in the absence of universal dental care insurance coverage. We investigated the evolution, prevalence and determinants (including socioeconomic) of forgoing of dental care for economic reasons in a Swiss region, over the course of six years. Repeated population-based surveys (2007-2012) of a representative sample of the adult population of the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland. Forgone dental care, socioeconomic and insurance status, marital status, and presence of dependent children were assessed using standardized methods. A total of 4313 subjects were included, 10.6% (457/4313) of whom reported having forgone dental care for economic reasons in the previous 12 months. The crude percentage varied from 2.4% in the wealthiest group (monthly income ≥ 13,000 CHF, 1 CHF ≈ 1$) to 23.5% among participants with the lowest income (<3,000 CHF). Since 2007/8, forgoing dental care remained stable overall, but in subjects with a monthly income of <3,000 CHF, the adjusted percentage increased from 16.3% in 2007/8 to 20.6% in 2012 (P trend = 0.002). Forgoing dental care for economic reasons was independently associated with lower income, younger age, female gender, current smoking, having dependent children, divorced status and not living with a partner, not having a supplementary health insurance, and receipt of a health insurance premium cost-subsidy. In a Swiss region without universal dental care insurance coverage, prevalence of forgoing dental care for economic reasons was high and highly dependent on income. Efforts should be made to prevent high-risk populations from forgoing dental care.

  11. The six-year outcome of alcohol use disorders in men: A population based study from India.

    PubMed

    Nadkarni, Abhijit; Weiss, Helen A; Naik, Aresh; Bhat, Bhargav; Patel, Vikram

    2016-05-01

    Despite the large and growing public health problem of alcohol use disorders (AUD) in India there is a dearth of evidence about the longitudinal outcomes in AUD. The aim of this study is to describe the course and outcomes of AUD in a population based sample of men in India. A community cohort of 1899 adult (18-49 years at baseline) men who participated in a cross-sectional survey in Goa, India between 2006 and 08, were re-interviewed face to face 6 years later (2012-14). A range of outcomes including social problems (e.g., workplace problems, domestic violence), morbidity (e.g., range of physical and mental health problems), biological parameters (e.g., mean corpuscular volume [MCV], gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase [GGT]) and mortality were measured at follow up. For the association of AUD at baseline with outcomes at follow-up, multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR). Analyses were weighted to account for baseline sampling design, age distribution, rural and urban sample sizes, number of adults aged 18-49 years in the household (at baseline), and non-response (at baseline). 1514 (79.7%) were seen at follow-up; a loss to follow up of 20.3%. At follow up, 3.7% of baseline non-drinkers and 15.0% of baseline casual drinkers had AUD. 46.9% of baseline hazardous drinkers and 55.4% baseline harmful drinkers continued to have AUD at follow up. Of those with AUD at baseline, 21.8% had stopped drinking at follow-up. Compared to being abstinent, harmful drinking at baseline was associated with several outcomes at follow-up: workplace/social problems, hypertension, death, tobacco use, suicidality, anxiety disorders, and raised GGT (p<0.002). Hazardous drinking at baseline was associated with tobacco use and raised GGT and MCV (p<0.002) at follow-up. Our findings of high persistent and new AUD in the community and the association with a range of long term adverse events are an important addition to the limited evidence about the course and

  12. Poor sleep in relation to natural menopause: a population-based 14-year follow-up of midlife women.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Ellen W; Sammel, Mary D; Gross, Stephanie A; Pien, Grace W

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to estimate the prevalence and predictors of moderate/severe poor sleep in relation to the final menstrual period (FMP) in midlife women. Annual assessments were conducted in a population-based cohort of 255 women. All were premenopausal at cohort enrollment and reached natural menopause during the 16-year follow-up. The outcome measure was severity of poor sleep, as reported by participants in annual interviews for 16 years and as evaluated in relation to the FMP. The annual prevalence of moderate/severe poor sleep largely ranged from about 28% to 35%, with no significant differences in any year relative to the FMP for the sample overall. When sleep status was stratified at premenopausal baseline, premenopausal sleep status strongly predicted poor sleep around the FMP. Women with moderate/severe poor sleep in premenopause were approximately 3.5 times more likely to have moderate/severe poor sleep around menopause than those with no poor sleep at baseline in adjusted analysis (odds ratio, 3.58; 95% CI, 2.50-5.11; P < 0.0001), whereas mild poor sleepers in premenopause were approximately 1.5 times more likely to have moderate/severe poor sleep around menopause (odds ratio, 1.57; 95% CI, 0.99-2.47; P = 0.053). There was no significant association between poor sleep and time relative to the FMP among women who had no poor sleep at premenopausal baseline. Hot flashes were significantly associated with poor sleep (odds ratio, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.44-2.21; P < 0.0001 in adjusted analysis) but had no interaction with baseline sleep severity (interaction P = 0.25), indicating that hot flashes contributed to poor sleep regardless of baseline sleep status. Findings show a high prevalence of moderate/severe poor sleep in midlife women, with only a small "at-risk" subgroup having a significant increase in poor sleep in relation to the FMP. Sleep status at premenopausal baseline and concurrent hot flashes strongly and consistently predict poor sleep in the menopausal

  13. The six-year outcome of alcohol use disorders in men: A population based study from India

    PubMed Central

    Nadkarni, Abhijit; Weiss, Helen A.; Naik, Aresh; Bhat, Bhargav; Patel, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the large and growing public health problem of alcohol use disorders (AUD) in India there is a dearth of evidence about the longitudinal outcomes in AUD. The aim of this study is to describe the course and outcomes of AUD in a population based sample of men in India. Methods A community cohort of 1899 adult (18–49 years at baseline) men who participated in a cross-sectional survey in Goa, India between 2006 and 08, were re-interviewed face to face 6 years later (2012–14). A range of outcomes including social problems (e.g., workplace problems, domestic violence), morbidity (e.g., range of physical and mental health problems), biological parameters (e.g., mean corpuscular volume [MCV], gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase [GGT]) and mortality were measured at follow up. For the association of AUD at baseline with outcomes at follow-up, multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR). Analyses were weighted to account for baseline sampling design, age distribution, rural and urban sample sizes, number of adults aged 18–49 years in the household (at baseline), and non-response (at baseline). Results 1514 (79.7%) were seen at follow-up; a loss to follow up of 20.3%. At follow up, 3.7% of baseline non-drinkers and 15.0% of baseline casual drinkers had AUD. 46.9% of baseline hazardous drinkers and 55.4% baseline harmful drinkers continued to have AUD at follow up. Of those with AUD at baseline, 21.8% had stopped drinking at follow-up. Compared to being abstinent, harmful drinking at baseline was associated with several outcomes at follow-up: workplace/social problems, hypertension, death, tobacco use, suicidality, anxiety disorders, and raised GGT (p < 0.002). Hazardous drinking at baseline was associated with tobacco use and raised GGT and MCV (p < 0.002) at follow-up. Conclusion Our findings of high persistent and new AUD in the community and the association with a range of long term adverse events are an important addition

  14. The changing landscape of antiviral treatment of herpes zoster: a 17-year population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, Kevin J; Alessi-Severini, Silvia; Chateau, Dan; Falk, Jamie; Bugden, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    Background Herpes zoster (HZ) is a common viral disease that produces a painful vesicular rash. Early use of antiviral medications is recommended, as it reduces pain and speeds healing. A population-based observational study was conducted to evaluate the changing burden of HZ in the province of Manitoba (Canada) over a period of 17 years. Methods Administrative health care data including medical and hospital records were examined, and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification and International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification codes were used to identify episodes of HZ between April 1, 1997 and March 31, 2014 in persons aged 20 or over. Annual age-adjusted incidence and hospitalization rates were calculated. Prescription records of HZ-diagnosed persons for acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir were used to calculate the rates and costs of antiviral treatment. Results There were 73,893 identified cases of HZ and 1,245 HZ-related hospitalizations between 1997 and 2013. Of these episodes, 42,270 (57.2%) were treated with antiviral medications at a total cost of $4,708,065 (CAD). The age-adjusted incidence of HZ rose from 4.67/1,000 person years in 1997/1998 to 5.67/1,000 person years in 2013/2014, a 21.9% increase. Antiviral treatment rates increased from 41.7% to 66.2% of all diagnosed episodes. Mean treatment costs per episode dropped from $127.29 in 1997/1998 to $56.06 in 2013/2014, primarily due to the introduction of generic antiviral medications. The total cost of antiviral treatment peaked in 2005/2006 at $329,935 and dropped steadily thereafter to $223,973 in 2013/2014. HZ-related hospitalization rates decreased from 3.1% to 0.9%. Conclusion While both the incidence of HZ and the rates of antiviral treatment have risen substantially, the economic burden from antiviral treatment has been decreasing since a peak in 2005/2006 and was only 3.2% higher in 2013/2014 than in 1997/1998. This drop

  15. Gastric cancer burden of last 40 years in North China (Hebei Province): A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Liang, Di; Liang, Suoyuan; Jin, Jing; Li, Daojuan; Shi, Jin; He, Yutong

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in China. It is well known that Cixian in Hebei Province is one of the highest risk areas of GC in China and worldwide. This study aims to accurate assessment of GC burden and trend in high-risk area (Hebei Province) from 1973 to 2013. The authors analyzed GC data from 21 population-based cancer registries which represented 15.25% of the entire population of Hebei Province. The collected data were stratified by 5-year age groups, gender, and area. Mortality of GC was extracted from national death surveys from 1973 to 1975, 1990 to 1992, 2004 to 2005, and 2011 to 2013. Trend analysis (1988-2013) in a high-risk area (Cixian) used the Joinpoint Model. The age-period-cohort model was used to estimate the effects of age, period, and birth cohort in GC incidence in Cixian from 1988 to 2013. The crude incidence of GC in 2011 to 2013 was 40.37/100,000 (57.53/100,000 in males and 22.55/100,000 in females). The corresponding age-standardized rate by world age-standard population was 32.18/100,000 (48.87/100,000 in males and 17.53/100,000 in females), which was 2.66-fold (2.81-fold in male and 2.34-fold in female) higher than that in the world (12.1/100,000, 17.4/100,000 in males and 7.5/100,000 in females). Males in rural areas had the highest incidence, with an age-standardized rate of 70.51/100,000. Gastric cardia cancer was primary anatomical subsite which accounting for 59.59% in GC, followed by gastric corpus (13.92%), gastric antrum (11.43%), gastric fundus (4.99%), and overlapping lesion of gastric (4.17%). The age-standardized rate of mortality from GC displayed a significant downward trend (P = 0.019) in Hebei Province from the 1990s (31.44/100,000) to the 2010s (24.63/100,000). In Cixian, the incidence of GC rose from 1988 (38.25/100,000) to 2009 (65.11/100,000). Cixian, where population-based screening of upper gastrointestinal cancer was performed, experienced the increasing rate of GC from 2000

  16. Should Women Younger Than 40 Years of Age With Invasive Breast Cancer Have a Mastectomy?: 15-Year Outcomes in a Population-Based Cohort

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Jeffrey Q.; Truong, Pauline T.; Olivotto, Ivo A.; Olson, Robert; Coulombe, Genevieve; Keyes, Mira; Weir, Lorna; Gelmon, Karen; Bernstein, Vanessa; Woods, Ryan; Speers, Caroline; Tyldesley, Scott

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Optimal local management for young women with early-stage breast cancer remains controversial. This study examined 15-year outcomes among women younger than 40 years treated with breast-conserving surgery plus whole-breast radiation therapy (BCT) compared with those treated with modified radical mastectomy (MRM). Methods and Materials: Women aged 20 to 39 years with early-stage breast cancer diagnosed between 1989 and 2003 were identified in a population-based database. Primary outcomes of breast cancer–specific survival (BCSS), overall survival (OS) and secondary outcomes of local relapse–free survival (LRFS), locoregional relapse–free survival (LRRFS), and distant relapse–free survival (DRFS) were calculated using Kaplan-Meier methods and compared between BCT and MRM cohorts using log-rank tests. A planned subgroup analysis was performed on patients considered “ideal” for BCT (ie, T1N0, negative margins and no extensive ductal carcinoma in situ) and in whom local therapy may have the largest impact on survival because of low systemic risk. Results: 965 patients were identified; 616 had BCT and 349 had MRM. The median follow-up time was 14.4 years (range, 8.4-23.3 years). Overall, 15-year rates of BCSS (76.0% vs 74.1%, P=.62), OS (74.2% vs 73.0%, P=.75), LRFS (85.4% vs 86.5%, P=.95), LRRFS (82.2% vs 81.6%, P=.61), and DRFS (74.4% vs 71.6%, P=.40) were similar between the BCT and MRM cohorts. In the “ideal” for BCT subgroup, there were 219 BCT and 67 MRM patients with a median follow-up time of 15.5 years. The 15-year BCSS (86.1% vs 82.9%, P=.57), OS (82.6% vs 82.9%, P=.89), LRFS (86.2% vs 84.2%, P=.50), LRRFS (83.1% vs 78.3%, P=.24), and DRFS (84.8% vs 79.1%, P=.17) were similar in the BCT and MRM cohorts. Conclusions: This population-based analysis with long-term follow-up confirmed that women younger than 40 years treated with BCT had similar 15-year outcomes compared with MRM. Young age alone is not a contraindication to BCT.

  17. Trajectories of maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression. A 13-year longitudinal study of a population-based sample

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is a lack of population-based studies of developmental trajectories following mothers throughout the whole child-rearing phase and there are few longitudinal studies focusing on both symptoms of depression and anxiety. The aim of the current study is to identify latent trajectory groups based on counts of symptoms of anxiety and depression among mothers throughout the child-rearing phase and the relations of the latent groups to maternal socio-demographic variables. Methods Data is from a prospective, longitudinal study of nearly 1000 families in Norway followed from when the index children were 18 months until they were 14.5 years old (the TOPP study). The study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to identify latent groups of mothers with distinct trajectories across time of symptom counts. Latent group differences on socio-demographic variables were tested with one-way ANOVAs, chi-square tests and exact tests. Results Six trajectories based on maternal scores from six waves of data collection of symptoms of anxiety and depression were identified; a 'No symptoms' group with mothers without symptoms; a 'Low' group with mothers reporting low symptom levels; a 'Moderate-low' group with mothers reporting moderately low symptom levels; a 'Moderate' group with mothers with moderate symptoms; a 'High-chronic' group with mothers with overall high symptom levels; and a 'Low-rising' group with mothers starting with a low symptom level that increased over time. The mothers in the High-chronic symptom group differed from the other mothers on several socio-demographic variables. They were significantly younger than the mothers in the Low group comprising the oldest mothers. The mothers in the High-chronic group had significantly lower education, were less likely to have paid work and were less likely to be living with a partner than the mothers in the other groups. Conclusions The study shows socio-demographic differences between mothers classified into six

  18. Trajectories of maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression. A 13-year longitudinal study of a population-based sample.

    PubMed

    Skipstein, Anni; Janson, Harald; Stoolmiller, Mike; Mathiesen, Kristin S

    2010-10-06

    There is a lack of population-based studies of developmental trajectories following mothers throughout the whole child-rearing phase and there are few longitudinal studies focusing on both symptoms of depression and anxiety. The aim of the current study is to identify latent trajectory groups based on counts of symptoms of anxiety and depression among mothers throughout the child-rearing phase and the relations of the latent groups to maternal socio-demographic variables. Data is from a prospective, longitudinal study of nearly 1000 families in Norway followed from when the index children were 18 months until they were 14.5 years old (the TOPP study). The study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to identify latent groups of mothers with distinct trajectories across time of symptom counts. Latent group differences on socio-demographic variables were tested with one-way ANOVAs, chi-square tests and exact tests. Six trajectories based on maternal scores from six waves of data collection of symptoms of anxiety and depression were identified; a 'No symptoms' group with mothers without symptoms; a 'Low' group with mothers reporting low symptom levels; a 'Moderate-low' group with mothers reporting moderately low symptom levels; a 'Moderate' group with mothers with moderate symptoms; a 'High-chronic' group with mothers with overall high symptom levels; and a 'Low-rising' group with mothers starting with a low symptom level that increased over time. The mothers in the High-chronic symptom group differed from the other mothers on several socio-demographic variables. They were significantly younger than the mothers in the Low group comprising the oldest mothers. The mothers in the High-chronic group had significantly lower education, were less likely to have paid work and were less likely to be living with a partner than the mothers in the other groups. The study shows socio-demographic differences between mothers classified into six trajectory groups based on symptoms of

  19. Risk factors of Non-fatal Unintentional Home Injuries among Children under 5 Years Old; a Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Nouhjah, Sedigheh; R. Niakan Kalhori, Sharareh; Saki, Azadeh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In addition to the annual mortality rate, unintentional home injury may result in temporary or permanent disability and requires medical attention and continuous care in millions of children. This study aimed to explore features and risk factors of these injuries. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, demographic variables and epidemiologic pattern of home injuries among children under 5 years of age were collected via a population-based survey in seven main cities of Khuzestan province, southwest Iran, during September 2011 to December 2012. Developing a risk stratification model, independent risk factors of unintentional home injury were determined and put to multivariate logistic regression analysis. Result: 2693 children with the mean age of 27.36 ± 15.55 months (1 to 60) were evaluated (50.9% boy). 827 (30.7%) cases had a history of at least one home injury occurrence since birth to study time. The most common injury mechanisms were burning with 291 (38.4%) cases, falling with 214 (28.3%) and poisoning with 66 (8.7%) cases, respectively. The independent risk factors of unintentional home injury were age ≥ 24 month (p<0.001), residency in Ahvaz city (p<0.001), mother’s illiteracy (p<0.014), ethnicity (p<0.001), private housing (p=0.01), birth weight (p<0.001), and being the first child (p=0. 01). Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the ROC curve of the model designed by multivariate analysis were 53.5%, 84.8%, and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.73- 0.77; P < 0.001, figure 1), respectively. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, 30.7% of the studied children were injured at least once since birth. Burning, falling, poisoning, swallowing objects, choking, and biting were the main home injury mechanisms. Age ≥ 24 months, being the first child, living in a private house, being a resident of Ahvaz city, and having an illiterate mother were found to be risk factors of home injury. PMID:28286813

  20. Prostate cancer screening in men aged 50-69 years (STHLM3): a prospective population-based diagnostic study.

    PubMed

    Grönberg, Henrik; Adolfsson, Jan; Aly, Markus; Nordström, Tobias; Wiklund, Peter; Brandberg, Yvonne; Thompson, James; Wiklund, Fredrik; Lindberg, Johan; Clements, Mark; Egevad, Lars; Eklund, Martin

    2015-12-01

    The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test is used to screen for prostate cancer but has a high false-positive rate that translates into unnecessary prostate biopsies and overdiagnosis of low-risk prostate cancers. We aimed to develop and validate a model to identify high-risk prostate cancer (with a Gleason score of at least 7) with better test characteristics than that provided by PSA screening alone. The Stockholm 3 (STHLM3) study is a prospective, population-based, paired, screen-positive, diagnostic study of men without prostate cancer aged 50-69 years randomly invited by date of birth from the Swedish Population Register kept by the Swedish Tax Agency. Men with prostate cancer at enrolment were excluded from the study. The predefined STHLM3 model (a combination of plasma protein biomarkers [PSA, free PSA, intact PSA, hK2, MSMB, MIC1], genetic polymorphisms [232 SNPs], and clinical variables [age, family, history, previous prostate biopsy, prostate exam]), and PSA concentration were both tested in all participants enrolled. The primary aim was to increase the specificity compared with PSA without decreasing the sensitivity to diagnose high-risk prostate cancer. The primary outcomes were number of detected high-risk cancers (sensitivity) and the number of performed prostate biopsies (specificity). The STHLM3 training cohort was used to train the STHLM3 model, which was prospectively tested in the STHLM3 validation cohort. Logistic regression was used to test for associations between biomarkers and clinical variables and prostate cancer with a Gleason score of at least 7. This study is registered with ISCRTN.com, number ISRCTN84445406. The STHLM3 model performed significantly better than PSA alone for detection of cancers with a Gleason score of at least 7 (p<0·0001), the area under the curve was 0·56 (95% CI 0·55-0·60) with PSA alone and 0·74 (95% CI 0·72-0·75) with the STHLM3 model. All variables used in the STHLM3 model were significantly associated with

  1. Trends of the Incidence of Ischemic Stroke Thrombolysis over Seven Years and One-Year Outcome: A Population-Based Study in Joinville, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Moro, Carla H.C.; Gonçalves, Anderson R.R.; Longo, Alexandre L.; Fonseca, Patricia G.; Harger, Rodrigo; Gomes, Débora B.; Ramos, Mariana C.; Estevam, Aline L.G.; Fissmer, Cristiane S.; Garcia, Adriana C.; Nagel, Vivian; Cabral, Norberto L.

    2013-01-01

    Background In a population-based setting, we aimed to measure the incidence trends of ischemic stroke (IS) thrombolysis, thrombolysis times, proportion of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH), 30-day case fatality and functional outcomes. We also compared the 12-month functional status between thrombolyzed and nonthrombolyzed patients. Methods Using data from the Joinville Population-Based Stroke Registry, we prospectively ascertained a cohort of all thrombolyses done in Joinville citizens, Southern Brazil, from 2005 to 2011. For the definition of sICH we used European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study (ECASS) II criteria. Results Over 7 years, 6% (220/3,552) of all IS were thrombolyzed. The thrombolysis incidence increased from 1.4 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.6-2.9] in 2005 to 9.8 (7.3-12.9) per 100,000 population in 2011 (p < 0.0001). The thrombolysis incidence age-adjusted to the world population in 2011 was 11 (8.2-14.3) per 100,000. Only 30% (50/165) were thrombolyzed within 1 h of arrival at hospital. In 7 days, 6.4% (14/220) had sICH and 57% (8/14) of those died. In the 2009-2011 period, a favorable functional outcome [modified Rankin scale (mRS) 0-1] at 12 months among patients who received thrombolysis was more frequent [mRS 0-1; 36% (38/107)] than among patients who did not receive thrombolysis [mRS 0-1; 24% (131/544); p = 0.016]. The logistic regression showed that thrombolyzed IS patients had a more favorable outcome (mRS 0-1; HR 2.13; 95% CI, 1.2-3.7; p < 0.016) than nonthrombolyzed patients. Conclusion In a population setting of a middle income country, the thrombolysis incidence and outcomes were similar to those of other well-structured services. After 1 year, patients thrombolyzed in the 4.5-hour time window had a better outcome. More than proportions, rates provide additional information and could be used to benchmark services against others. PMID:24570681

  2. Risk factors for vertebral and nonvertebral fracture over 10 years: a population-based study in women.

    PubMed

    Finigan, Judith; Greenfield, Diana M; Blumsohn, Aubrey; Hannon, Rosemary A; Peel, Nicola F; Jiang, Guirong; Eastell, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Risk factors may vary for different types of fracture, in particular for vertebral fractures. We followed 367 women >50 yr of age from a population-based cohort for up to 10 yr. Factors that predicted vertebral rather than nonvertebral fractures related to physical weakness, poor health, and weight loss. Similar factors were also associated with greater bone loss at the hip. Many risk factors predict fractures overall, but it is less clear whether certain factors relate to vertebral fractures in particular. The aim of this study was to compare the risk factors for vertebral and nonvertebral fractures. We carried out a 10-yr prospective population-based study of 375 women who were 50-85 yr of age initially. At baseline, we measured BMD, blood and urine biochemistry, and anthropometric measurements. Medical and lifestyle data were obtained by questionnaire. Incident vertebral fractures were determined for 311 subjects from spinal radiographs at 0, 2, 5, 7, and 10 yr using an algorithm-based qualitative method, and nonvertebral fractures were confirmed radiographically. Relative risks were calculated by Cox regression analysis. During follow-up, 70 subjects sustained one or more nonvertebral fractures and 29 sustained one or more vertebral fractures. Risk factors that predicted both types of fracture included increasing age, decreasing BMD at all sites, prevalent vertebral fracture, and shorter estrogen exposure. For nonvertebral fractures only, the risk factors included low urinary creatinine and less frequent use of stairs. The factors for vertebral fractures included lighter weight, reduced body fat, heavy smoking, lower serum calcium, albumin, and thyroid T(3), weak grip strength, and poor physical capability. In a multivariate model, weight, fat mass, serum calcium and T(3), prevalent vertebral fracture, and physical capability remained significant. Furthermore, grip strength, serum albumin, weight loss, and physical capability were associated with rate of bone

  3. Mental health indicators fifty years later: A population-based study of men with histories of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Easton, Scott D; Kong, Jooyoung

    2017-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a widely acknowledged trauma that affects a substantial number of boys/men and has the potential to undermine mental health across the lifespan. Despite the topic's importance, few studies have examined the long-term effects of CSA on mental health in middle and late life for men. Most empirical studies on the effects of CSA have been conducted with women, non-probability samples, and samples of young or emerging adults with inadequate control variables. Based on complex trauma theory, the current study investigated: a) the effect of CSA on mental health outcomes (depressive symptoms, somatic symptom severity, hostility) in late life for men, and b) the moderating effects of childhood adversities and masculine norms in the relationship between CSA and the three mental health outcomes. Using a population-based sample from the 2004-2005 Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, multivariate analyses found that CSA was positively related to both depressive and somatic symptoms and increased the likelihood of hostility for men who reported a history of CSA. Both childhood adversities and masculine norms were positively related to the three outcomes for the entire sample. Among CSA survivors, childhood adversities exerted a moderating effect in terms of depressive symptoms. Mental health practitioners should include CSA and childhood adversities in assessment and treatment with men. To more fully understand the effects of CSA, future studies are needed that use longitudinal designs, compare male and female survivors, and examine protective mechanisms such as social support.

  4. The Faroese IBD Study: Incidence of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Across 54 Years of Population-based Data

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Turid; Nielsen, Kári R.; Munkholm, Pia; Burisch, Johan; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Inflammatory bowel diseases [IBDs] include Crohn’s disease [CD], ulcerative colitis [UC], and IBD unclassified [IBDU]. In 2010 and 2011, the ECCO-EpiCom study found the worldwide highest incidence of inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] in the Faroe Islands: 83 per 100 000 [European Standard Population, ESP]. The present study assessed the long-term time trends in IBD incidence in the Faroese population. Methods: In this population-based study, data were retrieved from the National Hospital of the Faroe Islands and included all incident cases of CD, UC, and IBDU diagnosed between July 1960 and July 2014. Patients of all ages were included and diagnoses were defined according to the Copenhagen Diagnostic Criteria. Results: A total of 664 incident IBD patients were diagnosed: 113 with CD, 417 with UC, and 134 with IBDU. Of these, 51 [8%] were diagnosed with paediatric-onset IBD. Between 1960 and 1979, a total of 55 persons were diagnosed; 105 in 1980–89; 166 in 1990–99; 180 in 2000–09; and 158 in 2010–14. This represented an increase in the age-standardised IBD incidence rate from 7, 25, 40, and 42 to 74 per 100 000 [ESP]. For CD, the increase was from 1 to 10, for UC from 4 to 44, and for IBDU from 2 to 21 per 100 000 [ESP]. Conclusions: The high IBD incidence was found to be a relatively new phenomenon. The observed increase is unlikely to be an artefact resulting from, for instance, better registration. Our study indicated a real and increasing disease burden resulting from changing—so far unidentified—exposures. PMID:26933031

  5. Primary prevention and risk factor reduction in coronary heart disease mortality among working aged men and women in eastern Finland over 40 years: population based observational study.

    PubMed

    Jousilahti, Pekka; Laatikainen, Tiina; Peltonen, Markku; Borodulin, Katja; Männistö, Satu; Jula, Antti; Salomaa, Veikko; Harald, Kennet; Puska, Pekka; Vartiainen, Erkki

    2016-03-01

    To estimate how much changes in the main risk factors of cardiovascular disease (smoking prevalence, serum cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure) can explain the reduction in coronary heart disease mortality observed among working aged men and women in eastern Finland. Population based observational study. Eastern Finland. 34,525 men and women aged 30-59 years who participated in the national FINRISK studies between 1972 and 2012. Change in main cardiovascular risk factors through population based primary prevention. Predicted and observed age standardised mortality due to coronary heart disease. Predicted change was estimated with a logistic regression model using risk factor data collected in nine consecutive, population based, risk factor surveys conducted every five years since 1972. Data on observed mortality were obtained from the National Causes of Death Register. During the 40 year study period, levels of the three major cardiovascular risk factors decreased except for a small increase in serum cholesterol levels between 2007 and 2012. From years 1969-1972 to 2012, coronary heart disease mortality decreased by 82% (from 643 to 118 deaths per 100,000 people) and 84% (114 to 17) among men and women aged 35-64 years, respectively. During the first 10 years of the study, changes in these three target risk factors contributed to nearly all of the observed mortality reduction. Since the mid-1980s, the observed reduction in mortality has been larger than predicted. In the last 10 years of the study, about two thirds (69% in men and 66% in women) of the reduction could be explained by changes in the three main risk factors, and the remaining third by other factors. Reductions in disease burden and mortality due to coronary heart disease can be achieved through the use of population based primary prevention programmes. Secondary prevention among high risk individuals and treatment of acute events of coronary heart disease could confer additional benefit

  6. [Epidemiology of homicides in Cali, Colombia, 1993-1998: six years of a population-based model].

    PubMed

    Concha-Eastman, Alberto; Espitia, Victoria E; Espinosa, Rafael; Guerrero, Rodrigo

    2002-10-01

    the benefits of a population-based surveillance model are discussed, particularly their usefulness for identifying risk factors and the measures that can be applied to prevent and control this form of violence.

  7. The prevalence of food allergy and other allergic diseases in early childhood in a population-based study: HealthNuts age 4-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Peters, Rachel L; Koplin, Jennifer J; Gurrin, Lyle C; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Wake, Melissa; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Tang, Mimi L K; Lowe, Adrian J; Matheson, Melanie; Dwyer, Terence; Allen, Katrina J

    2017-07-01

    The HealthNuts study previously reported interim prevalence data showing the highest prevalence of challenge-confirmed food allergy in infants internationally. However, population-derived prevalence data on challenge-confirmed food allergy and other allergic diseases in preschool-aged children remain sparse. This study aimed to report the updated prevalence of food allergy at age 1 year from the whole cohort, and to report the prevalence of food allergy, asthma, eczema, and allergic rhinitis at age 4 years. HealthNuts is a population-based cohort study with baseline recruitment of 5276 one-year-old children who underwent skin prick test (SPT) to 4 food allergens and those with detectable SPT results had formal food challenges. At age 4 years, parents completed a questionnaire (81.3% completed) and those who previously attended the HealthNuts clinic at age 1 year or reported symptoms of a new food allergy were invited for an assessment that included SPT and oral food challenges. Data on asthma, eczema, and allergic rhinitis were captured by validated International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaires. The prevalence of challenge-confirmed food allergy at age 1 and 4 years was 11.0% and 3.8%, respectively. At age 4 years, peanut allergy prevalence was 1.9% (95% CI, 1.6% to 2.3%), egg allergy was 1.2% (95% CI, 0.9% to 1.6%), and sesame allergy was 0.4% (95% CI, 0.3% to 0.6%). Late-onset peanut allergy at age 4 years was rare (0.2%). The prevalence of current asthma was 10.8% (95% CI, 9.7% to 12.1%), current eczema was 16.0% (95% CI, 14.7% to 17.4%), and current allergic rhinitis was 8.3% (95% CI, 7.2% to 9.4%). Forty percent to 50% of this population-based cohort experienced symptoms of an allergic disease in the first 4 years of their life. Although the prevalence of food allergy decreased between age 1 year and age 4 years in this population-based cohort, the prevalence of any allergic disease among 4-year-old children in Melbourne

  8. A population-based examination of the role of years of education, age of onset, and sex on the course of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Levine, Stephen Z; Rabinowitz, Jonathan

    2009-06-30

    This article examines how premorbid years of education and age of onset relate to the course of schizophrenia in a population-based cohort. All first and subsequent cases who were hospitalized with schizophrenia (1988-92, followed up until 1996) and completed their formal education at least 1 year before hospitalization (n=2135) were extracted from the Israeli National Psychiatric Hospitalization Registry. Results, based on hierarchical moderated regression models showed that age of onset predicted the course with greater consistency and magnitude than years of education. Years of education predicted the age of first hospitalization among males. Years of education and age of first hospitalization significantly interacted to predict the length of first stay and average number of days hospitalized over the course for males. The interaction showed that for males less education predicted poorer hospitalization outcomes if an earlier onset occurred. Together, the results suggest that less educated, early onset males are at higher risk of a poorer course.

  9. Healthcare costs associated with language difficulties up to 9 years of age: Australian population-based study.

    PubMed

    Sciberras, Emma; Westrupp, Elizabeth M; Wake, Melissa; Nicholson, Jan M; Lucas, Nina; Mensah, Fiona; Gold, Lisa; Reilly, Sheena

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to quantify the non-hospital healthcare costs associated with language difficulties within two nationally representative samples of children. Data were from three biennial waves (2004-2008) of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (B cohort: 0-5 years; K cohort: 4-9 years). Language difficulties were defined as scores ≤ 1.25 SD below the mean on measures of parent-reported communication (0-3 years) and directly assessed vocabulary (4-9 years). Participant data were linked to administrative data on non-hospital healthcare attendances and prescription medications from the universal Australian Medicare subsidized healthcare scheme. It was found that healthcare costs over each 2-year age band were higher for children with than without language difficulties at 0-1, 2-3, and 4-5 years, notably 36% higher (mean difference = $AU206, 95% CI = $90, $321) at 4-5 years (B cohort). The slightly higher 2-year healthcare costs for children with language difficulties at 6-7 and 8-9 years were not statistically different from those without language difficulties. Modelled to the corresponding Australian child population, 2-year government costs ranged from $AU1.2-$AU12.1 million (depending on age examined). Six-year healthcare costs increased with the persistence of language difficulties in the K cohort, with total Medicare costs increasing by $192 (95% CI = $74, $311; p = .002) for each additional wave of language difficulties. Language difficulties (whether transient or persistent) were associated with substantial excess population healthcare costs in childhood, which are in addition to the known broader costs incurred through the education system. It is unclear whether healthcare costs were specifically due to the assessment and/or treatment of language difficulties, as opposed to conditions that may be co-morbid with or may cause language difficulties.

  10. Has Asthma Medication Use Caught Up With the Evidence?: A 12-Year Population-Based Study of Trends.

    PubMed

    Sadatsafavi, Mohsen; Tavakoli, Hamid; Lynd, Larry; FitzGerald, J Mark

    2017-03-01

    The importance of balance between controller and reliever medications in asthma is recognized. However, to our knowledge, the extent to which real-world practice has caught up with evidence-based guidelines has not been studied. This was a retrospective cohort study of individuals 15 to 67 years of age who satisfied a validated case definition of asthma in the administrative health database of British Columbia, Canada between 2002 and 2013. Each patient-year was assessed for inappropriate and excessive prescription of short-acting beta-agonists (SABAs) and the balance between controller and reliever medications. Trends on three time axes were evaluated: calendar time, time course of asthma, and age. Poisson regression was used to test for a linear trend. Three hundred fifty-six thousand, one hundred twelve patients (56.5% female sex; mean age, 30.5 years) contributed 2.6 million patient-years. In 7.3% of the patient-years, SABAs were prescribed inappropriately. This proportion dropped by a relative rate of 5.3% per year (P < .001). In the first year of asthma, 6.3% of patients had indicators of inappropriate SABA use, which dropped within the first 3 years but increased thereafter. Excessive prescription of SABAs increased rapidly during the time course of asthma (change of 23.3% per year; P < .001) and by age (change of 5.1% per year; P < .001). Despite overwhelming evidence regarding the risks, inappropriate prescription for SABAs was prevalent. Excessive SABA use might explain high asthma mortality in older patients. Inappropriate prescriptions declined over the study period but increased over the time course of asthma. These trends might have contributed to the declining asthma hospitalization rates in British Columbia, but there remain gaps in care and potential for improvement in asthma outcomes. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. How Many Patients Become Functionally Dependent after a Stroke? A 3-Year Population-Based Study in Joinville, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pontes-Neto, Octávio Marques; Mazin, Suleimy Cristina; dos Reis, Felipe Ibiapina

    2017-01-01

    The decrease in stroke mortality will increase the burden of survivors with functional dependence (FD). The aim of this study was to evaluate how many patients become functionally dependent over 3 years after an incident event in Joinville, Brazil. The proportion of FD (defined as a modified Rankin score 3 to 5) among stroke survivors from the Joinville Stroke Registry was assessed using a validated telephone interview. Incidence of FD after stroke in Joinville in one year was 23.24 per 100,000 population. The overall proportion of FD among stroke survivors at discharge was 32.7%. Of 303 patients with first-ever ischaemic stroke (IS), one-third were FD at discharge, and 12%, 9% and 8%, respectively at 1, 2 and 3 years. Among 37 patients with haemorrhagic stroke (HS), 38% were dependent at discharge, 16% after 1 and 2 years and 14% after 3. Among 27 patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), 19% were dependent at discharge and 4% from 1 to 3 years. Among IS subtypes, cardioembolic ones had the worst risk of FD. (RR 19.8; 95% CI: 2.2 to 175.9). Our results showed that one-third of stroke survivors have FD during the first year after stroke in Brazil. Therefore, a city with half a million people might expect 120 new stroke patients with FD each year. PMID:28107401

  12. Epidemiology of gout and hyperuricaemia in Italy during the years 2005-2009: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Trifirò, Gianluca; Morabito, Paolo; Cavagna, Lorenzo; Ferrajolo, Carmen; Pecchioli, Serena; Simonetti, Monica; Bianchini, Elisa; Medea, Gerardo; Cricelli, Claudio; Caputi, Achille P; Mazzaglia, Giampiero

    2013-05-01

    To assess the epidemiology of gout and hyperuricaemia in the Italian general population during the years 2005-2009. Using the Italian primary care database (Health Search/CSD Longitudinal Patient Database), the prevalence, incidence and recurrence rates of gout and/or hyperuricaemia (serum urate level >360 mmol/l (6 mg/dl)) in outpatients aged ≥18 years during the years 2005-2009 were estimated. Rates together with 95% CI were measured overall and stratified by age, gender and calendar year. The characteristics of patients with newly diagnosed gout and hyperuricaemia were investigated and compared with the general population. The prevalence of gout increased from 6.7 per 1000 inhabitants in 2005 to 9.1 per 1000 inhabitants in 2009. It increased with advancing age and was fourfold higher in men. A similar trend was observed for asymptomatic hyperuricaemia (85.4 per 1000 inhabitants in 2005 vs 119.3 per 1000 inhabitants in 2009). The incidence of gout remained stable during the observation years (0.93 per 1000 person years in 2005 vs 0.95 in 2009). Recurrent episode rate was 19.1% during the first year following the first gout attack and 31.6% during the following 5 years. Advanced age, increased levels of uric acid, nephrolithiasis and concomitant use of ciclosporin were the main predictors of recurrence of gout attacks. The prevalence of gout and hyperuricaemia increased in Italy from 2005 to 2009. A high recurrence rate for gout attack was observed during the first year following the first episode. Early management of hyperuricaemia in patients at higher risk of recurrent gout attack should be considered in primary care.

  13. Unemployment Risk and Decreased Income Two and Four Years After Thyroid Cancer Diagnosis: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Ratzon, Navah Z; Uziely, Beatrice; de Boer, Angela G E M; Rottenberg, Yakir

    2016-09-01

    Thyroid cancer (TC) often occurs in relatively young patients and has a high cure rate. However, decreased psychological and physical well-being may reduce the work capability of patients with TC. This study aimed to compare the risk for unemployment and decreased income in TC survivors with a matched non-cancer group at two and four years after diagnosis. The study also aimed to predict unemployment and income changes at two and four years after diagnosis. A historical prospective study design was used, with cohort inception and baseline measurements drawn from the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics 1995 National Census, with follow-up until 2011. Cancer incidence was obtained from the Israel Cancer Registry, and employment status from the Tax Authority. A matched group was sampled from the census population. Binary logistic regression analyses were used to assess odds ratios (OR) for the study outcomes, controlled for age, sex, ethnicity, education years, socioeconomic position, and employment status at two years before diagnosis. In total, 417 cases of TC and 1277 non-cancer matched subjects were included in the study. People who died during the study period were excluded. The mean age at the time of cancer diagnosis was 43.5 years in the TC group and 43.8 years in the control group (p = 0.6). After adjusting for potential confounders, a positive association was found between TC and risk of unemployment two years after diagnosis (OR = 1.46 [confidence interval (CI) 1.09-1.95]), and decreased income two years after diagnosis (OR = 1.61 [CI 1.23-2.01]) and four years after diagnosis (OR = 1.63 [CI 1.25-2.13]). The association between TC and unemployment at four years after diagnosis weakened and lost significance (OR = 1.30 [CI 0.98-1.72]). TC survivorship was associated with unemployment at two years and decreased income at two and four years after diagnosis. Decreased income may be a marker for a shift to part-time work rather than a return

  14. Elaboration on the association between immigration and schizophrenia: a population-based national study disaggregating annual trends, country of origin and sex over 15 years.

    PubMed

    Werbeloff, Nomi; Levine, Stephen Z; Rabinowitz, Jonathan

    2012-02-01

    Generally, immigrant status and male sex are separately documented to increase the risk of schizophrenia; although population-based risk trends by sex and immigration over time have not been examined. This study aims to examine the extent to which immigration acts as a risk factor for schizophrenia, delineated by origin, sex and year, using national population-based data over 15 years. Data on all first psychiatric admissions from 1978 to 1992 (n = 10,892) from the National Psychiatric Hospitalization Case Registry of the State of Israel were merged with aggregate national data from the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics. Compared to native-born Israelis, people who migrated prior to the age of 15 (n = 2,335) were at a greater risk of schizophrenia (n = 8,557; RR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.53; 1.68), particularly those from Far Eastern (RR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.91; 3.1) and Caribbean and South American (RR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.51; 2.51) countries. Aggregate risk was higher among female than male immigrants and over the 15-year study immigration-related risk declined across the sexes. The current findings replicate past research showing that immigrants, particularly from a social minority, as suggested by the social defeat-hypothesis, are at an increased risk of schizophrenia, and extend past findings to show that risk at least in Israel has decreased with time irrespective of sex.

  15. Sleep problems and depression in adolescence: results from a large population-based study of Norwegian adolescents aged 16-18 years.

    PubMed

    Sivertsen, Børge; Harvey, Allison G; Lundervold, Astri J; Hysing, Mari

    2014-08-01

    Both sleep problems and depression are common problems in adolescence, but well-defined large epidemiological studies on the relationship are missing in this age group. The aim of this study was to examine the association between depression and several sleep parameters, including insomnia, in a population-based study of adolescents aged 16-18 years, and to explore potential gender differences. A large population-based study in Hordaland County in Norway conducted in 2012, the ung@hordaland study, surveyed 10,220 adolescents aged 16-18 years (54% girls) about sleep and depression. The sleep assessment included measures of the basic sleep parameters for weekdays and weekends. Depression was defined as scoring above the 90th percentile on the total score of Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ). There was a large overlap between insomnia and depression in both genders and across depressive symptoms. Depressed adolescents exhibited significantly shorter sleep duration and time in bed as well as significantly longer sleep onset latency (SOL) and wake after sleep onset (WASO). Adolescents with insomnia had a 4- to 5-fold increased odds of depression compared to good sleepers. There was also a significant interaction between insomnia, sleep duration and depression, with a more than eightfold increase in odds of depression for those who met criteria for insomnia and who slept <6 h. These associations held for both genders, but were stronger in boys. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first population-based study to investigate sleep and insomnia in relation to depression among adolescents. The findings call for increased awareness of sleep problems and depression as a major public health issue.

  16. Employment and social benefits up to 10 years after breast cancer diagnosis: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Paalman, C H; van Leeuwen, F E; Aaronson, N K; de Boer, A G E M; van de Poll-Franse, L; Oldenburg, H S A; Schaapveld, M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about employment outcomes after breast cancer (BC) beyond the first years after treatment. Methods: Employment outcomes were compared with a general population comparison group (N=91 593) up to 10 years after BC for 26 120 patients, diagnosed before age 55 between 2000–2005, with income and social benefits data from Statistics Netherlands. Treatment effects were studied in 14 916 patients, with information on BC recurrences and new cancer events. Results: BC survivors experienced higher risk of losing paid employment (Hazard Ratio (HR): 1.6, 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) 1.4–1.8) or any work-related event up to 5–7 years (HR 1.5, 95% CI 1.3–1.6) and of receiving disability benefits up to 10 years after diagnosis (HR 2.0, 95% CI 1.6–2.5), with higher risks for younger patients. Axillary lymph node dissection increased risk of disability benefits (HR 1.5, 95% CI 1.4–1.7) or losing paid employment (HR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2–1.5) during the first 5 years of follow-up. Risk of disability benefits was increased among patients receiving mastectomy and radiotherapy (HR 1.2; 95% CI 1.1–1.3) and after chemotherapy (HR 1.7; 95% CI 1.5–1.9) during the first 5 years after diagnosis. Conclusions: BC treatment at least partly explains the increased risk of adverse employment outcomes up to 10 years after BC. PMID:26757424

  17. The Proportion of Women Who Have a Breast 4 Years after Breast Cancer Surgery: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Mennie, Joanna C; Mohanna, Pari-Naz; O'Donoghue, Joseph M; Rainsbury, Richard; Cromwell, David A

    2016-01-01

    There are numerous pathways in breast cancer treatment, many of which enable women to retain a breast after treatment. We evaluated the proportion of women who have a breast, either through conserving surgery (BCS) or reconstruction, at 4-years after diagnosis, and how this varied by patient group. We identified women with breast cancer who underwent initial BCS or mastectomy in English National Health Service (NHS) hospitals between January 2008 and December 2009 using the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) database. Women were assigned into one of four patient groups depending on their age at diagnosis and presence of comorbidities. The series of breast cancer procedure (BCS, mastectomy, immediate, or delayed reconstruction) undergone by each women was identified over four years, and the proportion of women with a breast calculated. Variation was examined across patient groups, and English Cancer Networks. Between 2008 and 2009, 60,959 women underwent BCS or mastectomy. The proportion with a breast at 4 years was 79.3%, and 64.0%, in women less than 70 years without, and with comorbidities. Whilst in women aged 70 and over without, and with comorbidities, proportions were 52.6%, and 38.2%, respectively. Comorbidities were associated with lower proportions of BCS, but had little effect on reconstruction rates unlike age. Networks variation of 15% or more was found within each patient group, and Cancer Networks tended to have either a high or low proportion across all four patient groups. However, while 14% of women under 70 years had undergone reconstruction, less than 2% of women aged 70 or more had this treatment option. The proportion of women diagnosed with breast cancer who retain a breast at 4 years is strongly associated with age, and presence of comorbidities. There was significant variation between Cancer Networks indicating that women's experience in England was dependent on their geographical location of treatment.

  18. Incidence and Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy During 17 Years of a Population-Based Screening Program in England

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Colin D.; Greenwood, Richard H.; Misra, Aseema; Bachmann, Max O.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the incidence of diabetic retinopathy in relation to retinopathy grade at first examination and other prognostic characteristics. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a dynamic cohort study of 20,686 people with type 2 diabetes who had annual retinal photography up to 14 times between 1990 and 2006. Cumulative and annual incidence rates were estimated using life tables, and risk factors for progression were identified using Cox regression analysis. RESULTS Of 20,686 patients without proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) or sight-threatening maculopathy at their first retinal examination (baseline), 16,444 (79%) did not have retinopathy, 3,632 (18%) had nonproliferative retinopathy, and 610 (2.9%) had preproliferative retinopathy. After 5 years, few patients without retinopathy at baseline developed preproliferative retinopathy (cumulative incidence 4.0%), sight-threatening maculopathy (0.59%), or PDR (0.68%); after 10 years, the respective cumulative incidences were 16.4, 1.2, and 1.5%. Among those with nonproliferative (background) retinopathy at baseline, after 1 year 23% developed preproliferative retinopathy, 5.2% developed maculopathy, and 6.1% developed PDR; after 10 years, the respective cumulative incidences were 53, 9.6, and 11%. Patients with nonproliferative retinopathy at baseline were five times more likely to develop preproliferative, PDR, or maculopathy than those without retinopathy at baseline (adjusted hazard ratio 5.0 [95% CI 4.4–5.6]). CONCLUSIONS Few patients without diabetic retinopathy at the initial screening examination developed preproliferative retinopathy, PDR, or sight-threatening maculopathy after 5–10 years of follow-up. Screening intervals longer than a year may be appropriate for such patients. PMID:22279031

  19. The Proportion of Women Who Have a Breast 4 Years after Breast Cancer Surgery: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Mennie, Joanna C.; Mohanna, Pari-Naz; O’Donoghue, Joseph M; Rainsbury, Richard; Cromwell, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Background There are numerous pathways in breast cancer treatment, many of which enable women to retain a breast after treatment. We evaluated the proportion of women who have a breast, either through conserving surgery (BCS) or reconstruction, at 4-years after diagnosis, and how this varied by patient group. Methods and Findings We identified women with breast cancer who underwent initial BCS or mastectomy in English National Health Service (NHS) hospitals between January 2008 and December 2009 using the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) database. Women were assigned into one of four patient groups depending on their age at diagnosis and presence of comorbidities. The series of breast cancer procedure (BCS, mastectomy, immediate, or delayed reconstruction) undergone by each women was identified over four years, and the proportion of women with a breast calculated. Variation was examined across patient groups, and English Cancer Networks. Between 2008 and 2009, 60,959 women underwent BCS or mastectomy. The proportion with a breast at 4 years was 79.3%, and 64.0%, in women less than 70 years without, and with comorbidities. Whilst in women aged 70 and over without, and with comorbidities, proportions were 52.6%, and 38.2%, respectively. Comorbidities were associated with lower proportions of BCS, but had little effect on reconstruction rates unlike age. Networks variation of 15% or more was found within each patient group, and Cancer Networks tended to have either a high or low proportion across all four patient groups. However, while 14% of women under 70 years had undergone reconstruction, less than 2% of women aged 70 or more had this treatment option. Conclusion The proportion of women diagnosed with breast cancer who retain a breast at 4 years is strongly associated with age, and presence of comorbidities. There was significant variation between Cancer Networks indicating that women’s experience in England was dependent on their geographical location of

  20. A population-based study of disability and institutionalisation after TIA and stroke: 10-year results of the Oxford Vascular Study

    PubMed Central

    Luengo-Fernandez, Ramon; Paul, Nicola L.M.; Gray, Alastair M.; Pendlebury, Sarah T.; Bull, Linda M.; Welch, Sarah J.V.; Cuthbertson, Fiona C.; Rothwell, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Long-term outcome information after TIA and stroke is required to help plan and allocate care services. We evaluated the impact of TIA and stroke on disability and institutionalisation over 5 years using data from a population-based study. Methods Patients from a UK population-based cohort study (Oxford Vascular Study) were recruited from 2002 to 2007, and followed-up to 2012. Patients were followed-up at 1, 6, 12, 24 and 60 months post-event and assessed using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). A multivariate regression analysis was performed to assess the predictors of disability post-event. Results 748 index stroke and 440 TIA cases were studied. For TIA patients, disability levels increased from 14% (63/440) pre-morbidly to 23% (60/256) at 5 years (p=0.002), with occurrence of subsequent stroke being a major predictor of disability. For stroke survivors, the proportion disabled (mRS>2) increased from 21% (154/748) pre-morbidly to 43% (273/634) at 1-month (p<0.001), with 39% (132/339) of survivors disabled 5 years post-stroke. 5 years post-event, 70% (483/690) of stroke patients and 48% (179/375) of TIA patients were either dead or disabled. The 5-year risk of care home institutionalisation was 11% after TIA and 19% after stroke. The average 5-year cost per institutionalised TIA patient was $99,831 (S.D. 67,020) and $125,359 (S.D. 91,121) for stroke patients. Conclusions Our results show that 70% of stroke patients are either dead or disabled 5 years after the event. There therefore remains considerable scope for improvements in acute treatment and secondary prevention to reduce post-event disability and institutionalisation. PMID:23920019

  1. Population-based study of disability and institutionalization after transient ischemic attack and stroke: 10-year results of the Oxford Vascular Study.

    PubMed

    Luengo-Fernandez, Ramon; Paul, Nicola L M; Gray, Alastair M; Pendlebury, Sarah T; Bull, Linda M; Welch, Sarah J V; Cuthbertson, Fiona C; Rothwell, Peter M

    2013-10-01

    Long-term outcome information after transient ischemic attack (TIA) and stroke is required to help plan and allocate care services. We evaluated the impact of TIA and stroke on disability and institutionalization over 5 years using data from a population-based study. Patients from a UK population-based cohort study (Oxford Vascular Study) were recruited from 2002 to 2007 and followed up to 2012. Patients were followed up at 1, 6, 12, 24, and 60 months postevent and assessed using the modified Rankin scale. A multivariate regression analysis was performed to assess the predictors of disability postevent. A total of 748 index stroke and 440 TIA cases were studied. For patients with TIA, disability levels increased from 14% (63 of 440) premorbidly to 23% (60 of 256) at 5 years (P=0.002), with occurrence of subsequent stroke being a major predictor of disability. For stroke survivors, the proportion disabled (modified Rankin scale >2) increased from 21% (154 of 748) premorbidly to 43% (273 of 634) at 1 month (P<0.001), with 39% (132 of 339) of survivors disabled 5 years after stroke. Five years postevent, 70% (483 of 690) of patients with stroke and 48% (179 of 375) of patients with TIA were either dead or disabled. The 5-year risk of care home institutionalization was 11% after TIA and 19% after stroke. The average 5-year cost per institutionalized patient was $99,831 (SD, 67 020) for TIA and $125,359 (SD, 91 121) for stroke. Our results show that 70% of patients with stroke are either dead or disabled 5 years after the event. Thus, there remains considerable scope for improvements in acute treatment and secondary prevention to reduce postevent disability and institutionalization.

  2. The incidence rates of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer: a four-year population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to determine the incidence rates of endometrial hyperplasia (EH) and endometrial cancer (EC) in the Republic of Korea using national insurance claim data generated from 2009 to 2012. Materials and Methods Data that were generated from 2009 to 2012 were sourced from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service-National Inpatients Sample database. The data from women who were assigned diagnosis codes representing EH or EC within 1 month of being assigned codes that corresponded to procedures that included endometrial biopsies and several types of gynecologic surgeries to obtain endometrial pathology samples, were selected for analysis. Results Data from 2,477,424 women were entered into the database between 2009 and 2012, and the data from 1,868 women with EH and 868 women with EC were extracted for analysis. The mean ages of the patients were 44.1 ± 0.4 years for those with EH and 52.7 ± 0.6 years for those with EC. The EH and EC incidence rates were 37 per 100,000 woman-years and 8 per 100,000 woman-years, respectively. The EH and EC incidence rates peaked when the women were in their late forties and fifties, respectively. Conclusions The EH and EC incidence rates determined in this study were somewhat lower than those determined from previous studies. Further studies are required that adjust the data for race, menopausal hormone therapy, and obesity. PMID:27635340

  3. Tetanus Immunity among Women Aged 15 to 39 Years in Cambodia: a National Population-Based Serosurvey, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Bunsoth; Buth, Sokhal; Wannemuehler, Kathleen A.; Sørensen, Charlotte; Kannarath, Chheng; Jenks, M. Harley; Moss, Delynn M.; Priest, Jeffrey W.; Soeung, Sann Chan; Deming, Michael S.; Lammie, Patrick J.; Gregory, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    To monitor progress toward maternal and neonatal tetanus elimination (MNTE) in Cambodia, we conducted a nationwide serosurvey of tetanus immunity in 2012. Multistage cluster sampling was used to select 2,154 women aged 15 to 39 years. Tetanus toxoid antibodies in serum samples were measured by gold-standard double-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAE) and a novel multiplex bead assay (MBA). Antibody concentrations of ≥0.01 IU/ml by DAE or the equivalent for MBA were considered seroprotective. Estimated tetanus seroprotection was 88% (95% confidence interval [CI], 86 to 89%); 64% (95% CI, 61 to 67%) of women had antibody levels of ≥1.0 IU/ml. Seroprotection was significantly lower (P < 0.001) among women aged 15 to 19 years (63%) and 20 to 24 years (87%) than among those aged ≥25 years (96%), among nulliparous women than among parous women (71 versus 97%), and among those living in the western region than among those living in other regions (82 versus 89%). The MBA showed high sensitivity (99% [95% CI, 98 to 99%]) and specificity (92% [95% CI, 88 to 95%]) compared with DAE. Findings were compatible with MNTE in Cambodia (≥80% protection). Tetanus immunity gaps should be addressed through strengthened routine immunization and targeted vaccination campaigns. Incorporating tetanus testing in national serosurveys using MBAs, which can measure immunity to multiple pathogens simultaneously, may be beneficial for monitoring MNTE. PMID:27053629

  4. Mortality and years of potential life loss in systemic lupus erythematosus: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lerang, K; Gilboe, I-M; Steinar Thelle, D; Gran, J T

    2014-12-01

    Multiple sources were used to identify 325 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients within the city of Oslo during 1999-2009 who met ≥ 4 of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. The survival, standard mortality rate (SMR), years of potential life loss before 60 years of age (YPLL60) and causes of death of these patients were examined and compared to a matched control population. Only inception cases (127) were studied in the calculation of survival. The analysis includes underlying, immediate and contributing causes of death. The five- and 10-year survival was 95% and 90%, respectively, which was significantly reduced when compared to the general population. A total of 50 SLE patients died during the study period. Overall SMR was 3.0 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.2-3.8) with the highest SMR found for female patients aged 16-39 years old. SLE patients had a 10 times higher rate of YPLL60 compared to the control group. YPLL emphasizes active disease and reduces the importance of cancer as a cause of death in SLE. This study demonstrates that YPLL gives additional and useful information for the prognosis of SLE, supplementing traditional methods of measuring mortality. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. Osteoporosis and the risk of symptomatic nephrolithiasis: a population-based 5-year follow-up study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ping-Song; Kuo, Chun-Nan; Hung, Kuo-Sheng; Chang, Wei-Chiao; Liao, Yu-Chien; Chi, Ying-Chen; Chou, Wei-Po; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Liu, Mu-En; Lai, Chiou-Lian; Chou, Yii-Her; Chang, Wei-Pin

    2014-10-01

    This study estimates the risk of symptomatic nephrolithiasis within 5 years of newly diagnosed osteoporosis in a Taiwan population. This cohort study consisted of patients with a diagnosis of osteoporosis between Jan. 2003 and Dec. 2005 (N = 1634). Four age- and gender- matched patients for every patient in the study cohort were selected using random sampling as the comparison cohort (N = 6536). All patients were tracked for 5 years from the date of cohort entry to identify whether they developed symptomatic nephrolithiasis. Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed to evaluate the 5-year nephrolithiasis-free survival rates. During the 5-year follow-up period, 60 osteoporosis patients (3.7%) and 165 non- osteoporosis patients (2.5%) developed symptomatic nephrolithiasis. The adjusted HR of symptomatic nephrolithiasis was 1.38 times greater risk for patients with osteoporosis than for the comparison cohort (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.86; P < .05). Osteoporosis is very likely to be an independent risk factor for subsequent diagnosis of symptomatic nephrolithiasis.

  6. Changing trends of surgical approaches for uterine prolapse: an 11-year population-based nationwide descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Ping; Long, Cheng-Yu; Huang, Kuan-Hui; Chu, Chin-Chen; Liang, Ching-Chung; Tang, Chao-Hsiun

    2012-07-01

    The interest of uterus-preserving surgery has been growing. Based on a nationwide database, we examined surgical procedures for uterine prolapse in Taiwan during the study period of 1997-2007, a total of 11 years. The operations, either uterine suspension or hysterectomy, due to the diagnosis of uterine prolapse were indentified into the study. Data on several parameters were collected for analysis, i.e., the surgical type, patient factors (age and concomitant anti-incontinence surgery), surgeon factors (age and gender), and hospital factors (accreditation level and ownership). Data of this study were obtained from the inpatient expenditures by admission files of the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). The NHIRD was established by the National Health Research Institute with the aim of promoting research into current and emerging medical issues in Taiwan. In total, 31,038 operations were identified for this study. There was a trend for increased use of uterine suspension with uterine preservation during the latter years, evidenced by joinpoint regression analyses. More women who were younger (<50 years) or had concomitant anti-incontinence surgery received uterine suspension. Younger surgeons (<50 years) and male surgeons tended to perform more uterine suspensions. As for hospital accreditation, more uterine suspension surgeries were performed in regional hospitals, followed by local hospitals and medical centers. As for hospital ownership, more uterine suspension surgeries were performed in private hospitals, followed by not-for-profit and government-owned hospitals. There has been a considerable change in the surgical approach for uterine prolapse in Taiwan over the past 11 years. Patient age and concomitant anti-incontinence surgery, surgeon age and gender, and hospital accreditation and ownership may correlate with the choice of surgery for women with uterine prolapse.

