Science.gov

Sample records for 48-month longitudinal cohort

  1. Improvement of bone disease by imiglucerase (Cerezyme) therapy in patients with skeletal manifestations of type 1 Gaucher disease: results of a 48-month longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sims, KB; Pastores, GM; Weinreb, NJ; Barranger, J; Rosenbloom, BE; Packman, S; Kaplan, P; Mankin, H; Xavier, R; Angell, J; Fitzpatrick, MA; Rosenthal, D

    2008-01-01

    Sims KB, Pastores GM, Weinreb NJ, Barranger J, Rosenbloom BE, Packman S, Kaplan P, Mankin H, Xavier R, Angell J, Fitzpatrick MA, Rosenthal D. Improvement of bone disease by imiglucerase (Cerezyme) therapy in patients with skeletal manifestations of type 1 Gaucher disease: results of a 48-month longitudinal cohort study. Clin Genet 2008: 73: 430–440. © Blackwell Munksgaard, 2008 Progressive skeletal disease accounts for some of the most debilitating complications of type 1 Gaucher disease. In this 48-month, prospective, non-randomized, open-label study of the effect of enzyme replacement therapy on bone response, 33 imiglucerase-naïve patients (median age 43 years with one or more skeletal manifestations such as osteopenia, history of bone crisis, or other documented bone pathology) received imiglucerase 60 U/kg/2 weeks. Substantial improvements were observed in bone pain (BP), bone crises (BC), and bone mineral density (BMD). Improvements in BP were observed at 3 months (p < 0.001 vs baseline) and continued progressively throughout the study, with 39% of patients reporting pain at 48 months vs 73% at baseline. Eleven of the 13 patients with a pre-treatment history of BC had no recurrences. Biochemical markers for bone formation increased; markers for bone resorption decreased. Steady improvement of spine and femoral neck BMD, measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was noted. Mean Z score for spine increased from −0.72 ± 1.302 at baseline to near-normal levels (−0.09 ± 1.503) by month 48 (p = 0.042) and for femoral neck from −0.59 ± 1.352 to −0.17 ± 1.206 (p = 0.035) at month 36. This increase was sustained at 48 months. With imiglucerase treatment, patients should anticipate resolution of BC, rapid improvement in BP, increases in BMD, and decreased skeletal complications. PMID:18312448

  2. Development of Chewing in Children From 12 to 48 Months: Longitudinal Study of EMG Patterns

    PubMed Central

    GREEN, JORDAN R.; MOORE, CHRISTOPHER A.; RUARK, JACKI L.; RODDA, PAULA R.; MORVÉE, WENDY T.; VanWITZENBURG, MARCUS J.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental changes in the coordinative organization of masticatory muscles were examined longitudinally in four children over 49 experimental sessions spanning the age range of 12–48 mo. Electromyographic (EMG) records were obtained for right and left masseter muscles, right and left temporalis muscles, and the anterior belly of the digastric. Two independent analytic processes were employed, one that relied on identification of onset and offset of muscle activation and a second that used pairwise cross-correlational techniques. The results of these two analyses, which were found to be consistent with each other, demonstrated that the basic chewing pattern of reciprocally activated antagonistic muscle groups is established by 12 mo of age. Nevertheless, chewing efficiency appears to be improved through a variety of changes in the chewing pattern throughout early development. Coupling of activity among the jaw elevator muscles was shown to strengthen with maturation, and the synchrony of onset and offset of these muscles also increased. Coactivation of antagonistic muscles decreased significantly with development. This decrease in antagonistic coactivation and increase in synchrony among jaw elevators, and a parallel decrease in EMG burst duration, were taken as evidence of increased chewing efficiency. No significant differences in the frequency of chewing were found across the ages studied. Additional considerations include the appropriateness of this coordinative infrastructure for other developing oromotor skills, such as speech production. It is suggested that the relatively fixed coordinative framework for chewing exhibited by these children would not be suitable for adaptation to speech movements, which have been shown to rely on a much more variable and adjustable coordinative organization. PMID:9163386

  3. Food intake profiles of children aged 12, 24 and 48 months from the 2004 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort: an exploratory analysis using principal components

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To identify food intake profiles of children during their first four years of life and assess its variations according to sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics. Methods The Pelotas Birth Cohort Study (Brazil) recruited 4,231 liveborns, who were followed-up at ages 3, 12, 24 and 48 months. Food consumption data of children aged 12, 24 and 48 months was collected using a list of foods consumed during a 24-hour period prior to the interview. The food profiles were identified with the use of principal component analysis (PCA) for each age studied. Results Five components were identified at each age, four of them similar in all time points, namely: beverages, milks, staple, and snacks. A meat & vegetables component was identified at 12 and 24 months and a treats component at 48 months. The greatest nutritional differences were found among children from different socioeconomic levels. With regard to the milks component, higher breast milk intake compared to cow's milk was seen among poorer children (12- and 24-month old) and higher milk and chocolate powdered milk drink consumption was seen among more affluent children aged 48 months. Poorer children of less educated mothers showed higher adherence to the treats component (48 months). Regarding to the snack component, poorer children consumed more coffee, bread/cookies while more affluent children consumed proportionately more fruits, yogurt and soft drinks. Child care outside of the home was also a factor influencing food profiles more aligned with a healthier diet. Conclusions The study results showed that very early in life children show food profiles that are strongly associated with social (maternal schooling, socioeconomic position and child care) and behavioral characteristics (breast-feeding duration, bottle-feeding and pacifier use). PMID:22510615

  4. Low maternal sensitivity at 6 months of age predicts higher BMI in 48 month old girls but not boys.

    PubMed

    Wendland, Barbara E; Atkinson, Leslie; Steiner, Meir; Fleming, Alison S; Pencharz, Paul; Moss, Ellen; Gaudreau, Hélène; Silveira, Patricia P; Arenovich, Tamara; Matthews, Stephen G; Meaney, Michael J; Levitan, Robert D

    2014-11-01

    Large population-based studies suggest that systematic measures of maternal sensitivity predict later risk for overweight and obesity. More work is needed to establish the developmental timing and potential moderators of this association. The current study examined the association between maternal sensitivity at 6 months of age and BMI z score measures at 48 months of age, and whether sex moderated this association. Longitudinal Canadian cohort of children from birth (the MAVAN project). This analysis was based on a dataset of 223 children (115 boys, 108 girls) who had structured assessments of maternal sensitivity at 6 months of age and 48-month BMI data available. Mother-child interactions were videotaped and systematically scored using the Maternal Behaviour Q-Sort (MBQS)-25 items, a standardized measure of maternal sensitivity. Linear mixed-effects models and logistic regression examined whether MBQS scores at 6 months predicted BMI at 48 months, controlling for other covariates. After controlling for weight-relevant covariates, there was a significant sex by MBQS interaction (P=0.015) in predicting 48 month BMI z. Further analysis revealed a strong negative association between MBQS scores and BMI in girls (P=0.01) but not boys (P=0.72). Logistic regression confirmed that in girls only, low maternal sensitivity was associated with the higher BMI categories as defined by the WHO (i.e. "at risk for overweight" or above). A significant association between low maternal sensitivity at 6 months of age and high body mass indices was found in girls but not boys at 48 months of age. These data suggest for the first time that the link between low maternal sensitivity and early BMI z may differ between boys and girls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Interactive computer program for optimal designs of longitudinal cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Tekle, Fetene B; Tan, Frans E S; Berger, Martijn P F

    2009-05-01

    Many large scale longitudinal cohort studies have been carried out or are ongoing in different fields of science. Such studies need a careful planning to obtain the desired quality of results with the available resources. In the past, a number of researches have been performed on optimal designs for longitudinal studies. However, there was no computer program yet available to help researchers to plan their longitudinal cohort design in an optimal way. A new interactive computer program for the optimization of designs of longitudinal cohort studies is therefore presented. The computer program helps users to identify the optimal cohort design with an optimal number of repeated measurements per subject and an optimal allocations of time points within a given study period. Further, users can compute the loss in relative efficiencies of any other alternative design compared to the optimal one. The computer program is described and illustrated using a practical example.

  6. Respiratory Kinematics During Vocalization and Nonspeech Respiration in Children from 9 to 48 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connaghan, Kathryn P.; Moore, Christopher A.; Higashakawa, Masahiko

    2004-01-01

    The development of respiratory drive for vocalization was studied by observing chest wall kinematics longitudinally in 4 typically developing children from the age of 9 to 48 months. Measurements of the relative contribution of rib cage and abdominal movement during vocalization (i.e., babbling and true words) and rest breathing were obtained…

  7. Respiratory Kinematics During Vocalization and Nonspeech Respiration in Children from 9 to 48 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connaghan, Kathryn P.; Moore, Christopher A.; Higashakawa, Masahiko

    2004-01-01

    The development of respiratory drive for vocalization was studied by observing chest wall kinematics longitudinally in 4 typically developing children from the age of 9 to 48 months. Measurements of the relative contribution of rib cage and abdominal movement during vocalization (i.e., babbling and true words) and rest breathing were obtained…

  8. Preschool Fears: Longitudinal Sequence and Cohort Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Thomas W.; James, Rebecca Smoak

    1985-01-01

    Using longitudinal data gathered between 1966 and 1981, parent-reported fears of 49 university preschool children were examined with particular attention given to age changes and sex differences. Categories of types of fears reported by Jersild and Holmes (1933) determined a substantial increase in preschool children's fears of the dark, being…

  9. Upper Airway Stimulation for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Patient-Reported Outcomes after 48 Months of Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, M Boyd; Soose, Ryan J; Woodson, B Tucker; Strohl, Kingman P; Maurer, Joachim T; de Vries, Nico; Steward, David L; Baskin, Jonathan Z; Badr, M Safwan; Lin, Ho-Sheng; Padhya, Tapan A; Mickelson, Sam; Anderson, W McDowell; Vanderveken, Olivier M; Strollo, Patrick J

    2017-04-01

    Objective To assess patient-based outcomes of participants in a large cohort study-the STAR trial (Stimulation Therapy for Apnea Reduction)-48 months after implantation with an upper airway stimulation system for moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea. Study Design A multicenter prospective cohort study. Setting Industry-supported multicenter academic and clinical setting. Subjects Participants (n = 91) at 48 months from a cohort of 126 implanted participants. Methods A total of 126 participants received an implanted upper airway stimulation system in a prospective phase III trial. Patient-reported outcomes at 48 months, including Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), and snoring level, were compared with preimplantation baseline. Results A total of 91 subjects completed the 48-month visit. Daytime sleepiness as measured by ESS was significantly reduced ( P = .01), and sleep-related quality of life as measured by FOSQ significantly improved ( P = .01) when compared with baseline. Soft to no snoring was reported by 85% of bed partners. Two patients required additional surgery without complication for lead malfunction. Conclusion Upper airway stimulation maintained a sustained benefit on patient-reported outcomes (ESS, FOSQ, snoring) at 48 months in select patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea.

  10. Imputation of incident events in longitudinal cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Howard, George; McClure, Leslie A; Moy, Claudia S; Safford, Monika M; Cushman, Mary; Judd, Suzanne E; Kissela, Brett M; Kleindorfer, Dawn O; Howard, Virginia J; Rhodes, David J; Muntner, Paul; Tiwari, Hemant K

    2011-09-15

    Longitudinal cohort studies normally identify and adjudicate incident events detected during follow-up by retrieving medical records. There are several reasons why the adjudication process may not be successfully completed for a suspected event including the inability to retrieve medical records from hospitals and an insufficient time between the suspected event and data analysis. These "incomplete adjudications" are normally assumed not to be events, an approach which may be associated with loss of precision and introduction of bias. In this article, the authors evaluate the use of multiple imputation methods designed to include incomplete adjudications in analysis. Using data from the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study, 2008-2009, they demonstrate that this approach may increase precision and reduce bias in estimates of the relations between risk factors and incident events.

  11. Cohort Profile: The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Steptoe, Andrew; Breeze, Elizabeth; Banks, James; Nazroo, James

    2013-01-01

    The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) is a panel study of a representative cohort of men and women living in England aged ≥50 years. It was designed as a sister study to the Health and Retirement Study in the USA and is multidisciplinary in orientation, involving the collection of economic, social, psychological, cognitive, health, biological and genetic data. The study commenced in 2002, and the sample has been followed up every 2 years. Data are collected using computer-assisted personal interviews and self-completion questionnaires, with additional nurse visits for the assessment of biomarkers every 4 years. The original sample consisted of 11 391 members ranging in age from 50 to 100 years. ELSA is harmonized with ageing studies in other countries to facilitate international comparisons, and is linked to financial and health registry data. The data set is openly available to researchers and analysts soon after collection (http://www.esds.ac.uk/longitudinal/access/elsa/l5050.asp). PMID:23143611

  12. Gender differences in postpartum depression: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Artazcoz, Lucía

    2010-01-01

    Background The course of depression from pregnancy to 1 year post partum and risk factors among mothers and fathers are not known. Aims (1) To report the longitudinal patterns of depression from the third trimester of pregnancy to 1 year after childbirth; (2) to determine the gender differences between women and their partners in the effect of psychosocial and personal factors on postpartum depression. Methods A longitudinal cohort study was carried out over a consecutive sample of 769 women in their third trimester of pregnancy and their partners attending the prenatal programme in the Valencian Community (Spain) and follow-up at 3 and 12 months post partum. The outcome variable was the presence of depression at 3 or 12 months post partum measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Predictor variables were: psychosocial (marital dissatisfaction, confidant and affective social support) and personal (history of depression, partner's depression and negative life events, depression during the third trimester of pregnancy) variables. Logistic regression models were fitted via generalised estimating equations. Results At 3 and 12 months post partum, 9.3% and 4.4% of mothers and 3.4% and 4.0% of fathers, respectively, were newly diagnosed as having depression. Low marital satisfaction, partner's depression and depression during pregnancy increased the probability of depression during the first 12 months after birth in mothers and fathers. Negative life events increased the risk of depression only among mothers. Conclusions Psychosocial and personal factors were strong predictors of depression during the first 12 months post partum for both mothers and fathers. PMID:20515899

  13. Bone loss in chronic hemiplegia: a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    de Brito, Christina May Moran; Garcia, Ana Cristina Ferreira; Takayama, Liliam; Fregni, Felipe; Battistella, Linamara Rizzo; Pereira, Rosa Maria Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate hemiplegic stroke patients in terms of long-term changes in bone mineral density and related factors. We conducted a longitudinal cohort study, involving 57 first-stroke patients (40 males) with chronic hemiplegia (for more than 12mo), at a university rehabilitation center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Bone loss, body composition, lean mass, and fat mass were evaluated at 2 time points (mean interval, 16mo). Bone loss was significantly greater in paretic forearms than in nonparetic forearms (p=0.001) and in patients having suffered strokes more recently (p=0.015). We found no difference between paretic and nonparetic femurs. Femoral bone loss was significantly greater in patients using anticoagulants or anticonvulsants (p=0.025) and in those with greater spasticity (p=0.040), regardless of the time since stroke. Our results provide additional evidence that hemiplegic stroke patients have progressive bone loss and that such bone loss is more common in the arms than in the legs. Patients with poststroke hemiplegia should be densitometric monitored mainly in paretic arm and treated for bone loss, with attention to the determinants identified in this study. Copyright © 2013 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cohort Profile: Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce B; Mill, José Geraldo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Chor, Dóra; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Aquino, Estela ML; Passos, Valéria Maria Azeredo; Matos, Sheila MA; Molina, Maria del Carmen B; Carvalho, Marilia S; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diseases are a global problem, yet information on their determinants is generally scant in low- and middle-income countries. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) aims to contribute relevant information regarding the development and progression of clinical and subclinical chronic diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, in one such setting. At Visit 1, we enrolled 15 105 civil servants from predefined universities or research institutes. Baseline assessment (2008–10) included detailed interviews and measurements to assess social and biological determinants of health, as well as various clinical and subclinical conditions related to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and mental health. A second visit of interviews and examinations is under way (2012–14) to enrich the assessment of cohort exposures and to detect initial incident events. Annual surveillance has been conducted since 2009 for the ascertainment of incident events. Biological samples (sera, plasma, urine and DNA) obtained at both visits have been placed in long-term storage. Baseline data are available for analyses, and collaboration via specific research proposals directed to study investigators is welcome. PMID:24585730

  15. Longitudinal associations among fathers' perception of coparenting, partner relationship quality, and paternal stress during early childhood.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Jay; Lee, Yookyong

    2014-03-01

    This study examined the longitudinal and concurrent associations among fathers' perceptions of partner relationship quality (happiness, conflict), coparenting (shared decision making, conflict), and paternal stress. The sample consisted of 6,100 children who lived with both biological parents at 24 and 48 months in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort data set. The results showed that there are significant and concurrent associations between fathers' perceptions of the coparenting relationship and paternal stress, and between partner relationship quality and paternal stress. There was also a positive direct longitudinal association between partner relationship conflict and paternal stress. However, we found only one longitudinal cross-system mediation effect: fathers' perception of coparenting conflict at 48 months mediated the association between partner relationship conflict at 24 months and paternal stress at 48 months. The family practice implications of these findings are discussed. © 2013 FPI, Inc.

  16. DEMONSTRATION OF LOW COST, LOW BURDEN EXPOSURE MONITORING STRATEGIES FOR USE IN LONGITUDINAL COHORT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A large longitudinal cohort study designed to evaluate the association between children's exposures to environmental agents and health outcomes presents many challenges for exposure monitoring. Exposure of the child must be measured for multiple chemicals through multiple path...

  17. DEMONSTRATION OF LOW COST, LOW BURDEN EXPOSURE MONITORING STRATEGIES FOR USE IN LONGITUDINAL COHORT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A large longitudinal cohort study designed to evaluate the association between children's exposures to environmental agents and health outcomes presents many challenges for exposure monitoring. Exposure of the child must be measured for multiple chemicals through multiple path...

  18. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 1998 Cohort: Wave 12 (2009)--Questionnaire. Technical Report 58A

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) program studies the progress of several groups of young Australians as they move from school into post-secondary education and work. This technical paper contains the questionnaire for the LSAY 1998 cohort Wave 12 (2009) data set. [For the accompanying frequency tables, "Longitudinal Surveys…

  19. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 2006 Cohort Wave 4 (2009)--Questionnaire. Technical Report 56A

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) program studies the progress of several groups of young Australians as they move from school into post-secondary education and work. This technical paper contains the questionnaire for the LSAY 2006 cohort Wave 4 (2009) data set. [For the "Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY):…

  20. School Mobility and Achievement: Longitudinal Findings from an Urban Cohort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Judy A.; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates effects of school mobility on reading and math achievement for low-income Black children in Chicago Longitudinal Study. Children who frequently changed schools between kindergarten and seventh grade performed approximately one year behind their nonmobile peers on reading and mathematics achievement tests. Findings indicate that it is…

  1. Cohort Differences in Cognitive Aging and Terminal Decline in the Seattle Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Hoppmann, Christiane; Willis, Sherry L.; Schaie, K. Warner

    2011-01-01

    Life span researchers have long been interested in how and why fundamental aspects of human ontogeny differ between cohorts of people who have lived through different historical epochs. When examined at the same age, later born cohorts are often cognitively and physically fitter than earlier born cohorts. Less is known, however, about cohort differences in the rate of cognitive aging and if, at the very end of life, pervasive mortality-related processes overshadow and minimize cohort differences. We used data on 5 primary mental abilities from the Seattle Longitudinal Study (Schaie, 2005) to compare both age-related and mortality-related changes between earlier born cohorts (1886–1913) and later born cohorts (1914–1948). Our models covary for several individual and cohort differences in central indicators of life expectancy, education, health, and gender. Age-related growth models corroborate and extend earlier findings by documenting level differences at age 70 of up to 0.50 SD and less steep rates of cognitive aging on all abilities between 50 and 80 years of age favoring the later born cohort. In contrast, mortality-related models provide limited support for positive cohort differences. The later born cohort showed steeper mortality-related declines. We discuss possible reasons why often reported positive secular trends in age-related processes may not generalize to the vulnerable segment of the population that is close to death and suggest routes for further inquiry. PMID:21517155

  2. Preparation, piloting and validation for a longitudinal birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Golding, Jean

    2009-07-01

    No longitudinal study should go into the field prior to detailed piloting and validation studies of the measures and techniques to be used. Preparation should also involve the training of staff, the acquisition of space and appropriate equipment, and liaison with the community and ethical committees as well as with scientific collaborators. Because different measures will continually be introduced as the participants age, the preparation, piloting and validation studies have to be ongoing. Here we describe some of the different strategies that should be used.

  3. Social and Behavioural Outcomes in Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Ginny; Golding, Jean; Norwich, Brahm; Emond, Alan; Ford, Tamsin; Steer, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare social and behavioural outcomes between children formally diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with those of children who displayed autistic traits at preschool age, but remained undiagnosed as teenagers. Method: A secondary analysis of data from a birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…

  4. Social and Behavioural Outcomes in Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Ginny; Golding, Jean; Norwich, Brahm; Emond, Alan; Ford, Tamsin; Steer, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare social and behavioural outcomes between children formally diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with those of children who displayed autistic traits at preschool age, but remained undiagnosed as teenagers. Method: A secondary analysis of data from a birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…

  5. Head Start Participation and School Readiness: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, RaeHyuck; Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n ˜ 6,950), a nationally representative sample of children born in 2001, we examined school readiness (academic skills and socioemotional well-being) at kindergarten entry for children who attended Head Start compared with those who experienced other types of child care…

  6. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 2009 Cohort: Wave 2 (2010)-- Questionnaire. Technical Report 71A

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) program studies the progress of several groups of young Australians as they move from school into post-secondary education and work. This technical paper contains the questionnaire for the LSAY 2009 cohort Wave 2 (2010) data set.

  7. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 2003 Cohort: Wave 7 (2009)--Questionnaire. Technical Report 57A

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) program studies the progress of several groups of young Australians as they move from school into post-secondary education and work. This technical paper contains the questionnaire for the LSAY 2003 cohort Wave 7 (2009) data set. [For the related frequency tables, see ED512163.

  8. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 2009 Cohort: Wave 3 (2011)--Questionnaire. Technical Report 72A

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) program studies the progress of several groups of young Australians as they move from school into post-secondary education and work. This technical paper contains the questionnaire for the LSAY 2009 cohort Wave 3 (2011) data set.

  9. Decreasing Sports Activity with Increasing Age? Findings from a 20-Year Longitudinal and Cohort Sequence Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breuer, Christoph; Wicker, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    According to cross-sectional studies in sport science literature, decreasing sports activity with increasing age is generally assumed. In this paper, the validity of this assumption is checked by applying more effective methods of analysis, such as longitudinal and cohort sequence analyses. With the help of 20 years' worth of data records from the…

  10. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 2009 Cohort User Guide. Technical Paper 74

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Developed for users of the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY), this user guide consolidates information about the LSAY 2009 cohort into one document. The guide aims to address all aspects of the LSAY data including: how to access the data; data restrictions; variable naming conventions; the structure of the data; documentation;…

  11. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 2006 Cohort: Wave 6 (2011)--Questionnaire. Technical Report 75A

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) program studies the progress of several groups of young Australians as they move from school into post-secondary education and work. This series of documents provides supporting information for the LSAY data set of the 2006 cohort at wave 6 (2011). The document presents the questionnaire for LSAY…

  12. Age, time period, and birth cohort differences in self-esteem: Reexamining a cohort-sequential longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Twenge, Jean M; Carter, Nathan T; Campbell, W Keith

    2016-12-08

    Orth, Trzesniewski, and Robins (2010) concluded that the nationally representative Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) cohort-sequential study demonstrated moderate to large age differences in self-esteem, and no birth cohort (generational) differences in the age trajectory. In a reanalysis of these data using 2 different statistical techniques, we find significant increases in self-esteem that could be attributed to birth cohort or time period. First, hierarchical linear modeling analyses with birth cohort as a continuous variable (vs. the multiple group formulation used by Orth et al.) find that birth cohort has a measurable influence on self-esteem through its interaction with age. Participants born in later years (e.g., 1960) were higher in self-esteem and were more likely to increase in self-esteem as they aged than participants born in earlier years (e.g., 1920). However, the estimated age trajectory up to age 60 is similar in Orth et al.'s results and in the results from our analyses including cohort. Second, comparing ACL respondents of the same age in 1986 versus 2002 (a time-lag design) yields significant birth cohort differences in self-esteem, with 2002 participants of the same age higher in self-esteem than those in 1986. Combined with some previous studies finding significant increases in self-esteem and positive self-views over time, these results suggest that cultural change in the form of cohort and time period cannot be ignored as influences in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. Criminality and suicide: a longitudinal Swedish cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Stenbacka, M; Romelsjö, A; Jokinen, J

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to investigate whether violent and non-violent offending were related to elevated risk of suicide. We also investigated whether the risk was higher among those with repeated offences and how experiences of substance misuse and suicide attempt modified the relationship. Design A nationwide prospective cohort study. Setting A register study of 48 834 conscripted men in 1969/1970 in Sweden followed up during a 35-year period in official registers. Participants A birth cohort of 48 834 men who were mandatory conscripted for military service in 1969/70 at the age of 18–20 years. Possible confounders were retrieved from psychological assessments at conscription and the cohort was linked to mortality and hospitalisation and crime records from 1970 onwards. Estimates of suicide risks were calculated as HR with 95% CIs using Cox proportional regression analyses with adjustment for potential confounding by family, psychological and behavioural factors including substance use and psychiatric disorders. Results Of the total cohort, 2671 (5.5%) persons died during the follow-up period. Of these, 615 (23%) persons died due to suicide. Non-violent criminality was evident for 29% and violent criminality for 4.7% of all the participants. In the crude model, the violent offenders had nearly five times higher risk (HR=4.69, 3.56 to 6.19) to die from suicide and non-violent criminals had about two times higher risk (HR=2.08, 1.72 to 2.52). In the fully adjusted model, the HRs were still significant for suicide in the non-violent group. Conclusions Experiences of violent or non-violent criminality were associated with increased risk of suicide. Comorbidity with alcohol and substance use and psychiatric disorders modified the risk, but the suicide risk remained significantly elevated for non-violent criminals. It is crucial to identify offenders and especially repeated offenders who also suffer from alcohol or substance misuse and psychiatric illness in

  14. Exercise and depressive symptoms in adolescents: a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Toseeb, Umar; Brage, Soren; Corder, Kirsten; Dunn, Valerie J; Jones, Peter B; Owens, Matthew; St Clair, Michelle C; van Sluijs, Esther M F; Goodyer, Ian M

    2014-12-01

    Physical activity (PA) may have a positive effect on depressed mood. However, whether it can act as a protective factor against developing depressive symptoms in adolescence is largely unknown. To investigate the association between objectively measured PA and depressive symptoms during 3 years of adolescence. We performed a longitudinal study between November 1, 2005, and January 31, 2010, of a community-based sample from Cambridgeshire and Suffolk, United Kingdom, that included 736 participants (mean [SD] age, 14.5 years [6 months]). The follow-up period was approximately 3 years after baseline (the ROOTS study). Linear regression models were fitted using physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) as the predictors and depressive symptoms as the outcome variable. Binomial logistic regression models were also fitted using PAEE and MVPA as the predictors and clinical depression as the outcome measure. Exercise. Individually calibrated heart rate and movement sensing were used to measure PA at baseline only. Physical activity summary measures included total PAEE and time spent in MVPA. These measures were divided into weekend and weekday activity. All participants also completed the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire, a self-report measure of current depressive symptoms, and took part in a Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version interview at baseline and 3 years later. Depressive symptoms at 3-year follow-up were not significantly predicted by any of the 4 PA measures at baseline: weekend MVPA (unstandardized β = 0.02; 95% CI, -0.15 to 0.20; P = .79), weekday MVPA (β = 0.00; 95% CI, -0.17 to 0.17; P = .99), weekend PAEE (β = 0.03; 95% CI, -0.14 to 0.20; P = .75), and weekday PAEE (β = -0.03; 95% CI, -0.20 to 0.14; P = .71). This was also true for major depressive disorder diagnoses at follow-up: weekend MVPA (odds ratio

  15. A case-cohort design for assessing covariate effects in longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Ryan, Louise; Litonjua, Augusto; Pee, David

    2005-12-01

    The case-cohort design for longitudinal data consists of a subcohort sampled at the beginning of the study that is followed repeatedly over time, and a case sample that is ascertained through the course of the study. Although some members in the subcohort may experience events over the study period, we refer to it as the "control-cohort." The case sample is a random sample of subjects not in the control-cohort, who have experienced at least one event during the study period. Different correlations among repeated observations on the same individual are accommodated by a two-level random-effects model. This design allows consistent estimation of all parameters estimable in a cohort design and is a cost-effective way to study the effects of covariates on repeated observations of relatively rare binary outcomes when exposure assessment is expensive. It is an extension of the case-cohort design (Prentice, 1986, Biometrika73, 1-11) and the bidirectional case-crossover design (Navidi, 1998, Biometrics54, 596-605). A simulation study compares the efficiency of the longitudinal case-cohort design to a full cohort analysis, and we find that in certain situations up to 90% efficiency can be obtained with half the sample size required for a full cohort analysis. A bootstrap method is presented that permits testing for intra-subject homogeneity in the presence of unidentifiable nuisance parameters in the two-level random-effects model. As an illustration we apply the design to data from an ongoing study of childhood asthma.

  16. Duration of poverty and child health in the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development: longitudinal analysis of a birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Séguin, Louise; Nikiéma, Béatrice; Gauvin, Lise; Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria; Xu, Qian

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between duration of poverty and the health of preschool children in the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development birth cohort. Data from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development for 1950 children who were followed annually up to age 3 years were analyzed. Poverty was defined as having an income below the low-income cutoff from Statistics Canada. Five health indicators were examined: asthma attacks, infections, growth delay, a cumulative health-problems index, and maternal perception of the child's health. The association between duration of poverty and child health was explored with logistic regression modeling controlling for child and mother characteristics, including the mother's level of education, social support, and physical violence. In this birth cohort, 13.7% (268) 3-year-old children from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development experienced intermittent poverty since birth (1-2 episodes), and another 14.4% (280) experienced chronic poverty (3-4 episodes). Children from families with chronic poverty had more frequent asthma attacks and had a higher cumulative health-problems index score, whereas children with intermittent poverty were more often perceived to be in less than very good health by their mothers. These associations remained statistically significant when controlling for child and mother characteristics. No association was observed between duration of poverty and infections or growth delay. Chronic poverty affects a large number of children and has negative consequences for preschool children's health, although universal health care is available. The effects of chronic poverty may vary according to different health indicators and the age of the child.

  17. Guidelines for the Standard Monitoring of Patients with Thalassemia: Report of the Thalassemia Longitudinal Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Tubman, Venée N.; Fung, Ellen B.; Vogiatzi, Maria; Thompson, Alexis A; Rogers, Zora R.; Neufeld, Ellis J.; Kwiatkowski, Janet L.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic transfusion therapy has played a central role in extending life expectancy for patients with hemoglobinopathies such as thalassemia. However, this life saving therapy is associated with numerous complications that now comprise the bulk of management considerations for patients with thalassemia. This review reports on the experience of the Thalassemia Longitudinal Cohort and reviews available literature to establish guidelines for the management of patients with thalassemia. PMID:26201037

  18. Strengths, Pitfalls, and Lessons from Longitudinal Childhood Asthma Cohorts of Children Followed Up into Adult Life

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a common problem worldwide and longitudinal studies of children followed up into adult life enable the assessment of clinical outcomes, examine the pattern of lung function outcomes, and importantly provide insight into aetiology and prognosis for patients with asthma. The aim of this review is to examine the major childhood asthma cohort studies which have continued into adult life, describing the strengths and weaknesses and the lessons that can be learnt regarding pathophysiology and potential future directions for research. PMID:27872847

  19. The Development of Aggression in 18 to 48 Month Old Children of Alcoholic Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Ellen P.; Eiden, Rina D.; Colder, Craig; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the development of aggressive and oppositional behavior among alcoholic and nonalcoholic families using latent growth modeling. The sample consisted of 226 families assessed at 18, 24, 36, and 48 months of child age. Results indicated that children in families with nonalcoholic parents had the lowest levels of aggressive…

  20. The Development of Aggression in 18 to 48 Month Old Children of Alcoholic Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Ellen P.; Eiden, Rina D.; Colder, Craig; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the development of aggressive and oppositional behavior among alcoholic and nonalcoholic families using latent growth modeling. The sample consisted of 226 families assessed at 18, 24, 36, and 48 months of child age. Results indicated that children in families with nonalcoholic parents had the lowest levels of aggressive…

  1. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 2006 Cohort Wave 4 (2009)--Frequency Tables. Technical Report 56B

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) program studies the progress of several groups of young Australians as they move from school into post-secondary education and work. This technical paper contains the frequency tables for the LSAY 2006 cohort Wave 4 (2009) data set. [For the "Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY):…

  2. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 1998 Cohort: Wave 12 (2009)--Frequency Tables. Technical Report 58B

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) program studies the progress of several groups of young Australians as they move from school into post-secondary education and work. This technical paper contains the frequency tables for the LSAY 1998 cohort Wave 12 (2009) data set. [For the accompanying questionnaire, "Longitudinal Surveys…

  3. Latent Variable Regression 4-Level Hierarchical Model Using Multisite Multiple-Cohorts Longitudinal Data. CRESST Report 801

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Kilchan

    2011-01-01

    This report explores a new latent variable regression 4-level hierarchical model for monitoring school performance over time using multisite multiple-cohorts longitudinal data. This kind of data set has a 4-level hierarchical structure: time-series observation nested within students who are nested within different cohorts of students. These…

  4. Changes in Aβ biomarkers and associations with APOE genotype in two longitudinal cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Resnick, Susan M.; Bilgel, Murat; Moghekar, Abhay; An, Yang; Cai, Qing; Wang, Mei-Cheng; Thambisetty, Madhav; Prince, Jerry L.; Zhou, Yun; Soldan, Anja; Wong, Dean F.; O’Brien, Richard J.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Albert, Marilyn S.

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype influences onset age of Alzheimer’s disease but effects on disease progression are less clear. We investigated amyloid-β (Aβ) levels and change in relationship to APOE genotype, using two different measures of Aβ in two different longitudinal cohorts. Aβ accumulation was measured using PET imaging and 11C-Pittsburgh compound-B (PiB) in 113 Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) participants (mean age 77.3 years; 107 normal, 6 cognitively impaired) and CSF Aβ1–42 assays in 207 BIOCARD study participants (mean age 62 years; 195 normal,12 cognitively impaired). Participants in both cohorts had up to 7 serial assessments (mean 2.3–2.4). PET-PiB retention increased and CSF Aβ1–42 declined longitudinally. APOE ε4 was significantly associated with higher PET-PiB retention and lower CSF Aβ1–42, independent of age and sex, but APOE genotype did not significantly affect Aβ change over time. APOE ε4 carriers may be further along in the disease process, consistent with earlier brain Aβ deposition and providing a biological basis for APOE genotype effects on onset age of Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26004017

  5. Contemporary options for longitudinal follow-up: lessons learned from a cohort of urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tobler, Amy L; Komro, Kelli A

    2011-05-01

    This study reports efforts to locate and survey participants in Project Northland Chicago (PNC), a longitudinal, group-randomized trial of an alcohol preventive intervention for racial/ethnic minority, urban, early-adolescents, 3-4 years following the end of the intervention. Data were collected annually among students from 6th-8th grade and then at age 17-18. Tracking procedures were used to maintain contact with participants and data collection consisted of three phases: (1) Internet- and mail-based surveys; (2) in-school survey administration; and (3) courier service delivery. Contact was lost with 11% of this urban cohort from the end of the PNC intervention activities through these longterm follow-up efforts, as indicated by returned locating postcards. Fifty-three percent of the cohort responded to the survey, the majority completing in Phase 1 of our data collection. Additional school-based and courier-delivery efforts increased our response rate by 11.5%. Costs per completed survey were $118 in Phase 1, $166 in Phase 2, and $440 in Phase 3. This study illustrates that it is possible to track and follow-up a high-risk cohort as they progress through adolescence, even with minimal efforts in intervening years. Lessons learned from this study may inform future efforts to track and collect longitudinal data among high-risk populations.

  6. [Development deficit risks in the late premature newborn: Evaluation at 48 months using the Ages & Stages Questionnaires®].

    PubMed

    Demestre, X; Schonhaut, L; Morillas, J; Martínez-Nadal, S; Vila, C; Raspall, F; Sala, P

    2016-01-01

    Lack of specific monitoring protocols hinders the knowledge of the impact of late prematurity on delayed psychomotor development. The objective of this study is to evaluate this at 48 months and compare it with those born at term. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 90 late preterm (PT) and 89 term (AT) healthy children at 48 months, assessed by the Ages & Stages Questionnaires® (ASQ-3). Continuous variables described using mean and standard deviation compared with the t Student t test for independent samples. The categorical variables were described as frequencies and proportions, compared with the Chi-square test of independence. A cut-off was determined for the total score of ASQ-3 able to discriminate the risk of developmental deficit by a ROC analysis. A step-wise logistic regression model identified the associated risk factors. The mean scores for each domain and overall ASQ-3 score showed no differences between groups. However, when analyzing the probability density for the ASQ-3 total score of ≤251 points, 15 PT (16.6%) and 4 AT (4.5%) showed risk of psychomotor deficits, and late prematurity and lack of breastfeeding were significantly associated factors. There is an increased prevalence of risk of development deficit in the PT, which justifies considering this population at risk and establishing effective monitoring programs. It should be further investigated whether this risk corresponds to the entire population, or if there are biological factors or perinatal history that makes them more vulnerable. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Design and analysis of the Community Youth Development Study longitudinal cohort sample.

    PubMed

    Brown, Eric C; Graham, John W; Hawkins, J David; Arthur, Michael W; Baldwin, Megan M; Oesterle, Sabrina; Briney, John S; Catalano, Richard F; Abbott, Robert D

    2009-08-01

    Communities That Care (CTC) is a prevention system designed to reduce adolescent substance use and delinquency through the selection of effective preventive interventions tailored to a community's specific profile of risk and protection. A community-randomized trial of CTC, the Community Youth Development Study, is currently being conducted in 24 communities across the United States. This article describes the rationale, multilevel analyses, and baseline comparability for the study's longitudinal cohort design. The cohort sample consists of 4,407 fifth- and sixth-grade students recruited in 2004 and 2005 and surveyed annually through ninth grade. Results of mixed-model ANOVAs indicated that students in CTC and control communities exhibited no significant differences (ps > .05) in baseline levels of student outcomes.

  8. Longitudinal Intergenerational Birth Cohort Designs: A Systematic Review of Australian and New Zealand Studies

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Michelle L.; Riepsamen, Angelique; Georgiou, Christos; Flood, Victoria M.; Caputi, Peter; Wright, Ian M.; Davis, Warren S.; Jones, Alison; Larkin, Theresa A.; Williamson, Moira J.; Grenyer, Brin F. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The longitudinal birth cohort design has yielded a substantial contribution to knowledge of child health and development. The last full review in New Zealand and Australia in 2004 identified 13 studies. Since then, birth cohort designs continue to be an important tool in understanding how intrauterine, infant and childhood development affect long-term health and well-being. This updated review in a defined geographical area was conducted to better understand the factors associated with successful quality and productivity, and greater scientific and policy contribution and scope. Methods We adopted the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) approach, searching PubMed, Scopus, Cinahl, Medline, Science Direct and ProQuest between 1963 and 2013. Experts were consulted regarding further studies. Five inclusion criteria were used: (1) have longitudinally tracked a birth cohort, (2) have collected data on the child and at least one parent or caregiver (3) be based in Australia or New Zealand, (4) be empirical in design, and (5) have been published in English. Results 10665 records were initially retrieved from which 23 birth cohort studies met the selection criteria. Together these studies recruited 91,196 participants, with 38,600 mothers, 14,206 fathers and 38,390 live births. Seventeen studies were located in Australia and six in New Zealand. Research questions initially focused on the perinatal period, but as studies matured, longer-term effects and outcomes were examined. Conclusions This review demonstrates the significant yield from this effort both in terms of scientific discovery and social policy impact. Further opportunities have been recognised with cross-study collaboration and pooling of data between established and newer studies and international studies to investigate global health determinants. PMID:26991330

  9. Japan Arteriosclerosis Longitudinal Study-Existing Cohorts Combine (JALS-ECC): rationale, design, and population characteristics.

