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Sample records for 45-minute class periods

  1. Three classes of newtonian three-body planar periodic orbits.

    PubMed

    Šuvakov, Milovan; Dmitrašinović, V

    2013-03-15

    We present the results of a numerical search for periodic orbits of three equal masses moving in a plane under the influence of Newtonian gravity, with zero angular momentum. A topological method is used to classify periodic three-body orbits into families, which fall into four classes, with all three previously known families belonging to one class. The classes are defined by the orbits' geometric and algebraic symmetries. In each class we present a few orbits' initial conditions, 15 in all; 13 of these correspond to distinct orbits. PMID:25166541

  2. Flexible nonlinear periodization in a beginner college weight training class.

    PubMed

    McNamara, John M; Stearne, David J

    2010-01-01

    McNamara, JM and Stearne, DJ. Flexible nonlinear periodization in a beginner college weight training class. J Strength Cond Res 24(1): 17-22, 2010-The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a flexible nonlinear (FNL) periodized weight training program compared to a nonlinear (NL) periodized weight training program on strength and power. Sixteen beginner weight training students were randomly assigned to an FNL group (n = 8) or an NL group (n = 8). The exercise program included a combination of machines and free weights completed in 30 minutes, twice per week, for 12 consecutive weeks. Both groups were assigned the same total training volume of 3,680 repetitions and the same total training repetition maximum assignments of 10, 15, and 20. The FNL group, however, was allowed to choose which day they completed the 10-, 15-, or 20-repetition workout. This was the only difference between the groups. Pre- and post-test measures included chest press, leg press, and standing long jump. The FNL group significantly improved by an average increase of 62 kg (p < 0.05), whereas the NL group only increased by an average of 16 kg in the leg press. The FNL group did not significantly differ in chest press or standing long jump performance when compared to the NL group. The conclusion from this study is that an FNL periodization program may be a highly effective method of training for improving leg strength. Coaches can immediately implement an FNL program by evaluating the readiness of an athlete immediately before his or her training session, then adjusting the assigned exercise intensity accordingly. PMID:20042923

  3. Solar flare count periodicities in different X-ray flare classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Peng-Xin; Xu, Jing-Chen

    2016-04-01

    Using the Morlet wavelet transform and the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), we investigate the periodic behaviours of C, M and X-class flare counts, respectively, recorded by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) from 1983 May to 2014 December, which cover the two complete solar cycles (SCs) 22 and 23 as well as the part of declining phase of SC 21 and rise and maximum phases of SC 24. Analyses show that the periodic behaviours of various class flare counts are different. (1) Not all periods of various class flare counts appear dominant during the cycle maxima. For C-class flares, during SC 23, periods appear dominant during the maximum phase, however, compared to those during SC 23, there are more periods during the declining phase of SC 22; for M-class flares, during SCs 22 and 23, periods appear dominant during the cycle maxima; for X-class flares, during SC 22, almost all periods appear during the maximum phase; however, during SC 23, there are more periods during the declining phase compared to those during SC 22. (2) For C-class flares, the appearance of periods do not follow the amplitude of C-class flare cycles; while, for M and X-class flares, the appearance of periods follows the amplitude of the investigated corresponding class flare cycles. (3) From the overall trends, the 10 yr and longer time-scale trends of the monthly numbers of M and X-class flares, we can infer that the maximum values of the monthly M and X-class flare numbers would increase during SC 25.

  4. Flexible nonlinear periodization in a beginner college weight training class.

    PubMed

    McNamara, John M; Stearne, David J

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a flexible nonlinear (FNL) periodized weight training program compared to a nonlinear (NL) periodized weight training program on strength and power. Sixteen beginner weight training students were randomly assigned to an FNL group (n = 8) or an NL group (n = 8). The exercise program included a combination of machines and free weights completed in 30 minutes, twice per week, for 12 consecutive weeks. Both groups were assigned the same total training volume of 3,680 repetitions and the same total training repetition maximum assignments of 10, 15, and 20. The FNL group, however, was allowed to choose which day they completed the 10, 15, or 20 repetition workout. This was the only difference between the groups. Pre- and post-test measures included chest press, leg press, and standing long jump. The FNL group significantly improved by an average increase of 62 kg (p < 0.05), whereas the NL group only increased by an average of 16 kg in the leg press. The FNL group did not significantly differ in chest press or standing long jump performance when compared to the NL group. The conclusion from this study is that an FNL periodization program may be a highly effective method of training for improving leg strength. Coaches can immediately implement an FNL program by evaluating the readiness of an athlete immediately before his or her training session, then adjusting the assigned exercise intensity accordingly. PMID:19858756

  5. Best M-term trigonometric approximations of Besov classes of periodic functions of several variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanyuk, A. S.

    2003-04-01

    We obtain order-exact estimates for the best M-term trigonometric approximations of the Besov classes B_{p,\\theta}^r of periodic functions of several variables in L_q with certain relations between p and q.

  6. On the Maximum Number of Periodical Solutions of a Class of Autonomous Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Raeva, M.

    2008-10-30

    The autonomous systems are investigated on a certain condition, assuming the existence of inner resonances. Nonlinear parts are polynomials of a certain class. The present article is a continuation of the last one, which was published by American Institute of Physics, New York in 2007. We are interested both in the existence and the number of periodical trajectories of the system with initial conditions.

  7. Orbital stability of periodic waves in the class of reduced Ostrovsky equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Edward R.; Pelinovsky, Dmitry E.

    2016-09-01

    Periodic travelling waves are considered in the class of reduced Ostrovsky equations that describe low-frequency internal waves in the presence of rotation. The reduced Ostrovsky equations with either quadratic or cubic nonlinearities can be transformed to integrable equations of the Klein-Gordon type by means of a change of coordinates. By using the conserved momentum and energy as well as an additional conserved quantity due to integrability, we prove that small-amplitude periodic waves are orbitally stable with respect to subharmonic perturbations, with period equal to an integer multiple of the period of the wave. The proof is based on construction of a Lyapunov functional, which is convex at the periodic wave and is conserved in the time evolution. We also show numerically that convexity of the Lyapunov functional holds for periodic waves of arbitrary amplitudes.

  8. Dissolved and particulate Fe in a hydrothermal plume at 9{degree}45 minutes N, East Pacific Rise: Slow Fe (II) oxidation kinetics in Pacific plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Field, M.P.; Sherrell, R.M.

    2000-02-01

    Production of Fe(III) particles in hydrothermal plumes is of fundamental importance to the long-term effect of hydrothermal circulation on seawater composition. To elucidate the fundamental controls on Fe redox kinetics and solution/particle partitioning in neutrally buoyant plumes, the authors sampled near-field (<3 km) plume particles at 9{degree}45 minutes N on the East Pacific Rise in 1996, returning in 1997 to sample both particulate and dissolved phases (0.40 {micro}m filter). Concentrations of dissolved Fe varied from 320 to 20 nM in proximal (<0.3 km from vent site) to distal samples (1--3 km downfield), constituting {approximately}85--50% of total Fe, respectively. Based on vent fluid dilution factors calculated from dissolved Mn, a mass balance for vent fluid Fe at this site indicates that {approximately}65% of Fe is lost to particulate sulfide settling in the buoyant plume, and that particulate Fe in distal (1--3 km) samples is twice as concentrated as predicted from dilution of particles in proximal plume water. These observations are consistent with a calculated Fe(II) oxidation half-time of 3.3 h, long enough that Fe(III) colloid production and aggregation occurs primarily in the neutrally buoyant plume at relatively high dilutions, preventing generation of high particular Fe concentrations (11--56 nM observed). A general investigation of Fe(II) oxidation rates in plumes worldwide gives Fe(II) oxidation half-lives as short as 17 min at some Atlantic sites, and as long as 6 h at some Pacific sites. The calculations indicate that the distribution of Fe particles in plumes depends chiefly on inter-basin differences in ambient deep water chemistry (primarily pH and dissolved O{sub 2}) and on local currents driving plume dilution, and to a much lesser extent on variations in primary vent fluid composition. Long-term changes in thermohaline circulation or ocean biogeochemistry may therefore alter Fe dynamics and minor element fluxes associated with global

  9. Quasi-periodic pulsations with varying period in multi-wavelength observations of an X-class flare

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Jing; Tan, Baolin; Zhang, Yin; Karlický, Marian; Mészárosová, Hana

    2014-08-10

    This work presents an interesting phenomenon of the period variation in quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) observed during the impulsive phase of a coronal mass ejection-related X1.1 class flare on 2012 July 6. The period of QPPs was changed from 21 s at soft X-rays (SXR) to 22-23 s at microwaves, to ∼24 s at extreme ultraviolet emissions (EUV), and to 27-32 s at metric-decimetric waves. The microwave, EUV, and SXR QPPs, emitted from flare loops of different heights, were oscillating in phase. Fast kink mode oscillations were proposed to be the modulation mechanism, which may exist in a wide region in the solar atmosphere from the chromosphere to the upper corona or even to the interplanetary space. Changed parameters of flare loops through the solar atmosphere could result in the varying period of QPPs at different wavelengths. The first appearing microwave QPPs and quasi-periodic metric-decimetric type III bursts were generated by energetic electrons. This may imply that particle acceleration or magnetic reconnection were located between these two non-thermal emission sources. Thermal QPPs (in SXR and EUV emissions) occurred later than the nonthermal ones, which would suggest a some time for plasma heating or energy dissipation in flare loops during burst processes. At the beginning of flare, a sudden collapse and expansion of two separated flare loop structures occurred simultaneously with the multi-wavelength QPPs. An implosion in the corona, including both collapse and expansion of flare loops, could be a trigger of loop oscillations in a very large region in the solar atmosphere.

  10. Periodic Disk Eclipsing Stars: A New Class of Variable Young Stellar Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plavchan, Peter; Laohakunakorn, N.; Seifahrt, A.; Staplefeldt, K.; Gee, A. H.

    2010-01-01

    We present the discovery of 92.6 day periodic near-infrared flu variability for the Class I T Tauri star YLW 16A. Our data are from the 2MASS Calibration Point Source Working Database and constitute 1582 observations in J, H and Ks of a field in Rho Ophiuchus used to calibrate the 2MASS All-Sky Survey. We identify a light curve that brightens from a quiescent faint state by 0.4 mag for only 20% of the period. The long period cannot be explained by stellar rotation. We propose that YLW 16A is a triple YSO system, with an inner binary orbital period of 92.6 days. We postulate that we are observing a component of the binary being eclipsed by a circumbinary disk with respect to our line of site. YLW 16A joins WL 4 and KH-15D as a third member of a new class of disk-eclipsing young stars. Both YLW 16A and WL 4 have been identified to have tertiary companions with projected separations of 20--50 AU. We propose that the tertiary companion can warp the inner circumbinary disk to produce the disk eclipses. We present NIRSPEC observations of WL 4 that suggest three distinct radial velocity components, and present a model SED for YLW 16A. These systems will be useful in investigating terrestrial-zone YSO disk properties and dynamics at 1 Myr.

  11. Discovery of periodic class II methanol masers associated with G339.986-0.425 region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maswanganye, J. P.; van der Walt, D. J.; Goedhart, S.; Gaylard, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    10 new class II methanol masers from the 6.7-GHz Methanol Multibeam survey catalogues III and IV were selected for a monitoring programme at both 6.7 and 12.2 GHz with the 26-m Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory radio telescope for 2 yr and 9 months, from 2012 August to 2015 May. In the sample, only masers associated with G339.986-0.425 were found to show periodic variability at both 6.7 and 12.2 GHz. The existence of periodic variation was tested with four independent methods. The analytical method gave the best estimation of the period, which was 246 ± 1 d. The time series of G339.986-0.425 show strong correlations across velocity channels and between the 6.7- and 12.2-GHz masers. The time delay was also measured across channels and shows structure across the spectrum which is continuous between different maser components.

  12. Mars exploration, Venus swingby and conjunction class mission modes, time period 2000 to 2045

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, A. C.; Mulqueen, J. A.; Skinner, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    Trajectory and mission requirement data are presented for Earth-Mars opposition class and conjunction class round trip stopover mission opportunities available during the time period year 2000 to year 2045. The opposition class mission employs the gravitational field of Venus to accelerate the space vehicle on either the outbound or inbound leg. The gravitational field of Venus was used to reduce the propulsion requirement associated with the opposition class mission. Representative space vehicle systems are sized to compare the initial mass required in low Earth orbit of one mission opportunity with another mission opportunity. The interplanetary space vehicle is made up of the spacecraft and the space vehicle acceleration system. The space vehicle acceleration system consists of three propulsion stages. The first propulsion stage performs the Earth escape maneuver; the second stage brakes the spacecraft and Earth braking stage into the Mars elliptical orbit and effects the escape maneuver from the Mars elliptical orbit. The third propulsion stage brakes the mission module into an elliptical orbit at Earth return. The interplanetary space vehicle was assumed to be assembled in and depart from the space station circular orbit.

  13. Class II Division 1 in New Dimension: Role of Posterior Transverse Interarch Discrepancy in Class II Division 1 Malocclusion During the Mixed Dentition Period

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Deepanshu; Mahajan, Neeraj; Bansal, Samriti; Sawhney, Anshul; Kaur, Jasvir; Tripathi, Shashank; Malaviya, Neha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Posterior transverse discrepancy as seen in some cases of Class II Division 1 malocclusion in mixed dentition period can be related to typical skeletofacial characteristics. These features when studied early in the mixed dentition period give a clear view of the desired appropriate treatment plan in a particular case. Aim The purpose of this study was to establish a simple method to determine the posterior (intermolar) transverse discrepancy and craniofacial skeletal features between the dental arches during the mixed dentition in a sample of Class II Division 1 patients to provide diagnostic and therapeutic guidance in the early approach. Materials and Methods A sample of 60 Class II Division 1 patients in mixed dention that were divided into 30 Class II Division 1 patients with posterior transverse interarch discrepancy {Class II (I) PTID group} and 30 Class II Division 1 patients without posterior transverse interarch discrepancy {Class II (I) NPTID group}. Thirty Class I subjects in mixed dentition were included as control. Results The skeletal features of the Class II group without PTID are those of the skeletal Class II associated with ‘anatomic’ mandibular retrusion (due to a micrognathic mandible) and those of the Class II group with PTID as skeletal Class II associated with only a ‘functional’ mandibular retrusion (due to a posteriorly displaced mandible of normal size). Conclusion This study confirmed the role of occlusion in the control of maxillomandibular skeletal relationships.The treatment strategies could be planned on the basis of the transverse component of Class II Division 1 groups in the mixed dentition period. PMID:26417555

  14. Recovery of partial differential operators on classes of periodic functions with mixed smoothness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balgimbayeva, Sholpan

    2016-08-01

    We consider the problem of optimal linear recovery for mixed partial differential operator A on the unit ball SBpθ r(Tn) of the Nikol'skii-Besov space of periodic functions with mixed smoothness. We find error bounds sharp in order for optimal linear recovery of operator A on class SBpθ r(Tn) . As information IMδ(f ) about the functions f from class SBpθ r(Tn) we shall use Fourier coefficients with numbers from step "hyperbolic" cross. As the linear method using the information about Fourier coefficients, we shall consider action of the mixed partial differential operator A on the special "private" sum of decomposition on system (type as wavelets) trigonometric polynomials.

  15. Study of multi-periodic coronal pulsations during an X-class solar flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Partha; Srivastava, A. K.; Dwivedi, B. N.; Sych, Robert; Moon, Y.-J.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate quasi-periodic coronal pulsations during the decay phase of an X 3.2 class flare on 14 May 2013, using soft X-ray data from the RHESSI satellite. Periodogram analyses of soft X-ray light curves show that ∼ 53 s and ∼ 72 s periods co-exist in the 3-6 keV, 6-12 keV and 12-25 keV energy bands. Considering the typical length of the flaring loop system and observed periodicities, we find that they are associated with multiple (first two harmonics) of fast magnetoacoustic sausage waves. The phase relationship of soft X-ray emissions in different energy bands using cross-correlation technique show that these modes are standing in nature as we do not find the phase lag. Considering the period ratio, we diagnose the local plasma conditions of the flaring region by invoking MHD seismology. The period ratio P1/2P2 is found to be ∼ 0.65, which indicates that such oscillations are most likely excited in longitudinal density stratified loops.

  16. Observations of a new class of upstream waves with periods near 3 seconds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, G.; Russell, C. T.; Thomsen, M. F.; Gosling, J. T.

    1992-01-01

    A new class of ULF waves with periods near 3 s in the earth's upstream region is found by examining the high time resolution magnetic field data from the ISEE spacecraft. These waves are observed in the part of the upstream region which is magnetically connected to the bow shock, but only when the solar wind plasma beta is high (greater than 1). The waves are always right-handed, nearly circularly polarized in the spacecraft frame. The directions of the wave vectors are in the general direction of the average magnetic field, and the waves are convected downstream in the spacecraft frame. This study of these waves has shown that they appear to be intrinsically left-handed ion cyclotron waves in the plasma rest frame.

  17. The study of nonlinear almost periodic differential equations without recourse to the H-classes of these equations

    SciTech Connect

    Slyusarchuk, V. E. E-mail: V.Ye.Slyusarchuk@NUWM.rv.ua

    2014-06-01

    The well-known theorems of Favard and Amerio on the existence of almost periodic solutions to linear and nonlinear almost periodic differential equations depend to a large extent on the H-classes and the requirement that the bounded solutions of these equations be separated. The present paper provides different conditions for the existence of almost periodic solutions. These conditions, which do not depend on the H-classes of the equations, are formulated in terms of a special functional on the set of bounded solutions of the equations under consideration. This functional is used, in particular, to test whether solutions are separated. Bibliography: 24 titles. (paper)

  18. Existence of dark solitons in a class of stationary nonlinear Schroedinger equations with periodically modulated nonlinearity and periodic asymptotics

    SciTech Connect

    Belmonte-Beitia, J.; Cuevas, J.

    2011-03-15

    In this paper, we give a proof of the existence of stationary dark soliton solutions or heteroclinic orbits of nonlinear equations of Schroedinger type with periodic inhomogeneous nonlinearity. The result is illustrated with examples of dark solitons for cubic and photorefractive nonlinearities.

  19. New periodic 6.7 GHz class II methanol maser associated with G358.460-0.391

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maswanganye, J. P.; Gaylard, M. J.; Goedhart, S.; Walt, D. J. van der; Booth, R. S.

    2015-01-01

    Eight new class II methanol masers selected from the 6.7 GHz Methanol Multibeam survey catalogues I and II were monitored at 6.7 GHz with the 26 m Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory radio telescope for three years and seven months, from 2011 February to 2014 September. The sources were also observed at 12.2 GHz and two were sufficiently bright to permit monitoring. One of the eight sources, namely G358.460-0.391, was found to show periodic variations at 6.7 GHz. The period was determined and tested for significance using the Lomb-Scargle, epoch-folding and Jurkevich methods, and by fitting a simple analytic function. The best estimate for the period of the 6.7 GHz class II methanol maser line associated with G358.460-0.391 is 220.0 ± 0.2 d.

  20. Sensitive periods differentiate processing of open- and closed-class words: an ERP study of bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Weber-Fox, C; Neville, H J

    2001-12-01

    The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that neural processes for language are heterogeneous in their adaptations to maturation and experience. This study examined whether the neural processes for open- and closed-class words are differentially affected by delays in second-language immersion. In English, open-class words primarily convey referential meaning, whereas closed-class words are primarily related to grammatical information in sentence processing. Previous studies indicate that event-related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited by these word classes display nonidentical distributions and latencies, show different developmental time courses, and are differentially affected by early language experience in Deaf individuals. In this study, ERPs were recorded from 10 monolingual English speakers and 53 Chinese-English bilingual speakers who were grouped according to their age of immersion in English: 1-3, 4-6, 7-10, 11-13, and >15 years of age. Closed-class words elicited an N280 that was largest over left anterior electrode sites for all groups. However, the peak latency was later (>35 ms) in bilingual speakers immersed in English after 7 years of age. In contrast, the latencies and distributions of the N350 elicited by open-class words were similar in all groups. In addition, the N400, elicited by semantic anomalies (open-class words that violated semantic expectation), displayed increased peak latencies for only the later-learning bilingual speakers (>11 years). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that language subprocesses are differentially sensitive to the timing of second-language experience. PMID:11776369

  1. Providing Students with Foundational Field Instruction within a 50 Minute Class Period: A Practical Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percy, M.

    2014-12-01

    There is a growing recognition among secondary educators and administrators that students need to have a science education that provides connections between familiar classes like biology, chemistry, and physics. Because of this waxing interest in an integrative approach to the sciences, there is a broader push for school districts to offer classes geared towards the earth sciences, a field that incorporates knowledge and skills gleaned from the three core science subjects. Within the contexts of a regular secondary school day on a traditional schedule (45- to 50-minute long classes), it is challenging to engage students in rigorous field-based learning, critical for students to develop a deeper understanding of geosciences content, without requiring extra time outside of the regular schedule. We suggest instruction using common, manmade features like drainage retention ponds to model good field practices and provide students with the opportunity to calculate basic hydrologic budgets, take pH readings, and, if in an area with seasonal rainfall, make observations regarding soils by way of trenching, and near-surface processes, including mass wasting and the effects of vegetation on geomorphology. Gains in student understanding are discussed by analyzing the difference in test scores between exams provided to the students after they had received only in-class instruction, and after they had received field instruction in addition to the in-class lectures. In an advanced setting, students made measurements regarding ion contents and pollution that allowed the classes to practice lab skills while developing a data set that was analyzed after field work was completed. It is posited that similar fieldwork could be an effective approach at an introductory level in post-secondary institutions.

  2. Bilinear and trigonometric approximations of periodic functions of several variables of Besov classes B_{p, \\theta}^r

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanyuk, A. S.

    2006-04-01

    We obtain order-sharp estimates for bilinear approximations of periodic functions of 2d variables of the form f(x,y)=f(x-y), x, y\\in \\pi_d = \\prod_{j=1}^d\\lbrack-\\pi, \\pi\\rbrack , obtained from functions f(x)\\in B_{p, \\theta}^r, 1\\le p<\\infty, by translating the argument x\\in \\pi_d by vectors y\\in \\pi_d. We also study the deviations of step hyperbolic Fourier sums on the classes B_{1,\\theta}^r and the best orthogonal trigonometric approximations in L_q, 1, of functions belonging to these classes.

  3. Quasi-periodic Pulsations during the Impulsive and Decay phases of an X-class Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, L. A.; Gallagher, P. T.; Dennis, B. R.; Ireland, J.; Inglis, A. R.; Ryan, D. F.

    2016-08-01

    Quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) are often observed in X-ray emission from solar flares. To date, it is unclear what their physical origins are. Here, we present a multi-instrument investigation of the nature of QPP during the impulsive and decay phases of the X1.0 flare of 2013 October 28. We focus on the character of the fine structure pulsations evident in the soft X-ray (SXR) time derivatives and compare this variability with structure across multiple wavelengths including hard X-ray and microwave emission. We find that during the impulsive phase of the flare, high correlations between pulsations in the thermal and non-thermal emissions are seen. A characteristic timescale of ∼20 s is observed in all channels and a second timescale of ∼55 s is observed in the non-thermal emissions. SXR pulsations are seen to persist into the decay phase of this flare, up to 20 minutes after the non-thermal emission has ceased. We find that these decay phase thermal pulsations have very small amplitude and show an increase in characteristic timescale from ∼40 s up to ∼70 s. We interpret the bursty nature of the co-existing multi-wavelength QPPs during the impulsive phase in terms of episodic particle acceleration and plasma heating. The persistent thermal decay phase QPPs are most likely connected with compressive magnetohydrodynamic processes in the post-flare loops such as the fast sausage mode or the vertical kink mode.

  4. Quasi-periodic Pulsations during the Impulsive and Decay phases of an X-class Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, L. A.; Gallagher, P. T.; Dennis, B. R.; Ireland, J.; Inglis, A. R.; Ryan, D. F.

    2016-08-01

    Quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) are often observed in X-ray emission from solar flares. To date, it is unclear what their physical origins are. Here, we present a multi-instrument investigation of the nature of QPP during the impulsive and decay phases of the X1.0 flare of 2013 October 28. We focus on the character of the fine structure pulsations evident in the soft X-ray (SXR) time derivatives and compare this variability with structure across multiple wavelengths including hard X-ray and microwave emission. We find that during the impulsive phase of the flare, high correlations between pulsations in the thermal and non-thermal emissions are seen. A characteristic timescale of ˜20 s is observed in all channels and a second timescale of ˜55 s is observed in the non-thermal emissions. SXR pulsations are seen to persist into the decay phase of this flare, up to 20 minutes after the non-thermal emission has ceased. We find that these decay phase thermal pulsations have very small amplitude and show an increase in characteristic timescale from ˜40 s up to ˜70 s. We interpret the bursty nature of the co-existing multi-wavelength QPPs during the impulsive phase in terms of episodic particle acceleration and plasma heating. The persistent thermal decay phase QPPs are most likely connected with compressive magnetohydrodynamic processes in the post-flare loops such as the fast sausage mode or the vertical kink mode.

  5. Kolmogorov and trigonometric widths of the Besov classes B^r_{p,\\theta} of multivariate periodic functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanyuk, A. S.

    2006-02-01

    Precise (in order) estimates of the Kolmogorov widths in the space L_q, 1, of the classes B^r_{1,\\theta} and B^r_{\\infty,\\theta} and also of the trigonometric widths of the classes B^r_{p,\\theta} in L_q for p and q satisfying certain relations are obtained.

  6. Approximation of Periodic Functions of Several Variables by Trigonometric Polynomials, and Widths of Some Classes of Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temlyakov, V. N.

    1986-04-01

    The author investigates questions of the approximation of functions of several variables with a bounded mixed derivative or difference. He finds the orders of the Kolmogorov widths and of other widths of these classes. He obtains embedding theorems and estimates for the best approximations by trigonometric polynomials to functions in these classes. Bibliography: 33 titles.

  7. Neuron class-specific requirements for Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein in critical period development of calcium signaling in learning and memory circuitry.

    PubMed

    Doll, Caleb A; Broadie, Kendal

    2016-05-01

    Neural circuit optimization occurs through sensory activity-dependent mechanisms that refine synaptic connectivity and information processing during early-use developmental critical periods. Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP), the gene product lost in Fragile X syndrome (FXS), acts as an activity sensor during critical period development, both as an RNA-binding translation regulator and channel-binding excitability regulator. Here, we employ a Drosophila FXS disease model to assay calcium signaling dynamics with a targeted transgenic GCaMP reporter during critical period development of the mushroom body (MB) learning/memory circuit. We find FMRP regulates depolarization-induced calcium signaling in a neuron-specific manner within this circuit, suppressing activity-dependent calcium transients in excitatory cholinergic MB input projection neurons and enhancing calcium signals in inhibitory GABAergic MB output neurons. Both changes are restricted to the developmental critical period and rectified at maturity. Importantly, conditional genetic (dfmr1) rescue of null mutants during the critical period corrects calcium signaling defects in both neuron classes, indicating a temporally restricted FMRP requirement. Likewise, conditional dfmr1 knockdown (RNAi) during the critical period replicates constitutive null mutant defects in both neuron classes, confirming cell-autonomous requirements for FMRP in developmental regulation of calcium signaling dynamics. Optogenetic stimulation during the critical period enhances depolarization-induced calcium signaling in both neuron classes, but this developmental change is eliminated in dfmr1 null mutants, indicating the activity-dependent regulation requires FMRP. These results show FMRP shapes neuron class-specific calcium signaling in excitatory vs. inhibitory neurons in developing learning/memory circuitry, and that FMRP mediates activity-dependent regulation of calcium signaling specifically during the early

  8. Analysis of global O(t(-α)) stability and global asymptotical periodicity for a class of fractional-order complex-valued neural networks with time varying delays.

    PubMed

    Rakkiyappan, R; Sivaranjani, R; Velmurugan, G; Cao, Jinde

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, the problem of the global O(t(-α)) stability and global asymptotic periodicity for a class of fractional-order complex-valued neural networks (FCVNNs) with time varying delays is investigated. By constructing suitable Lyapunov functionals and a Leibniz rule for fractional differentiation, some new sufficient conditions are established to ensure that the addressed FCVNNs are globally O(t(-α)) stable. Moreover, some sufficient conditions for the global asymptotic periodicity of the addressed FCVNNs with time varying delays are derived, showing that all solutions converge to the same periodic function. Finally, numerical examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and usefulness of our theoretical results. PMID:26922720

  9. Estimating survival of precocial chicks during the prefledging period using a catch-curve analysis and count-based age-class data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGowan, C.P.; Millspaugh, J.J.; Ryan, M.R.; Kruse, C.D.; Pavelka, G.

    2009-01-01

    Estimating reproductive success for birds with precocial young can be difficult because chicks leave nests soon after hatching and individuals or broods can be difficult to track. Researchers often turn to estimating survival during the prefledging period and, though effective, mark-recapture based approaches are not always feasible due to cost, time, and animal welfare concerns. Using a threatened population of Piping Plovers (Charadrius melodus) that breeds along the Missouri River, we present an approach for estimating chick survival during the prefledging period using long-term (1993-2005), count-based, age-class data. We used a modified catch-curve analysis, and data collected during three 5-day sampling periods near the middle of the breeding season. The approach has several ecological and statistical assumptions and our analyses were designed to minimize the probability of violating those assumptions. For example, limiting the sampling periods to only 5 days gave reasonable assurance that population size was stable during the sampling period. Annual daily survival estimates ranged from 0.825 (SD = 0.03) to 0.931 (0.02) depending on year and sampling period, with these estimates assuming constant survival during the prefledging period and no change in the age structure of the population. The average probability of survival to fledging ranged from 0.126 to 0.188. Our results are similar to other published estimates for this species in similar habitats. This method of estimating chick survival may be useful for a variety of precocial bird species when mark-recapture methods are not feasible and only count-based age class data are available. ?? 2009 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  10. Simulations of table-top watt-class 1 THz radiation sources with two-section periodic structure

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Weihao Xu, Zhengyuan

    2014-01-07

    Two types of terahertz sources with two-section periodical waveguide structure are studied by simulations. The operation frequency of the rear section (section-II) is the fourth harmonic of that of the front section (section-I), and section-II can operate both in the forward wave region and backward wave region. The critical factor that may affect the proper functioning of this kind of sources—overbunching—is discussed, and the corresponding solutions are proposed. These sources, with millimeter in length, can generate 1 THz wave radiation with power over 1 W, so, they are promising table-top and relatively high power terahertz sources.

  11. Search for solar neutrons at Mount Chacaltaya associated with M- and X-class flares during the rising period of solar cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Diego; Matsubara, Yutaka

    2015-04-01

    To better understand the acceleration mechanism of high-energy particles that are driven by solar flares, we examined solar neutron signals. We have performed a statistical analysis by reviewing the data collected by a neutron monitor during the period of January 2010 to August 2013. This detector operates at Mount Chacaltaya in Bolivia at 5,200 m above sea level. Our aim is to search for solar neutron events in association with large solar flares observed by the GOES satellite. We report that our analysis did not yield any positive excess due to solar neutrons that are statistically significant. Hence, we calculated the upper limit of the number of solar neutrons for the X2.8-class solar flare which occurred on 13 May 2013. We performed a similar calculation with a solar neutron event that occurred on 7 September 2005. Our upper limit is seven times less than the one produced by the real signal.

  12. KOLMOGOROV WIDTHS IN THE SPACE {\\tilde L}_q OF THE CLASSES {\\tilde W}_p^{\\overline \\alpha} AND {\\tilde H}_p^{\\overline \\alpha} OF PERIODIC FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galeev, È. M.

    1986-04-01

    The author finds the order of the Kolmogorov widths d_N({\\tilde W}_p^{\\overline \\alpha} = \\bigcap_{i=1}^m {\\tilde W}_p^{\\alpha^i}, {\\tilde L}_q) for all 1 < p,q < \\infty, where {\\tilde W}_p^\\alpha is the class of periodic functions of several variables determined by a Weyl mixed fractional derivative, and d_N({\\tilde H}_p^{\\overline \\alpha} = \\bigcap_{i=1}^m {\\tilde H}_p^{\\alpha^i},{\\tilde L}_q) for p \\ge 2 or q \\ge 2, where {\\tilde H}_p^\\alpha is the class determined by a mixed difference. Bibliography: 28 titles.

  13. A new class of aperiodic, long-range ordered artificial spin ices based upon Fibonacci distortions of 2D periodic lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Justin; Bhat, Vinayak; Farmer, Barry; Sklenar, Joseph; Teipel, Eric; Ketterson, John; Hastings, J. Todd; de Long, Lance

    2015-03-01

    Artificial spin ice (ASI) systems are composed of nanoscale ferromagnetic segments whose shape anisotropy dictates they behave as mesoscopic Ising spins. Most ASI have segments patterned on periodic lattices and a single vertex topology. We have continuously distorted 2D honeycomb and square lattices such that the pattern vertex spacings follow a Fibonacci chain sequence along primitive lattice directions. The Fibonacci distortion is related to the aperiodic translational symmetry of 2D artificial quasicrystals1 that cannot be viewed as continuous distortions of periodic lattices due to their forbidden (e.g., fivefold) rotational symmetries. In contrast, Fibonacci distortions of 2D periodic lattices can be ``turned on'' by control of the ratio of two lattice parameters d1 and d2. Distortions alter film segments such that pattern vertices are no longer equivalent and traditional spin ice rules are no longer strictly valid. We have performed OOMMF simulations of magnetization reversal for samples having different levels of distortion, and found the magnetic reversal to be dramatically slowed by small distortions (d1/d2 ~ 1). Research at Kentucky is supported by U.S. DoE Grant DE-FG02-97ER45653 and NSF Grant EPS-0814194.