  7. Increase in sensitization to common airborne allergens among adults – two population-based studies 15 years apart

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies on time trends of allergic sensitization among adults are rare. The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence of allergic sensitization to common airborne allergens among adults 15 years apart and to identify risk factors for allergic sensitization. Methods Clinical examinations including skin prick test (SPT) and structured interviews were performed in two random population samples in 1994 and 2009. Furthermore, specific IgE was analyzed in 2009. SPT data were available for 483 subjects in 1994 and for 463 subjects in 2009 in ages 20–60 years. Specific IgE was analyzed in 692 subjects in ages 20–79 years. Results Sensitization to cat (16% to 26%, p < 0.001), dog (13% to 25%, p < 0.001), birch (13% to 18%, p = 0.031) and timothy (12% to 21%, p < 0.001), based on SPT, increased significantly from 1994 to 2009. Sensitization to any positive SPT increased from 35% to 39%, p = 0.13.The proportion of having ≥3 positive SPT reactions increased from 40% to 56%, p = 0.002. The sensitization pattern yielded similar results based on specific IgE. Risk factors for allergic sensitization were having a family history of allergy (OR 3.1, 95% CI 2.0-4.8 for any positive SPT; OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.8-4.0 for any elevated IgE) and urban living (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0-2.7; OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.4). Conclusions The prevalence of allergic sensitization to major airborne allergens as well as multi-sensitization increased significantly between the study years. Young age, a family history of allergy and urban living were significant risk factors for allergic sensitization. PMID:23758681

  8. Readmissions in Cancer Patients After Receiving Inpatient Palliative Care in Taiwan: A 9-Year Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsiao-Ting; Chen, Chun-Ku; Lin, Ming-Hwai; Chou, Pesus; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Hwang, Shinn-Jang

    2016-02-01

    Few studies have reported on readmissions among cancer patients receiving inpatient palliative care (IPC). This study investigated readmissions in cancer patients after their first discharge from IPC in Taiwan from 2002 to 2010.This study was a secondary data analysis using information from the National Health Insurance Database in Taiwan from 2002 to 2010. We included subjects ≥20 years old diagnosed with malignant neoplasms who were listed in the registry of catastrophic illness. Patients diagnosed with cancer before January 1, 2002 or who had ever been admitted to an inpatient hospice palliative care unit before the study period were excluded. Readmission was defined as hospital readmission at least once after discharge from first admission to IPC until mortality or the end of the study period.A total of 42,022 patients who met the inclusion criteria were identified. The majority of these patients were male (60.4%). The mean age of cancer diagnosis was 64.0 ± 14.4 years for men and 64.5 ± 14.7 years for women. The mean age at first hospice ward admission was 65.2 ± 14.2 years for men and 65.9 ± 14.9 years for women. During their first admission to IPC, 59.2% patients died, and the median stay of first IPC admission was 8.0 days. Among those discharged alive from their first admission to IPC, 64.9% were readmitted, and 19.4% of these patients were readmitted on the same day of discharge. From first IPC discharge until mortality, 54.8% of patients were readmitted once, 23.9% were readmitted twice, 9.9% were readmitted 3 times, and 11.5% were readmitted 4 or more times. Being male, having a higher insurance premium level, having a longer length of stay during first IPC admission, being admitted to a teaching hospital, or being admitted to a tertiary hospital increased the adjusted hazard ratio for readmission.We found that terminal cancer patients in Taiwan received relatively late referrals for first admission to IPC and experienced a high

  9. Sleep and use of alcohol and drug in adolescence. A large population-based study of Norwegian adolescents aged 16 to 19 years.

    PubMed

    Sivertsen, Børge; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Jakobsen, Reidar; Hysing, Mari

    2015-04-01

    Changes in sleep patterns and increased substance involvement are common in adolescence, but our knowledge of the nature of their association remains limited. The aim of this study was to examine the association between several sleep problems and sleep behaviours, and use and misuse of alcohol and illicit drugs using data from a large population-based sample. A large population-based study from Norway conducted in 2012, the youth@hordaland study, surveyed 9328 adolescents aged 16-19 years (54% girls). Self-reported sleep measures provided information on sleep duration, sleep deficit, weekday bedtime and bedtime difference and insomnia. The main dependent variables were frequency and amount of alcohol consumption and illicit drug use, in addition to the presence of alcohol and drug problems as measured by CRAFFT. The results showed that all sleep parameters were associated with substance involvement in a dose-response manner. Short sleep duration, sleep deficit, large bedtime differences and insomnia were all significantly associated with higher odds of all alcohol and drug use/misuse measures. The associations were only partly attenuated by sociodemographics factors and co-existing symptoms of depression and ADHD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first population-based study to examine the association between sleep, and alcohol and drug use, by employing detailed measures of sleep behaviour and problems, as well as validated measures on consumption of alcohol and illicit drug use. The findings call for increased awareness of the link between sleep problems and alcohol and drugs use/misuse as a major public health issue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Associations between measures of adiposity over 10 years and patella cartilage in population-based asymptomatic women.

    PubMed

    Gunardi, A J; Brennan, S L; Wang, Y; Cicuttini, F M; Pasco, J A; Kotowicz, M A; Nicholson, G C; Wluka, A E

    2013-12-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) most commonly affects the patellofemoral compartment of the knee, and is a major cause of pain and disability. Structural changes that evolve prior to the onset of symptoms can be visualised using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There is little known information about the role of adiposity on the early structural changes in the patella cartilage in younger, asymptomatic adult females. One hundred and sixty asymptomatic women (20-49 years) participating in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study underwent knee MRI (2006-8). Weight and body mass index (BMI) were measured 10 years prior (1994-7, baseline) and at the time of MRI (current), with change over the period calculated (current-baseline). Relationships between measures of adiposity and patella cartilage volume and defects were examined. After adjustment for age and patella bone volume, there was a reduction of 13 ml (95% confidence interval (95% CI), -25.7, -0.55) in patella cartilage volume for every 1 unit increase in current BMI, and a reduction of 27 ml (95% CI -52.6, -1.5) per BMI unit increase over 10 years (P=0.04 for both). No significant association was observed between baseline BMI and patella cartilage volume (P=0.16). Increased baseline and current weight and BMI were associated with increased prevalence of patella cartilage defects (all P<0.001). Adiposity and weight gain during midlife are associated with detrimental structural change at the patella in young to middle-aged healthy non-osteoarthritic women. Maintaining a healthy weight and avoiding weight gain in younger asymptomatic women may be important in the prevention of patellofemoral OA.

  11. Medical expenses in treating acute esophageal variceal bleeding: A 15-year nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chueh-Ling; Wu, Cheng-Kun; Shi, Hon-Yi; Tai, Wei-Chen; Liang, Chih-Ming; Yang, Shih-Cheng; Wu, Keng-Liang; Chiu, Yi-Chun; Chuah, Seng-Kee

    2016-07-01

    Acute variceal bleeding in patients with cirrhosis is related to high mortality and medical expenses. The purpose of present studies was to analyze the medical expenses in treating acute esophageal variceal bleeding among patients with cirrhosis and potential influencing clinical factors.A total of 151,863 patients with cirrhosis with International Classification of Diseases-9 codes 456.0 and 456.20 were analyzed from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 2010. Time intervals were divided into three phases for analysis as T1 (1996-2000), T2 (2001-2005), and T3 (2006-2010). The endpoints were prevalence, length of hospital stay, medical expenses, and mortality rate.Our results showed that more patients were <65 years (75.6%) and of male sex (78.5%). Patients were mostly from teaching hospitals (90.8%) with high hospital volume (50.9%) and high doctor service load (51.1%). The prevalence of acute esophageal variceal bleeding and mean length of hospital stay decreased over the years (P < 0.001), but the overall medical expenses increased (P < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis showed that older age, female sex, Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) score >1, patients from teaching hospitals, and medium to high or very high patient numbers were independent factors for longer hospital stay and higher medical expenses. Aged patients, female sex, increased CCI score, and low doctor service volume were independent factors for both in-hospital and 5-year mortality. Patients from teaching hospitals and medium to high or very high service volume hospitals were independent factors for in-hospital mortality, but not 5-year mortality.Medical expenses in treating acute esophageal variceal bleeding increased despite the decreased prevalence rate and length of hospital stay in Taiwan. Aged patients, female sex, patients with increased CCI score from teaching hospitals, and medium to high or very high patient numbers were

  12. Changes in determinants of compulsory community treatment over 11 years. A population-based analysis of linked mental health databases.

    PubMed

    Kisely, Steve; Xiao, Jianguo; Jian, Le

    2015-12-15

    Differences in patient characteristics, legislation and service setting may explain variations in the reported efficacy of compulsory treatment orders (CTOs). Our objective was to investigate factors associated with CTO placement in Western Australia and see if there were any changes over the 11 years following their introduction. We used three linked Western Australian databases to compare 2958 patients on community treatment orders with an equal number of controls matched on age, sex and diagnosis, as well as 2832 consecutive controls selected on date of discharge from inpatient care or CTO placement. Multivariate analyses were used to further examine potential predictors of a CTO. The incidence of CTOs, and the characteristics of patients placed on these orders, showed little change over 11 years. They tended to be younger and male with schizophrenia or other non-affective psychotic disorders. Previous health service use as an inpatient or outpatient also predicted compulsory community treatment. Psychiatrists in Western Australia appear to be applying community treatment orders to similar types of patient as elsewhere, but unlike other jurisdictions, use has not increased. We need further research to establish the relative contribution of patient characteristics, legislation and service setting toward the use and outcome of CTOs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular Features and Methylation Status in Early Onset (≤40 Years) Colorectal Cancer: A Population Based, Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Magnani, Giulia; Furlan, Daniela; Sahnane, Nora; Reggiani Bonetti, Luca; Domati, Federica; Pedroni, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is usually considered a disease of the elderly. However, a small fraction of patients develops colorectal cancer earlier. The aim of our study was to define the frequency of known hereditary colorectal syndromes and to characterise genetic and epigenetic features of early nonhereditary tumors. Thirty-three patients ≤40 years with diagnosis of colorectal cancer and 41 patients with disease at >60 years of age were investigated for MSI, Mismatch Repair proteins expression, KRAS and BRAF mutations, hypermethylation, and LINE-1 hypomethylation. Detection of germline mutations was performed in Mismatch Repair, APC and MUTYH genes. Early onset colorectal cancer showed a high incidence of hereditary forms (18%). KRAS mutations were detected in 36% of early nonhereditary tumors. Early onset colorectal cancer disclosed an average number of methylated genes significantly lower when compared to the controls (p = 0.02). Finally both of the two groups were highly methylated in ESR1, GATA5, and WT1 genes and were similar for LINE-1 hypomethylation. The genetic make-up of carcinomas differs from young to elderly patients. Early onset tumors showed more frequently a constitutional defective of Mismatch Repair System and a minor number of methylated genes. Hypermethylation of ESR1, GATA5, and WT1 genes suggests possible markers in the earlier diagnosis of colorectal tumorigenesis. PMID:26557847

  14. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and risk of hydrocephalus: A 5 year population-based follow-up study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chien-Hsu; Chen, Yen-Yu

    2016-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) involves many organ systems and is associated with a wide range of neurologic complications. However, it is not known whether T2DM is a risk factor of hydrocephalus. Research data were retrieved from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. A total of 25,903 individuals with T2DM aged 40-80 years diagnosed during 2000-2003 and two times-number (n=51,806) age- and sex-matched comparisons during the same period were included. We tracked all individuals from their defined index visits for up to 5 years to detect a new diagnosis of hydrocephalus. Among the 25,903 patients, 9227 cases were newly diagnosed T2DM and 16,676 were pre-existing T2DM patients. During the follow-up period, 27 (0.3%) of the newly diagnosed T2DM patients, 97 (0.6%) of the pre-existing T2DM patients and 149 (0.3%) of the comparison group developed hydrocephalus. The risk of hydrocephalus was significantly increased in patients with pre-existing diabetes but not in patients with newly diagnosed diabetes. Longer duration of type 2 diabetes is associated with an increased risk of the development of hydrocephalus. Further studies to confirm such association and to investigate the causality and mechanism are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Costs for Childhood and Adolescent Cancer, 90 Days Prediagnosis and 1 Year Postdiagnosis: A Population-Based Study in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Claire; Bremner, Karen E; Liu, Ning; Greenberg, Mark L; Nathan, Paul C; McBride, Mary L; Krahn, Murray D

    2017-03-01

    Childhood and adolescent cancers are uncommon, but they have important economic and health impacts on patients, families, and health care systems. Few studies have measured the economic burden of care for childhood and adolescent cancers. To estimate costs of cancer care in population-based cohorts of children and adolescents from the public payer perspective. We identified patients with cancer, aged 91 days to 19 years, diagnosed from 1995 to 2009 using cancer registry data, and matched each to three noncancer controls. Using linked administrative health care records, we estimated total and net resource-specific costs (in 2012 Canadian dollars) during 90 days prediagnosis and 1 year postdiagnosis. Children (≤14 years old) numbered 4,396: 36% had leukemia, 21% central nervous system tumors, 10% lymphoma, and 33% other cancers. Adolescents (15-19 years old) numbered 2,329: 28.9% had lymphoma. Bone and soft tissue sarcoma, germ cell tumor, and thyroid carcinoma each comprised 12% to 13%. Mean net prediagnosis costs were $5,810 and $1,127 and mean net postdiagnosis costs were $136,413 and $62,326 for children and adolescents, respectively; the highest were for leukemia ($157,764 for children and $172,034 for adolescents). In both cohorts, costs were much higher for patients who died within 1 year of diagnosis. Inpatient hospitalization represented 69% to 74% of postdiagnosis costs. Treating children with cancer is costly, more costly than treating adolescents or adults. Substantial survival gains in children mean that treatment may still be very cost-effective. Comprehensive age-specific population-based cost estimates are essential to reliably assess the cost-effectiveness of cancer care for children and adolescents, and measure health system performance. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ginkgo Biloba Extract and Long-Term Cognitive Decline: A 20-Year Follow-Up Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Amieva, Hélène; Meillon, Céline; Helmer, Catherine; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Dartigues, Jean François

    2013-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have looked at the potential benefits of various nootropic drugs such as Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761®; Tanakan®) and piracetam (Nootropyl®) on age-related cognitive decline often leading to inconclusive results due to small sample sizes or insufficient follow-up duration. The present study assesses the association between intake of EGb761® and cognitive function of elderly adults over a 20-year period. Methods and Findings The data were gathered from the prospective community-based cohort study ‘Paquid’. Within the study sample of 3612 non-demented participants aged 65 and over at baseline, three groups were compared: 589 subjects reporting use of EGb761® at at least one of the ten assessment visits, 149 subjects reporting use of piracetam at one of the assessment visits and 2874 subjects not reporting use of either EGb761® or piracetam. Decline on MMSE, verbal fluency and visual memory over the 20-year follow-up was analysed with a multivariate mixed linear effects model. A significant difference in MMSE decline over the 20-year follow-up was observed in the EGb761® and piracetam treatment groups compared to the ‘neither treatment’ group. These effects were in opposite directions: the EGb761® group declined less rapidly than the ‘neither treatment’ group, whereas the piracetam group declined more rapidly (β = −0.6). Regarding verbal fluency and visual memory, no difference was observed between the EGb761® group and the ‘neither treatment’ group (respectively, β = 0.21 and β = −0.03), whereas the piracetam group declined more rapidly (respectively, β = −1.40 and β = −0.44). When comparing the EGb761® and piracetam groups directly, a different decline was observed for the three tests (respectively β = −1.07, β = −1.61 and β = −0.41). Conclusion Cognitive decline in a non-demented elderly population was lower in subjects who reported using EGb761® than in

  17. A 6-year trend of the healthcare costs of arthritis in a population-based cohort of older women.

    PubMed

    Lo, Tkt; Parkinson, Lynne; Cunich, Michelle; Byles, Julie

    2016-06-01

    To provide an accurate representation of the economic burden of arthritis by estimating the adjusted incremental healthcare cost of arthritis at multiple percentiles and reporting the cost trends across time. A healthcare cost study based on health survey and linked administrative data, where costs were estimated from the government's perspective in dollars per person per year. Quantile regression was used to estimate the adjusted incremental cost at the 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles. Data from 4287 older Australian women were included. The median incremental healthcare cost of arthritis was, in 2012 Australian dollars, $480 (95% CI: $498-759) in 2009; however, 5% of individuals had 5-times higher costs than the 'average individual' with arthritis. Healthcare cost of arthritis did not increase significantly from 2003 to 2009. Healthcare cost of arthritis represents a substantial burden for the governments. Future research should continue to monitor the economic burden of arthritis.

  18. Gestational Age at Birth and 'Body-Mind' Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Frances M; Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Kelleher, Cecily C; Tremblay, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate's physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000-2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children's general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent's general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor/fair health and/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32-36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%-6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2-2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies.

  19. Bladder injuries after external trauma: 20 years experience report in a population-based cross-sectional view.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Bruno Monteiro Tavares; de Campos, Caio César Citatini; Calderan, Thiago Rodrigues Araujo; Reis, Leonardo Oliveira; Fraga, Gustavo Pereira

    2013-08-01

    Report 20 years experience of bladder injuries after external trauma. Gender, age, mechanism/location of damage, associated injuries, systolic blood pressure (SBP), Revised Trauma Score (RTS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), Trauma Injury Severity Score (TRISS), complications, and length of stay (LOS) were analyzed in a prospective collected bladder injuries AAST-OIS grade ≥ II database (American Association for the Surgery of Trauma Organ Injury Scaling) from 1990 to 2009 in a trauma reference center. Among 2,575 patients experiencing laparotomy for trauma, 111 (4.3 %) presented bladder ruptures grade ≥ II, being 83.8 % (n = 93) males, mean age 31.5 years old (± 11.2). Blunt mechanism accounted for 50.5 % (n = 56)-motor vehicle crashes 47.3 % (n = 26), pedestrians hit by a car (29.1 %). Gunshot wounds represented 87.3 % of penetrating mechanism. The most frequent injury was grade IV (51 patients, 46 %). The mean ISS was 23.8 (± 11.2), TRISS 0.90 (± 0.24), and RTS 7.26 (± 1.48). Severity (AAST-OIS), mechanism (blunt/penetrating), localization of the bladder injury (intra/extraperitoneal, associated), and neither concomitant rectum lesion were related to complications, LOS, or death. Mortality rate was 10.8 %. ISS > 25 (p = 0.0001), SBP <90 mmHg (p = 0.0001), RTS <7.84 (p = 0.0001), and pelvic fracture (p = 0.0011) were highly associated with grim prognosis and death with hazard ratios of 5.46, 2.70, 2.22, and 2.06, respectively. Trauma scores and pelvic fractures impact survival in bladder trauma. The mortality rate has remained stable for the last two decades.

  20. Gestational Age at Birth and ‘Body-Mind’ Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.; Kelleher, Cecily C.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate’s physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000–2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children’s general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent’s general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor/fair health and/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32–36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%–6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2–2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies. PMID:26975048

  1. Men's sexual interest in children: one-year incidence and correlates in a population-based sample of Finnish male twins.

    PubMed

    Santtila, Pekka; Antfolk, Jan; Räfså, Anna; Hartwig, Maria; Sariola, Heikki; Sandnabba, N Kenneth; Mokros, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In a study of 1,310 Finnish adult male twins we found that sexual interest in children aged 12 or younger was reported by 0.2% of the sample. Sexual interest in children aged 15 or younger was reported by 3.3%. Participants reporting sexual interest in children aged 15 or younger were younger, reported stronger sexual desire, and had experienced more childhood sexual and nonsexual abuse. The present study is the first to give a population-based estimate of the incidence of sexual interest in children among adult men. The 12-month incidence of sexual interest in children below the age of 16 years is roughly comparable to the one-year incidence of major depression or the lifetime prevalence of transvestitic fetishism.

  2. Cognitive and Functional Decline among Individuals 50 Years of Age or Older in Cambé, Paraná, Brazil: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Marcos Aparecido Sarria; Bortoletto, Maira Aira Sayuri Sakay; de Souza, Regina Kazue Tanno; Prina, Douglas Manuel Carrapeiro; Vieira, Maria Cristina Umpierrez; Silva, Ana Maria Rigo

    2016-01-01

    Aims To identify the frequency of cognitive and functional decline (CFD) among adults 50 years of age and older by a population-based study. Methods Cognitive function was analyzed by the Mini-Mental State Examination, and the functional conditions were based on instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). Cases of CFD included individuals with cognitive decline and 2 or more compromised IADL. Results A total of 693 individuals were studied. The frequency of CFD was 16.3%. A low socioeconomic profile was associated with greater CFD independent of gender, age, education, and presence of depression (OR = 2.46; 95% CI: 1.53-3.97). Conclusions These data show a high frequency of CFD among adults 50 years and older. Individuals with less education and a lower socioeconomic level exhibited poorer cognitive and functional conditions. PMID:27350779

  3. Male Sexual Function in New Zealand: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Survey of the Prevalence of Erectile Dysfunction in Men Aged 40-70 Years.

    PubMed

    Quilter, Merrin; Hodges, Lynette; von Hurst, Pamela; Borman, Barry; Coad, Jane

    2017-07-01

    Sexual function declines with age and erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common condition worldwide; however, prevalence rates vary markedly between populations and reliable data specific to New Zealand (NZ) are lacking. To assess the prevalence of ED in NZ men using a population-based cross-sectional survey. Postal questionnaires were sent, according to a modified Dillman method, to a randomly selected age-stratified population-based sample of 2,000 men 40 to 70 years old obtained from the electoral roll. Self-reported erectile function was assessed using the five-item International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) and the single-question self-assessment tool. The prevalence of ED is presented as crude, age-adjusted to the distribution of the NZ population, and standardized to the World Health Organization World Standard Population (WSP). Associations between sexual function and age were analyzed using χ(2) test. The response rate was 30% (599) and 28% (562) were complete for analysis. The crude prevalence of ED was 42% (22% mild, 10% mild to moderate, 6% moderate, and 4% severe), the age-adjusted prevalence was 38%, and the WSP-adjusted prevalence was 37%. Among men reporting ED, 16% were medically diagnosed and 22% were treated. ED affected 24% of men in their 40s, 38% in their 50s, and 60% in their 60s (P < .001). Age was associated with a significant increase in diagnosed ED (P = .001), treated ED (P = .006), dissatisfaction with current sexual function (P < .001), associated anxiety or depression (P = .023), and a decrease in sexual activity (P < .001). Approximately one in three NZ men 40 to 70 years old might have ED. Although comparable to overseas populations, this prevalence is high. This study provides the most reliable, comprehensive, and current information on ED and its risk factors in NZ men. Strengths include the large sample, the use of random selection from a population-based sampling frame, established effective survey methods, and the

  4. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis A Twelve Years After the Implementation of Toddlers' Vaccination: A Population-Based Study in Israel.

    PubMed

    Bassal, Ravit; Weil, Merav; Cohen, Daniel; Sofer, Danit; Mendelson, Ella; Shohat, Tamy

    2017-10-01

    In 1999, Israel became the first country to introduce an inactivated hepatitis A vaccine into its national childhood vaccination program. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus antibodies in the Israeli population before and after the introduction of the program. A cross-sectional serosurvey using the National Serum Bank was conducted on 1883 and 2027 serum samples collected before and after introduction of the vaccine, respectively. Serologic tests for the presence of hepatitis A IgG antibodies were performed using an automated enzyme-linked fluorescent assay. The age-adjusted seroprevalence rates of hepatitis A virus antibodies before implementation of hepatitis A vaccination program were 47.1% [95% confidence interval (CI): 44.7%-49.5%] among Jews and 82.8% (95% CI: 79.6%-85.9%) among Arabs, increasing 12 years after to 67.4% (95% CI: 64.7%-70.0%) and 88.2% (95% CI: 86.1%-90.2%), respectively. The seropositivity rate among Jews and Arabs increased significantly among the cohorts included in the program. However, among Jews, a significant increase in seropositivity was also detected among age groups not included in the vaccination program. The decrease in the incidence of hepatitis A in Israel is a consequence of high vaccine uptake, persistent seropositivity rates after vaccination and the considerable number of people vaccinated beyond the program.

  5. Heritability of refractive astigmatism: a population-based twin study among 63- to 75-year-old female twins.

    PubMed

    Pärssinen, Olavi; Kauppinen, Markku; Kaprio, Jaakko; Koskenvuo, Markku; Rantanen, Taina

    2013-09-09

    To examine the heritability of refractive astigmatism in older women. Astigmatism was measured with an autorefractor in 88 monozygotic and 82 dizygotic female twin pairs aged 63 to 75 years. The prevalence and distribution of astigmatism and polar values J0 and J45 were estimated by standard statistical methods. Bivariate maximum likelihood model fitting was used to estimate genetic and environmental variance components using information from both eyes. Mean astigmatism of the more astigmatic eye was 0.93 diopters (D; SD ±0.58). Astigmatism of at least 0.25 D, 0.5 D, 0.75 D, or 1.0 D in either eye was present in 99.7%, 88.5%, 66.5%, and 46.2% of cases, respectively. The main direction of astigmatism was against the rule. The age-adjusted quantitative genetic modeling revealed that additive genetic effects accounted for 33.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 21.9%-43.8%) of the total variance of astigmatism and for 18% (95% CI, 4%-31%) of the total variance of polar value J45 of both eyes (bivariate model), with the remaining variances due to nongenetic effects. There were no significant correlations between the twin pairs for polar value J0. In elderly female twins, additive genetic effects accounted for one-third of the variance of the amount of astigmatism and only a small fraction of the total variance of polar value J45.

  6. Suicide and Other-Cause Mortality after Early Exposure to Smoking and Second Hand Smoking: A 12-Year Population-Based Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung; Kuo, Chian-Jue; Wang, Tsu-Nai; Lee, Wen-Chung; Chen, Wei J; Ferri, Cleusa P; Tsai, Duujian; Lai, Te-Jen; Huang, Meng-Chuan; Stewart, Robert; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2015-01-01

    The association between smoking and suicide is still controversial, particular for early life cigarette smoking exposure. Few studies have investigated this association in adolescents using population-based cohorts, and the relationship with second hand smoking (SHS) exposure has not been addressed. In this study, we followed a large population-based sample of younger people to investigate the association between smoking, SHS exposure and suicide mortality. Between October 1995 and June 1996, 162,682 junior high school students ages 11 to 16 years old living in a geographic catchment area in Taiwan were enrolled and then followed till December 2007 (1,948,432 person-years) through linkage to the National Death Certification System. Participants who were currently smoking at baseline had a greater than six-fold higher suicide mortality than those who did not smoke (29.5 vs. 4.8 per 100,000 person-years, p<0.001) as well as higher natural mortality (33.7 vs. 10.3 per 100,000 person-years, p<0.001). After controlling for gender, age, parental education, asthma, allergic rhinitis, and alcohol consumption, the adjusted hazard ratios for suicide were 3.69 (95% CI 1.85-7.39) in current smokers, and 1.47 (95% CI 0.94-2.30) and 2.83 (95% CI 1.54-5.20) respectively in adolescents exposed to SHS of 1-20 cigarettes and >20 cigarettes/per day. The estimated depression-adjusted odds ratio did not change substantially. The population attributable fractions for suicide associated with smoking and heavy SHS exposure (>20 cigarettes/per day) were 9.6% and 10.6%, respectively. This study showed evidence of excess suicide mortality among young adults exposed to active or passive early life cigarette smoking.

  7. Suicide and Other-Cause Mortality after Early Exposure to Smoking and Second Hand Smoking: A 12-Year Population-Based Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung; Kuo, Chian-Jue; Lee, Wen-Chung; Chen, Wei J.; Ferri, Cleusa P.; Tsai, Duujian; Lai, Te-Jen; Huang, Meng-Chuan; Stewart, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Background The association between smoking and suicide is still controversial, particular for early life cigarette smoking exposure. Few studies have investigated this association in adolescents using population-based cohorts, and the relationship with second hand smoking (SHS) exposure has not been addressed. Methods and Findings In this study, we followed a large population-based sample of younger people to investigate the association between smoking, SHS exposure and suicide mortality. Between October 1995 and June 1996, 162,682 junior high school students ages 11 to 16 years old living in a geographic catchment area in Taiwan were enrolled and then followed till December 2007 (1,948,432 person-years) through linkage to the National Death Certification System. Participants who were currently smoking at baseline had a greater than six-fold higher suicide mortality than those who did not smoke (29.5 vs. 4.8 per 100,000 person-years, p<0.001) as well as higher natural mortality (33.7 vs. 10.3 per 100,000 person-years, p<0.001). After controlling for gender, age, parental education, asthma, allergic rhinitis, and alcohol consumption, the adjusted hazard ratios for suicide were 3.69 (95% CI 1.85-7.39) in current smokers, and 1.47 (95% CI 0.94-2.30) and 2.83 (95% CI 1.54-5.20) respectively in adolescents exposed to SHS of 1-20 cigarettes and >20 cigarettes/per day. The estimated depression-adjusted odds ratio did not change substantially. The population attributable fractions for suicide associated with smoking and heavy SHS exposure (>20 cigarettes/per day) were 9.6% and 10.6%, respectively. Conclusions This study showed evidence of excess suicide mortality among young adults exposed to active or passive early life cigarette smoking. PMID:26222448

  8. Nickel Allergy Is a Risk Factor for Endometriosis: An 11-Year Population-Based Nested Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Yuk, Jin-Sung; Shin, Jong Seung; Shin, Ji-Yeon; Oh, Eunsuk; Kim, Hyunmee; Park, Won I.

    2015-01-01

    Background A cross-sectional study has reported that nickel allergy is associated with endometriosis. However, causal studies of this association are limited. Objective The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of nickel allergy in women with and without endometriosis. Methods We used a National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) sample cohort dataset that included approximately 1 million individuals from South Korea; the data were obtained between January 01, 2002, and December 31, 2013. We selected the endometriosis group according to diagnosis code (N80.X), surgery codes, and drug codes during the years 2009~2013. The controls were randomly matched to the endometriosis patients at a ratio of 4:1 by age and socioeconomic status. Patients with nickel allergy were defined in the cohort dataset as those with a simultaneous diagnosis code (L23.0) and patch test code during 2002~2008. Results In total, 4,985 women were selected from the NHIS cohort database and divided into an endometriosis group (997 women) and a control group (3,988 women). The number of patients with nickel allergy in the endometriosis group was eight (0.8%), and that in the control group was thirteen (0.3%). After adjustment for age and socioeconomic status, the rate of nickel allergy in was higher in the endometriosis group than in the control group [odds ratio: 2.474; 95% confidence interval: 1.023~5.988; p = 0.044]. Conclusions We found that nickel allergy is a risk factor for endometriosis. PMID:26439741

  9. Acne scars in 18-year-old male adolescents: a population-based study of prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Lauermann, Fernanda Tcatch; Almeida, Hiram Larangeira de; Duquia, Rodrigo Pereira; Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins de; Breunig, Juliano de Avelar

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a pilosebaceous follicle disorder affecting over 85% of adolescents to some degree. It frequently causes psychological distress that may persist into adulthood due to scarring. Little information about post-acne scarring epidemiology is available. To describe prevalence, distribution patterns and associated factors of acne scarring in young males, drawing on a representative population sample from a southern Brazilian city. A cross-sectional study was undertaken during presentation for military service, which is compulsory for all 18-year-old males. A questionnaire was applied, covering topics like diet, smoking habits, ethnicity, family structure, socio-economic level, as well as specific questions about active acne and resulting scars. Dermatologists conducted the clinical examination. A total of 2,201 male adolescents were interviewed and examined. The overall prevalence of acne scarring was 22%. The malar region was the most frequently involved, present in 80% of affected individuals, followed by the frontal region (31.5%), back (17%), anterior chest (8.2%) and mentonian region (6.4%). Correlation between the intensity of clinical acne and the presence of scars was found, but no association was observed with educational level, smoking, ethnicity, obesity or socio-economic status. There is a high prevalence of acne scars among this population. This is the first study to ascertain a correlation between acne scarring and factors such as socio-economic status and educational level. The direct relation between acne severity and scarring indicates that prompt and effective treatment is the best way to reduce scarring.

  10. Emotional well-being years post-treatment for breast cancer: prospective, multi-ethnic, and population-based analysis

    PubMed Central

    Janz, Nancy K.; Friese, Christopher R.; Li, Yun; Graff, John J.; Hamilton, Ann S.; Hawley, Sarah T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated factors associated with declines in emotional well-being (EWB) over time in breast cancer survivors. Methods Women with breast cancer (Stages I-III) residing in Los Angeles, CA or Detroit, MI and reported to the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registries between June 2005-February 2007 completed surveys at 9 months and 4 years after diagnosis. EWB was measured by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Treatment-Breast. Using a stress coping framework, logistic regression models assessed associations between personal, social, and clinical correlates, appraisal (e.g., worry about recurrence) and coping factors (e.g., emotional support) to EWB declines. Results Among eligible women who completed primary breast cancer treatment, 772 completed both surveys and 192 (24.9%) experienced EWB declines over time. Women with past or current depression were more likely to report EWB decline (p<.01). Survivors who perceived they did not receive enough information about risk of breast cancer recurrence during primary treatment were more likely to have EWB decline (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.32-0.87). Greater perceived likelihood of recurrence (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.01-5.29) and increased worry about recurrence (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.10-1.72) were associated with EWB decline. Higher spirituality beliefs and practices were associated with EWB decline. Conclusions A considerable number of breast cancer patients report emotional well-being declines over time. Early identification of women who are vulnerable, such as women with past depression, is crucial to improve quality of care. Women would benefit from education about cancer recurrence and tailored strategies to manage worry about recurrence over time. Implication for Cancer Survivors Understanding actual risk of recurrence and managing worry about recurrence is important for cancer survivors. Emotional concerns are common for individuals with cancer so survivors should feel free to reach out and discuss

  11. Acne scars in 18-year-old male adolescents: a population-based study of prevalence and associated factors*

    PubMed Central

    Lauermann, Fernanda Tcatch; de Almeida Jr., Hiram Larangeira; Duquia, Rodrigo Pereira; de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; Breunig, Juliano de Avelar

    2016-01-01

    Background Acne vulgaris is a pilosebaceous follicle disorder affecting over 85% of adolescents to some degree. It frequently causes psychological distress that may persist into adulthood due to scarring. Little information about post-acne scarring epidemiology is available. Objectives To describe prevalence, distribution patterns and associated factors of acne scarring in young males, drawing on a representative population sample from a southern Brazilian city. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken during presentation for military service, which is compulsory for all 18-year-old males. A questionnaire was applied, covering topics like diet, smoking habits, ethnicity, family structure, socio-economic level, as well as specific questions about active acne and resulting scars. Dermatologists conducted the clinical examination. Results A total of 2,201 male adolescents were interviewed and examined. The overall prevalence of acne scarring was 22%. The malar region was the most frequently involved, present in 80% of affected individuals, followed by the frontal region (31.5%), back (17%), anterior chest (8.2%) and mentonian region (6.4%). Correlation between the intensity of clinical acne and the presence of scars was found, but no association was observed with educational level, smoking, ethnicity, obesity or socio-economic status. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of acne scars among this population. This is the first study to ascertain a correlation between acne scarring and factors such as socio-economic status and educational level. The direct relation between acne severity and scarring indicates that prompt and effective treatment is the best way to reduce scarring. PMID:27438194

  12. Emotional well-being years post-treatment for breast cancer: prospective, multi-ethnic, and population-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Janz, Nancy K; Friese, Christopher R; Li, Yun; Graff, John J; Hamilton, Ann S; Hawley, Sarah T

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated factors associated with declines in emotional well-being (EWB) over time in breast cancer survivors. Women with breast cancer (Stages I-III) residing in Los Angeles, CA, or Detroit, MI, and reported to the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registries between June 2005 and February 2007 completed surveys at 9 months and 4 years after diagnosis. EWB was measured by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Treatment-Breast. Using a stress coping framework, logistic regression models assessed associations between personal, social, and clinical correlates, appraisal (e.g., worry about recurrence) and coping factors (e.g., emotional support) to EWB declines. Among eligible women who completed primary breast cancer treatment, 772 completed both surveys, and 192 (24.9 %) experienced EWB declines over time. Women with past or current depression were more likely to report EWB decline (p < 0.01). Survivors who perceived they did not receive enough information about risk of breast cancer recurrence during primary treatment were more likely to have EWB decline (OR 0.53, 95 % CI 0.32-0.87). Greater perceived likelihood of recurrence (OR 1.95, 95 % CI 1.01-5.29) and increased worry about recurrence (OR 1.38, 95 % CI 1.10-1.72) were associated with EWB decline. Higher spirituality beliefs and practices were associated with EWB decline. A considerable number of breast cancer patients report emotional well-being declines over time. Early identification of women who are vulnerable, such as women with past depression, is crucial to improve quality of care. Women would benefit from education about cancer recurrence and tailored strategies to manage worry about recurrence over time. Understanding actual risk of recurrence and managing worry about recurrence is important for cancer survivors. Emotional concerns are common for individuals with cancer so survivors should feel free to reach out and discuss such concerns with providers well into the survivorship

  13. Survival of multiple myeloma patients in the era of novel therapies confirms the improvement in patients younger than 75 years: a population-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, Samantha; Marcheselli, Luigi; Bari, Alessia; Liardo, Eliana V; Marcheselli, Raffaella; Luminari, Stefano; Quaresima, Micol; Cirilli, Claudia; Ferri, Paola; Federico, Massimo; Sacchi, Stefano

    2013-10-01

    Novel treatments for multiple myeloma (MM) have shown promising results in clinical trials, but the advantage in unselected patients is still unclear. In order to evaluate whether novel therapies impact survival of MM patients, we performed a population-based analysis on data collected by the Modena Cancer Registry from 1989 to 2009. The analysis evaluated 1206 newly diagnosed MM patients collected in the years 1988-96 (conventional therapy), 1997-05 (high dose melphalan and autologous transplant), and 2006-09 (novel agents era). Both relative survival (RS) and overall survival (OS) improved over the years, but not equally in the three groups. For patients aged <65 years, RS improved in 1997-05 and 2006-09 compared with previous years and a trend to improvement was observed from 1997-05 to 2006-09. For patients aged 65-74 years, RS improved significantly in 2006-09 compared with 1988-96 and 1997-05. No amelioration was observed for patients 75+ years old. OS confirmed RS. In conclusion, the survival of MM patients aged <65 and, in particular, 65-74 years, has improved over time, especially after 2006. This observation provides circumstantial evidence that novel therapies might impact patient survival. Despite the limits of this study, these data refer to an unselected population, giving a picture of every day clinical practice.

  14. Changes in cardiovascular risk factors after 5 years of implementation of a population-based program to reduce cardiovascular disease: The Heart of New Ulm Project.

    PubMed

    Sidebottom, Abbey C; Sillah, Arthur; Miedema, Michael D; Vock, David M; Pereira, Raquel; Benson, Gretchen; Boucher, Jackie L; Knickelbine, Thomas; Lindberg, Rebecca; VanWormer, Jeffrey J

    2016-05-01

    Population-based interventions aimed at reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) hold significant potential and will be increasingly relied upon as the model for health care changes in the United States. The Heart of New Ulm Project is a population-based project with health care, community, and workplace interventions addressing multiple levels of the social-ecological model designed to reduce modifiable CVD risk factors in rural New Ulm, MN. The community is served by one health system, enabling the use of electronic health record data for surveillance. Electronic health record data were extracted at baseline (2008-2009) and 2 follow-up periods (2010-2011, 2012-2013) for residents aged 40 to 79 years. Generalized estimating equations were used to fit longitudinal models of the risk factors. Of 7,855 residents in the target population, 80% had electronic health record data for each period. The prevalence of at goal (blood pressure [BP] <140/90 mm Hg) and (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C] <130 mg/dL) increased from 79.3% to 86.4% and 68.9% to 71.1%, respectively, from baseline to 5 years, with the largest reductions in BP and LDL-C seen in individuals not at goal at baseline. Blood pressure and lipid-lowering medication use increased from 41.8% to 44.0% and 25.3% to 29.1%, respectively. The proportion at goal for glucose increased from 46.9% to 48.2%. The prevalence body mass index <30 kg/m(2) (55%) did not change, whereas the proportion at-goal for high-density lipoprotein decreased from 63.8% to 58%, and smoking showed an increase from 11.3% to 13.6%. In a community participating in a multifaceted, population-based project aimed at reducing modifiable CVD risk factors, significant improvements in BP, LDL-C, and glucose were observed for 5 years, and body mass index remained stable in a state where obesity was increasing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Population-based cohort follow-up study of all patients operated for borderline ovarian tumor in western Sweden during an 11-year period.

    PubMed

    Akeson, M; Zetterqvist, B-M; Dahllöf, K; Jakobsen, A-M; Brännström, M; Horvath, G

    2008-01-01

    Borderline ovarian tumors (BOTs) make up around 10-20% of all epithelial ovarian tumors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the outcome of a complete large population-based cohort of patients treated for BOT. All patients (n= 399) treated for BOT in the western part of Sweden (population around 1.6 million) between 1993 and 2004 were followed. The treatment consisted of primary staging surgery with addition of platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy for the majority of aneuploid tumors. Data relating to the surgical procedure, FIGO stage, histopathology, ploidy status, adjuvant chemotherapy, and disease state (recurrence or death) at follow-up visits were continuously entered into a cancer quality registry. Data concerning cases and deaths were also controlled against the Swedish National Cancer Registry. The median age of the BOT patients was 55 years (range 16-90). The relative 5- and 10-year survivals were 99.9% (95% CI 96.3-102.4) and 103.5% (95% CI 97.2-108.2), respectively. Aneuploidy was found in 63 (17%) patients, with significantly more aneuploid tumors found among patients of older (>60 years) age. Out of the 399 patients, 8 had recurrence of the disease. Three of the eight patients died from the disease. Five patients with recurrence are alive, three of these patients with no signs of disease after additional treatment. This complete long-term follow-up of a large population-based cohort of BOT patients shows that there is a good overall survival in this patient group.

  16. Female breast cancer burden was increasing during the 40 years in Hebei Province, China: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jin; Liang, Di; Jin, Jing; Wang, Liqun; He, Yutong

    2016-11-01

    The aim of our study was to estimate the female breast cancer burden and mortality trends in Hebei Province, China. Eight population-based cancer registries in Hebei Province submitted cancer data to the Hebei Provincial cancer Registry Centre. All data were reviewed for quality and compiled for cancer statistics in 2011. The pooled data were stratified by area (urban/rural) and age group (0-4, 5-9, …, 80+ years). Incidence and mortality rates were calculated and expressed per 100,000 persons. Proportions and ranks for breast cancer were calculated. Mortality data from 1973 to 1975, 1990 to 1992, and 2004 to 2005 were extracted from the national death surveys. Mortality and incidence data from Cixian and Shexian were obtained from population-based cancer registries in each county. The estimated numbers of newly diagnosed breast cancer cases and deaths from 2010 to 2011 were 26,028 and 5472, respectively. The CIR was 36.6/100,000. The ASIRW was 27.7/100,000, ranking the highest among all female cancers. The CMR was 7.7/100,000, and the ASMRW was 6.0/100,000, ranking fifth in female mortality. The ASMRW displayed an increasing trend in Hebei Province from 1973-1975 to 2010-2011, with a 53.7 % increase. In Cixian, the incidence rate increased with an annual percentage change (APC) of 7.7 %, and the mortality rate increased with an APC of 3.8 % from 1988 to 2011. Similar trends were observed for the incidence and mortality rates in Shexian, with APCs of 20.1 % and 11.0 %, respectively, from 2000 to 2011. Hebei Province experienced a heavy burden of breast cancer. The mortality rates increased during the past 40 years and the incidence and mortality trends may continue to increase in the next few years.

  17. 30-Year Trends in Stroke Rates and Outcome in Auckland, New Zealand (1981-2012): A Multi-Ethnic Population-Based Series of Studies

    PubMed Central

    Feigin, Valery L.; Krishnamurthi, Rita V.; Barker-Collo, Suzanne; McPherson, Kathryn M.; Barber, P. Alan; Parag, Varsha; Arroll, Bruce; Bennett, Derrick A.; Tobias, Martin; Jones, Amy; Witt, Emma; Brown, Paul; Abbott, Max; Bhattacharjee, Rohit; Rush, Elaine; Suh, Flora Minsun; Theadom, Alice; Rathnasabapathy, Yogini; Te Ao, Braden; Parmar, Priya G.; Anderson, Craig; Bonita, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Background Insufficient data exist on population-based trends in morbidity and mortality to determine the success of prevention strategies and improvements in health care delivery in stroke. The aim of this study was to determine trends in incidence and outcome (1-year mortality, 28-day case-fatality) in relation to management and risk factors for stroke in the multi-ethnic population of Auckland, New Zealand (NZ) over 30-years. Methods Four stroke incidence population-based register studies were undertaken in adult residents (aged ≥15 years) of Auckland NZ in 1981–1982, 1991–1992, 2002–2003 and 2011–2012. All used standard World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria and multiple overlapping sources of case-ascertainment for hospitalised and non-hospitalised, fatal and non-fatal, new stroke events. Ethnicity was consistently self-identified into four major groups. Crude and age-adjusted (WHO world population standard) annual incidence and mortality with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated per 100,000 people, assuming a Poisson distribution. Results 5400 new stroke patients were registered in four 12 month recruitment phases over the 30-year study period; 79% were NZ/European, 6% Māori, 8% Pacific people, and 7% were of Asian or other origin. Overall stroke incidence and 1-year mortality decreased by 23% (95% CI 5%-31%) and 62% (95% CI 36%-86%), respectively, from 1981 to 2012. Whilst stroke incidence and mortality declined across all groups in NZ from 1991, Māori and Pacific groups had the slowest rate of decline and continue to experience stroke at a significantly younger age (mean ages 60 and 62 years, respectively) compared with NZ/Europeans (mean age 75 years). There was also a decline in 28-day stroke case fatality (overall by 14%, 95% CI 11%-17%) across all ethnic groups from 1981 to 2012. However, there were significant increases in the frequencies of pre-morbid hypertension, myocardial infarction, and diabetes

  18. Chronic renal disease in children aged 5-18 years: a population-based survey in Turkey, the CREDIT-C study.

    PubMed

    Soylemezoglu, Oguz; Duzova, Ali; Yalçinkaya, Fatos; Arinsoy, Turgay; Süleymanlar, Gültekin

    2012-10-01

    Data on the epidemiology of chronic kidney disease (CKD), which is a serious health problem and refers to a condition related to irreversible kidney damage that further progress to end-stage renal disease in children, are insufficient and data that are available were based on hospital records. The aim of this nationwide, population-based field study was to determine the prevalence of CKD in children in Turkey and to evaluate the association between CKD and possible risk factors such as obesity and hypertension. The study was the paediatric stratum (3622 children aged 5-18 years) of the previously published population-based survey of Chronic REnal Disease In Turkey (CREDIT study). Medical data were collected through home visits and interviews between November 2007 and July 2008; height, weight and blood pressure were also measured. Serum creatinine, total cholesterol, uric acid and complete blood count were determined from 12-h fasting blood samples, and spot urine tests were performed for subjects who gave consent to laboratory evaluation. Following adjustment according to gender, residence, age groups and geographical regions, the prevalence of children with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <75 mL/min/1.73 m(2) was 0.94 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.63-1.35], and the prevalence of children with CKD Stages 3-5 [National Kidney Foundation-Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI)] was 2600 (95% CI 1100-5100) per million age related population. The mean eGFR was found to increase with age; the ratios of children with eGFR <90 and <75 mL/min/1.73 m(2) were higher in younger age groups. The frequencies of overweight and obese children were 9.3 and 8.9%, respectively, and the mean eGFR was lower in patients with higher body mass index. The prevalence of hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia was 6.1 and 5.8%, respectively; the mean eGFR was lower in children with hypercholesterolaemia. This is the first population-based CKD study performed in

  19. [Prevalence of weapons possession and associated factors and involvement in physical aggression among adolescents 15 to 18 years of age: a population-based study].

    PubMed

    Silva, Ricardo Azevedo da; Jansen, Karen; Godoy, Russélia Vanila; Souza, Luciano Dias Mattos; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares

    2009-12-01

    This cross-sectional, population-based study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of weapons possession and associated factors and involvement in physical aggression among adolescents 15 to 18 years of age (n = 960) in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Ninety of the city's 448 census tracts were selected, and 86 houses in each tract were visited. The statistical analysis used Poisson regression. Prevalence rates in the sample were 22.8% for involvement in fights with physical aggression and 9.6% for weapons possession in the previous 12 months. The study concluded that young males that use alcohol and/or illegal drugs and present minor psychiatric disorders show a higher probability of weapons possession and involvement in physical fights.

  20. Out-of-pocket costs for cancer survivors between 5 and 10 years from diagnosis: an Italian population-based study.

    PubMed

    Baili, Paolo; Di Salvo, Francesca; de Lorenzo, Francesco; Maietta, Francesco; Pinto, Carmine; Rizzotto, Vera; Vicentini, Massimo; Rossi, Paolo Giorgi; Tumino, Rosario; Rollo, Patrizia Concetta; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Contiero, Paolo; Candela, Pina; Scuderi, Tiziana; Iannelli, Elisabetta; Cascinu, Stefano; Aurora, Fulvio; Agresti, Roberto; Turco, Alberto; Sant, Milena; Meneghini, Elisabetta; Micheli, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    To illustrate the out-of-pocket (OOP) costs incurred by a population-based group of patients from 5 to 10 years since their cancer diagnosis in a country with a nationwide public health system. Interviews on OOP costs to a sample of 5-10 year prevalent cases randomly extracted from four population-based cancer registries (CRs), two in the north and two in the south of Italy. The patients' general practitioners (GPs) gave assurance about the patient's physical and psychological condition for the interview. A zero-inflated negative binomial model was used to analyze OOP cost determinants. Two hundred six cancer patients were interviewed (48 % of the original sample). On average, a patient in the north spent €69 monthly, against €244 in the south. The main differences are for transport, room, and board (TRB) to reach the hospital and/or the cancer specialist (north €0; south €119). Everywhere, OOP costs without TRB costs were higher for patients with a low quality of life. Despite the limited participation, our study sample's characteristics are similar to those of the Italian cancer prevalence population, allowing us to generalize the results. The higher OOP costs in the south may be due to the scarcity of oncologic structures, obliging patients to seek assistance far from their residence. Implications for cancer survivors Cancer survivors need descriptive studies to show realistic data about their status. Future Italian and European descriptive studies on cancer survivorship should be based on population CRs and involve GPs in order to approach the patient at best.

  1. Health Care Cost Analysis in a Population-based Inception Cohort of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients in the First Year of Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Niewiadomski, Olga; Studd, Corrie; Hair, Christopher; Wilson, Jarrad; McNeill, John; Knight, Ross; Prewett, Emily; Dabkowski, Paul; Dowling, Damian; Alexander, Sina; Allen, Benjamin; Tacey, Mark; Connell, William; Desmond, Paul; Bell, Sally

    2015-11-01

    There are limited prospective population-based data on the health care cost of IBD in the post-biologicals era. A prospective registry that included all incident cases of inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] was established to study disease progress and health cost. To prospectively assess health care costs in the first year of diagnosis among a well-characterised cohort of newly diagnosed IBD patients. Incident cases of IBD were prospectively identified in 2007-2008 and 2010-2013 from multiple health care providers, and enrolled into the population-based registry. Health care resource utilisation for each patient was collected through active surveillance of case notes and investigations including specialist visits, diagnostic tests, medications, medical hospitalisation, and surgery. Off 276 incident cases of IBD, 252 [91%] were recruited to the registry, and health care cost was calculated for 242 (146 Crohn's disease [CD] and 96 ulcerative colitis [UC] patients). The median cost in CD was higher at A$5905 per patient (interquartile range [IQR]: A$1571-$91,324) than in UC at A$4752 [IQR: A$1488-A$58,072]. In CD, outpatient resources made up 55% of all cost, with medications accounting for 32% of total cost [15% aminosalicylates, 15% biological therapy], followed by surgery [31%], and diagnostic testing [21%]. In UC, medications accounted for 39% of total cost [of which 37% was due to 5-aminosalicylates, and diagnostics 29%; outpatient cost contributed 71% to total cost. In the first year of diagnosis, outpatient resources account for the majority of cost in both CD and UC. Medications are the main cost driver in IBD. Copyright © 2015 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Cancer-specific incidence rates of tuberculosis: A 5-year nationwide population-based study in a country with an intermediate tuberculosis burden.

    PubMed

    Seo, Gi Hyeon; Kim, Min Jae; Seo, Soyoung; Hwang, Boram; Lee, Eugene; Yun, Yujin; Choi, Minsun; Kim, Moonsuk; Kim, Jin Won; Kim, Eu Suk; Kim, Hong Bin; Song, Kyoung-Ho

    2016-09-01

    Population-based studies of the incidence of tuberculosis in cancer patients according to the type of cancer are limited. We investigated the cancer-specific incidence of tuberculosis in a nationwide population-based cohort in a country with an intermediate burden of tuberculosis.We used mandatory National Health Insurance claims data to construct a cancer cohort of adults (aged 20-99 years) with newly diagnosed malignancies other than lung cancer, from January 2008 to December 2012. Patients who developed tuberculosis in this period were identified in the cancer cohort and the general population. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of tuberculosis in the cancer cohort according to type of cancer and time after cancer diagnosis were calculated by comparing the observed incidence rates with those inferred from the age- and gender-specific incidence rates in the general population.A total of 855,382 cancer patients and 1589,876 person-years (py) were observed. A total of 5745 patients developed tuberculosis; the mean incidence rate was 361.3 per 100,000 py, and the SIR was 2.22 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.17-2.27). The incidence rate was highest for hematologic malignancy and lowest for thyroid cancer. It was also highest as 650.1 per 100,000 py, with SIR of 3.70 (CI, 3.57-3.83) for the first 6 months after diagnosis of malignancy and then declined. However, it still remained higher than that of the general population after 24 months (SIR = 1.43, CI, 1.36-1.51).The incidence of tuberculosis increases after diagnosis in patients with malignancies. The risk of tuberculosis differs according to the type of cancer and remains elevated even 24 months after cancer diagnosis. Tuberculosis should be considered an important comorbidity in patients with malignancies.

  3. Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy and its association with quality of life among 2- to 11-year colorectal cancer survivors: results from the population-based PROFILES registry.

    PubMed

    Mols, Floortje; Beijers, Tonneke; Lemmens, Valery; van den Hurk, Corina J; Vreugdenhil, Gerard; van de Poll-Franse, Lonneke V

    2013-07-20

    To gain insight into the prevalence and severity of chemotherapy-induced neuropathy and its influence on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a population-based sample of colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors 2 to 11 years after diagnosis. All alive individuals diagnosed with CRC between 2000 and 2009 as registered by the Dutch population-based Eindhoven Cancer Registry were eligible for participation. Eighty-three percent (n = 1,643) of patients filled out the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ) C30 and the EORTC QLQ Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy 20. The five neuropathy subscale-related symptoms that bothered patients with CRC the most during the past week were erectile problems (42% of men), trouble hearing (11%), trouble opening jars or bottles (11%), tingling toes/feet (10%), and trouble walking stairs or standing up (9%). Additionally, patients who received oxaliplatin more often reported tingling (29% v 8%; P = .001), numbness (17% v 5%; P = .005), and aching or burning pain (13% v 6%; P = .03) in toes/feet compared with those not treated with chemotherapy. They also more often reported tingling toes/feet (29% v 14%; P = .0127) compared with those treated with chemotherapy without oxaliplatin. Those with many neuropathy symptoms (eg, upper 10%) reported statistically significant and clinically relevant worse HRQOL scores on all EORTC QLQ-C30 subscales (all P < .01). Two to 11 years after diagnosis of CRC, neuropathy-related symptoms are still reported, especially sensory symptoms in the lower extremities among those treated with oxaliplatin. Because neuropathy symptoms have a negative influence on HRQOL, these should be screened for and alleviated. Future studies should focus on prevention and relief of chemotherapy-induced neuropathy.

  4. Long term cause specific mortality among 34 489 five year survivors of childhood cancer in Great Britain: population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Fidler, Miranda M; Reulen, Raoul C; Winter, David L; Kelly, Julie; Jenkinson, Helen C; Skinner, Rod; Frobisher, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether modern treatments for cancer are associated with a net increased or decreased risk of death from neoplastic and non-neoplastic causes among survivors of childhood cancer. Design Population based cohort study. Setting British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Participants Nationwide population based cohort of 34 489 five year survivors of childhood cancer with a diagnosis from 1940 to 2006 and followed up until 28 February 2014. Main outcome measures Cause specific standardised mortality ratios and absolute excess risks are reported. Multivariable Poisson regression models were utilised to evaluate the simultaneous effect of risk factors. Likelihood ratio tests were used to test for heterogeneity or trend. Results Overall, 4475 deaths were observed, which was 9.1 (95% confidence interval 8.9 to 9.4) times that expected in the general population, corresponding to 64.2 (95% confidence interval 62.1 to 66.3) excess deaths per 10 000 person years. The number of excess deaths from all causes declined among those treated more recently; those treated during 1990-2006 experienced 30% of the excess number of deaths experienced by those treated before 1970. The corresponding percentages for the decline in excess deaths from recurrence or progression and non-neoplastic causes were 30% and 60%, respectively. Among survivors aged 50-59 years, 41% and 22% of excess deaths were attributable to subsequent primary neoplasms and circulatory conditions, respectively, whereas the corresponding percentages among those aged 60 years or more were 31% and 37%. Conclusions The net effects of changes in cancer treatments, and surveillance and management for late effects, over the period 1940 to 2006 was to reduce the excess number of deaths from both recurrence or progression and non-neoplastic causes among those treated more recently. Among survivors aged 60 years or more, the excess number of deaths from circulatory causes exceeds the excess number

  5. Long term cause specific mortality among 34 489 five year survivors of childhood cancer in Great Britain: population based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Fidler, Miranda M; Reulen, Raoul C; Winter, David L; Kelly, Julie; Jenkinson, Helen C; Skinner, Rod; Frobisher, Clare; Hawkins, Michael M

    2016-09-01

     To determine whether modern treatments for cancer are associated with a net increased or decreased risk of death from neoplastic and non-neoplastic causes among survivors of childhood cancer.  Population based cohort study.  British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.  Nationwide population based cohort of 34 489 five year survivors of childhood cancer with a diagnosis from 1940 to 2006 and followed up until 28 February 2014.  Cause specific standardised mortality ratios and absolute excess risks are reported. Multivariable Poisson regression models were utilised to evaluate the simultaneous effect of risk factors. Likelihood ratio tests were used to test for heterogeneity or trend.  Overall, 4475 deaths were observed, which was 9.1 (95% confidence interval 8.9 to 9.4) times that expected in the general population, corresponding to 64.2 (95% confidence interval 62.1 to 66.3) excess deaths per 10 000 person years. The number of excess deaths from all causes declined among those treated more recently; those treated during 1990-2006 experienced 30% of the excess number of deaths experienced by those treated before 1970. The corresponding percentages for the decline in excess deaths from recurrence or progression and non-neoplastic causes were 30% and 60%, respectively. Among survivors aged 50-59 years, 41% and 22% of excess deaths were attributable to subsequent primary neoplasms and circulatory conditions, respectively, whereas the corresponding percentages among those aged 60 years or more were 31% and 37%.  The net effects of changes in cancer treatments, and surveillance and management for late effects, over the period 1940 to 2006 was to reduce the excess number of deaths from both recurrence or progression and non-neoplastic causes among those treated more recently. Among survivors aged 60 years or more, the excess number of deaths from circulatory causes exceeds the excess number of deaths from subsequent primary neoplasms. The important message for

  6. Characteristics of the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale: results from a population-based stroke cohort at baseline and after one year.

