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Sample records for 45s5 bioactive glass

  1. Cell/surface interactions and adhesion on bioactive glass 45S5.

    PubMed

    Levy, S; Van Dalen, M; Agonafer, S; Soboyejo, W O

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of surface texture (smooth versus rough) on cell/surface interactions on the bioactive glass, 45S5. The cell surface interactions associated with cell spreading are studied using cell culture experiments. Subsequent energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy is also used to reveal the distributions of calcium, phosphorous, sodium and oxygen on the surfaces of the bioactive glasses. The implications of the results are then discussed for the applications of textured bioactive glasses in medicine.

  2. Local protective effects of oral 45S5 bioactive glass on gastric ulcers in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ai-niu; Gong, Nian; Lu, Jin-miao; Huang, Jin-lu; Hao, Bin; Guo, Yang; Zhong, Jipin; Xu, Yuhong; Chang, Jiang; Wang, Yong-xiang

    2013-03-01

    Bioactive glass has been shown to stimulate bone regeneration and soft tissue healing. In this study, we evaluated the local protective effects of bioactive glass on experimental gastric ulcers, in comparison with omeprazole and hydrotalcite. Single and multiple gavage of 45S5 bioactive glass dose-dependently protected stress ulcers in mice and chronic ulcers in rats. Multi-daily gavage of bioactive glass for 7 days prevented chronic ulcer recurrence by 50 %. Bioactive glass ionic dissolution produced marked proliferation of ethanol-injured GES-1 human gastric mucosa epithelial cells 48 and 72 h after exposure. Bioactive glass was shown to be hardly absorbed after single or multi-daily gavage. This study, for the first time, demonstrates that bioactive glass is effective in protecting against gastric ulcers, with its high efficacy comparable to omeprazole and superior to hydrotalcite. The lack of oral absorption makes bioactive glass a potential for treatment of peptic ulcers omitting systemic toxicity or side-effects.

  3. Electrophoretic Deposition of Chitosan/45S5 Bioactive Glass Composite Coatings Doped with Zn and Sr

    PubMed Central

    Miola, Marta; Verné, Enrica; Ciraldo, Francesca Elisa; Cordero-Arias, Luis; Boccaccini, Aldo R.

    2015-01-01

    In this research work, the original 45S5 bioactive glass was modified by introducing zinc and/or strontium oxide (6 mol%) in place of calcium oxide. Sr was added for its ability to stimulate bone formation and Zn for its role in bone metabolism, antibacterial properties, and anti-inflammatory effect. The glasses were produced by means of melting and quenching process. SEM and XRD analyses evidenced that Zr and Sr introduction did not modify the glass structure and morphology while compositional analysis (EDS) demonstrated the effective incorporation of these elements in the glass network. Bioactivity test in simulated body fluid (SBF) up to 1 month evidenced a reduced bioactivity kinetics for Zn-doped glasses. Doped glasses were combined with chitosan to produce organic/inorganic composite coatings on stainless steel AISI 316L by electrophoretic deposition (EPD). Two EPD processes were considered for coating development, namely direct current EPD (DC-EPD) and alternating current EPD (AC-EPD). The stability of the suspension was analyzed and the deposition parameters were optimized. Tape and bending tests demonstrated a good coating-substrate adhesion for coatings containing 45S5-Sr and 45S5-ZnSr glasses, whereas the adhesion to the substrate decreased by using 45S5-Zn glass. FTIR analyses demonstrated the composite nature of coatings and SEM observations indicated that glass particles were well integrated in the polymeric matrix, the coatings were fairly homogeneous and free of cracks; moreover, the AC-EPD technique provided better results than DC-EPD in terms of coating quality. SEM, XRD analyses, and Raman spectroscopy, performed after bioactivity test in SBF solution, confirmed the bioactive behavior of 45S5-Sr-containing coating while coatings containing Zn exhibited no hydroxyapatite formation. PMID:26539431

  4. Electrophoretic Deposition of Chitosan/45S5 Bioactive Glass Composite Coatings Doped with Zn and Sr.

    PubMed

    Miola, Marta; Verné, Enrica; Ciraldo, Francesca Elisa; Cordero-Arias, Luis; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2015-01-01

    In this research work, the original 45S5 bioactive glass was modified by introducing zinc and/or strontium oxide (6 mol%) in place of calcium oxide. Sr was added for its ability to stimulate bone formation and Zn for its role in bone metabolism, antibacterial properties, and anti-inflammatory effect. The glasses were produced by means of melting and quenching process. SEM and XRD analyses evidenced that Zr and Sr introduction did not modify the glass structure and morphology while compositional analysis (EDS) demonstrated the effective incorporation of these elements in the glass network. Bioactivity test in simulated body fluid (SBF) up to 1 month evidenced a reduced bioactivity kinetics for Zn-doped glasses. Doped glasses were combined with chitosan to produce organic/inorganic composite coatings on stainless steel AISI 316L by electrophoretic deposition (EPD). Two EPD processes were considered for coating development, namely direct current EPD (DC-EPD) and alternating current EPD (AC-EPD). The stability of the suspension was analyzed and the deposition parameters were optimized. Tape and bending tests demonstrated a good coating-substrate adhesion for coatings containing 45S5-Sr and 45S5-ZnSr glasses, whereas the adhesion to the substrate decreased by using 45S5-Zn glass. FTIR analyses demonstrated the composite nature of coatings and SEM observations indicated that glass particles were well integrated in the polymeric matrix, the coatings were fairly homogeneous and free of cracks; moreover, the AC-EPD technique provided better results than DC-EPD in terms of coating quality. SEM, XRD analyses, and Raman spectroscopy, performed after bioactivity test in SBF solution, confirmed the bioactive behavior of 45S5-Sr-containing coating while coatings containing Zn exhibited no hydroxyapatite formation.

  5. Enamel Surface with Pit and Fissure Sealant Containing 45S5 Bioactive Glass.

    PubMed

    Yang, S-Y; Kwon, J-S; Kim, K-N; Kim, K-M

    2016-05-01

    Enamel demineralization adjacent to pit and fissure sealants leads to the formation of marginal caries, which can necessitate the replacement of existing sealants. Dental materials with bioactive glass, which releases ions that inhibit dental caries, have been studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the enamel surface adjacent to sealants containing 45S5 bioactive glass (BAG) under simulated microleakage between the material and the tooth in a cariogenic environment. Sealants containing 45S5BAG filler were prepared as follows: 0% 45S5BAG + 50.0% glass (BAG0 group), 12.5% 45S5BAG + 37.5% glass (BAG12.5 group), 25.0% 45S5BAG + 25.0% glass (BAG25.0 group), 37.5% 45S5BAG + 12.5% glass (BAG37.5 group), and 50.0% 45S5BAG + 0% glass (BAG50.0 group). A cured sealant disk was placed over a flat bovine enamel disk, separated by a 60-µm gap, and immersed in lactic acid solution (pH 4.0) at 37 °C for 15, 30, and 45 d. After the storage period, each enamel disk was separated from the cured sealant disk, and the enamel surface was examined with optical 3-dimensional surface profilometer, microhardness tester, and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed a significant increase in roughness and a decrease in microhardness of the enamel surface as the proportion of 45S5BAG decreased (P< 0.05). In the scanning electron microscopy images, enamel surfaces with BAG50.0 showed a smooth surface, similar to those in the control group with distilled water, even after prolonged acid storage. Additionally, an etched pattern was observed on the surface of the demineralized enamel with a decreasing proportion of 45S5BAG. Increasing the 45S5BAG filler contents of the sealants had a significant impact in preventing the demineralization of the enamel surface within microgaps between the material and the tooth when exposed to a cariogenic environment. Therefore, despite some marginal leakage, these novel sealants may be effective preventive dental materials for inhibiting

  6. Bioactive glass (type 45S5) nanoparticles: in vitro reactivity on nanoscale and biocompatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mačković, M.; Hoppe, A.; Detsch, R.; Mohn, D.; Stark, W. J.; Spiecker, E.; Boccaccini, A. R.

    2012-07-01

    Bioactive glasses represent important biomaterials being investigated for the repair and reconstruction of diseased bone tissues, as they exhibit outstanding bonding properties to human bone. In this study, bioactive glass (type 45S5) nanoparticles (nBG) with a mean particle size in the range of 20-60 nm, synthesised by flame spray synthesis, are investigated in relation to in vitro bioreactivity in simulated body fluid (SBF) and response to osteoblast cells. The structure and kinetics of hydroxyapatite formation in SBF were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) revealing a very rapid transformation (after 1 day) of nBG to nanocrystalline bone-like carbonated HAp. Additionally, calcite is formed after 1 day of SBF immersion because of the high surface reactivity of the nBG particles. In the initial state, nBG particles were found to exhibit chain-like porous agglomerates of amorphous nature which are transformed on immersion in SBF into compact agglomerates covered by hydroxyapatite with a reduced size of the primary nanoparticles. In vitro studies revealed high cytocompatibility of nBG with human osteoblast cells, indicated through high lactatedehydrogenase (LDH) and mitochondrial activity as well as alkaline phosphatase activity. Hence, this study contributes to the understanding of the structure and bioactivity of bioactive glass (type 45S5) nanoparticles, providing insights to the phenomena occurring at the nanoscale after immersion in SBF. The results are relevant in relation to the understanding of the nanoparticles' bioreactivity required for applications in bone tissue engineering.

  7. Mg-Zn based composites reinforced with bioactive glass (45S5) fabricated via powder metallurgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ab llah, N.; Jamaludin, S. B.; Daud, Z. C.; Zaludin, M. A. F.

    2016-07-01

    Metallic implants are shifting from bio-inert to bioactive and biodegradable materials. These changes are made in order to improve the stress shielding effect and bio-compatibility and also avoid the second surgery procedure. Second surgery procedure is required if the patient experienced infection and implant loosening. An implant is predicted to be well for 15 to 20 years inside patient body. Currently, magnesium alloys are found to be the new biomaterials because of their properties close to the human bones and also able to degrade in the human body. In this work, magnesium-zinc based composites reinforced with different content (5, 15, 20 wt. %) of bioactive glass (45S5) were fabricated through powder metallurgy technique. The composites were sintered at 450˚C. Density and porosity of the composites were determined using the gas pycnometer. Microstructure of the composites was observed using an optical microscope. In-vitro bioactivity behavior was evaluated in the simulated body fluid (SBF) for 7 days. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) was used to characterize the apatite forming on the samples surface. The microstructure of the composite showed that the pore segregated near the grain boundaries and bioglass clustering was observed with increasing content of bioglass. The true density of the composites increased with the increasing content of bioglass and the highest value of porosity was indicated by the Mg-Zn reinforced with 20 wt.% of bioglass. The addition of bio-glass to the Mg-Zn has also induced the formation of apatite layer after soaking in SBF solution.

  8. Electrophoretic co-deposition of cellulose nanocrystals-45S5 bioactive glass nanocomposite coatings on stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qiang; Yang, Yuyun; Pérez de Larraya, Uxua; Garmendia, Nere; Virtanen, Sannakaisa; Boccaccini, Aldo R.

    2016-01-01

    An organic-inorganic nanocomposite coating consisting of fibrous cellulose nanocrystals and 45S5 bioactive glass, intended as a bioactive surface for bone implants, was developed by a one-step electrophoretic deposition. The composition, surface roughness and wettability of the deposited coatings, influenced by the concentration of each component in the suspension, were controllable as a result of the simplicity of the coating technique. Bioactive glass particles were individually wrapped with porous cellulose layers, forming a porous coating with uniform thickness. Bioactivity test in simulated body fluid revealed a rapid hydroxyapatite formation on the deposited nanocomposite coating. Furthermore, electrochemical test was carried out to understand the corrosion behavior of the deposited coatings during incubation in simulated body fluid. According to the results of this study, the obtained cellulose-bioactive glass coatings with tunable properties represent a promising approach for biofunctionalization of metallic orthopedic implants.

  9. A new sol-gel synthesis of 45S5 bioactive glass using an organic acid as catalyst.

    PubMed

    Faure, J; Drevet, R; Lemelle, A; Ben Jaber, N; Tara, A; El Btaouri, H; Benhayoune, H

    2015-02-01

    In this paper a new sol-gel approach was explored for the synthesis of the 45S5 bioactive glass. We demonstrate that citric acid can be used instead of the usual nitric acid to catalyze the sol-gel reactions. The substitution of nitric acid by citric acid allows to reduce strongly the concentration of the acid solution necessary to catalyze the hydrolysis of silicon and phosphorus alkoxides. Two sol-gel powders with chemical compositions very close to that of the 45S5 were obtained by using either a 2M nitric acid solution or either a 5mM citric acid solution. These powders were characterized and compared to the commercial Bioglass®. The surface properties of the two bioglass powders were assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method (BET). The Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed a partial crystallization associated to the formation of crystalline phases on the two sol-gel powders. The in vitro bioactivity was then studied at the key times during the first hours of immersion into acellular Simulated Body Fluid (SBF). After 4h immersion into SBF we clearly demonstrate that the bioactivity level of the two sol-gel powders is similar and much higher than that of the commercial Bioglass®. This bioactivity improvement is associated to the increase of the porosity and the specific surface area of the powders synthesized by the sol-gel process. Moreover, the nitric acid is efficiently substituted by the citric acid to catalyze the sol-gel reactions without alteration of the bioactivity of the 45S5 bioactive glass.

  10. Preparation and characterization of PHBV microsphere/45S5 bioactive glass composite scaffolds with vancomycin releasing function.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Ding, Yaping; Rai, Ranjana; Roether, Judith A; Schubert, Dirk W; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2014-08-01

    PHBV microsphere/45S5 bioactive glass (BG) composite scaffolds with drug release function were developed for bone tissue engineering. BG-based glass-ceramic scaffolds with high porosity (94%) and interconnected pore structure prepared by foam replication method were coated with PHBV microspheres (nominal diameter=3.5 μm) produced by water-in-oil-in-water double emulsion solvent evaporation method. A homogeneous microsphere coating throughout the porous structure of scaffolds was obtained by a simple dip coating method, using the slurry of PHBV microspheres in hexane. Compressive strength tests showed that the microsphere coating slightly improved the mechanical properties of the scaffolds. It was confirmed that the microsphere coating did not inhibit the bioactivity of the scaffolds in SBF. Hydroxyapatite crystals homogeneously grew not only on the struts of the scaffolds but also on the surface of microspheres within 7 days of immersion in SBF. Vancomycin was successfully encapsulated into the PHBV microspheres. The encapsulated vancomycin was released with a dual release profile involving a relatively low initial burst release (21%) and a sustained release (1 month), which is favorable compared to the high initial burst release (77%) and short release period (4 days) measured on uncoated scaffolds. The developed bioactive composite scaffold with drug delivery function has thus the potential to be used advantageously in bone tissue engineering.

  11. Long-term conversion of 45S5 bioactive glass-ceramic microspheres in aqueous phosphate solution.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hailuo; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Day, Delbert E; Huang, Wenhai

    2012-05-01

    The conversion of 45S5 glass and glass-ceramics to a hydroxyapatite (HA)-like material in vitro has been studied extensively, but only for short reaction times (typically <3 months). In this paper, we report for the first time on the long-term conversion of 45S5 glass-ceramic microspheres (designated 45S5c) in an aqueous phosphate solution. Microspheres of 45S5c (75-150 μm) were immersed for 10 years at room temperature (~25 °C) in K(2)HPO(4) solution with a concentration of 0.01 M or 1.0 M, and with a starting pH of 7.0 or 9.5. The reacted 45S5c microspheres and solutions were analyzed using structural and analytical techniques. Only 25-45 vol% of the 45S5c microspheres were converted to an HA-like material after the 10 year reaction. In solutions with a starting pH of 9.5, an increase in the K(2)HPO(4) concentration from 0.01 to 1.0 M resulted in a doubling of the volume of the microspheres converted to an HA-like material but had little effect on the composition of the HA-like product. In comparison, reaction of the 45S5c microspheres in the solution with a starting pH of 7.0 resulted in an HA-like product in the 0.01 M K(2)HPO(4) solution but a calcium pyrophosphate product, Ca(10)K(4)(P(2)O(7))(6).9H(2)O, in the 1.0 M solution. The consequences of these results for the long-term use of 45S5 glass-ceramics in biomedical applications are discussed.

  12. Bioactive glass 45S5 powders: effect of synthesis route and resultant surface chemistry and crystallinity on protein adsorption from human plasma.

    PubMed

    Bahniuk, Markian S; Pirayesh, Hamidreza; Singh, Harsh D; Nychka, John A; Unsworth, Larry D

    2012-12-01

    Despite its medical applications, the mechanisms responsible for the osseointegration of bioactive glass (45S5) have yet to be fully understood. Evidence suggests that the strongest predictor for osseointegration of bioactive glasses, and ceramics, with bone tissue as the formation of an apatitic calcium phosphate layer atop the implanted material, with osteoblasts being the main mediator for new bone formation. Most have tried to understand the formation of this apatitic calcium phosphate layer, and other bioresponses between the host and bioactive glass 45S5 using Simulated Body Fluid; a solution containing ion concentrations similar to that found in human plasma without the presence of proteins. However, it is likely that cell attachment is probably largely mediated via the adsorbed protein layer. Plasma protein adsorption at the tissue bioactive glass interface has been largely overlooked. Herein, we compare crystalline and amorphous bioactive glass 45S5, in both melt-derived as well as sol-gel forms. Thus, allowing for a detailed understanding of both the role of crystallinity and powder morphology on surface ions, and plasma protein adsorption. It was found that sol-gel 45S5 powders, regardless of crystallinity, adsorbed 3-5 times as much protein as the crystalline melt-derived counterpart, as well as a greater variety of plasma proteins. The devitrification of melt-cast 45S5 resulted in only small differences in the amount and variety of the adsorbed proteome. Surface properties, and not material crystallinity, play a role in directing protein adsorption phenomena for bioactive glasses given the differences found between crystalline melt-cast 45S5 and sol-gel derived 45S5.

  13. Preparation and Characterization of 45S5 Bioactive Glass-based Scaffolds Loaded with PHBV Microspheres with Daidzein Release Function.

    PubMed

    Macías-Andrés, Víctor I; Li, Wei; Aguilar-Reyes, Ena A; Ding, Yaping; Roether, Judith A; Harhaus, Leila; León-Patiño, Carlos A; Boccaccini, A R

    2017-02-27

    PHBV microsphere loaded 45S5 bioactive glass (BG) based scaffolds with drug releasing capability have been developed. PHBV microspheres with a mean particle size 4 ± 2 μm loaded with daidzein were obtained by oil-in-water single emulsion solvent evaporation method and applied to the surface of BG scaffolds by dip coating technique. The morphology, in vitro bioactivity in simulated body fluid (SBF), mechanical properties and drug release kinetics of microsphere loaded scaffolds were studied. The microspheres were shown to be homogeneously dispersed on the scaffold surfaces. It was confirmed that hydroxyapatite crystals homogeneously grew not only on the surface of the scaffold but also on the surface of the microspheres within 3 days of immersion in SBF. The daidzein release from the microsphere loaded scaffolds lasted almost 1 month and was determined to be diffusion controlled. The microsphere loaded BG scaffolds with daidzein releasing capability obtained in this study are a candidate for bone tissue engineering. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of sintering temperature variations on fabrication of 45S5 bioactive glass-ceramics using rice husk as a source for silica.

    PubMed

    Leenakul, Wilaiwan; Tunkasiri, Tawee; Tongsiri, Natee; Pengpat, Kamonpan; Ruangsuriya, Jetsada

    2016-04-01

    45S5 bioactive glass is a highly bioactive substance that has the ability to promote stem cell differentiation into osteoblasts--the cells that create bone matrix. The aim of this work is to analyze physical and mechanical properties of 45S5 bioactive glass fabricated by using rice husk ash as its silica source. The 45S5 bioactive glass was prepared by melting the batch at 1300 °C for 3h. The samples were sintered at different temperatures ranging from 900 to 1050 °C with a fixed dwell-time of 2h. The phase transitions, density, porosity and microhardness values were investigated and reported. DTA analysis was used to examine the crystallization temperatures of the glasses prepared. We found that the sintering temperature had a significant effect on the mechanical and physical properties of the bioactive glass. The XRD showed that when the sintering temperature was above 650 °C, crystallization occurred and bioactive glass-ceramics with Na2Ca2Si3O9, Na2Ca4(PO4)2SiO4 and Ca3Si2O7 were formed. The optimum sintering temperature resulting in maximum mechanical values was around 1050 °C, with a high density of 2.27 g/cm(3), 16.96% porosity and the vicker microhardness value of 364HV. Additionally, in vitro assay was used to examine biological activities in stimulated body fluid (SBF). After incubation in SBF for 7 days, all of the samples showed formations of apatite layers indicating that the 45S5 bioactive glasses using rice husk as a raw material were also bioactive.

  15. Bioactivity characterization of 45S5 bioglass using TL, OSL and EPR: Comparison with the case of 58S sol-gel bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Polymeris, G S; Giannoulatou, V; Kyriakidou, A; Sfampa, I K; Theodorou, G S; Şahiner, E; Meriç, N; Kitis, G; Paraskevopoulos, K M

    2017-01-01

    The current work exploits the effective application of thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and the possibility of applying Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) for the discrimination between different bioactive responses in the case of the 45S5 bioactive glass (SiO2 45, Na2O 24.5, CaO 24.5, P2O5 6 in wt%), which was synthesized through melting process. These techniques are suggested mainly due to their low spectroscopic detection thresholds. The original 45S5 in grain size range of 20-40μm was immersed in the Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) for various different immersion times ranging over one week. In this work the 110°C TL peak, a specific OSL component and the EPR signal at g=2.013 ascribed to oxygen hole center (OHC) are used due to their sensitivity to the different bioactive responses. For all luminescence and EPR components, the intensity plot versus immersion time yields sharp discontinuities, resulting in effective probes regarding the timescale for both the beginning as well as the end of the procedure of the crystalline HCAp formation respectively. On the contrary to the smooth decreasing pattern of both luminescence entities, the peak to peak amplitude of the EPR signal indicates an initial increase for the initial 16min of immersion, followed by a further decrease throughout the immersion time duration. The discontinuities monitored for both sensitivity of TL, OSL and EPR, in conjunction with the discontinuities monitored for the sensitization of TL and OSL, when plotted versus immersion time, provide an individual time scale for each one of the chemical reactions involved in the five steps of the aforementioned procedure. According to the authors' best knowledge, scarce characterization techniques could provide this time scale frame, while it is the first time that such an application of OSL and EPR is attempted. Finally, the bioactive response of the 45S5 bioglass was compared with that of the 58S sol-gel bioactive glass

  16. Conversion of melt-derived microfibrous borate (13-93B3) and silicate (45S5) bioactive glass in a simulated body fluid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Day, Delbert E

    2013-03-01

    Microfibrous bioactive glasses are showing a considerable capacity to heal soft tissue wounds, but little information is available on the mechanism of healing. In the present study, the conversion of microfibrous borate bioactive glass (diameter = 0.2-5 μm) with the composition designated 13-93B3 (5.5 Na2O, 11.1 K2O, 4.6 MgO, 18.5 CaO, 3.7 P2O5, 56.6 B2O3 wt%) was evaluated in vitro as a function of immersion time in a simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C using structural and chemical techniques. Silicate 45S5glass microfibers (45 SiO2, 24.5 Na2O, 24.5 CaO, 6 P2O5 wt%) were also studied for comparison. Microfibrous 13-93B3 glass degraded almost completely and converted to a calcium phosphate material within 7-14 days in SBF, whereas >85 % of the silica remained in the 45S5 microfibers, forming a silica gel phase. An amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) product that formed on the 13-93B3 microfibers crystallized at a slower rate to hydroxyapatite (HA) when compared to the ACP that formed on the 45S5 fibers. For immersion times >3 days, the 13-93B3 fibers released a higher concentration of Ca into the SBF than the 45S5 fibers. The fast and more complete degradation, slow crystallization of the ACP product, and higher concentration of dissolved Ca in SBF could contribute to the capacity of the microfibrous borate 13-93B3 glass to heal soft tissue wounds.

  17. Multifunctional Chitosan-45S5 Bioactive Glass-Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) Microsphere Composite Membranes for Guided Tissue/Bone Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Ding, Yaping; Yu, Shanshan; Yao, Qingqing; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2015-09-23

    Novel multifunctional chitosan-45S5 bioactive glass-poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) microsphere (CS-BG-MS) composite membranes were developed with applicability in guided tissue/bone regeneration (GTR/GBR). The incorporation of 45S5 BG and PHBV MS into CS membranes not only provided the membranes with favorable surface roughness, hydrophilicity, and flexibility but also slowed down their degradation rate. Moreover, the CS membranes became bioactive after the incorporation of 45S5 BG and capable of releasing drugs of different physicochemical properties in a controlled and sustained manner with the addition of PHBV MS. Cell culture tests showed that osteoblast-like MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells had significantly higher adhesion, cell proliferation, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity on CS-BG and CS-BG-MS membranes than on neat CS membranes. Therefore, the developed bioactive CS-BG-MS membranes with potential multidrug (e.g., antibacterial and antiosteoporosis drugs) delivery capability are promising candidate membranes for GTR/GBR applications.

  18. On the dissolution/reaction of small-grain Bioglass ® 45S5 and F-modified bioactive glasses in artificial saliva (AS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aina, Valentina; Bertinetti, Luca; Cerrato, Giuseppina; Cerruti, Marta; Lusvardi, Gigliola; Malavasi, Gianluca; Morterra, Claudio; Tacconi, Linda; Menabue, Ledi

    2011-02-01

    The reaction of small-grain Bioglass® 45S5 in artificial saliva (AS), to produce a layer of hydroxy-apatite (HA) and/or hydroxy-carbonate apatite (HCA), has been studied and compared to the results obtained in a simple buffered solution (TRIS). Some potentially bioactive glasses based on the composition of Bioglass® and containing CaF2 (HCaCaF2 5% and HNaCaF2 5%) have also been studied, in order to analyze the effects/changes produced when a F-containing glass surface is contacted with AS. The insertion of fluorine has been proposed to improve bioactive glass bone-bonding ability, and to parallel fluorine-containing glass-ceramics currently used in dentistry. ICP-OES analysis of the solution, and FTIR spectroscopy of the solid samples provided compositional information on the stages of reaction. These data were integrated with XRD and the textural and morphological data, obtained by specific surface areas determination and TEM-EDS measurements. In the case of Bioglass® 45S5, a comparison at corresponding reaction times indicates that the precipitation of an amorphous Ca-phosphate phase is faster in AS, but the crystallization of HA/HCA is delayed in AS with respect to the TRIS solution. For fluoride-containing glasses, the sample HCaCaF2 5%, in which CaF2 replaces part of CaO, possesses the fastest rate for HA/HCA crystallization (1 week) in AS. Some lines of interpretation for these results are proposed.

  19. Mechanical properties and drug release behavior of PCL/zein coated 45S5 bioactive glass scaffolds for bone tissue engineering application.

    PubMed

    Fereshteh, Zeinab; Nooeaid, Patcharakamon; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Bagri, Akbar; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2015-09-01

    This article presents data related to the research article entitled "The effect of coating type on mechanical properties and controlled drug release of PCL/zein coated 45S5 bioactive glass scaffolds for bone tissue engineering" [1]. We provide data on mechanical properties, in vitro bioactivity and drug release of bioactive glass (BG) scaffolds coated by poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and zein used as a controlled release device for tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH). By coating the BG scaffolds with PCL or PCL/zein blend the mechanical properties of the scaffolds were substantially improved, i.e., the compressive strength increased from 0.004±0.001 MPa (uncoated BG scaffolds) to 0.15±0.02 MPa (PCL/zein coated BG scaffolds). A dense bone-like apatite layer formed on the surface of PCL/zein coated scaffolds immersed for 14 days in simulated body fluid (SBF). The data describe control of drug release and in vitro degradation behavior of coating by engineering the concentration of zein. Thus, the developed scaffolds exhibit attractive properties for application in bone tissue engineering research.

  20. Mechanical properties and drug release behavior of PCL/zein coated 45S5 bioactive glass scaffolds for bone tissue engineering application

    PubMed Central

    Fereshteh, Zeinab; Nooeaid, Patcharakamon; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Bagri, Akbar; Boccaccini, Aldo R.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents data related to the research article entitled “The effect of coating type on mechanical properties and controlled drug release of PCL/zein coated 45S5 bioactive glass scaffolds for bone tissue engineering” [1]. We provide data on mechanical properties, in vitro bioactivity and drug release of bioactive glass (BG) scaffolds coated by poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and zein used as a controlled release device for tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH). By coating the BG scaffolds with PCL or PCL/zein blend the mechanical properties of the scaffolds were substantially improved, i.e., the compressive strength increased from 0.004±0.001 MPa (uncoated BG scaffolds) to 0.15±0.02 MPa (PCL/zein coated BG scaffolds). A dense bone-like apatite layer formed on the surface of PCL/zein coated scaffolds immersed for 14 days in simulated body fluid (SBF). The data describe control of drug release and in vitro degradation behavior of coating by engineering the concentration of zein. Thus, the developed scaffolds exhibit attractive properties for application in bone tissue engineering research. PMID:26966716

  1. Effects of Cu-doped 45S5 bioactive glass on the lipid peroxidation-associated growth of human osteoblast-like cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Milkovic, Lidija; Hoppe, Alexander; Detsch, Rainer; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Zarkovic, Neven

    2014-10-01

    Bioactive glass (BG) is a highly attractive material, exhibiting both osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties, which is known to provide a growth enhancing surface for bone cells. Previous studies have shown that lipid peroxidation and in particular generation of 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) is involved in the growth of human osteoblast-like cells, HOS, on BG. Copper (Cu), which is an essential cofactor of several enzymes as well as a proangiogenic and an antimicrobial agent, is known to induce lipid peroxidation. Therefore, the enrichment of BG with Cu could potentially have beneficial effects on the growth of the bone cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of copper-doped 45S5 BG on the growth of HOS cells and the generation of HNE. Our results confirmed the association of HNE with the growth of HOS cells. The effects of added Cu were dose-dependent. Specifically, low concentrations (i.e., 0.1% w/w) of Cu improved viability and enhanced HOS cell growth, whereas higher Cu concentrations [i.e., 2.5% and 1% (w/w)] were cytotoxic. The observed effects of Cu concentration on cell growth correlated with the level of HNE production. Therefore, Cu containing BG may represent a useful biomaterial for research and development studies of bone regeneration.

  2. Electrochemical behavior of 45S5 bioactive ceramic coating on Ti6Al4V alloy for dental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado López, M. M.; Espitia Cabrera, M. I.; Faure, J.; Contreras García, M. E.

    2016-04-01

    Titanium and its alloys are widely used as implant materials because of their mechanical properties and non-toxic behavior. Unfortunately, they are not bioinert, which means that they can release ions and can only fix the bone by mechanical anchorage, this can lead to the encapsulation of dense fibrous tissue in the body. The bone fixation is required in clinical conditions treated by orthopedic and dental medicine. The proposal is to coat metallic implants with bioactive materials to establish good interfacial bonds between the metal substrate and bone by increasing bioactivity. Bioactive glasses, ceramics specifically 45 S5 Bioglass, have drawn attention as a serious functional biomaterial because osseointegration capacity. The EPD method of bioglass gel precursor was proposed in the present work as a new method to obtain 45S5/Ti6A14V for dental applications. The coatings, were thermally treated at 700 and 800°C and presented the 45 S5 bioglass characteristic phases showing morphology and uniformity with no defects, quantification percentages by EDS of Si, Ca, Na, P and O elements in the coating scratched powders, showed a good proportional relationship demonstrating the obtention of the 45S5 bioglass. The corrosion tests were carried out in Hank's solution. By Tafel extrapolation, Ti6Al4V alloy showed good corrosion resistance in Hank's solution media, by the formation of a passivation layer on the metal surface, however, in the system 45S5/Ti6Al4V there was an increase in the corrosion resistance; icon-, Ecorr and corrosion rate decreased, the mass loss and the rate of release of ions, were lower in this system than in the titanium alloy without coating.

  3. Investigation of Mg and Zn doped 45S5 bioactive materials by XRD, FTIR and SEM techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, Vikas; Singh, K. J.; Kaur, Kulwinder

    2014-04-01

    Magnesium and zinc doped 45S5 samples were prepared in the laboratory by sol gel technique., Structural properties of the samples have been studied by XRD, FTIR and SEM techniques. Both FTIR and XRD data indicate the primary bioactive behavior of the samples. Presented results may be useful to improve the antibacterial as well as osteoblast properties of the currently available bioactive materials.

  4. Kinetics and mechanisms of the conversion of silicate (45S5), borate, and borosilicate glasses to hydroxyapatite in dilute phosphate solutions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenhai; Day, Delbert E; Kittiratanapiboon, Kanisa; Rahaman, Mohamed N

    2006-07-01

    Bioactive glasses with controllable conversion rates to hydroxyapatite (HA) may provide a novel class of scaffold materials for bone tissue engineering. The objective of the present work was to comprehensively characterize the conversion of a silicate bioactive glass (45S5), a borate glass, and two intermediate borosilicate glass compositions to HA in a dilute phosphate solution at 37 degrees Celsius. The borate glass and the borosilicate glasses were derived from the 45S5 glass by fully or partially replacing the SiO(2) with B(2)O(3). Higher B(2)O(3) content produced a more rapid conversion of the glass to HA and a lower pH value of the phosphate solution. Whereas the borate glass was fully converted to HA in less than 4 days, the silicate (45S5) and borosilicate compositions were only partially converted even after 70 days, and contained residual SiO(2) in a Na-depleted core. The concentration of Na(+) in the phosphate solution increased with reaction time whereas the PO(4) (3-) concentration decreased, both reaching final limiting values at a rate that increased with the B(2)O(3) content of the glass. However, the Ca(2+) concentration in the solution remained low, below the detection limit of atomic absorption, throughout the reaction. Immersion of the glasses in a mixed solution of K(2)HPO(4) and K(2)CO(3) produced a carbonate-substituted HA but the presence of the K(2)CO(3) had little effect on the kinetics of conversion to HA. The kinetics and mechanisms of the conversion process of the four glasses to HA are compared and used to develop a model for the process.

  5. Study of the dual effect of gamma irradiation and strontium substitution on bioactivity, cytotoxicity and antimicrobial properties of 45S5 bioglass.

    PubMed

    Farag, M M; Abd-Allah, W M; Ahmed, Hanaa Y A

    2017-02-10

    In this work, we studied simultaneous effect of gamma irradiation and SrO substitution for Na2 O on bioactivity, cytotoxicity and antimicrobial properties of 45S5 glass. Gamma irradiation was mainly introduced in this work as an effective sterilizing technique, improvement of bulk properties and surface modification of glass. Where, gamma irradiation is considered a modifier for glass network due to generation of defects resulted from this irradiation. Furthermore, SrO was introduced into the glass structure in place of Na2 O in order to reduce a probable toxic effect of Na2 O for surrounding tissue by decreasing its percentage. Where, Sr(2+) is characterized by its antibacterial properties, as well as, it induces formation of bone tissue and inhibits its resorption. The cell viability was studied for selected samples using Vero cells. As well as, antimicrobial activity was evaluated against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus pneumonia and Escherichia coliand Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria. The results showed that substitution of Na2 O by SrO in glass composition decreased the glass dissolution in SBF. However, the glass dissolution increased after irradiation of such glass due to generation of nonbridgingoxygens (NBOs) throughout glass network by gamma irradiation, and this effect was more obvious for Sr-contained glass. On the other hand, two selected Sr-containing glasses (gamma irradiated at 0 and 25 kGy) showed a good ability to stimulate cell proliferation of normal fibroblast cells, as well as, they represented a potential ability to inhibit the growth of or kill bacteria, which is considered an important issue commonly found in a clinical situation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. A study on in vitro and in vivo bioactivity of HA/45S5 composite films by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D. G.; Chen, C. Z.; Ma, Q. S.; Jin, Q. P.; Li, H. C.

    2013-04-01

    HA/45S5 composite films were deposited by pulsed laser, the crystalline phases, microstructure and bonding configurations of the films were studied by XRD, SEM and FTIR respectively, and the film-to-substrate adhesion was investigated by micro-scratch testing. In addition, the in vitro and in vivo assays were carried out. The results showed that the crystallinity and the adhesive strength of the films increased with the increase of the substrate temperature. The film deposited with the substrate temperature of 200 °C is amorphous, while crystalline HA and β-TCP were detected in the film deposited at 600 °C. The in vitro test indicates that the amorphous film has faster dissolution rate and reprecipitation rate, which implies that this film has better bioactivity than the crystalline film. However, the in vivo test suggested that the 600 °C film was more suitable to serve as clinical application than the 200 °C film, because new bone tissue grew better onto the 600 °C film surface than onto the 200 °C film surface when they were implanted in the rabbit shin bones.

  7. Evaluation of mechanical property and bioactivity of nano-bioglass 45S5 scaffold coated with poly-3-hydroxybutyrate.

    PubMed

    Montazeri, Mahbobeh; Karbasi, Saeed; Foroughi, Mohammad Reza; Monshi, Ahmad; Ebrahimi-Kahrizsangi, Reza

    2015-02-01

    One of the major challenges facing researchers of tissue engineering is scaffold design with desirable physical and mechanical properties for growth and proliferation of cells and tissue formation. In this research, firstly, nano-bioglass powder with grain sizes of 55-56 nm was prepared by melting method of industrial raw materials at 1,400 °C. Then the porous ceramic scaffold of bioglass with 30, 40 and 50 wt% was prepared by using the polyurethane sponge replication method. The scaffolds were coated with poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (P3HB) for 30 s and 1 min in order to increase the scaffold's mechanical properties. XRD, XRF, SEM, FE-SEM and FT-IR were used for phase and component studies, morphology, particle size and determination of functional groups, respectively. XRD and XRF results showed that the type of the produced bioglass was 45S5. The results of XRD and FT-IR showed that the best temperature to produce bioglass scaffold was 600 °C, in which Na2Ca2Si3O9 crystal is obtained. By coating the scaffolds with P3HB, a composite scaffold with optimal porosity of 80-87% in 200-600 μm and compression strength of 0.1-0.53 MPa was obtained. According to the results of compressive strength and porosity tests, the best kind of scaffold was produced with 30 wt% of bioglass immersed for 1 min in P3HB. To evaluate the bioactivity of the scaffold, the SBF solution was used. The selected scaffold (30 wt% bioglass/6 wt% P3HB) was maintained for up to 4 weeks in this solution at an incubation temperature of 37 °C. The XRD, SEM EDXA and AAS tests were indicative of hydroxyapatite formation on the surface of bioactive scaffold. This scaffold has some potential to use in bone tissue engineering.

  8. On the mechanism of apatite-induced precipitation on 45S5 glass pellets coated with a natural-derived polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, Marco; Miola, Marta; Bertone, Elisa; Baldi, Giovanni; Perez, Javier; Verné, Enrica

    2015-10-01

    In this work, the bioactive glass 45S5 (also known by its commercial name Bioglass®) was successfully dip-coated by a natural derived biopolymer, increasing its apatite-forming ability. The biopolymer was shown to accelerate the first stages of bioactivity, inducing a fast transition to step 4 (formation of amorphous Casbnd P layer) in the apatite-forming ability mechanism. The faster precipitation of Ca/P crystals in the coated samples resulted in the formation of an intermediate amorphous octacalcium phosphate, which later transforms into an apatite layer with high thickness. The effect of the thickness of the coating was also studied on samples coated with polymer suspensions of different concentrations (0.15% and 1.5%, w/v), revealing that the kinetics of formation of the final hydroxycarbonate apatite layer increases with the thickness of the coating. The mechanism by which this apatite-forming ability is accelerated was also investigated, revealing that certain functional groups present in the structure of the polymer allow it to act as an organic matrix and preferential nucleation site for the growth of the hydroxycarbonate apatite layer.

  9. Bioactive Glasses: Frontiers and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Hench, Larry L; Jones, Julian R

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive glasses were discovered in 1969 and provided for the first time an alternative to nearly inert implant materials. Bioglass formed a rapid, strong, and stable bond with host tissues. This article examines the frontiers of research crossed to achieve clinical use of bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics. In the 1980s, it was discovered that bioactive glasses could be used in particulate form to stimulate osteogenesis, which thereby led to the concept of regeneration of tissues. Later, it was discovered that the dissolution ions from the glasses behaved like growth factors, providing signals to the cells. This article summarizes the frontiers of knowledge crossed during four eras of development of bioactive glasses that have led from concept of bioactivity to widespread clinical and commercial use, with emphasis on the first composition, 45S5 Bioglass(®). The four eras are (a) discovery, (b) clinical application, (c) tissue regeneration, and (d) innovation. Questions still to be answered for the fourth era are included to stimulate innovation in the field and exploration of new frontiers that can be the basis for a general theory of bioactive stimulation of regeneration of tissues and application to numerous clinical needs.

  10. Bioactive Glasses: Frontiers and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Hench, Larry L.; Jones, Julian R.

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive glasses were discovered in 1969 and provided for the first time an alternative to nearly inert implant materials. Bioglass formed a rapid, strong, and stable bond with host tissues. This article examines the frontiers of research crossed to achieve clinical use of bioactive glasses and glass–ceramics. In the 1980s, it was discovered that bioactive glasses could be used in particulate form to stimulate osteogenesis, which thereby led to the concept of regeneration of tissues. Later, it was discovered that the dissolution ions from the glasses behaved like growth factors, providing signals to the cells. This article summarizes the frontiers of knowledge crossed during four eras of development of bioactive glasses that have led from concept of bioactivity to widespread clinical and commercial use, with emphasis on the first composition, 45S5 Bioglass®. The four eras are (a) discovery, (b) clinical application, (c) tissue regeneration, and (d) innovation. Questions still to be answered for the fourth era are included to stimulate innovation in the field and exploration of new frontiers that can be the basis for a general theory of bioactive stimulation of regeneration of tissues and application to numerous clinical needs. PMID:26649290

  11. Luminescence concentration quenching and site-occupancy of Eu2+ ions in Na2Ca2Si3O9 phosphors derived from 45S5 glass-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yangguang; Tong, Chao; Xu, Chuanyan; Li, Yadong; Seo, Hyo Jin

    2016-04-01

    The phosphors of Na2Ca2-2xEu2xSi3O9 (x = 0, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07, 0.09) were first synthesized by sol-gel method. The crystal phase formations of the phosphors were detected by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) measurements and the structure refinement. The photoluminescence spectra, the concentration quenching, the luminescence decay curves and the luminescence color chromaticity were measured, respectively. The excitation spectra indicate that the phosphors can be effectively excited by near UV-LED chips. Two kinds of Eu2+ sites centered at 545 nm and 505 nm were discussed by analyzing the spectra, concentration-dependent luminescence intensity and lifetimes. This is a potential tool for monitoring the bioactivity of 45S5 glass-ceramics in situ.

  12. Surface modification of bioactive glasses and preparation of PDLLA/bioactive glass composite films.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Chang, Jiang

    2009-08-01

    In order to improve the homogeneous dispersion of particles in the polymeric matrix, 45S5, mesoporous 58S, and 58S bioactive glasses were surface modified by esterification reactions with dodecyl alcohol at reflux temperature of 260 degrees C (named as m-45S5, m-mesoporous 58S, and m-58S, respectively). The modified particles showed better hydrophobicity and longer time of suspension in organic matrix. The PDLLA/bioactive glass composite films were fabricated using surface modified bioactive glass particles through solvent casting-evaporation method. Surface morphology, mechanical property, and bioactivity were investigated. The results revealed that the inorganic particle distribution and tensile strength of the composite films with modified bioactive glass particles were significantly improved while great bioactive properties were maintained. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation illustrated that the modified bioactive glass particles were homogeneously dispersed in the PDLLA matrix. The maximum tensile strengths of composite films with modified bioactive glass particles were higher than that of composite films with unmodified bioactive glass particles. The bioactivity of the composite films were evaluated by being soaked in the simulated body fluid (SBF) and the SEM observation of the films suggested that the modified composite films were still bioactive in that they could induce the formation of HAp on its surface and the distribution of HAp was even more homogeneous on the film. The results mentioned above indicated that the surface modification of bioactive glasses with dodecyl alcohol was an effective method to prepare PDLLA/bioactive glass composites with enhanced properties. By studying the comparisons of modification effects among the three types of bioactive glasses, we could get the conclusion that the size and morphology of the inorganic particles would greatly affect the modification effects and the properties of composites.

  13. Laser cladding of bioactive glass coatings.

    PubMed

    Comesaña, R; Quintero, F; Lusquiños, F; Pascual, M J; Boutinguiza, M; Durán, A; Pou, J

    2010-03-01

    Laser cladding by powder injection has been used to produce bioactive glass coatings on titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) substrates. Bioactive glass compositions alternative to 45S5 Bioglass were demonstrated to exhibit a gradual wetting angle-temperature evolution and therefore a more homogeneous deposition of the coating over the substrate was achieved. Among the different compositions studied, the S520 bioactive glass showed smoother wetting angle-temperature behavior and was successfully used as precursor material to produce bioactive coatings. Coatings processed using a Nd:YAG laser presented calcium silicate crystallization at the surface, with a uniform composition along the coating cross-section, and no significant dilution of the titanium alloy was observed. These coatings maintain similar bioactivity to that of the precursor material as demonstrated by immersion in simulated body fluid.

  14. Influence of air-abrasion executed with polyacrylic acid-Bioglass 45S5 on the bonding performance of a resin-modified glass ionomer cement.

    PubMed

    Sauro, Salvatore; Watson, Timothy F; Thompson, Ian; Toledano, Manuel; Nucci, Cesare; Banerjee, Avijit

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test the microtensile bond strength (μTBS), after 6 months of storage in PBS, of a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) bonded to dentine pretreated with Bioglass 45S5 (BAG) using various etching and air-abrasion techniques. The RMGIC (GC Fuji II LC) was applied onto differently treated dentine surfaces followed by light curing for 30 s. The specimens were cut into matchsticks with cross-sectional areas of 0.9 mm(2). The μTBS of the specimens was measured after 24 h or 6 months of storage in PBS and the results were statistically analysed using two-way anova and the Student-Newman-Keuls test (α = 0.05). Further RMCGIC-bonded dentine specimens were used for interfacial characterization, micropermeability, and nanoleakage analyses by confocal microscopy. The RMGIC-dentine interface layer showed no water absorption after 6 months of storage in PBS except for the interdiffusion layer of the silicon carbide (SiC)-abraded/polyacrylic acid (PAA)-etched bonded dentine. The RMGIC applied onto dentine air-abraded with BAG/H(2)O only or with BAG/PAA-fluid followed by etching procedures (10% PAA gel) showed no statistically significant reduction in μTBS after 6 months of storage in PBS. The abrasion procedures performed using BAG in combination with PAA might be a suitable strategy to enhance the bonding durability and the healing ability of RMGIC bonded to dentine.

  15. Bioactive borate glass coatings for titanium alloys.

    PubMed

    Peddi, Laxmikanth; Brow, Richard K; Brown, Roger F

    2008-09-01

    Bioactive borate glass coatings have been developed for titanium and titanium alloys. Glasses from the Na(2)O-CaO-B(2)O(3) system, modified by additions of SiO(2), Al(2)O(3), and P(2)O(5), were characterized and compositions with thermal expansion matches to titanium were identified. Infrared and X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that a hydroxyapatite surface layer forms on the borate glasses after exposure to a simulated body fluid for 2 weeks at 37 degrees C; similar layers form on 45S5 Bioglass((R)) exposed to the same conditions. Assays with MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblastic cells show the borate glasses exhibit in vitro biocompatibility similar to that of the 45S5 Bioglass((R)). An enameling technique was developed to form adherent borate glass coatings on Ti6Al4V alloy, with adhesive strengths of 36 +/- 2 MPa on polished substrates. The results show these new borate glasses to be promising candidates for forming bioactive coatings on titanium substrates.

  16. Bioactive and thermally compatible glass coating on zirconia dental implants.

    PubMed

    Kirsten, A; Hausmann, A; Weber, M; Fischer, J; Fischer, H

    2015-02-01

    The healing time of zirconia implants may be reduced by the use of bioactive glass coatings. Unfortunately, existing glasses are either bioactive like Bioglass 45S5 but thermally incompatible with the zirconia substrate, or they are thermally compatible but exhibit only a very low level of bioactivity. In this study, we hypothesized that a tailored substitution of alkaline earth metals and alkaline metals in 45S5 can lead to a glass composition that is both bioactive and thermally compatible with zirconia implants. A novel glass composition was analyzed using x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, dilatometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and heating microscopy to investigate its chemical, physical, and thermal properties. Bioactivity was tested in vitro using simulated body fluid (SBF). Smooth and microstructured glass coatings were applied using a tailored spray technique with subsequent thermal treatment. Coating adhesion was tested on implants that were inserted in bovine ribs. The cytocompatibility of the coating was analyzed using L929 mouse fibroblasts. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the novel glass was shown to be slightly lower (11.58 · 10(-6) K(-1)) than that of the zirconia (11.67 · 10(-6) K(-1)). After storage in SBF, the glass showed reaction layers almost identical to the bioactive glass gold standard, 45S5. A process window between 800 °C and 910 °C was found to result in densely sintered and amorphous coatings. Microstructured glass coatings on zirconia implants survived a minimum insertion torque of 60 Ncm in the in vitro experiment on bovine ribs. Proliferation and cytotoxicity of the glass coatings was comparable with the controls. The novel glass composition showed a strong adhesion to the zirconia substrate and a significant bioactive behavior in the SBF in vitro experiments. Therefore, it holds great potential to significantly reduce the healing time of zirconia dental implants.

  17. Bioactive and Thermally Compatible Glass Coating on Zirconia Dental Implants

    PubMed Central

    Kirsten, A.; Hausmann, A.; Weber, M.; Fischer, J.

    2015-01-01

    The healing time of zirconia implants may be reduced by the use of bioactive glass coatings. Unfortunately, existing glasses are either bioactive like Bioglass 45S5 but thermally incompatible with the zirconia substrate, or they are thermally compatible but exhibit only a very low level of bioactivity. In this study, we hypothesized that a tailored substitution of alkaline earth metals and alkaline metals in 45S5 can lead to a glass composition that is both bioactive and thermally compatible with zirconia implants. A novel glass composition was analyzed using x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, dilatometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and heating microscopy to investigate its chemical, physical, and thermal properties. Bioactivity was tested in vitro using simulated body fluid (SBF). Smooth and microstructured glass coatings were applied using a tailored spray technique with subsequent thermal treatment. Coating adhesion was tested on implants that were inserted in bovine ribs. The cytocompatibility of the coating was analyzed using L929 mouse fibroblasts. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the novel glass was shown to be slightly lower (11.58·10–6 K–1) than that of the zirconia (11.67·10–6 K–1). After storage in SBF, the glass showed reaction layers almost identical to the bioactive glass gold standard, 45S5. A process window between 800 °C and 910 °C was found to result in densely sintered and amorphous coatings. Microstructured glass coatings on zirconia implants survived a minimum insertion torque of 60 Ncm in the in vitro experiment on bovine ribs. Proliferation and cytotoxicity of the glass coatings was comparable with the controls. The novel glass composition showed a strong adhesion to the zirconia substrate and a significant bioactive behavior in the SBF in vitro experiments. Therefore, it holds great potential to significantly reduce the healing time of zirconia dental implants. PMID:25421839

  18. In vitro immersion studies of optimized electrospun bioglass 45S5 fibers for tissue engineering application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durgalakshmi, D.; Balakumar, S.

    2015-06-01

    Bioactive-glass scaffolds are crucial in bone tissue engineering application since, they work as temporary templates for tissue regrowth and provides structural support to the cells. However, many issues remain unfolded with regard to their design. In this study, for the first time bioactive glass 45S5 fibers were synthesized using electrospinning technique. The electrospinning process parameters were optimized to obtain reproducible fibers. The effect of solvent concentration and polymer concentration on fiber formation was clearly studied. In vitro studies in simulated body fluid (SBF) were performed to investigate the bioactivity and mineralization of the scaffold by inducing the formation of hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals.

  19. Reprint of: Review of bioactive glass: From Hench to hybrids.

    PubMed

    Jones, Julian R

    2015-09-01

    Bioactive glasses are reported to be able to stimulate more bone regeneration than other bioactive ceramics but they lag behind other bioactive ceramics in terms of commercial success. Bioactive glass has not yet reached its potential but research activity is growing. This paper reviews the current state of the art, starting with current products and moving onto recent developments. Larry Hench's 45S5 Bioglass® was the first artificial material that was found to form a chemical bond with bone, launching the field of bioactive ceramics. In vivo studies have shown that bioactive glasses bond with bone more rapidly than other bioceramics, and in vitro studies indicate that their osteogenic properties are due to their dissolution products stimulating osteoprogenitor cells at the genetic level. However, calcium phosphates such as tricalcium phosphate and synthetic hydroxyapatite are more widely used in the clinic. Some of the reasons are commercial, but others are due to the scientific limitations of the original Bioglass 45S5. An example is that it is difficult to produce porous bioactive glass templates (scaffolds) for bone regeneration from Bioglass 45S5 because it crystallizes during sintering. Recently, this has been overcome by understanding how the glass composition can be tailored to prevent crystallization. The sintering problems can also be avoided by synthesizing sol-gel glass, where the silica network is assembled at room temperature. Process developments in foaming, solid freeform fabrication and nanofibre spinning have now allowed the production of porous bioactive glass scaffolds from both melt- and sol-gel-derived glasses. An ideal scaffold for bone regeneration would share load with bone. Bioceramics cannot do this when the bone defect is subjected to cyclic loads, as they are brittle. To overcome this, bioactive glass polymer hybrids are being synthesized that have the potential to be tough, with congruent degradation of the bioactive inorganic and

  20. Review of bioactive glass: from Hench to hybrids.

    PubMed

    Jones, Julian R

    2013-01-01

    Bioactive glasses are reported to be able to stimulate more bone regeneration than other bioactive ceramics but they lag behind other bioactive ceramics in terms of commercial success. Bioactive glass has not yet reached its potential but research activity is growing. This paper reviews the current state of the art, starting with current products and moving onto recent developments. Larry Hench's 45S5 Bioglass® was the first artificial material that was found to form a chemical bond with bone, launching the field of bioactive ceramics. In vivo studies have shown that bioactive glasses bond with bone more rapidly than other bioceramics, and in vitro studies indicate that their osteogenic properties are due to their dissolution products stimulating osteoprogenitor cells at the genetic level. However, calcium phosphates such as tricalcium phosphate and synthetic hydroxyapatite are more widely used in the clinic. Some of the reasons are commercial, but others are due to the scientific limitations of the original Bioglass 45S5. An example is that it is difficult to produce porous bioactive glass templates (scaffolds) for bone regeneration from Bioglass 45S5 because it crystallizes during sintering. Recently, this has been overcome by understanding how the glass composition can be tailored to prevent crystallization. The sintering problems can also be avoided by synthesizing sol-gel glass, where the silica network is assembled at room temperature. Process developments in foaming, solid freeform fabrication and nanofibre spinning have now allowed the production of porous bioactive glass scaffolds from both melt- and sol-gel-derived glasses. An ideal scaffold for bone regeneration would share load with bone. Bioceramics cannot do this when the bone defect is subjected to cyclic loads, as they are brittle. To overcome this, bioactive glass polymer hybrids are being synthesized that have the potential to be tough, with congruent degradation of the bioactive inorganic and

  1. CO2 laser improves 45S5 bioglass interaction with dentin.

    PubMed

    Bakry, A S; Takahashi, H; Otsuki, M; Sadr, A; Yamashita, K; Tagami, J

    2011-02-01

    Bioglass 45S5 is a bioactive glass that can create a layer of calcium-phosphate crystals on mineralized hard tissues. In this study, 45S5 bioglass was mixed with phosphoric acid and irradiated with CO(2) laser and examined as a possible aid in the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity. The dentinal surface modified by the aforementioned technique was chemically and micro-morphologically examined with a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscope (EDS), and the crystalline structures of the examined dentinal surfaces were examined by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Moreover, the mechanical properties of the newly formed layer were examined by nanoindentation. The results showed that 45S5 bioglass could occlude the dentinal tubule orifices with calcium-phosphate crystals. The application of CO(2) laser potentially improved the mechanical organization of these crystals.

  2. Bioactive glasses as accelerators of apatite bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Vallet-Regí, M; Rámila, A; Padilla, S; Muñoz, B

    2003-09-01

    Synthetic carbonatehydroxyapatite is the ceramic closest to the mineral component of human bone and seems, therefore, the optimum material to use in osseous implants. However, in vitro assays performed to determine its bioactivity have shown no positive results after 2 months of assay. With the aim of improving this bioactivity, a new biphasic material was synthesized composed mainly of synthetic carbonatehydroxyapatite and only 5% of a sol-gel bioactive glass. In vitro assays were assessed to determine the bioactive behavior of this new material and revealed that the addition of a minimal amount of bioactive glass is enough to induce bioactivity on synthetic carbonatehydroxyapatites.

  3. Synthesis of 45S5 Bioglass® via a straightforward organic, nitrate-free sol-gel process.

    PubMed

    Rezabeigi, Ehsan; Wood-Adams, Paula M; Drew, Robin A L

    2014-07-01

    More than four decades after the discovery of 45S5 Bioglass® as the first bioactive material, this composition is still one of the most promising materials in the tissue engineering field. Sol-gel-derived bioactive glasses generally possess improved properties over other bioactive glasses, because of their highly porous microstructure and unique surface chemistry which accelerate hydroxyapatite formation. In the current study, a new combination of precursors with lactic acid as the hydrolysis catalyst have been employed to design an organic, nitrate-free sol-gel procedure for synthesizing of 45S5 Bioglass®. This straightforward route is able to produce fully amorphous submicron particles of this glass with an appropriately high specific surface area on the order of ten times higher than that of the melt-derived glasses. These characteristics are expected to lead to rapid hydroxyapatite formation and consequently more efficient bone bonding.

  4. Osteogenic capacity of alkali-free bioactive glasses. In vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Brito, Ana F; Antunes, Brígida; Dos Santos, Francisco; Fernandes, Hugo R; Ferreira, José M F

    2016-08-16

    The high alkali content bioactive glasses commonly used to regenerate bone in dental, orthopedic, and maxillofacial surgeries induce some cytotoxicity in surrounding tissues. The present study aims the ability of some alkali-free bioactive glasses compositions, recently developed by our research group, to stimulate human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) differentiation into osteoblasts in comparison to 45S5 Bioglass(®) . The obtained results demonstrated that alkali-free bioactive glasses possess higher stimulating towards differentiation of hMSCs in comparison to the control 45S5 Bioglass(®) . The von Kossa assay demonstrated that all bioactive glasses studied were able to induce the appearance of calcium deposits even when the cells were cultured in DMEM, proving that these biomaterials per se induce hMSCs cell differentiation. It was also observed that in both cell culture medium used (DMEM, and osteogenesis differentiation medium) alkali-free bioactive glasses clearly induced the appearance of more calcium deposits than the 45S5 Bioglass(®) , indicating their greater ability to induce cell differentiation. In summary, these results indicate that alkali-free bioactive glasses are a safe and valid alternative to 45S5 Bioglass(®) . © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2016.

  5. Bioactive glass in tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Day, Delbert E.; Bal, B. Sonny; Fu, Qiang; Jung, Steven B.; Bonewald, Lynda F.; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on recent advances in the development and use of bioactive glass for tissue engineering applications. Despite its inherent brittleness, bioactive glass has several appealing characteristics as a scaffold material for bone tissue engineering. New bioactive glasses based on borate and borosilicate compositions have shown the ability to enhance new bone formation when compared to silicate bioactive glass. Borate-based bioactive glasses also have controllable degradation rates, so the degradation of the bioactive glass implant can be more closely matched to the rate of new bone formation. Bioactive glasses can be doped with trace quantities of elements such as Cu, Zn and Sr, which are known to be beneficial for healthy bone growth. In addition to the new bioactive glasses, recent advances in biomaterials processing have resulted in the creation of scaffold architectures with a range of mechanical properties suitable for the substitution of loaded as well as non-loaded bone. While bioactive glass has been extensively investigated for bone repair, there has been relatively little research on the application of bioactive glass to the repair of soft tissues. However, recent work has shown the ability of bioactive glass to promote angiogenesis, which is critical to numerous applications in tissue regeneration, such as neovascularization for bone regeneration and the healing of soft tissue wounds. Bioactive glass has also been shown to enhance neocartilage formation during in vitro culture of chondrocyte-seeded hydrogels, and to serve as a subchondral substrate for tissue-engineered osteochondral constructs. Methods used to manipulate the structure and performance of bioactive glass in these tissue engineering applications are analyzed. PMID:21421084

  6. Bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Rawlings, R D

    1993-01-01

    Bioactive materials are designed to induce a specific biological activity; in most cases the desired biological activity is one that will give strong bonding to bone. A range of materials has been assessed as being capable of bonding to bone, but this paper is solely concerned with bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics. Firstly, the structure and processing of glasses and glass-ceramics are described, as a basic knowledge is essential for the understanding of the development and properties of the bioactive materials. The effect of composition and structure on the bioactivity is then discussed, and it will be shown that bioactivity is associated with the formation of an apatite layer on the surface of the implant. A survey of mechanical performance demonstrates that the structure and mechanical properties of glass-ceramics depend upon whether the processing involves casting or sintering and that the strength and toughness of glass-ceramics are superior to those of glasses. Attempts to further improve the mechanical performance by the use of non-monolithic components, i.e. bioactive coatings on metal substrates and glass and glass-ceramic matrix composites, are also reviewed and are shown to have varying degrees of success. Finally, some miscellaneous applications, namely bioactive bone cements and bone fillers, are briefly covered.

  7. Three-dimensional bioactive glass implants fabricated by rapid prototyping based on CO(2) laser cladding.

    PubMed

    Comesaña, R; Lusquiños, F; Del Val, J; López-Álvarez, M; Quintero, F; Riveiro, A; Boutinguiza, M; de Carlos, A; Jones, J R; Hill, R G; Pou, J

    2011-09-01

    Three-dimensional bioactive glass implants were produced by rapid prototyping based on laser cladding without using moulds. CO(2) laser radiation was employed to melt 45S5 and S520 bioactive glass particles and to deposit the material layer by layer following a desired geometry. Controlled thermal input and cooling rate by fine tuning of the processing parameters allowed the production of crack-free fully dense implants. Microstructural characterization revealed chemical composition stability, but crystallization during processing was extensive when 45S5 bioactive glass was used. Improved results were obtained using the S520 bioactive glass, which showed limited surface crystallization due to an expanded sintering window (the difference between the glass transition temperature and crystallization onset temperature). Ion release from the S520 implants in Tris buffer was similar to that of amorphous 45S5 bioactive glass prepared by casting in graphite moulds. Laser processed S520 scaffolds were not cytotoxic in vitro when osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured with the dissolution products of the glasses; and the MC3T3-E1 cells attached and spread well when cultured on the surface of the materials.

  8. The osteogenic response of mesenchymal stromal cells to strontium‐substituted bioactive glasses

    PubMed Central

    Santocildes‐Romero, Martin E.; Crawford, Aileen; Goodchild, Rebecca L.; Reaney, Ian M.; Miller, Cheryl A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bioactive glasses are known to stimulate bone healing, and the incorporation of strontium has the potential to increase their potency. In this study, calcium oxide in the 45S5 bioactive glass composition was partially (50%, Sr50) or fully (100%, Sr100) substituted with strontium oxide on a molar basis. The effects of the substitution on bioactive glass properties were studied, including density, solubility, and in vitro cytotoxicity. Stimulation of osteogenic differentiation was investigated using mesenchymal stromal cells obtained from rat bone marrow. Strontium substitution resulted in altered physical properties including increased solubility. Statistically significant reductions in cell viability were observed with the addition of bioactive glass powders to culture medium. Specifically, addition of ≥ 13.3 mg/ml of 45S5 bioactive glass or Sr50, or ≥ 6.7 mg/ml of Sr100, resulted in significant inhibition. Real‐time PCR analyses detected the upregulation of genes associated with osteoblastic differentiation in the presence of all bioactive glass compositions. Some genes, including Alpl and Bglap, were further stimulated in the presence of Sr50 and Sr100. It was concluded that strontium‐substituted bioactive glasses promoted osteogenesis in a differentiating bone cell culture model and, therefore, have considerable potential for use as improved bioactive glasses for bone tissue regeneration. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25757935

  9. The osteogenic response of mesenchymal stromal cells to strontium-substituted bioactive glasses.

    PubMed

    Santocildes-Romero, Martin E; Crawford, Aileen; Hatton, Paul V; Goodchild, Rebecca L; Reaney, Ian M; Miller, Cheryl A

    2015-05-01

    Bioactive glasses are known to stimulate bone healing, and the incorporation of strontium has the potential to increase their potency. In this study, calcium oxide in the 45S5 bioactive glass composition was partially (50%, Sr50) or fully (100%, Sr100) substituted with strontium oxide on a molar basis. The effects of the substitution on bioactive glass properties were studied, including density, solubility, and in vitro cytotoxicity. Stimulation of osteogenic differentiation was investigated using mesenchymal stromal cells obtained from rat bone marrow. Strontium substitution resulted in altered physical properties including increased solubility. Statistically significant reductions in cell viability were observed with the addition of bioactive glass powders to culture medium. Specifically, addition of ≥ 13.3 mg/ml of 45S5 bioactive glass or Sr50, or ≥ 6.7 mg/ml of Sr100, resulted in significant inhibition. Real-time PCR analyses detected the upregulation of genes associated with osteoblastic differentiation in the presence of all bioactive glass compositions. Some genes, including Alpl and Bglap, were further stimulated in the presence of Sr50 and Sr100. It was concluded that strontium-substituted bioactive glasses promoted osteogenesis in a differentiating bone cell culture model and, therefore, have considerable potential for use as improved bioactive glasses for bone tissue regeneration.

  10. Hierarchical structures of β-TCP/45S5 bioglass hybrid scaffolds prepared by gelcasting.

    PubMed

    Lopes, João Henrique; Magalhães, Jéssica Aparecida; Gouveia, Rubia Figueredo; Bertran, Celso Aparecido; Motisuke, Mariana; Camargo, Samira E A; Trichês, Eliandra de Sousa

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates the microstructure and the mechanical properties of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) three-dimensional (3D) porous materials reinforced with 45S5 bioactive glass (BG). β-TCP and β-TCP/x%-BG scaffolds with interconnected pores networks, suitable for bone regeneration, were fabricated by gel-casting method. Mechanical properties, porosity, and morphological characteristics were evaluated by compressive strength test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray microtomography analysis, whereas the structures were fully explored by XRD, and Raman spectroscopy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time where the mechanism for understanding the effect of bioglass on the mechanical properties and microstruture of β-TCP/45S5-BG scaffolds has been systematically studied. The findings showed that ionic product lixiviated from 45S5 bioactive glass, rich in silicon species and sodium ion, catalyzes a phase transition from β-TCP to Si-TCP by replacement of phosphorus for silicon and contributes to the improvement of scaffolds mechanical properties. The compressive strength of β-TCP/5%-BG and β-TCP/7.5%-BG was improved around 200% in comparison to pure β-TCP. Osteoblast-like cells (MG 63) were exposed to the materials for 24h through the use of medium conditioned by β-tricalcium phosphate/bioactive glass. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay in the cells and the data obtained were submitted to ANOVA, Tukey׳s multiple comparison (p<0.05). The β-TCP/7.5-BG promoted an increase of cell proliferation. The results suggest that compositions and processing method studied may provide appropriate materials for tissue engineering.

  11. Evaluation of new treatment for incipient enamel demineralization using 45S5 bioglass.

    PubMed

    Bakry, A S; Takahashi, H; Otsuki, M; Tagami, J

    2014-03-01

    Bioglass 45S5 is a silica-based bioactive glass capable of depositing a layer of hydroxyl carbonate apatite on the surface of the glass when immersed in body fluids. The present paper studies a new technique for treating early human dental enamel caries lesions by using a paste composed of 45S5 bioglass and phosphoric acid. Artificial caries lesions were induced in enamel flat surfaces by means of a decalcification solution. All specimens were exposed to a brushing-abrasion challenge to test the durability of any newly formed layer resulting from the application of 45S5 bioglass paste. The specimens treated with bioglass paste showed complete coverage with a layer of brushite crystals. The brushing-abrasion challenge did not statistically affect the percentage of enamel coverage with the crystalline layer formed by the application of bioglass (p<0.05). These crystals were converted to hydroxyapatite crystals when stored in artificial saliva for 14 days. The current technique suggests the possibility of restoring incipient enamel erosive lesion with an abrasion durable layer of hydroxyapatite crystals.

  12. Effect of nanoparticulate bioactive glass particles on bioactivity and cytocompatibility of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) composites.

    PubMed

    Misra, Superb K; Ansari, Tahera; Mohn, Dirk; Valappil, Sabeel P; Brunner, Tobias J; Stark, Wendelin J; Roy, Ipsita; Knowles, Jonathan C; Sibbons, Paul D; Jones, Eugenia Valsami; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Salih, Vehid

    2010-03-06

    This work investigated the effect of adding nanoparticulate (29 nm) bioactive glass particles on the bioactivity, degradation and in vitro cytocompatibility of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (P(3HB)) composites/nano-sized bioactive glass (n-BG). Two different concentrations (10 and 20 wt %) of nanoscale bioactive glass particles of 45S5 Bioglass composition were used to prepare composite films. Several techniques (Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray) were used to monitor their surface and bioreactivity over a 45-day period of immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). All results suggested the P(3HB)/n-BG composites to be highly bioactive, confirmed by the formation of hydroxyapatite on material surfaces upon immersion in SBF. The weight loss and water uptake were found to increase on increasing bioactive glass content. Cytocompatibility study (cell proliferation, cell attachment, alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin production) using human MG-63 osteoblast-like cells in osteogenic and non-osteogenic medium showed that the composite substrates are suitable for cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation.

  13. The Use of Carbon Nanotubes to Reinforce 45S5 Bioglass-Based Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering Applications

    PubMed Central

    Touri, R.; Moztarzadeh, F.; Sadeghian, Z.; Bizari, D.; Tahriri, M.; Mozafari, M.