  14. "Racializing" Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatt-Echeverria, Beth; Urrieta, Luis, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    In an effort to explore how racial and class oppressions intersect, the authors use their autobiographical narratives to depict cultural and experiential continuity and discontinuity in growing up white working class versus Chicano working class. They specifically focus on "racializing class" due to the ways class is often used as a copout by…

  15. LOW-FREQUENCY (11 mHz) OSCILLATIONS IN H1743-322: A NEW CLASS OF BLACK HOLE QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS?

    SciTech Connect

    Altamirano, D.; Strohmayer, T.

    2012-08-01

    We report the discovery of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) at {approx}11 mHz in two RXTE and one Chandra observations of the black hole candidate H1743-322. The QPO is observed only at the beginning of the 2010 and 2011 outbursts at similar hard color and intensity, suggestive of an accretion state dependence for the QPO. Although its frequency appears to be correlated with X-ray intensity on timescales of a day, in successive outbursts eight months apart, we measure a QPO frequency that differs by less than Almost-Equal-To 2.2 mHz while the intensity had changed significantly. We show that this {approx}11 mHz QPO is different from the so-called Type C QPOs seen in black holes and that the mechanisms that produce the two flavors of variability are most probably independent. After comparing this QPO with other variability phenomena seen in accreting black holes and neutron stars, we conclude that it best resembles the so-called 1 Hz QPOs seen in dipping neutron star systems, although having a significantly lower (1-2 orders of magnitude) frequency. If confirmed, H1743-322 is the first black hole showing this type of variability. Given the unusual characteristics and the hard-state dependence of the {approx}11 mHz QPO, we also speculate whether these oscillations could instead be related to the radio jets observed in H1743-322. A systematic search for this type of low-frequency QPOs in similar systems is needed to test this speculation. In any case, it remains unexplained why these QPOs have only been seen in the last two outbursts of H1743-322.

  16. Around the World in Six Class Periods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Keith

    2012-01-01

    A music educator opens the classroom door one September morning, and there they are. Another group of new students. But this year, there's a different mix: a student from Cambodia, another from Mali, two students from Peru, five Mexicans, two Taiwanese, and an American Indian. Maybe it's happened gradually; maybe not. But this is what America…

  17. Class Size.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Siobhan; Lumsden, Linda S.

    1994-01-01

    The items featured in this annotated bibliography touch on several aspects of the multifaceted class-size debate. Allen Odden reviews the literature and contends that class-size reduction should be used "sparingly and strategically." C. M. Achilles and colleagues examines two different class-size situations and find student test performance in the…

  18. Class Size.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Holly R.

    Exploring the class-size issue, this paper focuses on the primary grades and asks questions such as "does a reduction in class size promote an increase in academic achievement?" and "how substantial does the reduction in numbers have to be in order for a significant increase to occur?" The paper surveys debates on class size and the social factors…

  19. Class Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdata, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Ever since George Washington opted for the title of president rather than king, Americans have been uncomfortable with the idea of class distinctions. This article presents an interview with Dr. Janet Galligani Casey regarding the idea of class distinctions. Galligani Casey, who grew up in a working-class neighborhood in Somerville, Massachusetts,…

  20. Problem Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ Home Body Getting your period Problem periods Problem periods It’s common to have cramps or feel ... doctor Some common period problems Signs of period problems top One way to know if you may ...

  1. "You Have 45 Minutes, Starting from Now": Helping Students Develop Their Exam Essay Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willmott, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In recent years academics have commonly bemoaned the lack of essay-writing ability exhibited by their students. Whether or not the halcyon era in which undergraduates routinely knew how to construct a persuasive essay ever truly existed, it is certainly the case that contemporary students can benefit from advice on preparation of a long-format…

  2. A Synchronous Distance Discussion Procedure with Reinforcement Mechanism: Designed for Elementary School Students to Achieve the Attending and Responding Stages of the Affective Domain Teaching Goals within a Class Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Kuo-An; Yang, Chia-Hao

    2008-01-01

    Distance education courses must cope with the difficulties imposed by delivering a class at a distance. As most courses only emphasize the cognitive aspects of the class and neglect the course's effect on the students, this gives no help for reaching the affective domain teaching goals. Especially for younger students, in distance education, when…

  3. 39 CFR 3055.55 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Periodicals. 3055.55 Section 3055.55 Postal... Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.55 Periodicals. (a) Within County Periodicals. For the Within County Periodicals product within the Periodicals class, report the: (1)...

  4. 39 CFR 3055.55 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Periodicals. 3055.55 Section 3055.55 Postal... Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.55 Periodicals. (a) Within County Periodicals. For the Within County Periodicals product within the Periodicals class, report the: (1)...

  5. 39 CFR 3055.55 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Periodicals. 3055.55 Section 3055.55 Postal... Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.55 Periodicals. (a) Within County Periodicals. For the Within County Periodicals product within the Periodicals class, report the: (1)...

  6. 39 CFR 3055.55 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Periodicals. 3055.55 Section 3055.55 Postal... Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.55 Periodicals. (a) Within County Periodicals. For the Within County Periodicals product within the Periodicals class, report the: (1)...

  7. Project CLASS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBain, Susan L.; And Others

    Project CLASS (Competency-Based Live-Ability Skills) uses a series of 60 modules to teach life survival skills to adults with low-level reading ability--especially Adult Basic Education/English as a Second Language students. Two versions of the modules have been developed: one for use with teacher-directed instruction and another for independent…

  8. Class Trash.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Presents a classroom activity in which students calculate the amount and types of trash thrown out by their class at school to investigate how much trash is generated, where it goes, and speculate about alternatives. Students need to be familiar with the concepts of weight, volume, and numbers. (MCO)

  9. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... number of days after the last one. The Menstrual Cycle Most girls get their first period between the ... to skip periods or to have an irregular menstrual cycle. Illness, rapid weight change, or stress can also ...

  10. Class distinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, M. Catherine

    Typical 101 courses discourage many students from pursuing higher level science and math courses. Introductory classes in science and math serve largely as a filter, screening out all but the most promising students, and leaving the majority of college graduates—including most prospective teachers—with little understanding of how science works, according to a study conducted for the National Science Foundation. Because few teachers, particularly at the elementary level, experience any collegiate science teaching that stresses skills of inquiry and investigation, they simply never learn to use those methods in their teaching, the report states.

  11. Meat Cutting Classes--Popular with Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostad, James; Carpentier, Dale

    1976-01-01

    Presents a session by session description of a "meats" class, which is offered to high school students (9-week period) and adults (8-week period). The classes cover identification of cuts (beef, sheep, hogs, and veal; grades and grading of live animals and carcasses; economics of butchering and cutting your own meat; actual slaughtering; and the…

  12. Positive periodic solutions of delayed periodic Lotka-Volterra systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wei; Chen, Tianping

    2005-01-01

    In this Letter, for a general class of delayed periodic Lotka-Volterra systems, we prove some new results on the existence of positive periodic solutions by Schauder's fixed point theorem. The global asymptotical stability of positive periodic solutions is discussed further, and conditions for exponential convergence are given. The conditions we obtained are weaker than the previously known ones and can be easily reduced to several special cases.

  13. Periodized wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Schlossnagle, G.; Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.

    1993-12-01

    The properties of periodized Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and contrasted against their counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrate by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of periodized wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and several tabulated values are included.

  14. Periodic cages.

    PubMed

    Diudea, Mircea V; Nagy, Csaba L; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Ioan; Graovac, Ante; Janezic, Dusanka; Vikić-Topić, Drazen

    2005-01-01

    Various cages are constructed by using three types of caps: f-cap (derived from spherical fullerenes by deleting zones of various size), kf-cap (obtainable by cutting off the polar ring, of size k), and t-cap ("tubercule"-cap). Building ways are presented, some of them being possible isomerization routes in the real chemistry of fullerenes. Periodic cages with ((5,7)3) covering are modeled, and their constitutive typing enumeration is given. Spectral data revealed some electronic periodicity in fullerene clusters. Semiempirical and strain energy calculations complete their characterization. PMID:15807490

  15. Periodic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edwin

    2013-03-01

    Periodic polymers can be made by self assembly, directed self assembly and by photolithography. Such materials provide a versatile platform for 1, 2 and 3D periodic nano-micro scale composites with either dielectric or impedance contrast or both, and these can serve for example, as photonic and or phononic crystals for electromagnetic and elastic waves as well as mechanical frames/trusses. Compared to electromagnetic waves, elastic waves are both less complex (longitudinal modes in fluids) and more complex (longitudinal, transverse in-plane and transverse out-of-plane modes in solids). Engineering of the dispersion relation between wave frequency w and wave vector, k enables the opening of band gaps in the density of modes and detailed shaping of w(k). Band gaps can be opened by Bragg scattering, anti-crossing of bands and discrete shape resonances. Current interest is in our group focuses using design - modeling, fabrication and measurement of polymer-based periodic materials for applications as tunable optics and control of phonon flow. Several examples will be described including the design of structures for multispectral band gaps for elastic waves to alter the phonon density of states, the creation of block polymer and bicontinuous metal-carbon nanoframes for structures that are robust against ballistic projectiles and quasi-crystalline solid/fluid structures that can steer shock waves.

  16. Looking Backward: Reflections on the Study of Class in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kealey, Gregory

    1981-01-01

    Examines Canadian historians' treatment of social class and the working class. Working class studies can be classified into three types--the academic, governmental, and political--and three periods--the 1880s to 1929, 1929 to the end of World War II, and the Cold War. A renaissance in working class studies characterizes the 1960s. (Author/KC)

  17. 39 CFR 3055.45 - First-Class Mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false First-Class Mail. 3055.45 Section 3055.45 Postal... Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.45 First-Class Mail. (a) Single-Piece Letters... Letters/Postcards, Flats, and Parcels products within the First-Class Mail class, report the: (1)...

  18. Teachers in Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Galen, Jane

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I argue for a closer read of the daily "class work" of teachers, as posited by Reay, 1998. In developing exploratory class portraits of four teachers who occupy distinctive social positions (two from working-class homes now teaching upper-middle-class children and two from upper-middle-class homes now teaching poor children), I…

  19. Does Class Size Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Brewer, Dominic J.; Gamoran, Adam; Willms, J. Douglas

    2001-01-01

    Reports on the significance of class size to student learning. Includes an overview of class size in various countries, the importance of teacher adaptability, and the Asian paradox of large classes allied to high test scores. (MM)

  20. 39 CFR 3055.22 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Periodicals. 3055.22 Section 3055.22 Postal... Annual Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.22 Periodicals. For each product within the Periodicals class, report the on-time service performance (as a percentage rounded to one decimal place)....

  1. 39 CFR 3055.22 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Periodicals. 3055.22 Section 3055.22 Postal... Annual Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.22 Periodicals. For each product within the Periodicals class, report the on-time service performance (as a percentage rounded to one decimal place)....

  2. 39 CFR 3055.22 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Periodicals. 3055.22 Section 3055.22 Postal... Annual Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.22 Periodicals. For each product within the Periodicals class, report the on-time service performance (as a percentage rounded to one decimal place)....

  3. 39 CFR 3055.22 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Periodicals. 3055.22 Section 3055.22 Postal... Annual Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.22 Periodicals. For each product within the Periodicals class, report the on-time service performance (as a percentage rounded to one decimal place)....

  4. From sample to PCR product in under 45 minutes: a polymeric integrated microdevice for clinical and forensic DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Lounsbury, Jenny A; Karlsson, Anne; Miranian, Daniel C; Cronk, Stephen M; Nelson, Daniel A; Li, Jingyi; Haverstick, Doris M; Kinnon, Paul; Saul, David J; Landers, James P

    2013-04-01

    The extraction and amplification of DNA from biological samples is laborious and time-consuming, requiring numerous instruments and sample handling steps. An integrated, single-use, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microdevice for DNA extraction and amplification would benefit clinical and forensic communities, providing a completely closed system with rapid sample-in-PCR-product-out capability. Here, we show the design and simple flow control required for enzyme-based DNA preparation and PCR from buccal swabs or liquid whole blood samples with an ~5-fold reduction in time. A swab containing cells or DNA could be loaded into a novel receptacle together with the DNA liberation reagents, heated using an infrared heating system, mixed with PCR reagents for one of three different target sets under syringe-driven flow, and thermally-cycled in less than 45 min, an ~6-fold reduction in analysis time as compared to conventional methods. The 4 : 1 PCR reagents : DNA ratio required to provide the correct final concentration of all PCR components for effective amplification was verified using image analysis of colored dyes in the PCR chamber. Novel single-actuation, 'normally-open' adhesive valves were shown to effectively seal the PCR chamber during thermal cycling, preventing air bubble expansion. The effectiveness of the device was demonstrated using three target sets: the sex-typing gene Amelogenin, co-amplification of the β-globin and gelsolin genes, and the amplification of 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci plus Amelogenin. The use of the integrated microdevice was expanded to the analysis of liquid blood samples which, when incubated with the DNA liberation reagents, form a brown precipitate that inhibits PCR. A simple centrifugation of the integrated microchips (on a custom centrifuge), mobilized the precipitate away from the microchannel entrance, improving amplification of the β-globin and gelsolin gene fragments by ~6-fold. This plastic integrated microdevice represents a microfluidic platform with potential for evolution into point-of-care prototypes for application to both clinical and forensic analyses, providing a 5-fold reduction from conventional analysis time. PMID:23389252

  5. 75 FR 75655 - Periodic Reporting Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... 39 CFR Part 3055 Periodic Reporting Rules AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of... rules concerning service performance for First-Class Mail Flats at the District level or, in the... performance measurement for First-Class Mail Flats at the District level from the Commission's rules...

  6. Postpartum Early and Extended Contact: Quality, Quantity or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, John B.; Vietze, Peter M.

    This study examined the effects of early vs. extended mother-infant contact on infant, maternal and interactional outcomes in the lying-in period for 104 lower class mother-infant dyads. The early contact treatment consisted of placing the mother and neonate together for 10 to 45 minutes within the first 3 postpartum hours. The extended contact…

  7. Teaching Guide on International Terrorism: Definitions, Causes, and Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Inst. of Peace, Washington, DC.

    Dealing with terrorism has become the centerpiece of United States foreign policy today. Yet terrorism--its definition, causes, and methods of dealing with it--has rarely been dealt with in high school courses. The United States Institute of Peace has developed this 3-lesson plan (for 45-minute class periods) teaching guide, aimed at grades 11 and…

  8. Periodic Table Target: A Game that Introduces the Biological Significance of Chemical Element Periodicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevcik, Richard S.; McGinty, Ragan L.; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

    2008-01-01

    Periodic Table Target, a game for middle school or high school students, familiarizes students with the form of the periodic table and the biological significance of different elements. The Periodic Table Target game board is constructed as a class project, and the game is played to reinforce the content. Students are assigned several elements…

  9. Chiefs' Pocket Guide to Class Size: A Research Synthesis to Inform State Class Size Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Chief State School Officers, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Few questions in public education discourse benefit as much from research-based evidence as the question of class size--the pursuit of the ideal number of students that should be co-located for any particular period of instruction. But for policymakers, research on class size can be an embarrassment of riches, and much of the research appears to…

  10. Class Notes for "Class-Y-News."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Judy L.

    1991-01-01

    A self-contained class of students with mild to moderate disabilities published a monthly newsletter which was distributed to students' families. Students became involved in writing, typing, drawing, folding, basic editing, and disseminating. (JDD)

  11. Increasing Low-Responding Students' Participation in Class Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Lisa N.; Krohn, Katherine R.; McCleary, Daniel F.; Aspiranti, Kathleen B.; Nalls, Meagan L.; Quillivan, Colin C.; Taylor, Cora M.; Williams, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Students in six sections of a large undergraduate class were asked to record their class comments on notecards in all course units. Additionally, in some units, they received points toward their course grade based on their reported comments in class discussion. The study was conducted over a two-semester period, with slight variation in both the…

  12. Girls' Class, Infinite Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ost, Nancy

    1999-01-01

    The co-director of a small independent school describes Girls' Class, which she created in order to have a special time together with the girls in grades 6 through 8. The class provides guidance and celebrates spirituality and the beginning of menses for the young women. To end the class, each person says a positive self-affirmation and gives…

  13. First-Class Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesser, Kathi; Buck, Gayle; Dopp, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    In the activity described in this article, students will explore how variables in a first-class lever, specifically arm length, position of the fulcrum, and placement of the load, affect the effort needed to lift the load. To begin the lesson, demonstrate to the class how a first-class lever works and review what is meant by the terms fulcrum,…

  14. Using a Virtual Class to Demonstrate Computer-Mediated Group Dynamics Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Timothy M.; Vicker, Lauren A.

    2010-01-01

    We report about an active learning demonstration designed to use a virtual class to present computer-mediated group communication course concepts to show that students can learn about these concepts in a virtual class. We designated 1 class period as a virtual rather than face-to-face class, when class members "attended" virtually using…

  15. David's Understanding of Functions and Periodicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerson, Hope

    2008-01-01

    This is a study of David, a senior enrolled in a high school precalculus course. David's understandings of functions and periodicity was explored, through clinical interviews and contextualized through classroom observations. Although David's precalculus class was traditional his understanding of periodic functions was unconventional David engaged…

  16. 12 CFR 1075.106 - Allocating funds to classes of victims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the most recently concluded six-month period, of all victims in that class to whom it is practicable... classes of victims as follows: (1) Priority to classes of victims from the most recent six-month period... concluded six-month period, as determined under paragraph (b)(2) of this section. If funds remain...

  17. Class network routing

    DOEpatents

    Bhanot, Gyan; Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  18. Class and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Mechthild

    2005-01-01

    Everyone is dependent on caring labor. Because women's labor is financially beneficial to global capitalism, gender is inseparable from class, regardless of the specific national or cultural contexts.

  19. Online, Bigger Classes May Be Better Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Marc

    2010-01-01

    In his work as a professor, Stephen Downes used to feel that he was helping those who least needed it. His students at places like the University of Alberta already had a leg up in life and could afford the tuition. When a colleague suggested they co-teach an online class in learning theory at the University of Manitoba, in 2008, Downes welcomed…

  20. Limits to Open Class Performance?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the limits to open class performance. The contents include: 1) Standard Class; 2) 15m/Racing Class; 3) Open Class; and 4) Design Solutions associated with assumptions, limiting parameters, airfoil performance, current trends, and analysis.

  1. Class Scheduling Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Irving E.; And Others

    In order to ascertain students' preferences for the number of times a class should meet each week, 375 questionnaires administered to students during the 1989 summer session at Cuyahoga Community College, Western Campus (Ohio) were evaluated. Results indicated that 49% of respondents preferred classes meeting twice each week, and 29% preferred…

  2. Bayesian Hierarchical Classes Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenen, Iwin; Van Mechelen, Iven; Gelman, Andrew; De Knop, Stijn

    2008-01-01

    Hierarchical classes models are models for "N"-way "N"-mode data that represent the association among the "N" modes and simultaneously yield, for each mode, a hierarchical classification of its elements. In this paper we present a stochastic extension of the hierarchical classes model for two-way two-mode binary data. In line with the original…

  3. The Question of Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorski, Paul C.

    2007-01-01

    For too long, educators' approach to understanding the relationships between poverty, class and education has been framed by studying the behaviors and cultures of poor students and their families. If only we--in the middle and upper-middle classes--can understand "their" culture, why "those people" don't value education, why "those parents" don't…

  4. The Question of Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorski, Paul C.

    2007-01-01

    For too long, educators' approach to understanding the relationships between poverty, class and education has been framed by studying the behaviors and cultures of poor students and their families. If only people--in the middle and upper-middle classes--can understand "their" culture, why "those people" do not value education, why "those parents"…

  5. The Last Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhl, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    The last class of the semester is like a goodbye. It can be cold and perfunctory or warm and heartfelt. For many years, I erred on the side of "cold and perfunctory." No more. Now my last classes are a time of celebration and ritual as I invite students to focus on qualities such as acceptance and gratitude.

  6. The Class Size Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishel, Lawrence, Ed.; Rothstein, Richard, Ed.

    This collection of papers debates the merits of smaller class sizes and research methods used to evaluate the efficacy of this education reform measure. Four chapters focus on (1) "Understanding the Magnitude and Effect of Class Size on Student Achievement" (Alan B. Krueger), which discusses expenditures per student and economic criterion; (2)…

  7. Teaching Large Evening Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wambuguh, Oscar

    2008-01-01

    High enrollments, conflicting student work schedules, and the sheer convenience of once-a-week classes are pushing many colleges to schedule evening courses. Held from 6 to 9 pm or 7 to 10 pm, these classes are typically packed, sometimes with more than 150 students in a large lecture theater. How can faculty effectively teach, control, or even…

  8. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  9. Teaching Social Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tablante, Courtney B.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2015-01-01

    Discussing socioeconomic status in college classes can be challenging. Both teachers and students feel uncomfortable, yet social class matters more than ever. This is especially true, given increased income inequality in the United States and indications that higher education does not reduce this inequality as much as many people hope. Resources…

  10. McIntosh active-region class similarities and suggestions for mergers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bornmann, P. L.; Kalmbach, D.; Kulhanek, D.

    1994-01-01

    McIntosh active-region classifications reported during a five-year period were examined to determine similarities among the classes. Two methods were used extensively to determine these similarities. The number of transitions among classes were used to determine the most frequent transitions out of each class, and the alternative classes reported for the same region by different sites were used to establish which classes were neighboring classes. These transition frequencies and neighboring classes were used to identify classes that could be eliminated or merged with other classes. Class similarities were used to investigate the relative importance of several pairs of decisions that occur within a single McIntosh parameter. In particular, the redundancy of parameters in some classes was examined, and the class similarities were used to identify which of these parameters could be eliminated. Infrequently reported classes were also considered, and suggestions for mergers were made when similarities between classes could be identified.

  11. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R.; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors. PMID:26365061

  12. Class 1 integron in staphylococci

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhenbo; Li, Lin; Shi, Lei

    2011-01-01

    As a major concern in public health, methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) still remains one of the most prevalent pathogens that cause nosocomial infections throughout the world and has been recently labeled as a “super bug” in antibiotic resistance. Thus, surveillance and investigation on antibiotic resistance mechanisms involved in clinical MRS strains may raise urgent necessity and utmost significance. As a novel antibiotic resistance mechanism, class 1 integron has been identified as a primary source of antimicrobial resistance genes in Gram-negative organisms. However, most available studies on integrons had been limited within Gram-negative microbes, little is known for clinical Gram-positive bacteria. Based on series studies of systematic integrons investigation in hundreds of staphylococci strains during 2001–2006, this review concentrated on the latest development of class 1 integron in MRS isolates, including summary of prevalence and occurrence of class 1 integron, analysis of correlation between integron and antibiotic resistance, further demonstration of the role integrons play as antibiotic determinants, as well as origin and evolution of integron-associated gene cassettes during this study period. PMID:21258866

  13. 47 CFR 73.25 - Clear channels; Class A, Class B and Class D stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Clear channels; Class A, Class B and Class D stations. 73.25 Section 73.25 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.25 Clear channels; Class A, Class B and Class D stations. The frequencies in...

  14. 47 CFR 73.25 - Clear channels; Class A, Class B and Class D stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clear channels; Class A, Class B and Class D stations. 73.25 Section 73.25 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.25 Clear channels; Class A, Class B and Class D stations. The frequencies in...

  15. 47 CFR 73.25 - Clear channels; Class A, Class B and Class D stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Clear channels; Class A, Class B and Class D stations. 73.25 Section 73.25 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.25 Clear channels; Class A, Class B and Class D stations. The frequencies in...

  16. 47 CFR 73.25 - Clear channels; Class A, Class B and Class D stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Clear channels; Class A, Class B and Class D stations. 73.25 Section 73.25 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.25 Clear channels; Class A, Class B and Class D stations. The frequencies in...

  17. 47 CFR 73.25 - Clear channels; Class A, Class B and Class D stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Clear channels; Class A, Class B and Class D stations. 73.25 Section 73.25 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.25 Clear channels; Class A, Class B and Class D stations. The frequencies in...

  18. Active Learning in American History Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Janice

    1996-01-01

    Describes the activities of a high school class that discovered the joy of history through experiential learning. Students learned traditional military tactics for their unit on the French and Indian Wars, and tried to apply them to a nearby woods. Includes similar activities for other historic periods. (MJP)

  19. Social Class Dialogues and the Fostering of Class Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    How do critical pedagogies promote undergraduate students' awareness of social class, social class identity, and social class inequalities in education? How do undergraduate students experience class consciousness-raising in the intergroup dialogue classroom? This qualitative study explores undergraduate students' class consciousness-raising in an…

  20. Familial Periodic Paralyses

    MedlinePlus

    ... NINDS NINDS Familial Periodic Paralyses Information Page Synonym(s): Periodic Paralyses Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What are Familial Periodic Paralyses? Is there any treatment? What is the ...

  1. Teaching Heterogeneous Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millrood, Radislav

    2002-01-01

    Discusses an approach to teaching heterogeneous English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language classes. Draws on classroom research data to describe the features of a success-building lesson context. (Author/VWL)

  2. Universality classes of inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Roest, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    We investigate all single-field, slow-roll inflationary models whose slow-roll parameters scale as 1/N in the limit of a large number of e-folds N. We proof that all such models belong to two universality classes, characterised by a single parameter. One class contains small field models like hilltop inflation, while the other class consists of large field models like chaotic inflation. We give the leading expressions for the spectral index and tensor-to-scalar ratio r, which are universal for each class, plus subleading corrections for a number of models. This predicts r either to be unobservably small, r < 0.01, or close to the present observational limit, r ≈ 0.07.

  3. Aerobic Conditioning Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Neil R.

    1980-01-01

    An aerobic exercise class that focuses on the conditioning of the cardiovascular and muscular systems is presented. Students complete data cards on heart rate, pulse, and exercises to be completed during the forty minute course. (CJ)

  4. Almost periodic solutions for Lotka-Volterra systems with delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yanlai; Li, Lijie; Chen, Lansun

    2009-09-01

    This paper studies a general class of delayed almost periodic Lotka-Volterra system with time-varying delays and distributed delays. By using the definition of almost periodic function, the sufficient conditions for the existence and uniqueness of globally exponentially stable almost periodic solution are obtained. The conditions can be easily reduced to special cases of cooperative systems and competitive systems.

  5. theories of class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaiotto, Davide; Razamat, Shlomo S.

    2015-07-01

    We construct classes of superconformal theories elements of which are labeled by punctured Riemann surfaces. Degenerations of the surfaces correspond, in some cases, to weak coupling limits. Different classes are labeled by two integers ( N, k). The k = 1 case coincides with A N - 1 theories of class and simple examples of theories with k > 1 are orbifolds of some of the A N - 1 class theories. For the space of theories to be complete in an appropriate sense we find it necessary to conjecture existence of new strongly coupled SCFTs. These SCFTs when coupled to additional matter can be related by dualities to gauge theories. We discuss in detail the A 1 case with k = 2 using the supersymmetric index as our analysis tool. The index of theories in classes with k > 1 can be constructed using eigenfunctions of elliptic quantum mechanical models generalizing the Ruijsenaars-Schneider integrable model. When the elliptic curve of the model degenerates these eigenfunctions become polynomials with coefficients being algebraic expressions in fugacities, generalizing the Macdonald polynomials with rational coefficients appearing when k = 1.

  6. Lightcurve Analysis of Five Taxonomic A-class Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Michael P.; Ryan, Jeffrey G.; Fauerbach, Michael; Grasso, Salvatore

    2011-10-01

    We report lightcurve rotational periods for five taxonomic A-class asteroids observed at the Evelyn L. Egan Observatory: 246 Asporina, 289 Nenetta, 446 Aeternitas, 1600 Vyssotsky, and the Mars-crosser 1951 Lick.

  7. Between School and Work: Perspectives of Working Class Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskell, Jane; Lazerson, Marvin

    1980-01-01

    This study is based on data gathered from previous studies concerning the transition period between school and work for adolescents. A group of working class youth is followed from school to their first jobs. (JN)

  8. Punk and Middle-Class Values: A Content Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamy, Philip; Levin, Jack

    1985-01-01

    Compares periodical articles representing the "Punk" movement with articles from the "Reader's Digest" and the 1960s hippie movement. Concludes that the punk movement is more expressive and less instrumental than its middle-class counterpart. (KH)

  9. The estimates of approximations classes in the Lorentz space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akishev, Gabdolla

    2015-09-01

    Exact order estimates are obtained for the best orthogonal trigonometric approximations of the Nikol'skii-Besov classes of periodic functions of many variables in the Lorentz space with the mixed norm.

  10. Nonproliferation Graduate Fellowship Program, Annual Report, Class of 2012

    SciTech Connect

    McMakin, Andrea H.

    2013-09-23

    This 32-pp annual report/brochure describes the accomplishments of the Class of 2012 of the Nonproliferation Graduate Fellowship Program (the last class of this program), which PNNL administers for the National Nuclear Security Administration. The time period covers Sept 2011 through June 2013.

  11. Class Attendance and Performance in Principles of Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohn, Elchanan; Johnson, Eric

    2006-01-01

    A sample of 347 students, enrolled in principles of economics classes during the period 1997-2001, is used to examine the relation between class attendance and student performance on examinations. Among the questions examined are: Is attendance related to performance, with and without controls for other factors? Do only substantial levels of…

  12. 39 CFR 3055.45 - First-Class Mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false First-Class Mail. 3055.45 Section 3055.45 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.45 First-Class Mail. (a) Single-Piece...

  13. 39 CFR 3055.45 - First-Class Mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false First-Class Mail. 3055.45 Section 3055.45 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.45 First-Class Mail. (a) Single-Piece...

  14. 39 CFR 3055.45 - First-Class Mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false First-Class Mail. 3055.45 Section 3055.45 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.45 First-Class Mail. (a) Single-Piece...

  15. Features of target cell lysis by class I and class II MHC restricted cytolytic T lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Maimone, M.M.; Morrison, L.A.; Braciale, V.L.; Braciale, T.J.

    1986-12-01

    The lytic activity of influenza virus-specific muvine cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) clones that are restricted by either H-2K/D (class I) or H-2I (class II) major histocompatibility (MHC) locus products was compared on an influenza virus-infected target cell expressing both K/D and I locus products. With the use of two in vitro measurements of cytotoxicity, conventional /sup 51/Cr release, and detergent-releasable radiolabeled DNA (as a measure of nuclear disintegration in the early post-lethal hit period), the authors found no difference between class I and class II MHC-restricted CTL in the kinetics of target cell destruction. In addition, class II MHC-restricted antiviral CTL failed to show any lysis of radiolabeled bystander cells. Killing of labeled specific targets by these class II MHC-restricted CTL was also efficiently inhibited by unlabeled specific competitor cells in a cold target inhibition assay. In sum, these data suggest that class I and class II MHC-restricted CTL mediate target cell destruction by an essentially similar direct mechanism.

  16. Diffraction Theory and Almost Periodic Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strungaru, Nicolae; Terauds, Venta

    2016-09-01

    We introduce and study the notions of translation bounded tempered distributions, and autocorrelation for a tempered distribution. We further introduce the spaces of weakly, strongly and null weakly almost periodic tempered distributions and show that for weakly almost periodic tempered distributions the Eberlein decomposition holds. For translation bounded measures all these notions coincide with the classical ones. We show that tempered distributions with measure Fourier transform are weakly almost periodic and that for this class, the Eberlein decomposition is exactly the Fourier dual of the Lebesgue decomposition, with the Fourier-Bohr coefficients specifying the pure point part of the Fourier transform. We complete the project by looking at few interesting examples.

  17. Microarrays for Undergraduate Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Dale; Nguyen, Lisa L.; Denyer, Gareth S.; Johnston, Jill M.

    2006-01-01

    A microarray experiment is presented that, in six laboratory sessions, takes undergraduate students from the tissue sample right through to data analysis. The model chosen, the murine erythroleukemia cell line, can be easily cultured in sufficient quantities for class use. Large changes in gene expression can be induced in these cells by…

  18. IQ and Social Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischbein, Siv

    1980-01-01

    Swedish longitudinal studies of twins support Scarr-Salapatek's explanation of nature-nurture influences on intelligence. This model predicts more genetic variance in test results for advantaged than disadvantaged groups. Jensen's work, however, suggests equal amounts of variance among different social classes. (Author/CP)

  19. Teaching Very Large Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRogatis, Amy; Honerkamp, Kenneth; McDaniel, Justin; Medine, Carolyn; Nyitray, Vivian-Lee; Pearson, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The editor of "Teaching Theology and Religion" facilitated this reflective conversation with five teachers who have extensive experience and success teaching extremely large classes (150 students or more). In the course of the conversation these professors exchange and analyze the effectiveness of several active learning strategies they…

  20. Vendler Classes and Reinterpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawamura, Michihiko

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the theoretical status of Vendler classes in grammar and utterance interpretation. In the 1950s Zeno Vendler outlined a taxonomy of verb classification which grouped verbs into four equal categories: (1) activity terms; (2) accomplishment terms; (3) achievement terms; and (4) state terms. Although Vendler's taxonomy still has…

  1. Coming out in Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinnon, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This article shares how the author explained her trans status to her students. Everyone has been extremely supportive of her decision to come out in class and to completely mask the male secondary-sex characteristics, especially in the workplace. The department chair and the faculty in general have been willing to do whatever they can to assist…

  2. Openers for Biology Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gridley, C. Robert R.

    This teaching guide contains 200 activities that are suitable for openers and demonstrations in biology classes. Details are provided regarding the use of these activities. Some of the broad topics under which the activities are organized include algae, amphibians, bacteria, biologists, crustaceans, dinosaurs, ecology, evolution, flowering plants,…

  3. Virtual Classes, Real Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beem, Kate

    2010-01-01

    As Internet technology encroached on the public school classroom about a decade ago, Kim Ross, superintendent of the Houston School District in Houston, Minnesota, saw an opportunity. At first, he and his administrative team simply wanted to offer students in the district of 1,300 access to more classes via the web than what a district that size…

  4. Financing Class Size Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achilles, C. M.

    2005-01-01

    Class size reduction has been shown to, among other things, improve academic achievement for all students and particularly for low-income and minority students. With the No Child Left Behind Act's heavy emphasis on scientifically based research, adequate yearly progress, and disaggregated results, one wonders why all children aren't enrolled in…

  5. The CLASS Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    The CLASS project is a series of investigations and projects designed by the National Wildlife Federation as supplementary materials for existing junior high school environmental curricula. This notebook contains nine different sections: an introduction, six content areas, a series of case studies, and a resource bibliography. The six content…

  6. Period meter for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K.

    1976-01-06

    An improved log N amplifier type nuclear reactor period meter with reduced probability for noise-induced scrams is provided. With the reactor at low power levels a sampling circuit is provided to determine the reactor period by measuring the finite change in the amplitude of the log N amplifier output signal for a predetermined time period, while at high power levels, differentiation of the log N amplifier output signal provides an additional measure of the reactor period.