    PubMed

    Appelros, Peter; Terént, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    The National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) results at baseline and after 1 year have never before been accounted for within an unselected population-based stroke sample. Neither has it been shown which individual items in the scale are the most important ones for the outcome in terms of death or dependency after 1 year. The subjects were all patients within a municipality who had their first-ever non-subarachnoidal stroke during 1 year (n = 377). Impairment was evaluated at baseline (within 24-48 h) and after 1 year with the 15-item version of the NIHSS. At the 1-year follow-up, the Modified Rankin Scale was used in order to determine which patients were dependent. Predictors of death and dependency were analysed in logistic regression models. The different NIHSS items, age and gender were used as independent variables. The median NIHSS score was 6 (interquartile range 3-12) at baseline and 1 (interquartile range 0-3) at the 1-year follow-up, when 33% of the patients had died. Of patients scoring less than 4 on baseline NIHSS, 75% were functionally independent after 1 year. Seventeen per cent were functionally dependent and 8% were dead. Independent predictors of death were: age, questions, commands, gaze, alertness and sensation. Independent predictors of dependency were: age, commands, alertness and motor leg. Baseline NIHSS predicts the outcome after 1 year at the group level. Age and any reduction of the level of consciousness on arrival were associated with bad outcome after 1 year. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. Factors associated with the age of the onset of diabetes in women aged 50 years or more: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Valadares, Ana L R; Machado, Vanessa S S; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia S; de Sousa, Maria H; Pinto-Neto, Aarão M

    2014-01-01

    Objective Investigate factors associated with the onset of diabetes in women aged more than 49 years. Design and methods Cross-sectional, population-based study using self-reports with 622 women. The dependent variable was the age of occurrence of diabetes using the life table method. Cox multiple regression models were adjusted to analyse the onset of diabetes according to predictor variables. Sociodemographic, clinical and behavioural factors were evaluated. Results Of the 622 women interviewed, 22.7% had diabetes. The mean age at onset was 56 years. The factors associated with the age of occurrence of diabetes were self-rated health (very good, good) (coefficient=−0.792; SE of the coefficient=0.215; p=0.0001), more than two individuals living in the household (coefficient=0.656, SE of the coefficient=0.223; p=0.003), and body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2) at 20–30 years of age (coefficient= 0.056, SE of the coefficient=0.023; p=0.014). Conclusions Self-rated health considered good or very good was associated with a higher rate of survival without diabetes. Sharing a home with two or more other people and a weight increase at 20–30 years of age was associated with the onset of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25428628

  8. [Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Spanish population aged 60 years-old or more. PREV-ICTUS, a population-based study].

    PubMed

    Llisterri, José Luis; Cea-Calvo, Luis; Martí-Canales, Juan C; Lozano, José V; Aznar, José; Redón, Josep

    2009-02-14

    Information about the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MS) in elderly population is scarce. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of MS in Spanish population=60 years-old and the associated factors. Epidemiological population-based cross-sectional study carried out on a randomized representative simple of subjects aged=60 years-old across the Spanish territory, stratified according to autonomous communities, census and population setting. Demographic, clinical, biochemical and electrocardiographic data were collected. MS was defined following the National Education Cholesterol Program (NCEP) criteria. 7331 subjects -53.4% women; mean age (standard deviation): 71.6 (6.9) years- were included. The prevalence of MS was 39.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 34.5-42.4) and was greater in women (45.2%; 95% CI, 43.7-46.8%) than in men (33.8%; 95% CI, 32.3-35.4%) (p<0.001), and lower in the urban setting. High blood pressure (HBP) was the most prevalent criterion, followed by abdominal obesity and hypertriglyceridemia. Subjects with MS were younger, with higher body mass index and blood pressure, and had more prevalence of organ damage and cardovascular disease (p<0,001). In the multivariate analysis, female gender, HBP, diabetes and abdominal obesity were the most strongly related factors. Four out of 10 subjects aged 60 years-old or more had MS, and this was related mainly to female gender, HBP, obesity and diabetes.

  9. Antibiotic exposure in the first year of life and later treated asthma, a population based birth cohort study of 143,000 children.

    PubMed

    Pitter, Gisella; Ludvigsson, Jonas Filip; Romor, Pierantonio; Zanier, Loris; Zanotti, Renzo; Simonato, Lorenzo; Canova, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies reported an association between antibiotic consumption in the first year of life and later asthma, but results are conflicting and affected by potential biases. We examined this controversial issue in a population-based birth cohort. Using administrative data, we identified 143,163 children born in 1995-2011 in Friuli-Venezia Giulia (Italy) (median follow-up 5.25 years, 927,350 person-years). Antibiotic prescriptions in the first year of life and subsequent treated asthma (defined as ≥2 anti-asthmatic drug prescriptions within a 12-month period) were retrieved from drug prescription records. We estimated incidence rate ratios (IRR) using Poisson regression models, adjusted for perinatal variables and for hospitalizations for infections in the first year of life. We identified 34,957 new-onset asthma cases. Antibiotic consumption in the first year of life increased the risk of new-onset asthma [IRR 1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.48-1.54] with a dose-response relationship (p-trend <0.001). The risk was highest for asthma identified at 13-35 months of life (IRR 2.07, 95% CI 2.00-2.14), but remained statistically significant for asthma identified at 36-71 months (IRR 1.17, 95% CI 1.14-1.21) and at ≥72 months (IRR 1.15, 95% CI 1.08-1.22). Antibiotics increased the risk of current asthma at ≥6 years (IRR 1.35, 95% CI 1.30-1.41) and at ≥13 years of age (IRR 1.19, 95% CI 1.08-1.33). Antibiotic exposure in infancy is associated with an increased risk of asthma up to adolescence. The association detected at older ages is not explained by reverse causation; however, confounding by respiratory infections not leading to hospital admission cannot be excluded.

  10. Tracking of appendicular bone mineral density for 6 years including the pubertal growth spurt: Japanese Population-based Osteoporosis kids cohort study.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yuki; Iki, Masayuki; Ikeda, Yukihiro; Morita, Akemi; Matsukura, Tomoharu; Nishino, Harumi; Yamagami, Takashi; Kagamimori, Sadanobu; Kagawa, Yoshiko; Yoneshima, Hideo

    2011-03-01

    Bone development up to early adulthood plays an important role in determining the risk of osteoporosis later in life. However, bone development in children has not been fully documented by longitudinal studies in Japanese children. The purpose of this study is to determine the degree of tracking of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) from pre-puberty to 6-year follow-up, and to determine the target period to achieve maximal peak aBMD. This study was conducted as the pediatric part of a larger cohort study, the Japanese Population-based Osteoporosis (JPOS) study. Of 448 children aged 9-12 years who completed the baseline survey, 225 participated in the follow-up study 6 years later (follow-up rate: 50.2%). aBMD at the forearm was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. aBMD values in pre-pubertal children at baseline showed a significant tracking correlation with aBMD obtained at 6-year follow-up in both genders (boys r = 0.655, girls r = 0.759). Although boys and girls in the lowest quartile of aBMD pre-pubertally had greater annual increases in aBMD from pre-puberty to 6-year follow-up than those in other aBMD quartiles, they still showed the lowest mean aBMD at 6-year follow-up. Children with lower pre-pubertal aBMD showed greater increases in BMD up until 6-year follow-up, but the increase was not great enough to catch up with other children. About 50% of the variance in aBMD at 6-year follow-up was determined by the aBMD achieved during the pre-pubertal period. Activities that increase aBMD are important not only for children during puberty, but also for younger pre-pubertal children.

  11. Higher Risk of Thyroid Disorders in Young Patients with Type 1 Diabetes: A 12-Year Nationwide, Population-Based, Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Kuang-Yung; Koo, Malcolm; Lai, Ning-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Background The association between type 1 diabetes and thyroid autoimmunity has been studied in various populations, but seldom on Taiwanese children and adolescents. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the incidence of autoimmune thyroid disorders in Taiwanese children and adolescent patients with type 1 diabetes, based on data from a nationwide, population-based, health claims database. Methods Using Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database, we identified 3,652 patients with type 1 diabetes between 2000 and 2012. A comparison cohort was assembled, which consisted of five patients without type 1 diabetes, based on frequency matching for sex and 3-year age interval, for each patient with type 1 diabetes. Both groups were followed until diagnosis of thyroid disorders or the end of the follow-up period. Poisson regression models were used to calculate incidence rate ratios for the thyroid disorders between the type 1 diabetes cohort and the comparison cohort. Results Simple and unspecified goiter (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification [ICD-9-CM] code 240), thyrotoxicosis (ICD-9-CM code 242), unspecified hypothyroidism (ICD-9-CM code 244.9), and thyroiditis (ICD-9-CM code 245) showed significantly higher incidences in the type 1 diabetes cohort compared with the control cohort, with incidence rate ratios of 2.74, 6.95, 6.54, 16.07, respectively. Conclusions Findings from this nationwide, population-based cohort study showed that the incidences of autoimmune thyroid disorders were significantly higher in Taiwanese children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes compared with those without the disease. PMID:27007574

  12. Place of death for the ‘oldest old’: ≥85-year-olds in the CC75C population-based cohort

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Jane; Zhao, Jun; Farquhar, Morag; Brayne, Carol; Barclay, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Background Deaths are rising fastest among the oldest old but data on their transitions in place of care at the end of life are scarce. Aim To examine the place of residence or care of ≥85 year-olds less than a year before death, and their place of death, and to map individual changes between the two. Design of study Population-based cohort study. Setting Cambridge City over-75s Cohort (CC75C) study, UK. Method Retrospective analysis of prospective data from males and females aged ≥85 years at death who died within a year of taking part in any CC75C survey (n = 320); death certificate linkage. Results Only 7% changed their address in their last year of life, yet 52% died somewhere other than their usual address at the time of death. Over two-thirds were living in the community when interviewed <1 year before death, but less than one-third who had lived at home died there (less than one-fifth in sheltered housing). Care homes were the usual address of most people dying there (77% in residential homes, 87% in nursing homes) but 15% of deaths in acute hospital came from care homes. Conclusion More than half the study sample of individuals of advanced old age had a change in their place of residence or care in their last year of life. These findings add weight to calls for improved end-of-life care in all settings, regardless of age, to avoid unnecessary transfers. The study data provide a baseline that can help plan and monitor initiatives to promote choice in location of care at the end of life for the very old. PMID:20353663

  13. Cancer in adolescents and young adults (15-29 years): a population-based study in the Netherlands 1989-2009.

    PubMed

    Aben, Katja K; van Gaal, Carlijn; van Gils, Nienke A; van der Graaf, Winette T; Zielhuis, Gerhard A

    2012-09-01

    Cancer among adolescents and young adults (AYAs; 15-29 years old) is relatively rare but its incidence is increasing worldwide. To define the extent and nature of the AYA patients, this population-based study was performed to explore trends in cancer incidence, survival and risk of second primary cancers in AYAs. Data from all AYAs diagnosed with cancer between 1989 and 2009 were obtained from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Age-standardized incidence rates with estimated annual percentage of change (EAPC) and five-year relative survival rates were calculated. Relative survival was used as a good approximation of cause-specific survival. All analyses were stratified by gender, five-year age group and calendar period. In addition, Standardized Incidence Ratios were determined to evaluate the risk of second primary cancers. 23 161 AYAs were diagnosed with cancer between 1989 and 2009. Since 1989 the cancer incidence has increased significantly from 28 to 43 per 100 000 person years in males (EAPC: 1.9) and from 30 to 40 per 100 000 person years in females (EAPC: 1.4). The most frequently diagnosed cancers in male AYAs included testicular cancer, melanoma and Hodgkin's disease, whereas in females melanoma, breast cancer and Hodgkin's disease were the most frequently occurring cancers. Five-year relative survival rates were 80% and 82% for males and females, respectively. Over time, the five-year relative survival increased from 74% to 86% and from 79% to 86% in males and females, respectively. The risk of developing a second primary cancer was increased three to six times in males and two to five times in females, depending on rules for counting second primary cancers. Although the overall survival has improved over time, the progress made in AYAs for specific cancers is still less compared to improvements made in children and adults. This and the increasing incidence and high risk of second primary cancers warrants further research.

  14. Periodontitis exposure within one year before anti-diabetic treatment and the risk of rheumatoid arthritis in diabetes mellitus patients: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsin-Hua; Chen, Der-Yuan; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lai, Kuo-Lung; Chen, Yi-Ming; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Chou, Pesus; Lin, Ching-Heng; Huang, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    To examine whether a history of periodontitis (PD) before anti-diabetic treatment is associated with risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) development in newly-treated diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study using the 1997-2009 National Health Insurance (NHI) claims data of one million representative individuals from all NHI enrollees. Adults with DM (aged ≥ 20 years) starting anti-diabetic treatment during 2001-2009 were classified as newly-treated DM patients. We identified 7097 DM subjects with PD history within one year before initiating anti-diabetes treatment (index date). By matching these 7097 subjects for age on the index date, sex, and year of the index date, we randomly extracted 14,194 DM subjects without PD history within one year before antidiabetic treatment. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated by applying Cox proportional hazards models to quantify the association between PD history and RA risk. Compared with DM patients without PD exposure within one year before anti-diabetic treatment, crude HR and adjusted HR of RA among DM patients with PD exposure within one year before anti-diabetic treatment were 4.51 (95% CI, 1.39-14.64) and 3.77 (95% CI, 1.48-9.60). PD exposure within one year before anti-diabetic treatment was associated with increased RA risk in newly treated DM patients. The lack of knowledge about individual smoking status is a major limitation of this study.

  15. A 9-year prospective population-based study on the association between the APOE*E4 allele and late-life depression in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Skoog, Ingmar; Waern, Margda; Duberstein, Paul; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Börjesson-Hanson, Anne; Östling, Svante; Guo, Xinxin; Kern, Jürgen; Gustafson, Deborah; Gudmundsson, Pia; Marlow, Thomas; Kern, Silke

    2015-11-15

    It is well established that there is an association between the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele (APOE*E4) and Alzheimer's disease. It is less clear whether there is also an association with geriatric depression. We examined the relationship between APOE*E4 and 5-year incidence of depression in a Swedish population-based sample of older adults without dementia and excluding older adults who developed dementia within 4 years after the diagnosis of depression. In 2000-2001, 839 women and men (age range, 70-92 years; mean age, 73.8 years) free from dementia and depression underwent neuropsychiatric and neuropsychological examinations and genotyping of the APOE*E4 allele. Follow-up evaluations were conducted in 2005 and 2009.The association between APOE*E4 allele and 5-year incidence of depression was examined, while avoiding possible confounding effects of clinical or preclinical dementia by excluding participants who had dementia at study entry, subsequently developed dementia during the 9-year follow-up period, or had a decline in Mini-Mental State Examination score of ≥5 points. Among subjects without depression at study entry and without dementia or significant cognitive decline during the subsequent 9 years, APOE*E4 was prospectively associated with more severe depressive symptoms (b = 1.56, p = .007), incident minor depression (odds ratio = 1.99 [confidence interval = 1.11-3.55], p = .020), and any depression (odds ratio = 1.75 [confidence interval = 1.01-3.03], p = .048). The presence of the APOE*E4 allele predicted future depression in this Swedish population study, even after excluding depressed individuals who later developed dementia, suggesting that the APOE*E4 allele could potentially identify people at high risk for clinically significant depression. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Natural History of Dependency in the Elderly: A 24-Year Population-Based Study Using a Longitudinal Item Response Theory Model.

    PubMed

    Edjolo, Arlette; Proust-Lima, Cécile; Delva, Fleur; Dartigues, Jean-François; Pérès, Karine

    2016-02-15

    We aimed to describe the hierarchical structure of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) and basic Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and trajectories of dependency before death in an elderly population using item response theory methodology. Data were obtained from a population-based French cohort study, the Personnes Agées QUID (PAQUID) Study, of persons aged ≥65 years at baseline in 1988 who were recruited from 75 randomly selected areas in Gironde and Dordogne. We evaluated IADL and ADL data collected at home every 2-3 years over a 24-year period (1988-2012) for 3,238 deceased participants (43.9% men). We used a longitudinal item response theory model to investigate the item sequence of 11 IADL and ADL combined into a single scale and functional trajectories adjusted for education, sex, and age at death. The findings confirmed the earliest losses in IADL (shopping, transporting, finances) at the partial limitation level, and then an overlapping of concomitant IADL and ADL, with bathing and dressing being the earliest ADL losses, and finally total losses for toileting, continence, eating, and transferring. Functional trajectories were sex-specific, with a benefit of high education that persisted until death in men but was only transient in women. An in-depth understanding of this sequence provides an early warning of functional decline for better adaptation of medical and social care in the elderly.

  17. Risk factors for depressive disorders in very old age: a population-based cohort study with a 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Petersson, Sofia; Mathillas, Johan; Wallin, Karin; Olofsson, Birgitta; Allard, Per; Gustafson, Yngve

    2014-05-01

    Depressive disorders are common among the very old, but insufficiently studied. The present study aims to identify risk factors for depressive disorders in very old age. The present study is based on the GERDA project, a population-based cohort study of people aged ≥85 years (n = 567), with 5 years between baseline and follow-up. Factors associated with the development of depressive disorders according to DSM-IV criteria at follow-up were analysed by means of a multivariate logistic regression. At baseline, depressive disorders were present in 32.3 % of the participants. At follow-up, 69 % of those with baseline depressive disorders had died. Of the 49 survivors, 38 still had depressive disorders. Of the participants without depressive disorders at baseline, 25.5 % had developed depressive disorders at follow-up. Baseline factors independently associated with new cases of depressive disorders after 5 years were hypertension, a history of stroke and 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale score at baseline. The present study supports the earlier findings that depressive disorders among the very old are common, chronic and malignant. Mild depressive symptoms as indicated by GDS-15 score and history of stroke or hypertension seem to be important risk factors for incident depressive disorders in very old age.

  18. Changes Over Time in the Health of Caregivers of Children With Health Problems: Growth-Curve Findings From a 10-Year Canadian Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Garner, Rochelle E.; Miller, Anton R.; Lach, Lucyna M.; Klassen, Anne F.; Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Kohen, Dafna E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We used Canadian population-based data to examine changes in the health of caregivers of children with complex health problems compared with caregivers of healthy children over a 10-year time period. Methods. The National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth collected data biennially from 9401 children and their caregivers in 6 waves from 1994–1995 to 2004–2005. We conducted growth-curve analyses of these data to model self-reported general health and depressive symptoms for 4 groups of caregivers: caregivers of healthy children, and caregivers of children with 1, 2, or at least 3 of 4 conceptually distinct indicators of child health problems. We modeled covariates for children (age, gender, only-child status) and caregivers (age, gender, education, income, marital status). Results. After we controlled for covariates, caregiver health outcomes worsened incrementally with increasing complexity of child health problems. Change in self-reported general health and depressive symptoms over the 10-year period was consistent across all groups of caregivers. Conclusions. Poorer health among caregivers of children with health problems can persist for many years and is associated with complexity of child health problems. Attention to parental health should form a component of health care services for children with health problems. PMID:22021302

  19. Patterns and predictors of sitting time over ten years in a large population-based Canadian sample: Findings from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos).

    PubMed

    Gebel, Klaus; Pont, Sarah; Ding, Ding; Bauman, Adrian E; Chau, Josephine Y; Berger, Claudie; Prior, Jerilynn C

    2017-03-01

    Our objective was to describe patterns and predictors of sedentary behavior (sitting time) over 10 years among a large Canadian cohort. Data are from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study, a prospective study of women and men randomly selected from the general population. Respondents reported socio-demographics, lifestyle behaviors and health outcomes in interviewer-administered questionnaires; weight and height were measured. Baseline data were collected between 1995 and 1997 (n = 9418; participation rate = 42%), and at 5- (n = 7648) and 10-year follow-ups (n = 5567). Total sitting time was summed across domain-specific questions at three time points and dichotomized into "low" (≤ 7 h/day) and "high" (> 7 h/day), based on recent meta-analytic evidence on time sitting and all-cause mortality. Ten-year sitting patterns were classified as "consistently high", "consistently low", "increased", "decreased", and "mixed". Predictors of sedentary behavior patterns were explored using chi-square tests, ANOVA and logistic regression. At baseline (mean age = 62.1 years ± 13.4) average sitting was 6.9 h/day; it was 7.0 at 5- and 10-year follow-ups (p for trend = 0.12). Overall 23% reported consistently high sitting time, 22% consistently low sitting, 14% decreased sitting, 17% increased sitting with 24% mixed patterns. Consistently high sitters were more likely to be men, university educated, full-time employed, obese, and to report consistently low physical activity levels. This is one of the first population-based studies to explore patterns of sedentary behavior (multi-domain sitting) within men and women over years. Risk classification of sitting among many adults changed during follow-up. Thus, studies of sitting and health would benefit from multiple measures of sitting over time.

  20. Rates and Risk Factors for Recurrent Pneumonia in Patients Hospitalized With Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study With 5 Years of Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Dang, T. T.; Eurich, D. T.; Weir, D. L.; Marrie, T. J.; Majumdar, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The rates and risk factors for developing recurrent pneumonia following hospitalization with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are poorly understood. Methods. We examined a population-based cohort of patients with CAP who survived hospital admission and who were free of pneumonia for at least 3 months. We collected clinical, functional, and medication-related information and pneumonia severity index (PSI). Using linked databases we followed patients for 5 years and captured any clinical episode of pneumonia 90 days or more post-discharge. We used Cox proportional hazards models (adjusted for age, sex, PSI, functional status, medications) to determine rates and independent correlates of recurrent pneumonia. Results. The final cohort included 2709 inpatients; 43% were 75 years or older, 34% were not fully independent, and 56% had severe pneumonia. Over 5 years of follow–up, 245 (9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8%–10%) patients developed recurrent pneumonia, and 156 (64%) of these episodes required hospitalization. Rate of recurrence was 3.0/100 person–years and median time to recurrence was 317 days (interquartile range, 177–569); 32 (13%) patients had 2 or more recurrences. In multivariable analyses only age >75 years (adjusted P = .047) and less than fully independent functional status (12% recurrence rate with impaired functional status vs 7% for fully independent; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3–2.2; P < .001) were significantly associated with recurrent pneumonia. Conclusions. One of 11 patients who survived CAP hospitalization had recurrent pneumonia over 5 years and those with impaired functional status were at particularly high risk. Recurrent pneumonia is common and more attention to preventive strategies at discharge and closer follow-up over the long-term seem warranted. PMID:24729503

  1. Respiratory health and disease in a UK population-based cohort of 85 year olds: The Newcastle 85+ Study

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Andrew J; Yadegarfar, Mohammad E; Collerton, Joanna; Small, Therese; Kirkwood, Thomas B L; Davies, Karen; Jagger, Carol; Corris, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Background People aged 85 years and older are the fastest growing age group worldwide. This study assessed respiratory health, prevalence of respiratory disease and use of spirometry in respiratory diagnosis in a population-based cohort of 85 year olds to better understand respiratory health and disease in this sector of society. Methods A single year birth-cohort of 85 year olds participated in a respiratory assessment at their home or residential institution including self-reporting of symptoms and measurement of spirometry. General practice medical records were reviewed for respiratory diagnoses and treatments. Findings In the 845 participants, a substantial burden of respiratory disease was seen with a prevalence of COPD in medical records of 16.6% (n=140). A large proportion of the cohort had environmental exposures through past or current smoking (64.2%, n=539) and occupational risk factors (33.6%, n=269). Spirometry meeting reliability criteria was performed in 87% (n=737) of participants. In the subgroup with a diagnosis of COPD (n=123), only 75.6% (n=93) satisfied Global Initiative in Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria for airflow obstruction, and in a healthy subgroup without respiratory symptoms or diagnoses (n=151), 44.4% (n=67) reached GOLD criteria for airflow obstruction and 43.3% (n=29) National Institute of Health and Care Excellence criteria for at least moderate COPD. Interpretation Spirometry can be successfully performed in the very old, aged 85 years, and may help identify respiratory diseases such as COPD. However interpretation in this age group using current definitions of COPD based on spirometry indices may be difficult and lead to overdiagnosis in a healthy group with transient symptoms. PMID:26732736

  2. Respiratory health and disease in a U.K. population-based cohort of 85 year olds: The Newcastle 85+ Study.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Andrew J; Yadegarfar, Mohammad E; Collerton, Joanna; Small, Therese; Kirkwood, Thomas B L; Davies, Karen; Jagger, Carol; Corris, Paul A

    2016-03-01

    People aged 85 years and older are the fastest growing age group worldwide. This study assessed respiratory health, prevalence of respiratory disease and use of spirometry in respiratory diagnosis in a population-based cohort of 85 year olds to better understand respiratory health and disease in this sector of society. A single year birth-cohort of 85 year olds participated in a respiratory assessment at their home or residential institution including self-reporting of symptoms and measurement of spirometry. General practice medical records were reviewed for respiratory diagnoses and treatments. In the 845 participants, a substantial burden of respiratory disease was seen with a prevalence of COPD in medical records of 16.6% (n=140). A large proportion of the cohort had environmental exposures through past or current smoking (64.2%, n=539) and occupational risk factors (33.6%, n=269). Spirometry meeting reliability criteria was performed in 87% (n=737) of participants. In the subgroup with a diagnosis of COPD (n=123), only 75.6% (n=93) satisfied Global Initiative in Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria for airflow obstruction, and in a healthy subgroup without respiratory symptoms or diagnoses (n=151), 44.4% (n=67) reached GOLD criteria for airflow obstruction and 43.3% (n=29) National Institute of Health and Care Excellence criteria for at least moderate COPD. Spirometry can be successfully performed in the very old, aged 85 years, and may help identify respiratory diseases such as COPD. However interpretation in this age group using current definitions of COPD based on spirometry indices may be difficult and lead to overdiagnosis in a healthy group with transient symptoms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Relationship between distal radius fracture malunion and arm-related disability: A prospective population-based cohort study with 1-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Distal radius fracture is a common injury and may result in substantial dysfunction and pain. The purpose was to investigate the relationship between distal radius fracture malunion and arm-related disability. Methods The prospective population-based cohort study included 143 consecutive patients above 18 years with an acute distal radius fracture treated with closed reduction and either cast (55 patients) or external and/or percutaneous pin fixation (88 patients). The patients were evaluated with the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) questionnaire at baseline (concerning disabilities before fracture) and one year after fracture. The 1-year follow-up included the SF-12 health status questionnaire and clinical and radiographic examinations. Patients were classified into three hypothesized severity categories based on fracture malunion; no malunion, malunion involving either dorsal tilt (>10 degrees) or ulnar variance (≥1 mm), and combined malunion involving both dorsal tilt and ulnar variance. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to determine the relationship between the 1-year DASH score and malunion and the relative risk (RR) of obtaining DASH score ≥15 and the number needed to harm (NNH) were calculated. Results The mean DASH score at one year after fracture was significantly higher by a minimum of 10 points with each malunion severity category. The RR for persistent disability was 2.5 if the fracture healed with malunion involving either dorsal tilt or ulnar variance and 3.7 if the fracture healed with combined malunion. The NNH was 2.5 (95% CI 1.8-5.4). Malunion had a statistically significant relationship with worse SF-12 score (physical health) and grip strength. Conclusion Malunion after distal radius fracture was associated with higher arm-related disability regardless of age. PMID:21232088

  4. Epidemiology of Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Among Persons Older Than 21 Years: A Population-Based Study in South Carolina, 1998-2012.

    PubMed

    Selassie, Anbesaw; Cao, Yue; Saunders, Lee L

    2015-01-01

    A gap exists in the current knowledge regarding the epidemiology of traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) in a statewide population. To describe population-based epidemiology and trend of TSCI in persons 22 years and older in South Carolina over a 15-year period from 1998 through 2012. Data on patients with TSCI were obtained from ongoing statewide TSCI surveillance and follow-up registry. Deaths were ascertained by linking surveillance files and the multiple cause-of-death dataset. Descriptive analyses were completed, and incidence and mortality rates were calculated based on the civilian adult population of the state. Over the 15 years, 3,365 persons with incident TSCI were discharged alive from acute care hospitalization, of whom 555 died during the period of observation. Age-standardized cumulative mortality rate was 14 per million, and the average incidence rate was estimated at 70.8 per million population per year. Age-standardized incidence rate of TSCI increased significantly from 66.9 in 1998 to 111.7 per million in 2012. Standardized incidence rates were significantly higher among non-Whites and males. Motor vehicle crashes and falls were the leading causes, accounting for nearly 70% of TSCI. Standardized incidence and mortality rates of TSCI in South Carolina are higher than reported rates for the US population. Motor vehicle crashes and falls are the leading causes of TSCI. There was a significant increase in the overall trend of the incidence rates over the 15 years. A well-coordinated preventive strategy is needed to reduce incidence and improve survival of persons with TSCI.

  5. The association of low birth weight with serum C reactive protein in 3-year-old children living in Cuba: A population-based prospective study.

    PubMed

    Josefina Venero-Fernández, Silvia; Fundora-Hernández, Hermes; Batista-Gutierrez, Lourdes; Suárez-Medina, Ramón; de la C Mora-Faife, Esperanza; García-García, Gladys; Del Valle-Infante, Ileana; Gómez-Marrero, Liem; Britton, John; Fogarty, Andrew W

    2017-05-06

    Low birthweight is associated with a decreased risk of childhood leukemia and an increased risk of both cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in adult life. Possible biological mediators include systemic innate immunity and inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that birthweight was inversely associated with serum high sensitivity C reactive protein assay (hsCRP), a measure of both innate immunity and systemic inflammation. Data on birthweight and current anthropometric measures along with a range of exposures were collected at 1 and 3 years of age in a population-based cohort study of young children living in Havana, Cuba. A total of 986 children aged 3-years-old provided blood samples that were analyzed for serum hsCRP levels. Nearly 49% of children had detectable hsCRP levels in their serum. Lower birthweight was linearly associated with the natural log of hsCRP levels (beta coefficient -0.70 mg L(-1) per kg increase in birthweight, 95% CI: -1.34 to -0.06). This was attenuated but still present after adjustment for the child's sex and municipality (-0.65 mg L(-1) per kg birthweight; 95% CI: -1.38 to +0.08). There were no associations between growth from birth or anthropometric measures at 3 years and systemic inflammation. Birthweight was inversely associated with serum hsCRP levels in children aged 3 years living in Cuba. These observations provide a potential mechanism that is present at the age of 3 years to explain the association between low birthweight and both decreased childhood leukemia and increased cardiovascular disease in adults. © 2016 The Authors American Journal of Human Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Impact of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine on incidence and mortality after pneumonia in adults aged ≥ 60 years - a population-based retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kolditz, Martin; Schmitt, Jochen; Pletz, Mathias W; Tesch, Falko

    2017-08-19

    The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) is recommended for prevention of pneumococcal diseases in adults at risk. Few data exist on time- age- and sex-dependent vaccine effectiveness on outcomes in pneumonia. We performed a population based cohort study including adults ≥ 60 years of age (n=738.927) based on statutory health insurance data 2005-2011. Primary outcomes were all-cause pneumonia incidence and 30-day all-cause mortality. Pneumonia was identified via ICD-10 codes, ambulatory cases validated by antibiotic prescription within 7 days. The effect of PPV within 5 years was analysed after propensity score based matching (three controls per case with PPV vaccination) including comorbidities, care status, age, sex, and influenza vaccination. Evaluations were stratified by age group, sex and time of PPV. Two-year incidence of all-cause pneumonia in 213.431 vaccinated individuals was 7501/213.431 (3.51%) versus 23.243/640.293 (3.63%) in matched controls (difference -0.11, 95%CI -0.22-0.002, p=0.046). After sex-dependent analysis, PPV effectiveness on pneumonia incidence was observed only in females (difference -0.15, 95% CI -0.28 - -0.02, p=0.02). 30-day mortality in vaccinated individuals with pneumonia was 1302/7501 (17.36%) versus 4267/22.503 (18.96%) in matched controls (difference -1.60%, 95%CI -2.83-0.38, p=0.011). After analysis according to age group, significant mortality reduction was present only in adults of 60 to 79 years (difference -2.31, 95% CI -3.79 - -0.83, p=0.002). Year of PPV vaccination showed no effect on outcomes. The findings support consideration of sex- and age-dependence of PPV effectiveness within further studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Cardiovascular disease in Adult Life after Childhood Cancer in Scandinavia: A population-based cohort study of 32,308 one-year survivors.

    PubMed

    Gudmundsdottir, Thorgerdur; Winther, Jeanette F; de Fine Licht, Sofie; Bonnesen, Trine G; Asdahl, Peter H; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Anderson, Harald; Wesenberg, Finn; Malila, Nea; Hasle, Henrik; Olsen, Jørgen H

    2015-09-01

    The lifetime risk for cardiovascular disease in a large cohort of childhood cancer survivors has not been fully assessed. In a retrospective population-based cohort study predicated on comprehensive national health registers, we identified a cohort of 32,308 one-year survivors of cancer diagnosed before the age of 20 in the five Nordic countries between the start of cancer registration in the 1940s and 1950s to 2008; 211,489 population comparison subjects were selected from national population registers. Study subjects were linked to national hospital registers, and the observed numbers of first hospital admission for cardiovascular disease among survivors were compared with the expected numbers derived from the population comparison cohort. Cardiovascular disease was diagnosed in 2,632 childhood cancer survivors (8.1%), yielding a standardized hospitalization rate ratio (RR) of 2.1 (95% CI 2.0-2.2) and an overall absolute excess risk (AER) of 324 per 100,000 person-years. At the end of follow-up 12% of the survivors were ≥ 50 years of age and 4.5% ≥ 60 years of age. Risk estimates were significantly increased throughout life, with an AER of ∼500-600 per 100,000 person-years at age ≥ 40. The highest relative risks were seen for heart failure (RR, 5.2; 95% CI 4.5-5.9), valvular dysfunction (4.6; 3.8-5.5) and cerebrovascular diseases (3.7; 3.4-4.1). Survivors of hepatic tumor, Hodgkin lymphoma and leukemia had the highest overall risks for cardiovascular disease, although each main type of childhood cancer had increased risk with different risk profiles. Nordic childhood cancer survivors are at markedly increased risk for cardiovascular disorders throughout life. These findings indicate the need for preventive interventions and continuous follow-up for this rapidly growing population. © 2015 UICC.

  8. Ten-year health service use outcomes in a population-based cohort of 21,000 injured adults: the Manitoba injury outcome study.

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, C. M.; Purdie, D. M.; Kliewer, E. V.; McClure, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify long-term health service use (HSU) following non-fatal injury in adults. METHODS: A retrospective, population-based, matched cohort study identified an inception cohort (1988-91) of injured people who had been hospitalized (ICD-9-CM 800-995) aged 18-64 years (n = 21 032) and a matched non-injured comparison group (n = 21 032) from linked administrative data from Manitoba, Canada. HSU data (on hospitalizations, cumulative length of stay, physician claims and placements in extended care services) were obtained for the 12 months before and 10 years after the injury. Negative binomial and Poisson regressions were used to quantify associations between injury and long-term HSU. FINDINGS: Statistically significant differences in the rates of HSU existed between the injured and non-injured cohorts for the pre-injury year and every year of the follow-up period. After controlling for pre-injury HSU, the attributable risk percentage indicated that 38.7% of all post-injury hospitalizations (n = 25 183), 68.9% of all years spent in hospital (n = 1031), 21.9% of physician claims (n = 269 318) and 77.1% of the care home placements (n = 189) in the injured cohort could be attributed to being injured. CONCLUSION: Many people who survive the initial period following injury, face long periods of inpatient care (and frequent readmissions), high levels of contact with physicians and an increased risk of premature placement in institutional care. Population estimates of the burden of injury could be refined by including long-term non-fatal health consequences and controlling for the effect of pre-injury comorbidity. PMID:17128360

  9. Month of birth and cause-specific mortality between 50 and 80 years: a population-based longitudinal cohort study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Peter; Edstedt Bonamy, Anna-Karin; Granath, Fredrik; Cnattingius, Sven

    2014-02-01

    Month of birth-a proxy for a variety of prenatal and early postnatal exposures including nutritional status, ambient temperature and infections-has been linked to mortality risk in adult life. We assessed the relation between month of birth and cause-specific mortality risk from cardiovascular diseases, infections, tumors and external causes-in ages of more than 50-80 years. In this nation-wide Swedish study, 4,240,338 subjects were followed from 1991 to 2010, using data from population-based health and administrative registries. The relation between month of birth and cause-specific mortality risk was assessed by fitting Cox proportional hazard regression models with attained age as the underlying time scale. In models adjusted for sex and education, month of birth was associated with cardiovascular and infectious mortality, but not with deaths from tumors or external causes. Compared with subjects born in November, a higher cardiovascular mortality was seen in subjects born from January through August, peaking in March/April [hazard ratio (HR) 1.066 compared to November, 95 % CI 1.045-1.086]. The mortality from infections was lowest for the birth months November and December and a distinct peak was observed for September-born (HR 1.108 compared to November, 95 % CI 1.046-1.175). Month of birth is associated with mortality from cardiovascular diseases and infections in ages of more than 50-80 years in Sweden. The mechanisms behind these associations remain to be elucidated.

  10. Prevalence and risk factors of diabetes mellitus in a central district in Islamic Republic of Iran: a population-based study on adults aged 40-80 years.

    PubMed

    Katibeh, M; Hosseini, S; Soleimanizad, R; Manaviat, M R; Kheiri, B; Khabazkhoob, M; Daftarian, N; Dehghan, M H

    2015-09-08

    Previous studies on type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Islamic Republic of Iran were mainly performed in provinces with large populations. This study determined the prevalence and risk factors of diabetes mellitus in an adult population (40-80 years old) from Yazd district. Multistage, systematic cluster random sampling was used in a crosssectional, population-based survey. Demographic, clinical and anthropometric data were collected, with diabetes defined as fasting blood sugar ≥ 7 mmol/L or a positive medical history of diabetes. The age- and sex-standardized prevalence of diabetes in 2090 individuals participants was 24.5% (95% CI: 22.2-26.8%), including 10.5% new cases. For each year of ageing, the prevalence of diabetes increased significantly by 4% and this trend was more pronounced in females than males. Low education and hypertension were significantly associated with diabetes prevalence. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Yazd is greater than the average levels nationwide and those of nearby countries.

  11. A population-based registry as a source of health indicators for rare diseases: the ten-year experience of the Veneto Region’s rare diseases registry

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although rare diseases have become a major public health issue, there is a paucity of population-based data on rare diseases. The aim of this epidemiological study was to provide descriptive figures referring to a sizable group of unrelated rare diseases. Methods Data from the rare diseases registry established in the Veneto Region of north-east Italy (population 4,900,000), referring to the years from 2002 to 2012, were analyzed. The registry is based on a web-based system accessed by different users. Cases are enrolled by two different sources: clinicians working at Centers of expertise officially designated to diagnose and care patients with rare diseases and health professionals working in the local health districts. Deaths of patients are monitored by Death Registry. Results So far, 19,547 patients with rare diseases have been registered, and 23% of them are pediatric cases. The overall raw prevalence of the rare diseases monitored in the population under study is 33.09 per 10,000 inhabitants (95% CI 32.56-33.62), whilst the overall incidence is 3.85 per 10,000 inhabitants (95% CI 3.67-4.03). The most commonly-recorded diagnoses belong to the following nosological groups: congenital malformations (Prevalence: 5.45/10,000), hematological diseases (4.83/10,000), ocular disorders (4.47/10,000), diseases of the nervous system (3.51/10,000), and metabolic disorders (2,95/10,000). Most of the deaths in the study population occur among pediatric patients with congenital malformations, and among adult cases with neurological diseases. Rare diseases of the central nervous system carry the highest fatality rate (71.36/1,000). Rare diseases explain 4.2% of general population Years of Life Lost (YLLs), comparing to 1.2% attributable to infectious diseases and 2.6% to diabetes mellitus. Conclusions Our estimates of the burden of rare diseases at population level confirm that these conditions are a relevant public health issue. Our snapshot of their epidemiology

  12. A population-based registry as a source of health indicators for rare diseases: the ten-year experience of the Veneto Region's rare diseases registry.

    PubMed

    Mazzucato, Monica; Visonà Dalla Pozza, Laura; Manea, Silvia; Minichiello, Cinzia; Facchin, Paola

    2014-03-19

    Although rare diseases have become a major public health issue, there is a paucity of population-based data on rare diseases. The aim of this epidemiological study was to provide descriptive figures referring to a sizable group of unrelated rare diseases. Data from the rare diseases registry established in the Veneto Region of north-east Italy (population 4,900,000), referring to the years from 2002 to 2012, were analyzed. The registry is based on a web-based system accessed by different users. Cases are enrolled by two different sources: clinicians working at Centers of expertise officially designated to diagnose and care patients with rare diseases and health professionals working in the local health districts. Deaths of patients are monitored by Death Registry. So far, 19,547 patients with rare diseases have been registered, and 23% of them are pediatric cases. The overall raw prevalence of the rare diseases monitored in the population under study is 33.09 per 10,000 inhabitants (95% CI 32.56-33.62), whilst the overall incidence is 3.85 per 10,000 inhabitants (95% CI 3.67-4.03). The most commonly-recorded diagnoses belong to the following nosological groups: congenital malformations (Prevalence: 5.45/10,000), hematological diseases (4.83/10,000), ocular disorders (4.47/10,000), diseases of the nervous system (3.51/10,000), and metabolic disorders (2,95/10,000). Most of the deaths in the study population occur among pediatric patients with congenital malformations, and among adult cases with neurological diseases. Rare diseases of the central nervous system carry the highest fatality rate (71.36/1,000). Rare diseases explain 4.2% of general population Years of Life Lost (YLLs), comparing to 1.2% attributable to infectious diseases and 2.6% to diabetes mellitus. Our estimates of the burden of rare diseases at population level confirm that these conditions are a relevant public health issue. Our snapshot of their epidemiology is important for public health planning

  13. Posttraumatic rehabilitation and one year outcome following acute traumatic brain injury (TBI): data from the well defined population based German Prospective Study 2000-2002.

    PubMed

    von Wild, K R H

    2008-01-01

    Follow-up examination to review the one-year outcome of patients after craniocerebral trauma with respect to health related quality of life (QoL) and social reintegration. The data are derived from the prospective controlled, well defined population based, multiple centre study that was performed in Germany for the first time in the years 2000-2001 with emphasis on quality management (structural, process, outcome) and regarding the patient's age, physical troubles, and impaired mental-cognitive, neurobehavioral functioning. TBI severity assessment is according to the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score. Early outcome after rehabilitation is assessed by the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score of patients following rehabilitation and of 63% of all TBI with the aid of follow-up examination (simplified questionnaire) after one year. Catchment areas are Hanover (industrial) and Münster (more rural) with 2,114 million inhabitants. TBI is diagnosed according to ICD 10 S-02, S-04, S-06, S-07, S-09 with at least two of the following symptoms: dizziness or vomiting; retrograde or anterograde amnesia, impaired consciousness, skull fracture, and/or focal neurological impairment. Within one year 6.783 patients (58% male) were examined in the regional hospitals after acute TBI. The regional TBI incidence regarding hospital admission was 321/100.000 TBI. 28% of patients were < 1 to 15 years, 18% > 65 years of age. GCS was only assessed in 55% of patients. They were 90.9% mild, 3.9% moderate, and 5.2% severe TBI. A total of 5.221 TBI (= 77%) was hospitalised; 1.4% of them died. Only 258 patients (= 4.9%) of the hospitalized TBI received in-hospital neurorehabilitation (73% male), 68% within one month after injury. They were 10.9% severe, 23.4% moderate, and 65.7 mild TBI. 5% were < 16 years, 25% > 65 years. One-year follow-up examinations of 4307 individuals (= 63.5% of all TBI) are discussed. A total of 883 patients (= 20.6%) reported posttraumatic troubles, one half were > 64 years

  14. Escalating Health Care Expenditures in Cancer Decedents' Last Year of Life: A Decade of Evidence from a Retrospective Population-Based Cohort Study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yen-Ni; Liu, Tsang-Wu; Wen, Fur-Hsing; Chou, Wen-Chi; Tang, Siew Tzuh

    2017-04-01

    No population-based longitudinal studies on end-of-life (EOL) expenditures were found for cancer decedents. This population-based, retrospective cohort study examined health care expenditures from 2001 to 2010 among 339,546 Taiwanese cancer decedents' last year of life. Individual patient-level data were linked from administrative datasets. Health care expenditures were converted from Taiwan dollars to U.S. dollars by health-specific purchasing power parity conversions to account for different health-purchasing powers. Associations of patient, physician, hospital, and regional factors with EOL care expenditures were evaluated by multilevel linear regression model by generalized estimating equation method. Mean annual EOL care expenditures for Taiwanese cancer decedents increased from 2000 to 2010 from U.S. $49,591 to U.S. $68,773, respectively, with one third of spending occurring in the patients' last month. Increased EOL care expenditures were associated with male gender, younger age, being married, diagnosed with hematological malignancies and cancers other than lung, gastric, and hepatic-pancreatic cancers, and dying within 7-24 months of diagnosis. Patients spent less at EOL when they had higher comorbidities and metastatic disease, died within 6 months of diagnosis, were under care of oncologists, gastroenterologists, and intensivists, and received care at a teaching hospital with more terminally ill cancer patients. Higher EOL care expenditures were associated with greater EOL care intensity at the primary hospital and regional levels. Taiwanese cancer decedents consumed considerable National Health Insurance disbursements at EOL, totaling more than was consumed in six developed non-U.S. countries surveyed in 2010. To slow increasing cost and improve EOL cancer care quality, interventions to ensure appropriate EOL care provision should target hospitals and clinicians less experienced in providing EOL care and those who tend to provide aggressive EOL care to

  15. Epidemiology of severe pneumonia caused by Legionella longbeachae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Chlamydia pneumoniae: 1-year, population-based surveillance for severe pneumonia in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Phares, Christina R; Wangroongsarb, Piyada; Chantra, Somrak; Paveenkitiporn, Wantana; Tondella, Maria-Lucia; Benson, Robert F; Thacker, W Lanier; Fields, Barry S; Moore, Matthew R; Fischer, Julie; Dowell, Scott F; Olsen, Sonja J

    2007-12-15

    Legionella species, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Chlamydia pneumoniae are recognized as important causes of pneumonia in high-income countries, but their significance in middle-income countries, such as Thailand, is unknown. Population-based surveillance identified inpatient 3489 cases of clinically-defined pneumonia in a rural Thai province for 1 year. Patients who had a chest radiograph performed (for 2059 cases of pneumonia) were enrolled in an etiology study (which included 755 cases of pneumonia among 738 patients). Paired serum, nasopharyngeal swab, and urine specimens were obtained for diagnostic immunologic and molecular tests. Patients aged <18 years were not systematically tested for Legionella species. We report a lower limit of incidence (observed incidence) and an upper limit extrapolated to persons not tested or not enrolled in the study. The incidence of pneumonia due to Legionella longbeachae requiring hospitalization was 5-29 cases per 100,000 population. No case of Legionella pneumophila pneumonia was observed. The definite C. pneumoniae pneumonia incidence was 3-23 cases per 100,000 population; rates were highest among patients aged <1 year (18-166 cases per 100,000 population) and those aged >or=70 years (23-201 cases per 100,000 population). M. pneumoniae pneumonia had a similar age distribution, with an overall incidence of 6-44 cases per 100,000 population. These pathogens were associated with 15% of all cases of pneumonia. A nonsignificantly higher proportion of patients with pneumonia associated with L. longbeachae, compared with patients with pneumonia associated with M. pneumoniae or C. pneumoniae, required supplemental oxygen or mechanical ventilation (45% vs. 18%; P<.1). Among patients with atypical pneumonia, only 15% received antibiotics with activity against the associated pathogen. M. pneumoniae, C. pneumoniae, and L. longbeachae, but not L. pneumophila, are frequently associated with severe pneumonia in rural Thailand. Few patients

  16. Quality of life over 5 years in women with breast cancer after breast-conserving therapy versus mastectomy: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Ziegler, Hartwig; Brenner, Hermann

    2008-12-01

    Breast-conserving therapy (BCT) was developed to improve quality of life (QOL) in early stage breast cancer patients. Except for differences in body image, literature comparing the psychosocial sequelae of BCT with mastectomy is ambiguous and shows a lack of substantial benefits. However, knowledge regarding long term effects of treatment on QOL in breast cancer is very limited as most of the pertinent studies have been performed in the early post-operative period. Therefore we compared QOL in women with breast cancer undergoing BCT versus women undergoing mastectomy over a 5-year period following primary surgery. QOL was assessed at 1, 3, and 5 years after diagnosis in a population based cohort of 315 women with early stage breast cancer (UICC stage I-II) from Saarland (Germany) using the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire and the breast cancer specific module BR23. Breast-conserving therapy was performed in 226 women (72%). After control for potential confounding, women with BCT reported better physical and role functioning, were sexually more active and more satisfied with their body image already at 1 year after diagnosis (all P values < 0.05). Differences in overall QOL and social functioning were gradually increasing over time and became statistically significant only at 5 years. Whereas some, very specific benefits of BCT, such as a better body image, are already visible very timely after completion of therapy, benefits in broader measures such as psychosocial well-being and overall quality of life gradually increase over time and become fully apparent only in the long run.

  17. Trends in AIDS-related mortality among people aged 60 years and older in Brazil: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lima, Mauricélia da Silveira; Firmo, Andréa Acioly Maia; Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio

    2016-12-01

    The success of antiretroviral therapy has led to an increase in the number of older people living with human immunodeficiency virus worldwide. This study analyzed the epidemiological patterns and time trends of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) related mortality in people aged 60 and older in Brazil from 2000 to 2011. Secondary mortality data from the Brazilian Mortality Information System was used to perform a nationwide population-based study, which included all AIDS-related deaths among people aged 60 years and older in Brazil from 2000 to 2011. Crude and age-adjusted mortality rates (per 100,000 inhabitants) were calculated by sex, age group and place of residence. Trends over time were assessed using joinpoint regression analysis. In the 12-year study period, 12,491,280 deaths were recorded in Brazil, of which 144,175 were AIDS-related deaths. A total of 8194 AIDS-related deaths was identified in people aged 60 years and older (0.12% of all deaths and 5.7% of AIDS-related deaths). The overall age-adjusted mortality rate for the period was 4.30 deaths/100,000 inhabitants (95% confidence interval: 3.99-4.64). Males (6.45 deaths/100,000 inhabitants), aged 60-64 years (6.63 deaths/100,000 inhabitants) and residing in the South region (5.94 deaths/100,000 inhabitants) had the highest mortality rates. We observed a significant increase in mortality at the national level and in all the Brazilian regions, with a sharper increase in the most socioeconomically disadvantaged regions of the country, such as the North and Northeast. The findings show that AIDS in older people is an increasing public health problem in Brazil, and reinforce the need to establish public policies for the prevention, early diagnosis and appropriate clinical treatment of this age group.

  18. Maternal and Child Health in Mongolia at 3 Years After Childbirth: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study.

    PubMed

    Takehara, Kenji; Dagvadorj, Amarjargal; Hikita, Naoko; Sumya, Narantuya; Ganhuyag, Solongo; Bavuusuren, Bayasgalantai; Ota, Erika; Haruna, Megumi; Yoshida, Mikako; Kita, Sachiko; Noma, Hisashi; Mori, Rintaro

    2016-05-01

    In recent years Mongolia has made great advances towards Millennium Development Goals to reduce maternal and child mortality, however few studies have investigated maternal and child health status several years after childbirth. Our study aims to describe priority health issues in maternal and child health in Mongolia 3 years after childbirth, and key areas requiring further health policy development. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in Bulgan province, Mongolia. Participants were women who gave birth in 2010 and lived in Bulgan in 2013, and their children who were almost 3 years of age. Data was collected using structured interviews, self-administered questionnaires, transcribed records from the Maternal and Child Health Handbook, anthropometric measurements, and a developmental assessment tool. Data was obtained from 1,019 women and 1,013 children (recovery rate: 94.1 %). Among women, 171 (17.2 %) were obese and had an average body mass index (BMI) of 25.7, 40 (4.4 %) experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) and 356 (36.2 %) reported urinary incontinence in the past month. Among children, 110 (10.8 %) were assessed as at risk of developmental delay, 131 (13.1 %) were overweight or obese, burns accounted for the highest number of serious accidents at 173 (17.0 %) while lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) were the most frequent cause of pediatric hospitalization. for Practice Further development in health policy is required in Mongolia to target the significant health challenges of obesity, IPV, and urinary incontinence in women, and obesity, development delay, burns, and LRTIs in children.

  19. Outcomes of population based language promotion for slow to talk toddlers at ages 2 and 3 years: Let's Learn Language cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wake, Melissa; Tobin, Sherryn; Girolametto, Luigi; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Gold, Lisa; Levickis, Penny; Sheehan, Jane; Goldfeld, Sharon; Reilly, Sheena

    2011-08-18

    To determine the benefits of a low intensity parent-toddler language promotion programme delivered to toddlers identified as slow to talk on screening in universal services. Cluster randomised trial nested in a population based survey. Three local government areas in Melbourne, Australia. Parents attending 12 month well child checks over a six month period completed a baseline questionnaire. At 18 months, children at or below the 20th centile on an expressive vocabulary checklist entered the trial. Maternal and child health centres (clusters) were randomly allocated to intervention (modified "You Make the Difference" programme over six weekly sessions) or control ("usual care") arms. The primary outcome was expressive language (Preschool Language Scale-4) at 2 and 3 years; secondary outcomes were receptive language at 2 and 3 years, vocabulary checklist raw score at 2 and 3 years, Expressive Vocabulary Test at 3 years, and Child Behavior Checklist/1.5-5 raw score at 2 and 3 years. 1217 parents completed the baseline survey; 1138 (93.5%) completed the 18 month checklist, when 301 (26.4%) children had vocabulary scores at or below the 20th centile and were randomised (158 intervention, 143 control). 115 (73%) intervention parents attended at least one session (mean 4.5 sessions), and most reported high satisfaction with the programme. Interim outcomes at age 2 years were similar in the two groups. Similarly, at age 3 years, adjusted mean differences (intervention-control) were -2.4 (95% confidence interval -6.2 to 1.4; P=0.21) for expressive language; -0.3 (-4.2 to 3.7; P=0.90) for receptive language; 4.1 (-2.3 to 10.6; P=0.21) for vocabulary checklist; -0.5 (-4.4 to 3.4; P=0.80) for Expressive Vocabulary Test; -0.1 (-1.6 to 1.4; P=0.86) for externalising behaviour problems; and -0.1 (-1.3 to 1.2; P=0. 92) for internalising behaviour problems. This community based programme targeting slow to talk toddlers was feasible and acceptable, but little evidence was found

  20. Outcomes of population based language promotion for slow to talk toddlers at ages 2 and 3 years: Let’s Learn Language cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, Sherryn; Girolametto, Luigi; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Gold, Lisa; Levickis, Penny; Sheehan, Jane; Goldfeld, Sharon; Reilly, Sheena

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the benefits of a low intensity parent-toddler language promotion programme delivered to toddlers identified as slow to talk on screening in universal services. Design Cluster randomised trial nested in a population based survey. Setting Three local government areas in Melbourne, Australia. Participants Parents attending 12 month well child checks over a six month period completed a baseline questionnaire. At 18 months, children at or below the 20th centile on an expressive vocabulary checklist entered the trial. Intervention Maternal and child health centres (clusters) were randomly allocated to intervention (modified “You Make the Difference” programme over six weekly sessions) or control (“usual care”) arms. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was expressive language (Preschool Language Scale-4) at 2 and 3 years; secondary outcomes were receptive language at 2 and 3 years, vocabulary checklist raw score at 2 and 3 years, Expressive Vocabulary Test at 3 years, and Child Behavior Checklist/1.5-5 raw score at 2 and 3 years. Results 1217 parents completed the baseline survey; 1138 (93.5%) completed the 18 month checklist, when 301 (26.4%) children had vocabulary scores at or below the 20th centile and were randomised (158 intervention, 143 control). 115 (73%) intervention parents attended at least one session (mean 4.5 sessions), and most reported high satisfaction with the programme. Interim outcomes at age 2 years were similar in the two groups. Similarly, at age 3 years, adjusted mean differences (intervention−control) were −2.4 (95% confidence interval −6.2 to 1.4; P=0.21) for expressive language; −0.3 (−4.2 to 3.7; P=0.90) for receptive language; 4.1 (−2.3 to 10.6; P=0.21) for vocabulary checklist; −0.5 (−4.4 to 3.4; P=0.80) for Expressive Vocabulary Test; −0.1 (−1.6 to 1.4; P=0.86) for externalising behaviour problems; and −0.1 (−1.3 to 1.2; P=0. 92) for internalising behaviour problems. Conclusion

  1. Natural history of peanut allergy and predictors of resolution in the first 4 years of life: A population-based assessment.

    PubMed

    Peters, Rachel L; Allen, Katrina J; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Koplin, Jennifer J; Dang, Thanh; Tilbrook, Kate P; Lowe, Adrian; Tang, Mimi L K; Gurrin, Lyle C

    2015-05-01

    There are no prospectively collected data available on the natural history of peanut allergy in early childhood. Previous studies of predictors of tolerance development have been biased by failure to challenge high-risk children when IgE antibody levels are high, therefore potentially introducing bias to persistent allergy. We sought to describe the natural history of peanut allergy between 1 and 4 years of age and develop thresholds for skin prick test (SPT) results and specific IgE (sIgE) levels measured at age 1 and 4 years that have 95% positive predictive value (PPV) or negative predictive value for the persistence or resolution of peanut allergy. One-year-old infants with challenge-confirmed peanut allergy (n = 156) from the population-based, longitudinal HealthNuts Study (n = 5276) were followed up at 4 years of age with repeat oral food challenges, SPTs, and sIgE measurements (n = 103). Challenges were undertaken in all peanut-sensitized children at 1 and 4 years of age, irrespective of risk profile. Peanut allergy resolved in 22% (95% CI, 14% to 31%) of children by age 4 years. Decreasing wheal size predicted tolerance, and increasing wheal size was associated with persistence. Thresholds for SPT responses and sIgE levels at age 1 year with a 95% PPV for persistent peanut allergy are an SPT-induced response of 13 mm or greater and an sIgE level of 5.0 kU/L or greater. Thresholds for SPT and sIgE results at age 4 years with a 95% PPV for persistent peanut allergy are an SPT response of 8 mm or greater and an sIgE level of 2.1 kU/L or greater. Ara h 2, tree nut, and house dust mite sensitization; coexisting food allergies; eczema; and asthma were not predictive of persistent peanut allergy. These thresholds are the first to be generated from a unique data set in which all participants underwent oral food challenges at both diagnosis and follow-up, irrespective of SPT and sIgE results. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

  2. Attitudes to HPV vaccination among parents of children aged 12-15 years-a population-based survey in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Dahlström, Lisen A; Tran, Trung N; Lundholm, Cecilia; Young, Cecilia; Sundström, Karin; Sparén, Pär

    2010-01-15

    In this population-based survey undertaken in Sweden in 2007, we investigated correlates of attitudes to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among parents of children aged 12-15 years. We invited 16,000 parents of girls and 4,000 parents of boys, randomly selected from the Swedish population. Response rates were 70 and 69%, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression models were applied to investigate correlates of acceptability to HPV vaccination. Among studied parents, 76% were willing to vaccinate their child if the vaccine is for free and 63% were willing to vaccinate even if the vaccine comes with a cost. Having heard of HPV was associated with both willingness to vaccinate if the vaccine is free (odds ratio [OR]: 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.21-1.66) and willingness to vaccinate even if the vaccine is not free (OR: 1.96; 95% CI: 1.75-2.20) compared with those who never heard of HPV. Beliefs about vaccine safety and efficacy were also strong correlates of willingness to vaccinate. Parents born outside Europe and those with higher education were less willing to vaccinate if the vaccine is not free. In conclusion, the willingness to vaccinate was reasonably high and cost did not appear to be a major barrier. Information about vaccine safety and efficacy is important and parents need information about HPV and the HPV vaccine.

  3. Mental health problems and resilience in international adoptees: Results from a population-based study of Norwegian adolescents aged 16-19 years.

    PubMed

    Askeland, Kristin Gärtner; Hysing, Mari; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Tell, Grethe S; Sivertsen, Børge

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate mental health and resilience in adolescents who have been internationally adopted and their non-adopted peers and examine the potential interaction between adoption status and resilience on mental health problems. Data from the population based youth@hordaland-survey, conducted in Hordaland County, Norway, in 2012 was used. In all, 10 257 adolescents aged 16-19 years provided self-reported data on several mental health instruments. Of these, 45 adolescents were identified as internationally adopted. Adoptees reported more symptoms of depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and perfectionism than non-adopted adolescents, but there were no differences regarding resilience. Adolescents with higher resilience scores reported fewer symptoms of mental health problems, however, no interaction effects were found for adoption status and total resilience score on measures of mental health problems. Our findings indicate that knowledge of resilience factors can form the basis for preventive interventions. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Childhood trajectories of inattention, hyperactivity and oppositional behaviors and prediction of substance abuse/dependence: a 15-year longitudinal population-based study.