    2013-01-01

    Bioglass has been used for bone-filling material in bone tissue engineering, but its lean mechanical strength limits its applications in load-bearing positions. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), with their high aspect ratio and excellent mechanical properties, have the potential to strengthen and toughen bioactive glass material without offsetting its bioactivity. Therefore, in this research, multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/45S5 Bioglass composite scaffolds have been successfully prepared by means of freeze casting process. 45S5 Bioglass was synthesized by the sol-gel processing method. The obtained material was characterized with X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The mechanical properties of the scaffolds, such as compression strength and elastic modulus, were measured. Finally, compared with the scaffolds prepared by 100% 45S5 Bioglass powders, the addition of 0.25 wt.% MWCNTs increases the compressive strength and elastic modulus of 45S5 Bioglass scaffolds from 2.08 to 4.56 MPa (a 119% increase) and 111.50 to 266.59 MPa (a 139% increase), respectively. PMID:24294609

  14. The use of carbon nanotubes to reinforce 45S5 bioglass-based scaffolds for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Touri, R; Moztarzadeh, F; Sadeghian, Z; Bizari, D; Tahriri, M; Mozafari, M

    2013-01-01

    Bioglass has been used for bone-filling material in bone tissue engineering, but its lean mechanical strength limits its applications in load-bearing positions. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), with their high aspect ratio and excellent mechanical properties, have the potential to strengthen and toughen bioactive glass material without offsetting its bioactivity. Therefore, in this research, multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/45S5 Bioglass composite scaffolds have been successfully prepared by means of freeze casting process. 45S5 Bioglass was synthesized by the sol-gel processing method. The obtained material was characterized with X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The mechanical properties of the scaffolds, such as compression strength and elastic modulus, were measured. Finally, compared with the scaffolds prepared by 100% 45S5 Bioglass powders, the addition of 0.25 wt.% MWCNTs increases the compressive strength and elastic modulus of 45S5 Bioglass scaffolds from 2.08 to 4.56 MPa (a 119% increase) and 111.50 to 266.59 MPa (a 139% increase), respectively.

  15. Fluoride-containing bioactive glasses: surface reactivity in simulated body fluids solutions.

    PubMed

    Lusvardi, G; Malavasi, G; Menabue, L; Aina, V; Morterra, C

    2009-11-01

    The issue of the contribution of the addition of F to glass bioactivity is not well resolved. This work reports on the surface reactivity in different solutions (DMEM and Tris) for some potentially bioactive glasses based on the composition of 45S5 glass, in which CaF(2) is substituted alternately for (part of) CaO and Na(2)O. The reactivity of F-containing glasses has been compared with that of the reference 45S5 system. The aim of this study is to explain in detail the mechanism of formation of an apatitic crystalline phase at the interface between the inorganic material and simulated biological media. A multi-technique investigation approach proposes a set of reactions involving Ca-carbonate formation, which are somewhat different from that formerly proposed by Hench for 45S5 bioactive glass, and which occur when a F-containing glass surface is in contact with a SBF. The usefulness of IR spectroscopy in recognizing the starting step of apatite (and/or FA) formation with respect to XRD technique is well established here.

  16. Fabrication and characterization of poly-(ε)-caprolactone and bioactive glass composites for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Mohammadkhah, Ali; Marquardt, Laura M; Sakiyama-Elbert, Shelly E; Day, Delbert E; Harkins, Amy B

    2015-04-01

    Much work has focused on developing synthetic materials that have tailored degradation profiles and physical properties that may prove useful in developing biomaterials for tissue engineering applications. In the present study, three different composite sheets consisting of biodegradable poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) and varying types of bioactive glass were investigated. The three composites were composed of 50wt.% PCL and (1) 50wt.% 13-93 B3 borate glass particles, (2) 50wt.% 45S5 silicate glass particles, or (3) a blend of 25wt.% 13-93 B3 and 25wt.% 45S5 glass particles. Degradation profiles determined for each composite showed the composite that contained only 13-93 B3 borate glass had a higher degradation rate compared to the composite containing only 45S5 silicate glass. Uniaxial tensile tests were performed on the composites to determine the effect of adding glass to the polymer on mechanical properties. The peak stress of all of the composites was lower than that of PCL alone, but 100% PCL had a higher stiffness when pre-reacted in cell media for 6weeks, whereas composite sheets did not. Finally, to determine whether the composite sheets would maintain neuronal growth, dorsal root ganglia isolated from embryonic chicks were cultured on composite sheets, and neurite outgrowth was measured. The bioactive glass particles added to the composites showed no negative effects on neurite extension, and neurite extension increased on PCL:45S5 PCL:13-93 B3 when pre-reacted in media for 24h. This work shows that composite sheets of PCL and bioactive glass particles provide a flexible biomaterial for neural tissue engineering applications.

  17. Bioactive glass/hydroxyapatite composites: mechanical properties and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bellucci, Devis; Sola, Antonella; Anesi, Alexandre; Salvatori, Roberta; Chiarini, Luigi; Cannillo, Valeria

    2015-06-01

    Bioactive glass/hydroxyapatite composites for bone tissue repair and regeneration have been produced and discussed. The use of a recently developed glass, namely BG_Ca/Mix, with its low tendency to crystallize, allowed one to sinter the samples at a relatively low temperature thus avoiding several adverse effects usually reported in the literature, such as extensive crystallization of the glassy phase, hydroxyapatite (HA) decomposition and reaction between HA and glass. The mechanical properties of the composites with 80wt.% BG_Ca/Mix and 20wt.% HA are sensibly higher than those of Bioglass® 45S5 reference samples due to the presence of HA (mechanically stronger than the 45S5 glass) and to the thermal behaviour of the BG_Ca/Mix, which is able to favour the sintering process of the composites. Biocompatibility tests, performed with murine fibroblasts BALB/3T3 and osteocites MLO-Y4 throughout a multi-parametrical approach, allow one to look with optimism to the produced composites, since both the samples themselves and their extracts do not induce negative effects in cell viability and do not cause inhibition in cell growth.

  18. Evaluation of bone regeneration, angiogenesis, and hydroxyapatite conversion in critical-sized rat calvarial defects implanted with bioactive glass scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Bi, Lianxiang; Jung, Steve; Day, Delbert; Neidig, Katie; Dusevich, Vladimir; Eick, David; Bonewald, Lynda

    2012-12-01

    Bioactive glasses are biocompatible materials that convert to hydroxyapatite in vivo, and potentially support bone formation, but have mainly been available in particulate and not scaffold form. In this study, borosilicate and borate bioactive glass scaffolds were evaluated in critical-sized rat calvarial defects. Twelve-week-old rats were implanted with 45S5 silicate glass particles and scaffolds of 1393 silicate, 1393B1 borosilicate, and 1393B3 borate glass. After 12 weeks, the defects were harvested, stained with hematoxylin and eosin to evaluate bone regeneration, Periodic Acid Schiff to quantitate blood vessel area, and von Kossa and backscatter SEM to estimate newly mineralized bone and hydroxyapatite conversion of bioactive glasses. The amount of new bone was 12.4% for 45S5, 8.5% for 1393, 9.7% for 1393B1, and 14.9% for 1393B3 (*p = 0.04; cf. 1393 and 1393B1). Blood vessel area was significantly higher (p = 0.009) with 45S5 (3.8%), with no differences among 1393 (2.0%), 1393B1 (2.4%), or 1393B3 (2.2%). Percent von Kossa-positive area was 18.7% for 45S5, 25.4% for 1393, 29.5% for 1393B1, and 30.1% for 1393B3, significantly higher (p = 0.014) in 1393B1 and 1393B3 glasses than in 45S5. 45S5 and 1393B3 converted completely to HA in vivo. The 1393B3 glass provided greater bone formation and may be more promising for bone defect repair due to its capacity to be molded into scaffolds. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A 100A:3267-3275, 2012.

  19. Bioactive glasses with improved processing. Part 1. Thermal properties, ion release and apatite formation.

    PubMed

    Groh, Daniel; Döhler, Franziska; Brauer, Delia S

    2014-10-01

    Bioactive glasses, particularly Bioglass® 45S5, have been used to clinically regenerate human bone since the mid-1980s; however, they show a strong tendency to undergo crystallization upon heat treatment, which limits their range of applications. Attempts at improving their processing (by reducing their tendency to crystallize) have included increasing their silica content (and thus their network connectivity), incorporating intermediate oxides or reducing their phosphate content, all of which reduce glass bioactivity. Therefore, bioactive glasses known for their good processing (e.g. 13-93) are considerably less bioactive. Here, we investigated if the processing of 45S5 bioactive glass can be improved while maintaining its network connectivity and phosphate content. The results show that, by increasing the calcium:alkali cation ratio, partially substituting potassium for sodium (thereby making use of the mixed alkali effect) and adding small amounts of fluoride, bioactive glasses can be obtained which have a larger processing window (suggesting that they can be processed more easily, allowing for sintering of scaffolds or drawing into fibres) while degrading readily and forming apatite in aqueous solution within a few hours.

  20. Novel bioresorbable and bioactive composites based on bioactive glass and polylactide foams for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Roether, J A; Gough, J E; Boccaccini, A R; Hench, L L; Maquet, V; Jérôme, R

    2002-12-01

    Bioresorbable and bioactive tissue engineering scaffolds based on bioactive glass (45S5 Bioglass(R)) particles and macroporous poly(DL-lactide) (PDLLA) foams were fabricated. A slurry dipping technique in conjunction with pretreatment in ethanol was used to achieve reproducible and well adhering bioactive glass coatings of uniform thickness on the internal and external surfaces of the foams. In vitro studies in simulated body fluid (SBF) demonstrated rapid hydroxyapatite (HA) formation on the surface of the composites, indicating their bioactivity. For comparison, composite foams containing Bioglass(R) particles as filler for the polymer matrix (in concentration of up to 40 wt %) were prepared by freeze-drying, enabling homogenous glass particle distribution in the polymer matrix. The formation of HA on the composite surfaces after immersion in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) was investigated to confirm the bioactivity of the composites. Human osteoblasts (HOBs) were seeded onto as-fabricated PDLLA foams and onto PDLLA foams coated with Bioglass(R) particles to determine early cell attachment and spreading. Cells were observed to attach and spread on all surfaces after the first 90 min in culture. The results of this study indicate that the fabricated composite materials have potential as scaffolds for guided bone regeneration.

  1. Fabrication and characterization of sol-gel derived 45S5 Bioglass®-ceramic scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi-Zhi; Thouas, George A

    2011-10-01

    Although Bioglass® has existed for nearly half a century its ability to trigger bone formation and tuneable degradability is vastly superior to other bioceramics, such as SiO(2)-CaO bioactive glasses. The sol-gel process of producing glass foams is well established for SiO(2)-CaO compositions, but not yet established for 45S5 composites containing Na(2)O. In this work the sol-gel derived 45S5 Bioglass® has for the first time been foamed into highly porous three-dimensional scaffolds using a surfactant, combined with vigorous mechanical stirring and subsequent sintering at 1000°C for 2 h. It was found that the mechanical strength of the sintered sol-gel derived Bioglass® scaffolds was significantly improved, attributable to the small fraction of material on the pore walls. More importantly, the compressive strength of the three-dimensional scaffolds produced by this surfactant foaming method could be predicted using Gibson and Ashby's closed cell model of porous networks. A comparative experiment revealed that ion release from the sol-gel derived Bioglass® foams was faster than that of counterparts produced by the replication technique. In vitro evaluation using osteoblast-like cells demonstrated that the sol-gel derived 45S5 Bioglass foams supported the proliferation of viable cell populations on the surface of the scaffolds, although few cells were observed to migrate into the virtually closed pores within the foams. Further work should be focused on modifications of the reaction conditions or alternative foaming techniques to improve pore interconnection.

  2. Gallium-containing phospho-silicate glasses: synthesis and in vitro bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Mirco; Lusvardi, Gigliola; Malavasi, Gianluca; Menabue, Ledi

    2012-08-01

    A series of Ga-containing phospho-silicate glasses based on Bioglass 45S5, having molar formula 46.2SiO2·24.3Na2O·26.9CaO·2.6P2O5·xGa2O3 (x=1.0, 1.6, 3.5), were prepared by fusion method. The reference Bioglass 45S5 without gallium was also prepared. The synthesized glasses were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 30 days in order to observe ion release and hydroxyapatite (HA) formation. All Ga-containing glasses maintain the ability of HA formation as indicated by main X-ray diffractometric peaks and/or electronic scanning microscopy results. HA layer was formed after 1 day of SBF soaking in 45S5 glass containing up to 1.6% Ga2O3 content. Moreover, gallium released by the glasses was found to be partially precipitated on the glass surface as gallium phosphate. Further increase in gallium content reduced the ion release in SBF. The maximum of Ga(3+) concentration measured in solution is ~6 ppm determined for 3.5% Ga2O3 content. This amount is about half of the toxic level (14 ppm) of gallium and the glasses release gallium till 30 days of immersion in SBF. Considering the above results, the studied materials can be proposed as bioactive glasses with additional antimicrobial effect of gallium having no toxic outcome.

  3. Bare Bones of Bioactive Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Paul Ducheyne, a principal investigator in the microgravity materials science program and head of the University of Pernsylvania's Center for Bioactive Materials and Tissue Engineering, is leading the trio as they use simulated microgravity to determine the optimal characteristics of tiny glass particles for growing bone tissue. The result could make possible a much broader range of synthetic bone-grafting applications. Bioactive glass particles (left) with a microporous surface (right) are widely accepted as a synthetic material for periodontal procedures. Using the particles to grow three-dimensional tissue cultures may one day result in developing an improved, more rugged bone tissue that may be used to correct skeletal disorders and bone defects. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research.

  4. Bare Bones of Bioactive Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Paul Ducheyne, a principal investigator in the microgravity materials science program and head of the University of Pernsylvania's Center for Bioactive Materials and Tissue Engineering, is leading the trio as they use simulated microgravity to determine the optimal characteristics of tiny glass particles for growing bone tissue. The result could make possible a much broader range of synthetic bone-grafting applications. Even in normal gravity, bioactive glass particles enhance bone growth in laboratory tests with flat tissue cultures. Ducheyne and his team believe that using the bioactive microcarriers in a rotating bioreactor in microgravity will produce improved, three-dimensional tissue cultures. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: NASA and University of Pennsylvania Center for Bioactive Materials and Tissue Engineering.

  5. Bioactive glass/polymer composites for bone and nerve repair and regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadkhah, Ali

    Bioactive glasses have several attractive properties in hard and soft tissue repair but their brittleness limited their use, as scaffolding materials, for applications in load-bearing hard tissue repair. At the same time, because of their bioactive properties, they are being studied more often for soft tissue repair. In the present work, a new glass/polymer composite scaffold was developed for the repair of load-bearing bones with high flexural strength and without brittle behavior. The new composites have 2.5 times higher flexural strength and ˜100 times higher work of fracture (without catastrophic failure) compared to a similar bare glass scaffold. Also the use of two known bioactive glasses (13-93-B3 and 45S5) was investigated in developing glass/Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) composite films for peripheral nerve repair. It was found that a layer of globular hydroxyapatite (HA) formed on both sides of the composites. The borate glass in the composites was fully reacted in SBF and different ions were released into the solution. The addition of bioactive glass particles to the PCL lowered its elastic modulus and yield strength, but the composites remained intact after the 14 day period in SBF at 37°C. Finally, in an effort to design a better bioactive glass, new borosilicate glass compositions were developed that possess advantages of borate and silicate bioactive glasses at the same time. It was found that replacing small amounts of B2O3 with SiO2 improved glass formation, resistance to nucleation and crystallization, and increased the release rate of boron and silicon in vitro. This new borosilicate glass could be a good alternative to existing silicate and borate bioactive glasses.

  6. The ionic products of bioactive glass particle dissolution enhance periodontal ligament fibroblast osteocalcin expression and enhance early mineralized tissue development.

    PubMed

    Varanasi, Venu G; Owyoung, Jeremy B; Saiz, Eduardo; Marshall, Sally J; Marshall, Grayson W; Loomer, Peter M

    2011-08-01

    This study resulted in enhanced collagen type 1 and osteocalcin expression in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPDLF) when exposed to bioactive glass conditioned media that subsequently may promote early mineralized tissue development. Commercial Bioglass™ (45S5) and experimental bioactive coating glass (6P53-b), were used to make a glass conditioned media (GCM) for comparison to control medium. ICP-MS analysis showed increased concentrations of Ca(2+), PO(4) (3-), Si(4+), and Na(+), for 45S5 GCM and Mg(2+), K(+), Ca(2+), PO(4)(3-), Si(4+), and Na(+) for 6P53-b GCM (relative to control medium). Differentiating hPDLF cultures exposed to 45S5 and 6P53-b GCM showed enhanced expression of collagen type 1 (Col1α1, Col1α2), osteocalcin, and alkaline phosphatase gene expression. These GCM also enhanced osteocalcin protein expression. After 16 d of culture, 45S5 and 6P53-b GCM treated cells showed regions of deep red Alizarin staining, indicating increased Ca within their respective extracellular matrices (ECM), while control-treated cells did not exhibit these features. SEM analysis showed more developed ECM in GCM treated cultures, indicated by multiple tissue layering and abundant collagen fiber bundle formation, while control treated cells did not exhibit these features. SEM analysis showed polygonal structures suggestive of CaP in 45S5 GCM treated cultures. These results indicate the osteogenic potential of bioactive coating glass in periodontal bone defect filling applications.

  7. Evaluation of borate bioactive glass scaffolds with different pore sizes in a rat subcutaneous implantation model.

    PubMed

    Deliormanli, Aylin M; Liu, Xin; Rahaman, Mohamed N

    2014-01-01

    Borate bioactive glass has been shown to convert faster and more completely to hydroxyapatite and enhance new bone formation in vivo when compared to silicate bioactive glass (such as 45S5 and 13-93 bioactive glass). In this work, the effects of the borate glass microstructure on its conversion to hydroxyapatite (HA) in vitro and its ability to support tissue ingrowth in a rat subcutaneous implantation model were investigated. Bioactive borate glass scaffolds, designated 13-93B3, with a grid-like microstructure and pore widths of 300, 600, and 900 µm were prepared by a robocasting technique. The scaffolds were implanted subcutaneously for 4 weeks in Sprague Dawley rats. Silicate 13-93 glass scaffolds with the same microstructure were used as the control. The conversion of the scaffolds to HA was studied as a function of immersion time in a simulated body fluid. Histology and scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate conversion of the bioactive glass implants to hydroxyapatite, as well as tissue ingrowth and blood vessel formation in the implants. The pore size of the scaffolds was found to have little effect on tissue infiltration and angiogenesis after the 4-week implantation.

  8. Laser ablation and deposition of Bioglass ® 45S5 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessio, L.; Ferro, D.; Marotta, V.; Santagata, A.; Teghil, R.; Zaccagnino, M.

    2001-11-01

    A study of the laser ablation and deposition, on Ti6Al4V substrates, of a biological active glass (Bioglass ® 45S5) is reported. The gaseous phase composition has been determined by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, optical imaging and emission spectroscopy. The deposited films were studied by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy and wavelength dispersive X-ray analysis and X-ray diffraction. The adhesion of films to the substrates has been studied by scratch tests. Moreover, after exposing the coatings to a simulating body fluid solution, their bioactivity has been monitored by X-ray diffraction analysis of the hydroxylapatite growth. This procedure has been followed for different time scales up to a maximum of 24 days. The deposition mechanism seems to be related mainly to the mechanical transport of the target material in form of droplets, while the gaseous phase, having a very different composition, plays a marginal role. The overall film retains the target stoichiometry and bioactivity in a large range of experimental conditions.

  9. Effect of various additives on microstructure, mechanical properties, and in vitro bioactivity of sodium oxide-calcium oxide-silica-phosphorus pentoxide glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Li, H C; Wang, D G; Hu, J H; Chen, C Z

    2013-09-01

    The partial substitution of MgO, TiO2, or CaF2 for CaO in the Na2O-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 (45S5) system was conducted by the sol-gel method and a comparative study on structural, mechanical properties, and bioactivity of the glasses was reported. Based on thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, the gels were sintered with a suitable heat treatment procedure. The glass-ceramic properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and so on, and the bioactivity of the glass-ceramic was evaluated by in vitro assays in simulated body fluid (SBF). Results indicate that with the partial substitution of MgO, TiO2, CaF2 for CaO in glass composition, the mechanical properties of the glass-ceramics have been significantly improved. Furthermore, CaF2 promotes glass crystallization and the crystallization does not inhibit the glass-ceramic bioactivity. All samples possess bioactivity; however, the bioactivity of these glass-ceramics is quite different. Compared with 45S5, the introduction of MgO decreases the ability of apatite induction. The addition of TiO2 does not significantly improve the bioactivity, and the replacement of CaO by CaF2 shows a higher bioactivity.

  10. The influence of pH and fluid dynamics on the antibacterial efficacy of 45S5 Bioglass.

    PubMed

    Begum, Saima; Johnson, William E; Worthington, Tony; Martin, Richard A

    2016-02-02

    In recent years, there has been considerable interest in the potential antibacterial properties that bioactive glasses may possess. However, there have been several conflicting reports on the antibacterial efficacy of 45S5 Bioglass(®). Various mechanisms regarding its mode of action have been proposed, such as changes in the environmental pH, increased osmotic pressure, and 'needle-like' sharp glass debris which could potentially damage prokaryotic cell walls and thus inactivate bacteria. In this current study, a systematic investigation was undertaken on the antibacterial efficacy of 45S5 Bioglass(®) on Escherichia coli NCTC 10538 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCO 6538 under a range of clinically relevant scenarios including varying Bioglass(®) concentration, direct and indirect contact between Bioglass(®) and microorganisms, static and shaking incubation conditions, elevated and neutralised pH environments. The results demonstrated that, under elevated pH conditions, Bioglass(®) particles have no antibacterial effect on S. aureus while a concentration dependent antibacterial effect against E. coli was observed. However, the antibacterial activity ceased when the pH of the media was neutralised. The results of this current study, therefore, suggest that the mechanism of antibacterial activity of Bioglass(®) is associated with changes in the environmental pH; an environment that is less likely to occur in vivo due to buffering of the system.

  11. Enhanced osteoprogenitor elongated collagen fiber matrix formation by bioactive glass ionic silicon dependent on Sp7 (osterix) transcription.

    PubMed

    Varanasi, Venu G; Odatsu, Tetsurou; Bishop, Timothy; Chang, Joyce; Owyoung, Jeremy; Loomer, Peter M

    2016-10-01

    Bioactive glasses release ions, those enhance osteoblast collagen matrix synthesis and osteogenic marker expression during bone healing. Collagen matrix density and osteogenic marker expression depend on osteogenic transcription factors, (e.g., Osterix (OSX)). We hypothesize that enhanced expression and formation of collagen by Si(4+) depends on enhanced expression of OSX transcription. Experimental bioactive glass (6P53-b) and commercial Bioglass(TM) (45S5) were dissolved in basal medium to make glass conditioned medium (GCM). ICP-MS analysis was used to measure bioactive glass ion release rates. MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured for 20 days, and gene expression and extracellular matrix collagen formation was analyzed. In a separate study, siRNA was used to determine the effect of OSX knockdown on impacting the effect of Si(4+) on osteogenic markers and matrix collagen formation. Each bioactive glass exhibited similar ion release rates for all ions, except Mg(2+) released by 6P53-b. Gene expression results showed that GCM markedly enhanced many osteogenic markers, and 45S5 GCM showed higher levels of expression and collagen matrix fiber bundle density than 6P53-b GCM. Upon knockdown of OSX transcription, collagen type 5, alkaline phosphatase, and matrix density were not enhanced as compared to wild type cells. This study illustrates that the enhancement of elongated collagen fiber matrix formation by Si(±) depends on OSX transcription. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2604-2615, 2016.

  12. Preparation method: structure-bioactivity correlation in mesoporous bioactive glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Shao-Ju; Chou, Yu-Jen; Borisenko, Konstantin B.

    2013-06-01

    Mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs) are receiving increased attention because of their superior bioactive properties and possible applications as drug-releasing carriers, bone implants and sealing materials in dentistry. We report here the results of investigation of structures and bioactivities of two types of MBG particles prepared by two different techniques, the sol-gel method and spray pyrolysis (SP). In this study, we used transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction to characterize particle morphology and atomistic structures of the particles correlating these observations with nitrogen adsorption measurements to determine surface areas of the particles and in vitro bioactivity tests. It is found that the preparation method can influence the final composition of the particles and that SP method offers a better control over the composition. The SP particles have higher bioactivity than the sol-gel particles due to their higher surface area and possibly more favourable atomistic structure for promoting deposition of pure hydroxyl apatite phase.

  13. Interaction between bioactive glasses and human dentin.

    PubMed

    Efflandt, S E; Magne, P; Douglas, W H; Francis, L F

    2002-06-01

    This study explores the interaction between bioactive glasses and dentin from extracted human teeth in simulated oral conditions. Bioactive glasses in the Na(2)O-CaO-P(2)O(5)-SiO(2) and MgO-CaO-P(2)O(5)-SiO(2) systems were prepared as polished disks. Teeth were prepared by grinding to expose dentin and etching with phosphoric acid. A layer of saliva was placed between the two, and the pair was secured with an elastic band and immersed in saliva at 37 degrees C for 5, 21 or 42 days. The bioactive glasses adhered to dentin, while controls showed no such interaction. A continuous interface between the bioactive glass and dentin was imaged using cryogenic-scanning electron microscopy (SEM). However, after alcohol dehydration and critical point drying, fracture occurred due to stresses from dentin shrinkage. SEM investigations showed a microstructurally different material at the fractured interface. Chemical analyses revealed that ions from the glass penetrated into the dentin and that the surface of the glass in contact with the dentin was modified. Microdiffractometry showed the presence of apatite at the interface. Bonding appears to be due to an affinity of collagen for the glass surface and chemical interaction between the dentin and glass, leading to apatite formation at the interface.

  14. pH-dependent antibacterial effects on oral microorganisms through pure PLGA implants and composites with nanosized bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Hild, Nora; Tawakoli, Pune N; Halter, Jonas G; Sauer, Bärbel; Buchalla, Wolfgang; Stark, Wendelin J; Mohn, Dirk

    2013-11-01

    Biomaterials made of biodegradable poly(α-hydroxyesters) such as poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) are known to decrease the pH in the vicinity of the implants. Bioactive glass (BG) is being investigated as a counteracting agent buffering the acidic degradation products. However, in dentistry the question arises whether an antibacterial effect is rather obtained from pure PLGA or from BG/PLGA composites, as BG has been proved to be antimicrobial. In the present study the antimicrobial properties of electrospun PLGA and BG45S5/PLGA fibres were investigated using human oral bacteria (specified with mass spectrometry) incubated for up to 24 h. BG45S5 nanoparticles were prepared by flame spray synthesis. The change in colony-forming units (CFU) of the bacteria was correlated with the pH of the medium during incubation. The morphology and structure of the scaffolds as well as the appearance of the bacteria were followed bymicroscopy. Additionally, we studied if the presence of BG45S5 had an influence on the degradation speed of the polymer. Finally, it turned out that the pH increase induced by the presence of BG45S5 in the scaffold did not last long enough to show a reduction in CFU. On the contrary, pure PLGA demonstrated antibacterial properties that should be taken into consideration when designing biomaterials for dental applications.

  15. Exploiting Bisphosphonate-Bioactive-Glass Interactions for the Development of Self-Healing and Bioactive Composite Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Diba, Mani; An, Jie; Schmidt, Stephan; Hembury, Mathew; Ossipov, Dmitri; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C G

    2016-12-01

    Hydrogels are widely recognized as promising candidates for various biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering. Recently, extensive research efforts have been devoted to the improvement of the biological and mechanical performance of hydrogel systems by incorporation of functional groups and/or inorganic particles in their composition. Bisphosphonates are a class of drugs, commonly used for treatment of osteoporosis, which exhibit a strong binding affinity for hydroxyapatite. In this study, the binding affinity of a bisphosphonate-functionalized polymer, hyaluronan, toward a bioactive glass (i.e., 45S5 Bioglass) is evaluated using force-distance measurements with atomic force microscopy. The strong interaction between bisphosphonate and bioactive glass is then exploited to develop organic-inorganic composite hydrogels and the viscoelastic and self-healing ability of these materials are investigated. Finally, the stability and mineralization behavior of these hydrogels are evaluated in simulated body fluid. Following this approach, injectable, bioactive and self-healing organic-inorganic composite hydrogels are produced, which mineralize abundantly and rapidly in simulated body fluid. These properties render these composite gels suitable for applications in bone-tissue engineering.

  16. Mechanical properties of bioactive glasses, glass-ceramics and composites.

    PubMed

    Thompson, I D; Hench, L L

    1998-01-01

    The application of bioactive glass and glass-ceramics has been widely documented over the past twenty years but the high modulus and low fracture toughness has made them less applicable for clinical, load bearing, applications. The development of non-resorbable polyethylene and polysulphone matrices for these materials has improved the mechanical properties. However, the primary concern of whether the bioactivity of the composites is reduced is still unresolved. The more recent development of resorbable carrier systems, dextran and collagen, for bioactive glasses does not introduce such problems, hence making this form of composite suitable for novel soft tissue applications. The development of a simple quality index has enabled some of the materials described within this paper to be ranked by their ability to replace bone, thus enabling possible new research directions to be emphasized.

  17. Surface transformations of Bioglass 45S5 during scaffold synthesis for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, Sara; Ma, Alvin Chih Chien; Cerruti, Marta

    2013-02-05

    In physiological fluid, a layer of hydroxycarbonate apatite, similar to bone mineral, develops on the surface of Bioglass 45S5. Collagen from the surrounding tissue is adsorbed on this layer that attracts osteoblasts, and favors bone regrowth. Bioglass is therefore an osteoinductive material. Still, due to its brittleness, the glass alone cannot be used to heal large bone defects. To overcome this issue, Bioglass is used to form a composite scaffold with poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA), a biodegradable polymer. The goal of this work is to understand Bioglass reactivity throughout scaffold fabrication via a low-temperature route, the solvent casting and particulate leaching technique. Changes in Bioglass (especially its surface) are susceptible to occur both while in contact with the processing fluids and potentially through a reaction with the surrounding polymeric matrix. Here we analyzed the surface changes of three different Bioglass samples: (i) as-received, (ii) treated in solutions that parallel those used in scaffold fabrication, and (iii) extracted from the scaffolds. We showed that extracted, just like treated, Bioglass deviates from the as-received, but to a larger extent. X-ray photoelectron and infrared spectroscopy support the theory that Bioglass surface was modified not just through contact with the solutions in scaffold fabrication, but upon an interaction with the polymeric matrix. The polymer network slows down the Na(+)/H(+) exchange between Bioglass and water used to leach salt particles to create pores within the scaffold. Changes in surface properties affect the bioactivity of Bioglass and thus of the composite scaffolds, and are therefore critical to identify.

  18. Bioactive glass coatings for orthopedic metallic implants

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Esteban, Sonia; Saiz, Eduardo; Fujino, Sigheru; Oku, Takeo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2003-06-30

    The objective of this work is to develop bioactive glass coatings for metallic orthopedic implants. A new family of glasses in the SiO2-Na2O-K2O-CaO-MgO-P2O5 system has been synthesized and characterized. The glass properties (thermal expansion, softening and transformation temperatures, density and hardness) are in line with the predictions of established empirical models. The optimized firing conditions to fabricate coatings on Ti-based and Co-Cr alloys have been determined and related to the glass properties and the interfacial reactions. Excellent adhesion to alloys has been achieved through the formation of 100-200 nm thick interfacial layers (Ti5Si3 on Ti-based alloys and CrOx on Co-Cr). Finally, glass coatings, approximately 100 mu m thick, have been fabricated onto commercial Ti alloy-based dental implants.

  19. Evaluation of sol-gel based magnetic 45S5 bioglass and bioglass-ceramics containing iron oxide.

    PubMed

    Shankhwar, Nisha; Srinivasan, A

    2016-05-01

    Multicomponent oxide powders with nominal compositions of (45-x)·SiO2·24.5CaO·24.5Na2O·6P2O5xFe2O3 (in wt.%) were prepared by a modified sol-gel procedure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and high resolution transmission electron microscope images of the sol-gel products show fully amorphous structure for Fe2O3 substitutions up to 2 wt.%. Sol-gel derived 43SiO2·24.5CaO·24.5Na2O·6P2O5·2Fe2O3 glass (or bioglass 45S5 with SiO2 substituted with 2 wt.% Fe2O3), exhibited magnetic behavior with a coercive field of 21 Oe, hysteresis loop area of 33.25 erg/g and saturation magnetization of 0.66 emu/g at an applied field of 15 kOe at room temperature. XRD pattern of this glass annealed at 850 °C for 1h revealed the formation of a glass-ceramic containing sodium calcium silicate and magnetite phases in nanocrystalline form. Temperature dependent magnetization and room temperature electron spin resonance data have been used to obtain information on the magnetic phase and distribution of iron ions in the sol-gel glass and glass-ceramic samples. Sol-gel derived glass and glass-ceramic exhibit in-vitro bioactivity by forming a hydroxyapatite surface layer under simulated physiological conditions and their bio-response is superior to their melt quenched bulk counterparts. This new form of magnetic bioglass and bioglass ceramics opens up new and more effective biomedical applications.

  20. In vitro study of improved wound-healing effect of bioactive borate-based glass nano-/micro-fibers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingbo; Chen, Sisi; Shi, Honglan; Xiao, Hai; Ma, Yinfa

    2015-10-01

    Because of the promising wound-healing capability, bioactive glasses have been considered as one of the next generation hard- and soft-tissue regeneration materials. The lack of understanding of the substantial mechanisms, however, indicates the need for further study on cell-glass interactions to better interpret the rehabilitation capability. In the present work, three bioactive glass nano-/micro-fibers, silicate-based 45S5, borate-based 13-93B3 and 1605 (additionally doped with copper oxide and zinc oxide), were firstly compared for their in vitro soaking/conversion rate. The results of elemental monitoring and electron microscopic characterization demonstrated that quicker ion releasing and glass conversion occurred in borate-based fibers than that of silicate-based one. This result was also reflected by the formation speed of hydroxyapatite (HA). This process was further correlated with original boron content and surrounding rheological condition. We showed that an optimal fiber pre-soaking time (or an ideal dynamic flow rate) should exist to stimulate the best cell proliferation and migration ability. Moreover, 13-93B3 and 1605 fibers showed different glass conversion and biocompatibility properties as well, indicating that trace amount variation in composition can also influence fiber's bioactivity. In sum, our in vitro rheological module closely simulated in vivo niche environment and proved a potentially improved wound-healing effect by borate-based glass fibers, and the results shall cast light on future improvement in bioactive glass fabrication.

  1. Bioactivity of gel-glass powders in the CaO-SiO2 system: a comparison with ternary (CaO-P2O5-SiO2) and quaternary glasses (SiO2-CaO-P2O5-Na2O).

    PubMed

    Saravanapavan, Priya; Jones, Julian R; Pryce, Russell S; Hench, Larry L

    2003-07-01

    Bioactive glasses react chemically with body fluids in a manner that is compatible with the repair processes of the tissues. This results in the formation of an interfacial bond between the glasses and living tissue. Bioactive glasses also stimulate bone-cell proliferation. This behavior is dependent on the chemical composition as well as the surface texture of the glasses. It has been recently reported that gel-derived monolith specimens in the binary SiO2 - CaO are bioactive over a similar molar range of SiO2 content as the previously studied ternary CaO-P2O5-SiO2 system. In this report, the preparation and bioactivity of the binary gel-glass powder with 70 mol % SiO2 is discussed and its bioactivity is compared with the melt-derived 45S5 (quaternary) Bioglass and sol-gel-derived 58S (ternary) bioactive gel-glass compositions. Dissolution kinetic parameters K(1) and K(2) were also computed based on the silicon release for all glass powders. It was shown that the simple two-component SiO2-CaO gel-glass powder is bioactive with comparable dissolution rates as the clinically used melt-derived 45S5 Bioglass powder and extensively studied sol-gel-derived 58S gel-glass powder.

  2. In vitro osteogenesis on a highly bioactive glass-ceramic (Biosilicate).

    PubMed

    Moura, João; Teixeira, Lucas Novaes; Ravagnani, Christian; Peitl, Oscar; Zanotto, Edgar Dutra; Beloti, Márcio Mateus; Panzeri, Heitor; Rosa, Adalberto Luiz; de Oliveira, Paulo Tambasco

    2007-09-01

    One of the strategies to improve the mechanical performance of bioactive glasses for load-bearing implant devices has been the development of glass-ceramic materials. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of a highly bioactive, fully-crystallized glass-ceramic (Biosilicate) of the system P(2)O(5)-Na(2)O-CaO-SiO(2) on various key parameters of in vitro osteogenesis. Surface characterization was carried out by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Osteogenic cells were obtained by enzymatic digestion of newborn rat calvarial bone and by growing on Biosilicate discs and on control bioactive glass surfaces (Biosilicate) parent glass and Bioglass(R) 45S5) for periods of up to 17 days. All materials developed an apatite layer in simulated body fluid for 24h. Additionally, as early as 12 h under culture conditions and in the absence of cells, all surfaces developed a layer of silica-gel that was gradually covered by amorphous calcium phosphate deposits, which remained amorphous up to 72 h. During the proliferative phase of osteogenic cultures, the majority of cells exhibited disassembly of the actin cytoskeleton, whereas reassembly of actin stress fibers took place only in areas of cell multilayering by day 5. Although no significant differences were detected in terms of total protein content and alkaline phosphatase activity at days 11 and 17, Biosilicate supported significantly larger areas of calcified matrix at day 17. The results indicate that full crystallization of bioactive glasses in a range of compositions of the system P(2)O(5)-Na(2)O-CaO-SiO(2) may promote enhancement of in vitro bone-like tissue formation in an osteogenic cell culture system.

  3. Structural, Morphological and Antibacterial Investigation of Ag-Impregnated Sol-Gel-Derived 45S5 NanoBioglass Systems.

    PubMed

    Durgalakshmi, D; Balakumar, S; Raja, C Ashok; George, Rani P; Mudali, U Kamachi

    2015-06-01

    An increasing percentage of ageing population requires 30-year survivability of orthopedic devices that is not possible with the current bioinert materials, having a maximum of 15-year survivability. To satisfy this growing need, a shift is needed from replacement of tissues to regeneration of tissues. This is highly possible through the use of silica-bioactive glasses. However, a failure of implant can occur due to infections even by using such materials. Advances in using silver for antibacterial applications have been commercialized. However, higher concentrations of silver also lead to toxic effects. In this study, nanoBioglass 45S5 (NBG) and Ag-NBG were synthesized by using sol-gel method followed by solution-phase method, respectively. The bioactive crystals such as Na2Ca2Si3O9, CaCO3, and AgPO3, very much needed in the field of bone tissue engineering and in antibacterial strategies, were obtained in the NBG Matrix. The morphological investigation of NBG with 1 mM Ag+ concentrations shows the nanospikes arrangement of size 30-40 nm with spherical porous structure of size 10-20 nm, which supports the formation of collagen molecular fibrils on the surface of NBG matrices and enhances osseointegration. Both gram-positive and gram-negative strains show higher antibacterial activity for nanoBioglass with 1 mM Ag+ concentration.

  4. Bioactive and inert dental glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Montazerian, Maziar; Zanotto, Edgar Dutra

    2017-02-01

    The global market for dental materials is predicted to exceed 10 billion dollars by 2020. The main drivers for this growth are easing the workflow of dentists and increasing the comfort of patients. Therefore, remarkable research projects have been conducted and are currently underway to develop improved or new dental materials with enhanced properties or that can be processed using advanced technologies, such as CAD/CAM or 3D printing. Among these materials, zirconia, glass or polymer-infiltrated ceramics, and glass-ceramics (GCs) are of great importance. Dental glass-ceramics are highly attractive because they are easy to process and have outstanding esthetics, translucency, low thermal conductivity, high strength, chemical durability, biocompatibility, wear resistance, and hardness similar to that of natural teeth, and, in certain cases, these materials are bioactive. In this review article, we divide dental GCs into the following two groups: restorative and bioactive. Most restorative dental glass-ceramics (RDGCs) are inert and biocompatible and are used in the restoration and reconstruction of teeth. Bioactive dental glass-ceramics (BDGCs) display bone-bonding ability and stimulate positive biological reactions at the material/tissue interface. BDGCs are suggested for dentin hypersensitivity treatment, implant coating, bone regeneration and periodontal therapy. Throughout this paper, we elaborate on the history, processing, properties and applications of RDGCs and BDGCs. We also report on selected papers that address promising types of dental glass-ceramics. Finally, we include trends and guidance on relevant open issues and research possibilities. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 619-639, 2017.

  5. Changes in actin and tubulin expression in osteogenic cells cultured on bioactive glass-based surfaces.

    PubMed

    Martins, Carolina Scanavez; Ferraz, Emanuela Prado; De Castro-Raucci, Larissa Moreira Spinola; Teixeira, Lucas Novaes; Maximiano, William Marcatti Amarú; Rosa, Adalberto Luiz; De Oliveira, Paulo Tambasco

    2015-11-01

    The present study evaluated whether the changes in the labeling pattern of cytoskeletal proteins in osteogenic cells cultured on bioactive glass-based materials are due to altered mRNA and protein levels. Primary rat-derived osteogenic cells were plated on Bioglass® 45S5, Biosilicate®, and borosilicate (bioinert control). The following parameters were assayed: (i) qualitative epifluorescence analysis of actin and tubulin; (ii) quantitative mRNA and protein expression for actin and tubulin by real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively, and (iii) qualitative analysis of cell morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). At days 3 and 7, the cells grown on borosilicate showed typical actin and tubulin labeling patterns, whereas those on the bioactive materials showed roundish areas devoid of fluorescence signals. The cultures grown on bioactive materials showed significant changes in actin and tubulin mRNA expression that were not reflected in the corresponding protein levels. A positive correlation between the mRNA and protein as well as an association between epifluorescence imaging and quantitative data were only detected for the borosilicate. SEM imaging of the cultures on the bioactive surfaces revealed cells partly or totally coated with material aggregates, whose characteristics resembled the substrate topography. The culturing of osteogenic cells on Bioglass® 45S5 and Biosilicate® affect actin and tubulin mRNA expression but not the corresponding protein levels. Changes in the labeling pattern of these proteins should then be attributed, at least in part, to the presence of a physical barrier on the cell surface as a result of the material surface reactions, thus limiting fluorescence signals.

  6. Fluoride-containing bioactive glasses: Glass design, structure, bioactivity, cellular interactions, and recent developments.

    PubMed

    Shah, Furqan A

    2016-01-01

    Bioactive glasses (BGs) are known to bond to both hard and soft tissues. Upon exposure to an aqueous environment, BG undergoes ion exchange, hydrolysis, selective dissolution and precipitation of an apatite layer on their surface, which elicits an interfacial biological response resulting in bioactive fixation, inhibiting further dissolution of the glass, and preventing complete resorption of the material. Fluorine is considered one of the most effective in-vivo bone anabolic factors. In low concentrations, fluoride ions (F(-)) increase bone mass and mineral density, improve the resistance of the apatite structure to acid attack, and have well documented antibacterial properties. F(-) ions may be incorporated into the glass in the form of calcium fluoride (CaF2) either by part-substitution of network modifier oxides, or by maintaining the ratios of the other constituents relatively constant. Fluoride-containing bioactive glasses (FBGs) enhance and control osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and mineralisation. And with their ability to release fluoride locally, FBGs make interesting candidates for various clinical applications, dentinal tubule occlusion in the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity. This paper reviews the chemistry of FBGs and the influence of F(-) incorporation on the thermal properties, bioactivity, and cytotoxicity; and novel glass compositions for improved mechanical properties, processing, and bioactive potential.

  7. Review and the state of the art: Sol-gel and melt quenched bioactive glasses for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurbinder; Pickrell, Gary; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Kumar, Vishal; Homa, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Biomaterial development is currently the most active research area in the field of biomedical engineering. The bioglasses possess immense potential for being the ideal biomaterials due to their high adaptiveness to the biological environment as well as tunable properties. Bioglasses like 45S5 has shown great clinical success over the past 10 years. The bioglasses like 45S5 were prepared using melt-quenching techniques but recently porous bioactive glasses have been derived through sol-gel process. The synthesis route exhibits marked effect on the specific surface area, as well as degradability of the material. This article is an attempt to provide state of the art of the sol-gel and melt quenched bioactive bioglasses for tissue regeneration. Fabrication routes for bioglasses suitable for bone tissue engineering are highlighted and the effect of these fabrication techniques on the porosity, pore-volume, mechanical properties, cytocompatibilty and especially apatite layer formation on the surface of bioglasses is analyzed in detail. Drug delivery capability of bioglasses is addressed shortly along with the bioactivity of mesoporous glasses. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1248-1275, 2016.

  8. Structure, phases, and mechanical response of Ti-alloy bioactive glass composite coatings.

    PubMed

    Nelson, G M; Nychka, J A; McDonald, A G

    2014-03-01

    Porous titanium alloy-bioactive glass composite coatings were manufactured via the flame spray deposition process. The porous coatings, targeted for orthodontic and bone-fixation applications, were made from bioactive glass (45S5) powder blended with either commercially pure titanium (Cp-Ti) or Ti-6Al-4V alloy powder. Two sets of spray conditions, two metallic particle size distributions, and two glass particle size distributions were used for this study. Negative control coatings consisting of pure Ti-6Al-4V alloy or Cp-Ti were sprayed under both conditions. The as-sprayed coatings were characterized through quantitative optical cross-sectional metallography, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and ASTM Standard C633 tensile adhesion testing. Determination of the porosity and glassy phase distribution was achieved by using image analysis in accordance with ASTM Standard E2109. Theoretical thermodynamic and heat transfer modeling was conducted to explain experimental observations. Thermodynamic modeling was performed to estimate the flame temperature and chemical environment for each spray condition and a lumped capacitance heat transfer model was developed to estimate the temperatures attained by each particle. These models were used to establish trends among the choice of alloy, spray condition, and particle size distribution. The deposition parameters, alloy composition, and alteration of the feedstock powder size distribution had a significant effect on the coating microstructure, porosity, phases present, mechanical response, and theoretical particle temperatures that were attained. The most promising coatings were the Ti-6Al-4V-based composite coatings, which had bond strength of 20±2MPa (n=5) and received reinforcement and strengthening from the inclusion of a glassy phase. It was shown that the use of the Ti-6Al-4V-bioactive glass composite coatings may be a superior choice due to the possible osteoproductivity from the bioactive glass, the potential ability to

  9. Osteogenic differentiation of umbilical cord and adipose derived stem cells onto highly porous 45S5 Bioglass®-based scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Detsch, Rainer; Alles, Sonja; Hum, Jasmin; Westenberger, Peter; Sieker, Frank; Heusinger, Dominik; Kasper, Cornelia; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2015-03-01

    In the context of bone tissue engineering (BTE), combinations of bioactive scaffolds with living cells are investigated to optimally yield functional bone tissue for implantation purposes. Bioactive glasses are a class of highly bioactive, inorganic materials with broad application potential in BTE strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate bioactive glass (45S5 Bioglass(®)) samples of composition: 45 SiO2, 24.5 CaO, 24.5 Na2O, and 6 P2O5 (in wt%) as scaffold materials for mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Pore architecture of the scaffolds as well as cell behavior in the three-dimensional environment was evaluated by several methods. Investigations concerned the osteogenic cell attachment, growth and differentiation of adipose tissue derived MSC (adMSC) compared with MSC from human full term umbilical cord tissues (ucMSC) on porous Bioglass(®)-based scaffolds over a cultivation period of 5 weeks. Differences in lineage-specific osteogenic differentiation of adMSC and ucMSC on Bioglass(®) samples were demonstrated. The investigation led to positive results in terms of cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation of MSC onto Bioglass(®)-based scaffolds confirming the relevance of these matrices for BTE applications.

  10. The in vivo performance of an alkali-free bioactive glass for bone grafting, FastOs(®) BG, assessed with an ovine model.

    PubMed

    Cortez, Paulo P; Brito, Ana F; Kapoor, Saurabh; Correia, Ana F; Atayde, Luis M; Dias-Pereira, Patrícia; Maurício, Ana Colette; Afonso, Américo; Goel, Ashutosh; Ferreira, José M F

    2017-01-01

    Although bioactive glasses are successfully used as bone substitutes, recent studies have revealed that the high alkali content in these glasses leads to fast in vivo degradation rates that may not match the rate of new bone ingrowth. This prompted us to design and develop novel bioactive glasses that are devoid of alkali but still demonstrate high bioactivity in vitro. This article describes the in vivo performance of an alkali-free bioactive glass with the following composition (Wt %): 13.03 MgO-33.98 CaO-13.37 P2 O5 -38.84 SiO2 -0.77 CaF2 (labelled as FastOs(®) BG). An animal model was used to assess the in vivo performance of FastOs(®) BG, using 45S5 Bioglass(®) as control. The evaluation was performed through implantation of FastOs(®) BG and 45S5 Bioglass(®) , during one month, in femoral bone defects in sheep. Subcutaneous implantation of both glasses was also performed in order to assess tissue response through a standardized method. Histological and scanning electron microscopy assessment of retrieved subcutaneous and bone samples demonstrated that FastOs(®) BG is biocompatible, osteoconductive, that it can be osteointegrated, and that it is more slowly resorbed than 45S5 Bioglass(®) . These features suggest that FastOs(®) BG is a potential candidate for bone grafting. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 30-38, 2017.

  11. Effect of long-term in vitro testing on the properties of bioactive glass-polysulfone composites.

    PubMed

    Oréfice, Rodrigo; West, Jon; Latorre, Guy; Hench, Larry; Brennan, Anthony

    2010-03-08

    The combination of bioactive ceramics and polymers can allow the preparation of composites with tailorable mechanical properties and bioactive behavior. In these composites, bioactive ceramics can act as a source of both reinforcement and bioactivity, while the polymer matrix can add toughness and processability to the material. On the other hand, the effect of using a highly dimensional unstable phase as a reinforcing agent on the long-term properties of the composite is a major concern regarding the lifetime of possible applications. In this work, a bioactive glass-polysulfone particulate composite was prepared by hot-pressing at 215 degrees C a mixture of polysulfone and different concentrations of bioactive glass particles (Bioglass 45S5, particle size range: 125-106 microm) to yield composites having 20 and 40 vol % of bioactive glass particles. The obtained composites were exposed to a simulated body fluid at 37 degrees C for different periods of time ranging from 1 h to 60 days. After the test, the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated by a four-point bending test, while DMS (dynamic mechanical spectroscopy) was used to identify the effect of water on the structure and behavior of the composite. The interface between glass particles and the polymer was also investigated by SEM/EDX and diffuse reflection infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that a decay in the mechanical properties of the composites within the first 20 h of test can occur. Otherwise, after this initial decay, no more pronounced reduction in properties could be noted. The analyses of the fracture surface of composites tested in vitro indicated the hydration of the surface of the particles. Therefore, it was concluded that water migration through the interface of the composite causes surface dissolution of glass particles and formation of voids, which were responsible for the observed decay in mechanical properties. Composites with modified interfaces revealed less

  12. Cellulose Nanocrystals--Bioactive Glass Hybrid Coating as Bone Substitutes by Electrophoretic Co-deposition: In Situ Control of Mineralization of Bioactive Glass and Enhancement of Osteoblastic Performance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiang; Garcia, Rosalina Pérez; Munoz, Josemari; Pérez de Larraya, Uxua; Garmendia, Nere; Yao, Qingqing; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2015-11-11

    Surface functionalization of orthopedic implants is being intensively investigated to strengthen bone-to-implant contact and accelerate bone healing process. A hybrid coating, consisting of 45S5 bioactive glass (BG) individually wrapped and interconnected with fibrous cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), is deposited on 316L stainless steel from aqueous suspension by a one-step electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process. Apart from the codeposition mechanism elucidated by means of zeta-potential and scanning electron microscopy measurements, in vitro characterization of the deposited CNCs-BG coating in simulated body fluid reveals an extremely rapid mineralization of BG particles on the coating (e.g., the formation of hydroxyapatite crystals layer after 0.5 day). A series of comparative trials and characterization methods were carried out to comprehensively understand the mineralization process of BG interacting with CNCs. Furthermore, key factors for satisfying the applicability of an implant coating such as coating composition, surface topography, and adhesion strength were quantitatively investigated as a function of mineralization time. Cell culture studies (using MC3T3-E1) indicate that the presence of CNCs-BG coating substantially accelerated cell attachment, spreading, proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of extracellular matrix. This study has confirmed the capability of CNCs to enhance and regulate the bioactivity of BG particles, leading to mineralized CNCs-BG hybrids for improved bone implant coatings.

  13. Mineralization and osteoblast response to bioactive glass in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Z H; Yi, Q F; Nei, H D; Ling, Y L; Zhou, J N; Liu, L H; Liu, X P

    2010-05-01

    Bioactive glass, an osteoproductive material, has received considerable attention as a bone graft substitute in the treatment of bony defects. Bioactive CaO-SiO(2)-P(2)O(5) glass was prepared using the sol-gel method, and mineralization behaviour in vitro was investigated by soaking it in simulated body fluid (SBF). Cellular cultivation in vitro, MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)- 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and Von Kossa assays were conducted to evaluate the osteoblast response to the bioactive glass. A calcium phosphate carbonate hydroxide (HCA) layer was formed on the bioactive glass after soaking for 3 days in SBF, which indicated that the mineralization on the surface of bioactive glass could progress spontaneously. The osteoblast response results demonstrated that bioactive glass had no cytotoxicity, and it might not be harmful to the morphology of the osteoblast. The growth and proliferation of the osteoblastic cell could not be inhibited. Nodule formation was also observed in conditioned medium containing dissolution bioactive glass and these nodules were shown to be mineralized by Von Kossa staining, which indicates that bioactive glass shows good biocompatibility.

  14. Bioactive ceramic glasses in situ synthesized by laser melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taca, Mihaela; Vasile, Eugeniu; Boroica, Lucica; Udrea, Mircea; Medianu, Rares; Munteanu, Maria Cristina

    2008-10-01

    The synthesis of bioactive glass from raw materials even during the laser deposition process, could provide formation of a biocompatible layer on the metallic prosthesis. During the laser irradiation melting and ultrarapid solidification of ceramic materials occur and glasses controlled by the process parameters (especially laser power and solidification rate) will be obtained. The aim of the present paper is to study the influence of the processing parameters on the laser synthesized glasses chemical composition, structure and bioactive behaviour.

  15. Bioactive Glass for Large Bone Repair.

    PubMed

    Jia, Weitao; Lau, Grace Y; Huang, Wenhai; Zhang, Changqing; Tomsia, Antoni P; Fu, Qiang

    2015-12-30

    There has been an ongoing quest for new biomedical materials for the repair and regeneration of large segmental bone defects caused by disease or trauma. Autologous bone graft (ABG) remains the gold standard for bone repair despite their limited supply and donor-site morbidity. The current tissue engineering approach with synthetically derived bone grafts requires a bioactive ceramic or polymeric scaffold loaded with growth factors for osteoinduction and angiogenesis, and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) for osteogenic properties. Unfortunately, this approach has serious drawbacks: the low mechanical strength of scaffolds, the high cost of growth factors, and a lack of optimal strategies for growth-factor delivery. Here, it is shown that, for the first time, a synthetic material alone can repair large bone defects as efficiently as the gold standard ABG. Through the use of strong and resorbable bioactive glass scaffolds, complete bone healing, and defect bridging can be achieved in a rabbit femur segmental defect model without growth factors or BMSCs. New bone and blood vessel formation, in both inner and peripheral scaffolds, demonstrates the excellent osteoinductive and osteogenic properties of these scaffolds similar as ABG.

  16. Bioactive glasses: Importance of structure and properties in bone regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hench, Larry L.; Roki, Niksa; Fenn, Michael B.

    2014-09-01

    This review provides a brief background on the applications, mechanisms and genetics involved with use of bioactive glass to stimulate regeneration of bone. The emphasis is on the role of structural changes of the bioactive glasses, in particular Bioglass, which result in controlled release of osteostimulative ions. The review also summarizes the use of Raman spectroscopy, referred to hereto forward as bio-Raman spectroscopy, to obtain rapid, real time in vitro analysis of human cells in contact with bioactive glasses, and the osteostimulative dissolution ions that lead to osteogenesis. The bio-Raman studies support the results obtained from in vivo studies of bioactive glasses, as well as extensive cell and molecular biology studies, and thus offers an innovative means for rapid screening of new bioactive materials while reducing the need for animal testing.

  17. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a polylactic acid-bioactive glass composite for bone fixation devices.

    PubMed

    Vergnol, Gwenaelle; Ginsac, Nathalie; Rivory, Pascaline; Meille, Sylvain; Chenal, Jean-Marc; Balvay, Sandra; Chevalier, Jérôme; Hartmann, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid) is nowadays among the most used bioabsorbable materials for medical devices. To promote bone growth on the material surface and increase the degradation rate of the polymer, research is currently focused on organic-inorganic composites by adding a bioactive mineral to the polymer matrix. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of a poly(L,DL-lactide)-Bioglass® (P(L,DL)LA-Bioglass(®) 45S5) composite to be used as a bone fixation device. In vitro cell viability testing of P(l,dl)LA based composites containing different amounts of Bioglass(®) 45S5 particles was investigated. According to the degradation rate of the P(L,DL)LA matrix and the cytocompatibility experiments, the composite with 30 wt % of Bioglass® particles seemed to be the best candidate for further investigation. To study its behavior after immersion in simulated physiological conditions, the degradation of the composite was analyzed by measuring its weight loss and mechanical properties and by proceeding with X-ray tomography. We demonstrated that the presence of the bioactive glass significantly accelerated the in vitro degradation of the polymer. A preliminary in vivo investigation on rabbits shows that the addition of 30 wt % of Bioglass(®) in the P(L,DL)LA matrix seems to trigger bone osseointegration especially during the first month of implantation. This composite has thus strong potential interest for health applications.

  18. History and trends of bioactive glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Montazerian, Maziar; Dutra Zanotto, Edgar

    2016-05-01

    The interest around bioactive glass-ceramics (GCs) has grown significantly over the last two decades due to their appropriate biochemical and mechanical properties. The intense research effort in this field has led to some new commercial products for biomedical applications. This review article begins with the basic concepts of GC processing and development via controlled heat treatments of monolithic pieces or sinter-crystallization of powdered glasses. We then go on to describe the processing, properties, and applications of some commercial bioactive GCs and discuss selected valuable reported researches on several promising types of bioactive GCs. The article finishes with a section on open relevant research directions for bioactive GC development.

  19. Effects of bioactive glass and beta-TCP containing three-dimensional laser sintered polyetheretherketone composites on osteoblasts in vitro.

    PubMed

    von Wilmowsky, Cornelius; Vairaktaris, Eleftherios; Pohle, Dirk; Rechtenwald, Thomas; Lutz, Rainer; Münstedt, Helmut; Koller, Garrit; Schmidt, M; Neukam, Friedrich Wilhelm; Schlegel, Karl Andreas; Nkenke, Emeka

    2008-12-15

    Because of their excellent physical properties nonresorbable thermoplastic polymers have become more important for the field of reconstructive surgery. Aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of laser sintered polyetheretherketone (PEEK) with incorporated osteoconductive and bioactive bone substitution materials on osteoblasts in vitro. Human osteoblasts (hFOB 1.19) were seeded onto laser sintered PEEK samples containing nano-sized carbon black, beta-tricalciumphosphate (beta-TCP), and bioactive glass 45S5. Osteoblasts were investigated for cell viability, cell proliferation and cell morphology. A constant proliferation of osteoblasts could be observed on all samples with the highest values for bioactive glass containing samples at day 7 (OD 1.76 +/- 0.22) and day 14 (OD 3.75 +/- 0.31) and lowest values for beta-TCP containing probes throughout the study compared with the PEEK pure control group. Highest cell viability was observed for Bioglass containing probes (95.5 +/- 3.32)% whereas osteoblasts seeded on beta-TCP containing probes showed reduced viability (84.4 +/- 4.32)%. Laser sintered PEEK implants seem to be attractive candidates for use as bone substitutes for reconstructive surgery because of their biocompatibility, individual shape, and the possibility of compounding bioinert polymer powder with osteoconductive and bioactive materials which might benefit bone formation in vivo.

  20. Mechanical, tribological and biological properties of novel 45S5 Bioglass(®) composites reinforced with in situ reduced graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong; Khun, Nay Win; Tang, Xiu-Zhi; Liu, Erjia; Khor, Khiam Aik

    2017-01-01

    45S5 Bioglass(®) (45S5) is one of the most widely used biomaterials in ceramic-based bone graft substitutes by virtue of its excellent biocompatibility and bioactivity. However, the fracture toughness and wear resistance of 45S5 have to be improved to extend its applications in load bearing orthopedic implants. The current study reports the first use of graphene nanoplatelet (GNP) to enhance the fracture toughness and wear resistance of 45S5. Composite powders with four different loadings of graphene oxide (GO), i.e. 0, 0.1, 0.5 and 1wt%, were sintered by spark plasma sintering (SPS) at a relatively low temperature of 550°C, during which in situ thermal reduction of GO took place. It was found that by adding 0.5wt% GO to the 45S5 powder, the fracture toughness of the sintered pellets was increased by 130.2% while friction coefficient and specific wear rate were decreased by 21.3% and 62.0%, respectively. Furthermore, the viability of MG63 cells grown on the GNP-incorporated pellets was comparably high to that of the cells grown on the pure 45S5 pellets. As compared with the pure 45S5 leachates, the media conditioned by the GNP/45S5 pellets fabricated from the composite powder with 1wt% GO could enhance both the proliferation and viability of MG63 cells. It is thus envisioned that the GNP-reinforced 45S5 is a highly promising material for fabricating mechanically strong and biocompatible load-bearing bone implants.

  1. Ag-doped 45S5 Bioglass®-based bone scaffolds by molten salt ion exchange: processing and characterisation.

    PubMed

    Newby, P J; El-Gendy, R; Kirkham, J; Yang, X B; Thompson, I D; Boccaccini, A R

    2011-03-01

    There is increasing interest in developing scaffolds with therapeutic and antibacterial potential for bone tissue engineering. Silver is a proven antibacterial agent which bacteria such as MRSA have little or no defense against. Using an ion exchange method, silver ions have been introduced into 45S5 Bioglass(®) based scaffolds that were fabricated using the foam replication technique. This technique allows the introduction of Ag(+) ions onto the surface of the scaffold without compromising the scaffold bioactivity and other physical properties such as porosity. Controlling the amount of Ag(+) ions introduced onto the surface of the scaffold was achieved by tailoring the ion exchange parameters to fabricate samples with repeatable and predictable Ag(+) ion release behavior. In vitro studies in simulated body fluid were carried out to ensure that the scaffolds maintained their bioactivity after the introduction of Ag(+) ions. It was also shown that the addition of low concentrations (2000:1 w/w) of silver ions supported the attachment and viability of human periodontal ligament stromal cells on the 3D scaffolds. This work has thus confirmed ion exchange as an effective technique to introduce Ag(+) ions into 45S5 Bioglass(®) scaffolds without compromising the basic properties of 45S5 Bioglass(®) which are required for applications in bone tissue engineering.

  2. Structural changes of methemoglobin after adsorption on bioactive glass, as a function of surface functionalization and salt concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruian, C.; Vulpoi, A.; Steinhoff, H.-J.; Simon, S.

    2012-05-01

    Functional protein adsorption at liquid-solid interfaces has been intensively studied in the last years, however it is difficult to evidence directly conformational changes of the protein which are likely to appear upon adsorption. Spin labeling in combination with Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was applied in this study to investigate adsorption of horse methemoglobin to bioactive glass (BG) similar in composition with 45S5 Bioglass®. X-band cw-EPR spectra of spin labeled methemoglobin in solution were compared to those obtained after adsorption on bioactive glass surface (functionalized and non-functionalized with glutaraldehyde), to extract information of the structure and dynamics in the vicinity of position β-93. The concentration of methemoglobin adsorbed on BG substrate was determined from the intensity of cw-EPR spectra and correlated with images obtained by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Line shape analysis of the EPR spectra revealed that ionic strength does not induce significant conformational changes in the protein structure upon adsorption, however, the chemical treatment applied to the bioactive glass surface positively influences protein adsorption.

  3. Ultrasonic elasticity determination of 45S5 Bioglass(®)-based scaffolds: influence of polymer coating and crosslinking treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Pastrama, Maria-Ioana; Ding, Yaping; Zheng, Kai; Hellmich, Christian; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2014-12-01

    Highly porous 45S5 Bioglass(®)-based scaffolds with interconnected pore structure are promising candidates for bone tissue engineering due to their bioactivity, biocompatibility, osteogenic and angiogenic effects. In the present study, to ensure the mechanical competence of the 45S5 Bioglass(®)-based scaffolds, their stiffness was adjusted by applying polymer coatings and further crosslinking treatment. A non-destructive ultrasonic technique was used to determine the stiffness of the scaffolds. The stiffness of uncoated scaffolds was shown to increase by applying polymer coatings, and a further increase was achieved by crosslinking the used polymer coatings. All uncoated and polymer-coated scaffolds were confirmed to exhibit stiffness values in the range of reported values in the literature for cancellous bone. A statistical evaluation of combined multiscale ultrasound-nanoindentation measurements indicated that the stiffness of the coated scaffold is directly dependent on the stiffness of the polymer coating.

  4. Preparation and bioactive properties of nano bioactive glass and segmented polyurethane composites.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Pérez, Fernando J; Vargas-Coronado, Rossana F; Cervantes-Uc, Jose M; Cauich-Rodríguez, Juan V; Covarrubias, Cristian; Pedram-Yazdani, Merhdad

    2016-04-01

    Composites of glutamine-based segmented polyurethanes with 5 to 25 wt.% bioactive glass nanoparticles were prepared, characterized, and their mineralization potential was evaluated in simulated body fluid. Biocompatibility with dental pulp stem cells was assessed by MTS to an extended range of compositions (1 to 25 wt.% of bioactive glass nanoparticles). Physicochemical characterization showed that composites retained many of the matrix properties, i.e. those corresponding to semicrystalline elastomeric polymers as they exhibited a glass transition temperature (Tg) between -41 and -36℃ and a melting temperature (Tm) between 46 and 49℃ in agreement with X-ray reflections at 23.6° and 21.3°. However, with bioactive glass nanoparticles addition, tensile strength and strain were reduced from 22.2 to 12.2 MPa and 667.2 to 457.8%, respectively with 25 wt.% of bioactive glass nanoparticles. Although Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy did not show evidence of mineralization after conditioning of these composites in simulated body fluid, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis showed the formation of an apatite layer on the surface which increased with higher bioactive glass concentrations and longer conditioning time. Dental pulp stem cells proliferation at day 5 was improved in bioactive glass nanoparticles composites containing lower amounts of the filler (1-2.5 wt.%) but it was compromised at day 9 in composites containing high contents of nBG (5, 15, 25 wt.%). However, Runx2 gene expression was particularly upregulated for the dental pulp stem cells cultured with composites loaded with 15 and 25 wt.% of bioactive glass nanoparticles. In conclusion, low content bioactive glass nanoparticles and segmented polyurethanes composites deserve further investigation for applications such as guided bone regeneration membranes, where osteoconductivity is desirable but not a demanding mechanical performance.

  5. Fluoride-containing bioactive glasses inhibit pentose phosphate oxidative pathway and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in human osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Bergandi, Loredana; Aina, Valentina; Garetto, Stefano; Malavasi, Gianluca; Aldieri, Elisabetta; Laurenti, Enzo; Matera, Lina; Morterra, Claudio; Ghigo, Dario

    2010-02-12

    Bioactive glasses such as Hench's 45S5 (Bioglass) have applications to tissue engineering as well as bone repair, and the insertion of fluoride in their composition has been proposed to enhance their bioactivity. In view of a potential clinical application, we investigated whether fluoride-containing glasses exert toxic effects on human MG-63 osteoblasts, and whether and how fluoride, which is released in the cell culture medium, might play a role in such cytotoxicity. A 24h incubation with 50 microg/ml (12.5 microg/cm(2)) of fluoride-containing bioactive glasses termed HCaCaF(2) (F content: 5, 10 and 15 mol.%) caused the release of lactate dehydrogenase in the extracellular medium (index of cytotoxicity), the accumulation of intracellular malonyldialdehyde (index of lipoperoxidation), and the increase of glutathione consumption. Furthermore, fluoride-containing glasses inhibited the pentose phosphate oxidative pathway and the glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. These effects are ascribable to the fluoride content/release of glass powders, since they were mimicked by NaF solutions and were prevented by dimethyl sulfoxide and tempol (two radical scavengers), by superoxide dismutase (a superoxide scavenger), and by glutathione (the most important intracellular antioxidant molecule), but not by apocynin (an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase). The presence of fluoride-containing glasses and NaF caused also the generation of reactive oxygen species, which was prevented by superoxide dismutase and catalase. The data suggest that fluoride released from glasses is the cause of MG-63 cell oxidative damage and is independent of NADPH oxidase activation. Our data provide a new mechanism to explain F(-) ions toxicity: fluoride could trigger, at least in part, an oxidative stress via inhibition of the pentose phosphate oxidative pathway and, in particular, through the oxidative inhibition of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase.

  6. Modification of resin modified glass ionomer cement by addition of bioactive glass nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Valanezhad, Alireza; Odatsu, Tetsuro; Udoh, Koichi; Shiraishi, Takanobu; Sawase, Takashi; Watanabe, Ikuya

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, sol-gel derived nanoparticle calcium silicate bioactive glass was added to the resin-modified light cure glass-ionomer cement to assess the influence of additional bioactive glass nanoparticles on the mechanical and biological properties of resin-modified glass-ionomer cement. The fabricated bioactive glass nanoparticles added resin-modified glass-ionomer cements (GICs) were immersed in the phosphate buffer solution for 28 days to mimic real condition for the mechanical properties. Resin-modified GICs containing 3, 5 and 10 % bioactive glass nanoparticles improved the flexural strength compared to the resin-modified glass-ionomer cement and the samples containing 15 and 20 % bioactive glass nanoparticles before and after immersing in the phosphate buffer solution. Characterization of the samples successfully expressed the cause of the critical condition for mechanical properties. Cell study clarified that resin-modified glass-ionomer cement with high concentrations of bioactive glass nanoparticles has higher cell viability and better cell morphology compare to control groups. The results for mechanical properties and toxicity approved that the considering in selection of an optimum condition would have been a more satisfying conclusion for this study.

  7. Enhanced bioactivity, biocompatibility and mechanical behavior of strontium substituted bioactive glasses.

    PubMed

    Arepalli, Sampath Kumar; Tripathi, Himanshu; Hira, Sumit Kumar; Manna, Partha Pratim; Pyare, Ram; S P Singh

    2016-12-01

    Strontium contained biomaterials have been reported as a potential bioactive material for bone regeneration, as it reduces bone resorption and stimulates bone formation. In the present investigation, the bioactive glasses were designed to partially substitute SrO for SiO2 in Na2O-CaO-SrO-P2O5-SiO2 system. This work demonstrates that the substitution of SrO for SiO2 has got significant benefit than substitution for CaO in the bioactive glass. Bioactivity was assessed by the immersion of the samples in simulated body fluid for different intervals. The formation of hydroxy carbonate apatite layer was identified by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The elastic modulus of the bioactive glasses was measured and found to increase with increasing SrO for SiO2. The blood compatibility of the samples was evaluated. In vitro cell culture studies of the samples were performed using human osteosarcoma U2-OS cell lines and found a significant improvement in cell viability and proliferation. The investigation showed enhancement in bioactivity, mechanical and biological properties of the strontia substituted for silica in glasses. Thus, these bioactive glasses would be highly potential for bone regeneration.