    PubMed

    2008-10-01

    The Japan Arteriosclerosis Longitudinal Study-Existing Cohorts Combine (JALS-ECC) is a pooled study based on individual participant data from existing prospective cohort studies in Japan. Its purpose was to consider associations between risk factors and cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes, as well as differences between subgroups, defined by age, gender or geographical region, which could not be detected in the smaller samples. Individual records for 66,691 participants in 21 cohort studies were pooled, accounting for a total of 575,628 person-years. From this data, there were 409 deaths attributed to stroke and 169 deaths attributed to coronary heart disease (CHD). Total stroke and CHD events were 1,478 and 178, respectively. Of the 1,424 total stroke events with a reported stroke subtype, 975 were classified as ischemic, 267 as hemorrhagic, and 178 as subarachnoid hemorrhage. The JALS-ECC collected data from existing cohort studies covering a diverse Japanese population, which has provided information about the effects of modifiable factors on the risks of the CVD. Such information should provide a reliable basis for establishing prevention strategies.

  10. Longitudinal trends in total serum cholesterol levels in a Japanese cohort, 1958-1986.

    PubMed

    Yamada, M; Wong, F L; Kodama, K; Sasaki, H; Shimaoka, K; Yamakido, M

    1997-04-01

    The 28-year follow-up of a Japanese cohort, having collected vast amounts of data collected on total serum cholesterol (TC), provided an exceptional opportunity to examine TC temporal trends. The longitudinal statistical method of growth-curve analysis was used to elucidate the age-related changes in TC levels and to characterize these trends in relation to sex, birth cohort, time period, place of residence, and body mass index (BMI). Japanese TC levels at initial examination were remarkably lower than those in western countries. During the study period from 1958 to 1986, TC levels increased dramatically with age in both sexes. The slope of the cholesterol growth curve was steeper for women than for men, with the difference growing larger after age 40 years. Drastic changes in Japanese behavior and lifestyle, especially westernization of the diet, are thought to have affected the TC values as time-period effects. As a result of this temporal change, which affected different cohorts at different ages, TC values were higher in members of the younger cohort. The increase of the TC values as time-period effects were larger in earlier period than in later period. These time-period effects appeared to be almost similar in men and women. The TC growth curves also varied by city of residence. Subjects in urban areas had higher TC values than subjects in rural areas. Changes associated with BMI from 1958 to 1986 were only partially responsible for the increased steepness of the TC growth curve.

  11. Family structure and childhood obesity, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Kindergarten Cohort.

    PubMed

    Chen, Alex Y; Escarce, José J

    2010-05-01

    Little is known about the effect of family structure on childhood obesity among US children. This study examines the effect of number of parents and number of siblings on children's body mass index and risk of obesity. We conducted a secondary data analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), which consists of a nationally representative cohort of children who entered kindergarten during 1998-1999. Our analyses included 2 cross-sectional outcomes and 1 longitudinal outcome: body mass index (BMI) calculated from measured height and weight, obesity defined as BMI in the 95th percentile or higher for age and sex, and change in BMI from kindergarten through fifth grade. Other things being equal, children living with single mothers were more likely to be obese by fifth grade than were children living with 2 parents (26% vs 22%, P = .05). Children with siblings had lower BMI and were less likely to be obese than children without siblings. We also found that living with a single mother or no siblings was associated with larger increases in BMI from kindergarten through fifth grade. Children from single-mother families and, especially, children with no siblings are at higher risk for obesity than children living with 2 parents and children with siblings. These findings highlight the influential role that families play in childhood obesity. Additionally, they suggest that health care providers should consider the structure of children's families in discussions with families regarding childhood obesity.

  12. Adolescence and Later Life Disease Burden: Quantifying the Contribution of Adolescent Tobacco Initiation From Longitudinal Cohorts.

    PubMed

    Viner, Russell M; Hargreaves, Dougal S; Motta, Janaina Vieira Dos Santos; Horta, Bernardo; Mokdad, Ali H; Patton, George

    2017-08-01

    Adolescence is a time of initiation of behaviors leading to noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). We use tobacco to illustrate a novel method for assessing the contribution of adolescence to later burden. Data on initiation of regular smoking during adolescence (10-19 years) and current adult smoking were obtained from the 1958 British Birth Cohort, the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), the Pelotas 1982 Birth Cohort, and the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study. We estimated an "adolescent attributable fraction" (AAF) by calculating the proportion of persisting adult daily smoking initiated < age 20 years. We used findings to estimate AAFs for >155 countries using contemporary surveillance data. In the 1958 British Birth Cohort, 81.6% of daily smokers at age 50 years initiated < age 20 years, with a risk ratio of 6.1 for adult smoking related to adolescent initiation. The adjusted AAF was 69.1. Proportions of smokers initiating <20 years, risk ratio, and AAFs were 83.3%, 7.0%, and 70.4% for Add Health; 75.5%, 3.7%, and 50.2% in Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study; and 70.9%, 5.8%, and 56.9% in Pelotas males and 89.9%, 6.4%, and 75.9% in females. Initiation <16 years resulted in the highest AAFs. Estimated AAFs globally ranged from 35% in China to 76% in Argentina. The contribution of adolescent smoking initiation to adult smoking burden is high, suggesting a need to formulate and implement effective actions to reduce smoking initiation in adolescents. Similar trends in other NCD risks suggest that adolescents will be central to future efforts to control NCDs. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The use of rehabilitation among patients with breast cancer: a retrospective longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Along with improvements in treatment, the number of women who survive breast cancer has increased. Rehabilitation can alleviate post-treatment side effects and maintain quality of life. This study aimed to explore the use of rehabilitation among a cohort of patients diagnosed with breast cancer. Methods A retrospective longitudinal cohort study was conducted using a National Health Insurance (NHI) research database in Taiwan. The study cohort consisted of 632 patients with breast cancer diagnosed in 2005. Their NHI claims over a period spanning 2005 through 2009 were analyzed. Results Overall, 39.6% of the cohort received rehabilitation therapy, with 9,691 rehabilitation visits claimed (an average of 38.8 visits per user). The prevalence of rehabilitation service use among the cohort was 16.5%, 13.3%, 13.0%, 13.3%, and 12.8% in the years 2005 through 2009, respectively. The average number of visits per rehabilitation user was 16.8, 25.0, 31.1, 24.2, and 23.8 in the years 2005 through 2009, respectively. Most rehabilitation therapy occurred as an outpatient service (96.0%). Physical therapy was the most commonly used form of rehabilitation (84.2%), followed by occupational therapy (15.4%). The most frequently recorded diagnoses were malignant neoplasm of the female breast, peripheral enthesopathies and allied syndromes, and osteoarthrosis and allied disorders. Conclusions Only a small proportion of patients with breast cancer received rehabilitation therapy in the first five years after diagnosis. The average number of rehabilitation visits per user peaked in the third year after diagnosis. PMID:22929017

  14. Social integration and maternal smoking: A longitudinal analysis of a national birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Mumford, Elizabeth A; Liu, Weiwei

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Social support and engagement are related to smoking behavior in general populations, but it is unknown whether these measures of social integration as experienced by recent mothers are related to longitudinal maternal smoking patterns. The purpose of this study is, first, to describe longitudinal patterns of maternal smoking before, during, and after pregnancy through the early childhood parenting years, as well as variation in these patterns; and second, to examine these patterns in relation to social integration, emotional, behavioral, and sociodemographic factors. Methods Among 9,050 mothers of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (a nationally representative probability sample of children born in 2001), we estimated trajectories of maternal smoking with general growth mixture model (GGMM), and examined how baseline predictors are associated with these patterns over a 5 to 6 year period beginning three months prior to pregnancy. Results A 5-class solution identified trajectories of nonsmokers (70.5%), temporary quitters (9.4%), pregnancy-inspired quitters (3.3%), delayed initiators (5.1%), and persistent smokers (11.7%). Modifiable risk factors included postpartum alcohol consumption and behavioral cues from co-resident smokers, while breastfeeding beyond six months and social engagement through religious service attendance were protective characteristics. Conclusions Prevention of and treatment for maternal perinatal and postpartum smoking is best informed by mothers’ emotional, behavioral and sociodemographic characteristics. Religious service attendance, but not measures of social support or social engagement, is a protective factor for maternal smoking trajectories. PMID:26987858

  15. Intimate partner violence adversely impacts health over 16 years and across generations: A longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Loxton, Deborah; Dolja-Gore, Xenia; Anderson, Amy E; Townsend, Natalie

    2017-01-01

    To determine the impact of intimate partner violence on women's mental and physical health over a 16 year period and across three generations. Participants were from the Australian Longitudinal study on Women's Health, a broadly representative national sample of women comprised of three birth cohorts 1973-78, 1946-51 and 1921-26 who were randomly selected from the Australian Medicare (i.e. national health insurer) database in 1996 to participate in the longitudinal health and wellbeing survey. Since baseline, six waves of survey data have been collected. Women from each cohort who had returned all six surveys and had a baseline measure (Survey 1) for intimate partner violence were eligible for the current study. The main outcome of interest was women's physical and mental health, measured using the Medical Outcome Study Short-Form (SF-36). The experience of intimate partner violence was measured using the survey item 'Have you ever been in a violent relationship with a partner/spouse?' Sociodemographic information was also collected. For all cohorts, women who had lived with intimate partner violence were more likely to report poorer mental health, physical function and general health, and higher levels of bodily pain. Some generational differences existed. Younger women showed a reduction in health associated with the onset of intimate partner violence, which was not apparent for women in the older two groups. In addition, the physical health differences between women born 1921-26 who had and had not experienced intimate partner violence tapered off overtime, whereas these differences remained constant for women born 1973-78 and 1946-51. Despite generational differences, intimate partner violence adversely impacted on mental and physical health over the 16 year study period and across generations.

  16. Methods for a longitudinal cohort of refugee children in a regional community in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Zwi, Karen; Rungan, Santuri; Woolfenden, Susan; Williams, Katrina; Woodland, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Few studies explore the long-term health and well-being of refugee children. A longitudinal cohort of refugee children was created to determine health and well-being outcomes over time. This article describes the methodology used to conduct this study, including sample characteristics and effectiveness of recruitment and retention strategies. Participants Newly arrived refugee children settling in a regional part of Australia aged 6 months to 15 years were recruited between 2009 and 2013 and 85% were followed for an average of 31 months. Method and design General practitioners conducted health and pathology examinations shortly after arrival. Additional follow-up assessments were conducted by the research team at an average of 13 months after arrival for the first (year 2) and 31 months for the second (year 3) assessment. Children under 5 years had developmental and children aged 4–17 years had social–emotional screening. Families were assessed for risk and protective factors using a structured interview and the Social Readjustment Ratings Scale. Parent experience of the research was explored. Findings to date Eligibility criteria were met by 158 of 228 (69%) newly arrived children, 61 of whom (39%) were enrolled. Retention was 100% (n=61) at year 2 and 85% at year 3. The study sample was younger than and had an over-representation of African refugees as compared to the eligible population. Parents reported that the research was respectful. Future plans This study demonstrates that a longitudinal cohort study in refugee children is feasible and acceptable, and retention rates can be high. The establishment of this cohort provides the opportunity to analyse valuable data about the early settlement experience, risk and protective factors and long-term health and well-being outcomes in refugee children. These are necessary to identify refugee children in need of additional support and to guide future service delivery. PMID:27558902

  17. Longitudinal changes in personal wellbeing in a cohort of people who inject drugs.

    PubMed

    Scott, Nick; Carrotte, Elise R; Higgs, Peter; Stoové, Mark A; Aitken, Campbell K; Dietze, Paul M

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether the self-reported personal wellbeing of a cohort of people who inject drugs (PWID) changes over time, and to identify longitudinal correlates of change. We used Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI) scores reported between April 2008 and February 2015 by 757 PWID (66% male) enrolled in the Melbourne Injecting Drug Use Cohort Study (2,862 interviews; up to seven follow-up waves). A mixed-effects model was used to identify correlations between changes in temporal variables and changes in individual PWI scores while controlling for demographic variables. The cohort's mean PWI score did not significantly differ over time (between 54.4/100 and 56.7/100 across the first four interview waves), and was 25-28% lower than general Australian population scores (76.0/100). However, there were large variations in individuals' PWI scores between interviews. Increased psychological distress, moving into unstable accommodation, reporting intentional overdose in the past 12 months and being the victim of assault in the past six months were associated with declines in PWI scores. Participants experienced substantially lower levels of personal wellbeing than the general Australian population, influenced by experiences of psychological distress, assault, overdose and harms related to low socioeconomic status. The results of this study suggest a need to ensure referral to appropriate housing and health support services for PWID.

  18. A retrospective longitudinal study of caries development in an Australian Aboriginal birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, L M; Armfield, J M; Roberts-Thomson, K F; Sayers, S M

    2010-01-01

    There are a limited number of longitudinal investigations that examine the progression of dental disease in an indigenous population. Dental examinations of a cohort of indigenous Australians born in Darwin (Australia) between 1987 and 1990 were conducted at ages 6-8 and 11-13 years as part of the Child Dental Health Survey, and 18-20 years as part of the longstanding prospective Aboriginal Birth Cohort (ABC) study. Data was available at all ages for 145 participants. The percent DMFT >0 increased from 17.2 to 44.1 to 81.4%, representing a linear trajectory, whereas mean DMFT increased from 0.3 to 1.0 to 5.6, representing an exponential trajectory. Both trends were significant. At age 18-20 years, the percent DMFT >0 among ABC study participants was 1.2 times that of their counterparts at a national level. The differences were more marked when dental caries severity was considered, with mean DMFT among 18- to 20-year-old ABC study participants being 1.7 times that of similarly aged adults at a national level. Most of this disparity was constituted by the decayed component, with ABC study participants having eight times the mean DT of their national-level counterparts. The findings indicate that Aboriginal young adults in this birth cohort experience a disproportionate amount of dental disease relative to their non-indigenous counterparts, and that this pattern is consistent across the life course.

  19. Maximizing the Potential of Longitudinal Cohorts for Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases: A Community Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Moody, Catherine J.; Mitchell, Derick; Kiser, Grace; Aarsland, Dag; Berg, Daniela; Brayne, Carol; Costa, Alberto; Ikram, Mohammad A.; Mountain, Gail; Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Teunissen, Charlotte E.; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

    2017-01-01

    Despite a wealth of activity across the globe in the area of longitudinal population cohorts, surprisingly little information is available on the natural biomedical history of a number of age-related neurodegenerative diseases (ND), and the scope for intervention studies based on these cohorts is only just beginning to be explored. The Joint Programming Initiative on Neurodegenerative Disease Research (JPND) recently developed a novel funding mechanism to rapidly mobilize scientists to address these issues from a broad, international community perspective. Ten expert Working Groups, bringing together a diverse range of community members and covering a wide ND landscape [Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, frontotemporal degeneration, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Lewy-body and vascular dementia] were formed to discuss and propose potential approaches to better exploiting and coordinating cohort studies. The purpose of this work is to highlight the novel funding process along with a broad overview of the guidelines and recommendations generated by the ten groups, which include investigations into multiple methodologies such as cognition/functional assessment, biomarkers and biobanking, imaging, health and social outcomes, and pre-symptomatic ND. All of these were published in reports that are now publicly available online. PMID:28912672

  20. A 48-month clinical evaluation of fissure sealants placed with different adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Karaman, E; Yazici, A R; Tuncer, D; Firat, E; Unluer, S; Baseren, M

    2013-01-01

    To compare the retention rates of a nanofilled occlusal fissure sealant placed with the use of an etch-and-rinse or a self-etch adhesive over 48 months. The authors enrolled 244 teeth, each with no restoration or sealant and no detectable caries, from 16 patients. The sealants were placed with Solobond M two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive or Futurabond NR one-step self-etch adhesive by four previously calibrated dentists using a table of random numbers. After completion of the adhesive application, a nanofilled sealant, Grandio Seal, was applied and light-cured. Two other calibrated examiners, who were unaware of which adhesive had been used, independently evaluated the sealants at baseline and at 12-, 24-, 36-, and 48-month recalls. Each sealant was evaluated in terms of caries formation being present or absent and retention using the following criteria: 1 = completely retained, 2 = partial loss, and 3 = total loss. The Pearson χ (2) test was used to evaluate differences in retention rates among the sealants used with different adhesives for each evaluation period. The retention rates for sealants in the Solobond M group were significantly higher than those in the Futurabond NR group in all periods of evaluation (p<0.05). No statistically significant difference between the retention rates for premolars and molars was found at each evaluation period (p>0.05). There was no new caries formation throughout the 48-month recall period. Fissure sealants placed with etch-and-rinse adhesive showed better retention rates than those placed with self-etch adhesive.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Kepler planetary candidates. VII. 48-month (Coughlin+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlin, J. L.; Mullally, F.; Thompson, S. E.; Rowe, J. F.; Burke, C. J.; Latham, D. W.; Batalha, N. M.; Ofir, A.; Quarles, B. L.; Henze, C. E.; Wolfgang, A.; Caldwell, D. A.; Bryson, S. T.; Shporer, A.; Catanzarite, J.; Akeson, R.; Barclay, T.; Borucki, W. J.; Boyajian, T. S.; Campbell, J. R.; Christiansen, J. L.; Girouard, F. R.; Haas, M. R.; Howell, S. B.; Huber, D.; Jenkins, J. M.; Li, J.; Patil-Sabale, A.; Quintana, E. V.; Ramirez, S.; Seader, S.; Smith, J. C.; Tenenbaum, P.; Twicken, J. D.; Zamudio, K. A.

    2016-07-01

    This catalog is based on Kepler's 24th data release (DR24), which includes the processing of all data utilizing version 9.2 of the Kepler pipeline (Jenkins et al. 2010ApJ...724.1108J). This marks the first time that all of the Kepler mission data have been processed consistently with the same version of the Kepler pipeline. Over a period of 48 months (2009 May 13 to 2013 May 11), subdivided into 17 quarters (Q1-Q17), a total of 198646 targets were observed. (7 data files).

  2. Early Childhood Development and Schooling Attainment: Longitudinal Evidence from British, Finnish and Philippine Birth Cohorts.

    PubMed

    Peet, Evan D; McCoy, Dana C; Danaei, Goodarz; Ezzati, Majid; Fawzi, Wafaie; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Pillas, Demetris; Fink, Günther

    2015-01-01

    While recent literature has highlighted the importance of early childhood development for later life outcomes, comparatively little is known regarding the relative importance of early physical and cognitive development in predicting educational attainment cross-culturally. We used prospective data from three birth cohorts: the Northern Finland Birth Cohort of 1986 (NFBC1986), the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS1970), and the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey of 1983 (CLHNS) to assess the association of height-for-age z-score (HAZ) and cognitive development measured prior to age 8 with schooling attainment. Multivariate linear regression models were used to estimate baseline and adjusted associations. Both physical and cognitive development were highly predictive of adult educational attainment conditional on parental characteristics. The largest positive associations between physical development and schooling were found in the CLHNS (β = 0.53, 95%-CI: [0.32, 0.74]) with substantially smaller associations in the BCS1970 (β = 0.10, 95% CI [0.04, 0.16]) and the NFBC1986 (β = 0.06, 95% CI [-0.05, 0.16]). Strong associations between cognitive development and educational attainment were found for all three cohorts (NFBC1986: β = 0.22, 95%-CI: [0.12, 0.31], BCS1970: β = 0.58, 95%-CI: [0.52, 0.64], CLHNS: β = 1.08, 95%-CI: [0.88, 1.27]). Models jointly estimating educational associations of physical and cognitive development demonstrated weaker associations for physical development and minimal changes for cognitive development. The results indicate that although physical and cognitive early development are both important predictors of educational attainment, cognitive development appears to play a particularly important role. The large degree of heterogeneity in the observed effect sizes suggest that the importance of early life physical growth and cognitive development is highly dependent on socioeconomic and institutional contexts.

  3. Early Childhood Development and Schooling Attainment: Longitudinal Evidence from British, Finnish and Philippine Birth Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Peet, Evan D.; Danaei, Goodarz; Ezzati, Majid; Fawzi, Wafaie; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Pillas, Demetris

    2015-01-01

    Background While recent literature has highlighted the importance of early childhood development for later life outcomes, comparatively little is known regarding the relative importance of early physical and cognitive development in predicting educational attainment cross-culturally. Methods We used prospective data from three birth cohorts: the Northern Finland Birth Cohort of 1986 (NFBC1986), the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS1970), and the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey of 1983 (CLHNS) to assess the association of height-for-age z-score (HAZ) and cognitive development measured prior to age 8 with schooling attainment. Multivariate linear regression models were used to estimate baseline and adjusted associations. Results Both physical and cognitive development were highly predictive of adult educational attainment conditional on parental characteristics. The largest positive associations between physical development and schooling were found in the CLHNS (β = 0.53, 95%-CI: [0.32, 0.74]) with substantially smaller associations in the BCS1970 (β = 0.10, 95% CI [0.04, 0.16]) and the NFBC1986 (β = 0.06, 95% CI [-0.05, 0.16]). Strong associations between cognitive development and educational attainment were found for all three cohorts (NFBC1986: β = 0.22, 95%-CI: [0.12, 0.31], BCS1970: β = 0.58, 95%-CI: [0.52, 0.64], CLHNS: β = 1.08, 95%-CI: [0.88, 1.27]). Models jointly estimating educational associations of physical and cognitive development demonstrated weaker associations for physical development and minimal changes for cognitive development. Conclusion The results indicate that although physical and cognitive early development are both important predictors of educational attainment, cognitive development appears to play a particularly important role. The large degree of heterogeneity in the observed effect sizes suggest that the importance of early life physical growth and cognitive development is highly dependent on socioeconomic and

  4. The development of aggression in 18 to 48 month old children of alcoholic parents.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Ellen P; Eiden, Rina D; Colder, Craig; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2006-06-01

    This study examined the development of aggressive and oppositional behavior among alcoholic and nonalcoholic families using latent growth modeling. The sample consisted of 226 families assessed at 18, 24, 36, and 48 months of child age. Results indicated that children in families with nonalcoholic parents had the lowest levels of aggressive behavior at all time points compared to children with one or more alcoholic parents. Children in families with two alcoholic parents did not exhibit normative decreases in aggressive behavior from 3 to 4 years of age compared to nonalcoholic families. However, this association was no longer significant once a cumulative family risk score was added to the model. Children in families with high cumulative risk scores, reflective of high parental depression, antisocial behavior, negative affect during play, difficult child temperament, marital conflict, fathers' education, and hours spent in child care, had higher levels of aggression at 18 months than children in low risk families. These associations were moderated by child gender. Boys had higher levels of aggressive behavior at all ages than girls, regardless of group status. Cumulative risk was predictive of higher levels of initial aggressive behavior in both girls and boys. However, boys with two alcoholic parents had significantly less of a decline in aggression from 36 to 48 months compared to boys in the nonalcoholic group.

  5. Cohort Profile: The Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH).

    PubMed

    Kohler, Hans-Peter; Watkins, Susan C; Behrman, Jere R; Anglewicz, Philip; Kohler, Iliana V; Thornton, Rebecca L; Mkandawire, James; Honde, Hastings; Hawara, Augustine; Chilima, Ben; Bandawe, Chiwoza; Mwapasa, Victor; Fleming, Peter; Kalilani-Phiri, Linda

    2015-04-01

    The Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH) is one of very few long-standing, publicly available longitudinal cohort studies in a sub-Saharan African (SSA) context. It provides a rare record of more than a decade of demographic, socioeconomic and health conditions in one of the world's poorest countries. The MLSFH was initially established in 1998 to study social network influences on fertility behaviours and HIV risk perceptions, and over time the focus of the study expanded to include health, sexual behaviours, intergenerational relations and family/household dynamics. The currently available data include MLSFH rounds collected in 1998, 2001, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012 for up to 4000 individuals, providing information about socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, sexual behaviours, marriage, household/family structure, risk perceptions, social networks and social capital, intergenerational relations, HIV/AIDS and other dimensions of health. The MLSFH public use data can be requested on the project website: http://www.malawi.pop.upenn.edu/. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  6. Dietary patterns and depressive symptoms in a UK cohort of men and women: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Northstone, Kate; Joinson, Carol; Emmett, Pauline

    2017-09-18

    There is evidence to suggest that individual components of dietary intake are associated with depressive symptoms. Studying the whole diet, through dietary patterns, has become popular as a way of overcoming intercorrelations between individual dietary components; however, there are conflicting results regarding associations between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms. We examined the associations between dietary patterns extracted using principal component analysis and depressive symptoms, taking account of potential temporal relationships. Depressive symptoms in parents were assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) when the study child was 3 and 5 years of age. Scores >12 were considered indicative of the presence of clinical depressive symptoms. Diet was assessed via FFQ when the study child was 4 years of age. Longitudinal population-based birth cohort. Mothers and fathers taking part in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children when their study child was 3-5 years old. Unadjusted results suggested that increased scores on the 'processed' and 'vegetarian' patterns in women and the 'semi-vegetarian' pattern in men were associated with having EPDS scores ≥13. However, after adjustment for confounders all results were attenuated. This was the case for all those with available data and when considering a sub-sample who were 'disease free' at baseline. We found no association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms after taking account of potential confounding factors and the potential temporal relationship between them. This suggests that previous studies reporting positive associations may have suffered from reverse causality and/or residual confounding.

  7. Prevalence of deliberate self harm and attempted suicide within contemporary Goth youth subculture: longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Young, Robert; Sweeting, Helen; West, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether deliberate self harm is associated with contemporary Goth youth subculture. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting School and community based study of young people living in the Central Clydeside Conurbation, Scotland. Participants 1258 people aged 19, surveyed in 2002-4 and followed-up since age 11 (1994). Main outcome measures Lifetime prevalence of self harm and attempted suicide and their association with Goth youth subculture, before and after adjusting for confounders. Results Identification as belonging to the Goth subculture was strongly associated with lifetime self harm and attempted suicide, with a prevalence of 53% and 47%, respectively among the most highly identified group, and evidence for a dose-response relation. Adjusting for potential confounders did not significantly attenuate this association. Analysis of other youth subcultures showed that this effect was primarily associated with Goth subculture. Conclusions Identification as belonging to the Goth subculture was the best predictor of self harm and attempted suicide. Although based on small numbers, additional longitudinal analysis suggests both selection and modelling mechanisms are involved, selection mechanisms possibly being more likely. PMID:16613936

  8. Subjective and objective sleep disturbance and longitudinal risk of depression in a cohort of older women.

    PubMed

    Maglione, Jeanne E; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Peters, Katherine W; Paudel, Misti L; Yaffe, Kristine; Ensrud, Kristine E; Stone, Katie L

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the longitudinal relationship between subjective and objective sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms. Longitudinal. Three US clinical centers. Nine hundred fifty-two community-dwelling older women (70 y or older). At baseline, subjective sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and objective sleep measures were assessed with wrist actigraphy. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) at baseline and approximately 5 y later. The analysis was restricted to women with few (GDS 0-2) depressive symptoms at baseline. There was an independent association between greater PSQI score (per standard deviation increase, indicating worse subjective sleep quality) at baseline and greater odds of worsening depressive symptoms (≥ 2-point increase in GDS) (Multivariate Odds Ratio [MOR] 1.19, confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.40, P = 0.036). Higher scores specifically on the sleep quality (MOR 1.41, CI 1.13-1.77, P < 0.003) and sleep latency (MOR 1.21, CI 1.03-1.41, P = 0.018) PSQI subscales were also associated with greater odds for worsening depressive symptoms. Objective assessments revealed an association between baseline prolonged wake after sleep onset (WASO ≥ 60 min) and worsening depressive symptoms at follow-up (MOR 1.36, CI 1.01-1.84, P = 0.046). There were no associations between other objectively assessed sleep measures and worsening depressive symptoms. In older women with few or no depressive symptoms at baseline, those with more subjectively reported sleep disturbance and more objectively assessed fragmentation of sleep at baseline had greater odds of worsening depressive symptoms 5 y later. Future studies investigating this relationship in more detail are indicated. Maglione JE, Ancoli-Israel S, Peters KW, Paudel ML, Yaffe K, Ensrud KE, Stone KL, Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Subjective and objective sleep disturbance and longitudinal risk of depression in a

  9. Ethnic differences in longitudinal latent verbal profiles in the millennium cohort study*

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Yvonne; Sacker, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Development of verbal skills during early childhood and school age years is consequential for children’s educational achievement and adult outcomes. We examine ethnic differences in longitudinal latent verbal profiles and assess the contribution of family process and family resource factors to observed differences. Methods: Using data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study and the latent profile analysis, we estimate longitudinal latent verbal profiles using verbal skills measured 4 times from age 3–11 years. We investigate the odds of verbal profiles by ethnicity (reported in infancy), and the extent observed differences are mediated by the home learning environment, family routines, and psychosocial environment (measured at age 3). Results: Indian children were twice as likely (OR = 2.14, CI: 1.37–3.33) to be in the high achieving profile, compared to White children. Socioeconomic markers attenuated this advantage to nonsignificance. Pakistani and Bangladeshi children were significantly more likely to be in the low performing group (OR = 2.23, CI: 1.61–3.11; OR = 3.37, CI: 2.20–5.17, respectively). Socioeconomic and psychosocial factors had the strongest mediating influence on the association between lower achieving profiles and Pakistani children, whereas for Bangladeshi children, there was mediation by the home learning environment, family routines, and psychosocial factors. Conclusion: Family process and resource factors explain ethnic differences in longitudinal latent verbal profiles. Family resources explain verbal advantages for Indian children, whereas a range of home environment and socioeconomic factors explain disparities for Pakistani and Bangladeshi children. Future policy initiatives focused on reducing ethnic disparities in children’s development should consider supporting and enhancing family resources and processes. PMID:27999155

  10. Longitudinal changes in personal wellbeing in a cohort of people who inject drugs

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Nick; Carrotte, Elise R.; Higgs, Peter; Stoové, Mark A.; Aitken, Campbell K.; Dietze, Paul M.

    2017-01-01

    Aims To determine whether the self-reported personal wellbeing of a cohort of people who inject drugs (PWID) changes over time, and to identify longitudinal correlates of change. Methods We used Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI) scores reported between April 2008 and February 2015 by 757 PWID (66% male) enrolled in the Melbourne Injecting Drug Use Cohort Study (2,862 interviews; up to seven follow-up waves). A mixed-effects model was used to identify correlations between changes in temporal variables and changes in individual PWI scores while controlling for demographic variables. Results The cohort’s mean PWI score did not significantly differ over time (between 54.4/100 and 56.7/100 across the first four interview waves), and was 25–28% lower than general Australian population scores (76.0/100). However, there were large variations in individuals’ PWI scores between interviews. Increased psychological distress, moving into unstable accommodation, reporting intentional overdose in the past 12 months and being the victim of assault in the past six months were associated with declines in PWI scores. Conclusions Participants experienced substantially lower levels of personal wellbeing than the general Australian population, influenced by experiences of psychological distress, assault, overdose and harms related to low socioeconomic status. The results of this study suggest a need to ensure referral to appropriate housing and health support services for PWID. PMID:28562646

  11. Clinical Significance of Asthma Clusters by Longitudinal Analysis in Korean Asthma Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sujeong; Yoon, Sun-young; Kwon, Hyouk-Soo; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Cho, You Sook; Jang, An-Soo; Park, Jung Won; Nahm, Dong-Ho; Yoon, Ho-Joo; Cho, Sang-Heon; Cho, Young-Joo; Choi, ByoungWhui; Moon, Hee-Bom; Kim, Tae-Bum

    2013-01-01

    Background We have previously identified four distinct groups of asthma patients in Korean cohorts using cluster analysis: (A) smoking asthma, (B) severe obstructive asthma, (C) early-onset atopic asthma, and (D) late-onset mild asthma. Methods and Results A longitudinal analysis of each cluster in a Korean adult asthma cohort was performed to investigate the clinical significance of asthma clusters over 12 months. Cluster A showed relatively high asthma control test (ACT) scores but relatively low FEV1 scores, despite a high percentage of systemic corticosteroid use. Cluster B had the lowest mean FEV1, ACT, and the quality of life questionnaire for adult Korean asthmatics (QLQAKA) scores throughout the year, even though the percentage of systemic corticosteroid use was the highest among the four clusters. Cluster C was ranked second in terms of FEV1, with the second lowest percentage of systemic corticosteroid use, and showed a marked improvement in subjective symptoms over time. Cluster D consistently showed the highest FEV1, the lowest systemic corticosteroid use, and had high ACT and QLQAKA scores. Conclusion Our asthma clusters had clinical significance with consistency among clusters over 12 months. These distinctive phenotypes may be useful in classifying asthma in real practice. PMID:24391784

  12. Multiple imputation in a longitudinal cohort study: a case study of sensitivity to imputation methods.

    PubMed

    Romaniuk, Helena; Patton, George C; Carlin, John B

    2014-11-01

    Multiple imputation has entered mainstream practice for the analysis of incomplete data. We have used it extensively in a large Australian longitudinal cohort study, the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study (1992-2008). Although we have endeavored to follow best practices, there is little published advice on this, and we have not previously examined the extent to which variations in our approach might lead to different results. Here, we examined sensitivity of analytical results to imputation decisions, investigating choice of imputation method, inclusion of auxiliary variables, omission of cases with excessive missing data, and approaches for imputing highly skewed continuous distributions that are analyzed as dichotomous variables. Overall, we found that decisions made about imputation approach had a discernible but rarely dramatic impact for some types of estimates. For model-based estimates of association, the choice of imputation method and decisions made to build the imputation model had little effect on results, whereas estimates of overall prevalence and prevalence stratified by subgroup were more sensitive to imputation method and settings. Multiple imputation by chained equations gave more plausible results than multivariate normal imputation for prevalence estimates but appeared to be more susceptible to numerical instability related to a highly skewed variable. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 2003 Cohort: Wave 9 (2011)--Frequency Tables. Technical Report 76B

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) program studies the progress of several groups of young Australians as they move from school into post-secondary education and work. This series of documents provides supporting information for the LSAY data set of the 2003 cohort at wave 9 (2011). This document presents the frequency tables for…

  14. Policy Findings Related to Military Service from the Youth Cohort of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borus, Michael E.; And Others

    Two data waves from the Youth Cohort of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience compared Black, Hispanic, and White servicemen with their civilian counterparts to determine what types of persons are more likely to enlist in the military. Comparisons of minority servicemen with their civilian peers who are employed full time…

  15. Self-Beliefs Mediate Math Performance between Primary and Lower Secondary School: A Large-Scale Longitudinal Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Helen C.; Kirschner, Paul A.; Jolles, Jelle

    2015-01-01

    It is often argued that enhancement of self-beliefs should be one of the key goals of education. However, very little is known about the relation between self-beliefs and performance when students move from primary to secondary school in highly differentiated educational systems with early tracking. This large-scale longitudinal cohort study…

  16. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 2009 Cohort: Wave 3 (2011)--Frequency Tables. Technical Report 72B

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) program studies the progress of several groups of young Australians as they move from school into post-secondary education and work. This technical paper contains the frequency tables for the LSAY 2009 cohort Wave 3 (2011) data set. [For the related questionnaire, see ED536306.

  17. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 2009 Cohort: Wave 2 (2010)--Frequency Tables. Technical Report 71B

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) program studies the progress of several groups of young Australians as they move from school into post-secondary education and work. This technical paper contains the frequency tables for the LSAY 2009 cohort Wave 2 (2010) data set.

  18. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 2003 Cohort Wave 7 (2009)--Frequency Tables. Technical Report 57B

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) program studies the progress of several groups of young Australians as they move from school into post-secondary education and work. This technical paper contains the frequency tables for the LSAY 2003 cohort Wave 7 (2009) data set. [For the related questionnaire, see ED512164.

  19. The Developmental and Cultural Contexts of Objectified Body Consciousness: A Longitudinal Analysis of Two Cohorts of Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinley, Nita Mary

    2006-01-01

    Longitudinal analysis of 10-year follow-up data on objectified body consciousness, body esteem, weight-related attitudes and behaviors, and psychological well-being in 74 middle-aged and 72 young women tested hypotheses developed from age-related change and cohort differences models of body experience. Young women's body surveillance and body…

  20. Preliminary Rural Analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Cohort. Rural Early Childhood Brief Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Rural Early Childhood Learning Initiatives - Mississippi State University Early Childhood Institute, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This brief introduces the first results from a rural analysis of selected national datasets. Provided are key findings concerning kindergarten readiness of rural children from an analysis of the Kindergarten Cohort of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS). Future briefs will summarize the findings concerning the health of the Kindergarten…

  1. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 1998 Cohort--User Guide. Data Elements A: Demographics. Technical Report 53A

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This technical paper contains information about the variables in the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) Year 1998 cohort data set. It groups each variable into data elements which identifies common variables within and across waves. Information is provided about each data element including its purpose, values, base populations and…

  2. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 1998 Cohort--User Guide. Data Elements C: Employment. Technical Report 53C

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This technical paper contains information about the variables in the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) Year 1998 cohort data set. It groups each variable into data elements which identifies common variables within and across waves. Information is provided about each data element including its purpose, values, base populations and…

  3. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 1998 Cohort--User Guide. Data Elements D: Social. Technical Report 53D

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This technical paper contains information about the variables in the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) Year 1998 cohort data set. It groups each variable into data elements which identifies common variables within and across waves. Information is provided about each data element including its purpose, values, base populations and…

  4. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 2006 Cohort: Wave 6 (2011)--Frequency Tables. Technical Report 75B

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) program studies the progress of several groups of young Australians as they move from school into post-secondary education and work. This series of documents provides supporting information for the LSAY data set of the 2006 cohort at wave 6 (2011). This document presents the frequency tables for…

  5. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 1995 Cohort--User Guide. Data Elements A: Demographics. Technical Report 49A

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    This technical paper contains information about the variables in the LSAY (Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth) Y95 cohort data set. It groups each variable into data elements which identifies common variables within and across waves. Information is provided about each data element including its purpose, values, base populations and relevant…

  6. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 1995 Cohort--User Guide. Data Elements C: Employment. Technical Report 49C

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This technical paper contains information about the variables in the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) Year 95 cohort data set. It groups each variable into data elements that identify common variables within and across waves. Information is provided about each data element including its purpose, values, base populations and relevant…

  7. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 1995 Cohort--User Guide. Data Elements D: Social. Technical Report 49D

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This technical paper contains information about the variables in the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) Year 95 cohort data set. It groups each variable into data elements that identify common variables within and across waves. Information is provided about each data element including its purpose, values, base populations and relevant…

  8. Perfluorooctanoic acid exposure and natural menopause: A longitudinal study in a community cohort.

    PubMed

    Dhingra, Radhika; Darrow, Lyndsey A; Klein, Mitch; Winquist, Andrea; Steenland, Kyle

    2016-04-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a suspected endocrine disruptor, is a bio-persistent chemical found at low levels in the serum of nearly all U.S. residents. Early menopause has been positively associated with serum PFOA in prior cross-sectional studies. We conducted a longitudinal analysis of age at menopause among women, aged ≥40 years, (N=8759) in a Mid-Ohio Valley community cohort, exposed to high PFOA levels via contaminated drinking water. Using estimated retrospective year-specific serum PFOA concentrations (1951-2011), we examined the associations between PFOA, as cumulative exposure or year-specific serum estimates, and natural menopause using a Cox proportional hazards models. As participants were initially recruited in 2005-2006, we also analyzed the cohort prospectively (i.e., from the time of enrollment), using both modeled cumulative PFOA, and PFOA serum levels measured in 2005-2006. Women with hysterectomy (a competing risk) were either censored or excluded from the analysis. Neither in the retrospective nor the prospective cohort did we find a significant (at α=0.05) trend between PFOA exposure and natural menopause. The non-significant, hazard ratios by quintile of increasing cumulative serum PFOA were 1.00 (referent), 1.00, 1.09, 1.05 and 1.06 (trend test for log cumulative exposure: p=0.37) with hysterectomies censored, and 1.00 (referent), 1.06, 1.13, 1.09 and 1.11 (trend test for log cumulative exposure: p=0.85) with hysterectomies excluded. Year-specific serum estimates were also not associated with early menopause. Our data suggest that earlier age at menopause is not associated with PFOA exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Methods for a longitudinal cohort of refugee children in a regional community in Australia.