    PubMed

    Pingault, J-B; Côté, S M; Galéra, C; Genolini, C; Falissard, B; Vitaro, F; Tremblay, R E

    2013-07-01

    Numerous prospective studies have shown that children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at higher risk of long-term substance abuse/dependence. However, there are three important limits to these studies: (a) most did not differentiate the role of hyperactivity and inattention; (b) most did not control for associated behavioral problems; and (c) most did not consider females. Our aim was to clarify the unique and interactive contributions of childhood inattention and hyperactivity symptoms to early adulthood substance abuse/dependence. Behavioral problems of 1803 participants (814 males) in a population-based longitudinal study were assessed yearly between 6 and 12 years by mothers and teachers. The prevalence of substance abuse/dependence at age 21 years was 30.7% for nicotine, 13.4% for alcohol, 9.1% for cannabis and 2.0% for cocaine. The significant predictors of nicotine dependence were inattention (odds ratio (OR): 2.25; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.63-3.11) and opposition (OR: 1.65; 95%: 1.20-2.28). Only opposition contributed to the prediction of cannabis dependence (OR: 2.33; 95% CI: 1.40-3.87) and cocaine dependence (OR: 2.97; 95% CI: 1.06-8.57). The best behavioral predictor of alcohol abuse/dependence (opposition) was only marginally significant (OR: 1.38; 95% CI: 0.98-1.95). Frequent oppositional behaviors during elementary school were clearly the most pervasive predictors of substance abuse/dependence in early adulthood. The association of childhood ADHD with substance abuse/dependence is largely attributable to its association with opposition problems during childhood. However, inattention remained an important predictor of nicotine dependence, in line with genetic and molecular commonalities between the two phenotypes suggested in the literature.

  5. Sick-leave track record and other potential predictors of a disability pension. A population based study of 8,218 men and women followed for 16 years

    PubMed Central

    Wallman, Thorne; Wedel, Hans; Palmer, Edward; Rosengren, Annika; Johansson, Saga; Eriksson, Henry; Svärdsudd, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Background A number of previous studies have investigated various predictors for being granted a disability pension. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of sick-leave track record as a predictor of being granted a disability pension in a large dataset based on subjects sampled from the general population and followed for a long time. Methods Data from five ongoing population-based Swedish studies was used, supplemented with data on all compensated sick leave periods, disability pensions granted, and vital status, obtained from official registers. The data set included 8,218 men and women followed for 16 years, generated 109,369 person years of observation and 97,160 sickness spells. Various measures of days of sick leave during follow up were used as independent variables and disability pension grant was used as outcome. Results There was a strong relationship between individual sickness spell duration and annual cumulative days of sick leave on the one hand and being granted a disability pension on the other, among both men and women, after adjustment for the effects of marital status, education, household size, smoking habits, geographical area and calendar time period, a proxy for position in the business cycle. The interval between sickness spells showed a corresponding inverse relationship. Of all the variables studied, the number of days of sick leave per year was the most powerful predictor of a disability pension. For both men and women 245 annual sick leave days were needed to reach a 50% probability of transition to disability. The independent variables, taken together, explained 96% of the variation in disability pension grantings. Conclusion The sick-leave track record was the most important predictor of the probability of being granted a disability pension in this study, even when the influences of other variables affecting the outcome were taken into account. PMID:19368715

  6. Childhood Trajectories of Inattention, Hyperactivity and Oppositional Behaviors and Prediction of Substance Abuse/Dependence: A 15-Year Longitudinal Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Côté, Sylvana M.; Galéra, Cédric; Genolini, Christophe; Falissard, Bruno; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous prospective studies have shown that children diagnosed with ADHD are at higher risk of long-term substance abuse/dependence. However, there are two important limits to these studies: a) most did not differentiate the role of hyperactivity and inattention; b) most did not control for associated behavioral problems; c) most did not consider females. Our aim was to clarify the unique and interactive contributions of childhood inattention and hyperactivity symptoms to early adulthood substance abuse/dependence. Behavioral problems of 1804 participants (814 males) in a population-based longitudinal study were assessed yearly between 6 and 12 years by mothers and teachers. The prevalence of substance abuse/dependence at age 21 years was 30.7% for nicotine, 13.4% for alcohol, 9.1 % for cannabis and 2.0% for cocaine. The significant predictors of nicotine dependence were inattention (OR: 2.25; 95% CI: 1.63–3.11) and opposition (OR: 1.65; 95%: 1.20–2.28). Only opposition contributed to the prediction of cannabis dependence (OR: 2.33; 95% CI: 1.40–3.87) and cocaine dependence (OR: 2.97; 95% CI: 1.06–8.57). The best behavioral predictor of alcohol abuse/dependence (opposition) was only marginally significant (OR: 1.38; 95% CI: 0.98–1.95). Frequent oppositional behaviors during elementary school were clearly the most pervasive predictors of substance abuse/dependence in early adulthood. The association of childhood ADHD with substance abuse/dependence is largely attributable to its association with opposition problems during childhood. However, inattention remained a key predictor of nicotine dependence, in line with genetic and molecular commonalities between the two phenotypes suggested in the literature. PMID:22733124

  7. Concomitant NSAID use during antipsychotic treatment and risk of 2-year relapse - a population-based study of 16,253 incident patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Ole; Petersen, Liselotte; Benros, Michael Eriksen; Mors, Ole; Gasse, Christiane

    2016-06-01

    Clinical trials have indicated antipsychotic effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) among incident patients with schizophrenia. We aimed to study, in a population-based setting, whether concomitant use of NSAIDs or paracetamol, changed 2-year relapse risk for schizophrenia. We identified all incident patients with schizophrenia in Denmark diagnosed 1996-2012 initiating antipsychotic treatment within the year after diagnosis. We calculated concomitant treatment intervals for antipsychotic and NSAID or paracetamol use. Hazard rate ratios (HRR) were estimated using Cox regression adjusted for important covariates. 2-year relapse, i.e. (re)-hospitalizations with schizophrenia. Among 16,235 incident patients with schizophrenia using antipsychotics, 1480 (9.1%) used NSAIDs and 767 (4.7%) paracetamol. Concomitant use of NSAIDs was associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia relapse (HRR = 1.21; 95%-CI = 1.11-1.31), particularly associated with acetylsalicylic acid and diclofenac. Concomitant use of paracetamol was not associated with schizophrenia relapse (HRR = 0.97; 95%-CI = 0.87-1.08). Subgroup analyses showed that individuals with somatic comorbidity and NSAID use had an increased relapse-risk, except for individuals with a prior hospital diagnosis for musculoskeletal disease and NSAID use who had a decreased relapse-risk (HRR = 0.82; 95%-CI = 0.71-0.94). The increased relapse risk associated with concomitant NSAID use among incident patients with schizophrenia may indicate a potential impact of underlying somatic comorbidity.

  8. Sick-leave track record and other potential predictors of a disability pension. A population based study of 8,218 men and women followed for 16 years.

    PubMed

    Wallman, Thorne; Wedel, Hans; Palmer, Edward; Rosengren, Annika; Johansson, Saga; Eriksson, Henry; Svärdsudd, Kurt

    2009-04-15

    A number of previous studies have investigated various predictors for being granted a disability pension. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of sick-leave track record as a predictor of being granted a disability pension in a large dataset based on subjects sampled from the general population and followed for a long time. Data from five ongoing population-based Swedish studies was used, supplemented with data on all compensated sick leave periods, disability pensions granted, and vital status, obtained from official registers. The data set included 8,218 men and women followed for 16 years, generated 109,369 person years of observation and 97,160 sickness spells. Various measures of days of sick leave during follow up were used as independent variables and disability pension grant was used as outcome. There was a strong relationship between individual sickness spell duration and annual cumulative days of sick leave on the one hand and being granted a disability pension on the other, among both men and women, after adjustment for the effects of marital status, education, household size, smoking habits, geographical area and calendar time period, a proxy for position in the business cycle. The interval between sickness spells showed a corresponding inverse relationship. Of all the variables studied, the number of days of sick leave per year was the most powerful predictor of a disability pension. For both men and women 245 annual sick leave days were needed to reach a 50% probability of transition to disability. The independent variables, taken together, explained 96% of the variation in disability pension grantings. The sick-leave track record was the most important predictor of the probability of being granted a disability pension in this study, even when the influences of other variables affecting the outcome were taken into account.

  9. Post-term growth and cognitive development at 5 years of age in preterm children: Evidence from a prospective population-based cohort

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Laure; Nusinovici, Simon; Flamant, Cyril; Cariou, Bertrand; Rouger, Valérie; Gascoin, Géraldine; Darmaun, Dominique; Rozé, Jean-Christophe; Hanf, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    While the effects of growth from birth to expected term on the subsequent development of preterm children has attracted plentiful attention, less is known about the effects of post-term growth. We aimed to delineate distinct patterns of post-term growth and to determine their association with the cognitive development of preterm children. Data from a prospective population-based cohort of 3,850 surviving infants born at less than 35 weeks of gestational age were used. Growth was assessed as the Body Mass Index (BMI) Z-scores at 3, 9, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months. Cognitive development at five years of age was evaluated by the Global School Adaptation score (GSA). Latent class analysis was implemented to identify distinct growth patterns and logistic regressions based on propensity matching were used to evaluate the relationship between identified growth trajectories and cognitive development. Four patterns of post-term growth were identified: a normal group with a Z-score consistently around zero during childhood (n = 2,469; 64%); a group with an early rapid rise in the BMI Z-score, but only up to 2 years of age (n = 195; 5%); a group with a slow yet steady rise in the BMI Z-score during childhood (n = 510; 13%); and a group with a negative Z-score growth until 3 years of age (n = 676; 18%). The group with a slow yet steady rise in the BMI Z-score was significantly associated with low GSA scores. Our findings indicate heterogeneous post-term growth of preterm children, with potential for association with their cognitive development. PMID:28350831

  10. Nutritional status of children under 5 years of age in the Brazilian Western Amazon before and after the Interoceanic highway paving: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of undernutrition, overweight and associated factors, before and after the implementation of the Interoceanic Highway. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study on children under 5 years of age was conducted in the municipality of Assis Brasil, AC, Brazil, in 2003 and 2010. Prevalence of undernutrition was observed by using height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) and adopting a cut-off point equal to or lower than a -2 Z-score. Overweight prevalence was defined by a cut-off point equal to or greater than a +2 Z-score of the WHZ index. Z-scores were calculated relative to WHO 2006 reference data. Semi-structured questionnaires were applied to the children’s guardians, investigating family socio-economic and demographic characteristics, morbidities, access to services and child care. Associated factors were identified by hierarchical multiple logistic regression analysis. Results The prevalence of low HAZ (undernutrition) was 7.0% in 2003 and 12.2% in 2010. The prevalence of high WHZ (overweight) was 1.0% and 6.6% for 2003 and 2010, respectively. It was not possible to adjust the multiple model for the year 2003. The factors associated with low HAZ in 2010 were: wealth index, the situation of living with biological parents, maternal height and presence of open sewage, whereas the factors associated with a high WHZ in the same year were: child’s age, mother’s time of residence in the location, mother’s body mass index. Conclusions Overweight increase within this undernutrition scenario reveals that the process of nutritional transition began in this Amazonian city only in the last decade, and therefore, it is delayed when compared to overweight in other parts of Brazil. Such nutritional transition in Assis Brasil may have been facilitated by the construction of the Interoceanic Highway. PMID:24283293

  11. The prevalence of frontal variant frontotemporal dementia and the frontal lobe syndrome in a population based sample of 85 year olds

    PubMed Central

    Gislason, T; Sjogren, M; Larsson, L; Skoog, I

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of the frontal lobe syndrome (FLS) and the frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia (fvFTD) in a population based sample of 85 year olds. Methods: A representative sample of 85 year olds (n = 451) in Gothenburg, Sweden was examined with a neuropsychiatric examination and a key informant interview performed by an experienced psychiatrist. A subsample underwent computed tomography (CT) of the head. The Lund-Manchester research criteria were used as a basis for a symptom algorithm to identify individuals with FLS and fvFTD. These were diagnosed blindly to the diagnosis of dementia according to DSM-III-R. Results: A total of 86 individuals (19%) fulfilled the criteria for FLS, and 14 of them fulfilled criteria for fvFTD. There were no differences between men and women. Among those with FLS, 75 (87%) fulfilled DSM-III-R criteria for other types of dementia, mainly Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Among the 14 fvFTD cases, only five were demented according to DSM-III-R. Moderate to severe frontal atrophy was found in 93% of those with FLS (and in all cases with fvFTD), but also in 49% of those without FLS. FLS was found in 35% of those with moderate to severe frontal atrophy, and in 3% of those without these changes. Conclusions: The prevalence of fvFTD was 3% in 85 year olds, which is higher than previously expected in this age group. Only a minority of those with fvFTD were detected by the DSM-III-R criteria for dementia. FLS was even more common, especially in those diagnosed with a dementia disorder. PMID:12810769

  12. Occurrence of anaemia in the first year of inflammatory bowel disease in a European population-based inception cohort - An ECCO-EpiCom study.

    PubMed

    Burisch, Johan; Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Katsanos, Konstantinnos H; Christodoulou, Dimitrios K; Lazar, Daniela; Goldis, Adrian; O'Morain, Colm; Fernandez, Alberto; Pereira, Santos; Myers, Sally; Sebastian, Shaji; Pedersen, Natalia; Olsen, Jóngerð; Nielsen, Kári Rubek; Schwartz, Doron; Odes, Selwyn; Almer, Sven; Halfvarson, Jonas; Turk, Niksa; Cukovic-Cavka, Silvja; Nikulina, Inna; Belousova, Elena; Duricova, Dana; Bortlik, Martin; Shonová, Olga; Salupere, Riina; Barros, Louisa; Magro, Fernando; Jonaitis, Laimas; Kupcinskas, Limas; Turcan, Svetlana; Kaimakliotis, Ioannis; Ladefoged, Karin; Kudsk, Karen; Andersen, Vibeke; Vind, Ida; Thorsgaard, Niels; Oksanen, Pia; Collin, Pekka; Dal Piaz, Giulia; Santini, Alessia; Niewiadomski, Ola; Bell, Sally; Moum, Bjørn; Arebi, Naila; Kjeldsen, Jens; Carlsen, Katrine; Langholz, Ebbe; Lakatos, Peter Laszlo; Munkholm, Pia; Gerdes, Lars Ulrik; Dahlerup, Jens Frederik

    2017-05-31

    Anaemia is an important complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anaemia and the practice of anaemia screening during the first year following diagnosis in a European prospective population-based inception cohort. Newly diagnosed IBD patients were included and followed prospectively for one year in 29 European and 1 Australian centre. Clinical data including demographics, medical therapy, surgery and blood samples were collected. Anaemia was defined according to the World Health Organization. A total of 1,871 patients (CD: 686, 88%; UC: 1,021, 87%; IBDU 164. 81%) were included in the study. The prevalence of anaemia was higher in CD than in UC patients and overall, 49% of CD and 39% of UC patients had at least one instance of anaemia during the first 12 months after diagnosis. UC patients with more extensive disease and those from Eastern European countries, and CD patients with penetrating disease or colonic disease location, had higher risks of anaemia. CD and UC patients in need of none or only mild anti-inflammatory treatment had a lower risk of anaemia. In a significant proportion of patients, anaemia was not assessed until several months after diagnosis, and in almost half of all cases of anaemia a thorough work-up was not performed. Overall, 42% of patients had at least one instance of anaemia during the first year following diagnosis. Most patients were assessed for anaemia regularly; however, a full anaemia work-up was frequently neglected in this community setting.

  13. Post-term growth and cognitive development at 5 years of age in preterm children: Evidence from a prospective population-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Simon, Laure; Nusinovici, Simon; Flamant, Cyril; Cariou, Bertrand; Rouger, Valérie; Gascoin, Géraldine; Darmaun, Dominique; Rozé, Jean-Christophe; Hanf, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    While the effects of growth from birth to expected term on the subsequent development of preterm children has attracted plentiful attention, less is known about the effects of post-term growth. We aimed to delineate distinct patterns of post-term growth and to determine their association with the cognitive development of preterm children. Data from a prospective population-based cohort of 3,850 surviving infants born at less than 35 weeks of gestational age were used. Growth was assessed as the Body Mass Index (BMI) Z-scores at 3, 9, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months. Cognitive development at five years of age was evaluated by the Global School Adaptation score (GSA). Latent class analysis was implemented to identify distinct growth patterns and logistic regressions based on propensity matching were used to evaluate the relationship between identified growth trajectories and cognitive development. Four patterns of post-term growth were identified: a normal group with a Z-score consistently around zero during childhood (n = 2,469; 64%); a group with an early rapid rise in the BMI Z-score, but only up to 2 years of age (n = 195; 5%); a group with a slow yet steady rise in the BMI Z-score during childhood (n = 510; 13%); and a group with a negative Z-score growth until 3 years of age (n = 676; 18%). The group with a slow yet steady rise in the BMI Z-score was significantly associated with low GSA scores. Our findings indicate heterogeneous post-term growth of preterm children, with potential for association with their cognitive development.

  14. Calibrated prevalence of infertility in 30- to 49-year-old women according to different approaches: a cross-sectional population-based study.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-León, A; Lopez-Villaverde, V; Rueda, M; Moya-Garrido, M N

    2015-11-01

    How does the estimated prevalence of infertility among 30- to 49-year-old women vary when using different approaches to its measurement? The prevalence of women with difficulties in conceiving differed widely according to the measurement approach adopted. Establishing the true magnitude of infertility as a public health problem is challenging, given that it is not categorized as a disability or chronic condition and may be largely unreported. The time required to conceive is an increasingly frequent concern among couples of reproductive age. Population-based studies do not consider multiple approaches to infertility measurement in the same sample. A face-to-face cross-sectional population-based survey of 443 women aged between 30 and 49 years residing in Huelva, southern Spain, was carried out. The sample size estimation was based on an assumed prevalence of infertility of 19%, a sampling error of ±4.84 percentage points, a design effect of 1.8 and a 95% confidence level. The information was collected in 2011. Self-reported information was gathered on socio-demographic data, pregnancy history, time required to become pregnant and perception of difficulties in becoming pregnant. Eight approaches to the estimation of infertility prevalence were considered: diagnosed infertility, subjective infertility, 1-year infertility, primary infertility, secondary infertility and subfertility based on the time taken to conceive (6, 12 or 24 months). Calibration estimators (indirect estimation techniques) were used to extrapolate the infertility prevalences to the whole of Spain. The response rate was 61.05%. Among 30- to 49-year-old Spanish women, 1.26% had a clinical diagnosis of infertility, 17.58% did not achieve pregnancy in 1 year (1-year infertility), 8.22% perceived difficulties in procreation (subjective infertility), 6.12% had not succeeded in having biological children (primary infertility) and 11.33% had not been able to have another biological child (secondary

  15. Predictors of hospital and one-year mortality in intensive care patients with refractory status epilepticus: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Kantanen, Anne-Mari; Kälviäinen, Reetta; Parviainen, Ilkka; Ala-Peijari, Marika; Bäcklund, Tom; Koskenkari, Juha; Laitio, Ruut; Reinikainen, Matti

    2017-03-23

    The aim was to determine predictors of hospital and 1-year mortality in patients with intensive care unit (ICU)-treated refractory status epilepticus (RSE) in a population-based study. This was a retrospective study of the Finnish Intensive Care Consortium (FICC) database of adult patients (16 years of age or older) with ICU-treated RSE in Finland during a 3-year period (2010-2012). The database consists of admissions to all 20 Finnish hospitals treating RSE in the ICU. All five university hospitals and 11 out of 15 central hospitals participated in the present study. The total adult referral population in the study hospitals was 3.92 million, representing 91% of the adult population of Finland. Patients whose condition had a post-anoxic aetiological basis were excluded. We identified 395 patients with ICU-treated RSE, corresponding to an annual incidence of 3.4/100,000 (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.04-3.71). Hospital mortality was 7.4% (95% CI 0-16.9%), and 1-year mortality was 25.4% (95% CI 21.2-29.8%). Mortality at hospital discharge was associated with severity of organ dysfunction. Mortality at 1 year was associated with older age (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.033, 95% CI 1.104-1.051, p = 0.001), sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score (aOR 1.156, CI 1.051-1.271, p = 0.003), super-refractory status epilepticus (SRSE) (aOR 2.215, 95% CI 1.20-3.84, p = 0.010) and dependence in activities of daily living (ADL) (aOR 2.553, 95% CI 1.537-4.243, p < 0.0001). Despite low hospital mortality, 25% of ICU-treated RSE patients die within a year. Super-refractoriness, dependence in ADL functions, severity of organ dysfunction at ICU admission and older age predict long-term mortality. Retrospective registry study; no interventions on human participants.

  16. Rheumatic Heart Disease-Attributable Mortality at Ages 5–69 Years in Fiji: A Five-Year, National, Population-Based Record-Linkage Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Tom; Kado, Joseph; Miller, Anne E.; Ward, Brenton; Heenan, Rachel; Colquhoun, Samantha M.; Bärnighausen, Till W.; Mirabel, Mariana; Bloom, David E.; Bailey, Robin L.; Tukana, Isimeli N.; Steer, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is considered a major public health problem in developing countries, although scarce data are available to substantiate this. Here we quantify mortality from RHD in Fiji during 2008–2012 in people aged 5–69 years. Methods and Findings Using 1,773,999 records derived from multiple sources of routine clinical and administrative data, we used probabilistic record-linkage to define a cohort of 2,619 persons diagnosed with RHD, observed for all-cause mortality over 11,538 person-years. Using relative survival methods, we estimated there were 378 RHD-attributable deaths, almost half of which occurred before age 40 years. Using census data as the denominator, we calculated there were 9.9 deaths (95% CI 9.8–10.0) and 331 years of life-lost (YLL, 95% CI 330.4–331.5) due to RHD per 100,000 person-years, standardised to the portion of the WHO World Standard Population aged 0–69 years. Valuing life using Fiji’s per-capita gross domestic product, we estimated these deaths cost United States Dollar $6,077,431 annually. Compared to vital registration data for 2011–2012, we calculated there were 1.6-times more RHD-attributable deaths than the number reported, and found our estimate of RHD mortality exceeded all but the five leading reported causes of premature death, based on collapsed underlying cause-of-death diagnoses. Conclusions Rheumatic heart disease is a leading cause of premature death as well as an important economic burden in this setting. Age-standardised death rates are more than twice those reported in current global estimates. Linkage of routine data provides an efficient tool to better define the epidemiology of neglected diseases. PMID:26371755

  17. Trends in various types of surgery for hysterectomy and distribution by patient age, surgeon age, and hospital accreditation: 10-year population-based study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Ping; Huang, Kuan-Hui; Long, Cheng-Yu; Tsai, Eing-Mei; Tang, Chao-Hsiun

    2010-01-01

    To estimate the trends in various types of hysterectomy (abdominal, vaginal, laparoscopic, and subtotal) and their distribution according to patient age, surgeon age, and hospital accreditation in Taiwan. Retrospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Population-based National Health Insurance (NHI) database. Women with NHI in Taiwan undergoing various types of hysterectomy to treat noncancerous lesions. Data for this study were obtained from the Inpatient Expenditures by Admissions files of the NHI research database, released by the NHI program in Taiwan for 1996-2005. A total of 234,939 women who underwent various types of hysterectomy were identified for analysis. The number of hysterectomies performed annually remained stationary during the 10-year study. Total abdominal hysterectomies decreased significantly (77.33% in 1996 vs 45.68% in 2005), laparoscopic hysterectomies increased significantly (5.20% vs 40.40%), vaginal hysterectomies decreased (14.70% vs 8.86%), and subtotal abdominal hysterectomies increased (2.76% vs 5.06%). Laparoscopic hysterectomy was more commonly performed in middle-aged women; vaginal hysterectomy was more common in older women; and subtotal abdominal hysterectomy was more common in younger women. Laparoscopic hysterectomy was performed more commonly in regional hospitals (33.11%), followed by medical centers (30.17%) and local hospitals (17.78%). Laparoscopic hysterectomy was performed more commonly in not-for-profit hospitals (30.25%), followed by private hospitals (29.32%) and government-owned hospitals (25.91%). There has been considerable change in the types of surgery used for hysterectomy in Taiwan over the past 10 years. As a minimally invasive approach, laparoscopic hysterectomy represents a profound change for both patients and surgeons. Copyright © 2010 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Association between Mouth Breathing and Atopic Dermatitis in Japanese Children 2–6 years Old: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Harutaka; Tada, Saaya; Nakanishi, Yoshinori; Kawaminami, Shingo; Shin, Teruki; Tabata, Ryo; Yuasa, Shino; Shimizu, Nobuhiko; Kohno, Mitsuhiro; Tsuchiya, Atsushi; Tani, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    As mouth breathing is associated with asthma and otitis media, it may be associated with other diseases. Therefore, this population-based cross-sectional study evaluated the association of mouth breathing with the prevalences of various diseases in children. Preschool children older than 2 years were included. A questionnaire was given to parents/guardians at 13 nurseries in Tokushima City. There were 468 valid responses (45.2%). We defined a subject as a mouth breather in daytime (MBD) if they had 2 or more positive items among the 3 following items: “breathes with mouth ordinarily,” “mouth is open ordinarily,” and “mouth is open when chewing.” We defined subjects as mouth breathers during sleep (MBS) if they had 2 or more positive items among the following 3 items: “snoring,” “mouth is open during sleeping,” and “mouth is dry when your child gets up.” The prevalences of MBD and MBS were 35.5% and 45.9%, respectively. There were significant associations between MBD and atopic dermatitis (odds ratio [OR]: 2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4–4.2), MBS and atopic dermatitis (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.3–4.2), and MBD and asthma (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.2–4.0). After adjusting for history of asthma and allergic rhinitis; family history of atopic dermatitis, asthma, and allergic rhinitis; and nasal congestion; both MBD (OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.3–5.4) and MBS (OR: 4.1, 95% CI: 1.8–9.2) were significantly associated with atopic dermatitis. In preschool children older than 2 years, both MBD and MBS may be associated with the onset or development of atopic dermatitis. PMID:25915864

  19. Association between Mouth Breathing and Atopic Dermatitis in Japanese Children 2-6 years Old: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Harutaka; Tada, Saaya; Nakanishi, Yoshinori; Kawaminami, Shingo; Shin, Teruki; Tabata, Ryo; Yuasa, Shino; Shimizu, Nobuhiko; Kohno, Mitsuhiro; Tsuchiya, Atsushi; Tani, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    As mouth breathing is associated with asthma and otitis media, it may be associated with other diseases. Therefore, this population-based cross-sectional study evaluated the association of mouth breathing with the prevalences of various diseases in children. Preschool children older than 2 years were included. A questionnaire was given to parents/guardians at 13 nurseries in Tokushima City. There were 468 valid responses (45.2%). We defined a subject as a mouth breather in daytime (MBD) if they had 2 or more positive items among the 3 following items: "breathes with mouth ordinarily," "mouth is open ordinarily," and "mouth is open when chewing." We defined subjects as mouth breathers during sleep (MBS) if they had 2 or more positive items among the following 3 items: "snoring," "mouth is open during sleeping," and "mouth is dry when your child gets up." The prevalences of MBD and MBS were 35.5% and 45.9%, respectively. There were significant associations between MBD and atopic dermatitis (odds ratio [OR]: 2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-4.2), MBS and atopic dermatitis (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.3-4.2), and MBD and asthma (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.2-4.0). After adjusting for history of asthma and allergic rhinitis; family history of atopic dermatitis, asthma, and allergic rhinitis; and nasal congestion; both MBD (OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.3-5.4) and MBS (OR: 4.1, 95% CI: 1.8-9.2) were significantly associated with atopic dermatitis. In preschool children older than 2 years, both MBD and MBS may be associated with the onset or development of atopic dermatitis.

  20. Associations between age, cohort, and urbanization with systolic and diastolic blood pressure in China: a population-based study across 18 years

    PubMed Central

    ATTARD, Samantha M; HERRING, Amy H; ZHANG, Bing; DU, Shufa; POPKIN, Barry M; GORDON-LARSEN, Penny

    2015-01-01

    Objective Little is known about whether large-scale environmental changes, such as those seen with urbanization, are differentially associated with systolic versus diastolic blood pressure, and whether those changes vary by birth cohort. Methods We used data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey, a population-based cohort study of Chinese adults (n=18,976; ages 18–70y) seen a maximum of 7 times over 1991–2009. We used hierarchical multivariable linear models to simultaneously estimate systolic and diastolic blood pressure as correlated outcomes over time, accounting for their physiologic, time-varying correlation. Main exposure variables were urbanicity, age, and birth cohort. Over 18 years of modernization, median systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased by 10 and 7 mm Hg, respectively. Results Our hierarchical model results suggest greater temporal increases in systolic and particularly diastolic blood pressure at lower versus higher urbanicity. At the same chronological age, for a 10-year difference in birth cohort (i.e., born in 1980s versus 1970s) the adjusted mean diastolic blood pressure was ~3mm Hg higher for the later birth cohort (p<0.001). Pulse pressure (calculated as model-predicted systolic minus diastolic blood pressure) was also higher at low versus high urbanicity. Conclusions These results suggest increased susceptibility of diastolic blood pressure (and thus peripheral vascular resistance) to environmental change, particularly in younger Chinese adults. Because diastolic blood pressure more strongly predicts cardiovascular disease risk in younger adulthood, hypertension-related health burden in China may increase over time. PMID:25668349

  1. Changes in Psychiatric Problems and Service Use among 8-Year-Old Children: A 16-Year Population-Based Time-Trend Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sourander, Andre; Niemela, Solja; Santalahti, Paivi; Helenius, Hans; Piha, Jorma

    2008-01-01

    A study comparing population samples from 1989, 1999 and 2005 were used to investigate changes in emotional and behavioral problems in 8-year-old children and their use and need of mental health services. Results show an increase in self-reported depressive symptoms among girls and a continuous increase in using of the services in which school…

  2. A health dialogue intervention reduces cardiovascular risk factor levels: a population based randomised controlled trial in Swedish primary care setting with 1-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Hellstrand, Mats; Simonsson, Bo; Engström, Sevek; Nilsson, Kent W; Molarius, Anu

    2017-08-22

    The total number of cardiovascular (CVD) deaths accounted for almost a third of all deaths globally in 2013. Population based randomised controlled trials, managed within primary care, on CVD risk factor interventions are scarce. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a health dialogue intervention in a primary care setting offered to a population at the age of 55 years, focusing on CVD risk factors. The study was performed in five primary health care centres in the county of Västmanland, Sweden between April 2011 and December 2012. Men and women were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 440) and control groups (n = 440). At baseline, both groups filled in a health questionnaire and serum cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), weight, height, waist (WC) and hip circumference, waist hip ratio (WHR) and systolic/diastolic blood pressure were measured. Intervention group attended a health dialogue, supported by a visualised health profile, with a possibility for further activities. Participation rates at baseline were 53% and 52% respectively. A 1-year follow-up was carried out. The intervention group (n = 165) showed reductions compared to the control group (n = 177) concerning body mass index (BMI) (0.3 kg/m(2), p = .031), WC (2.1 cm, p ≤ .001) and WHR (.002, p ≤ .001) at the 1-year follow-up. No differences between the intervention and control groups were found in other variables. Intervention group, compared to baseline, had reduced weight, BMI, WC, WHR, HbA1c, and diet, while the men in the control group had reduced their alcohol consumption. A health dialogue intervention at the age of 55 years, conducted in ordinary primary care, showed a moderate effect on CVD risk factor levels, in terms of BMI, WC and WHR. BioMed Central, ISRCTN22586871 , date assigned; 10/12/2015.

  3. Population-Based Long-Term Cardiac-Specific Mortality Among 34 489 Five-Year Survivors of Childhood Cancer in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Fidler, Miranda M; Reulen, Raoul C; Henson, Katherine; Kelly, Julie; Cutter, David; Levitt, Gill A; Frobisher, Clare; Winter, David L; Hawkins, Michael M

    2017-03-07

    Increased risks of cardiac morbidity and mortality among childhood cancer survivors have been described previously. However, little is known about the very long-term risks of cardiac mortality and whether the risk has decreased among those more recently diagnosed. We investigated the risk of long-term cardiac mortality among survivors within the recently extended British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. The British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a population-based cohort of 34 489 five-year survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed from 1940 to 2006 and followed up until February 28, 2014, and is the largest cohort to date to assess late cardiac mortality. Standardized mortality ratios and absolute excess risks were used to quantify cardiac mortality excess risk. Multivariable Poisson regression models were used to evaluate the simultaneous effect of risk factors. Likelihood ratio tests were used to test for heterogeneity and trends. Overall, 181 cardiac deaths were observed, which was 3.4 times that expected. Survivors were 2.5 times and 5.9 times more at risk of ischemic heart disease and cardiomyopathy/heart failure death, respectively, than expected. Among those >60 years of age, subsequent primary neoplasms, cardiac disease, and other circulatory conditions accounted for 31%, 22%, and 15% of all excess deaths, respectively, providing clear focus for preventive interventions. The risk of both overall cardiac and cardiomyopathy/heart failure mortality was greatest among those diagnosed from 1980 to 1989. Specifically, for cardiomyopathy/heart failure deaths, survivors diagnosed from 1980 to 1989 had 28.9 times the excess number of deaths observed for survivors diagnosed either before 1970 or from 1990 on. Excess cardiac mortality among 5-year survivors of childhood cancer remains increased beyond 50 years of age and has clear messages in terms of prevention strategies. However, the fact that the risk was greatest in those diagnosed from 1980 to 1989 suggests

  4. Population-Based Long-Term Cardiac-Specific Mortality Among 34 489 Five-Year Survivors of Childhood Cancer in Great Britain

    PubMed Central

    Fidler, Miranda M.; Reulen, Raoul C.; Henson, Katherine; Kelly, Julie; Cutter, David; Levitt, Gill A.; Frobisher, Clare; Winter, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Increased risks of cardiac morbidity and mortality among childhood cancer survivors have been described previously. However, little is known about the very long-term risks of cardiac mortality and whether the risk has decreased among those more recently diagnosed. We investigated the risk of long-term cardiac mortality among survivors within the recently extended British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Methods: The British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a population-based cohort of 34 489 five-year survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed from 1940 to 2006 and followed up until February 28, 2014, and is the largest cohort to date to assess late cardiac mortality. Standardized mortality ratios and absolute excess risks were used to quantify cardiac mortality excess risk. Multivariable Poisson regression models were used to evaluate the simultaneous effect of risk factors. Likelihood ratio tests were used to test for heterogeneity and trends. Results: Overall, 181 cardiac deaths were observed, which was 3.4 times that expected. Survivors were 2.5 times and 5.9 times more at risk of ischemic heart disease and cardiomyopathy/heart failure death, respectively, than expected. Among those >60 years of age, subsequent primary neoplasms, cardiac disease, and other circulatory conditions accounted for 31%, 22%, and 15% of all excess deaths, respectively, providing clear focus for preventive interventions. The risk of both overall cardiac and cardiomyopathy/heart failure mortality was greatest among those diagnosed from 1980 to 1989. Specifically, for cardiomyopathy/heart failure deaths, survivors diagnosed from 1980 to 1989 had 28.9 times the excess number of deaths observed for survivors diagnosed either before 1970 or from 1990 on. Conclusions: Excess cardiac mortality among 5-year survivors of childhood cancer remains increased beyond 50 years of age and has clear messages in terms of prevention strategies. However, the fact that the risk was greatest in

  5. Population based absolute and relative survival to 1 year of people with diabetes following a myocardial infarction: a cohort study using hospital admissions data.

    PubMed

    Brophy, Sinead; Cooksey, Roxanne; Gravenor, Michael B; Weston, Clive; Macey, Steven M; John, Gareth; Williams, Rhys; Lyons, Ronan A

    2010-06-14

    People with diabetes who experience an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have a higher risk of death and recurrence of AMI. This study was commissioned by the Department for Transport to develop survival tables for people with diabetes following an AMI in order to inform vehicle licensing. A cohort study using data obtained from national hospital admission datasets for England and Wales was carried out selecting all patients attending hospital with an MI for 2003-2006 (inclusion criteria: aged 30+ years, hospital admission for MI (defined using ICD 10 code I21-I22). STATA was used to create survival tables and factors associated with survival were examined using Cox regression. Of 157,142 people with an MI in England and Wales between 2003-2006, the relative risk of death or recurrence of MI for those with diabetes (n = 30,407) in the first 90 days was 1.3 (95%CI: 1.26-1.33) crude rates and 1.16 (95%CI: 1.1-1.2) when controlling for age, gender, heart failure and surgery for MI) compared with those without diabetes (n = 129,960). At 91-365 days post AMI the risk was 1.7 (95% CI 1.6-1.8) crude and 1.50 (95%CI: 1.4-1.6) adjusted. The relative risk of death or re-infarction was higher at younger ages for those with diabetes and directly after the AMI (Relative risk; RR: 62.1 for those with diabetes and 28.2 for those without diabetes aged 40-49 [compared with population risk]). This is the first study to provide population based tables of age stratified risk of re-infarction or death for people with diabetes compared with those without diabetes. These tables can be used for giving advice to patients, developing a baseline to compare intervention studies or developing license or health insurance guidelines.

  6. Increased risk of major depression in the three years following a femoral neck fracture--a national population-based follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Yu; Chen, Wen-Liang; Liou, Yi-Fan; Ke, Chih-Chi; Lee, Hua-Chin; Huang, Hui-Ling; Ciou, Li-Ping; Chou, Chu-Chung; Yang, Mei-Chueh; Ho, Shinn-Ying; Lin, Yan-Ren

    2014-01-01

    Femoral neck fracture is common in the elderly, and its impact has increased in aging societies. Comorbidities, poor levels of activity and pain may contribute to the development of depression, but these factors have not been well addressed. This study aims to investigate the frequency and risk of major depression after a femoral neck fracture using a nationwide population-based study. The Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database was used in this study. A total of 4,547 patients who were hospitalized for femoral neck fracture within 2003 to 2007 were recruited as a study group; 13,641 matched non-fracture participants were enrolled as a comparison group. Each patient was prospectively followed for 3 years to monitor the occurrence of major depression. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to compute the risk of major depression between members of the study and comparison group after adjusting for residence and socio-demographic characteristics. The most common physical comorbidities that were present after the fracture were also analyzed. The incidences of major depression were 1.2% (n = 55) and 0.7% (n = 95) in the study and comparison groups, respectively. The stratified Cox proportional analysis showed a covariate-adjusted hazard ratio of major depression among patients with femoral neck fracture that was 1.82 times greater (95% CI, 1.30-2.53) than that of the comparison group. Most major depressive episodes (34.5%) presented within the first 200 days following the fracture. In conclusion, patients with a femoral neck fracture are at an increased risk of subsequent major depression. Most importantly, major depressive episodes mainly occurred within the first 200 days following the fracture.

  7. MC1R genotypes and risk of melanoma before age 40 years: a population-based case-control-family study.

    PubMed

    Cust, Anne E; Goumas, Chris; Holland, Elizabeth A; Agha-Hamilton, Chantelle; Aitken, Joanne F; Armstrong, Bruce K; Giles, Graham G; Kefford, Richard F; Schmid, Helen; Hopper, John L; Mann, Graham J; Jenkins, Mark A

    2012-08-01

    The contribution of melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene variants to the development of early-onset melanoma is unknown. Using an Australian population-based, case-control-family study, we sequenced MC1R for 565 cases with invasive cutaneous melanoma diagnosed between ages 18 and 39 years, 409 unrelated controls and 518 sibling controls. Variants were classified a priori into "R" variants (D84E, R142H, R151C, I155T, R160W, D294H) and "r" variants (all other nonsynonymous variants). We estimated odds ratios (OR) for melanoma using unconditional (unrelated controls) and conditional (sibling controls) logistic regression. The prevalence of having at least one R or r variant was 86% for cases, 73% for unrelated controls and 81% for sibling controls. R151C conferred the highest risk (per allele OR 2.57, 95% confidence interval 1.86-3.56 for the case-unrelated-control analysis and 1.70 (1.12-2.60) for the case-sibling-control analysis). When mutually adjusted, the ORs per R allele were 2.23 (1.77-2.80) and 2.06 (1.47-2.88), respectively, from the two types of analysis, and the ORs per r allele were 1.69 (1.33-2.13) and 1.25 (0.88-1.79), respectively. The associations were stronger for men and those with none or few nevi or with high childhood sun exposure. Adjustment for phenotype, nevi and sun exposure attenuated the overall log OR for R variants by approximately 18% but had lesser influence on r variant risk estimates. MC1R variants explained about 21% of the familial aggregation of melanoma. Some MC1R variants are important determinants of early-onset melanoma. The strength of association with melanoma differs according to the type and number of variants.

  8. Visual impairment, but not hearing impairment, is independently associated with lower subjective well-being among individuals over 95 years of age: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zuyun; Wu, Di; Huang, Jiapin; Qian, Degui; Chen, Fei; Xu, Jun; Li, Shilin; Jin, Li; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Sensory impairment affects an increasing number of elderly adults, with a negative psychological impact. Our objective was to examine the associations of visual and hearing impairment with subjective well-being (SWB), an important psychological concept defined by life satisfaction [LS], positive affect [PA], negative affect [NA], and affect balance [AB] among long-lived individuals (LLIs) over 95 years of age. Data on 442 LLIs from the Rugao longevity cohort, a population-based study in Rugao, China, were analyzed. Graded classifications of visual and hearing impairment (none, mild, moderate, and severe) were constructed from self-reported items. Bivariate correlation and multiple regression analysis were performed to test the associations. Approximately 66.1% and 87.3% of the subjects reported varying degrees of visual and hearing impairment. Following the degree of vision impairment, LS, PA, and AB decreased linearly, whereas NA increased linearly (all p for trend<0.05). Vision was significantly related to LS (r=0.238, p<0.001), PA (r=0.142, p<0.01), NA (r=-0.157, p<0.001), and AB (r=0.206, p<0.001). After adjustment for multiple variables including functional ability, an important factor of SWB, the associations of vision impairment with LS, NA, and AB, while diminished, still existed. Visual impairment, but not hearing impairment, was independently associated with low SWB among LLIs, and functional ability may play a mediating role in the observed relationship. The findings indicate that rehabilitation targeted for those with reduced vision and functioning in long-lived populations may be important for promoting well-being and quality of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Population-based trends in prenatal screening and diagnosis for aneuploidy: a retrospective analysis of 38 years of state-wide data.

    PubMed

    Hui, L; Muggli, E E; Halliday, J L

    2016-01-01

    To analyse population-based trends over the entire history of prenatal testing for aneuploidy. Retrospective analysis of state-wide data sets. Australian state of Victoria with ~70 000 annual births. All pregnant women undergoing invasive prenatal testing at <25 weeks' gestation from 1976 to 2013. Analysis of three state-wide data sets: (1) Prenatal diagnosis data set of 119 404 amniocenteses and chorionic villus samplings from 1976 to 2013; (2) central serum screening laboratory data set from 1996 to 2013; (3) government birth statistics from 1976 to 2013. Annual numbers and uptake rates of invasive prenatal tests and serum screening, indications for invasive prenatal testing, prenatal diagnoses of aneuploidy, diagnostic yield of invasive tests. Annual numbers of invasive prenatal tests climbed steadily from 1976, then declined from 2000. In 2013, the number of invasive prenatal tests was the lowest in 25 years, while the number of trisomy 21 diagnoses was the highest ever recorded. Annual uptake of serum screening climbed from 1.6 to 83% over 1996-2013. Results from 2013 showed a high diagnostic yield (15.8%) for a low rate of invasive testing (3.4% of births). Over four decades, the number of invasive procedures performed for each diagnosis of major chromosome abnormality declined from 100 to six. This study demonstrates historic reductions in the proportion of women undergoing invasive testing and dramatic improvements in diagnostic yield. Monitoring the impact of new prenatal technologies on this progress remains an important research priority. Invasive prenatal testing has reached historic lows due to dramatic improvements in Down syndrome screening. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  10. Local descriptive body weight and dietary norms, food availability, and 10-year change in glycosylated haemoglobin in an Australian population-based biomedical cohort.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Suzanne J; Paquet, Catherine; Howard, Natasha J; Coffee, Neil T; Adams, Robert J; Taylor, Anne W; Niyonsenga, Theo; Daniel, Mark

    2017-02-02

    Individual-level health outcomes are shaped by environmental risk conditions. Norms figure prominently in socio-behavioural theories yet spatial variations in health-related norms have rarely been investigated as environmental risk conditions. This study assessed: 1) the contributions of local descriptive norms for overweight/obesity and dietary behaviour to 10-year change in glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), accounting for food resource availability; and 2) whether associations between local descriptive norms and HbA1c were moderated by food resource availability. HbA1c, representing cardiometabolic risk, was measured three times over 10 years for a population-based biomedical cohort of adults in Adelaide, South Australia. Residential environmental exposures were defined using 1600 m participant-centred road-network buffers. Local descriptive norms for overweight/obesity and insufficient fruit intake (proportion of residents with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) [n = 1890] or fruit intake of <2 serves/day [n = 1945], respectively) were aggregated from responses to a separate geocoded population survey. Fast-food and healthful food resource availability (counts) were extracted from a retail database. Separate sets of multilevel models included different predictors, one local descriptive norm and either fast-food or healthful food resource availability, with area-level education and individual-level covariates (age, sex, employment status, education, marital status, and smoking status). Interactions between local descriptive norms and food resource availability were tested. HbA1c concentration rose over time. Local descriptive norms for overweight/obesity and insufficient fruit intake predicted greater rates of increase in HbA1c. Neither fast-food nor healthful food resource availability were associated with change in HbA1c. Greater healthful food resource availability reduced the rate of increase in HbA1c concentration attributed to the overweight/obesity norm

  11. Poor Sleep in Relation to Natural Menopause: A Population-Based 14-Year Follow-up of Mid-Life Women

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Ellen W.; Sammel, Mary D.; Gross, Stephanie A.; Pien, Grace W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence and predictors of moderate/severe poor sleep in relation to the final menstrual period (FMP) of mid-life women. Methods Annual assessments were conducted in a population-based cohort of 255 women. All were premenopausal at cohort enrollment and reached natural menopause during the 16-year follow-up. The outcome measure was the severity of poor sleep, as reported by the participants in annual interviews for 16 years and evaluated in relation to the FMP. Results The annual prevalence of moderate/severe poor sleep largely ranged from about 28% to 35%, with no significant differences in any year relative to the FMP for the sample overall. When sleep status was stratified at the premenopausal baseline, the premenopausal sleep status strongly predicted poor sleep around the FMP. Women with moderate/severe poor sleep when premenopausal were approximately 3 ½ times more likely to have moderate/severe poor sleep around menopause compared to those with no poor sleep at baseline in adjusted analysis (OR 3.58, 95% CI: 2.50-5.11, P<0.0001), while mild poor sleepers premenopause were approximately 1 ½ times more likely to have moderate/severe poor sleep around menopause (OR 1.57, 95% CI: 0.99-2.47, P=0.053). There was no significant association between poor sleep and time relative to the FMP among women who had no poor sleep at the premenopausal baseline. Hot flashes were significantly associated with poor sleep (OR 1.79, 95% CI: 1.44-2.21, P<0.0001 in adjusted analysis), but had no interaction with baseline sleep severity (interaction P=0.25), indicating that hot flashes contributed to poor sleep regardless of baseline sleep status. Conclusion The findings showed a high prevalence of moderate/severe poor sleep in mid-life women, with only a small “at risk” subgroup having a significant increase in poor sleep in relation to the FMP. Sleep status at the premenopausal baseline and concurrent hot flashes strongly and consistently predicted

  12. Is there an ethnic variation in the epidemiology of gonorrhoea? A retrospective population-based study from northern Israel over 15 years between 2001 and 2015.

    PubMed

    Kridin, Khalaf; Grifat, Rami; Khamaisi, Mogher

    2017-06-22

    To investigate the trends in the incidence of gonorrhoea through an extended period of time and to compare the epidemiology of gonorrhoea infection between 2 distinct ethnic groups (Jews and Arabs). A retrospective population-based cohort study was conducted on all consecutive patients diagnosed with gonorrhoea through the years 2001-2015. National Department of Epidemiology of the Ministry of Health, Haifa District, Israel. A total of 837 reports on gonorrhoea were received, derived from 779 (93.1%) male and 58 (6.9%) female patients. Approximately 1 million people reside in the Haifa region. We examined the incidence rate of gonorrhoea among residents of Haifa District, northern Israel from 2001 to 2015, by reviewing archives of the Department of Epidemiology, Israeli Ministry of Health. Notified cases were stratified by age, gender and ethnicity. The overall gonorrhoea incidence was 6.4 cases per 100 000 population per year. The annual incidence rate dropped from 20.5 per 100 000 population in 2001 to a period of 2.2 cases per 100 000 population in 2005, showing a >9-fold decline. This was followed by a relatively steady increase of incidence of 2.5-4.5 per 100 000 population from 2006 to 2015. Men were predominantly more affected than women, with a 13.4-fold higher incidence rate. The most affected age group was residents between 25 and 34 years old. The estimated rate among Jews was 2.5-fold higher relative to Arabs. Only 1.3% recurrent episodes of gonorrhoea were reported. The prevalence of HIV positivity among patients with gonorrhoea is significantly higher than that of the general population (500.0 vs 88.1 cases per 100 000 population, respectively, p<0.001). Gonorrhoea incidence rate decreased dramatically until 2005, with no substantial subsequent fluctuations. The infection is much more prevalent among patients of Jewish ethnicity, possibly due to riskier sex practices. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  13. Predictive role of the Mediterranean diet on mortality in individuals at low cardiovascular risk: a 12-year follow-up population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bo, Simona; Ponzo, Valentina; Goitre, Ilaria; Fadda, Maurizio; Pezzana, Andrea; Beccuti, Guglielmo; Gambino, Roberto; Cassader, Maurizio; Soldati, Laura; Broglio, Fabio

    2016-04-12

    Adherence to the Mediterranean diet reduces the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality and the incidence of CV events. However, most previous studies were performed in high-risk individuals. Our objective was to assess whether the adherence to the Mediterranean diet, evaluated by the MED score, was associated with all-cause and CV mortality and incidence of CV events in individuals at low CV risk from a population-based cohort, after a 12-year mean follow-up. A cohort of 1658 individuals completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire in 2001-2003. The MED score was calculated by a 0-9 scale. Anthropometric, laboratory measurements, and the vital status were collected at baseline and during 2014. The baseline CV risk was estimated by the Framingham risk score. Participants were divided into two groups: individuals at low risk (CV < 10) and individuals with CV risk ≥ 10. During a 12-year mean follow-up, 220 deaths, 84 due to CV diseases, and 125 incident CV events occurred. The adherence to the Mediterranean diet was low in 768 (score 0-2), medium in 685 (score 4-5) and high in 205 (score > 6) individuals. Values of BMI, waist circumference, fasting glucose and insulin significantly decreased from low to high diet adherence only in participants with CV risk ≥ 10. In a Cox-regression model, the hazard ratios (HRs) in low-risk individuals per unit of MED score were: HR = 0.83 (95 % CI 0.72-0.96) for all-cause mortality, HR = 0.75 (95 % CI 0.58-0.96) for CV mortality, and HR = 0.79 (95 % CI 0.65-0.97) for CV events, after multiple adjustments. In individuals with CV risk ≥ 10, the MED score predicted incident CV events (HR = 0.85; 95 % CI 0.72-0.99), while the associations with all-cause (HR = 1.02; 95 % CI 0.90-1.15) and CV mortality (0.94; 95 % CI 0.76-1.15) were not significant. Greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with reduced fatal and non fatal CV events, especially in individuals at low CV risk, thus suggesting the

  14. Suicide and suicide attempts in people with severe mental disorders in Butajira, Ethiopia: 10 year follow-up of a population-based cohort

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background People with severe mental disorders (SMD) are at higher risk of suicide. However, research into suicide attempts and completed suicide in people with SMD in low- and middle-income countries is mostly limited to patients attending psychiatric facilities where selection bias is likely to be high. Methods A population-based cohort of 919 people with SMD from rural Ethiopia (who received standardized clinician diagnoses of schizophrenia (n = 358) major depressive disorder (n = 216) and bipolar I disorder (n = 345)) were followed up annually for an average of 10 years. The Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation chart was administered by psychiatrists and used to evaluate systematically suicidal behavior and risk factors, which may be amenable to intervention. Results Over the follow-up period, the cumulative risk of suicide attempt was 26.3% for major depression, 23.8% for bipolar I disorder and 13.1% for schizophrenia, (p < 0.001). The overall incidence of completed suicide was 200.2/100,000 person-years (CI = 120.6, 312.5). Hanging was the most frequent method used (71.5%) for both attempters and completers. Most people who completed suicide were successful on the first attempt (84.2%), but the case-fatality rate for suicide attempt was 9.7%. In the adjusted logistic regression model, being currently married (Adjusted OR) =2.17, 95% CI = 1.21, 3.91), and having a diagnosis of bipolar I disorder (Adjusted OR = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.57, 4.26) or major depression (Adjusted OR = 2.71, 95% CI = 1.60, 4.58) were associated significantly with increased risk of suicide attempts. Conclusion In this sample of people with SMD from a rural setting, the rate of suicide was high. Initiatives to integrate mental health service into primary care need to focus on limiting access to suicide methods in people with SMD in addition to expanding access to mental health care. PMID:24886518

  15. Prevalence and Burden of Gait Disorders in Elderly Men and Women Aged 60–97 Years: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Mahlknecht, Philipp; Kiechl, Stefan; Bloem, Bastiaan R.; Willeit, Johann; Scherfler, Christoph; Gasperi, Arno; Rungger, Gregorio; Poewe, Werner; Seppi, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Background Although gait disorders are common in the elderly, the prevalence and overall burden of these disorders in the general community is not well defined. Methods In a cross-sectional investigation of the population-based Bruneck Study cohort, 488 community-residing elderly aged 60–97 years underwent a thorough neurological assessment including a standardized gait evaluation. Gait disorders were classified according to an accepted scheme and their associations to falls, neuropsychological measures, and quality of life were explored. Results Overall, 32.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 28.2%–36.4%) of participants presented with impaired gait. Prevalence increased with age (p<0.001), but 38.3% (95%CI 30.1%–47.3%) of the subjects aged 80 years or older still had a normally preserved gait. A total of 24.0% (95%CI 20.4%–28.0%) manifested neurological gait disorders, 17.4% (14.3%–21.0%) non-neurological gait problems, and 9.2% (6.9%–12.1%) a combination of both. While there was no association of neurological gait disorders with gender, non-neurological gait disorders were more frequent in women (p = 0.012). Within the group of neurological gait disorders 69.2% (95%CI 60.3%–76.9%) had a single distinct entity and 30.8% (23.1%–39.7%) had multiple neurological causes for gait impairment. Gait disorders had a significant negative impact on quantitative gait measures, but only neurological gait disorders were associated with recurrent falls (odds ratio 3.3; 95%CI 1.4–7.5; p = 0.005 for single and 7.1; 2.7–18.7; p<0.001 for multiple neurological gait disorders). Finally, we detected a significant association of gait disorders, in particular neurological gait disorders, with depressed mood, cognitive dysfunction, and compromised quality of life. Conclusions Gait disorders are common in the general elderly population and are associated with reduced mobility. Neurological gait disorders in particular are associated with recurrent falls, lower

  16. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Occurrence, course and prognosis during the first year of disease in a European population-based inception cohort.

    PubMed

    Burisch, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), consisting of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are chronic immune mediated diseases of unknown aetiology. Traditionally, the highest occurrence of both UC and CD is found in North America and Europe, including Scandinavia and the United Kingdom, while the diseases remain rare in Eastern Europe. Until recently, few population-based cohort data were available on the epidemiology of IBD in Eastern Europe. However, recent studies from Hungary and Croatia have reported steep increases in IBD incidence that means they are now comparable with Western European countries. The reasons for these changes remain unknown but could include an increasing awareness of the diseases, better access to diagnostic procedures, methodological bias in previous studies from Eastern Europe, or real differences in environmental factors, lifestyle and genetic susceptibility. The aim of this thesis was to create a prospective European population-based inception cohort of incident IBD patients in order to investigate whether an East-West gradient in the incidence of IBD exists in Europe. Furthermore, we investigated possible differences throughout Europe during the first year subsequent to diagnosis in terms of clinical presentation, disease outcome, treatment choices, frequency of environmental risk factors, as well as patient-reported health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and quality of care (QoC). Finally, we assessed resource utilization during the initial year of disease in both geographic regions. A total number of 31 centres from 14 Western and 8 Eastern European countries covering a total background population of approximately 10.1 million participated in this study. During the inclusion period from 1 January to 31 December 2010 a total number of 1,515 patients aged 15 years or older were included in the cohort. Annual incidence rates were twice as high in Western Europe (CD: 6.3/100,000; UC: 9.8/100,000) compared to Eastern Europe (CD

  17. Association of New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus in Older People and Mortality in Taiwan: A 10-Year Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Chi, M-J; Liang, C-K; Lee, W-J; Peng, L-N; Chou, M-Y; Chen, L-K

    2017-01-01

    Older patients with diabetes mellitus are at a higher risk of developing diabetic macro- and micro-vascular complications and cardiovascular diseases than younger diabetes mellitus patients. However, older diabetes mellitus patients are very heterogeneous in their clinical characteristics, diabetes mellitus-related complications and age at disease onset. This study aimed to evaluate the all-cause mortality rates and adverse health outcomes among older adults with new-onset diabetes mellitus through a nationwide population-based study. A retrospective cohort study. 2001-2011 data of the National Health Insurance database. Nationally representative sample of Taiwanese adults aged 65 years and older with propensity score-matched controls. All-cause mortality and adverse health outcomes. During the study period, 45.3% of patients in the diabetes mellitus cohort and 38.8% in the non-diabetes mellitus cohort died. The adjusted relative risk for mortality in the diabetes mellitus cohort compared to the non-diabetes mellitus cohort was 1.23 (95% Confidence Interval [CI]=1.16-1.30) for males and 1.27 (95%CI=1.19-1.35) for females. During the follow-up period, 8.9% of the diabetes mellitus cohort and 5.8% of the non-diabetes mellitus cohort developed cardiovascular diseases; the diabetes mellitus cohort had an adjusted relative risk of cardiovascular complications compared to the non-diabetes mellitus cohort of 1.54 (95%CI=1.36-1.75) for men and 1.70 (95%CI=1.43-2.02) for women. The adjusted relative risk of mortality in the patients with hypoglycemia compared to non-hypoglycemia patients in the diabetes mellitus cohort was 2.33 (95%CI=1.81-3.01) for men and 2.73 (95%CI=2.10-3.52) for women after adjustment for age, Charlson comorbidity index, acute coronary syndrome, respiratory disease, cancer, infectious disease and nervous system disease at baseline. New-onset diabetes in older adults is associated with an increased risk of mortality, and hypoglycemia is an important

  18. Serum Fatty Acids, Desaturase Activities and Abdominal Obesity – A Population-Based Study of 60-Year Old Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Alsharari, Zayed D.; Risérus, Ulf; Leander, Karin; Sjögren, Per; Carlsson, Axel C.; Vikström, Max; Laguzzi, Federica; Gigante, Bruna; Cederholm, Tommy; De Faire, Ulf; Hellénius, Mai-Lis

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal obesity is a key contributor of metabolic disease. Recent trials suggest that dietary fat quality affects abdominal fat content, where palmitic acid and linoleic acid influence abdominal obesity differently, while effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are less studied. Also, fatty acid desaturation may be altered in abdominal obesity. We aimed to investigate cross-sectional associations of serum fatty acids and desaturases with abdominal obesity prevalence in a population-based cohort study. Serum cholesteryl ester fatty acids composition was measured by gas chromatography in 60-year old men (n = 1883) and women (n = 2015). Cross-sectional associations of fatty acids with abdominal obesity prevalence and anthropometric measures (e.g., sagittal abdominal diameter) were evaluated in multivariable-adjusted logistic and linear regression models, respectively. Similar models were employed to investigate relations between desaturase activities (estimated by fatty acid ratios) and abdominal obesity. In logistic regression analyses, palmitic acid, stearoyl-CoA-desaturase and Δ6-desaturase indices were associated with abdominal obesity; multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for highest versus lowest quartiles were 1.45 (1.19–1.76), 4.06 (3.27–5.05), and 3.07 (2.51–3.75), respectively. Linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, docohexaenoic acid, and Δ5-desaturase were inversely associated with abdominal obesity; multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals): 0.39 (0.32–0.48), 0.74 (0.61–0.89), 0.76 (0.62–0.93), and 0.40 (0.33–0.49), respectively. Eicosapentaenoic acid was not associated with abdominal obesity. Similar results were obtained from linear regression models evaluating associations with different anthropometric measures. Sex-specific and linear associations were mainly observed for n3-polyunsaturated fatty acids, while associations of the other exposures were generally non-linear and similar across

  19. Cerebrospinal Fluid Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 3 is Related to Dementia Development in a Population-Based Sample of Older Adult Women Followed for 8 Years.