  8. Comparing the Air Abrasion Cutting Efficacy of Dentine Using a Fluoride-Containing Bioactive Glass versus an Alumina Abrasive: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Melissa H X; Hill, Robert G; Anderson, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Air abrasion as a caries removal technique is less aggressive than conventional techniques and is compatible for use with adhesive restorative materials. Alumina, while being currently the most common abrasive used for cutting, has controversial health and safety issues and no remineralisation properties. The alternative, a bioactive glass, 45S5, has the advantage of promoting hard tissue remineralisation. However, 45S5 is slow as a cutting abrasive and lacks fluoride in its formulation. The aim of this study was to compare the cutting efficacy of dentine using a customised fluoride-containing bioactive glass Na0SR (38-80 μm) versus the conventional alumina abrasive (29 μm) in an air abrasion set-up. Fluoride was incorporated into Na0SR to enhance its remineralisation properties while strontium was included to increase its radiopacity. Powder outflow rate was recorded prior to the cutting tests. Principal air abrasion cutting tests were carried out on pristine ivory dentine. The abrasion depths were quantified and compared using X-ray microtomography. Na0SR was found to create deeper cavities than alumina (p < 0.05) despite its lower powder outflow rate and predictably reduced hardness. The sharper edges of the Na0SR glass particles might improve the cutting efficiency. In conclusion, Na0SR was more efficacious than alumina for air abrasion cutting of dentine.

  9. Comparing the Air Abrasion Cutting Efficacy of Dentine Using a Fluoride-Containing Bioactive Glass versus an Alumina Abrasive: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Melissa H. X.; Hill, Robert G.; Anderson, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Air abrasion as a caries removal technique is less aggressive than conventional techniques and is compatible for use with adhesive restorative materials. Alumina, while being currently the most common abrasive used for cutting, has controversial health and safety issues and no remineralisation properties. The alternative, a bioactive glass, 45S5, has the advantage of promoting hard tissue remineralisation. However, 45S5 is slow as a cutting abrasive and lacks fluoride in its formulation. The aim of this study was to compare the cutting efficacy of dentine using a customised fluoride-containing bioactive glass Na0SR (38–80 μm) versus the conventional alumina abrasive (29 μm) in an air abrasion set-up. Fluoride was incorporated into Na0SR to enhance its remineralisation properties while strontium was included to increase its radiopacity. Powder outflow rate was recorded prior to the cutting tests. Principal air abrasion cutting tests were carried out on pristine ivory dentine. The abrasion depths were quantified and compared using X-ray microtomography. Na0SR was found to create deeper cavities than alumina (p < 0.05) despite its lower powder outflow rate and predictably reduced hardness. The sharper edges of the Na0SR glass particles might improve the cutting efficiency. In conclusion, Na0SR was more efficacious than alumina for air abrasion cutting of dentine. PMID:26697067

  10. Interactions of bioactive glass materials in the oral environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efflandt, Sarah Elizabeth

    The aim of this research was to investigate bioactive glass materials for their use in dental restorations. Mechanical properties such as strength, toughness and wear resistance were considered initially, but the focus of this thesis was the biological properties such as reactions with saliva and interactions with natural dental tissues. Bioactive composite materials were created by incorporating bioactive glass and alumina powders into an aqueous suspension, slip casting, and infiltrating with resin. Microstructure, mechanical properties and wear resistance were evaluated. Mechanically, the composites are comparable to natural dental tissues and current dental materials with a strength of 206 +/- 18.7 MPa and a toughness of 1.74 +/- 0.08 MPa(m)1/2. Interfacial reactions were examined using bulk bioactive glasses. Disks were prepared from a melt, placed in saliva and incubated at 37°C. Surfaces were analyzed at 2, 5, 10, 21, and 42 days using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microdiffraction. Results showed changes at 2 days with apatite crystallization by 10 days. These glass disks were then secured against extracted human dentin and incubated in saliva for 21 or 42 days. Results from SEM, electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) and microdiffraction showed that dentin and bioactive glasses adhered in this in vitro environment due to attraction of collagen to bioactive glasses and growth of an interfacial apatite. After investigating these bulk glass responses, particulate bioactive glasses were placed in in vitro and in vivo set-ups for evaluation. Particles immersed in biologically buffered saliva showed crystallization of apatite at 3 days. These bioactive glass particles were placed in the molars of mini-pigs and left in vivo. After 30 days the bioactive paste was evaluated using SEM, EMPA and microdiffraction analyses. Results showed that the paste gained structural integrity and had chemical changes in vivo. These sets of experiments show that bioactive

  11. Fabrication and in vitro biomineralization of bioactive glass (BG) nanofibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Wei; Zhang, Daming; Chang, Jiang

    2007-04-01

    Bioactive glass nanofibres have excellent bioactivity and cell compatibility, and are regarded as a promising next-generation biomaterial in the bone-regeneration field. This paper is concentrated on the effect of electrospinning parameters on the diameter and morphology of bioactive glass nanofibres, and the process of in vitro biomineralization. In this work, sol-gel glass nanofibres with high bioactivity were prepared by electrospinning processing in the presence of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) and pluronic P123 (EO20-PO70-EO20) as chain entanglements. The influence of the polymer concentration, types of polymer and electric field strength on the fibre diameter was examined. The average diameter of these BG nanofibres could be controlled in the range from 85 to 400 nm. The addition of PVP resulted in sufficient chain entanglement and the formation of smooth BG nanofibres, and the addition of P123 led to a further decrease of the diameter with appropriate electric field strength, which held the balance between the electrostatic repulsive force and surface tension of the electrospinning solution. Furthermore, the early stage of in vitro biomineralization of the BG nanofibres in the simulated body fluid (SBF) was studied in this work. The behaviour of in vitro biomineralization of bioactive glass nanofibres was different to the conventional ones, and the structure of bioactive glasses contributed to the formation process of hydroxyapatite.

  12. Bioactive glass nanoparticles obtained through sol-gel chemistry.

    PubMed

    Lukowiak, Anna; Lao, Jonathan; Lacroix, Josephine; Nedelec, Jean-Marie

    2013-07-28

    Different sol-gel strategies based on the Stöber method are proposed enabling preparation of nanoparticles of SiO2-CaO bioactive glass with different size, narrow size distribution and good dispersion capability. Eu(3+)-doped glass nanoparticles with luminescent properties can also be obtained.

  13. Effect of bioactive borate glass microstructure on bone regeneration, angiogenesis, and hydroxyapatite conversion in a rat calvarial defect model.

    PubMed

    Bi, Lianxiang; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Day, Delbert E; Brown, Zackary; Samujh, Christopher; Liu, Xin; Mohammadkhah, Ali; Dusevich, Vladimir; Eick, J David; Bonewald, Lynda F

    2013-08-01

    Borate bioactive glasses are biocompatible and enhance new bone formation, but the effect of their microstructure on bone regeneration has received little attention. In this study scaffolds of borate bioactive glass (1393B3) with three different microstructures (trabecular, fibrous, and oriented) were compared for their capacity to regenerate bone in a rat calvarial defect model. 12weeks post-implantation the amount of new bone, mineralization, and blood vessel area in the scaffolds were evaluated using histomorphometric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The amount of new bone formed was 33%, 23%, and 15%, respectively, of the total defect area for the trabecular, oriented, and fibrous microstructures. In comparison, the percent new bone formed in implants composed of silicate 45S5 bioactive glass particles (250-300μm) was 19%. Doping the borate glass with copper (0.4 wt.% CuO) had little effect on bone regeneration in the trabecular and oriented scaffolds, but significantly enhanced bone regeneration in the fibrous scaffolds (from 15 to 33%). The scaffolds were completely converted to hydroxyapatite within the 12week implantation. The amount of hydroxyapatite formed, 22%, 35%, and 48%, respectively, for the trabecular, oriented, and fibrous scaffolds, increased with increasing volume fraction of glass in the as-fabricated scaffold. Blood vessels infiltrated into all the scaffolds, but the trabecular scaffolds had a higher average blood vessel area compared with the oriented and fibrous scaffolds. While all three scaffold microstructures were effective in supporting bone regeneration, the trabecular scaffolds supported more bone formation and may be more promising in bone repair.

  14. 45S5 Bioglass®-derived scaffolds coated with organic-inorganic hybrids containing graphene.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Paola; Valentini, Luca; Hum, Jasmin; Detsch, Rainer; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2013-10-01

    Highly porous 45S5 Bioglass®-based scaffolds fabricated by a foam replication technique were coated with electrically conductive organic-inorganic hybrid layers containing graphene by a solution method. α,ω-Triethoxysilane terminated poly (ethylene glycol) and tetraethoxysilane were used as the precursors of the organic-inorganic hybrid coatings, that contained 1.5 wt.% of homogeneously dispersed graphene nanoplatelets. The resulting coated scaffolds retained their original high porosity and interconnected pore structure after coating. The presence of graphene did not impair the bioactivity of the scaffolds in simulated body fluid. Initial tests carried out using MG-63 cells demonstrated that both uncoated scaffolds and scaffolds coated with organic/inorganic hybrids containing graphene offered the cultured cells an adequate surface for cell attachment, spreading and expression of extracellular matrix. The results showed that scaffolds coated with graphene are biocompatible and they can support cellular activity. The electrical conductivity introduced by the coating might have the potential to increase tissue growth when cell culture is carried out under an applied electric field.

  15. Effect of nitrogen and fluorine on mechanical properties and bioactivity in two series of bioactive glasses.

    PubMed

    Bachar, Ahmed; Mercier, Cyrille; Tricoteaux, Arnaud; Hampshire, Stuart; Leriche, Anne; Follet, Claudine

    2013-07-01

    Bioactive glasses are able to bond to bone through formation of carbonated hydroxyapatite in body fluids, and fluoride-releasing bioactive glasses are of interest for both orthopaedic and, in particular, dental applications for caries inhibition. However, because of their poor strength their use is restricted to non-load-bearing applications. In order to increase their mechanical properties, doping with nitrogen has been performed on two series of bioactive glasses: series (I) was a "bioglass" composition (without P2O5) within the quaternary system SiO2-Na2O-CaO-Si3N4 and series (II) was a simple substitution of CaF2 for CaO in series (I) glasses keeping the Na:Ca ratio constant. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the variation in nitrogen and fluorine content on the properties of these glasses. The density, glass transition temperature, hardness and elastic modulus all increased linearly with nitrogen content which indicates that the incorporation of nitrogen stiffens the glass network because N is mainly in 3-fold coordination with Si atoms. Fluorine addition significantly decreases the thermal property values but the mechanical properties of these glasses remain unchanged with fluorine. The combination of both nitrogen and fluorine in oxyfluoronitride glasses gives better mechanical properties at much lower melting temperatures since fluorine reduces the melting point, allows higher solubility of nitrogen and does not affect the higher mechanical properties arising from incorporation of nitrogen. The characterization of these N and F substituted bioactive glasses using (29)Si MAS NMR has shown that the increase in rigidity of the glass network can be explained by the formation of SiO3N, SiO2N2 tetrahedra and Q(4) units with extra bridging anions at the expense of Q(3) units. Bioactivity of the glasses was investigated in vitro by examining apatite formation on the surface of glasses treated in acellular simulated body fluid (SBF) with ion

  16. Nano/macro porous bioactive glass scaffold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shaojie

    Bioactive glass (BG) and ceramics have been widely studied and developed as implants to replace hard tissues of the musculo-skeletal system, such as bones and teeth. Recently, instead of using bulk materials, which usually do not degrade rapidly enough and may remain in the human body for a long time, the idea of bioscaffold for tissue regeneration has generated much interest. An ideal bioscaffold is a porous material that would not only provide a three-dimensional structure for the regeneration of natural tissue, but also degrade gradually and, eventually be replaced by the natural tissue completely. Among various material choices the nano-macro dual porous BG appears as the most promising candidate for bioscaffold applications. Here macropores facilitate tissue growth while nanopores control degradation and enhance cell response. The surface area, which controls the degradation of scaffold can also be tuned by changing the nanopore size. However, fabrication of such 3D structure with desirable nano and macro pores has remained challenging. In this dissertation, sol-gel process combined with spinodal decomposition or polymer sponge replication method has been developed to fabricate the nano-macro porous BG scaffolds. Macropores up to 100microm are created by freezing polymer induced spinodal structure through sol-gel transition, while larger macropores (>200um) of predetermined size are obtained by the polymer sponge replication technique. The size of nanopores, which are inherent to the sol-gel method of glass fabrication, has been tailored using several approaches: Before gel point, small nanopores are generated using acid catalyst that leads to weakly-branched polymer-like network. On the other hand, larger nanopores are created with the base-catalyzed gel with highly-branched cluster-like structure. After the gel point, the nanostructure can be further modified by manipulating the sintering temperature and/or the ammonia concentration used in the solvent

  17. Self-reinforced composites of bioabsorbable polymer and bioactive glass with different bioactive glass contents. Part II: In vitro degradation.

    PubMed

    Niemelä, Tiiu; Niiranen, Henna; Kellomäki, Minna

    2008-01-01

    The in vitro degradation behavior of self-reinforced bioactive glass-containing composites was investigated comparatively with plain self-reinforced matrix polymer. The materials used were spherical bioactive glass 13-93 particles, with a particle size distribution of 50-125 microm, as a filler material and bioabsorbable poly-L,DL-lactide 70/30 as a matrix material. The composites containing 0, 20, 30, 40 and 50 wt.% of bioactive glass were manufactured using twin-screw extruder followed by self-reinforcing. The samples studied were characterized determining the changes in mechanical properties, thermal properties, molecular weight, mass loss and water absorption in phosphate-buffered saline at 37 degrees C for up to 104 weeks. The results showed that the bioactive glass addition modified the degradation kinetics and material morphology of the matrix material. It was concluded that the optimal bioactive glass content depends on the applications of the composites. The results of this study could be used as a guideline when estimating the best filler content of other self-reinforced osteoconductive filler containing composites which are manufactured in a similar way.

  18. Effect of nano-sized bioactive glass particles on the angiogenic properties of collagen based composites.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Gabriela E; Haro Durand, Luis A; Cadena, Vanesa; Romero, Marcela; Mesones, Rosa Vera; Mačković, Mirza; Spallek, Stefanie; Spiecker, Erdmann; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Gorustovich, Alejandro A

    2013-05-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for tissue regeneration and repair. A growing body of evidence shows that the use of bioactive glasses (BG) in biomaterial-based tissue engineering (TE) strategies may improve angiogenesis and induce increased vascularization in TE constructs. This work investigated the effect of adding nano-sized BG particles (n-BG) on the angiogenic properties of bovine type I collagen/n-BG composites. Nano-sized (20-30 nm) BG particles of nominally 45S5 Bioglass® composition were used to prepare composite films, which were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The in vivo angiogenic response was evaluated using the quail chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) as an model of angiogenesis. At 24 h post-implantation, 10 wt% n-BG containing collagen films stimulated angiogenesis by increasing by 41 % the number of blood vessels branch points. In contrast, composite films containing 20 wt% n-BG were found to inhibit angiogenesis. This experimental study provides the first evidence that addition of a limited concentration of n-BG (10 wt%) to collagen films induces an early angiogenic response making selected collagen/n-BG composites attractive matrices for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  19. A review of glass-ionomers: From conventional glass-ionomer to bioactive glass-ionomer

    PubMed Central

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Keshani, Fateme

    2013-01-01

    Materials used in the body, especially the materials used in various oral cavity regions should be stable and passive without any interactions with the body tissues or fluids. Dental amalgam, composite resins and dental cements are the materials of choice with such properties. The first attempts to produce active materials, which could interact with the human body tissues and fluids were prompted by the concept that fluoride-releasing materials exert useful effects in the body. The concept of using the “smart” materials in dentistry has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. Conventional glass-ionomer (GI) cements have a large number of applications in dentistry. They are biocompatible with the dental pulp to some extent. GI is predominantly used as cements in dentistry; however, they have some disadvantages, the most important of which is lack of adequate strength and toughness. In an attempt to improve the mechanical properties of the conventional GI, resin-modified glass-ionomers have been marketed, with hydrophilic monomers, such as hydroxyethyl methacrylated (HEMA). Some recent studies have evaluated GI with bioactive glass in its structure to validate the claims that such a combination will improve tooth bioactivity, regeneration capacity and restoration. There is ever-increasing interest in the application of bioactive materials in the dental field in an attempt to remineralize affected dentin. The aim of this review article is to evaluate these materials and their characteristics and applications. PMID:24130573

  20. Three-dimensional, bioactive, biodegradable, polymer-bioactive glass composite scaffolds with improved mechanical properties support collagen synthesis and mineralization of human osteoblast-like cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lu, Helen H; El-Amin, Saadiq F; Scott, Kimberli D; Laurencin, Cato T

    2003-03-01

    In the past decade, tissue engineering-based bone grafting has emerged as a viable alternative to biological and synthetic grafts. The biomaterial component is a critical determinant of the ultimate success of the tissue-engineered graft. Because no single existing material possesses all the necessary properties required in an ideal bone graft, our approach has been to develop a three dimensional (3-D), porous composite of polylactide-co-glycolide (PLAGA) and 45S5 bioactive glass (BG) that is biodegradable, bioactive, and suitable as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering (PLAGA-BG composite). The objectives of this study were to examine the mechanical properties of a PLAGA-BG matrix, to evaluate the response of human osteoblast-like cells to the PLAGA-BG composite, and to evaluate the ability of the composite to form a surface calcium phosphate layer in vitro. Structural and mechanical properties of PLAGA-BG were measured, and the formation of a surface calcium phosphate layer was evaluated by surface analysis methods. The growth and differentiation of human osteoblast-like cells on PLAGA-BG were also examined. A hypothesis was that the combination of PLAGA with BG would result in a biocompatible and bioactive composite, capable of supporting osteoblast adhesion, growth and differentiation, with mechanical properties superior to PLAGA alone. The addition of bioactive glass granules to the PLAGA matrix resulted in a structure with higher compressive modulus than PLAGA alone. Moreover, the PLAGA-BA composite was found to be a bioactive material, as it formed surface calcium phosphate deposits in a simulated body fluid (SBF), and in the presence of cells and serum proteins. The composite supported osteoblast-like morphology, stained positively for alkaline phosphatase, and supported higher levels of Type I collagen synthesis than tissue culture polystyrene controls. We have successfully developed a degradable, porous, polymer bioactive glass composite possessing

  1. Influence of barium substitution on bioactivity, thermal and physico-mechanical properties of bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Arepalli, Sampath Kumar; Tripathi, Himanshu; Vyas, Vikash Kumar; Jain, Shubham; Suman, Shyam Kumar; Pyare, Ram; Singh, S P

    2015-04-01

    Barium with low concentration in the glasses acts as a muscle stimulant and is found in human teeth. We have made a primary study by substituting barium in the bioactive glass. The chemical composition containing (46.1-X) SiO2--24.3 Na2O-26.9 CaO-2.6 P2O5, where X=0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 and 1.6mol% of BaO was chosen and melted in an electric furnace at 1400±5°C. The glasses were characterized to determine their use in biomedical applications. The nucleation and crystallization regimes were determined by DTA and the controlled crystallization was carried out by suitable heat treatment. The crystalline phase formed was identified by using XRD technique. Bioactivity of these glasses was assessed by immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various time periods. The formation of hydroxy carbonate apatite (HCA) layer was identified by FTIR spectrometry, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and XRD which showed the presence of HCA as the main phase in all tested bioactive glass samples. Flexural strength and densities of bioactive glasses have been measured and found to increase with increasing the barium content. The human blood compatibility of the samples was evaluated and found to be pertinent.

  2. Predicting the glass transition temperature of bioactive glasses from their molecular chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Hill, Robert G; Brauer, Delia S

    2011-10-01

    A recently published paper (M.D. O'Donnell, Acta Biomaterialia 7 (2011) 2264-2269) suggests that it is possible to correlate the glass transition temperature (T(g)) of bioactive glasses with their molar composition, based on iterative least-squares fitting of published T(g) data. However, we show that the glass structure is an important parameter in determining T(g). Phase separation, local structural effects and components (intermediate oxides) which can switch their structural role in the glass network need to be taken into consideration, as they are likely to influence the glass transition temperature of bioactive glasses. Although the model suggested by O'Donnell works reasonably well for glasses within the composition range presented, it is oversimplified and fails for glasses outside certain compositional boundaries.

  3. Thermal analysis and in vitro bioactivity of bioactive glass-alumina composites

    SciTech Connect

    Chatzistavrou, Xanthippi; Kantiranis, Nikolaos; Kontonasaki, Eleana; Chrissafis, Konstantinos; Papadopoulou, Labrini; Koidis, Petros; Boccaccini, Aldo R.; Paraskevopoulos, Konstantinos M.

    2011-01-15

    Bioactive glass-alumina composite (BA) pellets were fabricated in the range 95/5-60/40 wt.% respectively and were heat-treated under a specific thermal treatment up to 950 {sup o}C. Control (unheated) and heat-treated pellets were immersed in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) for bioactivity testing. All pellets before and after immersion in SBF were studied by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. All composite pellets presented bioactive response. On the surface of the heat-treated pellets the development of a rich biological hydroxyapatite (HAp) layer was delayed for one day, compared to the respective control pellets. Independent of the proportion of the two components, all composites of each group (control and heat-treated) presented the same bioactive response as a function of immersion time in SBF. It was found that by the applied methodology, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} can be successfully applied in bioactive glass composites without obstructing their bioactive response. - Research Highlights: {yields} Isostatically pressed glass-alumina composites presented apatite-forming ability. {yields} The interaction with SBF resulted in an aluminium phosphate phase formation. {yields} The formation of an aluminium phosphate phase enhanced the in vitro apatite growth.

  4. A Novel Strategy for Softening Gelatin-Bioactive-Glass Hybrids.

    PubMed

    Negahi Shirazi, Ali; Fathi, Ali; Suarez, Francia Garces; Wang, Yiwei; Maitz, Peter K; Dehghani, Fariba

    2016-01-27

    The brittle structure of polymer-bioactive-glass hybrids is a hurdle for their biomedical applications. To address this issue here, we developed a novel method to cease the overcondensation of bioactive-glass by polymer cross-linking. Here, an organosilane-functionalized gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) is covalently bonded to a bioactive-glass during the sol-gel process, and the condensation of silica networks is controlled by photo-cross-linking of GelMA. The physicochemical properties and mechanical strength of these hybrids are tunable by the incorporation of secondary cross-linking agents. These hydrogels display elastic properties with ultimate compression strain above 0.2 mm·mm(-1) and tunable compressive modulus in the range of 42-530 kPa. In addition, these hydrogels are bioactive because they promoted the alkaline phosphatase activity of bone progenitor cells. They are also well-tolerated in the mice subcutaneous model. Therefore, our method is efficient for the prevention of overcondensation and allows preparation of soft bioactive hydrogels from organic-inorganic matrices, suitable for soft and hard tissue regeneration.

  5. Bioactive glass reinforced elastomer composites for skeletal regeneration: A review.

    PubMed

    Zeimaran, Ehsan; Pourshahrestani, Sara; Djordjevic, Ivan; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Kadri, Nahrizul Adib; Towler, Mark R

    2015-08-01

    Biodegradable elastomers have clinical applicability due to their biocompatibility, tunable degradation and elasticity. The addition of bioactive glasses to these elastomers can impart mechanical properties sufficient for hard tissue replacement. Hence, a composite with a biodegradable polymer matrix and a bioglass filler can offer a method of augmenting existing tissue. This article reviews the applications of such composites for skeletal augmentation.

  6. Optimization and characterization of bioactive glass nanofibers and nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarber, Reginna E.

    Disease affects different areas of the bone and can impact individuals of all pathologies and ethnicities. These bone diseases can result in weakening which leads to trauma during ordinary function, the need for reconstructive surgery, and eventual bone replacement. Tissue engineering can provide a less traumatic and more fundamental solution to the current therapies. Bioactive glasses are promising materials in tissue engineering applications because of their ability to form hydroxycarbonate apatite in the presence of simulated body fluid, support cell adhesion, growth, and differentiation, induce bone formation, and concentrate bone morphogenic proteins in vivo. The research in this dissertation will attempt to improve the quality, yield, and toughness of bioactive glass nanofibrous scaffolds. The three specific aims of this research include, (1) Optimization and Characterization of Surfactant Modified Bioactive Glass (2) Optimization of Direct Synthesis Bioactive glass Nanofibers from Sols (3) Mechanical Properties and In-vitro Biomineralization of Bioglass-loaded Polyglyconate Nanocomposites Created Using the Particulate Leaching Method. The purpose of the first specific aim was to optimize the processing of bioactive glass nanofibers, resulting in greater fiber uniformity with a reduction in beading. The increase in viscosity coupled with the ability of the surfactant to limit polymeric secondary bonding led to improved fiber quality. The focal point of the second specific aim is the production of sol-gel derived glass fibers with high bioactivity prepared by electrospinning without the use of any polymer carrier system. Advantages of this method include decreased processing time, increased production of fibers, and a decrease in the loss of material due to the calcining process. The solvent cast/ particulate leaching method was used to create a nanocomposite of bioglass and the co-polymer polyglyconate (MaxonRTM) for bone tissue scaffolds The biocompatibility

  7. Silver-containing mesoporous bioactive glass with improved antibacterial properties.

    PubMed

    Gargiulo, Nicola; Cusano, Angela Maria; Causa, Filippo; Caputo, Domenico; Netti, Paolo Antonio

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present work is the study of the bacteriostatic/bactericidal effect of a silver-containing mesoporous bioactive glass obtained by evaporation-induced self-assembly and successive thermal stabilization. Samples of the manufactured mesophase were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy and N₂ adsorption/desorption at 77 K, revealing structural and textural properties similar to SBA-15 mesoporous silica. Glass samples used for bioactivity experiments were put in contact with a standardized, commercially available cell culture medium instead of lab-produced simulated body fluid, and were then characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. All these analyses confirmed the development of a hydroxyl carbonate apatite layer on glass particles. Moreover, the investigated mesostructure showed a very good antibacterial effect against S. aureus strain, with a strong evidence of bactericidal activity already registered at 0.5 mg/mL of glass concentration. A hypothesis about the mechanism by which Ag affects the bacterial viability, based on the intermediate formation of crystalline AgCl, was also taken into account. With respect to what already reported in the literature, these findings claim a deeper insight into the possible use of silver-containing bioactive glasses as multifunctional ceramic coatings for orthopedic devices.

  8. Assembly and function of the tRNA-modifying GTPase MnmE adsorbed to surface functionalized bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Gruian, C; Boehme, S; Simon, S; Steinhoff, H-J; Klare, J P

    2014-05-28

    Protein adsorption onto solid surfaces is a common phenomenon in tissue engineering related applications, and considerable progress was achieved in this field. However, there are still unanswered questions or contradictory opinions concerning details of the protein's structure, conformational changes, or aggregation once adsorbed onto solid surfaces. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) were employed in this work to investigate the conformational changes and dynamics of the tRNA-modifying dimeric protein MnmE from E. coli, an ortholog of the human GTPBP3, upon adsorption on bioactive glass mimicking the composition of the classical 45S5 Bioglass. In addition, prior to protein attachment, the bioactive glass surface was modified with the protein coupling agent glutaraldehyde. Continuous wave EPR spectra of different spin labeled MnmE mutants were recorded to assess the dynamics of the attached spin labels before and after protein adsorption. The area of the continuous wave (cw)-EPR absorption spectrum was further used to determine the amount of the attached protein. Double electron-electron resonance (DEER) experiments were conducted to measure distances between the spin labels before and after adsorption. The results revealed that the contact regions between MnmE and the bioactive glass surface are located at the G domains and at the N-terminal domains. The low modulation depths of all DEER time traces recorded for the adsorbed single MnmE mutants, corroborated with the DEER measurements performed on MnmE double mutants, show that the adsorption process leads to dissociation of the dimer and alters the tertiary structure of MnmE, thereby abolishing its functionality. However, glutaraldehyde reduces the aggressiveness of the adsorption process and improves the stability of the protein attachment.

  9. In-vitro bioactivity of zirconia doped borosilicate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Samudrala, Rajkumar; Azeem, P. Abdul E-mail: drazeem2002@yahoo.com

    2015-06-24

    Glass composition 31B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-20SiO{sub 2}-24.5Na{sub 2}O-(24.5-x) CaO-xZrO{sub 2} x=1,2,3,4,5 were prepared by melt-quenching Technique. The formation of hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of glasses after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) was explored through XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX) analyses. In this report, we observed that hydroxyapatite formation for 5days of immersion time. Also observed that with increasing the immersion time up to 15days, higher amount of hydroxyapatite layer formation on the surface of glasses. The varying composition of zirconia in glass samples influences shown by XRD, FTIR studies. The present results indicate that, in-vitro bioactivity of glasses decreased with increasing zirconia incorporation.

  10. Bioactive glass/ZrO2 composites for orthopaedic applications.

    PubMed

    Bellucci, D; Sola, A; Cannillo, V

    2014-02-01

    Binary biocomposites were realized by combining yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) with a bioactive glass matrix. Few works are available regarding composites containing zirconia and a relatively high content of glass because the resulting samples are usually biocompatible but not bioactive after thermal treatment. In the present research, the promising properties of the new BG_Ca-K glass, with its low tendency to crystallize and high apatite-forming ability, allowed us to sinter the composites at a relatively low temperature with excellent effects in terms of bioactivity. In addition, it was possible to benefit from the good mechanical behaviour of Y-TZP, thus obtaining samples with microhardness values that were among the highest reported in the literature. After a detailed analysis regarding the thermal behaviour of the composite powders, the sintered bodies were fully characterized by means of x-ray diffraction, SEM equipped with EDS, density measurements, volumetric shrinkage determination, mechanical testing and in vitro evaluation in a simulated body fluid (SBF) solution. According to the experimental results, the presence of Y-TZP improved the mechanical performance. Meanwhile, the BG_Ca-K glass, which mainly preserved its amorphous structure after sintering, provided the composites with a good apatite-forming ability in SBF.

  11. Characterization of the bioactive and mechanical behavior of dental ceramic/sol-gel derived bioactive glass mixtures.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Zahra; Bahrololoum, Mohammad E; Bagheri, Rafat; Shariat, Mohammad H

    2016-02-01

    Dental ceramics can be modified by bioactive glasses in order to develop apatite layer on their surface. One of the benefits of such modification is to prolong the lifetime of the fixed dental prosthesis by preventing the formation of secondary caries. Dental ceramic/sol-gel derived bioactive glass mixture is one of the options for this modification. In the current study, mixtures of dental ceramic/bioactive glass with different compositions were successfully produced. To evaluate their bioactive behavior, prepared samples were immersed in a simulated body fluid at various time intervals. The prepared and soaked specimens were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. Since bioactive glasses have deleterious effects on the mechanical properties of dental ceramics, 3-point bending tests were used to evaluate the flexural strength, flexural strain, tangent modulus of elasticity and Weibull modulus of the specimens in order to find the optimal relationship between mechanical and bioactive properties.

  12. In Vitro Bioactivity and Antimicrobial Tuning of Bioactive Glass Nanoparticles Added with Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaf Powder

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, M.; Ruby Priscilla, S.; Kavitha, K.; Manivasakan, P.; Rajendran, V.; Kulandaivelu, P.

    2014-01-01

    Silica and phosphate based bioactive glass nanoparticles (58SiO2-33CaO-9P2O5) with doping of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder and silver nanoparticles were prepared and characterised. Bioactive glass nanoparticles were produced using sol-gel technique. In vitro bioactivity of the prepared samples was investigated using simulated body fluid. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of prepared glass particles reveals amorphous phase and spherical morphology with a particle size of less than 50 nm. When compared to neem doped glass, better bioactivity was attained in silver doped glass through formation of hydroxyapatite layer on the surface, which was confirmed through XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. However, neem leaf powder doped bioactive glass nanoparticles show good antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and less bioactivity compared with silver doped glass particles. In addition, the biocompatibility of the prepared nanocomposites reveals better results for neem doped and silver doped glasses at lower concentration. Therefore, neem doped bioactive glass may act as a potent antimicrobial agent for preventing microbial infection in tissue engineering applications. PMID:25276834

  13. In vitro bioactivity and antimicrobial tuning of bioactive glass nanoparticles added with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, M; Ruby Priscilla, S; Kavitha, K; Manivasakan, P; Rajendran, V; Kulandaivelu, P

    2014-01-01

    Silica and phosphate based bioactive glass nanoparticles (58SiO2-33CaO-9P2O5) with doping of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder and silver nanoparticles were prepared and characterised. Bioactive glass nanoparticles were produced using sol-gel technique. In vitro bioactivity of the prepared samples was investigated using simulated body fluid. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of prepared glass particles reveals amorphous phase and spherical morphology with a particle size of less than 50 nm. When compared to neem doped glass, better bioactivity was attained in silver doped glass through formation of hydroxyapatite layer on the surface, which was confirmed through XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. However, neem leaf powder doped bioactive glass nanoparticles show good antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and less bioactivity compared with silver doped glass particles. In addition, the biocompatibility of the prepared nanocomposites reveals better results for neem doped and silver doped glasses at lower concentration. Therefore, neem doped bioactive glass may act as a potent antimicrobial agent for preventing microbial infection in tissue engineering applications.

  14. Bioactive glass coupling with natural polyphenols: Surface modification, bioactivity and anti-oxidant ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazzola, Martina; Corazzari, Ingrid; Prenesti, Enrico; Bertone, Elisa; Vernè, Enrica; Ferraris, Sara

    2016-03-01

    Polyphenols are actually achieving an increasing interest due to their potential health benefits, such as antioxidant, anticancer, antibacterial and bone stimulation abilities. However their poor bioavailability and stability hamper an effective clinical application as therapeutic principles. The opportunity to couple these biomolecules with synthetic biomaterials, in order to obtain local delivery at the site of interest, improve their bioavailability and stability and combine their properties with the ones of the substrate, is a challenging opportunity for the biomedical research. A silica based bioactive glass, CEL2, has been successfully coupled with gallic acid and natural polyphenols extracted from red grape skins and green tea leaves. The effectiveness of grafting has been verified by means of XPS analyses and the Folin&Ciocalteu tests. In vitro bioactivity has been investigated by soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF). Surface modification after functionalization and early stage reactivity in SBF have been studied by means of zeta potential electrokinetic measurements in KCl and SBF. Finally the antioxidant properties of bare and modified bioactive glasses has been investigated by means of the evaluation of free radical scavenging activity by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR)/spin trapping technique after UV photolysis of H2O2 highlighting scavenging activity of the bioactive glass.

  15. The Influence of Phase Separation on Bioactivity of Spray Pyrolyzed Bioactive Glass.

    PubMed

    Shih, Shao-ju; Tzeng, Wei-lung; Chou, Yu-jen; Chen, Chin-yi; Chen, Yu-ju

    2015-06-01

    In this study, bioactive glass (BG) particles were synthesized directly using spray pyrolysis (SP). Since the bioactivity of glass particles is well correlated with their chemical composition, how to obtain homogenous bioactive glass becomes an important issue. For SP, the main reason for chemical inhomogeneity was considered to be caused by the difference in the precipitation speed of each precursor. So, two Si-containing precursors of BG, namely tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and silicon acetate (SiA), have been applied to prepare BG particles. The bioglasses were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy to examine their phase composition, and surface structures, inner morphologies and chemical compositions. It was observed that, under the calcination temperature of 700 degrees C, TEOS-derived powder contained Si-rich nanoparticles and Si-deficit submicron particles as inhomogeneity, whereas the SiA-derived powder was homogenous. The reason of inhomogeneity is that TEOS dissolves in "volatile" ethanol more readily than in water via the SP mechanism of "gas-to-particle-conversion" to form Si-rich nanoparticles. The presence of Si-rich nanoparticles causes Si-deficit "wollastonite submicron particles" to form, which impairs the bioactivity. Finally, BG particle formation mechanisms from different precursors have been proposed.

  16. Calcium phosphate glasses: silanation process and effect on the bioactivity behavior of glass-PMMA composites.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Lizette Morejón; García-Menocal, José Ángel Delgado; Aymerich, Mariona Tarragó; Guichard, Julio Ándrés Álvarez; García-Vallés, Maite; Manent, Salvador Martínez; Ginebra, Maria-Pau

    2014-02-01

    This article presents the results of a study of the efficiency of silanation process of calcium phosphate glasses particles and its effect on the bioactivity behavior of glass- poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) composites. Two different calcium phosphate glasses: 44.5CaO-44.5P2 O5 -11Na2 O (BV11) and 44.5CaO-44.5P2 O5 -6Na2 O-5TiO2 (G5) were synthesized and treated with silane coupling agent. The glasses obtained were characterized by Microprobe and BET while the efficiency of silanation process was determined using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Thermal Analysis (DTA and TG) techniques. The content of coupling agent chemically tightly bond to the silanated glasses ascended to 1.69 ± 0.02 wt % for BV11sil glass and 0.93 ± 0.01 wt % for G5sil glass. The in vitro bioactivity test carried out in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) revealed certain bioactive performance with the use of both silanated glasses in a 30% (by weight) as filler of the PMMA composites because of a superficial deposition of an apatite-like layer with low content of CO3 (2-) and HPO4 (2-) in its structure after soaking for 30 days occurred.

  17. Fabrication and characterization of bioactive glass-ceramic using soda-lime-silica waste glass.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Mojtaba; Hashemi, Babak

    2014-04-01

    Soda-lime-silica waste glass was used to synthesize a bioactive glass-ceramic through solid-state reactions. In comparison with the conventional route, that is, the melt-quenching and subsequent heat treatment, the present work is an economical technique. Structural and thermal properties of the samples were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The in vitro test was utilized to assess the bioactivity level of the samples by Hanks' solution as simulated body fluid (SBF). Bioactivity assessment by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was revealed that the samples with smaller amount of crystalline phase had a higher level of bioactivity.

  18. Mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds for efficient delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chengtie; Fan, Wei; Chang, Jiang; Xiao, Yin

    2013-09-01

    In this article, we, for the first time, investigated mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds for the delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor. We have found that mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds have significantly higher loading efficiency and more sustained release of vascular endothelial growth factor than non-mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds. In addition, vascular endothelial growth factor delivery from mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds has improved the viability of endothelial cells. The study has suggested that mesopore structures in mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds play an important role in improving the loading efficiency, decreasing the burst release, and maintaining the bioactivity of vascular endothelial growth factor, indicating that mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds are an excellent carrier of vascular endothelial growth factor for potential bone tissue engineering applications.

  19. Evaluation of the antibacterial effects of vancomycin hydrochloride released from agar-gelatin-bioactive glass composites.

    PubMed

    Rivadeneira, Josefina; Di Virgilio, Ana Laura; Audisio, M Carina; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Gorustovich, Alejandro A

    2015-01-13

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the perfomance of agar-gelatin (AG) composites and AG-containing 45S5 bioactive glass (BG) microparticles (AGBG) in relation to their water uptake capacity, sustained release of a drug over time, and antibacterial effects. The composites were fabricated by the gel-casting method. To impart the local drug release capacity, vancomycin hydrochloride (VC) was loaded in the composites in concentrations of 0.5 and 1 mg ml(-1). VC release was assessed in distilled water at 37 °C up to 72 h and quantified spectrophotometrically. The antibacterial activity of composites was evaluated by the inhibition zone test and the plate count method. The experiments were performed in vitro up to 48 h on three staphylococcus strains: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213, S. aureus ATCC6538 and Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC12228. The results showed that the addition of BG to AG composites did not affect the degree of water uptake. The release of VC was significantly affected by the presence of BG. VC release was higher from AGBGVC films than from AGVC ones over prolonged incubation times. Bacterial inhibition zones were found around the composites. The halos were larger when the cells were put in contact with AGVC composites than when they were put in contact with AGBGVC ones. Nevertheless, the viable count method demonstrated that the composites inhibited Staphylococcus cell growth with no statistical differences. In conclusion, the addition of BG did not reflect an improvement in the parameters studied. On the other hand, composites loaded with VC would have a role in prophylaxis against bacterial infection.

  20. Composite bone cements loaded with a bioactive and ferrimagnetic glass-ceramic: Leaching, bioactivity and cytocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Verné, Enrica; Bruno, Matteo; Miola, Marta; Maina, Giovanni; Bianco, Carlotta; Cochis, Andrea; Rimondini, Lia

    2015-08-01

    In this work, composite bone cements, based on a commercial polymethylmethacrylate matrix (Palamed®) loaded with ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic particles (SC45), were produced and characterized in vitro. The ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic belongs to the system SiO2-Na2O-CaO-P2O5-FeO-Fe2O3 and contains magnetite (Fe3O4) crystals into a residual amorphous bioactive phase. Three different formulations (containing 10, 15 and 20 wt.% of glass-ceramic particles respectively) have been investigated. These materials are intended to be applied as bone fillers for the hyperthermic treatment of bone tumors. The morphological, compositional, calorimetric and mechanical properties of each formulation have been already discussed in a previous paper. The in vitro properties of the composite bone cements described in the present paper are related to iron ion leaching test (by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer), bioactivity (i.e. the ability to stimulate the formation of a hydroxyapatite - HAp - layer on their surface after soaking in simulated body fluid SBF) and cytocompatibility toward human osteosarcoma cells (ATCC CRL-1427, Mg63). Morphological and chemical characterizations by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersion spectrometry have been performed on the composite samples after each test. The iron release was negligible and all the tested samples showed the growth of HAp on their surface after 28 days of immersion in a simulated body fluid (SBF). Cells showed good viability, morphology, adhesion, density and the ability to develop bridge-like structures on all investigated samples. A synergistic effect between bioactivity and cell mineralization was also evidenced.

  1. Processing, properties, and in vitro bioactivity of polysulfone-bioactive glass composites.

    PubMed

    Oréfice, Rodrigo; Clark, Arthur; West, Jon; Brennan, Anthony; Hench, Larry

    2007-03-01

    The mismatch between the mechanical properties of bioceramics and natural tissue has restricted in several cases a wider application of ceramics in medical and dental fields. To overcome this problem, polymer matrix composites can be designed to combine bioactive properties of some bioceramics with the superior mechanical properties of some engineering plastics. In this work, polymer particulate composites composed of a high mechanical-property polymer and bioactive glass particles were produced and both the in vitro bioactivity and properties of the system were investigated. Composites with different volume fraction and particle size were prepared. In vitro tests showed that hydroxy-carbonate-apatite can be deposited on the surface of a composite as early as 20 h in a simulated body fluid. Ionic evolution from a composite with 40% volume fraction of particles was demonstrated to be similar to bulk bioactive glasses. The mechanical properties of some of the obtained composites had values comparable with the ones reported for bone. Moreover, a physical model based on dynamical mechanical tests showed evidences that the interface of the composite was aiding in the stress transfer process.

  2. Physicochemical properties and bioactivity of freeze-cast chitosan nanocomposite scaffolds reinforced with bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Pourhaghgouy, Masoud; Zamanian, Ali; Shahrezaee, Mostafa; Masouleh, Milad Pourbaghi

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan based nanocomposite scaffolds were prepared by freeze casting method through blending constant chitosan concentration with different portions of synthesized bioactive glass nanoparticles (BGNPs). Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) image showed that the particles size of bioactive glass (64SiO2.28CaO.8P2O5) prepared by sol-gel method was approximately less than 20 nm. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis showed proper interfacial bonding between BGNPs and chitosan polymers. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images depicted a unidirectional structure with homogenous distribution of BGNPs among chitosan matrix associated with the absence of pure chitosan scaffold's wall pores after addition of only 10 wt.% BGNPs. As the BGNP content increased from 0 to 50 wt.%, the compressive strength and compressive module values increased from 0.034 to 0.419 MPa and 0.41 to 10.77 MPa, respectively. Biodegradation study showed that increase in BGNP content leads to growth of weight loss amount. The in vitro biomineralization studies confirmed the bioactive nature of all nanocomposites. Amount of 30 wt.% BGNPs represented the best concentration for absorption capacity and bioactivity behaviors.

  3. Effects of Substitution of K2O for Na2O on the Bioactivity of CaO-Na2O-SiO2-P2O5 glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taehee; Hwang, Chawon; Gwoo, Donggun; Park, Hoyyul; Ryu, Bong-Ki

    2012-10-01

    The compositional dependences of bioactivity, thermal properties, atomic structure, and surface morphology have been investigated in the CaO-Na2O-SiO2-P2O5 system; this system is known as a bioglass. 45S5 Bioglass® is known to be a general and highly bioactive material. However, the bioactivity of this glassy material is expected to be improved by modifying the alkali-metal composition. Thermal properties, density, and molar volume were measured to investigate the structural packing. FT-IR spectra and X-ray diffraction were used to confirm the structures of these glasses. The morphology was examined using field emission electron microscopy, and the formation of a Ca-P layer was studied using an energy-dispersive system. This study shows that the tendency to form a calcium phosphate layer is increased with the substitution of K2O for Na2O.

  4. A comparative study of the effects of different bioactive fillers in PLGA matrix composites and their suitability as bone substitute materials: A thermo-mechanical and in vitro investigation.

    PubMed

    Simpson, R L; Nazhat, S N; Blaker, J J; Bismarck, A; Hill, R; Boccaccini, A R; Hansen, U N; Amis, A A

    2015-10-01

    Bone substitute composite materials with poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) matrices and four different bioactive fillers: CaCO3, hydroxyapatite (HA), 45S5 Bioglass(®) (45S5 BG), and ICIE4 bioactive glass (a lower sodium glass than 45S5 BG) were produced via melt blending, extrusion and moulding. The viscoelastic, mechanical and thermal properties, and the molecular weight of the matrix were measured. Thermogravimetric analysis evaluated the effect of filler composition on the thermal degradation of the matrix. Bioactive glasses caused premature degradation of the matrix during processing, whereas CaCO3 or HA did not. All composites, except those with 45S5 BG, had similar mechanical strength and were stiffer than PLGA alone in compression, whilst all had a lower tensile strength. Dynamic mechanical analysis demonstrated an increased storage modulus (E') in the composites (other than the 45S5 BG filled PLGA). The effect of water uptake and early degradation was investigated by short-term in vitro aging in simulated body fluid, which indicated enhanced water uptake over the neat polymer; bioactive glass had the greatest water uptake, causing matrix plasticization. These results enable a direct comparison between bioactive filler type in poly(α-hydroxyester) composites, and have implications when selecting a composite material for eventual application in bone substitution.

  5. In vitro biocompatibility of Ti-45S5 bioglass nanocomposites and their scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, M; Jurczyk, M U; Rubis, B; Banaszak, A; Kolecka, A; Paszel, A; Jurczyk, K; Murias, M; Sikora, J; Jurczyk, M

    2014-05-01

    Titanium-10 wt % 45S5 Bioglass nanocomposites and their scaffolds were prepared by mechanical alloying (MA) followed by pressing, sintering, or combination of MA and a "space-holder" sintering process, respectively. An amorphous structure was obtained at 15 h of milling. The crystallization of the amorphous phase upon annealing led to the formation of a nanostructured Ti-10 wt % 45S5 Bioglass composite with a grain size of approximately 7 nm. The in vitro cytocompatibility of these materials was evaluated and compared with a conventional microcrystalline titanium. During the studies, established cell line of human fibroblasts CCD-39Lu was cultured in the presence of tested materials and its survival rate, and proliferation activity were examined. Furthermore, the influence of the Ti-45S5 Bioglass nanocomposites and microcrystalline titanium was tested on the growth of Candida albicans yeast. Biocompatibility tests carried out indicate that the nanocomposite Ti-10 wt % 45S5 Bioglass scaffolds could be a possible candidate for dental implants and other medicinal applications.

  6. The impact of gallium content on degradation, bioactivity, and antibacterial potency of zinc borate bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Rahimnejad Yazdi, Alireza; Torkan, Lawrence; Stone, Wendy; Towler, Mark R

    2017-02-02

    Zinc borate glasses with increasing gallium content (0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 15 Wt % Ga) were synthesized and their degradation, bioactivity in simulated body fluid (SBF), and antibacterial properties were investigated. ICP measurements showed that increased gallium content in the glass resulted in increased gallium ion release and decreased release of other ions. Degradability declined with the addition of gallium, indicating the formation of more symmetric BO3 units with three bridging oxygens and asymmetric BO3 units with two bridging oxygens in the glass network as the gallium content in the series increased. The formation of amorphous CaP on the glass surface after 24 h of incubation in SBF was confirmed by SEM, XRD, and FTIR analyses. Finally, antibacterial evaluation of the glasses using the agar disc-diffusion method demonstrated that the addition of gallium increased the antibacterial potency of the glasses against P. aeruginosa (Gram-negative) while decreasing it against S. epidermidis (Gram-positive); considering the ion release trends, this indicates that the gallium ion is responsible for the glasses' antibacterial behavior against P. aeruginosa while the zinc ion controls the antibacterial activity against S. epidermidis. The statistical significance of the observed trends in the measurements were confirmed by applying the Kruskal-Wallis H Test. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017.

  7. Enhanced bioactivity of glass ionomer cement by incorporating calcium silicates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Song; Cai, Yixiao; Engqvist, Håkan; Xia, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GIC) are known as a non-bioactive dental cement. During setting the GIC have an acidic pH, driven by the acrylic acid component. It is a challenge to make GIC alkaline without disturbing its mechanical properties. One strategy was to add slowly reacting systems with an alkaline pH. The aim of the present study is to investigate the possibility of forming a bioactive dental material based on the combination of glass ionomer cement and calcium silicates. Two types of GIC were used as control. Wollastonite (CS also denoted β-CaSiO3) or Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) was incorporated into the 2 types of GIC. The material formulations' setting time, compressive strength, pH and bioactivity were compared between modified GIC and GIC control. Apatite crystals were found on the surfaces of the modified cements but not on the control GIC. The compressive strength of the cement remained with the addition of 20% calcium silicate or 20% MTA after one day immersion. In addition, the compressive strength of GIC modified with 20% MTA had been increased during the 14 d immersion (p < 0 .05).

  8. Enhanced bioactivity of glass ionomer cement by incorporating calcium silicates

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Song; Cai, Yixiao; Engqvist, Håkan; Xia, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Glass ionomer cements (GIC) are known as a non-bioactive dental cement. During setting the GIC have an acidic pH, driven by the acrylic acid component. It is a challenge to make GIC alkaline without disturbing its mechanical properties. One strategy was to add slowly reacting systems with an alkaline pH. The aim of the present study is to investigate the possibility of forming a bioactive dental material based on the combination of glass ionomer cement and calcium silicates. Two types of GIC were used as control. Wollastonite (CS also denoted β-CaSiO3) or Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) was incorporated into the 2 types of GIC. The material formulations’ setting time, compressive strength, pH and bioactivity were compared between modified GIC and GIC control. Apatite crystals were found on the surfaces of the modified cements but not on the control GIC. The compressive strength of the cement remained with the addition of 20% calcium silicate or 20% MTA after one day immersion. In addition, the compressive strength of GIC modified with 20% MTA had been increased during the 14 d immersion (p < 0 .05). PMID:26787304

  9. Fabrication and characterization of strontium incorporated 3-D bioactive glass scaffolds for bone tissue from biosilica.

    PubMed

    Özarslan, Ali Can; Yücel, Sevil

    2016-11-01

    Bioactive glass scaffolds that contain silica are high viable biomaterials as bone supporters for bone tissue engineering due to their bioactive behaviour in simulated body fluid (SBF). In the human body, these materials help inorganic bone structure formation due to a combination of the particular ratio of elements such as silicon (Si), calcium (Ca), sodium (Na) and phosphorus (P), and the doping of strontium (Sr) into the scaffold structure increases their bioactive behaviour. In this study, bioactive glass scaffolds were produced by using rice hull ash (RHA) silica and commercial silica based bioactive glasses. The structural properties of scaffolds such as pore size, porosity and also the bioactive behaviour were investigated. The results showed that undoped and Sr-doped RHA silica-based bioactive glass scaffolds have better bioactivity than that of commercial silica based bioactive glass scaffolds. Moreover, undoped and Sr-doped RHA silica-based bioactive glass scaffolds will be able to be used instead of undoped and Sr-doped commercial silica based bioactive glass scaffolds for bone regeneration applications. Scaffolds that are produced from undoped or Sr-doped RHA silica have high potential to form new bone for bone defects in tissue engineering.

  10. Bioactive glass thin films synthesized by advanced pulsed laser techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihailescu, N.; Stan, George E.; Ristoscu, C.; Sopronyi, M.; Mihailescu, Ion N.

    2016-10-01

    Bioactive materials play an increasingly important role in the biomaterials industry, and are extensively used in a range of applications, including biodegradable metallic implants. We report on Bioactive Glasses (BG) films deposition by pulsed laser techniques onto biodegradable substrates. The BG coatings were obtained using a KrF* excimer laser source (λ= 248 nm, τFWHM ≤ 25 ns).Their thickness has been determined by Profilometry measurements, whilst their morphology has been analysed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The obtained coatings fairly preserved the targets composition and structure, as revealed by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy, Grazing Incidence X-Ray Diffraction, and Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy analyses.

  11. Bioactive-glass in periodontal surgery and implant dentistry.

    PubMed

    Profeta, Andrea Corrado; Prucher, Gian Marco

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive-glass (B-G) is a material known for its favorable biological response when in contact with surrounding fibro-osseous tissues, due not only to an osteoconductive property, but also to an osteostimulatory capacity, and superior biocompatibility for use in human body. The objectives of this paper are to review recent studies on B-G in periodontal and implant therapy, describing its basic properties and mechanism of activity as well as discoursing about state of art and future perspective of utilization. From a demonstrated clinical benefit as bone graft for the elimination of osseous defects due to periodontal disease (intrabony/furcation defects) and surgeries (alveolar ridge preservation, maxillary sinus augmentation), to a potential use for manufacturing bioactive dental implants, possibly allowing wider case selection criteria together with improved integration rates even in the more challenging osteoporotic and medically compromised patients, this biomaterial represents an important field of study with high academic, clinical and industrial importance.

  12. Surface coatings of bioactive glasses on high strength ceramic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martorana, S.; Fedele, A.; Mazzocchi, M.; Bellosi, A.

    2009-04-01

    Dense and ultrafine alumina-zirconia composites (Al 2O 3-16 wt%ZrO 2 and ZrO 2-20 wt%Al 2O 3) are developed and characterized for load bearing prosthetic applications. The improvement of the ceramic/bone interface, namely of the ceramic bioactivity, is performed by a glass coating on the surface of the composites. A new composition is used to produce the glass powder, by melting at 1550 °C the mixture of oxide raw materials. The processing to obtain a homogeneous and adherent coating on the ceramic substrates is investigated: the optimal temperature for the glazing treatment is 1200 °C. The microstructure of the coating and of the ceramic/coating interface, the adhesion and some mechanical properties of the prepared glass and of the coating are analyzed. Besides, the in vitro bioactive responses, by incubation of osteoblast-like cells on the coated samples, are evaluated: positive results are confirmed after 24 h and 72 h.

  13. Protein interactions with nanoporous sol-gel derived bioactive glasses.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sen; Van den Bergh, Wouter; Baker, Simon; Jones, Julian R

    2011-10-01

    Sol-gel derived bioactive glasses are excellent candidates for bone regenerative implant materials as they bond with bone, stimulate bone growth and degrade in the body. Their interactions with proteins are critical to understanding their performance after implantation. This study focuses on the interactions between fibrinogen and sol-gel glass particles of the 70S30C (70 mol.% SiO(2), 30 mol.% CaO composition). Sol-gel silica and melt-derived Bioglass® were also used for comparison. Fibrinogen penetration into the nanoporous glasses was observed by live tracking the fluorescent-labelled fibrinogen with confocal microscopy. The effect of pore size on protein penetration was investigated. Nanoporous networks with modal pore diameters larger than 6 nm were accessible to fibrinogen. When the modal nanopore diameter was decreased to 2 nm or less, the penetration of fibrinogen was inhibited. The surface properties of the glasses, which can be modulated by media pH, glass composition and final stabilisation temperature in the sol-gel process, have effects on fibrinogen adsorption via long-range Coulombic forces before the adsorption and via short-range interactions such as hydrogen bonding after the adsorption.

  14. In vitro bioactivity and mechanical properties of bioactive glass nanoparticles/polycaprolactone composites.

    PubMed

    Ji, Lijun; Wang, Wenjun; Jin, Duo; Zhou, Songtao; Song, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles of bioactive glass (NBG) with a diameter of 50-90 nm were synthesized using the Stöber method. NBG/PCL composites with different NBG contents (0 wt.%, 10 wt.%, 20 wt.%, 30 wt.% and 40 wt.%) were prepared by a melt blending and thermal injection moulding technique, and characterized with XRD, FTIR, and SEM to study the effect of NBG on the mechanical properties and in vitro bioactivity of the NBG/PCL composites. In spite of the high addition up to 40 wt.%, the NBG could be dispersed homogeneously in the PCL matrix. The elastic modulus of the NBG/PCL composites was improved remarkably from 198±13 MPa to 851±43 MPa, meanwhile the tensile strength was retained in the range of 19-21.5 MPa. The hydrophilic property and degradation behavior of the NBG/PCL composites were also improved with the addition of the NBG. Moreover, the composites with high NBG content showed outstanding in vitro bioactivity after being immersed in simulated body fluid, which could be attributed to the excellent bioactivity of the synthesized NBG.

  15. Tailoring properties of porous Poly (vinylidene fluoride) scaffold through nano-sized 58s bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Cijun; Huang, Wei; Feng, Pei; Gao, Chengde; Shuai, Xiong; Xiao, Tao; Deng, Youwen; Peng, Shuping; Wu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The biological properties of porous poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) scaffolds fabricated by selective laser sintering were tailored through nano-sized 58s bioactive glass. The results showed that 58s bioactive glass distributed evenly in the PVDF matrix. There were some exposed particles on the surface which provided attachment sites for biological response. It was confirmed that the scaffolds had highly bioactivity by the formation of bone-like apatite in simulated body fluid. And the bone-like apatite became dense with the increase in 58s bioactive glass and culture time. Moreover, the scaffolds were suitable for cell adhesion and proliferation compared with the PVDF scaffolds without 58s bioactive glass. The research showed that the PVDF/58s bioactive glass scaffolds had latent application in bone tissue engineering.

  16. Electrophoretic deposition of mesoporous bioactive glass on glass-ceramic foam scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Fiorilli, Sonia; Baino, Francesco; Cauda, Valentina; Crepaldi, Marco; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara; Demarchi, Danilo; Onida, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the coating of 3-D foam-like glass-ceramic scaffolds with a bioactive mesoporous glass (MBG) was investigated. The starting scaffolds, based on a non-commercial silicate glass, were fabricated by the polymer sponge replica technique followed by sintering; then, electrophoretic deposition (EPD) was applied to deposit a MBG layer on the scaffold struts. EPD was also compared with other techniques (dipping and direct in situ gelation) and it was shown to lead to the most promising results. The scaffold pore structure was maintained after the MBG coating by EPD, as assessed by SEM and micro-CT. In vitro bioactivity of the scaffolds was assessed by immersion in simulated body fluid and subsequent evaluation of hydroxyapatite (HA) formation. The deposition of a MBG coating can be a smart strategy to impart bioactive properties to the scaffold, allowing the formation of nano-structured HA agglomerates within 48 h from immersion, which does not occur on uncoated scaffold surfaces. The mechanical properties of the scaffold do not vary after the EPD (compressive strength ~19 MPa, fracture energy ~1.2 × 10(6) J m(-3)) and suggest the suitability of the prepared highly bioactive constructs as bone tissue engineering implants for load-bearing applications.

  17. Rapid fabrication of dense 45S5 Bioglass(®) compacts through spark plasma sintering and evaluation of their in vitro biological properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong; Thompson, Brianna C; Hu, Huanlong; Khor, Khiam Aik

    2016-10-27

    It is challenging to obtain dense 45S5 Bioglass(®) (45S5) with controlled crystallinity and satisfactory mechanical properties by conventional sintering processes due to its fast crystallization above the first glass transition temperature. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) has stood out in this respect by virtue of its capability to provide fast heating and densification rates. However, there have been insufficient investigations into the in vitro biological properties of 45S5 compacts obtained by SPS. In this study, we report the fabrication of fully densified 45S5 pellets in the temperature range of 500 °C-600 °C through a rapid SPS process (sintering for 3 min) as well as the assessment of the influence of sintering temperature and aqueous aging on the biological properties of sintered pellets with L929 and MG63 cells. The cell culture results showed that both extended ageing and a lower SPS temperature in the 500-600 °C range could generally lead to faster cell proliferation and higher cell viability. The former was possibly caused by the slower alkalization of the media during cell culture, and the latter may have resulted from the release of more Ca and Si ions. The pellet sintered at 550 °C without aqueous aging led to the highest ALP activity in MG63 cells, which may be attributed to the high interfacial pH at the pellet surface and the leaching of more Si ions. Therefore, dense 45S5 compacts with mild crystallinity consolidated by SPS at 550 °C is a promising candidate for orthopedic implants in loading bearing applications.

  18. Characterization of Some Methods of Preparation for Bioactive Glass Coating on Implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jie; Chen, Chuanzhong; Yao, Liang; Bao, Quanhe

    Since the discovery of Bioglass® by Hench, bioactive glasses have been used in many medical applications, such as drug delivery systems, nonload-bearing implants, and bone cements because of their excellent bioactivity and biocompatibility. However, due to their poor mechanical properties, these glasses cannot be used in load-bearing applications, where the metallic alloys are still main materials. One useful approach to solving the mechanical limitations of bioactive glasses is to apply the glasses as the coating on mechanically tough substrates; it was also recognized early that bioactive glasses could be used as coatings for prosthetic metallic implants. In this paper, the mechanism, characterization, and current status of some methods of preparation for bioactive glass coating on implants are introduced. In the end, to get the homogeneous and compact coating with perfect bonding strength, some ideas of improving the performance of coatings are also presented.

  19. Antibacterial polylactic acid/chitosan nanofibers decorated with bioactive glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goh, Yi-fan; Akram, Muhammad; Alshemary, Ammarz; Hussain, Rafaqat

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we have presented the structural and in vitro characterization of electrospun polylactic acid (PLA)/Chitosan nanofibers coated with cerium, copper or silver doped bioactive glasses (CeBG/CuBG/AgBG). Bead-free, smooth surfaced nanofibers were successfully prepared by using electrospinning technique. The nanocomposite fibers were obtained using a facile dip-coating method, their antibacterial activities against E. coliE. coli (ATCC 25922 strains) were measured by the disk diffusion method after 24 h of incubation at 37 °C. CeBG and CuBG decorated PLA/Chitosan nanofibers did not develop an inhibition zone against the bacteria. On the other hand, nanofibers coated with AgBG developed an inhibition zone against the bacteria. The as-prepared nanocomposite fibers were immersed in SBF for 1, 3 and 7 days in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) for evaluation of in vitro bioactivity. All samples induced the formation of crystallites with roughly ruffled morphology and the pores of fibers were covered with the extensive growth of crystallites. Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) composition analysis showed that the crystallites possessed Ca/P ratio close to 1.67, confirming the good in-vitro bioactivity of the fibers.

  20. Antibacterial and antifungal potential of Ga-bioactive glass and Ga-bioactive glass/polymeric hydrogel composites.

    PubMed

    Keenan, T J; Placek, L M; Hall, M M; Wren, A W

    2016-03-21

    A bioactive glass series (0.42SiO2 -0.10Na2 O-0.08CaO-(0.40 - x)ZnO-(x)Ga2 O3 ) was synthesized, and it is efficacy against the Gram (-ve) bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli), the Gram (+ve) bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and the fungus Candida albicans (C. albicans), were characterized through liquid broth analysis. The glass series was also seeded in CMC-Dex hydrogels at three different loadings (0.05, 0.10, and 0.25 m(2) ), and the antibacterial and antifungal efficacies of the resulting composites were characterized using both liquid broth and agar diffusion analysis. Liquid broth analysis was conducted using liquid extracts, which for glass samples were obtained after incubation for up to 30 days in both ultrapure water and phosphate buffered saline (PBS), while glass-hydrogel extracts were obtained solely in PBS. Glass extracts (water) decreased C. albicans viability, while those obtained in PBS decreased the viability of both E. coli and C. albicans. Glass-hydrogel extracts exhibited slight inhibition of E. coli and C. albicans. However, none of the liquid extracts decreased S. aureus viability. Glass-hydrogel composites produced inhibition zones in all three microbial cultures, with the greatest efficacy against C. albicans. The results of this study suggest these materials have potential as bone void-filling materials which display antifungal, and possibly, antibacterial properties. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2016.

  1. Effects of borate-based bioactive glass on neuron viability and neurite extension.

    PubMed

    Marquardt, Laura M; Day, Delbert; Sakiyama-Elbert, Shelly E; Harkins, Amy B

    2014-08-01

    Bioactive glasses have recently been shown to promote regeneration of soft tissues by positively influencing tissue remodeling during wound healing. We were interested to determine whether bioactive glasses have the potential for use in the treatment of peripheral nerve injury. In these experiments, degradable bioactive borate glass was fabricated into rods and microfibers. To study the compatibility with neurons, embryonic chick dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were cultured with different forms of bioactive borate glass. Cell viability was measured with no media exchange (static condition) or routine media exchange (transient condition). Neurite extension was measured within fibrin scaffolds with embedded glass microfibers or aligned rod sheets. Mixed cultures of neurons, glia, and fibroblasts growing in static conditions with glass rods and microfibers resulted in decreased cell viability. However, the percentage of neurons compared with all cell types increased by the end of the culture protocol compared with culture without glass. Furthermore, bioactive glass and fibrin composite scaffolds promoted neurite extension similar to that of control fibrin scaffolds, suggesting that glass does not have a significant detrimental effect on neuronal health. Aligned glass scaffolds guided neurite extension in an oriented manner. Together these findings suggest that bioactive glass can provide alignment to support directed axon growth.

  2. Study of yttrium containing bioactive glasses behaviour in simulated body fluid.

    PubMed

    Cacaina, D; Ylänen, H; Hupa, M; Simon, S

    2006-08-01

    The influence of yttrium oxide on the bioactivity of glasses in the system SiO(2)-Na(2)O-P(2)O(5)-CaO-B(2)O(3)-K(2)O-MgO was studied in a simulated body fluid (SBF). Two series of glasses with different bioactivity were investigated. The reaction layers formed on the surface of the exposed glasses were evaluated by means of back scattered electron imaging of scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (BEI-SEM/EDXA). The concentration of Y, Ca and P released from the glasses into SBF, during 21 days was determined using inductively coupled plasma-emission spectroscopy ICP-AES and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy ICP-MS. Introducing yttrium in the selected bioactive glass tended to diminish the bioactivity of the glasses. The thickness of the calcium phosphate layer decreased with increasing yttrium oxide content. The same effect was also observed when yttrium oxide partially replaced only calcium, magnesium and phosphorous oxide in the precursor glass. The data show that we can produce bioactive glasses with yttrium oxide as a component. By suitable tailoring of the rest of the glasses the yttrium effect on the glass behavior in SBF should be possible to control and thus produce yttrium containing glasses with desired bioactivity.

  3. Predicting bioactive glass properties from the molecular chemical composition: glass transition temperature.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Matthew D

    2011-05-01

    The glass transition temperature (T(g)) of inorganic glasses is an important parameter than can be used to correlate with other glass properties, such as dissolution rate, which governs in vitro and in vivo bioactivity. Seven bioactive glass compositional series reported in the literature (77 in total) were analysed here with T(g) values obtained by a number of different methods: differential thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and dilatometry. An iterative least-squares fitting method was used to correlate T(g) from thermal analysis of these compositions with the levels of individual oxide and fluoride components in the glasses. When all seven series were fitted a reasonable correlation was found between calculated and experimental values (R(2)=0.89). When the two compositional series that were designed in weight percentages (the remaining five were designed in molar percentage) were removed from the model an improved fit was achieved (R(2)=0.97). This study shows that T(g) for a wide range in compositions (e.g. SiO(2) content of 37.3-68.4 mol.%) can be predicted to reasonable accuracy enabling processing parameters to be predicted such as annealing, fibre-drawing and sintering temperatures.

  4. Bioactive glass in cavitary bone defects: a comparative experimental study in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, André Ferrari de França; Baptista, André Mathias; Natalino, Renato; de Camargo, Olavo Pires

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare bioactive glass and autograft regarding their histomorphometric characteristics. METHODS: The authors conducted a prospective case-control experimental study on animals in order to compare the histomorphometric characteristics of bioactive glass versus autograft. Eight rabbits underwent surgery in which a cavitary defect was created in both proximal femurs. One side was filled with bioactive glass granules and the other, with autograft grafted from the contralateral side. The sides were randomized. Fourteen days after surgery, the animals were euthanized. RESULTS: Histologic analysis revealed that bone neoformation was equivalent among the two groups and the osteoblasts cell-count was higher in the femurs treated with bioactive glass. The osteocytes cell-count, however, was lower. The similarity in bone formation between both groups was consistent to literature findings. CONCLUSION: Bioactive glass is similar to autograft regarding bone neoformation in this animal model of cavitary bone defects. Level of Evidence III, Case-Control Study. PMID:26327802

  5. Bioactive-glass in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Profeta, Andrea Corrado; Huppa, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The use of synthetic materials to repair craniofacial defects is increasing today and will increase further in the future. Because of the complexity of the anatomy in the head and neck region, reconstruction and augmentation of this area pose a challenge to the surgeon. This review discusses key facts and applications of traditional reconstruction bone substitutes, also offering comparative information. It then describes the properties and clinical applications of bioactive-glass (B-G) and its variants in oral and maxillofacial surgery, and provides clinical findings. The discussion of each compound includes a description of its composition and structure, the advantages and shortcomings of the material, and its current uses in the field of osteoplastic and reconstructive surgery. With a better understanding of the available alloplastic implants, the surgeon can make a more informed decision as to which implant would be most suitable in a particular patient. PMID:26889342

  6. In vitro bioactivity, cytocompatibility, and antibiotic release profile of gentamicin sulfate-loaded borate bioactive glass/chitosan composites.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xu; Gu, Yifei; Li, Le; Wang, Hui; Xie, Zhongping; Luo, Shihua; Zhou, Nai; Huang, Wenhai; Rahaman, Mohamed N

    2013-10-01

    Borate bioactive glass-based composites have been attracting interest recently as an osteoconductive carrier material for local antibiotic delivery. In the present study, composites composed of borate bioactive glass particles bonded with a chitosan matrix were prepared and evaluated in vitro as a carrier for gentamicin sulfate. The bioactivity, degradation, drug release profile, and compressive strength of the composite carrier system were studied as a function of immersion time in phosphate-buffered saline at 37 °C. The cytocompatibility of the gentamicin sulfate-loaded composite carrier was evaluated using assays of cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity of osteogenic MC3T3-E1 cells. Sustained release of gentamicin sulfate occurred over ~28 days in PBS, while the bioactive glass converted continuously to hydroxyapatite. The compressive strength of the composite loaded with gentamicin sulfate decreased from the as-fabricated value of 24 ± 3 MPa to ~8 MPa after immersion for 14 days in PBS. Extracts of the soluble ionic products of the borate glass/chitosan composites enhanced the proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity of MC3T3-E1 cells. These results indicate that the gentamicin sulfate-loaded composite composed of chitosan-bonded borate bioactive glass particles could be useful clinically as an osteoconductive carrier material for treating bone infection.