    PubMed

    Zwi, Karen; Rungan, Santuri; Woolfenden, Susan; Williams, Katrina; Woodland, Lisa

    2016-08-24

    Few studies explore the long-term health and well-being of refugee children. A longitudinal cohort of refugee children was created to determine health and well-being outcomes over time. This article describes the methodology used to conduct this study, including sample characteristics and effectiveness of recruitment and retention strategies. Newly arrived refugee children settling in a regional part of Australia aged 6 months to 15 years were recruited between 2009 and 2013 and 85% were followed for an average of 31 months. General practitioners conducted health and pathology examinations shortly after arrival. Additional follow-up assessments were conducted by the research team at an average of 13 months after arrival for the first (year 2) and 31 months for the second (year 3) assessment. Children under 5 years had developmental and children aged 4-17 years had social-emotional screening. Families were assessed for risk and protective factors using a structured interview and the Social Readjustment Ratings Scale. Parent experience of the research was explored. Eligibility criteria were met by 158 of 228 (69%) newly arrived children, 61 of whom (39%) were enrolled. Retention was 100% (n=61) at year 2 and 85% at year 3. The study sample was younger than and had an over-representation of African refugees as compared to the eligible population. Parents reported that the research was respectful. This study demonstrates that a longitudinal cohort study in refugee children is feasible and acceptable, and retention rates can be high. The establishment of this cohort provides the opportunity to analyse valuable data about the early settlement experience, risk and protective factors and long-term health and well-being outcomes in refugee children. These are necessary to identify refugee children in need of additional support and to guide future service delivery. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted

  10. Neutralizing antibody titers against dengue virus correlate with protection from symptomatic infection in a longitudinal cohort.

    PubMed

    Katzelnick, Leah C; Montoya, Magelda; Gresh, Lionel; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva

    2016-01-19

    The four dengue virus serotypes (DENV1-4) are mosquito-borne flaviviruses that infect ∼ 390 million people annually; up to 100 million infections are symptomatic, and 500,000 cases progress to severe disease. Exposure to a heterologous DENV serotype, the specific infecting DENV strains, and the interval of time between infections, as well as age, ethnicity, genetic polymorphisms, and comorbidities of the host, are all risk factors for severe dengue. In contrast, neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) are thought to provide long-lived protection against symptomatic infection and severe dengue. The objective of dengue vaccines is to provide balanced protection against all DENV serotypes simultaneously. However, the association between homotypic and heterotypic NAb titers and protection against symptomatic infection remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the titer of preinfection cross-reactive NAbs correlates with reduced likelihood of symptomatic secondary infection in a longitudinal pediatric dengue cohort in Nicaragua. The protective effect of NAb titers on infection outcome remained significant when controlled for age, number of years between infections, and epidemic force, as well as with relaxed or more stringent criteria for defining inapparent DENV infections. Further, individuals with higher NAb titers immediately after primary infection had delayed symptomatic infections compared with those with lower titers. However, overall NAb titers increased modestly in magnitude and remained serotype cross-reactive in the years between infections, possibly due to reexposure. These findings establish that anti-DENV NAb titers correlate with reduced probability of symptomatic DENV infection and provide insights into longitudinal characteristics of antibody-mediated immunity to DENV in an endemic setting.

  11. [Longitudinal analysis of nutrition parameters in a cohort of elderly people with and without dementia].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Viadero, Carlos; Peña Sarabia, Nicolás; Jiménez-Sanz, Magdalena; Ordóñez-González, Javier; Verduga Vélez, Rosario; Crespo Santiago, Dámaso

    2016-01-01

    It is important to assess longitudinal nutritional parameters during the ageing process in order to determine body composition changes. This procedure is more relevant when dealing with institutionalised geriatric patients suffering from cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to assess the interactions, if any, between mental status and several nutritional parameters in a cohort of elderly people. A longitudinal prospective two years follow-up evaluation was performed on 301 elderly residents (233 females and 68 males) in a nursing home, of whom 51 of them fulfilled the clinical criteria for dementia. Both anthropometric and biochemical parameters were obtained annually, according to standard procedures. The dementia group had lower values when compared to the non-dementia group. Furthermore, nutritional values remained constant in the group with cognitive impairment (no significant differences were observed throughout the study period). BMI 24.5±4.9 vs 24.2±4.1; tricipital skinfold 15.0±6.0 vs 14.7±6.9; brachial circumference 25.9±3.3 vs 25.7±3.5, and albumin 3.7±0.3 vs 3.7±0.3. At the end of the study, the group without cognitive impairment showed lower values in all the parameters analysed when compared to the baseline ones, except for bicipital fold and plasma triglycerides. Our study shows that there are no variations in the elderly with cognitive impairment, as regards the nutritional, anthropometric and biochemist parameters analysed. On the contrary, the group with normal cognitive status showed a reduction in most of the parameters. Further studies analysing larger populations of elderly people and over longer periods of time will provide more information to improve our knowledge on this important issue. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Neutralizing antibody titers against dengue virus correlate with protection from symptomatic infection in a longitudinal cohort

    PubMed Central

    Katzelnick, Leah C.; Montoya, Magelda; Gresh, Lionel; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The four dengue virus serotypes (DENV1–4) are mosquito-borne flaviviruses that infect ∼390 million people annually; up to 100 million infections are symptomatic, and 500,000 cases progress to severe disease. Exposure to a heterologous DENV serotype, the specific infecting DENV strains, and the interval of time between infections, as well as age, ethnicity, genetic polymorphisms, and comorbidities of the host, are all risk factors for severe dengue. In contrast, neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) are thought to provide long-lived protection against symptomatic infection and severe dengue. The objective of dengue vaccines is to provide balanced protection against all DENV serotypes simultaneously. However, the association between homotypic and heterotypic NAb titers and protection against symptomatic infection remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the titer of preinfection cross-reactive NAbs correlates with reduced likelihood of symptomatic secondary infection in a longitudinal pediatric dengue cohort in Nicaragua. The protective effect of NAb titers on infection outcome remained significant when controlled for age, number of years between infections, and epidemic force, as well as with relaxed or more stringent criteria for defining inapparent DENV infections. Further, individuals with higher NAb titers immediately after primary infection had delayed symptomatic infections compared with those with lower titers. However, overall NAb titers increased modestly in magnitude and remained serotype cross-reactive in the years between infections, possibly due to reexposure. These findings establish that anti-DENV NAb titers correlate with reduced probability of symptomatic DENV infection and provide insights into longitudinal characteristics of antibody-mediated immunity to DENV in an endemic setting. PMID:26729879

  13. Considerations when using longitudinal cohort studies to assess dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic and chronic health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Scrafford, Carolyn G; Barraj, Leila M; Tsuji, Joyce S

    2016-07-01

    Dietary arsenic exposure and chronic health outcomes are of interest, due in part to increased awareness and data available on inorganic arsenic levels in some foods. Recent concerns regarding levels of inorganic arsenic, the primary form of arsenic of human health concern, in foods are based on extrapolation from adverse health effects observed at high levels of inorganic arsenic exposure; the potential for the occurrence of these health effects from lower levels of dietary inorganic arsenic exposure has not been established. In this review, longitudinal cohort studies are evaluated for their utility in estimating dietary inorganic arsenic exposure and quantifying statistically reliable associations with health outcomes. The primary limiting factor in longitudinal studies is incomplete data on inorganic arsenic levels in foods combined with the aggregation of consumption of foods with varying arsenic levels into a single category, resulting in exposure misclassification. Longitudinal cohort studies could provide some evidence to evaluate associations of dietary patterns related to inorganic arsenic exposure with risk of arsenic-related diseases. However, currently available data from longitudinal cohort studies limit causal analyses regarding the association between inorganic arsenic exposure and health outcomes. Any conclusions should therefore be viewed with knowledge of the analytical and methodological limitations.

  14. The Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index and Neurocognitive Change: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Marquine, María J; Montoya, Jessica L; Umlauf, Anya; Fazeli, Pariya L; Gouaux, Ben; Heaton, Robert K; Ellis, Ronald J; Letendre, Scott L; Grant, Igor; Moore, David J

    2016-09-01

    The Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index, a composite marker of disease severity among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons, has been associated with concurrent risk for neurocognitive impairment (NCI). The present study examined whether the VACS Index predicts longitudinal neurocognitive change. Participants included 655 HIV-infected persons followed for up to 6 years in cohort studies at the University of California, San Diego, HIV Neurobehavioral Research Program (mean age at baseline, 42.5 years; 83% male; 60% white; AIDS in 67%; median current CD4(+) T-cell count, 346/μL; 61% receiving antiretroviral therapy). The VACS Index was calculated through standard methods. Participants completed a comprehensive neurocognitive battery. Neurocognitive status was plotted over time using demographically and practice-adjusted global and domain T scores. NCI was defined by global deficit scores derived from T scores. Baseline VACS Index scores were not predictive of changes in global T scores during the follow-up period (P = .14). However, in time-dependent analyses adjusting for covariates, higher VACS Index scores were significantly associated with worse global and domain neurocognitive performance (Ps < .01), as well as increased risk for developing NCI in a subgroup of persons who were neurocognitively normal at baseline (hazard ratio [HR], 1.17; P < .001). We categorized VACS Index scores by quartiles and found that the upper-quartile group was significantly more likely to develop NCI than the lower quartile (HR, 2.16; P < .01) and middle groups (HR, 1.76; P < .01). Changes in VACS Index scores correspond to changes in neurocognitive function. HIV-infected persons with high VACS Index scores are at increased risk for decline and incident NCI. The VACS Index shows promise as a tool for identifying HIV-infected persons at risk for NCI. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights

  15. Motor vehicle crashes during pregnancy and cerebral palsy during infancy: a longitudinal cohort analysis

    PubMed Central

    Redelmeier, Donald A; Naqib, Faisal; Thiruchelvam, Deva; R Barrett, Jon F

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the incidence of cerebral palsy among children born to mothers who had their pregnancy complicated by a motor vehicle crash. Design Retrospective longitudinal cohort analysis of children born from 1 April 2002 to 31 March 2012 in Ontario, Canada. Participants Cases defined as pregnancies complicated by a motor vehicle crash and controls as remaining pregnancies with no crash. Main outcome Subsequent diagnosis of cerebral palsy by age 3 years. Results A total of 1 325 660 newborns were analysed, of whom 7933 were involved in a motor vehicle crash during pregnancy. A total of 2328 were subsequently diagnosed with cerebral palsy, equal to an absolute risk of 1.8 per 1000 newborns. For the entire cohort, motor vehicle crashes correlated with a 29% increased risk of subsequent cerebral palsy that was not statistically significant (95% CI −16 to +110, p=0.274). The increased risk was only significant for those with preterm birth who showed an 89% increased risk of subsequent cerebral palsy associated with a motor vehicle crash (95% CI +7 to +266, p=0.037). No significant increase was apparent for those with a term delivery (95% CI −62 to +79, p=0.510). A propensity score-matched analysis of preterm births (n=4384) yielded a 138% increased relative risk of cerebral palsy associated with a motor vehicle crash (95% CI +27 to +349, p=0.007), equal to an absolute increase of about 10.9 additional cases per 1000 newborns (18.2 vs 7.3, p=0.010). Conclusions Motor vehicle crashes during pregnancy may be associated with an increased risk of cerebral palsy among the subgroup of cases with preterm birth. The increase highlights a specific role for traffic safety advice in prenatal care. PMID:27650764

  16. Motor vehicle crashes during pregnancy and cerebral palsy during infancy: a longitudinal cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Redelmeier, Donald A; Naqib, Faisal; Thiruchelvam, Deva; R Barrett, Jon F

    2016-09-20

    To assess the incidence of cerebral palsy among children born to mothers who had their pregnancy complicated by a motor vehicle crash. Retrospective longitudinal cohort analysis of children born from 1 April 2002 to 31 March 2012 in Ontario, Canada. Cases defined as pregnancies complicated by a motor vehicle crash and controls as remaining pregnancies with no crash. Subsequent diagnosis of cerebral palsy by age 3 years. A total of 1 325 660 newborns were analysed, of whom 7933 were involved in a motor vehicle crash during pregnancy. A total of 2328 were subsequently diagnosed with cerebral palsy, equal to an absolute risk of 1.8 per 1000 newborns. For the entire cohort, motor vehicle crashes correlated with a 29% increased risk of subsequent cerebral palsy that was not statistically significant (95% CI -16 to +110, p=0.274). The increased risk was only significant for those with preterm birth who showed an 89% increased risk of subsequent cerebral palsy associated with a motor vehicle crash (95% CI +7 to +266, p=0.037). No significant increase was apparent for those with a term delivery (95% CI -62 to +79, p=0.510). A propensity score-matched analysis of preterm births (n=4384) yielded a 138% increased relative risk of cerebral palsy associated with a motor vehicle crash (95% CI +27 to +349, p=0.007), equal to an absolute increase of about 10.9 additional cases per 1000 newborns (18.2 vs 7.3, p=0.010). Motor vehicle crashes during pregnancy may be associated with an increased risk of cerebral palsy among the subgroup of cases with preterm birth. The increase highlights a specific role for traffic safety advice in prenatal care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Subjective and Objective Sleep Disturbance and Longitudinal Risk of Depression in a Cohort of Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Maglione, Jeanne E.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Peters, Katherine W.; Paudel, Misti L.; Yaffe, Kristine; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Stone, Katie L.

    2014-01-01

    . Subjective and objective sleep disturbance and longitudinal risk of depression in a cohort of older women. SLEEP 2014;37(7):1179-1187. PMID:25061246

  18. Longitudinal evaluation of aflatoxin exposure in two cohorts in south-western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Su; Nkurunziza, Peter; Muwanika, Richard; Qian, Guoqing; Tang, Lili; Song, Xiao; Xue, Kathy; Nkwata, Allan; Ssempebwa, John; Lutalo, Tom; Asiki, Gershim; Serwadda, David; Seeley, Janet; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Nalugoda, Fred; Newton, Robert; William, Jonathan H; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AF) are a group of mycotoxins. AF exposure causes acute and chronic adverse health effects such as aflatoxicosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in human populations, especially in the developing world. In this study, AF exposure was evaluated using archived serum samples from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seronegative participants from two cohort studies in south-western Uganda. AFB1-lysine (AFB-Lys) adduct levels were determined via HPLC fluorescence in a total of 713 serum samples from the General Population Cohort (GPC), covering eight time periods between 1989 and 2010. Overall, 90% (642/713) of the samples were positive for AFB-Lys and the median level was 1.58 pg mg(-1) albumin (range = 0.40-168 pg mg(-1) albumin). AFB-Lys adduct levels were also measured in a total of 374 serum samples from the Rakai Community Cohort Study (RCCS), across four time periods between 1999 and 2003. The averaged detection rate was 92.5% (346/374) and the median level was 1.18 pg mg(-1) albumin (range = 0.40-122.5 pg mg(-1) albumin). In the GPC study there were no statistically significant differences between demographic parameters, such as age, sex and level of education, and levels of serum AFB-Lys adduct. In the RCCS study, longitudinal analysis using generalised estimating equations revealed significant differences between the adduct levels and residential areas (p = 0.05) and occupations (p = 0.02). This study indicates that AF exposure in people in two populations in south-western Uganda is persistent and has not significantly changed over time. Data from one study, but not the other, indicated that agriculture workers and rural area residents had more AF exposure than those non-agricultural workers and non-rural area residents. These results suggest the need for further study of AF-induced human adverse health effects, especially the predominant diseases in the region.

  19. Prenatal Exposure to Organophosphorous Pesticides and Fetal Growth: Pooled Results from Four Longitudinal Birth Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Harley, Kim G.; Engel, Stephanie M.; Vedar, Michelle G.; Eskenazi, Brenda; Whyatt, Robin M.; Lanphear, Bruce P.; Bradman, Asa; Rauh, Virginia A.; Yolton, Kimberly; Hornung, Richard W.; Wetmur, James G.; Chen, Jia; Holland, Nina T.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Perera, Frederica P.; Wolff, Mary S.

    2015-01-01

    , Perera FP, Wolff MS. 2016. Prenatal exposure to organophosphorous pesticides and fetal growth: pooled results from four longitudinal birth cohort studies. Environ Health Perspect 124:1084–1092; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409362 PMID:26685281

  20. Longitudinal change of selected human milk oligosaccharides and association to infants' growth, an observatory, single center, longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sprenger, Norbert; Lee, Le Ye; De Castro, Carlos Antonio; Steenhout, Philippe; Thakkar, Sagar K

    2017-01-01

    Human milk is the recommended and sole nutrient source for newborns. One of the largest components of human milk is oligosaccharides (HMOs) with major constituents determined by the mother genotype for the fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2, secretor) gene. HMO variation has been related with infant microbiota establishment, diarrhea incidence, morbidity and mortality, IgE associated eczema and body composition. We investigated the (i) dependence of several major representative HMOs on the FUT2 status assessed through breast milk 2'Fucosyllactose (2'FL) and (ii) the relation of the 2'FL status with infant growth up to 4 months of life. From an open observatory, single center, longitudinal cohort study with quantitative human milk collection at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum from 50 mothers, who gave birth to 25 female and 25 male singleton infants, we collected a representative sample of human milk. We quantified the following 5 representative HMOs: 2'FL, Lacto-N-tetraose (LNT), Lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT), 3'Sialyllactose (3'SL) and 6'Sialyllactose (6'SL). We grouped the milk samples and corresponding infants according to the measured milk 2'FL concentrations at 30 days of lactation, which clustered around low concentrations (95% CI of mean 12-42 mg/L) and high concentrations (95% CI of mean 1880-2460 mg/L) with the former likely representing Secretor negative mothers. Infant anthropometric measures were recorded at birth, 1, 2 and 4 months of age. Relations among the quantified HMOs and the relation of the high and low 2'FL HMOs groups with infant growth parameters were investigated via linear mixed models. The milk samples with low 2'FL concentration had higher LNT and lower LNnT concentrations compared to the samples with high 2'FL. The milk 3'- and 6'SL concentrations were independent of 2'FL. Over lactation time we observed a drop in the concentration of 2'FL, LNT, LNnT and 6'SL, especially from 1 to 2 months, while 3'SL remained at relatively constant concentration

  1. Longitudinal change of selected human milk oligosaccharides and association to infants’ growth, an observatory, single center, longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Le Ye; De Castro, Carlos Antonio; Steenhout, Philippe; Thakkar, Sagar K.

    2017-01-01

    Background Human milk is the recommended and sole nutrient source for newborns. One of the largest components of human milk is oligosaccharides (HMOs) with major constituents determined by the mother genotype for the fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2, secretor) gene. HMO variation has been related with infant microbiota establishment, diarrhea incidence, morbidity and mortality, IgE associated eczema and body composition. Objectives We investigated the (i) dependence of several major representative HMOs on the FUT2 status assessed through breast milk 2’Fucosyllactose (2’FL) and (ii) the relation of the 2’FL status with infant growth up to 4 months of life. Design From an open observatory, single center, longitudinal cohort study with quantitative human milk collection at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum from 50 mothers, who gave birth to 25 female and 25 male singleton infants, we collected a representative sample of human milk. We quantified the following 5 representative HMOs: 2’FL, Lacto-N-tetraose (LNT), Lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT), 3’Sialyllactose (3’SL) and 6’Sialyllactose (6’SL). We grouped the milk samples and corresponding infants according to the measured milk 2’FL concentrations at 30 days of lactation, which clustered around low concentrations (95% CI of mean 12–42 mg/L) and high concentrations (95% CI of mean 1880–2460 mg/L) with the former likely representing Secretor negative mothers. Infant anthropometric measures were recorded at birth, 1, 2 and 4 months of age. Relations among the quantified HMOs and the relation of the high and low 2’FL HMOs groups with infant growth parameters were investigated via linear mixed models. Results The milk samples with low 2’FL concentration had higher LNT and lower LNnT concentrations compared to the samples with high 2’FL. The milk 3’- and 6’SL concentrations were independent of 2’FL. Over lactation time we observed a drop in the concentration of 2’FL, LNT, LNnT and 6’SL, especially

  2. Association between interpersonal trust, reciprocity, and suicidal behaviors: A longitudinal cohort study in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ja Young; Yoon, Jaehong; Kim, Myoung-Hee; Kim, Seung-Sup

    2017-06-01

    While a growing body of evidence suggest that social capital including interpersonal trust and reciprocity might be associated with mental health outcomes, few studies have explored the relationship with suicidal behaviors. This research examined the prospective association between interpersonal trust and reciprocity and suicidal behaviors using the Korea Welfare Panel Study, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort dataset in South Korea. Interpersonal trust and reciprocity were assessed at the 7th wave of the survey (2012), and each measure was classified into two categories (low vs. high). Experience of suicidal ideation, planning, and attempt was assessed between the 8th (2013) and 10th wave (2015) of the surveys. After adjusting for confounders including lifetime experience of suicidal behaviors at the 7th wave of the survey (2012) as well as socio-demographic information, the low interpersonal trust group was more likely to experience suicidal ideation (OR: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.11-1.53) compared to the high interpersonal trust group whereas no statistically significant association was observed in the reciprocity analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Head start participation and school readiness: evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Lee, RaeHyuck; Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n ≈ 6,950), a nationally representative sample of children born in 2001, we examined school readiness (academic skills and socioemotional well-being) at kindergarten entry for children who attended Head Start compared with those who experienced other types of child care (prekindergarten, other center-based care, other nonparental care, or parental care). Using propensity score matching methods and ordinary least squares regressions with rich controls, we found that Head Start participants had higher early reading and math scores than children in other nonparental care or parental care but also higher levels of conduct problems than those in parental care. Head Start participants had lower early reading scores compared with children in prekindergarten and had no differences in any outcomes compared with children in other center-based care. Head Start benefits were more pronounced for children who had low initial cognitive ability or parents with low levels of education or who attended Head Start for more than 20 hr per week.

  4. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study: assessment of environmental exposures

    PubMed Central

    Takaro, Tim K; Scott, James A; Allen, Ryan W; Anand, Sonia S; Becker, Allan B; Befus, A Dean; Brauer, Michael; Duncan, Joanne; Lefebvre, Diana L; Lou, Wendy; Mandhane, Piush J; McLean, Kathleen E; Miller, Gregory; Sbihi, Hind; Shu, Huan; Subbarao, Padmaja; Turvey, Stuart E; Wheeler, Amanda J; Zeng, Leilei; Sears, Malcolm R; Brook, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development birth cohort was designed to elucidate interactions between environment and genetics underlying development of asthma and allergy. Over 3600 pregnant mothers were recruited from the general population in four provinces with diverse environments. The child is followed to age 5 years, with prospective characterization of diverse exposures during this critical period. Key exposure domains include indoor and outdoor air pollutants, inhalation, ingestion and dermal uptake of chemicals, mold, dampness, biological allergens, pets and pests, housing structure, and living behavior, together with infections, nutrition, psychosocial environment, and medications. Assessments of early life exposures are focused on those linked to inflammatory responses driven by the acquired and innate immune systems. Mothers complete extensive environmental questionnaires including time-activity behavior at recruitment and when the child is 3, 6, 12, 24, 30, 36, 48, and 60 months old. House dust collected during a thorough home assessment at 3–4 months, and biological specimens obtained for multiple exposure-related measurements, are archived for analyses. Geo-locations of homes and daycares and land-use regression for estimating traffic-related air pollution complement time-activity-behavior data to provide comprehensive individual exposure profiles. Several analytical frameworks are proposed to address the many interacting exposure variables and potential issues of co-linearity in this complex data set. PMID:25805254

  5. Analysis of longitudinal multivariate outcome data from couples cohort studies: application to HPV transmission dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiangrong; Wang, Mei-Cheng; Gray, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    We consider a specific situation of correlated data where multiple outcomes are repeatedly measured on each member of a couple. Such multivariate longitudinal data from couples may exhibit multi-faceted correlations which can be further complicated if there are polygamous partnerships. An example is data from cohort studies on human papillomavirus (HPV) transmission dynamics in heterosexual couples. HPV is a common sexually transmitted disease with 14 known oncogenic types causing anogenital cancers. The binary outcomes on the multiple types measured in couples over time may introduce inter-type, intra-couple, and temporal correlations. Simple analysis using generalized estimating equations or random effects models lacks interpretability and cannot fully utilize the available information. We developed a hybrid modeling strategy using Markov transition models together with pairwise composite likelihood for analyzing such data. The method can be used to identify risk factors associated with HPV transmission and persistence, estimate difference in risks between male-to-female and female-to-male HPV transmission, compare type-specific transmission risks within couples, and characterize the inter-type and intra-couple associations. Applying the method to HPV couple data collected in a Ugandan male circumcision (MC) trial, we assessed the effect of MC and the role of gender on risks of HPV transmission and persistence. PMID:26195849

  6. The association between adolescents' health and disparities in school career: a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Uiters, Ellen; Maurits, Erica; Droomers, Mariël; Zwaanswijk, Marieke; Verheij, Robert A; van der Lucht, Fons

    2014-10-25

    Literature suggests that children's educational achievement is associated with their health status and the socioeconomic position of their parents. Few studies have investigated this association in adolescence, while this is an important period affecting future life trajectories. Our study investigates the relationship between adolescents' health and their subsequent school career, taking into account their parents' socioeconomic position. Data of all Dutch adolescents who entered secondary education in 2003, according to the national education register, were linked to electronic health records from general practices and to data from the Dutch population register on a patient by patient basis. Secondary school career data of 2455 adolescents were available for several years, resulting in a longitudinal prospective cohort. School career was measured by the completion of secondary education within the research period. For most health problems, adolescents' health status at the moment of entering secondary education showed no association with the subsequent course of their school career. However, adolescents who had more frequent contact with their general practitioner for acute psychosocial problems (e.g. enuresis or overactive/hyperkinetic disorder), were less likely to complete their secondary education, also after adjustment for parental socioeconomic position. They were also less likely to complete their secondary education at the level of entry. Adolescents' secondary school career is negatively affected by the presence of acute psychosocial health problems, but not by the presence of physical health problems. This underlines the importance of adequately addressing mental health problems in adolescence.

  7. Outdoor temperature, precipitation, and wind speed affect physical activity levels in children: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Nicholas M.; Myer, Gregory D.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Woo, Jessica G.; Khoury, Philip R.; Hewett, Timothy E.; Daniels, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evaluate effects of local weather conditions on physical activity in early childhood. Methods Longitudinal prospective cohort study of 372 children, 3 years old at enrollment, drawn from a major US metropolitan community. Accelerometer-measured (RT3) physical activity was collected every 4 months over 5 years and matched with daily weather measures: day length, heating/cooling degrees (degrees mean temperature < 65°F or ≥ 65°F, respectively), wind, and precipitation. Mixed regression analyses, adjusted for repeated measures, were used to test the relationship between weather and physical activity. Results Precipitation and wind speed were negatively associated with total physical activity and moderate-vigorous physical activity (P<0.0001). Heating and cooling degrees were negatively associated with total physical activity and moderate-vigorous physical activity and positively associated with inactivity (all P<0.0001), independent of age, sex, race, BMI, day length, wind, and precipitation. For every 10 additional heating degrees there was a five-minute daily reduction in moderate-vigorous physical activity. For every additional 10 cooling degrees there was a 17-minute reduction in moderate-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions Inclement weather (higher/lower temperature, greater wind speed, more rain/snow) is associated with less physical activity in young children. These deleterious effects should be considered when planning physical activity research, interventions, and policies. PMID:25423667

  8. The Dynamic Relationship Between Physical Function and Cognition in Longitudinal Aging Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Clouston, Sean A. P.; Brewster, Paul; Kuh, Diana; Richards, Marcus; Cooper, Rachel; Hardy, Rebecca; Rubin, Marcie S.; Hofer, Scott M.

    2013-01-01

    On average, older people remember less and walk more slowly than do younger persons. Some researchers argue that this is due in part to a common biologic process underlying age-related declines in both physical and cognitive functioning. Only recently have longitudinal data become available for analyzing this claim. We conducted a systematic review of English-language research published between 2000 and 2011 to evaluate the relations between rates of change in physical and cognitive functioning in older cohorts. Physical functioning was assessed using objective measures: walking speed, grip strength, chair rise time, flamingo stand time, and summary measures of physical functioning. Cognition was measured using mental state examinations, fluid cognition, and diagnosis of impairment. Results depended on measurement type: Change in grip strength was more strongly correlated with mental state, while change in walking speed was more strongly correlated with change in fluid cognition. Examining physical and cognitive functioning can help clinicians and researchers to better identify individuals and groups that are aging differently and at different rates. In future research, investigators should consider the importance of identifying different patterns and rates of decline, examine relations between more diverse types of measures, and analyze the order in which age-related declines occur. PMID:23349427

  9. Breast cancer among shift workers: results of the WOLF longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Knutsson, Anders; Alfredsson, Lars; Karlsson, Berndt; Akerstedt, Torbjörn; Fransson, Eleonor I; Westerholm, Peter; Westerlund, Hugo

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether shift work (with or without night work) is associated with increased risk of breast cancer. The population consisted of 4036 women. Data were obtained from WOLF (Work, Lipids, and Fibrinogen), a longitudinal cohort study. Information about baseline characteristics was based on questionnaire responses and medical examination. Cancer incidence from baseline to follow-up was obtained from the national cancer registry. Two exposure groups were identified: shift work with and without night work. The group with day work only was used as the reference group in the analysis. Cox regression analysis was used to calculate relative risk. In total, 94 women developed breast cancer during follow-up. The average follow-up time was 12.4 years. The hazard ratio for breast cancer was 1.23 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.70-2.17] for shifts without night work and 2.02 (95% CI 1.03-3.95) for shifts with night work. When including only women <60 years of age, the risk estimates were 1.18 (95% CI 0.67-2.07) for shifts without night work, and 2.15 (95% CI 1.10-4.21) for shifts with night work. Our results indicate an increased risk for breast cancer among women who work shifts that includes night work.

  10. Poverty or income inequality as predictor of mortality: longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    Fiscella, K.; Franks, P.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of inequality in income between communities independent of household income on individual all cause mortality in the United States. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study. SUBJECTS: A nationally representative sample of 14,407 people aged 25-74 years in the United States from the first national health and nutrition examination survey. SETTING: Subjects were followed from initial interview in 1971-5 until 1987. Complete follow up information was available for 92.2% of the sample. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relation between both household income and income inequality in community of residence and individual all cause mortality at follow up was examined with Cox proportional hazards survival analysis. RESULTS: Community income inequality showed a significant association with subsequent community mortality, and with individual mortality after adjustment for age, sex, and mean income in the community of residence. After adjustment for individual household income, however, the association with mortality was lost. CONCLUSIONS: In this nationally representative American sample, family income, but not community income inequality, independently predicts mortality. Previously reported ecological associations between income inequality and mortality may reflect confounding between individual family income and mortality. PMID:9185498

  11. Parenting style in childhood and mortality risk at older ages: a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Demakakos, Panayotes; Pillas, Demetris; Marmot, Michael; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    Parenting style is associated with offspring health, but whether it is associated with offspring mortality at older ages remains unknown. We examined whether childhood experiences of suboptimal parenting style are associated with increased risk of death at older ages. Longitudinal cohort study of 1964 community-dwelling adults aged 65-79 years. The association between parenting style and mortality was inverse and graded. Participants in the poorest parenting style score quartile had increased risk of death (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.72, 95% CI 1.20-2.48) compared with those in the optimal parenting style score quartile after adjustment for age and gender. Full adjustment for covariates partially explained this association (HR = 1.49, 95% CI 1.02-2.18). Parenting style was inversely associated with cancer and other mortality, but not cardiovascular mortality. Maternal and paternal parenting styles were individually associated with mortality. Experiences of suboptimal parenting in childhood are associated with increased risk of death at older ages. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  12. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study: assessment of environmental exposures.

    PubMed

    Takaro, Tim K; Scott, James A; Allen, Ryan W; Anand, Sonia S; Becker, Allan B; Befus, A Dean; Brauer, Michael; Duncan, Joanne; Lefebvre, Diana L; Lou, Wendy; Mandhane, Piush J; McLean, Kathleen E; Miller, Gregory; Sbihi, Hind; Shu, Huan; Subbarao, Padmaja; Turvey, Stuart E; Wheeler, Amanda J; Zeng, Leilei; Sears, Malcolm R; Brook, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development birth cohort was designed to elucidate interactions between environment and genetics underlying development of asthma and allergy. Over 3600 pregnant mothers were recruited from the general population in four provinces with diverse environments. The child is followed to age 5 years, with prospective characterization of diverse exposures during this critical period. Key exposure domains include indoor and outdoor air pollutants, inhalation, ingestion and dermal uptake of chemicals, mold, dampness, biological allergens, pets and pests, housing structure, and living behavior, together with infections, nutrition, psychosocial environment, and medications. Assessments of early life exposures are focused on those linked to inflammatory responses driven by the acquired and innate immune systems. Mothers complete extensive environmental questionnaires including time-activity behavior at recruitment and when the child is 3, 6, 12, 24, 30, 36, 48, and 60 months old. House dust collected during a thorough home assessment at 3-4 months, and biological specimens obtained for multiple exposure-related measurements, are archived for analyses. Geo-locations of homes and daycares and land-use regression for estimating traffic-related air pollution complement time-activity-behavior data to provide comprehensive individual exposure profiles. Several analytical frameworks are proposed to address the many interacting exposure variables and potential issues of co-linearity in this complex data set.

  13. The VA Hypertension Primary Care Longitudinal Cohort: Electronic medical records in the post-genomic era

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Rany M.; Pandey, Braj; Richard, Erin; Fung, Maple M.; Garcia, Erin P.; Brophy, Victoria H.; Schork, Nicholas J.; O'Connor, Daniel T.; Bhatnagar, Vibha

    2011-01-01

    The Veterans Affairs Hypertension Primary Care Longitudinal Cohort (VAHC) was initiated in 2003 as a pilot study designed to link the VA electronic medical record system with individual genetic data. Between June 2003 and December 2004, 1,527 hypertensive participants were recruited. Protected health information (PHI) was extracted from the regional VA data warehouse. Differences between the clinic and mail recruits suggested that clinic recruitment resulted in an over-sampling of African Americans. A review of medical records in a random sample of study participants confirmed that the data warehouse accurately captured most selected diagnoses. Genomic DNA was acquired non-invasively from buccal cells in mouthwash; ~ 96.5 per cent of samples contained DNA suitable for genotyping, with an average DNA yield of 5.02 ± 0.12 micrograms, enough for several thousand genotypes. The coupling of detailed medical databases with genetic information has the potential to facilitate the genetic study of hypertension and other complex diseases. PMID:21216807

  14. Cannabis use in adolescence and risk of future disability pension: a 39-year longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Danielsson, Anna-Karin; Agardh, Emilie; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Allebeck, Peter; Falkstedt, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed at examining a possible association between cannabis use in adolescence and future disability pension (DP). DP can be granted to any person in Sweden aged 16-65 years if working capacity is judged to be permanently reduced due to long-standing illness or injury. Data were obtained from a longitudinal cohort study comprising 49,321 Swedish men born in 1949-1951 who were conscripted to compulsory military service aged 18-20 years. Data on DP was collected from national registers. Results showed that individuals who used cannabis in adolescence had considerably higher rates of disability pension throughout the follow-up until 59 years of age. In Cox proportional-hazards regression analyses, adjustment for covariates (social background, mental health, physical fitness, risky alcohol use, tobacco smoking and illicit drug use) attenuated the associations. However, when all covariates where entered simultaneously, about a 30% increased hazard ratio of DP from 40 to 59 years of age still remained in the group reporting cannabis use more than 50 times. This study shows that heavy cannabis use in late adolescence was associated with an increased relative risk of labor market exclusion through disability pension. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Online and Offline Recruitment of Young Women for a Longitudinal Health Survey: Findings From the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health 1989-95 Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Jennifer; Anderson, Amy E; Townsend, Natalie; Harris, Melissa L; Tuckerman, Ryan; Pease, Stephanie; Mishra, Gita; Byles, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2012, we set out to recruit a cohort of at least 10,000 women aged 18-23 from across Australia. With recent research demonstrating the inadequacy of traditional approaches to recruiting women in this age group, we elected to conduct open recruiting. Objective Our aim was to report on the overall success of open recruiting and to evaluate the relative success of a variety of recruitment methods in terms of numbers and demographics. Methods We used referrals, Facebook, formal advertising, and incentives in order to recruit the cohort. Results In all, 17,069 women were recruited for the longitudinal online survey, from 54,685 initiated surveys. Of these women, most (69.94%, n=11,799) who joined the longitudinal cohort were recruited via Facebook, 12.72% (n=2145) via the fashion promotion, 7.02% (n=1184) by referral, 4.9% (n=831) via other Web activities, and 5.4% (n=910) via traditional media. Conclusions Facebook was by far the most successful strategy, enrolling a cohort of women with a similar profile to the population of Australian women in terms of age, area of residence, and relationship status. Women recruited via fashion promotion were the least representative. All strategies underrepresented less educated women—a finding that is consistent with more traditional means of recruiting. In conclusion, flexibility in recruitment design, embracing new and traditional media, adopting a dynamic responsive approach, and monitoring the results of recruiting in terms of sample composition and number recruited led to the successful establishment of a new cohort. PMID:25940876

  16. Online and Offline Recruitment of Young Women for a Longitudinal Health Survey: Findings From the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health 1989-95 Cohort.

    PubMed

    Loxton, Deborah; Powers, Jennifer; Anderson, Amy E; Townsend, Natalie; Harris, Melissa L; Tuckerman, Ryan; Pease, Stephanie; Mishra, Gita; Byles, Julie

    2015-05-04

    In 2012, we set out to recruit a cohort of at least 10,000 women aged 18-23 from across Australia. With recent research demonstrating the inadequacy of traditional approaches to recruiting women in this age group, we elected to conduct open recruiting. Our aim was to report on the overall success of open recruiting and to evaluate the relative success of a variety of recruitment methods in terms of numbers and demographics. We used referrals, Facebook, formal advertising, and incentives in order to recruit the cohort. In all, 17,069 women were recruited for the longitudinal online survey, from 54,685 initiated surveys. Of these women, most (69.94%, n=11,799) who joined the longitudinal cohort were recruited via Facebook, 12.72% (n=2145) via the fashion promotion, 7.02% (n=1184) by referral, 4.9% (n=831) via other Web activities, and 5.4% (n=910) via traditional media. Facebook was by far the most successful strategy, enrolling a cohort of women with a similar profile to the population of Australian women in terms of age, area of residence, and relationship status. Women recruited via fashion promotion were the least representative. All strategies underrepresented less educated women-a finding that is consistent with more traditional means of recruiting. In conclusion, flexibility in recruitment design, embracing new and traditional media, adopting a dynamic responsive approach, and monitoring the results of recruiting in terms of sample composition and number recruited led to the successful establishment of a new cohort.

  17. Do baby boomers use more healthcare services than other generations? Longitudinal trajectories of physician service use across five birth cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Canizares, Mayilee; Gignac, Monique; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Glazier, Richard H; Badley, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-01

    Objective In light of concerns for meeting the provision of healthcare services given the large numbers of ageing baby boomers, we compared the trajectories of primary care and specialist services use across the lifecourse of 5 birth cohorts and examined factors associated with birth cohort differences. Design Longitudinal panel. Setting Canadian National Population Health Survey (1994–2011). Population Sample of 10 186 individuals aged 20–69 years in 1994–1995 and who were from 5 birth cohorts: Generation X (Gen X; born: 1965–1974), Younger Baby Boomers (born: 1955–1964), Older Baby Boomers (born: 1945–1954), World War II (born: 1935–1944) and pre-World War II (born: 1925–1934). Main outcomes Use of primary care and specialist services. Results Although the overall pattern suggested less use of physician services by each successive recent cohort, this blinded differences in primary and specialist care use by cohort. Multilevel analyses comparing cohorts showed that Gen Xers and younger boomers, particularly those with multimorbidity, were less likely to use primary care than earlier cohorts. In contrast, specialist use was higher in recent cohorts, with Gen Xers having the highest specialist use. These increases were explained by the increasing levels of multimorbidity. Education, income, having a regular source of care, sedentary lifestyle and obesity were significantly associated with physician services use, but only partially contributed to cohort differences. Conclusions The findings suggest a shift from primary care to specialist care among recent cohorts, particularly for those with multimorbidity. This is of concern given policies to promote primary care services to prevent and manage chronic conditions. There is a need for policies to address important generational differences in healthcare preferences and the balance between primary and specialty care to ensure integration and coordination of healthcare delivery. PMID:27687902

  18. Modelling disease progression in relapsing-remitting onset multiple sclerosis using multilevel models applied to longitudinal data from two natural history cohorts and one treated cohort.