  7. The Periodic Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2013-01-01

    The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy…

  8. Bounded Correctors in Almost Periodic Homogenization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Scott; Gloria, Antoine; Kuusi, Tuomo

    2016-05-01

    We show that certain linear elliptic equations (and systems) in divergence form with almost periodic coefficients have bounded, almost periodic correctors. This is proved under a new condition we introduce which quantifies the almost periodic assumption and includes (but is not restricted to) the class of smooth, quasiperiodic coefficient fields which satisfy a Diophantine-type condition previously considered by uc(Kozlov) (Mat Sb (N.S), 107(149):199-217, 1978). The proof is based on a quantitative ergodic theorem for almost periodic functions combined with the new regularity theory recently introduced by uc(Armstrong) and uc(Shen) (Pure Appl Math, 2016) for equations with almost periodic coefficients. This yields control on spatial averages of the gradient of the corrector, which is converted into estimates on the size of the corrector itself via a multiscale Poincaré-type inequality.

  9. Flame propagation through periodic vortices

    SciTech Connect

    Dold, J.W.; Kerr, O.S.; Nikolova, I.P.

    1995-02-01

    The discovery of a new class of Navier-Stokes solutions representing steady periodic stretched vortices offers a useful test-bed for examining interactions between flames and complex flow-fields. After briefly describing these vortex solutions and their wide-ranging parameterization in terms of wavelength and amplitude, this article examines their effect on flames of constant normal propagation speed as observed through numerical solutions of an eikonal equation. Over certain ranges of vortex amplitude and flame-speed, a corridor of enhanced flame passage is seen to be created as a leading flame-tip managers to leap-frog between successive vortices. However, for large enough amplitudes of vorticity or small enough flame-speeds, the flame fails to be able to benefit from the advection due to the vortices. It is shown that the leading tips of such flames are effectively trapped by the stretched vortices.

  10. New classes of Wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Manchanda, P.; Meenakshi

    2009-07-02

    Recently Manchanda, Meenakshi and Siddiqi have studied Haar-Vilenkin wavelet and a special type of non-uniform multiresolution analysis. Haar-Vilenkin wavelet is a generalization of Haar wavelet. Motivated by the paper of Gabardo and Nashed we have introduced a class of multiresolution analysis extending the concept of classical multiresolution analysis. We present here a resume of these results. We hope that applications of these concepts to some significant real world problems could be found.

  11. Advanced Jones calculus for the classification of periodic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, Christoph; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Lederer, Falk

    2010-11-01

    By relying on an advanced Jones calculus, we analyze the polarization properties of light upon propagation through metamaterial slabs in a comprehensive manner. Based on symmetry considerations, we show that all periodic metamaterials may be divided into five different classes only. It is shown that each class differently affects the polarization of the transmitted light and sustains different eigenmodes. We show how to deduce these five classes from symmetry considerations and provide a simple algorithm that can be applied to decide to which class a given metamaterial belongs by measuring only the transmitted intensities.

  12. Advanced Jones calculus for the classification of periodic metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, Christoph; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Lederer, Falk

    2010-11-15

    By relying on an advanced Jones calculus, we analyze the polarization properties of light upon propagation through metamaterial slabs in a comprehensive manner. Based on symmetry considerations, we show that all periodic metamaterials may be divided into five different classes only. It is shown that each class differently affects the polarization of the transmitted light and sustains different eigenmodes. We show how to deduce these five classes from symmetry considerations and provide a simple algorithm that can be applied to decide to which class a given metamaterial belongs by measuring only the transmitted intensities.

  13. The "Why's" of Class Size: Student Behavior in Small Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Jeremy D.; Pannozzo, Gina M.; Achilles, Charles M.

    2003-01-01

    Small classes in the elementary grades have been shown to boost students' academic performance. However, researchers continue to seek a consistent, integrated explanation of "why" small classes have positive effects. This article forwards the hypothesis that when class sizes are reduced, major changes occur in students' engagement in the…

  14. Topological characterization of periodically driven quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitagawa, Takuya; Berg, Erez; Rudner, Mark; Demler, Eugene

    2010-12-01

    Topological properties of physical systems can lead to robust behaviors that are insensitive to microscopic details. Such topologically robust phenomena are not limited to static systems but can also appear in driven quantum systems. In this paper, we show that the Floquet operators of periodically driven systems can be divided into topologically distinct (homotopy) classes and give a simple physical interpretation of this classification in terms of the spectra of Floquet operators. Using this picture, we provide an intuitive understanding of the well-known phenomenon of quantized adiabatic pumping. Systems whose Floquet operators belong to the trivial class simulate the dynamics generated by time-independent Hamiltonians, which can be topologically classified according to the schemes developed for static systems. We demonstrate these principles through an example of a periodically driven two-dimensional hexagonal lattice tight-binding model which exhibits several topological phases. Remarkably, one of these phases supports chiral edge modes even though the bulk is topologically trivial.

  15. Automated Periodical Reference Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellefsen, David

    1985-01-01

    Describes public library reference service which allows patrons to type out search instructions on a computer terminal, review and select references, and receive, by high-speed printer, facsimile copy of selected periodical articles. Development of periodicals center at main county library and use of self-coaching SEARCH HELPER system are…

  16. The Living Periodic Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  17. The Class of '34

    PubMed Central

    Cairney, Richard

    1995-01-01

    The Great Depression raged, governments were beleaguered, the unemployment rate stood at 30%, scurvy stalked the poor and no one was immune to contagious diseases such as scarlet fever, polio and measles when the University of Alberta School of Medicine's Class of '34 graduated. For four alumni who recently gathered in Edmonton—Drs. Morley Hodgson, Melvin Gaudin, John McLurg and Edmund Cairns—their 60th-anniversary reunion was a time to recall the changes they have witnessed in medicine, including the arrival of antibiotic drugs and the medicare system. Imagesp558-a

  18. A Touch of...Class!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lentz, Francois

    1990-01-01

    Class activities for French native and second-language immersion classes using the souvenir program of a 1988 Manitoba travel festival are outlined. Activities involve global manipulation of the document and specific uses for information seeking and information manipulation. (MSE)

  19. Almost periodic solutions to difference equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayliss, A.

    1975-01-01

    The theory of Massera and Schaeffer relating the existence of unique almost periodic solutions of an inhomogeneous linear equation to an exponential dichotomy for the homogeneous equation was completely extended to discretizations by a strongly stable difference scheme. In addition it is shown that the almost periodic sequence solution will converge to the differential equation solution. The preceding theory was applied to a class of exponentially stable partial differential equations to which one can apply the Hille-Yoshida theorem. It is possible to prove the existence of unique almost periodic solutions of the inhomogeneous equation (which can be approximated by almost periodic sequences) which are the solutions to appropriate discretizations. Two methods of discretizations are discussed: the strongly stable scheme and the Lax-Wendroff scheme.

  20. Wavelet periodicity detection algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetto, John J.; Pfander, Goetz E.

    1998-10-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of time series with respect to certain known periodicities. In particular, we shall present a fast method aimed at detecting periodic behavior inherent in noise data. The method is composed of three steps: (1) Non-noisy data are analyzed through spectral and wavelet methods to extract specific periodic patterns of interest. (2) Using these patterns, we construct an optimal piecewise constant wavelet designed to detect the underlying periodicities. (3) We introduce a fast discretized version of the continuous wavelet transform, as well as waveletgram averaging techniques, to detect occurrence and period of these periodicities. The algorithm is formulated to provide real time implementation. Our procedure is generally applicable to detect locally periodic components in signals s which can be modeled as s(t) equals A(t)F(h(t)) + N(t) for t in I, where F is a periodic signal, A is a non-negative slowly varying function, and h is strictly increasing with h' slowly varying, N denotes background activity. For example, the method can be applied in the context of epileptic seizure detection. In this case, we try to detect seizure periodics in EEG and ECoG data. In the case of ECoG data, N is essentially 1/f noise. In the case of EEG data and for t in I,N includes noise due to cranial geometry and densities. In both cases N also includes standard low frequency rhythms. Periodicity detection has other applications including ocean wave prediction, cockpit motion sickness prediction, and minefield detection.

  1. The three latent classes of adolescent delinquency and the risk factors for membership in each class.

    PubMed

    Hasking, Penelope Anne; Scheier, Lawrence M; Abdallah, Arbi Ben

    2011-01-01

    This study used latent class analysis to examine subpopulation membership based on self-reports of delinquent behaviors obtained from Australian youth. Three discrete identifiable classes were derived based on 51 indicators of physical violence, property damage, minor infractions, drug use, and social delinquency. One class of youth engaged in primarily rule breaking and norm violations including underage alcohol use, typical of this age period. A second class was more actively delinquent emphasizing drug use, trespassing, and various forms of disobedience. A third class of highly delinquent youth differed from their counterparts by endorsing drug use, thievery that involved stealing money, goods, and cars, property damage, gambling, precocious sexual experiences, involvement with pornographic materials, and fighting. Multinomial logistic regression predicting class membership indicated highly delinquent youth were more likely to be older males, use venting coping strategies, and be fun or novelty seeking compared with rule breakers. Findings are discussed in terms of refining current taxonomic arguments regarding the structure of delinquency and implications for prevention of early-stage antisocial behavior. PMID:20922769

  2. Periods of activity cycles in late-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kliorin, N. I.; Ruzmaykin, A. A.; Sokolov, D. D.

    1983-01-01

    The mean magnetic field dynamo theory is utilized to obtain the qualitative dependence of the period of activity on the angular velocity of rotation for stars with sufficiently extensive convective shells. The dependence of the cycle period on the spectral class is also discussed.

  3. Trends in Class Identification among Black Americans from 1952 to 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Lynn Weber

    1984-01-01

    Throughout the post-World War II period, Black people had clearly perceived class divisions. Study results indicated that objective status and class improvements for many Blacks from 1952 to 1978 more than doubled the percentage who identified themselves as middle-class--from 10 percent in 1952 to 22 percent in 1978. (Author/RM)

  4. Disadvantaged Students in the Early Grades: Will Smaller Classes Help Them?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaag Iversen, Jon Marius; Bonesrønning, Hans

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses data from the Norwegian elementary school to test whether students from disadvantaged backgrounds benefit from smaller classes. The data cover one cohort of fourth graders who have been treated in small versus large classes for a period of three years. The Norwegian class size rule of maximum 28 students is used to generate…

  5. Multimethod latent class analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nussbeck, Fridtjof W.; Eid, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Correct and, hence, valid classifications of individuals are of high importance in the social sciences as these classifications are the basis for diagnoses and/or the assignment to a treatment. The via regia to inspect the validity of psychological ratings is the multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) approach. First, a latent variable model for the analysis of rater agreement (latent rater agreement model) will be presented that allows for the analysis of convergent validity between different measurement approaches (e.g., raters). Models of rater agreement are transferred to the level of latent variables. Second, the latent rater agreement model will be extended to a more informative MTMM latent class model. This model allows for estimating (i) the convergence of ratings, (ii) method biases in terms of differential latent distributions of raters and differential associations of categorizations within raters (specific rater bias), and (iii) the distinguishability of categories indicating if categories are satisfyingly distinct from each other. Finally, an empirical application is presented to exemplify the interpretation of the MTMM latent class model. PMID:26441714

  6. Team Learning in Large Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Information and suggestions are provided on the use of team learning in large college classes. Introductory material discusses the negative cycle of student-teacher interaction that may be provoked by large classes, and the use of permanent, heterogeneous, six- or seven-member student learning groups as the central focus of class activity as a…

  7. Teachers, Social Class and Underachievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, Mairead; Gazeley, Louise

    2008-01-01

    Addressing the "the social class attainment gap" in education has become a government priority in England. Despite multiple initiatives, however, little has effectively addressed the underachievement of working-class pupils within the classroom. In order to develop clearer understandings of working-class underachievement at this level, this small…

  8. Periodized Daubechies wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.; Schlossnagle, G.

    1996-03-01

    The properties of periodized Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrated by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of periodized wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and their use ius illustrated in the approximation of two commonly used differential operators. The periodization of the connection coefficients in Galerkin schemes is presented in detail.

  9. Genealogy of periodic trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    de Adguiar, M.A.M.; Maldta, C.P.; de Passos, E.J.V.

    1986-05-20

    The periodic solutions of non-integrable classical Hamiltonian systems with two degrees of freedom are numerically investigated. Curves of periodic families are given in plots of energy vs. period. Results are presented for this Hamiltonian: H = 1/2(p/sub x//sup 2/ + p/sub y//sup 2/) + 1/2 x/sup 2/ + 3/2 y/sup 2/ - x/sup 2/y + 1/12 x/sup 4/. Properties of the families of curves are pointed out. (LEW)

  10. A Model Chemistry Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerlin, Lee; Borgford, Christie

    1989-01-01

    Described is an activity which uses a 96-well reaction plate and soda straws to construct a model of the periodic table of the elements. The model illustrates the ionization energies of the various elements. Construction of the model and related concepts are discussed. (CW)

  11. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... that may be due to this condition include: Kidney stones (a side effect of acetazolamide) Irregular heartbeat during ... 2016:chap 99. Read More Breathing difficulty Carbohydrates Kidney stones Potassium test Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis Weakness Update Date ...

  12. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... high levels of thyroid hormone in their blood ( hyperthyroidism , thyrotoxicosis). Causes This is a rare condition that ... include a family history of periodic paralysis and hyperthyroidism. Symptoms Symptoms involve attacks of muscle weakness or ...

  13. Vaginal bleeding between periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003156.htm Vaginal bleeding between periods To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. This article discusses vaginal bleeding that occurs between a woman's monthly menstrual ...

  14. Painful periods (dysmenorrhea) (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be caused by abnormal conditions such as endometriosis or pelvic inflammatory disease. Unless one of these potentially serious conditions is present, the treatment for painful periods is pain relief. If a ...

  15. Your First Period

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe asthma). Always follow the directions on the bottle about how much to take. Exercise. Place a ... days. Glossary Amenorrhea: The absence of menstrual periods. Egg: The female reproductive cell produced in and released ...

  16. Setting the Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  17. The Periodic Table CD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  18. Painful periods (dysmenorrhea) (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Primary dysmenorrhea is a normal cramping of the lower abdomen caused by hormone-induced uterine contractions before the period. Secondary dysmenorrhea may be caused by abnormal conditions such as ...

  19. Class Differences in Cohabitation Processes

    PubMed Central

    Sassler, Sharon; Miller, Amanda J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the burgeoning cohabitation literature, research has failed to examine social class variation in processes of forming and advancing such unions. Drawing upon in-depth interviews with 122 working- and middle-class cohabitors, we examine the duration between dating and moving in together, reasons for cohabiting, and subsequent plans. Transitions to cohabitation are more rapid among the working class. Respondents often cohabited for practical reasons—out of financial necessity, because it was convenient, or to meet a housing need. Regardless of social class status, few couples move in together as a “trial marriage.” Nonetheless, middle-class cohabitors were more likely to have become engaged than their working-class counterparts. Our findings indicate the need to reassess common beliefs regarding the role served by cohabitation and suggest that cohabitation has become another location where family outcomes are diverging by social class. PMID:23504506

  20. Pseudo Class III malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hummayani, Fadia M.

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of deep anterior crossbite is technically challenging due to the difficulty of placing traditional brackets with fixed appliances. This case report represents a none traditional treatment modality to treat deep anterior crossbite in an adult pseudo class III malocclusion complicated by severely retruded, supraerupted upper and lower incisors. Treatment was carried out in 2 phases. Phase I treatment was performed by removable appliance “modified Hawley appliance with inverted labial bow,” some modifications were carried out to it to suit the presented case. Positive overbite and overjet was accomplished in one month, in this phase with minimal forces exerted on the lower incisors. Whereas, phase II treatment was performed with fixed appliances (braces) to align teeth and have proper over bite and overjet and to close posterior open bite, this phase was accomplished within 11 month. PMID:27052290

  1. Network Class Superposition Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Carl A. B.; Zeng, Chen; Simha, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    Networks are often used to understand a whole system by modeling the interactions among its pieces. Examples include biomolecules in a cell interacting to provide some primary function, or species in an environment forming a stable community. However, these interactions are often unknown; instead, the pieces' dynamic states are known, and network structure must be inferred. Because observed function may be explained by many different networks (e.g., for the yeast cell cycle process [1]), considering dynamics beyond this primary function means picking a single network or suitable sample: measuring over all networks exhibiting the primary function is computationally infeasible. We circumvent that obstacle by calculating the network class ensemble. We represent the ensemble by a stochastic matrix , which is a transition-by-transition superposition of the system dynamics for each member of the class. We present concrete results for derived from Boolean time series dynamics on networks obeying the Strong Inhibition rule, by applying to several traditional questions about network dynamics. We show that the distribution of the number of point attractors can be accurately estimated with . We show how to generate Derrida plots based on . We show that -based Shannon entropy outperforms other methods at selecting experiments to further narrow the network structure. We also outline an experimental test of predictions based on . We motivate all of these results in terms of a popular molecular biology Boolean network model for the yeast cell cycle, but the methods and analyses we introduce are general. We conclude with open questions for , for example, application to other models, computational considerations when scaling up to larger systems, and other potential analyses. PMID:23565141

  2. Spectral energy distribution analysis of class I and class II FU Orionis stars

    SciTech Connect

    Gramajo, Luciana V.; Gómez, Mercedes; Rodón, Javier A. E-mail: mercedes@oac.uncor.edu

    2014-06-01

    FU Orionis stars (FUors) are eruptive pre-main sequence objects thought to represent quasi-periodic or recurring stages of enhanced accretion during the low-mass star-forming process. We characterize the sample of known and candidate FUors in a homogeneous and consistent way, deriving stellar and circumstellar parameters for each object. We emphasize the analysis in those parameters that are supposed to vary during the FUor stage. We modeled the spectral energy distributions of 24 of the 26 currently known FUors, using the radiative transfer code of Whitney et al. We compare our models with those obtained by Robitaille et al. for Taurus class II and I sources in quiescence periods by calculating the cumulative distribution of the different parameters. FUors have more massive disks: we find that ∼80% of the disks in FUors are more massive than any Taurus class II and I sources in the sample. Median values for the disk mass accretion rates are ∼10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} versus ∼10{sup –5} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} for standard young stellar objects (YSOs) and FUors, respectively. While the distributions of envelope mass accretion rates for class I FUors and standard class I objects are similar, FUors, on average, have higher envelope mass accretion rates than standard class II and class I sources. Most FUors (∼70%) have envelope mass accretion rates above 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. In contrast, 60% of the classical YSO sample has an accretion rate below this value. Our results support the current scenario in which changes experimented by the circumstellar disk explain the observed properties of these stars. However, the increase in the disk mass accretion rate is smaller than theoretically predicted, although in good agreement with previous determinations.

  3. Archaebacterial class I and class II aldolases from extreme halophiles.

    PubMed

    Altekar, W; Dhar, N M

    1988-01-01

    Both, class I (Schiff-base forming) and class II (metal requiring) fructose biphosphate aldolases were found to be distributed among halophilic archaebacteria. The aldolase activity from Halobacteriium halobium, H. salinarium, H. cutirubrum, H. mediterranei and H. volcanii exhibited properties of a bacterial class II aldolase as it was metal-dependent for activity and therefore inhibited by EDTA. In contrast, aldolase from H. saccharovorum, Halobacterium R-113, H. vallismortis and Halobacterium CH-1 formed a Schiff-base intermediate with the substrate and therefore resembled to eukaryotic class I type. The type of aldolase did not vary by changes in the growth medium. PMID:11536602

  4. Archaebacterial class I and class II aldolases from extreme halophiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alterkar, Wijaya; Dhar, Nenoo M.

    1988-03-01

    Both, class I (Schiff-base forming) and class II (metal requiring) fructose biphosphate aldolases were found to be distributed among halophilic archaebacteria. The aldolase activity fromHalobacterium halobium, H. salinarium, H. cutirubrum, H. mediterranei andH. volcanii exhibited properties of a bacterial class II aldolase as it was metal-dependent for activity and therefore inhibited by EDTA. In contrast, aldolase fromH. saccharovorum, Halobacterium R-113, H. vallismortis andHalobacterium CH-1 formed a Schiff-base intermediate with the substrate and therefore resembled to eukaryotic class I type. The type of aldolase did not vary by changes in the growth medium.

  5. Quasi-Periodic Bifurcations of Higher-Dimensional Tori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komuro, Motomasa; Kamiyama, Kyohei; Endo, Tetsuro; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2016-06-01

    We classify the local bifurcations of quasi-periodic d-dimensional tori in maps (abbr. MTd) and in flows (abbr. FTd) for d ≥ 1. It is convenient to classify these bifurcations into normal bifurcations and resonance bifurcations. Normal bifurcations of MTd can be classified into four classes: namely, saddle-node, period doubling, double covering, and Neimark-Sacker bifurcations. Furthermore, normal bifurcations of FTd can be classified into three classes: saddle-node, double covering, and Neimark-Sacker bifurcations. These bifurcations are determined by the type of the dominant Lyapunov bundle. Resonance bifurcations are well known as phase locking of quasi-periodic solutions. These bifurcations are classified into two classes for both MTd and FTd: namely, saddle-node cycle and heteroclinic cycle bifurcations of the (d ‑ 1)-dimensional tori. The former is reversible, while the latter is irreversible. In addition, we propose a method for analyzing higher-dimensional tori, which uses one-dimensional tori in sections (abbr. ST1) and zero-dimensional tori in sections (abbr. ST0). The bifurcations of ST1 can be classified into five classes: saddle-node, period doubling, component doubling, double covering, and Neimark-Sacker bifurcations. The bifurcations of ST0 can be classified into four classes: saddle-node, period doubling, component doubling, and Neimark-Sacker bifurcations. Furthermore, we clarify the relationship between the bifurcations of ST1/ST0 and the bifurcations of MTd/FTd. We present examples of all of these bifurcations.

  6. Latent class instrumental variables: a clinical and biostatistical perspective.

    PubMed

    Baker, Stuart G; Kramer, Barnett S; Lindeman, Karen S

    2016-01-15

    In some two-arm randomized trials, some participants receive the treatment assigned to the other arm as a result of technical problems, refusal of a treatment invitation, or a choice of treatment in an encouragement design. In some before-and-after studies, the availability of a new treatment changes from one time period to this next. Under assumptions that are often reasonable, the latent class instrumental variable (IV) method estimates the effect of treatment received in the aforementioned scenarios involving all-or-none compliance and all-or-none availability. Key aspects are four initial latent classes (sometimes called principal strata) based on treatment received if in each randomization group or time period, the exclusion restriction assumption (in which randomization group or time period is an instrumental variable), the monotonicity assumption (which drops an implausible latent class from the analysis), and the estimated effect of receiving treatment in one latent class (sometimes called efficacy, the local average treatment effect, or the complier average causal effect). Since its independent formulations in the biostatistics and econometrics literatures, the latent class IV method (which has no well-established name) has gained increasing popularity. We review the latent class IV method from a clinical and biostatistical perspective, focusing on underlying assumptions, methodological extensions, and applications in our fields of obstetrics and cancer research. PMID:26239275

  7. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Rojith Karanode; Chandran, Suresh Rama; Thirumalnesan, Geetha; Doraisamy, Nedumaran

    2011-07-01

    This article aims at highlighting the importance of suspecting thyrotoxicosis in cases of recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis; especially in Asian men to facilitate early diagnosis of the former condition. A case report of a 28 year old male patient with recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis has been presented. Hypokalemia secondary to thyrotoxicosis was diagnosed as the cause of the paralysis. The patient was given oral potassium intervention over 24 hours. The patient showed complete recovery after the medical intervention and was discharged after 24 hours with no residual paralysis. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is a complication of thyrotoxicosis, more common amongst males in Asia. It presents as acute flaccid paralysis in a case of hyperthyroidism with associated hypokalemia. The features of thyrotoxicosis may be subtle or absent. Thus, in cases of recurrent or acute flaccid muscle paralysis, it is important to consider thyrotoxicosis as one of the possible causes, and take measures accordingly. PMID:21966655

  8. [Periodic abstinence: its possibilities].

    PubMed

    1981-05-01

    Experience with family planning mehods requiring periodic sexual abstinence has been varied. During the last decade interest has centered on 2 methods, the cervical mucus and the sympto-thermal, which are based on identifying the onset of the fertile period. During the 1970s, the Australian physicians John and Evelyn Billings developed the cervical mucus method, in which changes in the quanitity and characteristics of cervical mucus are used to determine the moment of ovulation. The sympto-thermal method depends on identification of the slight rise in basal body temperature that occurs in the latter part of the menstrual cycle as well as cervical mucus changes and sometimes the calendar to determine the fertile period. The Catholic Church has been the main proponent of periodic abstinence methods, but since 1973 the World Health Organization has invested US$3.3 million on research in such methods. The Billings method requires differentiating between dry, wet, and very wet mucus in the vagina and between different consistencies of mucus. The method ususally requires 1-3 months for instruction and sexual abstinence is usually recommended for the 1st month. The average number of days of required abstinence was 9 in a study of 66 women and 15-18 in a study of 870 women. Many women with short menstrual cycles do not experience postmenstrual dry days, in which case abstinence may be required as many as 13 days out of 23. 18.8% of users of periodic abstinence methods in 1 North American study became pregnant in the 1st year, but most were using the calendar method. Women who desired to terminate childbearing had only about 1/2 as many failures with periodic abstinence methods as did women wishing to postpone a birth. PMID:12311397

  9. Periodically kicked turbulence

    PubMed

    Lohse

    2000-10-01

    Periodically kicked turbulence is theoretically analyzed within a mean-field theory. For large enough kicking strength A and kicking frequency f the Reynolds number grows exponentially and then runs into some saturation. The saturation level Re(sat) can be calculated analytically; different regimes can be observed. For large enough Re we find Re(sat) approximately Af, but intermittency can modify this scaling law. We suggest an experimental realization of periodically kicked turbulence to study the different regimes we theoretically predict and thus to better understand the effect of forcing on fully developed turbulence. PMID:11089041

  10. Sensitivity Analysis of Gas Production from Class 2 and Class 3 Hydrate Deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Reagan, Matthew; Moridis, George; Zhang, Keni

    2008-05-01

    Gas hydrates are solid crystalline compounds in which gas molecules are lodged within the lattices of an ice-like crystalline solid. The vast quantities of hydrocarbon gases trapped in hydrate formations in the permafrost and in deep ocean sediments may constitute a new and promising energy source. Class 2 hydrate deposits are characterized by a Hydrate-Bearing Layer (HBL) that is underlain by a saturated zone of mobile water. Class 3 hydrate deposits are characterized by an isolated Hydrate-Bearing Layer (HBL) that is not in contact with any hydrate-free zone of mobile fluids. Both classes of deposits have been shown to be good candidates for exploitation in earlier studies of gas production via vertical well designs - in this study we extend the analysis to include systems with varying porosity, anisotropy, well spacing, and the presence of permeable boundaries. For Class 2 deposits, the results show that production rate and efficiency depend strongly on formation porosity, have a mild dependence on formation anisotropy, and that tighter well spacing produces gas at higher rates over shorter time periods. For Class 3 deposits, production rates and efficiency also depend significantly on formation porosity, are impacted negatively by anisotropy, and production rates may be larger, over longer times, for well configurations that use a greater well spacing. Finally, we performed preliminary calculations to assess a worst-case scenario for permeable system boundaries, and found that the efficiency of depressurization-based production strategies are compromised by migration of fluids from outside the system.

  11. Organizing MHC Class II Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Fooksman, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules are ligands for CD4+ T cells and are critical for initiating the adaptive immune response. This review is focused on what is currently known about MHC class II organization at the plasma membrane of antigen presenting cells and how this affects antigen presentation to T cells. The organization and diffusion of class II molecules have been measured by a variety of biochemical and microscopic techniques. Membrane lipids and other proteins have been implicated in MHC class II organization and function. However, when compared with the organization of MHC class I or TCR complexes, much less is known about MHC class II. Since clustering of T cell receptors occurs during activation, the organization of MHC molecules prior to recognition and during synapse formation may be critical for antigen presentation. PMID:24782863

  12. Ayurveda during Abbasid's period.

    PubMed

    Husain, S A; Subhaktha, P K

    2000-01-01

    This is a historical paper which deals with a brief account of Abbasid's period. In this article the existence of Ayurveda in Arab countries, arrival of Ayurvedic physicians to Baghdad, their eminence, authenticity and literary additions in medical field has been studied and presented. PMID:12578013

  13. Getting Your Period

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a woman to have a baby. During sexual intercourse, the egg can get fertilized by a male’s sperm and then attach to the lining of the uterus ( endometrium ) and grow into a baby. ( Read more about reproduction. ) Does your period come each month? top Menstrual ...

  14. Astrophysical implications of periodicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, Richard A.

    1988-01-01

    Two remarkable discoveries of the last decade have profound implications for astrophysics and for geophysics. These are the discovery by Alvarez et al., that certain mass extinctions are caused by the impact on the earth of a large asteroid or comet, and the discovery by Raup and Sepkoski that such extinctions are periodic, with a cycle time of 26 to 30 million years. The validity of both of these discoveries is assumed and the implications are examined. Most of the phenomena described depend not on periodicity, but just on the weaker assumption that the impacts on the earth take place primarily in showers. Proposed explanations for the periodicity include galactic oscillations, the Planet X model, and the possibility of Nemesis, a solar companion star. These hypotheses are critically examined. Results of the search for the solar companion are reported. The Deccan flood basalts of India have been proposed as the impact site for the Cretaceous impact, but this hypotheisis is in contradiction with the conclusion of Courtillot et al., that the magma flow began during a period of normal magnetic field. A possible resolution of this contradiction is proposed.

  15. Periods and Feynman integrals

    SciTech Connect

    Bogner, Christian; Weinzierl, Stefan

    2009-04-15

    We consider multiloop integrals in dimensional regularization and the corresponding Laurent series. We study the integral in the Euclidean region and where all ratios of invariants and masses have rational values. We prove that in this case all coefficients of the Laurent series are periods.

  16. Periodic Table of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about…

  17. A Modern Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  18. Scheduling: Seven Period Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Driven by stable or declining financial resources many school districts are considering the costs and benefits of a seven-period day. While there is limited evidence that any particular scheduling model has a greater impact on student learning than any other, it is clear that the school schedule is a tool that can significantly impact teacher…

  19. Oscillations following periodic reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Tiago; Machado, Armando

    2009-06-01

    Three experiments examined behavior in extinction following periodic reinforcement. During the first phase of Experiment 1, four groups of pigeons were exposed to fixed interval (FI 16s or FI 48s) or variable interval (VI 16s or VI 48s) reinforcement schedules. Next, during the second phase, each session started with reinforcement trials and ended with an extinction segment. Experiment 2 was similar except that the extinction segment was considerably longer. Experiment 3 replaced the FI schedules with a peak procedure, with FI trials interspersed with non-food peak interval (PI) trials that were four times longer. One group of pigeons was exposed to FI 20s PI 80s trials, and another to FI 40s PI 160s trials. Results showed that, during the extinction segment, most pigeons trained with FI schedules, but not with VI schedules, displayed pause-peck oscillations with a period close to, but slightly greater than the FI parameter. These oscillations did not start immediately after the onset of extinction. Comparing the oscillations from Experiments 1 and 2 suggested that the alternation of reconditioning and re-extinction increases the reliability and earlier onset of the oscillations. In Experiment 3 the pigeons exhibited well-defined pause-peck cycles since the onset of extinction. These cycles had periods close to twice the value of the FI and lasted for long intervals of time. We discuss some hypotheses concerning the processes underlying behavioral oscillations following periodic reinforcement. PMID:18992793

  20. The Malaysian Class Reader Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raj, Devinder; Hunt, Brain

    1990-01-01

    Briefly describes reading standards in Malaysian schools, outlines a class reader program, and provides samples of teaching files designed to help teachers implement the program. (one reference. (GLR)

  1. Teaching graphics in technical communication classes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spurgeon, K. C.

    1981-01-01

    Graphic aids convey and clarify information more efficiently and accurately than words alone therefore, most technical writing includes the use of graphics. Ways of accumulating and presenting graphics illustrations on a shoestring budget are suggested. These include collecting graphics from companies, annual reports and laminating them for workshop use or putting them on a flip chart for classroom presentation, creating overhead transparencies to demonstrate different levels of effectiveness of graphic aids, and bringing in grahic artists for question/answer periods or in class workshops. Also included are an extensive handout as an introduction to graphics, sample assignments, and a selected and annotated bibliography.