  7. Bioactive glass/polymer composite scaffolds mimicking bone tissue.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Piergiorgio; Mattioli-Belmonte, Monica; Chiono, Valeria; Ferretti, Concetta; Baino, Francesco; Tonda-Turo, Chiara; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara; Pashkuleva, Iva; Reis, Rui L; Ciardelli, Gianluca

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this work was the preparation and characterization of scaffolds with mechanical and functional properties able to regenerate bone. Porous scaffolds made of chitosan/gelatin (POL) blends containing different amounts of a bioactive glass (CEL2), as inorganic material stimulating biomineralization, were fabricated by freeze-drying. Foams with different compositions (CEL2/POL 0/100; 40/60; 70/30 wt %/wt) were prepared. Samples were crosslinked using genipin (GP) to improve mechanical strength and thermal stability. The scaffolds were characterized in terms of their stability in water, chemical structure, morphology, bioactivity, and mechanical behavior. Moreover, MG63 osteoblast-like cells and periosteal-derived stem cells were used to assess their biocompatibility. CEL2/POL samples showed interconnected pores having an average diameter ranging from 179 ± 5 μm for CEL2/POL 0/100 to 136 ± 5 μm for CEL2/POL 70/30. GP-crosslinking and the increase of CEL2 amount stabilized the composites to water solution (shown by swelling tests). In addition, the SBF soaking experiment showed a good bioactivity of the scaffold with 30 and 70 wt % CEL2. The compressive modulus increased by increasing CEL2 amount up to 2.1 ± 0.1 MPa for CEL2/POL 70/30. Dynamical mechanical analysis has evidenced that composite scaffolds at low frequencies showed an increase of storage and loss modulus with increasing frequency; furthermore, a drop of E' and E″ at 1 Hz was observed, and for higher frequencies both moduli increased again. Cells displayed a good ability to interact with the different tested scaffolds which did not modify cell metabolic activity at the analyzed points. MTT test proved only a slight difference between the two cytotypes analyzed.

  8. Chitosan/bioactive glass nanoparticles composites for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Luz, Gisela M; Mano, João F

    2012-10-01

    Nanocomposite films based on a chitosan blend with bioactive glass nanoparticles (BG-NPs) with different formulations, namely SiO(2):CaO:P(2)O(5)(mol.%) = 55:40:5 and SiO(2):CaO:P(2)O(5):MgO(mol.%) = 64:26:5:5 were produced in order to develop systems with applicability in guided tissue regeneration. The zeta (ζ)-potential of the BG-NPs containing magnesium was found to be lower than the other formulation and the corresponding composite with chitosan was the most hydrophilic. The bioactive character of the biomaterials was also assessed in vitro by immersion of the materials in simulated body fluid, followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy evaluations. SaOs-2 osteoblastic-like cells were seeded on the different nanocomposites and their behavior was followed by SEM observations, cytotoxicity assessments, DNA quantification and alkaline phosphatase analysis. The introduction of the inorganic component in the chitosan matrix had a positive effect on the biological response of the membranes. The developed nanocomposite films are potential candidates for regenerating damaged bone tissue and could be useful in orthopedic and maxillo-facial applications.

  9. Functionalized mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds for enhanced bone tissue regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xingdi; Zeng, Deliang; Li, Nan; Wen, Jin; Jiang, Xinquan; Liu, Changsheng; Li, Yongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG), which possesses excellent bioactivity, biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, has played an important role in bone tissue regeneration. However, it is difficult to prepare MBG scaffolds with high compressive strength for applications in bone regeneration; this difficulty has greatly hindered its development and use. To solve this problem, a simple powder processing technique has been successfully developed to fabricate a novel type of MBG scaffold (MBGS). Furthermore, amino or carboxylic groups could be successfully grafted onto MBGSs (denoted as N-MBGS and C-MBGS, respectively) through a post-grafting process. It was revealed that both MBGS and the functionalized MBGSs could significantly promote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bMSCs. Due to its positively charged surface, N-MBGS presented the highest in vitro osteogenic capability of the three samples. Moreover, in vivo testing results demonstrated that N-MBGS could promote higher levels of bone regeneration compared with MBGS and C-MBGS. In addition to its surface characteristics, it is believed that the decreased degradation rate of N-MBGS plays a vital role in promoting bone regeneration. These findings indicate that MBGSs are promising materials with potential practical applications in bone regeneration, which can be successfully fabricated by combining a powder processing technique and post-grafting process. PMID:26763311

  10. Conversion from a Bio-inert Glass to a Glass with Bio-active Layer by Heat-treatment in an Oxidation Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Eun-Tae; Kim, Jong-Po

    The surface of iron-bearing bio-inert glasses was modified by heat-treatment in an oxidizing atmosphere near the glass transition temperature. The modified surfaces after 7 days immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution were analyzed by means of micro-Raman spectroscopy, SEM, and EDS. All investigated glasses except for the glass with NC = 2.6 were able to form hyroxycarbonate apatite (HCA) on their surfaces. The thickness of an HCA surface layer increased with decreased oxygen partial pressure. The cross-sectional micrographs were nearly similar to the 45S5 Bioglass®.

  11. Inhibition of multi-species oral biofilm by bromide doped bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Galarraga-Vinueza, M E; Passoni, B; Benfatti, C A M; Mesquita-Guimarães, J; Henriques, B; Magini, R S; Fredel, M C; Meerbeek, B V; Teughels, W; Souza, J C M

    2017-03-06

    Bioactive glass is an attractive biomaterial that has shown excellent osteogenic and angiogenic effects for oral bone repairing procedures. However, anti-biofilm potential related to such biomaterial has not been completely validated, mainly against multi-species biofilms involved in early tissue infections. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-biofilm effect of 58S bioactive glass embedding calcium bromide compounds at different concentrations. Bioactive glass containing 0, 5, or 10wt% CaBr2 was synthesized by alkali sol-gel method and then characterized by physco-chemical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Then, samples were tested by microbiological assays using optical density, real time q-PCR, and SEM. Bioactive glass particles showed accurate chemical composition and an angular shape with a bimodal size distribution ranging from 0.6 to 110 µm. The mean particle size was around 29 µm. A significant anti-biofilm effect was recorded for 5wt% CaBr2 -doped bioactive glass against S. mitis, V. parvula, P. gingivais, S. gordoni, A. viscosus, F, nucleatum, P. gingivais. F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis. Such species are involved in the biofilm structure related to infections on hard and soft tissues in the oral cavity. The incorporation of calcium bromide into bioactive glass can be a strategy to enhance the anti-biofilm potential of bioactive glasses for bone healing and infection treatment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Fascinating properties of bioactive templated glasses: A new generation of nanostructured bioceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izquierdo-Barba, Isabel; Vallet-Regí, María

    2011-04-01

    This review article, dedicated to Prof. Osamu Terasaki, is focused on current trends in nanostructured bioceramics in the field of bone repair and regeneration. This communication overviews the main characteristics of so called "templated glasses" recently described which exhibit an outstanding bioactive behavior compared with conventional bioactive glasses. A deep study regarding the control of textural, structural and compositional properties in the nanometric scale in relation to the charming bioactivity properties described for these nanostructured materials is herein discussed. The possibility to tailor such properties offers a wide range of reactivity/bioactivity depending on the medical application requested.

  13. Effects of enamel matrix derivative on bioactive glass in rat calvarium defects.

    PubMed

    Potijanyakul, Pisanu; Sattayasansakul, Wilad; Pongpanich, Settakorn; Leepong, Narit; Kintarak, Sompid

    2010-01-01

    Tissue engineering-based bone grafting has emerged as a viable alternative to biologic and synthetic grafts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of enamel matrix derivative (EMD; Emdogain gel, Biora AB, Malmö, Sweden) on bioactive glass in enhancing bone formation in rat calvarium defects. Twenty rats were used in the study. In all animals, 2 standardized critical-sized calvarial defects (5.0 mm diameter) were created surgically. The animals were randomly allocated into 4 groups of 5 animals each. Group AI: one calvarial defect was filled with bioactive glass plus EMD, while the contralateral defect was filled with bioactive glass alone. The healing period was 2 weeks. Groups AII and AIII: the animals were treated in the same manner as in group AI, but the healing periods were 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. Group B: one calvarial defect was filled with EMD only, while the contralateral defect was empty (CSD). The healing period was 8 weeks. New bone formation was evaluated by radiomorphometry and histomorphometry. Results of radiomorphometry showed no significant difference in the mean optical density between bioactive glass with EMD and bioactive glass alone; no defect completely regenerated with bone. The histologic analysis revealed that defects filled with bioactive glass plus EMD in all groups contained slightly more percentage of new bone than those filled with bioactive glass alone; however, the difference was not statistically significant. The highest percentage of new bone formation was present at 8 weeks in the bioactive glass plus EMD group. Bioactive glass particles, used with or without EMD, maintained the volume and contour of the area grafted in CSD. However, they did not lead to a significant difference in bone formation when compared with CSD 8 weeks postoperatively.

  14. Cytotoxicity of Resin Composites Containing Bioactive Glass Fillers

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Satin; Gwinner, Fernanda; Mitchell, John C; Pfeifer, Carmem; Ferracane, Jack L

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the in vitro cytotoxicity of dental composites containing bioactive glass fillers. Methods Dental composites (50:50 Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin: 72.5wt% filler, 67.5%Sr-glass and 5% OX50) containing different concentrations (0, 5, 10 and 15 wt %) of two sol-gel bioactive glasses, BAG65 (65 mole% SiO2, 31 mole% CaO, 4 mole% P2O5) and BAG62 (3 mole% F added) were evaluated for cytotoxicity using Alamar Blue assay. First, composite extracts were obtained from 7 day incubations of composite in cell culture medium at 37° C. Undifferentiated pulp cells (OD-21) were exposed to dilutions of the original extracts for 3, 5, and 7 days. Then freshly cured composite disks were incubated with OD-21 cells (n=5) for 2 days. Subsequently, fresh composite disks were incubated in culture medium at 37°C for 7 days, and then the extracted disks were incubated with OD-21 cells for 2 days. Finally, fresh composites disks were light cured for 3, 5, and 20 seconds and incubated with OD-21 cells (n=5) for 1, 3, 5, and 7 days. To verify that the three different curing modes produced different levels of degree of conversion (DC), the DC of each composite was determined by FTIR. Groups (n=5) were compared with ANOVA/Tukey’s (α≤0.05). Results Extracts from all composites significantly reduced cell viability until a dilution of 1:8 or lower, where the extract became equal to the control. All freshly-cured composites showed significantly reduced cell viability at two days. However, no reduction in cell viability was observed for any composite that had been previously soaked in media before exposure to the cells. Composites with reduced DC (3 s vs. 20 s cure), as verified by FTIR, showed significantly reduced cell viability. Significance The results show that the composites, independent of composition, had equivalent potency in terms of reducing the viability of the cells in culture. Soaking the composites for 7 days before exposing them to the cells suggested that the

  15. Sol-gel synthesis and in vitro bioactivity of copper and zinc-doped silicate bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Bejarano, Julian; Caviedes, Pablo; Palza, Humberto

    2015-03-11

    Metal doping of bioactive glasses based on ternary 60SiO2-36CaO-4P2O5 (58S) and quaternary 60SiO2-25CaO-11Na2O-4P2O5 (NaBG) mol% compositions synthesized using a sol-gel process was analyzed. In particular, the effect of incorporating 1, 5 and 10 mol% of CuO and ZnO (replacing equivalent quantities of CaO) on the texture, in vitro bioactivity, and cytocompatibility of these materials was evaluated. Our results showed that the addition of metal ions can modulate the textural property of the matrix and its crystal structure. Regarding the bioactivity, after soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) undoped 58S and NaBG glasses developed an apatite surface layer that was reduced in the doped glasses depending on the type of metal and its concentration with Zn displaying the largest inhibitions. Both the ion release from samples and the ion adsorption from the medium depended on the type of matrix with 58S glasses showing the highest values. Pure NaBG glass was more cytocompatible to osteoblast-like cells (SaOS-2) than pure 58S glass as tested by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The incorporation of metal ions decreased the cytocompatibility of the glasses depending on their concentration and on the glass matrix doped. Our results show that by changing the glass composition and by adding Cu or Zn, bioactive materials with different textures, bioactivity and cytocompatibility can be synthesized.

  16. Nano-Hydroxyapatite/Fluoridated and Unfluoridated Bioactive Glass Composites: Structural Analysis and Bioactivity Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Batra, Uma; Kapoor, Seema; Sharma, J. D.

    2011-12-12

    Biphasic bioceramic composites containing nano-hydroxyapatite (HAP) and nanosized bioactive glasses have been prepared in the form of pellets and have been examined for the effects of bioglass concentrations and sintering temperature on the structural transformations and bioactivity behavior. Pure stoichiometric nano-HAP was synthesized using sol-gel technique. Two bioglasses synthesized in this work--fluoridated bioglass (Cao-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Na{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CaF{sub 2}) and unfluoridated bioglass (Cao-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Na{sub 2}O{sub 3}) designated as FBG and UFBG respectively, were added to nano-HAP with concentrations of 5, 10, 12 and 15%. The average particle sizes of synthesized HAP and bioglasses were 23 nm and 35 nm, respectively. The pellets were sintered at four different temperatures i.e. 1000 deg. C, 1150 deg. C, 1250 deg. C and 1350 deg. C. The investigations involved study of structural and bioactivity behavior of green and sintered pellets and their deviations from original materials i.e. HAP, FBG and UFBG, using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The phase composition of the sintered pellets was found to be non-stoichiometric HAP with {alpha}-TCP (tricalcium phosphate) and {beta}-TCP. It was revealed from SEM images that bonding mechanism was mainly solid state sintering for all pellets sintered at 1000 deg. C and 1150 deg. C and also for pellets with lower concentrations of bioglass i.e. 5% and 10% sintered at 1250 deg. C. Partly liquid phase sintering was observed for pellets with higher bioglass concentrations of 12% and 15% sintered at 1250 deg. C and same behaviour was noted for pellets at all concentrations of bioglasses at 1350 deg. C. The sintered density, hardness and compression strength of pellets have been influenced both by the concentration of the bioglasses and sintering temperature. It was observed that the biological HAP layer formation was faster on the green pellets surface than on pure HAP and

  17. Nano-Hydroxyapatite/Fluoridated and Unfluoridated Bioactive Glass Composites: Structural Analysis and Bioactivity Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batra, Uma; Kapoor, Seema; Sharma, J. D.

    2011-12-01

    Biphasic bioceramic composites containing nano-hydroxyapatite (HAP) and nanosized bioactive glasses have been prepared in the form of pellets and have been examined for the effects of bioglass concentrations and sintering temperature on the structural transformations and bioactivity behavior. Pure stoichiometric nano-HAP was synthesized using sol-gel technique. Two bioglasses synthesized in this work—fluoridated bioglass (Cao-P2O5-Na2O3-CaF2) and unfluoridated bioglass (Cao-P2O5-Na2O3) designated as FBG and UFBG respectively, were added to nano-HAP with concentrations of 5, 10, 12 and 15%. The average particle sizes of synthesized HAP and bioglasses were 23 nm and 35 nm, respectively. The pellets were sintered at four different temperatures i.e. 1000 °C, 1150 °C, 1250 °C and 1350 °C. The investigations involved study of structural and bioactivity behavior of green and sintered pellets and their deviations from original materials i.e. HAP, FBG and UFBG, using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The phase composition of the sintered pellets was found to be non-stoichiometric HAP with α-TCP (tricalcium phosphate) and β-TCP. It was revealed from SEM images that bonding mechanism was mainly solid state sintering for all pellets sintered at 1000 °C and 1150 °C and also for pellets with lower concentrations of bioglass i.e. 5% and 10% sintered at 1250 °C. Partly liquid phase sintering was observed for pellets with higher bioglass concentrations of 12% and 15% sintered at 1250 °C and same behaviour was noted for pellets at all concentrations of bioglasses at 1350 °C. The sintered density, hardness and compression strength of pellets have been influenced both by the concentration of the bioglasses and sintering temperature. It was observed that the biological HAP layer formation was faster on the green pellets surface than on pure HAP and sintered pellets, showing higher bioactivity in the green pellets.

  18. Amino-functionalized mesoporous bioactive glass for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shengxiang; Zhang, Yin; Shu, Yan; Wu, Zhenning; Cao, Weijing; Huang, Wenxin

    2017-04-04

    An amino-functionalized mesoporous bioactive glass (N-MBG) with a high drug loading capacity and longer drug release time was successfully prepared by using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) in a short-time chemical reaction. The drug release performance of an MBG and the N-MBG were studied by loading gentamicin sulfate (GS) in a simulated body fluid solution. The results showed that the surface area of the N-MBG increases to 355.01 m(2 )g(-1) after amination at 80 °C for 1 h compared with that of the MBG (288.07 m(2 )g(-1)). Meanwhile, the surface zeta-potential of the N-MBG charges from the original negative charge (-10.06 mV) to the positive charge (+5.30 mV). Furthermore, the GS loading rate of the N-MBG is up to 62.92 ± 2.02%, higher than that of the MBG (48.90 ± 1.71%). In addition, the N-MBG has a longer drug release period and the seven-day accumulative release from the N-MBG reached only 45.9 ± 1.8%, significantly lower than that of the MBG, 60.7 ± 2.3%. In vitro bioactivity tests suggested that the N-MBG exhibited good biological activity. In conclusion, the N-MBG with a higher loading capacity and longer drug release time can serve as a promising candidate as a drug carrier.

  19. Structural characterization of the metal/glass interface in bioactive glass coatings on Ti-6Al-4V

    SciTech Connect

    Oku, T.; Suganuma, K.; Wallemberg, L.R.; Tomsia, A.P.; Gomez-Vega, J.M.; Saiz, E.

    1999-12-01

    Coating Ti-based implants with bioactive materials promotes joining between the prostheses and the bone as well as increasing long-term implant stability. In the present work, the interface between Ti-6Al-4V and bioactive silicate glass coatings, prepared using a simple enameling technique, is analyzed. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy of the glass/alloy interface shows the formation of a reaction layer ({approx}150 nm thick) composed of Ti5Si3 nanoparticles with a size of {approx}20 nm. This nanostructured interface facilitates the formation of a stable joint between the glass coating and the alloy.

  20. Synthesis of nano-bioactive glass-ceramic powders and its in vitro bioactivity study in bovine serum albumin protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabian, Nima; Jahanshahi, Mohsen; Rabiee, Sayed Mahmood

    2011-07-01

    Bioactive glasses and ceramics have proved to be able to chemically bond to living bone due to the formation of an apatite-like layer on its surface. The aim of this work was preparation and characterization of bioactive glass-ceramic by sol-gel method. Nano-bioglass-ceramic material was crushed into powder and its bioactivity was examined in vitro with respect to the ability of hydroxyapatite layer to form on the surface as a result of contact with bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein. The obtained nano-bioactive glass-ceramic was analyzed before and after contact with BSA solution. This study used scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis to examine its morphology, crystallinity and composition. The TEM images showed that the NBG particles size were 10-40 nm. Bioactivity of nanopowder was confirmed by SEM and XRD due to the presence of a rich bone-like apatite layer. Therefore, this nano-BSA-bioglass-ceramic composite material is promising for medical applications such as bone substitutes and drug carriers.

  1. Comparative behavior of sol gel derived 45S5 and copper doped CaO-P2O5-SiO2 system for the growth of hydroxyl apatite layer from XRD and Raman studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Pardeep; Singh, K. J.

    2015-08-01

    Bioactive samples of 45S5 and copper doped CaO-P2O5- SiO2 compositions have been prepared in the laboratory. XRD and Raman techniques have been employed to infer the structural information of the samples before and after in vitro test. In vitro tests have been undertaken by soaking the samples in simulated body fluid. Formation of hydroxyl apatite layer on the surface of samples indicates that all the prepared samples are bioactive in nature. Reported investigations are important to improve the antibacterial properties of the future bioactive implant materials.

  2. Dental applications of nanostructured bioactive glass and its composites

    PubMed Central

    Polini, Alessandro; Bai, Hao; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2013-01-01

    To improve treatments for bone or dental trauma, and for diseases such as osteoporosis, cancer, and infections, scientists who perform basic research are collaborating with clinicians to design and test new biomaterials for the regeneration of lost or injured tissue. Developed some 40 years ago, bioactive glass (BG) has recently become one of the most promising biomaterials, a consequence of discoveries that its unusual properties elicit specific biological responses inside the body. Among these important properties are the capability of BG to form strong interfaces with both hard and soft tissues, and its release of ions upon dissolution. Recent developments in nanotechnology have introduced opportunities for materials sciences to advance dental and bone therapies. For example, the applications for BG expand as it becomes possible to finely control structures and physicochemical properties of materials at the molecular level. Here we review how the properties of these materials have been enhanced by the advent of nanotechnology; and how these developments are producing promising results in hard-tissue regeneration and development of innovative BG-based drug-delivery systems. PMID:23606653

  3. Dental applications of nanostructured bioactive glass and its composites.

    PubMed

    Polini, Alessandro; Bai, Hao; Tomsia, Antoni P

    2013-01-01

    To improve treatments of bone or dental trauma and diseases such as osteoporosis, cancer, and infections, scientists who perform basic research are collaborating with clinicians to design and test new biomaterials for the regeneration of lost or injured tissue. Developed some 40 years ago, bioactive glass (BG) has recently become one of the most promising biomaterials, a consequence of discoveries that its unusual properties elicit specific biological responses inside the body. Among these important properties are the capability of BG to form strong interfaces with both hard and soft tissues, and its release of ions upon dissolution. Recent developments in nanotechnology have introduced opportunities for materials sciences to advance dental and bone therapies. For example, the applications for BG expand as it becomes possible to finely control structures and physicochemical properties of materials at the molecular level. Here, we review how the properties of these materials have been enhanced by the advent of nanotechnology, and how these developments are producing promising results in hard-tissue regeneration and development of innovative BG-based drug delivery systems.

  4. Adipose- and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells display different osteogenic differentiation patterns in 3D bioactive glass-based scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Rath, Subha N; Nooeaid, Patcharakamon; Arkudas, Andreas; Beier, Justus P; Strobel, Leonie A; Brandl, Andreas; Roether, Judith A; Horch, Raymund E; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Kneser, Ulrich

    2016-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells can be isolated from a variety of different sources, each having their own peculiar merits and drawbacks. Although a number of studies have been conducted comparing these stem cells for their osteo-differentiation ability, these are mostly done in culture plastics. We have selected stem cells from either adipose tissue (ADSCs) or bone marrow (BMSCs) and studied their differentiation ability in highly porous three-dimensional (3D) 45S5 Bioglass®-based scaffolds. Equal numbers of cells were seeded onto 5 × 5 × 4 mm(3) scaffolds and cultured in vitro, with or without osteo-induction medium. After 2 and 4 weeks, the cell-scaffold constructs were analysed for cell number, cell spreading, viability, alkaline phosphatase activity and osteogenic gene expression. The scaffolds with ADSCs displayed osteo-differentiation even without osteo-induction medium; however, with osteo-induction medium osteogenic differentiation was further increased. In contrast, the scaffolds with BMSCs showed no osteo-differentiation without osteo-induction medium; after application of osteo-induction medium, osteo-differentiation was confirmed, although lower than in scaffolds with ADSCs. In general, stem cells in 3D bioactive glass scaffolds differentiated better than cells in culture plastics with respect to their ALP content and osteogenic gene expression. In summary, 45S5 Bioglass-based scaffolds seeded with ADSCs are well-suited for possible bone tissue-engineering applications. Induction of osteogenic differentiation appears unnecessary prior to implantation in this specific setting. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Nanoparticulate bioactive-glass-reinforced gellan-gum hydrogels for bone-tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Gantar, Ana; da Silva, Lucilia P; Oliveira, Joaquim M; Marques, Alexandra P; Correlo, Vitor M; Novak, Saša; Reis, Rui L

    2014-10-01

    This work presents bioactive-glass-reinforced gellan-gum spongy-like hydrogels (GG-BAG) as novel hydrophilic materials for use as the scaffolding in bone-tissue engineering. The reinforcement with bioactive-glass particles resulted in an improvement to the microstructure and to the mechanical properties of the material. These mechanical properties were found to be dependent on the composition and improved with the amount of bioactive glass; however, values necessary to accommodate biomechanical loading were not achieved in this study. Nevertheless, by incorporating the bioactive-glass particles, the composite material acquired the ability to form an apatite layer when soaked in simulated body fluid. Furthermore, human-adipose-derived stem cells were able to adhere and spread within the gellan-gum, spongy-like hydrogels reinforced with the bioactive glass, and remain viable, which is an important result when considering their use in bone-tissue engineering. Thus, hydrogels based on gellan gum and bioactive glass are promising biomaterials for use either alone or with cells, and with the potential for use in osteogenic differentiation.

  6. Porous polymer/bioactive glass composites for soft-to-hard tissue interfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Ma, Yue; Francis, Lorraine F

    2002-09-15

    Porous composites consisting of a polysulfone (or cellulose acetate) matrix and bioactive glass particles were prepared by phase separation techniques. Microstructures were designed for potential application as an interconnect between artificial cartilage and bone. The effects of polymer type, concentration and molecular weight, as well as bioactive glass size and content, on the microstructures of the composites were studied. The composites have asymmetric structures with dense top layers and porous structures beneath. The microstructural features depend most strongly on the type of polymer, the interaction between the polymer and bioactive glass, and the glass content. The dense top layer could be removed by abrasion to make a structure with large pores (20-150 microm) exposed. Composites were immersed in simulated body fluid at body temperature. The growth of hydroxycarbonate apatite inside and on the composites demonstrates their potential for integration with bone. Composite modulus and break strength increased with increasing glass content due to the change in composition and pore content.

  7. Phosphate glass fibre scaffolds: Tailoring of the properties and enhancement of the bioactivity through mesoporous glass particles.

    PubMed

    Novajra, G; Boetti, N G; Lousteau, J; Fiorilli, S; Milanese, D; Vitale-Brovarone, C

    2016-10-01

    Novel bone glass fibre scaffolds were developed by thermally bonding phosphate glass fibres belonging to the P2O5-CaO-Na2O-SiO2-MgO-K2O-TiO2 system (TiPS2.5 glass). Scaffolds with fibres of 85 or 110μm diameter were fabricated, showing compressive strength in the range of 2-3.5MPa, comparable to that of the trabecular bone. The effect of different thermal treatments and fibre diameters and length on the final scaffold structure was investigated by means of micro-CT analysis. The change of the sintering time from 30 to 60min led to a decrease in the scaffold overall porosity from 58 to 21vol.% for the 85μm fibre scaffold and from 50 to 40vol.% when increasing the sintering temperature from 490 to 500°C for the 110μm fibre scaffold. The 85μm fibres resulted in an increase of the scaffold overall porosity, increased pore size and lower trabecular thickness; the use of different fibre diameters allowed the fabrication of a scaffold showing a porosity gradient. In order to impart bioactive properties to the scaffold, for the first time in the literature the introduction in these fibre scaffolds of a bioactive phase, a melt-derived bioactive glass (CEL2) powder or spray-dried mesoporous bioactive glass particles (SD-MBG) was investigated. The scaffold bioactivity was assessed through soaking in simulated body fluid. CEL2/glass fibre scaffold did not show promising results due to particle detachment from the fibres during soaking in simulated body fluid. Instead the use of mesoporous bioactive powders showed to be an effective way to impart bioactivity to the scaffold and could be further exploited in the future through the ability of mesoporous particles to act as systems for the controlled release of drugs.

  8. Broad-spectrum antibacterial properties of metal-ion doped borate bioactive glasses for clinical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottomeyer, Megan

    Bioactive glasses with antimicrobial properties can be implemented as coatings on medical devices and implants, as well as a treatment for tissue repair and prevention of common hospital-acquired infections such as MRSA. A borate-containing glass, B3, is also undergoing clinical trials to assess wound-healing properties. The sensitivities of various bacteria to B3, B3-Ag, B3-Ga, and B3-I bioactive glasses were tested. In addition, the mechanism of action for the glasses was studied by spectroscopic enzyme kinetics experiments, Live-Dead staining fluorescence microscopy, and luminescence assays using two gene fusion strains of Escherichia coli. It was found that gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to all four glasses than gram negative bacteria, and that a single mechanism of action for the glasses is unlikely, as the rates of catalysis for metabolic enzymes as well as membrane permeability were altered after glass exposure.

  9. Synthesis and evaluation of factors affecting the in vitro bioactivity and antibacterial activity of bioactive glass ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riaz, Madeeha; Zia, Rehana; Saleemi, Farhat

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, two novel silicate glass-ceramics having chemical composition 38SiO2-41CaO-6P2O5-(15 - x)Na2O-xCaF2 (x = 0, 0.43 mol%) were synthesized. These glass derivatives were subjected to stimulated body fluid for 24 days in SBF under static condition at 37∘C in order to evaluate the bioactive properties of specimens. The antibacterial activity of glass ceramics against three pathogenic bacteria was determined using the modified Kirby Bauer method. It was found that the antibacterial activity primarily depends on the dissolution rate; faster release of ions caused rapid increase in the pH of the solution. Antibacterial properties were found to be strongly affected by changes in the pH of supernatant. The in vitro bioactivity assays showed that both glass derivatives were capable of bonding with bone and secondly effectively inhibit bacteria. However, the glass ceramic without CaF2 (B2) showed high dissolution rate, better bioactive ability and stronger antibacterial efficacy.

  10. Subcutaneous connective tissue reactions to three types of bioactive glass nanopowders.

    PubMed

    Mehdikhani-Nahrkhalajil, M; Fathi, M H; Mortazavi, V; Mousavi, S B; Razavi, S M

    2011-06-01

    Silica-based bioactive glasses are considered promising bone substitutes and tissue regeneration matrices, because of their bioactivity, biocompatibility, osteoconductivity, and possibly even osteoinductivity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the subcutaneous connective tissue reactions to 58S, 63S, and 72S bioactive glass nanopowders. Our previous study showed the antibacterial activities of 58S and 63S bioactive glass nanopowders on aerobic bacteria, while 72S showed no antibacterial effects at all. Bioactive glass nanopowders were prepared via the sol-gel technique. Characterization techniques such as X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and X-ray fluorescent (XRF) were utilized to carry out the phase analysis, study of the structure, particle size and the composition of the synthesized bioactive glasses. To evaluate the subcutaneous connective tissue reactions, the specimens were placed in polyethylene tubes and implanted into the dorsal connective tissue of rats. Empty polyethylene tubes were used as the control and bioactive glass micropowders (NovaBone) was used as a FDA approved bone graft. The evaluation of inflammatory reactions was performed 3, 7, 15, and 28 days after implantation. Results showed a particle size of below 100 nm for samples with amorphous structure. The samples were well tolerated by the tissues over a 28-day evaluation period. The extra tissue reactions of the 72S specimen in comparison with 58S and 63S specimens could be attributed to its higher silica content. It may be concluded that biocompatible 58S and 63S bioactive glass nanopowders with antibacterial activities can be synthesized for the treatment of osseous defects.

  11. Investigating in vitro bioactivity and magnetic properties of the ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic fabricated using soda-lime-silica waste glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, M.; Hashemi, B.; Shokrollahi, H.

    2014-04-01

    The main purpose of the current research is the production and characterization of a ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic prepared through the solid-state reaction method using soda-lime-silica waste glass as the main raw material. In comparison with the conventional route, that is, the melt-quenching and subsequent heat treatment, the present work is an economical technique. Structural, thermal and magnetic properties of the samples were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The in vitro test was utilized to assess the bioactivity level of the samples by Hanks' solution as simulated body fluid (SBF). The apatite surface layer formation was examined by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The calcium ion concentration in the solutions was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). VSM results revealed that with the addition of 5-20 wt% strontium hexaferrite to bioactive glass-ceramics, the ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramics with hysteresis losses between 7024 and 75,852 erg/g were obtained. The in vitro test showed that the onset formation time of hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of the samples was 14 days and after 30 days, this layer was completed.

  12. Capacity of mesoporous bioactive glass nanoparticles to deliver therapeutic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Fiqi, Ahmed; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Meeju; Eltohamy, Mohamed; Won, Jong-Eun; Lee, Eun-Jung; Kim, Hae-Won

    2012-11-01

    Inorganic bioactive nanomaterials are attractive for hard tissue regeneration, including nanocomponents for bone replacement composites and nanovehicles for delivering therapeutics. Bioactive glass nanoparticles (BGn) have recently gained potential usefulness as bone and tooth regeneratives. Here we demonstrate the capacity of the BGn with mesopores to load and deliver therapeutic molecules (drugs and particularly genes). Spherical BGn with sizes of 80-90 nm were produced to obtain 3-5 nm sized mesopores through a sono-reacted sol-gel process. A simulated body fluid test of the mesoporous BGn confirmed their excellent apatite forming ability and the cellular toxicity study demonstrated their good cell viability up to 100 μg ml-1. Small molecules like chemical drug (Na-ampicillin) and gene (small interfering RNA; siRNA) were introduced as model drugs considering the mesopore size of the nanoparticles. Moreover, amine-functionalization allowed switchable surface charge property of the BGn (from -20-30 mV to +20-30 mV). Loading of ampicillin or siRNA saturated within a few hours (~2 h) and reflected the mesopore structure. While the ampicillin released relatively rapidly (~12 h), the siRNA continued to release up to 3 days with almost zero-order kinetics. The siRNA-nanoparticles were easily taken up by the cells, with a transfection efficiency as high as ~80%. The silencing effect of siRNA delivered from the BGn, as examined by using bcl-2 model gene, showed dramatic down-regulation (~15% of control), suggesting the potential use of BGn as a new class of nanovehicles for genes. This, in conjunction with other attractive properties, including size- and mesopore-related high surface area and pore volume, tunable surface chemistry, apatite-forming ability, good cell viability and the possible ion-related stimulatory effects, will potentiate the usefulness of the BGn in hard tissue regeneration.Inorganic bioactive nanomaterials are attractive for hard tissue regeneration

  13. Mechanical performance of novel bioactive glass containing dental restorative composites

    PubMed Central

    Khvostenko, D.; Mitchell, J. C.; Hilton, T. J.; Ferracane, J. L.; Kruzic, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Bioactive glass (BAG) is known to possess antimicrobial properties and release ions needed for remineralization of tooth tissue, and therefore may be a strategic additive for dental restorative materials. The objective of this study was to develop BAG containing dental restorative composites with adequate mechanical properties comparable to successful commercially available composites, and to confirm the stability of these materials when exposed to a biologically challenging environment. Methods Composites with 72 wt.% total filler content were prepared while substituting 0–15% of the filler with ground BAG. Flexural strength, fracture toughness, and fatigue crack growth tests were performed after several different soaking treatments: 24 hours in DI water (all experiments), two months in brain-heart infusion (BHI) media+S. mutans bacteria (all experiments) and two months in BHI media (only for flexural strength). Mechanical properties of new BAG composites were compared along with the commercial composite Heliomolar by two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s multiple comparison test (p≤0.05). Results Flexural strength, fracture toughness, and fatigue crack growth resistance for the BAG containing composites were unaffected by increasing BAG content up to 15% and were superior to Heliomolar after all post cure treatments. The flexural strength of the BAG composites was unaffected by two months exposure to aqueous media and a bacterial challenge, while some decreases in fracture toughness and fatigue resistance were observed. The favorable mechanical properties compared to Heliomolar were attributed to higher filler content and a microstructure morphology that better promoted the toughening mechanisms of crack deflection and bridging. Significance Overall, the BAG containing composites developed in this study demonstrated adequate and stable mechanical properties relative to successful commercial composites. PMID:24050766

  14. Bioactive glass scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: state of the art and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Qiang; Saiz, Eduardo; Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2011-01-01

    The repair and regeneration of large bone defects resulting from disease or trauma remains a significant clinical challenge. Bioactive glass has appealing characteristics as a scaffold material for bone tissue engineering, but the application of glass scaffolds for the repair of load-bearing bone defects is often limited by their low mechanical strength and fracture toughness. This paper provides an overview of recent developments in the fabrication and mechanical properties of bioactive glass scaffolds. The review reveals the fact that mechanical strength is not a real limiting factor in the use of bioactive glass scaffolds for bone repair, an observation not often recognized by most researchers and clinicians. Scaffolds with compressive strengths comparable to those of trabecular and cortical bones have been produced by a variety of methods. The current limitations of bioactive glass scaffolds include their low fracture toughness (low resistance to fracture) and limited mechanical reliability, which have so far received little attention. Future research directions should include the development of strong and tough bioactive glass scaffolds, and their evaluation in unloaded and load-bearing bone defects in animal models. PMID:21912447

  15. Bioactive glass efficacy in the periodontal healing of intrabony defects in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Villaça, José Henrique; Novaes, Arthur B; Souza, Sérgio Luís Scombatti de; Taba, Mario; Molina, Gustavo Otoboni; Carvalho, Teresa Lúcia Lamano

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was the histomorphologic analysis of the efficacy of bioactive glass particles with a narrow size range (Biogran) in the periodontal healing of 2-wall intrabony defects in monkeys. The 2-wall defects were made in the mesial area of the left and right second premolars of four monkeys, filled with gutta-percha and, after 15 days, they were debrided and either naturally filled with coagulum (control) or implanted with bioactive glass (test). In the control sites, the junctional epithelium migrated up to the base of the defect. The presence of newly formed cementum was more significant in the test defects. Both control and test sites showed newly formed bone at the base of the defect. The test defects presented foci of newly formed bone around and within the glass particles localized in the middle third, distant from the defect walls. Histologic analysis showed that the 300- to 355-microm bioactive glass particles aided new periodontal insertion. In conclusion, the tested bioactive glass had better healing potential than debridement only. The graft material showed a promising inhibition of apical migration of the junctional epithelium and greater cementum deposition on the radicular surface of the intrabony defects. The replacement of bioactive glass particles by new bone occurred due not only to an osteoconductive property, but also to an osteostimulatory capacity. Future investigations should evaluate this potential comparatively or together with other grafting materials, regenerative techniques and biological modifiers, as well as assess the longitudinal stability of the new attachment.

  16. Alkali-free bioactive glasses for bone tissue engineering: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Goel, Ashutosh; Kapoor, Saurabh; Rajagopal, Raghu Raman; Pascual, Maria J; Kim, Hae-Won; Ferreira, José M F

    2012-01-01

    An alkali-free series of bioactive glasses has been designed and developed in the glass system CaO-MgO-SiO(2)-P(2)O(5)-CaF(2) along the diopside (CaMgSi(2)O(6))-fluorapatite (Ca(5)(PO(4))(3)F)-tricalcium phosphate (3CaO·P(2)O(5)) join. The silicate network in all the investigated glasses is predominantly coordinated in Q(2) (Si) units, while phosphorus tends to remain in an orthophosphate (Q(0)) environment. The in vitro bioactivity analysis of glasses has been made by immersion of glass powders in simulated body fluid (SBF) while chemical degradation has been studied in Tris-HCl in accordance with ISO-10993-14. Some of the investigated glasses exhibit hydroxyapatite formation on their surface within 1-12 h of their immersion in SBF solution. The sintering and crystallization kinetics of glasses has been investigated by differential thermal analysis and hot-stage microscopy, respectively while the crystalline phase evolution in resultant glass-ceramics has been studied in the temperature range of 800-900°C using powder X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The alkaline phosphatase activity and osteogenic differentiation for glasses have been studied in vitro on sintered glass powder compacts using rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The as-designed glasses are ideal candidates for their potential applications in bone tissue engineering in the form of bioactive glasses as well as glass/glass-ceramic scaffolds.

  17. Highly bioactive polysiloxane modified bioactive glass-poly(ethylene glycol) hybrids monoliths with controlled surface structure for bone tissue regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing; Que, Wenxiu; Xing, Yonglei; Lei, Bo

    2015-03-01

    Crack-free monoliths with controllable surface microstructure have high bioactivities and therefore potential applications in bone tissue regeneration. In this paper, crack-free polydimethylsiloxane-modified bioactive glass-poly (ethylene glycol) (PDMS-BG-PEG) hybrids monoliths were fabricated via using a modified sol-gel process. Results show that the addition of PEG plays an important part in the formation of crack-free and gelation of the monoliths, and surface microstructures of the as-prepared hybrid monoliths were significantly influenced by the concentration and molecular weight of PEG. The samples obtained from PEG 300 had porous surface result in higher bioactivity (apatite formation) in simulated body fluid (SBF), while the samples obtained from PEG 600 had the smooth surface and inhibited the formation of apatite layer in SBF. These as-prepared hybrid monoliths can be used as a good candidate of implant and scaffold for highly efficient bone tissue regeneration.

  18. Following bioactive glass behavior beyond melting temperature by thermal and optical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatzistavrou, X.; Zorba, T.; Kontonasaki, E.; Chrissafis, K.; Koidis, P.; Paraskevopoulos, K. M.

    2004-04-01

    The thermal behavior of a well known bioactive glass, Bioglass®, is examined beyond its melting temperature as the crystallization and sintering of bioactive glass may influence its bioactivity and cellular reactions. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) followed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to determine the glass transition (Tg), the crystallization (Tc), the melting (Tm) temperatures and the weight changes. The characterization of bioactive glass before and after the thermal treatment at different characteristic temperatures was accomplished with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). All the phases, during the heating of the material until an exact temperature beyond its melting temperature were determined. A progressive increase of its crystallization degree was observed, during treatment up to 1200 °C. At this temperature a number of successive crystallizations and fusions take place. At higher temperatures the formation of amorphous Bioglass® with simultaneous appearance of new phases is observed, favouring the bioactivity that in glass-ceramics is influenced by the different phases present.

  19. Repair of critical size defects using bioactive glass seeded with adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Saçak, Bülent; Certel, Furkan; Akdeniz, Zeynep D; Karademir, Betül; Ercan, Feriha; Özkan, Naziye; Akpinar, İhsan Nuri; Çelebiler, Özhan

    2016-02-17

    Bioactive glass has been demonstrated as a biocompatible bone substitute. However bone healing process can be prolonged due to late resorption of the material. Adipose derived stem cells (ASC) have osteogenic differentiation potential and hence can be a cell source for bone regeneration. The aim of this study was to test whether combination of bioactive glass with ASCs would enhance bone regeneration. Following creation of critical sized defects on the calvaria of 32 Wistar rats, the animals were randomly divided into four groups: Group C (control): Defects were left untreated; Group G: Defects were covered with autologous bone graft; Group BG: Defects were filled with bioactive glass; Group BG/ASC: Defects were filled with bioactive glass seeded with ASCs. The defect size was significantly greater in Group C compared to all other groups. Bone density was significantly lower in Group C compared to Group G and Group BG/ASC. Bone regeneration score of Group C was significantly lower than other groups. Group BG/ASC demonstrated lamellar bone and havers canal formation. The results of this study demonstrated that bioactive glass implanted with ASC is a biocompatible construct stimulating radiologically and histologically evident bone regeneration similar to autologous bone grafting. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2016.

  20. Anti-biofilm properties of bioactive glasses embedding organic active compounds.

    PubMed

    Galarraga-Vinueza, M E; Mesquita-Guimarães, J; Magini, R S; Souza, J C M; Fredel, M C; Boccaccini, A R

    2017-02-01

    Bioactive glasses (BGs) are promising materials for bone repair due to their desirable properties such as osteoconductivity, biodegradability, angiogenic potential, and antibacterial activity. Ionic dissolution products from bioactive glasses increase the medium pH inhibiting surrounding bacteria proliferation. The activity of BGs against biofilm formation has been enhanced by incorporating organic antibacterial compounds. The aim of this review was to summarize evidence in literature which assesses the efficacy of antibacterial and anti-biofilm compounds embedded in bioactive glasses to prevent peri-implant infection during bone healing. A PubMed bibliographical research was carried out including articles published in the last 20 years. Most previous studies evaluated antibacterial efficiency in planktonic cultures but did not investigate biofilm inhibition, underestimating biofilm clinical relevance. Multifactorial features such as biocompatibility of embedded compounds, receptor site characteristics, and drug delivery efficiency have been found to influence the bioactive glass capability of acting both as an anti-biofilm agent and as a bone repairing biomaterial. Accordingly, further in vitro and in vivo studies are required to select the most promising anti-biofilm agents which should be incorporated into bioactive glasses to counteract biofilm proliferation, without inducing toxic effects on human cells, and with the added functionality of promoting bone regeneration. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 672-679, 2017.

  1. Hypoxia-mimicking bioactive glass/collagen glycosaminoglycan composite scaffolds to enhance angiogenesis and bone repair.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, Elaine; Partap, Sonia; Azevedo, Maria M; Jell, Gavin; Stevens, Molly M; O'Brien, Fergal J

    2015-06-01

    One of the biggest challenges in regenerative medicine is promoting sufficient vascularisation of tissue-engineered constructs. One approach to overcome this challenge is to target the cellular hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1α) pathway, which responds to low oxygen concentration (hypoxia) and results in the activation of numerous pro-angiogenic genes including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Cobalt ions are known to mimic hypoxia by artificially stabilising the HIF-1α transcription factor. Here, resorbable bioactive glass particles (38 μm and 100 μm) with cobalt ions incorporated into the glass network were used to create bioactive glass/collagen-glycosaminoglycan scaffolds optimised for bone tissue engineering. Inclusion of the bioactive glass improved the compressive modulus of the resulting composite scaffolds while maintaining high degrees of porosity (>97%). Moreover, in vitro analysis demonstrated that the incorporation of cobalt bioactive glass with a mean particle size of 100 μm significantly enhanced the production and expression of VEGF in endothelial cells, and cobalt bioactive glass/collagen-glycosaminoglycan scaffold conditioned media also promoted enhanced tubule formation. Furthermore, our results prove the ability of these scaffolds to support osteoblast cell proliferation and osteogenesis in all bioactive glass/collagen-glycosaminoglycan scaffolds irrespective of the particle size. In summary, we have developed a hypoxia-mimicking tissue-engineered scaffold with pro-angiogenic and pro-osteogenic capabilities that may encourage bone tissue regeneration and overcome the problem of inadequate vascularisation of grafts commonly seen in the field of tissue engineering.

  2. Alkali-free bioactive glasses for bone tissue engineering: A preliminary investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Goel, Ashutosh; Kapoor, Saurabh; Rajagopal, Raghu R.; Pascual, Maria J.; Kim, Hae-Won; Ferreira, Jose M.

    2011-08-25

    An alkali-free series of bioactive glasses has been designed and developed in the glass system CaO-MgO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2 along diopside (CaMgSi2O6) – fluorapatite [Ca5(PO4)3F] – tricalcium phosphate (3CaO•P2O5) join. The silicate network in all the investigated glasses is predominantly coordinated in Q2 (Si) units while phosphorus tends to remain in orthophosphate (Q0) environment. The in vitro bioactivity analysis of glasses has been made by immersion of glass powders in simulated body fluid (SBF) while chemical degradation has been studied in Tris-HCl in accordance with ISO-10993-14. Some of the investigated glasses exhibit hydroxyapatite (HA) formation on their surface with in 1-12 h of their immersion in SBF solution. The sintering and crystallization kinetics of glasses has been investigated by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and hot-stage microscopy (HSM), respectively while the crystalline phase evolution in resultant glass-ceramics (GCs) has been studied in the temperature range of 800-900 oC using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The cell growth and osteogenic differentiation for glasses has been studied in vitro on sintered glass powder compacts using rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The as designed glasses are ideal candidates for their potential applications in bone tissue engineering in the form of bioactive glasses as well as glass/GC scaffolds.

  3. Microwave-assisted rapid discharge sintering of a bioactive glass-ceramic.

    PubMed

    O'Flynn, Kevin P; Twomey, Barry; Breen, Aidan; Dowling, Denis P; Stanton, Kenneth T

    2011-07-01

    Bioactive glass-ceramics have been developed as successful bone graft materials. Although conventional sintering in an electrically-heated furnace is most commonly used, an alternative microwave plasma batch processing technique, known as rapid discharge sintering (RDS), is examined to crystallise the metastable base glass to form one or more ceramic phases. Apatite-mullite glass-ceramics (AMGC) were examined to elucidate the effects of RDS on the crystallization of a bioactive glass-ceramic. By increasing the fluorine content of the glass, the fluorapatite (FAp) and mullite crystallization onset temperatures can be reduced. Samples were sintered in a hydrogen and hydrogen/nitrogen discharge at temperatures of ≈800 and 1000 °C respectively with the higher sintering temperature required to form mullite. Results show that the material can be densified and crystallised using RDS in a considerably shorter time than conventional sintering due to heating and cooling rates of ≈400 °C/min.

  4. Mechanochemically synthesized kalsilite based bioactive glass-ceramic composite for dental vaneering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pattem Hemanth; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Kumar, Pradeep

    2015-08-01

    Kalsilite glass-ceramic composites have been prepared by a mechanochemical synthesis process for dental veneering application. The aim of the present study is to prepare bioactive kalsilite composite material for application in tissue attachment and sealing of the marginal gap between fixed prosthesis and tooth. Mechanochemical synthesis is used for the preparation of microfine kalsilite glass-ceramic. Low temperature frit and bioglass have been prepared using the traditional quench method. Thermal, microstructural and bioactive properties of the composite material have been examined. The feasibility of the kalsilite to be coated on the base commercial opaque as well as the bioactive behavior of the coated specimen has been confirmed. This study indicates that the prepared kalsilite-based composites show similar structural, morphological and bioactive behavior to that of commercial VITA VMK95 Dentin 1M2.

  5. Bioactive glass-ionomer cement with potential therapeutic function to dentin capping mineralization.

    PubMed

    Xie, Dong; Zhao, Jun; Weng, Yiming; Park, Jong-Gu; Jiang, Hui; Platt, Jeffrey A

    2008-10-01

    We have developed a novel bioactive resin-modified glass-ionomer cement system with therapeutic function to dentin capping mineralization. In the system, the newly synthesized star-shape poly(acrylic acid) was formulated with water, Fuji II LC filler, and bioactive glass S53P4 to form resin-modified glass-ionomer cement. Compressive strength (CS) was used as a screening tool for evaluation. The commercial glass-ionomer cement Fuji II LC was used as a control. All the specimens were conditioned in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 degrees C prior to testing. The effect of aging in SBF on CS and microhardness of the cements was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the in vitro dentin surface changes caused by the incorporation of bioactive glass. The results show that the system not only provided strengths comparable to original commercial Fuji II LC cement but also allowed the cement to help mineralize the dentin in the presence of SBF. It appears that this bioactive glass-ionomer cement system has direct therapeutic impact on dental restorations that require root surface fillings.

  6. Bioactive glass-coated silicone for percutaneous devices with improved tissue interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marotta, James Scott

    The discovery of bioactive glasses, in the early 1970s, has produced a material that develops a strong adherent bond with soft tissue. Many medical applications currently use silicone as an implant material, but are hindered by the formation of fibrous scar tissue surrounding the device. This fibrous scar tissue can lead to pain, infection, and/or extrusion of these devices. Bioactive ceramic materials are inherently brittle and can not be used in applications where a flexible material is needed. Therefore, the coating of existing flexible silicone medical devices, like catheters, with a bioactive glass material would give the advantages of both. The research presented here is of methods used to coat silicone with a bioactive glass powder (Bioglass°ler) and the in vitro testing of those coatings. The bioactivity of these coatings was measured using scanning electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. It was observed that hydroxyapatite, a bonelike apatite, was formed in vitro on both the bioactive glass particles and the silicone surface between these particles. From these results a new theory was developed that related the distance between particles on a surface with the formation of an apatite layer. A critical distance between particles for the formation of an apatite layer on the substrate exists. This critical distance is a function of both the particle size and composition. In addition, a method to coat silicone catheters with bioactive glass powder is also discussed. This coated catheter could ultimately be used for improved percutaneous access in peritoneal dialysis. The one barrier to greater peritoneal dialysis use and the reason many patients switch from peritoneal to hemodialysis is recurrent exit-site infections and subsequent peritonitis. These infections are caused by the lack of a tight seal and downgrowth of epidermal tissue around the catheter at the catheter-skin interface.

  7. Investigating the Effects of Surface-Initiated Polymerization of ε-Caprolactone to Bioactive Glass Particles on the Mechanical Properties of Settable Polymer/Ceramic Composites

    PubMed Central

    Harmata, Andrew J.; Ward, Catherine L.; Zienkiewicz, Katarzyna J.; Wenke, Joseph C.

    2015-01-01

    Injectable bone grafts with strength exceeding that of trabecular bone could improve the management of a number of orthopaedic conditions. Ceramic/polymer composites have been investigated as weight-bearing bone grafts, but they are typically weaker than trabecular bone due to poor interfacial bonding. We hypothesized that entrapment of surface-initiated poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) chains on 45S5 bioactive glass (BG) particles within an in situ-formed polymer network would enhance the mechanical properties of reactive BG/polymer composites. When the surface-initiated PCL molecular weight exceeded the molecular weight between crosslinks of the network, the compressive strength of the composites increased 6- to 10-fold. The torsional strength of the composites exceeded that of human trabecular bone by a factor of two. When injected into femoral condyle defects in rats, the composites supported new bone formation at 8 weeks. The initial bone-like strength of BG/polymer composites and their ability to remodel in vivo highlight their potential for development as injectable grafts for repair of weight-bearing bone defects. PMID:25798027

  8. Investigating the Effects of Surface-Initiated Polymerization of ε-Caprolactone to Bioactive Glass Particles on the Mechanical Properties of Settable Polymer/Ceramic Composites.

    PubMed

    Harmata, Andrew J; Ward, Catherine L; Zienkiewicz, Katarzyna J; Wenke, Joseph C; Guelcher, Scott A

    Injectable bone grafts with strength exceeding that of trabecular bone could improve the management of a number of orthopaedic conditions. Ceramic/polymer composites have been investigated as weight-bearing bone grafts, but they are typically weaker than trabecular bone due to poor interfacial bonding. We hypothesized that entrapment of surface-initiated poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) chains on 45S5 bioactive glass (BG) particles within an in situ-formed polymer network would enhance the mechanical properties of reactive BG/polymer composites. When the surface-initiated PCL molecular weight exceeded the molecular weight between crosslinks of the network, the compressive strength of the composites increased 6- to 10-fold. The torsional strength of the composites exceeded that of human trabecular bone by a factor of two. When injected into femoral condyle defects in rats, the composites supported new bone formation at 8 weeks. The initial bone-like strength of BG/polymer composites and their ability to remodel in vivo highlight their potential for development as injectable grafts for repair of weight-bearing bone defects.

  9. Emerging developments in the use of bioactive glass for reconstruction of craniofacial bone.

    PubMed

    Profeta, A C

    2015-10-01

    For decades, researchers have investigated the use of bioactive glasses as synthetic substitutes for bone grafts that can bond with bone, and recent discoveries have shown that their clinical performance in osteoplastic and reconstructive surgery has exceeded that of traditional synthetic materials. Craniofacial reconstructions with bioactive glass were associated with good functional and aesthetic results with no donor-site morbidity, and the material's unique ability to inhibit bacterial growth was advantageous when used in dead spaces that were chronically infected. Treatment of large defects in the head and neck with these multifunctional biomaterials is a suitable alternative to conventional methods.

  10. Review: emerging developments in the use of bioactive glasses for treating infected prosthetic joints.

    PubMed

    Rahaman, Mohamed N; Bal, B Sonny; Huang, Wenhai

    2014-08-01

    Bacterial contamination of implanted orthopedic prostheses is a serious complication that requires prolonged systemic antibiotic therapy, major surgery to remove infected implants, bone reconstruction, and considerable morbidity. Local delivery of high doses of antibiotics using poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) cement as the carrier, along with systemic antibiotics, is the standard treatment. However, PMMA is not biodegradable, and it can present a surface on which secondary bacterial infection can occur. PMMA spacers used to treat deep implant infections must be removed after resolution of the infection. Alternative carrier materials for antibiotics that could also restore deficient bone are therefore of interest. In this article, the development of bioactive glass-based materials as a delivery system for antibiotics is reviewed. Bioactive glass is osteoconductive, converts to hydroxyapatite, and heals to hard and soft tissues in vivo. Consequently, bioactive glass-based carriers can provide the combined functions of controlled local antibiotic delivery and bone restoration. Recently-developed borate bioactive glasses are of particular interest since they have controllable degradation rates coupled with desirable properties related to osteogenesis and angiogenesis. Such glasses have the potential for providing a new class of biomaterials, as substitutes for PMMA, in the treatment of deep bone infections.

  11. Bioactive glass-based composites for the production of dense sintered bodies and porous scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Bellucci, D; Sola, A; Cannillo, V

    2013-05-01

    Recently several attempts have been made to combine calcium phosphates, such as β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and, most of all, hydroxyapatite (HA), with bioactive glasses of different composition, in order to develop composites with improved biological and mechanical performance. Unfortunately, the production of such systems usually implies a high-temperature treatment (up to 1300 °C), which may result in several drawbacks, including crystallization of the original glass, decomposition of the calcium phosphate phase and/or reactions between the constituent phases, with non-trivial consequences in terms of microstructure, bioactivity and mechanical properties of the final samples. In the present contribution, novel binary composites have been obtained by sintering a bioactive glass, characterized by a low tendency to crystallize, with the addition of HA or β-TCP as the second phase. In particular, the composites have been treated at a relatively low temperature (818 °C and 830 °C, depending on the sample), thus preserving the amorphous structure of the glass and minimizing the interaction between the constituent phases. The effects of the glass composition, calcium phosphate nature and processing conditions on the composite microstructure, mechanical properties and in vitro bioactivity have been systematically discussed. To conclude, a feasibility study to obtain scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration has been proposed.

  12. Corrosion behavior of Mg-3Zn/bioglass (45S5) composite in simulated body fluid (SBF) and phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ab llah, N.; Jamaludin, S. B.; Daud, Z. C.; Zaludin, M. A. F.; Jamal, Z. A. Z.; Idris, M. S.; Osman, R. A. M.

    2016-07-01

    Magnesium has emerged as promising materials in biomaterials research due to its good mechanical and physical properties closer to human bones. However, magnesium has poor corrosion resistance to chloride ions that exist in human blood plasma thus preventing its application in biomedical. The addition of zinc and bioglass can reduce magnesium corrosion rate. In this work, the effect of different solution media (Simulated Body Fluid and Phosphate Buffered Saline) to the corrosion behavior of Mg-Zn/bioglass (45S5) composites was investigated. The composites of Mg-3Zn added with 5, 10, 15, 20, 15 and 30 wt. % bioglass were fabricated by powder metallurgy. The composites were prepared by mixing at 140 rpm for 1 hour, pressing at 500 MPa and sintering in an argon environment at a temperature of 450°C for 3 hours. Sintered samples were immersed in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) and Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) in order to investigate the corrosion behavior. Samples mass loss was determined after 3 days of immersion. Samples microstructure and corrosion products were analyzed using optical microscope and x-ray diffraction (XRD) respectively. The results revealed that the samples immersed in the Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) shows lower mass loss compare to the samples immersed in the Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) for all composition except for Mg-3Zn without bio-glass. The results indicated that the existence of high phosphate ions in PBS has retarded the corrosion rate of composite Mg-3Zn/45S5. The pH value of the PBS solution after immersion showed significant increase between 10.3 and 11.09. Diffraction pattern (XRD) showed the presence of Mg(OH)2 as the major corrosion product for samples immersed in the SBF and PBS solutions. The mass loss of samples decreased with the addition of bio-glass.

  13. In vivo evaluation of bioactive glass foams associated with platelet-rich plasma in bone defects.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Carlos E A; Pereira, Marivalda M; Serakides, Rogéria; Rezende, Cleuza M F

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of bioactive glass foams produced by the sol-gel process, associated or not with platelet-rich plasma (PRP), in the regeneration of bone defects. Mongrel dogs (n = 14) were divided into two groups after having their superior first premolar removed. A small piece of vestibular bone from the alveolus was intentionally removed. The area was filled with bioactive glass foam produced by the sol-gel method. Two groups were tested: group A was the glass foam; group B was the same material associated with PRP, prepared from each animal. The other side of alveolar bone was used as a control group, in which the bone defect did not receive any biomaterial. The thickness of the bone area was measured before and after the intervention. After a period of 60 days implantation, the right and left bones were measured again, and a bone biopsy on both regions was conducted for histological analysis. The findings show an increase of bone thickness for both materials implanted compared to the control group. Group B, implanted with bioactive glass foam associated with PRP, showed a thicker bone area compared to Group A. Histological results indicate bone formation for both materials used. However, the bioactive glass associated with PRP gave rise to a more mature bone formation. These results show that bioactive glass foams processed by a sol-gel method is effective in maintaining the thickness of the alveolar ridge, and the use of PRP associated with the foams improve bone formation.

  14. A unified in vitro evaluation for apatite-forming ability of bioactive glasses and their variants.

    PubMed

    Maçon, Anthony L B; Kim, Taek B; Valliant, Esther M; Goetschius, Kathryn; Brow, Richard K; Day, Delbert E; Hoppe, Alexander; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Kim, Ill Yong; Ohtsuki, Chikara; Kokubo, Tadashi; Osaka, Akiyoshi; Vallet-Regí, Maria; Arcos, Daniel; Fraile, Leandro; Salinas, Antonio J; Teixeira, Alexandra V; Vueva, Yuliya; Almeida, Rui M; Miola, Marta; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara; Verné, Enrica; Höland, Wolfram; Jones, Julian R

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to propose and validate a new unified method for testing dissolution rates of bioactive glasses and their variants, and the formation of calcium phosphate layer formation on their surface, which is an indicator of bioactivity. At present, comparison in the literature is difficult as many groups use different testing protocols. An ISO standard covers the use of simulated body fluid on standard shape materials but it does not take into account that bioactive glasses can have very different specific surface areas, as for glass powders. Validation of the proposed modified test was through round robin testing and comparison to the ISO standard where appropriate. The proposed test uses fixed mass per solution volume ratio and agitated solution. The round robin study showed differences in hydroxyapatite nucleation on glasses of different composition and between glasses of the same composition but different particle size. The results were reproducible between research facilities. Researchers should use this method when testing new glasses, or their variants, to enable comparison between the literature in the future.

  15. Role of SrO on the bioactivity behavior of some ternary borate glasses and their glass ceramic derivatives.

    PubMed

    Abdelghany, A M; Ouis, M A; Azooz, M A; ElBatal, H A; El-Bassyouni, G T

    2016-01-05

    Borate glasses containing SrO substituting both CaO and NaO were prepared and characterized for their bioactivity or bone bonding ability. Glass ceramic derivatives were prepared by thermal heat treatment process. FTIR, XRD and SEM measurements for the prepared glass and glass-ceramics before and after immersion in sodium phosphate solution for one and two weeks were carried out. The appearance of two IR peaks within the range 550-680cm(-1) after immersion in phosphate solution indicates the formation of hydroxyapatite or equivalent Sr phosphate layer. X-ray diffraction data agree with the FTIR spectral analysis. The solubility test was carried out for both glasses and glass ceramics derivatives in the same phosphate solution. The introduction of SrO increases the solubility for both glasses and glass ceramics and this is assumed to be due to the formation of Sr phosphate which is more soluble than calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite). SEM images reveal varying changes in the surfaces of glass ceramics after immersion according to the SrO content.

  16. Role of SrO on the bioactivity behavior of some ternary borate glasses and their glass ceramic derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelghany, A. M.; Ouis, M. A.; Azooz, M. A.; ElBatal, H. A.; El-Bassyouni, G. T.

    2016-01-01

    Borate glasses containing SrO substituting both CaO and NaO were prepared and characterized for their bioactivity or bone bonding ability. Glass ceramic derivatives were prepared by thermal heat treatment process. FTIR, XRD and SEM measurements for the prepared glass and glass-ceramics before and after immersion in sodium phosphate solution for one and two weeks were carried out. The appearance of two IR peaks within the range 550-680 cm-1 after immersion in phosphate solution indicates the formation of hydroxyapatite or equivalent Sr phosphate layer. X-ray diffraction data agree with the FTIR spectral analysis. The solubility test was carried out for both glasses and glass ceramics derivatives in the same phosphate solution. The introduction of SrO increases the solubility for both glasses and glass ceramics and this is assumed to be due to the formation of Sr phosphate which is more soluble than calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite). SEM images reveal varying changes in the surfaces of glass ceramics after immersion according to the SrO content.

  17. In vitro evaluation of cytotoxicity of silver-containing borate bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shi-Hua; Xiao, Wei; Wei, Xiao-Juan; Jia, Wei-Tao; Zhang, Chang-Qing; Huang, Wen-Hai; Jin, Dong-Xu; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Day, Delbert E

    2010-11-01

    The cytotoxicity of silver-containing borate bioactive glass was evaluated in vitro from the response of osteoblastic and fibroblastic cells in media containing the dissolution products of the glass. Glass frits containing 0-2 weight percent (wt %) Ag were prepared by a conventional melting and quenching process. The amount of Ag dissolved from the glass into a simulated body fluid (SBF), measured using atomic emission spectroscopy, increased rapidly within the first 48 h, but slowed considerably at longer times. Structural and microchemical analysis showed that the formation of a hydroxyapatite-like layer on the glass surface within 14 days of immersion in the SBF. The response of MC3T3-E1 and L929 cells to the dissolution products of the glass was evaluated using SEM observation of cell morphology, and assays of MTT hydrolysis, lactate dehydrogenase release, and alkaline phosphatase activity after incubation for up to 48 h. Cytotoxic effects were found for the borate glass containing 2 wt % Ag, but not for 0.75 and 1 wt % Ag. This borate glass containing up to ∼1 wt % Ag could provide a coating material for bacterial inhibition and enhanced bioactivity of orthopaedic implant materials such as titanium.

  18. Therapeutic effects of novel resin bonding systems containing bioactive glasses on mineral-depleted areas within the bonded-dentine interface.

    PubMed

    Sauro, Salvatore; Osorio, Raquel; Watson, Timothy F; Toledano, Manuel

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed in evaluating the effects of two experimental resin bonding systems containing conventional Bioglass 45S5 (BAG) or Zinc-polycarboxylated bioactive glass (BAG-Zn) micro-fillers on the resin-bonded dentine interface after storage in a simulated body fluid solution (SBFS). Three resin bonding systems were formulated: Resin-A: (BAG containing); Resin-B; (BAG-Zn containing); Resin-C (no filler). The ability of the experimental resins to evoke apatite formation was evaluated using confocal Raman spectroscopy. Acid-etched dentine specimens were bonded, and prepared for AFM/nano-indentation analysis in a fully-hydrated status to evaluate the modulus of elasticity (Ei) and hardness (Hi) across the interface at different SBFS storage periods. Further resin-dentine specimens were tested for microtensile bond strength after 24 h or 3 months of SBFS storage. SEM examination was performed after de-bonding and confocal laser microscopy was used to evaluate the ultramorphology of the interfaces and micropermeability. The resin A and B showed a consistent presence of apatite (967 cm(-1)), reduced micropermeability within the resin-dentine interface and a significant increase of the Ei and Hi along the bonded-dentine interface after prolonged SBFS storage. Bond strength values were affected by the resin system (P < 0.0001) and by storage time (P < 0.0001) both after 24 h and 3 months of SBFS storage. In conclusion, resin bonding systems containing bioactive fillers may a have therapeutic effect on the nano-mechanical properties and sealing ability of mineral-depleted resin-dentine interface.

  19. Mesoporous bioactive glasses: structure characteristics, drug/growth factor delivery and bone regeneration application

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chengtie; Chang, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    The impact of bone diseases and trauma in the whole world has increased significantly in the past decades. Bioactive glasses are regarded as an important bone regeneration material owing to their generally excellent osteoconductivity and osteostimulativity. A new class of bioactive glass, referred to as mesoporous bioglass (MBG), was developed 7 years ago, which possess a highly ordered mesoporous channel structure and a highly specific surface area. The study of MBG for drug/growth factor delivery and bone tissue engineering has grown significantly in the past several years. In this article, we review the recent advances of MBG materials, including the preparation of different forms of MBG, composition–structure relationship, efficient drug/growth factor delivery and bone tissue engineering application. By summarizing our recent research, the interaction of MBG scaffolds with bone-forming cells, the effect of drug/growth factor delivery on proliferation and differentiation of tissue cells and the in vivo osteogenesis of MBG scaffolds are highlighted. The advantages and limitations of MBG for drug delivery and bone tissue engineering have been compared with microsize bioactive glasses and nanosize bioactive glasses. The future perspective of MBG is discussed for bone regeneration application by combining drug delivery with bone tissue engineering and investigating the in vivo osteogenesis mechanism in large animal models. PMID:23741607

  20. Mesoporous bioactive glasses: mechanical reinforcement by means of a biomimetic process.

    PubMed

    Arcos, D; Vila, M; López-Noriega, A; Rossignol, F; Champion, E; Oliveira, F J; Vallet-Regí, M

    2011-07-01

    Mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs) constitute a new family of bioceramics with the fastest in vitro bioactivity studied so far. In this work, pieces with the composition 85SiO(2)-10CaO-5P(2)O(5) (mol.%) were prepared as MBGs and also by the conventional sol-gel method. After in vitro tests in simulated body fluid, the MBG pieces exhibited compression resistance twice as great than before, whereas conventional sol-gel glasses showed similar values. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy demonstrate the development of an apatite-like phase not only on the external surface, but also on the grains located within the MBGs pieces. In contrast, conventional sol-gel glasses only developed an apatite-like phase on the external surface. This work presents for the first time a new property of MBGs: the mechanical reinforcement of a bioactive glass through a biomimetic process. This ability is explained in terms of the outstanding bioactive behavior and the three-dimensional mesoporous structure that is exclusive for this bioceramics family.

  1. Bioactive glass and connective tissue graft used to treat intrabony periodontal defects.

    PubMed

    Deliberador, Tatiana Miranda; Trotta, Daniel Rizzo; Klug, Luis Gustavo; Zielak, Joao Cesar; Giovanini, Allan Fernando

    2013-07-01

    Different techniques and materials can be used to treat intrabony periodontal defects caused by periodontal diseases. This case report presents an intrabony periodontal defect with bioactive glass and connective tissue graft used as a barrier. Probing depth and clinical attachment gain were reduced at 6 and 12 months post-treatment.