    PubMed

    Tilling, Kate; Lawton, Michael; Robertson, Neil; Tremlett, Helen; Zhu, Feng; Harding, Katharine; Oger, Joel; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2016-10-01

    The ability to better predict disease progression represents a major unmet need in multiple sclerosis (MS), and would help to inform therapeutic and management choices. To develop multilevel models using longitudinal data on disease progression in patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) or secondary-progressive MS (SPMS); and to use these models to estimate the association of disease-modifying therapy (DMT) with progression. Secondary analysis of three MS cohorts. Two natural history cohorts: University of Wales Multiple Sclerosis (UoWMS) cohort, UK, and British Columbia Multiple Sclerosis (BCMS) cohort, Canada. One observational DMT-treated cohort: UK MS risk-sharing scheme (RSS). The UoWMS database has > 2000 MS patients and the BCMS database (as of 2009) has > 5900 MS patients. All participants who had definite MS (RRMS/SPMS), who reached the criteria set out by the Association of British Neurologists (ABN) for eligibility for DMT [i.e. age ≥ 18 years, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score of ≤ 6.5, occurrence of two or more relapses in the previous 2 years] and who had at least two repeated outcome measures were included: 404 patients for the UoWMS cohort and 978 patients for the BCMS cohort. Through the UK MS RSS scheme, 5583 DMT-treated patients were recruited, with the analysis sample being the 4137 who had RRMS and were eligible and treated at baseline, with at least one valid EDSS score post baseline. EDSS score observations post ABN eligibility. We used multilevel models in the development cohort (UoWMS) to develop a model for EDSS score with time since ABN eligibility, allowing for covariates and appropriate transformation of outcome and/or time. These methods were then applied to the BCMS cohort to obtain a 'natural history' model for changes in the EDSS score with time. We then used this natural history model to predict the trajectories of EDSS score in treated patients in the UK MS RSS database. Differences between the

  19. Modeling and design of a reload PWR core for a 48-month fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, M.V.; Driscoll, M.J.; Todreas, N.E.

    1997-05-01

    The objective of this research was to use state-of-the-art nuclear and fuel performance packages to evaluate the feasibility and costs of a 48 calendar month core in existing pressurized water reactor (PWR) designs, considering the full range of practical design and economic considerations. The driving force behind this research is the desire to make nuclear power more economically competitive with fossil fuel options by expanding the scope for achievement of higher capacity factors. Using CASMO/SIMULATE, a core design with fuel enriched to 7{sup w}/{sub o} U{sup 235} for a single batch loaded, 48-month fuel cycle has been developed. This core achieves an ultra-long cycle length without exceeding current fuel burnup limits. The design uses two different types of burnable poisons. Gadolinium in the form of gadolinium oxide (Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}) mixed with the UO{sub 2} of selected pins is sued to hold down initial reactivity and to control flux peaking throughout the life of the core. A zirconium di-boride (ZrB{sub 2}) integral fuel burnable absorber (IFBA) coating on the Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-UO{sub 2} fuel pellets is added to reduce the critical soluble boron concentration in the reactor coolant to within acceptable limits. Fuel performance issues of concern to this design are also outlined and areas which will require further research are highlighted.

  20. A study of the birth weight-obesity relation using a longitudinal cohort and sibling and twin pairs.

    PubMed

    The, Natalie S; Adair, Linda S; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2010-09-01

    Sibling and twin study designs provide control for confounding factors that are typically unmeasured in traditional cohort studies. Using nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health collected at 3 visits during 1994-2002, the authors evaluated the longitudinal association between birth weight and later obesity in a traditional cohort study (n = 13,763; ages 11-21 years at baseline), controlling for sex, age, race/ethnicity, and parental education. Among persons with a nonobese mother, high birth weight (>4 kg) participants were more likely than normal birth weight (>/=2.5-longitudinal within-pair differences. Birth weight difference was positively associated with body mass index difference later in life for female monozygotic pairs only (beta = 2.67, 95% confidence interval: 0.99, 4.35). Given the null associations observed in the sibling sample, the commonly observed positive association between birth weight and later obesity from cohort analyses may be attributed to confounding by maternal characteristics. Further research is needed to identify specific factors that contribute to the birth weight-obesity relation.

  1. Body composition, diet, and physical activity: a longitudinal cohort study in preschoolers with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Oftedal, Stina; Davies, Peter Sw; Boyd, Roslyn N; Stevenson, Richard D; Ware, Robert S; Keawutan, Piyapa; Benfer, Katherine A; Bell, Kristie L

    2017-02-01

    Altered body composition in children with cerebral palsy (CP) could be due to differences in energy intake, habitual physical activity (HPA), and sedentary time. We investigated the longitudinal relation between the weight-for-age z score (WZ), fat-free mass (FFM), percentage of body fat (%BF), and modifiable lifestyle factors for all Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels (I-V). The study was a longitudinal population-based cohort study of children with CP who were aged 18-60 mo (364 assessments in 161 children; boys: 61%; mean ± SD recruitment age: 2.8 ± 0.9 y; GMFCS: I, 48%; II, 11%; III, 15%; IV, 11%; and V, 15%). A deuterium dilution technique or bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to estimate FFM, and the %BF was calculated. Energy intake, HPA, and sedentary time were measured with the use of a 3-d weighed food diary and accelerometer wear. Data were analyzed with the use of a mixed-model analysis. Children in GMFCS group I did not differ from age- and sex-specific reference children with typical development for weight. Children in GMFCS group IV were lighter-for-age, and children in GMFCS group V had a lower FFM-for-height than those in GMFCS group I. Children in GMFCS groups II-V had a higher %BF than that of children in GMFCS group I, with the exception of orally fed children in GMFCS group V. The mean %BF of children with CP classified them as overfat or obese. There was a positive association between energy intake and FFM and also between HPA level and FFM for children in GMFCS group I. Altered body composition was evident in preschool-age children with CP across functional capacities. Gross motor function, feeding method, energy intake, and HPA level in GMFCS I individuals are the strongest predictors of body composition in children with CP between the ages of 18 and 60 mo. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Moderate alcohol consumption as risk factor for adverse brain outcomes and cognitive decline: longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Charlotte L; Valkanova, Vyara; Zsoldos, Enikő; Filippini, Nicola; Sexton, Claire; Mahmood, Abda; Fooks, Peggy; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Mackay, Clare E; Kivimäki, Mika; Ebmeier, Klaus P

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether moderate alcohol consumption has a favourable or adverse association or no association with brain structure and function. Design Observational cohort study with weekly alcohol intake and cognitive performance measured repeatedly over 30 years (1985-2015). Multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed at study endpoint (2012-15). Setting Community dwelling adults enrolled in the Whitehall II cohort based in the UK (the Whitehall II imaging substudy). Participants 550 men and women with mean age 43.0 (SD 5.4) at study baseline, none were “alcohol dependent” according to the CAGE screening questionnaire, and all safe to undergo MRI of the brain at follow-up. Twenty three were excluded because of incomplete or poor quality imaging data or gross structural abnormality (such as a brain cyst) or incomplete alcohol use, sociodemographic, health, or cognitive data. Main outcome measures Structural brain measures included hippocampal atrophy, grey matter density, and white matter microstructure. Functional measures included cognitive decline over the study and cross sectional cognitive performance at the time of scanning. Results Higher alcohol consumption over the 30 year follow-up was associated with increased odds of hippocampal atrophy in a dose dependent fashion. While those consuming over 30 units a week were at the highest risk compared with abstainers (odds ratio 5.8, 95% confidence interval 1.8 to 18.6; P≤0.001), even those drinking moderately (14-21 units/week) had three times the odds of right sided hippocampal atrophy (3.4, 1.4 to 8.1; P=0.007). There was no protective effect of light drinking (1-<7 units/week) over abstinence. Higher alcohol use was also associated with differences in corpus callosum microstructure and faster decline in lexical fluency. No association was found with cross sectional cognitive performance or longitudinal changes in semantic fluency or word recall. Conclusions

  3. Back pain in seniors: the Back pain Outcomes using Longitudinal Data (BOLD) cohort baseline data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Back pain represents a substantial burden globally, ranking first in a recent assessment among causes of years lived with disability. Though back pain is widely studied among working age adults, there are gaps with respect to basic descriptive epidemiology among seniors, especially in the United States. Our goal was to describe how pain, function and health-related quality of life vary by demographic and geographic factors among seniors presenting to primary care providers with new episodes of care for back pain. Methods We examined baseline data from the Back pain Outcomes using Longitudinal Data (BOLD) registry, the largest inception cohort to date of seniors presenting to a primary care provider for back pain. The sample included 5,239 patients ≥ 65 years old with a new primary care visit for back pain at three integrated health systems (Northern California Kaiser-Permanente, Henry Ford Health System [Detroit], and Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates [Boston]). We examined differences in patient characteristics across healthcare sites and associations of patient sociodemographic and clinical characteristics with baseline patient-reported measures of pain, function, and health-related quality of life. Results Patients differed across sites in demographic and other characteristics. The Detroit site had more African-American patients (50%) compared with the other sites (7-8%). The Boston site had more college graduates (68%) compared with Detroit (20%). Female sex, lower educational status, African-American race, and older age were associated with worse functional disability as measured by the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire. Except for age, these factors were also associated with worse pain. Conclusions Baseline pain and functional impairment varied substantially with a number of factors in the BOLD cohort. Healthcare site was an important factor. After controlling for healthcare site, lower education, female sex, African-American race

  4. Fruit consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: results from three prospective longitudinal cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Muraki, Isao; Imamura, Fumiaki; Manson, JoAnn E; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter C; van Dam, Rob M

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether individual fruits are differentially associated with risk of type 2 diabetes. Design Prospective longitudinal cohort study. Setting Health professionals in the United States. Participants 66 105 women from the Nurses’ Health Study (1984-2008), 85 104 women from the Nurses’ Health Study II (1991-2009), and 36 173 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2008) who were free of major chronic diseases at baseline in these studies. Main outcome measure Incident cases of type 2 diabetes, identified through self report and confirmed by supplementary questionnaires. Results During 3 464 641 person years of follow-up, 12 198 participants developed type 2 diabetes. After adjustment for personal, lifestyle, and dietary risk factors of diabetes, the pooled hazard ratio of type 2 diabetes for every three servings/week of total whole fruit consumption was 0.98 (95% confidence interval 0.96 to 0.99). With mutual adjustment of individual fruits, the pooled hazard ratios of type 2 diabetes for every three servings/week were 0.74 (0.66 to 0.83) for blueberries, 0.88 (0.83 to 0.93) for grapes and raisins, 0.89 (0.79 to 1.01) for prunes, 0.93 (0.90 to 0.96) for apples and pears, 0.95 (0.91 to 0.98) for bananas, 0.95 (0.91 to 0.99) for grapefruit, 0.97 (0.92 to 1.02) for peaches, plums, and apricots, 0.99 (0.95 to 1.03) for oranges, 1.03 (0.96 to 1.10) for strawberries, and 1.10 (1.02 to 1.18) for cantaloupe. The pooled hazard ratio for the same increment in fruit juice consumption was 1.08 (1.05 to 1.11). The associations with risk of type 2 diabetes differed significantly among individual fruits (P<0.001 in all cohorts). Conclusion Our findings suggest the presence of heterogeneity in the associations between individual fruit consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes. Greater consumption of specific whole fruits, particularly blueberries, grapes, and apples, is significantly associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes, whereas

  5. Fried potato consumption is associated with elevated mortality: an 8-y longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Veronese, Nicola; Stubbs, Brendon; Noale, Marianna; Solmi, Marco; Vaona, Alberto; Demurtas, Jacopo; Nicetto, Davide; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Schofield, Patricia; Koyanagi, Ai; Maggi, Stefania; Fontana, Luigi

    2017-07-01

    Background: Few studies have assessed the association between potato consumption and mortality.Objective: We investigated whether potato consumption (including fried and unfried potatoes) is associated with increased premature mortality risk in a North American cohort.Design: A longitudinal analysis included 4440 participants aged 45-79 y at baseline with an 8-y follow-up from the Osteoarthritis Initiative cohort study. Potato consumption (including fried and unfried potatoes) was analyzed by using a Block Brief 2000 food-frequency questionnaire and categorized as ≤1 time/mo, 2-3 times/mo, 1 time/wk, 2 times/wk, or ≥3 times/wk. Mortality was ascertained through validated cases of death. To investigate the association between potato consumption and mortality, Cox regression models were constructed to estimate HRs with 95% CIs, with adjustment for potential confounders.Results: Of the 4400 participants, 2551 (57.9%) were women with a mean ± SD age of 61.3 ± 9.2 y. During the 8-y follow-up, 236 participants died. After adjustment for 14 potential baseline confounders, and taking those with the lowest consumption of potatoes as the reference group, participants with the highest consumption of potatoes did not show an increased risk of overall mortality (HR: 1.11; 95% CI: 0.65, 1.91). However, subgroup analyses indicated that participants who consumed fried potatoes 2-3 times/wk (HR: 1.95; 95% CI: 1.11, 3.41) and ≥3 times/wk (HR: 2.26; 95% CI: 1.15, 4.47) were at an increased risk of mortality. The consumption of unfried potatoes was not associated with an increased mortality risk.Conclusions: The frequent consumption of fried potatoes appears to be associated with an increased mortality risk. Additional studies in larger sample sizes should be performed to confirm if overall potato consumption is associated with higher mortality risk. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00080171. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. The diversity of young adult wheeze: a cluster analysis in a longitudinal birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Kurukulaaratchy, R J; Zhang, H; Raza, A; Patil, V; Karmaus, W; Ewart, S; Arshad, S H

    2014-01-01

    Cluster analyses have enhanced understanding of the heterogeneity of both paediatric and adult wheezing. However, while adolescence represents an important transitional phase, the nature of young adult wheeze has yet to be clearly characterised. To use cluster analysis to define, for the first time, clinically relevant young adult wheeze clusters in a longitudinal birth cohort. K-means cluster analysis was undertaken among 309 currently wheezing subjects at 18 years in the Isle of Wight birth cohort (N = 1456). Thirteen disease-characterising clustering variables at 18 years were used. Resulting clusters were then further characterised by severity indices plus potential risk factors for wheeze development throughout the 1st 18 years of life. Six wheeze clusters were identified. Cluster 1 (12.3%) male-early-childhood-onset-atopic-wheeze-with-normal-lung-function had male predominance, normal spirometry, low bronchodilator reversibility (BDR), intermediate bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR), high atopy prevalence and more admissions. Cluster 2 (24.2%) early-childhood-onset-wheeze-with-intermediate-lung-function had no specific sex association, intermediate spirometry, BDR, BHR, more significant BTS step therapy and admissions. Cluster 3 (9.7%) female-early-childhood-onset-atopic-wheeze-with-impaired-lung-function showed female predominance, high allergic disease comorbidity, more severe BDR and BHR, greatest airflow obstruction, high smoking prevalence, higher symptom severity and admissions. Cluster 4 (19.4%) female-undiagnosed-wheezers had adolescent-onset non-atopic wheeze, low BDR and BHR, impaired but non-obstructed spirometry, high symptom frequency and highest smoking prevalence. Cluster 5 (24.6%) female-late-childhood-onset-wheeze-with-normal-lung-function showed no specific atopy association, normal spirometry, low BDR, BHR and symptom severity. Cluster 6 (9.7%) male-late-childhood-onset-atopic-wheeze-with-impaired-lung-function had high atopy and

  7. Evaluation of the National Tips From Former Smokers Campaign: the 2014 Longitudinal Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Deesha; Davis, Kevin; Ridgeway, William; Shafer, Paul; Cox, Shanna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Since 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has aired a national tobacco education campaign to encourage quitting, Tips From Former Smokers (Tips), which consists of graphic antismoking advertisements that feature former cigarette smokers. We evaluated phase 2 of the 2014 campaign by using a nationally representative longitudinal cohort. Methods Cigarette smokers who participated in a baseline survey were re-contacted for follow-up (n = 4,248) approximately 4 months later, immediately after the campaign’s conclusion. The primary outcomes were incidence of a quit attempt in the previous 3 months, intention to quit within 30 days, and intention to quit within 6 months during the postcampaign period. We used multivariate logistic regression models to estimate the odds of each outcome. We also stratified models by race/ethnicity, education, and mental health status. Postcampaign rates of quit attempts, intentions to quit, and sustained quits were also estimated. Results Exposure to the campaign was associated with increased odds of a quit attempt in the previous 3 months (OR, 1.17; P = .03) among baseline smokers and intentions to quit within the next 6 months (OR, 1.28; P = .01) among current smokers at follow-up. The Tips campaign was associated with an estimated 1.83 million additional quit attempts, 1.73 million additional smokers intending to quit within 6 months, and 104,000 sustained quits of at least 6 months. Conclusion The Tips campaign continued to have a significant impact on cessation-related behaviors, providing further justification for the continued use of tobacco education campaigns to accelerate progress toward the goal of reducing adult smoking in the United States. PMID:27010845

  8. Racial differences in long-term adherence to oral antidiabetic drug therapy: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Trinacty, Connie M; Adams, Alyce S; Soumerai, Stephen B; Zhang, Fang; Meigs, James B; Piette, John D; Ross-Degnan, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Background Adherence to oral antidiabetic medications is often suboptimal. Adherence differences may contribute to health disparities for black diabetes patients, including higher microvascular event rates, greater complication-related disability, and earlier mortality. Methods In this longitudinal retrospective cohort study, we used 10 years of patient-level claims and electronic medical record data (1/1/1992–12/31/2001) to assess differences in short- and long-term adherence to oral antidiabetic medication among 1906 newly diagnosed adults with diabetes (26% black, 74% white) in a managed care setting in which all members have prescription drug coverage. Four main outcome measures included: (1) time from diabetes diagnosis until first prescription of oral antidiabetic medication; (2) primary adherence (time from first prescription to prescription fill); (3) time until discontinuation of oral antidiabetic medication from first prescription; and (4) long-term adherence (amount dispensed versus amount prescribed) over a 24-month follow-up from first oral antidiabetic medication prescription. Results Black patients were as likely as whites to initiate oral therapy and fill their first prescription, but experienced higher rates of medication discontinuation (HR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.7) and were less adherent over time. These black-white differences increased over the first six months of therapy but stabilized thereafter for patients who initiated on sulfonylureas. Significant black-white differences in adherence levels were constant throughout follow-up for patients initiated on metformin therapy. Conclusion Racial differences in adherence to oral antidiabetic drug therapy persist even with equal access to medication. Early and continued emphasis on adherence from initiation of therapy may reduce persistent racial differences in medication use and clinical outcomes. PMID:19200387

  9. Workplace Determinants of Social Capital: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Evidence from a Finnish Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Oksanen, Tuula; Kawachi, Ichiro; Kouvonen, Anne; Takao, Soshi; Suzuki, Etsuji; Virtanen, Marianna; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine which contextual features of the workplace are associated with social capital. Methods This is a cohort study of 43,167 employees in 3090 Finnish public sector workplaces who responded to a survey of individual workplace social capital in 2000–02 (response rate 68%). We used ecometrics approach to estimate social capital of work units. Features of the workplace were work unit's demographic and employment patterns and size, obtained from employers' administrative records. We used multilevel-multinomial logistic regression models to examine cross-sectionally whether these features were associated with social capital between individuals and work units. Fixed effects models were used for longitudinal analyses in a subsample of 12,108 individuals to examine the effects of changes in workplace characteristics on changes in social capital between 2000 and 2004. Results After adjustment for individual characteristics, an increase in work unit size reduced the odds of high levels of individual workplace social capital (odds ratio 0.94, 95% confidence interval 0.91–0.98 per 30-person-year increase). A 20% increase in the proportion of manual and male employees reduced the odds of high levels of social capital by 8% and 23%, respectively. A 30% increase in temporary employees and a 20% increase in employee turnover were associated with 11% (95% confidence interval 1.04–1.17) and 24% (95% confidence interval 1.18–1.30) higher odds of having high levels of social capital respectively). Results from fixed effects models within individuals, adjusted for time-varying covariates, and from social capital of the work units yielded consistent results. Conclusions These findings suggest that workplace social capital is contextually patterned. Workplace demographic and employment patterns as well as the size of the work unit are important in understanding variations in workplace social capital between individuals and workplaces. PMID:23776555

  10. Longitudinal Survey of Carotenoids in Human Milk from Urban Cohorts in China, Mexico, and the USA.

    PubMed

    Lipkie, Tristan E; Morrow, Ardythe L; Jouni, Zeina E; McMahon, Robert J; Ferruzzi, Mario G

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that carotenoids may have particular roles in infant nutrition and development, yet data on the profile and bioavailability of carotenoids from human milk remain sparse. Milk was longitudinally collected at 2, 4, 13, and 26 weeks postpartum from twenty mothers each in China, Mexico, and the USA in the Global Exploration of Human Milk Study (n = 60 donors, n = 240 samples). Maternal and neonatal plasma was analyzed for carotenoids from the USA cohort at 4 weeks postpartum. Carotenoids were analyzed by HPLC and total lipids by Creamatocrit. Across all countries and lactation stages, the top four carotenoids were lutein (median 114.4 nmol/L), β-carotene (49.4 nmol/L), β-cryptoxanthin (33.8 nmol/L), and lycopene (33.7 nmol/L). Non-provitamin A carotenoids (nmol/L) and total lipids (g/L) decreased (p<0.05) with increasing lactation stage, except the provitamin A carotenoids α- and β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene did not significantly change (p>0.05) with lactation stage. Total carotenoid content and lutein content were greatest from China, yet lycopene was lowest from China (p<0.0001). Lutein, β-cryptoxanthin, and β-carotene, and lycopene concentrations in milk were significantly correlated to maternal plasma and neonatal plasma concentrations (p<0.05), with the exception that lycopene was not significantly associated between human milk and neonatal plasma (p>0.3). This enhanced understanding of neonatal exposure to carotenoids during development may help guide dietary recommendations and design of human milk mimetics.

  11. Prenatal maternal depression is associated with offspring inflammation at 25 years: a prospective longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Plant, D T; Pawlby, S; Sharp, D; Zunszain, P A; Pariante, C M

    2016-01-01

    Animal studies and a handful of prospective human studies have demonstrated that young offspring exposed to maternal prenatal stress show abnormalities in immune parameters and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis function. No study has examined the effect of maternal prenatal depression on offspring inflammation and HPA axis activity in adulthood, nor the putative role of child maltreatment in inducing these abnormalities. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and awakening cortisol were measured at age 25 in 103 young-adult offspring of the South London Child Development Study (SLCDS), a prospective longitudinal birth cohort of mother–offspring dyads recruited in pregnancy in 1986. Maternal prenatal depression was assessed in pregnancy at 20 and 36 weeks; offspring child maltreatment (birth 17 years) was assessed at offspring ages 11, 16 and 25; and offspring adulthood depression (18–25 years) was assessed at age 25. Exposure to maternal prenatal depression predicted significantly elevated offspring hs-CRP at age 25 (odds ratio=11.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.1, 127.0), P=0.041), independently of child maltreatment and adulthood depression, known risk factors for adulthood inflammation. In contrast, maternal prenatal depression did not predict changes in offspring adulthood cortisol; however, offspring exposure to child maltreatment did, and was associated with elevated awakening cortisol levels (B=161.9, 95% CI (45.4, 278.4), P=0.007). Fetal exposure to maternal depression during pregnancy has effects on immune function that persist for up to a quarter of a century after birth. Findings are consistent with the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) hypothesis for the biological embedding of gestational psychosocial adversity into vulnerability for future physical and mental illness. PMID:27801895

  12. Family employment and child socioemotional behaviour: longitudinal findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hope, Steven; Pearce, Anna; Whitehead, Margaret; Law, Catherine

    2014-10-01

    Levels of paid employment in two parent and lone parent families have increased in the UK but evidence of its impact on child socioemotional behaviour is limited and inconsistent. We conducted a longitudinal analysis using the first four sweeps of the Millennium Cohort Study (9 months, 3 years, 5 years and 7 years) to investigate the influence of family employment trajectories in the early years on socioemotional behaviour at 7 years, unadjusted and adjusted for covariates. In addition, mothers' employment was investigated separately. Children from families where no parent was employed for one or more sweeps were at a greater risk of socioemotional problem behaviour compared with those where a parent was continuously employed, even after adjustment for covariates. Children of mothers who were non-employed for one or more sweeps were at greater risk of problem behaviour compared with mothers who were employed at all sweeps. Adjustment for covariates fully attenuated the excess risk for children whose mothers had moved into employment by the time they were 7 years. In contrast, the elevated risk associated with continuous non-employment and a single transition out of employment was attenuated after adjustment for early covariates, fathers' employment, household income and mothers' psychological distress at 7 years, but remained significant. Family and mothers' employment were associated with a lower risk of problem behaviour for children in middle childhood, in part explained by sociodemographic characteristics of families and the apparent psychological and socioeconomic benefits of employment. Results for mothers' transitions in or out of the labour market suggest that child problem behaviour is influenced by current status, over and above diverse earlier experiences of employment and non-employment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Longitudinal assessment of airway responsiveness from 1 month to 18 years in the PIAF birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Cox, Desmond W; Mullane, Dave; Zhang, Guicheng C; Turner, Steve W; Hayden, Catherine M; Goldblatt, Jack; Landau, Lou I; Le Souëf, Peter N

    2015-12-01

    The Perth Infant Asthma Follow-up (PIAF) study involves a birth cohort of unselected subjects who have undergone longitudinal assessments of airway responsiveness at 1, 6 and 12 months and 6, 11 and 18 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between increased airway responsiveness throughout childhood and asthma in early adult life.Airway responsiveness to histamine, assessed as a dose-response slope (DRS), and a respiratory questionnaire were completed at 1, 6 and 12 months and 6, 11 and 18 years of age.253 children were initially recruited and studied. Airway responsiveness was assessed in 203, 174, 147, 103, 176 and 137 children at the above-mentioned time points, respectively (39 participants being assessed on all test occasions). Asthma at 18 years was associated with increased airway responsiveness at 6, 12 and 18 years, but not during infancy (slope 0.24, 95% CI 0.06-0.42; p=0.01; slope 0.25, 95% CI 0.08-0.49; p=0.006; and slope 0.56, 95% CI 0.29-0.83; p<0.001, respectively).Increased airway responsiveness and its association with asthma at age 18 years is established between infancy and 6 years. We propose that airway responsiveness in early life reflects the initial airway geometry and airway responsiveness later in childhood increasingly reflects immunological responses to environmental influences. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  14. Longitudinal Survey of Carotenoids in Human Milk from Urban Cohorts in China, Mexico, and the USA

    PubMed Central

    Lipkie, Tristan E.; Morrow, Ardythe L.; Jouni, Zeina E.; McMahon, Robert J.; Ferruzzi, Mario G.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that carotenoids may have particular roles in infant nutrition and development, yet data on the profile and bioavailability of carotenoids from human milk remain sparse. Milk was longitudinally collected at 2, 4, 13, and 26 weeks postpartum from twenty mothers each in China, Mexico, and the USA in the Global Exploration of Human Milk Study (n = 60 donors, n = 240 samples). Maternal and neonatal plasma was analyzed for carotenoids from the USA cohort at 4 weeks postpartum. Carotenoids were analyzed by HPLC and total lipids by Creamatocrit. Across all countries and lactation stages, the top four carotenoids were lutein (median 114.4 nmol/L), β-carotene (49.4 nmol/L), β-cryptoxanthin (33.8 nmol/L), and lycopene (33.7 nmol/L). Non-provitamin A carotenoids (nmol/L) and total lipids (g/L) decreased (p<0.05) with increasing lactation stage, except the provitamin A carotenoids α- and β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene did not significantly change (p>0.05) with lactation stage. Total carotenoid content and lutein content were greatest from China, yet lycopene was lowest from China (p<0.0001). Lutein, β-cryptoxanthin, and β-carotene, and lycopene concentrations in milk were significantly correlated to maternal plasma and neonatal plasma concentrations (p<0.05), with the exception that lycopene was not significantly associated between human milk and neonatal plasma (p>0.3). This enhanced understanding of neonatal exposure to carotenoids during development may help guide dietary recommendations and design of human milk mimetics. PMID:26061885

  15. Protocol of the Swiss Longitudinal Cohort Study (SWICOS) in rural Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Schoenenberger, Andreas W; Muggli, Franco; Parati, Gianfranco; Gallino, Augusto; Ehret, Georg; Suter, Paolo M; Schoenenberger-Berzins, Renate; Resink, Therese J; Erne, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Increased longevity and consequent major changes in demographics and population lifestyles necessitate new approaches to reduce the burden of ageing-related diseases (including cardiovascular disease) and maintain an optimal quality of life. This study aims to examine and longitudinally follow health status and disease risk factors in a Swiss rural cohort, evaluating all health-related research and practice disciplines to assure development of new implementable and successful preventive strategies for healthy ageing. Methods and objectives Small Swiss villages with low migration rates will be selected for this study. 2 villages (Cama/Lostallo) have already been selected as initial study sites. All residents (age ≥6 years, no upper age limit) are eligible. The target enrolment number per village is 300. Examinations and measurements encompass medical history, anthropometry, cardiac and vascular health, pulmonary function, physical performance, nutritional, mental and emotional status, biochemical and molecular analyses. Follow-up examinations (identical to baseline) will be performed after 5 and 10 years, and in 10-year intervals thereafter. The major objective is to assess, and observe change in, health status over time in a prospective manner. Secondary objectives are to: (1) identify ‘hidden’ (asymptomatic and/or unrecognised) health problems which enhance risk for chronic diseases; (2) identify barriers to accessing healthcare and adapting health behaviours; (3) evaluate efficacy of present preventive strategies and recommendations; (4) evaluate knowledge and attitude towards ongoing health programmes and public health recommendations; (5) monitor change and progress towards the national health objectives; (6) formulate new preventive strategies and recommendations based on the findings and knowledge base of the past 10 years; (7) formulate models for successful prevention of chronic diseases and for healthy ageing. Ethics and

  16. A longitudinal cohort study examining determinants of overweight and obesity in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Barakat-Haddad, Caroline; Saeed, Usman; Elliott, Susan

    2017-04-20

    Adulthood overweight and obesity are multifaceted conditions influenced by a combination of biological, environmental and socio-cultural factors across the lifespan. Using a longitudinal study design, we aimed to identify determinants of adulthood overweight and obesity, in relation to: 1) childhood and life course factors, 2) geographical differences in air quality, and 3) gender-specific factors, in a cohort followed from childhood into adulthood. Childhood data were acquired (1978-1986) from children residing in four distinct Hamilton neighbourhoods (Ontario, Canada), including air-quality assessments. Adulthood data were obtained (2006-2007) from successfully retraced participants (n = 315) using comprehensive self-administered questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to evaluate determinants of adulthood overweight (BMI: 25-29.9 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI: ≥30). The prevalence of normal weight decreased drastically at follow-up in adulthood, while that of overweight and obesity increased. Both overweight and obesity in adulthood were associated with male gender and occupational exposures to contaminants. Childhood residence in Hamilton neighbourhoods with better air quality was associated with lesser odds of adulthood overweight, whereas adulthood obesity was strongly linked to childhood weight gain (overweight or obesity). Among females, childhood weight status predicted overweight and obesity in adulthood, with always living in Hamilton, lack of additional health insurance, negative self-appraisal and high blood pressure during adulthood identified as other significant predictors. Among males, prolonged occupational exposures to contaminants emerged as a unique determinant of adulthood weight gain. Adulthood overweight and obesity are associated with childhood and life course determinants, including childhood weight status, residential air quality and occupational contaminant exposures, in a gender-specific manner.

  17. Sexual-orientation disparities in cigarette smoking in a longitudinal cohort study of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Corliss, Heather L; Wadler, Brianna M; Jun, Hee-Jin; Rosario, Margaret; Wypij, David; Frazier, A Lindsay; Austin, S Bryn

    2013-01-01

    Youths with a minority sexual orientation (i.e., gay, lesbian, bisexual, and mostly heterosexual) are at high risk for cigarette smoking. We examined sexual-orientation disparities in smoking during adolescence and emerging adulthood and investigated the role of age at first smoking in contributing to smoking disparities. We used data from the Growing Up Today Study, a large longitudinal cohort of adolescents followed from ages 12 to 24 years (N = 13,913). Self-administered questionnaires filled out annually or biennially assessed age at first smoking, current smoking, frequency of smoking, number of cigarettes smoked daily, and nicotine dependence. Proportional hazards survival analysis and repeated measures regression estimated sexual-orientation differences in smoking. Compared with completely heterosexuals, lesbian/gay, bisexual, and mostly heterosexual youths smoked their first cigarette at younger ages, were more likely to be current smokers, and had higher frequency of smoking. Among past-year smokers, sexual-minority females smoked more cigarettes daily and scored higher on nicotine dependence than completely heterosexual females. In some instances, gender and age modified relationships between sexual orientation and smoking, with relative risk accentuated in female sexual minorities and in sexual minorities during younger ages. Younger age of smoking onset contributed to elevated smoking in mostly heterosexuals and bisexuals, and to a lesser extent in lesbians, but not in gay males. Sexual-orientation minorities are at greater risk for smoking during adolescence and emerging adulthood than heterosexuals. Disparities are larger in females and evident in early adolescence. Prevention and cessation efforts should target this population, preferably beginning in early adolescence.

  18. Alcohol, Smoking, Physical Activity, Protein, and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: Prospective Longitudinal Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Min Soo; Han, Jun Hyun; Shin, Tae Young; Ko, Kyungtae; Lee, Won Ki; Cho, Sung Tae; Lee, Sang Kon; Lee, Seong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate risk factors for deterioration of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in elderly men in a community-based, prospective longitudinal cohort study. Methods: In a suburban area in Korea, 1,514 subjects aged ≥45 years were randomly selected by systematic sampling. A total of 918 elderly subjects were enrolled in this in-depth clinical study in 2004. Of these, 547 participants were followed up for 3 years and the data was analyzed in 2014. Standard questionnaires were administered face-to-face by trained interviewers. After excluding women, 224 male participants with complete data including transrectal ultrasonography were included in the final analysis. LUTS were diagnosed using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire. Symptom deterioration was defined as a score of ≥8 points during the 3-year follow-up period. Results: LUTS prevalence increased to 13.1% and the mean IPSS increased by 2.6 points during the 3-year period. After adjusting for confounders, a smoking history of ≥50 pack-years was an independent risk factor for deterioration of LUTS and storage subsymptoms compared with no history of smoking (3.1 and 5.1 odds, respectively). Physical activity had a protective effect on voiding subsymptoms. However, high protein diet and alcohol intake were not associated with LUTS deterioration. Conclusions: The LUTS prevalence among elderly men living in a suburban area increased to 13.1% and the IPSS increased by 2.6 points during the 3-year period. A history of heavy smoking, low physical activity, and high protein intake were associated with LUTS deterioration. However, there was no significant association between alcohol intake and LUTS deterioration. PMID:26620903

  19. Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Responses in a Large Longitudinal Sub-Saharan HIV Primary Infection Cohort.

    PubMed

    Landais, Elise; Huang, Xiayu; Havenar-Daughton, Colin; Murrell, Ben; Price, Matt A; Wickramasinghe, Lalinda; Ramos, Alejandra; Bian, Charoan B; Simek, Melissa; Allen, Susan; Karita, Etienne; Kilembe, William; Lakhi, Shabir; Inambao, Mubiana; Kamali, Anatoli; Sanders, Eduard J; Anzala, Omu; Edward, Vinodh; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Tang, Jianming; Gilmour, Jill; Kosakovsky-Pond, Sergei L; Phung, Pham; Wrin, Terri; Crotty, Shane; Godzik, Adam; Poignard, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) are thought to be a critical component of a protective HIV vaccine. However, designing vaccines immunogens able to elicit bnAbs has proven unsuccessful to date. Understanding the correlates and immunological mechanisms leading to the development of bnAb responses during natural HIV infection is thus critical to the design of a protective vaccine. The IAVI Protocol C program investigates a large longitudinal cohort of primary HIV-1 infection in Eastern and South Africa. Development of neutralization was evaluated in 439 donors using a 6 cross-clade pseudo-virus panel predictive of neutralization breadth on larger panels. About 15% of individuals developed bnAb responses, essentially between year 2 and year 4 of infection. Statistical analyses revealed no influence of gender, age or geographical origin on the development of neutralization breadth. However, cross-clade neutralization strongly correlated with high viral load as well as with low CD4 T cell counts, subtype-C infection and HLA-A*03(-) genotype. A correlation with high overall plasma IgG levels and anti-Env IgG binding titers was also found. The latter appeared not associated with higher affinity, suggesting a greater diversity of the anti-Env responses in broad neutralizers. Broadly neutralizing activity targeting glycan-dependent epitopes, largely the N332-glycan epitope region, was detected in nearly half of the broad neutralizers while CD4bs and gp41-MPER bnAb responses were only detected in very few individuals. Together the findings suggest that both viral and host factors are critical for the development of bnAbs and that the HIV Env N332-glycan supersite may be a favorable target for vaccine design.

  20. Longitudinal Cohort Study of Regenerative Endodontic Treatment for Immature Necrotic Permanent Teeth.

    PubMed

    Chan, Edwin Ka Meng; Desmeules, Mia; Cielecki, Margaret; Dabbagh, Basma; Ferraz Dos Santos, Beatriz

    2017-03-01

    The treatment of immature necrotic permanent teeth presents several clinical challenges in endodontics. Regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs) permit root development, increased canal wall thickness, and apical closure. This longitudinal cohort study aimed to evaluate the long-term clinical and radiographic outcomes of REPs of immature necrotic permanent teeth over a 30-month period. This study was performed at the Division of Dentistry of the Montreal Children's Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Twenty-eight immature necrotic permanent teeth from 22 patients were included in this study. All teeth were treated with a standardized REP protocol. Patients had follow-up appointments at 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 months. At each appointment, signs and symptoms were evaluated. Radiographic evaluation was also performed by a calibrated endodontist in order to analyze different parameters. Our results show a high survival rate (96.4%), clinical success (92.8%), and resolution of apical pathology (100%). Significant increases in the average root length (8.1%, P < .0001) and root thickness area (11.6%, P = .03) were observed after 30 months. In the study period, a significant decrease in the apical diameter was also noted, with 30.8% of the cases showing complete apical closure. Teeth with more immature stages of root development had a higher percentage of change in root thickness, length, and apical diameter; however, these results were not statistically significant. Teeth treated with REPs presented resolution of symptoms. Although clinical meaningful change was not achieved in all cases, increased root thickness, root length, and apical closure were observed at 30 months. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Family employment and child socioemotional behaviour: longitudinal findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hope, Steven; Pearce, Anna; Whitehead, Margaret; Law, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background Levels of paid employment in two parent and lone parent families have increased in the UK but evidence of its impact on child socioemotional behaviour is limited and inconsistent. Methods We conducted a longitudinal analysis using the first four sweeps of the Millennium Cohort Study (9 months, 3 years, 5 years and 7 years) to investigate the influence of family employment trajectories in the early years on socioemotional behaviour at 7 years, unadjusted and adjusted for covariates. In addition, mothers’ employment was investigated separately. Results Children from families where no parent was employed for one or more sweeps were at a greater risk of socioemotional problem behaviour compared with those where a parent was continuously employed, even after adjustment for covariates. Children of mothers who were non-employed for one or more sweeps were at greater risk of problem behaviour compared with mothers who were employed at all sweeps. Adjustment for covariates fully attenuated the excess risk for children whose mothers had moved into employment by the time they were 7 years. In contrast, the elevated risk associated with continuous non-employment and a single transition out of employment was attenuated after adjustment for early covariates, fathers’ employment, household income and mothers’ psychological distress at 7 years, but remained significant. Conclusions Family and mothers’ employment were associated with a lower risk of problem behaviour for children in middle childhood, in part explained by sociodemographic characteristics of families and the apparent psychological and socioeconomic benefits of employment. Results for mothers’ transitions in or out of the labour market suggest that child problem behaviour is influenced by current status, over and above diverse earlier experiences of employment and non-employment. PMID:24889054

  2. Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Responses in a Large Longitudinal Sub-Saharan HIV Primary Infection Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Landais, Elise; Huang, Xiayu; Havenar-Daughton, Colin; Murrell, Ben; Price, Matt A.; Wickramasinghe, Lalinda; Ramos, Alejandra; Bian, Charoan B.; Simek, Melissa; Allen, Susan; Karita, Etienne; Kilembe, William; Lakhi, Shabir; Inambao, Mubiana; Kamali, Anatoli; Sanders, Eduard J.; Anzala, Omu; Edward, Vinodh; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Tang, Jianming; Gilmour, Jill; Kosakovsky-Pond, Sergei L.; Phung, Pham; Wrin, Terri; Crotty, Shane; Godzik, Adam; Poignard, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) are thought to be a critical component of a protective HIV vaccine. However, designing vaccines immunogens able to elicit bnAbs has proven unsuccessful to date. Understanding the correlates and immunological mechanisms leading to the development of bnAb responses during natural HIV infection is thus critical to the design of a protective vaccine. The IAVI Protocol C program investigates a large longitudinal cohort of primary HIV-1 infection in Eastern and South Africa. Development of neutralization was evaluated in 439 donors using a 6 cross-clade pseudo-virus panel predictive of neutralization breadth on larger panels. About 15% of individuals developed bnAb responses, essentially between year 2 and year 4 of infection. Statistical analyses revealed no influence of gender, age or geographical origin on the development of neutralization breadth. However, cross-clade neutralization strongly correlated with high viral load as well as with low CD4 T cell counts, subtype-C infection and HLA-A*03(-) genotype. A correlation with high overall plasma IgG levels and anti-Env IgG binding titers was also found. The latter appeared not associated with higher affinity, suggesting a greater diversity of the anti-Env responses in broad neutralizers. Broadly neutralizing activity targeting glycan-dependent epitopes, largely the N332-glycan epitope region, was detected in nearly half of the broad neutralizers while CD4bs and gp41-MPER bnAb responses were only detected in very few individuals. Together the findings suggest that both viral and host factors are critical for the development of bnAbs and that the HIV Env N332-glycan supersite may be a favorable target for vaccine design. PMID:26766578

  3. Infant feeding practices in a South African birth cohort-A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Budree, Shrish; Goddard, Elizabeth; Brittain, Kirsty; Cader, Shihaam; Myer, Landon; Zar, Heather J

    2016-10-02

    Childhood malnutrition is highly prevalent in low- and middle-income countries. The choices of complementary foods, which are important in infant nutrition, are poorly described in this setting. We investigated infant feeding practices in a South African birth cohort, the Drakenstein Child Health Study. Longitudinal feeding data were collected from March 2012 to March 2015. Feeding practices at birth, 6-10 and 14 weeks and 6, 9, and 12 months, were investigated using food frequency questionnaires. Anthropometry was measured at birth and 12 months. The quality of the diet was analyzed using the World Health Organization infant and young child feeding indicators. Regression models were used to explore associations between feeding and growth outcomes at 1 year. Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months was low (13%), and 19% of infants were introduced to solid foods before 4 months. There was high daily consumption of processed meat (56%) and inappropriate foods such as fruit juice (82%), soft drinks (54%), and refined sugary foods (51%) at 1 year. Dietary diversity and consumption of iron rich foods were low at 6 months (5% and 3%, respectively) but higher by 12 months (75% and 78%). Longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding was associated with a lower height-for-age z-score at 1 year. Several dietary deficits and a rising trend in the consumption of inappropriate nutritionally poor foods were identified. These findings raise concern about poor dietary practices and the impact on child and long-term health.