    PubMed

    Bjerke, Maria; Kern, Silke; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Waern, Margda; Börjesson-Hanson, Anne; Östling, Svante; Kern, Jürgen; Skoog, Ingmar

    2016-01-01

    Increased fatty acid-binding protein 3 (FABP-3) levels have been reported in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) FABP-3 has therefore been proposed as a putative marker for dementia. Population-based studies examining whether CSF FABP-3 predicts later development of dementia are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine CSF levels of FABP-3 in relation to later development of dementia in elderly women and in relation to Aβ42, T-tau, P-tau181, and CSF: serum albumin ratio. 86 non-demented women aged 70-84 years who participated in the Prospective Population Study of Women in Gothenburg, Sweden took part in a lumbar puncture in 1992-93. CSF-FABP-3, Aβ42, T-tau, P-tau181, and the CSF: serum albumin ratio were measured at baseline. Participants were examined with a neuropsychiatric exam at baseline and at follow-up in 2000. Dementia was diagnosed in accordance with DSM-III-R criteria. Between 1992 and 2000, 8 women developed dementia (4 AD, 3 vascular dementia, 1 mixed vascular dementia and AD). Higher levels of CSF-FABP-3 at baseline were related to development of dementia (OR 1.36 CI [1.05-1.76] p = 0.022) and the subtype AD (OR 1.38 CI [1.06-1.82), p = 0.019) during follow-up. FABP-3 correlated with CSF T-tau (r = 0.88, p <  0.001), P-tau181 (r = 0.619, p <  0.001), and CSF:serum albumin ratio (r = 0.233, p = 0.031), but not with Aβ42 (r = -0.08, p = 0.444)CONCLUSION:CSF FABP-3 may be an early marker for later development of dementia, probably related to neuronal degeneration, but independent of Aβ metabolism.

  20. Has the prevalence of invalidating musculoskeletal pain changed over the last 15 years (1993-2006)? A Spanish population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Sánchez, Silvia; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; Villanueva-Martínez, Manuel; Ríos-Luna, Antonio; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César

    2010-07-01

    prevalence of invalidating musculoskeletal pain increased from 1993 to 2001 for both men (OR 1.31, 95% 1.08-1.58) and women (OR 1.19, 95% 1.03-1.39) with no significant increase from the remaining surveys. Our results suggest that invalidating musculoskeletal pain deserves an increased awareness among health professionals. More educational programs which address postural hygiene, physical exercise, and how to prevent obesity and sedentary lifestyle habits should be provided by Public Health Services. This population-based study indicates that invalidating musculoskeletal pain that reduces main working activity is a public health problem in Spain. The prevalence of invalidating musculoskeletal pain was higher in women than in men and associated to lower income, poor sleeping, worse self-reported health status, and other comorbid conditions. Further, the prevalence of invalidating musculoskeletal pain increased from 1993 to 2001, but remained stable from the last years (2001 to 2006).

  1. The effect of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and statins on the development of rotator cuff disease: a nationwide, 11-year, longitudinal, population-based follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tony Tung-Liang; Lin, Ching-Heng; Chang, Chia-Li; Chi, Chun-Han; Chang, Shin-Tsu; Sheu, Wayne Huey-Herng

    2015-09-01

    with statin use: HR, 1.16 [95% CI, 1.10-1.23]; P < .0001) (hyperlipidemia without statin use: HR, 2.01 [95% CI, 1.89-2.13]; P < .0001). In the subgroup of patients with hyperlipidemia, statin use was associated with a lower risk of developing RCD when compared with no statin use (rosuvastatin: HR, 0.41 [95% CI, 0.35-0.49]; P < .0001) (simvastatin: HR, 0.62 [95% CI, 0.54-0.71]; P < .0001) (other statins: HR, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.60-0.72]; P < .0001). The present longitudinal, population-based follow-up study showed that either diabetes or hyperlipidemia alone was an independent risk factor for RCD development. Statin use might provide protection against RCD in patients with hyperlipidemia. © 2015 The Author(s).

  2. Sleep and body mass index in adolescence: results from a large population-based study of Norwegian adolescents aged 16 to 19 years

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine the association between body mass index (BMI) and sleep duration, insomnia and symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in adolescents. Methods Data were taken from a large population based study of 9,875 Norwegian adolescents aged 16–19. BMI was calculated from the self-reported body weight and categorized according to recommended age and gender specific cut offs for underweight, overweight and obesity. Detailed sleep parameters (sleep duration, insomnia, and OSA symptoms) were reported separately for weekdays and weekends. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s chi-squared test and ANOVAs for simple categorical and continuous comparisons, and multinomial logistic regressions for analyses adjusting for known confounders. Results There was evidence for a curvilinear relationship between BMI and both sleep duration and insomnia for girls, whereas the relationship was linear for boys. Compared to the average weekday sleep duration among adolescents in the normal weight range (6 hrs 29 min), both underweight (5 hrs 48 min), overweight (6 hrs 13 min) and obese (5 hrs 57 min) adolescents had shorter sleep duration. OSA symptoms were linearly associated with BMI. Controlling for demographical factors as well as physical activity did not attenuate the associations. Additional adjustment for depression reduced the association between insomnia and obesity to a non-significant level. The evidence for a link between both underweight and overweight/obesity, and short sleep duration and OSA symptoms remained in the fully adjusted analyses. The associations were generally stronger for girls. Conclusions This is one of the first population-based studies to investigate the relationship between sleep and BMI in adolescents while simultaneously controlling for important confounding factors. These findings require further research to investigate the temporal association between weights and sleep problems. PMID:25128481

  3. Prevalence of Sexual Dysfunction and its Associated Factors in Women Aged 40–65 Years with 11 Years or More of Formal Education: A Population-Based Household Survey

    PubMed Central

    Valadares, Ana L. R.; Pinto-Neto, Aarão M.; Osis, Maria J.; Sousa, Maria H.; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia; Conde, Délio M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and its associated factors in middle-aged women with 11 years or more of formal education. METHODS A cross-sectional, population-based study was carried out using an anonymous, self-response questionnaire. A total of 315 Brazilian-born women, 40–65 years of age with 11 years or more of schooling, participated in the study. The instrument used in the evaluation was based on the Short Personal Experiences Questionnaire. Sexual dysfunction was calculated from the mean score of sexual responsiveness (pleasure in sexual activities, excitation and orgasm), frequency of sexual activities and libido. Sociodemographic and clinical factors were evaluated. Poisson multiple regression analysis was carried out and the prevalence ratios with respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated. RESULTS The prevalence of sexual dysfunction was 35.9% among our study population. Multiple regression analysis showed that sexual dysfunction was positively associated with older age (prevalence ratios=1.04; 95%CI:1.01–1.07) and with the presence of hot flashes (prevalence ratios=1.37; 95%CI:1.04–1.80). Having a sexual partner (PR=0.47; 95%CI:0.34–0.65) and feeling well or excellent (prevalence ratios= 0.68; 95%CI: 0.52–0.88) were factors associated with lower sexual dysfunction scores. CONCLUSIONS Sexual dysfunction was present in more than one-third of women that were 40–65 years of age with 11 years or more of formal education. Within that age group, older age and hot flashes were associated with higher sexual dysfunction scores, whereas feeling well and having a sexual partner were associated with better sexuality. PMID:19061000

  4. Association between APOE Genotype and Change in Physical Function in a Population-Based Swedish Cohort of Older Individuals Followed Over Four Years

    PubMed Central

    Skoog, Ingmar; Hörder, Helena; Frändin, Kerstin; Johansson, Lena; Östling, Svante; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Zettergren, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The association between decline in physical function and age-related conditions, such as reduced cognitive performance and vascular disease, may be explained by genetic influence on shared biological pathways of importance for aging. The apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene is well-known for its association with Alzheimer’s disease, but has also been related to other disorders of importance for aging. The aim of this study was to investigate possible associations between APOE allele status and physical function in a population-based longitudinal study of older individuals. In 2005, at the age of 75, 622 individuals underwent neuropsychiatric and physical examinations, including tests of physical function, and APOE-genotyping. Follow-up examinations were performed at age 79. A significantly larger decline in grip strength (p = 0.015) between age 75 and 79 was found when comparing APOE 𝜀4 allele carriers with non-carriers [10.3 (±10.8) kg versus 7.8 (±10.1) kg]. No association was seen with decline in gait speed, chair-stand, or balance. The association with grip strength remained after correction for cognitive and educational level, depression, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and BMI. PMID:27757080

  5. How is low parental socioeconomic status associated with future smoking and nicotine dependence in offspring? A population-based longitudinal 13-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Willy; Soest, Tilmann Von

    2017-02-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) characterizes smoking and nicotine dependence in adult samples. However, less is known about how parental SES is linked to smoking in offspring and the potential mechanisms at work. A population-based longitudinal study ( n=1380) from Norway was used. Participants were followed from their mid-teens until their late 20s using survey and register data. Data were collected on parental education, parental smoking, educational aspirations and expectations, school grades and school-related conduct problems. Register data monitored education, unemployment and social welfare assistance. Risk factors for smoking and nicotine dependence were identified by means of multinomial logistic regression analyses. Mediation analyses were used to investigate the pathways between parental SES and future smoking. Future smokers were recruited from families with low educational levels. Poor school grades, school dropout and low educational aspirations were also predictors. Unemployment and social welfare assistance additionally increased the risk. Parental smoking, no high school exam and welfare assistance were mediators between low parental education and high levels of nicotine dependence in young adulthood. Socialization to smoking reflects a multifaceted process fuelled by low parental SES. However, parental influences may be masked behind influences from schools or peers. Future research should try to capture the multiple sources of SES-related influence at work. Prevention strategies should target adolescents from low SES backgrounds, who orient towards the manual working class and who have problems entering the labour force.

  6. Attention behavior and hyperactivity and concurrent neurocognitive and social competence functioning in 4-year-olds from two population-based birth cohorts.

    PubMed

    Julvez, J; Forns, M; Ribas-Fitó, N; Torrent, M; Sunyer, J

    2011-09-01

    We studied the associations between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms and the neurobehavioral status in two population-based birth cohorts. Children (n=467) were assessed by psychologists and teachers for neuropsychological functioning (McCarthy Scales, MCSA), inattention-hyperactivity symptoms (ADHD-DSM-IV form list) and social behavior (California Preschool Social Competence Scale, CPSCS). Regression models were used with covariate adjustment. Sixteen percent of children had ADHD-DSM-IV symptoms. MCSA scores were linearly associated with ADHD symptom scores (general cognitive Beta=-0.6 [-1.0; -0.3] per symptom), specifically inattention scores (general cognitive Beta=-1.8 [-2.3; -1.2]). CPSCS scores were associated with ADHD symptoms (Beta=-2.19 [-2.5; -1.9]). MCSA scores of executive function, perceptive-performance and quantitative sub-areas had stronger associations with ADHD symptoms. Preschooler ADHD symptoms are associated with concurrent decrements in neurocognitive and social competence functioning. The association patterns are similar to those found in older children with ADHD symptomology (Marks et al., 2005 [36], Seidman, 2006 [46], Sonuga-Barke et al., 2003 [48], Yochman et al., 2006 [53]). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Association between APOE Genotype and Change in Physical Function in a Population-Based Swedish Cohort of Older Individuals Followed Over Four Years.

    PubMed

    Skoog, Ingmar; Hörder, Helena; Frändin, Kerstin; Johansson, Lena; Östling, Svante; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Zettergren, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The association between decline in physical function and age-related conditions, such as reduced cognitive performance and vascular disease, may be explained by genetic influence on shared biological pathways of importance for aging. The apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene is well-known for its association with Alzheimer's disease, but has also been related to other disorders of importance for aging. The aim of this study was to investigate possible associations between APOE allele status and physical function in a population-based longitudinal study of older individuals. In 2005, at the age of 75, 622 individuals underwent neuropsychiatric and physical examinations, including tests of physical function, and APOE-genotyping. Follow-up examinations were performed at age 79. A significantly larger decline in grip strength (p = 0.015) between age 75 and 79 was found when comparing APOE 4 allele carriers with non-carriers [10.3 (±10.8) kg versus 7.8 (±10.1) kg]. No association was seen with decline in gait speed, chair-stand, or balance. The association with grip strength remained after correction for cognitive and educational level, depression, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and BMI.

  8. Effect of vitamin D(3) and calcium on fracture risk in 65- to 71-year-old women: a population-based 3-year randomized, controlled trial--the OSTPRE-FPS.

    PubMed

    Salovaara, Kari; Tuppurainen, Marjo; Kärkkäinen, Matti; Rikkonen, Toni; Sandini, Lorenzo; Sirola, Joonas; Honkanen, Risto; Alhava, Esko; Kröger, Heikki

    2010-07-01

    Antifracture efficacy of high-dose vitamin D (800 IU) and calcium (1000 mg) remains controversial. To determine whether daily 800 IU of vitamin D and 1000 mg of calcium supplementation prevents fractures, we randomized 3432 women of the population-based Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention (OSTPRE) Study cohort (ages 65 to 71 years) living in the region of northern Savonia, Finland (latitude 62 degrees to 64 degrees N) for 3 years to receive 800 IU of cholecalciferol and 1000 mg of calcium as calcium carbonate or to a control group that did not receive placebo. The main outcome measure was incident fractures. Fracture data were collected in telephone interviews and validated. Data on 3195 women, 1586 in the intervention group and 1609 in the control group, were available for analysis. In adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, the risk of any fracture decreased in the vitamin D and calcium group by 17% [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61-1.12], and the risk of any nonvertebral fracture decreased by 13% (aHR = 0.87; 95% CI 0.63-1.19). The risk of distal forearm fractures decreased by 30% (aHR = 0.70; 95% CI 0.41-1.20), and the risk of any upper extremity fractures decreased by 25% (aHR = 0.75; 95% CI 0.49-1.16), whereas the risk of lower extremity fractures remained essentially equal (aHR = 1.02; 95% CI 0.58-1.80). None of these effects reached statistical significance. In conclusion, this study did not produce statistically significant evidence that vitamin D and calcium supplementation prevents fractures in a 65- to 71-year-old general population of postmenopausal women.

  9. Impact of prenatal diagnosis on the outcome of patients with a transposition of great arteries: A 24-year population-based study.

    PubMed

    Debost-Legrand, Anne; Ouchchane, Lemlih; Francannet, Christine; Goumy, Carole; Perthus, Isabelle; Beaufrère, Anne-Marie; Gallot, Denis; Lemery, Didier; Lusson, Jean-René; Laurichesse-Delmas, Hélène

    2016-03-01

    Transposition of great arteries (TGA) defined as the combination of concordant atrioventricular and discordant ventriculo-arterial connections is one of the most common congenital heart defects. Prenatal diagnosis of TGA remains difficult. To determine the impact of antenatal diagnosis we evaluated the sensitivity of antenatal detection and the neonatal mortality of TGA considering two study periods and two major types of TGA. A cross-sectional study was performed. Data were collected from a French population-based birth defect registry. From 1988 to 2012, 94 fetuses with TGA were registered. The study period was subdivided into the 1988 to 1999 period and the 2000 to 2012 period. Two types of TGA were considered: isolated TGA (n = 66) and associated TGA (n = 28). A stratified analysis was performed considering the study periods and the types of TGA. Considering the study periods, the sensitivity of prenatal detection of TGA increased significantly (9.8% vs. 51.5%, p = 0.0001). The same trend was found for associated TGA (4.8% vs. 33.3%, p = 0.002) and isolated TGA (21.1% vs. 100%, p < 0.001). A late diagnosis of TGA (7 days after birth) was observed in 13.2% of cases. Neonatal mortality decreased significantly over time for isolated TGA (25.0% vs. 0 p = 0.01). Prenatal diagnosis of both types of TGA did not improve survival. We demonstrated that prenatal diagnosis and neonatal mortality of TGA varied greatly according to the malformation type and the study period. This could be explained by an improvement in terms of medical management. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Years of life lost due to lower extremity injury in association with dementia, and care need: a 6-year follow-up population-based study using a multi-state approach among German elderly.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Putter, Hein; Doblhammer, Gabriele

    2016-01-12

    Dementia and care need are challenging aging populations worldwide. Lower extremity injury (LEI) in the elderly makes matters worse. Using a multi-state approach, we express the effect of LEI on dementia, care need, and mortality in terms of remaining life expectancy at age 75 (rLE) and years of life lost (YLL). A population-based random sample of beneficiaries aged 75-95 years was drawn from the largest public health insurer in Germany in 2004 and followed until 2010 (N 62,103; Mean Age ± SD 81.5 ± 4.8 years; Female 71.2%). We defined a five-state model (Healthy, Dementia, Care, Dementia & Care, Dead), and calculated transition-specific hazard ratios of LEI using Cox regression. The transition probabilities as well as the YLL due to LEI were estimated. LEI significantly increased the risk for each transition, with a maximum risk for the transition from Healthy to Care (HR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.63-1.77) and a minimum risk for the transition from Care to Dead (HR: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.10-1.22). If the elderly had LEI-history, their age-specific mortality was generally higher and their probabilities of transient states peaked at younger ages. At age 75, initially dementia-free and care-independent elderly experiencing LEI lost about 2 years of life, of which more than 90% were life years free of dementia or care need. Dementia patients lost about one and a half year, more than 60% were free of long-term care need. LEI not only casts a large health burden on care need, but is also associated with cognitive decline and shortened rLE. LEI plus dementia extend the relative life time in need of care, despite generally shortening rLE. Using the composite measure YLL may help to better convey these results to the elderly, families, and health professionals. This may strengthen preventive measures as well as improve timely and rehabilitative treatment of LEI, not only in cognitive and physically intact elderly.

  11. Primary health-care costs associated with special health care needs up to age 7 years: Australian population-based study.

    PubMed

    Quach, Jon; Oberklaid, Frank; Gold, Lisa; Lucas, Nina; Mensah, Fiona K; Wake, Melissa

    2014-10-01

    We studied infants and children with and without special health care needs (SHCN) during the first 8 years of life to compare the (i) types and costs to the government's Medicare system of non-hospital health-care services and prescription medication in each year and (ii) cumulative costs according to persistence of SHCN. Data from the first two biennial waves of the nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, comprising two independent cohorts recruited in 2004, at ages 0-1 (n = 5107) and 4-5 (n = 4983) years. Exposure condition: parent-reported Children with Special Health Care Needs Screener at both waves, spanning ages 0-7 years. Federal Government Medicare expenditure, via data linkage to the Medicare database, on non-hospital health-care attendances and prescriptions from birth to 8 years. At both waves and in both cohorts, >92% of children had complete SHCN and Medicare data. The proportion of children with SHCN increased from 6.1% at age 0-1 years to 15.0% at age 6-7 years. Their additional Medicare costs ranged from $491 per child at 6-7 years to $1202 at 0-1 year. This equates to an additional $161.8 million annual cost or 0.8% of federal funding for non-hospital-based health care. In both cohorts, costs were highest for children with persistent SHCNs. SHCNs incur substantial non-hospital costs to Medicare, and no doubt other sources of care, from early childhood. This suggests that economic evaluations of early prevention and intervention services for SHCNs should consider impacts on not only the child and family but also the health-care system. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  12. Biochemical markers for bone turnover predict risk of vertebral fractures in postmenopausal women over 10 years: the Japanese Population-based Osteoporosis (JPOS) Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, J; Iki, M; Kadowaki, E; Sato, Y; Chiba, Y; Akiba, T; Matsumoto, T; Nishino, H; Kagamimori, S; Kagawa, Y; Yoneshima, H

    2013-03-01

    We evaluated how bone turnover might predict vertebral fracture risk in postmenopausal women over 10 years. After adjusting for age and femoral neck bone mineral density, high bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and total and free deoxypyridinoline at baseline predicted increased vertebral fracture risk in women with ≥ 5 years since menopause. The aim was to evaluate the ability of bone turnover markers (BTMs) in predicting vertebral fractures. Participants in the 1996 baseline survey of the JPOS Cohort Study included 522 postmenopausal women, with no diseases or medications affecting bone metabolism. Vertebral fractures were ascertained in three follow-up surveys (1999, 2002, and 2006). Initial fracture events were diagnosed morphometrically. The Poisson regression model was applied to estimate the rate ratio (RR) of the following log-transformed BTM values at baseline: osteocalcin and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) in serum and C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen, total deoxypyridinoline (tDPD), and free deoxypyridinoline (fDPD) in urine. Eighty-three fracture events were diagnosed over a median follow-up period of 10.0 years. RR per standard deviation (SD) (95 % confidence interval) for BAP was 4.38 (1.45, 13.21) among 65 subjects with years since menopause (YSM) < 5 years. RRs per SD (95 % confidence interval) for BAP, tDPD, and fDPD were 1.39 (1.12, 1.74), 1.32 (1.05, 1.67), and 1.40 (1.12, 1.76), respectively, after adjusting for age and femoral neck bone mineral density (FN BMD) among 457 subjects with YSM ≥ 5 years. Of the 451 women followed at least once until 2002, RRs per SD for BAP, tDPD, and fDPD adjusted for age and FN BMD over 6 years were not significantly different from those over 10 years. BAP was associated with vertebral fracture risk among early postmenopausal women. BTMs can predict vertebral fractures independently of BMD among late postmenopausal women over a 10-year follow-up period.

  13. Patterns of mixed Plasmodium species infections among children six years and under in selected malaria hyper-endemic communities of Zambia: population-based survey observations.

    PubMed

    Sitali, Lungowe; Chipeta, James; Miller, John M; Moonga, Hawela B; Kumar, Nirbhay; Moss, William J; Michelo, Charles

    2015-05-02

    Although malaria is preventable and treatable, it still claims 660,000 lives every year globally with children under five years of age having the highest burden. In Zambia, malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) that only detect Plasmodium falciparum are the main confirmatory means for malaria diagnosis in most health facilities without microscopy services. As a consequence of this P. falciparum species diagnostic approach, non-falciparum malaria is not only under-diagnosed but entirely missed, thereby making the exact disease burden unknown. We thus investigated the prevalence of various Plasmodium spp. and associated burden of infection in selected communities in Zambia. Data from two malaria hyper-endemic provinces (Eastern and Luapula) of the 2012 National Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS), conducted between April and May 2012, were used. The MIS is a nationally representative, two-stage cluster survey conducted to coincide with the end of the malaria transmission season. Social, behavioural and background information were collected from households as part of the survey. Thick blood smears, RDTs and dried blood spots (DBS) were collected from children below six years of age. Slides were stained using Giemsa and examined by microscopy while polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to analyse the DBS for malaria Plasmodium spp. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to examine the association between background factors and malaria. Overall, 873 children younger than six years of age were surveyed. The overall prevalence of Plasmodium spp. by PCR was 54.3% (95% CI 51-57.6%). Of the total Plasmodium isolates, 88% were P. falciparum, 10.6% were mixed infections and 1.4% were non-falciparum mono infections. Among the mixed infections, the majority were a combination of P. falciparum and P. malariae (6.5% of all mixed infections). Children two years and older (2-5 years) had three-fold higher risk of mixed malaria infections (aOR 2.8 CI 1.31-5.69) than children

  14. The influence of renal dialysis and hip fracture sites on the 10-year mortality of elderly hip fracture patients: A nationwide population-based observational study.

    PubMed

    Hung, Li-Wei; Hwang, Yi-Ting; Huang, Guey-Shiun; Liang, Cheng-Chih; Lin, Jinn

    2017-09-01

    Hip fractures in older people requiring dialysis are associated with high mortality. Our study primarily aimed to evaluate the specific burden of dialysis on the mortality rate following hip fracture. The secondary aim was to clarify the effect of the fracture site on mortality. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database to analyze nationwide health data regarding dialysis and non-dialysis patients ≥65 years who sustained a first fragility-related hip fracture during the period from 2001 to 2005. Each dialysis hip fracture patient was age- and sex-matched to 5 non-dialysis hip fracture patients to construct the matched cohort. Survival status of patients was followed-up until death or the end of 2011. Survival analyses using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models and the Kaplan-Meier estimator were performed to compare between-group survival and impact of hip fracture sites on mortality. A total of 61,346 hip fracture patients were included nationwide. Among them, 997 dialysis hip fracture patients were identified and matched to 4985 non-dialysis hip fracture patients. Mortality events were 155, 188, 464, and 103 in the dialysis group, and 314, 382, 1505, and 284 in the non-dialysis group, with adjusted hazard ratios (associated 95% confidence intervals) of 2.58 (2.13-3.13), 2.95 (2.48-3.51), 2.84 (2.55-3.15), and 2.39 (1.94-2.93) at 0 to 3 months, 3 months to 1 year, 1 to 6 years, and 6 to 10 years after the fracture, respectively. In the non-dialysis group, survival was consistently better for patients who sustained femoral neck fractures compared to trochanteric fractures (0-10 years' log-rank test, P < .001). In the dialysis group, survival of patients with femoral neck fractures was better than that of patients with trochanteric fractures only within the first 6 years post-fracture (0-6 years' log-rank, P < .001). Dialysis was a significant risk factor of mortality in geriatric hip

  15. The effect of population-based mammography screening in Dutch municipalities on breast cancer mortality: 20 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Sankatsing, Valérie D V; van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T; Heijnsdijk, Eveline A M; Looman, Caspar W N; van Luijt, Paula A; Fracheboud, Jacques; den Heeten, Gerard J; Broeders, Mireille J M; de Koning, Harry J

    2017-08-15

    Long-term follow-up data on the effects of screening are scarce, and debate exists on the relative contribution of screening versus treatment to breast cancer mortality reduction. Our aim was therefore to assess the long-term effect of screening by age and time of implementation. We obtained data on 69,630 breast cancer deaths between 1980 and 2010 by municipality (N = 431) and age of death (40-79) in the Netherlands. Breast cancer mortality trends were analyzed by defining the municipality-specific calendar year of introduction of screening as Year 0. Additionally, log-linear Poisson regression was used to estimate the turning point in the trend after Year 0, per municipality, and the annual percentage change (APC) before and after this point. Twenty years after introduction of screening breast cancer mortality was reduced by 30% in women aged 55-74 and by 34% in women aged 75-79, compared to Year 0. A similar and significant decrease was present in municipalities that started early (1987-1992) and late (1995-1997) with screening, despite the difference in availability of effective adjuvant treatment. In the age groups 55-74 and 75-79, the turning point in the trend in breast cancer mortality was estimated in Years 2 and 6 after the introduction of screening, respectively, after which mortality decreased significantly by 1.9% and 2.6% annually. These findings show that the implementation of mammography screening in Dutch municipalities is associated with a significant decline in breast cancer mortality in women aged 55-79, irrespective of time of implementation. © 2017 UICC.

  16. Clinical significance of age at diagnosis among young non-small cell lung cancer patients under 40 years old: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mina; Cai, Xuwei; Yu, Wen; Lv, Changxing; Fu, Xiaolong

    2015-12-29

    Young non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients under the age of 40 can further be categorized into different age subgroups. Whether they have homogeneous clinical features and survival outcomes remains unexplored. Information of 4623 NSCLC patients up to 40 years old from 1988 to 2012 was retrieved from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Clinicopathologic characteristics and survival outcomes were compared between patients diagnosed at 18-30 years old (younger group) and those at 31-40 years old (older group). The proportion of patients in the younger group among all lung cancer patients was stable between 1988 and 2012. However, the proportion of patients in the older group decreased from 1.2% to 0.5%. The younger patients had a higher proportion of adenocarcinoma (P = 0.016), a lower proportion of large cell carcinoma (P = 0.008), a higher proportion of stage I disease (P = 0.002) and a lower proportion of stage III disease (P < 0.001). The younger patients had significantly better lung cancer-specific survival (LCSS) in the whole cohort (P < 0.001) and in the subgroup of patients with stage I (P = 0.038) or stage IV (P < 0.001) disease. Multivariate survival analysis showed that patients under 30 years old was an independent predictor of both better LCSS (P = 0.010) and overall survival (OS) (P = 0.018). Adult NSCLC patients under 30 years old had distinctive clinicopathologic characteristics and survival outcomes compared to patients diagnosed at 31-40 years old.

  17. Outpatient rehabilitation utilization and medical expenses in children aged 0-7 years with ADHD: analyses of population-based national health insurance data.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Chen, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Lan-Ping

    2013-07-01

    Medical costs of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are substantial and have a large impact on the public health system. The present study presents information regarding outpatient rehabilitation care usage and medical expenditure for children with ADHD. A cross-sectional study was conducted by analyzing data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance claims database for the year 2009. A total of 6643 children aged 0-7 years with ADHD (ICD-9-CM codes 314.0x: attention deficit disorder, 314.00: attention deficit disorder without hyperactivity, or 314.01: attention-deficit disorder with hyperactivity) who had used outpatient rehabilitation care were included in the analyses. Results showed that the mean annual rehabilitation care was 22.24 visits. Among the care users, 76% of patients were male, and 24% were female. More than half of the children with ADHD had comorbid mental illnesses as well. A logistic regression analysis of outpatient rehabilitation expenditure (low vs. high) showed that of those children with ADHD, those aged 0-2 years tended to incur more medical costs than those aged 6-7 years. Other factors such as frequency of rehabilitation visits, hospital medical setting and ownership, location of medical care setting, and types of rehabilitation were also significantly correlated with medical expenditure. The results from this study suggest that health care systems should ensure accurate diagnosis and measurement of impairment to maintain appropriate and successful management of rehabilitation needs for children with ADHD.

  18. Increased occurrence of native septic arthritis in adult cirrhotic patients: a population-based three-year follow-up study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hung, Tsung-Hsing; Hsieh, Min-Hong; Lay, Chorng-Jang; Tsai, Chih-Chun; Tsai, Chen-Chi

    2014-01-01

    Due to impairment of immunity and metabolism, cirrhotic patients are prone to infection, osteoporosis, and osteonecrosis. However, it is unknown if cirrhotic patients are prone to native septic arthritis (NSA). To assess the occurrence of NSA between cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic patients. We used the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database to enrol 35,106 cirrhotic patients and 33,457 non-cirrhotic patients from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2004. The medical record of each patient was individually followed for a 3-year period. There were 341 (0.5%) patients having NSA in a follow-up period of 3 years: 214 cirrhotic and 127 non-cirrhotic patients. The incidence density of hospitalisation for NSA was 2.03 episodes/1000 person-years in cirrhotic patients, and 1.27 episodes/1000 person-years in non-cirrhotic patients. After adjustment for age, gender, and other comorbid disorders, Cox's regression analysis showed that cirrhotic patients had a higher occurrence of NSA than non-cirrhotic patients(hazard ratio (HR) = 1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.19-1.90; p = 0.001). The patients with complicated cirrhosis were more prone to have NSA than those with non-complicated cirrhosis (HR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.09-1.96, p = 0.011). This analysis demonstrates that cirrhotic patients have a higher risk of NSA, particularly those with complicated cirrhosis.

  19. Incidence rates and life-time risk of hip fractures in Mexicans over 50 years of age: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Clark, Patricia; Lavielle, Pilar; Franco-Marina, Francisco; Ramírez, Esperanza; Salmerón, Jorge; Kanis, John A; Cummings, Steven R

    2005-12-01

    The vast majority of hip fractures in the 21st century will occur in the developing countries. The rates and life-time hip fracture risk are not known for Mexico, and for this reason, we studied the incidence of hip fractures, and the remaining life-time probability of having a hip fracture at the age of 50 years in Mexican men and women. All hip fracture cases registered during the year 2000 were collected at all the main tertiary-care hospitals in the two major health systems in México City, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) and Ministry of Health (SS), and the diagnosis was validated by chart review in all cases. The annual rates of hip fracture were 169 in women and 98 in men per 100,000 person-years. The life-time probability of having a hip fracture at 50 years of age was 8.5% in Mexican women and 3.8% in Mexican men. We conclude that hip fractures are an important health problem in Mexico and that Mexican health authorities should consider public health programs to prevent hip fractures.

  20. Dental hospitalization trends in Western Australian children under the age of 15 years: a decade of population-based study.

    PubMed

    Alsharif, Alla T; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed a decade of dental admission patterns in Western Australian children under the age of 15 years, examining associations with sociodemographic characteristics and with particular focus on dental decay and Indigenous children. This retrospective study analyzed the data obtained for 43,937 child patients under the age of 15 years hospitalized for an oral-health-related condition, as determined by principal diagnosis (ICD-10AM). Primary place of residency, age, gender, insurance status and Indigenous status were also analyzed. 'Dental caries' and 'embedded and impacted teeth' were the most common reasons for hospitalization among children under the age of 15 years. 'Dental caries' were most common in non-Indigenous patients, with 'pulp and periapical' most prevalent in Indigenous patients. The age-standardized rate (ASR) of hospitalization for Indigenous children in the last decade increased to reach that of non-Indigenous children in 2009. Total DRG costs of hospitalization, both public and private, were in excess of AUS $92 million over 10 years. This study indicates the burden of oral-health-related conditions on Western Australian children and the hospital system, in terms of health and economical impact. © 2014 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Sex, health, and years of sexually active life gained due to good health: evidence from two US population based cross sectional surveys of ageing

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilova, Natalia

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relation between health and several dimensions of sexuality and to estimate years of sexually active life across sex and health groups in middle aged and older adults. Design Cross sectional study. Setting Two samples representative of the US population: MIDUS (the national survey of midlife development in the United States, 1995-6) and NSHAP (the national social life, health and ageing project, 2005-6). Participants 3032 adults aged 25 to 74 (1561 women, 1471 men) from the midlife cohort (MIDUS) and 3005 adults aged 57 to 85 (1550 women, 1455 men) from the later life cohort (NSHAP). Main outcome measures Sexual activity, quality of sexual life, interest in sex, and average remaining years of sexually active life, referred to as sexually active life expectancy. Results Overall, men were more likely than women to be sexually active, report a good quality sex life, and be interested in sex. These gender differences increased with age and were greatest among the 75 to 85 year old group: 38.9% of men compared with 16.8% of women were sexually active, 70.8% versus 50.9% of those who were sexually active had a good quality sex life, and 41.2% versus 11.4% were interested in sex. Men and women reporting very good or excellent health were more likely to be sexually active compared with their peers in poor or fair health: age adjusted odds ratio 2.2 (P<0.01) for men and 1.6 (P<0.05) for women in the midlife study and 4.6 (P<0.001) for men and 2.8 (P<0.001) for women in the later life study. Among sexually active people, good health was also significantly associated with frequent sex (once or more weekly) in men (adjusted odds ratio 1.6 to 2.1), with a good quality sex life among men and women in the midlife cohort (adjusted odds ratio 1.7), and with interest in sex. People in very good or excellent health were 1.5 to 1.8 times more likely to report an interest in sex than those in poorer health. At age 30, sexually active life expectancy was 34

  2. Sex, health, and years of sexually active life gained due to good health: evidence from two US population based cross sectional surveys of ageing.

    PubMed

    Lindau, Stacy Tessler; Gavrilova, Natalia

    2010-03-09

    To examine the relation between health and several dimensions of sexuality and to estimate years of sexually active life across sex and health groups in middle aged and older adults. Cross sectional study. Two samples representative of the US population: MIDUS (the national survey of midlife development in the United States, 1995-6) and NSHAP (the national social life, health and ageing project, 2005-6). 3032 adults aged 25 to 74 (1561 women, 1471 men) from the midlife cohort (MIDUS) and 3005 adults aged 57 to 85 (1550 women, 1455 men) from the later life cohort (NSHAP). Sexual activity, quality of sexual life, interest in sex, and average remaining years of sexually active life, referred to as sexually active life expectancy. Overall, men were more likely than women to be sexually active, report a good quality sex life, and be interested in sex. These gender differences increased with age and were greatest among the 75 to 85 year old group: 38.9% of men compared with 16.8% of women were sexually active, 70.8% versus 50.9% of those who were sexually active had a good quality sex life, and 41.2% versus 11.4% were interested in sex. Men and women reporting very good or excellent health were more likely to be sexually active compared with their peers in poor or fair health: age adjusted odds ratio 2.2 (P<0.01) for men and 1.6 (P<0.05) for women in the midlife study and 4.6 (P<0.001) for men and 2.8 (P<0.001) for women in the later life study. Among sexually active people, good health was also significantly associated with frequent sex (once or more weekly) in men (adjusted odds ratio 1.6 to 2.1), with a good quality sex life among men and women in the midlife cohort (adjusted odds ratio 1.7), and with interest in sex. People in very good or excellent health were 1.5 to 1.8 times more likely to report an interest in sex than those in poorer health. At age 30, sexually active life expectancy was 34.7 years for men and 30.7 years for women compared with 14.9 to 15

  3. Social capital, the miniaturisation of community and consumption of homemade liquor and smuggled liquor during the past year. A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Martin

    2005-12-01

    To study the impact of social participation, trust and the miniaturisation of community, i.e. high social participation/low trust, on consumption of homemade liquor and smuggled liquor during the past year. The Scania 2000 public health survey is a cross-sectional, postal questionnaire study. A total of 13,604 persons aged 18-80 years were included. A logistic regression model was used to investigate the association between the social capital variables and illegal alcohol consumption. The multivariate analyses analysed the importance of confounders (age, country of origin, education and economic stress) on the differences in consumption of homemade and smuggled liquor according to the social capital variables. A 28.2% proportion of all men and 14.9% of all women had consumed homemade liquor during the past year. The proportions who had consumed smuggled liquor during the past year were even higher, 40.1% among men and 21.4% among women. Both forms of illegal alcohol consumption were significantly positively associated with social participation and negatively associated with trust. The miniaturisation of community category, i.e. high social participation/low trust, had significantly higher risks of consumption during the past year of the consumption of both forms of illegally provided alcohol compared to the high social capital (high social participation/high trust) category, while the low social participation/high trust category had significantly lower risks. High social participation combined with low trust is positively associated with consumption of illegally provided alcohol. The results have implications for alcohol prevention programs, because structural/social factors that may hinder information and norms concerning illegal alcohol have been identified in this study.

  4. High-normal blood pressure and long-term risk of type 2 diabetes: 35-year prospective population based cohort study of men.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Christina Hedén; Novak, Masuma; Lappas, Georgios; Wilhelmsen, Lars; Björck, Lena; Hansson, Per-Olof; Rosengren, Annika

    2012-10-15

    The link between type 2 diabetes and hypertension is well established and the conditions often coexist. High normal blood pressure, defined by WHO-ISH as systolic blood pressure (SBP) 130-139 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) 85-89 mm Hg, has been found to be an independent predictor for type 2 diabetes in studies, although with relatively limited follow-up periods of approximately 10 years. The aim of this study was to investigate whether hypertension, including mildly elevated blood pressure within the normal range, predicted subsequent development of type 2 diabetes in men over an extended follow-up of 35 years. Data were derived from the Gothenburg Primary Prevention Study where a random sample of 7 494 men aged 47-55 years underwent a baseline screening investigation in the period 1970-1973. A total of 7 333 men were free from previous history of diabetes at baseline. During a 35-year follow-up diabetes was identified through the Swedish hospital discharge and death registries. The cumulative risk of diabetes adjusted for age and competing risk of death was calculated. Using Cox proportional hazard models we calculated the multiple adjusted hazard ratios (HR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) for diabetes at different blood pressure levels. During a 35-year follow-up, 956 men (13%) were identified with diabetes. The 35-year cumulative risk of diabetes after adjusting for age and competing risk of death in men with SBP levels <130 mm Hg, 130-139 mm Hg, 140-159 mm Hg and ≥160 mm Hg were 19%, 30%, 31% and 49%, respectively. The HR for diabetes adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI), cholesterol, antihypertensive treatment, smoking, physical activity and occupation were 1.43 (95% CI 1.12-1.84), 1.43 (95% CI 1.14-1.79) and 1.95 (95% CI 1.55-2.46) for men with SBP 130-139 mm Hg, 140-159 mm Hg, and ≥ 160 mm Hg, respectively (reference; SBP<130 mm Hg). In this population, at mid-life, even high-normal SBP levels were shown to be a significant predictor of type

  5. Incidence of Major Depressive Disorder: Variation by Age and Sex in Low-Income Individuals: A Population-Based 10-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chun-Te; Chiang, Yi-Cheng; Huang, Jing-Yang; Tantoh, Disline M; Nfor, Oswald N; Lee, Jia-Fu; Chang, Cheng-Chen; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2016-04-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD), the most prevalent mental disorder is a global public health issue. The aim of this study was to assess the association between low income and major depressive disorder (MDD) by age and sex. The National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan was used to retrieve data. A total of 1,743,948 participants were eligible for the study. Low-income individuals were identified from 2001 and 2003 (specifically, Group Insurance Applicants, ie, category"51" or "52") and followed from 2004 to 2010. MDD was identified using the ICD-9-CM 296.2 and 296.3 codes. Among non-low-income individuals, the MDD incidence rates increased with age in both males and females, that is, 0.35, 0.93, 0.97, 1.40 per 10,000 person-months for males and 0.41, 1.60, 1.89, 1.95 per 10,000 person-months for females aged 0 to 17, 18 to 44, 45 to 64, and ≥65 years, respectively. Low-income females (18-44 years) and males (45-64 years) had the highest incidence of MDD, which was 3.90 and 3.04, respectively, per 10,000 person-months. Among low and non-low-income individuals, the MDD incidence rates were higher in the females than males in all age groups. Males aged 45 to 64 and 0 to 17 years had highest hazard ratios (HR) of 2.789 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.937-4.014) and 2.446 (95% CI, 1.603-3.732), respectively. The highest HRs for females were 2.663 (95% CI, 1.878-3.775) and 2.219 (CI, 1.821-2.705) in the 0 to 17 and 18- to 44-year age groups. Low income was not found to serve as a risk factor for the development of MDD in males and females aged ≥65 years. Among the non-low-income males and females, the incidence rates of MDD were found to increase with age. Low income was found to serve as a significant risk factor for MDD only in individuals under age 65.

  6. Family eczema-history in 2-year olds with eczema; a prospective, population-based study. The PACT-study, Norway

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A maternal line of inheritance regarding eczema has been described in several studies, whereas others find associations to both a maternal as well as a paternal line of inheritance. When studying family history of eczema symptoms, cohort studies including siblings are rare. Time point for assessing family eczema-history could be of importance when studying the associations between family eczema-history and children with eczema, as parents with unaffected children may not recall mild symptoms in other siblings or their own disease history. We therefore aimed to study the associations between reported eczema in mother, father and siblings and reported eczema in index child where information on family history was collected at two different ages of index child. Methods Parents/children participating in The Prevention of Allergy among Children in Trondheim (PACT) study were given questionnaires on reported eczema symptoms in mother, father and siblings at 6 weeks and 1 year. When index child was 2 years of age, a detailed questionnaire on different health issues with emphasize on different allergy related disorders were filled in. Results Both maternal and paternal reports on eczema were significantly associated with eczema in index child. Reporting family eczema-history at 1 year (N = 3087), "eczema sibling only" [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.13 (2.27-4.33)] as well as all other family-groups containing siblings with eczema were strongly associated with eczema 2 years. When family eczema-history was reported at 6 weeks (N = 2657), reporting of "eczema sibling only" was not associated to reported eczema at 2 years in index child [aOR = 1.31 (0.77-2.23)]. Conclusions Having sibling(s) with eczema strengthened the associations between maternal and paternal reports on eczema with eczema in index child only when exposure was reported at 1 year. These findings indicate that results from questionnaires-based studies of family eczema-history depend on whether or

  7. Helicobacter pylori antibody responses in association with eradication outcome and recurrence: a population-based intervention trial with 7.3-year follow-up in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tianyi; Zhang, Yang; Su, Huijuan; Li, Zhexuan; Zhang, Lian; Ma, Junling; Liu, Weidong; Zhou, Tong; You, Weicheng; Pan, Kaifeng

    2017-01-01

    Objective To identify serum biomarkers that may predict the short or long term outcomes of anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) treatment, a follow-up study was performed based on an intervention trial in Linqu County, China. Methods A total of 529 subjects were selected randomly from 1,803 participants to evaluate total anti-H. pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) and 10 specific antibody levels before and after treatment at 1-, 2- and 7.3-year. The outcomes of anti-H. pylori treatment were also parallelly assessed by13C-urea breath test at 45-d after treatment and 7.3-year at the end of follow-up. Results We found the medians of anti-H. pylori IgG titers were consistently below cut-off value through 7.3 years in eradicated group, however, the medians declined in recurrence group to 1.2 at 1-year after treatment and slightly increased to 2.0 at 7.3-year. While the medians were significantly higher (>3.0 at 2- and 7.3-year) among subjects who failed the eradication or received placebo. For specific antibody responses, baseline seropositivities of FliD and HpaA were reversely associated with eradication failure [for FliD, odds ratio (OR)=0.44, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.27–0.73; for HpaA, OR=0.32, 95% CI: 0.17–0.60]. The subjects with multiple positive specific antibodies at baseline were more likely to be successfully eradicated in a linear fashion (Ptrend=0.006). Conclusions Our study suggested that total anti-H. pylori IgG level may serve as a potential monitor of long-term impact on anti-H. pylori treatment, and priority forH. pylori treatment may be endowed to the subjects with multiple seropositive antibodies at baseline, especially for FliD and HapA. PMID:28536491

  8. Clinical characteristics and one year outcomes in Chinese atrial fibrillation patients with stable coronary artery disease: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Ying; Zhu, Jun; Yang, Yan-Min; Liang, Yan; Tan, Hui-Qiong; Wang, Juan; Huang, Bi; Zhang, Han; Shao, Xing-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) and coronary artery disease (CAD) often coexist, however, the clinical characteristics and the impact of stable CAD on the outcomes in Chinese patients with AF has not been well understood. Methods Consecutive AF patients in 20 hospitals in China from November 2008 to October 2011 were enrolled. The primary endpoints included 1-year all-cause mortality, stroke, non-central nervous system (non-CNS) embolism, and major bleeding. Results A total of 1947 AF patients were analyzed, of whom 40.5% had stable CAD. The mean CHADS2 scores in CAD patients were significantly higher than that of non-CAD patients (2.4 ± 1.4 vs. 1.4 ± 1.2, P < 0.001). During follow-up period, warfarin use is low in both groups, with relatively higher proportion in non-CAD patients compared with CAD patients (22.3% vs. 10.7%, P < 0.001). Compared with non-CAD patients, CAD patients had higher one-year all-cause mortality (16.8% vs. 12.9%, P = 0.017) and incidence of stroke (9.0% vs. 6.4%, P = 0.030), while the non-CNS embolism and major bleeding rates were comparable between the two groups. After multivariate adjustment, stable CAD was independently associated with increased risk of 1-year all-cause mortality (HR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.01−1 .80, P = 0.040), but not associated with stroke (HR = 1.07, 95% CI: 0.72–1.58, P = 0.736). Conclusions Stable CAD was prevalent in Chinese AF patients and was independently associated with increased risk of 1-year all-cause mortality. Chinese AF patients with stable CAD received inadequate antithrombotic therapy and this grim status of antithrombotic therapy needed to be improved urgently. PMID:27781056

  9. Severe Psychiatric Disorders in Mid-Life and Risk of Dementia in Late-Life (Age 65-84 Years): A Population Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Zilkens, Renate R.; Bruce, David G.; Duke, Janine; Spilsbury, Katrina; Semmens, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association of mid-life exposure to several psychiatric disorders with the development of late-life dementia. Methods: A matched case-control study using Western Australian state-wide hospital inpatient, outpatient mental health and emergency records linked to death records. Incident dementia cases (2000-2009) aged 65 to 84 years were sex- and age-matched to an electoral roll control. Records as far back as 1970 were used to assess exposure to medical risk factors before age 65 years. Candidate psychiatric risk factors were required to be present at least 10 years before dementia onset to ensure direction of potential causality. Odds ratios were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results: 13, 568 dementia cases (median age 78.7 years, 43.4% male) were matched to a control. Depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety disorder and alcohol dependence were found to be significant and independent risk factors for late-life dementia after adjusting for diabetes, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and smoking risk factors. The effect of a history of depression, schizophrenia and alcohol dependency on dementia risk varied with age, being strongest for earlier onset late-life dementia and waning at older ages. Conclusion: Severe depression, anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and alcoholic dependency disorder treated by specialists in psychiatric facilities in mid-life are important risk factors for late-life dementia. These psychiatric conditions need to be considered in future studies of the risk and prevention of late-life dementia. PMID:25115541

  10. Prognosis of subtypes of the mucinous breast carcinoma in Chinese women: a population-based study of 32-year experience (1983-2014).

    PubMed

    Pan, Bo; Yao, Ru; Shi, Jie; Xu, Qian-Qian; Zhou, Yi-Dong; Mao, Feng; Lin, Yan; Guan, Jing-Hong; Wang, Xue-Jing; Zhang, Yan-Na; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Shen, Song-Jie; Zhong, Ying; Xu, Ya-Li; Zhu, Qing-Li; Liang, Zhi-Yong; Sun, Qiang

    2016-06-21

    The heterogeneous nature of the mucinous breast cancer (MBC), with its pure (PMBC) and mixed subtypes (MMBC), calls for precise prognosis assessment. We analyzed 197 consecutive MBC patients, including 117 PMBC and 80 MMBC, who were treated from 1983 to 2014. The clinicopathological features, treatment choice, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared among PMBC, MMBC and MMBC subgroups. Prognostic factors of PMBC and MMBC were identified. Compared to PMBC, MMBC had more lymph node metastasis (p = 0.043), Her2 positivity (p = 0.036), high Ki-67 index (defined as>20%, p = 0.026) and anti-Her2 targeted therapy (p = 0.016). The 5-year DFS of PMBC and MMBC were 90.4% and 86.2%, whereas the 5-year OS were 99.0% and 98.7%. No significant difference was found in DFS or OS among all MBC subtypes. High Ki-67 (p = 0.020) appeared as DFS factor in PMBC, while anti-Her2 targeted therapy (p = 0.047) as the DFS predictors in MMBC. MMBC manifested similar 5-year survival to PMBC in Chinese woman, suggesting that intra-tumoral heterogeneity might not interfere with MBC short-term prognosis.

  11. The Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Children Under 5 Years in Tehran, Iran, in 2012: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Salehiniya, Hamid; Yazdani, Kamran; Barekati, Hamed; Asadi Lari, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Overweight and obesity in children are a serious problem. They are increasingly prevalent and associated with a wide range of health problems in adulthood. Monitoring their status is essential for effective planning in the health system. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children below 5 years in Tehran in 2012. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study employed data provided by the urban health equity assessment in Tehran. The sample comprised a total of 4656 children under 5 years, recruited via multistage sampling. Data were collected through questionnaires and anthropometric measures of height and weight. The WHO child growth standards were used to determine overweight and obesity. Data were analyzed using chi-square tests, with SPSS version 11.5. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children were 12% and 23.7% respectively. The prevalence of overweight was significantly higher in girls than boys and the prevalence of obesity was significantly higher in boys than girls (P = 0.001). Obesity was more prevalent in children from high economic percentiles, but this finding was not statistically significant. Conclusions: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children under 5 years is high. Overweight and obesity should be considered an epidemic and serious health problem in Tehran. They certainly require more attention and intervention. PMID:26889459

  12. Education level explains differences in stroke incidence among city districts in Joinville, Brazil: a three-year population-based study.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Norberto L; Longo, Alexandre; Moro, Carla; Ferst, Priscila; Oliveira, Fabiano A; Vieira, Celso V; Eluf-Neto, Jose; Fonseca, Luiz Augusto M; Gonçalves, Anderson R R

    2011-01-01

    Current evidence suggests an inverse association between socioeconomic status and stroke incidence. Our aim was to measure the variation in incidence among different city districts (CD) and their association with socioeconomic variables. We prospectively ascertained all possible stroke cases occurring in the city of Joinville during the period 2005-2007. We determined the incidence for each of the 38 CD, age-adjusted to the population of Joinville. By linear regression analysis, we correlated incidence data with mean years of education (MYE) and mean income per month (MIPM). Of the 1,734 stroke cases registered, 1,034 were first-ever strokes. In the study period, the crude incidence in Joinville was 69.5 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval, 65.3-73.9). The stroke incidence among CD ranged from 37.5 (22.2-64.6) to 151.0 per 100,000 (69.0-286.6). The stroke incidence was inversely correlated with years of education (r = -0.532; p < 0.001). MYE and MIPM were strongly related (R = 0.958), resulting in exclusion of MIPM by collinearity. Years of education can explain a wide incidence variation among CD. These results may be useful to guide the allocation of resources in primary prevention policies. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Factors associated with commencing smoking in 12-year-old students in Catalonia (Spain): a cross-sectional population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Over the last decade notable progress has been made in developed countries on monitoring smoking although experimenting with cigarettes and smoking in young people remains a serious public health problem. This paper reports a cross-sectional study at the beginning of the 3-year follow-up community study TA_BES. The aim was to study the prevalence of smoking in addition to determining predictive factors for when smoking commences in a representative population of 12-year-old first year compulsory secondary education students. Methods Twenty-nine secondary schools (N = 29) from an area of Catalonia participated in the study. In these schools 2245 students answered a questionnaire to study the attitudes, behaviors, and tobacco consumption in the subject's surrounding circle and family in relation to smoking; carbon monoxide measurements were taken by means of co-oximetry on 2 different occasions. A smoker was defined as a student who had smoked daily or occasionally in the last 30 days. For non-smokers the criteria of not considering was set up for those who answered that in the future they would not be smokers and considering those who answered that they did not rule out becoming a smoker in the future. Results Among the total 2245 students included in the analysis 157(7%) were classified as smokers. Among non-smokers we differentiated between those not considering smoking 1757 (78.3%) and those considering smoking 288 (12.8%). Age is among the factors related to commencing smoking. The risk of becoming a smoker increases 2.27 times/year. The influence of the group of friends with a very high risk for boys OR 149.5 and lower, albeit high, in girls OR 38.1. Tobacco consumption of parents produces different effects in young people. A smoking father does not produce alterations in the smoking behavior of young people. However having a smoking mother or former smoking is a risk factor for boys and a protective factor for girls. We detected a gradual risk of

  14. Outcomes of Early- and Late-identified Children at 3 Years of Age: Findings from a Prospective Population-based Study

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Teresa Y.C.; Dillon, Harvey; Marnane, Vivienne; Hou, Sanna; Day, Julia; Seeto, Mark; Crowe, Kathryn; Street, Laura; Thomson, Jessica; Van Buynder, Patricia; Zhang, Vicky; Wong, Angela; Burns, Lauren; Flynn, Christopher; Cupples, Linda; Cowan, Robert S.C.; Leigh, Greg; Sjahalam-King, Jessica; Yeh, Angel

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To address the question of whether, on a population level, early detection and amplification improve outcomes of children with hearing impairment. Design All families of children who were born between 2002 and 2007, and who presented for hearing services below 3 years of age at Australian Hearing pediatric centers in New South Wales, Victoria and Southern Queensland were invited to participate in a prospective study on outcomes. Children’s speech, language, functional and social outcomes were assessed at 3 years of age, using a battery of age-appropriate tests. Demographic information relating to the child, family, and educational intervention was solicited through the use of custom-designed questionnaires. Audiological data were collected from the national database of Australian Hearing and records held at educational intervention agencies for children. Regression analysis was used to investigate the effects of each of 15 predictor variables, including age of amplification, on outcomes. Results Four hundred and fifty-one children enrolled in the study, 56% of whom received their first hearing-aid fitting before 6 months of age. Based on clinical records, 44 children (10%) were diagnosed with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. There were 107 children (24%) reported to have additional disabilities. At 3 years of age, 317 children (70%) were hearing-aid users and 134 children (30%) used cochlear implants. Based on parent reports, about 71% used an aural/oral mode of communication, and about 79% used English as the spoken language at home. Children’s performance scores on standardized tests administered at 3 years of age were used in a factor analysis to derive a global development factor score. On average, the global score of hearing-impaired children was more than one standard deviation (SD) below the mean of normal-hearing children at the same age. Regression analysis revealed that five factors, including female gender, absence of additional

  15. A 20-year population-based study on the epidemiology, clinical features, treatment, and outcome of nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Strobbe, L; Valke, L L F G; Diets, I J; van den Brand, M; Aben, K; Raemaekers, J M M; Hebeda, K M; van Krieken, J H J M

    2016-02-01

    Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is a subtype of Hodgkin lymphoma characterized by a unique clinical and histological presentation. Because of the rare nature of this disease, few large-scale studies are available. We conducted a cohort study in which patients were identified in the Netherlands Cancer Registry in the Southeast of the Netherlands between 1990 and 2010. Of these patients, we collected all clinical characteristics and re-reviewed pathologic material to confirm NLPHL diagnosis. Seventy-three histologically confirmed cases of NLPHL were analyzed with a median follow-up of 65 months (range 4-257 months). Median age at diagnosis was 43 years (range 1-87); 84.9 % of the patients were male; B symptoms were present in 5.5 %; and stage I/II disease was most common (75.4 %). Patients were primarily treated with radiotherapy (50.7 %), chemotherapy (26 %), combined modality (radiotherapy and chemotherapy) (11 %), or surgical excision with careful watch-and-wait (12.3 %). Relapses occurred in seven patients (9.6 %) after a median of 26 months (21-74 months). Six patients (8.2 %) developed histologic transformation to large cell lymphoma. Five patients (6.8 %) died during follow-up due to progression of NLPHL (n = 1), histologic transformation (n = 2) and intercurrent deaths (n = 2). The estimated 10-year overall survival was 94.0 % and the 10-year progression-free survival 75.8 %. Our study confirms the distinct characteristics of NLPHL with a relatively good long-term prognosis. It may be possible to reduce treatment intensity in early stage NLPHL without affecting long-term outcome.

  16. Prevalence and associations of anisometropia and aniso‐astigmatism in a population based sample of 6 year old children

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, S C; Wang, X Y; Ip, J; Robaei, D; Kifley, A; Rose, K A; Mitchell, P

    2006-01-01

    Aim To study the distribution of anisometropia and aniso‐astigmatism in young Australian children, together with clinical and ocular biometry relations. Method The Sydney Myopia Study examined 1765 predominantly 6 year old children from 34 randomly selected Sydney schools during 2003–4. Keratometry, cycloplegic autorefraction, and questionnaire data were collected. Results Spherical equivalent (SE) anisometropia (⩾1 dioptre) prevalence was 1.6% (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1% to 2.4%). Aniso‐astigmatism (⩾1D) prevalence was 1.0% (CI: 0.6% to 1.6%). Both conditions were significantly more prevalent among moderately hyperopic (SE ⩾2.0D) than mildly hyperopic (SE 0.5–1.9D) children. Myopic children (SE ⩽−0.5D) had higher anisometropia prevalence. Neither condition varied by age, sex, or ethnicity. In multivariate analyses, anisometropia was significantly associated with amblyopia, odds ratio (OR) 29, (CI: 8.7 to 99), exotropia (OR 7.7, CI: 1.2 to 50), and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission (OR 3.6, CI: 1.1 to 12.6). Aniso‐astigmatism was significantly associated with amblyopia (OR 8.2, CI: 1.4 to 47), maternal age >35 years (OR 4.0, CI: 1.3 to 11.9), and NICU admission (OR 4.6, CI: 1.2 to 17.2). Anisometropia resulted from relatively large interocular differences in axial length (p<0.0001) and anterior chamber depth (p = 0.0009). Aniso‐astigmatism resulted from differences in corneal astigmatism (p<0.0001). Conclusion In this predominantly 6 year old population, anisometropia and aniso‐astigmatism were uncommon, had important birth and biometry associations, and were strongly related to amblyopia and strabismus. PMID:16622090

  17. Burden of HIV infection among children aged 18 months to 14 years in Kenya: results from a nationally representative population-based cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Ng'eno, Bernadette; Mwangi, Ann; Ng'ang'a, Lucy; Kim, Andrea A; Waruru, Anthony; Mukui, Irene; Ngugi, Evelyn W; Rutherford, George W

    2014-05-01

    In Kenya, mathematical models estimate that there are approximately 220,000 children aged less than 15 years infected with HIV. We analyzed data from the second Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2012) to estimate the prevalence of HIV infection among children aged 18 months to 14 years. KAIS 2012 was a nationally representative 2-stage cluster sample household survey. We studied children aged 18 months to 14 years whose parents or guardians answered questions pertaining to their children by interview. Blood specimens were collected for HIV serology and viral load measurement. We identified 5162 children who were eligible for the study. Blood was obtained for 3681 (71.3%) children. Among child participants, 16.4% had been tested for HIV infection in the past, and among children with parents or guardians who self-reported HIV-positive status, 52.9% had been tested for HIV infection. Twenty-eight (0.9%) children tested HIV-positive in the survey. Of these, 11 had been previously diagnosed with HIV infection before the survey. All 11 children were in HIV care and receiving cotrimoxazole; 8 were on antiretorivral therapy (ART). Among those on ART, 4 were virologically suppressed. HIV causes a substantial burden of disease in the Kenyan pediatric population. Although most children who had been diagnosed with HIV before the survey were engaged in care and treatment, they represented less than half of HIV-infected children identified in the survey. Future efforts should focus on identifying infected children and getting them into care and on suppressive ART as early as possible.