  2. Class Counts: Education, Inequality, and the Shrinking Middle Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Allan

    2007-01-01

    Class differences and class warfare have existed since the beginning of western civilization, but the gap in income and wealth between the rich (top 10 percent) and the rest has increased steadily in the last twenty-five years. The U.S. is heading for a financial oligarchy much worse than the aristocratic old world that our Founding Fathers feared…

  3. First class models from linear and nonlinear second class constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghani, Mehdi; Mardaani, Maryam; Monemzadeh, Majid; Nejad, Salman Abarghouei

    2015-10-01

    Two models with linear and nonlinear second class constraints are considered and gauged by embedding in an extended phase space. These models are studied by considering a free non-relativistic particle on the hyperplane and hypersphere in the configuration space. The gauged theory of the first model is obtained by converting the very second class system to the first class one directly. In contrast, the first class system related to the free particle on the hypersphere is derived with the help of the infinite Batalin-Fradkin-Tyutin (BFT) embedding procedure. We propose a practical formula, based on the simplified BFT method, which is practical in gauging linear and some nonlinear second class systems. As a result of gauging these two models, we show that in the conversion of second class constraints to the first class ones, the minimum number of phase space degrees of freedom for both systems is a pair of phase space coordinates. This pair is made up of a coordinate and its conjugate momentum for the first model, but the corresponding Poisson structure of the embedded non-relativistic particle on hypersphere is a nontrivial one. We derive infinite correction terms for the Hamiltonian of the nonlinear constraints and an interacting gauged Hamiltonian is constructed by summing over them. At the end, we find an open algebra for three first class objects of the embedded nonlinear system.

  4. 47 CFR 80.1053 - Prohibition on certification, manufacture, importation, sale or use of Class A, Class B, Class S...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prohibition on certification, manufacture... certification, manufacture, importation, sale or use of Class A, Class B, Class S, and INMARSAT-E EPIRBs. The manufacture, importation, or sale in the United States of Class A, Class B, Class S, or INMARSAT-E EPIRBs...

  5. V4633 Sgr - A Double Periodic Classical Nova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipkin, Y.; Leibowitz, E. M.; Retter, A.

    2002-01-01

    We discovered two closely-spaced photometric periods in the light curve of V4633 Sgr. Only four known post-novae share similar characteristics; three of which are permanent superhump (SH) systems, and the 4th is a nearly-synchronous magnetic CV (NSP). Our results suggest a possible classification of V4633 Sgr in one of the above two classes. However, this post-nova exhibits some properties that are exceptional for either of the two proposed classes.

  6. Measuring novices' field mapping abilities using an in-class exercise based on expert task analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulkins, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    We are interested in developing a model of expert-like behavior for improving the teaching methods of undergraduate field geology. Our aim is to assist students in mastering the process of field mapping more efficiently and effectively and to improve their ability to think creatively in the field. To examine expert-mapping behavior, a cognitive task analysis was conducted with expert geologic mappers in an attempt to define the process of geologic mapping (i.e. to understand how experts carry out geological mapping). The task analysis indicates that expert mappers have a wealth of geologic scenarios at their disposal that they compare against examples seen in the field, experiences that most undergraduate mappers will not have had. While presenting students with many geological examples in class may increase their understanding of geologic processes, novices still struggle when presented with a novel field situation. Based on the task analysis, a short (45-minute) paper-map-based exercise was designed and tested with 14 pairs of 3rd year geology students. The exercise asks students to generate probable geologic models based on a series of four (4) data sets. Each data set represents a day’s worth of data; after the first “day,” new sheets simply include current and previously collected data (e.g. “Day 2” data set includes data from “Day 1” plus the new “Day 2” data). As the geologic complexity increases, students must adapt, reject or generate new geologic models in order to fit the growing data set. Preliminary results of the exercise indicate that students who produced more probable geologic models, and produced higher ratios of probable to improbable models, tended to go on to do better on the mapping exercises at the 3rd year field school. These results suggest that those students with more cognitively available geologic models may be more able to use these models in field settings than those who are unable to draw on these models for whatever

  7. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreiro, J.E.; Arguelles, D.J.; Rams, H. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A case of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is reported in a Hispanic man with an unusual recurrence six weeks after radioactive iodine treatment. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis has now been well characterized in the literature: it occurs primarily in Orientals with an overwhelming male preponderance and a higher association of specific HLA antigens. Clinical manifestations include onset after high carbohydrate ingestion or heavy exertion, with progressive symmetric weakness leading to flaccid paralysis of the extremities and other muscle groups, lasting several hours. If hypokalemia is present, potassium administration may help abort the attack. Although propranolol can be efficacious in preventing further episodes, the only definitive treatment is establishing a euthyroid state. The pathophysiology is still controversial, but reflects altered potassium and calcium dynamics as well as certain morphologic characteristics within the muscle unit itself.

  8. Cells anticipate periodic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2009-03-01

    We show that an amoeboid organism can anticipate the timing of periodic events. The plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum moves rapidly under favourable conditions, but stops moving when transferred to less-favourable conditions. Plasmodia exposed to unfavourable conditions, presented in three consecutive pulses at constant intervals, reduced their locomotive speed in response to each episode. When subsequently subjected to favourable conditions, the plasmodia spontaneously reduced their locomotive speed at the time point when the next unfavourable episode would have occurred. This implied anticipation of impending environmental change. After this behaviour had been evoked several times, the locomotion of the plasmodia returned to normal; however, the anticipatory response could subsequently be induced by a single unfavourable pulse, implying recall of the memorized periodicity. We explored the mechanisms underlying these behaviours from a dynamical systems perspective. Our results hint at the cellular origins of primitive intelligence and imply that simple dynamics might be sufficient to explain its emergence.

  9. Periodic minimal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Alan L.

    1985-04-01

    A minimal surface is one for which, like a soap film with the same pressure on each side, the mean curvature is zero and, thus, is one where the two principal curvatures are equal and opposite at every point. For every closed circuit in the surface, the area is a minimum. Schwarz1 and Neovius2 showed that elements of such surfaces could be put together to give surfaces periodic in three dimensions. These periodic minimal surfaces are geometrical invariants, as are the regular polyhedra, but the former are curved. Minimal surfaces are appropriate for the description of various structures where internal surfaces are prominent and seek to adopt a minimum area or a zero mean curvature subject to their topology; thus they merit more complete numerical characterization. There seem to be at least 18 such surfaces3, with various symmetries and topologies, related to the crystallographic space groups. Recently, glyceryl mono-oleate (GMO) was shown by Longley and McIntosh4 to take the shape of the F-surface. The structure postulated is shown here to be in good agreement with an analysis of the fundamental geometry of periodic minimal surfaces.

  10. [Modified Class II tunnel preparation].

    PubMed

    Rimondini, L; Baroni, C

    1991-05-15

    Tunnel preparations for restoration of Class II carious lesions in primary molars preserve the marginal ridge and minimize sacrifice of healthy tooth substructure. Materials with improved bonding to tooth structure and increase potential for fluoride release allow Class II restorations without "extension for prevention". PMID:1864420

  11. Ideas for Managing Large Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabel, Robert L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes management strategies used in a large kinetics/industrial chemistry course. Strategies are designed to make instruction in such classes more efficient and effective. Areas addressed include homework assignment, quizzes, final examination, grading and feedback, and rewards for conducting the class in the manner described. (JN)

  12. Automatic discovery of optimal classes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheeseman, Peter; Stutz, John; Freeman, Don; Self, Matthew

    1986-01-01

    A criterion, based on Bayes' theorem, is described that defines the optimal set of classes (a classification) for a given set of examples. This criterion is transformed into an equivalent minimum message length criterion with an intuitive information interpretation. This criterion does not require that the number of classes be specified in advance, this is determined by the data. The minimum message length criterion includes the message length required to describe the classes, so there is a built in bias against adding new classes unless they lead to a reduction in the message length required to describe the data. Unfortunately, the search space of possible classifications is too large to search exhaustively, so heuristic search methods, such as simulated annealing, are applied. Tutored learning and probabilistic prediction in particular cases are an important indirect result of optimal class discovery. Extensions to the basic class induction program include the ability to combine category and real value data, hierarchical classes, independent classifications and deciding for each class which attributes are relevant.

  13. The Paradox of Paperless Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lackie, Paula

    1998-01-01

    Describes paperless classes developed at Carleton College that augment traditional classes by giving students and faculty the ability to share digital course-related materials via the campus computer network. Presents a case study of a managerial economics course, and includes problems with various aspects of the course and solutions. (LRW)

  14. The Generalizability of Class Means

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Michael T.; Brennan, Robert L.

    1977-01-01

    Dependability of class means is analyzed by applying generalizability to a split-plot design with students nested within classes. Basic generalizability concepts are reviewed, and the derivation and interpretation of distinct generalizability concepts are discussed. Four generalizability coefficients are compared with each other and with the three…

  15. Translanguaging in a Reading Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaish, Viniti; Subhan, Aidil

    2015-01-01

    Using translanguaging as a theoretical foundation, this paper analyses findings from a Grade 2 reading class for low achieving students, where Malay was used as a scaffold to teach English. Data come from one class in one school in Singapore and its Learning Support Programme (LSP), which is part of a larger research project on biliteracy. The LSP…

  16. Social Class and the Extracurriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barratt, Will

    2012-01-01

    Social class is a powerful and often unrecognized influence on student participation in the extracurriculum. Spontaneous student-created extracurricular experiences depend on students affiliating and interacting with each other; student social class is a powerful influence on student affiliations. Students tend to exercise consciousness of kind-…

  17. Student Engagement and Marketing Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Steven A.; Hunter, Gary L.; Melton, Horace; Goodwin, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    A study is reported that investigates the goals underlying undergraduate students' engagement in their major classes, nonmajor classes, and in extracurricular activities. The qualitative study employs both focus groups and goal-mapping exercises. The results suggest that students tend to focus on utilitarian, attribute-level considerations mainly…

  18. Class and SLA: Making Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, David

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how class might be brought to the fore as an identity inscription in studies of second language learning, alongside other identity inscriptions such as gender, ethnicity and national identity, which have been the focus of rather more research. It begins by clarifying what is meant by class through a brief discussion of the…

  19. CAPEOPEN.NET CLASS LIBRARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Cape-Open for .Net class library is a collection of classes that implement the Cape-Open v.1.0 interfaces in the .Net framework. This is a tool to aid process modeling component (PMC) developers in producing CAPE-OPEN compliant objects using the latest version of the Visual S...

  20. Class Differences in Cohabitation Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sassler, Sharon; Miller, Amanda J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the burgeoning cohabitation literature, research has failed to examine social class variation in processes of forming and advancing such unions. Drawing upon in-depth interviews with 122 working- and middle-class cohabitors, we examine the duration between dating and moving in together, reasons for cohabiting, and subsequent plans.…

  1. A Touch of...Class!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Netten, Joan W., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    A collection of ideas for class activities in elementary and secondary language classes includes a vocabulary review exercise and games of memory, counting, vocabulary, flashcard tic-tac-toe, dice, trashcans, questioning, and spelling. Some are designed specifically for French. (MSE)

  2. Eustace Tilley Comes to Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arin, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Of all the reasons to use "The New Yorker" in a college writing class, the most compelling may be that its articles go beyond--well beyond--the five-paragraph model. Why, oh why, did that paradigm become such a fixture in composition courses? Students in the author's writing classes invariably suppose they can compose a quick introduction, add…

  3. Class, Identity, and Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Galen, Jane A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the possibilities of working with White, working-class teacher education students to explore the "complex social trajectory" (Reay in Women's Stud Int Forum 20(2):225-233, 1997a, p. 19) of class border crossing as they progress through college. Through analysis of a course that I have developed, "Education and the American…

  4. Control Class Summaries and Control Class IV from April 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.; /Fermilab

    1991-02-22

    The D0 cryogenic control system is a complicated system with many facets. Because of the large number and variety of features in the system, a series of ongoing control system training seminars, or control classes, were created in order to keep people up to date on the operation of the system. As of the writing of this engineering note, there have been four classes. The original lecture notes from each class can be found in the cryogenic control room at the D0 Assembly Building, or in the Co-op office. This note provides a summary of the first three control classes, and it includes the entire set of notes from the fourth class, which was held in April of 1990. This class was taught by Jeff Wendlandt and Dan Markley. Dan should be consulted for more complete explanations than those given in the notes. The notes are, in fact, more of a reference for someone who has some experience with the system, than they are a training manual. Most of the pages include pictures and printouts of different menus and functions, useful for finding details without searching through the actual program. In general, this note serves as a pointer to the existence of the control class lecture notes, and as an explanation of their overall contents and purpose.

  5. Characteristic Structures of Power Spectra in Periodic Chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, T.; Tomita, K.

    1986-10-01

    The power spectra of periodic chaos are shown to have characteristic structures which are governed by the universal recursion relations. By periodic chaos we mean a chaos which emerges via period-doubling bifurcations, and the recursion relations are based on similarity structures in the process of band-splitting bifurcations of periodic chaos. To derive these relations, the asymmetric tent map is used, and the universal applicability of these relations to other classes of maps including the logistic map, where the rescaling factors are replaced by proper ones, is verified by numerical experiment. Some affirmative results for the H&{acutee}non maps are also given.

  6. Attention Reorients Periodically.

    PubMed

    Dugué, Laura; Roberts, Mariel; Carrasco, Marisa

    2016-06-20

    Reorienting of voluntary attention enables the processing of stimuli at previously unattended locations. Although studies have identified a ventral fronto-parietal network underlying attention [1, 2], little is known about whether and how early visual areas are involved in involuntary [3, 4] and even less in voluntary [5] reorienting, and their temporal dynamics are unknown. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the occipital cortex to interfere with attentional reorienting and study its role and temporal dynamics in this process. Human observers performed an orientation discrimination task, with either valid or invalid attention cueing, across a range of stimulus contrasts. Valid cueing induced a behavioral response gain increase, higher asymptotic performance for attended than unattended locations. During subsequent TMS sessions, observers performed the same task, with high stimulus contrast. Based on phosphene mapping, TMS double pulses were applied at one of various delays to a consistent brain location in retinotopic areas (V1/V2), corresponding to the evoked signal of the target or distractor, in a valid or invalid trial. Thus, the stimulation was identical for the four experimental conditions (valid/invalid cue condition × target/distractor-stimulated). TMS modulation of the target and distractor were both periodic (5 Hz, theta) and out of phase with respect to each other in invalid trials only, when attention had to be disengaged from the distractor and reoriented to the target location. Reorientation of voluntary attention periodically involves V1/V2 at the theta frequency. These results suggest that TMS probes theta phase-reset by attentional reorienting and help link periodic sampling in time and attention reorienting in space. PMID:27265395

  7. Is portal-systemic shunt worthwhile in Child's class C cirrhosis? Long-term results of emergency shunt in 94 patients with bleeding varices.

    PubMed Central

    Orloff, M J; Orloff, M S; Rambotti, M; Girard, B

    1992-01-01

    A prospective evaluation was conducted of 94 unselected patients ("all comers") with biopsy-proven Child's class C cirrhosis (93% alcoholic) and endoscopically proven acutely bleeding esophageal varices who underwent emergency portacaval shunt (EPCS) (85% side-to-side, 15% end-to-side) within 8 hours of initial contact (mean, 6.1 hours) during the past 12 years. Follow-up has been 100% and includes all patients for at least 1 year, and 61 patients (65%) for 5 to 12 years. Incidence of serious risk factors on initial contact was: ascites, 97%; jaundice, 86%; portal-systemic encephalopathy including past history, 71%; severe muscle wasting, 96%; alcohol ingestion within 7 days, 66%; delirium tremens, 16%; serum albumin, less than or equal to 2.5 g/dL 76%; indocyanine green dye retention greater than or equal to 50% in 45 minutes, 66%; serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase greater than or equal to 100 units/L, 60%; hyperdynamic cardiac output greater than or equal to 6 L/minute, 98%. Mean Child's point score was 13.7 out of a maximum of 15. EPCS reduced mean corrected free portal pressure from 286 to 23 mm saline, and permanently controlled variceal bleeding in every patient. Of the 94 patients, 74 (80%) left the hospital alive and 68 (72%) survived 1 year. Five-year actuarial survival rate is 64%. Hepatic failure was the main cause of death during initial hospitalization as well as during follow-up, when it was related to continued alcoholism. Portal-systemic encephalopathy, which was present on initial contact in 55% of patients, occurred at some time during follow-up in 18.7%, but was recurrent and required dietary protein restriction in only 9%, all of whom had resumed alcoholism. The low incidence of portal-systemic encephalopathy was attributable to the lifelong program of follow-up with regular dietary counseling and continued emphasis on both protein restriction to 60 g/day and abstinence from alcohol. Abstinence was sustained in 69%, liver function improved

  8. Dynamics of Coulombic and gravitational periodic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Miller, Bruce N.

    2016-04-01

    We study the dynamics and the phase-space structures of Coulombic and self-gravitating versions of the classical one-dimensional three-body system with periodic boundary conditions. We demonstrate that such a three-body system may be reduced isomorphically to a spatially periodic system of a single particle experiencing a two-dimensional potential on a rhombic plane. For the case of both Coulombic and gravitational versions, exact expressions of the Hamiltonian have been derived in rhombic coordinates. We simulate the phase-space evolution through an event-driven algorithm that utilizes analytic solutions to the equations of motion. The simulation results show that the motion exhibits chaotic, quasiperiodic, and periodic behaviors in segmented regions of the phase space. While there is no evidence of global chaos in either the Coulombic or the gravitational system, the former exhibits a transition from a completely nonchaotic phase space at low energies to a mixed behavior. Gradual yet striking transitions from mild to intense chaos are indicated with changing energy, a behavior that differentiates the spatially periodic systems studied in this Rapid Communication from the well-understood free-boundary versions of the three-body problem. Our treatment of the three-body systems opens avenues for analysis of the dynamical properties exhibited by spatially periodic versions of various classes of systems studied in plasma and gravitational physics as well as in cosmology.

  9. Dynamics of Coulombic and gravitational periodic systems.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pankaj; Miller, Bruce N

    2016-04-01

    We study the dynamics and the phase-space structures of Coulombic and self-gravitating versions of the classical one-dimensional three-body system with periodic boundary conditions. We demonstrate that such a three-body system may be reduced isomorphically to a spatially periodic system of a single particle experiencing a two-dimensional potential on a rhombic plane. For the case of both Coulombic and gravitational versions, exact expressions of the Hamiltonian have been derived in rhombic coordinates. We simulate the phase-space evolution through an event-driven algorithm that utilizes analytic solutions to the equations of motion. The simulation results show that the motion exhibits chaotic, quasiperiodic, and periodic behaviors in segmented regions of the phase space. While there is no evidence of global chaos in either the Coulombic or the gravitational system, the former exhibits a transition from a completely nonchaotic phase space at low energies to a mixed behavior. Gradual yet striking transitions from mild to intense chaos are indicated with changing energy, a behavior that differentiates the spatially periodic systems studied in this Rapid Communication from the well-understood free-boundary versions of the three-body problem. Our treatment of the three-body systems opens avenues for analysis of the dynamical properties exhibited by spatially periodic versions of various classes of systems studied in plasma and gravitational physics as well as in cosmology. PMID:27176238

  10. Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica Nanorice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Paritosh; Landskron, Kai

    2009-02-01

    A periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) with nanorice morphology was successfully synthesized by a template assisted sol-gel method using a chain-type precursor. The PMO is composed of D and T sites in the ratio 1:2. The obtained mesoporous nanorice has a surface area of 753 m2 g-1, one-dimensional channels, and a narrow pore size distribution centered at 4.3 nm. The nanorice particles have a length of ca. 600 nm and width of ca. 200 nm.

  11. Controls on geyser periodicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, S.E.; Rojstaczer, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    Geyser eruption frequency is not constant over time and has been shown to vary with small (???10-6) strains induced by seismic events, atmospheric loading, and Earth tides. The geyser system is approximated as a permeable conduit of intensely fractured rock surrounded by a less permeable rock matrix. Numerical simulation of this conceptual model yields a set of parameters that controls geyser existence and periodicity. Much of the responsiveness to remote seismicity and other small strains in the Earth can be explained in terms of variations in permeability and lateral recharge rates.

  12. Controls on geyser periodicity.

    PubMed

    Ingebritsen, S E; Rojstaczer, S A

    1993-11-01

    Geyser eruption frequency is not constant over time and has been shown to vary with small (periodicity. Much of the responsiveness to remote seismicity and other small strains in the Earth can be explained in terms of variations in permeability and lateral recharge rates. PMID:17757358

  13. Periodate oxidation of dextrans

    SciTech Connect

    Mirgorodskaya, O.A.; Poletaeva, L.V.

    1986-03-01

    The authors estimate the degree of oxidation of the thiol group in dextran with various mol. wt. and make an attempt at a kinetic description of the main parameters of the process. Polyglucin was used. The results are shown of experiments done on the estimation of the amount of products formed in the process of oxidation of polyglucin in which the reaction stopped as a result of complete exhaustion of one of the original reagents. To estimate the reactivity of the thiol group toward oxidation, the authors studied the interaction of potassium periodate with alpha-D-glucose, isolated by the monomer unit of dextran.

  14. Condylar volume and condylar area in class I, class II and class III young adult subjects

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Aim Aim of this study was to compare the volume and the shape of mandibular condyles in a Caucasian young adult population, with different skeletal pattern. Material and methods 200 Caucasian patients (15–30 years old, 95 male and 105 females) were classified in three groups on the base of ANB angle: skeletal class I (65 patients), skeletal class II (70 patients) and skeletal class III (65 patients). Left and right TMJs of each subject were evaluated independently with CBCT (Iluma). TMJ evaluation included: condylar volume; condylar area; morphological index (MI). Condylar volumes were calculated by using the Mimics software. The condylar volume, the area and the morphological index (MI) were compared among the three groups, by using non-parametric tests. Results The Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann Whitney test revealed that: no significant difference was observed in the whole sample between the right and the left condylar volume; subjects in skeletal class III showed a significantly higher condylar volume, respect to class I and class II subjects (p < 0.05); significantly lower condylar volume was observed in class II subjects, respect to class I and class III (p < 0.05). In the whole sample condylar volume (699.8 ± 63.07 mm3 in males and 663.5 ± 81.3 mm3 in females; p < 0.01) as well as condylar surface (423.24 ± 63.03 mm2 in males and 389.76 ± 61.15 mm2 in females; p < 0.01) were significantly higher in males than in females. Conclusion Skeletal class appeared to be associated to the mandibular condylar volume and to the mandibular condylar area in the Caucasian orthodontic population. PMID:23241136

  15. Are Mantle Plumes Periodic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampino, Michael R.; Prokoph, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    In the past few years, researchers have uncovered evidence that several kinds of geological and biological events seem to show regular cycles of similar lengths. For example, Rohde and Muller [2005] looked at the record of diversity of marine organisms over the past 540 million years and found evidence for two cycles in the data—a roughly 62-million-year cycle and a longer cycle of about 140 million years. This was followed by reports of an approximately 56-million-year cycle in long-term stratigraphic sequences in sedimentary basins [Meyers and Peters, 2011] and a 59-million-year period in the marine strontium-isotope record [Melott et al., 2012]. A similar period may even exist in atmospheric carbon dioxide over the past 542 million years of the Phanerozoic [Franks et al., 2012]. A cycle of about 140 million years was reported by Veizer et al. [2000] and Mayhew et al. [2008] in long-term fluctuations in global climate.

  16. An approximation formula for a class of Markov reliability models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, A. L.

    1984-01-01

    A way of considering a small but often used class of reliability model and approximating algebraically the systems reliability is shown. The models considered are appropriate for redundant reconfigurable digital control systems that operate for a short period of time without maintenance, and for such systems the method gives a formula in terms of component fault rates, system recovery rates, and system operating time.

  17. A Practical Polymerase Chain Reaction Laboratory for Introductory Biology Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowlus, R. David; Grether, Susan C.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) laboratory exercise that can be performed by introductory biology students in 1 45- to 55-minute class period. Includes a general description of the polymerase chain reaction, materials needed, procedure, and details of interest to teachers. (JRH)

  18. The Interdisciplinary Mini-Course: Instructional Development for Language Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Wynona H.; Boswau, Herbert H.

    Curricula for interdisciplinary courses that enable second language classes to employ the arts are proposed. At the University of North Dakota, mini-courses provide one-semester credit and are given for 2 hours 1 day a week over a period of 8 weeks. Some of the courses are cross-listed with other departments. Two of these courses, Joan of Arc and…

  19. Solar Water Heater Systems for Building Trades Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Milton; And Others

    This teaching unit serves as a guide for the installation of active solar water heating systems. It contains a project designed for use with secondary level students of a building trades class. Students typically would meet 2 to 3 hours per day and would be able to complete the activity within a 1-week time period. Objectives of this unit include:…

  20. Colorful titanium oxides: a new class of photonic materials.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenzhen; Xin, Yanmei; Zhang, Zhonghai

    2015-12-21

    In this communication, a new class of photonic materials, namely, two-dimensional titanium oxide-based photonic crystals, are proposed and were fabricated with an electrochemical anodization method. The high structural periodicity of the nanostructures, and the feasible variability of the chemical compositions help to realize tunable photonic bandgaps for selective light absorption in broad wavelength regions. PMID:26450687

  1. The Impact of an "Out-of-Class" CBI Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magidson, Errol M.

    This study was conducted to determine the impact of a change from primarily scheduled class usage of computer-based instruction (CBI) to primarily free period usage at the City Colleges of Chicago. This change resulted from an interpretation of funding guidelines that CBI was to be offered as a supportive service on a supplementary basis. Several…

  2. Simplified Design Equations for Class-E Neural Prosthesis Transmitters

    PubMed Central

    Troyk, Philip; Hu, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    Extreme miniaturization of implantable electronic devices is recognized as essential for the next generation of neural prostheses, owing to the need for minimizing the damage and disruption of the surrounding neural tissue. Transcutaneous power and data transmission via a magnetic link remains the most effective means of powering and controlling implanted neural prostheses. Reduction in the size of the coil, within the neural prosthesis, demands the generation of a high-intensity radio frequency magnetic field from the extracoporeal transmitter. The Class-E power amplifier circuit topology has been recognized as a highly effective means of producing large radio frequency currents within the transmitter coil. Unfortunately, design of a Class-E circuit is most often fraught by the need to solve a complex set of equations so as to implement both the zero-voltage-switching and zero-voltage-derivative-switching conditions that are required for efficient operation. This paper presents simple explicit design equations for designing the Class-E circuit topology. Numerical design examples are presented to illustrate the design procedure. PMID:23292784

  3. 7 CFR 1006.51 - Class I differential, adjustments to Class I prices, and Class I price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1006.51 Class I... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Class I differential, adjustments to Class I prices, and Class I price. 1006.51 Section 1006.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of...

  4. 7 CFR 1006.51 - Class I differential, adjustments to Class I prices, and Class I price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1006.51 Class I... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Class I differential, adjustments to Class I prices, and Class I price. 1006.51 Section 1006.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of...

  5. Discontinuous Spirals of Stable Periodic Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Sack, Achim; Freire, Joana G.; Lindberg, Erik; Pöschel, Thorsten; Gallas, Jason A. C.

    2013-01-01

    We report the experimental discovery of a remarkable organization of the set of self-generated periodic oscillations in the parameter space of a nonlinear electronic circuit. When control parameters are suitably tuned, the wave pattern complexity of the periodic oscillations is found to increase orderly without bound. Such complex patterns emerge forming self-similar discontinuous phases that combine in an artful way to produce large discontinuous spirals of stability. This unanticipated discrete accumulation of stability phases was detected experimentally and numerically in a Duffing-like proxy specially designed to bypass noisy spectra conspicuously present in driven oscillators. Discontinuous spirals organize the dynamics over extended parameter intervals around a focal point. They are useful to optimize locking into desired oscillatory modes and to control complex systems. The organization of oscillations into discontinuous spirals is expected to be generic for a class of nonlinear oscillators. PMID:24284508

  6. THE CATALINA SURVEYS PERIODIC VARIABLE STAR CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, A. J.; Graham, M. J.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Mahabal, A. A.; Donalek, C.; Williams, R.; Catelan, M.; Torrealba, G.; García-Álvarez, D.; Prieto, J. L.; Beshore, E.; Larson, S.; Christen sen, E.; Boattini, A.; Gibbs, A.; Hill, R.; Kowalski, R.; Johnson, J.; Belokurov, V.; Koposov, S. E.; and others

    2014-07-01

    We present ∼47,000 periodic variables found during the analysis of 5.4 million variable star candidates within a 20,000 deg{sup 2} region covered by the Catalina Surveys Data Release-1 (CSDR1). Combining these variables with type ab RR Lyrae from our previous work, we produce an online catalog containing periods, amplitudes, and classifications for ∼61,000 periodic variables. By cross-matching these variables with those from prior surveys, we find that >90% of the ∼8000 known periodic variables in the survey region are recovered. For these sources, we find excellent agreement between our catalog and prior values of luminosity, period, and amplitude as well as classification. We investigate the rate of confusion between objects classified as contact binaries and type c RR Lyrae (RRc's) based on periods, colors, amplitudes, metallicities, radial velocities, and surface gravities. We find that no more than a few percent of the variables in these classes are misidentified. By deriving distances for this clean sample of ∼5500 RRc's, we trace the path of the Sagittarius tidal streams within the Galactic halo. Selecting 146 outer-halo RRc's with SDSS radial velocities, we confirm the presence of a coherent halo structure that is inconsistent with current N-body simulations of the Sagittarius tidal stream. We also find numerous long-period variables that are very likely associated within the Sagittarius tidal stream system. Based on the examination of 31,000 contact binary light curves we find evidence for two subgroups exhibiting irregular light curves. One subgroup presents significant variations in mean brightness that are likely due to chromospheric activity. The other subgroup shows stable modulations over more than a thousand days and thereby provides evidence that the O'Connell effect is not due to stellar spots.

  7. Race and Class Consciousness among Lower- and Middle-Class Blacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durant, Thomas J., Jr.; Sparrow, Kathleen H.

    1997-01-01

    Studied differences in attitudinal patterns of race consciousness and class consciousness among lower-class and middle-class blacks in a large southern city. Interview results for 205 adults show similarities in race consciousness but differences in class consciousness. Lower-class blacks express more class consciousness than middle-class blacks.…

  8. FIRE_MS_CEILOM_CLASS

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-11-25

    ... Parameters:  Clouds Humidity Pressure Temperature Wind Speed Order Data:  Search and ... Additional Info:  Ceilometer and Cross-chain Loran Atmospheric Sounding System (CLASS) SCAR-B Block:  ...

  9. Brainwriting in the Theory Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wunsch, Ilse Gerda

    1973-01-01

    Considers the problem of taking dictation in a music class and recognizes the importance of perception for understanding musical structure. Author demonstrates his point with an analysis of a German folksong. (RK)

  10. Class Sizes and Dissadvantaged Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, David

    1978-01-01

    Describes a program in which smaller class groups for socially and culturally deprived children resulted in enhanced social attitudes and more responsive, mature behavior in interaction with both adults and peers. (Author/IRT)

  11. An English Class with Emily.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassett, Lawrence F.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a high school student's description in class of her deep connection to Hester Prynne in Nathaniel Hawthorne's "The Scarlet Letter," and how it offers a glimpse of the vast interior lives of women. (SR)

  12. Integrals of the Ising Class

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Crandall, Richard E.

    2006-06-01

    From an experimental-mathematical perspective we analyze"Ising-class" integrals. Our experimental results involvedextreme-precision, multidimensional quadrature on intricate integrands;thus, highly parallel computation was required.

  13. Statistical Descriptors of School Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohnes, Paul R.

    1972-01-01

    It may be useful in evaluation research to employ the class as the unit of analysis, assessing its syntality by a vector of distribution cumulants or indices for each of several input tests administered. (Author)

  14. Wildflower Collecting: A Class Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sheila V.

    1976-01-01

    Advocates wildflower collecting as a class project, citing instances of interest in studies of soil composition, growing wildflowers, and increased student motivation toward the subject of botany as basis for the activity. (CP)

  15. The δ Scuti Pulsation Periods in KIC 5197256

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, G.; Holaday, J.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper we present the pulsational spectrum for KIC 5197256. This object is an eclipsing binary system with a period of 6.96 days. We demonstrate that the light curve shows presence of δ Scuti pulsations with a dominant period of 0.1015 day. The object should therefore be included in the ever-growing class of eclipsing binary systems with at least one pulsating component.

  16. Less than a Class Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Kristin Redington

    2012-01-01

    The iPad holds amazing potential for classroom use. Just a few--or even only one--is enough to get results. Having a class set promotes traditional, whole-class instruction, but fewer iPads facilitate individualized and tailored instruction. In this article, the author discusses the potential of the iPad and suggests ways to put the iPad to use in…

  17. Whole Class Laboratories: More Examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouh, Minjoon

    2016-03-01

    Typically, introductory physics courses are taught with a combination of lectures and laboratories in which students have opportunities to discover the natural laws through hands-on activities in small groups. This article reports the use of Google Drive, a free online document-sharing tool, in physics laboratories for pooling experimental data from the whole class. This pedagogical method was reported earlier, and the present article offers a few more examples of such "whole class" laboratories.

  18. Two classes of speculative peaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2001-10-01

    Speculation not only occurs in financial markets but also in numerous other markets, e.g. commodities, real estate, collectibles, and so on. Such speculative movements result in price peaks which share many common characteristics: same order of magnitude of duration with respect to amplitude, same shape (the so-called sharp-peak pattern). Such similarities suggest (at least as a first approximation) a common speculative behavior. However, a closer examination shows that in fact there are (at least) two distinct classes of speculative peaks. For the first, referred to as class U, (i) the amplitude of the peak is negatively correlated with the price at the start of the peak (ii) the ensemble coefficient of variation exhibits a trough. Opposite results are observed for the second class that we refer to as class S. Once these empirical observations have been made we try to understand how they should be interpreted. First, we show that the two properties are in fact related in the sense that the second is a consequence of the first. Secondly, by listing a number of cases belonging to each class we observe that the markets in the S-class offer collection of items from which investors can select those they prefer. On the contrary, U-markets consist of undifferentiated products for which a selection cannot be made in the same way. All prices considered in the paper are real (i.e., deflated) prices.