  4. Characteristics of azathioprine use and cessation in a longitudinal lupus cohort

    PubMed Central

    Croyle, Lucy; Hoi, Alberta; Morand, Eric F

    2015-01-01

    Objective Guidelines for azathioprine (AZA) use in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), including indications for initiation and cessation, are lacking. Clinical decision-making could be improved if reasons for cessation of AZA treatment were standardised. Methods We determined the characteristics of AZA use in a cohort of patients with SLE and evaluated reasons for AZA cessation. Patients with SLE in a single centre had longitudinal recording of disease activity (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI)-2k), laboratory investigations and treatment from 2007 to 2012. Results Of 183 patients studied, 67 used AZA on at least one occasion. There was no significant difference between AZA users and non-users in age or American College of Rheumatology criteria. Compared with those not treated with AZA, patients treated with AZA had higher disease activity (time-adjusted mean SLEDAI 5.2±0.3 vs 3.8±0.3, p=0.0028) and damage (Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC)-SDI 1.6±0.3 vs 1.2±0.1, p=0.0445), and were more likely to have a positive dsDNA (p=0.0130) and receive glucocorticoids (p<0.0001). AZA therapy was ceased in 30/67 (45%) patients. The predominant reasons for cessation were treatment de-escalation 14 (47%), treatment failure 12 (40%) and toxicity 3 (10%). AZA was switched to mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in 9/12 (75%) of treatment failures, and this choice was strongly associated with active lupus nephritis. Conclusions AZA toxicity was uncommon, and many patients ceased therapy in the context of treatment de-escalation. However, the frequent development of active lupus nephritis requiring MMF suggests the need to distinguish refractoriness, under-treatment and non-adherence to AZA in patients with SLE. These findings suggest that future studies of AZA metabolite measurement could prove valuable in the management of SLE. PMID:26322237

  5. Longitudinal associations between television in the bedroom and body fatness in a UK cohort study.

    PubMed

    Heilmann, A; Rouxel, P; Fitzsimons, E; Kelly, Y; Watt, R G

    2017-06-02

    To assess longitudinal associations between screen-based media use (television (TV) and computer hours, having a TV in the bedroom) and body fatness among UK children. Participants were 12 556 children from the UK Millennium Cohort Study who were followed from age 7 to age 11 years. Associations were assessed between screen-based media use and the following outcomes: body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI), and overweight. In fully adjusted models, having a bedroom TV at age 7 years was associated with significantly higher BMI and FMI (excess BMI for boys=0.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.06-0.52; excess BMI for girls=0.57, 95% CI 0.31-0.84; excess FMI for boys=0.20, 95% CI 0.04-0.37; excess FMI for girls=0.39, 95% CI 0.21-0.57) and increased risk of being overweight (relative risk (RR) for boys=1.21, 95% CI 1.07-1.36; RR for girls=1.31, 95% CI 1.15-1.48) at age 11 years, compared with having no bedroom TV. Hours spent watching TV or digital versatile disks were associated with increased risk of overweight among girls only. Computer use at age 7 years was not related to later body fatness for either gender. Having a TV in the child's bedroom was an independent risk factor for overweight and increased body fatness in this nationally representative sample of UK children. Childhood obesity prevention strategies should consider TVs in children's bedrooms as a risk factor for obesity.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 27 June 2017; doi:10.1038/ijo.2017.129.

  6. Cognitive impairments and subjective cognitive complaints after survival of cardiac arrest: A prospective longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Steinbusch, Catherine V M; van Heugten, Caroline M; Rasquin, Sascha M C; Verbunt, Jeanine A; Moulaert, Véronique R M

    2017-08-14

    Cardiac arrest can lead to hypoxic brain injury, which can affect cognitive functioning. To investigate the course of objective and subjective cognitive functioning and their association during the first year after cardiac arrest. A multi-centre prospective longitudinal cohort study with one year follow-up (measurements at two weeks, three months and one year). Cognitive functioning was measured with a neuropsychological test battery and subjective cognitive functioning with the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire. 141 cardiac arrest survivors participated. Two weeks post cardiac arrest 16% to 29% of survivors were cognitively impaired varying on the different tests, at three months between 9% and 23% and at one year 10%-22% remained impaired with executive functioning being affected most. Significant reduction of cognitive impairments was seen for all tests, with most recovery during the first three months after cardiac arrest. Subjective cognitive complaints were present at two weeks after cardiac arrest in 11%, 12% at three months and 14% at one year. There were no significant associations between cognitive impairments and cognitive complaints at any time point. Cognitive impairments are common in cardiac arrest survivors with executive functioning being mostly affected. Most recovery is seen in the first three months after cardiac arrest. After one year, a substantial number of patients remain impaired, especially in executive functioning. Because of absence of associations between impairments and complaints, cognitive testing using a sensitive test battery is important and should be part of routine follow-up after a cardiac arrest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The predictive role of support in the birth experience: A longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sigurdardottir, Valgerdur Lisa; Gamble, Jennifer; Gudmundsdottir, Berglind; Kristjansdottir, Hildur; Sveinsdottir, Herdis; Gottfredsdottir, Helga

    2017-05-03

    Several risk factors for negative birth experience have been identified, but little is known regarding the influence of social and midwifery support on the birth experience over time. The aim of this study was to describe women's birth experience up to two years after birth and to detect the predictive role of satisfaction with social and midwifery support in the birth experience. A longitudinal cohort study was conducted with a convenience sample of pregnant women from 26 community health care centres. Data was gathered using questionnaires at 11-16 weeks of pregnancy (T1, n=1111), at five to six months (T2, n=765), and at 18-24 months after birth (T3, n=657). Data about sociodemographic factors, reproductive history, birth outcomes, social and midwifery support, depressive symptoms, and birth experience were collected. The predictive role of midwifery support in the birth experience was examined using binary logistic regression. The prevalence of negative birth experience was 5% at T2 and 5.7% at T3. Women who were not satisfied with midwifery support during pregnancy and birth were more likely to have negative birth experience at T2 than women who were satisfied with midwifery support. Operative birth, perception of prolonged birth and being a student predicted negative birth experience at both T2 and T3. Perception of negative birth experience was relatively consistent during the study period and the role of support from midwives during pregnancy and birth had a significant impact on women's perception of birth experience. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sleep duration and memory in the elderly Chinese: longitudinal analysis of the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lin; Jiang, Chao Qiang; Lam, Tai Hing; Zhang, Wei Sen; Cherny, Stacey Shawn; Thomas, G Neil; Cheng, Kar Keung

    2014-11-01

    Previous cross-sectional studies showed that short or long sleep duration was associated with memory impairment (MI), but longitudinal studies are scarce. We examined whether sleep duration was associated with memory decline or development of MI. We conducted a prospective analysis based on the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study on 13,888 participants aged 50+ years without MI at baseline and with a follow-up for a mean of 4.1 years. Memory decline was assessed using the Delayed 10-Word Recall Test (DWRT), and in a subset (n = 6,020) with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Short and long sleep duration was defined as ≤ 5 hours/day and ≥ 9 hours/day, respectively. Data were analyzed both continuously for memory decline and dichotomously for MI (independently defined as DWRT, < 4; MMSE, < 25). After adjusting for multiple potential confounders, both short and long sleep durations were associated with memory decline using DWRT or MMSE score changes (all P < 0.001). Seven percent (n = 980) developed DWRT-defined MI and 4.0% (n = 194) MMSE-defined MI during the follow-up. Only those with a short (≤ 5 h/day) sleep duration had a significantly increased risk of DWRT-defined MI (odds ratio = 1.53 (95% confidence interval; 1.21-1.93); P < 0.001) relative to normal sleepers (7 h/day). The association remained significant after excluding those with poor self-reported health. No associations were observed with MMSE-defined MI for both long and short sleep durations. This is the largest study to date addressing the association between extremes of sleep duration and memory decline. The observed adverse relationships provide support for an intervention study to examine the potential benefits of normalizing sleep duration in attenuating memory decline.

  9. Sexual-Orientation Disparities in Cigarette Smoking in a Longitudinal Cohort Study of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wadler, Brianna M.; Jun, Hee-Jin; Rosario, Margaret; Wypij, David; Frazier, A. Lindsay; Austin, S. Bryn

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Youths with a minority sexual orientation (i.e., gay, lesbian, bisexual, and mostly heterosexual) are at high risk for cigarette smoking. We examined sexual-orientation disparities in smoking during adolescence and emerging adulthood and investigated the role of age at first smoking in contributing to smoking disparities. Methods: We used data from the Growing Up Today Study, a large longitudinal cohort of adolescents followed from ages 12 to 24 years (N = 13,913). Self-administered questionnaires filled out annually or biennially assessed age at first smoking, current smoking, frequency of smoking, number of cigarettes smoked daily, and nicotine dependence. Proportional hazards survival analysis and repeated measures regression estimated sexual-orientation differences in smoking. Results: Compared with completely heterosexuals, lesbian/gay, bisexual, and mostly heterosexual youths smoked their first cigarette at younger ages, were more likely to be current smokers, and had higher frequency of smoking. Among past-year smokers, sexual-minority females smoked more cigarettes daily and scored higher on nicotine dependence than completely heterosexual females. In some instances, gender and age modified relationships between sexual orientation and smoking, with relative risk accentuated in female sexual minorities and in sexual minorities during younger ages. Younger age of smoking onset contributed to elevated smoking in mostly heterosexuals and bisexuals, and to a lesser extent in lesbians, but not in gay males. Conclusions: Sexual-orientation minorities are at greater risk for smoking during adolescence and emerging adulthood than heterosexuals. Disparities are larger in females and evident in early adolescence. Prevention and cessation efforts should target this population, preferably beginning in early adolescence. PMID:22581940

  10. Evaluation of the National Tips From Former Smokers Campaign: the 2014 Longitudinal Cohort.

    PubMed

    Neff, Linda J; Patel, Deesha; Davis, Kevin; Ridgeway, William; Shafer, Paul; Cox, Shanna

    2016-03-24

    Since 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has aired a national tobacco education campaign to encourage quitting, Tips From Former Smokers (Tips), which consists of graphic antismoking advertisements that feature former cigarette smokers. We evaluated phase 2 of the 2014 campaign by using a nationally representative longitudinal cohort. Cigarette smokers who participated in a baseline survey were re-contacted for follow-up (n = 4,248) approximately 4 months later, immediately after the campaign's conclusion. The primary outcomes were incidence of a quit attempt in the previous 3 months, intention to quit within 30 days, and intention to quit within 6 months during the postcampaign period. We used multivariate logistic regression models to estimate the odds of each outcome. We also stratified models by race/ethnicity, education, and mental health status. Postcampaign rates of quit attempts, intentions to quit, and sustained quits were also estimated. Exposure to the campaign was associated with increased odds of a quit attempt in the previous 3 months (OR, 1.17; P = .03) among baseline smokers and intentions to quit within the next 6 months (OR, 1.28; P = .01) among current smokers at follow-up. The Tips campaign was associated with an estimated 1.83 million additional quit attempts, 1.73 million additional smokers intending to quit within 6 months, and 104,000 sustained quits of at least 6 months. The Tips campaign continued to have a significant impact on cessation-related behaviors, providing further justification for the continued use of tobacco education campaigns to accelerate progress toward the goal of reducing adult smoking in the United States.

  11. Cisplatin Nephrotoxicity and Longitudinal Growth in Children With Solid Tumors: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Triana, Clímaco Andres; Castelán-Martínez, Osvaldo D; Rivas-Ruiz, Rodolfo; Jiménez-Méndez, Ricardo; Medina, Aurora; Clark, Patricia; Rassekh, Rod; Castañeda-Hernández, Gilberto; Carleton, Bruce; Medeiros, Mara

    2015-08-01

    Cisplatin, a major antineoplastic drug used in the treatment of solid tumors, is a known nephrotoxin. This retrospective cohort study evaluated the prevalence and severity of cisplatin nephrotoxicity in 54 children and its impact on height and weight.We recorded the weight, height, serum creatinine, and electrolytes in each cisplatin cycle and after 12 months of treatment. Nephrotoxicity was graded as follows: normal renal function (Grade 0); asymptomatic electrolyte disorders, including an increase in serum creatinine, up to 1.5 times baseline value (Grade 1); need for electrolyte supplementation <3 months and/or increase in serum creatinine 1.5 to 1.9 times from baseline (Grade 2); increase in serum creatinine 2 to 2.9 times from baseline or need for electrolyte supplementation for more than 3 months after treatment completion (Grade 3); and increase in serum creatinine ≥3 times from baseline or renal replacement therapy (Grade 4).Nephrotoxicity was observed in 41 subjects (75.9%). Grade 1 nephrotoxicity was observed in 18 patients (33.3%), Grade 2 in 5 patients (9.2%), and Grade 3 in 18 patients (33.3%). None had Grade 4 nephrotoxicity. Nephrotoxicity patients were younger and received higher cisplatin dose, they also had impairment in longitudinal growth manifested as statistically significant worsening on the height Z Score at 12 months after treatment. We used a multiple logistic regression model using the delta of height Z Score (baseline-12 months) as dependent variable in order to adjust for the main confounder variables such as: germ cell tumor, cisplatin total dose, serum magnesium levels at 12 months, gender, and nephrotoxicity grade. Patients with nephrotoxicity Grade 1 where at higher risk of not growing (OR 5.1, 95% CI 1.07-24.3, P=0.04). The cisplatin total dose had a significant negative relationship with magnesium levels at 12 months (Spearman r=-0.527, P=<0.001).

  12. Cohort Differences in Cognitive Aging and Terminal Decline in the Seattle Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Hoppmann, Christiane; Willis, Sherry L.; Schaie, K. Warner

    2011-01-01

    Life span researchers have long been interested in how and why fundamental aspects of human ontogeny differ between cohorts of people who have lived through different historical epochs. When examined at the same age, later born cohorts are often cognitively and physically fitter than earlier born cohorts. Less is known, however, about cohort…

  13. Accelerated failure time model for case-cohort design with longitudinal covariates subject to measurement error and detection limits.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xinxin; Kong, Lan; Wahed, Abdus S

    2016-04-15

    Biomarkers are often measured over time in epidemiological studies and clinical trials for better understanding of the mechanism of diseases. In large cohort studies, case-cohort sampling provides a cost effective method to collect expensive biomarker data for revealing the relationship between biomarker trajectories and time to event. However, biomarker measurements are often limited by the sensitivity and precision of a given assay, resulting in data that are censored at detection limits and prone to measurement errors. Additionally, the occurrence of an event of interest may preclude biomarkers from being further evaluated. Inappropriate handling of these types of data can lead to biased conclusions. Under a classical case cohort design, we propose a modified likelihood-based approach to accommodate these special features of longitudinal biomarker measurements in the accelerated failure time models. The maximum likelihood estimators based on the full likelihood function are obtained by Gaussian quadrature method. We evaluate the performance of our case-cohort estimator and compare its relative efficiency to the full cohort estimator through simulation studies. The proposed method is further illustrated using the data from a biomarker study of sepsis among patients with community acquired pneumonia.

  14. Feasibility of Conducting a Longitudinal, Transnational Study of Filipino Migrants to the United States: A Dual-Cohort Design

    PubMed Central

    Gee, Gilbert C.; de Castro, A.B.; Wang, May C.; Crespi, Catherine M.; Morey, Brittany N.; Fujishiro, Kaori

    2015-01-01

    Most studies of immigrant health are cross-sectional and fail to collect information prior to migration, leading to potential bias and confounding. The present pilot study examines the feasibility of studying migrants prospectively, with baseline data collected before migration. The study followed two cohorts of Filipinos for one year, a migrant cohort (n=27) that emigrated to the U.S. and a second non-migrant cohort (n=26) in the Philippines. The one-year retention rate was 96% The migrant cohort arrived in the U.S. within 2 months of their baseline assessment. Migrants and non-migrants did not differ with regard to body mass index, waist circumference or waist to hip ratio at baseline or at follow-up. It is feasible to conduct a transnational, longitudinal study of two cohorts of Filipinos. This design provides important pre-migration information, is analogous to a natural experiment, can be upscaled, and allows for a rigorous examination of immigrant health. PMID:25913346

  15. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 2009 Cohort User Guide: Data Elements B1--Education (School and School Transition). Technical Paper 74B1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    This is a support document to the "Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 2009 Cohort User Guide" report. Developed for users of LSAY, the user guide consolidates information about the LSAY 2009 cohort into one document. This support document provides school and school transition information for the guide. [For the main report,…

  16. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 2009 Cohort User Guide: Data Elements B2--Education (Post-School). Technical Paper 74B2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    This is a support document to the "Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 2009 Cohort User Guide" report. Developed for users of LSAY, the user guide consolidates information about the LSAY 2009 cohort into one document. This support document provides post-school information for the guide. [For the main report,…

  17. Socioeconomic Status and Trajectory of Overweight from Birth to Mid-Childhood: The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Jones-Smith, Jessica C.; Dieckmann, Marlowe Gates; Gottlieb, Laura; Chow, Jessica; Fernald, Lia C. H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to use longitudinal data from a US birth cohort to test whether the probability of overweight or obesity during the first 6 years of life varied according to socioeconomic status. Design and Methods Using six waves of longitudinal data from full-term children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001–2007; n≈4,950), we examined the prevalence of overweight or obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI)>2 standard deviations above age- and sex- specific WHO Childhood Growth Standard reference mean; henceforth, “overweight/obesity”) according to age, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity using generalized estimating equation models. Results The association between socioeconomic status and overweight/obesity varied significantly by race/ethnicity, but not by sex. Overweight/obesity was significantly associated with socioeconomic status among whites, Hispanics and Asians; the adjusted odds of overweight/obesity began to diverge according to SES after the first 9 months of life. By approximately 4 years, children with the highest SES had a significantly lower odds of overweight/obesity. SES was not significantly related to overweight/obesity among African Americans and American Indians during early childhood. Conclusions Few studies have assessed the associations between SES and overweight/obesity within racial/ethnic groups in the US. We find that in contemporary, US-born children, SES was inversely associated with overweight/obesity among more racial/ethnic groups (whites, Hispanics, and Asians) than previously reported. PMID:24950056

  18. Microstructural brain development between 30 and 40 weeks corrected age in a longitudinal cohort of extremely preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Kersbergen, Karina J; Leemans, Alexander; Groenendaal, Floris; van der Aa, Niek E; Viergever, Max A; de Vries, Linda S; Benders, Manon J N L

    2014-12-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is frequently used to assess brain development in preterm infants. This study investigates maturational changes in diffusivity measures in 122 regions of the brain between 30 and 40 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) using the neonatal atlas of Oishi and colleagues (Oishi et al., 2011). Forty infants without cerebral injury and with normal neurodevelopmental outcome were selected from a cohort of preterm infants (gestational age<28 weeks), scanned longitudinally at 30 and 40 weeks PMA. Fractional anisotropy (FA) changed significantly in 84 brain regions, with the largest increase in the central brain regions; by contrast, the cortical brain regions showed a decrease in FA. Mean, radial and axial diffusivity all showed a clear decrease in the majority of brain regions. This study provides longitudinal reference diffusivity values in a cohort of extremely preterm infants, showing a central to peripheral and posterior to anterior directed gradient, in line with our current understanding of brain maturation, and adding to this knowledge. This study further elucidates brain maturation in preterm infants during the last 10 weeks prior to term equivalent age. The presented values can be used as a reference for assessing brain development in other cohorts, when investigating the effects of brain injury in this vulnerable period, and to evaluate the effect of future neuroprotective strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Novel participatory methods of involving patients in research: naming and branding a longitudinal cohort study, BRIGHTLIGHT.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Rachel M; Mohain, Jasjeet; Gibson, Faith; Solanki, Anita; Whelan, Jeremy; Fern, Lorna A

    2015-03-14

    Patient and public involvement (PPI) is central to research and service planning. Identifying effective, meaningful ways of involvement is challenging. The cohort study 'Do specialist services for teenagers and young adults with cancer add value?' follows young people for three years, examining outcomes associated with specialist care. Participant retention in longitudinal research can be problematic potentially jeopardising study completion. Maximising study awareness through high impact branding and publicity may improve study retention. Study names are typically generated by researchers rather than designed with patients. We aimed to involve young people in developing a brand identity and name to 'Do specialist services for teenagers and young adults with cancer add value?'. Nine young people aged 17-26 years diagnosed with cancer when aged 14-25 years participated in a one day workshop with further data collection at a patient conference. Methodology was similar to conventional branding and naming exercises and was divided into six stages. The workshop comprised five stages. Stage 1: 'What's in a brand' allowed young people to enquire why brands/logos are important, Stage 2: 'Brand Transformation' identified what young people needed to know and believe about the study when approached about participation, Stage 3: 'Brand Essence' determined how we wanted the study to be perceived by young people, Stage 4: 'What's in a name' identified potential names for the study. Stage 5: 'Logo creation' assembled the mood and feel of logos. Stage 6 was logo design and an electronic survey of 249 young people attending a patient conference. BRIGHTLIGHT was the final study name and the brand essence (or study personality) was friendly, supportive and inspiring. Four logos were designed and the final logo received 47% (n = 115) of votes. Acceptance and retention to BRIGHTLIGHT is higher than anticipated (80% versus 60%), this may be related to our integral PPI strategy. We

  20. Fluoroquinolones and collagen associated severe adverse events: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Daneman, Nick; Lu, Hong; Redelmeier, Donald A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Fluoroquinolone-associated tendon ruptures are a recognised complication, but other severe collagen-associated adverse events may also be possible. Our objectives were to confirm the association of fluoroquinolones and tendon rupture, to clarify the potential association of fluoroquinolones and retinal detachment, and to test for a potentially lethal association between fluoroquinolones and aortic aneurysms. Setting Population-based longitudinal cohort study in Ontario, Canada. Participants Older adults turning 65 years between April 1 1997 and March 31 2012 were followed until primary outcome, death, or end of follow-up (March 31 2014). Fluoroquinolone prescriptions were measured as a time-varying covariate, with patients considered at risk during and for 30 days following a treatment course. Primary outcome measures Severe collagen-associated adverse events defined as tendon ruptures, retinal detachments and aortic aneurysms diagnosed in hospital and emergency departments. Results Among the 1 744 360 eligible patients, 657 950 (38%) received at least one fluoroquinolone during follow-up, amounting to 22 380 515 days of treatment. The patients experienced 37 338 (2.1%) tendon ruptures, 3246 (0.2%) retinal detachments, and 18 391 (1.1%) aortic aneurysms. Severe collagen-associated adverse events were more common during fluoroquinolone treatment than control periods, including tendon ruptures (0.82 vs 0.26/100-person years, p<0.001), retinal detachments (0.03 vs 0.02/100-person-years, p=0.003) and aortic aneurysms (0.35 vs 0.13/100-person-years, p<0.001). Current fluoroquinolones were associated with an increased hazard of tendon rupture (HR 3.13, 95% CI 2.98 to 3.28; adjusted HR 2.40, 95% CI 2.24 to 2.57) and an increased hazard of aortic aneurysms (HR 2.72, 95% CI 2.53 to 2.93; adjusted HR2.24, 95% CI 2.02 to 2.49) that were substantially greater in magnitude than the association of these outcomes with amoxicillin. The hazard of

  1. Heavy consumption of dental services; a longitudinal cohort study among Finnish adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A reform to Dental Care legislation in 2002 abolished age limits restricting adults’ use of public dental services in Finland. In the Public Dental Service (PDS) unit of Espoo, the proportion of adult patients rose from 36% to 57%. The aim of this study was to investigate heavy use of dental services by adults and its determinants. Methods A longitudinal cohort study was undertaken based on a PDS patient register. Of all adults who attended the PDS in Espoo in 2004, those who had six or more visits (n=3,173) were assigned to the heavy user group and a comparison group of low users (n=22,820) had three or fewer dental visits. A sample of 320 patients was randomly selected from each group. Baseline information (year 2004) on age, sex, number and type of visit, oral health status and treatment provided was collected from treatment records. Each group was followed-up for five years and information on the number and types of visit was recorded for each year from 2005 to 2009. Results Most heavy users (61.6%) became low users and only 11.2% remained chronic heavy users. Most low users (91.0%) remained low users. For heavy users, the mean number of dental visits per year (3.0) during the follow-up period was significantly lower than initially in 2004 (8.3) (p<0.001) but 74.8% of heavy users had had emergency visits compared with 21.6% of the low users (p<0.001). A third (33%) of the visitors in each group had no proper examination and treatment planning during the 5-year follow-up period and two or more examinations were provided to fewer than half of the heavy (46.1%) or low (46.5%) users. The mean number of treating dentists was 5.7 for heavy users and 3.8 for low users (p<0.001). Conclusions Frequent emergency visits were characteristic of heavy users of dental services. Treatment planning was inadequate, probably partly due to the many dentists involved and too many patients requesting care. Better local management and continuous education are needed to

  2. Predicting response to physiotherapy treatment for musculoskeletal shoulder pain: protocol for a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Shoulder pain affects all ages, with a lifetime prevalence of one in three. The most effective treatment is not known. Physiotherapy is often recommended as the first choice of treatment. At present, it is not possible to identify, from the initial physiotherapy assessment, which factors predict the outcome of physiotherapy for patients with shoulder pain. The primary objective of this study is to identify which patient characteristics and baseline measures, typically assessed at the first physiotherapy appointment, are related to the functional outcome of shoulder pain 6 weeks and 6 months after starting physiotherapy treatment. Methods/Design Participants with musculoskeletal shoulder pain of any duration will be recruited from participating physiotherapy departments. For this longitudinal cohort study, the participants care pathway, including physiotherapy treatment will be therapist determined. Potential prognostic variables will be collected from participants during their first physiotherapy appointment and will include demographic details, lifestyle, psychosocial factors, shoulder symptoms, general health, clinical examination, activity limitations and participation restrictions. Outcome measures (Shoulder Pain and Disability Index, Quick Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand, and Global Impression of Change) will be collected by postal self-report questionnaires 6 weeks and 6 months after commencing physiotherapy. Details of attendance and treatment will be collected by the treating physiotherapist. Participants will be asked to complete an exercise dairy. An initial exploratory analysis will assess the relationship between potential prognostic factors at baseline and outcome using univariate statistical tests. Those factors significant at the 5% level will be further considered as prognostic factors using a general linear model. It is estimated that 780 subjects will provide more than 90% power to detect an effect size of less than 0

  3. Bullying victimisation and risk of self harm in early adolescence: longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Terrie E; Houts, Renate M; Belsky, Daniel W; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To test whether frequent bullying victimisation in childhood increases the likelihood of self harming in early adolescence, and to identify which bullied children are at highest risk of self harm. Design The Environmental Risk (E-Risk) longitudinal study of a nationally representative UK cohort of 1116 twin pairs born in 1994-95 (2232 children). Setting England and Wales, United Kingdom. Participants Children assessed at 5, 7, 10, and 12 years of age. Main outcome measures Relative risks of children’s self harming behaviour in the six months before their 12th birthday. Results Self harm data were available for 2141 children. Among children aged 12 who had self harmed (2.9%; n=62), more than half were victims of frequent bullying (56%; n=35). Exposure to frequent bullying predicted higher rates of self harm even after children’s pre-morbid emotional and behavioural problems, low IQ, and family environmental risks were taken into account (bullying victimisation reported by mother: adjusted relative risk 1.92, 95% confidence interval 1.18 to 3.12; bullying victimisation reported by child: 2.44, 1.36 to 4.40). Victimised twins were more likely to self harm than were their non-victimised twin sibling (bullying victimisation reported by mother: 13/162 v 3/162, ratio=4.3, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 14.0; bullying victimisation reported by child: 12/144 v 7/144, ratio=1.7, 0.71 to 4.1). Compared with bullied children who did not self harm, bullied children who self harmed were distinguished by a family history of attempted/completed suicide, concurrent mental health problems, and a history of physical maltreatment by an adult. Conclusions Prevention of non-suicidal self injury in young adolescents should focus on helping bullied children to cope more appropriately with their distress. Programmes should target children who have additional mental health problems, have a family history of attempted/completed suicide, or have been maltreated by an adult

  4. Chronic disease prevalence in women and air pollution--A 30-year longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    To, Teresa; Zhu, Jingqin; Villeneuve, Paul J; Simatovic, Jacqueline; Feldman, Laura; Gao, Chenwei; Williams, Devon; Chen, Hong; Weichenthal, Scott; Wall, Claus; Miller, Anthony B

    2015-07-01

    Air pollution, such as fine particulate matter (PM2.5), can increase risk of adverse health events among people with heart disease, diabetes, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by aggravating these conditions. Identifying the influence of PM2.5 on prevalence of these conditions may help target interventions to reduce disease morbidity among high-risk populations. The objective of this study is to measure the association of exposure of PM2.5 with prevalence risk of various chronic diseases among a longitudinal cohort of women. Women from Ontario who enrolled in the Canadian National Breast Screening Study (CNBSS) from 1980 to 1985 (n = 29,549) were linked to provincial health administrative data from April 1, 1992 to March 31, 2013 to determine the prevalence of major chronic disease and conditions (heart disease, diabetes, asthma, COPD, acute myocardial infarction, angina, stroke and cancers). Exposure to PM2.5 was measured using satellite data collected from January 1, 1998 to December 31, 2006 and assigned to resident postal-code at time of entry into study. Poisson regression models were used to describe the relationship between exposure to ambient PM2.5 and chronic disease prevalence. Prevalence rate ratios (PRs) were estimated while adjusting for potential confounders: baseline age, smoking, BMI, marital status, education and occupation. Separate models were run for each chronic disease and condition. Congestive heart failure (PR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.13, 1.51), diabetes (PR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.16, 1.41), ischemic heart disease (PR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.14, 1.30), and stroke (PR = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.35) showed over a 20% increase in PRs per 10 μg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 after adjusting for risk factors. Risks were elevated in smokers and those with BMI greater than 30. This study estimated significant elevated prevalent rate ratios per unit increase in PM2.5 in nine of the ten chronic diseases studied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  5. Infection and antibiotic use in infancy and risk of childhood obesity: a longitudinal birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Li, De-Kun; Chen, Hong; Ferber, Jeannette; Odouli, Roxana

    2017-01-01

    Data from previous studies have suggested a possible association between antibiotic use in infancy and risk of childhood obesity, with implications for health-care delivery and obesity prevention strategies. However, whether the observed association was due to antibiotic use or underlying infection, or both, is unclear. We aimed to disentangle the effect of antibiotic use in infancy from that of underlying infection on the risk of childhood obesity. In this longitudinal birth cohort study, we included infants in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California population born between Jan 1, 1997, and March 31, 2013. We used electronic medical records to ascertain data for antibiotic use, infection diagnosis, and anthropometric measurements (and thus BMI and obesity status) from birth up to age 18 years. We used standard mixed-effects logistic regression for repeated measurements to analyse multiple BMI measurements per child (median five measurements) and to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for obesity risk. We also did a substudy in 547 same-sex twin pairs with discordant exposure status to substantiate our findings. 260 556 individuals were included in our analysis. After controlling for maternal age, race or ethnic origin, pre-pregnancy BMI, preterm delivery, low birthweight, maternal antibiotic use, and infection during pregnancy, infection without antibiotic use in infancy was associated with an increased risk of childhood obesity compared with controls without infection (OR 1·25, 95% CI 1·20-1·29). A clear dose-response relation was seen between infection episodes and risk of childhood obesity (ptrend <0·0001). By contrast, compared with infants with untreated infection, antibiotic use during infancy was not associated with risk of childhood obesity (1·01, 0·98-1·04). Neither broad-spectrum nor narrow-spectrum antibiotics were associated with risk of childhood obesity. These findings were supported by the results of the twin set analysis. Infection, but

  6. Association Between Persistent Pain and Memory Decline and Dementia in a Longitudinal Cohort of Elders.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, Elizabeth L; Diaz-Ramirez, L Grisell; Glymour, M Maria; Boscardin, W John; Covinsky, Kenneth E; Smith, Alexander K

    2017-08-01

    Chronic pain is common among the elderly and is associated with cognitive deficits in cross-sectional studies; the population-level association between chronic pain and longitudinal cognition is unknown. To determine the population-level association between persistent pain, which may reflect chronic pain, and subsequent cognitive decline. Cohort study with biennial interviews of 10 065 community-dwelling older adults in the nationally representative Health and Retirement Study who were 62 years or older in 2000 and answered pain and cognition questions in both 1998 and 2000. Data analysis was conducted between June 24 and October 31, 2016. "Persistent pain," defined as a participant reporting that he or she was often troubled with moderate or severe pain in both the 1998 and 2000 interviews. Coprimary outcomes were composite memory score and dementia probability, estimated by combining neuropsychological test results and informant and proxy interviews, which were tracked from 2000 through 2012. Linear mixed-effects models, with random slope and intercept for each participant, were used to estimate the association of persistent pain with slope of the subsequent cognitive trajectory, adjusting for demographic characteristics and comorbidities measures in 2000 and applying sampling weights to represent the 2000 US population. We hypothesized that persistent pain would predict accelerated memory decline and increased probability of dementia. To quantify the impact of persistent pain on functional independence, we combined our primary results with information on the association between memory and ability to manage medications and finances independently. Of the 10 065 eligible HRS sample members, 60% were female, and median baseline age was 73 years (interquartile range, 67-78 years). At baseline, persistent pain affected 10.9% of participants and was associated with worse depressive symptoms and more limitations in activities of daily living. After covariate

  7. Heavy consumption of dental services; a longitudinal cohort study among Finnish adults.

    PubMed

    Nihtilä, Annamari; Widström, Eeva; Elonheimo, Outi

    2013-04-24

    A reform to Dental Care legislation in 2002 abolished age limits restricting adults' use of public dental services in Finland. In the Public Dental Service (PDS) unit of Espoo, the proportion of adult patients rose from 36% to 57%. The aim of this study was to investigate heavy use of dental services by adults and its determinants. A longitudinal cohort study was undertaken based on a PDS patient register. Of all adults who attended the PDS in Espoo in 2004, those who had six or more visits (n=3,173) were assigned to the heavy user group and a comparison group of low users (n=22,820) had three or fewer dental visits. A sample of 320 patients was randomly selected from each group. Baseline information (year 2004) on age, sex, number and type of visit, oral health status and treatment provided was collected from treatment records. Each group was followed-up for five years and information on the number and types of visit was recorded for each year from 2005 to 2009. Most heavy users (61.6%) became low users and only 11.2% remained chronic heavy users. Most low users (91.0%) remained low users. For heavy users, the mean number of dental visits per year (3.0) during the follow-up period was significantly lower than initially in 2004 (8.3) (p<0.001) but 74.8% of heavy users had had emergency visits compared with 21.6% of the low users (p<0.001).A third (33%) of the visitors in each group had no proper examination and treatment planning during the 5-year follow-up period and two or more examinations were provided to fewer than half of the heavy (46.1%) or low (46.5%) users.The mean number of treating dentists was 5.7 for heavy users and 3.8 for low users (p<0.001). Frequent emergency visits were characteristic of heavy users of dental services. Treatment planning was inadequate, probably partly due to the many dentists involved and too many patients requesting care. Better local management and continuous education are needed to ensure good quality adult dental care and to

  8. Fluoroquinolones and collagen associated severe adverse events: a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Daneman, Nick; Lu, Hong; Redelmeier, Donald A

    2015-11-18

    Fluoroquinolone-associated tendon ruptures are a recognised complication, but other severe collagen-associated adverse events may also be possible. Our objectives were to confirm the association of fluoroquinolones and tendon rupture, to clarify the potential association of fluoroquinolones and retinal detachment, and to test for a potentially lethal association between fluoroquinolones and aortic aneurysms. Population-based longitudinal cohort study in Ontario, Canada. Older adults turning 65 years between April 1 1997 and March 31 2012 were followed until primary outcome, death, or end of follow-up (March 31 2014). Fluoroquinolone prescriptions were measured as a time-varying covariate, with patients considered at risk during and for 30 days following a treatment course. Severe collagen-associated adverse events defined as tendon ruptures, retinal detachments and aortic aneurysms diagnosed in hospital and emergency departments. Among the 1,744,360 eligible patients, 657,950 (38%) received at least one fluoroquinolone during follow-up, amounting to 22,380,515 days of treatment. The patients experienced 37,338 (2.1%) tendon ruptures, 3246 (0.2%) retinal detachments, and 18,391 (1.1%) aortic aneurysms. Severe collagen-associated adverse events were more common during fluoroquinolone treatment than control periods, including tendon ruptures (0.82 vs 0.26/100-person years, p<0.001), retinal detachments (0.03 vs 0.02/100-person-years, p=0.003) and aortic aneurysms (0.35 vs 0.13/100-person-years, p<0.001). Current fluoroquinolones were associated with an increased hazard of tendon rupture (HR 3.13, 95% CI 2.98 to 3.28; adjusted HR 2.40, 95% CI 2.24 to 2.57) and an increased hazard of aortic aneurysms (HR 2.72, 95% CI 2.53 to 2.93; adjusted HR2.24, 95% CI 2.02 to 2.49) that were substantially greater in magnitude than the association of these outcomes with amoxicillin. The hazard of retinal detachment was marginal (HR 1.28, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.65; adjusted HR 1.47, 95

  9. Bullying victimisation and risk of self harm in early adolescence: longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Helen L; Moffitt, Terrie E; Houts, Renate M; Belsky, Daniel W; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom

    2012-04-26

    To test whether frequent bullying victimisation in childhood increases the likelihood of self harming in early adolescence, and to identify which bullied children are at highest risk of self harm. The Environmental Risk (E-Risk) longitudinal study of a nationally representative UK cohort of 1116 twin pairs born in 1994-95 (2232 children). England and Wales, United Kingdom. Children assessed at 5, 7, 10, and 12 years of age. Relative risks of children's self harming behaviour in the six months before their 12th birthday. Self harm data were available for 2141 children. Among children aged 12 who had self harmed (2.9%; n=62), more than half were victims of frequent bullying (56%; n=35). Exposure to frequent bullying predicted higher rates of self harm even after children's pre-morbid emotional and behavioural problems, low IQ, and family environmental risks were taken into account (bullying victimisation reported by mother: adjusted relative risk 1.92, 95% confidence interval 1.18 to 3.12; bullying victimisation reported by child: 2.44, 1.36 to 4.40). Victimised twins were more likely to self harm than were their non-victimised twin sibling (bullying victimisation reported by mother: 13/162 v 3/162, ratio=4.3, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 14.0; bullying victimisation reported by child: 12/144 v 7/144, ratio=1.7, 0.71 to 4.1). Compared with bullied children who did not self harm, bullied children who self harmed were distinguished by a family history of attempted/completed suicide, concurrent mental health problems, and a history of physical maltreatment by an adult. Prevention of non-suicidal self injury in young adolescents should focus on helping bullied children to cope more appropriately with their distress. Programmes should target children who have additional mental health problems, have a family history of attempted/completed suicide, or have been maltreated by an adult.