  18. 10-Year Risk Estimation for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Coronary Heart Disease in Kuwait: A Cross-Sectional Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Abdelmoneim Ismail; Alsaleh, Fatemah Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), coronary heart disease (CHD) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are major healthcare problems in Kuwait. The present study was designed to determine the prevalence of MetS, and to estimate the 10-year risk for developing T2DM and CHD among the general population in Kuwait. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was undertaken in 1800 individuals without diabetes or a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD). They were selected from six governorates using two stage convenience sampling. The questionnaire was developed using the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISK), Framingham Risk Score [FRS] and the 2009 Joint Statement criteria for diagnosis of MetS as a framework. Descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used. Results The response rate was 89.4%. More than half (60.8%; 95% CI: 58.4–63.2) of responders were either overweight or obese. One hundred and ninety seven (12.2%) subjects had blood pressure (BP) ≥ 140/90 mm Hg. Almost three-in-ten (28.3%: 26.2–30.6) subjects had fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels ≥ 5.6 mmol/l, of whom 86.0% and 14.0% had impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and screen detected T2DM, respectively. MetS was present in 512 (31.8%; 29.5–34.2) respondents. Just under one third (n = 481; 29.9%; 27.7–32.2) of participants were at moderate, high, or very high risk of developing T2DM, while 283 (17.6%: 15.8–19.6) were at moderate/high 10-year risk of developing CHD. Approximately one-in-ten (8.5%; 7.2–9.9) subjects were at moderate/high/very high 10-year risk of developing both T2DM/CHD. T2DM risk was higher for females compared to males (p < 0.001); however, the pattern was reversed in terms of the risk of developing CHD or T2DM/CHD. The risk of developing T2DM, CHD, or T2DM/CHD was greater among those aged ≥ 45 years, and those having MetS (p<0.001). Conclusions The current findings highlight the need for multifaceted interventions for prevention. PMID:25629920

  19. Breast-feeding, day-care attendance and the frequency of antibiotic treatments from 1.5 to 5 years: a population-based longitudinal study in Canada.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Lise; Girard, Manon

    2005-05-01

    This paper aims to study, at the population level, the protective role of breast-feeding on child health and its relation to day-care attendance during the first 5 years of life. The analysis, done on a national sample of children, uses antibiotic treatments as a general measure of health. It takes into account mother's education level, family poverty level, mother's smoking status during pregnancy and after birth, mother's age, sex, gestation duration, and birth rank. The analyses were performed using data from the Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Quebec (LSCDQ), conducted by Santé Québec, a division of the Institut de la Statistique du Québec (ISQ). The study was based on face-to-face interviews and included a set of questionnaires addressed to the children's mothers and fathers. A total of 1841 were included in the sample analyzed. Detailed information on breast-feeding and complementary feeding was collected at 5 and 17 months through face-to-face interviews with the most knowledgeable person, generally the mother. From this information, it has been possible to estimate breast-feeding duration and exclusivity. Our results indicate that the positive effects of breast-feeding on health persist up to the second year of life, even in the presence of day-care attendance. The analyses indicate that breast-feeding reduced the number of antibiotic treatments given to children entering day care before 2.5 years of age. The study also indicates that the more-at-risk children could be protected by breast-feeding and by being taken care of in a familial setting, especially before 2.5 years of age. Mother's education, family poverty level, and other social inequality indicators did not play a role in the frequency of antibiotic treatments. Over the long term, it will be important to continue to monitor the health of children and to implement public health interventions aimed at reducing health problems among children of preschool age.

  20. Should tumbling E go out of date in amblyopia screening? Evidence from a population-based sample normative in children aged 3-4 years.

    PubMed

    Guimaraes, Sandra; Fernandes, Tiago; Costa, Patrício; Silva, Eduardo

    2017-10-07

    To determine a normative of tumbling E optotype and its feasibility for visual acuity (VA) assessment in children aged 3-4 years. A cross-sectional study of 1756 children who were invited to participate in a comprehensive non-invasive eye exam. Uncorrected monocular VA with crowded tumbling E with a comprehensive ophthalmological examination were assessed. Testability rates of the whole population and VA of the healthy children for different age subgroups, gender, school type and the order of testing in which the ophthalmological examination was performed were evaluated. The overall testability rate was 95% (92% and 98% for children aged 3 and 4 years, respectively). The mean VA of the first-day assessment (first-VA) and best-VA over 2 days' assessments was 0.14 logMAR (95% CI 0.14 to 0.15) (decimal=0.72, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.73) and 0.13 logMAR (95% CI 0.13 to 0.14) (decimal=0.74, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.74). Analysis with age showed differences between groups in first-VA (F(3,1146)=10.0; p<0.001; η2=0.026) and best-VA (F(3,1155)=8.8; p<0.001; η2=0.022). Our normative was very highly correlated with previous reported HOTV-Amblyopia-Treatment-Study (HOTV-ATS) (first-VA, r=0.97; best-VA, r=0.99), with 0.8 to 0.7 lines consistent overestimation for HOTV-ATS as described in literature. Overall false-positive referral was 1.3%, being specially low regarding anisometropias of ≥2 logMAR lines (0.17%). Interocular difference ≥1 line VA logMAR was not associated with age (p=0.195). This is the first normative for European Caucasian children with single crowded tumbling E in healthy eyes and the largest study comparing 3 and 4 years old testability. Testability rates are higher than found in literature with other optotypes, especially in children aged 3 years, where we found 5%-11% better testability rates. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  1. The Effect of Renal Function Impairment on the Mortality of Cirrhotic Patients: A Nationwide Population-Based 3-Year Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Tsung-Hsing; Lay, Chorng-Jang; Tseng, Chih-Wei; Tsai, Chih-Chun; Tsai, Chen-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Renal function impairment (RFI) contributes to poor prognosis in cirrhotic patients. However, there have been no studies that seek to identify the effect of different types of RFI on the mortality of cirrhotic patients. We used the National Health Insurance Database, derived from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program, to identify 44365 cirrhotic patients between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2007. RFI was identified in 2832 cirrhotic patients, including 1075 with acute renal failure (ARF) (169 with hepatorenal syndrome, HRS; 906 with non-hepatorenal syndrome, NHRS), 705 with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and 1052 with end stage renal disease (ESRD). After Cox proportional hazard regression analysis adjusted by gender, age, and comorbid disorders, the 30-day, 30 to 90-day, 90-day to 1-year, and 1 to 3-year mortality hazard ratios (HR) compared to the non-RFI group were: (ARF) 5.19 (4.70–5.74), 3.23 (2.76–3.77), 1.51 (1.26–1.81), and 1.35 (1.13–1.61), respectively; (CKD) 2.70 (2.30–3.18), 2.03 (1.66–2.49), 1.60 (1.34–1.90), and 1.26 (1.06–1.49), respectively; and (ESRD) 1.42 (1.17–1.72), 1.62 (1.35–1.94), 1.90 (1.68–2.15), and 1.67 (1.48–1.89), respectively. Compared to NHRS, the 30-day, 30 to 90-day, 90-day to 1-year, and 1 to 3-year mortality HRs of HRS were 1.03 (0.80–1.32), 2.13 (1.46–3.11), 1.58 (0.90–2.75), and 2.51 (1.41–4.48), respectively, in cirrhotic patients with ARF. These results indicate the effects of CKD and ESRD on the mortality of cirrhotic patients are distributed equally in every survival stage, whereas the effect of ARF appears only in the early stage. Compared to NHRS, HRS contributes to a higher mortality risk at the late survival stage. PMID:27631098

  2. Prevalence of SCN1A-Related Dravet Syndrome among Children Reported with Seizures following Vaccination: A Population-Based Ten-Year Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Verbeek, Nienke E.; van der Maas, Nicoline A. T.; Jansen, Floor E.; van Kempen, Marjan J. A.; Lindhout, Dick; Brilstra, Eva H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of Dravet syndrome, an epileptic encephalopathy caused by SCN1A-mutations, often with seizure onset after vaccination, among infants reported with seizures following vaccination. To determine differences in characteristics of reported seizures after vaccination in children with and without SCN1A-related Dravet syndrome. Methods Data were reviewed of 1,269 children with seizures following immunization in the first two years of life, reported to the safety surveillance system of the Dutch national immunization program between 1 January 1997 and 31 December 2006. Selective, prospective follow-up was performed of children with clinical characteristics compatible with a diagnosis of Dravet syndrome. Results In 21.9% (n = 279) of children, a diagnosis of Dravet syndrome could not be excluded based on available clinical data (median age at follow-up 16 months). Additional follow-up data were obtained in 83.9% (n = 234) of these children (median age 8.5 years). 15 (1.2% of 1,269; 95%CI:0.6 to 1.8%) children were diagnosed with SCN1A-related Dravet syndrome. Of all reported seizures following vaccinations in the first year of life, 2.5% (95%CI:1.3 to 3.6%) were due to SCN1A-related Dravet syndrome, as were 5.9% of reported seizures (95%CI:3.1 to 8.7%) after 2nd or 3rd DTP-IPV-Hib vaccination. Seizures in children with SCN1A-related Dravet syndrome occurred more often with a body temperature below 38.5°C (57.9% vs. 32.6%, p = 0.020) and reoccurred more often after following vaccinations (26.7% vs. 4.0%, p = 0.003), than in children without a diagnosis of SCN1A-related Dravet Syndrome. Conclusions Although Dravet syndrome is a rare genetic epilepsy syndrome, 2.5% of reported seizures following vaccinations in the first year of life in our cohort occurred in children with this disorder. Knowledge on the specific characteristics of vaccination-related seizures in this syndrome might promote early diagnosis and indirectly

  3. Maternal use of folic acid supplements during pregnancy and four-year-old neurodevelopment in a population-based birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Julvez, Jordi; Fortuny, Joan; Mendez, Michelle; Torrent, Maties; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Sunyer, Jordi

    2009-05-01

    The use of folic acid supplements during very early pregnancy is recommended in order to reduce the incidence of neural tube defects. Little is known about the possible benefits of folic acid on child neurodevelopment. A total of 420 children (87% of those eligible) from a birth cohort had complete data for final analyses at age 4 years. Information about folic acid and other over-the-counter dietary supplements was obtained prospectively using interviewer-administered questionnaires at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy. Psychological outcomes were assessed by two psychologists and teachers 4 years later. Low maternal socio-economic status, smoking, high parity and short duration of breast feeding were associated with lower prevalence of folic acid supplement use. Verbal (b = 3.98, SE = 1.69), motor (b = 4.54, SE = 1.66) and verbal-executive function (b = 3.97, SE = 1.68) scores, social competence (b = 3.97, SE = 1.61) and inattention symptom [OR = 0.46; 95% CI 0.22, 0.95] scores were associated with reported folic acid use. Reported folic acid supplement use during pregnancy was associated with improved neurodevelopment in children after adjusting for a number of sociodemographic and behavioural factors.

  4. The association between alcohol use and long-term care placement among older Canadians: A 14-year population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Mark S.; Huguet, Nathalie; Feeny, David; McFarland, Bentson H.; Caetano, Raul; Bernier, Julie; Giesbrecht, Norman; Oliver, Lisa; Ramage-Morin, Pamela; Ross, Nancy A.

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that moderate alcohol use confers protection against some of the dominant predictors of long-term care placement, including diminished cognitive functioning, physical disability, and injury. But little is known about the association between alcohol use and the likelihood of placement in long-term care facilities. A nationally representative sample of 5,404 community-dwelling Canadians ages 50 years and older at baseline (1994/95) was obtained from the longitudinal National Population Health Survey. Alcohol use categories were developed based on the quantity and frequency of use in the 12 months before the interview. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the association between alcohol use at baseline and subsequent placement in long-term care facilities after adjusting for covariates measured at baseline. During the 14-year follow-up period, 14% of lifetime abstainers, 10% of former drinkers, 7% of infrequent drinkers, 4% of moderate drinkers, and 3% of heavy drinkers were placed in long-term care facilities. Furthermore, the multivariate analysis revealed that abstainers, former drinkers, and infrequent drinkers were more than twice as likely to be placed in long-term care as moderate drinkers. Moderate drinking was protective against placement in long-term care facilities even after adjusting for an array of well-known confounders. The strong protective effect of moderate alcohol use on long-term care entry is likely due to a complex mix of physical, cognitive and psychosocial health factors. PMID:24169370

  5. Population-based reference values of handgrip strength and functional tests of muscle strength and balance in men aged 70-80 years.

    PubMed

    Ribom, Eva L; Mellström, Dan; Ljunggren, Östen; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2011-01-01

    With aging, the incidence of falls and fractures increases. There has during the last decades been secular changes in demographics so that the proportion of elderly increases in society. Hence, there is an increasing need for clinicians to be able to make a solid appraisal of the elderly patient's functional capacity, as to identify individuals with an increased risk to fall. If high risk individuals could be targeted fall preventive strategies might be implemented in specific risk cohorts. This would require reference values for muscle strength tests and functional tests, in order to defined high risk individuals performing inferior. From the MrOS Sweden cohort, 999 subjects aged 70-80 years were evaluated. Muscle strength and functional performance was tested by timed-stands test, 6-m and 20-cm narrow walk tests and Jamar handgrip strength test. Normative data is presented. With increasing age, there was a 10-18% successively decline in performance throughout the entire age span. This study provides reference values for handgrip strength and functional muscle tests in 70-80 years old men. The decline in the test values with increasing age, infer the use of age-specific normative data when using these tests both in clinical and research settings. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A web- and mobile phone-based intervention to prevent obesity in 4-year-olds (MINISTOP): a population-based randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Delisle, Christine; Sandin, Sven; Forsum, Elisabet; Henriksson, Hanna; Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva; Larsson, Christel; Maddison, Ralph; Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Silfvernagel, Kristin; Timpka, Toomas; Löf, Marie

    2015-02-07

    Childhood obesity is an increasing health problem globally. Overweight and obesity may be established as early as 2-5 years of age, highlighting the need for evidence-based effective prevention and treatment programs early in life. In adults, mobile phone based interventions for weight management (mHealth) have demonstrated positive effects on body mass, however, their use in child populations has yet to be examined. The aim of this paper is to report the study design and methodology of the MINSTOP (Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers) trial. A two-arm, parallel design randomized controlled trial in 300 healthy Swedish 4-year-olds is conducted. After baseline measures, parents are allocated to either an intervention- or control group. The 6- month mHealth intervention consists of a web-based application (the MINSTOP app) to help parents promote healthy eating and physical activity in children. MINISTOP is based on the Social Cognitive Theory and involves the delivery of a comprehensive, personalized program of information and text messages based on existing guidelines for a healthy diet and active lifestyle in pre-school children. Parents also register physical activity and intakes of candy, soft drinks, vegetables as well as fruits of their child and receive feedback through the application. Primary outcomes include body fatness and energy intake, while secondary outcomes are time spent in sedentary, moderate, and vigorous physical activity, physical fitness and intakes of fruits and vegetables, snacks, soft drinks and candy. Food and energy intake (Tool for Energy balance in Children, TECH), body fatness (pediatric option for BodPod), physical activity (Actigraph wGT3x-BT) and physical fitness (the PREFIT battery of five fitness tests) are measured at baseline, after the intervention (six months after baseline) and at follow-up (12 months after baseline). This novel study will evaluate the effectiveness of a mHealth program for

  7. Food Choices and Coronary Heart Disease: A Population Based Cohort Study of Rural Swedish Men with 12 Years of Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, Sara; Thelin, Anders; Stiernström, Eva-Lena

    2009-01-01

    Coronary heart disease is associated with diet. Nutritional recommendations are frequently provided, but few long term studies on the effect of food choices on heart disease are available. We followed coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality in a cohort of rural men (N = 1,752) participating in a prospective observational study. Dietary choices were assessed at baseline with a 15-item food questionnaire. 138 men were hospitalized or deceased owing to coronary heart disease during the 12 year follow-up. Daily intake of fruit and vegetables was associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease when combined with a high dairy fat consumption (odds ratio 0.39, 95% CI 0.21–0.73), but not when combined with a low dairy fat consumption (odds ratio 1.70, 95% CI 0.97–2.98). Choosing wholemeal bread or eating fish at least twice a week showed no association with the outcome. PMID:20054459

  8. Factors associated with the change in prevalence of cardiomyopathy at delivery from the years 2000 to 2009; a population-based prevalence study

    PubMed Central

    Grotegut, Chad A; Kuklina, Elena V; Anstrom, Kevin J; Heine, R Phillips; Callaghan, William M; Myers, Evan R; James, Andra H

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cardiomyopathy (CM) at delivery is increasing in prevalance. The objective of this study was to determine what medical conditions are attributable to this increasing prevalance. Design Population prevalence study from 2000 to 2009. Setting The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS). Methods Pregnant women admitted for delivery were identified in the NIS for the years 2000-2009 and temporal trends in pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications at delivery admissions were determined by linear regression. The change in the prevalence of CM among all pregnant women was compared to the change in the prevalance of CM among pregnant women without pre-existing conditions or complications. Main Outcome Measures Prevalence of cardiomyopathy. Results The prevalence of CM increased from 0.25 per 1000 deliveries in 2000 to 0.43 per 1000 deliveries in 2009 (p<0.0001). Women with chronic hypertension had increased odds of developing CM compared to women without chronic hypertension (odds ratio[OR] 13.2 [95% CI 12.5, 13.7]). The linear increase in chronic hypertension over the ten-year period was the single identified pre-existing medical condition that explained the increasing prevalence of CM at delivery (p=0.005 for the differences in the slopes for linear trend). Conclusions Pregnant women with chronic hypertenion are at an increased risk for CM at delivery and the increasing prevalence of chronic hypertension is an important factor associated with the increasing prevalence of CM at the time of delivery. Among women without chronic hypertension, the prevalence of CM at delivery did not change during the time period. PMID:24661593

  9. Introduction of an organised programme and social inequalities in mammography screening: A 22-year population-based study in Geneva, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, José Luis; Theler, Jean-Marc; Cullati, Stéphane; Bouchardy, Christine; Manor, Orly; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Guessous, Idris

    2017-10-01

    In developed countries, breast cancer mortality has decreased during the last decades due to, at least partially, the advent of mammography screening. Organised programmes aim, among other objectives, to increase participation and decrease social inequalities in screening access. We aimed to characterise the evolution of socioeconomic disparities in mammography screening before and after the implementation of an organised programme in Geneva, Switzerland. We included 5345 women, aged 50-74years, without past history of breast cancer who participated in the cross-sectional Bus Santé study, between 1992 and 2014. Outcome measures were: 1) never had a mammography (1992-2014) and 2) never had a mammography or not screened in the two years before being surveyed (subgroup analysis, 2007-2014). Educational attainment was divided in three groups (primary, secondary and tertiary) and period in two (before/after introduction of a screening programme in 1999). We calculated measures of relative and absolute change, including the relative (RII) and slope (SII) indices of social inequality adjusted for age and nationality. We compared the prevalence of screening before and after screening programme implementation using Poisson models. The proportion of unscreened women decreased during the study period from 30.5% to 3.6%. Lower educated women were more frequently unscreened (RII=2.39, p<0.001; SII=0.10, p<0.001). Organised screening decreased the proportion of unscreened women independently of education (prevalence ratiobefore vs. after=4.41, p<0.001), but absolute and relative inequalities persisted (RII=2.11, p=0.01; SII=0.04, p=0.01). Introduction of an organised programme increased women's adherence to mammography screening but did not eliminate social disparities in screening participation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Consumption of soda and other sugar-sweetened beverages by 2-year-olds: findings from a population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Garnett, Bernice Raveche; Rosenberg, Kenneth D; Morris, Daniel S

    2013-10-01

    To determine risk factors for consumption of soda and other sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) among 2-year-old children. The analysis was performed using three linked data sets: the 2004-2005 Oregon Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring Survey (PRAMS); its longitudinal follow-up, 2006-2007 Oregon PRAMS-2; and 2004-2005 Oregon birth certificates. PRAMS is a surveillance programme supported by the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and implemented by participating state health departments. Using mixed methods, PRAMS surveys women 2-6 months after a live birth. Oregon PRAMS-2 re-interviews respondents shortly after the index child's second birthday. Oregon PRAMS oversamples minority women. Using monthly cohorts, we randomly selected 5851 women from the 2004-2005 birth certificates. In total 1911 women completed both PRAMS and PRAMS-2. The weighted response rate of PRAMS-2 was 43.5%. Almost half of mothers (49.9%) reported that their child drank SSB on at least 1 d/week. Mothers whose children drank SSB at least once weekly were more likely to have low income (adjusted OR=2.83, 95% CI 2.09, 3.83) and to eat out on ≥2 d/week (OR=2.11 %, 95% CI 1.66, 2.70). Hispanic and non-Hispanic black women were most likely to report that their child drank SSB at least once weekly. Half of mothers reported that their 2-year-old children drank SSB at least once weekly. Public health interventions and policies should address childhood SSB consumption including educating health-care providers and parents.

  11. Asthma in British Columbia: Are we finally breathing easier? A population-based study of the burden of disease over 14 years.

    PubMed

    Bardal, Stan; Smith, Anne; Luo, Hao Allan; Zhang, Tingting; Groeneweg, Gabriella; Jimenez Mendez, Ricardo; Goldman, Ran; Carleton, Bruce C

    2017-04-01

    Asthma presents a significant global burden, but whether the incidence and prevalence of asthma is rising is still debated. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and incidence of asthma in British Columbia (BC), Canada, and characterize associated health services utilization. We extracted data from provincial administrative hospitalization, medical services, and prescription drug databases for patients aged 5 to 55 years, during 1996 to 2009 having ≥270 MSP registration days and meeting asthma definition of: ≥1 hospital admissions with asthma as the principal diagnosis, or ≥2 physician visits for asthma as the principal diagnosis, or ≥3 asthma drug dispensings. Regression models were used to test change in asthma incidence and prevalence, and use of various health care services, such as physician and emergency department (ED) visits, and hospitalizations. 379,950 patients met the study criteria. The prevalence (2.6%) and incidence (0.7%) of asthma was relatively stable over the study period. There was a decline in proportion of patients visiting family practitioners (FP) (OR 0.92; 95% CI 0.90-0.94), specialists (OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.58-0.62), using ED services (OR 0.31; 95% CI 0.30-0.32) and hospitalizations (OR 0.34; 95% CI 0.31-0.37). Regional differences were noted, with lower rates of FP and specialist visits and higher rates of ED visits for asthma in rural versus urban areas. In BC, the incidence and prevalence of asthma has remained stable over 14 years. Although health service utilization declined, there is variation between rural and urban regions.

  12. Late-career unemployment and all-cause mortality, functional disability and depression among the older adults in Taiwan: A 12-year population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chu, Wei-Min; Liao, Wen-Chun; Li, Chi-Rong; Lee, Shu-Hsin; Tang, Yih-Jing; Ho, Hsin-En; Lee, Meng-Chih

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate whether late-career unemployment is associated with increased all-cause mortality, functional disability, and depression among older adults in Taiwan. In this long-term prospective cohort study, data were retrieved from the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging. This study was conducted from 1996 to 2007. The complete data from 716 men and 327 women aged 50-64 years were retrieved. Participants were categorized as normally employed or unemployed depending on their employment status in 1996. The cumulative number of unemployment after age 50 was also calculated. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the effect of the association between late-career unemployment and cumulative number of late-career unemployment on all-cause mortality, functional disability, and depression in 2007. The average age of the participants in 1996 was 56.3 years [interquartile range (IQR)=7.0]. A total of 871 participants were in the normally employed group, and 172 participants were in the unemployed group. After adjustment of gender, age, level of education, income, self-rated health and major comorbidities, late-career unemployment was associated with increased all-cause mortality [Odds ratio (OR)=2.79; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.74-4.47] and functional disability [OR=2.33; 95% CI=1.54-3.55]. The cumulative number of late-career unemployment was also associated with increased all-cause mortality [OR=1.91; 95% CI=1.35-2.70] and functional disability [OR=2.35; 95% CI=1.55-3.55]. Late-career unemployment and cumulative number of late-career unemployment are associated with increased all-cause mortality and functional disability. Older adults should be encouraged to maintain normal employment during the later stage of their career before retirement. Employers should routinely examine the fitness for work of older employees to prevent future unemployment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Neuropsychological outcome and its correlates in the first year after adult mild traumatic brain injury: A population-based New Zealand study.

    PubMed

    Barker-Collo, Suzanne; Jones, Kelly; Theadom, Alice; Starkey, Nicola; Dowell, Anthony; McPherson, Kathryn; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Dudley, Margaret; Te Ao, Braden; Feigin, Valery

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between moderate/severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and cognitive deficits is well known. The nature, duration and predictors of cognitive difficulties post-mild TBI remain unclear. This study examined cognitive, mood and post-concussion outcomes of mild TBI over 1-year post-injury. Adults (>15 years) with mild TBI (n = 260) completed neuropsychological (CNS-Vital Signs, Behavioural Dyscontrol Scale), mood (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale) and behavioural assessments (Cognitive Failures Questionnaire, Rivermead Post-Concussion Questionnaire) at baseline, 1-, 6- and 12-months post-injury. Over the 12-months post-injury self-reported cognition (p = 0.027), post-concussion symptoms (p < 0.001), depression (p < 0.001), anxiety (p < 0.001) and dyscontrol (p = 0.025) improved significantly. Assessments of memory, processing speed, executive function, psychomotor speed/reaction time, complex attention and flexibility also improved significantly. At baseline >20% of individuals produced very low scores on executive ability, complex attention and cognitive flexibility. At 1- and 6-month follow-ups >20% of participants were very low for complex attention, with 16.3% remaining so at 12-months. Executive abilities and speed were related to post-concussion symptoms, mood and self-reported cognition at 12-months. Whilst significant improvements were noted across measures over time, a significant proportion of individuals still perform poorly on neuropsychological measures 12-months after mild TBI; and these were linked to post-concussion symptoms, mood and self-reported cognitive outcomes. This implies a longer trajectory for recovery than has previously been suggested, which has implications for provision of assessment and rehabilitation services for more extended periods.

  14. Predictive factors of self-reported hand eczema in adult Danes: a population-based cohort study with 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Heede, N G; Thyssen, J P; Thuesen, B H; Linneberg, A; Johansen, J D

    2016-08-01

    Information about predictive factors of hand eczema is crucial for primary prevention. To investigate predictive factors of hand eczema in adult Danes from the general population. Participants from a cross-sectional 5-year follow-up study in the general population, aged 18-72 years (n = 2270), completed questionnaires about skin health and were grouped into four hand eczema groups: 'never', 'incident', 'nonpersistent' and 'persistent'. Multiple logistic regression models adjusted for age group and sex were used to evaluate associations with baseline variables. The participation rate for the follow-up study was 66·5% (29·7% of the participants originally invited to the baseline study). A history of atopic dermatitis (AD) was associated with both persistent and incident hand eczema [odds ratio (OR) 9·0, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5·6-14·4 and OR 3·0, 95% CI 1·7-5·2, respectively]. Thus, even in adulthood, a history of AD should be considered as a predictor of incident hand eczema. While filaggrin gene (FLG) null mutations were not associated with incident hand eczema, a statistically significant association was observed with persistent hand eczema (OR 3·1, 95% CI 1·8-5·2). Finally, contact sensitization (23 allergens without nickel) was also associated with persistent hand eczema (OR 2·5, 95% CI 1·2-5·0), independently of a history of AD. This study confirms a history of AD as the strongest predictor of persistent hand eczema. We additionally found that a history of AD was associated with incident hand eczema in adults, in contrast to FLG mutations, which were associated only with persistent hand eczema in individuals with a history of AD, and not with incident hand eczema. Our study adds new knowledge to the interplay between AD, FLG mutations and hand eczema in the adult general population. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  15. Very low rates of culture-confirmed invasive bacterial infections in a prospective 3-year population-based surveillance in Southwest London.

    PubMed

    Le Doare, Kirsty; Nichols, Anna-Louise; Payne, Helen; Wells, Rosy; Navidnia, Sonia; Appleby, Gayle; Calton, Elizabeth; Sharland, Mike; Ladhani, Shamez N

    2014-06-01

    To estimate the incidence, clinical characteristics and risk factors for culture-confirmed invasive bacterial infections in England. Prospective, observational, study of all children with positive blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture over a 3-year period (2009-2011). All five hospitals within a geographically defined region in southwest London providing care for around 600 000 paediatric residents. Children aged 1 month to 15 years Rates of community-acquired and hospital-acquired invasive bacterial infections in healthy children and those with co-morbidities; pathogens by age group, risk group and clinical presentation. During 2009-2011, 44 118 children had 46 039 admissions, equivalent to 26 admissions per 1000 children. Blood/CSF cultures were obtained during 44.7% of admissions, 7.4% were positive but only 504 were clinically significant, equivalent to 32.9% of positive blood/CSF cultures, 2.4% of all blood/CSF cultures and 1.1% of hospital admissions. The population incidence of culture-confirmed invasive bacterial infection was 28/100 000. One-third of infections were hospital acquired and, of the community-acquired infections, two-thirds occurred in children with pre-existing co-morbidities. In previously healthy children, therefore, the incidence of community-acquired invasive bacterial infection was only 6.4/100 000. Although infection was suspected in almost half the children admitted to hospital, a significant pathogen was cultured from blood or CSF in only 2.4%, mainly among children with pre-existing co-morbidities, who may require a more broad-spectrum empiric antibiotic regime compared to previously healthy children. Invasive bacterial infection in previously healthy children is now very rare. Improved strategies to manage low-risk febrile children are required. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Neuroanatomical classification in a population-based sample of psychotic major depression and bipolar I disorder with 1 year of diagnostic stability.

    PubMed

    Serpa, Mauricio H; Ou, Yangming; Schaufelberger, Maristela S; Doshi, Jimit; Ferreira, Luiz K; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Menezes, Paulo R; Scazufca, Marcia; Davatzikos, Christos; Busatto, Geraldo F; Zanetti, Marcus V

    2014-01-01

    The presence of psychotic features in the course of a depressive disorder is known to increase the risk for bipolarity, but the early identification of such cases remains challenging in clinical practice. In the present study, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of a neuroanatomical pattern classification method in the discrimination between psychotic major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar I disorder (BD-I), and healthy controls (HC) using a homogenous sample of patients at an early course of their illness. Twenty-three cases of first-episode psychotic mania (BD-I) and 19 individuals with a first episode of psychotic MDD whose diagnosis remained stable during 1 year of followup underwent 1.5 T MRI at baseline. A previously validated multivariate classifier based on support vector machine (SVM) was employed and measures of diagnostic performance were obtained for the discrimination between each diagnostic group and subsamples of age- and gender-matched controls recruited in the same neighborhood of the patients. Based on T1-weighted images only, the SVM-classifier afforded poor discrimination in all 3 pairwise comparisons: BD-I versus HC; MDD versus HC; and BD-I versus MDD. Thus, at the population level and using structural MRI only, we failed to achieve good discrimination between BD-I, psychotic MDD, and HC in this proof of concept study.

  17. Increased Hospitalizations for Ischemic Stroke with Comorbid Diabetes and Residential Proximity to Sources of Organic Pollutants: A 12-Year Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Sergeev, Alexander V.; Carpenter, David O.

    2010-01-01

    Background Evidence is emerging that exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POP) is a risk factor for atherosclerosis-related diseases and for diabetes mellitus (DM). We hypothesized that residential proximity to sources of POP will be associated with an increase in hospitalization rates for ischemic stroke (IS) with comorbid DM (IS-DM). Methods We examined IS-DM hospitalization rates in the New York State (exclusive of New York City) during a 12-year period. POP exposure status was assessed based on residency in a zip code containing or abutting environmental sources of POP. Adjusted relative risks (RR) of IS-DM hospitalization were estimated by multivariate Poisson regression. Results A statistically significant 10% increase in IS-DM hospitalization rates was observed in populations environmentally exposed to POP (adjusted RR 1.10, 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.01–1.20; p = 0.031). IS-DM hospitalization rates were also higher in males (adjusted RR 1.34, 95% CI 1.30–1.39; p < 0.001), in blacks (adjusted RR 4.54, 95% CI 4.16–4.94; p < 0.001) and in older age groups (p for trend <0.001). Conclusions Residential proximity to sources of POP is associated with an increase in RR of IS-DM hospitalization. Our findings support the hypothesis of POP being a risk factor for IS. Further studies are warranted. PMID:20664210

  18. Racial and Ethnic Variation in the Association of Social Integration with Mortality: Ten-year Prospective Population-based US Study

    PubMed Central

    Barger, Steven D.; Uchino, Bert N.

    2017-01-01

    Substantial data link social relationships with mortality but few studies have examined whether these associations are consistent across racial and ethnic groups. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the presence and form of the social relationship/mortality association in a representative sample of US Black (n = 4,201), non-Hispanic White (n = 20,217) and Hispanic (n = 5,097) groups. In models adjusted for age, sex, chronic disease, socioeconomic status and smoking social integration was inversely related to ten-year survival in all groups. However, among Whites the association was linear and graded whereas among Blacks the association was linear but was statistically significant only for the highest level of social integration (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.66, 95% confidence interval = 0.47–0.94). A threshold pattern was observed among Hispanics, in that lower mortality risk was found for all social integration categories above the lowest level (HRs from 0.58 to 0.52, P’s < 0.01) and each of the higher social integration categories were in turn equivalent. Received social support was unrelated to mortality across all groups. Higher social integration is associated with a survival advantage for Blacks and Whites. For Hispanics, moderate and high levels of social integration were equally protective. PMID:28262712

  19. Associations of Serum Manganese Levels with Prediabetes and Diabetes among ≥60-Year-Old Chinese Adults: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuan; Zhang, Mingyue; Lui, Guang; Chang, Hong; Zhang, Meilin; Liu, Wei; Li, Ziwei; Liu, Yixin; Huang, Guowei

    2016-08-13

    Older adults can experience glucose metabolism dysfunction, and although manganese may help regulate glucose metabolism, there is little information regarding this association among older people. This cross-sectional study included 2402 Chinese adults who were ≥60 years old in 2013 (Tianjin, China), and evaluated the associations of serum manganese with prediabetes and diabetes. Serum manganese levels were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the sex-specific associations of manganese levels with diabetes and prediabetes after adjusting for confounding factors (age, sex, life style factors, and health status). Based on the WHO criteria, prediabetes was observed in 15.1% of men and 13.4% of women, while diabetes was observed in 30.0% of men and 34.4% of women. In the final model, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for prediabetes according to manganese quartile were 1.000, 0.463 (0.269-0.798), 0.639 (0.383-1.065), and 0.614 (0.365-1.031) among men and 1.000, 0.773 (0.498-1.200), 0.602 (0.382-0.947), and 0.603 (0.381-0.953) among women (p for trend = 0.134 and 0.015, respectively). The lowest prevalence of diabetes among men occurred at a moderate range of serum manganese (p < 0.05). Therefore, appropriate serum manganese levels may help prevent and control prediabetes and diabetes.

  20. Five-year longitudinal predictive factors for disordered eating in a population-based sample of overweight adolescents: implications for prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Wall, Melanie; Story, Mary; Sherwood, Nancy E

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study is to identify predictors of prevalence and incidence of disordered eating (binge eating and extreme weight control behaviors) among overweight adolescents. Five-year longitudinal associations were examined in 412 overweight adolescents who participated in Project EAT-I and II. Among both overweight males and females, risk factors for disordered eating included exposure to weight loss magazine articles, higher weight importance, and unhealthy weight control behaviors, while family connectedness, body satisfaction, and regular meals were protective factors, although there were some differences in predictors of prevalence (total cases) versus incidence (new cases) of disordered eating. Among males, poor eating patterns, including fast food and sweetened beverage intake, increased risk for disordered eating, and the use of healthy weight control behaviors was protective. Attention should be directed toward decreasing disordered eating among overweight adolescents. Findings suggest the importance of promoting positive family relationships, psychological health, and regular meals, and steering adolescents away from overemphasizing weight and using unhealthy weight control behaviors.

  1. Racial and Ethnic Variation in the Association of Social Integration with Mortality: Ten-year Prospective Population-based US Study.

    PubMed

    Barger, Steven D; Uchino, Bert N

    2017-03-06

    Substantial data link social relationships with mortality but few studies have examined whether these associations are consistent across racial and ethnic groups. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the presence and form of the social relationship/mortality association in a representative sample of US Black (n = 4,201), non-Hispanic White (n = 20,217) and Hispanic (n = 5,097) groups. In models adjusted for age, sex, chronic disease, socioeconomic status and smoking social integration was inversely related to ten-year survival in all groups. However, among Whites the association was linear and graded whereas among Blacks the association was linear but was statistically significant only for the highest level of social integration (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.66, 95% confidence interval = 0.47-0.94). A threshold pattern was observed among Hispanics, in that lower mortality risk was found for all social integration categories above the lowest level (HRs from 0.58 to 0.52, P's < 0.01) and each of the higher social integration categories were in turn equivalent. Received social support was unrelated to mortality across all groups. Higher social integration is associated with a survival advantage for Blacks and Whites. For Hispanics, moderate and high levels of social integration were equally protective.

  2. Stunting in children under five years old is still a health problem in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a population-based study in Assis Brasil, Acre, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Saulo Augusto Silva; Ramalho, Alanderson Alves; Pereira, Thasciany Moraes; Branco, Fernando Luiz Cunha Castelo; Oliart-Guzmán, Humberto; Delfino, Breno Matos; Braña, Athos Muniz; Martins, Antonio Camargo; Filgueira-Júnior, José Alcântara; Santos, Ana Paula; Campos, Rhanderson Gardinali; Guimarães, Andréia Silva; Araújo, Thiago Santos de; Oliveira, Cristieli Sérgio de Menezes; Codeço, Cláudia Torres; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica

    2016-06-01

    Despite the process of nutritional transition in Brazil, in some places, such as the Amazon region, stunting is still an important public health problem. We identified the prevalence and factors associated with stunting in children under five years old residing in the urban area of Assis Brasil. A survey was conducted in which a questionnaire on socioeconomic, maternal and children's conditions was applied, and height or length was measured. The children with height for age index below -2 Z-scores were considered stunted, according to the criteria by the World Health Organization. Four hundred and twenty-eight children were evaluated. Of these, 62 were stunted. Factors associated with stunting, according to adjusted models, were: the presence of open sewer, the wealth index for households, the receipt of governmental financial aid and the mother's height, age and education. Therefore, it was observed that family and the mother's characteristics as well as environmental and socioeconomic factors were closely related to the occurrence of stunting in the population studied, and such nutritional disturbance is still a health problem in the Brazilian Amazon.

  3. Food Consumption and Nutrient Intake in Relation to Denture Use in 55- to 84-Year-Old Men and Women -Results of a Population Based Survey.

    PubMed

    Jauhiainen, L; Männistö, S; Ylöstalo, P; Vehkalahti, M; Nordblad, A; Turunen, A W; Suominen, A L N

    2017-01-01

    To study differences in consumption of foods and intake of nutrients attributable to denture status. Data from a cross-sectional, nationally representative Health 2000 Survey, subjects aged 55-84 years (n=2,241). Denture status (edentulous with full dentures, own dentition with removable dentures, own dentition with no removable dentures) was used as an explanatory variable. The consumption of foods and intake of nutrients was used as an outcome variable and was measured using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire. Denture status associated with food choices. Full denture wearers consumed less vegetables (p = 0.013 among men and p = 0.001 among women) and fruits (p = 0.001 among women), more sugary products (p = 0.012 among men and p = 0.008 among women), and their balance in fatty acids was less favourable than among dentate participants. Among dentate participants, the differences between the two groups were small and statistically significant differences were seen mostly in women. Wearing full dentures appears to be associated with unhealthier food choices, lower consumption of some foodstuffs and lower intake of certain nutrients when compared to the food choices of dentate persons.

  4. A population-based study on the association between the intake of soft drinks and periodontal disease in Taiwanese adults aged 35-44 years (KCIS no. 33).

    PubMed

    Fann, Jean Ching-Yuan; Lai, Hongmin; Chiu, Sherry Yueh-Hsia; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Chen, Sam Li-Sheng; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi

    2016-06-01

    To elucidate the association between the intake of soft drinks and periodontal disease (PD) among Taiwanese middle-aged adults. The cross-sectional design was employed to assess a dose-response relationship between the intake of soft drinks and PD after controlling for relevant confounding factors, with adjusted odds ratios obtained from a multivariate logistic regression model. Keelung Community-based Integrated Screening (KCIS) programme, Keelung, Taiwan. Participants (n 10 213) aged 35-44 years who had undergone oral checks for PD between 2005 and 2009. A dose-response relationship between the intake of soft drinks and elevated risk for PD defined by community periodontal index ≥3 (the current status of PD) was noted (P=0·02 by trend test). Compared with infrequent intake of soft drinks (≤2 times/week), the adjusted OR increased from 1·05 (95 % CI 0·92, 1·20) for the frequency of 3-4 times/week to 1·17 (95 % CI 1·03, 1·34) for the frequency of ≥5 times/week. A similar trend (P<0·01) was also observed for PD defined by loss of attachment ≥1 (representing the long-term cumulative gum damage due to PD). A dose-response relationship between the intake frequency of soft drinks and PD was observed in Taiwanese middle-aged adults. Such evidence could be used in health promotion to support reductions in soft drink intake.

  5. Relationship between special abilities and autistic-like traits in a large population-based sample of 8-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Vital, Pedro M; Ronald, Angelica; Wallace, Gregory L; Happé, Francesca

    2009-09-01

    The raised incidence of special abilities or 'savant skills' among individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) relative to other developmental disorders suggests an association between the traits characteristic of ASD and special abilities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between special abilities and ASD-like traits. This study compared the scores of 6,426 8-year-olds with and without parent-reported special abilities on a screening questionnaire for ASD-like traits in three areas: social interaction, communication, and restricted and repetitive behaviours and interests. Measures of IQ, sex, and socioeconomic status (SES) were also compared. From parent report, children with special abilities showed significantly more ASD-like traits than those without such abilities. General intelligence did not mediate this relationship: IQ was found to be positively associated with ability, but negatively associated with ASD-like traits. Special abilities were more strongly associated with restricted/repetitive characteristics than with social or communication traits. Results support the association between special abilities and ASD-like traits, and expand it to traits in the general population. The type of nonsocial traits most strongly associated with parental reports of special abilities suggests a link to a feature information processing style, or 'weak central coherence'.

  6. Rural vs. non-rural differences and longitudinal bone changes by DXA and pQCT in men aged 20-66 years: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Specker, Bonny L; Wey, Howard E; Binkley, Teresa L; Beare, Tianna M; Minett, Maggie; Weidauer, Lee

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine whether there were differences in estimated means and rates of change in BMC, bone area, BMD and measures of bone geometry among men (n=544) from three distinct populations (Hutterite [rural], rural non-Hutterite, non-rural), and whether activity levels or calcium intake explain these population differences. Men were enrolled in the South Dakota Rural Bone Health Study and followed for 7.5 years to estimate means and rates of change in bone mass, density, size and geometry. Femoral neck (FN) and spine measurements were obtained every 18 months by DXA and distal radius (4% and 20%) measurements by pQCT. Activity measurements and calcium intake were obtained quarterly for the first 3 years and at 54, 72, and 90 months. Rural men had greater percent time in moderate plus vigorous activity (mean ± SD: 22 ± 10 vs. 15 ± 8%, p<0.001) and greater lean mass (69 ± 9 vs. 66 ± 10 kg, p=0.05) than non-rural men. Both rural populations (Hutterite and rural men) had larger femoral neck (FN) bone area and greater 20% radius cross-sectional area than non-rural men ([least square means ± SE] FN area: 5.90 ± 0.02 and 5.86 ± 0.02 vs. 5.76 ± 0.03 cm(2), p<0.001 and p=0.03 respectively and cross-sectional area: 171.0 ±1.3 and 165.5 ± 1.5 vs. 150.3 ± 1.6mm(2), both p<0.001). Despite lower cortical vBMD in Hutterite and rural men compared to non-rural men (1182 ± 2 and 1187 ± 2 vs. 1192 ± 2 mm(2), p<0.001 and p=0.06 respectively), bone strength (pSSI) was greater (429 ± 5 and 422 ± 5 vs. 376 ± 6 mm(3), both p<0.001). The rates of change in femoral neck BMC and aBMD and trabecular vBMD also differed by rural lifestyle, with greater losses among non-rural men in their 20s and 60s compared to both Hutterite and rural populations (time-by-age-by-group interactions, both p<0.01). Physical activity was not found to be a potential mediator of population differences. Baseline calcium intake was associated with FN aBMD (p=0.04), and

  7. Rural vs. non-rural differences and longitudinal bone changes by DXA and pQCT in men aged 20-66 years: A population-based study☆

    PubMed Central

    Specker, Bonny L.; Wey, Howard E.; Binkley, Teresa L.; Beare, Tianna M.; Minett, Maggie; Weidauer, Lee

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine whether there were differences in estimated means and rates of change in BMC, bone area, BMD and measures of bone geometry among men (n = 544) from three distinct populations (Hutterite [rural], rural non-Hutterite, non-rural), and whether activity levels or calcium intake explain these population differences. Men were enrolled in the South Dakota Rural Bone Health Study and followed for 7.5 years to estimate means and rates of change in bone mass, density, size and geometry. Femoral neck (FN) and spine measurements were obtained every 18 months by DXA and distal radius (4% and 20%) measurements by pQCT. Activity measurements and calcium intake were obtained quarterly for the first 3 years and at 54, 72, and 90 months. Rural men had greater percent time in moderate plus vigorous activity (mean ± SD: 22 ± 10 vs. 15 ±8%, p < 0.001) and greater lean mass (69 ± 9 vs. 66 ± 10 kg, p = 0.05) than non-rural men. Both rural populations (Hutterite and rural men) had larger femoral neck (FN) bone area and greater 20% radius cross-sectional area than non-rural men ([least square means ± SE] FN area: 5.90 ± 0.02 and 5.86 ± 0.02 vs. 5.76 ± 0.03 cm2, p < 0.001 and p = 0.03 respectively and cross-sectional area: 171.0 ± 1.3 and 165.5 ± 1.5 vs. 150.3 ± 1.6 mm2, both p < 0.001). Despite lower cortical vBMD in Hutterite and rural men compared to non-rural men (1182 ± 2 and 1187 ± 2 vs. 1192 ± 2 mm2, p < 0.001 and p = 0.06 respectively), bone strength (pSSI) was greater (429 ± 5 and 422 ± 5 vs. 376 ± 6 mm3, both p < 0.001). The rates of change in femoral neck BMC and aBMD and trabecular vBMD also differed by rural lifestyle, with greater losses among non-rural men in their 20s and 60s compared to both Hutterite and rural populations (time-by-age-by-group interactions, both p < 0.01). Physical activity was not found to be a potential mediator of population differences. Baseline calcium intake was associated with FN aBMD (p

  8. Association between edentulism and angina pectoris in Mexican adults aged 35 years and older: a multivariate analysis of a population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Hernández-Cruz, Pedro; Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Kowolik, Michael J; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2014-03-01

    The possible association between oral infection and chronic inflammation and cardiovascular disease risk has been studied intensively. The present study is designed to determine the strength of association between edentulism and angina pectoris in Mexican adults aged 35 years and older. Using the tools and sampling strategies of the World Health Survey of the World Health Organization, cross-sectional data were collected in Mexico in the National Performance Assessment Survey (probabilistic, multistage, and cluster sampling). Dental information was available for 20 of the 32 states of Mexico. Angina and edentulism are self-reported in this study. Statistical analysis was performed using binary logistic regression adjusting for complex samples. A total of 13,966 participants, representing a population of 29,853,607 individuals, were included. Of the complete study population, 3,052,263 (10.2%) were completely toothless, and 673,810 (2.3%) were diagnosed with angina pectoris. After adjusting for smoking, alcohol consumption, diabetes, body mass index, and sex, the effect of edentulism on angina was modified by age (interaction), being more marked in the younger age group (odds ratio [OR] = exp(2.5597) =12.93) than in the older individuals surveyed (OR = exp(2.5597 + (-0.0334)) =12.51). Additionally, low physical activity (OR = 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03 to 2.22) and higher socioeconomic status (OR = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.90) were more likely to be associated with angina pectoris. Overall, the results of this study, conducted in a representative sample of Mexican adults, suggest that an association exists between edentulism and angina pectoris. Additional studies are necessary to elucidate the underlying mechanism for this association.

  9. Population-Based Incidence of Severe Acute Respiratory Virus Infections among Children Aged <5 Years in Rural Bangladesh, June–October 2010

    PubMed Central

    Nasreen, Sharifa; Luby, Stephen P.; Brooks, W. Abdullah; Homaira, Nusrat; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Bhuiyan, Mejbah Uddin; Rahman, Mustafizur; Ahmed, Dilruba; Abedin, Jaynal; Rahman, Mahmudur; Alamgir, A. S. M.; Fry, Alicia M.; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Rahman, Anisur; Bresee, Joseph; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Background Better understanding the etiology-specific incidence of severe acute respiratory infections (SARIs) in resource-poor, rural settings will help further develop and prioritize prevention strategies. To address this gap in knowledge, we conducted a longitudinal study to estimate the incidence of SARIs among children in rural Bangladesh. Methods During June through October 2010, we followed children aged <5 years in 67 villages to identify those with cough, difficulty breathing, age-specific tachypnea and/or danger signs in the community or admitted to the local hospital. A study physician collected clinical information and obtained nasopharyngeal swabs from all SARI cases and blood for bacterial culture from those hospitalized. We tested swabs for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza viruses, human metapneumoviruses, adenoviruses and human parainfluenza viruses 1–3 (HPIV) by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We calculated virus-specific SARI incidence by dividing the number of new illnesses by the person-time each child contributed to the study. Results We followed 12,850 children for 279,029 person-weeks (pw) and identified 141 SARI cases; 76 (54%) at their homes and 65 (46%) at the hospital. RSV was associated with 7.9 SARI hospitalizations per 100,000 pw, HPIV3 2.2 hospitalizations/100,000 pw, and influenza 1.1 hospitalizations/100,000 pw. Among non-hospitalized SARI cases, RSV was associated with 10.8 illnesses/100,000 pw, HPIV3 1.8/100,000 pw, influenza 1.4/100,000 pw, and adenoviruses 0.4/100,000 pw. Conclusion Respiratory viruses, particularly RSV, were commonly associated with SARI among children. It may be useful to explore the value of investing in prevention strategies, such as handwashing and respiratory hygiene, to reduce respiratory infections among young children in such settings. PMID:24587163

  10. Barriers to and Facilitators of Compliance with Clinic-Based Cervical Cancer Screening: Population-Based Cohort Study of Women Aged 23-60 Years

    PubMed Central

    Östensson, Ellinor; Alder, Susanna; Elfström, K. Miriam; Sundström, Karin; Zethraeus, Niklas; Arbyn, Marc; Andersson, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aims to identify possible barriers to and facilitators of cervical cancer screening by (a) estimating time and travel costs and other direct non-medical costs incurred in attending clinic-based cervical cancer screening, (b) investigating screening compliance and reasons for noncompliance, (c) determining women’s knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV), its relationship to cervical cancer, and HPV and cervical cancer prevention, and (d) investigating correlates of HPV knowledge and screening compliance. Materials and Methods 1510 women attending the clinic-based cervical cancer screening program in Stockholm, Sweden were included. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, time and travel costs and other direct non-medical costs incurred in attending (e.g., indirect cost of time needed for the screening visit, transportation costs, child care costs, etc.), mode(s) of travel, time, distance, companion’s attendance, HPV knowledge, and screening compliance were obtained via self-administered questionnaire. Results Few respondents had low socioeconomic status. Mean total time and travel costs and direct non-medical cost per attendance, including companion (if any) were €55.6. Over half (53%) of the respondents took time off work to attend screening (mean time 147 minutes). A large portion (44%) of the respondents were noncompliant (i.e., did not attend screening within 1 year of the initial invitation), 51% of whom stated difficulties in taking time off work. 64% of all respondents knew that HPV vaccination was available; only 34% knew it was important to continue to attend screening following vaccination. Age, education, and income were the most important correlates of HPV knowledge and compliance; and additional factors associated with compliance were time off work, accompanying companion and HPV knowledge. Conclusion Time and travel costs and other direct non-medical costs for clinic-based screening can be considerable, may affect the cost

  11. Patients with Urinary Incontinence Appear More Likely to Develop Upper Urinary Tract Stones: A Nationwide, Population-Based Study with 8-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hsiao-Jen; Lin, Alex Tong-Long; Lin, Chih-Chieh; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Kuang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate associations between primary urinary incontinence and development of upper urinary tract stones in a nationwide population in Taiwan. Data of 1,777 adults with primary urinary incontinence and 26,655 controls (groups A, B, and C) without urinary incontinence at study inception were retrieved from the National Health Insurance System database in Taiwan and were analyzed retrospectively. No enrolled subjects had previous diagnosis of upper urinary tract stones or spinal cord injury. All subjects were followed through end of 2009, with a minimum follow-up of 8 years. A greater percentage of study subjects (334/1777, 18.8%) developed upper urinary tract stones than that of control groups A (865/8885, 9.7%) and B (888/8885, 10%), and C (930/8885, 10.5%) (all p-values < 0.0001). Urinary incontinence was associated with significantly increased risk of developing urinary tract stones (HR 1.99, 95% CI, 1.70–2.34, p < 0.001). Age and metabolic syndrome status were both associated with developing upper urinary tract stones (both p-values < 0.0001). After adjusting for metabolic syndrome, regression analysis showed that urinary incontinence was still associated with a significantly increased risk of developing upper urinary tract stones (HR 1.99, 95% CI = 1.76–2.26, p < 0.0001). Long-term follow-up of Taiwanese patients with primary urinary incontinence suggests that urinary incontinence is associated with a significantly increased risk of developing upper urinary tract stones. Study findings suggest that physicians treating patients with urinary incontinence should give attention to early detection of upper urinary tract stones. PMID:27536881

  12. Barriers to and facilitators of compliance with clinic-based cervical cancer screening: population-based cohort study of women aged 23-60 years.

    PubMed

    Östensson, Ellinor; Alder, Susanna; Elfström, K Miriam; Sundström, Karin; Zethraeus, Niklas; Arbyn, Marc; Andersson, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to identify possible barriers to and facilitators of cervical cancer screening by (a) estimating time and travel costs and other direct non-medical costs incurred in attending clinic-based cervical cancer screening, (b) investigating screening compliance and reasons for noncompliance, (c) determining women's knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV), its relationship to cervical cancer, and HPV and cervical cancer prevention, and (d) investigating correlates of HPV knowledge and screening compliance. 1510 women attending the clinic-based cervical cancer screening program in Stockholm, Sweden were included. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, time and travel costs and other direct non-medical costs incurred in attending (e.g., indirect cost of time needed for the screening visit, transportation costs, child care costs, etc.), mode(s) of travel, time, distance, companion's attendance, HPV knowledge, and screening compliance were obtained via self-administered questionnaire. Few respondents had low socioeconomic status. Mean total time and travel costs and direct non-medical cost per attendance, including companion (if any) were €55.6. Over half (53%) of the respondents took time off work to attend screening (mean time 147 minutes). A large portion (44%) of the respondents were noncompliant (i.e., did not attend screening within 1 year of the initial invitation), 51% of whom stated difficulties in taking time off work. 64% of all respondents knew that HPV vaccination was available; only 34% knew it was important to continue to attend screening following vaccination. Age, education, and income were the most important correlates of HPV knowledge and compliance; and additional factors associated with compliance were time off work, accompanying companion and HPV knowledge. Time and travel costs and other direct non-medical costs for clinic-based screening can be considerable, may affect the cost-effectiveness of a screening program, and may

  13. Alcohol policy changes and 22-year trends in individual alcohol consumption in a Swiss adult population: a 1993–2014 cross-sectional population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Shireen; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Favrod-Coune, Thierry; Theler, Jean-Marc; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Broers, Barbara; Guessous, Idris

    2017-01-01

    Objective Evidence on the impact of legislative changes on individual alcohol consumption is limited. Using an observational study design, we assessed trends in individual alcohol consumption of a Swiss adult population following the public policy changes that took place between 1993 and 2014, while considering individual characteristics and secular trends. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Swiss general adult population. Participants Data from 18 963 participants were collected between 1993 and 2014 (aged 18–75 years). Outcome measures We used data from the ‘Bus Santé’ study, an annual health survey conducted in random samples of the adult population in the State of Geneva, Switzerland. Individual alcohol intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Individual characteristics including education were self-reported. 7 policy changes (6 about alcohol and 1 about tobacco) that occurred between 1993 and 2014 defined 6 different periods. We predicted alcohol intake using quantile regression with multivariate analysis for each period adjusting for participants' characteristics and tested significance periods. Sensitivity analysis was performed including drinkers only, the 10th centile of highest drinkers and smoker's status. Results Between 1993 and 2014, participants' individual alcohol intake decreased from 7.1 to 5.4 g/day (24% reduction, p<0.001). Men decreased their alcohol intake by 34% compared with 22% for women (p<0.001). The decrease in alcohol intake remained significant when considering drinkers only (28% decrease, p<0.001) and the 10th centile highest drinkers (24% decrease, p<0.001). Consumption of all alcoholic beverages decreased between 1993 and 2014 except for the moderate consumption of beer, which increased. After adjustment for participants' characteristics and secular trends, no independent association between alcohol legislative changes and individual alcohol intake was found. Conclusions Between 1993 and

  14. Time trends in first admission rates for schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders in Taiwan, 1998-2007: a 10-year population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chih-Lin; Chen, Pei-Chun; Huang, Ling-Ya; Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Tung, Yu-Chi; Liu, Chen-Chung; Chen, Wei J

    2017-02-01

    To examine the trend in annual first admission rates for psychotic disorders as a whole as well as individual psychotic disorders in Taiwan from 1998 to 2007, and influences of age, sex, and geographic region on the trend. Using the inpatient claims records in the National Health Insurance Research Database, we estimated the yearly first admission rates for schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, including voluntary (1998-2007) and involuntary (2004-2007) admissions. Both narrow and broad definitions of psychotic disorders were examined. While involuntary first admission rates were stable, a crescendo-decrescendo change in voluntary first admission rates for psychotic disorders was observed, peaking in 2001. The increase from 1998 to 2001 was closely associated with health insurance expansion. Before 2001, the voluntary first admission rates in males aged 15-24 were underestimated as military personnel records were not included in the database. From 2001 to 2007, voluntary first admissions for psychotic disorders decreased 38%; the decrease could not be accounted for by the mild diagnostic shifts away from schizophrenia to affective psychosis or substance-induced psychosis. During the entire observation period, first admission rates for schizophrenia decreased 48%, while affective psychosis increased 84%. Gender disparities in the first admission rates gradually diminished, but geographic disparities persisted. First admission rates for psychosis significantly reduced in Taiwan between 1998 and 2007, mainly driven by the reduced hospitalization risk for schizophrenia. Special attention should be paid to the increased hospitalization for other types of psychotic disorders (especially affective psychosis) and the unresolved geographic disparities.

  15. Risk of cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases: a nationwide population-based cohort study with 30 years of follow-up evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kappelman, Michael D; Farkas, Dora K; Long, Millie D; Erichsen, Rune; Sandler, Robert S; Sørensen, Henrik T; Baron, John A

    2014-02-01

    Data regarding the risk of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal cancers in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are needed to understand the clinical course of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) and their treatments. We performed a nationwide historical cohort study using Danish health care databases. We identified patients with a diagnosis of CD or UC, recorded from 1978 through 2010, and followed them up until the first occurrence of cancer, death, or emigration. We used standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) to compare cancer incidence in CD and UC patients with that expected in the general population. Excluding cancers diagnosed within 1 year of IBD diagnosis, 772 cases of invasive cancer occurred among 13,756 patients with CD (SIR, 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-1.4) and 2331 occurred among 35,152 patients with UC (SIR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.1). CD was associated weakly with gastrointestinal cancers (SIR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0-1.4) and extraintestinal cancers (SIR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.2-1.4), with the strongest associations for hematologic malignancies (SIR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.3), smoking-related cancers (SIR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.3-1.8), and melanoma (SIR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0-1.9). Associations between UC and gastrointestinal and extraintestinal cancers were weaker (SIR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.2; and SIR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.1, respectively). The relative risk of extraintestinal cancers among patients with IBD was relatively stable over time, although the risk of gastrointestinal cancers decreased. Patients with IBD, particularly CD, are at increased risk for gastrointestinal and extraintestinal malignancies. The relative risk of gastrointestinal malignancy has decreased since 1978, without a concomitant increase in the risk of nongastrointestinal malignancy. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Heritability of corneal refraction and corneal astigmatism: a population-based twin study among 66- to 79-year-old female twins.