  19. Imbalanced Class Learning in Epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    Haque, M. Muksitul; Holder, Lawrence B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In machine learning, one of the important criteria for higher classification accuracy is a balanced dataset. Datasets with a large ratio between minority and majority classes face hindrance in learning using any classifier. Datasets having a magnitude difference in number of instances between the target concept result in an imbalanced class distribution. Such datasets can range from biological data, sensor data, medical diagnostics, or any other domain where labeling any instances of the minority class can be time-consuming or costly or the data may not be easily available. The current study investigates a number of imbalanced class algorithms for solving the imbalanced class distribution present in epigenetic datasets. Epigenetic (DNA methylation) datasets inherently come with few differentially DNA methylated regions (DMR) and with a higher number of non-DMR sites. For this class imbalance problem, a number of algorithms are compared, including the TAN+AdaBoost algorithm. Experiments performed on four epigenetic datasets and several known datasets show that an imbalanced dataset can have similar accuracy as a regular learner on a balanced dataset. PMID:24798423

  20. Transition from non-periodic to periodic explosions.

    PubMed

    Cartes, Carlos; Descalzi, Orazio

    2015-12-13

    We show the existence of periodic exploding dissipative solitons. These non-chaotic explosions appear when higher-order nonlinear and dispersive effects are added to the complex cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau equation modelling soliton transmission lines. This counterintuitive phenomenon is the result of period-halving bifurcations leading to order (periodic explosions), followed by period-doubling bifurcations (or intermittency) leading to chaos (non-periodic explosions). PMID:26527807

  1. School Class Size: Research and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V.; And Others

    This book synthesizes research evidence to demonstrate that 1) class size is strongly related to pupil achievement; 2) smaller classes are more conducive to improved pupil performance than larger classes; 3) smaller classes provide more opportunities to adapt learning programs to individual needs; 4) pupils in smaller classes have more interest in…

  2. Periodic dynamics of pairs of sedimenting discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chajwa, Rahul; Menon, Narayanan; Ramaswamy, Sriram

    2015-11-01

    We study the sedimentation in the Stokes regime of pairs of discs released with a variety of orientations relative to each other and to gravity. The orientation of a settling disk is coupled with the translational degree of freedom. Hydrodynamic interactions between settling disks produces richer dynamics than is possible with sedimenting spheres. We demonstrate the classes of dynamics that follow from a variety of initial conditions, but focus on the periodic oscillations in position and orientation that result when two discs are released parallel to each other with their normals coaxial and in the horizontal plane. We report experiments that study the frequency, wavelength, and amplitude of the periodic flutter as a function of initial separation between the discs. We analyze the motions within a model that combines the hydrodynamics of single discs with a simplified model of their interaction that includes low order terms of appropriate symmetry. This allows us to examine the initial conditions that demarcate periodic from non-periodic dynamics. Also at Dept of Physics and Astronomy, Univ of Massachusetts, Amherst MA 01003.

  3. 47 CFR 74.788 - Digital construction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.788 Digital construction period. (a) Each original construction... provisions of § 73.3598 of this chapter shall apply. (e) A low power television, TV translator or Class...

  4. 47 CFR 74.788 - Digital construction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.788 Digital construction period. (a) Each original construction... provisions of § 73.3598 of this chapter shall apply. (e) A low power television, TV translator or Class...

  5. 47 CFR 74.788 - Digital construction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.788 Digital construction period. (a) Each original construction... provisions of § 73.3598 of this chapter shall apply. (e) A low power television, TV translator or Class...

  6. 47 CFR 74.788 - Digital construction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.788 Digital construction period. (a) Each original construction... provisions of § 73.3598 of this chapter shall apply. (e) A low power television, TV translator or Class...

  7. Periodically oscillating plasma sphere

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.; Nebel, R.A.; Stange, S.; Murali, S. Krupakar

    2005-05-15

    The periodically oscillating plasma sphere, or POPS, is a novel fusion concept first proposed by D. C. Barnes and R. A. Nebel [Fusion Technol. 38, 28 (1998)]. POPS utilizes the self-similar collapse of an oscillating ion cloud in a spherical harmonic oscillator potential well formed by electron injection. Once the ions have been phase-locked, their coherent motion simultaneously produces very high densities and temperatures during the collapse phase of the oscillation. A requirement for POPS is that the electron injection produces a stable harmonic oscillator potential. This has been demonstrated in a gridded inertial electrostatic confinement device and verified by particle simulation. Also, the POPS oscillation has been confirmed experimentally through observation that the ions in the potential well exhibit resonance behavior when driven at the POPS frequency. Excellent agreement between the observed POPS frequencies and the theoretical predictions has been observed for a wide range of potential well depths and three different ion species. Practical applications of POPS require large plasma compressions. These large compressions have been observed in particle simulations, although space charge neutralization remains a major issue.

  8. Union Presence, Class, and Individual Earnings Inequality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leicht, Kevin T.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Data from the Survey of Class Structure and Class Consciousness showed that union membership positively affects earnings of all workers, but union density affects only the working class. Interindustry union threats affect the wages of only nonunionized workers. (SK)

  9. 76 FR 68460 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ...). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HHS gives notice of a decision to designate a class of employees from the Ames... Ames Laboratory at Iowa State University during the period from August 13, 1942 through December...

  10. 40 CFR 82.15 - Prohibitions for class II controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... person for that substance under the authority of this subpart at that time in that control period, unless... use production allowances to produce a quantity of class II controlled substance unless that person... class II controlled substance for which EPA has apportioned baseline production and...

  11. Course Differentiation in the High School: The Perspective of Working Class Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskell, Jane

    Working-class high school girls choose courses for a variety of reasons, both consciously and subconsciously, and use conventional attitudes to justify their choices to themselves and others, according to working-class girls who volunteered to be interviewed during their free periods in Vancouver (British Columbia) high schools. The girls cited…

  12. Distance Learning between German and Japanese School Classes Based on a Real Time Video Conference Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graf, Klaus-D.

    We have established an environment for German-Japanese school education projects using real time interactive audio-visual distance learning between remote classrooms. In periods of 8-12 weeks, two classes are dealing with the same subject matter, exchanging materials and results via e-mail and Internet. At 3 or 4 occasions the classes met on…

  13. Experiential Learning in the Introductory Class: The Role of Minor League Hockey in Teaching Social Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest, Krista D.

    2005-01-01

    To convince my students they are surrounded by social psychology, we attended a minor league hockey game. During the next class period I asked students to write a brief paragraph about their experiences. From those paragraphs I chose four reoccurring themes to analyze from a social psychological perspective. My introductory classes and I benefited…

  14. Limits to Open Class Performance?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation discusses open or unlimited class aircraft performance limitations and design solutions. Limitations in this class of aircraft include slow climbing flight which requires low wing loading, high cruise speed which requires high wing loading, gains in induced or viscous drag alone which result in only half the gain overall and other structural problems (yaw inertia and spins, flutter and static loads integrity). Design solutions include introducing minimum induced drag for a given span (elliptical span load or winglets) and introducing minimum induced drag for a bell shaped span load. It is concluded that open class performance limits (under current rules and technologies) is very close to absolute limits, though some gains remain to be made from unexplored areas and new technologies.

  15. MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD ESTIMATION FOR PERIODIC AUTOREGRESSIVE MOVING AVERAGE MODELS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vecchia, A.V.

    1985-01-01

    A useful class of models for seasonal time series that cannot be filtered or standardized to achieve second-order stationarity is that of periodic autoregressive moving average (PARMA) models, which are extensions of ARMA models that allow periodic (seasonal) parameters. An approximation to the exact likelihood for Gaussian PARMA processes is developed, and a straightforward algorithm for its maximization is presented. The algorithm is tested on several periodic ARMA(1, 1) models through simulation studies and is compared to moment estimation via the seasonal Yule-Walker equations. Applicability of the technique is demonstrated through an analysis of a seasonal stream-flow series from the Rio Caroni River in Venezuela.

  16. Class Cuisine: Food in the Foreign Language Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauschenberg, Gretchen S.

    1984-01-01

    Food can both interest students in a foreign culture and motivate them to broaden their interests. Cooking with students can take many forms. The students can cook in class if adequate preparations are made and permission is granted. Students can contribute toward the purchase of food for snacks and meals, and the cost can be kept to the price of…

  17. Class Extraction and Classification Accuracy in Latent Class Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Qiong

    2009-01-01

    Despite the increasing popularity of latent class models (LCM) in educational research, methodological studies have not yet accumulated much information on the appropriate application of this modeling technique, especially with regard to requirement on sample size and number of indicators. This dissertation study represented an initial attempt to…

  18. Period variations in SZ ARIETIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, R. K.

    1990-06-01

    Results are presented of a detailed period study of the eclipsing binary system SZ Arietis, based on up-to-date collection of minima. A new period (P = 1.7175405 d) of the SZ Ari was found, and the period changes (with the new period) in different portions of the O-C diagram were estimated. The average period change (leaving out an unusual value) was estimated to be about 0.00006 d. The O-C diagram displayed a sinusoidal variation, indicating that the SZ Ari system may be a three-body system, having a period of nearly 66 years.

  19. 47 CFR 74.708 - Class A TV and digital Class A TV station protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class A TV and digital Class A TV station... SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.708 Class A TV and digital Class A TV station protection. (a) The Class A TV and digital Class A TV station protected contours are specified...

  20. 47 CFR 74.708 - Class A TV and digital Class A TV station protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Class A TV and digital Class A TV station... SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.708 Class A TV and digital Class A TV station protection. (a) The Class A TV and digital Class A TV station protected contours are specified...

  1. 47 CFR 74.708 - Class A TV and digital Class A TV station protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Class A TV and digital Class A TV station... SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.708 Class A TV and digital Class A TV station protection. (a) The Class A TV and digital Class A TV station protected contours are specified...

  2. 47 CFR 74.708 - Class A TV and digital Class A TV station protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Class A TV and digital Class A TV station... SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.708 Class A TV and digital Class A TV station protection. (a) The Class A TV and digital Class A TV station protected contours are specified...

  3. 47 CFR 74.708 - Class A TV and digital Class A TV station protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class A TV and digital Class A TV station... SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.708 Class A TV and digital Class A TV station protection. (a) The Class A TV and digital Class A TV station protected contours are specified...

  4. Promoting Wellness in Lamaze Classes

    PubMed Central

    Hotelling, Barbara A.

    2005-01-01

    Lamaze childbirth educators are responsible for teaching wellness-based classes that do not add to the anxiety of the current, fear-based culture of maternity health care. Expectant parents' vulnerable months of pregnancy offer “teachable moments” for the childbirth educator, during which parents can be encouraged to alter their lifestyles and adopt the concept of wellness to their principles of living. In this article, concepts of wellness are examined, drawing from the writings of wellness advocates, midwifery researchers, and an anthropologist. Nutrition, physical exercise, breathing, and awareness of the five senses are components of potential class content explored in this article. PMID:17273442

  5. 76 FR 64233 - Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace and Establishment of Class E Airspace; Casper, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ..., published on August 25, 2011 (76 FR 53048), amends Class D airspace, Class E surface airspace, Class E..., the Class E airspace descriptions as published in the Federal Register of August 25, 2011 (76 FR 53048) (FR Doc. 2011-21663) for Natrona County International Airport, Casper, WY, is corrected under...

  6. Doubly Resonant Optical Periodic Structure

    PubMed Central

    Alagappan, G.; Png, C. E.

    2016-01-01

    Periodic structures are well known in various branches of physics for their ability to provide a stopband. In this article, using optical periodic structures we showed that, when a second periodicity – very closed to the original periodicity is introduced, large number of states appears in the stopband corresponding to the first periodicity. In the limit where the two periods matches, we have a continuum of states, and the original stopband completely disappears. This intriguing phenomena is uncovered by noticing that, regardless of the proximities of the two periodicities, there is an array of spatial points where the dielectric functions corresponding to the two periodicities interfere destructively. These spatial points mimic photonic atoms by satisfying the standards equations of quantum harmonic oscillators, and exhibit lossless, atom-like dispersions. PMID:26853945

  7. The redoubtable ecological periodic table

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological periodic tables are repositories of reliable information on quantitative, predictably recurring (periodic) habitat–community patterns and their uncertainty, scaling and transferability. Their reliability derives from their grounding in sound ecological principle...

  8. Doubly Resonant Optical Periodic Structure.

    PubMed

    Alagappan, G; Png, C E

    2016-01-01

    Periodic structures are well known in various branches of physics for their ability to provide a stopband. In this article, using optical periodic structures we showed that, when a second periodicity - very closed to the original periodicity is introduced, large number of states appears in the stopband corresponding to the first periodicity. In the limit where the two periods matches, we have a continuum of states, and the original stopband completely disappears. This intriguing phenomena is uncovered by noticing that, regardless of the proximities of the two periodicities, there is an array of spatial points where the dielectric functions corresponding to the two periodicities interfere destructively. These spatial points mimic photonic atoms by satisfying the standards equations of quantum harmonic oscillators, and exhibit lossless, atom-like dispersions. PMID:26853945

  9. 76 FR 8325 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... certain temporary waivers from periodic reporting of service performance measurement. Establishing this...). SUPPLEMENTARY HISTORY: On February 3, 2011, the Postal Service filed a request for temporary waivers from periodic reporting of service performance measurement for various market dominant postal services,...

  10. Log-periodic route to fractal functions.

    PubMed

    Gluzman, S; Sornette, D

    2002-03-01

    Log-periodic oscillations have been found to decorate the usual power-law behavior found to describe the approach to a critical point, when the continuous scale-invariance symmetry is partially broken into a discrete-scale invariance symmetry. For Ising or Potts spins with ferromagnetic interactions on hierarchical systems, the relative magnitude of the log-periodic corrections are usually very small, of order 10(-5). In growth processes [diffusion limited aggregation (DLA)], rupture, earthquake, and financial crashes, log-periodic oscillations with amplitudes of the order of 10% have been reported. We suggest a "technical" explanation for this 4 order-of-magnitude difference based on the property of the "regular function" g(x) embodying the effect of the microscopic degrees of freedom summed over in a renormalization group (RG) approach F(x)=g(x)+mu(-1)F(gamma x) of an observable F as a function of a control parameter x. For systems for which the RG equation has not been derived, the previous equation can be understood as a Jackson q integral, which is the natural tool for describing discrete-scale invariance. We classify the "Weierstrass-type" solutions of the RG into two classes characterized by the amplitudes A(n) of the power-law series expansion. These two classes are separated by a novel "critical" point. Growth processes (DLA), rupture, earthquake, and financial crashes thus seem to be characterized by oscillatory or bounded regular microscopic functions that lead to a slow power-law decay of A(n), giving strong log-periodic amplitudes. If in addition, the phases of A(n) are ergodic and mixing, the observable presents self-affine nondifferentiable properties. In contrast, the regular function of statistical physics models with "ferromagnetic"-type interactions at equilibrium involves unbound logarithms of polynomials of the control variable that lead to a fast exponential decay of A(n) giving weak log-periodic amplitudes and smoothed observables. PMID

  11. Betelgeuse Period Analysis Using VSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempsey, F.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) Betelgeuse was studied using the VSTAR software package and analysis of the observations in the AAVSO database. Period analysis derived a period of 376 days, in comparison with literature periods of 420 days using satellite UV data but significantly different from the VSX period of 2,335 days. The unique set of PEP observations of this star is also shown and advantage of PEP Johnson V observations is shown in comparison with the visual observations.

  12. Emerging Scholars: Class of 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Valerie; Oguntoyinbo, Lekan; Davis, Crystal D.; Hawkins, B. Denise; Lum, Lydia; Cooper, Kenneth; Pluviose, David; Pember, Mary Annette; Watson, Jamal Eric; Nealy, Michelle J.; Hernandez, Christina

    2011-01-01

    This article presents "Diverse"'s 2011 Emerging Scholars. This year's class of award-winning academics consists of twelve gifted and passionate scholars who make their mark with relevant, impactful scholarship. The 2011 Emerging Scholars are: (1) Dr. Guillermina G. Nunez-Mchiri; (2) Dr. Ashlesh Murthy; (3) Charles O. Anderson; (4) Chekesha M.…

  13. Synergy, Poetry, and Class Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jerri

    1989-01-01

    This article describes an inter-class project that paired second and fifth grade students to produce a book of their poetry developed through a program of instruction in the forms and literary aspects of poetry. Students collaborated broadly across grade levels on composition of poems and cover art for the publication. (PB)

  14. Encouraging and Evaluating Class Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czekanski, Kathleen E.; Wolf, Zane Robinson

    2013-01-01

    Many faculty interpret student responses to faculty questions as evidence of an actively engaged classroom. Because of this conviction, class participation, whether graded or ungraded, appears in many course syllabi in colleges and universities and is often promoted as the responsibility of students to contribute to the learning environment. Class…

  15. Soviet KIROV class strike cruiser

    SciTech Connect

    Kehoe, J.W.; Brower, K.S.; Meier, H.A.

    1981-04-01

    The major design concepts and basic characteristics of the Soviet KIROV Class ship, an impressive nuclear-powered Strike Cruiser which recently appeared while undergoing sea trials in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, are discussed. Highlights are presented of the KIROV's hull form, the weapons, electronics and aviation systems, machinery, as well as the cruiser's speed and range.

  16. Social Class and School Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Vincent C.

    2012-01-01

    This article takes a practical look at social class in school music by exploring the manifestations and impact of three of its dimensions: financial resources, cultural practices, and social networks. Three suggestions are discussed: provide a free and equal music education for all students, understand and respect each student's cultural…

  17. Class Struggle in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clawson, Dan; Leiblum, Mishy

    2008-01-01

    Public higher education has undergone a process similar to that in the national polity: a one-sided struggle by those with power to shape the institution to be more market driven, more focused on what will generate (non-state) revenues, more dominated by top administrators, and less concerned about the working class and people of color. This…

  18. Creating Presentations on ICT Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchis, Iuliana

    2010-01-01

    The article focuses on the creation of presentations on ICT classes. The first part highlights the most important steps when creating a presentation. The main idea is, that the computer presentation shouldn't consist only from the technological part, i.e. the editing of the presentation in a computer program. There are many steps before and after…

  19. Diver First Class Reading Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, E. C., III; Berghage, T. E.

    The Nelson-Denny reading test was administered to thirty Navy first class diver candidates to evaluate the group's vocabulary, reading comprehension, reading rate and over-all reading ability. Reading rate and comprehension were at the twelfth grade level, while vocabulary ability was equal to the college freshman norm. (Author)

  20. Creative Thinking in Instrumental Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priest, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on ways to develop student creative thinking, improvisation, and composition skills in instrumental classes. Provides suggestions, such as the importance of offering students creative opportunities, supplying examples, giving control to students, and encouraging expressive integrity. Includes a bibliography of resources for developing…

  1. 77 FR 76353 - Nonimmigrant Classes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY 8 CFR Part 214 Nonimmigrant Classes CFR Correction In Title 8 of the Code of Federal Regulations, revised as of January 1, 2012, in Sec. 214.2, make the following corrections: a. On page 289,...

  2. Exploring Class-Based Intersectionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, David; Corona, Victor

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues that language, culture and identity researchers need to take the intersectionality of identity inscriptions seriously and, further to this, that an intersectional approach which emanates from an interest in social class provides a productive way to examine the lives and experience of individuals living in multicultural societies.…

  3. Multiple Functions in Equivalence Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McVeigh, Brian; Keenan, Mickey

    2009-01-01

    Four experiments examined the effects of training a "drawing" response to each of three stimuli in a 5-member equivalence class. In Experiment 1 the stimuli were an arbitrary word, a shape, or a mathematical symbol. Subjects then were trained to draw a separate component of a stickman at each of the 3 stimuli. Subsequent tests for function…

  4. ALTERNATIVES FOR CLASS A BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation reviews the pathogenic microorganisms that may be found in sewage sludge and commonly employed Class A processes for controlling them including advanced digestion, alkaline treatment and heat drying. How extensively the processes are used as well as issues and co...

  5. "Green" Classes Flourish in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Courses focused on renewable and alternative energy are taking hold across the country as educators seek to channel students' concerns about the environment and conservation into classroom lessons. This article talks about the rising interest in "green" curriculum. Here, the author describes the Green Tech class that introduces students to the…

  6. Linguistics in the English Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Robert C., Jr.

    Designed for secondary school English teachers who want to help their students develop enthusiasm for words, their histories, and the way language structures words to produce meaning, this paper offers suggestions for a program of study employing dictionary projects and personal experience. The paper describes making a class dictionary of teen…

  7. Civility in Classes and Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumpkin, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Civility is a polite or courteous act, expression, or standard of conduct, including the display of respect and tolerance to everyone. Teaching and modeling civility in classes and with sport teams is essential so students and athletes can learn the importance of and demonstrate civility in their interactions with others. Teachers and coaches…

  8. Predicting the extension of equivalence classes from primary generalization gradients: the merger of equivalence classes and perceptual classes.

    PubMed Central

    Fields, L; Reeve, K F; Adams, B J; Brown, J L; Verhave, T

    1997-01-01

    In Experiment 1, 6 college students were given generalization tests using 25 line lengths as samples with a long line, a short line, and a "neither" option as comparisons. The neither option was to be used if a sample did not go with the other comparisons. Then, four-member equivalence classes were formed. Class 1 included three nonsense words and the short line. Class 2 included three other nonsense words and the long line. After repeating the generalization test for line length, additional tests were conducted using members of the equivalence classes (i.e., nonsense words and lines) as comparisons and intermediate-length lines as samples. All Class 2 comparisons were selected in the presence of the test lines that also evoked the selection of the long line in the generalization test that had been given before equivalence class formation. Class 1 yielded complementary findings. Thus, the preclass primary generalization gradient predicted which test lines acted as members of each equivalence class. Regardless of using comparisons that were nonsense words or lines, the post-class-formation gradients overlapped, showing the substitutability of class members. Experiment 2 assessed the discriminability of the intermediate-length test lines from the Class 1 (shortest) and Class 2 (longest) lines. The test lines that functioned as members of an equivalence class were discriminable from the line that was a member of the same class by training. Thus, these test lines also acted as members of a dimensionally defined class of "long" or "short" lines. Extension of an equivalence class, then, involved its merger with a dimensionally defined class, which converted a close-ended class to an open-ended class. These data suggest a means of predicting class membership in naturally occurring categories. PMID:9241863

  9. Student versus Faculty Perceptions of Missing Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleigh, Merry J.; Ritzer, Darren R.; Casey, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    Examines and compares student and faculty attitudes towards students missing classes and class attendance. Surveys undergraduate students (n=231) in lower and upper level psychology courses and psychology faculty. Reports that students found more reasons acceptable for missing classes and that the amount of in-class material on the examinations…

  10. A Discussion Strategy for an Online Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese-Durham, Nancy Faith

    2014-01-01

    As a former teacher of face-to-face classes now assigned to teach only online classes, Nancy Reese Durham found herself challenged to change to accommodate online learners. She was determined to provide an environment in the online class where the high level of discussion she had provided in face-to-face classes could flourish as well. Here she…

  11. 16 CFR 1025.18 - Class actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Class actions. 1025.18 Section 1025.18 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Pleadings, Form, Execution, Service of Documents § 1025.18 Class actions. (a) Prerequisites to a class action. One or more members of a class...

  12. Making the Introductory Journalism Class Tick.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorway, Tim

    2003-01-01

    Proposes that beginning journalism classes teach multiple skills, including law, decision-making, interpersonal communication, interviewing, and critical thinking. Outlines how to convince administrators of the need for beginning journalism classes, and how to develop an effective class. Lists philosophy and course goals for one such class. (PM)

  13. 16 CFR 1025.18 - Class actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Class actions. 1025.18 Section 1025.18 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Pleadings, Form, Execution, Service of Documents § 1025.18 Class actions. (a) Prerequisites to a class action. One or more members of a class...

  14. Class-Size Effects in Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krassel, Karl Fritjof; Heinesen, Eskil

    2014-01-01

    We analyze class-size effects on academic achievement in secondary school in Denmark exploiting an institutional setting where pupils cannot predict class size prior to enrollment, and where post-enrollment responses aimed at affecting realized class size are unlikely. We identify class-size effects combining a regression discontinuity design with…

  15. Existence of periodically invariant curves in 3-dimensional measure-preserving mappings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chong-Qing; Sun, Yi-Sui

    A class of three-dimensional measure-preserving mappings is characterized analytically, with a focus on families of periodically invariant curves. A normal form for the class of mappings is derived; a Hamiltonian system is simulated; and the normal form for maps near a normally elliptic invariant curve is examined. The persistence of periodically invariant curves in the presence of nonlinear perturbations is demonstrated for this normal form.

  16. Holographic classification of topological insulators and its eightfold periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeClair, André; Bernard, Denis

    2012-11-01

    Using generic properties of Clifford algebras in any spatial dimension, we explicitly classify Dirac Hamiltonians with zero modes protected by the discrete symmetries of time reversal, particle-hole symmetry and chirality. Assuming that the boundary states of topological insulators are Dirac fermions, we thereby holographically reproduce the periodic table of topological insulators found by Kitaev (2009 AIP Conf. Proc. 1134 22) and Ryu et al (2010 New J. Phys. 12 065010), without using topological invariants or K-theory. In addition, we find candidate {Z}_2 topological insulators in classes AI, AII of dimensions 0,4 mod 8 and in classes C, D of dimensions 2,6 mod 8.

  17. Class I and Class II Lanthipeptides Produced by Bacillus spp.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Joana; Caetano, Tânia; Mendo, Sónia

    2015-11-25

    The increasing number of multidrug-resistant pathogens, along with the small number of new antimicrobials under development, leads to an increased need for novel alternatives. Class I and class II lanthipeptides (also known as lantibiotics) have been considered promising alternatives to classical antibiotics. In addition to their relevant medical applications, they are used as probiotics, prophylactics, preservatives, and additives in cosmetics and personal-care products. The genus Bacillus is a prolific source of bioactive compounds including ribosomally and nonribosomally synthesized antibacterial peptides. Accordingly, there is significant interest in the biotechnological potential of members of the genus Bacillus as producers of antimicrobial lanthipeptides. The present review focuses on aspects of the biosynthesis, gene cluster organization, structure, antibacterial spectrum, and bioengineering approaches of lanthipeptides produced by Bacillus strains. Their efficacy and potency against some clinically relevant strains, including MRSA and VRE, are also discussed. Although no lanthipeptides are currently in clinical use, the information herein highlights the potential of these compounds. PMID:26448102

  18. Is nursing preceptor behavior changed by attending a preceptor class?

    PubMed Central

    Tipton, Phyllis Hart

    2016-01-01

    Nursing preceptors initiate new staff to the professional environment. To be successful, preceptors must be willing and knowledgeable in their role, both clinically and as an instructor. This study evaluated the effects of a 4-hour preceptor class to change preceptor behavior. Twenty-seven class participants commented on the class and their goals, and 18 completed a follow-up survey 2 months later. Among those 18, 90% had achieved at least one of their goals. One barrier to achieving planned changes was having the opportunity to precept over the time period. Participants indicated that improved listening skills, application of content, and team building all supported their improvement as a preceptor. PMID:27365870

  19. Class E/F switching power amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajimiri, Seyed-Ali (Inventor); Aoki, Ichiro (Inventor); Rutledge, David B. (Inventor); Kee, Scott David (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The present invention discloses a new family of switching amplifier classes called class E/F amplifiers. These amplifiers are generally characterized by their use of the zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) phase correction technique to eliminate of the loss normally associated with the inherent capacitance of the switching device as utilized in class-E amplifiers, together with a load network for improved voltage and current wave-shaping by presenting class-F.sup.-1 impedances at selected overtones and class-E impedances at the remaining overtones. The present invention discloses a several topologies and specific circuit implementations for achieving such performance.

  20. Periodic motion of two and four vortices in a cylindrical pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardin, J. C.; Mason, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    The motion of two and four rectilinear vortices inside a cylindrical pipe is studied under the restriction that the total circulation be zero. In the two-vortex case, it is shown that the motion is always periodic and an expression for the period is derived. In the four-vortex case, the motion is determined not to be periodic in general. However, a class of solutions where the motion is periodic is found. Several sample calculations of the vortex motion are included.

  1. Large minimal period orbits of periodic autonomous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Juan; Tarallo, Massimo

    2004-01-01

    We prove the existence of periodic orbits with minimal period greater than any prescribed number for a natural Lagrangian autonomous system in several variables that is analytic and periodic in each variable and whose potential is nonconstant. Work supported by Acción Integrada Italia-España HI2000-0112, Azione Integrata Italia-Spagna IT-117, MCYT BFM2002-01308, Spain.

  2. Periodic orbits near heteroclinic cycles in a cyclic replicator system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanshi; Wu, Hong; Ruan, Shigui

    2012-04-01

    A species is semelparous if every individual reproduces only once in its life and dies immediately after the reproduction. While the reproduction opportunity is unique per year and the individual's period from birth to reproduction is just n years, the individuals that reproduce in the ith year (modulo n) are called the ith year class, i = 1, 2, . . . , n. The dynamics of the n year-class system can be described by a differential equation system of Lotka-Volterra type. For the case n = 4, there is a heteroclinic cycle on the boundary as shown in previous works. In this paper, we focus on the case n = 4 and show the existence, growth and disappearance of periodic orbits near the heteroclinic cycle, which is a part of the conjecture by Diekmann and van Gils (SIAM J Appl Dyn Syst 8:1160-1189, 2009). By analyzing the Poincaré map near the heteroclinic cycle and introducing a metric to measure the size of the periodic orbit, we show that (i) when the average competitive degree among subpopulations (year classes) in the system is weak, there exists an asymptotically stable periodic orbit near the heteroclinic cycle which is repelling; (ii) the periodic orbit grows in size when some competitive degree increases, and converges to the heteroclinic cycle when the average competitive degree tends to be strong; (iii) when the average competitive degree is strong, there is no periodic orbit near the heteroclinic cycle which becomes asymptotically stable. Our results provide explanations why periodic solutions expand and disappear and why all but one subpopulation go extinct. PMID:21656008

  3. Magnetospheric Periodicities at Saturn Equinox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbary, J. F.; Mitchell, D. G.; Roelof, E.; Paranicas, C.; Krimigis, S. M.; Krupp, N.; Hamilton, D. C.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2010-12-01

    For several years before equinox, the energetic charged and neutral particles in Saturn’s magnetosphere displayed strong periodicities near 10.8 hours, the same period observed in radio emissions and magnetic fields. These particle periodicities have now been observed at equinox in electrons, protons, oxygen ions, and neutral hydrogen and oxygen atoms at all energies greater than ~3 keV, the lowest energies measured by the Magnetospheric IMaging Instrument (MIMI) on the Cassini spacecraft. The equinoctial electrons exhibit a very strong period at 10.72 hours, while the protons have essentially no periodicity at all. Water group ions display a notable period at 10.73 hours. Both the electrons and the ions have curious overtones in their spectral structure that may be related to solar wind modulation. The energetic neutral hydrogen and oxygen atoms have strong periods of 10.79 hours at equinox. Within the uncertainties of the measurements, the ENA periods are slightly longer than the charged particle periods, although they cover a somewhat different time interval. For comparison, the Cassini magnetometer observed periodicities in Saturn’s magnetic field of 10.65 hours during the same equinoctial interval. These observations will be interpreted in terms of a wavy magnetodisk model.

  4. The Fermilab physics class library

    SciTech Connect

    Fischler, M.; Brown, W.; Gaines, I.; Kennedy, R.D.; Marraffino, J.; Michelotti, L.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Yoh, J.; Adams, D.; Paterno, M.

    1997-02-01

    The Fermilab Physics Class Library Task Force has been formed to supply classes and utilities, primarily in support of efforts by CDF and D0 toward using C++. A collection of libraries and tools will be assembled via development by the task force, collaboration with other HEP developers, and acquisition of existing modules. The main emphasis is on a kit of resources which physics coders can incorporate into their programs, with confidence in robustness and correct behavior. The task force is drawn from CDF, DO and the FNAL Computing and Beams Divisions. Modules-containers, linear algebra, histograms, etc.-have been assigned priority, based on immediate Run II coding activity, and will be available at times ranging from now to late May.