  10. The health and wellbeing of Australian farmers: a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Brew, Bronwyn; Inder, Kerry; Allen, Joanne; Thomas, Matthew; Kelly, Brian

    2016-09-15

    Isolation, long work days, climate change and globalization are just some of the many pressures that make farming a vulnerable occupation for incurring mental health issues. The objective of this study was to determine whether farming in Australia is associated with poorer wellbeing, physical and mental health, and less health service use. The Australian Rural Mental Health Study, a longitudinal cohort study was analysed over four time points comparing farmers with non-farming workers (n = 1184 at baseline). Participants were recruited from rural NSW, Australia. A number of physical, mental health, wellbeing, service use outcomes were assessed using generalised estimating equations including all waves in each model. Barriers to seeking help were also assessed. Farmers who lived remotely reported worse mental health (β -0.33, 95 % CI -0.53, -0.13) and wellbeing (β -0.21(95 % CI -0.35, -0.06) than remote non-farm workers regardless of financial hardship, rural specific factors eg drought worry, or recent adverse events. All farmers were no different to non-farming workers on physical health aspects except for chronic illnesses, where they reported fewer illnesses (OR 0.66, 95 % CI 0.44, 0.98). All farmers were half as likely to visit a general practitioner (GP) or a mental health professional in the last 12 months as compared to non-farm workers regardless of location (OR 0.59, 95 % CI 0.35, 0.97). Rural workers felt that they preferred to manage themselves rather than access help for physical health needs (50 %) or mental health needs (75 %) and there was little difference between farmers and non-farm workers in reasons for not seeking help. Remoteness is a significant factor in the mental health and wellbeing of farmers, more so than financial stress, rural factors and recent adverse events. Creative programs and policies that improve access for farmers to GPs and mental health professionals should be supported.

  11. Prediction of cognition in Parkinson's disease with a clinical-genetic score: a longitudinal analysis of nine cohorts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ganqiang; Locascio, Joseph J; Corvol, Jean-Christophe; Boot, Brendon; Liao, Zhixiang; Page, Kara; Franco, Daly; Burke, Kyle; Jansen, Iris E; Trisini-Lipsanopoulos, Ana; Winder-Rhodes, Sophie; Tanner, Caroline M; Lang, Anthony E; Eberly, Shirley; Elbaz, Alexis; Brice, Alexis; Mangone, Graziella; Ravina, Bernard; Shoulson, Ira; Cormier-Dequaire, Florence; Heutink, Peter; van Hilten, Jacobus J; Barker, Roger A; Williams-Gray, Caroline H; Marinus, Johan; Scherzer, Clemens R

    2017-08-01

    Cognitive decline is a debilitating manifestation of disease progression in Parkinson's disease. We aimed to develop a clinical-genetic score to predict global cognitive impairment in patients with the disease. In this longitudinal analysis, we built a prediction algorithm for global cognitive impairment (defined as Mini Mental State Examination [MMSE] ≤25) using data from nine cohorts of patients with Parkinson's disease from North America and Europe assessed between 1986 and 2016. Candidate predictors of cognitive decline were selected through a backward eliminated Cox's proportional hazards analysis using the Akaike's information criterion. These were used to compute the multivariable predictor on the basis of data from six cohorts included in a discovery population. Independent replication was attained in patients from a further three independent longitudinal cohorts. The predictive score was rebuilt and retested in 10 000 training and test sets randomly generated from the entire study population. 3200 patients with Parkinson's disease who were longitudinally assessed with 27 022 study visits between 1986 and 2016 in nine cohorts from North America and Europe were assessed for eligibility. 235 patients with MMSE ≤25 at baseline and 135 whose first study visit occurred more than 12 years from disease onset were excluded. The discovery population comprised 1350 patients (after further exclusion of 334 with missing covariates) from six longitudinal cohorts with 5165 longitudinal visits over 12·8 years (median 2·8, IQR 1·6-4·6). Age at onset, baseline MMSE, years of education, motor exam score, sex, depression, and β-glucocerebrosidase (GBA) mutation status were included in the prediction model. The replication population comprised 1132 patients (further excluding 14 patients with missing covariates) from three longitudinal cohorts with 19 127 follow-up visits over 8·6 years (median 6·5, IQR 4·1-7·2). The cognitive risk score predicted cognitive

  12. Benefits Gained, Benefits Lost: Comparing Baby Boomers to Other Generations in a Longitudinal Cohort Study of Self-Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    BADLEY, ELIZABETH M; CANIZARES, MAYILEE; PERRUCCIO, ANTHONY V; HOGG-JOHNSON, SHEILAH; GIGNAC, MONIQUE AM

    2015-01-01

    Policy Points Despite beliefs that baby boomers are healthier than previous generations, we found no evidence that the health of baby boomers is substantially different from that of the previous or succeeding cohorts. The effects of increased education, higher income, and lower smoking rates on improving self-rated health were nearly counterbalanced by the adverse effect of increasing body mass index (BMI). Assumptions that baby boomers will require less health care as they age because of better education, more prosperity, and less propensity to smoke may not be realized because of increases in obesity. Context Baby boomers are commonly believed to be healthier than the previous generation. Using self-rated health (SRH) as an indicator of health status, this study examines the effects of age, period, and birth cohort on the trajectory of health across 4 generations: World War II (born between 1935 and 1944), older baby boomers (born between 1945 and 1954), younger baby boomers (born between 1955 and 1964), and Generation X (born between 1965 and 1974). Methods We analyzed Canada’s longitudinal National Population Health Survey 1994-2010 (n = 8,570 at baseline), using multilevel growth models to estimate the age trajectory of SRH by cohort, accounting for period and incorporating the influence of changes in education, household income, smoking status, and body mass index (BMI) on SRH over time. Findings SRH worsened with increasing age in all cohorts. Cohort differences in SRH were modest (p = 0.034), but there was a significant period effect (p = 0.002). We found marked cohort effects for increasing education, income, and BMI, and decreasing smoking from the youngest to the oldest cohorts, which were much reduced (education and smoking) or removed (income and BMI) once period was taken into account. At the population level, multivariable analysis showed the benefits of increasing education and income and declines in smoking on the trajectory of improving SRH were

  13. Benefits gained, benefits lost: comparing baby boomers to other generations in a longitudinal cohort study of self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Badley, Elizabeth M; Canizares, Mayilee; Perruccio, Anthony V; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Gignac, Monique A M

    2015-03-01

    POLICY POINTS: Despite beliefs that baby boomers are healthier than previous generations, we found no evidence that the health of baby boomers is substantially different from that of the previous or succeeding cohorts. The effects of increased education, higher income, and lower smoking rates on improving self-rated health were nearly counterbalanced by the adverse effect of increasing body mass index (BMI). Assumptions that baby boomers will require less health care as they age because of better education, more prosperity, and less propensity to smoke may not be realized because of increases in obesity. Baby boomers are commonly believed to be healthier than the previous generation. Using self-rated health (SRH) as an indicator of health status, this study examines the effects of age, period, and birth cohort on the trajectory of health across 4 generations: World War II (born between 1935 and 1944), older baby boomers (born between 1945 and 1954), younger baby boomers (born between 1955 and 1964), and Generation X (born between 1965 and 1974). We analyzed Canada's longitudinal National Population Health Survey 1994-2010 (n = 8,570 at baseline), using multilevel growth models to estimate the age trajectory of SRH by cohort, accounting for period and incorporating the influence of changes in education, household income, smoking status, and body mass index (BMI) on SRH over time. SRH worsened with increasing age in all cohorts. Cohort differences in SRH were modest (p = 0.034), but there was a significant period effect (p = 0.002). We found marked cohort effects for increasing education, income, and BMI, and decreasing smoking from the youngest to the oldest cohorts, which were much reduced (education and smoking) or removed (income and BMI) once period was taken into account. At the population level, multivariable analysis showed the benefits of increasing education and income and declines in smoking on the trajectory of improving SRH were almost counterbalanced by

  14. Low back pain and limitations of daily living in Asia: longitudinal findings in the Thai cohort study.

    PubMed

    Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Hoy, Damian; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Bain, Chris; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian C

    2017-01-19

    Low back pain (LBP) is a major cause of disability throughout the world. However, longitudinal evidence to relate low back pain and functional limitations is mostly confined to Western countries. In this study, we investigate the associations between low back pain and functional limitations in a prospective cohort of Thai adults. We analysed information from the Thai Cohort Study of adult Open University adults which included 42,785 participants in both 2009 and 2013, with the majority aged 30 to 65 years and residing nationwide. We used multivariate logistic regression to explore the longitudinal associations between LBP in 2009 and 2013 ('never': no LBP in 2009 or 2013; 'reverting': LBP in 2009 but not in 2013; 'incident': no LBP in 2009 but LBP in 2013; and 'chronic': reporting LBP at both time points) and the outcome of functional limitations relating to Activities of Daily Living (ADL) in 2013. Low back pain was common with 30% of cohort members reporting low back pain in both 2009 and 2013 ('chronic LBP'). The 'chronic LBP' group was more likely than the 'never' back pain group to report functional limitations in 2013: adjusted odds ratios 1.60 [95% Confidence Interval: 1.38-1.85] for difficulties getting dressed; 1.98 [1.71-2.30] for walking; 2.02 [1.71-2.39] for climbing stairs; and 3.80 [3.38-4.27] for bending/kneeling. Those with 'incident LBP' or 'reverting LBP' both had increased odds of functional limitations in 2013 but the odds were not generally as high. Our nationwide data from Thailand suggests that LBP is a frequent public health problem among economically productive age groups with adverse effects on the activities of daily living. This study adds to the limited longitudinal evidence on the substantial impact of low back pain in Southeast Asia.

  15. Methods for analyzing observational longitudinal prognosis studies for rheumatic diseases: a review & worked example using a clinic-based cohort of juvenile dermatomyositis patients.

    PubMed

    Lim, Lily Siok Hoon; Pullenayegum, Eleanor; Moineddin, Rahim; Gladman, Dafna D; Silverman, Earl D; Feldman, Brian M

    2017-03-29

    Most outcome studies of rheumatic diseases report outcomes ascertained on a single occasion. While single assessments are sufficient for terminal or irreversible outcomes, they may not be sufficiently informative if outcomes change or fluctuate over time. Consequently, longitudinal studies that measure non-terminal outcomes repeatedly afford a better understanding of disease evolution.Longitudinal studies require special analytic methods. Newer longitudinal analytic methods have evolved tremendously to deal with common challenges in longitudinal observational studies. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have used longitudinal design. This review aims to help readers understand and apply the findings from longitudinal studies. Using a cohort of children with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM), we illustrate how to study evolution of disease activity in JDM using longitudinal methods.

  16. [Health and competence: detection and decoding using comprehensive assessments in the Longitudinal Urban Cohort Ageing Study (LUCAS)].

    PubMed

    Anders, J; Pröfener, F; Dapp, U; Golgert, S; Daubmann, A; Wegscheider, K; von Renteln-Kruse, W; Minder, C E

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this work was to characterise and distinguish persons without (fit), with earliest signs (pre-frail) or accelerated functional decline (frail) during self-referral (geriatric centre) or preventive home visits. After screening independently living older people in an urban longitudinal cohort (n = 1,995) using a self-administered questionnaire, they were functionally classified as fit, pre-frail or frail. In 10% randomly selected samples of these cohort parts a comprehensive extended gerontological-geriatric assessment (EGGA) was administered. Fit, pre-frail and frail samples are significantly different regarding comorbidity, medication, mobility, fall risk, instrumental activities of daily living and use of social support but not nutrition. The best indicator to discriminate fit versus frail was exhaustion (mobility tiredness). Competence is essential regarding health in old age. Identification of resources and risks by comprehensive assessment is useful before planning interventions to prevent frailty or its progression.

  17. Alterations of the Subgingival Microbiota in Pediatric Crohn's Disease Studied Longitudinally in Discovery and Validation Cohorts.

    PubMed

    Kelsen, Judith; Bittinger, Kyle; Pauly-Hubbard, Helen; Posivak, Leah; Grunberg, Stephanie; Baldassano, Robert; Lewis, James D; Wu, Gary D; Bushman, Frederic D

    2015-12-01

    Oral manifestations are common in Crohn's disease (CD). Here we characterized the subgingival microbiota in pediatric patients with CD initiating therapy and after 8 weeks to identify microbial community features associated with CD and therapy. Pediatric patients with CD were recruited from The Children's Hospital of Pennsylvania. Healthy control subjects were recruited from primary care or orthopedics clinic. Subgingival plaque samples were collected at initiation of therapy and after 8 weeks. Treatment exposures included 5-ASAs, immunomodulators, steroids, and infliximab. The microbiota was characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The study was repeated in separate discovery (35 CD, 43 healthy) and validation cohorts (43 CD, 31 healthy). Most subjects in both cohorts demonstrated clinical response after 8 weeks of therapy (discovery cohort 88%, validation cohort 79%). At week 0, both antibiotic exposure and disease state were associated with differences in bacterial community composition. Seventeen genera were identified in the discovery cohort as candidate biomarkers, of which 11 were confirmed in the validation cohort. Capnocytophaga, Rothia, and TM7 were more abundant in CD relative to healthy controls. Other bacteria were reduced in abundance with antibiotic exposure among CD subjects. CD-associated genera were not enriched compared with healthy controls after 8 weeks of therapy. Subgingival microbial community structure differed with CD and antibiotic use. Results in the discovery cohort were replicated in a separate validation cohort. Several potentially pathogenic bacterial lineages were associated with CD but were not diminished in abundance by antibiotic treatment, suggesting targets for additional surveillance.

  18. Modeling Longitudinal Changes in Older Adults’ Memory for Spoken Discourse: Findings from the ACTIVE Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Brennan R.; Gross, Alden L.; Parisi, Jeanine M.; Sisco, Shannon M.; Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A. L.; Marsiske, Michael; Rebok, George W.

    2014-01-01

    Episodic memory shows substantial declines with advancing age, but research on longitudinal trajectories of spoken discourse memory (SDM) in older adulthood is limited. Using parallel process latent growth curve models, we examined 10 years of longitudinal data from the no-contact control group (N = 698) of the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) randomized controlled trial in order to test (a) the degree to which SDM declines with advancing age, (b) predictors of these age-related declines, and (c) the within-person relationship between longitudinal changes in SDM and longitudinal changes in fluid reasoning and verbal ability over 10 years, independent of age. Individuals who were younger, White, had more years of formal education, were male, and had better global cognitive function and episodic memory performance at baseline demonstrated greater levels of SDM on average. However, only age at baseline uniquely predicted longitudinal changes in SDM, such that declines accelerated with greater age. Independent of age, within-person decline in reasoning ability over the 10-year study period was substantially correlated with decline in SDM (r = .87). An analogous association with SDM did not hold for verbal ability. The findings suggest that longitudinal declines in fluid cognition are associated with reduced spoken language comprehension. Unlike findings from memory for written prose, preserved verbal ability may not protect against developmental declines in memory for speech. PMID:24304364

  19. Modelling longitudinal changes in older adults' memory for spoken discourse: findings from the ACTIVE cohort.

    PubMed

    Payne, Brennan R; Gross, Alden L; Parisi, Jeanine M; Sisco, Shannon M; Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A L; Marsiske, Michael; Rebok, George W

    2014-01-01

    Episodic memory shows substantial declines with advancing age, but research on longitudinal trajectories of spoken discourse memory (SDM) in older adulthood is limited. Using parallel process latent growth curve models, we examined 10 years of longitudinal data from the no-contact control group (N = 698) of the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) randomised controlled trial in order to test (1) the degree to which SDM declines with advancing age, (2) the predictors of these age-related declines and (3) the within-person relationship between longitudinal changes in SDM and longitudinal changes in fluid reasoning and verbal ability over 10 years, independent of age. Individuals who were younger, were White, had more years of formal education, were male and had better global cognitive function and episodic memory performance at baseline demonstrated greater levels of SDM on average. However, only age at baseline uniquely predicted longitudinal changes in SDM, such that declines accelerated with greater age. Independent of age, within-person decline in reasoning ability over the 10-year study period was substantially correlated with decline in SDM (r = .87). An analogous association with SDM did not hold for verbal ability. The findings suggest that longitudinal declines in fluid cognition are associated with reduced spoken language comprehension. Unlike findings from memory for written prose, preserved verbal ability may not protect against developmental declines in memory for speech.

  20. Alterations of the Subgingival Microbiota in Pediatric Crohn's Disease Studied Longitudinally in Discovery and Validation Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Kelsen, Judith; Bittinger, Kyle; Pauly-Hubbard, Helen; Posivak, Leah; Grunberg, Stephanie; Baldassano, Robert; Lewis, James D; Wu, Gary D; Bushman, Frederic D

    2016-01-01

    Background Oral manifestations are common in Crohn's disease (CD). Here we characterized the subgingival microbiota in pediatric CD patients initiating therapy and after 8 weeks to identify microbial community features associated with CD and therapy. Methods Pediatric CD patients were recruited from The Children's Hospital of Pennsylvania. Healthy control subjects were recruited from primary care or orthopedics clinic. Subgingival plaque samples were collected at initiation of therapy and after 8 weeks. Treatment exposures included 5-ASAs, immunomodualtors, steroids, and infliximab. The microbiota was characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The study was repeated in separate discovery (35 CD, 43 healthy) and validation cohorts (43 CD, 31 healthy). Results A majority of subjects in both cohorts demonstrated clinical response after 8 weeks of therapy (discovery cohort 88%, validation cohort 79%). At week 0, both antibiotic exposure and disease state were associated with differences in bacterial community composition. Seventeen genera were identified in the discovery cohort as candidate biomarkers, of which 11 were confirmed in the validation cohort. Capnocytophaga, Rothia, and TM7 were more abundant in CD relative to healthy controls. Other bacteria were reduced in abundance with antibiotic exposure among CD subjects. CD-associated genera were not enriched compared to healthy controls after 8 weeks of therapy. Conclusions Subgingival microbial community structure differed with CD and antibiotic use. Results in the discovery cohort were replicated in a separate validation cohort. Several potentially pathogenic bacterial lineages were associated with CD but were not diminished in abundance by antibiotic treatment, suggesting targets for additional surveillance. PMID:26288001

  1. How many subjects are needed in a longitudinal birth cohort study?

    PubMed

    Golding, Jean; Steer, Colin

    2009-07-01

    One of the first decisions that needs to be taken when planning a birth cohort concerns the size of the study. This in turn will depend on the research questions to be answered and thence whether environmental exposures and outcomes are measured on a continuum or as dichotomous variables. Here we describe ways in which different birth cohorts have addressed this issue and explore the advantages of smaller detailed studies over larger less-detailed studies.

  2. Assessment of possible impact of a health promotion program in Korea from health risk trends in a longitudinally observed cohort

    PubMed Central

    Park, J; Jee, SH; Edington, DW

    2004-01-01

    Background Longitudinally observed cohort data can be utilized to assess the potential for health promotion and healthcare planning by comparing the estimated risk factor trends of non-intervened with that of intervened. The paper seeks (1) to estimate a natural transition (patterns of movement between states) of health risk state from a Korean cohort data using a Markov model, (2) to derive an effective and necessary health promotion strategy for the population, and (3) to project a possible impact of an intervention program on health status. Methods The observed transition of health risk states in a Korean employee cohort was utilized to estimate the natural flow of aggregated health risk states from eight health risk measures using Markov chain models. In addition, a reinforced transition was simulated, given that a health promotion program was implemented for the cohort, to project a possible impact on improvement of health status. An intervened risk transition was obtained based on age, gender, and baseline risk state, adjusted to match with the Korean cohort, from a simulated random sample of a US employee population, where a health intervention was in place. Results The estimated natural flow (non-intervened), following Markov chain order 2, showed a decrease in low risk state by 3.1 percentage points in the Korean population while the simulated reinforced transition (intervened) projected an increase in low risk state by 7.5 percentage points. Estimated transitions of risk states demonstrated the necessity of not only the risk reduction but also low risk maintenance. Conclusions The frame work of Markov chain efficiently estimated the trend, and captured the tendency in the natural flow. Given only a minimally intense health promotion program, potential risk reduction and low risk maintenance was projected. PMID:15538950

  3. Depression and blood pressure in high-risk children and adolescents: an investigation using two longitudinal cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Hammerton, Gemma; Harold, Gordon; Thapar, Anita; Thapar, Ajay

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between blood pressure and depressive disorder in children and adolescents at high risk for depression. Design Multisample longitudinal design including a prospective longitudinal three-wave high-risk study of offspring of parents with recurrent depression and an on-going birth cohort for replication. Setting Community-based studies. Participants High-risk sample includes 281 families where children were aged 9–17 years at baseline and 10–19 years at the final data point. Replication cohort includes 4830 families where children were aged 11–14 years at baseline and 14–17 years at follow-up and a high-risk subsample of 612 offspring with mothers that had reported recurrent depression. Main outcome measures The new-onset of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, fourth edition defined depressive disorder in the offspring using established research diagnostic assessments—the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment in the high-risk sample and the Development and Wellbeing Assessment in the replication sample. Results Blood pressure was standardised for age and gender to create SD scores and child's weight was statistically controlled in all analyses. In the high-risk sample, lower systolic blood pressure at wave 1 significantly predicted new-onset depressive disorder in children (OR=0.65, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.96; p=0.029) but diastolic blood pressure did not. Depressive disorder at wave 1 did not predict systolic blood pressure at wave 3. A significant association between lower systolic blood pressure and future depression was also found in the replication cohort in the second subset of high-risk children whose mothers had experienced recurrent depression in the past. Conclusions Lower systolic blood pressure predicts new-onset depressive disorder in the offspring of parents with depression. Further studies are needed to investigate how this association arises. PMID:24071459

  4. Depression and blood pressure in high-risk children and adolescents: an investigation using two longitudinal cohorts.

    PubMed

    Hammerton, Gemma; Harold, Gordon; Thapar, Anita; Thapar, Ajay

    2013-09-25

    To examine the relationship between blood pressure and depressive disorder in children and adolescents at high risk for depression. Multisample longitudinal design including a prospective longitudinal three-wave high-risk study of offspring of parents with recurrent depression and an on-going birth cohort for replication. Community-based studies. High-risk sample includes 281 families where children were aged 9-17 years at baseline and 10-19 years at the final data point. Replication cohort includes 4830 families where children were aged 11-14 years at baseline and 14-17 years at follow-up and a high-risk subsample of 612 offspring with mothers that had reported recurrent depression. The new-onset of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, fourth edition defined depressive disorder in the offspring using established research diagnostic assessments-the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment in the high-risk sample and the Development and Wellbeing Assessment in the replication sample. Blood pressure was standardised for age and gender to create SD scores and child's weight was statistically controlled in all analyses. In the high-risk sample, lower systolic blood pressure at wave 1 significantly predicted new-onset depressive disorder in children (OR=0.65, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.96; p=0.029) but diastolic blood pressure did not. Depressive disorder at wave 1 did not predict systolic blood pressure at wave 3. A significant association between lower systolic blood pressure and future depression was also found in the replication cohort in the second subset of high-risk children whose mothers had experienced recurrent depression in the past. Lower systolic blood pressure predicts new-onset depressive disorder in the offspring of parents with depression. Further studies are needed to investigate how this association arises.

  5. The US Department of Defense Millennium Cohort Study: career span and beyond longitudinal follow-up.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tyler C

    2009-10-01

    To describe current and future career-span health research in the US Department of Defense Millennium Cohort Study. Collaborating with all military service branches and the Department of Veterans Affairs, the Millennium Cohort Study launched in 2001, before September 11 and the start of deployments in Afghanistan and Iraq, to conduct coordinated strategic research to determine any effects of military occupational and deployment-related exposures, on long-term health. More than 150,000 consenting members represent demographic, occupational, military, and health characteristics of the US military. More than 70% of the first two panels have submitted follow-up questionnaires and >50% have deployed since 2001. Prospective cohort data have identified subgroups of military populations at higher risk or more resilient to decrements in mental and physical health. Continued career span and beyond follow-up will answer long-term health questions related to military service.

  6. A Longitudinal Assessment of an Initial Cohort in a Psychology Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buch, Kim; Spaulding, Sue

    2008-01-01

    Discipline-based learning communities have become a popular strategy for improving student performance and satisfaction. This article describes the goals and features of a university-based, first-year psychology learning community (PLC) implemented in Fall 2003. We also report the results of a longitudinal assessment of the impact of the PLC on…

  7. Drug Exposure Opportunities and Use Patterns among College Students: Results of a Longitudinal Prospective Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Fitzelle, Dawn B.; Johnson, Erin P.; Wish, Eric D.

    2008-01-01

    Underage drinking and drug use among college students are major public health concerns, yet few studies have examined these behaviors and their associated risk factors and consequences prospectively. This paper describes the sampling and recruitment methods of a longitudinal study of 1253 college students at a large, mid-Atlantic university.…

  8. Minimizing Respondent Attrition in Longitudinal Research: Practical Implications from a Cohort Study of Adolescent Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boys, Annabel; Marsden, John; Stillwell, Garry; Hatchings, Kevin; Griffiths, Paul; Farrell, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the methods used to maximize retention in a longitudinal study of adolescent drinking. Strategies to minimize attrition included the collection of detailed contact information, incentives for participation, postcard and telephone reminders and telephone interviews. Ninety-six percent of the original sample completed the first follow-up…

  9. Minimizing Respondent Attrition in Longitudinal Research: Practical Implications from a Cohort Study of Adolescent Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boys, Annabel; Marsden, John; Stillwell, Garry; Hatchings, Kevin; Griffiths, Paul; Farrell, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the methods used to maximize retention in a longitudinal study of adolescent drinking. Strategies to minimize attrition included the collection of detailed contact information, incentives for participation, postcard and telephone reminders and telephone interviews. Ninety-six percent of the original sample completed the first follow-up…

  10. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 2003 Cohort: User Guide. Technical Report 54

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) is a research program that tracks young people as they move from school into further study, work and other destinations. This "User guide" has been developed for users of the LSAY data. The guide endeavours to consolidate existing technical documentation and other relevant information…

  11. Etiology of Pervasive versus Situational Antisocial Behaviors: A Multi-informant Longitudinal Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertz, Jasmin; Zavos, Helena M. S.; Matthews, Timothy; Gray, Rebecca; Best-Lane, Janis; Pariante, Carmine M.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to disentangle pervasive from situational antisocial behaviors using multiple informants, and to investigate their genetic and environmental etiologies in preadolescence and across time. Antisocial behaviors were assessed in 2,232 twins from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study at ages 5 and 12.…

  12. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 1998 Cohort--User Guide. Technical Report 53

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This user guide has been developed for users of the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY). It consolidates existing technical documentation and other information into one document. The guide aims to address all aspects of the LSAY data including: how to access the data, data restrictions, variable naming conventions, the structure of the…

  13. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 2006 Cohort: User Guide. Technical Report 55

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) is a research program that tracks young people as they move from school into further study, work and other destinations. This "User guide" has been developed for users of the LSAY data. The guide endeavours to consolidate existing technical documentation and other relevant information…

  14. Drug Exposure Opportunities and Use Patterns among College Students: Results of a Longitudinal Prospective Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Fitzelle, Dawn B.; Johnson, Erin P.; Wish, Eric D.

    2008-01-01

    Underage drinking and drug use among college students are major public health concerns, yet few studies have examined these behaviors and their associated risk factors and consequences prospectively. This paper describes the sampling and recruitment methods of a longitudinal study of 1253 college students at a large, mid-Atlantic university.…

  15. Contemporary Options for Longitudinal Follow-Up: Lessons Learned from a Cohort of Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobler, Amy L.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports efforts to locate and survey participants in Project Northland Chicago (PNC), a longitudinal, group-randomized trial of an alcohol preventive intervention for racial/ethnic minority, urban, early-adolescents, 3-4 years following the end of the intervention. Data were collected annually among students from 6th-8th grade and then…

  16. Etiology of Pervasive versus Situational Antisocial Behaviors: A Multi-informant Longitudinal Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertz, Jasmin; Zavos, Helena M. S.; Matthews, Timothy; Gray, Rebecca; Best-Lane, Janis; Pariante, Carmine M.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to disentangle pervasive from situational antisocial behaviors using multiple informants, and to investigate their genetic and environmental etiologies in preadolescence and across time. Antisocial behaviors were assessed in 2,232 twins from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study at ages 5 and 12.…

  17. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 2009 Cohort: Wave 1 (2009)--Frequency Tables. Technical Report 70

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) program studies the progress of several groups of young Australians as they move from school into post-secondary education and work. Since 2003, the LSAY program has been integrated with the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) conducted by the Organisation for Economic…

  18. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 1995 Cohort Derived Variables. Technical Report 69

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    This technical report details the derived variables developed for users of the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) data. The derived variables fall into the categories education, employment and social, and help to simplify the complexity of the LSAY data by providing useful indicators for analysis. To help LSAY data users understand…

  19. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 1995 Cohort: User Guide. Technical Report 49

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) is a research program that tracks young people as they move from school into further study, work and other destinations. It uses large, nationally representative samples of young people to collect information about education and training, work, and social development. It includes surveys…

  20. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 2009 Cohort Derived Variables. Technical Report 73

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    This technical paper details the derived variables developed for users of the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) data. These variables fall into the categories of education, employment and social, and help to simplify the use of the data by providing useful indicators for analysis. This paper provides descriptions, formats and…

  1. Longitudinal association of neighborhood variables with Body Mass Index in Dutch school-age children: The KOALA Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Swantje C; Sleddens, Ester F C; de Vries, Sanne I; Gubbels, Jessica; Thijs, Carel

    2015-06-01

    Changes in the neighborhood environment may explain part of the rapid increase in childhood overweight and obesity during the last decades. To date few theory-driven rather than data-driven studies have explored longitudinal associations between multiple neighborhood characteristics and child body weight development. We aimed to assess the relationship between physical, social and perceived safety related characteristics of the neighborhood and Body Mass Index (BMI) development in children during early school age, using a longitudinal design. We included an examination of moderating and confounding factors based on a conceptual model adapted from the EnRG framework (Environmental Research framework for weight Gain prevention) and empirical research. Analyses included 1887 children from the KOALA Birth Cohort Study followed from baseline age 4-5 years until 8-9 years. For children age 4-5 years, parents completed a questionnaire measuring characteristics of the neighborhood. Reliability and factor analyses were used to identify constructs for neighborhood characteristics. Linear regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between neighborhood constructs and BMI z-scores cross-sectionally at age 4-5 years and longitudinally using Generalized Estimating Equations with BMI z-scores over 5 repeated measurements until age 8-9 years. Fourteen constructs were identified and grouped in three domains including perceived physical, social, or safety related characteristics of the neighborhood. Cross-sectionally, a lower BMI z-score was associated with higher perceived physical attractiveness of the neighborhood environment (standardized regression coefficient (β) -0.078, 95% CI -0.123 to -0.034) and a higher level of social capital (β -0.142, -0.264 to -0.019). Longitudinally, similar associations were observed with potentially even stronger regression coefficients. This study suggests that BMI in children is mainly related to the modifiable physical

  2. EVALUATION OF A REMOTE EXPOSURE MONITORING STRATEGY FOR USE IN LONGITUDINAL COHORT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Federal Government is currently planning a large, prospective birth cohort study known as the National Children's Study that will potentially involve 100,000 children and their families. The observation period will start as close to conception as possible and will continue...

  3. EVALUATION OF A REMOTE EXPOSURE MONITORING STRATEGY FOR USE IN LONGITUDINAL COHORT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Federal Government is currently planning a large, prospective birth cohort study known as the National Children's Study that will potentially involve 100,000 children and their families. The observation period will start as close to conception as possible and will continue...

  4. The Life-Cycle Pattern of Collegiate GPA: Longitudinal Cohort Analysis and Grade Inflation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grove, Wayne A.; Wasserman, Tim

    2004-01-01

    Individual semester-by-semester undergraduate grade point average for each of the eight semesters of the collegiate academic life cycle for five entire student cohorts for the classes of 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2002 at a large, private university in the northeast (N = 12,663) reveal a "check-mark" pattern: students' grades fell in…

  5. School Health Screening of a Birth Cohort: A Prospective Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrick, Joav; And Others

    1983-01-01

    School-age illnesses in Denmark, coded from information in 4,327 school health records, are reported for a perinatal cohort comprising 9,125 successive live births. Although characteristic somatic disorders continue to rise, problems of a psycho-social nature dominate. Findings suggest that the school health service should be adapted towards…

  6. Cliques and Cohesion in a Clinical Psychology Graduate Cohort: A Longitudinal Social Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunze, Kimberley Annette

    2013-01-01

    To date, no published research has utilized social network analysis (SNA) to analyze graduate cohorts in clinical psychology. The purpose of this research is to determine how issues of likability among students correlate with other measures, such as disclosure, health, spiritual maturity, help in projects, familiarity, and ease of providing…

  7. Cliques and Cohesion in a Clinical Psychology Graduate Cohort: A Longitudinal Social Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunze, Kimberley Annette

    2013-01-01

    To date, no published research has utilized social network analysis (SNA) to analyze graduate cohorts in clinical psychology. The purpose of this research is to determine how issues of likability among students correlate with other measures, such as disclosure, health, spiritual maturity, help in projects, familiarity, and ease of providing…

  8. Longitudinal Development of Infant Complementary Diet Diversity in 3 International Cohorts.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jessica G; Herbers, Patricia M; McMahon, Robert J; Davidson, Barbara S; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M; Peng, Yong-Mei; Morrow, Ardythe L

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate international differences in the development of minimum dietary diversity (MDD) between 6 and 12 months of age. Breastfed infants (115, 100, and 109 in Shanghai, Cincinnati, and Mexico City, respectively) were enrolled near birth and dietary intake assessed weekly by 24-hour recall of food frequency. Diet diversity per month from age 6-12 months was assessed as at least 4 of 7 food groups provided on the previous day. Across all cohorts, dietary diversity increased from 6 (31%) to 12 (92%) months of age. Shanghai infants were significantly more likely to achieve MDD than the other cohorts at each month of age. Meat/seafood accounted for a higher proportion of infant feeds in Shanghai compared with the other cohorts, and eggs were only fed in Shanghai, and proportional intake of dairy, grains, and fruit were highest in Cincinnati. Only 28% of Cincinnati infants fed >50% human milk achieved MDD between 6 and 12 months. The proportion of infants between 6 and 12 months achieving MDD was significantly higher in Shanghai than in Mexico City or Cincinnati at all ages. Of particular concern was low dietary diversity among highly breastfed Cincinnati cohort infants, suggesting a need for greater education of breastfeeding mothers about the need to introduce a diverse complementary food diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. School Health Screening of a Birth Cohort: A Prospective Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrick, Joav; And Others

    1983-01-01

    School-age illnesses in Denmark, coded from information in 4,327 school health records, are reported for a perinatal cohort comprising 9,125 successive live births. Although characteristic somatic disorders continue to rise, problems of a psycho-social nature dominate. Findings suggest that the school health service should be adapted towards…

  10. Adolescent Self-Consciousness: Longitudinal Age Changes and Gender Differences in Two Cohorts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Jane L.; Lane, David J.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg

    2004-01-01

    Adolescence is frequently described as a period of pervasive self-consciousness, but an age-related peak in adolescence is not consistently obtained, and higher self-consciousness in girls is frequently obtained but not predicted by theoretical accounts. Two cohorts of adolescents (N=393), initially assessed at 13 and 15, completed public and…

  11. Baseline prevalence and longitudinal evolution of non-motor symptoms in early Parkinson's disease: the PPMI cohort.

    PubMed

    Simuni, Tanya; Caspell-Garcia, Chelsea; Coffey, Christopher S; Weintraub, Daniel; Mollenhauer, Brit; Lasch, Shirley; Tanner, Caroline M; Jennings, Danna; Kieburtz, Karl; Chahine, Lana M; Marek, Kenneth

    2017-10-06

    To examine the baseline prevalence and longitudinal evolution in non-motor symptoms (NMS) in a prospective cohort of, at baseline, patients with de novo Parkinson's disease (PD) compared with healthy controls (HC). Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) is a longitudinal, ongoing, controlled study of de novo PD participants and HC. NMS were rated using the Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) Part I score and other validated NMS scales at baseline and after 2 years. Biological variables included cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers and dopamine transporter imaging. 423 PD subjects and 196 HC were enrolled and followed for 2 years. MDS-UPDRS Part I total mean (SD) scores increased from baseline 5.6 (4.1) to 7.7 (5.0) at year 2 in PD subjects (p<0.001) versus from 2.9 (3.0) to 3.2 (3.0) in HC (p=0.38), with a significant difference between the groups (p<0.001). In the multivariate analysis, higher baseline NMS score was associated with female sex (p=0.008), higher baseline MDS-UPDRS Part II scores (p<0.001) and more severe motor phenotype (p=0.007). Longitudinal increase in NMS severity was associated with the older age (0.008) and lower CSF Aβ1-42 (0.005) at baseline. There was no association with the dose or class of dopaminergic therapy. This study of NMS in early PD identified clinical and biological variables associated with both baseline burden and predictors of progression. The association of a greater longitudinal increase in NMS with lower baseline Aβ1-42 level is an important finding that will have to be replicated in other cohorts. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01141023. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. The Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam: cohort update 2016 and major findings.

    PubMed

    Hoogendijk, Emiel O; Deeg, Dorly J H; Poppelaars, Jan; van der Horst, Marleen; Broese van Groenou, Marjolein I; Comijs, Hannie C; Pasman, H Roeline W; van Schoor, Natasja M; Suanet, Bianca; Thomése, Fleur; van Tilburg, Theo G; Visser, Marjolein; Huisman, Martijn

    2016-09-01

    The Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA) is an ongoing longitudinal study of older adults in the Netherlands, which started in 1992. LASA is focused on the determinants, trajectories and consequences of physical, cognitive, emotional and social functioning. The study is based on a nationally representative sample of older adults aged 55 years and over. The findings of the LASA study have been reported in over 450 publications so far (see www.lasa-vu.nl ). In this article we describe the background and the design of the LASA study, and provide an update of the methods. In addition, we provide a summary of the major findings from the period 2011-2015.

  13. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Psychosis, and Bipolarity: A Longitudinal Cohort and Multigenerational Family Study.

    PubMed

    Cederlöf, Martin; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik; Boman, Marcus; Rück, Christian; Landén, Mikael; Mataix-Cols, David

    2015-09-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often co-occurs with psychotic and bipolar disorders; this comorbidity complicates the clinical management of these conditions. In this population-based longitudinal and multigenerational family study, we examined the patterns of comorbidity, longitudinal risks, and shared familial risks between these disorders. Participants were individuals with a diagnosis of OCD (n = 19,814), schizophrenia (n = 58,336), bipolar disorder (n = 48,180), and schizoaffective disorder (n = 14,904) included in the Swedish Patient Register between January 1969 and December 2009; their first-, second-, and third-degree relatives; and population-matched (1:10 ratio) unaffected comparison individuals and their relatives. The Swedish Prescribed Drug Register was used to control for the potential effect of medication in the longitudinal analyses. Individuals with OCD had a 12-fold increased risk of having a comorbid diagnosis of schizophrenia and a 13-fold increased risk of bipolar disorder and schizoaffective disorder. Longitudinal analyses showed that individuals first diagnosed with OCD had an increased risk for later diagnosis of all other disorders, and vice versa. The risk of bipolar disorder was reduced, but not eliminated, when the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors was adjusted for. OCD-unaffected first-, second-, and third-degree relatives of probands with OCD had a significantly increased risk for all 3 disorders; the magnitude of this risk decreased as the genetic distance increased. We conclude that OCD is etiologically related to both schizophrenia spectrum and bipolar disorders. The results have implications for current gene-searching efforts and for clinical practice.