    PubMed

    Pärssinen, Olavi; Kauppinen, Markku; Kaprio, Jaakko; Koskenvuo, Markku; Rantanen, Taina

    2013-03-01

    To examine the heritability of corneal refraction power (CR) and corneal astigmatism (AST) in older women. Corneal refraction and AST were measured by IOL master in 52 monozygotic (MZ) and 47 dizygotic (DZ) female twin pairs aged 66-79 years. The relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to individual differences in CR was estimated by applying an independent pathway model to the twin data and AST by intraclass correlations (ICC). For the right eye, mean CR was 44.58 dioptres (D) (standard deviation (SD) ±1.28) When comparing CR of the right and left eye between MZ and DZ, no significant difference was found. Mean AST was 0.77 D (SD ±0.44) with no differences observed either between the MZ and the DZ individuals, or between the left and the right eyes. ICCs between the sisters for CR were, for the right eye, 0.882 and 0.378 for MZ and DZ, respectively, and for the left eye 0.855 and 0.358. For AST of the right eye, the ICCs were 0.533 and 0.096 for the MZ and DZ pairs, respectively, and for the left eye, the MZ and DZ correlations were 0.396 and 0.299. Quantitative genetic modelling showed that 81% of the variance in CR could be explained by genetic factors, additive genetic factors explaining 62% (95% confidence interval [CI] 44% -86%) and dominant genetic effect 19% (95% CI 7-49%) of the variance in CR. Different models were constructed to explain the heredity of AST. None of these models gave meaningful results, although the ICC values for MZ were higher than those for DZ. Most of the variance in CR among older Finnish women could be explained by genetic factors. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  17. Associations of Serum Manganese Levels with Prediabetes and Diabetes among ≥60-Year-Old Chinese Adults: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuan; Zhang, Mingyue; Lui, Guang; Chang, Hong; Zhang, Meilin; Liu, Wei; Li, Ziwei; Liu, Yixin; Huang, Guowei

    2016-01-01

    Older adults can experience glucose metabolism dysfunction, and although manganese may help regulate glucose metabolism, there is little information regarding this association among older people. This cross-sectional study included 2402 Chinese adults who were ≥60 years old in 2013 (Tianjin, China), and evaluated the associations of serum manganese with prediabetes and diabetes. Serum manganese levels were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the sex-specific associations of manganese levels with diabetes and prediabetes after adjusting for confounding factors (age, sex, life style factors, and health status). Based on the WHO criteria, prediabetes was observed in 15.1% of men and 13.4% of women, while diabetes was observed in 30.0% of men and 34.4% of women. In the final model, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for prediabetes according to manganese quartile were 1.000, 0.463 (0.269–0.798), 0.639 (0.383–1.065), and 0.614 (0.365–1.031) among men and 1.000, 0.773 (0.498–1.200), 0.602 (0.382–0.947), and 0.603 (0.381–0.953) among women (p for trend = 0.134 and 0.015, respectively). The lowest prevalence of diabetes among men occurred at a moderate range of serum manganese (p < 0.05). Therefore, appropriate serum manganese levels may help prevent and control prediabetes and diabetes. PMID:27529280

  18. Management of rare diseases of the Head, Neck and Teeth: results of a French population-based prospective 8-year study.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Lisa; Choquet, Rémy; Galliani, Eva; de Chalendar, Myriam; Messiaen, Claude; Ruel, Amélie; Vazquez, Marie-Paule; Berdal, Ariane; Alberti, Corinne; De La Dure Molla, Muriel

    2017-05-19

    In the last ten years, national rare disease networks have been established in France, including national centres of expertise and regional ones, with storage of patient data in a bioinformatics tool. The aim was to contribute to the development and evaluation of health strategies to improve the management of patients with rare diseases. The objective of this study has been to provide the first national-level data concerning rare diseases of the head, neck and teeth and to assess the balance between demand and supply of care in France. Centres of expertise for rare diseases record a minimum data set on their clinical cases, using a list of rare Head, Neck and Teeth diseases established in 2006. The present analysis focuses on 2008 to 2015 data based on the Orphanet nomenclature. Each rare disease RD "case" was defined by status "affected" and by the degree of diagnostic certainty, encoded as: confirmed, probable or non-classifiable. Analysed parameters, presented with their 95% confidence intervals using a Poisson model, were the following: time and age at diagnosis, proportions of crude and standardized RD prevalence by age, gender and geographical site. The criteria studied were the proportions of patients in Paris Region and the "included cases geography", in which these proportions were projected onto the other French Regions, adjusting for local populations. In Paris Region, estimated prevalence of these diseases was 5.58 per 10,000 inhabitants (95% CI 4.3-7.1). At December 31st 2015, 11,342 patients were referenced in total in France, of whom 7294 were in Paris Region. More than 580 individual clinical entities (ORPHA code) were identified with their respective frequencies. Most abnormalities were diagnosed antenatally. Nearly 80% of patients recorded come to Paris hospitals to obtain either diagnosis, care or follow up. We observed that the rarer the disease, the more patients were referred to Paris hospitals. A health network covering a range of aspects of

  19. Association of physical job demands, smoking and alcohol abuse with subsequent premature mortality: a 9-year follow-up population-based study.

    PubMed

    Bourgkard, Eve; Wild, Pascal; Massin, Nicole; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Otero Sierra, Carmen; Fontana, Jean-Marc; Benamghar, Lahoucine; Mur, Jean-Marie; Ravaud, Jean-François; Guillemin, Francis; Chau, Nearkasen

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the relationships of physical job demands (PJD), smoking, and alcohol abuse, with premature mortality before age 70 (PM-70) among the working or inactive population. The sample included 4,268 subjects aged 15 or more randomly selected in north-eastern France. They completed a mailed questionnaire (birth date, sex, weight, height, job, PJD, smoking habit, alcohol abuse (Deta questionnaire)) in 1996 and were followed for mortality until 2004 (9 yr). PJD score was defined by the cumulative number of the following high job demands at work: hammer, vibrating platform, pneumatic tools, other vibrating hand tools, screwdriver, handling objects, awkward posture, tasks at heights, machine tools, pace, working on a production line, standing about and walking. The data were analyzed using the Poisson regression model. Those with PM-70 were 126 (3.81 per 1,000 person-years). The leading causes of death were cancers (46.4% in men, 57.1% in women), cardiovascular diseases (20.2% and 11.9%), suicide (9.5% and 7.1%), respiratory diseases (6.0% and 4.8%), and digestive diseases (2.4% and 4.8%). PJD3, smoker, and alcohol abuse had adjusted risk ratios of 1.71 (95% CI 1.02-2.88), 1.76 (1.08-2.88), and 2.07 (1.31-3.26) respectively for all-cause mortality. Manual workers had a risk ratio of 1.84 (1.00-3.37) compared to the higher socio-economic classes. The men had a two-fold higher mortality rate than the women; this difference became non-significant when controlling for job, PJD, smoker and alcohol abuse. For cancer mortality the factors PJD3, smoker, and alcohol abuse had adjusted risk ratios of 2.00 (1.00-3.99), 2.34 (1.19-4.63), and 2.22 (1.17-4.20), respectively. Health promotion efforts should be directed at structural measures of task redesign and they should also concern lifestyle.

  20. Postoperative mortality and complications after radical cystectomy for bladder cancer in Quebec: A population-based analysis during the years 2000-2009.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Ahmed S; Santos, Fabiano; Dragomir, Alice; Tanguay, Simon; Kassouf, Wassim; Aprikian, Armen G

    2014-07-01

    Radical cystectomy (RC) is a very complex urologic procedure. Despite improvements in practice, technique and process of care, it is still associated with significant complications, including death, with reported postoperative mortality rates ranging from 0.8% to 8%. We examine the quality of surgical care indicators and document the mortality rates at 30, 60 and 90 days after RC across Quebec. Within the Régie de l'assurance maladie du Québec (RAMQ) administrative database (this database provides prospectively collected universal data on all medical services) and the Institut de la statistique du Québec (ISQ) database (this provides vital status data), we used procedure codes to identify patients who underwent RC for bladder cancer in Quebec over 10 years (between 2000 and 2009), as well as RC outcomes and dates of death. Data obtained were retrospectively analyzed in relation to multiple parameters, including patient characteristics and health-care providers' volumes. The outcomes analyzed included postoperative complications and mortality rates at 30, 60 and 90 days. A total of 2778 RC were performed in 48 hospitals by 122 urologists across Quebec. Among them, 851 (30.6%) patients had at least one postoperative complication and 350 (12.6%) patients had more than one complication. The overall mortality rates at 30, 60 and 90 days were 2.8%, 5.3% and 7.5%, respectively, with significantly elevated 90-day mortality rates in some centres. In the multivariate analysis, increased age was associated with increased risk of post-RC complications and mortality. For example, patients over 75 had more chance of having at least one postoperative complication (odds ratio [OR] 1.66, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.31-2.11) and mortality at 90 days (OR 3.28, 95% CI: 2.05-5.26). Provider volume effect on outcomes was statistically significant, with large hospitals having decreased risk of 30-day mortality (OR 0.29, 95% CI: 0.12-0.70), 60-day mortality (OR 0.41, 95% CI: 0

  1. Triage of HR-HPV positive women with minor cytological abnormalities: a comparison of mRNA testing, HPV DNA testing, and repeat cytology using a 4-year follow-up of a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Persson, Maria; Elfström, K Miriam; Brismar Wendel, Sophia; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Andersson, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Expression of the viral E6/E7 oncogenes of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) is necessary for malignant conversion and maintenance in cervical tissue. In order to determine whether HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing more effectively predicts precancerous lesions and invasive cervical cancer than HR-HPV DNA testing, we aimed to compare triage using HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing by APTIMA HPV Assay (APTIMA) to HPV16 DNA testing, HPV16/18 DNA testing, and repeat cytology. Liquid-based (PreservCyt) cell samples were obtained from HR-HPV-positive women diagnosed with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) within the framework of the population-based cervical cancer screening program in Stockholm, Sweden. Samples were tested for HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA by APTIMA (Gene-Probe Inc., San Diego, CA, USA). Women were followed up for 4 years after the index cytology via medical and laboratory records, and the Stockholm Oncology Center. Nine of 25 (36%) women in the ASCUS group, and 64 of 180 (36%) women in the LSIL group developed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or worse during 4 years of follow-up. 162 (74%) women were APTIMA-positive, and APTIMA had the highest sensitivity to predict CIN2 or worse and CIN3 or worse in the ASCUS (77.8% and 100%) and LSIL (78.1 and 75.8%) groups, although specificity was insufficient (<50%). HPV16 DNA testing and repeat cytology were more specific than APTIMA. The results of this population-based study with comprehensive follow-up support the use of APTIMA as a triage test for women with ASCUS. More focused investigation is required for women with LSIL.

  2. Triage of HR-HPV Positive Women with Minor Cytological Abnormalities: A Comparison of mRNA Testing, HPV DNA Testing, and Repeat Cytology Using a 4-Year Follow-Up of a Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Maria; Elfström, K. Miriam; Brismar Wendel, Sophia; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Andersson, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Objective Expression of the viral E6/E7 oncogenes of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) is necessary for malignant conversion and maintenance in cervical tissue. In order to determine whether HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing more effectively predicts precancerous lesions and invasive cervical cancer than HR-HPV DNA testing, we aimed to compare triage using HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing by APTIMA HPV Assay (APTIMA) to HPV16 DNA testing, HPV16/18 DNA testing, and repeat cytology. Methods Liquid-based (PreservCyt) cell samples were obtained from HR-HPV-positive women diagnosed with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) within the framework of the population-based cervical cancer screening program in Stockholm, Sweden. Samples were tested for HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA by APTIMA (Gene-Probe Inc., San Diego, CA, USA). Women were followed up for 4 years after the index cytology via medical and laboratory records, and the Stockholm Oncology Center. Results Nine of 25 (36%) women in the ASCUS group, and 64 of 180 (36%) women in the LSIL group developed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or worse during 4 years of follow-up. 162 (74%) women were APTIMA-positive, and APTIMA had the highest sensitivity to predict CIN2 or worse and CIN3 or worse in the ASCUS (77.8% and 100%) and LSIL (78.1 and 75.8%) groups, although specificity was insufficient (<50%). HPV16 DNA testing and repeat cytology were more specific than APTIMA. Conclusion The results of this population-based study with comprehensive follow-up support the use of APTIMA as a triage test for women with ASCUS. More focused investigation is required for women with LSIL. PMID:24587193

  3. Incidence, prevalence, costs and quality of care of type 1 diabetes in Italy, age 0-29 years: The population-based CINECA-SID ARNO Observatory, 2002-2012.

    PubMed

    Bruno, G; Pagano, E; Rossi, E; Cataudella, S; De Rosa, M; Marchesini, G; Miccoli, R; Vaccaro, O; Bonora, E

    2016-12-01

    To assess temporal trend in incidence (2003-12) and prevalence (2002-12) of type 1 diabetes in children and young adults, direct costs and selected indicators of quality of care under the coverage of the universalistic Italian National Health System (NHS). The ARNO Observatory, a healthcare monitoring system based on administrative data, identified a population-based multiregional cohort of subjects aged 0-29 years. Type 1 diabetes was defined by at least two prescriptions of insulin over 12 months and continuous insulin-treatment in the following year. Indicators of quality of care and directs costs were assessed in persons with diabetes and in people without diabetes, individually matched for age, gender and health unit (1:4 ratio). We identified 2357 incident cases of type 1 diabetes aged 0-29 years (completeness of ascertainment, 99%). Incidence rates were similar in ages 0-14 (15.8, 95% CI 14.9-16.8) and 15-29 years (16.3, 15.4-17.2), with no significant trend. Prevalence increased from 137 to 166.9/100,000, particularly in the age 15-29 years. Direct costs accounted for € 2117 in persons with diabetes and € 292 in control individuals. A statistically significant decreasing trend in hospitalization for acute complications was evident (p < 0.001), which was almost completely due to ketoacidosis. People with at least one HbA1c measurement over the year were 48.5%. We showed high incidence and increasing prevalence of type 1 diabetes in young adults in Italy, which impact on direct costs under the universalistic coverage of the NHS. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ten-year incident osteoporosis-related fractures in the population-based Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study — Comparing site and age-specific risks in women and men

    PubMed Central

    Prior, Jerilynn C.; Langsetmo, Lisa; Lentle, Brian C.; Berger, Claudie; Goltzman, David; Kovacs, Christopher S.; Kaiser, Stephanie M.; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Anastassiades, Tassos; Towheed, Tanveer; Josse, Robert G.; Brown, Jacques P.; Leslie, William D.; Kreiger, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Background Population-based incident fracture data aid fracture prevention and therapy decisions. Our purpose was to describe 10-year site-specific cumulative fracture incidence by sex, age at baseline, and degree of trauma with/without consideration of competing mortality in the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study adult cohort. Methods Incident fractures and mortality were identified by annual postal questionnaires to the participant or proxy respondent. Date, site and circumstance of fracture were gathered from structured interviews and medical records. Fracture analyses were stratified by sex and age at baseline and used both Kaplan–Meier and competing mortality methods. Results The baseline (1995–97) cohort included 6314 women and 2789 men (aged 25–84 years; mean ± SD 62 ± 12 and 59 ± 14, respectively), with 4322 (68%) women and 1732 (62%) men followed to year-10. At least one incident fracture occurred for 930 women (14%) and 247 men (9%). Competing mortality exceeded fracture risk for men aged 65+ years at baseline. Age was a strong predictor of incident fractures especially fragility fractures, with higher age gradients for women vs. men. Major osteoporotic fracture (MOF) (hip, clinical spine, forearm, humerus) accounted for 41–74% of fracture risk by sex/age strata; in women all MOF sites showed age-related increases but in men only hip was clearly age-related. The most common fractures were the forearm for women and the ribs for men. Hip fracture incidence was the highest for the 75–84 year baseline age-group with no significant difference between women 7.0% (95% CI 5.3, 8.9) and men 7.0% (95% CI 4.4, 10.3). Interpretation There are sex differences in the predominant sites and age-gradients of fracture. In older men, competing mortality exceeds cumulative fracture risk. PMID:25451323

  5. The Impact of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms on Quality of Life, Work Productivity, Depressive Symptoms, and Sexuality in Korean Men Aged 40 Years and Older: A Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Heon; Han, Deok Hyun; Ryu, Dong-Soo; Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the impact of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Korean men aged ≥40 years. Methods: A population-based, cross-sectional door-to-door survey was conducted among men aged ≥40 years. Individuals with LUTS were defined as men reporting at least one LUTS using 2002 International Continence Society definitions. Structuredquestionnaires were used to assess several dimensions of HRQoL, including generic health status (EuroQoL-five-dimensions questionnaire), work productivity (work productivity and activity impairment questionnaire), depressive symptoms (center for epidemiologic studies depression scale), and sexual health (sexual satisfaction and erectile dysfunction). The impact of LUTS was assessed by comparing several dimensions of HRQoL among men with and without LUTS. Results: Of the 1,842 participants, 1,536 (83.4%) reported having at least one LUTS. The prevalence of LUTS increased with age (78.3% among those aged 40–49 years to 89.6% among those aged 60 years or older). Those with LUTS reported a significantlylower level of generic health status and worse work productivity compared with those without LUTS. Significantly more individuals with LUTS reported having a higher level of major depressive symptoms compared with those without LUTS.Those with LUTS reported worse sexual activity and enjoyment, and were significantly more likely to have erectile dysfunction than those without LUTS. Conclusions: LUTS seem to have a substantial impact on several dimensions of HRQoL in Korean men aged ≥40 years. PMID:26126442

  6. Population-Based Multicentric Survey of Hepatitis B Infection and Risk Factors in the North, South, and Southeast Regions of Brazil, 10–20 Years after the Beginning of Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Ximenes, Ricardo A. A.; Figueiredo, Gerusa M.; Cardoso, Maria Regina A.; Stein, Airton T.; Moreira, Regina C.; Coral, Gabriela; Crespo, Deborah; dos Santos, Alex A.; Montarroyos, Ulisses R.; Braga, Maria Cynthia; Pereira, Leila M. M. B.

    2015-01-01

    A population-based hepatitis survey was carried out to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and its predictive factors for the state capitals from the north, south, and southeast regions of Brazil. A multistage cluster sampling was used to select, successively, census tracts, blocks, households, and residents in the age group 10–69 years in each state capital. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was lower than 1% in the north, southeast, and south regions. Socioeconomic condition was associated with HBV infection in north and south regions. Variables related to the blood route transmission were associated with HBV infection only in the south whereas those related to sexual behavior were associated with HBV infection in the north and south regions. Drug use was associated in all regions, but the type of drug differed. The findings presented herein highlight the diversity of the potential transmission routes for hepatitis B transmission in Brazil. In one hand, it reinforces the importance of national control strategies of large impact already in course (immunization of infants, adolescents, and adults up to 49 years of age and blood supply screening). On the other hand, it shows that there is still room for further control measures targeted to different groups within each region. PMID:26503280

  7. A 10-year follow-up of a population-based study of people with multiple sclerosis in Stockholm, Sweden: changes in disability and the value of different factors in predicting disability and mortality.

    PubMed

    Chruzander, Charlotte; Johansson, Sverker; Gottberg, Kristina; Einarsson, Ulrika; Fredrikson, Sten; Holmqvist, Lotta Widén; Ytterberg, Charlotte

    2013-09-15

    Most people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) experience progressively worsening disability over a period of decades, thus further knowledge about the long-term changes in different areas of disability is essential. The aims of this study were to evaluate changes in disability over ten years in PwMS, and to explore the value of personal and disease-specific factors and depressive symptoms in predicting disability. A further aim was to explore the value of these factors as predictors of mortality. This study was based on a 10-year follow-up of a population-based study in Stockholm (n=166). Home visits were used to collect data on personal and disease-specific factors, walking ability, manual dexterity, cognitive function, mood, activities of daily living (ADL) and social/lifestyle activities. The proportion of the study population who had disability in cognition, mood and social/lifestyle activities remained stable, while the proportion with disability in walking, manual dexterity and ADL increased. Disease severity predicted an increase in all studied variables of disability except in depressive symptoms. Older age and depressive symptoms were associated with mortality. This study illustrates the importance of tailored interventions for PwMS and highlights the need for health-care professionals to consider the psychological aspects of the disease. Furthermore, our results indicate that the Expanded Disability Status Scale was a useful tool for predicting future disability. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Impact of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on the incidence of consolidated pneumonia in children younger than 5 years old in Pilar, Buenos Aires: A population-based study].

    PubMed

    Gentile, Ángela; Bakir, Julia; Bialorus, Laura; Caruso, Laura; Mirra, Diego; Santander, Celina; Terluk, Mabel; Zurdo, Pablo; Gentile, Fernando; Fermndez, María I

    2015-12-01

    In January 2012, Argentina introduced the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in its immunization schedule for children younger than 2 years old. Coverage in Pilar in 2012 reached>90% for the first two doses and 60% for the third dose. To measure the effectiveness of PCV13 to reduce the incidence of consolidated pneumonia (CP)in the two-year period following its introduction in the immunization schedule. Prospective, population-based study conducted in Pilar. All children younger than 5 year sold with clinical signs of pneumonia assisted at the reference hospitals (both inpatients and outpatients) in the first two years since the vaccine introduction (2012-2013) were included. The annual incidence of CP was compared to the 2003-2005 baseline period. Clinical and radiological assessments were done as per the World Health Organization's criteria. Six hundred and sixty-six patients with clinical suspicion of pneumonia were included. CP was diagnosed in 309 patients; 52.1% were girls, 70.2% were younger than 2 years old, and 56.4% had been immunized with the PCV13; 4.5% (14/309) had bacteriological confirmation (S. pneumoniae: 4; N. meningitidis: 4; S. aureus: 2; others: 4). A significant reduction in the incidence of CP (per 100 000 children younger than 5 years old) was observed between the pre- and postimmunization periods, from 750 (204/27209) to 561 (171/30 475) in 2012 and to 453 (138/30 475) in 2013; effectiveness accounted for 25.2% and 39.6%, respectively. Reduction in infants younger than 1 year old: 33.9% in 2012 and 44.6% in 2013; and in children aged 12-23 months old: 57.9% in 2013. No significant differences were observed in the incidence of CP at an older age. Following the introduction of PCV13 in Argentina's immunization schedule, a fast and significant reduction in the incidence of CP was observed, mainly in infants younger than 1 year old in 2012 and in children younger than 2 years old in 2013.

  9. Human Papillomavirus prevalence and probable first effects of vaccination in 20 to 25 year-old women in Germany: a population-based cross-sectional study via home-based self-sampling.

    PubMed

    Deleré, Yvonne; Remschmidt, Cornelius; Leuschner, Josefine; Schuster, Melanie; Fesenfeld, Michaela; Schneider, Achim; Wichmann, Ole; Kaufmann, Andreas M

    2014-02-19

    Estimates of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence in a population prior to and after HPV vaccine introduction are essential to evaluate the short-term impact of vaccination. Between 2010 and 2012 we conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in Germany to determine HPV prevalence, genotype distribution and risk factors for HPV-infection in women aged 20-25 years. Women were recruited by a two-step cluster sampling approach. A home-based self-collection of cervicovaginal lavages was used. Specimens were analysed using a general primer GP5+/GP6+-based polymerase chain reaction and genotyped for 18 high-risk and 6 low-risk HPV- strains by Luminex-based multiplexed genotyping. Among 787 included women, 512 were not vaccinated against HPV. In the non-vaccinated population, HPV prevalence of any type was 38.1%, with HPV 16 (19.5%) being the most prevalent genotype. Prevalence of any high-risk type was 34.4%, and in 17.4% of all women, more than one genotype was identified. A higher number of lifetime sexual partners and low educational status were independently associated with HPV-infection. In 223 vaccinated women, prevalence of HPV 16/18 was significantly lower compared to non-vaccinated women (13.9% vs. 22.5%, p = 0.007). When stratifying by age groups, this difference was only significant in women aged 20-21 years, who at time of vaccination were on average younger and had less previous sexual contacts than women aged 22-25 years. We demonstrate a high prevalence of high-risk HPV genotypes in non-vaccinated women living in Germany that can be potentially prevented by vaccination. Probable first vaccination effects on the HPV prevalence were observed in women who were vaccinated at younger age. This finding reinforces the recommendation to vaccinate girls in early adolescence.

  10. The Effect of Age and NT-proBNP on the Association of Central Obesity with 6-Years Cardiovascular Mortality of Middle-Aged and Elderly Diabetic People: The Population-Based Casale Monferrato Study

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Graziella; Barutta, Federica; Landi, Andrea; Cavallo Perin, Paolo; Gruden, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    Background Among people with type 2 diabetes the relationship between central obesity and cardiovascular mortality has not been definitely assessed. Moreover, NT-proBNP is negatively associated with central obesity, but no study has examined their combined effect on survival. We have examined these issues in a well-characterized population-based cohort. Methods and Findings Survival data of 2272 diabetic people recruited in 2000 who had no other chronic disease have been updated to 31 December 2006. NT-proBNP was measured in a subgroup of 1690 patients. Cox proportional hazards modeling was employed to estimate the independent associations between cardiovascular and all-cause mortality and waist circumference. Mean age was 67.9 years, 49.3% were men. Both age and NT-proBNP were negatively correlated with waist circumference (r = −0.11, p<0.001 and r = −0.07, p = 0.002). Out of 2272 subjects, 520 deaths (221 for CV mortality) occurred during a median follow-up of 5.4 years. Central obesity was not associated with CV mortality (hazard ratio, HR, adjusted for age, sex, diabetes duration, 1.14, 95% CI 0.86–1.52). NTproBNP was a negative confounder and age a strong modifier of this relationship (p for interaction<0.001): age<70 years, fully adjusted model HR = 3.52 (1.17–10.57) and age ≥70 years, HR = 0.80 (0.46–1.40). Respective HRs for all-cause mortality were 1.86 (1.03–3.32) and 0.73 (0.51–1.04). Conclusions In diabetic people aged 70 years and lower, central obesity was independently associated with increased cardiovascular mortality, independently of the negative effect of NT-proBNP. In contrast, no effect on 6-years survival was evident in diabetic people who have yet survived up to 70 years. PMID:24788805

  11. Rural-urban differentials in 30-day and 1-year mortality following first-ever heart failure hospitalisation in Western Australia: a population-based study using data linkage.

    PubMed

    Teng, Tiew-Hwa Katherine; Katzenellenbogen, Judith M; Hung, Joseph; Knuiman, Matthew; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Geelhoed, Elizabeth; Hobbs, Michael; Thompson, Sandra C

    2014-05-02

    We examined differentials in short-term (30-day mortality) and 1-year mortality (in 30-day survivors) following index (first-ever) hospitalisation for heart failure (HF), between rural and metropolitan patients resident in Western Australia. A population-based cohort study. Hospitalised patients in Western Australia, Australia. Index patients aged 20-84 years with a first-ever hospitalisation for HF between 2000 and 2009 (with no prior admissions for HF in previous 10 years), identified using the Western Australia linked health data. 30-day and 1-year all-cause mortality (in 30-day survivors) following index admission for HF. Of 17 379 index patients with HF identified, 25.9% (4499) were from rural areas. Rural patients were significantly younger at first HF hospitalisation than metropolitan patients. Aboriginal patients comprised 1.9% of metropolitan and 17.2% of rural patients. Despite some statistical differences, the prevalence of antecedents including ischaemic heart disease, hypertension, diabetes and chronic kidney disease was high (>20%) in both subpopulations. After adjusting for age only, patients from rural areas had a higher risk of 30-day death (OR 1.16 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.33)) and 1-year death in 30-day survivors (HR 1.11 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.23)). These relative risk estimates increased and remained significant after further progressive adjustments for Aboriginality, socioeconomic status, insurance status, emergency presentation, individual comorbidities and revascularisation with OR 1.25 (1.06 to 1.48) for 30-day mortality and HR 1.13 (1.02 to 1.27) for 1-year mortality. The addition of the weighted Charlson index to the 30-day model improved the 'c' statistic (under the receiver operating characteristic curve) from 0.656 (using a variation of administrative claims model) to 0.714. Remoteness and variable access to healthcare can cause important disparities in health outcomes. Rural patients with HF in Western Australia have poorer risk-adjusted outcomes

  12. Rural–urban differentials in 30-day and 1-year mortality following first-ever heart failure hospitalisation in Western Australia: a population-based study using data linkage

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Tiew-Hwa Katherine; Katzenellenbogen, Judith M; Hung, Joseph; Knuiman, Matthew; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Geelhoed, Elizabeth; Hobbs, Michael; Thompson, Sandra C

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We examined differentials in short-term (30-day mortality) and 1-year mortality (in 30-day survivors) following index (first-ever) hospitalisation for heart failure (HF), between rural and metropolitan patients resident in Western Australia. Design A population-based cohort study. Setting Hospitalised patients in Western Australia, Australia. Participants Index patients aged 20–84 years with a first-ever hospitalisation for HF between 2000 and 2009 (with no prior admissions for HF in previous 10 years), identified using the Western Australia linked health data. Main outcome measures 30-day and 1-year all-cause mortality (in 30-day survivors) following index admission for HF. Results Of 17 379 index patients with HF identified, 25.9% (4499) were from rural areas. Rural patients were significantly younger at first HF hospitalisation than metropolitan patients. Aboriginal patients comprised 1.9% of metropolitan and 17.2% of rural patients. Despite some statistical differences, the prevalence of antecedents including ischaemic heart disease, hypertension, diabetes and chronic kidney disease was high (>20%) in both subpopulations. After adjusting for age only, patients from rural areas had a higher risk of 30-day death (OR 1.16 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.33)) and 1-year death in 30-day survivors (HR 1.11 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.23)). These relative risk estimates increased and remained significant after further progressive adjustments for Aboriginality, socioeconomic status, insurance status, emergency presentation, individual comorbidities and revascularisation with OR 1.25 (1.06 to 1.48) for 30-day mortality and HR 1.13 (1.02 to 1.27) for 1-year mortality. The addition of the weighted Charlson index to the 30-day model improved the ‘c’ statistic (under the receiver operating characteristic curve) from 0.656 (using a variation of administrative claims model) to 0.714. Conclusions Remoteness and variable access to healthcare can cause important disparities in

  13. Sequential population-based studies over 25 years on the incidence and survival of acute de novo leukemias in Estonia and in a well-defined region of western Sweden during 1982-2006: a survey of patients aged ≥65 years.

    PubMed

    Punab, Mari; Palk, Katrin; Varik, Mirja; Laane, Edward; Everaus, Hele; Holmberg, Erik; Hulegårdh, Erik; Wennström, Lovisa; Safai-Kutti, Soodabeh; Stockelberg, Dick; Kutti, Jack

    2013-03-01

    Estonia regained independence in 1991 after five decades of occupation by the Soviet Union. The present population-based survey was carried out over five consecutive 5-year study periods (1982-2006) on the incidence and survival of de novo acute leukemia patients aged ≥65 years at diagnosis in Estonia and in a well-defined area in western Sweden. During the study period of retrospective work (1982-1996), the first 10 years were carried out while Estonia was still under the mentorship of the Soviet Union. Over these years, Estonian hematologists did not have access to therapeutic measures readily available to Swedish hematologists, and the results for survival for western Swedish patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) far exceeded those of their Estonian counterparts. However, the results for acute lymphoblastic leukemia were equally dismal in the two countries. Subsequent prospective population-based studies were carried out during the years 1997-2006. A gradual improvement as to long-term relative survival of the Estonian AML patients was observed. When studying 2002-2006, no difference as regards relative survival at 5 years was anymore present between the two countries. Over the first 20 years of our population-based studies, it was repeatedly observed that the age-standardized incidence rate particularly for de novo AML was considerably higher for the western Swedish as compared to the Estonian cohorts. During the last 5-year study period (2002-2006), no such difference between the two countries was present, indicating that some true changes in the reporting procedure in Estonia had occurred.

  14. Polyunsaturated Fat Intake Estimated by Circulating Biomarkers and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and All-Cause Mortality in a Population-Based Cohort of 60-Year-Old Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Marklund, Matti; Leander, Karin; Vikström, Max; Laguzzi, Federica; Gigante, Bruna; Sjögren, Per; Cederholm, Tommy; de Faire, Ulf; Hellénius, Mai-Lis; Risérus, Ulf

    2015-08-18

    High intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. Large, prospective studies including both sexes and circulating PUFAs as dietary biomarkers are needed. We investigated sex-specific associations of the major dietary PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid, docohexaenoic acid, linoleic acid, and α-linolenic acid, with incident CVD and all-cause mortality in a population-based cohort. PUFAs in serum cholesterol esters were measured at baseline in 60-year-old Swedish women (n=2193) and men (n=2039). With the use of national registers, 484 incident CVD events (294 men and 190 women) and 456 all-cause deaths (265 men and 191 women) were identified during follow-up (median, 14.5 years) in individuals without prior CVD at baseline. Associations of PUFAs with CVD and mortality were evaluated with Cox proportional hazard models. In multivariable-adjusted models, 1-SD increases in eicosapentaenoic acid and docohexaenoic acid were associated with lower risk of incident CVD among women (hazard ratio [HR], 0.79 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.64-0.97] and 0.74 [95% CI, 0.61-0.89], respectively). α-Linolenic acid was associated with moderately increased CVD risk in women (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.02-1.32). Inverse associations with all-cause mortality were observed for eicosapentaenoic acid and docohexaenoic acid among all participants (HR, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.72-0.91] and 0.80 [95% CI, 0.72-0.89], respectively) and for linoleic acid in men (HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.64-0.83). Serum linoleic acid and very-long-chain n-3 PUFAs, partly reflecting vegetable oil and fish intake, respectively, were inversely associated with all-cause mortality. Inverse associations of eicosapentaenoic acid and docohexaenoic acid with incident CVD were observed only in women. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. The prevalence and socio-economic determinants of HIV among teenagers aged 15-18 years who were participating in a mobile testing population based survey in 2013-2014 in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Chanda-Kapata, Pascalina; Klinkenberg, Eveline; Maddox, Nicole; Ngosa, William; Kapata, Nathan

    2016-08-15

    The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of HIV among teenagers in Zambia and determine whether age, sex, setting, educational level, marital and socioeconomic status were associated with being HIV positive. A cross sectional population based survey of the prevalence of HIV among teenagers aged 15-18 years old who were also participants in a national Tuberculosis (TB) prevalence survey. Consenting teenagers were counselled and tested for HIV. The HIV prevalence was estimated using a logistic regression model. Associations of social demographic characteristics with HIV were determined using univariate and multivariate. The study involved 6,395 teenagers aged 15-18 years where 2,532 declined HIV testing, 44 tested positive and 3,806 tested negative. The HIV prevalence was estimated to be 1.1 % (95 % CI 0.71-1.60); in females the HIV prevalence was 1.6 % (95 % CI 0.99-2.20) whereas in males it was 0.58 % (95 % CI 0.10-1.10). The prevalence of HIV was twice as high among the urban (1.90 %; 95 % CI 0.99-2.90) than the rural teenagers (0.89 %; 95 % CI 0.46-1.30), and being divorced or widowed was associated with higher risk of HIV regardless of residence. The risk of HIV was lower among students or those who were in school compared to those who were unemployed and not in school. HIV prevalence among teenagers was lower than the overall national level prevalence. The patterns of HIV risk among the young population will require further monitoring in order to identify appropriate tools for intervention.

  16. Nonfilter and filter cigarette consumption and the incidence of lung cancer by histological type in Japan and the United States: analysis of 30-year data from population-based cancer registries.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hidemi; Matsuo, Keitaro; Tanaka, Hideo; Koestler, Devin C; Ombao, Hernando; Fulton, John; Shibata, Akiko; Fujita, Manabu; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Soda, Midori; Sobue, Tomotaka; Mor, Vincent

    2011-04-15

    Shifts in the histologic type of lung cancer accompanying changes in lung cancer incidence have been observed in Japan and the United States. We examined the association between the shift in tobacco design from nonfilter to filter cigarettes with changes in the incidence of adenocarcinoma (AD) and squamous cell carcinoma (SQ) of the lung. We compiled population-based incidence data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results in the United States (1973-2005) and from selected Japanese cancer registries (1975-2003). Trends in age-standardized rates of lung cancer incidence by histologic type were characterized using joinpoint analyses. A multiple regression framework was used to examine the relationship between tobacco use and incidence by histologic type. We observed that AD has replaced SQ as the most frequent histologic type in males and females in both Japan and the United States. Filter cigarette consumption was positively associated with the incidence of AD, with time lags of 25 and 15 years in Japan and the United States, respectively ( beta(2)(AD)): 1.946 × 10(-3) , p < 0.001 and 3.142 × 10(-3) , p < 0.001). In contrast, nonfilter cigarette consumption was positively associated with the incidence of SQ, with time lags of 30 and 20 years in Japan and the United States, respectively (beta (SQ)(2) ): 0.464 × 10(-3) , p = 0.006 and 0.364 × 10(-3) , p = 0.008). In conclusion, the shift from nonfilter to filter cigarettes appears to have merely altered the most frequent type of lung cancer, from SQ to AD.

  17. A Frailty Instrument for primary care for those aged 75 years or more: findings from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, a longitudinal population-based cohort study (SHARE-FI75+).

    PubMed

    Romero-Ortuno, Roman; Soraghan, Christopher

    2014-12-23

    To create and validate a frailty assessment tool for community-dwelling adults aged ≥75 years. Longitudinal, population-based study. The Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). 4001 women and 3057 men aged ≥75 years from the second wave of SHARE. 3325 women and 2587 men had complete information for the frailty indicators: fatigue, low appetite, weakness, observed gait (walking without help, walking with help, chairbound/bedbound, unobserved) and low physical activity. The internal validity of the frailty indicators was tested with latent class analysis, by modelling an underlying variable with three ordered categories. The predictive validity of the frailty classification was tested against 2-year mortality and 4-year disability. The mortality prediction of SHARE-FI75+ was compared with that of previously operationalised frailty scales in SHARE (SHARE-FI, 70-item index, phenotype, FRAIL). In both genders, all frailty indicators significantly aggregated into a three-category ordinal latent variable. After adjusting for baseline age, comorbidity and basic activities of daily living (BADL) disability, the frail had an OR for 2-year mortality of 2.2 (95% CI 1.2 to 3.8) in women and 4.2 (2.6 to 6.8) in men. The mortality prediction of SHARE-FI75+ was similar to that of the other SHARE frailty scales. By wave 4, 49% of frail women (78 of 159) had at least one more limitation with BADL (compared with 18% of non-frail, 125 of 684; p<0.001); in men, these proportions were 39% (26 of 66) and 18% (110 of 621), respectively (p<0.001). A calculator is supplied for point-of-care use, which automatically replicates the frailty classification for any given measurements. SHARE-FI75+ could help frailty case finding in primary care and provide a focus for personalised community interventions. Further validation in trials and clinical programmes is needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  18. Population-based incidence of macular holes.

    PubMed

    McCannel, Colin A; Ensminger, Jennifer L; Diehl, Nancy N; Hodge, David N

    2009-07-01

    To determine the incidence of full-thickness macular holes in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Population-based retrospective chart review (cross-sectional study). Ninety-four eyes of 85 patients who were residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota. A population-based retrospective chart review was performed for all diagnoses of macular hole between 1992 and 2002 among residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota. Yearly incidence rates for each given age and sex group were determined by dividing the number of cases within that group by the estimated total Olmsted County resident population of the group for that given year. Documented clinical diagnosis of a macular hole. Idiopathic macular holes occur at an age- and sex-adjusted incidence in 7.8 persons and 8.69 eyes per 100,000 population per year in Olmsted County, Minnesota. The female-to-male ratio was determined to be 3.3 to 1, and bilateral idiopathic macular holes occurred in 11.7% of patients and accounted for 20.9% of the affected eyes. This study uniquely determined the incidence of macular holes in a predominantly Caucasian population.

  19. Local descriptive norms for overweight/obesity and physical inactivity, features of the built environment, and 10-year change in glycosylated haemoglobin in an Australian population-based biomedical cohort.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Suzanne J; Paquet, Catherine; Howard, Natasha J; Coffee, Neil T; Taylor, Anne W; Niyonsenga, Theo; Daniel, Mark

    2016-10-01

    Descriptive norms vary between places. Spatial variation in health-related descriptive norms may predict individual-level health outcomes. Such relationships have rarely been investigated. This study assessed 10-year change in glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in relation to local descriptive norms for overweight/obesity (n = 1890) and physical inactivity (n = 1906) in models accounting for features of the built environment. HbA1c was measured three times over 10 years for a population-based biomedical cohort of adults in Adelaide, South Australia. Environmental exposures were expressed for cohort participants using 1600 m road-network buffers centred on participants' residential address. Local descriptive norms (prevalence of overweight/obesity [body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2)] and of physical inactivity [<150 min/week]) were aggregated from responses to a separate geocoded population survey. Built environment measures were public open space (POS) availability (proportion of buffer area) and walkability. Separate sets of multilevel models analysed different predictors of 10-year change in HbA1c. Each model featured one local descriptive norm and one built environment variable with area-level education and individual-level covariates (age, sex, employment status, education, marital status, and smoking status). Interactions between local descriptive norms and built environment measures were assessed. HbA1c increased over time. POS availability and local descriptive norms for overweight/obesity and physical inactivity were each associated with greater rates of HbA1c increase. Greater walkability was associated with a reduced rate of HbA1c increase, and reduced the influence of the overweight/obesity norm on the rate of increase in HbA1c. Local descriptive health-related norms and features of the built environment predict 10-year change in HbA1c. The impact of local descriptive norms can vary according to built environment features. Little researched thus far

  20. Effectiveness of the population-based Check your health preventive programme conducted in primary care with 4 years follow-up [the CORE trial]: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Støvring, Henrik; Sandbaek, Annelli

    2014-08-29

    The periodic health check-up has been a fundamental part of routine medical practice for decades, despite a lack of consensus regarding its value in health promotion and disease prevention. A large-scale Danish population-based preventive programme 'Check your health' was developed based on available evidence of screening and successive accepted treatment, prevention for diseases and health promotion, and is closely aligned with the current health care system.The objective of the 'Check your health' [CORE] trial is to investigate effectiveness on health outcomes of a preventive health check offered at a population-level to all individuals aged 30-49 years, and to establish the cost-effectiveness. The trial will be conducted as a pragmatic household-cluster randomised controlled trial involving 10,505 individuals. All individuals within a well-defined geographical area in the Central Denmark Region, Denmark (DK) were randomised to be offered a preventive health check (Intervention group, n = 5250) or to maintain routine access to healthcare until a delayed intervention (Comparison group, n = 5255). The programme consists of a health examination which yields an individual risk profile, and according to this participants are assigned to one of the following interventions: (a) referral to a health promoting consultation in general practice, (b) behavioural programmes at the local Health Centre, or (c) no need for follow-up.The primary outcomes at 4 years follow-up are: ten-year-risk of fatal cardiovascular event (Heart-SCORE model), physical activity level (self-report and cardiorespiratory fitness), quality of life (SF12), sick leave and labour market attachment. Cost-effectiveness will be evaluated according to life years gained, direct costs and total health costs. Intention to treat analysis will be performed. Results from the largest Danish health check programme conducted within the current healthcare system, spanning the sectors which share responsibility for

  1. Impact of universal health coverage on urban-rural inequity in psychiatric service utilisation for patients with first admission for psychosis: a 10-year nationwide population-based study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chih-Lin; Chen, Pei-Chun; Huang, Ling-Ya; Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Tung, Yu-Chi; Liu, Chen-Chung; Chen, Wei J

    2016-03-03

    To examine the disparities in psychiatric service utilisation over a 10-year period for patients with first admission for psychosis in relation to urban-rural residence following the implementation of universal health coverage in Taiwan. Population-based retrospective cohort study. Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, which has a population coverage rate of over 99% and contains all medical claim records of a nationwide cohort of patients with at least one psychiatric admission between 1996 and 2007. 69,690 patients aged 15-59 years with first admission between 1998 and 2007 for any psychotic disorder. Patients' urban-rural residence at first admissions. Absolute and relative inequality indexes of the following quality indicators after discharge from the first admission: all-cause psychiatric readmission at 2 and 4 years, dropout of psychiatric outpatient service at 30 days, and emergency department (ED) treat-and-release encounter at 30 days. Between 1998 and 2007, the 4-year readmission rate decreased from 65% to 58%, the 30-day dropout rate decreased from 18% to 15%, and the 30-day ED encounter rate increased from 8% to 10%. Risk of readmission has significantly decreased in rural and urban patients, but at a slower speed for the rural patients (p=0.026). The adjusted HR of readmission in rural versus urban patients has increased from 1.00 (95% CI 0.96 to 1.04) in 1998-2000 to 1.08 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.12) in 2005-2007, indicating a mild widening of the urban-rural gap. Urban-rural differences in 30-day dropout and ED encounter rates have been stationary over time. The universal health coverage in Taiwan did not narrow urban-rural inequity of psychiatric service utilisation in patients with psychosis. Therefore, other policy interventions on resource allocation, service delivery and quality of care are needed to improve the outcome of rural-dwelling patients with psychosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where

  2. The ethical dilemma of population-based medical decision making.

    PubMed

    Kirsner, R S; Federman, D G

    1998-11-01

    Over the past several years, there has been a growing interest in population-based medicine. Some elements in healthcare have used population-based medicine as a technique to decrease healthcare expenditures. However, in their daily practice of medicine, physicians must grapple with the question of whether they incorporate population-based medicine when making decisions for an individual patient. They therefore may encounter an ethical dilemma. Physicians must remember that the physician-patient relationship is of paramount importance and that even well-conducted research may not be applicable to an individual patient.

  3. Risk factors associated with RSV hospitalisation in the first 2 years of life, among different subgroups of children in NSW: a whole-of-population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Homaira, Nusrat; Mallitt, Kylie-Ann; Oei, Ju-Lee; Hilder, Lisa; Bajuk, Barbara; Lui, Kei; Rawlinson, William; Snelling, Tom; Jaffe, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Background Data on risk factors for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated hospitalisation in Australian children may be informative for preventive measures. Methods A whole-of-population-based study was conducted to identify comparable risk factors for RSV hospitalisation in different subgroups of children aged <2 years in New South Wales. The cohort was divided into Indigenous children and high-risk and standard risk non-Indigenous children. Data on risk factors were obtained from the Perinatal Data Collection. RSV hospitalisations were ascertained from the Admitted Patient Data Collection. Adjusted HRs were calculated for each subgroup. Population-attributable risk associated with risk factors was estimated. Results Four factors were associated with increased risk of RSV hospitalisation: maternal smoking during pregnancy, male sex, multiparity and birth during the first half of the RSV season. Increase in relative socioeconomic advantage was associated with decreased risk of hospitalisation. Among high and standard risk non-Indigenous children, the hazard was approximately double for children born to multiparous women compared to those born to primiparous women and among Indigenous children the hazard was approximately double among those born during the first half of the RSV season. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with a 26–45% increased risk across subgroups and accounted for 17% (95% CI 9.3% to 24%) of RSV hospitalisations in Indigenous children, 5% (95% CI 2.5% to 8%) in high-risk and 6% (95% 5% to 7%) in standard risk non-Indigenous children. Discussion Promoting avoidance of smoking during pregnancy may help in lowering the disease burden, with Indigenous children likely to benefit most. PMID:27357197

  4. Independent and joint effect of type 2 diabetes and gastric and hepatobiliary diseases on risk of pancreatic cancer risk: 10-year follow-up of population-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Lin, C-C; Chiang, J-H; Li, C-I; Hsieh, T-F; Liu, C-S; Lin, W-Y; Lee, Y-D; Li, T-C

    2014-11-25

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus, gastric and hepatobiliary comorbidities, and cancer share common risk factors: for example, tobacco, obesity, physical inactivity, high calorie intake, and metabolic disorders. Prior studies find type 2 diabetes and gastric and hepatobiliary comorbidities heightening risk of pancreatic cancer. Yet joint association of type 2 diabetes mellitus and gastric and hepatobiliary comorbidities on pancreatic cancer risk has not been assessed. This study rates independent/joint effects of type 2 diabetes as well as gastric and hepatobiliary comorbidity on pancreatic cancer risk for a retrospective population-based cohort of 166,850 type 2 diabetics identified in 1997-1998 and followed for 10-11 years, comparing their cancer incidence with that of 166,850 non-diabetics matched for age, gender, and locale. Time-dependent Cox's proportional hazards model evaluted joint association of type 2 diabetes and chronic conditions on pancreatic cancer risk. A total of 1178 subjects were newly diagnosed with pancreatic cancer during follow-up, with incidence rates of 0.49 per 1000 person-years in type 2 diabetes and 0.26 per 1000 person-years in the non-diabetics. We observed greater magnitude of hazard ratios (HRs) of pancreatic cancer for patients with type 2 diabetes along with acute alcoholic hepatitis, acute pancreatitis, cholecystitis, and gastric ulcer compared with patients without type 2 diabetes or counterpart comorbidity (HR: 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19-1.56; 1.74, 1.23-2.45; 9.18, 7.44-11.33; and 2.31, 1.98-2.70, respectively). Main effects of type 2 diabetes were all statistically with narrow 95% CI and remained similar across risk stratification with various comorbidities: range 1.59-1.80. Our study demonstrates that pre-existing type 2 diabetes, acute alcoholic hepatitis, acute pancreatitis, cholecystitis, and gastric ulcer independently or jointly predict subsequent pancreatic cancer risk. Clinicians must recognise burden of these

  5. Human Papillomavirus prevalence and probable first effects of vaccination in 20 to 25 year-old women in Germany: a population-based cross-sectional study via home-based self-sampling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Estimates of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence in a population prior to and after HPV vaccine introduction are essential to evaluate the short-term impact of vaccination. Methods Between 2010 and 2012 we conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in Germany to determine HPV prevalence, genotype distribution and risk factors for HPV-infection in women aged 20-25 years. Women were recruited by a two-step cluster sampling approach. A home-based self-collection of cervicovaginal lavages was used. Specimens were analysed using a general primer GP5+/GP6+-based polymerase chain reaction and genotyped for 18 high-risk and 6 low-risk HPV- strains by Luminex-based multiplexed genotyping. Results Among 787 included women, 512 were not vaccinated against HPV. In the non-vaccinated population, HPV prevalence of any type was 38.1%, with HPV 16 (19.5%) being the most prevalent genotype. Prevalence of any high-risk type was 34.4%, and in 17.4% of all women, more than one genotype was identified. A higher number of lifetime sexual partners and low educational status were independently associated with HPV-infection. In 223 vaccinated women, prevalence of HPV 16/18 was significantly lower compared to non-vaccinated women (13.9% vs. 22.5%, p = 0.007). When stratifying by age groups, this difference was only significant in women aged 20-21 years, who at time of vaccination were on average younger and had less previous sexual contacts than women aged 22-25 years. Conclusion We demonstrate a high prevalence of high-risk HPV genotypes in non-vaccinated women living in Germany that can be potentially prevented by vaccination. Probable first vaccination effects on the HPV prevalence were observed in women who were vaccinated at younger age. This finding reinforces the recommendation to vaccinate girls in early adolescence. PMID:24552260

  6. Poor versus rich children with epilepsy have the same clinical course and remission rates but a less favorable social outcome: A population-based study with 25 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Camfield, Carol; Camfield, Peter; Smith, Bruce

    2016-11-01

    To explore the influence of several estimates of family socioeconomic status on the long-term clinical course and social outcomes of children with epilepsy. The Nova Scotia childhood epilepsy cohort is population based and includes all children in this Canadian province who developed epilepsy between 1977 and 1985. Eligible patients had ≥10 years of follow-up. Children with childhood absence epilepsy were excluded. Total family income at seizure onset was assessed at seizure onset and classified as "poor" (first quintile), "adequate" (second to third quintiles), and "well-off" (fourth to fifth quintiles). We also assessed parental education and home ownership. Social outcome was assessed in those with normal intelligence who were ≥18 years of age at the end of follow-up using a semistructured interview that explored eight adverse effects. Of 584 patients, 421 (72%) were included. Average follow-up was 26 ± 5.6 years. Overall 137 families (33%) had "poor" income, 159 (38%) had "adequate income," and 125 (30%) were "well-off." Terminal remission of epilepsy occurred in 65% of the poor, 61% of the adequate, and 61% of the well-off (p = ns). Intractable epilepsy, status epilepticus, number of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) used, and the number of generalized tonic-clonic or focal with secondary generalization seizures through the clinical course was the same in all groups. Home ownership did not predict remission. Neither paternal nor maternal education was associated with remission. Poor children had significantly more adverse social outcomes including failure to graduate from high school, unemployment, personal poverty, inadvertent pregnancy, and psychiatric diagnoses. In Nova Scotia with universal health care, coming from a poor or more affluent family does not seem to affect the clinical course or long-term seizure outcome of childhood epilepsy. Unfortunately children from poor families are less likely to have a good social outcome. Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  7. The long-term outcome of childhood supracondylar humeral fractures: A population-based follow up study with a minimum follow up of ten years and normal matched comparisons.

    PubMed

    Sinikumpu, J-J; Victorzon, S; Pokka, T; Lindholm, E-L; Peljo, T; Serlo, W

    2016-10-01

    We present the clinical and radiographic outcome of 81 children with Gartland type I to III supracondylar humeral fractures at a minimum follow-up of ten years (mean 12.1 years; 10.3 to 16.1) following injury. The clinical and functional outcomes are compared with normal age- and gender-matched individuals. The population-based study setting was first identified from the institutional registries; the rate of participation was 76%. Controls were randomly selected from Finnish National Population Registry. According to Flynn's criteria, most fractures (75.3%) resulted in a satisfactory ("good or excellent") outcome. Satisfactory recovery was achieved in 75.0% of type I fractures treated by closed splinting (p = 0.013). Type II fractures were associated with both satisfactory (57.7%) and unsatisfactory (42.3%) results, regardless of the type of treatment, although the numbers were small in the sub groups. Most type III fractures were treated operatively, and most (76%) had a satisfactory outcome according to Flynn's criteria (p = 0.015). Compared with none among the normal subjects, flexion of the elbow was reduced by > 10° at long-term follow-up in 20 cases (24.7%, p < 0.001) and 9 (11.1%) had a reduced flexion of > 15° (p = 0.004). In patients who had sustained a type III fracture, the carrying angle was decreased by 35.7% (from 9.8° to 6.3°; p = 0.048). All patients achieved an excellent Mayo Elbow Performance Score (mean 96.4 points). The long-term outcome of extension-type supracondylar humeral fractures is generally good, but not exclusively benign, with the potential for long-term pain and ulnar nerve sensitivity, and a decrease in grip strength and range of movement in type II and type III fractures. Bony remodelling cannot be relied upon to correct any residual deformity. In particular, type II fractures have impaired long-term recovery and justify individual consideration in their treatment. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:1410-17. ©2016 The

  8. Disparity of anemia prevalence and associated factors among rural to urban migrant and the local children under two years old: a population based cross-sectional study in Pinghu, China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shiyun; Tan, Hui; Peng, Aiping; Jiang, Hong; Wu, Jianmei; Guo, Sufang; Qian, Xu

    2014-06-14

    Number of internal rural to urban migrant children in China increased rapidly. The disparity of anemia prevalence among them and children of local permanent residents has been reported, both in big and middle-size cities. There has been no population-based study to explore the associated factors on feeding behaviors in small size cities of China. This study aimed to identify whether there was a difference in the prevalence of anemia between children of rural to urban migrant families and local children under 2 years old in a small coastal city in China, and to identify the associated factors of any observed difference. A community-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted in Pinghu, a newly-developing city in Zhejiang Province, China, among the caregivers of 988 children (667 who were identified as children of migrants and 321 locals) aged 6-23 months. Disparity of anemia prevalence were reported. Association between anemia prevalence and socio-economic status and feeding behaviors were explored among two groups respectively. Anemia prevalence among the migrant and local children was 36.6% and 18.7% respectively (aPR 1.86, 95% CI 1. 40 to 2.47). Results from adjusted Poisson models revealed: having elder sibling/s were found as an associated factor of anemia with the aPR 1.47 (95% CI 1.16 to 1.87) among migrant children and 2.58 (95% CI 1.37 to 4.58) among local ones; anemia status was associated with continued breastfeeding at 6 months (aPR = 1.57, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.14) and lack of iron-rich and/or iron-fortified foods (aPR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.89) among the migrant children but not among local ones. Anemia was more prevalent among migrant children, especially those aged 6-11 months. Dislike their local counterparts, migrant children were more vulnerable at early life and seemed sensitive to feeding behaviors, such as, over reliance on breastfeeding for nutrition after aged 6 months, lack of iron-rich and/or iron-fortified foods. Future strategies to

  9. Disparity of anemia prevalence and associated factors among rural to urban migrant and the local children under two years old: a population based cross-sectional study in Pinghu, China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Number of internal rural to urban migrant children in China increased rapidly. The disparity of anemia prevalence among them and children of local permanent residents has been reported, both in big and middle-size cities. There has been no population-based study to explore the associated factors on feeding behaviors in small size cities of China. This study aimed to identify whether there was a difference in the prevalence of anemia between children of rural to urban migrant families and local children under 2 years old in a small coastal city in China, and to identify the associated factors of any observed difference. Methods A community-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted in Pinghu, a newly-developing city in Zhejiang Province, China, among the caregivers of 988 children (667 who were identified as children of migrants and 321 locals) aged 6–23 months. Disparity of anemia prevalence were reported. Association between anemia prevalence and socio-economic status and feeding behaviors were explored among two groups respectively. Results Anemia prevalence among the migrant and local children was 36.6% and 18.7% respectively (aPR 1.86, 95% CI 1. 40 to 2.47). Results from adjusted Poisson models revealed: having elder sibling/s were found as an associated factor of anemia with the aPR 1.47 (95% CI 1.16 to 1.87) among migrant children and 2.58 (95% CI 1.37 to 4.58) among local ones; anemia status was associated with continued breastfeeding at 6 months (aPR = 1.57, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.14) and lack of iron-rich and/or iron-fortified foods (aPR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.89) among the migrant children but not among local ones. Conclusion Anemia was more prevalent among migrant children, especially those aged 6–11 months. Dislike their local counterparts, migrant children were more vulnerable at early life and seemed sensitive to feeding behaviors, such as, over reliance on breastfeeding for nutrition after aged 6 months, lack of iron-rich and

  10. Concurrent Use in Taiwan of Chinese Herbal Medicine Therapies among Hormone Users Aged 55 Years to 79 Years and Its Association with Breast Cancer Risk: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Yueh-Ting; Lai, Jung-Nien; Wu, Chien-Tung; Lin, Shun-Ku

    2014-01-01

    Background. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the concurrent use of Chinese herbal products (CHPs) among women aged 55 to 79 years who had also been prescribed hormonal therapies (HT) and its association with breast cancer risk. Methods. The use, frequency of service, and CHP prescribed among 17,583 HT users were evaluated from a random sample of 1 million beneficiaries from the National Health Insurance Research Database. A logistic regression method was used to identify the factors that were associated with the coprescription of a CHP and HT. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) of breast cancer between the TCM nonusers and women who had undergone coadministration of HT and a CHP or CHPs. Results. More than one out of every five study subjects used a CHP concurrently with HT (CHTCHP patients). Shu-Jing-Huo-Xie-Tang was the most commonly used CHP coadministered with HT. In comparison to HT-alone users, the HRs for invasive breast cancer among CHTCHP patients were not significantly increased either in E-alone group or in mixed regimen group. Conclusions. The coadministration of hormone regimen and CHPs did not increase the risk of breast cancer. PMID:24987432

  11. Ethics in population-based genetic research.

    PubMed

    DeCamp, Matthew; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Population-based genetic research, including genetic epidemiology, shows tremendous potential to elucidate the role of genes as causal factors in complex and common human diseases. Like all research with human subjects, full realization of these benefits requires careful attention to its ethical conduct, establishing an appropriate balance between individual protections and the advancement of scientific and medical knowledge. This article reviews the growing literature on genetics research and ethics to describe some of the fundamental ethical issues in population-based genetics research, including research design, recruitment and informed consent, and dealing with research results. Its focus is on areas where consensus is forming and where future work is needed.