  2. An in vitro evaluation of selective demineralised enamel removal using bio-active glass air abrasion.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Avijit; Pabari, Hiten; Paolinelis, George; Thompson, Ian D; Watson, Timothy F

    2011-12-01

    Unnecessary over-preparation of carious enamel often occurs clinically during operative caries management. The working hypothesis to be investigated in this study is the potential for bio-active glass air abrasion to remove selectively only demineralised enamel in artificial enamel lesions when compared to equivalent alumina air abrasion, so potentially minimising cavity over-preparation. Bisected artificial, paired smooth surface enamel lesions on ethics-approved, extracted sound human molars were created and subsequently air abraded with 27 μm alumina (n = 19) and bio-active glass (n = 19). The difference between pre-operative lesion boundary and post-operative cavity margin was calculated following optical confocal fluorescent assessment of the lesion boundary. Data indicated mean% over-preparation (sound enamel removal) of 176% with alumina and 15.2% for bio-active glass (p = 0.005). Bio-active glass abrasion removed completely the demineralised enamel from artificial lesions with clinically insignificant over-preparation of sound tissue, indicating technique selectivity towards grossly demineralised enamel. Alumina air abrasion resulted in substantial enamel removal in both sound and demineralised tissues indicating the operator selectivity required to use the techniques effectively in clinical practice.

  3. A new synthesis route to high surface area sol gel bioactive glass through alcohol washing: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Mukundan, Lakshmi M; Nirmal, Remya; Vaikkath, Dhanesh; Nair, Prabha D

    2013-01-01

    Bioactive glass is one of the widely used bone repair material due to its unique properties like osteoconductivity, osteoinductivity and biodegradability. In this study bioactive glass is prepared by the sol gel process and stabilized by a novel method that involves a solvent instead of the conventional calcinations process. This study represents the first attempt to use this method for the stabilization of bioactive glass. The bioactive glass stabilized by this ethanol washing process was characterized for its physicochemical and biomimetic property in comparison with similar composition of calcined bioactive glass. The compositional similarity of the two stabilized glass powders was confirmed by spectroscopic and thermogravimetric analysis. Other physicochemical characterizations together with the cell culture studies with L929 fibroblast cells and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells proved that the stabilization was achieved with the retention of its inherent bioactive potential. However an increase in the surface area of the glass powder was obtained as a result of this ethanol washing process and this add up to the success of the study. Hence the present study exhibits a promising route for high surface area bioactive glass for increasing biomimicity.

  4. Strontium substituted bioactive glasses for tissue engineered scaffolds: the importance of octacalcium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Sriranganathan, Danujan; Kanwal, Nasima; Hing, Karin A; Hill, Robert G

    2016-02-01

    Porous bioactive glasses are attractive for use as bone scaffolds. There is increasing interest in strontium containing bone grafts, since strontium ions are known to up-regulate osteoblasts and down regulate osteoclasts. This paper investigates the influence of partial to full substitution of strontium for calcium on the dissolution and phase formation of a multicomponent high phosphate content bioactive glass. The glasses were synthesised by a high temperature melt quench route and ground to a powder of <38 microns. The dissolution of this powder and its ability to form apatite like phases after immersion in Tris buffer (pH 7.4) and simulated body fluid (SBF) was followed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP), Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and (31)P solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy up to 42 days of immersion. ICP indicated that all three glasses dissolved at approximately the same rate. The all calcium (SP-0Sr-35Ca) glass showed evidence of apatite like phase formation in both Tris buffer and SBF, as demonstrated after 3 days by FTIR and XRD analysis of the precipitate that formed during the acellular dissolution bioactivity studies. The strontium substituted SP-17Sr-17Ca glass showed no clear evidence of apatite like phase formation in Tris, but evidence of an apatite like phase was observed after 7 days incubation in SBF. The SP-35Sr-0Ca glass formed a new crystalline phase termed "X Phase" in Tris buffer which FTIR indicated was a form of crystalline orthophosphate. The SP-35Sr-0Ca glass appeared to support apatite like phase formation in SBF by 28 days incubation. The results indicate that strontium substitution for calcium in high phosphate content bioactive glasses can retard apatite like phase formation. It is proposed that apatite formation with high phosphate bioactive glasses occurs via an octacalcium phosphate (OCP) precursor phase that subsequently

  5. Freeze casting of bioactive glass and ceramic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Qiang

    The main objectives of this dissertation were to explore the production of bioactive ceramic and glass scaffolds with oriented pore architectures by unidirectional freezing of suspensions, and to characterize the mechanical and biological performance of the scaffolds. Freezing of aqueous suspensions of hydroxyapatite (HA) or bioactive 13-93 glass particles resulted in the formation of scaffolds with a lamellar-type microstructure (pore width = 5--30 microm). The addition of polar organic solvents (such as 60 wt% dioxane) to the aqueous suspensions markedly changed the morphology and size of the oriented pores, giving scaffolds with a columnar-type microstructure and larger pore width (90--110 microm). The scaffolds showed a unique 'elastic--plastic' mechanical response in compression along the orientation direction, with large strain for failure (>20%) and strain rate sensitivity. For a similar porosity, the bioactive glass scaffolds had a higher strength than the HA scaffolds, presumably because of better sintering characteristics. Columnar bioactive glass scaffolds (porosity = 55--60%) had a compressive strength of 25 +/- 3 MPa. The columnar scaffolds with the larger pore width showed better ability than the lamellar scaffolds to support the proliferation and function of murine osteoblastic cells (MLO-A5 or MC3T3-E1). Subcutaneous implantation in the dorsum of rats showed abundant tissue ingrowth into the pores of the columnar scaffolds and integration of the scaffolds with surrounding tissue. The results indicate that bioactive 13-93 glass scaffolds with the columnar microstructure could be used for the repair of segmental defects in load-bearing bones.

  6. Freeze extrusion fabrication of 13-93 bioactive glass scaffolds for bone repair.

    PubMed

    Doiphode, Nikhil D; Huang, Tieshu; Leu, Ming C; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Day, Delbert E

    2011-03-01

    A solid freeform fabrication technique, freeze extrusion fabrication (FEF), was investigated for the creation of three-dimensional bioactive glass (13-93) scaffolds with pre-designed porosity and pore architecture. An aqueous mixture of bioactive glass particles and polymeric additives with a paste-like consistency was extruded through a narrow nozzle, and deposited layer-by-layer in a cold environment according to a computer-aided design (CAD) file. Following sublimation of the ice in a freeze dryer, the construct was heated according to a controlled schedule to burn out the polymeric additives (below ~500°C), and to densify the glass phase at higher temperature (1 h at 700°C). The sintered scaffolds had a grid-like microstructure of interconnected pores, with a porosity of ~50%, pore width of ~300 μm, and dense glass filaments (struts) with a diameter or width of ~300 μm. The scaffolds showed an elastic response during mechanical testing in compression, with an average compressive strength of 140 MPa and an elastic modulus of 5-6 GPa, comparable to the values for human cortical bone. These bioactive glass scaffolds created by the FEF method could have potential application in the repair of load-bearing bones.

  7. TiO2-Bioactive Glass Nanostructure Composite Films Produced by a Sol-Gel Method: In Vitro Behavior and UV-Enhanced Bioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omid-Bakhtiari, Marzie; Nasr-Esfahani, Mojtaba; Nourmohamadi, Abolghasem

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop TiO2, titania, -based composite films for 316 stainless steel substrate and to improve their apatite-forming activity. A series of sol-gel derived bioactive glass (49S) and bioactive glass (49S)-TiO2 films were deposited on the 316L stainless steel substrates by the spin-coating method. Amorphous bioactive glass (49S) film and polycrystalline titania-bioactive glass composite films were obtained after annealing the deposited layers at 600 °C. The microstructure and in vitro bioactivity of the composite films as well as the effect of titania nanopowder content and ultra violet (UV) irradiation on the in vitro bioactivity were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). While bioactivity tests are often carried out within 28-day periods, SEM and EDS data show that, after soaking in SBF for just 7 days, the prepared composite surfaces are covered with an apatite layer. The grown apatite layer consists of spherulites formed by nanosized needle-like aggregates. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy investigations confirm apatite formation and suggest that the formed apatite is carbonated.

  8. Characterization of carbon nanotube (MWCNT) containing P(3HB)/bioactive glass composites for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Misra, Superb K; Ohashi, F; Valappil, Sabeel P; Knowles, Jonathan C; Roy, I; Silva, S Ravi P; Salih, Vehid; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2010-03-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (P(3HB)) composites with bioactive glass particles and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were prepared and used to identify whether the electrical properties of MWCNTs can be used to detect the bioactivity of P(3HB)/bioactive glass composites. The presence of MWCNTs (2-7 wt.%) increased the surface roughness of the composites. The presence of MWCNTs in low quantity enhanced MG-63 osteoblast-like cell attachment and proliferation compared to composites with higher concentration of MWCNTs. Current-voltage measurements demonstrated that the electrical resistance of the composites containing bioactive glass particles decreased over a 45-day immersion period in SBF, whereas composites without bioactive glass showed no significant change over the same period.

  9. Effect of glass-ceramic microstructure on its in vitro bioactivity.

    PubMed

    De Aza, P N; Luklinska, Z B

    2003-10-01

    Two routes were used to obtain a glass-ceramic composed of 43.5 wt % SiO(2) - 43.5 wt % CaO - 13 wt % ZrO(2). Heat treatment of a glass monolith produced a glass-ceramic (WZ1) containing wollastonite-2M and tetragonal zirconia as crystalline phases. The WZ1 did not display bioactivity in vitro. Ceramizing the glass via powder technology routes formed a bioactive glass-ceramic (WZ2). The two glass-ceramics, WZ1 and WZ2, were composed of the same crystalline phases, but differed in microstructure. The in vitro studies carried out on WZ2 showed the formation of an apatite-like layer on its surface during exposure to a simulated body fluid. This paper examined the influence of both chemical and morphological factors on the in vitro bioactivitity. The interfacial reaction product was examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Both instruments were fitted with energy-dispersive X-ray analyzers. Measurements of the pH made directly at the interface of the two glass-ceramics were important in understanding their different behavior during exposure to the same physiological environment.

  10. Bioactive glass coatings with hydroxyapatite and Bioglass (registered) particles on Ti-based implants. 1. Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Vega, J.M.; Saiz, E.; Tomsia, A.P.; Marshall, G.W.; Marshall, S.J.

    1999-06-01

    Silicate-based glasses with thermal expansion coefficients that match those of Ti6Al4V were prepared and used to coat Ti6Al4V by a simple enameling technique. Bioglass (BG) (registered) or hydroxyapatite (HA) particles were embedded on the coatings in order to enhance their bioactivity. HA particles were partially embedded during heating and remained firmly embedded on the coating after cooling. There was no apparent reaction at the glass/HA interface at the temperatures used in this work (800-840 degrees C). In contrast, BG particles softened and some infiltration into the glass coating took place during heat treatment. In this case, particles with sizes over 45 (mu)m were required, otherwise the particles became hollow due to the infiltration and crystallization of the glass surface. The concentration of the particles on the coating was limited to 20% of surface coverage. Concentrations above this value resulted in cracked coatings due to excessive induced stress. Cracks did not prop agate along the interfaces when coatings were subjected to Vickers indentation tests, indicating that the particle/glass and glass/metal interfaces exhibited strong bonds. Enameling, producing excellent glass/metal adhesion with well-attached bioactive particles on the surface, is a promising method of forming reliable and lasting implants which can endure substantial chemical and mechanical stresses.

  11. A review of the effect of various ions on the properties and the clinical applications of novel bioactive glasses in medicine and dentistry.

    PubMed

    Ali, Saqib; Farooq, Imran; Iqbal, Kefi

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive glass is a novel material that dissolves and forms a bond with bone when exposed to body fluids. Bioactive glasses are silicate-based, with calcium and phosphate in identical proportions to those of natural bone; therefore, they have high biocompatibility. Bioactive glasses have wide-ranging clinical applications, including the use as bone grafts, scaffolds, and coating materials for dental implants. This review will discuss the effects of ions on the various compositions of bioactive glasses, as well as the clinical applications of bioactive glasses in medicine and dentistry.

  12. Combined PIXE and SEM study of the behaviour of trace elements in gel formed around implant coated with bioactive glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oudadesse, H.; Irigaray, J. L.; Barbotteau, Y.; Brun, V.; Moretto, Ph.

    2002-05-01

    Bioactive glasses are used as coating biomaterials to facilitate anchorage of metallic prostheses implanted into the body. The aim of this work is to study the behavior of gel formed in contact with alloys and BVA and BVH bioactive glasses implanted. Cylinders of metallic implants composed by Ti, Al and V, are coated with bioactive glass. Three sheep were implanted for different time length: 3, 6 and 12 months in the femoral epiphysis. Results obtained with particle induced X-ray emission and scanning electron microscopy show that BVA coating induces a better contact between the metallic implant and bone. On the other hand, BVH coating prevents corrosion from the metallic implant.

  13. Study on surface modification of porous apatite-wollastonite bioactive glass ceramic scaffold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Bin; Zhou, Dali; Xue, Ming; Li, Guangda; Yang, Weizhong; Long, Qin; Ji, Li

    2008-11-01

    Chitosan (CS) was used to modify the surface of apatite-wollastonite bioactive glass ceramic (AW GC) scaffold to prepare AW/CS composite scaffold. The in vitro bioactivity of the AW/CS composite scaffold was investigated by simulated body fluid (SBF) soaking experiment. Cell growth on the surface of the material was evaluated by co-culturing osteogenic marrow stromal cells (MSCs) of rabbits with the scaffold. The results showed that the compressive strength of AW GC scaffold was improved dramatically after being modified by CS, whereas the mineralization rate was delayed. MSCs can attach well on the surface of the composite scaffold.

  14. Dental repair material: a resin-modified glass-ionomer bioactive ionic resin-based composite.

    PubMed

    Croll, Theodore P; Berg, Joel H; Donly, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    This report documents treatment and repair of three carious teeth that were restored with a new dental repair material that features the characteristics of both resin-modified glass-ionomer restorative cement (RMGI) and resin-based composite (RBC). The restorative products presented are reported by the manufacturer to be the first bioactive dental materials with an ionic resin matrix, a shock-absorbing resin component, and bioactive fillers that mimic the physical and chemical properties of natural teeth. The restorative material and base/liner, which feature three hardening mechanisms, could prove to be a notable advancement in the adhesive dentistry restorative materials continuum.

  15. Novel method for early investigation of bioactivity in different borate bio-glasses.

    PubMed

    Abdelghany, A M

    2013-01-01

    Some ternary borate glasses were prepared and corrosion behavior of such ternary borate glasses after immersion in aqueous dilute phosphate solution was studied using different immersion times. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectral measurements were done before and after immersion in the mentioned solution for extended times up to 2 days to justify the appearance of the characteristic FTIR bands due to calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite (HA)) which is considered as the potential indication of bioactivity. Experimental IR data confirm the beginning of the appearance of FTIR bands at about 580 and 620 cm(-1) after 3 days and the complete resolution with its characteristic split form after 1 week and more. Deconvolution analysis technique (DAT) of the FTIR spectrum was employed to investigate the bioactivity of such ternary borate system after a short period of immersion. The corrosion behavior of such glasses is explained in relation to a suggested hydrolysis followed by direct dissolution mechanism. The ease of dissolution of all the borate glasses constituents explains the formation of calcium phosphate and conversion to crystalline hydroxyapatite within the borate glass matrix. X-ray diffraction may be used to retrace the structural changes and degree of crystallinity of the prepared glasses.

  16. New bioactive glass-ceramic: synthesis and application in PMMA bone cement composites.

    PubMed

    Abd Samad, Hamizah; Jaafar, Mariatti; Othman, Radzali; Kawashita, Masakazu; Abdul Razak, Noor Hayati

    2011-01-01

    In present study, a new composition of glass-ceramic was synthesized based on the Na2O-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 glass system. Heat treatment of glass powder was carried out in 2 stages: 600 °C as the nucleation temperature and different temperature on crystallization at 850, 950 and 1000 °C. The glass-ceramic heat-treated at 950 °C was selected as bioactive filler in commercial PMMA bone cement; (PALACOS® LV) due to its ability to form 2 high crystallization phases in comparison with 850 and 1000 °C. The results of this newly glass-ceramic filled PMMA bone cement at 0-16 wt% of filler loading were compared with those of hydroxyapatite (HA). The effect of different filler loading on the setting properties was evaluated. The peak temperature during the polymerization of bone cement decreased when the liquid to powder (L/P) ratio was reduced. The setting time, however, did not show any trend when filler loading was increased. In contrast, dough time was observed to decrease with increased filler loading. Apatite morphology was observed on the surface of the glass-ceramic and selected cement after bioactivity test.

  17. Preparation, in vitro mineralization and osteoblast cell response of electrospun 13-93 bioactive glass nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Deliormanlı, Aylin M

    2015-08-01

    In this study, silicate based 13-93 bioactive glass fibers were prepared through sol-gel processing and electrospinning technique. A precursor solution containing poly (vinyl alcohol) and bioactive glass sol was used to produce fibers. The mixture was electrospun at a voltage of 20 kV by maintaining tip to a collector distance of 10 cm. The amorphous glass fibers with an average diameter of 464±95 nm were successfully obtained after calcination at 625 °C. Hydroxyapatite formation on calcined 13-93 fibers was investigated in simulated body fluid (SBF) using two different fiber concentrations (0.5 and 1 mg/ml) at 37 °C. When immersed in SBF, conversion to a calcium phosphate material showed a strong dependence on the fiber concentration. At 1mg/ml, the surface of the fibers converted to the hydroxyapatite-like material in SBF only after 30 days. At lower solid concentrations (0.5 mg/ml), an amorphous calcium phosphate layer formation was observed followed by the conversion to hydroxyapatite phase after 7 days of immersion. The XTT (2,3-Bis-(2-Methoxy-4-Nitro-5-Sulfophenyl)-2H-Tetrazolium-5-Carboxanilide) assay was conducted to evaluate the osteoblast cell response to the bioactive glass fibers.

  18. Antibacterial and bioactive composite bone cements containing surface silver-doped glass particles.

    PubMed

    Miola, Marta; Fucale, Giacomo; Maina, Giovanni; Verné, Enrica

    2015-10-20

    A bioactive silica-based glass powder (SBA2) was doped with silver (Ag(+)) ions by means of an ion-exchange process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion spectrometry (EDS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) evidenced that the glass powder was enriched with Ag(+) ions. However, a small amount of Ag2CO3 precipitated with increased Ag concentrations in the exchange solution. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Ag-SBA2 towards Staphylococcus aureus were also evaluated and were respectively 0.05 mg ml(-1) and 0.2 mg ml(-1). Subsequently, Ag-SBA2 glass was used as filler (30%wt) in a commercial formulation of bone cement (Simplex(™) P) in order to impart both antibacterial and bioactive properties. The composite bone cement was investigated in terms of morphology (using SEM) and composition (using EDS); the glass powder was well dispersed and exposed on the cement surface. Bioactivity tests in simulated body fluid (SBF) evidenced the precipitation of hydroxyapatite on sample surfaces. Composite cement demonstrated antibacterial properties and a compressive strength comparable to the commercial formulation.

  19. Biomimetic formation of apatite on the surface of porous gelatin/bioactive glass nanocomposite scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozafari, Masoud; Rabiee, Mohammad; Azami, Mahmoud; Maleknia, Saied

    2010-12-01

    There have been several attempts to combine bioactive glasses (BaGs) with biodegradable polymers to create a scaffold material with excellent biocompatibility, bioactivity, biodegradability and toughness. In the present study, the nanocomposite scaffolds with compositions based on gelatin (Gel) and BaG nanoparticles in the ternary SiO 2-CaO-P 2O 5 system were prepared. In vitro evaluations of the nanocomposite scaffolds were performed, and for investigating their bioactive capacity these scaffolds were soaked in a simulated body fluid (SBF) at different time intervals. The scaffolds showed significant enhancement in bioactivity within few days of immersion in SBF solution. The apatite formation at the surface of the nanocomposite samples confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analyses. In vitro experiments with osteoblast cells indicated an appropriate penetration of the cells into the scaffold's pores, and also the continuous increase in cell aggregation on the bioactive scaffolds with increase in the incubation time demonstrated the ability of the scaffolds to support cell growth. The SEM observations revealed that the prepared scaffolds were porous with three dimensional (3D) and interconnected microstructure, pore size was 200-500 μm and the porosity was 72-86%. The nanocomposite scaffold made from Gel and BaG nanoparticles could be considered as a highly bioactive and potential bone tissue engineering implant.

  20. Influence of SrO substitution for CaO on the properties of bioactive glass S53P4.

    PubMed

    Massera, Jonathan; Hupa, Leena

    2014-03-01

    Commercial melt-quenched bioactive glasses consist of the oxides of silicon, phosphorus, calcium and sodium. Doping of the glasses with oxides of some other elements is known to affect their capability to support hydroxyapatite formation and thus bone tissue healing but also to modify their high temperature processing parameters. In the present study, the influence of gradual substitution of SrO for CaO on the properties of the bioactive glass S53P4 was studied. Thermal analysis and hot stage microscopy were utilized to measure the thermal properties of the glasses. The in vitro bioactivity and solubility was measured by immersing the glasses in simulated body fluid for 6 h to 1 week. The formation of silica rich and hydroxyapatite layers was assessed from FTIR spectra analysis and SEM images of the glass surface. Increasing substitution of SrO for CaO decreased all characteristic temperatures and led to a slightly stronger glass network. The initial glass dissolution rate increased with SrO content. Hydroxyapatite layer was formed on all glasses but on the SrO containing glasses the layer was thinner and contained also strontium. The results suggest that substituting SrO for CaO in S53P4 glass retards the bioactivity. However, substitution greater than 10 mol% allow for precipitation of a strontium substituted hydroxyapatite layer.

  1. Cotton-wool-like bioactive glasses for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Poologasundarampillai, G; Wang, D; Li, S; Nakamura, J; Bradley, R; Lee, P D; Stevens, M M; McPhail, D S; Kasuga, T; Jones, J R

    2014-08-01

    Inorganic sol-gel solutions were electrospun to produce the first bioactive three-dimensional (3-D) scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration with a structure like cotton-wool (or cotton candy). This flexible 3-D fibrous structure is ideal for packing into complex defects. It also has large inter-fiber spaces to promote vascularization, penetration of cells and transport of nutrients throughout the scaffold. The 3-D fibrous structure was obtained by electrospinning, where the applied electric field and the instabilities exert tremendous force on the spinning jet, which is required to be viscoelastic to prevent jet break up. Previously, polymer binding agents were used with inorganic solutions to produce electrospun composite two-dimensional fibermats, requiring calcination to remove the polymer. This study presents novel reaction and processing conditions for producing a viscoelastic inorganic sol-gel solution that results in fibers by the entanglement of the intermolecularly overlapped nanosilica species in the solution, eliminating the need for a binder. Three-dimensional cotton-wool-like structures were only produced when solutions containing calcium nitrate were used, suggesting that the charge of the Ca(2+) ions had a significant effect. The resulting bioactive silica fibers had a narrow diameter range of 0.5-2μm and were nanoporous. A hydroxycarbonate apatite layer was formed on the fibers within the first 12h of soaking in simulated body fluid. MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells cultured on the fibers showed no adverse cytotoxic effect and they were observed to attach to and spread in the material.

  2. Growth and dissolution of apatite precipitates formed in vivo on the surface of a bioactive glass coating film and its relevance to bioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jallot, E.; Benhayoune, H.; Kilian, L.; Irigaray, J. L.; Balossier, G.; Bonhomme, P.

    2000-11-01

    Development of bioactive glasses for use as a coating on Ti6Al4V prostheses requires a better understanding of reactions at the bone/bioactive glass interface. Indeed, the bioactive glasses bond to bone through physico-chemical reactions. In vivo, an apatite rich layer is built up on top of a pure silica rich layer at the bioactive glass periphery. In this paper, we have studied Ti6Al4V cylinders coated with a bioactive glass and implanted in sheep femora for two, three and six months. At each time period, the samples were analysed with scanning transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. In vivo, the bioactive glass dissolution led to the formation on its surface of spherical particles with different sizes. The distributions of Si, Al, Ca, P and Mg concentrations across the particles reveal precipitation of apatite with the incorporation of magnesium. Apatite precipitation is governed by diffusion through an Si layer and occurs under specific supersaturation conditions. Measurements of supersaturation for Ca and P demonstrate that the largest precipitates grow and the smallest dissolve. These results allow us to study the growth and dissolution rate of the apatite precipitates and their relevance to bioactivity. Particles with a radius twice the average radius () grow the fastest and, if the radius increases, the rate of growth decreases. Before three months, the growth of apatite precipitates (≈1 µm) leads to the growth of a Ca-P interfacial layer. After three months, is of the order of 0.5 µm, and the majority of the apatite layer dissolves. The effects of aluminium and magnesium on apatite generation are also studied.

  3. Multilayer bioactive glass/zirconium titanate thin films in bone tissue engineering and regenerative dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Mozafari, Masoud; Salahinejad, Erfan; Shabafrooz, Vahid; Yazdimamaghani, Mostafa; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2013-01-01

    Surface modification, particularly coatings deposition, is beneficial to tissue-engineering applications. In this work, bioactive glass/zirconium titanate composite thin films were prepared by a sol-gel spin-coating method. The surface features of the coatings were studied by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and spectroscopic reflection analyses. The results show that uniform and sound multilayer thin films were successfully prepared through the optimization of the process variables and the application of carboxymethyl cellulose as a dispersing agent. Also, it was found that the thickness and roughness of the multilayer coatings increase nonlinearly with increasing the number of the layers. This new class of nanocomposite coatings, comprising the bioactive and inert components, is expected not only to enhance bioactivity and biocompatibility, but also to protect the surface of metallic implants against wear and corrosion. PMID:23641155

  4. Fabrication, characterization, and in vitro degradation of composite scaffolds based on PHBV and bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiyan; Du, Ruilin; Chang, Jiang

    2005-10-01

    Composite scaffolds of polyhydroxybutyrate-polyhydroxyvalerate (PHBV) with sol-gel-derived bioactive glass (BG, 58S) are fabricated by compression molding, thermal processing, and salt particulate leaching method. Structure and mechanical properties of the scaffolds are determined. The bioactivity of the composites is evaluated by soaking the scaffolds in a simulated body fluid (SBF), and the formation of the apatite layer on the scaffolds is determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The results show that the PHBV/BG composites are bioactive as they induce the formation of apatite on the composite scaffolds after soaking in SBF for 3 days. In addition, the measurements of the water contact angles suggest that incorporation of BG into PHBV can improve the hydrophilicity of the composites and the enhancement is dependent on the BG content. Furthermore, the degradation assessment of the scaffolds is performed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution at 37 C. Weight loss and water absorption of the scaffolds, pH of the incubation media, and molecular weight measurements of the PHBV in the scaffolds are used to monitor the degradation of the scaffolds during a nine-week incubation in PBS. It has been found that the incorporation of bioactive glass into the PHBV delayed the degradation of PHBV in the composite scaffolds for the period investigated. The present results show not only a useful method to prepare composite scaffolds with improved properties but also a way of adjusting the in vitro degradation behavior of composite scaffolds by tailoring the content of bioactive glass.

  5. Degradation studies of 1, 6-diisocyanatohexane-extended poly (1, 4-butylene succinate) - bioactive glass scaffolds for bone tissue repair applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Kulwinder; Singh, K. J.; Anand, Vikas

    2016-05-01

    Bio composite scaffolds prepared from polymer and bio glass provide necessary sites for bone tissue regeneration. In the presented work, bioactive glass scaffolds have been prepared from 1, 6-diisocyanatohexane-extended poly (1, 4-butylene succinate) with different amount of bioactive glass powder by solvent casting method. Prepared scaffolds have been characterized by XRD, FTIR and FESEM techniques. Effect of content of bioactive glass on biodegradability has been investigated in detail.

  6. Effect of Etching Condition on the Formation of Bioactive Surface of Hydroxyapatite-Glass-Titanium Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, Seiji; Maruno, Shigeo; Hasegawa, Jiro

    1991-07-01

    X-ray diffraction study shows that an etching solution of 3% HF and 5% HNO3 is the most suitable solution for preparing a bioactive surface layer of HA-glass-titanium composite, since the glass is removed, a great number of HA particles are exposed, and little CaF2 is produced by the etching. Anodic polarization measurement demonstrates that the 3-min etching gives an electrochemically active surface of the composites. These results and SEM observations suggest that this solution provides an adequate surface of the composite for the dental and medical implants.

  7. Study of an anisotropic ferrimagnetic bioactive glass ceramic for cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Saqlain A.; Hashmi, M. U.; Shamim, A.; Alam, S.

    2010-07-01

    For the hyperthermia therapy of cancer, ferrimagnetic glass ceramics are a potential candidate. Ferrimagnetic zinc-ferrite-containing bioactive glass ceramics were prepared by quenching the glass ceramics from sintering temperature. Then the samples were heated to 600°C and cooled in an aligning magnetic field of 1 Tesla to cause anisotropy. The magnetically aligned samples were compared with non-aligned samples. Vibrating sample magnetometry measurements at 10 kOe showed that the magnetic properties were enhanced by the aligning magnetic field and it led to an enhancement of the magnetic heat generation under a magnetic induction furnace operating at 500 Oe and 400 kHz for 2 min. Data showed that the maximum specific power loss and temperature increase after 2 min were 31.5 W/g and 45°C, respectively, for the aligned sample of maximum zinc-ferrite crystalline content. The glass ceramics were immersed in simulated body fluid for 3 weeks. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared and atomic absorption spectroscopy results indicated the growth of precipitated hydroxyapatite, suggesting that the ferrimagnetic glass ceramics were bioactive and could bond to living tissues in physiological environment.

  8. Behavior of bioactive glass-ceramic implanted into long bone defects: a scintigraphic study.

    PubMed

    Sponer, Pavel; Urban, Karel; Urbanová, Elen; Karpas, Karel; Mathew, Pradeep George

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the long-term behavior and incorporation of the bioactive oxyhydroxyapatite glass-ceramic used to fill defects of long bones after curettage of bone cysts in 17 patients. The method of evaluation was a three-phase bone scintigraphy combined with radiographic and clinical evaluation. At a mean follow-up of 7 years, the glass-ceramic material had been completely incorporated. Mean uptake ratio was 1.31+/-0.25 after implantation of glass-ceramic in the metaphyseal region and 2.07+/-0.62 after implantation of glass-ceramic in the diaphyseal region (P<0.05). Mean uptake ratio was 1.40+/-0.30 in patients without persistent pain and 2.07+/-0.69 in patients who complained of pain in the area of synthetic filling (P<0.05). The bioactive glass-ceramic can be implanted into the metaphyseal defects of long bones, but this material is not suitable for filling the diaphyseal defects.

  9. Preparation and biocompatibility evaluation of bioactive glass-forsterite nanocomposite powder for oral bone defects treatment applications.

    PubMed

    Saqaei, Mahboobe; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Edris, Hossein; Mortazavi, Vajihesadat

    2015-11-01

    Bone defects which emerge around dental implants are often seen when implants are placed in areas with insufficient alveolar bone, in extraction sockets, or around failing implants. Bone regeneration in above-mentioned defects using of bone grafts or bone substitutes may cure the long-term prognoses of dental implants. Biocompatibility, bioactivity and osteogenic properties are key factors affecting the applications of a bone substitute. This study was aimed at preparation, characterization, biocompatibility and bioactivity evaluation of the bioactive glass-forsterite nanocomposite powder as a desired candidate for oral bone defect treatments. Nanocomposite powders containing 58S bioactive glass and different amounts of forsterite nanopowder were synthesized in situ by sol-gel technique. Characterization of the prepared nanocomposite powders and their cytotoxicity assessment was performed via MTT test. Bioactivity assessment was done by immersing the prepared powder in the simulated body fluid (SBF). Results showed that nanocomposite powders containing forsterite with crystallite size of 20-50nm were successfully fabricated by calcination at 600°C. The prepared bioactive glass-forsterite nanocomposite powders revealed high in vitro biocompatibility; besides, the nanocomposite containing 20wt.% forsterite showed a substantial increase in the cell viability compared with control groups. During immersion in SBF, the formation of apatite layer confirmed the bioactivity of bioactive glass-forsterite nanocomposite powders. According to the results, the fabricated nanocomposite powders can be introduced as a promising candidate for oral bone imperfection treatments and hard tissue mend.

  10. Antibacterial effects of sol-gel-derived bioactive glass nanoparticle on aerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, V; Nahrkhalaji, M Mehdikhani; Fathi, M H; Mousavi, S B; Esfahani, B Nasr

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the antibacterial effect of bioactive glass nanopowders. The 58S, 63S, and 72S compositions were prepared via the sol-gel technique. Characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Zetasizer, and X-ray fluorescent were used. The antibacterial activity was studied using Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, and Staphylococcus aureus. Cytotoxicity of the samples was evaluated using mouse fibroblast L929 cell line. The chemical compositions of the prepared samples were as predicted, and the particle size of the samples with an amorphous structure mainly ranged over 20-90 nm. At broth concentrations below 50 mg/mL, they showed no antibacterial activity. The 58S showed the highest antibacterial activity with the minimum bactericidal concentrations of 50 and 100 mg/mL for E. coli plus S. aureus and for P. aeruginosa, respectively. The 63S exhibited bactericidal and bacteriostatic effects on E. coli and S. aureus at concentrations of 100 and 50 mg/mL, respectively, at an minimum bactericidal concentrations of 100 mg/mL. However, 72S bioactive glass nanopowder showed no antibacterial effect. They showed no cytotoxicity. It was concluded that bioactive glass nanopowders could be considered as good candidates for the treatment of oral bone defects and root canal disinfection. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res, 2010.

  11. Implants coated with bioactive glass by CO2-laser, an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Moritz, N; Rossi, S; Vedel, E; Tirri, T; Ylänen, H; Aro, H; Närhi, T

    2004-07-01

    Due to ageing of the population, the number of revision operations is expected to increase. Thus good fixation of medical implants is crucial for successful treatment. In our previous studies, a method to coat titanium implants with bioactive glass (BAG) via CO2 laser treatment was introduced. It allows to localise the application of a bioactive coating, without heat treatment of the whole implant. In the present study, cylindrical titanium implants were used (BAG-coated, control group: NaOH-treated and grit-blasted Ti). Three implants were placed in each femoral epicondyle of six rabbits. After eight weeks the animals were sacrificed. Half of the implants were subjected to a torsional loading test. In the control groups, the failure occurred at the bone-implant interface, in the BAG group the failure occurred mainly in the reacted glass. The implants coated with BAG were integrated into host bone without a connective tissue capsule and were surrounded by significantly more bone than the control implants. The findings indicate clearly that the use of CO2 laser radiation to create BAG coatings did not inhibit the bioactive properties of the glass in terms of osteoconduction.

  12. Drug delivery property, bactericidal property and cytocompatibility of magnetic mesoporous bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi-Zhuo; Li, Yang; Yu, Xi-Bin; Liu, Li-Na; Zhu, Zhen-An; Guo, Ya-Ping

    2014-08-01

    A multifunctional magnetic mesoporous bioactive glass (MMBG) has been widely used for a drug delivery system, but its biological properties have been rarely reported. Herein, the effects of mesopores and Fe3O4 nanoparticles on drug loading-release property, bactericidal property and biocompatibility have been investigated by using mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) and non-mesoporous bioactive glass (NBG) as control samples. Both MMBG and MBG have better drug loading efficiency than NBG because they possess ordered mesoporous channels, big specific surface areas and high pore volumes. As compared with MBG, the Fe3O4 nanoparticles in MMBG not only provide magnetic property, but also improve sustained drug release property. For gentamicin-loaded MMBG (Gent-MMBG), the sustained release of gentamicin and the Fe3O4 nanoparticles minimize bacterial adhesion significantly and prevent biofilm formation against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis). Moreover, the magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles in MMBG can promote crucial cell functions such as cell adhesion, spreading and proliferation. The excellent biocompatibility and drug delivery property of MMBG suggest that Gent-MMBG has great potentials for treatment of implant-associated infections.

  13. Bioglass 45S5 transformation and molding material in the processing of biodegradable poly-DL-lactide scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdollahi, Sara

    When bone is damaged, a scaffold can temporarily replace it in the site of injury and incite bone tissue to repair itself. A biodegradable scaffold resorbs into the body, generating non-toxic degradation products as new tissue reforms; a bioactive scaffold encourages the surrounding tissue to regenerate. In the present study, we make composite biodegradable and bioactive scaffolds using poly-DL-lactide (PDLLA), a biodegradable polymer, and incorporate Bioglass 45S5 (BG) to stimulate scaffold bioactivity. BG has an interesting trait when immersed in body fluid, a layer of hydroxycarbonate apatite, similar to the inorganic component of bone, forms on its surface. It is of utmost importance to understand the fate of BG throughout the scaffold’s processing in order to assess the scaffold’s bioactivity. In this study, the established different stages of BG reactivity have been verified by monitoring pH during BG dissolution experiments and by conducting an elemental analysis using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The composite scaffolds are synthesized by the solvent casting and particulate leaching technique and their morphology assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). To understand the transformations occurred in BG during scaffold synthesis, BG as received, as well BG treated in acetone and water (the fluids involved in scaffold processing) are characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results are then compared with BG extracted from scaffolds after processing. BG has been determined to start reacting during the scaffold processing. In addition, its reactivity is influenced by BG particle size. The study suggests that the presence of the polymer provides a reactive environment for BG due to pH effects. Teflon molds in scaffold fabrication are inert and biocompatibile, but their stiffness presents a challenge during de-molding. Silicone-based and polyurethane molds

  14. Preparation and characterization of bioactive glass nanoparticles prepared by sol-gel for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luz, Gisela M.; Mano, João F.

    2011-12-01

    Bioactive glass nanoparticles (BG-NPs), based on both ternary (SiO2-CaO-P2O5) and binary (SiO2-CaO) systems, were prepared via an optimized sol-gel method. The pH of preparation and the effect of heat treatment temperature were evaluated, as well as the effect of suppressing P in the bioactivity ability of the materials. The morphology and composition of the BG-NPs were studied using FTIR, XRD and SEM. The bioactive character of these materials was accessed in vitro by analyzing the ability for apatite formation onto the surface after being immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF). XRD, EDX and SEM were used to confirm the bioactivity of the materials. The BG-NP effect on cell metabolic activity was assessed by seeding L929 cells with their leachables, proving the non-cytotoxicity of the materials. Finally the most bioactive BG-NPs developed (ternary system prepared at pH 11.5 and treated at 700 °C) were successfully combined with chitosan in the production of biomimetic nanocomposite osteoconductive membranes that could have the potential to be used in guided tissue regeneration.

  15. Characterization of the mechanical behaviors and bioactivity of tetrapod ZnO whiskers reinforced bioactive glass/gelatin composite scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Guo, Weihuang; Zhao, Fujian; Wang, Yudong; Tang, Jieyin; Chen, Xiaofeng

    2017-01-23

    The purpose of this study is to construct bone tissue engineering scaffold with high porosity, good mechanical properties, and biological activities. Bioactive glass/gelatin composite scaffolds with different amounts of tetrapod zinc oxide whiskers were produced. The morphology, mechanical properties and in vitro bioactivity of the composite scaffolds were investigated. Results showed that, the composite scaffolds had open pores with a high degree of interconnectivity, and the porosity was higher than 80%. With the amount of ZnO whiskers increased, the mechanical properties of scaffolds increased. However, the reinforcing effect began to decrease when the addition is higher than 2wt%, which was resulted by the aggregation of the ZnO whiskers. In vitro test showed that, the composite scaffolds processed good biodegradability, and in vitro apatite-forming ability. The release of zinc ions retarded the growth of the HCA, so the HCA deposited on the scaffolds with ZnO was amorphous and worm-like. Furthermore, the composite scaffolds had good biocompatibility assessed by in vitro cell tests using rMSCs. All results are promising for the application of the composite scaffolds in bone repair.

  16. Effect of calcium source on structure and properties of sol-gel derived bioactive glasses.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bobo; Turdean-Ionescu, Claudia A; Martin, Richard A; Newport, Robert J; Hanna, John V; Smith, Mark E; Jones, Julian R

    2012-12-18

    The aim was to determine the most effective calcium precursor for synthesis of sol-gel hybrids and for improving homogeneity of sol-gel bioactive glasses. Sol-gel derived bioactive calcium silicate glasses are one of the most promising materials for bone regeneration. Inorganic/organic hybrid materials, which are synthesized by incorporating a polymer into the sol-gel process, have also recently been produced to improve toughness. Calcium nitrate is conventionally used as the calcium source, but it has several disadvantages. Calcium nitrate causes inhomogeneity by forming calcium-rich regions, and it requires high temperature treatment (>400 °C) for calcium to be incorporated into the silicate network. Nitrates are also toxic and need to be burnt off. Calcium nitrate therefore cannot be used in the synthesis of hybrids as the highest temperature used in the process is typically 40-60 °C. Therefore, a different precursor is needed that can incorporate calcium into the silica network and enhance the homogeneity of the glasses at low (room) temperature. In this work, calcium methoxyethoxide (CME) was used to synthesize sol-gel bioactive glasses with a range of final processing temperatures from 60 to 800 °C. Comparison is made between the use of CME and calcium chloride and calcium nitrate. Using advanced probe techniques, the temperature at which Ca is incorporated into the network was identified for 70S30C (70 mol % SiO(2), 30 mol % CaO) for each of the calcium precursors. When CaCl(2) was used, the Ca did not seem to enter the network at any of the temperatures used. In contrast, Ca from CME entered the silica network at room temperature, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction, (29)Si magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and dissolution studies. CME should be used in preference to calcium salts for hybrid synthesis and may improve homogeneity of sol-gel glasses.

  17. Influence of Cu doping in borosilicate bioactive glass and the properties of its derived scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Zhao, Shichang; Xiao, Wei; Xue, Jingzhe; Shen, Youqu; Zhou, Jie; Huang, Wenhai; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Zhang, Changqing; Wang, Deping

    2016-01-01

    Copper doped borosilicate glasses (BG-Cu) were studied by means of FT-IR, Raman, UV-vis and NMR spectroscopies to investigate the changes that appeared in the structure of borosilicate glass matrix by doping copper ions. Micro-fil and immunohistochemistry analysis were applied to study the angiogenesis of its derived scaffolds in vivo. Results indicated that the Cu ions significantly increased the B-O bond of BO4 groups at 980 cm(-1), while they decrease that of BO2O(-) groups at 1440-1470 cm(-1) as shown by Raman spectra. A negative shift was observed from (11)B and (29)Si NMR spectra. The (11)B NMR spectra exhibited a clear transformation from BO3 into BO4 groups, caused by the agglutination effect of the Cu ions and the charge balance of the agglomerate in the glass network, leading to a more stable glass network and lower ions release rate in the degradation process. Furthermore, the BG-Cu scaffolds significantly enhanced blood vessel formation in rat calvarial defects at 8 weeks post-implantation. Generally, it suggested that the introduction of Cu into borosilicate glass endowed glass and its derived scaffolds with good properties, and the cooperation of Cu with bioactive glass may pave a new way for tissue engineering.

  18. Simulations reveal the role of composition into the atomic-level flexibility of bioactive glass cements.

    PubMed

    Tian, Kun Viviana; Chass, Gregory A; Di Tommaso, Devis

    2016-01-14

    Bioactive glass ionomer cements (GICs), the reaction product of a fluoro-alumino-silicate glass and polyacrylic acid, have been in effective use in dentistry for over 40 years and more recently in orthopaedics and medical implantation. Their desirable properties have affirmed GIC's place in the medical materials community, yet are limited to non-load bearing applications due to the brittle nature of the hardened composite cement, thought to arise from the glass component and the interfaces it forms. Towards helping resolve the fundamental bases of the mechanical shortcomings of GICs, we report the 1st ever computational models of a GIC-relevant component. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations were employed to generate and characterise three fluoro-alumino-silicate glasses of differing compositions with focus on resolving the atomic scale structural and dynamic contributions of aluminium, phosphorous and fluorine. Analyses of the glasses revealed rising F-content leading to the expansion of the glass network, compression of Al-F bonding, angular constraint at Al-pivots, localisation of alumino-phosphates and increased fluorine diffusion. Together, these changes to the structure, speciation and dynamics with raised fluorine content impart an overall rigidifying effect on the glass network, and suggest a predisposition to atomic-level inflexibility, which could manifest in the ionomer cements they form.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of cerium- and gallium-containing borate bioactive glass scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Deliormanlı, Aylin M

    2015-02-01

    Bioactive glasses are widely used in biomedical applications due to their ability to bond to bone and even to soft tissues. In this study, borate based (13-93B3) bioactive glass powders containing up to 5 wt% Ce2O3 and Ga2O3 were prepared by the melt quench technique. Cerium (Ce+3) and gallium (Ga+3) were chosen because of their low toxicity associated with bacteriostatic properties. Bioactive glass scaffolds were fabricated using the polymer foam replication method. In vitro degradation and bioactivity of the scaffolds were evaluated in SBF under static conditions. Results revealed that the cerium- and gallium-containing borate glasses have much lower degradation rates compared to the bare borate glass 13-93B3. In spite of the increased chemical durability, substituted glasses exhibited a good in vitro bioactive response except when the Ce2O3 content was 5 wt%. Taking into account the high in vitro hydroxyapatite forming ability, borate glass scaffolds containing Ce+3 and Ga+3 therapeutic ions are promising candidates for bone tissue engineering applications.

  20. Healing of critical-size segmental defects in rat femora using strong porous bioactive glass scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Bi, Lianxiang; Zobell, Brett; Liu, Xin; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Bonewald, Lynda F

    2014-09-01

    The repair of structural bone defects such as segmental defects in the long bones of the limbs is a challenging clinical problem. In this study, the capacity of silicate (13-93) and borate (13-93B3) bioactive glass scaffolds (porosity=47-50%) to heal critical-size segmental defects in rat femurs was evaluated and compared with autografts. Defects were implanted with 13-93 and 13-93B3 scaffolds with a grid-like microstructure (compressive strength=86 MPa and 40 MPa, respectively), 13-93B3 scaffolds with an oriented microstructure (compressive strength=32 MPa) and autografts using intramedullary fixation. Twelve weeks post-implantation, the defects were harvested and evaluated using histomorphometric analysis. The percentage of new bone in the defects implanted with the three groups of glass scaffolds (25-28%) and the total von Kossa-positive area (32-38%) were not significantly different from the autografts (new bone=38%; von Kossa-positive area=40%) (p>0.05). New blood vessel area in the defects implanted with the glass scaffolds (4-8%) and the autografts (5%) showed no significant difference among the four groups. New cartilage formed in the 13-93 grid-like scaffolds (18%) was significantly higher than in 13-93B3 grid-like scaffolds (8%) and in the autografts (8%) (p=0.02). The results indicate that these strong porous bioactive glass scaffolds are promising synthetic implants for structural bone repair.

  1. Freeform extrusion fabrication of titanium fiber reinforced 13-93 bioactive glass scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Albin; Kolan, Krishna C R; Leu, Ming C; Hilmas, Gregory E

    2017-05-01

    Although implants made with bioactive glass have shown promising results for bone repair, their application in repairing load-bearing long bone is limited due to their poor mechanical properties in comparison to human bone. This work investigates the freeform extrusion fabrication of bioactive silicate 13-93 glass scaffolds reinforced with titanium (Ti) fibers. A composite paste prepared with 13-93 glass and Ti fibers (~16µm in diameter and lengths varying from ~200µm to ~2 mm) was extruded through a nozzle to fabricate scaffolds (0-90° filament orientation pattern) on a heated plate. The sintered scaffolds measured pore sizes ranging from 400 to 800µm and a porosity of ~50%. Scaffolds with 0.4vol% Ti fibers measured fracture toughness of ~0.8MPam(1/2) and a flexural strength of ~15MPa. 13-93 glass scaffolds without Ti fibers had a toughness of ~0.5MPam(1/2) and a strength of ~10MPa. The addition of Ti fibers increased the fracture toughness of the scaffolds by ~70% and flexural strength by ~40%. The scaffolds' biocompatibility and their degradation in mechanical properties in vitro were assessed by immersing the scaffolds in a simulated body fluid over a period of one to four weeks.

  2. Bioactivity and cytotoxicity of glass and glass-ceramics based on the 3CaO·P₂O₅--SiO₂--MgO system.

    PubMed

    Daguano, Juliana K M F; Rogero, Sizue O; Crovace, Murilo C; Peitl, Oscar; Strecker, Kurt; Dos Santos, Claudinei

    2013-09-01

    The mechanical strength of bioactive glasses can be improved by controlled crystallization, turning its use as bulk bone implants viable. However, crystallization may affect the bioactivity of the material. The aim of this study was to develop glass-ceramics of the nominal composition (wt%) 52.75(3CaO·P₂O₅)-30SiO₂-17.25MgO, with different crystallized fractions and to evaluate their in vitro cytotoxicity and bioactivity. Specimens were heat-treated at 700, 775 and 975 °C, for 4 h. The major crystalline phase identified was whitlockite, an Mg-substituted tricalcium phosphate. The evaluation of the cytotoxicity was carried out by the neutral red uptake methodology. Ionic exchanges with the simulated body fluid SBF-K9 acellular solution during the in vitro bioactivity tests highlight the differences in terms of chemical reactivity between the glass and the glass-ceramics. The effect of crystallinity on the rates of hydroxycarbonate apatite (HCA) formation was followed by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. Although all glass-ceramics can be considered bioactive, the glass-ceramic heat-treated at 775 °C (V775-4) presented the most interesting result, because the onset for HCA formation is at about 24 h and after 7 days the HCA layer dominates completely the spectrum. This occurs probably due to the presence of the whitlockite phase (3(Ca,Mg)O·P₂O₅). All samples were considered not cytotoxic.

  3. A multilayer approach to fabricate bioactive glass coatings on Ti alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Vega, J.M.; Saiz, E.; Tomsia, A.P.; Marshall, G.W.; Marshall, S.J.

    1998-12-01

    Glasses in the system Si-Ca-Na-Mg-P-K-O with thermal expansion coefficients close to that of Ti6Al4V were used to coat the titanium alloy by a simple enameling technique. Firings were done in air at temperatures between 800 and 840 C and times up to 1 minute. Graded compositions were obtained by firing multilayered glass coatings. Hydroxyapatite (HA) particles were mixed with the glass powder and the mixture was placed on the outer surface of the coatings to render them more bioactive. Coatings with excellent adhesion to the substrate and able to form apatite when immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF) can be fabricated by this methodology.

  4. Hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate composites with bioactive glass as second phase: State of the art and current applications.

    PubMed

    Bellucci, Devis; Sola, Antonella; Cannillo, Valeria

    2016-04-01

    Calcium phosphates are among the most common biomaterials employed in orthopaedic and dental surgery. The efficacy of such systems as bone substitutes and bioactive coatings on metallic prostheses has been proved by several clinical studies. Among these materials, hydroxyapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) play a prominent role in medical practice since the '80s. In the last years, numerous attempts to combine HA or TCP with bioactive glasses have been made. There are two main motivations for sintering calcium phosphates with a glassy phase: on the one hand, it is possible to tune the dissolution of the final system and to enhance its biological response through the synergistic combination of two bioactive phases; on the other hand, the glass acts as a sintering aid with the aim to increase the densification of the composite and thus its mechanical strength. In this sense, TCP and HA are penalized by their relatively poor fracture toughness and tensile strength compared to natural bone, which makes it impossible to use them in load-bearing applications. Moreover, the bioactivity index of pure calcium phosphates is typically lower with respect to that of many bioactive glasses. In this review, the state of the art and current applications of composites, based on HA or TCP with bioactive glass as second phase, are presented and discussed. A special emphasis is given to the processing and mechanical behaviour of these systems, together with their biological implications, as a function of the composition of the glass employed as second phase.

  5. Effects of milling media on the fabrication of melt-derived bioactive glass powder for biomaterial application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Nurul Farhana; Mohamad, Hasmaliza; Noor, Siti Noor Fazliah Mohd

    2016-12-01

    The present work aims to study the effects of using different milling media on bioactive glass produced through melt-derived method for biomaterial application. The bioactive glass powder based on SiO2-CaO-Na2O-P2O5 system was fabricated using two different types of milling media which are tungsten carbide (WC) and zirconia (ZrO2) balls. However, in this work, no P2O5 was added in the new composition. XRF analysis indicated that tungsten trioxide (WO3) was observed in glass powder milled using WC balls whereas ZrO2 was observed in glass powder milled using ZrO2 balls. Amorphous structure was detected with no crystalline peak observed through XRD analysis for both glass powders. FTIR analysis confirmed the formation of silica network with the existence of functional groups Si-O-Si (bend), Si-O-Si (tetrahedral) and Si-O-Si (stretch) for both glass powders. The results revealed that there was no significant effect of milling media on amorphous silica network glass structure which shows that WC and zirconia can be used as milling media for bioactive glass fabrication without any contamination. Therefore, the fabricated BG can be tested safely for bioactivity assessment in biological fluids environment.

  6. The behaviour of selected yttrium containing bioactive glass microspheres in simulated body environments.

    PubMed

    Cacaina, D; Ylänen, H; Simon, S; Hupa, M

    2008-03-01

    The study aims at the manufacture and investigation of biodegradable glass microspheres incorporated with yttrium potentially useful for radionuclide therapy of cancer. The glass microspheres in the SiO2-Na2O-P2O5-CaO-K2O-MgO system containing yttrium were prepared by conventional melting and flame spheroidization. The behaviour of the yttrium silicate glass microspheres was investigated under in vitro conditions using simulated body fluid (SBF) and Tris buffer solution (TBS), for different periods of time, according to half-life time of the Y-90. The local structure of the glasses and the effect of yttrium on the biodegradability process were evaluated by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Back Scattered Electron Imaging of Scanning Electron Microscopy (BEI-SEM) equipped with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. UV-VIS spectrometry and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for analyzing the release behaviour of silica and yttrium in the two used solutions. The results indicate that the addition of yttrium to a bioactive glass increases its structural stability which therefore, induced a different behaviour of the glasses in simulated body environments.

  7. Significant degradability enhancement in multilayer coating of polycaprolactone-bioactive glass/gelatin-bioactive glass on magnesium scaffold for tissue engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdimamaghani, Mostafa; Razavi, Mehdi; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Pothineni, Venkata Raveendra; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Tayebi, Lobat

    2015-05-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is a promising candidate to be used in medical products especially as bone tissue engineering scaffolds. The main challenge for using Mg in biomedical applications is its high degradation rate in the body. For this reason, in this study, a multilayer polymeric layer composed of polycaprolactone (PCL) and gelatin (Gel) reinforced with bioactive glass (BaG) particles has been applied on the surface of Mg scaffolds. The materials characteristics of uncoated Mg scaffold, Mg scaffold coated only with PCL-BaG and Mg scaffold coated with PCL-BaG and Gel-BaG have been analyzed and compared in detail. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were utilized for microstructural studies. In vitro bioactivity and biodegradation evaluations were carried out by submerging the scaffolds in simulated body fluid (SBF) at pre-determined time points. The results demonstrated that Mg scaffold coated with PCL-BaG and Gel-BaG exhibited significant improvement in biodegradability.

  8. Biodegradable mesoporous bioactive glass nanospheres for drug delivery and bone tissue regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaojian; Li, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Bioactive inorganic materials are attractive for hard tissue regeneration, and they are used as delivery vehicles for pharmaceutical molecules, scaffolds and components for bio-composites. We demonstrated mesoporous bioactive glass (BG) nanospheres that exhibited the capacity to deliver pharmaceutical molecules. Mesoporous BG nanospheres with variable Ca to Si ratios were synthesized using sol-gel chemistry. By controlling the hydrolysis and condensation conditions, the diameter of the mesoporous BG nanospheres was changed from 300 nm to 1500 nm. The porous structure and surface area of the BG nanospheres were shown to be dependent on their composition. The surface area of the BG nanospheres decreased from 400 ± 2 m2 g-1 to 56 ± 0.1 m2 g-1 when the Ca/Si ratio increased from 5 to 50 at.%. When the mesoporous BG nanospheres were loaded with ibuprofen (IBU), they exhibited a sustained release profile in simulated body fluid (SBF). In the meantime, the IBU-loaded BG nanospheres degraded in SBF, and induced apatite layer formation on the surface as a result of their good bioactivity. When the BG nanospheres were used as a composite filler to poly (ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), they were shown to be effective at improving the in vitro bioactivity of PCL microspheres.

  9. A nanotectonics approach to produce hierarchically organized bioactive glass nanoparticles-based macrospheres.

    PubMed

    Luz, Gisela M; Mano, João F

    2012-10-21

    Bioactive particles have been widely used in a series of biomedical applications due to their ability to promote bone-bonding and elicit favorable biological responses in therapies associated with the replacement and regeneration of mineralized tissues. In this work hierarchical architectures are prepared by an innovative methodology using SiO(2)-CaO sol-gel based nanoparticles. Inspired by colloidal crystals, spherical aggregates were formed on biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces using bioactive glass nanoparticles (BG-NPs) able to promote bone regeneration. A highly ordered organization, a common feature of mineralized structures in Nature, was achieved at both nano- and microlevels, being the crystallization degree of the structures controlled by the evaporation rates taking place at room temperature (RT) or at 4 °C. The crystallization degree of the structures influenced the Ca/P ratio of the apatitic film formed at their surface, after 7 days of immersion in SBF. This allows the regulation of bioactive properties and the ability to release potential additives that could be also incorporated in such particles with a high efficiency. Such a versatile method to produce bioactive particles with controlled size and internal structure could open new possibilities in designing new spherical devices for orthopaedic applications, including tissue engineering.

  10. A nanotectonics approach to produce hierarchically organized bioactive glass nanoparticles-based macrospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luz, Gisela M.; Mano, João F.

    2012-09-01

    Bioactive particles have been widely used in a series of biomedical applications due to their ability to promote bone-bonding and elicit favorable biological responses in therapies associated with the replacement and regeneration of mineralized tissues. In this work hierarchical architectures are prepared by an innovative methodology using SiO2-CaO sol-gel based nanoparticles. Inspired by colloidal crystals, spherical aggregates were formed on biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces using bioactive glass nanoparticles (BG-NPs) able to promote bone regeneration. A highly ordered organization, a common feature of mineralized structures in Nature, was achieved at both nano- and microlevels, being the crystallization degree of the structures controlled by the evaporation rates taking place at room temperature (RT) or at 4 °C. The crystallization degree of the structures influenced the Ca/P ratio of the apatitic film formed at their surface, after 7 days of immersion in SBF. This allows the regulation of bioactive properties and the ability to release potential additives that could be also incorporated in such particles with a high efficiency. Such a versatile method to produce bioactive particles with controlled size and internal structure could open new possibilities in designing new spherical devices for orthopaedic applications, including tissue engineering.

  11. In vitro bioactivity evaluation, mechanical properties and microstructural characterization of Na₂O-CaO-B₂O₃-P₂O₅ glasses.

    PubMed

    Abo-Naf, Sherief M; Khalil, El-Sayed M; El-Sayed, El-Sayed M; Zayed, Hamdia A; Youness, Rasha A

    2015-06-05

    Na2O-CaO-B2O3-P2O5 glasses have been prepared by the melt-quenching method. B2O3 content was systematically increased from 5 to 30 mol%, at the expense of P2O5, in the chemical composition of these glasses. Density, Vickers microhardness and fracture toughness of the prepared glasses were measured. In vitro bioactivity of the glasses was assessed by soaking in the simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37±0.5°C for 3, 7, 14 and 30 days. The glasses were tested in the form of glass grains as well as bulk slabs. The structure and composition of the solid reaction products were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The kinetics of degradation of the glass particles were monitored by measuring the weight loss of the particles and the ionic concentration of Ca, P and B in the SBF solution using inductive coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The obtained results revealed the formation of a bioactive hydroxyapatite (HA) layer, composed of nano-crystallites, on the surface of glass grains after the in vitro assays. The results have been used to understand the formation of HA as a function of glass composition and soaking time in the SBF. It can be pointed out that increasing B2O3 content in glass composition enhances the bioactivity of glasses. The nanometric particle size of the formed HA and in vitro bioactivity of the studied glasses make them possible candidates for tissue engineering application.

  12. Molecular gates in mesoporous bioactive glasses for the treatment of bone tumors and infection.

    PubMed

    Polo, Lorena; Gómez-Cerezo, Natividad; Aznar, Elena; Vivancos, José-Luis; Sancenón, Félix; Arcos, Daniel; Vallet-Regí, María; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón

    2017-03-01

    Silica mesoporous nanomaterials have been proved to have meaningful application in biotechnology and biomedicine. Particularly, mesoporous bioactive glasses are recently gaining importance thanks to their bone regenerative properties. Moreover, the mesoporous nature of these materials makes them suitable for drug delivery applications, opening new lines in the field of bone therapies. In this work, we have developed innovative nanodevices based on the implementation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and ε-poly-l-lysine molecular gates using a mesoporous bioglass as an inorganic support. The systems have been previously proved to work properly with a fluorescence probe and subsequently with an antibiotic (levofloxacin) and an antitumoral drug (doxorubicin). The bioactivity of the prepared materials has also been tested, giving promising results. Finally, in vitro cell culture studies have been carried out; demonstrating that this gated devices can provide useful approaches for bone cancer and bone infection treatments.

  13. A glass fiber-reinforced composite - bioactive glass cranioplasty implant: A case study of an early development stage implant removed due to a late infection.

    PubMed

    Posti, Jussi P; Piitulainen, Jaakko M; Hupa, Leena; Fagerlund, Susanne; Frantzén, Janek; Aitasalo, Kalle M J; Vuorinen, Ville; Serlo, Willy; Syrjänen, Stina; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2015-03-01

    This case study describes the properties of an early development stage bioactive glass containing fiber-reinforced composite calvarial implant with histology that has been in function for two years and three months. The patient is a 33-year old woman with a history of substance abuse, who sustained a severe traumatic brain injury later unsuccessfully treated with an autologous bone flap and a custom-made porous polyethylene implant. She was thereafter treated with developmental stage glass fiber-reinforced composite - bioactive glass implant. After two years and three months, the implant was removed due to an implant site infection. The implant was analyzed histologically, mechanically, and in terms of chemistry and dissolution of bioactive glass. Mechanical integrity of the load bearing fiber-reinforced composite part of the implant was not affected by the in vivo period. Bioactive glass particles demonstrated surface layers of hydroxyapatite like mineral and dissolution, and related increase of pH was considerably less after two and three months period than that for fresh bioactive glass. There was a difference in the histology of the tissues inside the implant areas near to the margin of the implant that absorbed blood during implant installation surgery, showed fibrous tissue with blood vessels, osteoblasts, collagenous fibers with osteoid formation, and tiny clusters of more mature hard tissue. In the center of the implant, where there was less absorbed blood, only fibrous tissue was observed. This finding is in line with the combined positron emission tomography - computed tomography examination with (18F)-fluoride marker, which demonstrated activity of the mineralizing bone by osteoblasts especially at the area near to the margin of the implant 10 months after implantation. Based on these promising reactions found in the bioactive glass containing fiber-reinforced composite implant that has been implanted for two years and three months, calvarial

  14. In vitro bioactivity of titanium-doped bioglass.

    PubMed

    Asif, Imran M; Shelton, Richard M; Cooper, Paul R; Addison, Owen; Martin, Richard A

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies have suggested that incorporating relatively small quantities of titanium dioxide into bioactive glasses may result in an increase in bioactivity and hydroxyapatite formation. The present work therefore investigated the in vitro bioactivity of a titanium doped bioglass and compared the results with 45S5 bioglass. Apatite formation was evaluated for bioglass and Ti-bioglass in the presence and absence of foetal calf serum. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images were used to evaluate the surface development and energy dispersive X-ray measurements provided information on the elemental ratios. X-ray diffraction spectra confirmed the presence of apatite formation. Cell viability was assessed for bone marrow stromal cells under direct and indirect contact conditions and cell adhesion was assessed using SEM.

  15. Structural characterization and anti-cancerous potential of gallium bioactive glass/hydrogel composites.

    PubMed

    Keenan, T J; Placek, L M; Coughlan, A; Bowers, G M; Hall, M M; Wren, A W

    2016-11-20

    A bioactive glass series (0.42SiO2-0.10Na2O-0.08CaO-(0.40-X)ZnO-(X)Ga2O3) was incorporated into carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)/dextran (Dex) hydrogels in three different amounts (0.05, 0.10, and 0.25m(2)), and the resulting composites were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and (13)C Cross Polarization Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (CP MAS-NMR). Composite extracts were also evaluated in vitro against MG-63 osteosarcoma cells. TEM confirmed glass distribution throughout the composites, although some particle agglomeration was observed. DSC revealed that glass composition and content did have small effects on both Tg and Tm. MAS-NMR revealed that both CMC and Dex were successfully functionalized, that cross-linking occurred, and that glass addition did slightly alter bonding environments. Cell viability analysis suggested that extracts of the glass and composites with the largest Ga-content significantly decreased MG-63 osteosarcoma viability after 30days. This study successfully characterized this composite series, and demonstrated their potential for anti-cancerous applications.

  16. Comparative Evaluation of Bioactive Glass (Putty) and Platelet Rich Fibrin in Treating Furcation Defects.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Shriparna; Sambashivaiah, Savita; Kulal, Rithesh; Bilichodmath, Shivaprasad; Kurtzman, Gregori M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a second-generation bioactive glass putty biomaterial against platelet rich fibrin in treating grade II furcation defects. Subjects were 15 systemically healthy patients (10 males and 5 females, ages 20-50 with a mean age of 38.33) with 20 mandibular molar class II furcation defects according to Glickman's classification. The 20 mandibular molar furcation defects were randomly allocated as follows: Group I, 10 furcation defects were treated using bioactive glass (NovaBone) bone graft putty material; Group II, 10 furcation defects were treated using platelet rich fibrin (PRF). Customized acrylic stents were fabricated on study casts and trimmed to the height contour of the teeth to serve as a fixed reference point for measurements. The following measurements were collected: gingival index, plaque index, vertical probing depth (from gingival margin to base of the pocket), clinical attachment level (CEJ to the base of the pocket), and horizontal probing depth of furcation involvement (using stent). Results showed that both groups had improvement in gingival index (GI) and plaque index (PI) at the recall intervals. There was an overall reduction in both vertical and horizontal probing depth in both groups; however, the Putty group (Group I) showed consistently more vertical probing depth reduction than the PRF group (Group II) at the end of third month (P-value = 0.0004), sixth month (P-value = 0.00001), and ninth month (P-value = 0.0004). Our conclusion was that use of bioactive glass osteostimulative biomaterial yields superior clinical results, including increased pocket depth reduction of class II furcation defects as compared to an autologous platelet concentrate. The clinical significance of our findings include the ease of use and superior biologic performance of second-generation putty bioglass biomaterials in furcation defects.

  17. The Influence of Peptide Modifications of Bioactive Glass on Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Growth and Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammar, Mohamed

    2011-12-01

    Bioactive glass is known for its potential as a bone scaffold due to its ability to stimulate osteogenesis and induce bone formation. Broadening this potential to include the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to bone cells will enhance the healing process in bone defects. The surface of bioactive glass made by the sol-gel technique with the composition of 70% SiO2-30% CaO (mol %) was grafted with 3 peptides sequences in different combinations from proteins (fibronectin BMP-2 and BMP-9) that are known to promote the adhesion, differentiation and osteogenesis process. The experiment was done in two forms, a 2D non-porous thin film and a 3D nano-macroporous structure. hMSCs were grown on the materials for a total of five weeks. The 2D materials were tested for the expression of 3 osteogenic markers (osteopontin, osteocalcin and osteonectin) through immunocytochemistry. The 3D forms were monitored for cell's adhesion, morphology, spreading and proliferation by scanning electron microscopy, in addition to proliferation assay and alkaline phosphatase activity measurement. Results showed that hMSCs poorly adhered to the 2D thin films, but the few cells survived showed enhanced expression of the osteogenic markers. On the 3D form, cells showed enhanced proliferation at week one and more survival of the cells on the materials grafted with the adhesion peptide for the successive weeks in comparison to the positive control samples. Enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity was also detected compared to the negative control samples but were still below the positive control samples. In conclusion, the peptide grafting could increase the effect of bioactive glass but more peptide combinations should be examined to improve the effects on the differentiation and osteogenic activity of the hMSCs.

  18. Development of beta-tricalcium phosphate/sol-gel derived bioactive glass composites: physical, mechanical, and in vitro biological evaluations.

    PubMed

    Hesaraki, Saeed; Safari, Mojgan; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali

    2009-10-01

    In this study, composites of beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) and sol gel derived bioactive glass (10, 25, and 40 wt %) based on the SiO(2)-CaO-MgO-P(2)O(5) system were prepared and sintered at 1000-1200 degrees C. The mechanical properties were investigated by measuring bending strength, Vickers hardness and fracture toughness. Structural properties were evaluated by XRD and SEM analysis, and the biological properties were studied by soaking the samples in simulated body fluid (SBF) and in contact with osteoblastic cell for viability assay. When the samples were sintered at 1200 degrees C, the mechanical strength increased, up to 34%, by increasing the amount of bioactive glass phase. In contrast, it decreased when the samples were sintered at 1000 and 1100 degrees C. The results showed that the strength could be improved up to 56% when more firing period was used. Incorporation of the bioactive glass phase into beta-TCP increased the microhardness but did not significantly change the fracture toughness. Phase analysis revealed that beta-TCP or magnesium-substituted beta-TCP was the main crystalline phase of the composites beside some calcium silicate crystallized in the bioactive glass phase. Plenty precipitation of calcium phosphate layer onto the surfaces of the beta-TCP/bioactive glass composites soaked in SBF indicated superior bioactivity of these materials compared to pure beta-TCP without any precipitation. The ability of beta-TCP/bioactive glass composites to support the growth of human osteoblastic cells was considerably better than that of pure beta-TCP. These results may be used to indicate which compositions and processing conditions can provide appropriate materials for hard tissue regeneration.

  19. Mesoporous bioactive glass nanolayer-functionalized 3D-printed scaffolds for accelerating osteogenesis and angiogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yali; Xia, Lunguo; Zhai, Dong; Shi, Mengchao; Luo, Yongxiang; Feng, Chun; Fang, Bing; Yin, Jingbo; Chang, Jiang; Wu, Chengtie

    2015-11-01

    The hierarchical microstructure, surface and interface of biomaterials are important factors influencing their bioactivity. Porous bioceramic scaffolds have been widely used for bone tissue engineering by optimizing their chemical composition and large-pore structure. However, the surface and interface of struts in bioceramic scaffolds are often ignored. The aim of this study is to incorporate hierarchical pores and bioactive components into the bioceramic scaffolds by constructing nanopores and bioactive elements on the struts of scaffolds and further improve their bone-forming activity. Mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) modified β-tricalcium phosphate (MBG-β-TCP) scaffolds with a hierarchical pore structure and a functional strut surface (~100 nm of MBG nanolayer) were successfully prepared via 3D printing and spin coating. The compressive strength and apatite-mineralization ability of MBG-β-TCP scaffolds were significantly enhanced as compared to β-TCP scaffolds without the MBG nanolayer. The attachment, viability, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteogenic gene expression (Runx2, BMP2, OPN and Col I) and protein expression (OPN, Col I, VEGF, HIF-1α) of rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (rBMSCs) as well as the attachment, viability and angiogenic gene expression (VEGF and HIF-1α) of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in MBG-β-TCP scaffolds were significantly upregulated compared with conventional bioactive glass (BG)-modified β-TCP (BG-β-TCP) and pure β-TCP scaffolds. Furthermore, MBG-β-TCP scaffolds significantly enhanced the formation of new bone in vivo as compared to BG-β-TCP and β-TCP scaffolds. The results suggest that application of the MBG nanolayer to modify 3D-printed bioceramic scaffolds offers a new strategy to construct hierarchically porous scaffolds with significantly improved physicochemical and biological properties, such as mechanical properties, osteogenesis, angiogenesis and protein expression for bone tissue

  20. The effect of exposed glass fibers and particles of bioactive glass on the surface wettability of composite implants.