  5. Entropic One-Class Classifiers.

    PubMed

    Livi, Lorenzo; Sadeghian, Alireza; Pedrycz, Witold

    2015-12-01

    The one-class classification problem is a well-known research endeavor in pattern recognition. The problem is also known under different names, such as outlier and novelty/anomaly detection. The core of the problem consists in modeling and recognizing patterns belonging only to a so-called target class. All other patterns are termed nontarget, and therefore, they should be recognized as such. In this paper, we propose a novel one-class classification system that is based on an interplay of different techniques. Primarily, we follow a dissimilarity representation-based approach; we embed the input data into the dissimilarity space (DS) by means of an appropriate parametric dissimilarity measure. This step allows us to process virtually any type of data. The dissimilarity vectors are then represented by weighted Euclidean graphs, which we use to determine the entropy of the data distribution in the DS and at the same time to derive effective decision regions that are modeled as clusters of vertices. Since the dissimilarity measure for the input data is parametric, we optimize its parameters by means of a global optimization scheme, which considers both mesoscopic and structural characteristics of the data represented through the graphs. The proposed one-class classifier is designed to provide both hard (Boolean) and soft decisions about the recognition of test patterns, allowing an accurate description of the classification process. We evaluate the performance of the system on different benchmarking data sets, containing either feature-based or structured patterns. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique. PMID:25879977

  6. Growing a strong middle class.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Martin

    2009-01-01

    An important mission for the country is achieving sustainability while strengthening the middle class. American leadership and innovation can play a critical role in defining the interconnectedness of our economy and environment-and in unlocking, harnessing, and advancing green technologies. The State of Maryland has launched a Green Jobs Initiative focused on attracting green businesses, working with existing businesses to adopt sustainable practices, promoting clean energy research and use, and training the work force for ne, green-collar jobs. PMID:19608500

  7. Social theory and social class.

    PubMed

    Susser, I

    1997-01-01

    Concepts of class developed with the emergence of industrial society in the nineteenth century. For an understanding of current divisions, theories must reflect the advances of capitalism and the global economy that characterize the late twentieth century. In industrialized societies, reductions in the industrial workforce and the growth of finance, investment and real-estate industries worldwide have produced a new, largely female, service workforce. Large sectors of industry have departed in search of cheaper labour in poorer countries, which also have a rising number of women workers. In those areas, as a result, a new industrial workforce has emerged. Concomitantly, accumulation of land in less developed agricultural regions for production for the world market has led to an increase in mobile agricultural labour and a shift of landless labourers to the cities of less developed countries. In addition, both upward and downward mobility have occurred for individuals and groups in specific populations, as well as for particular diseases in developed and less developed countries. All these processes have precipitated fundamental changes in class, gender and family relationships and transformed the living conditions of populations in both developed and less developed societies. These changes have major implications for the patterns of health and disease in the world today. Objective measures of social change may be difficult to construct and use in epidemiological cancer research. Since questions of class and shifting social relations are directly implicated in the patterns of disease, they must be assessed in future research as accurately as possible. PMID:9353662

  8. 49 CFR 173.2 - Hazardous materials classes and index to hazard class definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hazardous materials classes and index to hazard... classes and index to hazard class definitions. The hazard class of a hazardous material is indicated.... Division No. (if any) Name of class or division 49 CFR reference for definitions None Forbidden...

  9. 49 CFR 173.2 - Hazardous materials classes and index to hazard class definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hazardous materials classes and index to hazard... classes and index to hazard class definitions. The hazard class of a hazardous material is indicated.... Division No. (if any) Name of class or division 49 CFR reference for definitions None Forbidden...

  10. 49 CFR 173.2 - Hazardous materials classes and index to hazard class definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hazardous materials classes and index to hazard... classes and index to hazard class definitions. The hazard class of a hazardous material is indicated.... Division No. (if any) Name of class or division 49 CFR reference for definitions None Forbidden...

  11. 49 CFR 173.2 - Hazardous materials classes and index to hazard class definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hazardous materials classes and index to hazard... classes and index to hazard class definitions. The hazard class of a hazardous material is indicated.... Division No. (if any) Name of class or division 49 CFR reference for definitions None Forbidden...

  12. Class Construction: White Working-Class Student Identity in the New Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freie, Carrie

    2007-01-01

    "Class Construction" explores class, racial, and gender identity construction among white, working-class students. Delving into River City High School, Freie asks what happens to the adolescent children of working-class families when economic changes such as globalization and technological advancements have altered the face of working-class jobs.…

  13. 49 CFR 173.2 - Hazardous materials classes and index to hazard class definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Division No. (if any) Name of class or division 49 CFR reference for definitions None Forbidden materials... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hazardous materials classes and index to hazard... classes and index to hazard class definitions. The hazard class of a hazardous material is...

  14. From Periodic Properties to a Periodic Table Arrangement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besalú, Emili

    2013-01-01

    A periodic table is constructed from the consideration of periodic properties and the application of the principal components analysis technique. This procedure is useful for objects classification and data reduction and has been used in the field of chemistry for many applications, such as lanthanides, molecules, or conformers classification.…

  15. On the Period-Amplitude and Amplitude-Period Relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.

    2008-01-01

    Examined are Period-Amplitude and Amplitude-Period relationships based on the cyclic behavior of the 12-month moving averages of monthly mean sunspot numbers for cycles 0.23, both in terms of Fisher's exact tests for 2x2 contingency tables and linear regression analyses. Concerning the Period-Amplitude relationship (same cycle), because cycle 23's maximum amplitude is known to be 120.8, the inferred regressions (90-percent prediction intervals) suggest that its period will be 131 +/- 24 months (using all cycles) or 131 +/- 18 months (ignoring cycles 2 and 4, which have the extremes of period, 108 and 164 months, respectively). Because cycle 23 has already persisted for 142 months (May 1996 through February 2008), based on the latter prediction, it should end before September 2008. Concerning the Amplitude-Period relationship (following cycle maximum amplitude versus preceding cycle period), because cycle 23's period is known to be at least 142 months, the inferred regressions (90-percent prediction intervals) suggest that cycle 24's maximum amplitude will be about less than or equal to 96.1 +/- 55.0 (using all cycle pairs) or less than or equal to 91.0 +/- 36.7 (ignoring statistical outlier cycle pairs). Hence, cycle 24's maximum amplitude is expected to be less than 151, perhaps even less than 128, unless cycle pair 23/24 proves to be a statistical outlier.

  16. Scaling limits of periodic monopoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to explore the structure of singly periodic monopoles for different values of the size to period ratio. The transition between a chain of small monopoles and the approximately two dimensional chain of large monopoles takes us through a region with an unintuitive dependence on the periodic direction. The focus is mainly on the smooth SU(2) monopole of charge 2.

  17. Novel classes of antibiotics or more of the same?

    PubMed Central

    Coates, Anthony RM; Halls, Gerry; Hu, Yanmin

    2011-01-01

    The world is running out of antibiotics. Between 1940 and 1962, more than 20 new classes of antibiotics were marketed. Since then, only two new classes have reached the market. Analogue development kept pace with the emergence of resistant bacteria until 10–20 years ago. Now, not enough analogues are reaching the market to stem the tide of antibiotic resistance, particularly among gram-negative bacteria. This review examines the existing systemic antibiotic pipeline in the public domain, and reveals that 27 compounds are in clinical development, of which two are new classes, both of which are in Phase I clinical trials. In view of the high attrition rate of drugs in early clinical development, particularly new classes and the current regulatory hurdles, it does not seem likely that new classes will be marketed soon. This paper suggests that, if the world is to return to a situation in which there are enough antibiotics to cope with the inevitable ongoing emergence of bacterial resistance, we need to recreate the prolific antibiotic discovery period between 1940 and 1962, which produced 20 classes that served the world well for 60 years. If another 20 classes and their analogues, particularly targeting gram-negatives could be produced soon, they might last us for the next 60 years. How can this be achieved? Only a huge effort by governments in the form of finance, legislation and providing industry with real incentives will reverse this. Industry needs to re-enter the market on a much larger scale, and academia should rebuild its antibiotic discovery infrastructure to support this effort. The alternative is Medicine without effective antibiotics. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on Respiratory Pharmacology. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.163.issue-1 PMID:21323894

  18. Novel classes of antibiotics or more of the same?

    PubMed

    Coates, Anthony R M; Halls, Gerry; Hu, Yanmin

    2011-05-01

    The world is running out of antibiotics. Between 1940 and 1962, more than 20 new classes of antibiotics were marketed. Since then, only two new classes have reached the market. Analogue development kept pace with the emergence of resistant bacteria until 10-20 years ago. Now, not enough analogues are reaching the market to stem the tide of antibiotic resistance, particularly among gram-negative bacteria. This review examines the existing systemic antibiotic pipeline in the public domain, and reveals that 27 compounds are in clinical development, of which two are new classes, both of which are in Phase I clinical trials. In view of the high attrition rate of drugs in early clinical development, particularly new classes and the current regulatory hurdles, it does not seem likely that new classes will be marketed soon. This paper suggests that, if the world is to return to a situation in which there are enough antibiotics to cope with the inevitable ongoing emergence of bacterial resistance, we need to recreate the prolific antibiotic discovery period between 1940 and 1962, which produced 20 classes that served the world well for 60 years. If another 20 classes and their analogues, particularly targeting gram-negatives could be produced soon, they might last us for the next 60 years. How can this be achieved? Only a huge effort by governments in the form of finance, legislation and providing industry with real incentives will reverse this. Industry needs to re-enter the market on a much larger scale, and academia should rebuild its antibiotic discovery infrastructure to support this effort. The alternative is Medicine without effective antibiotics. PMID:21323894

  19. Changing Periods of ST Puppis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, S.; Butterworth, N.; Pearce, A.

    2015-12-01

    ST Puppis is a reasonably bright W Virginis variable star, a Type 2 Cepheid with a record of substantial and erratic period changes—21 during the interval 1900 to 1985 with a range of magnitude from 17.4 to 19.2. It was observed as part of Variable Stars South's Cepheid project by Butterworth in 2014 and 2015 using DSLR photometry in BGR passbands and visually by Pearce in 2015. The known period changes are shown graphically and doubtful ones examined and discarded if necessary. With its period and amplitude with a frequently changing period it is a suitable and worthwhile object for visual observing.

  20. Photometry of the 1991 Superoutburst of EF Pegasi: Super-Quasi-Periodic Oscillations with Rapidly Decaying Periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Taichi

    2002-02-01

    We observed the 1991 October outburst of EF Peg. Prominent superhumps with a period of 0.08705(1)d were observed, qualifying EF Peg as being a long-period SU UMa-type dwarf nova. The superhump period showed a monotonic decrease during the superoutburst, which makes a contrast to the virtually zero period change observed during the 1997 superoutburst of the same object. Large-amplitude and highly coherent quasi-periodic oscillations (super-QPOs) were observed on October 18, when superhumps were still growing in amplitude. Most strikingly, the QPOs showed a rapid decrease in the period from 18min to 6.8min within the 3.2-hr observing run. Such a rapid change in the period has not been observed in any class of QPOs in cataclysmic variables. We propose a hypothesis that the rapid decrease of the QPO period reflects a rapid removal of the angular momentum from an orbiting blob in the accretion disk, via viscosity in a turbulent disk. A brief comparison is given with the QPOs in X-ray binaries, some of which are known to show a similar rapid decrease in the periods.

  1. Spirit Discovers New Class of Igneous Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    During the past two-and-a-half years of traversing the central part of Gusev Crater, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has analyzed the brushed and ground-into surfaces of multiple rocks using the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer, which measures the abundance of major chemical elements. In the process, Spirit has documented the first example of a particular kind of volcanic region on Mars known as an alkaline igneous province. The word alkaline refers to the abundance of sodium and potassium, two major rock-forming elements from the alkali metals on the left-hand side of the periodic table.

    All of the relatively unaltered rocks -- those least changed by wind, water, freezing, or other weathering agents -- examined by Spirit have been igneous, meaning that they crystallized from molten magmas. One way geologists classify igneous rocks is by looking at the amount of potassium and sodium relative to the amount of silica, the most abundant rock-forming mineral on Earth. In the case of volcanic rocks, the amount of silica present gives scientists clues to the kind of volcanism that occurred, while the amounts of potassium and sodium provide clues about the history of the rock. Rocks with more silica tend to erupt explosively. Higher contents of potassium and sodium, as seen in alkaline rocks like those at Gusev, may indicate partial melting of magma at higher pressure, that is, deeper in the Martian mantle. The abundance of potassium and sodium determines the kinds of minerals that make up igneous rocks. If igneous rocks have enough silica, potassium and sodium always bond with the silica to form certain minerals.

    The Gusev rocks define a new chemical category not previously seen on Mars, as shown in this diagram plotting alkalis versus silica, compiled by University of Tennessee geologist Harry McSween. The abbreviations 'Na2O' and 'K2O' refer to oxides of sodium and potassium. The abbreviation 'SiO2' refers to silica. The abbreviation 'wt

  2. Quasi-periodicity in relative quasi-periodic tori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fassò, Francesco; García-Naranjo, Luis C.; Giacobbe, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    At variance from the cases of relative equilibria and relative periodic orbits of dynamical systems with symmetry, the dynamics in relative quasi-periodic tori (namely, subsets of the phase space that project to an invariant torus of the reduced system on which the flow is quasi-periodic) is not yet completely understood. Even in the simplest situation of a free action of a compact and abelian connected group, the dynamics in a relative quasi-periodic torus is not necessarily quasi-periodic. It is known that quasi-periodicity of the unreduced dynamics is related to the reducibility of the reconstruction equation, and sufficient conditions for it are virtually known only in a perturbation context. We provide a different, though equivalent, approach to this subject, based on the hypothesis of the existence of commuting, group-invariant lifts of a set of generators of the reduced torus. Under this hypothesis, which is shown to be equivalent to the reducibility of the reconstruction equation, we give a complete description of the structure of the relative quasi-periodic torus, which is a principal torus bundle whose fibers are tori of a dimension which exceeds that of the reduced torus by at most the rank of the group. The construction can always be done in such a way that these tori have minimal dimension and carry ergodic flow.

  3. Dynamics of annulus maps III: periodic points and completeness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, J.; Portela, A.; Rovella, A.; Xavier, J.

    2016-09-01

    Consider a continuous surjective self map of the open annulus with degree d  >  1. It is proved that the number of Nielsen classes of periodic points is the maximum possible whenever f has a completely invariant essential continuum. The same result is obtained in negative degree |d|>1 and for just forward invariant essential continua, provided that the continuum is locally connected. We also deal with the problem of whether there is a representative of each Nielsen class in the filled set of the invariant continuum. Moreover, if the map extends continuously to the boundary of the annulus and both boundary components are either attracting or repelling, the hypothesis on the existence of the invariant continuum is no longer needed for obtaining all the periodic points in the interior of the annulus.

  4. Current North American Indian Periodicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blew, Carol Van Antwerp Holliday; And Others

    Approximately 150 newsletters, newspapers, and other periodicals are cited in this bibliography of current sources of information about or directed toward North American Indians. One-sentence descriptions of content, ordering information, and frequency of publication are provided. The majority of the periodicals cited emphasize current events of…

  5. 75 FR 39200 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Counsel, at stephen.sharfman@prc.gov or 202-789-6820. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Regulatory History, 75 FR... a proposed change in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. This action responds to... rulemaking proceeding to consider a change in the analytical methods approved for use in periodic...

  6. 76 FR 296 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... consider a proposed change in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. The proposed change... rulemaking proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1... Requesting Initiation of a Proceeding to Consider Proposed Changes in Analytic Principles (Proposals...

  7. Scheduling periodic jobs that allow imprecise results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Jen-Yao; Liu, Jane W. S.; Lin, Kwei-Jay

    1990-01-01

    The problem of scheduling periodic jobs in hard real-time systems that support imprecise computations is discussed. Two workload models of imprecise computations are presented. These models differ from traditional models in that a task may be terminated any time after it has produced an acceptable result. Each task is logically decomposed into a mandatory part followed by an optional part. In a feasible schedule, the mandatory part of every task is completed before the deadline of the task. The optional part refines the result produced by the mandatory part to reduce the error in the result. Applications are classified as type N and type C, according to undesirable effects of errors. The two workload models characterize the two types of applications. The optional parts of the tasks in an N job need not ever be completed. The resulting quality of each type-N job is measured in terms of the average error in the results over several consecutive periods. A class of preemptive, priority-driven algorithms that leads to feasible schedules with small average error is described and evaluated.

  8. Testing for periodicity of extinction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raup, David M.; Sepkoski, J. J., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The statistical techniques used by Raup and Sepkoski (1984 and 1986) to identify a 26-Myr periodicity in the biological extinction record for the past 250 Myr are reexamined, responding in detail to the criticisms of Stigler and Wagner (1987). It is argued that evaluation of a much larger set of extinction data using a time scale with 51 sampling intervals supports the finding of periodicity. In a reply by Sigler and Wagner, the preference for a 26-Myr period is attributed to a numerical quirk in the Harland et al. (1982) time scale, in which the subinterval boundaries are not linear interpolations between the stage boundaries but have 25-Myr periodicity. It is stressed that the results of the stringent statistical tests imposed do not disprove periodicity but rather indicate that the evidence and analyses presented so far are inadequate.

  9. Schuler Period in LEO Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Russell J.; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.

    2004-01-01

    This paper generalizes and extends the concept of the Schuler oscillation that occurs in the theory of inertial navigation systems, allowing one to see how the Schuler phenomenon affects inertial navigation systems operating in space. We show why a low earth orbit satellite's orbital period is identical to the period of the Schuler pendulum, which is the period of the errors for terrestrial inertial navigation systems. We also show that the generalized form of the Schuler oscillation takes the same form as the Hill-Clohessy-Wiltshire equations for satellite relative motion and that the period of the out-of-plane motion in neighboring satellite relative trajectories is the same as the Schuler period. Finally, we describe how INS gyro drift manifests itself in different coordinate systems for the orbital case. These results may assist orbital flight dynamics and attitude control systems engineers in the design and analysis of INS-equipped spacecraft

  10. Rationalization of Comet Halley's periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belton, M. J. S.

    1990-07-01

    The sense of long axis orientation of Comet Halley during the Vega 1 encounter must be reversed from that deduced by Sagdeev et al. (1986) in order to harmonize the comet nucleus' Vega/Giotto-observed orientations with periodicities extracted from time-series brightness data. It is also demonstrated that Vega/Giotto observations can be satisfied by either a 2.2- or 3.7-day long-axis free precession period. A novel Fourier algorithm is used to reanalyze five independent data sets; strong evidence is adduced for periods harmonically related to a 7.4-day period. The preferred candidate models for Halley's nuclear rotation are characterized by a long-axis precession period of 3.7 days.

  11. LYRA Mid-Term Periodicities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wauters, L.; Dominique, M.; Dammasch, I. E.

    2016-08-01

    The spectra of the PROBA2/LYRA data, similarly to every other solar time series, show predominant periodicities that can be of solar or instrumental origin. In this article, we compare the main periodicities characterizing the LYRA spectrum to those found in the sunspot number, in the 10.7 cm flux, in an X-ray flare index, and in the sunspot area evolution. We focused on the 2010 to 2014 time range, for which the LYRA data are available, although we also briefly address the evolution of the main periodicities in the longer range. The mid-term periodicities at {˜} 28, {˜} 44, {˜} 54, {˜} 59, {˜} 100, {˜} 110, and {˜} 150 days appear as highly significant in several analyzed datasets. The consistency of distinct periodicities between datasets provides characteristics for the global Sun. This consistency also strengthens the reliability of LYRA data.

  12. Simultaneous observation of monochromatic and variable period geomagnetic pulsations

    SciTech Connect

    McDiarmid, D.R.; Nielsen, E. )

    1987-05-01

    On February 4, 1983, following a storm sudden commencement, a monochromatic and a variable period pulsation were simultaneously observed by the Scandinavian Twin Auroral Radar Experiment (STARE) and Sweden and Britain Radar Experiment (SABRE) radar systems. Both pulsations differed from previously analyzed examples of their class. The phase of the monochromatic pulsation increased linearly with latitude rather than decreased. Its amplitude remained relatively constant over the latitude interval of linear phase change. The variable period pulsation experienced a change of orientation of its essentially linear polarization diagram in association with a discontinuity of its period. The variable period pulsation was thus manifest in both the toroidal and poloidal components. The results are discussed in terms of recent developments in theoretical pulsation modeling.

  13. Incorporating Spectra Into Periodic Timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connors, Alanna; Hong, J.; Protopapas, P.; Kashyap, V.

    2011-09-01

    The Chandra surveys have resulted in a wealth of data on low-luminosity X-ray sources (Lx 1030-34 erg/s) of Galactic scales beyond the local solar neighborhood. Many of these are compact binaries, in particular, cataclysmic variables, often identified by their periodic X-ray variability and spectra. Hong et al. (2009, 2011) have used energy quantiles (Hong, Schlegel & Grindlay, 2004) as a fast, robust indicator of spectral hardness and absorption of the X-ray sources. Energy quantiles also enable a simple but effective illustration of spectral changes with phase in these periodic systems: e.g. absorption by the accreting material is understood to drive the periodic light-curves. An interesting question is how to best make use of the information encapsulated in the periodic change in energy spectrum, along with the periodic change in intensity, especially for cases of ambiguous period determination? And, how to do it computationally efficiently? A first approach is to do the period search in intensity, as is standard; and then use a criterion of spectral variation to verify possible periods. Huijse, Zegers & Protopapas (2011) recently demonstrated a powerful period estimation technique using information potential and correntropy embedded in the light curve. Similar quantities based on energies (or energy quantiles) of X-ray photons can serve as criteria of spectral variation. A different approach treats the spectrum variations and intensity variations completely independently, searching through period-space in each, and then combining the results. A more general method would include both at the same time, looking for statistically significant variations above what is expected for a constant (in intensity and spectrum).

  14. Three classes of Martian rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this portion of the 360-degree color gallery pan, looking to the northeast, the colors have been exaggerated to highlight the differences between rocks and soils. Visible are the downwind sides of rocks, not exposed to wind scouring like Barnacle Bill (which faces upwind). There is a close correspondence between the shapes and colors of the rocks. Three general classes of rocks are recognized: large rounded rocks with weathered coatings, small gray angular rocks lacking weathered coatings, and flat white rocks. The large rounded rocks in the distance, marked by the red arrows, are comparable to Yogi. Spectral properties show that these rocks have a highly weathered coating in addition to a distinctive shape. A second population of smaller, angular rocks (blue arrows) in the foreground have unweathered surfaces even on the downwind side, except where covered on their tops by drift. These are comparable to Barnacle Bill. They may have been emplaced at the site relatively recently, perhaps as ejecta from an impact crater, so they have not had time to weather as extensively as the larger older rocks. The third kind of rock (white arrows) is white and flat, and includes Scooby Doo in the foreground and a large deposit in the background called Baker's Bank. The age of the white rock relative to the other two classes is still being debated. One representative rock of each class (Yogi, Barnacle Bill, and Scooby Doo) has been measured by the rover.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  15. A class of integrable metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anabalón, Andrés; Batista, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    In four dimensions, the most general metric admitting two commuting Killing vectors and a rank-two Killing tensor can be parametrized by ten arbitrary functions of a single variable. We show that picking a special vierbein, reducing the system to eight functions, implies the existence of two geodesic and share-free, null congruences, generated by two principal null directions of the Weyl tensor. Thus, if the spacetime is an Einstein manifold, the Goldberg-Sachs theorem implies it is Petrov type D, and by explicit construction, is in the Carter class. Hence, our analysis provides a straightforward connection between the most general integrable structure and the Carter family of spacetimes.

  16. 48 CFR 2001.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR 2001.404 Class deviations. Class deviations affect more than one contracting action. Where deviations from the FAR or...

  17. 48 CFR 2801.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... JUSTICE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and JAR 2801.404 Class deviations. Requests for class deviations from the FAR or the JAR shall be submitted to the PE. The PE will consult...

  18. Modelling Symmetry Classes 233 and 432.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutch, Steven I.

    1986-01-01

    Offers instructions and geometrical data for constructing solids of the enantiomorphous symmetry classes 233 and 432. Provides background information for each class and highlights symmetrical relationships and construction patterns. (ML)

  19. Making "World-Class Universities": Japan's Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonezawa, Akiyoshi

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the qualities of "world-class" universities and the measures that governments and academia implemented to create them. The article suggests way in which Japan can elevate its universities to "world-class" status. (SWM)

  20. FDA Bolsters Warnings about Class of Antibiotics

    MedlinePlus

    ... html FDA Bolsters Warnings About Class of Antibiotics Fluoroquinolones such as Cipro, Levaquin should be reserved for ... label warnings on a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones because the drugs can lead to disabling side ...

  1. 48 CFR 401.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and AGAR 401.404 Class deviations. Where deviations from the FAR or AGAR are considered necessary for classes of contracts, requests for authority to...

  2. 48 CFR 401.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and AGAR 401.404 Class deviations. Where deviations from the FAR or AGAR are considered necessary for classes of contracts, requests for authority to...

  3. 32 CFR 1633.6 - Consideration of classes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the classes listed in the following table, the registrant shall be classified in the lowest class for... Military Training. Class 4-B: Official Deferred by Law. Class 4-C: Alien or Dual National. Class...

  4. Generalized van der Waals Hamiltonian: periodic orbits and C1 nonintegrability.

    PubMed

    Guirao, Juan L G; Llibre, Jaume; Vera, Juan A

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the periodic orbits of the generalized van der Waals Hamiltonian system. The tool for studying such periodic orbits is the averaging theory. Moreover, for this Hamiltonian system we provide information on its C(1) nonintegrability, i.e., on the existence of a second first integral of class C(1). PMID:22587198

  5. Optimization of dry period in Karan Fries cow

    PubMed Central

    Japheth, K. Puhle; Mehla, R. K.; Singh, Mahendra; Gupta, A. K.; Das, Ramendra; Bharti, Pranay; Chandrasekar, T.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to optimize dry period (DP) length that can maximize the production across adjacent lactations and overall lifetime yield. Materials and Methods: Performance records with respect to DP spread over a period of 15-year in Karan Fries (KF) cattle maintained at Livestock Research Centre (National Dairy Research Institute), were collected for the study. Data of 681 KF cows were analyzed by least square technique to examine the effect of non-genetic factors on DP. Season of calving was classified into four seasons: Winter season (December-March), summer season (April-June), rainy season (July-September), and autumn season (October-November); period of calving into five periods: 1998-2000 (1-period), 2001-2003 (II-period), 2004-2006 (III-period), 2007-2009 (IV-period), and 2010-2012 (V-period), and parity into six parities, i.e., 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, and >6th parities to see the effect of non-genetic factors on DP. Results: Period of calving, season of calving, and parity did not affect the DP significantly (p<0.05). The overall least square mean of DP was 67.93±2.12 days. For the optimization of DP with regard to milk productivity, analysis was carried out by class interval method. DP was classified into eight classes (<22, 23-45, 46-67, 68-89, 90-111, 112-133, 134-155, and >156 days), and optimum level was obtained at 46-67 days (3rd class) with the following respective milk yield (MY) of 305 daily MY (4016.44±43.68 kg), total MY (4704.21±61.51 kg), MY per day of lactation length (13.03±0.13 kg), and MY per day of calving interval (11.68±0.41 kg). Conclusion: From the study, it was concluded that this optimal DP length (46-67 days) is suitable for maximizing the production. Hence, one should aim to dry off pregnant cows to achieve a DP of appropriate length to enhance productivity in the next lactation, as very short and very long DP reduces the economic profitability in dairy animals. PMID:27397990

  6. Novel Class of Spider Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Vassilevski, Alexander A.; Fedorova, Irina M.; Maleeva, Ekaterina E.; Korolkova, Yuliya V.; Efimova, Svetlana S.; Samsonova, Olga V.; Schagina, Ludmila V.; Feofanov, Alexei V.; Magazanik, Lev G.; Grishin, Eugene V.

    2010-01-01

    Venom of the yellow sac spider Cheiracanthium punctorium (Miturgidae) was found unique in terms of molecular composition. Its principal toxic component CpTx 1 (15.1 kDa) was purified, and its full amino acid sequence (134 residues) was established by protein chemistry and mass spectrometry techniques. CpTx 1 represents a novel class of spider toxin with modular architecture. It consists of two different yet homologous domains (modules) each containing a putative inhibitor cystine knot motif, characteristic of the widespread single domain spider neurotoxins. Venom gland cDNA sequencing provided precursor protein (prepropeptide) structures of three CpTx 1 isoforms (a–c) that differ by single residue substitutions. The toxin possesses potent insecticidal (paralytic and lethal), cytotoxic, and membrane-damaging activities. In both fly and frog neuromuscular preparations, it causes stable and irreversible depolarization of muscle fibers leading to contracture. This effect appears to be receptor-independent and is inhibited by high concentrations of divalent cations. CpTx 1 lyses cell membranes, as visualized by confocal microscopy, and destabilizes artificial membranes in a manner reminiscent of other membrane-active peptides by causing numerous defects of variable conductance and leading to bilayer rupture. The newly discovered class of modular polypeptides enhances our knowledge of the toxin universe. PMID:20657014

  7. Do Class Size Effects Differ across Grades?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nandrup, Anne Brink

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to the class size literature by analysing whether short-run class size effects are constant across grade levels in compulsory school. Results are based on administrative data on all pupils enrolled in Danish public schools. Identification is based on a government-imposed class size cap that creates exogenous variation in…

  8. 48 CFR 1401.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... THE INTERIOR ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations from the FAR and DIAR 1401.404 Class deviations. (a) The Director, PAM, is authorized to approve class deviations of FAR or DIAR provisions which... actions which will be affected. (c) For a FAR class deviation the Director, PAM, shall consult with...

  9. 48 CFR 1.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations from the FAR 1.404 Class deviations. Class deviations affect more... basis, it should propose a FAR revision, if appropriate. Civilian agencies, other than NASA, must furnish a copy of each approved class deviation to the FAR Secretariat. (a) For civilian agencies...

  10. 48 CFR 801.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations from the FAR or VAAR 801.404 Class deviations. Authority to authorize class deviations from the FAR and VAAR is delegated to the SPE and is further delegated to the DSPE. The DSPE may authorize class deviations from the FAR and VAAR when a...

  11. 48 CFR 501.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES ADMINISTRATION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and GSAR 501.404 Class... an individual contract action. (1) A class deviation to the FAR must be forwarded by the cognizant HCA to GSA's SPE for approval. Prior to approving a class deviation to the FAR, the SPE will...

  12. Factors Related to In-Class Spiritual Experience: Relationship between Pre-Class Scripture Reading, In-Class Note-Taking, and Perceived In-Class Spiritual Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, John, III; Sweat, Anthony R.; Plummer, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between student in-class note-taking and pre-class reading with perceived in-class spiritual and religious outcomes. This study surveyed 620 students enrolled in six different sections of an introductory religion course at a private religious university. Full-time religious faculty members…

  13. Predicting Latent Class Scores for Subsequent Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Janne; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Budtz-Jorgensen, Esben; Larsen, Klaus Groes

    2012-01-01

    Latent class regression models relate covariates and latent constructs such as psychiatric disorders. Though full maximum likelihood estimation is available, estimation is often in three steps: (i) a latent class model is fitted without covariates; (ii) latent class scores are predicted; and (iii) the scores are regressed on covariates. We propose…

  14. 47 CFR 73.210 - Station classes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station classes. 73.210 Section 73.210... Broadcast Stations § 73.210 Station classes. (a) The rules applicable to a particular station, including... are defined in § 73.205. Allotted station classes are indicated in the Table of Allotments, §...

  15. 47 CFR 73.210 - Station classes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Station classes. 73.210 Section 73.210... Broadcast Stations § 73.210 Station classes. (a) The rules applicable to a particular station, including... are defined in § 73.205. Allotted station classes are indicated in the Table of Allotments, §...

  16. 32 CFR 1630.2 - Classes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Classes. 1630.2 Section 1630.2 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.2 Classes. Each registrant shall be classified in one of the classes prescribed in this part....

  17. 32 CFR 1630.2 - Classes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Classes. 1630.2 Section 1630.2 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.2 Classes. Each registrant shall be classified in one of the classes prescribed in this part....

  18. 47 CFR 73.210 - Station classes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station classes. 73.210 Section 73.210... Broadcast Stations § 73.210 Station classes. (a) The rules applicable to a particular station, including... are defined in § 73.205. Allotted station classes are indicated in the Table of Allotments, §...

  19. 47 CFR 73.210 - Station classes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Station classes. 73.210 Section 73.210... Broadcast Stations § 73.210 Station classes. (a) The rules applicable to a particular station, including... are defined in § 73.205. Allotted station classes are indicated in the Table of Allotments, §...

  20. 32 CFR 1630.2 - Classes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classes. 1630.2 Section 1630.2 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.2 Classes. Each registrant shall be classified in one of the classes prescribed in this part....

  1. 32 CFR 1630.2 - Classes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Classes. 1630.2 Section 1630.2 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.2 Classes. Each registrant shall be classified in one of the classes prescribed in this part....

  2. Are Teacher Effects Larger in Small Classes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Sun, Min

    2014-01-01

    Teachers spend most of their time in school in classrooms, and their instruction and teaching practices may be affected by classroom context such as class size. We examine whether teacher effects interact with classroom context such as class size. Specifically, we seek to determine whether teacher effects are more pronounced in small classes than…

  3. 47 CFR 73.210 - Station classes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Station classes. 73.210 Section 73.210... Broadcast Stations § 73.210 Station classes. (a) The rules applicable to a particular station, including... are defined in § 73.205. Allotted station classes are indicated in the Table of Allotments, §...

  4. 32 CFR 1630.2 - Classes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Classes. 1630.2 Section 1630.2 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.2 Classes. Each registrant shall be classified in one of the classes prescribed in this part....

  5. Reducing Class Size To Increase Student Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lottes, Christine R.

    Reducing class size was considered an important element in a revised health course at Gettysburg College (Pennsylvania). However, reducing class size to approximately 15 students per class would require 38 sections, more than the health faculty could handle. To recruit additional instructors, the course was marketed to faculty and administrators…

  6. Using Social Class in Counseling Psychology Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, William Ming; Ali, Saba Rasheed; Soleck, Geoff; Hopps, Joshua; Dunston, Kwesi; Pickett, Theodore

    2004-01-01

    Social class is an important cultural construct, but it is poorly used in research. Problems in using social class may be associated with its poor definition in previous studies; conflating between social class and socioeconomic status; using objective indices such as income, education, and occupation rather than subjective measures; regarding…

  7. Flipping Quantitative Classes: A Triple Win

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swart, William; Wuensch, Karl L.

    2016-01-01

    In the "flipped" class, students use online materials to learn what is traditionally learned by attending lectures, and class time is used for interactive group learning. A required quantitative business class was taught as a flipped classroom in an attempt to improve student satisfaction in the course and reduce the "transactional…

  8. White Middle Class Identities and Urban Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Dympna; Savage, Mike; Ingram, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    The authors review "White middle class identities and urban schooling," by D. Reay, G. Crozier and D. James. This book focuses on the perspectives of white middle-class parents who make "against"-the-grain school choices for their children in urban England. It provides key insights into the dynamics of class practising that are played out in these…

  9. 48 CFR 2501.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Class deviations. 2501.404 Section 2501.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 2501.404 Class deviations. Class deviations may...