  12. Subdural haemorrhages in infants: population based study

    PubMed Central

    Jayawant, S; Rawlinson, A; Gibbon, F; Price, J; Schulte, J; Sharples, P; Sibert, J R; Kemp, A M

    1998-01-01

    Objectives To identify the incidence, clinical outcome, and associated factors of subdural haemorrhage in children under 2 years of age, and to determine how such cases were investigated and how many were due to child abuse. Design Population based case series. Setting South Wales and south west England. Subjects Children under 2 years of age who had a subdural haemorrhage. We excluded neonates who developed subdural haemorrhage during their stay on a neonatal unit and infants who developed a subdural haemorrhage after infection or neurosurgical intervention. Main outcome measures Incidence and clinical outcome of subdural haemorrhage in infants, the number of cases caused by child abuse, the investigations such children received, and associated risk factors. Results Thirty three children (23 boys and 10 girls) were identified with subdural haemorrhage. The incidence was 12.8/100 000 children/year (95% confidence interval 5.4 to 20.2). Twenty eight cases (85%) were under 1 year of age. The incidence of subdural haemorrhage in children under 1 year of age was 21.0/100 000 children/year and was therefore higher than in the older children. The clinical outcome was poor: nine infants died and 15 had profound disability. Only 22 infants had the basic investigations of a full blood count, coagulation screen, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, skeletal survey or bone scan, and ophthalmological examination. In retrospect, 27 cases (82%) were highly suggestive of abuse. Conclusion Subdural haemorrhage is common in infancy and carries a poor prognosis; three quarters of such infants die or have profound disability. Most cases are due to child abuse, but in a few the cause is unknown. Some children with subdural haemorrhage do not undergo appropriate investigations. We believe the clinical investigation of such children should include a full multidisciplinary social assessment, an ophthalmic examination, a skeletal survey supplemented with a bone scan or a

  13. One-Year Tuberculosis Risk in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Starting Their First Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitor Therapy from 2008 to 2012 in Taiwan: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Der-Yuan; Chen, Yi-Ming; Chao, Wen-Cheng; Liao, Tsai-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risk of tuberculosis (TB) among rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients within 1 year after initiation of tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) therapy from 2008 to 2012. Methods We used the 2003–2013 Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database to identify RA patients who started any RA-related medical therapy from 2008 to 2012. Those who initiated etanercept or adalimumab therapy during 2008–2012 were selected as the TNFi group and those who never received biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug therapy were identified as the comparison group after excluding the patients who had a history of TB or human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immune deficiency syndrome. We used propensity score matching (1:6) for age, sex, and the year of the drug index date to re-select the TNFi group and the non-TNFi controls. After adjusting for potential confounders, hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to examine the 1-year TB risk in the TNFi group compared with the non-TNFi controls. Subgroup analyses according to the year of treatment initiation and specific TNFi therapy were conducted to assess the trend of 1-year TB risk in TNFi users from 2008 to 2012. Results This study identified 5,349 TNFi-treated RA patients and 32,064 matched non-TNFi-treated controls. The 1-year incidence rates of TB were 1,513 per 105 years among the TNFi group and 235 per 105 years among the non-TNFi controls (incidence rate ratio, 6.44; 95% CI, 4.69–8.33). After adjusting for age, gender, disease duration, comoridities, history of TB, and concomitant medications, TNFi users had an increased 1-year TB risk (HR, 7.19; 95% CI, 4.18–12.34) compared with the non-TNFi-treated controls. The 1-year TB risk in TNFi users increased from 2008 to 2011 and deceased in 2012 when the Food and Drug Administration in Taiwan announced the Risk Management Plan for patients scheduled to receive TNFi therapy. Conclusion This

  14. One-Year Tuberculosis Risk in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Starting Their First Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitor Therapy from 2008 to 2012 in Taiwan: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chong-Hong; Lin, Ching-Heng; Chen, Der-Yuan; Chen, Yi-Ming; Chao, Wen-Cheng; Liao, Tsai-Ling; Chen, Hsin-Hua

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the risk of tuberculosis (TB) among rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients within 1 year after initiation of tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) therapy from 2008 to 2012. We used the 2003-2013 Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database to identify RA patients who started any RA-related medical therapy from 2008 to 2012. Those who initiated etanercept or adalimumab therapy during 2008-2012 were selected as the TNFi group and those who never received biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug therapy were identified as the comparison group after excluding the patients who had a history of TB or human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immune deficiency syndrome. We used propensity score matching (1:6) for age, sex, and the year of the drug index date to re-select the TNFi group and the non-TNFi controls. After adjusting for potential confounders, hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to examine the 1-year TB risk in the TNFi group compared with the non-TNFi controls. Subgroup analyses according to the year of treatment initiation and specific TNFi therapy were conducted to assess the trend of 1-year TB risk in TNFi users from 2008 to 2012. This study identified 5,349 TNFi-treated RA patients and 32,064 matched non-TNFi-treated controls. The 1-year incidence rates of TB were 1,513 per 105 years among the TNFi group and 235 per 105 years among the non-TNFi controls (incidence rate ratio, 6.44; 95% CI, 4.69-8.33). After adjusting for age, gender, disease duration, comoridities, history of TB, and concomitant medications, TNFi users had an increased 1-year TB risk (HR, 7.19; 95% CI, 4.18-12.34) compared with the non-TNFi-treated controls. The 1-year TB risk in TNFi users increased from 2008 to 2011 and deceased in 2012 when the Food and Drug Administration in Taiwan announced the Risk Management Plan for patients scheduled to receive TNFi therapy. This study showed that the 1-year TB risk in RA

  15. Prospectively measured 10-year changes in health-related quality of life and comparison with cross-sectional estimates in a population-based cohort of adult women and men

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Claudie; Joseph, Lawrence; Zhou, Wei; Prior, Jerilynn C.; Towheed, Tanveer; Anastassiades, Tassos; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Hanley, David A.; Papadimitropoulos, Emmanuel A.; Kirkland, Susan; Kaiser, Stephanie M.; Josse, Robert G.; Goltzman, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To prospectively assess changes in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) over 10 years, by age and sex, and to compare measured within-person change to estimates of change based on cross-sectional data. Methods Participants in the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study completed the 36-item short form (SF-36) in 1995/1997 and 2005/2007. Mean within-person changes for domain and summary components were calculated for men and women separately, stratified by 10-year age groups. Projected changes based on published age- and sex-stratified cross-sectional data were also calculated. Mean differences between the two methods were then estimated, along with the 95 % credible intervals of the differences. Results Data were available for 5,569/9,423 (59.1 %) of the original cohort. Prospectively collected 10-year changes suggested that the four physically oriented domains declined in all but the youngest group of men and women, with declines in the elderly men exceeding 25 points. The four mentally oriented domains tended to improve over time, only showing substantial declines in vitality and role emotional in older women, and all four domains in older men. Cross-sectional estimates identified a similar pattern of change but with a smaller magnitude, particularly in men. Correspondence between the two methods was generally high. Conclusions Changes in HRQOL may be minimal over much of the life span, but physically oriented HRQOL can decline substantially after middle age. Although clinically relevant declines were more evident in prospectively collected data, differences in 10-year age increments of cross-sectional data may be a reasonable proxy for longitudinal changes, at least in those under 65 years of age. Results provide additional insight into the natural progression of HRQOL in the general population. PMID:24925754

  16. Late Urinary Side Effects 10 Years After Low-Dose-Rate Prostate Brachytherapy: Population-Based Results From a Multiphysician Practice Treating With a Standardized Protocol and Uniform Dosimetric Goals

    SciTech Connect

    Keyes, Mira Miller, Stacy; Pickles, Tom; Halperin, Ross; Kwan, Winkle; Lapointe, Vincent; McKenzie, Michael; Spadinger, Ingrid; Pai, Howard; Chan, Elisa K.; Morris, W. James

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To determine late urinary toxicity (>12 months) in a large cohort of uniformly treated low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy patients. Methods and Materials: From 1998 to 2009, 2709 patients with National Comprehensive Cancer Network–defined low-risk and low-tier intermediate-risk prostate cancer were treated with Iodine 125 ({sup 125}I) low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy; 2011 patients with a minimum of 25 months of follow-up were included in the study. Baseline patients, treatment, implant factors, and late urinary toxicity (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group [RTOG] grading system and International Prostate Symptom Score [IPSS]) were recorded prospectively. Time to IPSS resolution, late RTOG genitourinary toxicity was examined with Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests. Cox proportional hazards regression was done for individual covariates and multivariable models. Results: Median follow-up was 54.5 months (range, 2-13 years). Actuarial toxicity rates reached 27% and 10% (RTOG ≥2 and ≥3, respectively) at 9-13 years. Symptoms resolved quickly in the majority of patients (88% in 6-12 months). The prevalence of RTOG 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 toxicity with a minimum of 7 years' follow-up was 70%, 21%, 6.4%, 2.3%, and 0.08%, respectively. Patients with a larger prostate volume, higher baseline IPSS, higher D90, acute toxicity, and age >70 years had more late RTOG ≥2 toxicity (all P≤.02). The IPSS resolved slower in patients with lower baseline IPSS and larger ultrasound prostate volume, those not receiving androgen deprivation therapy, and those with higher D90. The crude rate of RTOG 3 toxicity was 6%. Overall the rate of transurethral resection of the prostate was 1.9%; strictures, 2%; incontinence, 1.3%; severe symptoms, 1.8%; late catheterization, 1.3%; and hematuria, 0.8%. The majority (80%) resolved their symptoms in 6-12 months. Conclusion: Long-term urinary toxicity after brachytherapy is low. Although actuarial rates increase with longer follow

  17. Trabecular bone score (TBS) predicts vertebral fractures in Japanese women over 10 years independently of bone density and prevalent vertebral deformity: the Japanese Population-Based Osteoporosis (JPOS) cohort study.

    PubMed

    Iki, Masayuki; Tamaki, Junko; Kadowaki, Eiko; Sato, Yuho; Dongmei, Namiraa; Winzenrieth, Renaud; Kagamimori, Sadanobu; Kagawa, Yoshiko; Yoneshima, Hideo

    2014-02-01

    Bone strength is predominantly determined by bone density, but bone microarchitecture also plays an important role. We examined whether trabecular bone score (TBS) predicts the risk of vertebral fractures in a Japanese female cohort. Of 1950 randomly selected women aged 15 to 79 years, we analyzed data from 665 women aged 50 years and older, who completed the baseline study and at least one follow-up survey over 10 years, and who had no conditions affecting bone metabolism. Each survey included spinal imaging by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for vertebral fracture assessment and spine areal bone mineral density (aBMD) measurement. TBS was obtained from spine DXA scans archived in the baseline study. Incident vertebral fracture was determined when vertebral height was reduced by 20% or more and satisfied McCloskey-Kanis criteria or Genant's grade 2 fracture at follow-up. Among eligible women (mean age 64.1 ± 8.1 years), 92 suffered incident vertebral fractures (16.7/10(3) person-years). These women were older with lower aBMD and TBS values relative to those without fractures. The unadjusted odds ratio of vertebral fractures for one standard deviation decrease in TBS was 1.98 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.56, 2.51) and remained significant (1.64, 95% CI 1.25, 2.15) after adjusting for aBMD. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of TBS and aBMD combined was 0.700 for vertebral fracture prediction and was not significantly greater than that of aBMD alone (0.673). However, reclassification improvement measures indicated that TBS and aBMD combined significantly improved risk prediction accuracy compared with aBMD alone. Further inclusion of age and prevalent vertebral deformity in the model improved vertebral fracture prediction, and TBS remained significant in the model. Thus, lower TBS was associated with higher risk of vertebral fracture over 10 years independently of aBMD and clinical risk factors including prevalent vertebral

  18. Effectiveness of population-based service screening with mammography for women ages 40 to 49 years with a high or low risk of breast cancer: socioeconomic status, parity, and age at birth of first child.

    PubMed

    Hellquist, Barbro Numan; Czene, Kamila; Hjälm, Anna; Nyström, Lennarth; Jonsson, Håkan

    2015-01-15

    Invitation to mammography screening of women aged 40 to 49 years is a matter of debate in many countries and a cost-effective alternative in countries without screening among women aged 40 to 49 years could be inviting those at higher risk. The relative effectiveness of mammography screening was estimated for subgroups based on the breast cancer risk factors parity, age at time of birth of first child, and socioeconomic status (SES). The SCReening of Young Women (SCRY) database consists of all women aged 40 to 49 years in Sweden between 1986 and 2005 and was split into a study and control group. The study group consisted of women residing in areas in which women aged 40 to 49 years were invited to screening and the control group of women in areas in which women aged 40 to 49 years were not invited to screening. Rate ratio (RR) estimates were calculated for 2 exposures: invitation and attendance. There were striking similarities noted in the RR pattern for women invited to and attending screening and no statistically significant difference or trend in the RR was noted by risk group. The RR estimates increased by increasing parity for parity of 0 to 2 and ranged from 0.55 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.38-0.79) to 0.79 (95% CI, 0.65-0.95) for attending women. The RR for women with high SES was lower than that for women with low SES (RR, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.60-0.86] and RR, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.63-0.99], respectively). For women aged 20 to 24 years at the time of the birth of their first child, the RR was 0.73 (95% CI, 0.58-0.91) and estimates for other ages were similar. There was no statistically significant difference noted in the relative effectiveness of mammography screening by parity, age at the time of birth of the first child, or SES. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  19. The decline of the impetigo epidemic caused by the epidemic European fusidic acid-resistant impetigo clone: an 11.5-year population-based incidence study from a community in Western Norway

    PubMed Central

    Skutlaberg, Dag Harald; Langeland, Nina; Rortveit, Guri

    2014-01-01

    Background From around the year 2000, Northern Europe experienced a rise in impetigo caused by Staphylococcus aureus resistant to fusidic acid. A single clone of S. aureus was found to be the bacterial pathogen involved in the impetigo outbreak in Norway, Sweden, the UK and Ireland, termed ‘the epidemic European fusidic acid-resistant impetigo clone’ (EEFIC). We have followed the incidence of impetigo during the years 2001–2012 based on all patients in general practice in the island community of Austevoll, Western Norway. We previously reported a marked decline of impetigo incidence in Austevoll, from 0.0260 cases per person-year in 2002 to 0.0038 in 2009. This article explores indications of an end to the impetigo epidemic caused by the EEFIC clone. Methods: All four general practitioners (GPs) in the community (mean population = 4400) were asked to diagnose impetigo in a uniform way and to take bacterial specimens from all impetigo cases. Phenotypic characteristics of specimen bacteria were determined for the whole period and molecular analyses were performed on isolates in the period 2008–2012. Results: We observed a further decline in incidence of impetigo in Austevoll in the study period. The proportion of fusidic acid-resistant S. aureus isolates decreased during the period 2002–2012, with a mean of 80% in the epidemic years of 2002–2004, 55% in 2005–2009, and 6% in 2010–2012. In total, 44 S. aureus isolates from impetigo were subject to molecular analyses in the period 2008–2012, and 11 were found to be related to the EEFIC. All EEFIC isolates were found in 2008–2009, with no new isolates in 2010–2012. Conclusion: There is an apparent end to the impetigo epidemic related to the EEFIC in this population in Western Norway. PMID:25229166

  20. The decline of the impetigo epidemic caused by the epidemic European fusidic acid-resistant impetigo clone: an 11.5-year population-based incidence study from a community in Western Norway.

    PubMed

    Rørtveit, Sverre; Skutlaberg, Dag Harald; Langeland, Nina; Rortveit, Guri

    2014-12-01

    From around the year 2000, Northern Europe experienced a rise in impetigo caused by Staphylococcus aureus resistant to fusidic acid. A single clone of S. aureus was found to be the bacterial pathogen involved in the impetigo outbreak in Norway, Sweden, the UK and Ireland, termed 'the epidemic European fusidic acid-resistant impetigo clone' (EEFIC). We have followed the incidence of impetigo during the years 2001-2012 based on all patients in general practice in the island community of Austevoll, Western Norway. We previously reported a marked decline of impetigo incidence in Austevoll, from 0.0260 cases per person-year in 2002 to 0.0038 in 2009. This article explores indications of an end to the impetigo epidemic caused by the EEFIC clone. All four general practitioners (GPs) in the community (mean population = 4400) were asked to diagnose impetigo in a uniform way and to take bacterial specimens from all impetigo cases. Phenotypic characteristics of specimen bacteria were determined for the whole period and molecular analyses were performed on isolates in the period 2008-2012. We observed a further decline in incidence of impetigo in Austevoll in the study period. The proportion of fusidic acid-resistant S. aureus isolates decreased during the period 2002-2012, with a mean of 80% in the epidemic years of 2002-2004, 55% in 2005-2009, and 6% in 2010-2012. In total, 44 S. aureus isolates from impetigo were subject to molecular analyses in the period 2008-2012, and 11 were found to be related to the EEFIC. All EEFIC isolates were found in 2008-2009, with no new isolates in 2010-2012. There is an apparent end to the impetigo epidemic related to the EEFIC in this population in Western Norway.

  1. 30-year trends in admission rates for encephalitis in children in England and effect of improved diagnostics and measles-mumps-rubella vaccination: a population-based observational study.

    PubMed

    Iro, Mildred A; Sadarangani, Manish; Goldacre, Raphael; Nickless, Alecia; Pollard, Andrew J; Goldacre, Michael J

    2017-04-01

    Encephalitis is a serious neurological disorder, yet data on admission rates for all-cause childhood encephalitis in England are scarce. We aimed to estimate admission rates for childhood encephalitis in England over 33 years (1979-2011), to describe trends in admission rates, and to observe how these rates have varied with the introduction of vaccines and improved diagnostics. We did a retrospective analysis of hospital admission statistics for encephalitis for individuals aged 0-19 years using national data from the Hospital Inpatient Enquiry (HIPE, 1979-85) and Hospital Episode Statistics (HES, 1990-2011). We analysed annual age-specific and age-standardised admission rates in single calendar years and admission rate trends for specified aetiologies in relation to introduction of PCR testing and measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination. We compared admission rates between the two International Classification of Diseases (ICD) periods, ICD9 (1979-94) and ICD10 (1995-2011). We found 16 571 encephalitis hospital admissions in the period 1979-2011, with a mean hospital admission rate of 5·97 per 100 000 per year (95% CI 5·52-6·41). Hospital admission rates declined from 1979 to 1994 (ICD9; annual percentage change [APC] -3·30%; 95% CI -2·88 to -3·66; p<0·0001) and increased between 1995 and 2011 (ICD10; APC 3·30%; 2·75-3·85; p<0·0001). Admissions for measles decreased by 97% (from 0·32 to 0·009) and admissions for mumps encephalitis decreased by 98% (from 0·60 to 0·01) after the introduction of the two-dose MMR vaccine. Hospital admission rates for encephalitis of unknown aetiology have increased by 37% since the introduction of PCR testing. Hospital admission rates for all-cause childhood encephalitis in England are increasing. Admissions for measles and mumps encephalitis have decreased substantially. The numbers of encephalitis admissions without a specific diagnosis are increasing despite availability of PCR testing, indicating the need for

  2. Evidence that independent gut-to-brain and brain-to-gut pathways operate in the irritable bowel syndrome and functional dyspepsia: a 1-year population-based prospective study.

    PubMed

    Koloski, N A; Jones, M; Talley, N J

    2016-09-01

    Traditionally, functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are conceptualised as originating in the brain via stress pathways (brain-to-gut). It is uncertain how many with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional dyspepsia (FD) have a gut origin of symptoms (gut-to-brain pathway). To determine if there is a distinct brain-to-gut FGID (where psychological symptoms begin first) and separately a distinct gut-to-brain FGID (where gut symptoms start first). A prospective random population sample from Newcastle, Australia who responded to a validated survey in 2012 and completed a 1-year follow-up survey (n = 1900). The surveys contained questions on Rome III IBS and FD and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. We found that higher levels of anxiety and depression at baseline were significant predictors of developing IBS (OR = 1.31; 95% CI 1.06-1.61, P = 0.01; OR = 1.54; 95% CI 1.29-1.83, P < 0.001) and FD (OR = 1.28; 95% CI 1.05-1.55, P = 0.01; OR = 1.55, 95% CI 1.32-1.83, P < 0.001), respectively, at the 1-year follow-up. Among those people who did not have elevated levels of anxiety and depression at baseline, subjects at baseline with documented IBS (mean difference 0.34; 95% CI 0.13-0.55, P = 0.002; 0.81; 95% CI 0.47-1.15, P < 0.001) and FD (0.38; 95% CI 0.14-0.63, P = 0.002; 0.92; 95% CI 0.57-1.27, P < 0.001), reported significantly higher levels of anxiety and depression at the 1-year follow-up. We calculated in one-third of individuals a mood disorder precedes FGID but in two-thirds an FGID precedes the mood disorder. While brain-gut pathways are bidirectional, a major subset begin with gut symptoms first and only then psychological distress develops, implicating primary gut mechanisms as drivers of the gut and extra-intestinal features in many cases. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Obesity, physically demanding work and traumatic knee injury are major risk factors for knee osteoarthritis--a population-based study with a follow-up of 22 years.

    PubMed

    Toivanen, Arto T; Heliövaara, Markku; Impivaara, Olli; Arokoski, Jari P A; Knekt, Paul; Lauren, Hanna; Kröger, Heikki

    2010-02-01

    Several studies have shown that knee OA is associated with obesity, physical stress at work, traumatic knee injuries, heredity and female gender. However, the body of such evidence comes from cross-sectional or case-control studies, and from only a few follow-up studies, mostly of short duration. Based on the nationwide Mini-Finland Health Survey, we analysed the potential risk factors for prediction of incident knee OA in the long term. Focused on major health problems, the survey was carried out in 1978-80 in a sample of 8000 subjects, representative of the Finnish population aged > or =30 years. Altogether 823 subjects free from knee OA at the baseline were re-examined in 2000-01, and after the intervening 22 years 94 new cases of knee OA were found. Knee OA was diagnosed on both occasions by physicians using information on disease histories, symptoms and standardized clinical examinations. The risk of developing knee OA was strongly associated with BMI (kg/m(2)); adjusted for age and gender and other covariates, and compared with the reference category (BMI < 25.0); the relative odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs were 1.7 (95% CI 1.0, 2.8) and 7.0 (95% CI 3.5, 14.10) for subjects with BMIs 25.0-29.9 and > or =30.0, respectively. Similarly, the adjusted OR for the heaviest category of physical stress at work was 18.3 (95% CI 4.2, 79.4) compared with the lightest category, and 5.1 (95% CI 1.4, 19.0) for permanent complaints due to past knee injury. This prospective study confirms the roles of obesity, heavy work load and knee injury in the aetiology of knee OA.

  4. Lipid measures for prediction of incident cardiovascular disease in diabetic and non-diabetic adults: results of the 8.6 years follow-up of a population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Diabetes is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD).The relative role of various lipid measures in determining CVD risk in diabetic patients is still a subject of debate. We aimed to compare performance of different lipid measures as predictors of CVD using discrimination and fitting characteristics in individuals with and without diabetes mellitus from a Middle East Caucasian population. Methods The study population consisted of 1021 diabetic (men = 413, women = 608) and 5310 non-diabetic (men = 2317, women = 2993) subjects, aged ≥ 30 years, free of CVD at baseline. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for CVD were calculated for a 1 standard deviation (SD) change in total cholesterol (TC), log-transformed triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), non-HDL-C, TC/HDL-C and log-transformed TG/HDL-C using Cox proportional regression analysis. Incident CVD was ascertained over a median of 8.6 years of follow-up. Results A total of 189 (men = 91, women = 98) and 263(men = 169, women = 94) CVD events occurred, in diabetic and non-diabetic population, respectively. The risk factor adjusted HRs to predict CVD, except for HDL-C, TG and TG/HDL-C, were significant for all lipid measures in diabetic males and were 1.39, 1.45, 1.36 and 1.16 for TC, LDL-C, non- HDL-C and TC/HDL-C respectively. In diabetic women, using multivariate analysis, only TC/HDL-C had significant risk [adjusted HR1.31(1.10-1.57)].Among non-diabetic men, all lipid measures, except for TG, were independent predictors for CVD however; a 1 SD increase in HDL-C significantly decreased the risk of CVD [adjusted HR 0.83(0.70-0.97)].In non-diabetic women, TC, LDL-C, non-HDL-C and TG were independent predictors. There was no difference in the discriminatory power of different lipid measures to predict incident CVD in the risk factor adjusted models, in either sex of diabetic and non-diabetic population. Conclusion Our data

  5. Comparison of the Multiattribute Utility Instruments EQ-5D and SF-6D in a Europe-Wide Population-Based Cohort of Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease 10 Years after Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Aas, Eline; Odes, Selwyn; Småstuen, Milada; Stockbrugger, Reinhold; Hoff, Geir; Moum, Bjørn; Bernklev, Tomm

    2016-01-01

    Background. The treatment of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is costly, and limited resources call for analyses of the cost effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. The present study evaluated the equivalency of the Short Form 6D (SF-6D) and the Euro QoL (EQ-5D), two preference-based HRQoL instruments that are broadly used in cost-effectiveness analyses, in an unselected IBD patient population. Methods. IBD patients from seven European countries were invited to a follow-up visit ten years after their initial diagnosis. Clinical and demographic data were assessed, and the Short Form 36 (SF-36) was employed. Utility scores were obtained by calculating the SF-6D index values from the SF-36 data for comparison with the scores obtained with the EQ-5D questionnaire. Results. The SF-6D and EQ-5D provided good sensitivities for detecting disease activity-dependent utility differences. However, the single-measure intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.58, and the Bland-Altman plot indicated numerous values beyond the limits of agreement. Conclusions. There was poor agreement between the measures retrieved from the EQ-5D and the SF-6D utility instruments. Although both instruments may provide good sensitivity for the detection of disease activity-dependent utility differences, the instruments cannot be used interchangeably. Cost-utility analyses performed with only one utility instrument must be interpreted with caution. PMID:27630711

  6. Determinants of exercise peak arterial blood pressure, circulatory power, and exercise cardiac power in a population based sample of Finnish male and female aged 30 to 47 years: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Novel parameters derived from peak maximal oxygen uptake (VO2) and exercise arterial blood pressure, such as peak circulatory power (CP) and exercise cardiac power (ECP), can be used in the risk assessment of cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, the determinants of these factors are poorly characterized in the general population. Methods We assessed peak arterial blood pressure, CP and ECP with standardized cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) on 281 female and 257 male participants of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. The subjects were aged 30–47 years. Peak VO2 as well as systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressures were measured to calculate peak mean arterial pressure, CP and ECP. These parameters were assessed for correlation with sex, age, height, weight, waist-to-hip ratio, smoking, physical activity index (PAI), fasting insulin and glucose levels as well as the use of antihypertensive treatment. Results Sex, age and weight explained 36% of the variation in peak systolic blood pressure, and these factors in combination with height and the use of antihypertensive treatment explained 13% of the variation in peak diastolic blood pressure. Sex, height, weight, waist-to-hip ratio, PAI and smoking explained 49% − 52% of the variation in peak CP. Sex, age, height, weight, waist-to-hip ratio, PAI, smoking and insulin levels explained 21% − 49% of variation in ECP. Conclusions Subject demographics and lifestyle-related factors should be taken into account when exercise blood pressure response, CP and ECP are used to evaluate patients’ cardiac function in CPET. PMID:24621399

  7. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its correlation with the cardiovascular health status in stroke- and ischemic heart disease-free Ecuadorian natives/mestizos aged ≥40 years living in Atahualpa: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Zambrano, Mauricio; Peñaherrera, Ernesto; Montalván, Martha; Pow-Chon-Long, Freddy; Tettamanti, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies assessing cardiovascular risk factors affecting a given population may prove cost-effective to reduce the burden of cardiovascular diseases in the developing world. We evaluated the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Atahualpa, a village representative of rural coastal Ecuador. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its correlation with the cardiovascular (CVH) status was assessed in a door-to-door survey performed in stroke- and ischemic heart disease-free Ecuadorian native/mestizos aged ≥40 years. The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 288 (55.7%) out of 517 persons. Worst individual components were: increased waist circumference (75%), increased fasting glucose (68.1%) and high blood pressure (56.5%). Prevalence of individual components of this condition varied according to age, gender, education, and alcohol intake. However, no differences were found in the odds for having the metabolic syndrome when persons were stratified according to these parameters. A poor CVH status was found in 80.2% persons with and in 55.9% without the metabolic syndrome (p<0.0001). Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Atahualpa is high. Most persons with the metabolic syndrome also have a poor CVH status. However, sizable subsets only have either the metabolic syndrome or a poor CVH status. Stratification of cardiovascular risk according to whether the person has both, one, or none of these two sets of risk factors would be of value to evaluate if the metabolic syndrome, a poor CVH status or the combination of both, better predict the occurrence of vascular outcomes in the long-term follow-up. Copyright © 2013 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Management of an ACCase-inhibitor-resistant Lolium rigidum population based on the use of ALS inhibitors: weed population evolution observed over a 7 year field-scale investigation.

    PubMed

    Collavo, Alberto; Strek, Harry; Beffa, Roland; Sattin, Maurizio

    2013-02-01

    A 7 year experiment was set up in 2002 to evaluate the long-term effects of weed management strategies based on graminicidal sulfonylureas (SUs) on the evolution of a Lolium rigidum population resistant to ACCase inhibitors in a continuous wheat cropping system. The strategies included the continued use of ALS inhibitors, the continued application of ACCase inhibitors and a simple resistance management strategy based on a biennial rotation of herbicide mode of action (MoA). The efficacy of the tested SUs in the field decreased significantly, starting from the fourth treatment in all control strategies. Regardless of control strategy, the few survivors of the ALS treatment in the third season produced a significant number of ACCase- and ALS-resistant (multiple-resistant) progeny. Continuous ALS and biennial rotation of herbicides reduced weed densities, but L. rigidum conserved its ACCase resistance trait. Enhanced metabolism was detected in ALS-resistant plants, whereas target site was primarily involved in the ACCase-resistant individuals. At the end of the experiment, multiple-resistant individuals were found in all samples coming from the control strategies investigated. The biennial rotation between ALS and other MoA appeared to delay the development of resistance to SUs over continuous treatments, but additional measures will likely need to be taken in order to make this sustainable in the long term, whereas the field efficacy of SUs remained relatively high until the end of the experiment. Integrated weed management with more diversity should be introduced in oversimplified cropping systems in order to sustainably manage resistant L. rigidum populations. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Painful knee but not hand osteoarthritis is an independent predictor of mortality over 23 years follow-up of a population-based cohort of middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Kluzek, S; Sanchez-Santos, M T; Leyland, K M; Judge, A; Spector, T D; Hart, D; Cooper, C; Newton, J; Arden, N K

    2016-10-01

    To assess whether joint pain or radiographic osteoarthritis (ROA) of the knee and hand is associated with all-cause and disease-specific mortality in middle-aged women. Four subgroups from the prospective community-based Chingford Cohort Study were identified based on presence/absence of pain and ROA at baseline: (Pain-/ROA-; Pain+/ROA-; Pain-/ROA+; Pain+/ROA+). Pain was defined as side-specific pain in the preceding month, while side-specific ROA was defined as Kellgren-Lawrence grade ≥2. All-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer-related mortality over the 23-year follow-up was based on information collected by the Office for National Statistics. Associations between subgroups and all-cause/cause-specific mortality were assessed using Cox regression, adjusting for age, body mass index, typical cardiovascular risk factors, occupation, past physical activity, existing CVD disease, glucose levels and medication use. 821 and 808 women were included for knee and hand analyses, respectively. Compared with the knee Pain-/ROA- group, the Pain+/ROA- group had an increased risk of CVD-specific mortality (HR 2.93 (95% CI 1.47 to 5.85)), while the knee Pain+/ROA+ group had an increased HR of 1.97 (95% CI 1.23 to 3.17) for all-cause and 3.57 (95% CI 1.53 to 8.34) for CVD-specific mortality. We found no association between hand OA and mortality. We found a significantly increased risk of all-cause and CVD-specific mortality in women experiencing knee pain with or without ROA but not ROA alone. No relationship was found between hand OA and mortality risk. This suggests that knee pain, more than structural changes of OA is the main driver of excess mortality in patients with OA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Physical activity and dietary behaviour in a population-based sample of British 10-year old children: the SPEEDY study (Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people)

    PubMed Central

    van Sluijs, Esther MF; Skidmore, Paula ML; Mwanza, Kim; Jones, Andrew P; Callaghan, Alison M; Ekelund, Ulf; Harrison, Flo; Harvey, Ian; Panter, Jenna; Wareham, Nicolas J; Cassidy, Aedin; Griffin, Simon J

    2008-01-01

    Background The SPEEDY study was set up to quantify levels of physical activity (PA) and dietary habits and the association with potential correlates in 9–10 year old British school children. We present here the analyses of the PA, dietary and anthropometry data. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 2064 children (926 boys, 1138 girls) in Norfolk, England, we collected anthropometry data at school using standardised procedures. Body mass index (BMI) was used to define obesity status. PA was assessed with the Actigraph accelerometer over 7 days. A cut-off of ≥ 2000 activity counts was used to define minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Dietary habits were assessed using the Health Behaviour in School Children food questionnaire. Weight status was defined using published international cut-offs (Cole, 2000). Differences between groups were assessed using independent t-tests for continuous data and chi-squared tests for categorical data. Results Valid PA data (>500 minutes per day on ≥ 3 days) was available for 1888 children. Mean (± SD) activity counts per minute among boys and girls were 716.5 ± 220.2 and 635.6 ± 210.6, respectively (p < 0.001). Boys spent an average of 84.1 ± 25.9 minutes in MVPA per day compared to 66.1 ± 20.8 among girls (p < 0.001), with an average of 69.1% of children accumulating 60 minutes each day. The proportion of children classified as overweight and obese was 15.0% and 4.1% for boys and 19.3% and 6.6% for girls, respectively (p = 0.001). Daily consumption of at least one portion of fruit and of vegetables was 56.8% and 49.9% respectively, with higher daily consumption in girls than boys and in children from higher socioeconomic backgrounds. Conclusion Results indicate that almost 70% of children meet national PA guidelines, indicating that a prevention of decline, rather than increasing physical activity levels, might be an appropriate intervention target. Promotion of daily fruit and vegetable intake in this age group is

  11. Incidence of live-attenuated influenza vaccine administration beyond expiry date in children and adolescents aged 2-17 years in the UK: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Caspard, Herve; Wise, Robert P; Steffey, Amy; Brody, Robert S

    2017-07-17

    To estimate the proportion of live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) doses administered beyond expiry date in children and adolescents during influenza seasons 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 in the UK. This was a retrospective cohort study. Two cohorts of children and adolescents who received LAIV from 1 September 2013 to 31 March 2014 and from 1 September 2014 to 31 March 2015 and aged 2-17 years at time of LAIV administration were identified from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). More than 500 primary care practices in the UK. Proportions of vaccine doses administered beyond expiry date were assessed among 47 396 and 67 099 LAIV recipients with a documented vaccine lot identifier in influenza seasons 2013-2014 and 2014-2015, respectively. None. Administrations of expired LAIV were ascertained by comparison of vaccination dates in CPRD records with expiration dates in AstraZeneca/MedImmune lot distribution data. Overall, 245 LAIV recipients, 80 in 2013-2014 and 165 in 2014-2015, received a dose after its expiration date, yielding proportion estimates of 1.7 per 1000 doses (95% CI 1.3 to 2.1) in season 2013-2014 and 2.5 per 1000 (95% CI 2.1 to 2.8) in season 2014-2015. This proportion increased above 1.0% after December during each season. Most (84% in influenza season 2013-2014 and 59% in influenza season 2014-2015) received an expired dose <30 days after its expiration date. The proportion was higher in London (relative risk 1.93 (95% CI 1.25 to 2.99)) and when the number of LAIV recipients registered in the practice was lower than the median number per practice (relative risk 2.69 (95% CI 1.99 to 3.62)). Administration of expired LAIV doses occurs infrequently. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Population bases and the 2011 Census.

    PubMed

    Smallwood, Steve

    2011-01-01

    In an increasingly complex society there are a number of different population definitions that can be relevant for users, beyond the standard definition used in counting the population. This article describes the enumeration base for the 2011 Census and how alternative population outputs may be produced. It provides a background as to how the questions on the questionnaire were decided upon and how population bases can be constructed from the Census. Similarities and differences between the information collected across the three UK Censuses (England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland) are discussed. Finally, issues around estimating the population on alternative bases are presented.

  13. Population-Based Smoking Cessation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this report was to provide the Ministry of Health Promotion (MHP) with a summary of existing evidence-based reviews of the clinical and economic outcomes of population-based smoking cessation strategies. Background Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in Ontario, linked to approximately 13,000 avoidable premature deaths annually – the vast majority of these are attributable to cancer, cardiovascular disease, and chronic obstructive lung disease. (1) In Ontario, tobacco related health care costs amount to $6.1 billion annually, or about $502 per person (including non-smokers) and account for 1.4% of the provincial domestic product. (2) In 2007, there were approximately 1.7 to 1.9 million smokers in Ontario with two-thirds of these intending to quit in the next six months and one-third wanting to quit within 30 days. (3) In 2007/2008, Ontario invested $15 million in cessation programs, services and training. (4) In June 2009, the Ministry of Health Promotion (MHP) requested that MAS provide a summary of the evidence base surrounding population-based smoking cessation strategies. Project Scope The MAS and the MHP agreed that the project would consist of a clinical and economic summary of the evidence surrounding nine population-based strategies for smoking cessation including: Mass media interventions Telephone counselling Post-secondary smoking cessation programs (colleges/universities) Community-wide stop-smoking contests (i.e. Quit and Win) Community interventions Physician advice to quit Nursing interventions for smoking cessation Hospital-based interventions for smoking cessation Pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation, specifically: Nicotine replacement therapies Antidepressants Anxiolytic drugs Opioid antagonists Clonidine Nicotine receptor partial agonists Reviews examining interventions for Cut Down to Quit (CDTQ) or harm reduction were not included in this review. In addition

  14. Population based screening for chronic kidney disease: cost effectiveness study

    PubMed Central

    Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Tonelli, Marcello; Au, Flora; Chiasson, T Carter; Dong, James; Klarenbach, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the cost effectiveness of one-off population based screening for chronic kidney disease based on estimated glomerular filtration rate. Design Cost utility analysis of screening with estimated glomerular filtration rate alone compared with no screening (with allowance for incidental finding of cases of chronic kidney disease). Analyses were stratified by age, diabetes, and the presence or absence of proteinuria. Scenario and sensitivity analyses, including probabilistic sensitivity analysis, were performed. Costs were estimated in all adults and in subgroups defined by age, diabetes, and hypertension. Setting Publicly funded Canadian healthcare system. Participants Large population based laboratory cohort used to estimate mortality rates and incidence of end stage renal disease for patients with chronic kidney disease over a five year follow-up period. Patients had not previously undergone assessment of glomerular filtration rate. Main outcome measures Lifetime costs, end stage renal disease, quality adjusted life years (QALYs) gained, and incremental cost per QALY gained. Results Compared with no screening, population based screening for chronic kidney disease was associated with an incremental cost of $C463 (Canadian dollars in 2009; equivalent to about £275, €308, US $382) and a gain of 0.0044 QALYs per patient overall, representing a cost per QALY gained of $C104 900. In a cohort of 100 000 people, screening for chronic kidney disease would be expected to reduce the number of people who develop end stage renal disease over their lifetime from 675 to 657. In subgroups of people with and without diabetes, the cost per QALY gained was $C22 600 and $C572 000, respectively. In a cohort of 100 000 people with diabetes, screening would be expected to reduce the number of people who develop end stage renal disease over their lifetime from 1796 to 1741. In people without diabetes with and without hypertension, the cost per QALY gained

  15. Population-based study on infant mortality.

    PubMed

    Lima, Jaqueline Costa; Mingarelli, Alexandre Marchezoni; Segri, Neuber José; Zavala, Arturo Alejandro Zavala; Takano, Olga Akiko

    2017-03-01

    Although Brazil has reduced social, economic and health indicators disparities in the last decade, intra- and inter-regional differences in child mortality rates (CMR) persist in regions such as the state capital of Mato Grosso. This population-based study aimed to investigate factors associated with child mortality in five cohorts of live births (LB) of mothers living in Cuiabá (MT), Brazil, 2006-2010, through probabilistic linkage in 47,018 LB. We used hierarchical logistic regression analysis. Of the 617 child deaths, 48% occurred in the early neonatal period. CMR ranged from 14.6 to 12.0 deaths per thousand LB. The following remained independently associated with death: mothers without companion (OR = 1.32); low number of prenatal consultations (OR = 1.65); low birthweight (OR = 4.83); prematurity (OR = 3.05); Apgar ≤ 7 at the first minute (OR = 3.19); Apgar ≤ 7 at the fifth minute (OR = 4.95); congenital malformations (OR = 14.91) and male gender (OR = 1.26). CMR has declined in Cuiabá, however, there is need to guide public healthcare policies in the prenatal and perinatal period to reduce early neonatal mortality and further studies to identify the causes of preventable deaths.

  16. Severe neonatal hypernatraemia: a population based study.

    PubMed

    Oddie, Sam Joseph; Craven, Vanessa; Deakin, Kathryn; Westman, Janette; Scally, Andrew

    2013-09-01

    To describe incidence, presentation, treatment and short term outcomes of severe neonatal hypernatraemia (SNH, sodium ≥160 mmol/l). Prospective, population based surveillance study over 13 months using the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit. Cases were >33 weeks gestation at birth, fed breast or formula milk and <28 days of age at presentation. Of 62 cases of SNH reported (7, 95% CI 5.4 to 9.0 per 1 00 000 live births), 61 mothers had intended to achieve exclusive breast feeding. Infants presented at median day 6 (range 2-17) with median weight loss of 19.5% (range 8.9-30.9). 12 had jaundice and 57 weight loss as a presenting feature. 58 presented with weight loss ≥15%. 25 babies had not stooled in the 24 h prior to admission. Serum sodium fell by median 12.9 mmol/l per 24 h (range 0-30). No baby died, had seizures or coma or was treated with dialysis or a central line. At discharge, babies had regained 11% of initial birth weight after a median admission of 5 (range 2-14) days. 10 were exclusively breast fed on discharge from hospital. Neonatal hypernatraemia at this level, in this population, is strongly associated with weight loss. It occurs almost exclusively after attempts to initiate breast feeding, occurs uncommonly and does not appear to be associated with serious short term morbidities, beyond admission to hospital.

  17. Collaborations in Population-Based Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Lieu, Tracy A.; Hinrichsen, Virginia L.; Moreira, Andrea; Platt, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The HMO Research Network (HMORN) is a consortium of 16 health care systems with integrated research centers. Approximately 475 people participated in its 17th annual conference, hosted by the Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute and Harvard Medical School. The theme, “Collaborations in Population-Based Health Research,” reflected the network’s emphasis on collaborative studies both among its members and with external investigators. Plenary talks highlighted the initial phase of the HMORN’s work to establish the NIH-HMO Collaboratory, opportunities for public health collaborations, the work of early career investigators, and the state of the network. Platform and poster presentations showcased a broad spectrum of innovative public domain research in areas including disease epidemiology and treatment, health economics, and information technology. Special interest group sessions and ancillary meetings provided venues for informal conversation and structured work among ongoing groups, including networks in cancer, cardiovascular diseases, lung diseases, medical product safety, and mental health. PMID:22090515

  18. Predictors of Childhood Anxiety: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have explored predictors of early childhood anxiety. Objective To determine the prenatal, postnatal, and early life predictors of childhood anxiety by age 5. Methods Population-based, provincial administrative data (N = 19,316) from Manitoba, Canada were used to determine the association between demographic, obstetrical, psychosocial, medical, behavioral, and infant factors on childhood anxiety. Results Risk factors for childhood anxiety by age 5 included maternal psychological distress from birth to 12 months and 13 months to 5 years post-delivery and an infant 5-minute Apgar score of ≤7. Factors associated with decreased risk included maternal age < 20 years, multiparity, and preterm birth. Conclusion Identifying predictors of childhood anxiety is a key step to early detection and prevention. Maternal psychological distress is an early, modifiable risk factor. Future research should aim to disentangle early life influences on childhood anxiety occurring in the prenatal, postnatal, and early childhood periods. PMID:26158268

  19. Nationwide and population-based prescription patterns in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe prescription patterns and changes in these patterns over the last decade for patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder in mental healthcare, using population-based and nationwide data, and to relate the findings to recommendations from international guidelines. A population-based, nationwide study was carried out. It included register-based longitudinal data on all patients with a first-ever contact with mental healthcare with a diagnosis of mania/bipolar disorder from the entire Danish population, and all prescription data for this population during the decade from 2000 to 2011, inclusive. A total of 3,205 patients were included in the study. Lithium was prescribed less, and antiepileptic and atypical antipsychotic agents were prescribed substantially more during the study period. Lithium went from being the first drug prescribed to being the last, and was replaced by atypical antipsychotic agents. Antiepileptic agents went from being the fourth to the second drug class prescribed, and the prescription of antidepressants was virtually unchanged, at a high level, during the decade (one-year value 40-60%). The prescription of lamotrigine and quetiapine increased substantially. Combination therapy increased for all drug combinations, except for lithium combined with antidepressants. Major changes took place in drug prescriptions during the study period. The decrease in the use of lithium and the constant high use of antidepressants do not align with recommendations from international guidelines. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A population-based Habitable Zone perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zsom, Andras

    2015-08-01

    What can we tell about exoplanet habitability if currently only the stellar properties, planet radius, and the incoming stellar flux are known? The Habitable Zone (HZ) is the region around stars where planets can harbor liquid water on their surfaces. The HZ is traditionally conceived as a sharp region around the star because it is calculated for one planet with specific properties e.g., Earth-like or desert planets , or rocky planets with H2 atmospheres. Such planet-specific approach is limiting because the planets’ atmospheric and geophysical properties, which influence the surface climate and the presence of liquid water, are currently unknown but expected to be diverse.A statistical HZ description is outlined which does not select one specific planet type. Instead the atmospheric and surface properties of exoplanets are treated as random variables and a continuous range of planet scenarios are considered. Various probability density functions are assigned to each observationally unconstrained random variable, and a combination of Monte Carlo sampling and climate modeling is used to generate synthetic exoplanet populations with known surface climates. Then, the properties of the liquid water bearing subpopulation is analyzed.Given our current observational knowledge of small exoplanets, the HZ takes the form of a weakly-constrained but smooth probability function. The model shows that the HZ has an inner edge: it is unlikely that planets receiving two-three times more stellar radiation than Earth can harbor liquid water. But a clear outer edge is not seen: a planet that receives a fraction of Earth's stellar radiation (1-10%) can be habitable, if the greenhouse effect of the atmosphere is strong enough. The main benefit of the population-based approach is that it will be refined over time as new data on exoplanets and their atmospheres become available.

  1. Oral Sex and HPV: Population Based Indications.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Anupam; Verma, Veerendra

    2015-03-01

    Human pappilloma virus (HPV) is well established in etiology of uterine cervical cancers, but its role in head and neck cancer is strongly suggested through many epidemiological and laboratory studies. Although HPV-16 induced oropharyngeal cancer is a distinct molecular entity, its role at other sub-sites (oral cavity, larynx, nasopharynx, hypopharynx) is less well established. Oral sex is supposedly the most commonly practiced unnatural sex across the globe and may prove to be a potential transmitting link between cancers of the uterine cervix and the oropharynx in males particularly in those 10-15% non-smokers. In India with the second largest population (higher population density than China) the oral sex is likely to be a common 'recreation-tool' amongst the majority (poor) and with the concurrent highly prevalent bad cervical/oral hygiene the HPV is likely to synergize other carcinogens. Hence in accordance (or coincidently), in India the cervical cancer happens to be the commonest cancer amongst females while oral/oropharyngeal cancer amongst males. Oral sex as a link between these two cancer types, can largely be argued considering a poor level of evidence in the existing literature. The modern world has even commercialized oral sex in the form of flavored condoms. The inadequate world literature currently is of a low level of evidence to conclude such a relationship because no such specific prospective study has been carried out and also due to wide (and unpredictable) variety of sexual practices, such a relationship can only be speculated. This article briefly reviews the existing literature on various modes and population based indications for HPV to be implicated in head and neck cancer with reference to oral sexual practice.

  2. Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma: A Population-Based Analysis.

    PubMed

    Dubal, Pariket M; Svider, Peter F; Kam, David; Dutta, Rahul; Baredes, Soly; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2015-11-01

    Verrucous carcinoma of the larynx (VCL) is a rare entity with reportedly favorable prognosis. Current analyses are limited primarily to case reports and case series, thus making a population-based analysis useful in characterizing frequency, incidence, and survival trends to guide clinical diagnosis and decision making. Analysis of the National Cancer Institute's SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results) database. Cases of VCL diagnosed between 1973 and 2011 were searched in the SEER database. Analysis was carried out with respect to patient demographics, tumor characteristics, incidence, treatment modality, and survival. In sum, 516 patients with VCL were identified. Males composed 88.4% of cases. Whites accounted for 88.4% of cases, with 8.1% of cases occurring in black patients. Most cases (79.7%) arose in the glottis, a statistically significant predilection when compared with other laryngeal malignancies (P < .0001). Incidence of VCL decreased from 2000 to 2011, with an annual percent change of -5.4%. Overall 1-, 5-, and 10-year disease-specific survival for VCL was 97.5%, 88.0%, and 77.4%, while 1-, 5-, and 10-year relative survival was 98.1%, 85.5%, and 74.2%, respectively. Surgery seemed to confer better prognosis when compared with other treatment modalities. This large population-based analysis of VCL demonstrates that this entity has a good prognosis, arises in the glottis, and is decreasing in incidence. Five-year survival seems highest when surgery is utilized. However, this finding may be subject to selection bias in high-stage lesions. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  3. Incidence of Radiologically Isolated Syndrome: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Forslin, Y; Granberg, T; Jumah, A Antwan; Shams, S; Aspelin, P; Kristoffersen-Wiberg, M; Martola, J; Fredrikson, S

    2016-06-01

    Incidental MR imaging findings resembling MS in asymptomatic individuals, fulfilling the Okuda criteria, are termed "radiologically isolated syndrome." Those with radiologically isolated syndrome are at high risk of their condition converting to MS. The epidemiology of radiologically isolated syndrome remains largely unknown, and there are no population-based studies, to our knowledge. Our aim was to study the population-based incidence of radiologically isolated syndrome in a high-incidence region for MS and to evaluate the effect on radiologically isolated syndrome incidence when revising the original radiologically isolated syndrome criteria by using the latest radiologic classification for dissemination in space. All 2272 brain MR imaging scans in 1907 persons obtained during 2013 in the Swedish county of Västmanland, with a population of 259,000 inhabitants, were blindly evaluated by a senior radiologist and a senior neuroradiologist. The Okuda criteria for radiologically isolated syndrome were applied by using both the Barkhof and Swanton classifications for dissemination in space. Assessments of clinical data were performed by a radiology resident and a senior neurologist. The cumulative incidence of radiologically isolated syndrome was 2 patients (0.1%), equaling an incidence rate of 0.8 cases per 100,000 person-years, in a region with an incidence rate of MS of 10.2 cases per 100,000 person-years. There was no difference in the radiologically isolated syndrome incidence rate when applying a modified version of the Okuda criteria by using the newer Swanton classification for dissemination in space. Radiologically isolated syndrome is uncommon in a high-incidence region for MS. Adapting the Okuda criteria to use the dissemination in space-Swanton classification may be feasible. Future studies on radiologically isolated syndrome may benefit from a collaborative approach to ensure adequate numbers of participants. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  4. Provider communication on perinatal depression: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Farr, Sherry L; Ko, Jean Y; Burley, Kim; Gupta, Seema

    2016-02-01

    Women's lack of knowledge on symptoms of perinatal depression and treatment resources is a barrier to receiving care. We sought to estimate the prevalence and predictors of discussing depression with a prenatal care provider. We used the 2011 population-based data from 24 sites participating in the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (n = 32,827 women with recent live births) to examine associations between maternal characteristics and report that a prenatal care provider discussed with her what to do if feeling depressed during or after pregnancy. Overall, 71.9 % of women reported discussing perinatal depression with their prenatal care provider (range 60.7 % in New York City to 85.6 % in Maine). Women were more likely to report a discussion on perinatal depression with their provider if they they were 18-29 years of age than over 35 years of age compared to older (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 18 to 19 y = 1.08, 20 to 24 y = 1.10, 25 to 29 y = 1.09), unmarried (aPR = 1.07) compared to married, had <12 years of education (aPR = 1.05) compared to > 12 years, and had no previous live births (aPR = 1.03) compared to ≥ 1 live births. Research is needed on effective ways to educate women about perinatal depression and whether increased knowledge on perinatal depression results in higher rates of treatment and shorter duration of symptoms.

  5. Population-based register of stroke: manual of operations.

    PubMed

    Giampaoli, Simona; Hammar, Niklas; Adany, Roza; De Peretti, Christine

    2007-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and hospitalization in both sexes in nearly all countries of Europe. The main forms of cardiovascular disease are ischaemic heart disease and stroke. Stroke by itself is the second leading cause of death in the European Union, and the annual number of cases of stroke is expected to increase within the next few decades, mainly owing to a growth in the proportion of older people. Stroke is an expensive disease because of the large number of premature deaths, ongoing disability in survivors, and the impact on families or caregivers and on health services (treatment and rehabilitation). Therefore, there is a pressing need to make stroke prevention and treatment a priority, to reduce the growing health burden and lessen its socioeconomic impact. The magnitude of the problem contrasts with the shortage, weak quality, and comparability of data available in most European countries. A stepwise surveillance procedure based on standardized data collection, appropriate record linkage, and validation methods was set up by the EUROCISS project (EUROpean Cardiovascular Indicators Surveillance Set), to build up comparable and reliable indicators for the surveillance of stroke at the population level.This manual of operations is intended for health professionals and policy makers. It provides a standardized and simple model for the implementation of a population-based register, which can provide estimates of attack rate and case fatality. The manual recommends starting from a minimum data set. Before implementing a population-based register, it is important to identify the target population under surveillance, which should preferably cover a well defined geographical and administrative area or region representative of the whole country, where population data and vital statistics (mortality and hospital discharge records at least) are routinely collected and easily available each year. All cases among residents should be recorded

  6. A survey of population-based drug databases in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, E; Blatman, B; Einarson, T R

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the population-based drug databases in Canada and to determine their comprehensiveness and accessibility for performing pharmacoepidemiologic and outcomes research. DESIGN: Survey (four-part mailed questionnaire). SETTING: Public and private third-party drug plans across Canada. PARTICIPANTS: All provincial and territorial drug plan or pharmacare managers as well as selected private plan managers including health benefit consultants, group insurers and claims adjudicators/pharmacy benefit managers (CA/PBMs). OUTCOME MEASURES: Patient, drug and pharmacy information; potential for electronic linkages to other provincial databases (e.g., physician, hospital, vital statistics); accessibility of information; population profile. RESULTS: Of the 32 recipients of the questionnaire 29 (91%) responded and 18 (56%) completed the survey. Most databases were reported to contain patient information (e.g., patient identification number, age, sex and medication history) and prescription drug information (e.g., drug identification number, strength, quantity and cost). Six provinces and one territory reported the capability to link to other databases (e.g., hospital and physician databases). One CA/PBM reported some links to selected long-term disability data. All of the government databases except those in British Columbia and the Yukon Territory allowed use of the data for research purposes. Manitoba and Saskatchewan included all residents of the province in their database; the others included selected groups (e.g., residents 65 years of age or older, people on social assistance or people covered by private group insurance). CONCLUSION: A number of public and private population-based databases are available for use in pharmacoepidemiologic and outcomes research. PMID:8653645

  7. Population-based study of presbyopia in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Hookway, Larry A; Frazier, Marcela; Rivera, Nelson; Ramson, Prasidh; Carballo, Luis; Naidoo, Kovin

    2016-11-01

    Uncorrected presbyopia can greatly impact a person's quality of life and employment prospects. Nicaragua is the poorest country in Latin America and there are no population-based reports of prevalence of presbyopia in Nicaragua. A cross-sectional population-based household survey was conducted. The sample was selected through random cluster sampling. Adults 35 years and older were enlisted through a door-to-door method using aged-based sampling. All enumerated household members 35 years and older were asked to attend a free visual acuity screening. Autorefraction was done and then uncorrected distance vision and near visual acuity were measured for all subjects. All those who had distance or near vision that was 6/12 or worse underwent a clinical examination, which included refraction at distance and near. Free spectacles were provided. Of the 3,390 subjects surveyed, 37.1 per cent reported that they wore spectacles on a regular basis. A total of 1,871 (55.2 per cent) of those enumerated were examined. The prevalence of near visual impairment (6/12 [N 6] or worse) was 79.6 per cent for the 35 to 49-year-old group, 97.3 per cent for the 50 to 64-year-old group and 96.7 per cent for the 65 and over group. Of those reporting for the examination, 82.2 per cent did not have glasses. Of those examined, 10 per cent did not need spectacles, four per cent were given spectacles for distance only, 38 per cent spectacles for distance and near, 42 per cent spectacles for near only and seven per cent were referred for medical evaluation due to ocular pathology. During the refractions, 91.5 per cent were corrected to 6/12 or better at distance and 89.4 per cent were corrected to 6/12 or better at near. The majority of the participants who were examined did not have the spectacles that they needed. Over one-third of those participants who presented without spectacles had distance vision better than 6/12 and could be improved to good near vision with ready-made near-only spectacles

  8. Population-based study of presbyopia in Shahroud, Iran.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Hassan; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Mehravaran, Shiva; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Yekta, AbbasAli; Shariati, Mohammad; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2012-12-01

    There is limited information regarding the prevalence of presbyopia in different parts of the world. The add power and the prevalence of presbyopia by age and gender in general population of Shahroud, north of Iran, were studied. Population-based cross-sectional study. Using random cluster sampling, 6311 people from the 40- to 64-year-old population of Shahroud were invited. Of the invited population, 5190 individuals (82.2%) participated in the study. Presbyopia was defined as the correction of near vision to logMAR 1 (N8 point) with at least 1 D of add power. Near visual acuity of participants was evaluated with a logMAR chart at a distance of 40 cm. Mean add power in the age groups of 40-44, 45-49, 50-54, 55-59 and 60-64 years was 0.65, 1.30, 1.70, 1.87 and 2.08 D, respectively. For each 5-year increase in age, a 0.35 D increase in add power was noted. The prevalence of presbyopia was 58.15% (95% confidence interval: 56.46-59.84). Presbyopia was more prevalent in women (P < 0.001) and increased with ageing more in women than in men (P < 0.001). Furthermore, in the 60-64-year-old age group, 11% of men and 23% of women were not presbyopic. Compared with other reports, the add power in different age groups was 0.5 D less, and presbyopia was less prevalent. More than 50% of the over 45-year-old individuals were presbyopic and 17% of the over 60 individuals were free of this condition. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2012 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  9. Population-based Analysis of Bronchiolitis Epidemiology in Valencia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Quiles, Cintia; López-Lacort, Mónica; Úbeda-Sansano, Isabel; Alemán-Sánchez, Sara; Pérez-Vilar, Silvia; Puig-Barberà, Joan; Díez-Domingo, Javier

    2016-03-01

    There is a lack of European epidemiologic population-based studies on bronchiolitis and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis including both hospitalizations and primary care attendance. A retrospective cohort of all children born between 2009 and 2012 was followed from birth to 2 years of age using population and health databases. We searched for global bronchiolitis (International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, Clinical Modification codes 466.1, 466.11 and 466.19) and RSV bronchiolitis (code 466.11 and code 466.19 with positive RSV test) in the first appearance either in primary care or in hospitalization databases. A preterm subcohort (International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, Clinical Modification codes 765) was also analyzed. The cohort consisted of 198,223 children of whom 41,479 were diagnosed of bronchiolitis (incidence rate 16.4/100 children <2 years per year). Of those, 5390 were hospitalized with the majority of hospitalizations occurring at <6 months of age (incidence rate of 5.2/100 children <6 months per year) and 3106 of the hospitalizations were RSV positive (incidence rate 3.2/100 children <6 months per year). RSV hospitalizations were 26% longer than non-RSV. In preterm infants, hospitalization incidence was more than double, and the mean length of hospitalization was 29% longer. Most (87%) bronchiolitis cases are managed in primary care offices. Approximately 2 out of every 10 children <2 are diagnosed of bronchiolitis, 3 out of every 100 are hospitalized and 1.6 out of every 100 are hospitalized with RSV bronchiolitis in our cohort. Infants between 2 and 10 weeks constitute a risk group for severe bronchiolitis.

  10. Economic costs of social phobia: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Acarturk, C; Smit, Filip; de Graaf, R; van Straten, A; Ten Have, M; Cuijpers, P

    2009-06-01

    Information about the economic costs of social phobia is scant. In this study, we examine the economic costs of social phobia and subthreshold social phobia. Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS) which is a population-based prospective study (n=4,789). Costs related to health service uptake, patients' out-of-pocket expenses, and costs arising from production losses were calculated for the reference year 2003. The costs for people with social phobia were compared with the costs for people with no mental disorder. The annual per capita total costs of social phobia were euro 11,952 (95% CI=7,891-16,013) which is significantly higher than the total costs for people with no mental disorder, euro 2957 (95% CI=2690-3224). When adjusting for mental and somatic co-morbidity, the costs decreased to euro 6,100 (95% CI=2681-9519), or 136 million euro per year per 1 million inhabitants, which was still significantly higher than the costs for people with no mental disorder. The costs of subthreshold social phobia were also significantly higher than the costs for people without any mental disorder, at euro 4,687 (95% CI=2557-6816). The costs presented here are conservative lower estimates because we only included costs related to mental health services. The economic costs associated with social phobia are substantial, and those of subthreshold social phobia approach those of the full-blown disorder.

  11. Associated Medical Disorders and Disabilities in Children with Autistic Disorder: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kielinen, Marko; Rantala, Heikki; Timonen, Eija; Linna, Sirkka-Liisa; Moilanen, Irma

    2004-01-01

    A population-based survey was conducted among 152,732 Finnish children and adolescents aged under 16 years and living in northern Finland. Diagnoses and associated medical conditions were derived from the hospital and institutional records of this area. One hundred and eighty-seven children with DSM-IV autistic disorder were identified. Associated…