    PubMed

    Abdulmajeed, Aous A; Lassila, Lippo V; Vallittu, Pekka K; Närhi, Timo O

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of the wettability of a material is a predictive index of cytocompatibility. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of exposed E-glass fibers and bioactive glass (BAG) particles on the surface wettability behavior of composite implants. Two different groups were investigated: (a) fiber reinforced composites (FRCs) with different fiber orientations and (b) polymer composites with different wt. % of BAG particles. Photopolymerized and heat postpolymerized composite substrates were made for both groups. The surface wettability, topography, and roughness were analyzed. Equilibrium contact angles were measured using the sessile drop method. Three liquids were used as a probe for surface free energy (SFE) calculations. SFE values were calculated from contact angles obtained on smooth surfaces. The surface with transverse distribution of fibers showed higher (P < 0.001) polar (γ(P)) and total SFE (γ(TOT)) components (16.9 and 51.04 mJ/m(2), resp.) than the surface with in-plane distribution of fibers (13.77 and 48.27 mJ/m(2), resp.). The increase in BAG particle wt. % increased the polar (γ(P)) value, while the dispersive (γ(D)) value decreased. Postpolymerization by heat treatment improved the SFE components on all the surfaces investigated (P < 0.001). Composites containing E-glass fibers and BAG particles are hydrophilic materials that show good wettability characteristics.

  1. Tape cast bioactive metal-ceramic laminates for structural application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clupper, Daniel Christopher

    Bioglass 45S5, is a silica based glass which is able to rapidly form strong bonds with bone and soft tissue in vivo. It is used clinically to replace damaged ear ossicles and in dental surgery to help maintain the structural integrity of the jaw bone. The goal of the research was to demonstrate that Bioglass can be toughened by lamination with metallic layers while maintaining bioactivity. Improvement of the mechanical properties of Bioglass 45SS would allow for additional clinical applications, such as fracture fixation plates, or vertebral spacers. Bioglass 45S5 was tape cast and laminated with clinically relevant metals (316L, stainless steel and titanium) as well as copper in an effort to demonstrate that the effective toughness, or area under the load-deflection diagram can be increased significantly through ductile layer lamination. The average strength of monolithic tape cast sintered Bioglass was as high as 150 MPa and the toughness measured approximately 1.0 MPa m1/2. Copper-Bioglass laminates clearly demonstrated the toughening effect of metal layers on tape cast sintered Bioglass 45S5. Steel-Bioglass laminates, although less tough than the copper-Bioglass laminates, showed higher strengths. In vitro bioactivity tests of both titanium and steel Bioglass laminates showed the formation of mature and thick hydroxyapatite layers after 24 hours in Tris buffer solution. Under the standard test conditions, the bioactivity of monolithic tape cast sintered Bioglass increased with increasing sintering temperature. For samples sintered at 1000°C, thick crystalline layers of hydroxyapatite formed within 24 hours in Tris buffer solution. The bioactivity of these samples approached that of amorphous bulk Bioglass. Samples processed at 800°C were able to form thick crystalline hydroxyapatite layer after 24 hours when the test solution volume was increased by eight times.

  2. Crystallization processes at the surface of polylactic acid-bioactive glass composites during immersion in simulated body fluid.

    PubMed

    Ginsac, Nathalie; Chenal, Jean-Marc; Meille, Sylvain; Pacard, Elodie; Zenati, Rachid; Hartmann, Daniel J; Chevalier, Jérôme

    2011-11-01

    We report on the crystallization processes occurring at the surface of PDLLA-Bioglass® composites immersed in simulated body fluid. Composites manufactured by injection molding and containing different amounts (0, 20, 30, and 50 wt %) of 45S5 Bioglass® particles were tested for durations up to 56 days and compared with Bioglass® particles alone. Crystallization processes were followed by visual inspection, X-ray diffraction (with Rietveld analysis) and scanning electron microscopy. Both calcite and hydroxyapatite were formed at the surface of all materials, but their relative ratio was dependent on the Bioglass® content and immersion time. Hydroxyapatite was always the major phase after sufficient immersion time, insuring bioactivity of such composites especially for Bioglass® content higher than 30 wt %. A scenario of crystallization is proposed. Rapid degradation of the composites with 50 wt % was also observed during immersion. Therefore, composites with 30 wt % of Bioglass® particles seem to exhibit the best balance between bioactivity and stability at least during the first weeks of immersion in contact with body fluids.

  3. Investigating the effect of TiO2 on the structure and biocompatibility of bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Placek, Lana M; Keenan, Timothy J; Li, Yiming; Yatongchai, Chokchai; Pradhan, Dimple; Boyd, Daniel; Mellott, Nathan P; Wren, Anthony W

    2016-11-01

    Titanium (Ti(4+) ) containing materials have been widely used in medical applications due to its associated bioactivity in vivo. This study investigates the replacement of Si(4+) with Ti(4+) within the system SiO2 -Na2 O-CaO-P2 O5 to determine its influence on glass structure. This strategy was conducted in order to control the glass solubility to further improve the cellular response. Ti(4+) incorporation was found to have little influence on the glass transition temperature (Tg  = 520 ± 8°C) and magic angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) shifts (-80 ppm) up to additions of 18 wt %. However, at 30 wt % the Tg increased to 600°C and MAS-NMR spectra shifted to -88 ppm. There was also an associated reduction in glass solubility as a function of Ti(4+) incorporation as determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy where Si(4+) (1649-44 mg/L) and Na(+) (892-36 mg/L) levels greatly reduced while Ca(2+) (3-5 mg/L) and PO43- (2-7 mg/L) levels remained relatively unchanged. MC3T3 osteoblasts were used for cell culture testing and it was determined that the Ti(4+) glasses increased cell viability and also facilitated greater osteoblast adhesion and proliferation to the glass surface compared to the control glass. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1703-1712, 2016.

  4. Phase composition and in vitro bioactivity of porous implants made of bioactive glass S53P4.

    PubMed

    Fagerlund, S; Massera, J; Moritz, N; Hupa, L; Hupa, M

    2012-07-01

    This work studied the influence of sintering temperature on the phase composition, compression strength and in vitro properties of implants made of bioactive glass S53P4. The implants were sintered within the temperature range 600-1000°C. Over the whole temperature range studied, consolidation took place mainly via viscous flow sintering, even though there was partial surface crystallization. The mechanical strength of the implants was low but increased with the sintering temperature, from 0.7 MPa at 635°C to 10 MPa at 1000°C. Changes in the composition of simulated body fluid (SBF), the immersion solution, were evaluated by pH measurements and ion analysis using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The development of a calcium phosphate layer on the implant surfaces was verified using scanning electron microscopy-electron-dispersive X-ray analysis. When immersed in SBF, a calcium phosphate layer formed on all the samples, but the structure of this layer was affected by the surface crystalline phases. Hydroxyapatite formed more readily on amorphous and partially crystalline implants containing both primary Na(2)O·CaO·2SiO(2) and secondary Na(2)Ca(4)(PO(4))(2)SiO(4) crystals than on implants containing only primary crystals.

  5. Silicate and borate glasses as composite fillers: a bioactivity and biocompatibility study.

    PubMed

    Lopes, P P; Ferreira, B J M Leite; Gomes, P S; Correia, R N; Fernandes, M H; Fernandes, M H V

    2011-06-01

    Composites filled with a silicate glass (CSi) and a new borate glass (CB) were developed and compared in terms of their in vitro behaviour both in acellular and cellular media. Acellular tests were carried out in SBF and the composites were characterized by SEM-EDS, XRD and ICP. Biocompatibility studies were investigated by in vitro cell culture with MG-63 osteoblast-like and human bone marrow cells. The growth of spherical calcium phosphate aggregates was observed in acellular medium on all composite surfaces indicating that these materials became potentially bioactive. The biological assessment resulted in a dissimilar behavior of the composites. The CSi demonstrated an inductive effect on the proliferation of cells. The cells showed a normal morphology and high growth rate when compared to standard culture plates. Contrarily, inhibition of cell proliferation occurred in the CB probably due to its high degradation rate, leading to high B and Mg ionic concentration in the cell culture medium.

  6. Effects of biosilicate and bioglass 45S5 on tibial bone consolidation on rats: a biomechanical and a histological study.

    PubMed

    Granito, Renata N; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki; Rennó, Ana Claudia M; Ravagnani, Christian; Bossini, Paulo S; Peitl-Filho, Oscar; Zanotto, Edgar D; Parizotto, Nivaldo A; Oishi, Jorge

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Bioglass 45S5 and Biosilicate, on bone defects inflicted on the tibia of rats. Fifty male Wistar rats were used in this study, and divided into five groups, including a control group, to test Biosilicate and Bioglass materials of two different particle sizes (180-212 microm or 300-355 microm). All animals were sacrificed 15 days after surgery. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were found when values for Maximal load, Energy Absorption and Structural Stiffness were compared among the groups. Histopathological evaluation revealed osteogenic activity in the bone defect for the control group. Nevertheless, it seems that the amount of fully formed bone was higher in specimens treated with Biosilicate (granulometry 300-355 microm) when compared to the control group. The same picture occurred regarding Biosilicate with granulometry 180-212 microm. Morphometric findings for bone area results (%) showed no statistically significant differences (P > 0.05) among the groups. Taken together, such findings suggest that, Biosilicate exerts more osteogenic activity when compared to Bioglass under subjective histopathological analysis.

  7. Clinical Applications of S53P4 Bioactive Glass in Bone Healing and Osteomyelitic Treatment: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    van Gestel, N A P; Geurts, J; Hulsen, D J W; van Rietbergen, B; Hofmann, S; Arts, J J

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, S53P4 bioactive glass is indicated as a bone graft substitute in various clinical applications. This review provides an overview of the current published clinical results on indications such as craniofacial procedures, grafting of benign bone tumour defects, instrumental spondylodesis, and the treatment of osteomyelitis. Given the reported results that are based on examinations, such as clinical examinations by the surgeons, radiographs, CT, and MRI images, S53P4 bioactive glass may be beneficial in the various reported applications. Especially in craniofacial reconstructions like mastoid obliteration and orbital floor reconstructions, in grafting bone tumour defects, and in the treatment of osteomyelitis very promising results are obtained. Randomized clinical trials need to be performed in order to determine whether bioactive glass would be able to replace the current golden standard of autologous bone usage or with the use of antibiotic containing PMMA beads (in the case of osteomyelitis).

  8. Clinical Applications of S53P4 Bioactive Glass in Bone Healing and Osteomyelitic Treatment: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    van Gestel, N. A. P.; Geurts, J.; Hulsen, D. J. W.; van Rietbergen, B.; Hofmann, S.; Arts, J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, S53P4 bioactive glass is indicated as a bone graft substitute in various clinical applications. This review provides an overview of the current published clinical results on indications such as craniofacial procedures, grafting of benign bone tumour defects, instrumental spondylodesis, and the treatment of osteomyelitis. Given the reported results that are based on examinations, such as clinical examinations by the surgeons, radiographs, CT, and MRI images, S53P4 bioactive glass may be beneficial in the various reported applications. Especially in craniofacial reconstructions like mastoid obliteration and orbital floor reconstructions, in grafting bone tumour defects, and in the treatment of osteomyelitis very promising results are obtained. Randomized clinical trials need to be performed in order to determine whether bioactive glass would be able to replace the current golden standard of autologous bone usage or with the use of antibiotic containing PMMA beads (in the case of osteomyelitis). PMID:26504821

  9. New PMMA-co-EHA glass-filled composites for biomedical applications: Mechanical properties and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Poliana; Corbellini, Marcelo; Ferreira, Bárbara Leite; Almeida, Nuno; Fredel, Márcio; Fernandes, Maria Helena; Correia, Rui

    2009-01-01

    A bioactive glass of the 3CaO.P(2)O(5)-MgO-SiO(2) system was incorporated as a filler into poly(methylmethacrylate)-co-(ethylhexylacrylate) (PMMA-co-EHA) copolymer. The effect of filler proportion (0, 30, 40 and 50wt.%) on the bending properties was evaluated and a maximum flexural strength of 29MPa coupled with an elastic modulus of 1.1GPa was obtained at an intermediate filler concentration (30wt.%). These values are slightly higher than those usually reported for human cancellous bone. The in vitro bioactivity was assessed by determining the changes in surface morphology and composition after soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF, Kokubo solution). Inductively coupled plasma was used to trace the evolution of ionic concentrations in the SBF solution, namely Ca and P. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the growth of spherical calcium phosphate aggregates on the surface of composites, indicating that the composites are potentially bioactive.

  10. Characterization of fabricated cobalt-based alloy/nano bioactive glass composites.

    PubMed

    Bafandeh, Mohammad Reza; Gharahkhani, Raziyeh; Fathi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-12-01

    In this work, cobalt-based alloy/nano bioactive glass (NBG) composites with 10, 15 and 20wt% NBG were prepared and their bioactivity after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 1 to 4weeks was studied. Scanning electron microscopy images of two- step sintered composites revealed relatively dense microstructure. The results showed that density of composite samples decreased with increase in NBG amount. The microstructure analysis as well as energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) revealed that small amount of calcium phosphate phases precipitates on the surface of composite samples after 1week immersion in SBF. After 2weeks immersion, considerable amounts of cauliflower-like shaped precipitations were seen on the surface of the composites. Based on EDX analysis, these precipitations were composed mainly from Ca, P and Si. The observed bands in the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of immersed composites samples for 4weeks in SBF, were characteristic bands of hydroxyapatite. Therefore it is possible to form hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of composite samples during immersion in SBF. The results indicated that prepared composites unlike cobalt-based alloy are bioactive, promising their possibility for implant applications.

  11. Synthesis of functionally graded bioactive glass-apatite multistructures on Ti substrates by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaskovic, D.; Jokic, B.; Socol, G.; Popescu, A.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Petrovic, R.; Janackovic, Dj.

    2007-12-01

    Functionally graded glass-apatite multistructures were synthesized by pulsed laser deposition on Ti substrates. We used sintered targets of hydroxyapatite Ca 10(PO 4) 6(OH) 2, or bioglasses in the system SiO 2-Na 2O-K 2O-CaO-MgO-P 2O 5 with SiO 2 content of either 57 wt.% (6P57) or 61 wt.% (6P61). A UV KrF* ( λ = 248 nm, τ > 7 ns) excimer laser source was used for the multipulse laser ablation of the targets. The hydroxyapatite thin films were obtained in H 2O vapors, while the bioglass layers were deposited in O 2. Thin films of 6P61 were deposited in direct contact with Ti, because Ti and this glass have similar thermal expansion behaviors, which ensure good bioglass adhesion to the substrate. This glass, however, is not bioactive, so yet more depositions of 6P57 bioglass and/or hydroxyapatite thin films were performed. All structures with hydroxyapatite overcoating were post-treated in a flux of water vapors. The obtained multistructures were characterized by various techniques. X-ray investigations of the coatings found small amounts of crystalline hydroxyapatite in the outer layers. The scanning electron microscopy analyses revealed homogeneous coatings with good adhesion to the Ti substrate. Our studies showed that the multistructures we had obtained were compatible with further use in biomimetic metallic implants with glass-apatite coating applications.

  12. Microstructural design of functionally graded coatings composed of suspension plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite and bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Cattini, Andrea; Bellucci, Devis; Sola, Antonella; Pawłowski, Lech; Cannillo, Valeria

    2014-04-01

    Various bioactive glass/hydroxyapatite (HA) functional coatings were designed by the suspension plasma spraying (SPS) technique. Their microstructure, scratch resistance, and apatite-forming ability in a simulated body fluid (SBF) were compared. The functional coatings design included: (i) composite coating, that is, randomly distributed constituent phases; (ii) duplex coating with glass top layer onto HA layer; and (iii) graded coating with a gradual changing composition starting from pure HA at the interface with the metal substrate up to pure glass on the surface. The SPS was a suitable coating technique to produce all the coating designs. The SBF tests revealed that the presence of a pure glass layer on the working surface significantly improved the reactivity of the duplex and graded coatings, but the duplex coating suffered a relatively low scratch resistance because of residual stresses. The graded coating therefore provided the best compromise between mechanical reliability and apatite-forming ability in SBF. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 102B: 551-560, 2014.

  13. Investigating the addition of SiO₂-CaO-ZnO-Na₂O-TiO₂ bioactive glass to hydroxyapatite: Characterization, mechanical properties and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Yatongchai, Chokchai; Placek, Lana M; Curran, Declan J; Towler, Mark R; Wren, Anthony W

    2015-11-01

    Hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) is widely investigated as an implantable material for hard tissue restoration due to its osteoconductive properties. However, hydroxyapatite in bulk form is limited as its mechanical properties are insufficient for load-bearing orthopedic applications. Attempts have been made to improve the mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite, by incorporating ceramic fillers, but the resultant composite materials require high sintering temperatures to facilitate densification, leading to the decomposition of hydroxyapatite into tricalcium phosphate, tetra-calcium phosphate and CaO phases. One method of improving the properties of hydroxyapatite is to incorporate bioactive glass particles as a second phase. These typically have lower softening points which could possibly facilitate sintering at lower temperatures. In this work, a bioactive glass (SiO2-CaO-ZnO-Na2O-TiO2) is incorporated (10, 20 and 30 wt%) into hydroxyapatite as a reinforcing phase. X-ray diffraction confirmed that no additional phases (other than hydroxyapatite) were formed at a sintering temperature of 560 ℃ with up to 30 wt% glass addition. The addition of the glass phase increased the % crystallinity and the relative density of the composites. The biaxial flexural strength increased to 36 MPa with glass addition, and there was no significant change in hardness as a function of maturation. The pH of the incubation media increased to pH 10 or 11 through glass addition, and ion release profiles determined that Si, Na and P were released from the composites. Calcium phosphate precipitation was encouraged in simulated body fluid with the incorporation of the bioactive glass phase, and cell culture testing in MC-3T3 osteoblasts determined that the composite materials did not significantly reduce cell viability.

  14. Gentamicin-loaded borate bioactive glass eradicates osteomyelitis due to Escherichia coli in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zongping; Cui, Xu; Zhao, Cunju; Huang, Wenhai; Wang, Jianqiang; Zhang, Changqing

    2013-07-01

    The treatment of osteomyelitis induced by Gram-negative bacilli is rarely reported in the literature. This study established a rabbit tibia model of osteomyelitis induced by the Gram-negative bacillus Escherichia coli. Using this model, pellets composed of a chitosan-bonded mixture of borate bioactive glass and gentamicin were evaluated in vitro and in vivo for the treatment of osteomyelitis induced by Escherichia coli. Our results showed that the pellets in phosphate-buffered saline released gentamicin continuously over 26 days. Without the simultaneous use of a systemic antibiotic, the implantation of the gentamicin-loaded pellets into the osteomyelitis region of the tibia resulted in the eradication of 81.82% of infections, as determined by microbiological, histological and radiographic evaluation, and supported the ingrowth of new bone into the tibia defects after 6 weeks of implantation. The results indicate that the gentamicin-loaded borate bioactive glass implant, combining sustained drug release with the ability to support new bone formation, could provide a method for treating osteomyelitis induced by Gram-negative bacilli.

  15. FTIR and XPS studies of protein adsorption onto functionalized bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Gruian, C; Vanea, E; Simon, S; Simon, V

    2012-07-01

    Adsorption and structural changes that occur upon interaction between methemoglobin (MetHb) and 5-methyl-aminomethyl-uridine forming enzyme (MnmE) with the surface of a bioactive glass (BG) were investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The effect of glutaraldehyde (GA) as a coupling agent for protein adsorption on BG was also investigated. The comparative analysis of FTIR spectra recorded from lyophilized proteins and from bioactive glass surface after protein adsorption was considered in order to obtain information about the changes in the secondary structure of the proteins. XPS data were used to determine the surface coverage. The unfolding of adsorbed proteins due to interactions between the internal hydrophobic protein domains and the hydrophobic BG surface was evidenced. After adsorption, the amount of α-helix decreases and less ordered structures (turns, random coils and aggregates) are preponderant. These changes are less pronounced on the BG functionalized with GA, suggesting that the treatment with GA preserves significantly larger amounts of α-helices in the structure of both proteins after adsorption.

  16. Gentamicin-Loaded Borate Bioactive Glass Eradicates Osteomyelitis Due to Escherichia coli in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zongping; Cui, Xu; Zhao, Cunju; Huang, Wenhai; Wang, Jianqiang

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of osteomyelitis induced by Gram-negative bacilli is rarely reported in the literature. This study established a rabbit tibia model of osteomyelitis induced by the Gram-negative bacillus Escherichia coli. Using this model, pellets composed of a chitosan-bonded mixture of borate bioactive glass and gentamicin were evaluated in vitro and in vivo for the treatment of osteomyelitis induced by Escherichia coli. Our results showed that the pellets in phosphate-buffered saline released gentamicin continuously over 26 days. Without the simultaneous use of a systemic antibiotic, the implantation of the gentamicin-loaded pellets into the osteomyelitis region of the tibia resulted in the eradication of 81.82% of infections, as determined by microbiological, histological and radiographic evaluation, and supported the ingrowth of new bone into the tibia defects after 6 weeks of implantation. The results indicate that the gentamicin-loaded borate bioactive glass implant, combining sustained drug release with the ability to support new bone formation, could provide a method for treating osteomyelitis induced by Gram-negative bacilli. PMID:23629702

  17. Evaluation of bioactive glass and platelet-rich plasma for bone healing in rabbit calvarial defects.

    PubMed

    Penteado, Luiz A M; Colombo, Carlos E D; Penteado, Roberta A P M; Assis, Angélica O; Gurgel, Bruno C V

    2013-09-01

    Bone regeneration is an important objective in clinical dental practice and has been used for different applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and bioactive glass (BG) for bone healing of surgical calvarial defects in rabbits. Two 8-mm defects were prepared in the parietal bones of ten animals, and the animals were randomly assigned to two groups. In each group, two subgroups were created with five defects each: BC - blood clot, BG, PRP and PRP + BG. Thus, four treatments were performed with five specimens each. The animals were sacrificed after 12 weeks and the specimens were analyzed radiographically, histologically and histomorphometrically. Data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey's tests (α = 0.05). Outcomes demonstrated that the PRP group had higher bone density (%) values than the groups not treated with PRP (P < 0.05). Histometrically, both groups treated with PRP (PRP: 25.6 ± 9.9; PRP+BG: 25.8 ± 12.4) demonstrated higher percentages of new bone formation than the groups not treated with PRP (BG: 6.1 ± 4.3; BC: 7.8 ± 5.6) (P < 0.05). The results suggested that PRP improved bone repair and that bioactive glass alone, or in association with PRP, did not improve bone healing.

  18. Micropatterning of bioactive glass nanoparticles on chitosan membranes for spatial controlled biomineralization.

    PubMed

    Luz, Gisela M; Boesel, Luciano; del Campo, Aránzazu; Mano, João F

    2012-05-01

    Bioactive glass nanoparticles (BG-NPs) capable of inducing apatite precipitation upon immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) were patterned on free-standing chitosan membranes by microcontact printing using a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamp inked in a BG-NPs pad. Formation of the patterns was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Mineralization of the bioactive glass patterns was induced in vitro by soaking the samples in SBF over different time points up to 7 days. The confined apatite deposition in the patterned regions with diameters of 50 μm was confirmed by Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, and SEM. In vitro tests confirmed the preferential attachment and proliferation of L929 cells to the areas printed with BG-NPs of the membranes. This approach permits one to spatially control the properties of biomaterials at the microlevel and could be potentially used in guided tissue regeneration for skin, vascular, articular, and bone tissue engineering and in cellular cocultures or to develop substrates able to confine cells in regions with controlled geometry at the cell's length scale.

  19. Development of sol-gel bioactive glass for hard tissue regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noor, Siti Noor Fazliah Mohd; Zain, Nurul Shazwani Mohd; Wei, Poh Yong; Azizan, Nur Syazana; Mohamad, Hasmaliza

    2016-12-01

    The regeneration of hard tissues requires various contributing factors such as cells, scaffolds and growth factors. Bioactive glasses are known for its properties to stimulate hard tissue regeneration. In this study, sol-gel bioactive glasses (BG) were prepared and characterized. Sol-gel BG powders having particle size less than 25 µm were incubated with cell culture medium for 4 hours at 37°C on continuous rolling, and then the medium was filtered using 0.22 µm syringe filters. Prior to use, the SGBG-conditioned media were supplemented with 10% (v/v) fetal bovine serum and 1% (v/v) antibiotic-antimycotic, and were allowed to equilibrate overnight inside a CO2 incubator. The human dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) were incubated with the BG-conditioned media and their viability and proliferation were assessed at day 1, 2, 4 and 7 using Alamar Blue and MTT assays. The results showed that BG at various powders to liquid ratio concentrations promoted DPSC growth. The BG have potential to be used for hard tissue regeneration especially in the field of regenerative dentistry.

  20. Composition dependent mechanical behaviour of S53P4 bioactive glass putty for bone defect grafting.

    PubMed

    van Gestel, N A P; Hulsen, D J W; Geurts, J; Hofmann, S; Ito, K; Arts, J J; van Rietbergen, B

    2017-05-01

    To improve the handling properties of S53P4 bioactive glass granules for clinical applications, bioactive glass putty formulations were developed. These formulations contain both granules and a synthetic binder to form an injectable material that is easy to shape. To explore its applicability in load-bearing bone defect grafting, the relation between the putty composition and its mechanical behaviour was assessed in this study. Five putty formulations with variations in synthetic binder and granule content were mechanically tested in confined compression. The results showed that the impaction strains significantly decreased and the residual strains significantly increased with an increasing binder content. The stiffness of all tested formulations was found to be in the same range as the reported stiffness of cancellous bone. The measured creep strains were low and no significant differences between formulations were observed. The stiffness significantly increased when the samples were subjected to a second loading stage. The residual strains calculated from this second loading stage were also significantly different from the first loading stage, showing an increasing difference with an increasing binder content. Since residual strains are detrimental for graft layer stability in load-bearing defects, putty compositions with a low binder content would be most beneficial for confined, load-bearing bone defect grafting.

  1. Hybrid macroporous gelatin/bioactive-glass/nanosilver scaffolds with controlled degradation behavior and antimicrobial activity for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Yazdimamaghani, M; Vashaee, D; Assefa, S; Walker, K J; Madihally, S V; Köhler, G A; Tayebi, L

    2014-06-01

    A new composition of gelatin/bioactive-glass/silver nanoparticle was synthesized and employed to prepare antibacterial macroporous scaffolds with potential applications in bone tissue engineering. A set of macroporous nanocomposite scaffolds were developed from an aqueous solution of gelatin by freeze-drying and crosslinking using genipin at ambient temperature. Silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized in situ in gelatin solution by heat treatment reduction as a simple and "green" method in which gelatin acted as a natural reducing and stabilizing agent. The effect of the incorporation of the bioactive-glass and the silver nanoparticle concentration on the physicochemical properties of the scaffolds, such as the gel fraction, porosity, in vitro enzyme degradation, morphology, and swelling behavior was studied. Furthermore, the in vitro viability of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) and the antibacterial activity against gram-negative Escherichia coli and gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus were tested on the scaffolds. It was found that upon the addition of silver nanoparticles the porosity, pore size, swelling, and antibacterial properties were enhanced. The silver nanoparticles increased the in vitro enzyme degradation in samples without bioactive-glass; however, the degradation was remarkably reduced by addition of bioactive-glass. In addition, formation of apatite particles, the main inorganic constituent of the bone, on the surface of the bioactive-glass containing scaffolds were confirmed after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). The viability of hMSC on the scaffold suggested that gelatin/bioactive-glass/nanosilver scaffolds can be used as an antibacterial scaffolds.

  2. Aluminum-free glass-ionomer bone cements with enhanced bioactivity and biodegradability.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Filipa O; Pires, Ricardo A; Reis, Rui L

    2013-04-01

    Al-free glasses of general composition 0.340SiO2:0.300ZnO:(0.250-a-b)CaO:aSrO:bMgO:0.050Na2O:0.060P2O5 (a, b=0.000 or 0.125) were synthesized by melt quenching and their ability to form glass-ionomer cements was evaluated using poly(acrylic acid) and water. We evaluated the influence of the poly(acrylic acid) molecular weight and glass particle size in the cement mechanical performance. Higher compressive strength (25±5 MPa) and higher compressive elastic modulus (492±17 MPa) were achieved with a poly(acrylic acid) of 50 kDa and glass particle sizes between 63 and 125 μm. Cements prepared with glass formulation a=0.125 and b=0.000 were analyzed after immersion in simulated body fluid; they presented a surface morphology consistent with a calcium phosphate coating and a Ca/P ratio of 1.55 (similar to calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite). Addition of starch to the cement formulation induced partial degradability after 8 weeks of immersion in phosphate buffer saline containing α-amylase. Micro-computed tomography analysis revealed that the inclusion of starch increased the cement porosity from 35% to 42%. We were able to produce partially degradable Al-free glass-ionomer bone cements with mechanical performance, bioactivity and biodegradability suitable to be applied on non-load bearing sites and with the appropriate physical characteristics for osteointegration upon partial degradation. Zn release studies (concentrations between 413 μM and 887 μM) evidenced the necessity to tune the cement formulations to reduce the Zn concentration in the surrounding environment.

  3. Ca,P-rich layer formed on high-strength bioactive glass-ceramic A-W.

    PubMed

    Kokubo, T; Ito, S; Huang, Z T; Hayashi, T; Sakka, S; Kitsugi, T; Yamamuro, T

    1990-03-01

    Glass-ceramic A-W, containing crystalline apatite and wollastonite in a MgO-CaO-SiO2 glassy matrix shows high bioactivity as well as high mechanical strength, but other ceramics containing the same kinds of crystalline phases in different glassy matrices do not show the same bioactivity. In order to investigate the bone-bonding mechanism of this type of glass-ceramic, surface structural changes of the glass-ceramics after exposure to simulated body fluid were analyzed with various techniques. A solution with ion concentrations which are almost equal to those of the human blood plasma was used as the simulated body fluid, instead of Tris-buffer solution hitherto used. For analyzing the surface structural changes, thin-film x-ray diffraction was used in addition to conventional techniques. It was found that a bioactive glass-ceramic forms a Ca, P-rich layer on its surface in the fluid but nonbioactive ones do not, and that the Ca, P-rich layer consists of carbonate-containing hydroxyapatite of small crystallites and/or defective structure. These findings were common to those of Bioglass-type glasses. So, we conclude that the essential condition for glass and glass-ceramic to bond to bone is the formation of the surface apatite layer in the body environment but it is not essential to contain apatite within the material. Bioactivity of glass and glass-ceramic can be evaluated in vitro by examining the formation of the surface apatite layer in the simulated body fluid described above.

  4. Bioactive SrO-SiO2 glass with well-ordered mesopores: characterization, physiochemistry and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chengtie; Fan, Wei; Gelinsky, Michael; Xiao, Yin; Simon, Paul; Schulze, Renate; Doert, Thomas; Luo, Yongxiang; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2011-04-01

    For a biomaterial to be considered suitable for bone repair it should ideally be both bioactive and have a capacity for controllable drug delivery; as such, mesoporous SiO(2) glass has been proposed as a new class of bone regeneration material by virtue of its high drug-loading ability and generally good biocompatibility. It does, however, have less than optimum bioactivity and controllable drug delivery properties. In this study, we incorporated strontium (Sr) into mesoporous SiO(2) in an effort to develop a bioactive mesoporous SrO-SiO(2) (Sr-Si) glass with the capacity to deliver Sr(2+) ions, as well as a drug, at a controlled rate, thereby producing a material better suited for bone repair. The effects of Sr(2+) on the structure, physiochemistry, drug delivery and biological properties of mesoporous Sr-Si glass were investigated. The prepared mesoporous Sr-Si glass was found to have an excellent release profile of bioactive Sr(2+) ions and dexamethasone, and the incorporation of Sr(2+) improved structural properties, such as mesopore size, pore volume and specific surface area, as well as rate of dissolution and protein adsorption. The mesoporous Sr-Si glass had no cytotoxic effects and its release of Sr(2+) and SiO(4)(4-) ions enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity - a marker of osteogenic cell differentiation - in human bone mesenchymal stem cells. Mesoporous Sr-Si glasses can be prepared to porous scaffolds which show a more sustained drug release. This study suggests that incorporating Sr(2+) into mesoporous SiO(2) glass produces a material with a more optimal drug delivery profile coupled with improved bioactivity, making it an excellent material for bone repair applications.

  5. Fabrication of 13-93 bioactive glass scaffolds for bone tissue engineering using indirect selective laser sintering.

    PubMed

    Kolan, Krishna C R; Leu, Ming C; Hilmas, Gregory E; Brown, Roger F; Velez, Mariano

    2011-06-01

    Bioactive glasses are promising materials for bone scaffolds due to their ability to assist in tissue regeneration. When implanted in vivo, bioactive glasses can convert into hydroxyapatite, the main mineral constituent of human bone, and form a strong bond with the surrounding tissues, thus providing an advantage over polymer scaffold materials. Bone scaffold fabrication using additive manufacturing techniques can provide control over pore interconnectivity during fabrication of the scaffold, which helps in mimicking human trabecular bone. 13-93 glass, a third-generation bioactive material designed to accelerate the body's natural ability to heal itself, was used in the research described herein to fabricate bone scaffolds using the selective laser sintering (SLS) process. 13-93 glass mixed with stearic acid (as the polymer binder) by ball milling was used as the powder feedstock for the SLS machine. The fabricated green scaffolds underwent binder burnout to remove the stearic acid binder and were then sintered at temperatures between 675 °C and 695 °C. The sintered scaffolds had pore sizes ranging from 300 to 800 µm with 50% apparent porosity and an average compressive strength of 20.4 MPa, which is excellent for non-load bearing applications and among the highest reported for an interconnected porous scaffold fabricated with bioactive glasses using the SLS process. The MTT labeling experiment and measurements of MTT formazan formation are evidence that the rough surface of SLS scaffolds provides a cell-friendly surface capable of supporting robust cell growth.

  6. Evaluation of an injectable bioactive borate glass cement to heal bone defects in a rabbit femoral condyle model.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xu; Huang, Wenhai; Zhang, Yadong; Huang, Chengcheng; Yu, Zunxiong; Wang, Lei; Liu, Wenlong; Wang, Ting; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Nai; Wang, Deping; Pan, Haobo; Rahaman, Mohamed N

    2017-04-01

    There is a need for synthetic biomaterials to heal bone defects using minimal invasive surgery. In the present study, an injectable cement composed of bioactive borate glass particles and a chitosan bonding solution was developed and evaluated for its capacity to heal bone defects in a rabbit femoral condyle model. The injectability and setting time of the cement in vitro decreased but the compressive strength increased (8±2MPa to 31±2MPa) as the ratio of glass particles to chitosan solution increased (from 1.0gml(-1) to 2.5gml(-1)). Upon immersing the cement in phosphate-buffered saline, the glass particles reacted and converted to hydroxyapatite, imparting bioactivity to the cement. Osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells showed enhanced proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity when incubated in media containing the soluble ionic product of the cement. The bioactive glass cement showed a better capacity to stimulate bone formation in rabbit femoral condyle defects at 12weeks postimplantation when compared to a commercial calcium sulfate cement. The injectable bioactive borate glass cement developed in this study could provide a promising biomaterial to heal bone defects by minimal invasive surgery.

  7. Effects of 45S5 bioglass on surface properties of dental enamel subjected to 35% hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Deng, Meng; Wen, Hai-Lin; Dong, Xiao-Li; Li, Feng; Xu, Xin; Li, Hong; Li, Ji-Yao; Zhou, Xue-Dong

    2013-06-01

    Tooth bleaching agents may weaken the tooth structure. Therefore, it is important to minimize any risks of tooth hard tissue damage caused by bleaching agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of applying 45S5 bioglass (BG) before, after, and during 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP) bleaching on whitening efficacy, physicochemical properties and microstructures of bovine enamel. Seventy-two bovine enamel blocks were prepared and randomly divided into six groups: distilled deionized water (DDW), BG, HP, BG before HP, BG after HP and BG during HP. Colorimetric and microhardness tests were performed before and after the treatment procedure. Representative specimens from each group were selected for morphology investigation after the final tests. A significant color change was observed in group HP, BG before HP, BG after HP and BG during HP. The microhardness loss was in the following order: group HP>BG before HP, BG after HP>BG during HP>DDW, BG. The most obvious morphological alteration of was observed on enamel surfaces in group HP, and a slight morphological alteration was also detected in group BG before HP and BG after HP. Our findings suggest that the combination use of BG and HP could not impede the tooth whitening efficacy. Using BG during HP brought better protective effect than pre/post-bleaching use of BG, as it could more effectively reduce the mineral loss as well as retain the surface integrity of enamel. BG may serve as a promising biomimetic adjunct for bleaching therapy to prevent/restore the enamel damage induced by bleaching agents.

  8. Comparison of nanoscale and microscale bioactive glass on the properties of P(3HB)/Bioglass composites.

    PubMed

    Misra, Superb K; Mohn, Dirk; Brunner, Tobias J; Stark, Wendelin J; Philip, Sheryl E; Roy, Ipsita; Salih, Vehid; Knowles, Jonathan C; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2008-04-01

    This study compares the effects of introducing micro (m-BG) and nanoscale (n-BG) bioactive glass particles on the various properties (thermal, mechanical and microstructural) of poly(3hydroxybutyrate) (P(3HB))/bioactive glass composite systems. P(3HB)/bioactive glass composite films with three different concentrations of m-BG and n-BG (10, 20 and 30 wt%, respectively) were prepared by a solvent casting technique. The addition of n-BG particles had a significant stiffening effect on the composites, modulus when compared with m-BG. However, there were no significant differences in the thermal properties of the composites due to the addition of n-BG and m-BG particles. The systematic addition of n-BG particles induced a nanostructured topography on the surface of the composites, which was not visible by SEM in m-BG composites. This surface effect induced by n-BG particles considerably improved the total protein adsorption on the n-BG composites compared to the unfilled polymer and the m-BG composites. A short term in vitro degradation (30 days) study in simulated body fluid (SBF) showed a high level of bioactivity as well as higher water absorption for the P(3HB)/n-BG composites. Furthermore, a cell proliferation study using MG-63 cells demonstrated the good biocompatibility of both types of P(3HB)/bioactive glass composite systems. The results of this investigation confirm that the addition of nanosized bioactive glass particles had a more significant effect on the mechanical and structural properties of a composite system in comparison with microparticles, as well as enhancing protein adsorption, two desirable effects for the application of the composites in tissue engineering.

  9. Modifications in Glass Ionomer Cements: Nano-Sized Fillers and Bioactive Nanoceramics

    PubMed Central

    Najeeb, Shariq; Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail; Khan, Abdul Samad; Zohaib, Sana; Martí, Juan Manuel Nuñez; Sauro, Salvatore; Matinlinna, Jukka Pekka; Rehman, Ihtesham Ur

    2016-01-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GICs) are being used for a wide range of applications in dentistry. In order to overcome the poor mechanical properties of glass ionomers, several modifications have been introduced to the conventional GICs. Nanotechnology involves the use of systems, modifications or materials the size of which is in the range of 1–100 nm. Nano-modification of conventional GICs and resin modified GICs (RMGICs) can be achieved by incorporation of nano-sized fillers to RMGICs, reducing the size of the glass particles, and introducing nano-sized bioceramics to the glass powder. Studies suggest that the commercially available nano-filled RMGIC does not hold any significant advantage over conventional RMGICs as far as the mechanical and bonding properties are concerned. Conversely, incorporation of nano-sized apatite crystals not only increases the mechanical properties of conventional GICs, but also can enhance fluoride release and bioactivity. By increasing the crystallinity of the set matrix, apatites can make the set cement chemically more stable, insoluble, and improve the bond strength with tooth structure. Increased fluoride release can also reduce and arrest secondary caries. However, due to a lack of long-term clinical studies, the use of nano-modified glass ionomers is still limited in daily clinical dentistry. In addition to the in vitro and in vivo studies, more randomized clinical trials are required to justify the use of these promising materials. The aim of this paper is to review the modification performed in GIC-based materials to improve their physicochemical properties. PMID:27428956

  10. Treatment of osteomyelitis and repair of bone defect by degradable bioactive borate glass releasing vancomycin.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zongping; Liu, Xin; Jia, Weitao; Zhang, Changqing; Huang, Wenhai; Wang, Jianqiang

    2009-10-15

    The effectiveness of a degradable and bioactive borate glass has been compared with the clinically used calcium sulfate in the treatment of osteomyelitis of rabbits, as a carrier for vancomycin. The bone infections were induced in the tibias of 65 rabbits by injecting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). After 3 weeks, these rabbits were distributed into 4 groups and treated by debridement. Pure borate glass (BG), vancomycin-loaded calcium sulfate (VCS) and vancomycin-loaded borate glass (VBG) were implanted into the infection sites of groups 2 to 4 respectively. After 8 weeks, the effectiveness of treatment was assessed radiographically, bacteriologically, and histopathologically. The results showed that the negative rates of MRSA examination for rabbits were 36.36%, 18.18%, 73.33% and 81.25% respectively for groups 1 to 4. Significant differences were observed radiographically, bacteriologically, and histopathologically between groups 1 and 4, groups 2 and 3, and between groups 2 and 4. The best result of treatment was observed in group 4. Radiographically, VBG was found to be mostly reabsorbed and replaced by lots of new bones, whereas, VCS was completely reabsorbed and replaced by modest new bones. Histopathologically, there were lots of newly formed bones around VBG without any foreign body response, and only modest new bones around VCS with obvious foreign body response. VBG proved to have excellent biocompatibility and to be very effective in eradicating osteomyelitis and simultaneously stimulating bone regeneration, avoiding the disadvantages of VCS.

  11. Therapeutic ion-releasing bioactive glass ionomer cements with improved mechanical strength and radiopacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Maximilian; Gentleman, Eileen; Shahid, Saroash; Hill, Robert; Brauer, Delia

    2015-10-01

    Bioactive glasses (BG) are used to regenerate bone, as they degrade and release therapeutic ions. Glass ionomer cements (GIC) are used in dentistry, can be delivered by injection and set in situ by a reaction between an acid-degradable glass and a polymeric acid. Our aim was to combine the advantages of BG and GIC, and we investigated the use of alkali-free BG (SiO2-CaO-CaF2-MgO) with 0 to 50% of calcium replaced by strontium, as the beneficial effects of strontium on bone formation are well documented. When mixing BG and poly(vinyl phosphonic-co-acrylic acid), ions were released fast (up to 90% within 15 minutes at pH 1), which resulted in GIC setting, as followed by infrared spectroscopy. GIC mixed well and set to hard cements (compressive strength up to 35 MPa), staying hard when in contact with aqueous solution. This is in contrast to GIC prepared with poly(acrylic acid), which were shown previously to become soft in contact with water. Strontium release from GIC increased linearly with strontium for calcium substitution, allowing for tailoring of strontium release depending on clinical requirements. Furthermore, strontium substitution increased GIC radiopacity. GIC passed ISO10993 cytotoxicity test, making them promising candidates for use as injectable bone cements.

  12. In vitro cell response to Co-containing 1,393 bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Alexander; Brandl, Andreas; Bleiziffer, Oliver; Arkudas, Andreas; Horch, Raymund E; Jokic, Bojan; Janackovic, Djordje; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2015-12-01

    Cobalt ions are known to stimulate angiogenesis via inducing hypoxic conditions and hence are interesting agents to be used in conjunction with bioactive glasses (BGs) in bone tissue engineering approaches. In this work we investigated in vitro cell biocompatibility of Co releasing 1393 BG composition (in wt.%: 53SiO2, 6Na2O, 12K2O, 5MgO, 20CaO, and 4P2O5) derived scaffolds with osteoblast-like cells (MG-63) and human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (hDMECs). Cell viability, cell number and cell morphology of osteoblast-like cells in contact with particulate glass and 3D scaffolds were assessed showing good biocompatibility of 1393 reference material and with 1 wt.% CoO addition whereby 5 wt.% of CoO in the glass showed cytotoxicity. Furthermore for 1393 with 1 wt.% of CoO increased mitochondrial activity was measured. Similar observations were made with hDMECs: while 1393 and 1393 with 1 wt.% CoO were biocompatible and the endothelial phenotype was retained, 5 wt.% CoO containing BG showed cytotoxic effects after 1 week of cell culture. In conclusion, 1 wt.% Co containing BG was biocompatible with osteoblast like cells and endothelial cells and showed slightly stimulating effects on osteoblast-like cells whereas the addition of 5 wt.% CoO seems to exceed the vital therapeutic ranges of Co ions being released in physiological fluids.

  13. Growth and osteogenic differentiation of adipose stem cells on PLA/bioactive glass and PLA/beta-TCP scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Haimi, Suvi; Suuriniemi, Niina; Haaparanta, Anne-Marie; Ellä, Ville; Lindroos, Bettina; Huhtala, Heini; Räty, Sari; Kuokkanen, Hannu; Sándor, George K; Kellomäki, Minna; Miettinen, Susanna; Suuronen, Riitta

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of novel three-dimensional composite scaffolds consisting of a bioactive phase (bioactive glass or beta-tricalcium phosphate [beta-TCP] 10 and 20 wt%) incorporated within a polylactic acid (PLA) matrix on viability, distribution, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells (ASCs). The viability and distribution of ASCs on the bioactive composite scaffolds was evaluated using Live/Dead fluorescence staining, environmental scanning electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. There were no differences between the two concentrations of bioactive glass and beta-TCP in PLA scaffolds on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of ASCs. After 2 weeks of culture, DNA content and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of ASCs cultured on PLA/beta-TCP composite scaffolds were higher relative to other scaffold types. Interestingly, the cell number was significantly lower, but the relative ALP/DNA ratio of ASCs was significantly higher in PLA/bioactive glass scaffolds than in other three scaffold types. These results indicate that the PLA/beta-TCP composite scaffolds significantly enhance ASC proliferation and total ALP activity compared to other scaffold types. This supports the potential future use of PLA/beta-TCP composites as effective scaffolds for tissue engineering and as bone replacement materials.

  14. Structural analysis of fluorine-containing bioactive glass nanoparticles synthesized by sol-gel route assisted by ultrasound energy.

    PubMed

    C Lins, Carolina E; R Oliveira, Agda A; Gonzalez, Ismael; A A Macedo, Waldemar; M Pereira, Marivalda

    2017-02-02

    In the last decades, studies about the specific effects of bioactive glass on remineralization of dentin were the focus of attention, due to their excellent regenerative properties in mineralized tissues. The incorporation of Fluorine in bioactive glass nanoparticles may result in the formation of fluorapatite (FAP), which is chemically more stable than hydroxyapatite or carbonated hydroxyapatite, and therefore is of interest for dental applications. The aim of this study was to synthesize and characterize a new system of Fluorine-containing bioactive glass nanoparticles (BGNPF). A sol-gel route assisted by ultrasound was used for the synthesis of BGNPF. The particles obtained were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), nitrogen adsorption, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). SEM micrographs showed that the particles are quite uniform spherical nanostructures, occurring agglomeration or partial sinterization of the particulate system after heat treatment. XRD and XPS analysis results suggest the formation of fluorapatite crystals embedded within the matrix of the bioactive glass nanoparticles. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017.

  15. Fluoride-containing bioactive glasses: effect of glass design and structure on degradation, pH and apatite formation in simulated body fluid.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Delia S; Karpukhina, Natalia; O'Donnell, Matthew D; Law, Robert V; Hill, Robert G

    2010-08-01

    Bioactive glasses are able to bond to bone through formation of carbonated hydroxyapatite in body fluids, and fluoride-releasing bioactive glasses are of interest for both orthopaedic and, in particular, dental applications for caries inhibition. Melt-derived glasses in the system SiO(2)-P(2)O(5)-CaO-Na(2)O with increasing amounts of CaF(2) were prepared by keeping network connectivity and the ratio of all other components constant. pH change, ion release and apatite formation during immersion of glass powder in simulated body fluid at 37 degrees C over up to 2 weeks were investigated. Crystal phases formed in SBF were characterized using infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction with Rietveld analysis and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((19)F and (31)P MAS-NMR). Results show that incorporation of fluoride resulted in a reduced pH rise in aqueous solutions compared to fluoride-free glasses and in formation of fluorapatite (FAp), which is more chemically stable than hydroxyapatite or carbonated hydroxyapatite and therefore is of interest for dental applications. However, for increasing fluoride content in the glass, fluorite (CaF(2)) was formed at the expense of FAp. Apatite formation could be favoured by increasing the phosphate content in the glass, as the release of additional phosphate into the SBF would affect supersaturation in the solution and possibly favour formation of apatite.

  16. Combination of platelet-rich plasma with degradable bioactive borate glass for segmental bone defect repair.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-Dong; Wang, Gang; Sun, Yan; Zhang, Chang-Qing

    2011-02-01

    Porous scaffold biomaterials may offer a clinical alternative to bone grafts; however, scaffolds alone are typically insufficient to heal large bone defects. Numerous studies have demonstrated that osteoinductive growth factor significantly improves bone repair. In this study, a strategy combining degradable bioactive borate glass (BG) scaffolds with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was tested. The bone defect was filled with BG alone, BG combined with autologous PRP or left empty. Bone formation was analyzed at 4, 8 and 12 weeks using both histology and radiology. The PRP treated group yielded better bone formation than the pure BG scaffold as determined by both histology and microcomputer tomography after 12 weeks. In conclusion, PRP improved bone healing in a diaphyseal rabbit model on BG. The combination of PRP and BG may be an effective approach to repair critical defects.

  17. Biodegradable composite scaffolds of bioactive glass/chitosan/carboxymethyl cellulose for hemostatic and bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Li, Hong; Pan, Jianfeng; Yan, Zuoqin; Yao, Zhenjun; Fan, Wenshuai; Guo, Changan

    2015-02-01

    Hemostasis in orthopedic osteotomy or bone cutting requires different methods and materials. The bleeding of bone marrow can be mostly stopped by bone wax. However, the wax cannot be absorbed, which leads to artificial prosthesis loosening, foreign matter reaction, and infection. Here, a bioactive glass/chitosan/carboxymethyl cellulose (BG/CS/CMC) composite scaffold was designed to replace traditional wax. WST-1 assay indicated the BG/CS/CMC composite resulted in excellent biocompatibility with no cytotoxicity. In vivo osteogenesis assessment revealed that the BG/CS/CMC composite played a dominant role in bone regeneration and hemostasis. The BG/CS/CMC composite had the same hemostasis effect as bone wax; in addition its biodegradation also led to the functional reconstruction of bone defects. Thus, BG/CS/CMC scaffolds can serve as a potential material for bone repair and hemostasis in critical-sized bone defects.

  18. PDLLA scaffolds with Cu- and Zn-doped bioactive glasses having multifunctional properties for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Bejarano, Julian; Detsch, Rainer; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Palza, Humberto

    2017-03-01

    Novel multifunctional scaffolds for bone regeneration can be developed by incorporation of bioactive glasses (BG) doped with therapeutic and antibacterial metal ions, such as copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), into a biodegradable polymer. In this context, porous composite materials of biodegradable poly(d, l-lactide) (PDLLA) mixed with sol-gel BG of chemical composition 60SiO2 ; 25CaO; 11Na2 O; and 4P2 O5 (mol %) doped with either 1 mol % of CuO or ZnO, and with both metals, were prepared. The cytocompatibility of the scaffolds on bone marrow stromal cells (ST-2) depended on both, the amount of glass filler and the concentration of metal ion, as evaluated by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, cell viability (water-soluble tetrazolium salt [WST-8]), and by cell morphology (scanning electron microscopy [SEM]) tests. In particular, scaffolds having a filler content of 10 wt % showed the highest cytocompatibility. In addition, compared to the neat polymer, the scaffolds containing Cu promoted the angiogenesis marker (Vascular endothelial growth factor concentration) to a larger extent while scaffolds containing Zn increased the osteogenesis marker (specific alkaline phosphatase-activity). Noteworthy, the scaffolds with both metal ions showed a combined effect on both properties. Cu- and Zn-doped glasses also provided higher antibacterial capacity to PDLLA-based scaffolds against methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteria than undoped glass. In combination, our results showed that by a proper addition of Cu- and Zn-doped BG to a PDLLA matrix, multifunctional composite scaffolds with enhanced biological activity can be designed for bone tissue regeneration. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 746-756, 2017.

  19. Electrophoretic deposition of gentamicin-loaded bioactive glass/chitosan composite coatings for orthopaedic implants.

    PubMed

    Pishbin, Fatemehsadat; Mouriño, Viviana; Flor, Sabrina; Kreppel, Stefan; Salih, Vehid; Ryan, Mary P; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2014-06-11

    Despite their widespread application, metallic orthopaedic prosthesis failure still occurs because of lack of adequate bone-bonding and the incidence of post-surgery infections. The goal of this research was to develop multifunctional composite chitosan/Bioglass coatings loaded with gentamicin antibiotic as a suitable strategy to improve the surface properties of metallic implants. Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) was applied as a single-step technology to simultaneously deposit the biopolymer, bioactive glass particles, and the antibiotic on stainless steel substrate. The microstructure and composition of the coatings were characterized using SEM/EDX, XRD, FTIR, and TGA/DSC, respectively. The in vitro bioactivity of the coatings was demonstrated by formation of hydroxyapatite after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) in a short period of 2 days. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) measurements indicated the release of 40% of the loaded gentamicin in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) within the first 5 days. The developed composite coating supported attachment and proliferation of MG-63 cells up to 10 days. Moreover, disc diffusion test showed improved bactericidal effect of gentamicin-loaded composite coatings against S. aureus compared to control non-gentamicin-loaded coatings.

  20. Processing and strengthening of 58S bioactive glass-infiltrated titania scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Mesquita-Guimarães, J; Leite, M A; Souza, J C M; Henriques, B; Silva, F S; Hotza, D; Boccaccini, A R; Fredel, M C

    2017-02-01

    In this work, TiO2 ceramic scaffolds were fabricated by the replica method using polyurethane (PU) sponges. Suspensions with high solid content were used to achieve scaffolds with improved mechanical behavior. TiO2 ceramic suspensions were optimized by rheological studies using different additives. It was found that the composition with 0.5 wt % Darvan enhanced the covering of the sponge struts. PU sponges of 45 to 80 ppi (pore per inch) were well coated without clogging pores. A thermal treatment with varying holding times, temperatures and heating rates was adjusted. The influence of different pore sizes on mechanical strength was evaluated. It was possible to obtain TiO2 scaffolds with 90% porosity and high pore interconnectivity, having compressive strength exceeding 0.6 MPa. TiO2 scaffolds were filled up with a 58S bioactive glass suspension to impart bioactive character to the scaffolds. These hybrid structures presented mechanical strengthening of about 26-213% depending on their sponge porosity. The prediction for cells viability via zeta potential measures indicated that this hybrid material is very promising for scaffold application with -19 to -25 mV between pH of 7.35-7.45. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 590-600, 2017.

  1. Combining collagen and bioactive glasses for bone tissue engineering: a review.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Bapi; Hum, Jasmin; Nazhat, Showan N; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2015-01-28

    Collagen (COL), the most abundant protein in mammals, offers a wide range of attractive properties for biomedical applications which are the result of its biocompatibility and high affinity to water. However, due to the relative low mechanical properties of COL its applications are still limited. To tackle this disadvantage of COL, especially in the field of bone tissue engineering, COL can be combined with bioactive inorganic materials in a variety of composite systems. One of such systems is the collagen-bioactive glass (COL-BG) composite family, which is the theme of this Review. BG fillers can increase compressive strength and stiffness of COL-based structures. This article reviews the relevant literature published in the last 15 years discussing the fabrication of a variety of COL-BG composites. In vitro cell studies have demonstrated the osteogenic, odontogenic, and angiogenic potential of these composite systems, which has been confirmed by stimulating specific biochemical indicators of relevant cells. Bony integration and connective tissue vessel formation have also been studied by implantation of the composites in vivo. Areas of future research in the field of COL-BG systems, based on current challenges, and gaps in knowledge are highlighted.

  2. Hydrogel/bioactive glass composites for bone regeneration applications: synthesis and characterisation.

    PubMed

    Killion, John A; Kehoe, Sharon; Geever, Luke M; Devine, Declan M; Sheehan, Eoin; Boyd, Daniel; Higginbotham, Clement L

    2013-10-01

    Due to the deficiencies of current commercially available biological bone grafts, alternative bone graft substitutes have come to the forefront of tissue engineering in recent times. The main challenge for scientists in manufacturing bone graft substitutes is to obtain a scaffold that has sufficient mechanical strength and bioactive properties to promote formation of new tissue. The ability to synthesise hydrogel based composite scaffolds using photopolymerisation has been demonstrated in this study. The prepared hydrogel based composites were characterised using techniques including Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), rheological studies and compression testing. In addition, gel fraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), porosity and swelling studies of the composites were carried out. It was found that these novel hydrogel bioglass composite formulations did not display the inherent brittleness that is typically associated with bioactive glass based bone graft materials and exhibited enhanced biomechanical properties compared to the polyethylene glycol hydrogel scaffolds along. Together, the combination of enhanced mechanical properties and the deposition of apatite on the surface of these hydrogel based composites make them an ideal candidate as bone graft substitutes in cancellous bone defects or low load bearing applications.

  3. Enhancement mechanisms of graphene in nano-58S bioactive glass scaffold: mechanical and biological performance

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Chengde; Liu, Tingting; Shuai, Cijun; Peng, Shuping

    2014-01-01

    Graphene is a novel material and currently popular as an enabler for the next-generation nanocomposites. Here, we report the use of graphene to improve the mechanical properties of nano-58S bioactive glass for bone repair and regeneration. And the composite scaffolds were fabricated by a homemade selective laser sintering system. Qualitative and quantitative analysis demonstrated the successful incorporation of graphene into the scaffold without obvious structural damage and weight loss. The optimum compressive strength and fracture toughness reached 48.65 ± 3.19 MPa and 1.94 ± 0.10 MPa·m1/2 with graphene content of 0.5 wt%, indicating significant improvements by 105% and 38% respectively. The mechanisms of pull-out, crack bridging, crack deflection and crack tip shielding were found to be responsible for the mechanical enhancement. Simulated body fluid and cell culture tests indicated favorable bioactivity and biocompatibility of the composite scaffold. The results suggest a great potential of graphene/nano-58S composite scaffold for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:24736662

  4. Thermogelling chitosan-collagen-bioactive glass nanoparticle hybrids as potential injectable systems for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Cheisy D F; Carvalho, Sandhra M; Mansur, Herman S; Pereira, Marivalda M

    2016-01-01

    Recently, stimuli-responsive nanocomposite-derived hydrogels have gained prominence in tissue engineering because they can be applied as injectable scaffolds in bone and cartilage repair. Due to the great potential of these systems, this study aimed to synthesize and characterize novel thermosensitive chitosan-based composites, chemically modified with collagen and reinforced by bioactive glass nanoparticles (BG) on the development of injectable nanohybrids for regenerative medicine applications. Thus, the composite hydrogels were extensively characterized by structural, morphological, rheological, and biological testing. The composites showed thermosensitive response with the gelation temperature at approximately 37 °C, which is compatible with the human body temperature. In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis indicated that the chitosan hydrogels exhibited 3D-porous structures, and the incorporation of collagen in the system caused increase on the average pore size. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis indicated the main functional groups of each component of the composite system and their chemical interactions forming the scaffold. Moreover, rheological measurements were employed to assess the viscoelastic behavior of the hydrogels as a function of the temperature. The results demonstrated that the addition of collagen and bioactive glass increases the mechanical properties after the gelation process. The addition of 2 wt.% of BG nanoparticles caused an increase of approximately 39% on stiffness compared to pure chitosan and the addition of 30 wt.% collagen caused a further increase on the stiffness by 95%. The cytotoxicity and cell viability of the hydrogels were assessed by MTT and LIVE/DEAD® assays, where the results demonstrated no toxic effect of the composites on the human osteosarcoma cell culture (SAOS) and kidney cells line of human embryo (HEK 293 T). Hence, it can be stated that innovative composites were

  5. Effect of Bioactive Glass air Abrasion on Shear Bond Strength of Two Adhesive Resins to Decalcified Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Eshghi, Alireza; Khoroushi, Maryam; Rezvani, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Bioactive glass air abrasion is a conservative technique to remove initial decalcified tissue and caries. This study examined the shear bond strength of composite resin to sound and decalcified enamel air-abraded by bioactive glass (BAG) or alumina using etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight permanent molars were root-amputated and sectioned mesiodistally. The obtained 96 specimens were mounted in acrylic resin; the buccal and lingual surfaces remained exposed. A demineralizing solution was used to decalcify half the specimens. Both sound and decalcified specimens were divided into two groups of alumina and bioactive glass air abrasion. In each group, the specimens were subdivided into two subgroups of Clearfil SE Bond or OptiBond FL adhesives (n=12). Composite resin cylinders were bonded on enamel surfaces cured and underwent thermocycling. The specimens were tested for shear bond strength. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 and three-way ANOVA (α=0.05). Similar to the experimental groups, the enamel surface of one specimen underwent SEM evaluation. Results: No significant differences were observed in composite resin bond strength subsequent to alumina or bioactive glass air abrasion preparation techniques (P=0.987). There were no statistically significant differences between the bond strength of etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive groups (P=1). Also, decalcified or intact enamel groups had no significant difference (P=0.918). However, SEM analysis showed much less enamel irregularities with BAG air abrasion compared to alumina air abrasion. Conclusion: Under the limitations of this study, preparation of both intact and decalcified enamel surfaces with bioactive glass air abrasion results in similar bond strength of composite resin in comparison with alumina air abrasion using etch-&-rinse or self-etch adhesives. PMID:25628694

  6. Investigating the Vascularization of Tissue-Engineered Bone Constructs Using Dental Pulp Cells and 45S5 Bioglass® Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, Reem; Kirkham, Jennifer; Newby, Phillipa J; Mohanram, Yamuna; Boccaccini, Aldo Roberto; Yang, Xuebin B

    2015-07-01

    Identification of a suitable cell source combined with an appropriate 3D scaffold is an essential prerequisite for successful engineering of skeletal tissues. Both osteogenesis and angiogenesis are key processes for bone regeneration. This study investigated the vascularization potential of a novel combination of human dental pulp stromal cells (HDPSCs) with 45S5 Bioglass® scaffolds for tissue-engineered mineral constructs in vivo and in vitro. 45S5 Bioglass scaffolds were produced by the foam replication technique with the standard composition of 45 wt% SiO2, 24.5 wt% Na2O, 24.5 wt% CaO, and 6 wt% P2O5. HDPSCs were cultured in monolayers and on porous 45S5 Bioglass scaffolds under angiogenic and osteogenic conditions for 2-4 weeks. HDPSCs expressed endothelial gene markers (CD34, CD31/PECAM1, and VEGFR2) under both conditions in the monolayer. A combination of HDPSCs with 45S5 Bioglass enhanced the expression of these gene markers. Positive immunostaining for CD31/PECAM1 and VEGFR2 and negative staining for CD34 supported the gene expression data, while histology revealed evidence of endothelial cell-like morphology within the constructs. More organized tubular structures, resembling microvessels, were seen in the constructs after 8 weeks of implantation in vivo. In conclusion, this study suggests that the combination of HDPSCs with 45S5 Bioglass scaffolds offers a promising strategy for regenerating vascularized bone grafts.

  7. Detection and qualification of optimum antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of silver-doped bioactive glasses.

    PubMed

    Gholipourmalekabadi, Mazaher; Nezafati, Nader; Hajibaki, Leila; Mozafari, Masoud; Moztarzadeh, F; Hesaraki, Saeed; Samadikuchaksaraei, Ali

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to detect the optimum antibacterial activity of silver-doped bioactive glasses (Ag-BGs) for prevention of post-transplant infections in tissue engineering. The results have shown that the Ag-BG samples had broad-spectrum antibacterial efficacy in an Ag concentration-dependent manner. The 2% Ag-BG had the highest effect during the first 10 min to 72 h. The minimum inhibitory concentration of 2% Ag-BG was estimated to be 2 mg/ml for Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and 2.66 mg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). A concentration of 0.5% Ag-BG repressed growth of E. coli after 1 h, but did not have any detectable antibacterial effect for longer periods. Evaluation of the effects of prepared Ag-BG on human osteoblast cells viability showed that 1 and 2% samples changed the cell proliferation rate in masses of more than 3.33 and 2 mg/ml, respectively. Moreover, in a typical manner, the release of Ag ions from the glass structure started immediately, continued steadily and affected bacterial growth when it reached its critical concentration in the medium. This systematic study can illustrate the optimum antibacterial property of the Ag-BG samples in masses of 3.33 and 2 mg/ml for 1 and 2% Ag, respectively, for prevention of post-transplant infections.

  8. Development of a bioactive glass fiber reinforced starch-polycaprolactone composite.

    PubMed

    Jukola, H; Nikkola, L; Gomes, M E; Chiellini, F; Tukiainen, M; Kellomäki, M; Chiellini, E; Reis, R L; Ashammakhi, N

    2008-10-01

    For bone regeneration and repair, combinations of different materials are often needed. Biodegradable polymers are often combined with osteoconductive materials, such as bioactive glass (BaG), which can also improve the mechanical properties of the composite. The aim of this work was to develop and characterize BaG fiber reinforced starch-poly-epsilon-caprolactone (SPCL) composite. Sheets of SPCL (30/70 wt %) were produced using single-screw extrusion. They were then cut and compression-molded in layers with BaG fibers to form composite structures with different combinations. Mechanical and degradation properties of the composites were studied. The actual amount of BaG in the composites was determined using combustion tests. Initial mechanical properties of the reinforced composites were at least 50% better than the properties of the nonreinforced specimens. However, the mechanical properties of the composites after 2 weeks of hydrolysis were comparable to those of the nonreinforced samples. During the 6 weeks hydrolysis the mass of the composites had decreased only by about 5%. The amount of glass in the composites remained as initial for the 6-week period of hydrolysis. In conclusion, it is possible to enhance initial mechanical properties of SPCL by reinforcing it with BaG fibers. However, mechanical properties of the composites are typical for bone fillers and strength properties need to be further improved for allowing more demanding bone applications.

  9. Bactericidal strontium-releasing injectable bone cements based on bioactive glasses.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Delia S; Karpukhina, Natalia; Kedia, Gopal; Bhat, Aditya; Law, Robert V; Radecka, Izabela; Hill, Robert G

    2013-01-06

    Strontium-releasing injectable bone cements may have the potential to prevent implant-related infections through the bactericidal action of strontium, while enhancing bone formation in patients suffering from osteoporosis. A melt-derived bioactive glass (BG) series (SiO2–CaO–CaF2–MgO) with 0–50% of calcium substituted with strontium on a molar base were produced. By mixing glass powder, poly(acrylic acid) and water, cements were obtained which can be delivered by injection and set in situ, giving compressive strength of up to 35 MPa. Strontium release was dependent on BG composition with increasing strontium substitution resulting in higher concentrations in the medium. Bactericidal effects were tested on Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis; cell counts were reduced by up to three orders of magnitude over 6 days. Results show that bactericidal action can be increased through BG strontium substitution, allowing for the design of novel antimicrobial and bone enhancing cements for use in vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty for treating osteoporosis-related vertebral compression fractures.

  10. Bactericidal strontium-releasing injectable bone cements based on bioactive glasses

    PubMed Central

    Brauer, Delia S.; Karpukhina, Natalia; Kedia, Gopal; Bhat, Aditya; Law, Robert V.; Radecka, Izabela; Hill, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Strontium-releasing injectable bone cements may have the potential to prevent implant-related infections through the bactericidal action of strontium, while enhancing bone formation in patients suffering from osteoporosis. A melt-derived bioactive glass (BG) series (SiO2–CaO–CaF2–MgO) with 0–50% of calcium substituted with strontium on a molar base were produced. By mixing glass powder, poly(acrylic acid) and water, cements were obtained which can be delivered by injection and set in situ, giving compressive strength of up to 35 MPa. Strontium release was dependent on BG composition with increasing strontium substitution resulting in higher concentrations in the medium. Bactericidal effects were tested on Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis; cell counts were reduced by up to three orders of magnitude over 6 days. Results show that bactericidal action can be increased through BG strontium substitution, allowing for the design of novel antimicrobial and bone enhancing cements for use in vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty for treating osteoporosis-related vertebral compression fractures. PMID:23097502

  11. Biodegradable borosilicate bioactive glass scaffolds with a trabecular microstructure for bone repair.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yifei; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Yadong; Zhang, Changqing; Liu, Xin; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Huang, Wenhai; Pan, Haobo

    2014-03-01

    Three-dimensional porous scaffolds of a borosilicate bioactive glass (designated 13-93B1), with the composition 6Na2O-8K2O-8MgO-22CaO-18B2O3-36SiO2-2P2O5 (mol%), were prepared using a foam replication technique and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Immersion of the scaffolds for 30 days in a simulated body fluid in vitro resulted in partial conversion of the glass to a porous hydroxyapatite composed of fine needle-like particles. The capacity of the scaffolds to support bone formation in vivo was evaluated in non-critical sized defects created in the femoral head of rabbits. Eight weeks post-implantation, the scaffolds were partially converted to hydroxyapatite, and they were well integrated with newly-formed bone. When loaded with platelet-rich plasma (PRP), the scaffolds supported bone regeneration in segmental defects in the diaphysis of rabbit radii. The results indicate that these 13-93B1 scaffolds, loaded with PRP or without PRP, are beneficial for bone repair due to their biocompatibility, conversion to hydroxyapatite, and in vivo bone regenerative properties.