  10. How Consistent Are Class Size Effects?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros

    2011-01-01

    Thus far researchers have focused on computing average differences in student achievement between smaller and larger classes. In this study, the author focus on the distribution of the small class effects at the school level and compute the inconsistency of the small class effects across schools. The author use data from Project STAR to estimate…

  11. Teaching Extra-Large Foreign Language Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giauque, Gerald S.

    High quality instruction can be achieved in a foreign language classroom even though the class may be large by traditional standards, with as many as 60 students. Attitudes, class structure, classroom activities, and the teacher's role all play a part in this process in such classes. A positive attitude and enthusiasm on the teacher's part are…

  12. Encouraging Undergraduate Class Participation: A Student Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Nichole S.; Gragg, Marcia N.; Cramer, Kenneth M.

    2009-01-01

    Undergraduate classes typically involve a professor lecturing to 100 or more students. Too often, this results in minimal opportunities for student participation. Positive reinforcement was used to promote student participation (i.e., defined as relevant comments or questions) in a second-year psychology class (N = 97). Class participation was…

  13. 48 CFR 2501.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Class deviations. 2501.404 Section 2501.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 2501.404 Class deviations. Class deviations may...

  14. 48 CFR 2501.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Class deviations. 2501.404 Section 2501.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 2501.404 Class deviations. Class deviations may...

  15. 48 CFR 2501.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Class deviations. 2501.404 Section 2501.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 2501.404 Class deviations. Class deviations may...

  16. The Social Psychology of Class and Classism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Bernice

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, one is born into a family that can be identified as working class, middle class, or affluent--divisions that denote status and power, as defined by access to resources. This article explores the relationships between social class membership and a wide array of personal and social daily life experiences. It concludes with a…

  17. Give Your Technology Program a Little "Class"!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vengersammy, Ormilla

    2009-01-01

    The Orange County Library System (OCLS) began to offer basic technology classes in July 2000. The computers were funded through a grant awarded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Over time, the library staff noticed that the demand for the classes increased, so the offering of classes also increased. When the author arrived at OCLS, her main…

  18. 48 CFR 1501.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Class deviations. 1501.404 Section 1501.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL GENERAL Deviations 1501.404 Class deviations. Requests for class deviations to the FAR and the EPAAR shall be submitted to the HCA for processing...

  19. 48 CFR 1501.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Class deviations. 1501.404 Section 1501.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL GENERAL Deviations 1501.404 Class deviations. Requests for class deviations to the FAR and the EPAAR shall be submitted to the HCA for processing...

  20. 48 CFR 1501.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Class deviations. 1501.404 Section 1501.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL GENERAL Deviations 1501.404 Class deviations. Requests for class deviations to the FAR and the EPAAR shall be submitted to the HCA for processing...

  1. Chaos in Periodic Discrete Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yuming; Zhang, Lijuan; Yu, Panpan; Huang, Qiuling

    This paper focuses on chaos in periodic discrete systems, whose state space may vary with time. Some close relationships between some chaotic dynamical behaviors of a periodic discrete system and its autonomous induced system are given. Based on these relationships, several criteria of chaos are established and some sufficient conditions for no chaos are given for periodic discrete systems. Further, it is shown that a finite-dimensional linear periodic discrete system is not chaotic in the sense of Li-Yorke or Wiggins. In particular, an interesting problem of whether nonchaotic rules may generate a chaotic system is studied, with some examples provided, one of which surprisingly shows that a composition of globally asymptotically stable maps can be chaotic. In addition, some properties of sign pattern matrices of non-negative square matrices are given for convenience of the study.

  2. Periodical Vandalism: A Chronic Condition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleep, Esther L.

    1982-01-01

    A statistical analysis of the losses due to theft and mutilation in the periodicals collection at Brock University indicates that security needs to be tightened. Nine suggestions for improving security are offered, and six references are cited. (CHC)

  3. The character strengths of class clowns

    PubMed Central

    Ruch, Willibald; Platt, Tracey; Hofmann, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of “identified as a class clown,” “comic talent,” “disruptive rule-breaker,” and “subversive joker.” Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park and Peterson, 2006) showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, class clown behaviors were generally shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors “identified as the class clown” and “comic talent” were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors (“disruptive rule-breaker,” “subversive joker”) were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by

  4. The character strengths of class clowns.

    PubMed

    Ruch, Willibald; Platt, Tracey; Hofmann, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of "identified as a class clown," "comic talent," "disruptive rule-breaker," and "subversive joker." Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park and Peterson, 2006) showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, class clown behaviors were generally shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors "identified as the class clown" and "comic talent" were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors ("disruptive rule-breaker," "subversive joker") were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by teachers. PMID:25324796

  5. Borane derivatives: A New Class of Superhalogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Devleena; Pathak, Biswarup; Ahuja, Rajeev; Jena, Purusottam

    2012-02-01

    Halogens have the largest electron affinities of all elements in the periodic table, that of Cl being the highest, namely 3.6 eV. Superhalogens have electron affinities that far exceed that of halogens. Based on density functional theory calculations, we show that the Wade-Mingo's rule, well known for describing the stability of closo-boranes (BnHn^2-), can be used to design a new class of superhalogens by tailoring the size and composition of borane derivatives. These superhalogens do not have to have either a metal or a halogen atom unlike conventional superhalogens. We show this by taking B12H13 and CB11H12 as examples. Also, these superhalogens can be used as building blocks of hyperhalogens of the form M(B12H13)2 and M(CB11H12)2 (M=Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs). This finding opens the door to an untapped source of superhalogens and weakly coordinating anions with potential applications.

  6. A Novel Way to Relate Ontology Classes

    PubMed Central

    Choksi, Ami T.; Jinwala, Devesh C.

    2015-01-01

    The existing ontologies in the semantic web typically have anonymous union and intersection classes. The anonymous classes are limited in scope and may not be part of the whole inference process. The tools, namely, the pellet, the jena, and the protégé, interpret collection classes as (a) equivalent/subclasses of union class and (b) superclasses of intersection class. As a result, there is a possibility that the tools will produce error prone inference results for relations, namely, sub-, union, intersection, equivalent relations, and those dependent on these relations, namely, complement. To verify whether a class is complement of other involves utilization of sub- and equivalent relations. Motivated by the same, we (i) refine the test data set of the conference ontology by adding named, union, and intersection classes and (ii) propose a match algorithm to (a) calculate corrected subclasses list, (b) correctly relate intersection and union classes with their collection classes, and (c) match union, intersection, sub-, complement, and equivalent classes in a proper sequence, to avoid error prone match results. We compare the results of our algorithms with those of a candidate reasoner, namely, the pellet reasoner. To the best of our knowledge, ours is a unique attempt in establishing a novel way to relate ontology classes. PMID:25984560

  7. Revisiting Parametric Types and Virtual Classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Anders Bach; Ernst, Erik

    This paper presents a conceptually oriented updated view on the relationship between parametric types and virtual classes. The traditional view is that parametric types excel at structurally oriented composition and decomposition, and virtual classes excel at specifying mutually recursive families of classes whose relationships are preserved in derived families. Conversely, while class families can be specified using a large number of F-bounded type parameters, this approach is complex and fragile; and it is difficult to use traditional virtual classes to specify object composition in a structural manner, because virtual classes are closely tied to nominal typing. This paper adds new insight about the dichotomy between these two approaches; it illustrates how virtual constraints and type refinements, as recently introduced in gbeta and Scala, enable structural treatment of virtual types; finally, it shows how a novel kind of dynamic type check can detect compatibility among entire families of classes.

  8. Higher social class predicts increased unethical behavior

    PubMed Central

    Piff, Paul K.; Stancato, Daniel M.; Côté, Stéphane; Mendoza-Denton, Rodolfo; Keltner, Dacher

    2012-01-01

    Seven studies using experimental and naturalistic methods reveal that upper-class individuals behave more unethically than lower-class individuals. In studies 1 and 2, upper-class individuals were more likely to break the law while driving, relative to lower-class individuals. In follow-up laboratory studies, upper-class individuals were more likely to exhibit unethical decision-making tendencies (study 3), take valued goods from others (study 4), lie in a negotiation (study 5), cheat to increase their chances of winning a prize (study 6), and endorse unethical behavior at work (study 7) than were lower-class individuals. Mediator and moderator data demonstrated that upper-class individuals’ unethical tendencies are accounted for, in part, by their more favorable attitudes toward greed. PMID:22371585

  9. Characteristic classes associated to Q-bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotov, Alexei; Strobl, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    A Q-manifold is a graded manifold endowed with a vector field of degree 1 squaring to zero. We consider the notion of a Q-bundle, that is, a fiber bundle in the category of Q-manifolds. To each homotopy class of "gauge fields" (sections in the category of graded manifolds) and each cohomology class of a certain subcomplex of forms on the fiber we associate a cohomology class on the base. As any principal bundle yields canonically a Q-bundle, this construction generalizes Chern-Weil classes. Novel examples include cohomology classes that are locally de Rham differential of the integrands of topological sigma models obtained by the AKSZ-formalism in arbitrary dimensions. For Hamiltonian Poisson fibrations one obtains a characteristic 3-class in this manner. We also relate the framework to equivariant cohomology and Lecomte's characteristic classes of exact sequences of Lie algebras.

  10. General class of braneworld wormholes

    SciTech Connect

    Lobo, Francisco S. N.

    2007-03-15

    The brane cosmology scenario is based on the idea that the Universe is a 3-brane embedded in a five-dimensional bulk. In this work, a general class of braneworld wormholes is explored with R{ne}0, where R is the four dimensional Ricci scalar, and specific solutions are further analyzed. A fundamental ingredient of traversable wormholes is the violation of the null energy condition (NEC). However, it is the effective total stress-energy tensor that violates the latter, and in this work, the stress-energy tensor confined on the brane, threading the wormhole, is imposed to satisfy the NEC. It is also shown that in addition to the local high-energy bulk effects, nonlocal corrections from the Weyl curvature in the bulk may induce a NEC violating signature on the brane. Thus, braneworld gravity seems to provide a natural scenario for the existence of traversable wormholes.

  11. Class of discrete Gabor expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shidong; Healy, Dennis M., Jr.

    1994-03-01

    We present a new approach to studying a discrete Gabor expansion (DGE). We show that, in general, DGE is not the usual biorthogonal decomposition, but belongs to a larger and looser decomposition scheme which we call pseudo frame decomposition. It includes the DGE scheme proposed as a special case. The standard dual frame decomposition is also a special case. We derive algorithms using techniques for Gabor sequences to compute 'biorthogonal' sequences through proper matrix representation. Our algorithms involve solutions to a linear system to obtain the 'biorthogonal' windows. This approach provides a much broader mathematical view of the DGE, and therefore, establishes a wider mathematical foundation towards the theory of DGE. The general algorithm derived also provides a whole class of discrete Gabor expansions, among which 'good' ones can be generated. Simulation results are also provided.

  12. Class IIa Histone Deacetylases Are Conserved Regulators of Circadian Function*

    PubMed Central

    Fogg, Paul C. M.; O'Neill, John S.; Dobrzycki, Tomasz; Calvert, Shaun; Lord, Emma C.; McIntosh, Rebecca L. L.; Elliott, Christopher J. H.; Sweeney, Sean T.; Hastings, Michael H.; Chawla, Sangeeta

    2014-01-01

    Class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate the activity of many transcription factors to influence liver gluconeogenesis and the development of specialized cells, including muscle, neurons, and lymphocytes. Here, we describe a conserved role for class IIa HDACs in sustaining robust circadian behavioral rhythms in Drosophila and cellular rhythms in mammalian cells. In mouse fibroblasts, overexpression of HDAC5 severely disrupts transcriptional rhythms of core clock genes. HDAC5 overexpression decreases BMAL1 acetylation on Lys-537 and pharmacological inhibition of class IIa HDACs increases BMAL1 acetylation. Furthermore, we observe cyclical nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HDAC5 in mouse fibroblasts that is characteristically circadian. Mutation of the Drosophila homolog HDAC4 impairs locomotor activity rhythms of flies and decreases period mRNA levels. RNAi-mediated knockdown of HDAC4 in Drosophila clock cells also dampens circadian function. Given that the localization of class IIa HDACs is signal-regulated and influenced by Ca2+ and cAMP signals, our findings offer a mechanism by which extracellular stimuli that generate these signals can feed into the molecular clock machinery. PMID:25271152

  13. 47 CFR 73.26 - Regional channels; Class B and Class D stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Regional channels; Class B and Class D stations. 73.26 Section 73.26 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.26 Regional channels; Class B and Class D stations. (a) The following frequencies...

  14. 47 CFR 73.26 - Regional channels; Class B and Class D stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regional channels; Class B and Class D stations. 73.26 Section 73.26 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.26 Regional channels; Class B and Class D stations. (a) The following frequencies...

  15. 47 CFR 73.26 - Regional channels; Class B and Class D stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Regional channels; Class B and Class D stations. 73.26 Section 73.26 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.26 Regional channels; Class B and Class D stations. (a) The following frequencies...

  16. 47 CFR 73.26 - Regional channels; Class B and Class D stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Regional channels; Class B and Class D stations. 73.26 Section 73.26 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.26 Regional channels; Class B and Class D stations. (a) The following frequencies...

  17. 47 CFR 73.26 - Regional channels; Class B and Class D stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Regional channels; Class B and Class D stations. 73.26 Section 73.26 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.26 Regional channels; Class B and Class D stations. (a) The following frequencies...

  18. Sexual Outlaws and Class Struggle: Rethinking History and Class-Consciousness from a Queer Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libretti, Tim

    2004-01-01

    The rethinking history and a queer perspective of the consciousness regarding the sexual outlaws and class struggle is explained. On a theoretical level, the homophobia results in an impoverished and undialectical understanding of class and class consciousness as it precludes the comprehension that classes are composed of people of different…

  19. 40 CFR 82.3 - Definitions for class I and class II controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definitions for class I and class II controlled substances. 82.3 Section 82.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls § 82.3 Definitions for class I and class...

  20. 40 CFR 82.3 - Definitions for class I and class II controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definitions for class I and class II controlled substances. 82.3 Section 82.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls § 82.3 Definitions for class I and class...

  1. 47 CFR 73.6017 - Digital Class A TV station protection of Class A TV and digital Class A TV stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of Class A TV and digital Class A TV stations. 73.6017 Section 73.6017 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Broadcast Stations § 73.6017 Digital Class A TV station protection of Class A TV and digital Class A...

  2. 47 CFR 73.6017 - Digital Class A TV station protection of Class A TV and digital Class A TV stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of Class A TV and digital Class A TV stations. 73.6017 Section 73.6017 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Broadcast Stations § 73.6017 Digital Class A TV station protection of Class A TV and digital Class A...

  3. 47 CFR 73.6017 - Digital Class A TV station protection of Class A TV and digital Class A TV stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of Class A TV and digital Class A TV stations. 73.6017 Section 73.6017 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Broadcast Stations § 73.6017 Digital Class A TV station protection of Class A TV and digital Class A...

  4. 47 CFR 73.6017 - Digital Class A TV station protection of Class A TV and digital Class A TV stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of Class A TV and digital Class A TV stations. 73.6017 Section 73.6017 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Broadcast Stations § 73.6017 Digital Class A TV station protection of Class A TV and digital Class A...

  5. 47 CFR 73.6017 - Digital Class A TV station protection of Class A TV and digital Class A TV stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of Class A TV and digital Class A TV stations. 73.6017 Section 73.6017 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Broadcast Stations § 73.6017 Digital Class A TV station protection of Class A TV and digital Class A...

  6. 40 CFR 82.7 - Grant and phase reduction of baseline production and consumption allowances for class I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... production and consumption allowances for class I controlled substances. 82.7 Section 82.7 Protection of... OZONE Production and Consumption Controls § 82.7 Grant and phase reduction of baseline production and consumption allowances for class I controlled substances. For each control period specified in the...

  7. 40 CFR 82.7 - Grant and phase reduction of baseline production and consumption allowances for class I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... production and consumption allowances for class I controlled substances. 82.7 Section 82.7 Protection of... OZONE Production and Consumption Controls § 82.7 Grant and phase reduction of baseline production and consumption allowances for class I controlled substances. For each control period specified in the...

  8. 40 CFR 82.7 - Grant and phase reduction of baseline production and consumption allowances for class I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... production and consumption allowances for class I controlled substances. 82.7 Section 82.7 Protection of... OZONE Production and Consumption Controls § 82.7 Grant and phase reduction of baseline production and consumption allowances for class I controlled substances. For each control period specified in the...

  9. 40 CFR 82.7 - Grant and phase reduction of baseline production and consumption allowances for class I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... production and consumption allowances for class I controlled substances. 82.7 Section 82.7 Protection of... OZONE Production and Consumption Controls § 82.7 Grant and phase reduction of baseline production and consumption allowances for class I controlled substances. For each control period specified in the...

  10. 40 CFR 82.7 - Grant and phase reduction of baseline production and consumption allowances for class I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... production and consumption allowances for class I controlled substances. 82.7 Section 82.7 Protection of... OZONE Production and Consumption Controls § 82.7 Grant and phase reduction of baseline production and consumption allowances for class I controlled substances. For each control period specified in the...

  11. Shortest recurrence periods of novae

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Mariko; Saio, Hideyuki; Hachisu, Izumi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2014-10-01

    Stimulated by the recent discovery of the 1 yr recurrence period nova M31N 2008-12a, we examined the shortest recurrence periods of hydrogen shell flashes on mass-accreting white dwarfs (WDs). We discuss the mechanism that yields a finite minimum recurrence period for a given WD mass. Calculating the unstable flashes for various WD masses and mass accretion rates, we identified a shortest recurrence period of about two months for a non-rotating 1.38 M {sub ☉} WD with a mass accretion rate of 3.6 × 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. A 1 yr recurrence period is realized for very massive (≳ 1.3 M {sub ☉}) WDs with very high accretion rates (≳ 1.5 × 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}). We revised our stability limit of hydrogen shell burning, which will be useful for binary evolution calculations toward Type Ia supernovae.

  12. 25 CFR 291.9 - What must the Secretary do at the end of the 60-day comment period if the State offers an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... comment period if the State offers an alternative proposal for Class III gaming procedures? 291.9 Section... GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.9 What must the Secretary do at the end of the 60-day comment period if the State offers an alternative proposal for Class III gaming procedures? Within 30 days of receiving the...

  13. Bragg interactions in periodic media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaggard, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    The interaction of electromagnetic waves of wavelength lambda with periodic structures of spatial period lambda are studied. The emphasis of the work is on Bragg interactions where lambda approximately equal to 2 lambda/N and the Bragg order N takes on the values 1, 2,.... An extended coupled waves (ECW) theory is developed for the case N greater or equal to 2 and the results of the theory are found to compare favorably with the exact results of Floquet theory. Numerous numerical results are displayed as Brillouin diagrams for the first few Bragg orders. Moreover, explicit expressions for coupling coefficients, bandgap shifts and bandgap widths are derived for singly periodic media. Particular note is taken of phase speeding effects.

  14. On composites with periodic structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemat-Nasser, S.; Iwakuma, T.; Hejazi, M.

    1982-01-01

    The overall moduli of a composite with an isotropic elastic matrix containing periodically distributed (anisotropic) inclusions or voids, can be expressed in terms of several infinite series which only depend on the geometry of the inclusions or voids, and hence can be computed once and for all for given geometries. For solids with periodic structures these infinite series play exactly the same role as does Eshelby's tensor for a single inclusion or void in an unbounded elastic medium. For spherical and circular-cylindrical geometries, the required infinite series are calculated and the results are tabulated. These are then used to estimate the overall elastic moduli when either the overall strains or the overall stresses are prescribed, obtaining the same results. These results are compared with other estimates and with experimental data. It is found that the model of composites with periodic structure yields estimates in excellent agreement with the experimental observations.

  15. Oil and gas: Oilfield class actions

    SciTech Connect

    McArthur, J.B.

    1997-06-01

    The use of class actions is getting alot of attention in the oilfield. Plaintiffs have filed class actions challenging two of the most rooted industry practices, oil posted prices and deregulated natural gas affiliate deduction and charges. The classes will include tens or hundreds of thousands of plaintiffs and may transform two of the industry`s most settled practices. The emotions surrounding the class action risk obscuring the fact that it is an old and oft-used tool in oilfield litigation. The class action {open_quotes}provides a means by which, where a large group of persons are interested in a matter, one or more may sue or be sued as representatives of the class without needing to join every member of the class.{close_quotes} The procedure avoids waste by combining scattered disputes, even if some injured might sue individually, and it enables plaintiffs who could not afford to sue to be represented anyway. The lawyers draw their fees from any recovery. Almost all oilpatch class actions are brought to resolve a {open_quotes}common question{close_quotes} under Federal Rules of Civil Procedure 23(b)(3) or state counterparts. The rule`s {open_quotes}opt-out{close_quotes} provisions give class actions a tremendous boost because members stay in unless they take steps to get out. This article discusses present and future class actions.

  16. What Are Lay Theories of Social Class?

    PubMed Central

    Varnum, Michael E. W.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented the effects of social class on psychological and behavioral variables. However, lay beliefs about how social class affects these dimensions have not been systematically tested. Studies 1 and 2 assessed lay beliefs about the association between social class and 8 variables (including psychological and behavioral tendencies and cognitive ability). Study 3 assessed lay beliefs about the Big five personality traits and social class, and study 4 reframed the 8 variables from study 1 in opposite terms and yielded similar results. Study 5 contained the variables framed as in both studies 1 and 4, and replicated those results suggesting that framing effects were not responsible for the effects observed. Interestingly, for the most part lay beliefs about social class did not differ as a function of participants’ own social class. In general people held relatively accurate and consistent stereotypes about the relationship between social class and well-being, health, intelligence, and neuroticism. In contrast lay beliefs regarding social class and reasoning styles, as well as relational, social, and emotional tendencies were less consistent and coherent. This work suggests that on the whole people’s beliefs about social class are not particularly accurate, and further that in some domains there are contradictory stereotypes about the consequences of social class. PMID:23875029

  17. Periodicity in marine extinction events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepkoski, J. John, Jr.; Raup, David M.

    1986-01-01

    The periodicity of extinction events is examined in detail. In particular, the temporal distribution of specific, identifiable extinction events is analyzed. The nature and limitations of the data base on the global fossil record is discussed in order to establish limits of resolution in statistical analyses. Peaks in extinction intensity which appear to differ significantly from background levels are considered, and new analyses of the temporal distribution of these peaks are presented. Finally, some possible causes of periodicity and of interdependence among extinction events over the last quarter billion years of earth history are examined.

  18. Detection of latent sequence periodicities.

    PubMed Central

    Pizzi, E; Liuni, S; Frontali, C

    1990-01-01

    A method is proposed for the automatic detection of serial periodicities in a linear sequence. Its application to DNA subtelomeric sequences from two lower eukaryotes, P.falciparum and S.cerevisiae, reveals ordered patterns organised in hierarchical periodicities, not easily recognizable by other methods. The possible implications concerning the evolution of tandemly repetitive arrays are discussed in light of a model which involves, as successive steps, random repeat modification, the fusion of differently modified repeat versions into longer units, and the amplification of (and/or homogenization to) the more recent repeat units. PMID:2197595

  19. Periodic discrete energy for long-range potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardin, D. P.; Saff, E. B.; Simanek, B.

    2014-12-01

    We consider periodic energy problems in Euclidean space with a special emphasis on long-range potentials that cannot be defined through the usual infinite sum. One of our main results builds on more recent developments of Ewald summation to define the periodic energy corresponding to a large class of long-range potentials. Two particularly interesting examples are the logarithmic potential and the Riesz potential when the Riesz parameter is smaller than the dimension of the space. For these examples, we use analytic continuation methods to provide concise formulas for the periodic kernel in terms of the Epstein Hurwitz Zeta function. We apply our energy definition to deduce several properties of the minimal energy including the asymptotic order of growth and the distribution of points in energy minimizing configurations as the number of points becomes large. We conclude with some detailed calculations in the case of one dimension, which shows the utility of this approach.

  20. Towards large-Chern-number topological phases by periodic quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Tian-Shi; Gong, Jiangbin; An, Jun-Hong

    2016-05-01

    Topological phases with large Chern numbers have important implications. They were previously predicted to exist by considering fabricated long-range interactions or multilayered materials. Stimulated by recent wide interests in Floquet topological phases, here we propose a scheme to engineer large-Chern-number phases with ease by periodic quenching. Using a two-band system as an example, we theoretically show how a variety of topological phases with widely tunable Chern numbers can be generated by periodic quenching between two simple Hamiltonians that otherwise give low Chern numbers. The obtained large Chern numbers are explained through the emergence of multiple Dirac cones in the Floquet spectra. The transition lines between different topological phases in the two-band model are also explicitly found, thus establishing a class of easily solvable but very rich systems useful for further understandings and applications of topological phases in periodically driven systems.

  1. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN THE INTRODUCTION OF A NEW CYSTIC FIBROSIS INHALED ANTIBIOTIC CLASS AND CHANGE IN PREVALENCE OF PATIENTS RECEIVING MULTIPLE INHALED ANTIBIOTIC CLASSES

    PubMed Central

    Dasenbrook, Elliott C.; Konstan, Michael W.; VanDevanter, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2010, aztreonam for inhalation solution joined aminoglycosides and colistimethate as a new cystic fibrosis (CF) chronic inhaled antimicrobial therapy. We studied how introduction of this new inhaled antibiotic class changed management of US CF patients. Methods Use of inhaled aminoglycosides, colistimethate, and aztreonam among patients followed in the CF Foundation Patient Registry was analyzed by age group, lung disease stage, and microbiologic status both annually, and at individual visits between 2009 and 2012. Results The overall prevalence of inhaled antibiotic use did not change during the period, but the prevalence of annual and any visit treatment with >1 inhaled antibiotic class more than doubled. Adults, those with advanced lung disease, and those with >1 Pseudomonas aeruginosa respiratory culture were more likely to receive >1 antibiotic class. Conclusions Inhaled antibiotic management of US CF patients has dramatically changed in association with the introduction of a third inhaled antibiotic class. PMID:25496726

  2. Class B0631+519: Last of the Class Lenses

    SciTech Connect

    York, Tom; Jackson, N.; Browne, I.W.A.; Koopmans, L.V.E.; McKean, J.P.; Norbury, M.A.; Biggs, A.D.; Blandford, R.D.; de Bruyn, A.G.; Fassnacht, C.D.; Myers, S.T.; Pearson, T.J.; Phillips, P.M.; Readhead, A.C.S.; Rusin, D.; Wilkinson, P.N.; /Jodrell Bank /Kapteyn Astron. Inst., Groningen /UC, Davis /JIVE, Dwingeloo /KIPAC, Menlo Park /NFRA, Dwingeloo /NRAO, Socorro /Caltech /Pennsylvania U.

    2005-05-31

    We report the discovery of the new gravitational lens system CLASS B0631+519. Imaging with the VLA, MERLIN and the VLBA reveals a doubly-imaged flat-spectrum radio core, a doubly-imaged steep-spectrum radio lobe and possible quadruply-imaged emission from a second lobe. The maximum separation between the lensed images is 1.16 arcsec. High resolution mapping with the VLBA at 5 GHz resolves the most magnified image of the radio core into a number of sub-components spread across approximately 20 mas. No emission from the lensing galaxy or an odd image is detected down to 0.31 mJy (5{sigma}) at 8.4 GHz. Optical and near-infrared imaging with the ACS and NICMOS cameras on the HST show that there are two galaxies along the line of sight to the lensed source, as previously discovered by optical spectroscopy. We find that the foreground galaxy at z=0.0896 is a small irregular, and that the other, at z=0.6196 is a massive elliptical which appears to contribute the majority of the lensing effect. The host galaxy of the lensed source is detected in the HST near-infrared imaging as a set of arcs, which form a nearly complete Einstein ring. Mass modeling using non-parametric techniques can reproduce the near-infrared observations and indicates that the small irregular galaxy has a (localized) effect on the flux density distribution in the Einstein ring at the 5-10% level.

  3. Theory of periodically specified problems: Complexity and approximability

    SciTech Connect

    Marathe, M.V.; Hunt, H.B. III; Stearns, R.E.; Rosenkrantz, D.J.

    1997-12-05

    We study the complexity and the efficient approximability of graph and satisfiability problems when specified using various kinds of periodic specifications studied. The general results obtained include the following: (1) We characterize the complexities of several basic generalized CNF satisfiability problems SAT(S) [Sc78], when instances are specified using various kinds of 1- and 2-dimensional periodic specifications. We outline how this characterization can be used to prove a number of new hardness results for the complexity classes DSPACE(n), NSPACE(n), DEXPTIME, NEXPTIME, EXPSPACE etc. These results can be used to prove in a unified way the hardness of a number of combinatorial problems when instances are specified succinctly using various succient specifications considered in the literature. As one corollary, we show that a number of basic NP-hard problems because EXPSPACE-hard when inputs are represented using 1-dimensional infinite periodic wide specifications. This answers a long standing open question posed by Orlin. (2) We outline a simple yet a general technique to devise approximation algorithms with provable worst case performance guarantees for a number of combinatorial problems specified periodically. Our efficient approximation algorithms and schemes are based on extensions of the ideas and represent the first non-trivial characterization of a class of problems having an {epsilon}-approximation (or PTAS) for periodically specified NEXPTIME-hard problems. Two of properties of our results are: (i) For the first time, efficient approximation algorithms and schemes have been developed for natural NEXPTIME-complete problems. (ii) Our results are the first polynomial time approximation algorithms with good performance guarantees for hard problems specified using various kinds of periodic specifications considered in this paper.

  4. The Period of Salutary Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, John T.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presents a lesson designed to teach students about the period of Salutary Neglect (100 years before the French and Indian Wars) and its effects on later historical events. Provides an advance organizer which puts students in a situation of salutary neglect and includes student and teacher resources on the Stamp Act, the Townshend Acts, and the…

  5. The Period of 2167 Erin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montigiana, N.; Benedetti, W.; Mannucci, M.; Riccetti, S.

    2008-09-01

    Analysis of data taken in March and April 2007 by groups from Osservatorio Astronomico Margherita Hack and the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire indicates a likely period of 5.7186 ± 0.0001 h for 2167 Erin. The amplitude of the lightcurve was 0.53 ± 0.02 mag.

  6. Shell Games: Uncovering Periodic Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, William G.

    1983-01-01

    Describes activities (demonstrations/experiments) used to introduce history of periodic properties--without electrons, orbitals, filling shells, or any conception of atoms beyond Dalton's model. Activities supplement first chapter in a currently available chemistry text. Indicates potential danger of experiments if proper safety precautions are…

  7. 78 FR 70904 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION 39 CFR Part 3050 Periodic Reporting AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Proposed rulemaking... Counsel, at 202-789-6820. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Contents I. Introduction II. Petition...

  8. 76 FR 297 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ...The Commission is establishing a docket to consider a proposed change in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. This action responds to a Postal Service rulemaking petition. Establishing this docket will allow the Commission to consider the Postal Service's proposal and comments from the...

  9. Periodicities of polar cap patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokawa, K.; Taguchi, S.; Ogawa, Y.; Aoki, T.

    2013-01-01

    A highly sensitive all-sky electron multiplier charge-coupled device airglow imager has been operative in Longyearbyen, Norway since October 2011. The imager captures 630.0 nm all-sky images with an exposure time of 4 s, which is about 10 times shorter than that achieved by conventional cooled CCD imagers. This allows us to visualize the structure of polar cap patches without blurring effects and better estimate their periodicities. We present, as one of the first results from the imager, an event of successive appearance of patches on the night of 21 December 2011. A time series of the optical intensity at zenith showed modulations having two distinguished periods, one at 40 min and the other at 5-12 min. One possible explanation is that such a coexistence of two different periodicities is a manifestation of simultaneous occurrence of patch generation processes on the 40 min periodicity was created by large-scale reconfiguration of the dayside convection pattern while the 5-12 min modulations were closely associated with mechanisms driven by pulsed reconnection on the dayside magnetopause. Such a combined effect of multiple patch generation processes may play a role in structuring patches; thus, it would be of particular importance for evaluating the space weather effects in the trans-ionospheric communications environment in the polar cap.

  10. 76 FR 20906 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... a proposed change in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. This action responds to... an informal rulemaking proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in... Proceeding to Consider Proposed Changes in Analytic Principles (Proposal One), April 6, 2011...

  11. 76 FR 30893 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... informal rulemaking proceeding to consider changes in analytical principles. Proposal Three involves... proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1\\ Proposal... of a Proceeding to Consider a Proposed Change in Analytic Principles (Proposal Three), May 18,...

  12. Stability of underwater periodic locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Fangxu; Kanso, Eva

    2013-07-01

    Most aquatic vertebrates swim by lateral flapping of their bodies and caudal fins. While much effort has been devoted to understanding the flapping kinematics and its influence on the swimming efficiency, little is known about the stability (or lack of) of periodic swimming. It is believed that stability limits maneuverability and body designs/flapping motions that are adapted for stable swimming are not suitable for high maneuverability and vice versa. In this paper, we consider a simplified model of a planar elliptic body undergoing prescribed periodic heaving and pitching in potential flow. We show that periodic locomotion can be achieved due to the resulting hydrodynamic forces, and its value depends on several parameters including the aspect ratio of the body, the amplitudes and phases of the prescribed flapping.We obtain closedform solutions for the locomotion and efficiency for small flapping amplitudes, and numerical results for finite flapping amplitudes. This efficiency analysis results in optimal parameter values that are in agreement with values reported for some carangiform fish. We then study the stability of the (finite amplitude flapping) periodic locomotion using Floquet theory. We find that stability depends nonlinearly on all parameters. Interesting trends of switching between stable and unstable motions emerge and evolve as we continuously vary the parameter values. This suggests that, for live organisms that control their flapping motion, maneuverability and stability need not be thought of as disjoint properties, rather the organism may manipulate its motion in favor of one or the other depending on the task at hand.