  14. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Psychosis, and Bipolarity: A Longitudinal Cohort and Multigenerational Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Cederlöf, Martin; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik; Boman, Marcus; Rück, Christian; Landén, Mikael; Mataix-Cols, David

    2015-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often co-occurs with psychotic and bipolar disorders; this comorbidity complicates the clinical management of these conditions. In this population-based longitudinal and multigenerational family study, we examined the patterns of comorbidity, longitudinal risks, and shared familial risks between these disorders. Participants were individuals with a diagnosis of OCD (n = 19814), schizophrenia (n = 58336), bipolar disorder (n = 48180), and schizoaffective disorder (n = 14904) included in the Swedish Patient Register between January 1969 and December 2009; their first-, second-, and third-degree relatives; and population-matched (1:10 ratio) unaffected comparison individuals and their relatives. The Swedish Prescribed Drug Register was used to control for the potential effect of medication in the longitudinal analyses. Individuals with OCD had a 12-fold increased risk of having a comorbid diagnosis of schizophrenia and a 13-fold increased risk of bipolar disorder and schizoaffective disorder. Longitudinal analyses showed that individuals first diagnosed with OCD had an increased risk for later diagnosis of all other disorders, and vice versa. The risk of bipolar disorder was reduced, but not eliminated, when the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors was adjusted for. OCD-unaffected first-, second-, and third-degree relatives of probands with OCD had a significantly increased risk for all 3 disorders; the magnitude of this risk decreased as the genetic distance increased. We conclude that OCD is etiologically related to both schizophrenia spectrum and bipolar disorders. The results have implications for current gene-searching efforts and for clinical practice. PMID:25512596

  15. ADHD and Sleep Quality: Longitudinal Analyses From Childhood to Early Adulthood in a Twin Cohort.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Alice M; Agnew-Blais, Jessica C; Matthews, Timothy; Moffitt, Terrie E; Arseneault, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with poor sleep quality, but there is more to learn about the longitudinal association and aetiology of this association. We investigated the following: (a) Is there an association between childhood ADHD and poor sleep quality in young adulthood? (b) Is this driven by the long-term effects of childhood ADHD or concurrent associations with ADHD in young adulthood? (c) To what extent do genetic and environmental influences explain the overlap between symptoms of ADHD and poor sleep quality? Participants were from the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study of 2,232 twin children born in the United Kingdom in 1994-1995. We ascertained ADHD diagnoses at ages 5, 7, 10, 12, and 18. We assessed sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index at age 18. We used regression models to examine longitudinal associations and bivariate twin modelling to test genetic and environmental influences. Children with ADHD had poorer sleep quality in young adulthood, but only if their ADHD persisted. Adults with ADHD had more sleep problems than those without ADHD, over and above psychiatric comorbidity and maternal insomnia. ADHD and sleep problems in young adulthood were associated because of genetic (55%) and nonshared environmental influences (45%). Should ADHD remit, children with ADHD do not appear to have an increased risk of later sleep problems. Good quality sleep is important for multiple areas of functioning, and a better understanding of why adults with ADHD have poorer sleep quality will further the goal of improving treatments.

  16. Persistent cannabis dependence and alcohol dependence represent risks for midlife economic and social problems: A longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Cerdá, Magdalena; Moffitt, Terrie E; Meier, Madeline H; Harrington, HonaLee; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Hogan, Sean; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2016-11-01

    With the increasing legalization of cannabis, understanding the consequences of cannabis use is particularly timely. We examined the association between cannabis use and dependence, prospectively assessed between ages 18-38, and economic and social problems at age 38. We studied participants in the Dunedin Longitudinal Study, a cohort (n=1,037) followed from birth to age 38. Study members with regular cannabis use and persistent dependence experienced downward socioeconomic mobility, more financial difficulties, workplace problems, and relationship conflict in early midlife. Cannabis dependence was not linked to traffic-related convictions. Associations were not explained by socioeconomic adversity, childhood psychopathology, achievement orientation, or family structure; cannabis-related criminal convictions; early onset of cannabis dependence; or comorbid substance dependence. Cannabis dependence was associated with more financial difficulties than alcohol dependence; no difference was found in risks for other economic or social problems. Cannabis dependence is not associated with fewer harmful economic and social problems than alcohol dependence.

  17. External Validation of the Lupus Impact Tracker in a Southeastern US Longitudinal Cohort With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Jennifer E; Drenkard, Cristina; Kan, Hong; Bao, Gaobin; Dunlop-Thomas, Charmayne; Pobiner, Bonnie; Chang, David J; Jolly, Meenakshi; Lim, S Sam

    2017-06-01

    To examine the external validity of the Lupus Impact Tracker (LIT), a systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-specific, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) tool in a population-based cohort of patients with SLE in Atlanta, Georgia. We modeled the association of LIT scores with patient-reported measures of SLE activity (Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire [SLAQ]) and organ damage (self-administered Brief Index of Lupus Damage [SA-BILD]). We investigated the association of LIT scores with general HRQoL using the Short Form 12 (SF-12). Correlation, multivariable regression, and longitudinal analyses using general linear modeling with fixed effects were performed to investigate the association between the LIT and patient-reported disease activity (SLAQ); patient-reported disease damage (SA-BILD); mental health (mental component summary [MCS] of the SF-12); and physical health (physical component summary [PCS] of the SF-12). Demographic trends related to the LIT were also assessed using cross-sectional analysis. The LIT was significantly associated with disease activity (SLAQ), organ damage (SA-BILD), MCS scores, and PCS scores in both adjusted and unadjusted regression analysis (P < 0.0001). Longitudinal analysis demonstrated a significant association between the LIT and disease activity (SLAQ), MCS scores, and PCS scores (P < 0.0001), but not organ damage (SA-BILD). The LIT is a simple, patient-centered tool that can be used to assess HRQoL in patients with SLE. This study provides external validity of the LIT in a population-based cohort with a large number of African American patients with a relatively high disease burden. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  18. Early maternal depressive symptoms and child growth trajectories: a longitudinal analysis of a nationally representative US birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal depressive symptoms are negatively associated with early child growth in developing countries; however, few studies have examined this relation in developed countries or used a longitudinal design with data past the second year of the child’s life. We investigated if and when early maternal depressive symptoms affect average growth in young children up to age 6 in a nationally representative sample of US children. Methods Using data from 6,550 singleton births from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study -- Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), we fit growth trajectory models with random effects to examine the relation between maternal depressive symptoms at 9 months based on the twelve-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and child height and body mass index (BMI) to age 6 years. Results Mothers with moderate/severe depressive symptoms at 9 months postpartum had children with shorter stature at this same point in time [average 0.26 cm shorter; 95% CI: 5 cm, 48 cm] than mothers without depressive symptoms; children whose mothers reported postpartum depressive symptoms remained significantly shorter throughout the child’s first 6 years. Conclusions Results suggest that the first year postpartum is a critical window for addressing maternal depressive symptoms in order to optimize child growth. Future studies should investigate the role of caregiving and feeding practices as potential mechanisms linking maternal depressive symptoms and child growth trajectories. PMID:25047367

  19. Association of FTO with obesity-related traits in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS) Cohort.

    PubMed

    Marvelle, Amanda F; Lange, Leslie A; Qin, Li; Adair, Linda S; Mohlke, Karen L

    2008-07-01

    The underlying genetic component of obesity-related traits is not well understood, and there is limited evidence to support genetic association shared across multiple studies, populations, and environmental contexts. The present study investigated the association between candidate variants and obesity-related traits in a sample of 1,886 adult Filipino women from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS) cohort. We selected and genotyped 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 10 genes (ADRB2, ADRB3, FTO, GNB3, INSIG2, LEPR, PPARG, TNF, UCP2, and UCP3) that had been previously reported to be associated with an obesity-related quantitative trait. We observed evidence for association of the A allele of rs9939609 (FTO intron 1) with increased BMI (P = 0.0072 before multiple test correction), baseline BMI (P = 0.0015), longitudinal BMI based on eight surveys from 1983 to 2005 (P = 0.000029), waist circumference (P = 0.0094), and weight (P = 0.021). The increase in average BMI was approximately 0.4 for each additional A allele. We also observed association of the ADRB3 Trp64Arg variant with BMI, waist circumference, percent body fat, weight, fat mass, arm fat area, and arm muscle area (P < 0.05), although the direction of effect is inconsistent with the majority of previous reports. Our study confirms that FTO is a common obesity susceptibility gene in Filipinos, with an effect size similar to that seen in samples of European origin.

  20. Estimation of Newborn Risk for Child or Adolescent Obesity: Lessons from Longitudinal Birth Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Morandi, Anita; Meyre, David; Lobbens, Stéphane; Kleinman, Ken; Kaakinen, Marika; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Vatin, Vincent; Gaget, Stefan; Pouta, Anneli; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Laitinen, Jaana; Ruokonen, Aimo; Das, Shikta; Khan, Anokhi Ali; Elliott, Paul; Maffeis, Claudio; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Prevention of obesity should start as early as possible after birth. We aimed to build clinically useful equations estimating the risk of later obesity in newborns, as a first step towards focused early prevention against the global obesity epidemic. Methods We analyzed the lifetime Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC1986) (N = 4,032) to draw predictive equations for childhood and adolescent obesity from traditional risk factors (parental BMI, birth weight, maternal gestational weight gain, behaviour and social indicators), and a genetic score built from 39 BMI/obesity-associated polymorphisms. We performed validation analyses in a retrospective cohort of 1,503 Italian children and in a prospective cohort of 1,032 U.S. children. Results In the NFBC1986, the cumulative accuracy of traditional risk factors predicting childhood obesity, adolescent obesity, and childhood obesity persistent into adolescence was good: AUROC = 0·78[0·74–0.82], 0·75[0·71–0·79] and 0·85[0·80–0·90] respectively (all p<0·001). Adding the genetic score produced discrimination improvements ≤1%. The NFBC1986 equation for childhood obesity remained acceptably accurate when applied to the Italian and the U.S. cohort (AUROC = 0·70[0·63–0·77] and 0·73[0·67–0·80] respectively) and the two additional equations for childhood obesity newly drawn from the Italian and the U.S. datasets showed good accuracy in respective cohorts (AUROC = 0·74[0·69–0·79] and 0·79[0·73–0·84]) (all p<0·001). The three equations for childhood obesity were converted into simple Excel risk calculators for potential clinical use. Conclusion This study provides the first example of handy tools for predicting childhood obesity in newborns by means of easily recorded information, while it shows that currently known genetic variants have very little usefulness for such prediction. PMID:23209618

  1. Morphometry Predicts Early GFR Change in Primary Proteinuric Glomerulopathies: A Longitudinal Cohort Study Using Generalized Estimating Equations

    PubMed Central

    Bagnasco, Serena M.; Nast, Cynthia C.; Barisoni, Laura; Conway, Catherine M.; Hewitt, Stephen M.; Song, Peter X. K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Most predictive models of kidney disease progression have not incorporated structural data. If structural variables have been used in models, they have generally been only semi-quantitative. Methods We examined the predictive utility of quantitative structural parameters measured on the digital images of baseline kidney biopsies from the NEPTUNE study of primary proteinuric glomerulopathies. These variables were included in longitudinal statistical models predicting the change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) over up to 55 months of follow-up. Results The participants were fifty-six pediatric and adult subjects from the NEPTUNE longitudinal cohort study who had measurements made on their digital biopsy images; 25% were African-American, 70% were male and 39% were children; 25 had focal segmental glomerular sclerosis, 19 had minimal change disease, and 12 had membranous nephropathy. We considered four different sets of candidate predictors, each including four quantitative structural variables (for example, mean glomerular tuft area, cortical density of patent glomeruli and two of the principal components from the correlation matrix of six fractional cortical areas–interstitium, atrophic tubule, intact tubule, blood vessel, sclerotic glomerulus, and patent glomerulus) along with 13 potentially confounding demographic and clinical variables (such as race, age, diagnosis, and baseline eGFR, quantitative proteinuria and BMI). We used longitudinal linear models based on these 17 variables to predict the change in eGFR over up to 55 months. All 4 models had a leave-one-out cross-validated R2 of about 62%. Conclusions Several combinations of quantitative structural variables were significantly and strongly associated with changes in eGFR. The structural variables were generally stronger than any of the confounding variables, other than baseline eGFR. Our findings suggest that quantitative assessment of diagnostic renal biopsies may play a role in

  2. Nonmedical Use of Prescription Opioids during the Transition to Adulthood: A Multi-Cohort National Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Schulenberg, John E.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Patrick, Megan E.; Kloska, Deborah D.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To examine nonmedical use of prescription opioids (NMUPO) patterns during the transition from adolescence to adulthood, and assess individual characteristics and other substance use behaviors associated with longitudinal patterns of NMUPO. Design Nationally representative samples of high school seniors in the United States (wave 1: modal age 18 years) were followed longitudinally across three biennial follow-up waves (waves 2, 3, and 4: modal ages 19/20, 21/22, and 23/24). Setting Data were collected via self-administered questionnaires to high school seniors and young adults. Participants The longitudinal sample consisted of 27,268 individuals in 30 cohorts (high school senior years 1976–2005) who participated in all four waves. Measurements Self-reports of NMUPO and other substance use behaviors. Findings Approximately 11.6% (95% CI = 11.2%, 12.0%) of the sample reported past-year NMUPO in at least one of the four waves. Among those who reported past-year NMUPO in at least one wave, 69.0% (67.6%, 70.4%), 20.5% (19.3%, 21.7%), 7.8% (7.1%, 8.6%), and 2.7% (2.3%, 3.1%) reported NMUPO at one, two, three, and four waves, respectively. Several wave 1 variables were associated with greater odds of multiple waves of NMUPO and individuals who reported more waves of NMUPO had greater odds of other substance use behaviors. Conclusions Although most nonmedical use of prescription opioids (NMUPO) among 18-year-olds in the United States appears to be non-continuing, about one-third of the sample reporting NMUPO appear to continue use beyond age 18 and have elevated odds of other substance use behaviors at ages 23/24. PMID:24025114

  3. Swimming pool attendance, asthma, allergies, and lung function in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort.

    PubMed

    Font-Ribera, Laia; Villanueva, Cristina M; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Zock, Jan-Paul; Kogevinas, Manolis; Henderson, John

    2011-03-01

    Cross-sectional studies have reported inconsistent findings for the association between recreational swimming pool attendance and asthma and allergic diseases in childhood. To examine whether swimming in infancy and childhood was associated with asthma and allergic symptoms at age 7 and 10 years in a UK longitudinal population-based birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Data on swimming were collected by questionnaire at 6, 18, 38, 42, 57, 65, and 81 months. Data on rhinitis, wheezing, asthma, eczema, hay fever, asthma medication, and potential confounders were collected through questionnaires at 7 and 10 years. Spirometry and skin prick testing were performed at 7 to 8 years. Data for analysis were available for 5,738 children. At age 7 years, more than 50% of the children swam once per week or more. Swimming frequency did not increase the risk of any evaluated symptom, either overall or in atopic children. Children with a high versus low cumulative swimming pool attendance from birth to 7 years had an odds ratio of 0.88 (95% confidence interval, 0.56-1.38) and 0.50 (0.28-0.87), respectively, for ever and current asthma at 7 years, and a 0.20 (0.02-0.39) standard deviation increase in the forced midexpiratory flow. Children with asthma with a high versus low cumulative swimming had an odds ratio for current asthma at 10 years of 0.34 (0.14-0.80). This first prospective longitudinal study suggests that swimming did not increase the risk of asthma or allergic symptoms in British children. Swimming was associated with increased lung function and lower risk of asthma symptoms, especially among children with preexisting respiratory conditions.

  4. Swimming Pool Attendance, Asthma, Allergies, and Lung Function in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Font-Ribera, Laia; Villanueva, Cristina M.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Zock, Jan-Paul; Kogevinas, Manolis; Henderson, John

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: Cross-sectional studies have reported inconsistent findings for the association between recreational swimming pool attendance and asthma and allergic diseases in childhood. Objectives: To examine whether swimming in infancy and childhood was associated with asthma and allergic symptoms at age 7 and 10 years in a UK longitudinal population-based birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Methods: Data on swimming were collected by questionnaire at 6, 18, 38, 42, 57, 65, and 81 months. Data on rhinitis, wheezing, asthma, eczema, hay fever, asthma medication, and potential confounders were collected through questionnaires at 7 and 10 years. Spirometry and skin prick testing were performed at 7 to 8 years. Data for analysis were available for 5,738 children. Measurements and Main Results: At age 7 years, more than 50% of the children swam once per week or more. Swimming frequency did not increase the risk of any evaluated symptom, either overall or in atopic children. Children with a high versus low cumulative swimming pool attendance from birth to 7 years had an odds ratio of 0.88 (95% confidence interval, 0.56–1.38) and 0.50 (0.28–0.87), respectively, for ever and current asthma at 7 years, and a 0.20 (0.02–0.39) standard deviation increase in the forced midexpiratory flow. Children with asthma with a high versus low cumulative swimming had an odds ratio for current asthma at 10 years of 0.34 (0.14–0.80). Conclusions: This first prospective longitudinal study suggests that swimming did not increase the risk of asthma or allergic symptoms in British children. Swimming was associated with increased lung function and lower risk of asthma symptoms, especially among children with preexisting respiratory conditions. PMID:20889905

  5. Predicting the Quality of Mother-Child Reminiscing Surrounding Negative Emotional Events at 42- and 48-Months

    PubMed Central

    Laible, Deborah; Panfile, Tia; Augustine, Mairin

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have speculated that a number of factors likely predict the quality of reminiscing between preschool children and their mothers. This study was designed to investigate three such factors, including child temperament, maternal personality, and maternal caregiving representations. 70 mothers and their preschool children were recruited for the study. When the child was 42 months of age, mothers completed measures of her personality and the child’s temperament. Mothers also took part in the shortened Parent Development Inventory that was coded for coherence, pleasure, comfort, and perspective taking. At both 42 and 48 months, the mother-child dyad reminisced about a past event in which the child experienced a negative emotion. These conversations were coded for the amount of maternal elaboration, the discussion of emotion, and dyadic qualities (such as collaboration and intersubjectivity). At 42 months, aspects of maternal personality and child temperament were most associated with reminiscing quality. However, at 48 months, it was primarily maternal representations of relationships that predicted high quality reminiscing in the dyad. PMID:23789023

  6. Dietary B vitamin intakes and urinary total arsenic concentration in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) cohort, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Argos, Maria; Rathouz, Paul J.; Pierce, Brandon L.; Kalra, Tara; Parvez, Faruque; Slavkovich, Vesna; Ahmed, Alauddin; Chen, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the effects of dietary B vitamin intakes on creatinine-adjusted urinary total arsenic concentration among individuals participating in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) cohort in Araihazar, Bangladesh. Arsenic exposure is a major public health problem in Bangladesh, where nearly 77 million people have been chronically exposed to arsenic through the consumption of naturally contaminated groundwater. Dietary factors influencing the metabolism of ingested arsenic may potentially be important modifiers of the health effects of arsenic in this population. Methods Daily average B vitamin intakes from a validated food frequency questionnaire and laboratory data on drinking water and urinary arsenic concentrations among 9,833 HEALS cohort participants were utilized. Statistical analyses were conducted using generalized estimating equations incorporating knotted spline linear regression. Results Increasing dietary intakes of thiamin, niacin, pantothenic acid, and pyridoxine were found to significantly increase urinary total arsenic excretion, adjusted for daily arsenic intake from drinking water and other potential confounders. Conclusions These results suggest that higher intakes of certain B vitamins may enhance the excretion of arsenic from the body. This study offers new insights into modifiable dietary factors that relate to arsenic excretion and thus provides potential avenues for the prevention of arsenic-related health effects. PMID:20386915

  7. Predictors of rapid high weight gain in schizophrenia: Longitudinal analysis of the French FACE-SZ cohort.

    PubMed

    Godin, O; Leboyer, M; Schürhoff, F; Boyer, L; Andrianarisoa, M; Brunel, L; Bulzacka, E; Aouizerate, B; Berna, F; Capdevielle, D; D'Amato, T; Denizot, H; Dubertret, C; Dubreucq, J; Faget, C; Gabayet, F; Llorca, P M; Mallet, J; Misdrahi, D; Passerieux, C; Rey, R; Richieri, R; Schandrin, A; Urbach, M; Vidailhet, P; Costagliola, D; Fond, G

    2017-11-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is highly prevalent in schizophrenia. However very little is known about the time course of MetS and its components. The few longitudinal studies that have been carried out had small sample sizes and a short follow-up. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of MetS and its components, at baseline and one year later, and to investigate predictors of weight gain (WG) in a cohort of individuals with schizophrenia. We followed 167 schizophrenia patients from the FACE-SZ cohort for one year. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) was used to confirm the diagnosis of schizophrenia. Data on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, antipsychotic treatment, and comorbidities were collected, and a blood sample was drawn. We found that the prevalence of MetS increased from 21.0% to 26.6% after one year. Patients with baseline depressive symptoms had a 4.5-fold higher risk of WG at the one-year follow-up (p = 0.02) than those without depressive symptoms, after adjusting for confounding variables. WG also correlated with high levels of metabolic parameters and peripheral inflammation. These findings highlight the need to systematically diagnose depression in Schizophrenia. Future studies should determine whether specific pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for depression in SZ subjects are effective in preventing rapid high weight gain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ageing, social class and common mental disorders: longitudinal evidence from three cohorts in the West of Scotland.

    PubMed

    Green, M J; Benzeval, M

    2011-03-01

    Understanding how common mental disorders such as anxiety and depression vary with socio-economic circumstances as people age can help to identify key intervention points. However, much research treats these conditions as a single disorder when they differ significantly in terms of their disease burden. This paper examines the socio-economic pattern of anxiety and depression separately and longitudinally to develop a better understanding of their disease burden for key social groups at different ages. The Twenty-07 Study has followed 4510 respondents from three cohorts in the West of Scotland for 20 years and 3846 respondents had valid data for these analyses. Hierarchical repeated-measures models were used to investigate the relationship between age, social class and the prevalence of anxiety and depression over time measured as scores of 8 or more out of 21 on the relevant subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Social class differences in anxiety and depression widened with age. For anxiety there was a nonlinear decrease in prevalence with age, decreasing more slowly for those from manual classes compared to non-manual, whereas for depression there was a non-linear increase in prevalence with age, increasing more quickly for those from manual classes compared to non-manual. This relationship is robust to cohort, period and attrition effects. The more burdensome disorder of depression occurs more frequently at ages where socio-economic inequalities in mental health are greatest, representing a 'double jeopardy' for older people from a manual class.

  9. Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B): Methodology Report for the 9-Month Data Collection (2001-02). Volume 2: Sampling. NCES 2005-147

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethel, James; Green, James L.; Nord, Christine; Kalton, Graham; West, Jerry

    2005-01-01

    This report is Volume 2 of the methodology report that provides information about the development, design, and conduct of the 9-month data collection of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). This volume begins with a brief overview of the ECLS-B, but focuses on the sample design, calculation of response rates, development…

  10. Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B): Methodology Report for the 9-Month Data Collection (2001-02). Volume 2: Sampling. NCES 2005-147

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethel, James; Green, James L.; Nord, Christine; Kalton, Graham; West, Jerry

    2005-01-01

    This report is Volume 2 of the methodology report that provides information about the development, design, and conduct of the 9-month data collection of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). This volume begins with a brief overview of the ECLS-B, but focuses on the sample design, calculation of response rates, development…

  11. Preschool: First Findings from the Preschool Follow-Up of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). First Look. NCES 2008-025

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chernoff, Jodi Jacobson; Flanagan, Kristin Denton; McPhee, Cameron; Park, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) is designed to provide detailed information on children's development, health, and early learning experiences in the years leading up to entry into school. The ECLS-B is the first nationally representative study within the United States to directly assess children's early mental and…

  12. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 1998 Cohort--User Guide. Data Elements B1: Education. Technical Report 53B1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This technical paper contains information about the variables in the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) Year 1998 cohort data set. It groups each variable into data elements which identifies common variables within and across waves. Information is provided about each data element including its purpose, values, base populations and…

  13. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 1998 Cohort--User Guide. Data Elements B2: Education. Technical Report 53B2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This technical paper contains information about the variables in the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) Year 1998 cohort data set. It groups each variable into data elements which identifies common variables within and across waves. Information is provided about each data element including its purpose, values, base populations and…

  14. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 1995 Cohort--User Guide. Data Elements B2: Education. Technical Report 49B2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This technical paper contains information about the variables in the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) Year 95 cohort data set. It groups each variable into data elements that identify common variables within and across waves. Information is provided about each data element, including its purpose, values, base populations and…

  15. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 1995 Cohort--User Guide. Data Elements B1: Education. Technical Report 49B1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This technical paper contains information about the variables in the LSAY (Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth) Y95 cohort data set. It groups each variable into data elements which identifies common variables within and across waves. Information is provided about each data element including its purpose, values, base populations and relevant.…

  16. Psychological distress over time in early rheumatoid arthritis: results from a longitudinal study in an early arthritis cohort.

    PubMed

    Bacconnier, Ludovic; Rincheval, Nathalie; Flipo, René-Marc; Goupille, Philippe; Daures, Jean-Pierre; Boulenger, Jean-Philippe; Combe, Bernard

    2015-03-01

    RA is a chronic disease with frequent psychological co-morbidities, of which depression and anxiety are two common manifestations. We aimed to identify predictive factors of psychological distress in a large prospective cohort of very early RA patients. ESPOIR (Etude et Suivi des Polyarthrites Indifférenciées Récentes) is a multicentre, longitudinal and prospective cohort study of patients with early arthritis (<6 months disease duration). The study sample comprised 641 patients with very early RA according to the 2010 ACR/European League Against Rheumatism RA criteria from the ESPOIR cohort. Psychological distress was assessed over 3 years by the five-item Mental Health Inventory questionnaire at various time points (baseline, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 36 months). Logistic regression with a generalized estimating equation model was used to analyse the association of disease variables and risk of psychological distress. At baseline, 46.9% of RA patients were screened as positive for psychological distress. Over 3 years, psychological distress decreased significantly, with a prevalence of 25.8% at 36 months. The HAQ Disability Index (HAQ-DI) score was the most important factor predicting psychological distress over 3 years [odds ratio 2.10 (95% CI 1.41, 3.14)-3.59 (2.29, 5.63)]. Baseline biological and radiological variables and treatment regimens were not associated with distress. Psychological distress in very early RA is frequent and the HAQ-DI score is a predictor of depression and anxiety in these patients. A psychological evaluation in patients with early RA is important for further individual psychiatric diagnosis and management. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Risk Factors for Asthma-Related Healthcare Use: Longitudinal Analysis Using the NHI Claims Database in a Korean Asthma Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoungjoo; Park, Yunjin; Kim, Yuri; Lee, Yoon Su; Kwon, Hyouk-Soo; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Cho, You Sook; Jang, An-Soo; Park, Jung-Won; Nahm, Dong-Ho; Yoon, Ho-Joo; Cho, Sang-Heon; Cho, Young-Joo; Choi, Byoung Whui; Moon, Hee-Bom; Kim, Tae-Bum

    2014-01-01

    Background Though insurance claims data are useful for researching asthma, they have important limitations, such as a diagnostic inaccuracy and a lack of clinical information. To overcome these drawbacks, we used the novel method by merging the clinical data from our asthma cohort with the National Health Insurance (NHI) claims data. Methods and Results Longitudinal analysis of asthma-related healthcare use from the NHI claims database, merged with data of 736 patients registered in a Korean asthma cohort, was conducted for three consecutive years from registration of the cohort. Asthma-related asthma healthcare referred to outpatient and emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and the use of systemic corticosteroids. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate risk factors for asthma-related healthcare. Over three years after enrollment, many patients changed from tertiary to primary/secondary hospitals with a lack of maintenance of inhaled corticosteroid-based controllers. An independent risk factor for emergency visits was a previous history of asthma exacerbation. In hospitalizations, old age and Asthma Control Test (ACT) score variability were independent risk factors. An independent risk factor for per person cumulative duration of systemic corticosteroids was the FEV1 (Forced expiratory volume in one second)%. The use of systemic corticosteroids was independently associated with being female, the FEV1%, and ACT score variability. Conclusion We found that old age, being female, long-standing asthma, a low FEV1%, asthma brittleness, asthma drug compliance, and a history of asthma exacerbation were independent risk factors for increased asthma-related healthcare use in Korea. PMID:25397972

  18. STroke imAging pRevention and treatment (START): A longitudinal stroke cohort study: Clinical trials protocol.

    PubMed

    Carey, Leeanne M; Crewther, Sheila; Salvado, Olivier; Lindén, Thomas; Connelly, Alan; Wilson, William; Howells, David W; Churilov, Leonid; Ma, Henry; Tse, Tamara; Rose, Stephen; Palmer, Susan; Bougeat, Pierrick; Campbell, Bruce C V; Christensen, Soren; Macaulay, S Lance; Favaloro, Jenny; O' Collins, Victoria; McBride, Simon; Bates, Susan; Cowley, Elise; Dewey, Helen; Wijeratne, Tissa; Gerraty, Richard; Phan, Thanh G; Yan, Bernard; Parsons, Mark W; Bladin, Chris; Barber, P Alan; Read, Stephen; Wong, Andrew; Lee, Andrew; Kleinig, Tim; Hankey, Graeme J; Blacker, David; Markus, Romesh; Leyden, James; Krause, Martin; Grimley, Rohan; Mahant, Neil; Jannes, Jim; Sturm, Jonathan; Davis, Stephen M; Donnan, Geoffrey A

    2015-06-01

    Stroke and poststroke depression are common and have a profound and ongoing impact on an individual's quality of life. However, reliable biological correlates of poststroke depression and functional outcome have not been well established in humans. Our aim is to identify biological factors, molecular and imaging, associated with poststroke depression and recovery that may be used to guide more targeted interventions. In a longitudinal cohort study of 200 stroke survivors, the START-STroke imAging pRevention and Treatment cohort, we will examine the relationship between gene expression, regulator proteins, depression, and functional outcome. Stroke survivors will be investigated at baseline, 24 h, three-days, three-months, and 12 months poststroke for blood-based biological associates and at days 3-7, three-months, and 12 months for depression and functional outcomes. A sub-group (n = 100), the PrePARE: Prediction and Prevention to Achieve optimal Recovery Endpoints after stroke cohort, will also be investigated for functional and structural changes in putative depression-related brain networks and for additional cognition and activity participation outcomes. Stroke severity, diet, and lifestyle factors that may influence depression will be monitored. The impact of depression on stroke outcomes and participation in previous life activities will be quantified. Clinical significance lies in the identification of biological factors associated with functional outcome to guide prevention and inform personalized and targeted treatments. Evidence of associations between depression, gene expression and regulator proteins, functional and structural brain changes, lifestyle and functional outcome will provide new insights for mechanism-based models of poststroke depression. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2013 World Stroke Organization.

  19. Longitudinal Assessment of Self-Reported Recent Back Pain and Combat Deployment in the Millennium Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Granado, Nisara S; Pietrucha, Amanda; Ryan, Margaret; Boyko, Edward J; Hooper, Tomoko I; Smith, Besa; Smith, Tyler C

    2016-11-15

    A prospective cohort study. Activities performed during military operations vary in complexity and physical demand. The risk for mental illness following military combat deployment has been well documented. However, information regarding the possible contribution of back pain to decreased mental and functional health is scarce. To our knowledge, this is the first study to prospectively assess deployment and self-reported recent back pain in a population-based U.S. military cohort. The study consisted of Millennium Cohort participants who were followed for the development of back pain for an average of 3.9 years. Descriptive statistics and longitudinal analyses were used to assess the temporal relationship of deployment with self-reported recent back pain at follow-up (N = 53,933). Recent back pain was self-reported by 8379 (15.5%) participants at follow-up. After adjusting for covariates, deployers with combat experiences had higher odds [odds ratio (OR) = 1.38, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.28-1.50] of recent back pain than noncombat deployers. There was no association between recent back pain and nondeployers compared with noncombat deployers. Service support/supply handlers were at an increased odds of reporting recent back pain (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.02-1.21) than functional support/administration occupations. Occupations associated with a physically demanding work environment had a higher risk of back pain. Deployers with combat experiences were more likely to report back pain postdeployment. This well-defined group of military personnel may potentially benefit from integrated prevention efforts. 3.

  20. Longitudinal Assessment of Self-Reported Recent Back Pain and Combat Deployment in the Millennium Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Granado, Nisara S.; Pietrucha, Amanda; Ryan, Margaret; Boyko, Edward J.; Hooper, Tomoko I.; Smith, Besa; Smith, Tyler C.

    2016-01-01

    Study Design. A prospective cohort study. Objective. Activities performed during military operations vary in complexity and physical demand. The risk for mental illness following military combat deployment has been well documented. However, information regarding the possible contribution of back pain to decreased mental and functional health is scarce. To our knowledge, this is the first study to prospectively assess deployment and self-reported recent back pain in a population-based U.S. military cohort. Summary of Background Data. The study consisted of Millennium Cohort participants who were followed for the development of back pain for an average of 3.9 years. Methods. Descriptive statistics and longitudinal analyses were used to assess the temporal relationship of deployment with self-reported recent back pain at follow-up (N = 53,933). Results. Recent back pain was self-reported by 8379 (15.5%) participants at follow-up. After adjusting for covariates, deployers with combat experiences had higher odds [odds ratio (OR) = 1.38, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.28–1.50] of recent back pain than noncombat deployers. There was no association between recent back pain and nondeployers compared with noncombat deployers. Service support/supply handlers were at an increased odds of reporting recent back pain (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.02–1.21) than functional support/administration occupations. Occupations associated with a physically demanding work environment had a higher risk of back pain. Conclusion. Deployers with combat experiences were more likely to report back pain postdeployment. This well-defined group of military personnel may potentially benefit from integrated prevention efforts. Level of Evidence: 3 PMID:27310026

  1. Childhood obesity and proximity to urban parks and recreational resources: A longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wolch, Jennifer; Jerrett, Michael; reynolds, Kim; McConnell, Rob; Chang, Roger; Dahmann, Nicholas; Brady, Kirby; Gilliland, Frank; Su, Jason G.; Berhane, Kiros

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the research was to assess how proximity to parks and recreational resources affects the development of childhood obesity through a longitudinal study. Data were collected on 3173 children aged 9–10 from 12 communities in Southern California in 1993 and 1996. Children were followed for eight years to collect longitudinal information, including objectively measured body mass index (BMI). Multilevel growth curve models were used to assess associations between attained BMI growth at age 18 and numerous environmental variables, including park space and recreational program access. For park acres within a 500 meter distance of children’s homes, there were significant inverse associations with attained BMI at age 18. Effect sizes were larger for boys than for girls. Recreation programs within a 10 km buffer of children’s homes were significantly and inversely associated with achieved levels in BMI at age 18, with effect sizes for boys also larger than those for girls. We conclude that children with better access to park and recreational resources are less likely to experience significant increases in attained BMI. PMID:21075670

  2. Cohort Profile: Footprints in Time, the Australian Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children

    PubMed Central

    Thurber, Katherine A; Banks, Emily; Banwell, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Indigenous Australians experience profound levels of disadvantage in health, living standards, life expectancy, education and employment, particularly in comparison with non-Indigenous Australians. Very little information is available about the healthy development of Australian Indigenous children; the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children (LSIC) is designed to fill this knowledge gap. This dataset provides an opportunity to follow the development of up to 1759 Indigenous children. LSIC conducts annual face-to-face interviews with children (aged 0.5–2 and 3.5–5 years at baseline in 2008) and their caregivers. This represents between 5% and 10% of the total population of Indigenous children in these age groups, including families of varied socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds. Study topics include: the physical, social and emotional well-being of children and their caregivers; language; culture; parenting; and early childhood education. LSIC is a shared resource, formed in partnership with communities; its data are readily accessible through the Australian Government Department of Social Services (see http://dss.gov.au/lsic for data and access arrangements). As one of very few longitudinal studies of Indigenous children, and the only national one, LSIC will enable an understanding of Indigenous children from a wide range of environments and cultures. Findings from LSIC form part of a growing infrastructure from which to understand Indigenous child health. PMID:25011454

  3. Cohort Profile: Footprints in Time, the Australian Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children.

    PubMed

    Thurber, Katherine A; Banks, Emily; Banwell, Cathy

    2015-06-01

    Indigenous Australians experience profound levels of disadvantage in health, living standards, life expectancy, education and employment, particularly in comparison with non-Indigenous Australians. Very little information is available about the healthy development of Australian Indigenous children; the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children (LSIC) is designed to fill this knowledge gap.This dataset provides an opportunity to follow the development of up to 1759 Indigenous children. LSIC conducts annual face-to-face interviews with children (aged 0.5-2 and 3.5-5 years at baseline in 2008) and their caregivers. This represents between 5% and 10% of the total population of Indigenous children in these age groups, including families of varied socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds. Study topics include: the physical, social and emotional well-being of children and their caregivers; language; culture; parenting; and early childhood education.LSIC is a shared resource, formed in partnership with communities; its data are readily accessible through the Australian Government Department of Social Services (see http://dss.gov.au/lsic for data and access arrangements). As one of very few longitudinal studies of Indigenous children, and the only national one, LSIC will enable an understanding of Indigenous children from a wide range of environments and cultures. Findings from LSIC form part of a growing infrastructure from which to understand Indigenous child health. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  4. Childhood obesity and proximity to urban parks and recreational resources: a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wolch, Jennifer; Jerrett, Michael; Reynolds, Kim; McConnell, Rob; Chang, Roger; Dahmann, Nicholas; Brady, Kirby; Gilliland, Frank; Su, Jason G; Berhane, Kiros

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the research was to assess how proximity to parks and recreational resources affects the development of childhood obesity through a longitudinal study. Data were collected on 3173 children aged 9-10 from 12 communities in Southern California in 1993 and 1996. Children were followed for eight years to collect longitudinal information, including objectively measured body mass index (BMI). Multilevel growth curve models were used to assess associations between attained BMI growth at age 18 and numerous environmental variables, including park space and recreational program access. For park acres within a 500 m distance of children's homes, there were significant inverse associations with attained BMI at age 18. Effect sizes were larger for boys than for girls. Recreation programs within a 10 km buffer of children's homes were significantly and inversely associated with achieved levels in BMI at age 18, with effect sizes for boys also larger than those for girls. We conclude that children with better access to parks and recreational resources are less likely to experience significant increases in attained BMI. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Referral criteria for school scoliosis screening: assessment and recommendations based on a large longitudinally followed cohort.

    PubMed

    Lee, C F; Fong, Daniel Y T; Cheung, Kenneth M C; Cheng, Jack C Y; Ng, Bobby K W; Lam, T P; Mak, K H; Yip, Paul S F; Luk, Keith D K

    2010-12-01

    This study was a retrospective cohort study. To examine the criteria recommended in the literature for the school-based scoliosis screening program in Hong Kong. School-based screening for scoliosis has been a controversy. Objectors to the policy were concerned about the high over-referral and false-positive rates. Recommendations were then made for improvement, but the feasibility of these recommendations has not been studied. The cohort consisted of students in Grade 5 in 1995/1996 or 1996/1997 who underwent scoliosis screening in Hong Kong. Participants who had an angle of trunk rotation (ATR) ≥15°, 2 or more moiré lines, or presented significant clinical signs were referred for radiography. Screening histories and radiography records before the age of 19 years were extracted. The accuracy measures for different combinations of screening tests were examined. There were 115,178 students in the cohort, of which 3228 (2.8%) were referred for radiography. Among the 1406 students who displayed a curve ≥20° during screening, 257 (18.3%) were boys and 336 (23.9%) were identified as 16 years or older, ruling out the suggestion of screening only 10-year-old girls. The sensitivity and positive predictive value for the current referral criteria were 88.1% and 43.6%, respectively. The sensitivity would drop substantially if the use of moiré topography (39.8%) or clinical signs (55.5%) were discarded. With the inclusion of these 2 tests, the clinical effectiveness measures were robust to the cutoff for ATR, unless it was set below 10°. Selectively screening only premenarche girls was not feasible, as this screen would have missed a significant proportion of children with significant curvature. No refinement of the current protocol was necessary, although boys could be screened beginning at 12 years of age. The tandem use of ATR, moiré topography, and clinical signs was recommended for future studies.