  12. Investigation of emulsified, acid and acid-alkali catalyzed mesoporous bioactive glass microspheres for bone regeneration and drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Miao, Guohou; Chen, Xiaofeng; Dong, Hua; Fang, Liming; Mao, Cong; Li, Yuli; Li, Zhengmao; Hu, Qing

    2013-10-01

    Acid-catalyzed mesoporous bioactive glass microspheres (MBGMs-A) and acid-alkali co-catalyzed mesoporous bioactive glass microspheres (MBGMs-B) were successfully synthesized via combination of sol-gel and water-in-oil (W/O) micro-emulsion methods. The structural, morphological and textural properties of mesoporous bioactive glass microspheres (MBGMs) were characterized by various techniques. Results show that both MBGMs-A and MBGMs-B exhibit regularly spherical shape but with different internal porous structures, i.e., a dense microstructure for MBGMs-A and internally porous structure for MBGMs-B. (29)Si NMR data reveal that MGBMs have low polymerization degree of silica network. The in vitro bioactivity tests indicate that the apatite formation rate of MBGMs-B was faster than that of MBGMs-A after soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution. Furthermore, the two kinds of MBGMs have similar storage capacity of alendronate (AL), and the release behaviors of AL could be controlled due to their unique porous structure. In conclusion, the microspheres are shown to be promising candidates as bone-related drug carriers and filling materials of composite scaffold for bone repair.

  13. Bioactive glass fillers reduce bacterial penetration into marginal gaps for composite restorations

    PubMed Central

    Khvostenko, D.; Hilton, T. J.; Ferracane, J. L.; Mitchell, J. C.; Kruzic, J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Bioactive glass (BAG) is known to possess antimicrobial and remineralizing properties; however, the use of BAG as a filler for resin based composite restorations to slow recurrent caries has not been studied. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of 15 wt% BAG additions to a resin composite on bacterial biofilms penetrating into marginal gaps of simulated tooth fillings in vitro during cyclic mechanical loading. Methods Human molars were machined into approximately 3 mm thick disks of dentin and 1.5–2 mm deep composite restorations were placed. A narrow 15–20 micrometer wide dentin-composite gap was allowed to form along half of the margin by not applying dental adhesive to that region. Two different 72 wt% filled composites were used, one with 15 wt% BAG filler (15BAG) and the balance silanated strontium glass and one filled with OX-50 and silanated strontium glass without BAG (0BAG – control). Samples of both groups had Streptococcus mutans biofilms grown on the surface and were tested inside a bioreactor for two weeks while subjected to periods of cyclic mechanical loading. After post-test biofilm viability was confirmed, each specimen was fixed in glutaraldehyde, gram positive stained, mounted in resin and cross-sectioned to reveal the gap profile. Depth of biofilm penetration for 0BAG and 15BAG was quantified as the fraction of gap depth. The data were compared using a Student’s t-test. Results The average depth of bacterial penetration into the marginal gap for the 15BAG samples was significantly smaller (~61%) in comparison to 0BAG, where 100% penetration was observed for all samples with the biofilm penetrating underneath of the restoration in some cases. Significance BAG containing resin dental composites reduce biofilm penetration into marginal gaps of simulated tooth restorations. This suggests BAG containing composites may have the potential to slow the development and propagation of secondary tooth

  14. Effects of alumina (Al2O3) addition on mechanical property of fabricated melt-derived bioactive glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamad, Hasmaliza; Yan, Phooi; Ibrahim, Nurul Farhana; Noor, Siti Noor Fazliah Mohd

    2016-12-01

    Bioactive glass (BG) is advance materials that have the ability to form hydroxyapatite layer (HA) that accelerate bonding between bone tissues indicating a good biological response. However, BG fabricated with basic composition from SiO2-CaO-Na2O-P2O5 system exhibit lower mechanical strength. The present work aims to study the effects on alumina (Al2O3) addition in SiO2-CaO-Na2O-P2O5 system towards its mechanical performance. Bioactive glass (BG) was fabricated through melt-derived route. Various amount of alumina at (1 wt%, 2 wt%, 3 wt% and 4 wt%) was added in the system. BG with 2 wt% of alumina addition show highest compressive strength and significant improvement observed after sintered at 750°C and 950°C. XRD revealed the existence of crystalline peaks after the glass was sintered that might assist on the mechanical improvement. SEM shows reduction on porosity and enhancement on grain size for sintered bioactive glass.

  15. Bone regeneration in strong porous bioactive glass (13-93) scaffolds with an oriented microstructure implanted in rat calvarial defects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Fu, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for synthetic bone graft substitutes to repair large bone defects resulting from trauma, malignancy and congenital diseases. Bioactive glass has attractive properties as a scaffold material but factors that influence its ability to regenerate bone in vivo are not well understood. In the present work, the ability of strong porous scaffolds of 13-93 bioactive glass with an oriented microstructure to regenerate bone was evaluated in vivo using a rat calvarial defect model. Scaffolds with an oriented microstructure of columnar pores (porosity=50%; pore diameter=50-150 μm) showed mostly osteoconductive bone regeneration, and new bone formation, normalized to the available pore area (volume) of the scaffolds, increased from 37% at 12 weeks to 55% at 24 weeks. Scaffolds of the same glass with a trabecular microstructure (porosity=80%; pore width=100-500 μm), used as the positive control, showed bone regeneration in the pores of 25% and 46% at 12 and 24 weeks, respectively. The brittle mechanical response of the as-fabricated scaffolds changed markedly to an elastoplastic response in vivo at both implantation times. These results indicate that both groups of 13-93 bioactive glass scaffolds could potentially be used to repair large bone defects, but scaffolds with the oriented microstructure could also be considered for the repair of loaded bone.

  16. Bioactivity studies on TiO₂-bearing Na₂O-CaO-SiO₂-B₂O₃ glasses.

    PubMed

    Jagan Mohini, G; Sahaya Baskaran, G; Ravi Kumar, V; Piasecki, M; Veeraiah, N

    2015-12-01

    Soda lime silica borate glasses mixed with different concentrations of TiO2 are synthesized by the melt-quenching technique. As a part of study on bioactivity of these glasses, the samples were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution for prolonged times (~21 days) during which weight loss along with pH measurements is carried out at specific intervals of time. The XRD and SEM analyses of post-immersed samples confirm the formation of crystalline hydroxyapatite layer (HA) on the surface of the samples. To assess the role of TiO2 on the formation of HA layer and degradability of the samples the spectroscopic studies viz. optical absorption and IR spectral studies on post- and pre-immersed samples have been carried out. The analysis of the results of degradability together with spectroscopic studies as a function of TiO2 concentration indicated that about 6.0 mol% of TiO2 is the optimal concentration for achieving better bioactivity of these glasses. The presence of the maximal concentration octahedral titanium ions in this glass that facilitates the formation of HA layer is found to be the reason for such a higher bioactivity.

  17. Multifunctional mesoporous bioactive glasses for effective delivery of therapeutic ions and drug/growth factors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chengtie; Chang, Jiang

    2014-11-10

    Regeneration of large-size bone defects represents a significant challenge clinically, which requires the use of scaffolds with multifunction, such as anti-bacterial activity, and stimulation of osteogenesis and angiogenesis. It is known that functional ions or drug/growth factors play an important role to stimulate tissue regeneration. Mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBG) possess excellent bioactivity and drug-delivery ability as well as effective ionic release in the body fluids microenvironment due to its specific mesoporous structure and large surface area. For these reasons, functional ions (e.g. lithium (Li), strontium (Sr), Copper (Cu) and Boron (B)) and drug/growth factors (e.g. dexamethasone, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)) have been incorporated into MBG, which shows high loading efficiency and effective release. The release of therapeutic ions and drug/growth factors from MBG offers it multifunctional properties, such as improved osteogenesis, angiogenesis, anti-bacterial/cancer activity. However, there is no a systematic review about delivery of therapeutic ions and drugs/growth factors from MBG for the functional effect on the tissue regeneration despite that significant progress has been achieved in the past five years. Therefore, in this review, we mainly focused on the new advances for the functional effect of delivering therapeutic ions and drugs/growth factors on the ostegeogenesis, angiogenesis and antibacterial activity. It is expected that the review will offer new concept to develop multifunctional biomaterials for bone regeneration by the synergistic effect of therapeutic ions and drug/growth factors.

  18. In vitro surface reaction layer formation and dissolution of calcium phosphate cement-bioactive glass composites.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changsheng; Chen, Chien-Wen; Ducheyne, Paul

    2008-09-01

    Composites of hydrated calcium phosphate cement (CPC) and bioactive glass (BG) containing Si were immersed in vitro to study the effect of chemical composition on surface reaction layer formation and dissolution/precipitation behavior. The solutions used were 0.05 M tris hydroxymethyl aminomethane/HCl (tris buffer), tris buffer supplemented with plasma electrolyte (TE) with pH 7.4 at 37 degrees C, and this solution complemented with 10% newborn bovine serum (TES). The post-immersion solutions were analyzed for changes in Ca, PO(4) and Si concentrations. The reacted surfaces were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray analysis. The sample weight variations after immersion were also determined. The results showed that the composition of the bioactive composite CPCs greatly affected their behavior in solution and the formation of apatite bioactive surface reaction layers. After immersion in the TE solution, Ca ions were taken up by all samples during the entire immersion duration. Initially, the P ion concentration increased sharply, and then decreased. This reaction pattern reveals the formation of an amorphous calcium phosphate layer on the surface of these composite CPCs. FTIR revealed that the layer was, in fact, poorly crystallized Ca-deficient carbonate apatite. The thickness of the layer was 12-14 microm and it was composed of rod-like apatite with directional arrangement. For immersion in the TES solution, the Ca and Si ion concentrations showed a similar behavior to that in TE, but the release rate of Si ions was higher. FTIR revealed that after TES immersion, not only did the typical, poorly crystallized, Ca-deficient carbonated apatite form, as it did in TE, but also the serum proteins co-adsorbed on the surface and thereby affected the surface reaction layer formation. A thinner apatite layer was formed and was composed of a micro-porous layer comprising rounded particles in a glue

  19. Bone regeneration in rat calvarial defects implanted with fibrous scaffolds composed of a mixture of silicate and borate bioactive glasses.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yifei; Huang, Wenhai; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Day, Delbert E

    2013-11-01

    Previous studies have evaluated the capacity of porous scaffolds composed of a single bioactive glass to regenerate bone. In the present study, scaffolds composed of a mixture of two different bioactive glasses (silicate 13-93 and borate 13-93B3) were created and evaluated for their response to osteogenic MLO-A5 cells in vitro and their capacity to regenerate bone in rat calvarial defects in vivo. The scaffolds, which have similar microstructures (porosity=58-67%) and contain 0, 25, 50 and 100 wt.% 13-93B3 glass, were fabricated by thermally bonding randomly oriented short fibers. The silicate 13-93 scaffolds showed a better capacity to support cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity than the scaffolds containing borate 13-93B3 fibers. The amount of new bone formed in the defects implanted with the 13-93 scaffolds at 12 weeks was 31%, compared to values of 25, 17 and 20%, respectively, for the scaffolds containing 25, 50 and 100% 13-93B3 glass. The amount of new bone formed in the 13-93 scaffolds was significantly higher than in the scaffolds containing 50 and 100% 13-93B3 glass. While the 13-93 fibers were only partially converted to hydroxyapatite at 12 weeks, the 13-93B3 fibers were fully converted and formed a tubular morphology. Scaffolds composed of an optimized mixture of silicate and borate bioactive glasses could provide the requisite architecture to guide bone regeneration combined with a controllable degradation rate that could be beneficial for bone and tissue healing.

  20. In vitro apatite forming ability of type I collagen hydrogels containing bioactive glass and silica sol-gel particles.

    PubMed

    Eglin, David; Maalheem, Sonia; Livage, Jacques; Coradin, Thibaud

    2006-02-01

    Type I collagen hydrogel containing bioactive glass (CaO-P2O5-SiO2) and silica sol-gel micrometric particles were prepared and their in vitroapatite-forming ability in simulated body fluid assessed. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that bioactive glass particles entrapment in collagen matrix did not inhibit calcium phosphate formation and induced morphology variations on the crystalline phase precipitated on the hydrogel surface. The silica--collagen hydrogel composite precipitated calcium phosphate whereas silica particles and collagen hydrogel alone did not, indicating a possible synergetic effect between collagen and silica on the apatite-forming ability. Mechanisms of calcium phosphate precipitation and its relevance to biomaterial development are discussed.

  1. Bioactive Glass Fiber Reinforced Starch-Polycaprolactone Composite for Bone Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jukola, H.; Nikkola, L.; Gomes, M. E.; Chiellini, F.; Tukiainen, M.; Kellomäki, M.; Chiellini, E.; Reis, R. L.; Ashammakhi, N.

    2008-02-01

    For bone regeneration and repair, combinations of different materials are often needed. Biodegradable polymers are often combined with osteoconductive materials, such as bioactive glass (BaG), which can also improve the mechanical properties of the composite. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize BaG fiber-reinforced starch-poly-ɛ-caprolactone (SPCL) composite. Sheets of SPCL (30/70 wt%) were produced using single-screw extrusion. They were then cut and compression molded in layers with BaG fibers to form composite structures of different combinations. Thermal, mechanical, and degradation properties of the composites were studied. The actual amount of BaG in the composites was determined using combustion tests. A strong endothermic peak indicating melting at about 56 °C was observed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. Thermal gravimetry analysis (TGA) showed that thermal decomposition of SPCL started at 325 °C with the decomposition of starch and continued at 400 °C with the degradation of polycaprolactone (PCL). Initial mechanical properties of the reinforced composites were at least 50% better than the properties of the non-reinforced composites. However, the mechanical properties of the composites after two weeks of hydrolysis were comparable to those of the non-reinforced samples. During the six weeks' hydrolysis the mass of the composites had decreased only by about 5%. The amount of glass in the composites remained the same for the six-week period of hydrolysis. In conclusion, it is possible to enhance the initial mechanical properties of SPCL by reinforcing it with BaG fibers. However, the mechanical properties of the composites are only sufficient for use as filler material and they need to be further improved to allow long-lasting bone applications.

  2. Hypoxia-mimicking bioactive glass regenerative effects on dental stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noor, Siti Noor Fazliah Mohd; Azevedo, Maria; Mohamad, Hasmaliza; Autefage, Hélène

    2016-12-01

    Vascularization is an important aspect of tissue regeneration. Hypoxia, low oxygen concentration, is a known stimulus for the release of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) which play important roles in vascularization. The current study aimed to assess the effect of a cobalt-containing bioactive glass (BG) in stimulating hypoxia and promoting vascularization. To incorporate cobalt into BG, 1 mol% of calcium was substituting with cobalt, and this formulation was compared to the one without cobalt. Both BGs were processed via melt-derived method. The BG powders with particle size less than 38 µm were incubated with cell culture medium for 4 hours at 37°C on continuous rolling, and then the medium was filtered using 0.22 µm syringe filters. Prior to use, the BG-conditioned media were supplemented with 10% (v/v) fetal bovine serum and 1% (v/v) antibiotic-antimycotic, and were allowed to equilibrate overnight inside a CO2 incubator. The conditioned media were used on human dental stem cells (stem cells from permanent (DPSC) and deciduous (SHED) teeth) and assessed for their capacity to stimulate the release of angiogenic factors from the cells. The results showed that cobalt ions were released from the cobalt-containing BG, following partial dissolution of the glasses in cell culture medium, and promoted VEGF release from the cells. In conclusion, the incorporation of cobalt in BG may have potential to be used for tissue regeneration by promoting vascularization through the activation of hypoxia pathway and the release of VEGF.

  3. Bioactive Glass Fiber Reinforced Starch-Polycaprolactone Composite for Bone Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jukola, H.; Nikkola, L.; Tukiainen, M.; Kellomaeki, M.; Ashammakhi, N.; Gomes, M. E.; Reis, R. L.; Chiellini, F.; Chiellini, E.

    2008-02-15

    For bone regeneration and repair, combinations of different materials are often needed. Biodegradable polymers are often combined with osteoconductive materials, such as bioactive glass (BaG), which can also improve the mechanical properties of the composite. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize BaG fiber-reinforced starch-poly-{epsilon}-caprolactone (SPCL) composite. Sheets of SPCL (30/70 wt%) were produced using single-screw extrusion. They were then cut and compression molded in layers with BaG fibers to form composite structures of different combinations. Thermal, mechanical, and degradation properties of the composites were studied. The actual amount of BaG in the composites was determined using combustion tests. A strong endothermic peak indicating melting at about 56 deg. C was observed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. Thermal gravimetry analysis (TGA) showed that thermal decomposition of SPCL started at 325 deg. C with the decomposition of starch and continued at 400 deg. C with the degradation of polycaprolactone (PCL). Initial mechanical properties of the reinforced composites were at least 50% better than the properties of the non-reinforced composites. However, the mechanical properties of the composites after two weeks of hydrolysis were comparable to those of the non-reinforced samples. During the six weeks' hydrolysis the mass of the composites had decreased only by about 5%. The amount of glass in the composites remained the same for the six-week period of hydrolysis. In conclusion, it is possible to enhance the initial mechanical properties of SPCL by reinforcing it with BaG fibers. However, the mechanical properties of the composites are only sufficient for use as filler material and they need to be further improved to allow long-lasting bone applications.

  4. Teicoplanin-loaded borate bioactive glass implants for treating chronic bone infection in a rabbit tibia osteomyelitis model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Jia, Weitao; Gu, Yifei; Xiao, Wei; Liu, Xin; Wang, Deping; Zhang, Changqing; Huang, Wenhai; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Day, Delbert E; Zhou, Nai

    2010-08-01

    The treatment of chronic osteomyelitis (bone infection) remains a clinical challenge. In this work, pellets composed of a chitosan-bonded mixture of borate bioactive glass particles (<50microm) and teicoplanin powder (antibiotic), were evaluated in vitro and in vivo for treating chronic osteomyelitis induced by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a rabbit model. When immersed in phosphate-buffered saline, the pellets showed sustained release of teicoplanin over 20-30 days, while the bioactive glass converted to hydroxyapatite (HA) within 7 days, eventually forming a porous HA structure. Implantation of the teicoplanin-loaded pellets in a rabbit tibia osteomyelitis model resulted in the detection of teicoplanin in the blood for about 9 days. The implants converted to a bone-like HA graft, and supported the ingrowth of new bone into the tibia defects within 12 weeks of implantation. Microbiological, histological and scanning electron microscopy techniques showed that the implants provided a cure for the bone infection. The results indicate that the teicoplanin-loaded borate bioactive glass implant, combining sustained drug release with the ability to support new bone ingrowth, could provide a method for treating chronic osteomyelitis.

  5. Ions Release and pH of Calcium Hydroxide-, Chlorhexidine- and Bioactive Glass-Based Endodontic Medicaments.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ceci Nunes; Freire, Laila Gonzales; Carvalho, Alexandre Pinheiro Lima de; Duarte, Marco Antonio Húngaro; Bauer, José; Gavini, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated pH and release of calcium, sodium and phosphate ions from different medications in human dentin. Fifty premolars were prepared and randomly divided into groups: (CHX) - 2% chlorhexidine gel; (CHX + CH) - CHX + calcium hydroxide PA; (CH) - CH + propylene glycol 600; (NPBG) - experimental niobium phosphate bioactive glass + distilled water; (BG) - bioactive glass (Bio-Gran) + distilled water. The specimens were immersed in deionized water and the pH variations were measured. The quantification of ions in the solutions was made by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP/AES) at 10 min, 24 h, 7, 14, 21 and 30 days. The results were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey`s test, with a significance level of 5%. CH had the highest level of calcium ions release at 30 days, while CHX and BG released more sodium ions. BG, NPBG and CHX released a higher amount of phosphate ions. The pH of CH was significantly higher compared with the other groups. CH favored the greatest increase of pH and calcium ions release. The bioactive glasses released more sodium and phosphate ions and presented an alkaline pH immediately and after 30 days.

  6. Management of radicular cysts using platelet-rich fibrin and bioactive glass: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiing-Huei; Tsai, Chung-Hung; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2014-07-01

    Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) created by Choukroun's protocol concentrates most platelets and leukocytes from a blood harvest into a single autologous fibrin biomaterial. However, no current data is available concerning the use of PRF for the treatment of periapical lesions. Two cases of radicular cysts were reported using an interdisciplinary approach, including regular endodontic therapy followed by surgical management with PRF and bioactive glass. Two cases of radicular cysts presented as an incidental radiographic finding, appearing as an apical radiolucency with well-circumscribed sclerotic borders. After regular endodontic retreatment, cystic lining/granulation tissues were enucleated and the periradicular bony defect was grafted using PRF and bioactive glass. Then, PRF was applied to serve as a membrane over the grafted defects. Recall periapical radiographs of Case 1 and cone beam computer tomography of Case 2 showed satisfactory healing of the periapical pathosis. In Case 2, the bony defect appeared completely healed at 4 months surgical reentry and the new bone was clinically very dense and mature. The results of these case reports show that the combination of PRF and bioactive glass is an effective modality of regenerative treatment for radicular cysts.

  7. The pH-controlled dual-drug release from mesoporous bioactive glass/polypeptide graft copolymer nanomicelle composites.

    PubMed

    Xia, Wei; Chang, Jiang; Lin, Jiaping; Zhu, Jianqi

    2008-06-01

    Dual-drug delivery systems are investigated for combined therapy with drugs having distinct therapeutic effects. However, the majority of current dual-drug delivery systems are designed for simultaneous release of two different drugs; the release of each individual drug cannot be controlled. In this study, we have demonstrated a novel dual-drug delivery system based on mesoporous bioactive glass/polypeptide graft copolymer nanomicelle composites. Water-soluble gentamicin and fat-soluble naproxen were used as model drugs in the study of this system. A pH-controlled release of individual drugs was achieved by the predominant release of gentamicin from mesoporous bioactive glass in an acid environment and fast release of naproxen in an alkaline environment from polypeptide nanomicelles. Our results suggest that the mesoporous bioactive glass/PBLG-g-PEG nanomicelle composites can be used as a dual-drug delivery system, and that the individual drug release can be controlled by the pH of the surrounding environment.

  8. Influence of cell culture medium composition on in vitro dissolution behavior of a fluoride-containing bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Shah, Furqan A; Brauer, Delia S; Wilson, Rory M; Hill, Robert G; Hing, Karin A

    2014-03-01

    Bioactive glasses are used clinically for bone regeneration, and their bioactivity and cell compatibility are often characterized in vitro, using physiologically relevant test solutions. The aim of this study was to show the influence of varying medium characteristics (pH, composition, presence of proteins) on glass dissolution and apatite formation. The dissolution behavior of a fluoride-containing bioactive glass (BG) was investigated over a period of one week in Eagle's Minimal Essential Medium with Earle's Salts (MEM), supplemented with either, (a) acetate buffer, (b) 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) buffer, (c) HEPES + carbonate, or (d) HEPES + carbonate + fetal bovine serum. Results show pronounced differences in pH, ion release, and apatite formation over 1 week: Despite its acidic pH (pH 5.8 after BG immersion, as compared to pH 7.4-8.3 for HEPES-containing media), apatite formation was fastest in acetate buffered (HEPES-free) MEM. Presence of carbonate resulted in formation of calcite (calcium carbonate). Presence of serum proteins, on the other hand, delayed apatite formation significantly. These results confirm that the composition and properties of a tissue culture medium are important factors during in vitro experiments and need to be taken into consideration when interpreting results from dissolution or cell culture studies.

  9. Effects of Chemically Doped Bioactive Borate Glass on Neuron Regrowth and Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Brinda; Papke, Jason B; Mohammadkhah, Ali; Day, Delbert E; Harkins, Amy B

    2016-12-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries present challenges to regeneration. Currently, the gold standard for nerve repair is an autograft that results in another region of the body suffering nerve damage. Previously, bioactive borate glass (BBG) has been studied in clinical trials to treat patients with non-healing wounds, and we have reported that BBG is conducive for soft tissue repair. BBG provides structural support, degrades in a non-cytotoxic manner, and can be chemically doped. Here, we tested a wide range of chemical compounds that are reported to have neuroprotective characteristics to promote regeneration of peripheral neurons after traumatic injury. We hypothesized that chemical dopants added in trace amounts to BBG would improve neuronal survival and neurite outgrowth from dorsal root ganglion (DRG) explants. We measured neurite outgrowth from whole DRG explants, and survival rates of dissociated neurons and support cells that comprise the DRG. Results show that chemically doped BBGs have differentially variable effects on neuronal survival and outgrowth, with iron, gallium, and zinc improving outgrowth of neurons, and iodine causing the most detriment to neurons. Because chemically doped BBGs support increased nerve regrowth and survival, they show promise for use in peripheral nerve regeneration.

  10. Gold nanoparticle incorporated polymer/bioactive glass composite for controlled drug delivery application.

    PubMed

    Jayalekshmi, A C; Sharma, Chandra P

    2015-02-01

    The present study discusses the development of a biodegradable polymer encapsulated-nanogold incorporated-bioactive glass composite (AuPBG) by a low-temperature method. The composite was analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TG), fluorescence and dissolution analysis. The composite exhibited aggregation behaviour in solid and solution states and exhibited negative zeta potential (-13.3 ± 1.4 mV). The composite exhibited fast degradation starting from the 5(th) day onwards in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) for a period of 14 days. The composite showed fluorescence quenching effect at pH 7 and the fluorescence recovered at pH 5. The composite has been found to be suitable for the release of doxorubicin at high rates at acidic pH (∼ 5) which is the intracellular pH of tumour cells. The drug loading ratio is also high and it exhibited a controlled release for a period of 8 days in PBS. The system serves as a promising material for targeted drug delivery applications.

  11. Effect of polyurethane (PU) - bioactive glass (BG) ratio on the development of BG reinforced PU scaffold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lip, Lim Weng; Abdullah, Tuti Katrina; Zubir, Syazana Ahmad

    2016-12-01

    Nowadays, variety of biomaterials may be used to produce implanted scaffolds such as metal-based, ceramic-based and polymer-based materials. In this study, porous bioactive glass (BG) reinforced polyurethane (PU) composite scaffolds with different PU:BG mass ratio (10 to 40 wt%) were fabricated as a potential candidate for synthetic bone graft. The PU-BG scaffolds were prepared using solvent casting combined with salt leaching (SCPL) method and were subjected to several characterizations including fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). FTIR spectrum showed the trace of BG particles in the PU-BG scaffolds with high concentration of BG (30 and 40 wt%). EDX confirmed that the white particles in the PU-BG scaffold as observed via SEM micrograph were BG particles. A slightly round and irregular pore structures were observed for the PU-BG scaffolds prepared in this study. More homogeneous pore structures were observed as the amount of BG in the PU-BG scaffold is increased. The overall pore size for all scaffolds was in the range of 130 to 400 µm which is suitable for the growth of bone tissue.

  12. Alternating current electrophoretic deposition of antibacterial bioactive glass-chitosan composite coatings.

    PubMed

    Seuss, Sigrid; Lehmann, Maja; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2014-07-09

    Alternating current (AC) electrophoretic deposition (EPD) was used to produce multifunctional composite coatings combining bioactive glass (BG) particles and chitosan. BG particles of two different sizes were used, i.e., 2 μm and 20-80 nm in average diameter. The parameter optimization and characterization of the coatings was conducted by visual inspection and by adhesion strength tests. The optimized coatings were investigated in terms of their hydroxyapatite (HA) forming ability in simulated body fluid (SBF) for up to 21 days. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results showed the successful HA formation on the coatings after 21 days. The first investigations were conducted on planar stainless steel sheets. In addition, scaffolds made from a TiAl4V6 alloy were considered to show the feasibility of coating of three dimensional structures by EPD. Because both BG and chitosan are antibacterial materials, the antibacterial properties of the as-produced coatings were investigated using E. coli bacteria cells. It was shown that the BG particle size has a strong influence on the antibacterial properties of the coatings.

  13. Alternating Current Electrophoretic Deposition of Antibacterial Bioactive Glass-Chitosan Composite Coatings

    PubMed Central

    Seuss, Sigrid; Lehmann, Maja; Boccaccini, Aldo R.

    2014-01-01

    Alternating current (AC) electrophoretic deposition (EPD) was used to produce multifunctional composite coatings combining bioactive glass (BG) particles and chitosan. BG particles of two different sizes were used, i.e., 2 μm and 20–80 nm in average diameter. The parameter optimization and characterization of the coatings was conducted by visual inspection and by adhesion strength tests. The optimized coatings were investigated in terms of their hydroxyapatite (HA) forming ability in simulated body fluid (SBF) for up to 21 days. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results showed the successful HA formation on the coatings after 21 days. The first investigations were conducted on planar stainless steel sheets. In addition, scaffolds made from a TiAl4V6 alloy were considered to show the feasibility of coating of three dimensional structures by EPD. Because both BG and chitosan are antibacterial materials, the antibacterial properties of the as-produced coatings were investigated using E. coli bacteria cells. It was shown that the BG particle size has a strong influence on the antibacterial properties of the coatings. PMID:25007822

  14. Cell studies of hybridized carbon nanofibers containing bioactive glass nanoparticles using bone mesenchymal stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiu-Rui; Hu, Xiao-Qing; Jia, Xiao-Long; Yang, Li-Ka; Meng, Qing-Yang; Shi, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Zheng-Zheng; Cai, Qing; Ao, Yin-Fang; Yang, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Bone regeneration required suitable scaffolding materials to support the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone-related cells. In this study, a kind of hybridized nanofibrous scaffold material (CNF/BG) was prepared by incorporating bioactive glass (BG) nanoparticles into carbon nanofibers (CNF) via the combination of BG sol-gel and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) electrospinning, followed by carbonization. Three types (49 s, 68 s and 86 s) of BG nanoparticles were incorporated. To understand the mechanism of CNF/BG hybrids exerting osteogenic effects, bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultured directly on these hybrids (contact culture) or cultured in transwell chambers in the presence of these materials (non-contact culture). The contributions of ion release and contact effect on cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were able to be correlated. It was found that the ionic dissolution products had limited effect on cell proliferation, while they were able to enhance osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in comparison with pure CNF. Differently, the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were both significantly promoted in the contact culture. In both cases, CNF/BG(68 s) showed the strongest ability in influencing cell behaviors due to its fastest release rate of soluble silicium-relating ions. The synergistic effect of CNF and BG would make CNF/BG hybrids promising substrates for bone repairing. PMID:27924854

  15. In vitro model for frontal sinus obliteration with bioactive glass S53P4.

    PubMed

    Peltola, M J; Suonpää, J T; Andersson, H; Määttänen, H S; Aitasalo, K M; Yli-Urpo, A; Laippala, P J

    2000-01-01

    An in vitro model was used to investigate the behavior of a massive frontal sinus obliteration with bioactive glass S53P4 (BG) for clinical purposes. Two sizes of granules (0.63-0.8 mm or 0.8-1.0 mm) in 16 separate BG amounts, weight 25 g, were tested both in simulated body fluid (SBF) and a buffer containing trishydroxymethyl aminomethane citric acid (TRIS-c.a) in standard conditions. The dissolution of silicon (Si) and phosphate (P) was detected with direct current plasma atom emission spectroscopy (DCP-AES) monthly up to 6 months. The BG masses were scanned by computer tomography (CT) and the scans analyzed by Region of Interest (ROI) technique. Calcium phosphate (CaP)- and silica (Si)-gel-layers were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at 1, 3, and 6 months. Cumulative loss of Si and P was stronger in TRIS -c.a than in SBF (p < 0.0001), and it was higher with smaller than with larger granules in both solutions (p < 0.0001). This was shown correspondingly by the decrease in Hounsfield units (HU) by ROI analysis (p < 0.0001). In SBF-soaked BG masses, the CaP-layer occurred on the uppermost granules, and in TRIS-c.a at 3-6 months, on the granules in the center and lower parts. The decrease of HU seems to reveal indirectly the resorption of BG.

  16. Cell studies of hybridized carbon nanofibers containing bioactive glass nanoparticles using bone mesenchymal stromal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiu-Rui; Hu, Xiao-Qing; Jia, Xiao-Long; Yang, Li-Ka; Meng, Qing-Yang; Shi, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Zheng-Zheng; Cai, Qing; Ao, Yin-Fang; Yang, Xiao-Ping

    2016-12-01

    Bone regeneration required suitable scaffolding materials to support the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone-related cells. In this study, a kind of hybridized nanofibrous scaffold material (CNF/BG) was prepared by incorporating bioactive glass (BG) nanoparticles into carbon nanofibers (CNF) via the combination of BG sol-gel and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) electrospinning, followed by carbonization. Three types (49 s, 68 s and 86 s) of BG nanoparticles were incorporated. To understand the mechanism of CNF/BG hybrids exerting osteogenic effects, bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultured directly on these hybrids (contact culture) or cultured in transwell chambers in the presence of these materials (non-contact culture). The contributions of ion release and contact effect on cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were able to be correlated. It was found that the ionic dissolution products had limited effect on cell proliferation, while they were able to enhance osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in comparison with pure CNF. Differently, the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were both significantly promoted in the contact culture. In both cases, CNF/BG(68 s) showed the strongest ability in influencing cell behaviors due to its fastest release rate of soluble silicium-relating ions. The synergistic effect of CNF and BG would make CNF/BG hybrids promising substrates for bone repairing.

  17. Light-sensitive intelligent drug delivery systems of coumarin-modified mesoporous bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Lin, H-M; Wang, W-K; Hsiung, P-A; Shyu, S-G

    2010-08-01

    Functionalized mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBG) with photoactive coumarin demonstrates photo-responsive dimerization resulting in reversible gate operation. Coumarin-modified MBG was used as a drug delivery carrier to investigate drug storage/release characteristics using phenanthrene as a model drug. Irradiation with UV light (>310 nm) induced photo-dimerization of the coumarin-modified MBG, which led to the pores' closing with cyclobutane dimers and trapping of the guest phenanthrene in the mesopores. However, irradiating the dimerized-coumarin-modified MBG with shorter wavelength UV light (approximately 250 nm) regenerates the coumarin monomer derivative by the photo-cleavage of cyclobutane dimers, such that trapped guest molecules are released from the mesopores. The structural, morphological, textural and optical properties are well characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, N(2) adsorption/desorption, and UV-visible spectroscopy. The results reveal that the MBG exhibits the typical ordered characteristics of the hexagonal mesostructure. The system demonstrates great potential in light-sensitive intelligent drug delivery systems and disease therapy fields.

  18. Influence of Calcium on the Initial Stages of the Sol-Gel Synthesis of Bioactive Glasses.

    PubMed

    Côté, Alexander S; Cormack, Alastair N; Tilocca, Antonio

    2016-11-17

    Understanding how calcium interacts with silica sources and influences their polycondensation in aqueous solutions is of central importance for the development of more effective biomaterials by sol-gel approaches. For this purpose, the atomic-scale evolutions of a calcium-containing precursor solution corresponding to a typical sol-gel bioactive glass and of a corresponding Ca-free solution were compared using reactive molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations highlight a significantly faster rate of condensation when calcium is present in the initial solution, resulting in the formation of large and ramified silica clusters within 5 ns, which are absent in the Ca-free system. This different behavior has been analyzed and interpreted in terms of the Ca-induced nanosegregation in calcium-rich and silica-rich regions, which promotes the condensation reactions within the latter. By identifying a possible mechanism behind the limited incorporation of calcium in the silica nanoclusters formed in the early stages of the sol-gel process, these results could guide further studies aimed at identifying favorable experimental conditions to enhance initial calcium incorporation and thus produce sol-gel biomaterials with improved properties.

  19. 3D analysis of thermal and stress evolution during laser cladding of bioactive glass coatings.

    PubMed

    Krzyzanowski, Michal; Bajda, Szymon; Liu, Yijun; Triantaphyllou, Andrew; Mark Rainforth, W; Glendenning, Malcolm

    2016-06-01

    Thermal and strain-stress transient fields during laser cladding of bioactive glass coatings on the Ti6Al4V alloy basement were numerically calculated and analysed. Conditions leading to micro-cracking susceptibility of the coating have been investigated using the finite element based modelling supported by experimental results of microscopic investigation of the sample coatings. Consecutive temperature and stress peaks are developed within the cladded material as a result of the laser beam moving along the complex trajectory, which can lead to micro-cracking. The preheated to 500°C base plate allowed for decrease of the laser power and lowering of the cooling speed between the consecutive temperature peaks contributing in such way to achievement of lower cracking susceptibility. The cooling rate during cladding of the second and the third layer was lower than during cladding of the first one, in such way, contributing towards improvement of cracking resistance of the subsequent layers due to progressive accumulation of heat over the process.

  20. In vitro blood and fibroblast responses to BisGMA-TEGDMA/bioactive glass composite implants.

    PubMed

    Abdulmajeed, Aous A; Kokkari, Anne K; Käpylä, Jarmo; Massera, Jonathan; Hupa, Leena; Vallittu, Pekka K; Närhi, Timo O

    2014-01-01

    This in vitro study was designed to evaluate both blood and human gingival fibroblast responses to bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate-triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (BisGMA-TEGDMA)/bioactive glass (BAG) composite, aimed to be used as composite implant abutment surface modifier. Three different types of substrates were investigated: (a) plain polymer (BisGMA 50 wt%-TEGDMA 50 wt%), (b) BAG-composite (50 wt% polymer + 50 wt% fraction of BAG-particles, <50 μm), and (c) plain BAG plates (100 wt% BAG). The blood response, including the blood-clotting ability and platelet adhesion morphology were evaluated. Human gingival fibroblasts were plated and cultured on the experimental substrates for up to 10 days, then the cell proliferation rate was assessed using AlamarBlue assay™. The BAG-composite and plain BAG substrates had a shorter clotting time than plain polymer substrates. Platelet activation and aggregation were most extensive, qualitatively, on BAG-composite. Analysis of the normalized cell proliferation rate on the different surfaces showed some variations throughout the experiment, however, by day 10 the BAG-composite substrate showed the highest (P < 0.001) cell proliferation rate. In conclusion, the presence of exposed BAG-particles enhances fibroblast and blood responses on composite surfaces in vitro.

  1. The attachment affinity of hemoglobin toward silver-containing bioactive glass functionalized with glutaraldehyde.

    PubMed

    Gruian, C; Vulpoi, A; Vanea, E; Oprea, B; Steinhoff, H-J; Simon, S

    2013-12-27

    Bioactive glasses belonging to the 56SiO2·(40 - x)CaO·4P2O5·xAg2O system, with x = 0, 2, and 8 mol %, were surface functionalized with the protein coupling agent glutaraldehyde (GA) and further evaluated in terms of hemoglobin affinity. The bare and GA-functionalized samples were investigated before and after protein attachment, by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy combined with spin-labeling procedure. Methanethiosulfonate spin label was used to explore the local environment of β-93 cysteine in horse hemoglobin, in terms of spin label side chain mobility. The EPR simulation methods were employed to quantify the rotational correlational times and fraction of the immobilized spin labels. The EPR absorption spectrum was further exploited to estimate the amount of hemoglobin loaded on the substrates. The surface elemental composition obtained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed similar tendency in terms of surface coverage. Changes in surface architecture, that is, changes in surface morphology after protein coverage, were observed by scanning electron microscopy. It was concluded that GA improves the stability of protein attachment and induces polymerization of hemoglobin molecules.

  2. 3D cell culture to determine in vitro biocompatibility of bioactive glass in association with chitosan.

    PubMed

    Bédouin, Y; Pellen Mussi, P; Tricot-Doleux, S; Chauvel-Lebret, D; Auroy, P; Ravalec, X; Oudadesse, H; Perez, F

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the in vitro biocompatibility of a composite biomaterial composed of 46S6 bioactive glass in association with chitosan (CH) by using 3D osteoblast culture of SaOS2. The 46S6 and CH composite (46S6-CH) forms small hydroxyapatite crystals on its surface after only three days immersion in the simulated body fluid. For 2D osteoblast culture, a significant increase in cell proliferation was observed after three days of contact with 46S6 or 46S6-CH-immersed media. After six days, 46S6-CH led to a significant increase in cell proliferation (128%) compared with pure 46S6 (113%) and pure CH (122%). For 3D osteoblast culture, after six days of culture, there was an increase in gene expression of markers of the early osteoblastic differentiation (RUNX2, ALP, COL1A1). Geometric structures corresponding to small apatite clusters were observed by SEM on the surface of the spheroids cultivated with 46S6 or 46S6-CH-immersed media. We showed different cellular responses depending on the 2D and 3D cell culture model. The induction of osteoblast differentiation in the 3D cell culture explained the differences of cell proliferation in contact with 46S6, CH or 46S6-CH-immersed media. This study confirmed that the 3D cell culture model is a very promising tool for in vitro biological evaluation of bone substitutes' properties.

  3. Periodontal regeneration using strontium-loaded mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds in osteoporotic rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yufeng; Wei, Lingfei; Wu, Chengtie; Miron, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that the rate of periodontal breakdown significantly increased in patients compromised from both periodontal disease and osteoporosis. One pharmacological agent used for their treatment is strontium renalate due to its simultaneous ability to increase bone formation and halt bone resorption. The aim of the present study was to achieve periodontal regeneration of strontium-incorporated mesoporous bioactive glass (Sr-MBG) scaffolds in an osteoporotic animal model carried out by bilateral ovariectomy (OVX). 15 female Wistar rats were randomly assigned to three groups: control unfilled periodontal defects, 2) MBG alone and 3) Sr-MBG scaffolds. 10 weeks after OVX, bilateral fenestration defects were created at the buccal aspect of the first mandibular molar and assessed by micro-CT and histomorphometric analysis after 28 days. Periodontal fenestration defects treated with Sr-MBG scaffolds showed greater new bone formation (46.67%) when compared to MBG scaffolds (39.33%) and control unfilled samples (17.50%). The number of TRAP-positive osteoclasts was also significantly reduced in defects receiving Sr-MBG scaffolds. The results from the present study suggest that Sr-MBG scaffolds may provide greater periondontal regeneration. Clinical studies are required to fully characterize the possible beneficial effect of Sr-releasing scaffolds for patients suffering from a combination of both periodontal disease and osteoporosis.

  4. Antibacterial activity evaluation of bioactive glass and biphasic calcium phosphate nanopowders mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazemi, Zahra; Mehdikhani-Nahrkhalaji, Mehdi; Haghbin-Nazarpak, Masoumeh; Staji, Hamid; Kalani, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of bioactive glass (BG) and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) nanopowders mixtures for the first time. 37S BG and BCP (50% HA-50% β-TCP) nanopowders were prepared via sol-gel technique. Characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transition electron microscopy, and X-ray fluorescent. The antibacterial activity was studied using Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi as gram-negative, and Staphylococcus aureus as gram-positive bacteria. The antibacterial effect of BG, BCP nanopowders, and their mixtures was evaluated at different concentrations. The 37S BG nanopowders showed minimum bactericidal concentration at 25 mg/ml. At broth concentrations below 300 mg/ml, BCP showed no antibacterial activity. BCP and BG nanopowders mixture (M2) with 60/40 ratio of BCP/BG showed noticeable antibacterial effect. It was concluded that BCP and 37S BG nanopowders mixture could be used as a good candidate for dental and orthopedic applications.

  5. Copper-doped borosilicate bioactive glass scaffolds with improved angiogenic and osteogenic capacity for repairing osseous defects.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shichang; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Yadong; Huang, Wenhai; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Liu, Zhongtang; Wang, Deping; Zhang, Changqing

    2015-03-01

    There is growing interest in the use of synthetic biomaterials to deliver inorganic ions that are known to stimulate angiogenesis and osteogenesis in vivo. In the present study, we investigated the effects of varying amounts of copper in a bioactive glass on the response of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) in vitro and on blood vessel formation and bone regeneration in rat calvarial defects in vivo. Porous scaffolds of a borosilicate bioactive glass (composition 6Na2O, 8K2O, 8MgO, 22CaO, 36B2O3, 18SiO2, 2P2O5, mol.%) doped with 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0wt.% CuO were created using a foam replication method. When immersed in simulated body fluid, the scaffolds released Cu ions into the medium and converted to hydroxyapatite. At the concentrations used, the Cu in the glass was not toxic to the hBMSCs cultured on the scaffolds in vitro. The alkaline phosphatase activity of the hBMSCs and the expression levels of angiogenic-related genes (vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor) and osteogenic-related genes (runt-related transcription factor 2, bone morphogenetic protein-2 and osteopontin) increased significantly with increasing amount of Cu in the glass. When implanted in rat calvarial defects in vivo, the scaffolds (3wt.% CuO) significantly enhanced both blood vessel formation and bone regeneration in the defects at 8weeks post-implantation. These results show that doping bioactive glass implants with Cu is a promising approach for enhancing angiogenesis and osteogenesis in the healing of osseous defects.

  6. Development and effect of different bioactive silicate glass scaffolds: in vitro evaluation for use as a bone drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Soundrapandian, Chidambaram; Mahato, Arnab; Kundu, Biswanath; Datta, Someswar; Sa, Biswanath; Basu, Debebrata

    2014-12-01

    Local drug delivery systems to bone have attracted appreciable attention due to their efficacy to improve drug delivery, healing and regeneration. In this paper, development and characterization of new formulations of bioactive glass into a porous scaffold has been reported for its suitability to act as a drug delivery system in the management of bone infections, in vitro. Two new glass compositions based on SiO2-Na2O-ZnO-CaO-MgO-P2O5 system (BGZ and MBG) have been developed which after thorough chemical and phase evaluation, studied for acellular static in vitro bioactivity in SBF. Porous scaffolds made of these glasses have been fabricated and characterized thoroughly for bioactivity study, SEM, XRD, in vitro cytotoxicity, MTT assay and wound healing assay using human osteocarcoma cells. Finally, gatifloxacin was loaded into the porous scaffold by vacuum infiltration method and in vitro drug release kinetics have been studied with varying parameters including dissolution medium (PBS and SBF) and with/without impregnation chitosan. Suitable model has also been proposed for the kinetics. 63-66% porous and 5-50μm almost unimodal porous MBG and BGZ bioactive glass scaffolds were capable of releasing drugs successfully for 43 days at concentrations to treat orthopedic infections. In addition, it was also observed that the release of drug followed Peppas-Korsmeyer release pattern based on Fickian diffusion, while 0.5-1% chitosan coating on the scaffolds decreased the burst release and overall release of drug. The results also indicated that MBG based scaffolds were bioactive, biocompatible, noncytotoxic and exhibited excellent wound healing potential while BGZ was mildly cytotoxic with moderate wound healing potential. These results strongly suggest that MBG scaffolds appear to be a suitable bone drug delivery system in orthopedic infections treatment and as bone void fillers, but BGZ should be handled with caution or studied elaborately in detail further to ascertain

  7. A novel injectable borate bioactive glass cement for local delivery of vancomycin to cure osteomyelitis and regenerate bone.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xu; Zhao, Cunju; Gu, Yifei; Li, Le; Wang, Hui; Huang, Wenhai; Zhou, Nai; Wang, Deping; Zhu, Yi; Xu, Jun; Luo, Shihua; Zhang, Changqing; Rahaman, Mohamed N

    2014-03-01

    Osteomyelitis (bone infection) is often difficult to cure. The commonly-used treatment of surgical debridement to remove the infected bone combined with prolonged systemic and local antibiotic treatment has limitations. In the present study, an injectable borate bioactive glass cement was developed as a carrier for the antibiotic vancomycin, characterized in vitro, and evaluated for its capacity to cure osteomyelitis in a rabbit tibial model. The cement (initial setting time = 5.8 ± 0.6 min; compressive strength = 25.6 ± 0.3 MPa) released vancomycin over ~25 days in phosphate-buffered saline, during which time the borate glass converted to hydroxyapatite (HA). When implanted in rabbit tibial defects infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-induced osteomyelitis, the vancomycin-loaded cement converted to HA and supported new bone formation in the defects within 8 weeks. Osteomyelitis was cured in 87 % of the defects implanted with the vancomycin-loaded borate glass cement, compared to 71 % for the defects implanted with vancomycin-loaded calcium sulfate cement. The injectable borate bioactive glass cement developed in this study is a promising treatment for curing osteomyelitis and for regenerating bone in the defects following cure of the infection.

  8. Synthesis, characterization, and in vitro cytocompatibility of Ga-bioactive glass/polymer hydrogel composites.

    PubMed

    Keenan, T J; Placek, L M; Keenan, N L; Hall, M M; Wren, A W

    2016-10-01

    A bioactive glass series (0.42SiO2-0.10Na2O-0.08CaO-(0.40-x)ZnO-(x)Ga2O3) was incorporated in carboxymethyl cellulose-dextran hydrogels at three different loadings (0.05, 0.10, and 0.25 m(2)), and the resulting composites were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, physical swelling characteristics, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. In vitro cytocompatibility was also evaluated for composite extracts in contact with L-929 mouse fibroblasts and MC3T3-E1 human osteoblasts. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that glass particles were distributed throughout the hydrogels, and swelling studies showed that glass presence can increase the amount of fluid that can be absorbed by the hydrogels after seven days of immersion in phosphate-buffered saline by up to 180%. Several trends were observed in the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy data, with the most important being the release of Ga(3+) from both Ga-containing glasses at all three loadings, with a maximum of 4.7 mg/L released after 30 days of incubation in phosphate-buffered saline. Cell viability analysis suggested that most composite extracts did not decrease neither fibroblast nor osteoblast viability. These results indicate that it is possible to embed bioactive glass particles into carboxymethyl cellulose-dextran hydrogels, and upon submersion in aqueous media, release ions from the glass particles that may elicit therapeutic effects.

  9. Incorporation of sol-gel bioactive glass into PLGA improves mechanical properties and bioactivity of composite scaffolds and results in their osteoinductive properties.

    PubMed

    Filipowska, J; Pawlik, J; Cholewa-Kowalska, K; Tylko, G; Pamula, E; Niedzwiedzki, L; Szuta, M; Laczka, M; Osyczka, A M

    2014-10-20

    In this study, 3D porous bioactive composite scaffolds were produced and evaluated for their physico-chemical and biological properties. Polymer poly-L-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) matrix scaffolds were modified with sol-gel-derived bioactive glasses (SBGs) of CaO-SiO2-P2O5 systems. We hypothesized that SBG incorporation into PLGA matrix would improve the chemical and biological activity of composite materials as well as their mechanical properties. We applied two bioactive glasses, designated as S2 or A2, differing in the content of SiO2 and CaO (i.e. 80 mol% SiO2, 16 mol% CaO for S2 and 40 mol% SiO2, 52 mol% CaO for A2). The composites were characterized for their porosity, bioactivity, microstructure and mechanical properties. The osteoinductive properties of these composites were evaluated in human bone marrow stromal cell (hBMSC) cultures grown in either standard growth medium or treated with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) or dexamethasone (Dex). After incubation in simulated body fluid, calcium phosphate precipitates formed inside the pores of both A2-PLGA and S2-PLGA scaffolds. The compressive strength of the latter was increased slightly compared to PLGA. Both composites promoted superior hBMSC attachment to the material surface and stimulated the expression of several osteogenic markers in hBMSC compared to cells grown on unmodified PLGA. There were also marked differences in the response of hBMSC to composite scaffolds, depending on chemical compositions of the scaffolds and culture treatments. Compared to silica-rich S2-PLGA, hBMSC grown on calcium-rich A2-PLGA were overall less responsive to rhBMP-2 or Dex and the osteoinductive properties of these A2-PLGA scaffolds seemed partially dependent on their ability to induce BMP signaling in untreated hBMSC. Thus, beyond the ability of currently studied composites to enhance hBMSC osteogenesis, it may become possible to modulate the osteogenic response of hBMSC, depending on the

  10. Synthesis of sol-gel derived glass powder and in vitro bioactivity property tested in simulated body fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadzli, S. A. Syed Nuzul; Roslinda, S.; Zainuddin, Firuz; Ismail, Hamisah

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the apatite forming ability of sol-gel derived glass based on chemical composition 50%(SiO2)-40%(CaO)-10%(PO4) by examine the reacted sample surface after soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF). The glass was synthesized via an acid catalyzed low temperature sol-gel route, dried, crushed and uniaxial pressed into pellets before finally heated at 600°C to maintain the amorphous nature and to obtain stabilized glass pellets. The bioactivity test of the glass was carried out in vitro by soaking the pellets into simulated body fluid (SBF) for various times up to 14 days. It was revealed that apatite-like structures were rapidly formed on the surface of the glass showed by the glass surface was totally covered with these crystallized apatite within the first 24 hours of immersion. The formation of crystallized carbonated apatite (HCA) was proved within the first 24 hours of immersion via XRD, FTIR and FE-SEM analysis method. Increased in immersion time period to 14 days was significantly effects in enlargement of the apatite particle sizes and transformation these apatite into a typical coral-like apatite structures.

  11. Bioactive glass combined with bisphosphonates provides protection against biofilms formed by the periodontal pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed

    Hiltunen, Anna K; Skogman, Malena E; Rosenqvist, Kirsi; Juvonen, Helka; Ihalainen, Petri; Peltonen, Jouko; Juppo, Anne; Fallarero, Adyary

    2016-03-30

    Biofilms play a pivotal role in the progression of periodontitis and they can be treated with antiseptics (i.e. chlorhexidine) or antibiotics, but these therapeutic alternatives are unable of ameliorating periodontal alveolar bone loss, which has been, on the other hand, successfully treated with bone-preserving agents. The improved bone formation achieved in animal models by the combination of two such agents: bioactive glass (BAG) and bisphosphonates has attracted the interest for further exploring dental applications. However, the antimicrobial effects that may result from combining them have not been yet investigated. Here, our aim was to explore the anti-biofilm effects that could result from combining BAG with bisphosphonates, particularly in a dental biofilm model. The experiments were performed with an oral cavity single-specie (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans) biofilm assay, which was optimized in this contribution. Risedronate displayed an intrinsic anti-biofilm effect, and all bisphosphonates, except clodronate, reduced biofilm formation when combined with BAG. In particular, the anti-biofilm activity of risedronate was significantly increased by the combination with BAG. Since it has been proposed that some of the antimicrobial effects of BAG are caused by local pH changes, studies of pH variations were performed to gain a mechanistic understanding. However, the observed anti-biofilm effects could not be explained with lowered pHs. Overall, these results do provide further support for the promising use of bisphosphonate-BAG combinations in dental applications. These findings are particularly relevant for patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy, or osteoporotic patients, which are known to be more vulnerable to periodontitis. In such cases, bisphosphonate treatment could play a double positive effect: local treatment of periodontitis (in combination with BAG) and systemic treatment of osteoporosis, prevention of hypercalcemia and metastases.

  12. Clinical follow-up method for frontal sinus obliteration with bioactive glass S53P4.

    PubMed

    Peltola, M J; Suonpää, J T; Määttänen, H S; Varpula, M J; Aitasalo, K M; Yli-Urpo, A; Laippala, P J

    2001-01-01

    A clinical follow-up method was developed to investigate the behavior of a massive amount of bioactive glass S53P4 (BG) clinically used in frontal sinus obliteration. Two sizes of granules (0.63-0.8 mm or 0.8-1.0 mm) in 16 separate BG amounts, weight 25 g, were tested both in simulated body fluid (SBF) and in a buffer containing tris-hydroxymethyl aminomethane citric acid (TRIS-c.a) in standard conditions. The dissolution of silicon (Si) and phosphate (P) was detected with direct current plasma atom emission spectroscopy (DCP-AES) monthly up to 6 months. The BG masses were scanned both wet in the solutions and dried by computer tomography (CT), and the scans were analyzed by Region of Interest (ROI) technique. Calcium phosphate (CaP)- and silica (Si)-gel-layers were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at 1, 3, and 6 months. Cumulative loss of Si and P was stronger in TRIS-c.a than in SBF (p < 0.0001), and it was higher with smaller than with larger granules in both solutions (p < 0.0001). This was shown correspondingly by the decrease of Hounsfield units (HUs) in ROI analysis (p < 0.0001). The level of HUs was lower with dried than with wet BG (p < 0.0001). The results were compared for clinical ROI analysis of patients with obliterated frontal sinuses up to 48 months and they were parallel. The follow-up method seems to indirectly reveal the behavior of BG and the healing process in the obliterated cavity.

  13. Mechanical behaviour of Bioactive Glass granules and morselized cancellous bone allograft in load bearing defects.

    PubMed

    Hulsen, D J W; Geurts, J; van Gestel, N A P; van Rietbergen, B; Arts, J J

    2016-05-03

    Bioactive Glass (BAG) granules are osteoconductive and possess unique antibacterial properties for a synthetic biomaterial. To assess the applicability of BAG granules in load-bearing defects, the aim was to compare mechanical behaviour of graft layers consisting of BAG granules and morselized cancellous bone allograft in different volume mixtures under clinically relevant conditions. The graft layers were mechanically tested, using two mechanical testing modalities with simulated physiological loading conditions: highly controllable confined compression tests (CCT) and more clinically realistic in situ compression tests (ISCT) in cadaveric porcine bone defects. Graft layer impaction strain, residual strain, aggregate modulus, and creep strain were determined in CCT. Graft layer porosity was determined using micro computed tomography. The ISCT was used to determine graft layer subsidence in bone environment. ANOVA showed significant differences (p<0.001) between different graft layer compositions. True strains absolutely decreased for increasing BAG content: impaction strain -0.92 (allograft) to -0.39 (BAG), residual strain -0.12 to -0.01, and creep strain -0.09 to 0.00 respectively. Aggregate modulus increased with increasing BAG content from 116 to 653MPa. Porosity ranged from 66% (pure allograft) to 15% (pure BAG). Subsidence was highest for allograft, and remarkably low for a 1:1 BAG-allograft volume mixture. Both BAG granules and allograft morsels as stand-alone materials exhibit suboptimal mechanical behaviour for load-bearing purpose. BAG granules are difficult to handle and less porous, whereas allograft subsides and creeps. A 1:1 volume mixture of BAG and allograft is therefore proposed as the best graft material in load-bearing defects.

  14. Bioactive glass-reinforced bioceramic ink writing scaffolds: sintering, microstructure and mechanical behavior.

    PubMed

    Shao, Huifeng; Yang, Xianyan; He, Yong; Fu, Jianzhong; Liu, Limin; Ma, Liang; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Guojing; Gao, Changyou; Gou, Zhongru

    2015-09-10

    The densification of pore struts in bioceramic scaffolds is important for structure stability and strength reliability. An advantage of ceramic ink writing is the precise control over the microstructure and macroarchitecture. However, the use of organic binder in such ink writing process would heavily affect the densification of ceramic struts and sacrifice the mechanical strength of porous scaffolds after sintering. This study presents a low-melt-point bioactive glass (BG)-assisted sintering strategy to overcome the main limitations of direct ink writing (extrusion-based three-dimensional printing) and to produce high-strength calcium silicate (CSi) bioceramic scaffolds. The 1% BG-added CSi (CSi-BG1) scaffolds with rectangular pore morphology sintered at 1080 °C have a very small BG content, readily induce apatite formation, and show appreciable linear shrinkage (∼21%), which is consistent with the composite scaffolds with less or more BG contents sintered at either the same or a higher temperature. These CSi-BG1 scaffolds also possess a high elastic modulus (∼350 MPa) and appreciable compressive strength (∼48 MPa), and show significant strength enhancement after exposure to simulated body fluid-a performance markedly superior to those of pure CSi scaffolds. Particularly, the honeycomb-pore CSi-BG1 scaffolds show markedly higher compressive strength (∼88 MPa) than the scaffolds with rectangular, parallelogram, and Archimedean chord pore structures. It is suggested that this approach can potentially facilitate the translation of ceramic ink writing and BG-assisted sintering of bioceramic scaffold technologies to the in situ bone repair.

  15. Surface modification of bioactive glass nanoparticles and the mechanical and biological properties of poly(L-lactide) composites.

    PubMed

    Liu, Aixue; Hong, Zhongkui; Zhuang, Xiuli; Chen, Xuesi; Cui, Yang; Liu, Yi; Jing, Xiabin

    2008-07-01

    Novel bioactive glass (BG) nanoparticles/poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) composites were prepared as promising bone-repairing materials. The BG nanoparticles (Si:P:Ca=29:13:58 weight ratio) of about 40nm diameter were prepared via the sol-gel method. In order to improve the phase compatibility between the polymer and the inorganic phase, PLLA (M(n)=9700Da) was linked to the surface of the BG particles by diisocyanate. The grafting ratio of PLLA was in the vicinity of 20 wt.%. The grafting modification could improve the tensile strength, tensile modulus and impact energy of the composites by increasing the phase compatibility. When the filler loading reached around 4 wt.%, the tensile strength of the composite increased from 56.7 to 69.2MPa for the pure PLLA, and the impact strength energy increased from 15.8 to 18.0 kJ m(-2). The morphology of the tensile fracture surface of the composite showed surface-grafted bioactive glass particles (g-BG) to be dispersed homogeneously in the PLLA matrix. An in vitro bioactivity test showed that, compared to pure PLLA scaffold, the BG/PLLA nanocomposite demonstrated a greater capability to induce the formation of an apatite layer on the scaffold surface. The results of marrow stromal cell culture revealed that the composites containing either BG or g-BG particles have much better biocompatibility compared to pure PLLA material.

  16. Angiogenic effects of borate glass microfibers in a rodent model.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yinan; Brown, Roger F; Jung, Steven B; Day, Delbert E

    2014-12-01

    The primary objective of this research was to evaluate the use of bioactive borate-based glass microfibers for angiogenesis in soft tissue repair applications. The effect of these fibers on growth of capillaries and small blood vessels was compared to that of 45S5 silica glass microfibers and sham implant controls. Compressed mats of three types of glass microfibers were implanted subcutaneously in rats and tissues surrounding the implant sites histologically evaluated 2-4 weeks post surgery. Bioactive borate glass 13-93B3 supplemented with 0.4 wt % copper promoted extensive angiogenesis as compared to silica glass microfibers and sham control tissues. The angiogenic responses suggest the copper-containing 13-93B3 microfibers may be effective for treating chronic soft tissue wounds. A second objective was to assess the possible systemic cytotoxicity of dissolved borate ions and other materials released from implanted borate glass microfibers. Cytotoxicity was assessed via histological evaluation of kidney tissue collected from animals 4 weeks after subcutaneously implanting high amounts of the borate glass microfibers. The evaluation of the kidney tissue from these animals showed no evidence of chronic histopathological changes in the kidney. The overall results indicate the borate glass microfibers are safe and effective for soft tissue applications.

  17. Bioactive glass incorporation in calcium phosphate cement-based injectable bone substitute for improved in vitro biocompatibility and in vivo bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Sadiasa, Alexander; Sarkar, Swapan Kumar; Franco, Rose Ann; Min, Young Ki; Lee, Byong Taek

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we fabricated injectable bone substitutes modified with the addition of bioactive glass powders synthesized via ultrasonic energy-assisted hydrothermal method to the calcium phosphate-based bone cement to improve its biocompatibility. The injectable bone substitutes was initially composed of a powder component (tetracalcium phosphate, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate and calcium sulfate dehydrate) and a liquid component (citric acid, chitosan and hydroxyl-propyl-methyl-cellulose) upon which various concentrations of bioactive glass were added: 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%. Setting time and compressive strength of the injectable bone substitutes were evaluated and observed to improve with the increase of bioactive glass content. Surface morphologies were observed via scanning electron microscope before and after submersion of the samples to simulated body fluid and increase in apatite formation was detected using x-ray diffraction machine. In vitro biocompatibility of the injectable bone substitutes was observed to improve with the addition of bioactive glass as the proliferation/adhesion behavior of cells on the material increased. Human gene markers were successfully expressed using real time-polymerase chain reaction and the samples were found to promote cell viability and be more biocompatible as the concentration of bioactive glass increases. In vivo biocompatibility of the samples containing 0% and 30% bioactive glass were evaluated using Micro-CT and histological staining after 3 months of implantation in male rabbits' femurs. No inflammatory reaction was observed and significant bone formation was promoted by the addition of bioactive glass to the injectable bone substitute system.

  18. Effect of magnesia on the degradability and bioactivity of sol-gel derived SiO2-CaO-MgO-P2O5 system glasses.

    PubMed

    Ma, J; Chen, C Z; Wang, D G; Jiao, Y; Shi, J Z

    2010-11-01

    Mesoporous 58SiO(2)-(38-x)CaO-xMgO-4P(2)O(5) glasses (where x=0, 5, 10 and 20 mol%) have been prepared by the sol-gel synthesis route. The effects of the substitution of MgO for CaO on glass degradation and bioactivity were studied in tris-(hydroxymethyl)-aminomethane and hydrochloric acid buffer solution (Tris-HCl) and simulated body fluid (SBF), respectively. It is observed that the synthesized glasses with various MgO contents possess the similar textural properties. The studies of in vitro degradability and bioactivity show that the rate of glass degradation gradually decreases with the increase of MgO and the formation of apatite layer on glass surface is retarded. The influences of the composition upon glass properties are explained in terms of their internal structures.

  19. In vitro bioactivity evaluation, mechanical properties and microstructural characterization of Na2O-CaO-B2O3-P2O5 glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abo-Naf, Sherief M.; Khalil, El-Sayed M.; El-Sayed, El-Sayed M.; Zayed, Hamdia A.; Youness, Rasha A.

    2015-06-01

    Na2O-CaO-B2O3-P2O5 glasses have been prepared by the melt-quenching method. B2O3 content was systematically increased from 5 to 30 mol%, at the expense of P2O5, in the chemical composition of these glasses. Density, Vickers microhardness and fracture toughness of the prepared glasses were measured. In vitro bioactivity of the glasses was assessed by soaking in the simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 ± 0.5 °C for 3, 7, 14 and 30 days. The glasses were tested in the form of glass grains as well as bulk slabs. The structure and composition of the solid reaction products were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The kinetics of degradation of the glass particles were monitored by measuring the weight loss of the particles and the ionic concentration of Ca, P and B in the SBF solution using inductive coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The obtained results revealed the formation of a bioactive hydroxyapatite (HA) layer, composed of nano-crystallites, on the surface of glass grains after the in vitro assays. The results have been used to understand the formation of HA as a function of glass composition and soaking time in the SBF. It can be pointed out that increasing B2O3 content in glass composition enhances the bioactivity of glasses. The nanometric particle size of the formed HA and in vitro bioactivity of the studied glasses make them possible candidates for tissue engineering application.

  20. Surface functionalization of bioactive glasses with natural molecules of biological significance, Part I: Gallic acid as model molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Ferraris, Sara; Prenesti, Enrico; Verné, Enrica

    2013-12-01

    Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, GA) and its derivatives are a group of biomolecules (polyphenols) obtained from plants. They have effects which are potentially beneficial to heath, for example they are antioxidant, anticarcinogenic and antibacterial, as recently investigated in many fields such as medicine, food and plant sciences. The main drawbacks of these molecules are both low stability and bioavailability. In this research work the opportunity to graft GA to bioactive glasses is investigated, in order to deliver the undamaged biological molecule into the body, using the biomaterial surfaces as a localized carrier. GA was considered for functionalization since it is a good model molecule for polyphenols and presents several interesting biological activities, like antibacterial, antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties. Two different silica based bioactive glasses (SCNA and CEL2), with different reactivity, were employed as substrates. UV photometry combined with the Folin&Ciocalteu reagent was adopted to test the concentration of GA in uptake solution after functionalization. This test verified how much GA consumption occurred with surface modification and it was also used on solid samples to test the presence of GA on functionalized glasses. XPS and SEM-EDS techniques were employed to characterize the modification of material surface properties and functional group composition before and after functionalization.

  1. Three-dimensional zinc incorporated borosilicate bioactive glass scaffolds for rodent critical-sized calvarial defects repair and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Zhao, Shichang; Xiao, Wei; Cui, Xu; Huang, Wenhai; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Zhang, Changqing; Wang, Deping

    2015-06-01

    The biomaterials with high osteogenic ability are being intensively investigated. In this study, we evaluated the bioactivity and osteogenesis of BG-Zn scaffolds in vitro and in vivo with a rodent calvarial defects model. Zinc containing borosilicate bioactive glass was prepared by doping glass with 1.5, 5 and 10 wt.% ZnO (denoted as BG-1.5Zn, BG-5Zn and BG-10Zn, respectively). When immersed in simulated body fluid, dopant ZnO retarded the degradation process, but did not affect the formation of hydroxyapatite (HA) after long-period soaking. BG-Zn scaffolds showed controlled release of Zn ions into the medium for over 8 weeks. Human bone marrow derived stem cells (hBMSCs) attached well on the BG-1.5Zn and BG-5Zn scaffolds, which exhibited no cytotoxicity to hBMSCs. In addition, the alkaline phosphatase activity of the hBMSCs increased with increasing dopant amount in the glass, while the BG-10Zn group showed over-dose of Zn. Furthermore, when implanted in rat calvarial defects for 8 weeks, the BG-5Zn scaffolds showed a significantly better capacity to regenerate bone tissue compared to the non-doping scaffolds. Generally, these results showed the BG-Zn scaffolds with high osteogenic capacity will be promising candidates using in bone tissue repair and regeneration.

  2. Photocurable bioactive bone cement based on hydroxyethyl methacrylate-poly(acrylic/maleic) acid resin and mesoporous sol gel-derived bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Hesaraki, S

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports on strong and bioactive bone cement based on ternary bioactive SiO2-CaO-P2O5 glass particles and a photocurable resin comprising hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and poly(acrylic/maleic) acid. The as-cured composite represented a compressive strength of about 95 MPa but it weakened during soaking in simulated body fluid, SBF, qua its compressive strength reached to about 20 MPa after immersing for 30 days. Biodegradability of the composite was confirmed by reducing its initial weight (~32%) as well as decreasing the molecular weight of early cured resin during the soaking procedure. The composite exhibited in vitro calcium phosphate precipitation in the form of nanosized carbonated hydroxyapatite, which indicates its bone bonding ability. Proliferation of calvarium-derived newborn rat osteoblasts seeded on top of the composite was observed during incubation at 37 °C, meanwhile, an adequate cell supporting ability was found. Consequently, it seems that the produced composite is an appropriate alternative for bone defect injuries, because of its good cell responses, high compressive strength and ongoing biodegradability, though more in vivo experiments are essential to confirm this assumption.

  3. In vitro chemical and biological effects of Ag, Cu and Cu + Zn adjunction in 46S6 bioactive glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunetel, L.; Wers, E.; Novella, A.; Bodin, A.; Pellen-Mussi, P.; Oudadesse, H.

    2015-09-01

    Three bioactive glasses belonging to the system SiO2-CaO- Na2O-P2O5 elaborated by conventional melt-quenching techniques were doped with silver, copper and copper + zinc. They were characterized using the usual physical methods. Human osteoblast cells Saos-2 and human endothelial cells EAhy926 were used for viability assays and to assess the metallic ions, self toxicity. Human monocyte cells THP-1 were used to measure interleukins IL1β and IL6 release. Glass chemical structures did not vary much on introduction of metal ions. A layer of hydroxyapatite was observed on every glass after 30 days of SBF immersion. A proliferative action was seen on Saos-2 after 24 h of incubation, EAhy926 growth was not affected. For both cell lines, a moderate cytotoxicity was found after 72 h. Dose-dependent toxic effects of Ag, Cu and Zn ions were observed on Saos-2 and EAhy926 cells. Measured CD50 of silver against these two cell lines were 8 to 20 fold lower than copper and zinc’s. Except undoped control glass, all doped glasses tested showed anti-inflammatory properties by preventing IL1β and IL6 excretion by differentiated THP-1. In conclusion, strictly monitored adjunction of metal ions to bioglasses ensures good anti-inflammatory properties without altering their biocompatibility.