  13. New class of neutron detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Czirr, J.B.

    1997-09-01

    An optimized neutron scattering instrument design must include all significant components, including the detector. For example, useful beam intensity is limited by detector dead time; detector pixel size determines the optimum beam diameter, sample size, and sample to detector distance; and detector efficiency vs. wavelength determines the available energy range. As an example of the next generation of detectors that could affect overall instrumentation design, we will describe a new scintillator material that is potentially superior to currently available scintillators. We have grown and tested several small, single crystal scintillators based upon the general class of cerium-activated lithium lanthanide borates. The outstanding characteristic of these materials is the high scintillation efficiency-as much as five times that of Li-glass scintillators. This increase in light output permits the practical use of the exothermic B (n, alpha) reaction for low energy neutron detection. This reaction provides a four-fold increase in capture cross section relative to the Li (n, alpha) reaction, and the intriguing possibility of demanding a charged-particle/gamma ray coincidence to reduce background detection rates. These new materials will be useful in the thermal and epithermal energy ran at reactors and pulsed neutron sources.

  14. Spontaneous Decay of Periodic Magnetostatic Equilibria.

    PubMed

    East, William E; Zrake, Jonathan; Yuan, Yajie; Blandford, Roger D

    2015-08-28

    In order to understand the conditions that lead to a highly magnetized, relativistic plasma becoming unstable, and in such cases how the plasma evolves, we study a prototypical class of magnetostatic equilibria in which the magnetic field satisfies ∇×B=αB, where α is spatially uniform, on a periodic domain. Using numerical solutions, we show that generic examples of such equilibria are unstable to ideal modes (including incompressible ones), which are marked by exponential growth in the linear phase. We characterize the unstable mode, showing how it can be understood in terms of merging magnetic and current structures, and explicitly demonstrate its instability using the energy principle. Following the nonlinear evolution of these solutions, we find that they rapidly develop regions with relativistic velocities and electric fields of comparable magnitude to the magnetic field, liberating magnetic energy on dynamical time scales and eventually settling into a configuration with the largest allowable wavelength. These properties make such solutions a promising setting for exploring the mechanisms behind extreme cosmic sources of gamma rays. PMID:26371660

  15. Hands-On English: A Periodical for Teachers and Tutors of Adult English as a Second Language, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silliman, Anna, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    These six issues of a periodical intended for teachers and tutors of adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students offer articles and features including the following: readers' comments and questions; in-class map practice ideas; songs for English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) learning; suggested films to show in class; conversation activities;…

  16. Systems Engineering Lessons Learned for Class D Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rojdev, Kristina; Piatek, Irene; Moore, Josh; Calvert, Derek

    2015-01-01

    One of NASA's goals within human exploration is to determine how to get humans to Mars safely and to live and work on the Martian surface. To accomplish this goal, several smaller missions act as stepping-stones to the larger end goal. NASA uses these smaller missions to develop new technologies and learn about how to survive outside of Low Earth Orbit for long periods. Additionally, keeping a cadence of these missions allows the team to maintain proficiency in the complex art of bringing spacecraft to fruition. Many of these smaller missions are robotic in nature and have smaller timescales, whereas there are others that involve crew and have longer mission timelines. Given the timelines associated with these various missions, different levels of risk and rigor need to be implemented to be more in line with what is appropriate for the mission. Thus, NASA has four different classifications that range from Class A to Class D based on the mission details. One of these projects is the Resource Prospector (RP) Mission, which is a multi-center and multi-institution collaborative project to search for volatiles in the polar regions of the Moon. The RP mission is classified as a Class D mission and as such, has the opportunity to more tightly manage, and therefore accept, greater levels of risk. The requirements for Class D missions were at the forefront of the design and thus presented unique challenges in vehicle development and systems engineering processes. This paper will discuss the systems engineering process at NASA and how that process is tailored for Class D missions, specifically the RP mission.

  17. The social psychology of class and classism.

    PubMed

    Lott, Bernice

    2012-11-01

    In the United States, one is born into a family that can be identified as working class, middle class, or affluent-divisions that denote status and power, as defined by access to resources. This article explores the relationships between social class membership and a wide array of personal and social daily life experiences. It concludes with a discussion of classism, which contributes to diminished opportunities for low-income families. PMID:23163450

  18. Class of positive partial transposition states

    SciTech Connect

    Chruscinski, Dariusz; Kossakowski, Andrzej

    2006-08-15

    We construct a class of quantum bipartite d(multiply-in-circle sign)d states which are positive under partial transposition (PPT states). This class is invariant under the maximal commutative subgroup of U(d) and contains as special cases many well-known examples of PPT states. States from our class provide criteria for testing the indecomposability of positive maps. Such maps are crucial for constructing entanglement witnesses.

  19. Gamma-Ray Burst Class Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkila, Jon; Haglin, David J.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Mallozzi, Robert S.; Meegan, Charles A.; Roiger, Richard J.

    1999-01-01

    Guided by the Supervised pattern recognition algorithm C4.5, we examine the three gamma-ray burst classes identified by Mukherjee et al. C4.5 provides strong statistical support for this classification. However, with C4.5 and our knowledge of the BATSE instrument, we demonstrate that Class 3 (intermediate fluence, intermediate duration, soft) does not have to be a distinct source population: statistical/systematic errors in measuring burst attributes combined with the well-known hardness/intensity correlation can cause low peak flux Class I (high fluence, long, intermediate hardness) bursts to take on Class 3 characteristics naturally. Based on our hypothesis that the third class is not a distinct one, we provide rules so that future events can be placed in either Class I or Class 2 (low fluence, short, hard). Using classified bursts from the BATSE 4B Catalog, we plot log(N>P) vs. log(P) curves and study spectral features of each class. We find that the two classes are relatively distinct on the basis of spectral parameters, alpha, Beta, and E(sub peak) alone. Although this does not indicate a better basis for classification, it does suggest that different physical conditions exist for Class I and Class 2 bursts. In the process of studying burst class characteristics, we identify a new bias that affects measurement of burst fluences and durations. Using a simple model of how burst duration can be underestimated, we generally characterize how this fluence duration bias affects BATSE measurements, and demonstrate the type of effect it can have on the BATSE fluence vs. peak flux diagram.

  20. Variational Lie derivative and cohomology classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palese, Marcella; Winterroth, Ekkehart

    2011-07-01

    We relate cohomology defined by a system of local Lagrangian with the cohomology class of the system of local variational Lie derivative, which is in turn a local variational problem; we show that the latter cohomology class is zero, since the variational Lie derivative `trivializes' cohomology classes defined by variational forms. As a consequence, conservation laws associated with symmetries of the second variational derivative of a local variational problem are globally defined.

  1. Towards a class library for mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pujo, Oliver; Smith, Simon T.; Starkey, Paul; Wolff, Thilo

    1994-01-01

    The PASTEL Mission Planning System (MPS) has been developed in C++ using an object-oriented (OO) methodology. While the scope and complexity of this system cannot compare to that of an MPS for a complex mission one of the main considerations of the development was to ensure that we could reuse some of the classes in future MPS. We present here PASTEL MPS classes which could be used in the foundations of a class library for MPS.

  2. 12 CFR 561.6 - Audit period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Audit period. 561.6 Section 561.6 Banks and... SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.6 Audit period. The audit period of a savings association means the twelve month period (or other period in the case of a change in audit period) covered by the annual...

  3. From the inverted pendulum to the periodic interface modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combe, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The physics of the spatial propagation of monochromatic waves in periodic media is related to the temporal evolution of the parametric oscillators. We transpose the possibility that a parametric pendulum oscillates in the vicinity of its unstable equilibrium position to the case of monochromatic waves in a lossless unidimensional periodic medium. We develop this concept, that can formally applies to any kind of waves, to the case of longitudinal elastic wave. Our analysis yields us to study the propagation of monochromatic waves in a periodic structure involving two main periods. We evidence a class of phonons we refer to as periodic interface modes that propagate in these structures. These modes are similar to the optical Tamm states exhibited in photonic crystals. Our analysis is based on both a formal and an analytical approach. The application of the concept to the case of phonons in an experimentally realizable structure is given. We finally show how to control the frequencies of these phonons from the engineering of the periodic structure.

  4. Exact periodic solutions of the sixth-order generalized Boussinesq equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenov, O. Y.

    2009-09-01

    This paper examines a class of nonlinear sixth-order generalized Boussinesq-like equations (SGBE): utt = uxx + 3(u2)xx + uxxxx + αuxxxxxx, α in R, depending on the positive parameter α. Hirota's bilinear transformation method is applied to the above class of non-integrable equations and exact periodic solutions have been obtained. The results confirmed the well-known nonlinear superposition principle.

  5. Class diagram based evaluation of software performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Huong V.; Nguyen, Binh N.

    2013-03-01

    The evaluation of software performance in the early stages of the software life cycle is important and it has been widely studied. In the software model specification, class diagram is the important object-oriented software specification model. The measures based on a class diagram have been widely studied to evaluate quality of software such as complexity, maintainability, reuse capability, etc. However the software performance evaluation based on Class model has not been widely studied, especially for object-oriented design of embedded software. Therefore, in this paper we propose a new approach to directly evaluate the software performance based on class diagrams. From a class diagram, we determine the parameters which are used to evaluate and build formula of the measures such as Size of Class Variables, Size of Class Methods, Size of Instance Variables, Size of Instance Methods, etc. Then, we do analysis of the dependence of performance on these measures and build the performance evaluation function from class diagram. Thereby we can choose the best class diagram based on this evaluation function.

  6. Class Numbers and Groups of Algebraic Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platonov, V. P.; Bondarenko, A. A.; Rapinčuk, A. S.

    1980-06-01

    The class number of an algebraic group G defined over a global field is the number of double cosets of the adele group GA with respect to the subgroups of integral and principal adeles. In most cases the set of double cosets has the natural structure of an abelian group, called the class group of G. In this article the class number of a semisimple group G is computed, and it is proved that any finite abelian group can be realized as a class group.Bibliography: 24 titles.

  7. A class of auxetic three-dimensional lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabras, Luigi; Brun, Michele

    2016-06-01

    We propose a class of auxetic three-dimensional lattice structures. The elastic microstructure can be designed in order to have omni-directional Poisson's ratio arbitrarily close to the stability limit -1. The cubic behavior of the periodic system has been fully characterized; the minumum and maximum Poisson's ratio and the associated principal directions are given as a function of the microstructural parameters. The initial microstructure is then modified into a body centered-cubic system that can achieve a Poisson's ratio lower than -1 and that can also behave as an isotropic three-dimensional auxetic structure.

  8. Two classes of volcanic plumes on Io

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEwen, A.S.; Soderblom, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Comparison of Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 images of the south polar region of Io has revealed that a major volcanic eruption occured there during the period between the two spacecraft encounters. An annular deposit ???1400 km in diameter formed around the Aten Patera caldera (311??W, 48??S), the floor of which changed from orange to red-black. The characteristics of this eruption are remarkably similar to those described earlier for an eruption centered on Surt caldera (338??W, 45??N) that occured during the same period, also at high latitude, but in the north. Both volcanic centers were evidently inactive during the Voyager 1 and 2 encounters but were active sometime between the two. The geometric and colorimetric characteristics, as well as scale of the two annular deposits, are virtually identical; both resemble the surface features formed by the eruption of Pele (255??W, 18??S). These three very large plume eruptions suggest a class of eruption distinct from that of six smaller plumes observed to be continously active by both Voyagers 1 and 2. The smaller plumes, of which Prometheus is the type example, are longer-lived, deposit bright, whitish material, erupt at velocities of ???0.5 km sec-1, and are concentrated at low latitudes in an equatorial belt around the satellite. The very large Pele-type plumes, on the other hand, are relatively short-lived, deposit darker red materials, erupt at ???1.0 km sec-1, and (rather than restricted to a latitudinal band) are restricted in longitude from 240?? to 360??W. Both direct thermal infrared temperature measurements and the implied color temperatures for quenched liquid sulfur suggest that hot spot temperatures of ???650??K are associated with the large plumes and temperatures 650??K), sulfur is a low-viscosity fluid (orange and black, respectively); at other temperatures it is either solid or has a high viscosity. As a result, there will be two zones in Io's crust in which liquid sulfur will flow freely: a shallow zone

  9. 78 FR 34552 - Modification of Class D and Class E Airspace and Establishment of Class E Airspace; Pasco, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... establish Class E surface airspace and modify Class D and E airspace at Pasco, WA (78 FR 18259). Interested... 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034...), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2....

  10. ISS Utilization for Exploration-Class Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    FIncke, R.; Davis-Street, J.; Korth, D.

    2006-01-01

    Exercise countermeasures are the most commonly utilized approach for maintaining the health and performance of astronauts during spaceflight missions. However, International Space Station (ISS) exercise countermeasure hardware reliability and prescriptions are not at a point of departure to support exploration-class missions. The JSC Exercise Countermeasures Project (ECP) plans to use ISS as a research and hardware evaluation platform to define and validate improved exercise hardware, prescriptions, and monitoring strategies to support crewmember operations on the Moon and Mars. The ECP will partner with JSC's Space Medicine Division to standardize elements of ISS exercise prescriptions to better understand their efficacy and to propose modified prescriptions for implementation that may be used in the crew exploration vehicle and/or lunar habitat. In addition, evaluations of the ISS treadmill harness will be conducted to define and improve fit and function, and assess the next generation medical monitoring devices such as the portable unit for metabolic analysis and the muscle atrophy research and exercise system for completion of periodic fitness evaluations during lunar and Mars travel. Finally, biomechanical data from ISS crew exercise sessions will be obtained to better understand loading and restraint systems, and identify the physiologic requirements during ISS extravehicular activities that may be analogous to extended excursions from the lunar habitat. It is essential to optimize exercise prescriptions, hardware, and monitoring strategies for exploration initiatives using ISS as a platform before the planned retirement of the Shuttle in 2010 and the declining NASA emphasis on ISS to maximize knowledge before embarking on travel to the Moon and Mars.

  11. Investigation of Class 2b Trucks

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.C.

    2002-04-03

    The popularity of trucks in the class 2 category--that is, those with a 6,000 to 10,000 pounds (lbs) gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR)--has increased since the late 1970s/early 1980s. The purpose of this research is to identify and examine vehicles in the upper portion of the class 2 weight range (designated as vehicle class 2b) and to assess their impact. Vehicles in class 2b (8,500-10,000 lbs GVWR) include pickup trucks, sport utility vehicles (SUVs), and large vans (i.e., not minivans). Oak Ridge National Laboratory researched each individual truck model to determine which models were class 2b trucks and arrived at four methodologies to derive sales volumes. Two methods--one for calendar year and one for model year sales--were recommended for producing believable and reliable results. The study indicates that 521,000 class 2b trucks were sold in calendar year 1999--6.4% of sales of all trucks under 10,000 lbs. Eighty-two percent of class 2b trucks sold in 1999 were pickups; one third of class 2b trucks sold in 1999 were diesel. There were 5.8 million class 2b trucks on the road in 2000, which amounts to 7.8% of all trucks under 10,000 lbs. Twenty-four percent of the class 2b truck population is diesel. Estimates show that class 2b trucks account for 8% of annual miles traveled by trucks under 10,000 lbs and 9% of fuel use. Data on class 2b trucks are scarce. As the Tier 2 standards, which apply to passenger vehicles in the 8,500-10,000 lb GVWR category, become effective, additional data on class 2b trucks may become available--not only emissions data, but data in all areas. At the moment, distinguishing class 2b trucks from class 2 trucks in general is a substantial task requiring data on an individual model level.

  12. Quantum gates by periodic driving

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Z. C.; Wang, W.; Yi, X. X.

    2016-01-01

    Topological quantum computation has been extensively studied in the past decades due to its robustness against decoherence. One way to realize the topological quantum computation is by adiabatic evolutions—it requires relatively long time to complete a gate, so the speed of quantum computation slows down. In this work, we present a method to realize single qubit quantum gates by periodic driving. Compared to adiabatic evolution, the single qubit gates can be realized at a fixed time much shorter than that by adiabatic evolution. The driving fields can be sinusoidal or square-well field. With the sinusoidal driving field, we derive an expression for the total operation time in the high-frequency limit, and an exact analytical expression for the evolution operator without any approximations is given for the square well driving. This study suggests that the period driving could provide us with a new direction in regulations of the operation time in topological quantum computation. PMID:26911900

  13. Gamma-Ray Burst Class Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkila, Jon; Haglin, David J.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Mallozzi, Robert S.; Meegan, Charles A.; Roiger, Richard J.

    2000-01-01

    Guided by the supervised pattern recognition algorithm C4.5 developed by Quinlan in 1986, we examine the three gamma-ray burst classes identified by Mukherjee et al. in 1998. C4.5 provides strong statistical support for this classification. However, with C4.5 and our knowledge of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) instrument, we demonstrate that class 3 (intermediate fluence, intermediate duration, soft) does not have to be a distinct source population: statistical/systematic errors in measuring burst attributes combined with the well-known hardness/intensity correlation can cause low peak flux class 1 (high fluence, long, intermediate hardness) bursts to take on class 3 characteristics naturally. Based on our hypothesis that the third class is not a distinct one, we provide rules so that future events can be placed in either class 1 or class 2 (low fluence, short, hard). We find that the two classes are relatively distinct on the basis of Band's work in 1993 on spectral parameters alpha, beta, and E (sub peak) alone. Although this does not indicate a better basis for classification, it does suggest that different physical conditions exist for class 1 and class 2 bursts. In the process of studying burst class characteristics, we identify a new bias affecting burst fluence and duration measurements. Using a simple model of how burst duration can be underestimated, we show how this fluence duration bias can affect BATSE measurements and demonstrate the type of effect it can have on the BATSE fluence versus peak flux diagram.

  14. Noncoherent detection of periodic signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliardi, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    The optimal Bayes detector for a general periodic waveform having uniform delay and additive white Gaussian noise is examined. It is shown that the detector is much more complex than that for the well known cases of pure sine waves (i.e. classical noncoherent detection) and narrowband signals. An interpretation of the optimal processing is presented, and several implementations are discussed. The results have application to the noncoherent detection of optical square waves.

  15. Down hole periodic seismic generator

    DOEpatents

    Hardee, Harry C.; Hills, Richard G.; Striker, Richard P.

    1989-01-01

    A down hole periodic seismic generator system for transmitting variable frequency, predominantly shear-wave vibration into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system comprises a unitary housing operably connected to a well head by support and electrical cabling and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a variable speed pneumatic oscillator and a self-contained pneumatic reservoir for producing a frequency-swept seismic output over a discrete frequency range.

  16. Advanced downhole periodic seismic generator

    DOEpatents

    Hardee, Harry C.; Hills, Richard G.; Striker, Richard P.

    1991-07-16

    An advanced downhole periodic seismic generator system for transmitting variable frequency, predominantly shear-wave vibration into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system comprises a unitary housing operably connected to a well head by support and electrical cabling and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a variable speed pneumatic oscillator and a self-contained pneumatic reservoir for producing a frequency-swept seismic output over a discrete frequency range.

  17. The Effect of Late Registration for College Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safer, Alan M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the outcome of late registration for college classes and early class withdrawal. Method: Computerized 2007-9 school record data on 7,200 college students were analyzed to evaluate the effect of late class registration on the class grade--relative to the average class grade--and on class withdrawal. Assessed by multiple…

  18. A New Class of Solvable Many-Body Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calogero, Francesco; Yi, Ge

    2012-10-01

    A new class of solvable N-body problems is identified. They describe N unit-mass point particles whose time-evolution, generally taking place in the complex plane, is characterized by Newtonian equations of motion ''of goldfish type'' (acceleration equal force, with specific velocity-dependent one-body and two-body forces) featuring several arbitrary coupling constants. The corresponding initial-value problems are solved by finding the eigenvalues of a time-dependent N×N matrix U(t) explicitly defined in terms of the initial positions and velocities of the N particles. Some of these models are asymptotically isochronous, i.e. in the remote future they become completely periodic with a period T independent of the initial data (up to exponentially vanishing corrections). Alternative formulations of these models, obtained by changing the dependent variables from the N zero! s of a monic polynomial of degree N to its N coefficients, are also exhibited.

  19. 32 CFR 1636.5 - Exclusion from Class 1-A-0 and Class 1-0.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... be excluded from Class 1-A-0 or Class 1-0: (a) Who asserts beliefs which are of a religious, moral or... participation in war does not rest at all upon moral, ethical, or religious principle, but instead rests...

  20. 32 CFR 1636.5 - Exclusion from Class 1-A-0 and Class 1-0.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... be excluded from Class 1-A-0 or Class 1-0: (a) Who asserts beliefs which are of a religious, moral or... participation in war does not rest at all upon moral, ethical, or religious principle, but instead rests...

  1. 32 CFR 1636.5 - Exclusion from Class 1-A-0 and Class 1-0.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... be excluded from Class 1-A-0 or Class 1-0: (a) Who asserts beliefs which are of a religious, moral or... participation in war does not rest at all upon moral, ethical, or religious principle, but instead rests...

  2. 32 CFR 1636.5 - Exclusion from Class 1-A-0 and Class 1-0.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... be excluded from Class 1-A-0 or Class 1-0: (a) Who asserts beliefs which are of a religious, moral or... participation in war does not rest at all upon moral, ethical, or religious principle, but instead rests...

  3. 32 CFR 1636.5 - Exclusion from Class 1-A-0 and Class 1-0.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... be excluded from Class 1-A-0 or Class 1-0: (a) Who asserts beliefs which are of a religious, moral or... participation in war does not rest at all upon moral, ethical, or religious principle, but instead rests...

  4. Introducing Newspapers in Developmental Reading Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karstadt, Roberta; Rey, Victoria M.

    2009-01-01

    Newspapers are an effective educational and motivational tool in developmental reading classes. However, many students are unfamiliar with newspapers and read them infrequently. In order to foster newspaper reading and familiarize the college freshmen enrolled in their developmental reading classes with newspapers, the writers of this article…

  5. Social Class and Education: Global Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Lois, Ed.; Dolby, Nadine, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Social Class and Education: Global Perspectives" is the first empirically grounded volume to explore the intersections of class, social structure, opportunity, and education on a truly global scale. Fifteen essays from contributors representing the US, Europe, China, Latin America and other regions offer an unparralleled examination of how social…

  6. 48 CFR 1001.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class deviations. 1001.404 Section 1001.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ACQUISITION REGULATION (DTAR) SYSTEM Deviations from the FAR 1001.404 Class...

  7. Individual and Group Credit for Class Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Cora M.; Galyon, Charles E.; Forbes, Bethany E.; Blondin, Carolyn A.; Williams, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    This research study focused on the use of cooperative groups to facilitate class-wide participation, especially for initially low participants. Undergraduates from three sections of a relatively large educational psychology course recorded their class participation in all course units. Four of the five units in each section offered either…

  8. 48 CFR 1201.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM 70-Deviations From the FAR and TAR 1201.404 Class deviations. The SPE may grant in writing class deviations from the (FAR) 48 CFR chapter 1 and (TAR) 48 CFR chapter 12, unless (FAR) 48 CFR 1.405(e) applies....

  9. 48 CFR 3001.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... is authorized to approve FAR class deviations, except (FAR) 48 CFR 30.201-3, and 30.201-4 (the requirements of the Cost Accounting Standards Board); 48 CFR Chapter 99 (FAR Appendix); and part 50. Prior to... class deviation requests shall be submitted to the CPO per (HSAR) 48 CFR subpart 3001.70...

  10. Heredity, Environment, and Class or Ethnic Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, J. McV.

    The social-class, ethnic, and racial differences in performance on tests of intelligence and scholastic achievement are discussed. Significant deficiencies exist in the means of lower-class and certain racial groups for many measures of ability, motivation, and performance. Composite attempts to estimate the proportion of phenotypic variance in IQ…

  11. Cheating in Online Classes: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker Bemmel, Mirella

    2014-01-01

    This applied dissertation was an inquiry into the phenomenon of cheating among students who take their classes online. There is a common perception that cheating is rampant in online classes and the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, the accreditation association in the South, implemented policies, which mandate stricter monitoring of…

  12. 5 CFR 1201.27 - Class appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Class appeals. 1201.27 Section 1201.27 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES Procedures for Appellate Cases Appeal of Agency Action; Pleadings § 1201.27 Class appeals. (a) Appeal. One...

  13. Development of Class Awareness Among Rural Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mookherjee, Harsha N.

    Class awareness among rural children was investigated in three dimensions: cognitive, behavioral, and evaluative. Data were obtained from 378 white students in grades K-8 in 9 rural elementary schools in the Upper Cumberland region of middle Tennessee. Children's social class background (SES) was determined by their father's occupational strata…

  14. 48 CFR 301.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Class deviations. 301.404 Section 301.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL HHS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 301.404 Class deviations. Contracting activities shall...

  15. 48 CFR 301.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class deviations. 301.404 Section 301.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL HHS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 301.404 Class deviations. Contracting activities shall...

  16. Uncovering the Stories about Social Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Vernon B., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Social class remains one of the chief prisms through which reality is interpreted. It is vital for a student to understand how this prism influences their internal representations of themselves and others. In this activity, social class is viewed as a social construction of perceived financial and/or economic status developed through societal…

  17. Software Training Classes Now Open | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer                                            Data Management Services, Inc. (DMS), has announced the opening of its spring session of software training classes, available to all employees at NCI at Frederick. Classes begin on March 31 and run through June 30.

  18. Listening and Learning in a Master Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanken, Ingrid Maria

    2015-01-01

    Most higher education institutions offering programmes in music performance organise master classes for their students. It is commonly agreed that master classes offer valuable learning opportunities for the students performing, but what do they offer for students in the audience? In this article, theories of learning by observation as well as…

  19. Rank in Class and College Admission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally class rankings have been used by high schools to determine valedictorians and salutatorians. These rankings have also been used by colleges to make admission decisions and for awarding scholarships. While there is no direct link between college rank and college admission, there is evidence that not using class rank can reduce stress…

  20. 40 CFR 2.207 - Class determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Class determinations. 2.207 Section 2.207 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Confidentiality of Business Information § 2.207 Class determinations. (a) The General Counsel may make and issue...

  1. 5 CFR 1201.27 - Class appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Class appeals. 1201.27 Section 1201.27 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES Procedures for Appellate Cases Appeal of Agency Action; Pleadings § 1201.27 Class appeals. (a) Appeal. One...

  2. 5 CFR 1201.27 - Class appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Class appeals. 1201.27 Section 1201.27 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES Procedures for Appellate Cases Appeal of Agency Action; Pleadings § 1201.27 Class appeals. (a) Appeal. One...

  3. 49 CFR 192.5 - Class locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... under this section. (1) A “class location unit” is an onshore area that extends 220 yards (200 meters...) An area where the pipeline lies within 100 yards (91 meters) of either a building or a small, well... 2, 3, and 4 may be adjusted as follows: (1) A Class 4 location ends 220 yards (200 meters) from...

  4. 49 CFR 192.5 - Class locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... under this section. (1) A “class location unit” is an onshore area that extends 220 yards (200 meters...) An area where the pipeline lies within 100 yards (91 meters) of either a building or a small, well... 2, 3, and 4 may be adjusted as follows: (1) A Class 4 location ends 220 yards (200 meters) from...

  5. 49 CFR 192.5 - Class locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... under this section. (1) A “class location unit” is an onshore area that extends 220 yards (200 meters...) An area where the pipeline lies within 100 yards (91 meters) of either a building or a small, well... 2, 3, and 4 may be adjusted as follows: (1) A Class 4 location ends 220 yards (200 meters) from...

  6. 49 CFR 192.5 - Class locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... under this section. (1) A “class location unit” is an onshore area that extends 220 yards (200 meters...) An area where the pipeline lies within 100 yards (91 meters) of either a building or a small, well... 2, 3, and 4 may be adjusted as follows: (1) A Class 4 location ends 220 yards (200 meters) from...

  7. 49 CFR 192.5 - Class locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... under this section. (1) A “class location unit” is an onshore area that extends 220 yards (200 meters...) An area where the pipeline lies within 100 yards (91 meters) of either a building or a small, well... 2, 3, and 4 may be adjusted as follows: (1) A Class 4 location ends 220 yards (200 meters) from...

  8. SPECIAL CLASSES FOR STUDENTS WITH SPECIAL NEEDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DOWELL, G.L.

    A SPECIAL 3-YEAR TRAINING PROGRAM IN FARM POWER AND MACHINERY WAS DEVELOPED TO PROVIDE FOR DIFFERENT LEVELS OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT AND TO HELP MEET THE NEED FOR SKILLED WORKERS IN THE MISSISSIPPI DELTA AREA. CHANGES IN THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT OF STUDENTS TRANSFERRED FROM REGULAR VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE CLASSES TO THE SPECIAL CLASSES PROVIDE A MORE…

  9. 2m class telescope project at Lijiang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dong; Wang, Jian-Cheng; Xu, Jun; Zhang, Bai-Rong; Luo, Guo-Quan; Liu, Zhong; Tan, Hui-Song

    Supported by the ministry of science and technology, government of Yunnan Province and Chinese Academy of Sciences, a 2m class telescope project was granted. In this paper, we will first review the site, Gaomeigu, briefly, then give the details of 2m class telescope project, and finally discuss the future plans of this new telescope.

  10. Social Class on Campus: Theories and Manifestations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barratt, Will

    2011-01-01

    This is at once a playful text with a serious purpose: to provide the reader with the theoretical lenses to analyze the dynamics of social class. It will appeal to students, and indeed anyone interested in how class mediates relationships in higher education, both because of its engaging tone, and because it uses the college campus as a microcosm…

  11. Genes, genetics, and Class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Xue, F; Wong, R W K; Rabie, A B M

    2010-05-01

    To present current views that are pertinent to the investigation of the genetic etiology of Class III malocclusion. Class III malocclusion is thought to be a polygenic disorder that results from an interaction between susceptibility genes and environmental factors. However, research on family pedigrees has indicated that Class III malocclusion might also be a monogenic dominant phenotype. Recent studies have reported that genes that encode specific growth factors or other signaling molecules are involved in condylar growth under mechanical strain. These genes, which include Indian hedgehog homolog (IHH), parathyroid-hormone like hormone (PTHLH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and variations in their levels of expression play an important role in the etiology of Class III malocclusion. In addition, genome-wide scans have revealed chromosomal loci that are associated with Class III malocclusion. It is likely that chromosomal loci 1p36, 12q23, and 12q13 harbor genes that confer susceptibility to Class III malocclusion. In a case-control association study, we identified erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1 (EPB41) to be a new positional candidate gene that might be involved in susceptibility to mandibular prognathism. Most of the earlier studies on the genetic etiology of Class III malocclusion have focused on the patterns of inheritance of this phenotype. Recent investigations have focused on understanding the genetic variables that affect Class III malocclusion and might provide new approaches to uncovering the genetic etiology of this phenotype. PMID:20477965

  12. Flipping a Calculus Class: One Instructor's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes one instructor's experiences during a year of flipping four calculus classes. The first exploration attempts to understand student expectations of a math class and their preference towards a flipped classroom. The second examines success of students from a flipped classroom, and the last investigates relationships with student…

  13. 8 CFR 248.2 - Ineligible classes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ineligible classes. 248.2 Section 248.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CHANGE OF NONIMMIGRANT CLASSIFICATION § 248.2 Ineligible classes. (a) Except as described in paragraph (b) of this section,...

  14. 8 CFR 248.2 - Ineligible classes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ineligible classes. 248.2 Section 248.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CHANGE OF NONIMMIGRANT CLASSIFICATION § 248.2 Ineligible classes. (a) Except as described in paragraph (b) of this section,...

  15. 8 CFR 248.2 - Ineligible classes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ineligible classes. 248.2 Section 248.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CHANGE OF NONIMMIGRANT CLASSIFICATION § 248.2 Ineligible classes. (a) Except as described in paragraph (b) of this section,...

  16. 8 CFR 248.2 - Ineligible classes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ineligible classes. 248.2 Section 248.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CHANGE OF NONIMMIGRANT CLASSIFICATION § 248.2 Ineligible classes. (a) Except as described in paragraph (b) of this section,...

  17. 8 CFR 248.2 - Ineligible classes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ineligible classes. 248.2 Section 248.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CHANGE OF NONIMMIGRANT CLASSIFICATION § 248.2 Ineligible classes. (a) Except as described in paragraph (b) of this section,...

  18. The modular class of a Dirac map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caseiro, Raquel

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we study the modular classes of Dirac manifolds and of Dirac maps, and we discuss their basic properties. We apply these results to explain the relationship between the modular classes of the various structures involved in the reduction of a Poisson manifold under the action of a Poisson-Lie group.

  19. Researcher Perspectives on Class Size Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graue, Elizabeth; Rauscher, Erica

    2009-01-01

    This article applies to class size research Grant and Graue's (1999) position that reviews of research represent conversations in the academic community. By extending our understanding of the class size reduction conversation beyond published literature to the perspectives of researchers who have studied the topic, we create a review that includes…

  20. Just Who Is Black and Middle Class?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginbotham, Elizabeth

    1981-01-01

    Calls for redefinition of the "Black middle class," based on (1) measurement of Blacks and Whites by uniform criteria, and (2) consideration of a group's relationship to the means of production. Stresses the need for research on the role of structural factors in the development of racial and class consciousness. (Author/GC)