  4. Mechanical properties of bioactive glass (13-93) scaffolds fabricated by robotic deposition for structural bone repair.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Hilmas, Gregory E; Bal, B Sonny

    2013-06-01

    There is a need to develop synthetic scaffolds to repair large defects in load-bearing bones. Bioactive glasses have attractive properties as a scaffold material for bone repair, but data on their mechanical properties are limited. The objective of the present study was to comprehensively evaluate the mechanical properties of strong porous scaffolds of silicate 13-93 bioactive glass fabricated by robocasting. As-fabricated scaffolds with a grid-like microstructure (porosity 47%, filament diameter 330μm, pore width 300μm) were tested in compressive and flexural loading to determine their strength, elastic modulus, Weibull modulus, fatigue resistance, and fracture toughness. Scaffolds were also tested in compression after they were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) in vitro or implanted in a rat subcutaneous model in vivo. As fabricated, the scaffolds had a strength of 86±9MPa, elastic modulus of 13±2GPa, and a Weibull modulus of 12 when tested in compression. In flexural loading the strength, elastic modulus, and Weibull modulus were 11±3MPa, 13±2GPa, and 6, respectively. In compression, the as-fabricated scaffolds had a mean fatigue life of ∼10(6) cycles when tested in air at room temperature or in phosphate-buffered saline at 37°C under cyclic stresses of 1-10 or 2-20MPa. The compressive strength of the scaffolds decreased markedly during the first 2weeks of immersion in SBF or implantation in vivo, but more slowly thereafter. The brittle mechanical response of the scaffolds in vitro changed to an elasto-plastic response after implantation for longer than 2-4weeks in vivo. In addition to providing critically needed data for designing bioactive glass scaffolds, the results are promising for the application of these strong porous scaffolds in loaded bone repair.

  5. Mechanical properties of bioactive glass (13-93) scaffolds fabricated by robotic deposition for structural bone repair

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Hilmas, Gregory E.; Bal, B. Sonny

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to develop synthetic scaffolds for repairing large defects in load-bearing bones. Bioactive glasses have attractive properties as a scaffold material for bone repair, but data on their mechanical properties are limited. The objective of the present study was to comprehensively evaluate the mechanical properties of strong porous scaffolds of silicate 13-93 bioactive glass fabricated by robocasting. As-fabricated scaffolds with a grid-like microstructure (porosity = 47%; filament diameter = 330 μm; pore width = 300) were tested in compressive and flexural loading to determine their strength, elastic modulus, Weibull modulus, fatigue resistance, and fracture toughness. Scaffolds were also tested in compression after they were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) in vitro or implanted in a rat subcutaneous model in vivo. As fabricated, the scaffolds had a strength = 86 ± 9 MPa, elastic modulus = 13 ± 2 GPa, and a Weibull modulus = 12 when tested in compression. In flexural loading, the strength, elastic modulus, and Weibull modulus were 11 ± 3 MPa, 13 ± 2 GPa, and 6, respectively. In compression, the as-fabricated scaffolds had a mean fatigue life of ~106 cycles when tested in air at room temperature or in phosphate-buffered saline at 37 °C under cyclic stresses of 1–10 MPa or 2–20 MPa. The compressive strength of the scaffolds decreased markedly during the first 2 weeks of immersion in SBF or implantation in vivo, but more slowly thereafter. The brittle mechanical response of the scaffolds in vitro changed to an elasto-plastic response after implantation for longer than 2–4 weeks in vivo. In addition to providing critically needed data for designing bioactive glass scaffolds, the results are promising for the application of these strong porous scaffolds in loaded bone repair. PMID:23438862

  6. Stress-corrosion crack growth of Si-Na-K-Mg-Ca-P-O bioactive glasses in simulated human physiological environment.

    PubMed

    Bloyer, Don R; McNaney, James M; Cannon, Rowland M; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P; Ritchie, Robert O

    2007-11-01

    This paper describes research on the stress-corrosion crack growth (SCCG) behavior of a new series of bioactive glasses designed to fabricate coatings on Ti and Co-Cr-based implant alloys. These glasses should provide improved implant fixation between implant and exhibit good mechanical stability in vivo. It is then important to develop an understanding of the mechanisms that control environmentally assisted crack growth in this new family of glasses and its effect on their reliability. Several compositions have been tested in both static and cyclic loading in simulated body fluid. These show only small dependences of SCCG behavior on the composition. Traditional SCCG mechanisms for silicate glasses appear to be operative for the new bioactive glasses studied here. At higher velocities, hydrodynamic effects reduce growth rates under conditions that would rarely pertain for small natural flaws in devices.

  7. Stress-corrosion crack growth of Si-Na-K-Mg-Ca-P-O bioactive glasses in simulated human physiological environment

    PubMed Central

    Bloyer, D. R.; McNaney, J. M.; Cannon, R. M.; Saiz, E.; Tomsia, A. P.; Ritchie, R. O.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes research on the stress-corrosion crack growth (SCCG) behavior of a new series of bioactive glasses designed to fabricate coatings on Ti and Co-Cr-based implant alloys. These glasses should provide improved implant fixation between implant and exhibit good mechanical stability in vivo. It is then important to develop an understanding of the mechanisms that control environmentally-assisted crack growth in this new family of glasses and its effect on their reliability. Several compositions have been tested in both static and cyclic loading in simulated body fluid. These show only small dependences of stress-corrosion crack growth behavior on the composition. Traditional SCCG mechanisms for silicate glasses appear to be operative for the new bioactive glasses studied here. At higher velocities, hydrodynamic effects reduce growth rates under conditions that would rarely pertain for small natural flaws in devices. PMID:17714778

  8. Silver Nanoparticle Coated Bioactive Glasses--Composites with Dex/CMC Hydrogels: Characterization, Solubility, and In Vitro Biological Studies.

    PubMed

    Wren, Anthony W; Hassanzadeh, Pegah; Placek, Lana M; Keenan, Timothy J; Coughlan, Aisling; Boutelle, Lydia R; Towler, Mark R

    2015-08-01

    Silver (Ag) coated bioactive glass particles (Ag-BG) were formulated and compared to uncoated controls (BG) in relation to glass characterization, solubility and microbiology. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed a crystalline AgNP surface coating while ion release studies determined low Ag release (<2 mg/L). Cell culture studies presented increased cell viability (127 and 102%) with lower liquid extract (50 and 100 ml/ml) concentrations. Antibacterial testing of Ag-BG in E. coli, S. epidermidis and S. aureus significantly reduced bacterial cell viability by 60-90%. Composites of Ag-BG/CMC-Dex Hydrogels were formulated and characterized. Agar diffusion testing was conducted where Ag-BG/hydrogel composites produced the largest inhibition zones of 7 mm (E. coli), 5 mm (S. aureus) and 4 mm (S. epidermidis).

  9. Understanding the composition-structure-bioactivity relationships in diopside (CaO·MgO·2SiO₂)-tricalcium phosphate (3CaO·P₂O₅) glass system.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Saurabh; Semitela, Ângela; Goel, Ashutosh; Xiang, Ye; Du, Jincheng; Lourenço, Ana H; Sousa, Daniela M; Granja, Pedro L; Ferreira, José M F

    2015-03-01

    The present work is an amalgamation of computation and experimental approach to gain an insight into composition-structure-bioactivity relationships of alkali-free bioactive glasses in the CaO-MgO-SiO2-P2O5 system. The glasses have been designed in the diopside (CaO·MgO·2SiO2; Di)-tricalcium phosphate (3CaO·P2O5; TCP) binary join by varying the Di/TCP ratio. The melt-quenched glasses have been investigated for their structure by molecular dynamic (MD) simulations as well as by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). In all the investigated glasses silicate and phosphate components are dominated by Q(2) (Si) and Q(0) (P) species, respectively. The apatite forming ability of the glasses was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy after immersion of glass powders in simulated body fluid (SBF) for time durations varying between 1 h and 14 days, while their chemical degradation has been studied in Tris-HCl in accordance with ISO 10993-14. All the investigated glasses showed good bioactivity without any substantial variation. A significant statistical increase in metabolic activity of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) when compared to the control was observed for Di-60 and Di-70 glass compositions under both basal and osteogenic conditions.

  10. Osseointegration properties of titanium dental implants modified with a nanostructured coating based on ordered porous silica and bioactive glass nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covarrubias, Cristian; Mattmann, Matías; Von Marttens, Alfredo; Caviedes, Pablo; Arriagada, Cristián; Valenzuela, Francisco; Rodríguez, Juan Pablo; Corral, Camila

    2016-02-01

    The fabrication of a nanoporous silica coating loaded with bioactive glass nanoparticles (nBG/NSC) on titanium dental implant surface and its in vitro and in vivo evaluation is presented. The coating was produced by a combined sol-gel and evaporation induced self-assembly process. In vitro bioactivity was assessed in simulated body fluid (SBF) and investigating the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). A rat tibial model was employed to analyze the bone response to nBG/NSC-modified titanium implant surface in vivo. The nBG/NSC coating was confirmed at nano level to be constituted by a highly ordered nanoporous silica structure. The coating nanotopography in conjunction with the bioactivity of the BG particles accelerate the in vitro apatite formation and promote the osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs in absence of osteogenic supplements. These properties accelerate the formation of bone tissue in the periphery of the implant after 3 weeks of implantation. Backscattered scanning electron microscopy images revealed the presence of gaps and soft tissue in the unmodified implant after 6 weeks, whereas the nBG/NSC-modified implant showed mature bone in intimate contact with the implant surface. The nBG/NSC coating appears promising for accelerating the osseointegration of dental implants.

  11. Mg- and/or Sr-doped tricalcium phosphate/bioactive glass composites: synthesis, microstructure and biological responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Bellucci, Devis; Sola, Antonella; Cacciotti, Ilaria; Bartoli, Cristina; Gazzarri, Matteo; Bianco, Alessandra; Chiellini, Federica; Cannillo, Valeria

    2014-09-01

    Presently, there is an increasing interest towards the composites of calcium phosphates, especially β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP), and bioactive glasses. In the present contribution, the recently developed BG_Ca/Mix glass has been used because its low tendency to crystallize allows to sinter the composites at relatively low temperature (i.e. 850°C), thus minimizing the glass devitrification and the interaction with TCP. A further improvement is the introduction of lab-produced TCP powders doped with specific ions instead of non-doped commercial powders, since the biological properties of materials for bone replacement can be modulated by doping them with certain metallic ions, such as Mg and Sr. Therefore, novel binary composites have been produced by sintering the BG_Ca/Mix glass with the addition of pure, Mg-substituted, Sr-substituted or Mg/Sr bisubstituted TCP powders. After an accurate characterization of the starting TCP powders and of the obtained samples, the composites have been used as three-dimensional supports for the culture of mouse calvaria-derived pre-osteoblastic cells. The samples supported cell adhesion and proliferation and induced promising mechanisms of differentiation towards an osteoblastic phenotype. In particular, the Mg/Sr bi-doped samples seemed to better promote the differentiation process thus suggesting a combined stimulatory effect of Mg(2+) and Sr(2+) ions.

  12. Intrinsic Ultrahigh Drug/miRNA Loading Capacity of Biodegradable Bioactive Glass Nanoparticles toward Highly Efficient Pharmaceutical Delivery.

    PubMed

    Yu, Meng; Xue, Yumeng; Ma, Peter X; Mao, Cong; Lei, Bo

    2017-03-03

    The lack of safe and efficient drug and gene delivery vectors has become a major obstacle for the clinical applications of drug and nonviral gene therapy. To date, for nonviral gene vectors, most studies are focused on cationic polymers, liposomes, and modified inorganic nanoparticles which have shown high cellular toxicity, low transfection efficiency, or nondegradation. Additionally, few biodegradable biomaterials demonstrate intrinsic high binding abilities to both drug and gene. Bioactive glasses (BGs) have achieved successful applications in bone regeneration due to their high biocompatibility and biodegradation. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate the intrinsic ultrahigh drug and miRNA binding ability of bioactive glass nanoparticles (BGNs) without any cationic polymer modification. BGNs demonstrate an over 45-fold improvement in hydrophilic drug loading (diclofenac sodium) and 7-fold enhancement in miRNA binding over their corresponding silica nanoparticles. The hydrophilic drug loading ability of BGNs (>45 wt % loading) is also higher than that of most other reported inorganic nanoparticles, including mesoporous silica nanoparticles. BGNs show significantly lower cytotoxicity and higher cellular uptake and miRNA transfection efficiency compared to those of commercial transfection reagents polyethylenimine and lipofectamine 3000. Our results demonstrate that BGNs may become a new competitive vehicle for drug and gene delivery applications. This study may also provide a new strategy to develop novel biomaterials with intrinsic drug and gene binding ability for disease therapy.

  13. The effect of a novel crystallised bioactive glass-ceramic powder on dentine hypersensitivity: a long-term clinical study.

    PubMed

    Tirapelli, C; Panzeri, H; Lara, E H G; Soares, R G; Peitl, O; Zanotto, E D

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this comparative clinical study was to evaluate a novel bioactive glass-ceramic (Biosilicate® 1-20 μm particles) to treat dentine hypersensitivity (DH). Volunteers (n = 120 patients/ 230 teeth) received the following treatments: G1-Sensodyne® , G2-SensiKill®, G3-Biosilicate® incorporated in a 1% water-free-gel and G4-Biosilicate® mixed with distilled water at 1:10 ratio. G1 and G3 were applied at home, daily for 30 days; G2 and G4 were applied once a week by a dentist (four applications). A visual analogue scale (VAS) was employed to evaluate pain for each quadrant in one sensitive tooth at baseline, weekly during treatment and during a 6-month follow-up period. Dentine hypersensitivity values (G1/n= 52), (G2/n =62), (G3/n = 59) and (G4/n = 59) were analysed with Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn tests. All the products were efficient in reducing DH after 4 weeks. Among the four materials tested, G4 demonstrated the best clinical performance and provided the fastest treatment to reduce DH pain. Distilled water proved to be an adequate vehicle to disperse Biosilicate®. Low DH scores were maintained during the 6-month follow-up period. The hypothesis that the novel bioactive glass-ceramic may be an efficient treatment for DH was confirmed.

  14. Development of injectable biocomposites from hyaluronic acid and bioactive glass nano-particles obtained from different sol-gel routes.

    PubMed

    Sohrabi, Mehri; Hesaraki, Saeed; Kazemzadeh, Asghar; Alizadeh, Masoud

    2013-10-01

    Bioactive glass nano-powders with the same chemical composition and different particle characteristics were synthesized by acid-catalyzed (the glass is called BG1) and acid-base catalyzed (BG2) sol-gel processes. Morphological characteristics of powders were determined by TEM and BET methods. The powders were separately mixed with 3% hyaluronic acid solution to form a paste. In vitro reactivity of pastes was determined by soaking them in simulated body fluid. Rheological behaviors of paste in both rotation and oscillation modes were also measured. The results showed that BG1 particles was microporous with mean pore diameter of 1.6 nm and particle size of ~300 nm while BG2 was mesoporous with average pore diameter of 8 and 17 nm and particle size of 20-30 nm. The paste made of BG2 revealed better washout resistance and in vitro apatite formation ability than BG1. According to the rheological evaluations, both pastes exhibited shear thinning but non-thixotropic behavior, meanwhile paste of BG2 had higher viscosity than BG1. The oscillatory tests revealed that the pastes were viscoelastic materials with more viscous nature. Both pastes could be completely injected through standard syringe using low compressive load of 5-50 N. Overall, The biocomposites can potentially be used as bioactive paste for the treatment of hard and even soft tissues.

  15. The in vitro antibacterial effect of S53P4 bioactive glass and gentamicin impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads.

    PubMed

    Gergely, István; Zazgyva, Ancuta; Man, Adrian; Zuh, Sándor György; Pop, Tudor Sorin

    2014-06-01

    Osteomyelitis is a disease that is still difficult to treat, with considerable morbidity and associated costs. The current "gold standard" in treatment - debridement and implantation of antibiotic impregnated polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) beads - presents the disadvantage of a second surgical intervention required for the removal of the beads. We comparatively investigated the in vitro antibacterial effect of S53P4 bioactive glass (BAG) and gentamicin impregnated PMMA beads. Bacterial viability was assessed hourly by Standard Plate Count during 24 hours of incubation, by determining the number of colony forming units (CFU) of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Both tested materials showed an antibacterial effect on all studied bacteria. In case of S. aureus, BAG granules were almost as effective as gentamicin impregnated PMMA beads, with no statistically significant differences. In contrast, PMMA beads had a superior antibacterial effect on S. epidermidis and K. pneumoniae. The antibacterial effect of BAG was greatly influenced by granule size and contact time. There was a statistically significant correlation between pH values and the number of CFU in the case of S53P4 BAG granules. As a biocompatible and biodegradable bone substitute, S53P4 bioactive glass can be a good alternative in the local management of osteomyelitis.

  16. Biocomposites of copper-containing mesoporous bioactive glass and nanofibrillated cellulose: Biocompatibility and angiogenic promotion in chronic wound healing application.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoju; Cheng, Fang; Liu, Jun; Smått, Jan-Henrik; Gepperth, David; Lastusaari, Mika; Xu, Chunlin; Hupa, Leena

    2016-12-01

    Biocomposites of copper-containing mesoporous bioactive glass (Cu-MBG) and nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) were designated as potential dressing material for chronic wound healing. The phase composition and mesoporous micro-structure of the synthesized Cu-MBGs were elaborately characterized by combining several techniques, including TEM, SEM, XRD, SXAS and N2 physisorption. High bioactivity of the Cu-MBG was confirmed in stimulated body fluids in vitro. A controlled dissolution of Cu from the glass suggests Cu-MBG a suitable source for Cu release in wound healing dressings. Depending on the content of Cu-MBG in the composite formulation, the composites were fabricated as membranes and aerogels. In biocompatibility assessment of the composites, a dose-dependent cytotoxicity of Cu(2+) on 3T3 fibroblasts was found. Importantly, a critical biological level of Cu(2+) below 10mg/L was suggested for the survival and growth of 3T3 fibroblasts. The Cu(2+) released from the composite aerogel of NFC and Cu-MBG showed a profound angiogenic effect in the 3D spheroid culture system of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Moreover, the angiogenic gene expression of 3T3 fibroblast was upregulated in the real-time quantitative PCR analysis, which also confirms that the incorporation of Cu-MBG into NFC matrix enhances the proangiogenic potential of the biocomposites. In addition, composites of NFC and Cu-MBG also showed an inhibiting effect on the growth of E. coli.

  17. Chitosan membranes containing micro or nano-size bioactive glass particles: evolution of biomineralization followed by in situ dynamic mechanical analysis.

    PubMed

    Caridade, Sofia G; Merino, Esther G; Alves, Natália M; Bermudez, Verónica de Zea; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Mano, João F

    2013-04-01

    A new family of biodegradable polymer/bioactive glass (BG) composite materials has emerged based on the availability of nano-sized bioactive particles. Such novel biocomposites can have enhanced performance, in terms of mechanical properties and bioactivity, and they can be designed to be used in bone regeneration approaches. In this work, membranes of chitosan (CTS) and chitosan with bioactive glass (BG) both micron and nano sized particles (CTS/μBG, CTS/nBG, respectively) were prepared by solvent casting. Microstructural and mechanical properties were evaluated in order to compare the effects of the incorporation of micro (μBG) and nano (nBG) particles in the chitosan matrix. In vitro bioactivity tests were performed to characterize the apatite layer that is formed on the surface of the material after being immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF). The biomineralization process on the biomaterials was also followed using non-conventional dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), both online and offline. In such DMA experiments, the change in the storage modulus, E', and the loss factor, tan δ, were measured as a function of the immersion time in SBF. The results demonstrated that CTS/nBG membranes possess enhanced mechanical properties and higher bioactivity in comparison with the CTS/μBG membranes. Such results suggest the potential of nBG for the development of bioactive composites for bone regeneration applications.

  18. Porous and strong bioactive glass (13-93) scaffolds prepared by unidirectional freezing of camphene-based suspensions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Fu, Qiang; Tomsia, Antoni P

    2012-01-01

    Scaffolds of 13-93 bioactive glass (6Na(2)O, 12K(2)O, 5MgO, 20CaO, 4P(2)O(5), 53SiO(2); wt.%) with an oriented pore architecture were formed by unidirectional freezing of camphene-based suspensions, followed by thermal annealing of the frozen constructs to grow the camphene crystals. After sublimation of the camphene, the constructs were sintered (1 h at 700°C) to produce a dense glass phase with oriented macropores. The objective of this work was to study how constant freezing rates (1-7°C min(-1)) during the freezing step influenced the pore orientation and mechanical response of the scaffolds. When compared to scaffolds prepared by freezing the suspensions on a substrate kept at a constant temperature of 3°C (time-dependent freezing rate), higher freezing rates resulted in better pore orientation, a more homogeneous microstructure and a marked improvement in the mechanical response of the scaffolds in compression. Scaffolds fabricated using a constant freezing rate of 7°C min(-1) (porosity=50±4%; average pore diameter=100 μm), had a compressive strength of 47±5 MPa and an elastic modulus of 11±3 GPa (in the orientation direction). In comparison, scaffolds prepared by freezing on the constant-temperature substrate had strength and modulus values of 35±11 MPa and 8±3 GPa, respectively. These oriented bioactive glass scaffolds prepared by the constant freezing rate route could potentially be used for the repair of defects in load-bearing bones, such as segmental defects in the long bones.

  19. Porous and strong bioactive glass (13–93) scaffolds prepared by unidirectional freezing of camphene-based suspensions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Fu, Qiang; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2011-01-01

    Scaffolds of 13–93 bioactive glass (6Na2O, 12K2O, 5MgO, 20CaO, 4P2O5, 53SiO2; wt %) with an oriented pore architecture were formed by unidirectional freezing of camphene-based suspensions, followed by thermal annealing of the frozen constructs to grow the camphene crystals. After sublimation of the camphene, the constructs were sintered (1 h at 700 °C) to produce a dense glass phase with oriented macropores. The objective of this work was to study how constant freezing rates (1–7 °C/min) during the freezing step influenced the pore orientation and mechanical response of the scaffolds. When compared to scaffolds prepared by freezing the suspensions on a substrate kept at a constant temperature of 3 °C (time-dependent freezing rate), higher freezing rates resulted in better pore orientation, a more homogeneous microstructure, and a marked improvement in the mechanical response of the scaffolds in compression. Scaffolds fabricated using a constant freezing rate of 7 °C/min (porosity = 50 ± 4%; average pore diameter = 100 μm), had a compressive strength of 47 ± 5 MPa and an elastic modulus of 11 ± 3 GPa (in the orientation direction). In comparison, scaffolds prepared by freezing on the constant-temperature substrate had strength and modulus values of 35 ± 11 MPa and 8 ± 3 GPa, respectively. These oriented bioactive glass scaffolds prepared by the constant freezing rate route could potentially be used for the repair of defects in load-bearing bones, such as segmental defects in the long bones. PMID:21855661

  20. In vitro performance of 13-93 bioactive glass fiber and trabecular scaffolds with MLO-A5 osteogenic cells.

    PubMed

    Modglin, Vernon C; Brown, Roger F; Fu, Qiang; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Jung, Steven B; Day, Delbert E

    2012-10-01

    This in vitro study was performed to evaluate the ability of two types of porous bioactive glass scaffolds to support the growth and differentiation of an established osteogenic cell line. The two scaffold types tested included 13-93 glass fiber and trabecular-like scaffolds seeded with murine MLO-A5 cells and cultured for intervals of 2 to 12 days. Culture in MTT-containing medium showed metabolically active cells both on the surface and within the interior of the scaffolds. Scanning electron microscopy revealed well-attached cells on both types of scaffolds with a continual increase in cell density over a 6-day period. Protein measurements also showed a linear increase in cell density during the incubation. Activity of alkaline phosphatase, a key indicator of osteoblast differentiation, increased about 10-fold during the 6-day incubation with both scaffold types. The addition of mineralization media to MLO-A5 seeded scaffolds triggered extensive formation of alizarin red-positive mineralized extracellular material, additional evidence of cell differentiation and completion of the final step of bone formation on the constructs. Collectively, the results indicate that the 13-93 glass fiber and trabecular scaffolds promote the attachment, growth, and differentiation of MLO-A5 osteogenic cells and could potentially be used for bone tissue engineering applications.

  1. Proliferation, differentiation and gene expression of osteoblasts in boron-containing associated with dexamethasone deliver from mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chengtie; Miron, Richard; Sculean, Anton; Kaskel, Stefan; Doert, Thomas; Schulze, Renate; Zhang, Yufeng

    2011-10-01

    Boron is one of the trace elements in the human body which plays an important role in bone growth. Porous mesopore bioactive glass (MBG) scaffolds are proposed as potential bone regeneration materials due to their excellent bioactivity and drug-delivery ability. The aims of the present study were to develop boron-containing MBG (B-MBG) scaffolds by sol-gel method and to evaluate the effect of boron on the physiochemistry of B-MBG scaffolds and the response of osteoblasts to these scaffolds. Furthermore, the effect of dexamethasone (DEX) delivery in B-MBG scaffold system was investigated on the proliferation, differentiation and bone-related gene expression of osteoblasts. The composition, microstructure and mesopore properties (specific surface area, nano-pore volume and nano-pore distribution) of B-MBG scaffolds have been characterized. The effect of boron contents and large-pore porosity on the loading and release of DEX in B-MBG scaffolds were also investigated. The results have shown that the incorporation of boron into MBG scaffolds slightly decreases the specific surface area and pore volume, but maintains well-ordered mesopore structure and high surface area and nano-pore volume compared to non-mesopore bioactive glass. Boron contents in MBG scaffolds did not influence the nano-pore size distribution or the loading and release of DEX. B-MBG scaffolds have the ability to maintain a sustained release of DEX in a long-term span. Incorporating boron into MBG glass scaffolds led to a controllable release of boron ions and significantly improved the proliferation and bone-related gene expression (Col I and Runx2) of osteoblasts. Furthermore, the sustained release of DEX from B-MBG scaffolds significantly enhanced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and gene expressions (Col I, Runx2, ALP and BSP) of osteoblasts. These results suggest that boron plays an important role in enhancing osteoblast proliferation in B-MBG scaffold system and DEX-loaded B-MBG scaffolds

  2. Evaluation of injectable strontium-containing borate bioactive glass cement with enhanced osteogenic capacity in a critical-sized rabbit femoral condyle defect model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yadong; Cui, Xu; Zhao, Shichang; Wang, Hui; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Liu, Zhongtang; Huang, Wenhai; Zhang, Changqing

    2015-02-04

    The development of a new generation of injectable bone cements that are bioactive and have enhanced osteogenic capacity for rapid osseointegration is receiving considerable interest. In this study, a novel injectable cement (designated Sr-BBG) composed of strontium-doped borate bioactive glass particles and a chitosan-based bonding phase was prepared and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The bioactive glass provided the benefits of bioactivity, conversion to hydroxyapatite, and the ability to stimulate osteogenesis, while the chitosan provided a cohesive biocompatible and biodegradable bonding phase. The Sr-BBG cement showed the ability to set in situ (initial setting time = 11.6 ± 1.2 min) and a compressive strength of 19 ± 1 MPa. The Sr-BBG cement enhanced the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro when compared to a similar cement (BBG) composed of chitosan-bonded borate bioactive glass particles without Sr. Microcomputed tomography and histology of critical-sized rabbit femoral condyle defects implanted with the cements showed the osteogenic capacity of the Sr-BBG cement. New bone was observed at different distances from the Sr-BBG implants within eight weeks. The bone-implant contact index was significantly higher for the Sr-BBG implant than it was for the BBG implant. Together, the results indicate that this Sr-BBG cement is a promising implant for healing irregularly shaped bone defects using minimally invasive surgery.

  3. In vitro stimulation of vascular endothelial growth factor by borate-based glass fibers under dynamic flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sisi; Yang, Qingbo; Brow, Richard K; Liu, Kun; Brow, Katherine A; Ma, Yinfa; Shi, Honglan

    2017-04-01

    Bioactive borate glass has been recognized to have both hard and soft tissue repair and regeneration capabilities through stimulating both osteogenesis and angiogenesis. However, the underlying biochemical and cellular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, dynamic flow culturing modules were designed to simulate the micro-environment near the vascular depletion and hyperplasia area in wound-healing regions, thus to better investigate the mechanisms underlying the biocompatibility and functionality of borate-based glass materials. Glass fibers were dosed either upstream or in contact with the pre-seeded cells in the dynamic flow module. Two types of borate glasses, doped with (1605) or without (13-93B3) CuO and ZnO, were studied along with the silicate-based glass, 45S5. Substantial fiber dissolution in cell culture medium was observed, leading to the release of ions (boron, sodium and potassium) and the deposition of a calcium phosphate phase. Different levels of vascular endothelial growth factor secretion were observed from cells exposed to these three glass fibers, and the copper/zinc containing borate 1605 fibers exhibited the most positive influence. These results indicate that dynamic studies of in vitro bioactivity provide useful information to understand the in vivo response to bioactive borate glasses.

  4. Electrospun Polyhydroxybutyrate/Poly(ε-caprolactone)/58S Sol-Gel Bioactive Glass Hybrid Scaffolds with Highly Improved Osteogenic Potential for Bone Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yaping; Li, Wei; Müller, Teresa; Schubert, Dirk W; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Yao, Qingqing; Roether, Judith A

    2016-07-13

    Electrospinning of biopolymer and inorganic substances is one of the efficient ways to combine various advantageous properties in one single fibrous structure with potential for tissue engineering applications. In the present study, to integrate the high stiffness of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), the flexibility of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and the bioactivity of 58S bioactive glass, PHB/PCL/58S sol-gel bioactive glass hybrid scaffolds were fabricated using combined electrospinning and sol-gel method. Physical features such as fiber diameter distribution, mechanical strength and Young's modulus were characterized thoroughly. FTIR analysis demonstrated the successful incorporation of 58S bioactive glass into the blend polymers, which greatly improved the hydrophilicity of PHB/PCL fibermats. The primary biological response of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells on the prepared fibrous scaffolds was evaluated, proving that the 58S glass sol containing hybrid scaffold were not only favorable to MG-63 cell adhesion but also slightly enhanced cell viability and significantly increased alkaline phosphate activity .

  5. Micro-CT Analysis of Bone Healing in Rabbit Calvarial Critical-Sized Defects with Solid Bioactive Glass, Tricalcium Phosphate Granules or Autogenous Bone

    PubMed Central

    Karhula, Sakari S.; Haapea, Marianne; Kauppinen, Sami; Finnilä, Mikko; Saarakkala, Simo; Serlo, Willy; Sándor, George K.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The purpose of the present study was to evaluate bone healing in rabbit critical-sized calvarial defects using two different synthetic scaffold materials, solid biodegradable bioactive glass and tricalcium phosphate granules alongside solid and particulated autogenous bone grafts. Material and Methods Bilateral full thickness critical-sized calvarial defects were created in 15 New Zealand white adult male rabbits. Ten defects were filled with solid scaffolds made of bioactive glass or with porous tricalcium phosphate granules. The healing of the biomaterial-filled defects was compared at the 6 week time point to the healing of autologous bone grafted defects filled with a solid cranial bone block in 5 defects and with particulated bone combined with fibrin glue in 10 defects. In 5 animals one defect was left unfilled as a negative control. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) was used to analyze healing of the defects. Results Micro-CT analysis revealed that defects filled with tricalcium phosphate granules showed new bone formation in the order of 3.89 (SD 1.17)% whereas defects treated with solid bioactive glass scaffolds showed 0.21 (SD 0.16)%, new bone formation. In the empty negative control defects there was an average new bone formation of 21.8 (SD 23.7)%. Conclusions According to findings in this study, tricalcium phosphate granules have osteogenic potential superior to bioactive glass, though both particulated bone with fibrin glue and solid bone block were superior defect filling materials. PMID:27489608

  6. Gold-containing bioactive glasses: a solid-state synthesis to produce alternative biomaterials for bone implantations.

    PubMed

    Aina, Valentina; Cerrato, Giuseppina; Martra, Gianmario; Bergandi, Loredana; Costamagna, Costanzo; Ghigo, Dario; Malavasi, Gianluca; Lusvardi, Gigliola; Menabue, Ledi

    2013-05-06

    A new melted bioactive system containing gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was prepared exploiting a post-synthesis thermal treatment that allows one to modify crystal phases and nature, shape and distribution of the gold species in the glass-ceramic matrix as evidenced by UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction analysis. In human MG-63 osteoblasts the presence of Au(n)(+) species caused an increase of lactate dehydrogenase leakage and malonyldialdehyde production, whereas Hench's Bioglass HAu-600-17 containing only AuNPs did not cause any effect. In addition, HAu-600-17 caused in vitro hydroxyapatite formation and an increase of specific surface area with a controlled release of gold species; this material is then suitable to be used as a model system for the controlled delivery of nanoparticles.

  7. One-pot synthesis of macro-mesoporous bioactive glasses/polylactic acid for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiao; Wang, Dan; Chen, Xiang; Lin, Huiming; Qu, Fengyu

    2014-10-01

    The macro-mesoporous bioactive glasses/polylactic acid nanofibers were synthesized via electrospun method followed by acid treatment processing. It was identified to be an effective and simple synthetic strategy to form the uniform nanofibers about 350 nm in size. The non-ionic triblock copolymer, poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (P123), was used as the template for mesoporous structure (5 nm) and the macroporous structure about 10 μm in size derived from the overlapping of the nanofibers. Furthermore, the surface hydrophilic-hydrophobic property can be adjusted by varying the amount of mesoporous bioglass precursor (MBG-p). With the outstanding structure characters and the suitable hydrophilic property, these nanofiber composites show controlled drug release and the fast hydroxyapatite (HAP) mineralization performance. Herein, the novel materials are expected to have potential application for bone tissue engineering.

  8. In situ reduction of antibacterial silver ions to metallic silver nanoparticles on bioactive glasses functionalized with polyphenols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraris, S.; Miola, M.; Cochis, A.; Azzimonti, B.; Rimondini, L.; Prenesti, E.; Vernè, E.

    2017-02-01

    The realization of surfaces with antibacterial properties due to silver nanoparticles loaded through a green approach is a promising research challenge of the biomaterial field. In this research work, two bioactive glasses have been doubly surface functionalized with polyphenols (gallic acid or natural polyphenols extracted from red grape skins and green tea leaves) and silver nanoparticles deposited by in situ reduction from a silver nitrate aqueous solution. The presence of biomolecules - showing reducing ability to directly obtain in situ metallic silver - and silver nanoparticles was investigated by means of UV-vis spectroscopy, X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). The antibacterial activity of the modified surfaces was tested against a multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacterial strain.

  9. Treatment of an early failing implant by guided bone regeneration using resorbable collagen membrane and bioactive glass

    PubMed Central

    Talreja, Prakash S.; Gayathri, G. V.; Mehta, D. S.

    2013-01-01

    Implant failure can be divided into early (prior to prosthetic treatment) or late (after prosthetic rehabilitation). Early failure is generally due to interference in the healing process after implant placement. Implants undergoing early failure will show progressive bone loss on radiographs during the healing period (4 to 6 weeks). In the present case report, early progressive bone loss was seen at 6 weeks, after placement of a non-submerged single piece mini implant. Clinical examination revealed peri-implant bleeding on probing and pocket and grade-1 mobility. Treatment protocol included mechanical debridement (plastic curettes), chemical detoxification with supersaturated solution of citric acid, antibiotics and guided bone regeneration therapy using the collagen membrane as guided bone regeneration barrier in combination with bioactive glass as bone grafting material. The 6 month postoperative examination showed complete resolution of the osseous defect, thus suggesting that this technique may hold promise in the treatment of implants undergoing early failure. PMID:23633789

  10. Toward a Rational Design of Bioactive Glasses with Optimal Structural Features: Composition–Structure Correlations Unveiled by Solid-State NMR and MD Simulations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The physiological responses of silicate-based bioactive glasses (BGs) are known to depend critically on both the P content (nP) of the glass and its silicate network connectivity (N̅BOSi). However, while the bioactivity generally displays a nonmonotonic dependence on nP itself, recent work suggest that it is merely the net orthophosphate content that directly links to the bioactivity. We exploit molecular dynamics (MD) simulations combined with 31P and 29Si solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to explore the quantitative relationships between N̅BOSi, nP, and the silicate and phosphate speciations in a series of Na2O–CaO–SiO2–P2O5 glasses spanning 2.1 ≤ N̅BOSi ≤ 2.9 and variable P2O5 contents up to 6.0 mol %. The fractional population of the orthophosphate groups remains independent of nP at a fixed N̅BOSi-value, but is reduced slightly as N̅BOSi increases. Nevertheless, P remains predominantly as readily released orthophosphate ions, whose content may be altered essentially independently of the network connectivity, thereby offering a route to optimize the glass bioactivity. We discuss the observed composition-structure links in relation to known composition-bioactivity correlations, and define how Na2O–CaO–SiO2–P2O5 compositions exhibiting an optimal bioactivity can be designed by simultaneously altering three key parameters: the silicate network connectivity, the (ortho)phosphate content, and the nNa/nCa molar ratio. PMID:24364818

  11. Toward a rational design of bioactive glasses with optimal structural features: composition-structure correlations unveiled by solid-state NMR and MD simulations.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Renny; Stevensson, Baltzar; Tilocca, Antonio; Edén, Mattias

    2014-01-23

    The physiological responses of silicate-based bioactive glasses (BGs) are known to depend critically on both the P content (n(P)) of the glass and its silicate network connectivity (N(BO)(Si)). However, while the bioactivity generally displays a nonmonotonic dependence on nP itself, recent work suggest that it is merely the net orthophosphate content that directly links to the bioactivity. We exploit molecular dynamics (MD) simulations combined with ³¹P and ²⁹Si solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to explore the quantitative relationships between N(BO)(Si), n(P), and the silicate and phosphate speciations in a series of Na₂O-CaO-SiO₂-P₂O₅ glasses spanning 2.1 ≤ N(BO)(Si) ≤ 2.9 and variable P₂O₅ contents up to 6.0 mol %. The fractional population of the orthophosphate groups remains independent of n(P) at a fixed N(BO)(Si)-value, but is reduced slightly as N(BO)(Si) increases. Nevertheless, P remains predominantly as readily released orthophosphate ions, whose content may be altered essentially independently of the network connectivity, thereby offering a route to optimize the glass bioactivity. We discuss the observed composition-structure links in relation to known composition-bioactivity correlations, and define how Na₂O-CaO-SiO₂-P₂O₅ compositions exhibiting an optimal bioactivity can be designed by simultaneously altering three key parameters: the silicate network connectivity, the (ortho)phosphate content, and the n(Na)/n(Ca) molar ratio.

  12. New sol-gel bioactive glass and titania composites with enhanced physico-chemical and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Pawlik, Justyna; Widziołek, Magdalena; Cholewa-Kowalska, Katarzyna; Łączka, Maria; Osyczka, Anna Maria

    2014-07-01

    We developed TiO2 matrix composites modified by sol-gel bioactive glasses (SBG) of either high CaO content (A2) or high SiO2 content (S2). The latter were mixed with titanium dioxide (TiO2) at 75:25, 50:50, and 25:75 weight ratios and sintered at 1250°C for 2 h. We examined the effects of various types (A2 or S2) and compositional TiO2 :SBG ratios on the mechanical properties of resulting composites, their bioactivity and human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) response. The chemistry of SBGs influenced the phase composition, mechanical and biological properties of the composites. Rutile and titanite prevailed in A2-TiO2 composites, and rutile and crystobalite in S2-TiO2 composites. Compressive strength increased significantly for 25A2-TiO2 composites (140 MPa) compared to matrix TiO2 (58 MPa). Composites containing 50-75 wt % of either SBG displayed bioactive properties as determined by simulated body fluid test. Compared to TiO2, human bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) viability was enhanced on the composites containing 25 wt % of either SBG, whereas the composites modified by 25 wt % of S2 enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization in cultures treated with osteogenic inducers-dexamethasone (Dex) or bone morphogenetic protein. Increasing amounts of A2 in TiO2 matrix decreased cell viability but increased collagen deposition and mineralized matrix production by BMSC. Considering the physico-chemical and biological properties of the presented composites, the modification of TiO2 with SBG may prove useful strategy in several bone tissue related regeneration strategies.

  13. The Biomineralization of a Bioactive Glass-Incorporated Light-Curable Pulp Capping Material Using Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Soo-Kyung; Lee, Hae-Hyoung

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the biomineralization of a newly introduced bioactive glass-incorporated light-curable pulp capping material using human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). The product (Bioactive® [BA]) was compared with a conventional calcium hydroxide-incorporated (Dycal [DC]) and a light-curable (Theracal® [TC]) counterpart. Eluates from set specimens were used for investigating the cytotoxicity and biomineralization ability, determined by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and alizarin red staining (ARS). Cations and hydroxide ions in the extracts were measured. An hDPSC viability of less than 70% was observed with 50% diluted extract in all groups and with 25% diluted extract in the DC. Culturing with 12.5% diluted BA extract statistically lowered ALP activity and biomineralization compared to DC (p < 0.05), but TC did not (p > 0.05). Ca (~110 ppm) and hydroxide ions (pH 11) were only detected in DC and TC. Ionic supplement-added BA, which contained similar ion concentrations as TC, showed similar ARS mineralization compared to TC. In conclusion, the BA was similar to, yet more cytotoxic to hDPSCs than, its DC and TC. The BA was considered to stimulate biomineralization similar to DC and TC only when it released a similar amount of Ca and hydroxide ions. PMID:28232937

  14. Sol-gel derived nanoscale bioactive glass (NBG) particles reinforced poly(ε-caprolactone) composites for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Lei, Bo; Shin, Kwan-Ha; Noh, Da-Young; Jo, In-Hwan; Koh, Young-Hag; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Kim, Sung Eun

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of the addition of sol-gel derived nanoscale bioactive glass (NBG) particles on the mechanical properties and biological performances of PCL polymer, in order to evaluate the potential applications of PCL/NBG composites for bone tissue regeneration. Regardless of the NBG contents (10, 20, and 30 wt.%), the NBG particles, which were synthesized through the sol-gel process using polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymer as a template, could be uniformly dispersed in the PCL matrix, while generating pores in the PCL/NBG composites. The elastic modulus of the PCL/NBG composites increased remarkably from 89±11 MPa to 383±50 MPa with increasing NBG content from 0 to 30 wt.%, while still showing good ultimate tensile strength in the range of 15-19 MPa. The hydrophilicity, water absorption and degradation behavior of the PCL/NBG composites were also enhanced by the addition of the NBG particles. Furthermore, the PCL/NBG composite with a NBG content of 30 wt.% showed significantly enhanced in vitro bioactivity and cellular response compared to those of the pure PCL.

  15. Electrophoretic deposition of ZnO/alginate and ZnO-bioactive glass/alginate composite coatings for antimicrobial applications.

    PubMed

    Cordero-Arias, L; Cabanas-Polo, S; Goudouri, O M; Misra, S K; Gilabert, J; Valsami-Jones, E; Sanchez, E; Virtanen, S; Boccaccini, A R

    2015-10-01

    Two organic/inorganic composite coatings based on alginate, as organic matrix, and zinc oxide nanoparticles (n-ZnO) with and without bioactive glass (BG), as inorganic components, intended for biomedical applications, were developed by electrophoretic deposition (EPD). Different n-ZnO (1-10 g/L) and BG (1-1.5 g/L) contents were studied for a fixed alginate concentration (2 g/L). The presence of n-ZnO was confirmed to impart antibacterial properties to the coatings against gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, while the BG induced the formation of hydroxyapatite on coating surfaces thereby imparting bioactivity, making the coating suitable for bone replacement applications. Coating composition was analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis (TG), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to study both the surface and the cross section morphology of the coatings. Polarization curves of the coated substrates made in cell culture media at 37 °C confirmed the corrosion protection function of the novel organic/inorganic composite coatings.

  16. Vibrational features of phospho-silicate glasses: Periodic B3LYP simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corno, Marta; Pedone, Alfonso

    2009-07-01

    B3LYP periodic calculations with double-ζ polarised basis set using C RYSTAL06 code have been run on a bioactive phospho-silicate glass similar in composition to Bioglass ® 45S5 (46.1 SiO 2, 24.4 Na 2O, 26.9 CaO and 2.6 P 2O 5 mol%) and a phosphorous-free soda-lime glass (49.5 SiO 2, 24.2 Na 2O and 26.4 CaO mol%). Initial structures have been obtained through a melt-quench process by classical molecular dynamics techniques and the effect of phosphorous on the glass network structure and dynamics have been assessed by B3LYP vibrational spectra.

  17. Fabrication and characterization of nano-HA-45S5 bioglass composite coatings on calcium-phosphate containing micro-arc oxidized CP-Ti substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnoush, Hamidreza; Muhaffel, Faiz; Cimenoglu, Huseyin

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, micro-arc oxidation (MAO) was carried out on commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) to fabricate porous titanium oxide coatings containing calcium phosphates (CaP) at different applied voltages of 300, 330 and 360 V for 5 min. Subsequently, nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) and HA-45S5 bioglass (BG) composite were effectively coated on micro-arc oxidized substrate by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) at a constant voltage of 30 V for 120 s. The phase, structural agents, microstructure and composition of MAO interlayer and subsequent EPD coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. Thermal stability of the as-deposited coatings was analyzed by simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry and thermal gravimetery. The pull-off adhesion tests showed the highest bonding strength was obtained for HA-BG coating on micro-oxidized sample at 360 V. The results of potentiodynamic polarization and impedance spectroscopic measurements in simulated body fluid solution depicted that the combination of MAO treatment at 360 V and EPD of HA-BG composite could effectively increase the corrosion resistance of CP-Ti substrates.

  18. Fabrication of a novel poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate) / nanoscale bioactive glass composite film with potential as a multifunctional wound dressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Ranjana; Boccaccini, Aldo R.; Knowles, Jonathan C.; Locke, Ian C.; Gordge, Michael P.; McCormick, Aine; Salih, Vehid; Mordon, Nicola; Keshavarz, Tajalli; Roy, Ipsita

    2010-06-01

    Fabrication of a composite scaffold of nanobioglass (n-BG) 45S5 and poly(3-hydroxyocatnoate), P(3HO) was studied for the first time with the aim of developing a novel, multifunctional wound dressing. The incorporation of n-BG accelerated blood clotting time and its incorporation in the polymer matrix enhanced the wettability, surface roughness and bio-compatibility of the scaffold.

  19. Fabrication of a novel poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate)/ nanoscale bioactive glass composite film with potential as a multifunctional wound dressing

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, Ranjana; Keshavarz, Tajalli; Roy, Ipsita; Boccaccini, Aldo R.; Knowles, Jonathan C.; Salih, Vehid; Mordon, Nicola; Locke, Ian C.; Gordge, Michael P.; McCormick, Aine

    2010-06-02

    Fabrication of a composite scaffold of nanobioglass (n-BG) 45S5 and poly(3-hydroxyocatnoate), P(3HO) was studied for the first time with the aim of developing a novel, multifunctional wound dressing. The incorporation of n-BG accelerated blood clotting time and its incorporation in the polymer matrix enhanced the wettability, surface roughness and bio-compatibility of the scaffold.

  20. Bioactive borate glass scaffolds: in vitro and in vivo evaluation for use as a drug delivery system in the treatment of bone infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Xie, Zongping; Zhang, Changqing; Pan, Haobo; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Zhang, Xin; Fu, Qiang; Huang, Wenhai

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate borate bioactive glass scaffolds (with a composition in the system Na(2)O-K(2)O-MgO-CaO-B(2)O(3)-P(2)O(5)) as devices for the release of the drug Vancomycin in the treatment of bone infection. A solution of ammonium phosphate, with or without dissolved Vancomycin, was used to bond borate glass particles into the shape of pellets. The in vitro degradation of the pellets and their conversion to a hydroxyapatite-type material in a simulated body fluid (SBF) were investigated using weight loss measurements, chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that greater than 90% of the glass in the scaffolds degraded within 1 week, to form poorly crystallized hydroxyapatite (HA). Pellets loaded with Vancomycin provided controlled release of the drug over 4 days. Vancomycin-loaded scaffolds were implanted into the right tibiae of rabbits infected with osteomyelitis. The efficacy of the treatment was assessed using microbiological examination and histology. The HA formed in the scaffolds in vivo, resulting from the conversion of the glass, served as structure to support the growth of new bone and blood vessels. The results in this work indicate that bioactive borate glass could provide a promising biodegradable and bioactive material for use as both a drug delivery system and a scaffold for bone repair.

  1. Structural and magnetic properties of SiO2-CaO-Na2O-P2O5 containing BaO-Fe2O3 glass-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leenakul, W.; Kantha, P.; Pisitpipathsin, N.; Rujijanagul, G.; Eitssayeam, S.; Pengpat, K.

    2013-01-01

    The incorporation method was employed to produce bioactive glass-ceramics from the BaFe12O19-SiO2-CaO-Na2O-P2O5 glass system. The ferrimagnetic BaFe12O19 was first prepared using a simple mixed oxide method, where the oxide precursors of 45S5 bioglass were initially mixed and then melted to form glass. The devitrification of Na3Ca6(PO4)5 and Fe3O4 was observed in all of the quenched glass samples. The glass samples were then subjected to a heat treatment schedule for further crystallization. It was found that the small traces of BaFe12O19 phases started to crystallize in high BF content samples of 20 and 40 wt%. These samples also exhibited good magnetic properties comparable to that of other magnetic glass-ceramics. The bioactivity of the BF glass-ceramics improved with increasing BF content as was evident by the formation of bone-like apatite layers on the surface of all of the glass-ceramics after soaking in SBF for 14 days. The results support the use of these bioactive glass-ceramics for hyperthermia treatment within the human body.

  2. Influence of single and binary doping of strontium and lithium on in vivo biological properties of bioactive glass scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Pintu Kumar; Mahato, Arnab; Kundu, Biswanath; Nandi, Samit K.; Mukherjee, Prasenjit; Datta, Someswar; Sarkar, Soumya; Mukherjee, Jayanta; Nath, Shalini; Balla, Vamsi K.; Mandal, Chitra

    2016-01-01

    Effects of strontium and lithium ion doping on the biological properties of bioactive glass (BAG) porous scaffolds have been checked in vitro and in vivo. BAG scaffolds were prepared by conventional glass melting route and subsequently, scaffolds were produced by evaporation of fugitive pore formers. After thorough physico-chemical and in vitro cell characterization, scaffolds were used for pre-clinical study. Soft and hard tissue formation in a rabbit femoral defect model after 2 and 4 months, were assessed using different tools. Histological observations showed excellent osseous tissue formation in Sr and Li + Sr scaffolds and moderate bone regeneration in Li scaffolds. Fluorochrome labeling studies showed wide regions of new bone formation in Sr and Li + Sr doped samples as compared to Li doped samples. SEM revealed abundant collagenous network and minimal or no interfacial gap between bone and implant in Sr and Li + Sr doped samples compared to Li doped samples. Micro CT of Li + Sr samples showed highest degree of peripheral cancellous tissue formation on periphery and cortical tissues inside implanted samples and vascularity among four compositions. Our findings suggest that addition of Sr and/or Li alters physico-chemical properties of BAG and promotes early stage in vivo osseointegration and bone remodeling that may offer new insight in bone tissue engineering. PMID:27604654

  3. Influence of single and binary doping of strontium and lithium on in vivo biological properties of bioactive glass scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Pintu Kumar; Mahato, Arnab; Kundu, Biswanath; Nandi, Samit K.; Mukherjee, Prasenjit; Datta, Someswar; Sarkar, Soumya; Mukherjee, Jayanta; Nath, Shalini; Balla, Vamsi K.; Mandal, Chitra

    2016-09-01

    Effects of strontium and lithium ion doping on the biological properties of bioactive glass (BAG) porous scaffolds have been checked in vitro and in vivo. BAG scaffolds were prepared by conventional glass melting route and subsequently, scaffolds were produced by evaporation of fugitive pore formers. After thorough physico-chemical and in vitro cell characterization, scaffolds were used for pre-clinical study. Soft and hard tissue formation in a rabbit femoral defect model after 2 and 4 months, were assessed using different tools. Histological observations showed excellent osseous tissue formation in Sr and Li + Sr scaffolds and moderate bone regeneration in Li scaffolds. Fluorochrome labeling studies showed wide regions of new bone formation in Sr and Li + Sr doped samples as compared to Li doped samples. SEM revealed abundant collagenous network and minimal or no interfacial gap between bone and implant in Sr and Li + Sr doped samples compared to Li doped samples. Micro CT of Li + Sr samples showed highest degree of peripheral cancellous tissue formation on periphery and cortical tissues inside implanted samples and vascularity among four compositions. Our findings suggest that addition of Sr and/or Li alters physico-chemical properties of BAG and promotes early stage in vivo osseointegration and bone remodeling that may offer new insight in bone tissue engineering.

  4. Bioactive glasses as potential radioisotope vectors for in situ cancer therapy: investigating the structural effects of yttrium.

    PubMed

    Christie, Jamieson K; Malik, Jahangir; Tilocca, Antonio

    2011-10-21

    The incorporation of yttrium in bioactive glasses (BGs) could lead to a new generation of radionuclide vectors for cancer therapy, with high biocompatibility, controlled biodegradability and the ability to enhance the growth of new healthy tissues after the treatment with radionuclides. It is essential to assess whether and to what extent yttrium incorporation affects the favourable properties of the BG matrix: ideally, one would like to combine the high surface reactivity typical of BGs with a slow release of radioactive yttrium. Molecular Dynamics simulations show that, compared to a BG composition with the same silica fraction, incorporation of yttrium results in two opposing effects on the glass durability: a more fragmented silicate network (leading to lower durability) and a stronger yttrium-mediated association between separate silicate fragments (leading to higher durability). The simulations also highlight a high site-selectivity and some clustering of yttrium cations, which are likely linked to the observed slow rate of yttrium released from related Y-BG compositions. Optimisation of yttrium BG compositions for radiotherapy applications thus depends on the delicate balance between these effects.

  5. The influence of phosphorus precursors on the synthesis and bioactivity of SiO2-CaO-P 2O 5 sol-gel glasses and glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Renato Luiz; Zanotto, Edgar Dutra

    2013-02-01

    Bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics of the SiO(2)-CaO-P(2)O(5) system were synthesised by means of a sol-gel method using different phosphorus precursors according to their respective rates of hydrolysis-triethylphosphate (OP(OC(2)H(5))(3)), phosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)) and a solution prepared by dissolving phosphorus oxide (P(2)O(5)) in ethanol. The resulting materials were characterised by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and by in vitro bioactivity tests in acellular simulated body fluid. The different precursors significantly affected the main steps of the synthesis, beginning with the time required for gel formation. The most striking influence of these precursors was observed during the thermal treatments at 700-1,200 °C that were used to convert the gels into glasses and glass-ceramics. The samples exhibited very different mineralisation behaviours; especially those prepared using the phosphoric acid, which had a reduced onset temperature of crystallisation and an increased resistance to devitrification. However, all resulting materials were bioactive. The in vitro bioactivity of these materials was strongly affected by the heat treatment temperature. In general, their bioactivity decreased with increasing treatment temperature. For crystallised samples obtained above 900 °C, the bioactivity was favoured by the presence of two crystalline phases: wollastonite (CaSiO(3)) and tricalcium phosphate (α-Ca(3)(PO(4))(2)).

  6. New formulation of functionalized bioactive glasses to be used as carriers for the development of pH-stimuli responsive biomaterials for bone diseases.

    PubMed

    Aina, Valentina; Magistris, Claudio; Cerrato, Giuseppina; Martra, Gianmario; Viscardi, Guido; Lusvardi, Gigliola; Malavasi, Gianluca; Menabue, Ledi

    2014-04-29

    The aim of the present contribution is to prepare a functionalized bioactive glass potentially useful as prosthetic material, but also able to release organic molecules in response to a change of the pH environment. By this approach it is possible to develop devices which can be used for a triggered drug release in response to specific stimuli; this is an attractive research field, in order to avoid either systemic and/or local toxic effects of drugs. In particular, in the present paper we report data related to the development of a new formulation of bioactive glasses, their functionalization with organic molecules to obtain a pH-sensitive bond, their physicochemical characterization and in vitro bioactivity in simulated biological fluids (SBF), and organic molecule delivery tests at different pH. The glass functionalization, by means of a covalent reaction, allows us to produce a model of pH-responsive bioactive biomaterial: when it is exposed to specific pH changes, it can favor the release of the organic molecules directly at the target site. Cysteamine and 5-aminofluorescein are used as model molecules to simulate a drug. The materials, before and after the different functionalization steps and in vitro release tests at different pH, have been characterized by means of different experimental techniques such as X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), Raman, FTIR and fluorescence spectroscopies, N2 adsorption, thermogravimetric (TGA) and elemental analysis.

  7. Multifunctional chitosan/polyvinyl pyrrolidone/45S5 Bioglass® scaffolds for MC3T3-E1 cell stimulation and drug release.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qingqing; Li, Wei; Yu, Shanshan; Ma, Liwei; Jin, Dayong; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Liu, Yong

    2015-11-01

    Novel chitosan-polyvinyl pyrrolidone/45S5 Bioglass® (CS-PVP/BG) scaffolds were prepared via foam replication and chemical cross-linking techniques. The pristine BG, CS-PVP coated BG and genipin cross-linked CS-PVP/BG (G-CS-PVP/BG) scaffolds were synthesized and characterized in terms of chemical composition, physical structure and morphology respectively. Resistance to enzymatic degradation of the scaffold is improved significantly with the use of genipin cross-linked CS-PVP. The bio-effects of scaffolds on MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells were evaluated by studying cell viability, adhesion and proliferation. The CCK-8 assay shows that cell viability on the resulting G-CS-PVP/BG scaffold is improved obviously after cross-linking of genipin. Cell skeleton images exhibit that well-stretched F-actin bundles are obtained on the G-CS-PVP/BG scaffold. SEM results present significant improvement on the cell adhesion and proliferation for cells cultured on the G-CS-PVP/BG scaffold. The drug release performance on the as-synthesized scaffold was studied in a phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution. Vancomycin is found to be released in burst fashion within 24h from the pristine BG scaffold, however, the release period from the G-CS-PVP/BG scaffold is enhanced to 7days, indicating improved drug release properties of the G-CS-PVP/BG scaffold. Our results suggest that the G-CS-PVP/BG scaffolds possess promising physicochemical properties, sustained drug release capability and good biocompatibility for MC3T3-E1 cells' proliferation and adhesion, suggesting their potential applications in areas such as MC3T3-E1 cell stimulation and bone tissue engineering.

  8. Highly adherent bioactive glass thin films synthetized by magnetron sputtering at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Stan, G E; Pasuk, I; Husanu, M A; Enculescu, I; Pina, S; Lemos, A F; Tulyaganov, D U; El Mabrouk, K; Ferreira, J M F

    2011-12-01

    Thin (380-510 nm) films of a low silica content bioglass with MgO, B(2)O(3), and CaF(2) as additives were deposited at low-temperature (150°C) by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering onto titanium substrates. The influence of sputtering conditions on morphology, structure, composition, bonding strength and in vitro bioactivity of sputtered bioglass films was investigated. Excellent pull-out adherence (~73 MPa) was obtained when using a 0.3 Pa argon sputtering pressure (BG-a). The adherence declined (~46 MPa) upon increasing the working pressure to 0.4 Pa (BG-b) or when using a reactive gas mixture (~50 MPa). The SBF tests clearly demonstrated strong biomineralization features for all bioglass sputtered films. The biomineralization rate increased from BG-a to BG-b, and yet more for BG-c. A well-crystallized calcium hydrogen phosphate-like phase was observed after 3 and 15 days of immersion in SBF in all bioglass layers, which transformed monotonously into hydroxyapatite under prolonged SBF immersion. Alkali and alkali-earth salts (NaCl, KCl and CaCO(3)) were also found at the surface of samples soaked in SBF for 30 days. The study indicated that features such as composition, structure, adherence and bioactivity of bioglass films can be tailored simply by altering the magnetron sputtering working conditions, proving that this less explored technique is a promising alternative for preparing implant-type coatings.

  9. Treatment of tooth fracture by medium-energy CO2 laser and DP-bioactive glass paste: the interaction of enamel and DP-bioactive glass paste during irradiation by CO2 laser.

    PubMed

    Lin, C P; Tseng, Y C; Lin, F H; Liao, J D; Lan, W H

    2001-03-01

    Acute trauma or trauma associated with occlusal disturbance can produce tooth crack or fracture. Although several methods are proposed to treat the defect, however, the prognosis is generally poor. If the fusion of a tooth fracture by laser is possible, it will offer an alternative to extraction or at least serve as an adjunctive treatment in the reconstruction. We have tried to use a continuous-wave CO2 laser and a newly developed DP-bioactive glass paste (DPGP) to fuse or bridge tooth crack or fracture lines. Both the DP-bioactive glass paste and tooth enamel have strong absorption bands at the wavelength of 10.6 microm. Therefore, under CO2 laser, DPGP and enamel should have an effective absorption and melt together. The interface between DPGP and enamel could be regarded as a mixture of DPGP and enamel (DPG-E). The study focused on the phase transformation, microstructure, functional group and thermal behavior of DPG-E with or without CO2 laser irradiation, by the analytical techniques of XRD, FTIR, DTA/TGA, and SEM. The results of XRD showed that the main crystal phase in the DPG-E was dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (CaHPO4.2H2O). It changed into CaHPO4, gamma-Ca2P2O7, beta-Ca2P2O7 and finally alpha-Ca2P2O7 with increasing temperature. In the FTIR analysis, the 720 cm(-1) absorption band ascribed to the P-O-P linkage in pyrophosphate rose up and the intensities of the OH- bands reduced after laser irradiation. In regard to the results of DTA/TGA after irradiation, the weight loss decreased due to the removal of part of absorption water and crystallization water by the CO2 laser. SEM micrographs revealed that the melted masses and the plate-like crystals formed a tight chemical bond between the enamel and DPGP. We expect that DPGP with the help of CO2 laser can be an alternative to the treatment of tooth crack or fracture.

  10. Biocompatible and bioactive nanostructured glass coatings synthesized by pulsed laser deposition: In vitro biological tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, A. C.; Sima, F.; Duta, L.; Popescu, C.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Capitanu, D.; Mustata, R.; Sima, L. E.; Petrescu, S. M.; Janackovic, D.

    2009-03-01

    We report on the synthesis by pulsed laser deposition with a KrF* excimer laser source ( λ = 248 nm, τ = 25 ns) of bioglass thin films of 6P57 and 6P61 types. Physiology, viability, and proliferation of human osteoblast cells were determined by quantitative in vitro tests performed by flow cytometry on primary osteoblasts cultured on pulsed laser deposited bioglasses. Both types of glass films proved to be appropriate mediums for cell survival and proliferation. In a parallel investigation, cell morphology and adhesion to the surface was studied by fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Strong bonds between the materials and cells were found in both cases, as osteoblast pseudopodes penetrated deep into the material. According to our observations, the 6P57 glass films were superior with respect to viability and proliferation performances.

  11. In vivo and in vitro studies of borate based glass micro-fibers for dermal repairing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Wang, Hui; Zhao, Shichang; Zhou, Nai; Li, Le; Huang, Wenhai; Wang, Deping; Zhang, Changqing

    2016-03-01

    Full-thickness skin defects represent urgent clinical problem nowadays. Wound dressing materials are hotly needed to induce dermal reconstruction or to treat serious skin defects. In this study, the borate bioactive glass (BG) micro-fibers were fabricated and compared with the traditional material 45S5 Bioglass(®) (SiG) micro-fibers. The morphology, biodegradation and bioactivity of BG and SiG micro-fibers were investigated in vitro. The wound size reduction and angiogenic effects of BG and SiG micro-fibers were evaluated by the rat full-thickness skin defect model and Microfil technique in vivo. Results indicated that the BG micro-fibers showed thinner fiber diameter (1 μm) and better bioactivity than the SiG micro-fibers did. The ionic extracts of BG and SiG micro-fibers were not toxic to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In vivo, the BG micro-fiber wound dressings obviously enhanced the formation of blood vessel, and resulted in a much faster wound size reduction than the SiG micro-fibers, or than the control groups, after 9 days application. The good skin defect reconstruction ability of BG micro-fibers contributed to the B element in the composition, which results in the better bioactivity and angiogenesis. As shown above, the novel bioactive borate glass micro-fibers are expected to provide a promising therapeutic alternative for dermal reconstruction or skin defect repair.

  12. Micro-structural evolution and biomineralization behavior of carbon nanofiber/bioactive glass composites induced by precursor aging time.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaolong; Tang, Tianhong; Cheng, Dan; Zhang, Cuihua; Zhang, Ran; Cai, Qing; Yang, Xiaoping

    2015-12-01

    Bioactive glass (BG)-containing carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are promising orthopaedic biomaterials. Herein, CNF composites were produced from electrospinning of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/BG sol-gel precursor solution, followed by carbonization. Choosing 58S-type BG (mol%: 58.0% SiO2-26.3% CaO-15.7% P2O5) as the model, micro-structural evolution of CNF/BG composites was systematically evaluated in relating to aging times of BG precursor solution. With aging time prolonging, BG precursors underwent morphological changes from small sol clusters with loosely and randomly branched structure to highly crosslinked Si-network structure, showing continuous increase in solution viscosity. BG precursor solution with low viscosity could mix well with PAN solution, resulting in CNF composite with homogeneously distributed BG component. Whereas, BG precursor gel with densely crosslinked Si-network structure led to uneven distribution of BG component along final CNFs due to its significant phase separation from PAN component. Meanwhile, BG nanoparticles in CNFs demonstrated micro-structural evolution that they transited from weak to strong crystal state along with longer aging time. Biomineralization in simulated body fluid and in vitro osteoblasts proliferation were then applied to determine the bioactivity of CNF/BG composites. CNF/BG composites prepared from shorter aging time could induce both faster apatite deposition and cell proliferation rate. It was suggested weakly crystallized BG nanoparticles along CNFs dissolved fast and was able to provide numerous nucleation sites for apatite deposition, which also favored the proliferation of osteoblasts cells. Aging time could thus be a useful tool to regulate the biological features of CNF/BG composites.

  13. Bioactive Copper-Doped Glass Scaffolds Can Stimulate Endothelial Cells in Co-Culture in Combination with Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Subha N.; Brandl, Andreas; Hiller, Daniel; Hoppe, Alexander; Gbureck, Uwe; Horch, Raymund E.; Boccaccini, Aldo R.; Kneser, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive glass (BG) scaffolds are being investigated for bone tissue engineering applications because of their osteoconductive and angiogenic nature. However, to increase the in vivo performance of the scaffold, including enhancing the angiogenetic growth into the scaffolds, some researchers use different modifications of the scaffold including addition of inorganic ionic components to the basic BG composition. In this study, we investigated the in vitro biocompatibility and bioactivity of Cu2+-doped BG derived scaffolds in either BMSC (bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells)-only culture or co-culture of BMSC and human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMEC). In BMSC-only culture, cells were seeded either directly on the scaffolds (3D or direct culture) or were exposed to ionic dissolution products of the BG scaffolds, kept in permeable cell culture inserts (2D or indirect culture). Though we did not observe any direct osteoinduction of BMSCs by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay or by PCR, there was increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, observed by PCR and ELISA assays. Additionally, the scaffolds showed no toxicity to BMSCs and there were healthy live cells found throughout the scaffold. To analyze further the reasons behind the increased VEGF expression and to exploit the benefits of the finding, we used the indirect method with HDMECs in culture plastic and Cu2+-doped BG scaffolds with or without BMSCs in cell culture inserts. There was clear observation of increased endothelial markers by both FACS analysis and acetylated LDL (acLDL) uptake assay. Only in presence of Cu2+-doped BG scaffolds with BMSCs, a high VEGF secretion was demonstrated by ELISA; and typical tubular structures were observed in culture plastics. We conclude that Cu2+-doped BG scaffolds release Cu2+, which in turn act on BMSCs to secrete VEGF. This result is of significance for the application of BG scaffolds in bone tissue engineering approaches. PMID

  14. Silicate, borosilicate, and borate bioactive glass scaffolds with controllable degradation rate for bone tissue engineering applications. I. Preparation and in vitro degradation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiang; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Fu, Hailuo; Liu, Xin

    2010-10-01

    Bioactive glass scaffolds with a microstructure similar to that of dry human trabecular bone but with three different compositions were evaluated for potential applications in bone repair. The preparation of the scaffolds and the effect of the glass composition on the degradation and conversion of the scaffolds to a hydroxyapatite (HA)-type material in a simulated body fluid (SBF) are reported here (Part I). The in vitro response of osteogenic cells to the scaffolds and the in vivo evaluation of the scaffolds in a rat subcutaneous implantation model are described in Part II. Scaffolds (porosity = 78-82%; pore size = 100-500 microm) were prepared using a polymer foam replication technique. The glasses consisted of a silicate (13-93) composition, a borosilicate composition (designated 13-93B1), and a borate composition (13-93B3), in which one-third or all of the SiO2 content of 13-93 was replaced by B2O3, respectively. The conversion rate of the scaffolds to HA in the SBF increased markedly with the B2O3 content of the glass. Concurrently, the pH of the SBF also increased with the B2O3 content of the scaffolds. The compressive strengths of the as-prepared scaffolds (5-11 MPa) were in the upper range of values reported for trabecular bone, but they decreased markedly with immersion time in the SBF and with increasing B2O3 content of the glass. The results show that scaffolds with a wide range of bioactivity and degradation rate can be achieved by replacing varying amounts of SiO(2) in silicate bioactive glass with B2O3.

  15. Pulsed laser ablation and deposition of bioactive glass as coating material for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessio, L.; Teghil, R.; Zaccagnino, M.; Zaccardo, I.; Ferro, D.; Marotta, V.

    1999-01-01

    A study of the laser ablation and deposition, on Ti-Al substrates, of a biologically active glass (Bioglass®) suitable for bone implants is reported. The analysis of the gaseous phase by emission spectroscopy and the characterisation of the films from a compositional and morphological point of view have been carried out. The mean chemical composition of the deposits obtained from Bioglass ablation is very close to the target composition and the morphology indicates that different mechanisms of material ejection are present.

  16. Effect of the solution flow rate on the in vitro bioactivity of 2.5CaO x 2SiO(2) glass.

    PubMed

    Luciani, G; Costantini, A; Silvestri, B; Cajafa, M; Colella, M; Branda, F

    2007-03-01

    A comparative study of in vitro bioactivity of 2.5CaO x 2SiO(2) glass has been carried out by soaking it in a simulated body fluid, with continuously and periodic exchange of this solution (dynamic and differential protocols). Dynamic assays were carried out at different solution flow rates, 3 mL/h, 6 mL/h, 12 mL/h, to study the influence of flow rate on glass reactivity.