  6. Conditional Disease Development extracted from Longitudinal Health Care Cohort Data using Layered Network Construction

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Venkateshan; Swartz, Fredrik; Kiani, Narsis A.; Silberberg, Gilad; Tsipras, Giorgos; Gomez-Cabrero, David; Alexanderson, Kristina; Tegnèr, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Health care data holds great promise to be used in clinical decision support systems. However, frequent near-synonymous diagnoses recorded separately, as well as the sheer magnitude and complexity of the disease data makes it challenging to extract non-trivial conclusions beyond confirmatory associations from such a web of interactions. Here we present a systematic methodology to derive statistically valid conditional development of diseases. To this end we utilize a cohort of 5,512,469 individuals followed over 13 years at inpatient care, including data on disability pension and cause of death. By introducing a causal information fraction measure and taking advantage of the composite structure in the ICD codes, we extract an effective directed lower dimensional network representation (100 nodes and 130 edges) of our cohort. Unpacking composite nodes into bipartite graphs retrieves, for example, that individuals with behavioral disorders are more likely to be followed by prescription drug poisoning episodes, whereas women with leiomyoma were more likely to subsequently experience endometriosis. The conditional disease development represent putative causal relations, indicating possible novel clinical relationships and pathophysiological associations that have not been explored yet. PMID:27211115

  7. Duration of lactation and incidence of maternal hypertension: a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Stuebe, Alison M; Schwarz, Eleanor B; Grewen, Karen; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Michels, Karin B; Foster, E Michael; Curhan, Gary; Forman, John

    2011-11-15

    Never or curtailed lactation has been associated with an increased risk for incident hypertension, but the effect of exclusive breastfeeding is unknown. The authors conducted an observational cohort study of 55,636 parous women in the US Nurses' Health Study II. From 1991 to 2005, participants reported 8,861 cases of incident hypertension during 660,880 person-years of follow-up. Never or curtailed lactation was associated with an increased risk of incident hypertension. Compared with women who breastfed their first child for ≥12 months, women who did not breastfeed were more likely to develop hypertension (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18, 1.36), adjusting for family history and lifestyle covariates. Women who never breastfed were more likely to develop hypertension than women who exclusively breastfed their first child for ≥6 months (HR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.20, 1.40). The authors found similar results for women who had never breastfed compared with those who had breastfed each child for an average of ≥12 months (HR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.13, 1.32). In conclusion, never or curtailed lactation was associated with an increased risk of incident maternal hypertension, compared with the recommended ≥6 months of exclusive or ≥12 months of total lactation per child, in a large cohort of parous women.

  8. Longitudinal Changes in Depression Symptoms and Survival Among Patients With Lung Cancer: A National Cohort Assessment.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Donald R; Forsberg, Christopher W; Ganzini, Linda; Au, David H; Gould, Michael K; Provenzale, Dawn; Slatore, Christopher G

    2016-11-20

    Purpose Depression symptoms are common among patients with lung cancer; however, longitudinal changes and their impact on survival are understudied. Methods This was a prospective, observational study from the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance Consortium from five US geographically defined regions from September 2003 through December 2005. Patients enrolled within 3 months of their lung cancer diagnosis were eligible. The eight-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale was administered at diagnosis and 12 months' follow-up. The main outcome was survival, which was evaluated using Kaplan-Meyer curves and adjusted Cox proportional hazards modeling. Results Among 1,790 participants, 681 (38%) had depression symptoms at baseline and an additional 105 (14%) developed new-onset depression symptoms during treatment. At baseline, depression symptoms were associated with increased mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.17; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.32; P = .01). Participants were classified into the following four groups based on longitudinal changes in depression symptoms from baseline to follow-up: never depression symptoms (n = 640), new-onset depression symptoms (n = 105), depression symptom remission (n = 156), and persistent depression symptoms (n = 254) and HRs were calculated. Using the never-depression symptoms group as a reference group, HRs were as follows: new-onset depression symptoms, 1.50 (95% CI, 1.12 to 2.01; P = .006); depression symptom remission, 1.02 (95% CI, 0.79 to 1.31; P = .89), and persistent depression symptoms, 1.42 (95% CI, 1.15 to 1.75; P = .001). At baseline, depression symptoms were associated with increased mortality among participants with early-stage disease (stages I and II; HR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.26 to 2.04), but not late-stage disease (stages III and IV; HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.91 to 1.22). At follow-up, depression symptoms were associated with increased mortality among participants with early-stage disease (HR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1

  9. Longitudinal Changes in Depression Symptoms and Survival Among Patients With Lung Cancer: A National Cohort Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Forsberg, Christopher W.; Ganzini, Linda; Au, David H.; Gould, Michael K.; Provenzale, Dawn; Slatore, Christopher G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Depression symptoms are common among patients with lung cancer; however, longitudinal changes and their impact on survival are understudied. Methods This was a prospective, observational study from the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance Consortium from five US geographically defined regions from September 2003 through December 2005. Patients enrolled within 3 months of their lung cancer diagnosis were eligible. The eight-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale was administered at diagnosis and 12 months’ follow-up. The main outcome was survival, which was evaluated using Kaplan-Meyer curves and adjusted Cox proportional hazards modeling. Results Among 1,790 participants, 681 (38%) had depression symptoms at baseline and an additional 105 (14%) developed new-onset depression symptoms during treatment. At baseline, depression symptoms were associated with increased mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.17; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.32; P = .01). Participants were classified into the following four groups based on longitudinal changes in depression symptoms from baseline to follow-up: never depression symptoms (n = 640), new-onset depression symptoms (n = 105), depression symptom remission (n = 156), and persistent depression symptoms (n = 254) and HRs were calculated. Using the never-depression symptoms group as a reference group, HRs were as follows: new-onset depression symptoms, 1.50 (95% CI, 1.12 to 2.01; P = .006); depression symptom remission, 1.02 (95% CI, 0.79 to 1.31; P = .89), and persistent depression symptoms, 1.42 (95% CI, 1.15 to 1.75; P = .001). At baseline, depression symptoms were associated with increased mortality among participants with early-stage disease (stages I and II; HR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.26 to 2.04), but not late-stage disease (stages III and IV; HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.91 to 1.22). At follow-up, depression symptoms were associated with increased mortality among participants with early-stage disease (HR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1

  10. Association between Arsenic Exposure from Drinking Water and Longitudinal Change in Blood Pressure among HEALS Cohort Participants

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jieying; Liu, Mengling; Parvez, Faruque; Wang, Binhuan; Wu, Fen; Eunus, Mahbub; Bangalore, Sripal; Newman, Jonathan D.; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Hasan, Rabiul; Sarwar, Golam; Levy, Diane; Slavkovich, Vesna; Argos, Maria; Bryan, Molly Scannell; Farzan, Shohreh F.; Hayes, Richard B.; Graziano, Joseph H.

    2015-01-01

    , Ahsan H, Chen Y. 2015. Association between arsenic exposure from drinking water and longitudinal change in blood pressure among HEALS cohort participants. Environ Health Perspect 123:806–812; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409004 PMID:25816368

  11. Female College Students’ Media Use and Academic Outcomes: Results from a Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Jennifer L.; Fielder, Robyn L.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study describes women’s media use during their first year of college and examines associations between media use and academic outcomes. Female students (N = 483, Mage = 18.1 years) reported on their use of 11 media forms and their grade point average, academic behaviors, academic confidence, and problems affecting schoolwork. Allowing for multi-tasking, women reported nearly 12 hours of media use per day; use of texting, music, the Internet, and social networking was heaviest. In general, media use was negatively associated with academic outcomes after controlling for prior academics and demographics. Exceptions were newspaper reading and music listening, which were positively associated with academic outcomes. There were significant indirect effects of magazine reading and social networking on GPA via academic behaviors, confidence, and problems. Results show that female college students are heavy users of new media, and that some forms of media use may adversely impact academic performance. PMID:24505554

  12. Female College Students' Media Use and Academic Outcomes: Results from a Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Jennifer L; Fielder, Robyn L; Carey, Kate B; Carey, Michael P

    2013-09-01

    This longitudinal study describes women's media use during their first year of college and examines associations between media use and academic outcomes. Female students (N = 483, Mage = 18.1 years) reported on their use of 11 media forms and their grade point average, academic behaviors, academic confidence, and problems affecting schoolwork. Allowing for multi-tasking, women reported nearly 12 hours of media use per day; use of texting, music, the Internet, and social networking was heaviest. In general, media use was negatively associated with academic outcomes after controlling for prior academics and demographics. Exceptions were newspaper reading and music listening, which were positively associated with academic outcomes. There were significant indirect effects of magazine reading and social networking on GPA via academic behaviors, confidence, and problems. Results show that female college students are heavy users of new media, and that some forms of media use may adversely impact academic performance.

  13. Sleep problems and pain: a longitudinal cohort study in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Bonvanie, Irma J; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Rosmalen, Judith G M; Janssens, Karin A M

    2016-04-01

    Sleep and pain are thought to be bidirectional related on a daily basis in adolescents with chronic pain complaints. In addition, sleep problems have been shown to predict the long-term onset of musculoskeletal pain in middle-aged adults. Yet, the long-term effects of sleep problems on pain duration and different types of pain severity in emerging adults (age: 18-25) are unknown. This study investigated the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship between sleep problems and chronic pain, and musculoskeletal pain, headache, and abdominal pain severity in a general population of emerging adults. We studied whether these relationships were moderated by sex and whether symptoms of anxiety and depression, fatigue, or physical inactivity mediated these effects. Data of participants from the longitudinal Dutch TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey were used. Follow-up data were collected in 1753 participants who participated in the fourth (N = 1668, mean age: 19.0 years [SD = 0.6]) and/or fifth (N = 1501, mean age: 22.3 years [SD = 0.6]) assessment wave. Autoregressive cross-lagged models were used for analyses. Sleep problems were associated with chronic pain, musculoskeletal pain, headache and abdominal pain severity, and predicted chronic pain and an increase in musculoskeletal pain severity at 3 years of follow-up. This prospective effect was stronger in females than in males and was mediated by fatigue but not by symptoms of anxiety and depression or physical inactivity. Only abdominal pain had a small long-term effect on sleep problems. Our results suggest that sleep problems may be an additional target for treatment in female emerging adults with musculoskeletal pain complaints.

  14. Low socioeconomic position and depression persistence: longitudinal results from the GAZEL cohort study.

    PubMed

    Melchior, Maria; Chastang, Jean-François; Leclerc, Annette; Ribet, Céline; Rouillon, Frédéric

    2010-05-15

    Research examining the association between socioeconomic position and depression course has yielded inconsistent results. We tested the association between low socioeconomic position and 7-year depression persistence among 298 community-based individuals with depression (subset of the GAZEL cohort study based in France). Data were analyzed using Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE models). Low socioeconomic position predicted depression persistence (men: low vs. intermediate/high income: OR: 2.52, 95% CI 1.28-4.95; women: low vs. intermediate/high occupational grade: OR: 2.25, 95% CI 1.06-4.80). These associations were reduced and became statistically nonsignificant after controlling for baseline sociodemographic characteristics and stressful life events (men and women), overall health (men), and the severity of mental health difficulties (men and women). Overall, depressed individuals with low socioeconomic position appear disproportionately likely to experience multiple risk factors of long-term depression.

  15. Fluoroquinolone resistance in the rectal carriage of men in an active surveillance cohort: longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jason E; Landis, Patricia; Trock, Bruce J; Patel, Hiten D; Ball, Mark W; Auwaerter, Paul G; Schaeffer, Edward; Carter, H Ballentine

    2015-02-01

    Rectal swabs can identify men with fluoroquinolone resistant bacteria and decrease the infection rate after transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy by targeted antimicrobial prophylaxis. We evaluated the rate of fluoroquinolone resistance in an active surveillance cohort with attention to factors associated with resistance and changes in resistance with time. We evaluated 416 men with prostate cancer on active surveillance who underwent rectal swabs to assess the rate of fluoroquinolone resistance compared to that in men undergoing diagnostic transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy. The chi-square test and Student t-test were used to compare categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Poisson regression analysis was used for multivariate analysis. On the initial swab fluoroquinolone resistance was found in 95 of 416 men (22.8%) on active surveillance compared to 54 of 221 (24.4%) in the diagnostic biopsy cohort (p = 0.675). Diabetes was found in 4.0% of the fluoroquinolone sensitive group vs 14.7% of the resistant group (p <0.001). Biopsy history was not associated with resistance. Of those with a resistant first swab 62.9% had a resistant second swab and 88.9% of those with 2 resistant swabs showed resistance on the third swab. Of men with a sensitive first swab 10.6% showed resistance on the second swab and 10.6% of those with 2 sensitive swabs had resistant third swabs. One of 4 men who present for surveillance and diagnostic transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy have rectal flora resistant to fluoroquinolone. Resistance is significantly associated with diabetes but the number of prior biopsies is not. Men with fluoroquinolone resistant flora tend to remain resistant with time. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Maternal adiposity and infancy growth predict later telomere length: a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Guzzardi, M A; Iozzo, P; Salonen, M K; Kajantie, E; Eriksson, J G

    2016-07-01

    Maternal overweight and obesity during pregnancy, and childhood growth patterns are risk factors influencing long-term health outcomes among the offspring. Furthermore, poor health condition has been associated with shorter leukocyte telomere length in adult subjects. We aimed to assess whether maternal adiposity during pregnancy and growth trajectory during infancy predict leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in later life. We studied a cohort of 1082 subjects belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, born between 1934 and 1944. They underwent two clinical visits 10 years apart (2001-2004 and 2011-2013), during which LTL and anthropometrics were assessed. Birth records included birth weight, length, maternal body mass index (BMI) at the end of pregnancy. Serial measurements of height and weight from birth to 11 years were available. Higher maternal BMI was associated with shorter LTL in elderly women (r=-0.102, P=0.024) but not in men. Also, in women but not in men shorter LTL and greater telomere shortening over a 10-year interval were predicted by higher weight at 12 months of age (P=0.008 and P=0.029, respectively), and higher weight gain during the first 12 months of life (P=0.008 and P=0.006, respectively), particularly between 6 and 9 months of age (P=0.002 for both LTL and LTL shortening rate). A correlation between younger age at adiposity rebound and shorter LTL at 60 years (P=0.022) was also found. High maternal adiposity during pregnancy is associated with shorter LTL in elderly female offspring, but not in men. Moreover, higher weight and weight gain during the first year of life and younger age at adiposity rebound predict shorter LTL in older age in women, suggesting that rapid growth during the perinatal period accelerates cellular aging in late adulthood.

  17. Fatigue in Ankylosing Spondylitis and Nonradiographic Axial Spondyloarthritis: Analysis from a Longitudinal Observation Cohort.

    PubMed

    Bedaiwi, Mohamed; Sari, Ismail; Thavaneswaran, Arane; Ayearst, Renise; Haroon, Nigil; Inman, Robert D

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we aimed to address the prevalence of fatigue, its associated factors, and the effect of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) on this subgroup of patients in a large axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) cohort. The study included 681 patients [ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and nonradiographic axSpA (nr-axSpA)]. The Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) and the Bath AS Disease Activity Index question 1 (BASDAI Q1) indices were used for fatigue assessment. Severe fatigue was defined as an FSS ≥ 4 or a BASDAI Q1 ≥ 5. Disease activity, function, and quality of life (QoL) measures were recorded. Patients who had been treated with TNFi were identified, and baseline and followup data were analyzed. Of the cohort, 67.3% had severe fatigue, and the prevalence was similar between AS (67.2%) and nr-axSpA (68.2%). Severely fatigued patients tended to have higher disease activity scores, increased acute-phase proteins, and decreased QoL measures. TNFi therapy was associated with improvement in disease activity, and although this treatment led to significantly decreased fatigue scores, this reduction was not optimal in the majority of patients with 80% continuing to have severe fatigue according to their posttreatment scores. Health Assessment Questionnaire, mean scores of BASDAI Q5 and Q6, and BASDAI enthesitis were independent predictors of fatigue severity. Fatigue is a common symptom in axSpA, and the burden of fatigue among patients with nr-axSpA is similar to that seen in AS. While biologics are effective in improving disease activity, their effect on fatigue is more limited. In axSpA, fatigue remains unresponsive to TNFi in nearly 80% of patients.

  18. Longitudinal patterns of methamphetamine, popper (amyl nitrite), and cocaine use and high-risk sexual behavior among a cohort of san francisco men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Colfax, Grant; Coates, Thomas J; Husnik, Marla J; Huang, Yijian; Buchbinder, Susan; Koblin, Beryl; Chesney, Margaret; Vittinghoff, Eric

    2005-03-01

    Most prior studies examining drug use among men who have sex with men (MSM) have been cross-sectional or retrospective and have not determined whether periods of increased drug use are associated with high-risk sexual behavior at the individual level. In this article, we describe patterns of use of methamphetamines, poppers, and sniffed cocaine and sexual risk behavior among 736 San Francisco MSM enrolled in the EXPLORE study and followed for up to 48 months. In longitudinal analysis, use of methamphetamines, poppers, and sniffed cocaine declined during follow-up. However, compared with older participants, younger participants were more likely to increase their drug use over time. Results of conditional logistic regression demonstrated that high-risk sexual behavior was more common during reporting periods characterized by increased methamphetamine, poppers, or sniffed cocaine use. This within-person analysis found that compared with periods of no drug use, periods of both light drug use (less than weekly use of drugs) and heavier drug use (at least weekly use of at least one drug) were significantly associated with increased risk of engaging in unprotected anal sex with an HIV-positive or unknown-status partner. These results suggest that even intermittent, recreational use of these drugs may lead to high-risk sexual behavior, and that, to reduce and prevent risks of HIV, no level of use of these drugs should be considered "safe." HIV prevention interventions should target MSM who report either light or heavy use of methamphetamines, poppers, and sniffed cocaine.

  19. Language ability of children with and without a history of stuttering: a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Watts, Amy; Eadie, Patricia; Block, Susan; Mensah, Fiona; Reilly, Sheena

    2015-02-01

    This study aims to determine whether the communication and language skills of children who have a history of stuttering are different from children who do not have a history of stuttering at ages 2-5 years. This study utilizes data from the Early Language in Victoria Study (ELVS), a longitudinal study with a community sample of 1910 children recruited in Melbourne, Australia, as well as a concurrent study examining the onset and progression of stuttering. Participants with a history of stuttering (n = 181) and a control group without a history of stuttering (n = 1438) were identified according to the established protocol of these two existing studies. The stuttering group scored higher than the non-stuttering group on all of the communication and language outcomes measured. The group differences were statistically significant on four of the seven measures and these findings were maintained when potentially confounding factors were controlled for. Importantly, the children with a history of stuttering, as a group, and the control group without a history of stuttering demonstrated developmentally-appropriate early communication and language skills.

  20. Changes in Sleep Duration During Transition to Statutory Retirement: A Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Myllyntausta, Saana; Salo, Paula; Kronholm, Erkki; Aalto, Ville; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Stenholm, Sari

    2017-07-01

    This study examined whether sleep duration changes during the transition from full-time work to statutory retirement and, if this were the case, which preretirement factors, including sociodemographic, work, lifestyle, and health factors, predict these changes. Data from repeated surveys of the Finnish Public Sector study, linked to records of retirement, were used. The study population consisted of 5785 participants who retired on a statutory basis in 2000-2011 and who had responded to surveys on sleep duration at least once immediately before and after their retirement (mean number of repeat study waves 3.6). Linear regression analyses with generalized estimating equations were used to examine changes in sleep duration around retirement. Before retirement there was a slight decrease in sleep duration. During the 4-year retirement transition, sleep duration increased from 7 hours 0 minutes (95% confidence interval [CI] 6 hours 54 minutes to 7 hours 6 minutes) to 7 hours and 22 minutes (95% CI 7 hours 16 minutes to 7 hours 27 minutes); thus, mean increase being 22 minutes. Increase in sleep duration was greatest in those who were short sleepers, heavy drinkers, or had sleep difficulties. After the retirement transition, sleep duration remained at approximately the same level, as no significant changes were observed. This longitudinal study suggests that transition from full-time work to statutory retirement is associated with an increase in sleep duration.

  1. Playgroup Participation and Social Support Outcomes for Mothers of Young Children: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, Kirsten J.; Cunningham, Nadia K.; Lawrence, David; Zarb, David; Zubrick, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to examine friendship networks and social support outcomes for mothers according to patterns of playgroup participation. Methods Data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children were used to examine the extent to which patterns of playgroup participation across the ages of 3–19 months (Wave 1) and 2–3 years (Wave 2) were associated with social support outcomes for mothers at Wave 3 (4–5 years) and four years later at Wave 5 (8–9 years). Analyses were adjusted for initial friendship attachments at Wave 1 and other socio-demographic characteristics. Results Log-binomial regression models estimating relative risks showed that mothers who never participated in a playgroup, or who participated at either Wave 1 or Wave 2 only, were 1.7 and 1.8 times as likely to report having no support from friends when the child was 4–5 years, and 2.0 times as likely to have no support at age 8–9 years, compared with mothers who persistently participated in playgroup at both Wave 1 and Wave 2. Conclusion These results provide evidence that persistent playgroup participation may acts as a protective factor against poor social support outcomes. Socially isolated parents may find playgroups a useful resource to build their social support networks. PMID:26181426

  2. Behavioral observations at age 3 years predict adult psychiatric disorders. Longitudinal evidence from a birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Caspi, A; Moffitt, T E; Newman, D L; Silva, P A

    1996-11-01

    This study provides, to our knowledge, the first empirical test of whether behavioral differences among children in the first 3 years of life are linked to specific adult psychiatric disorders: anxiety and mood disorders, antisocial personality disorder, recidivistic and violent crime, alcoholism, and suicidal behavior. In a longitudinal-epidemiological study, 3-year-old children were classified into groups based on examiner observations of their behavior. At age 21 years, they were reassessed for psychopathologic functioning using standardized interviews based on DSM-III-R criteria. Although effect sizes were small, undercontrolled (includes children who are impulsive, restless and distractible) and inhibited (includes children who are shy, fearful, and easily upset) children differed significantly from comparison children in young adulthood. Under-controlled 3-year-olds were more likely at 21 years to meet diagnostic criteria for antisocial personality disorder and to be involved in crime. Inhibited 3-year-olds were more likely at 21 years to meet diagnostic criteria for depression. Both groups were more likely to attempt suicide, and boys in both groups had alcohol-related problems. Controls for family social class did not change the findings. Some forms of adult psychopathologic abnormality are meaningfully linked, albeit weakly, to behavioral differences observed among children in the third year of life.

  3. Do positive children become positive adults? Evidence from a longitudinal birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Marcus; Huppert, Felicia A

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about the long-term consequences of positive wellbeing in childhood in the general population. We used the MRC National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort) to test associations between adolescent positive wellbeing and social functioning in midlife. Method Temperament and behaviour at ages 13 and 15 years were rated by school teachers on a range of criteria. These mostly referred to absence or presence of conduct and emotional problems, but four items allowed positive ratings: ‘very popular with other children’, ‘unusually happy and contented’, ‘makes friends extremely easily’ and ‘extremely energetic, never tired’. In addition, at age 16 years survey members self-completed the Maudsley Personality Inventory, from which a summary measure of extraversion was derived, as this was previously found to be associated with midlife positive wellbeing in this cohort. Results Being a happy child, defined as receiving at least two of the above teacher ratings, was positively associated with midlife functioning and wellbeing, specifically a low probability of lifetime emotional problems, a high frequency of contact with friends or relatives, engagement in social activities, and to a lesser extent feeling satisfied with accomplishments in working life. These associations were independent of father’s social class, childhood cognition, educational attainment, and midlife occupational social class. There were no independent associations between being a happy child and educational or occupational attainment, being married, engagement in prosocial activities, taking leadership in community activities, and with life satisfaction in general or with family life. Extraversion was associated with a low probability of lifetime emotional problems, high engagement in social activities, being married, general midlife life satisfaction, and satisfaction with family life, but not with social contact, prosocial activity

  4. Charting the progression of disability in parkinson disease: study protocol for a prospective longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background People with Parkinson disease (PD), even in the presence of symptomatic relief from medical, surgical, and rehabilitative interventions, face a persistent worsening of disability. This disability is characterized by diminished quality of life, reduced functional mobility, declining performance in activities of daily living and worsening neurological impairments. While evidence has emerged supporting the clinically meaningful benefits of short-term exercise programs on these underlying factors, assertions regarding the effects of sustained programs of exercise and physical activity on the trajectory of disablement in PD are made in the absence of direct evidence. Indeed, the natural decline in quality of life and functional mobility in people diagnosed with PD is poorly understood. Moreover, outcome measures commonly used in clinical exercise trials typically do not capture the full spectrum of disability as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). Methods/Design The objective of this multicenter prospective study will be to examine the 2-year trajectory of disablement in a cohort of persons with PD. Two hundred sixty participants will be recruited to produce an expected final sample size of 150 individuals. Participants will be included if they are greater than 40 years of age, have a neurologist confirmed diagnosis of idiopathic PD, and are at Hoehn and Yahr stages 1 through 4. Data will be collected every 6 months during the study period. Primary outcome measures reflecting a broad spectrum of disablement will include, but will not be limited to, MDS-UPDRS, Timed Up and Go, Berg Balance Test, Nine Hole Peg Test, PDQ-39, and directly monitored ambulatory activity. Self-reported exercise and physical activity data also will be recorded. Statistical analyses will be used to characterize the trajectory of disablement and examine the influence of its underlying contributing factors. Discussion Tertiary prevention is an important component of

  5. Persistent and occasional poverty and children's food consumption: evidence from a longitudinal Québec birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Kakinami, Lisa; Gauvin, Lise; Séguin, Louise; Lambert, Marie; Nikiema, Béatrice; Paradis, Gilles

    2014-10-01

    Childhood poverty is associated with poorer food consumption but longitudinal data are limited. The objective was to assess if food consumption differs depending on age (6, 7, 10 and 12 years) and pattern of poverty. Participants were from the 1998-2010 'Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development' birth cohort. Poverty was defined as income below the low-income thresholds established by Statistics Canada which adjusts for household size and geographic region. Multiple imputation was used for missing data, and latent class growth analysis identified poverty trajectories. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression assessed the association between poverty and greater consumption of milk, cheese, fruits, vegetables, sweets and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). Four poverty trajectories were identified: 1 reference category (stable non-poor) and 3 higher-risk categories (stable poor, increasing and decreasing risk). The probability of more frequent consumption was lower among children from stable poor households compared to children from stable non-poor households for fruit (6, 10 and 12 years), milk and vegetables (6, 7, 10 and 12 years) but was higher for SSB (10 and 12 years). Among children from increasing and decreasing poverty households compared to stable non-poor households, the probability of greater consumption of fruits and vegetables was lower and greater consumption of SSB was higher by the age of 12 years. While experiencing continual exposure to poverty has detrimental effects on food consumption throughout childhood, the association for milk, fruits and vegetables does not differ across age. Intermittent exposure to poverty may also have long-lasting effects. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Relationship between reflection ability and clinical performance: a cross-sectional and retrospective-longitudinal correlational cohort study in midwifery.

    PubMed

    Embo, M; Driessen, E; Valcke, M; van der Vleuten, C P M

    2015-01-01

    increasingly, reflection is highlighted as integral to core practice competencies but empirical research into the relationship between reflection and performance in the clinical workplace is scarce. this study investigated the relationship between reflection ability and clinical performance. we designed a cross-sectional and a retrospective-longitudinal cohort study. Data from first, second and third year midwifery students were collected to study the variables 'clinical performance' and 'reflection ability'. Data were analysed with SPSS for Windows, Release 20.0. Descriptive statistics, Pearson׳s Product Moment Correlation Coefficients (r) and r² values were computed to investigate associations between the research variables. the results showed a moderate observed correlation between reflection ability and clinical performance scores. When adopting a cross-sectional perspective, all correlation values were significant (p<0.01) and above 0.4, with the exception of the third year correlations. Assuming perfect reliability in the measurement, the adjusted correlations, for year 2 and year 3 indicated a high association between reflection ability and clinical performance (>0.6). The results based on the retrospective-longitudinal data set explained a moderate proportion of the variance after correction for attenuation. Finally, the results indicate that 'reflection ability' scores of earlier years are significant related with 'clinical performance' scores of subsequent years. These results suggest that (1) reflection ability is linked to clinical performance; (2) that written reflections are an important, but not the sole way to assess professional competence and that (3) reflection is a contributor to clinical performance improvement. the data showed a moderate but significant relationship between 'reflection ability' and 'clinical performance' scores in clinical practice of midwifery students. Reflection therefore seems an important component of professional

  7. Does abortion increase women's risk for post-traumatic stress? Findings from a prospective longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, M Antonia; Rowland, Brenly; McCulloch, Charles E; Foster, Diana G

    2016-01-01

    Objective To prospectively assess women's risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and of experiencing post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) over 4 years after seeking an abortion, and to assess whether symptoms are attributed to the pregnancy, abortion or birth, or other events in women's lives. Design Prospective longitudinal cohort study which followed women from approximately 1 week after receiving or being denied an abortion (baseline), then every 6 months for 4 years (9 interview waves). Setting 30 abortion facilities located throughout the USA. Participants Among 956 women presenting for abortion care, some of whom received an abortion and some of whom were denied due to advanced gestational age; 863 women are included in the longitudinal analyses. Main outcome measures PTSS and PTSD risk were measured using the Primary Care PTSD Screen (PC-PTSD). Index pregnancy-related PTSS was measured by coding the event(s) described by women as the cause of their symptoms. Analyses We used unadjusted and adjusted logistic mixed-effects regression analyses to assess whether PTSS, PTSD risk and pregnancy-related PTSS trajectories of women obtaining abortions differed from those who were denied one. Results At baseline, 39% of participants reported any PTSS and 16% reported three or more symptoms. Among women with symptoms 1-week post-abortion seeking (n=338), 30% said their symptoms were due to experiences of sexual, physical or emotional abuse or violence; 20% attributed their symptoms to non-violent relationship issues; and 19% said they were due to the index pregnancy. Baseline levels of PTSS, PTSD risk and pregnancy-related PTSS outcomes did not differ significantly between women who received and women who were denied an abortion. PTSS, PTSD risk and pregnancy-related PTSS declined over time for all study groups. Conclusions Women who received an abortion were at no higher risk of PTSD than women denied an abortion. PMID:26832431

  8. Race-ethnic differences in subclinical left ventricular systolic dysfunction by global longitudinal strain: A community-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Russo, Cesare; Jin, Zhezhen; Homma, Shunichi; Rundek, Tatjana; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Sacco, Ralph L; Di Tullio, Marco R

    2015-05-01

    Race-ethnic differences exist in the epidemiology of heart failure, with blacks experiencing higher incidence and worse prognosis. Left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction (LVSD) detected by speckle-tracking global longitudinal strain (GLS) is a predictor of cardiovascular events including heart failure. It is not known whether race-ethnic differences in GLS-LVSD exist in subjects without overt LV dysfunction. Participants from a triethnic community-based study underwent 2-dimensional echocardiography with assessment of LV ejection fraction (LVEF) and GLS by speckle-tracking. Participants with LVEF <50% were excluded. Left ventricular systolic dysfunction by GLS was defined as GLS >95% percentile in a healthy sample (-14.7%). Of the 678 study participants (mean age 71 ± 9 years, 61% women), 114 were blacks; 464, Hispanics; and 100, whites. Global longitudinal strain was significantly lower in blacks (-16.5% ± 3.5%) than in whites (-17.5% ± 3.0%) and Hispanics (-17.3% ± 2.9%) in both univariate (P = .015) and multivariate analyses (P = .011), whereas LVEF was not significantly different between the 3 groups (64.3% ± 4.6%, 63.4% ± 4.9%, 64.7% ± 4.9%, respectively, univariate P = .064, multivariate P = .291). Left ventricular systolic dysfunction by GLS was more frequent in blacks (27.2%) than in whites (19.0%) and Hispanics (14.9%, P = .008). In multivariate analysis adjusted for confounders and cardiovascular risk factors, blacks were significantly more likely to have GLS-LVSD (adjusted odds ratio 2.6, 95% CIs 1.4-4.7, P = .002) compared to the other groups. Among participants from a triethnic community cohort, black race was associated with greater degree of subclinical LVSD by GLS than other race-ethnic groups. This difference was independent of confounders and cardiovascular risk factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Association between consistent purchase of anticonvulsants or lithium and suicide risk: a longitudinal cohort study from Denmark, 1995-2001.

    PubMed

    Smith, Eric G; Søndergård, Lars; Lopez, Ana Garcia; Andersen, Per Kragh; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2009-10-01

    Prior studies suggest anticonvulsants purchasers may be at greater risk of suicide than lithium purchasers. Longitudinal, retrospective cohort study of all individuals in Denmark purchasing anticonvulsants (valproic acid, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine or lamotrigine) (n=9952) or lithium (n=6693) from 1995-2001 who also purchased antipsychotics at least once (to select out nonpsychiatric anticonvulsant use). Poisson regression of suicides by medication purchased (anticonvulsants or lithium) was conducted, controlling for age, sex, and calendar year. Confounding by indication was addressed by restricting the comparison to individuals prescribed the same medication: individuals with minimal medication exposure (e.g., who purchased only a single prescription of anticonvulsants) were compared to those individuals with more consistent medication exposure (i.e., purchasing > or = 6 prescriptions of anticonvulsants). Demographics and frequency of anticonvulsant, lithium, or antipsychotic use were similar between lithium and anticonvulsant purchasers. Among patients who also purchased antipsychotic at least once during the study period, purchasing anticonvulsants more consistently (> or = 6 prescriptions) was associated with a substantial reduction in the risk of suicide (RR=0.22, 95% CI=0.11-0.42, p<0.0001), similar to patients consistently purchasing lithium (RR=0.27, 95% CI=0.12-0.62, p=0.006). Absolute suicide risks of consistent anticonvulsant and consistent lithium purchasers were similar. Lack of information about diagnoses and potential confounders, as well as other covariates that may differ between minimal and consistent medication purchasers, are limitations to this study. In this longitudinal study of anticonvulsant purchasers likely to have psychiatric disorders, consistent anticonvulsant treatment was associated with decreased risk of completed suicide.

  10. Urinary incontinence persisting after childbirth: extent, delivery history, and effects in a 12-year longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    MacArthur, C; Wilson, D; Herbison, P; Lancashire, R J; Hagen, S; Toozs-Hobson, P; Dean, N; Glazener, C

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the extent of persistent urinary incontinence (UI) 12 years after birth, and association with delivery-mode history and other factors. Twelve-year longitudinal cohort study. Maternity units in Aberdeen, Birmingham, and Dunedin. Women who returned questionnaires 3 months and 12 years after index birth. Data on all births over a period of 12 months were obtained from the units and then women were contacted by post. Persistent UI reported at 12 years, with one or more previous contact. Of 7879 women recruited at 3 months, 3763 (48%) responded at 12 years, with 2944 also having responded at 6 years; non-responders had similar obstetric characteristics. The prevalence of persistent UI was 37.9% (1429/3763). Among those who had reported UI at 3 months, 76.4% reported it at 12 years. Women with persistent UI had lower SF12 quality of life scores. Compared with having only spontaneous vaginal deliveries (SVDs), women who delivered exclusively by caesarean section were less likely to have persistent UI (odds ratio, OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.33-0.54). This was not the case in women who had a combination of caesarean section and SVD births (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.78-1.30). Older age at first birth, greater parity, and overweight/obesity were associated with persistent UI. Of 54 index primiparae with UI before pregnancy, 46 (85.2%) had persistent UI. This study, demonstrating that UI persists to 12 years in about three-quarters of women, and that risk was only reduced with caesarean section if women had no other delivery mode, has practice implications. A longitudinal study of 3763 women showed a prevalence of persistent UI 12 years after birth of 37.9%. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  11. Health sciences and medical college preadmission criteria and prediction of in-course academic performance: a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Al Alwan, I; Al Kushi, M; Tamim, H; Magzoub, M; Elzubeir, M

    2013-08-01

    High School, Aptitude and Achievement Tests have been utilized since 2002 in Saudi Arabia for the purpose of student selection to health sciences and medical colleges. However, longitudinal studies determining the predictive validity of these so-called cognitive tests for in-course performance is lacking. Our aim was to assess the predictive validity of Saudi health sciences and medical school pre-admission selection tools for in-course performance over a three year period and therefore we conducted a retrospective review of pre-admission (High School Test, Saudi Aptitude and Achievement tests) and in-course academic performance data (Grade Point Average, GPA) for all students enrolled in undergraduate Health Sciences Colleges and College of Medicine, 2007-2010. Correlation and linear regression analyses were performed for the whole cohort. Data are reported on 87 of 1,905 (4.6 %) students who applied to Health Sciences and Medical Colleges. The results indicate that in-course GPA scores in year three were significantly positively correlated with High School (r = 0.65; p < 0.05), Aptitude (r = 0.65; p < 0.05) and Achievement (r = 0.66; p < 0.05) selection test scores. Furthermore, the High School Exam was the best predictor of achievement in year three. Regression analysis revealed that 54 % of the variance in predicting academic performance is explained by the three test scores. Results confirmed our hypothesis that High School, Aptitude and Achievement tests are statistically predictive of academic performance in health sciences and medical colleges. Further longitudinal, national work is nevertheless required to determine the extent to which pre-admissions cognitive and non-cognitive tests, socio-demographic and educational process variables predict undergraduate and postgraduate achievement and performance.

  12. Retarded head growth and neurocognitive development in infants of mothers with a history of eating disorders: longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Koubaa, S; Hällström, T; Hagenäs, L; Hirschberg, A L

    2013-10-01

    To characterise early growth and neurocognitive development in children of mothers with a history of eating disorders (ED). A longitudinal cohort study. Child-care centres in Stockholm, Sweden. Children born to mothers with previous ED (n = 47) (24 anorexia nervosa, 20 bulimia nervosa, 3 unspecified ED), and controls (n = 65). Mean values and standard deviation scores of weight and height from birth to 5 years of age and head circumference up to 18 months of age were compared between groups. Neurocognitive development was studied at the age of 5 years by the validated parent questionnaire Five to Fifteen. Head growth and neurocognitive development. We previously reported that mothers with a history of ED conceived infants with lower birthweight and head circumference than controls. At 3 months of age, body mass index (BMI) was no longer reduced but mean head circumferences of the children born to mothers with ED were smaller throughout the observation period. Similarly, the longitudinal results of the standard deviation scores of head circumference showed a significant overall group effect with lower levels in both subgroups of ED (anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa). The children of the ED mothers also had significantly higher Five to Fifteen scores than controls, reflecting difficulties in language skills. Head circumference at birth correlated with language skills in the children of mothers with ED. Children of mothers with previous ED demonstrated an early catch-up in BMI, but the average head circumference continued to be delayed until at least 18 months of age. The reduced head growth was related to delayed neurocognitive development. © 2013 RCOG.

  13. Role of parenting styles in adolescent substance use: results from a Swedish longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Berge, J; Sundell, K; Öjehagen, A; Håkansson, A

    2016-01-01

    Objective Adolescent substance use is an area of concern because early substance use is associated with a higher risk of adverse outcomes. Parenting style, defined as the general style of parenting, as well as substance-specific parenting practices may influence children's substance use behaviour. The present study aims to probe the impact of parenting style on adolescent substance use. Method A cohort of 1268 adolescents (48% girls), aged 12–13 years at baseline, from 21 junior high schools was assessed in the first semester of junior high school, and then again in the last semester of the 9th grade, 32 months later. Parenting style, operationalised as a fourfold classification of parenting styles, including established risk factors for adolescent substance use, were measured at baseline. Results Neglectful parenting style was associated with worse substance use outcomes across all substances. After adjusting for other proximal risk factors in multivariate analyses, parenting style was found to be unrelated to substance use outcomes with one exception: authoritative parenting style was associated with less frequent drinking. Association with deviant peers, delinquent behaviour, provision of alcohol by parents, and previous use of other substances were associated with substance use outcomes at follow-up. Conclusions The results of the present study indicate that parenting style may be less important for adolescent substance use outcomes than what has previously been assumed, and that association with deviant peers and delinquent behaviour may be more important for adolescent substance use outcomes than general parenting style. PMID:26769781

  14. Longitudinal Temporal and Probabilistic Prediction of Survival in a Cohort of Patients With Advanced Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Cruz, Pedro E.; dos Santos, Renata; Silva, Thiago Buosi; Crovador, Camila Souza; Nascimento, Maria Salete de Angelis; Hall, Stacy; Fajardo, Julieta; Bruera, Eduardo; Hui, David

    2014-01-01

    Context Survival prognostication is important during end-of-life. The accuracy of clinician prediction of survival (CPS) over time has not been well characterized. Objectives To examine changes in prognostication accuracy during the last 14 days of life in a cohort of patients with advanced cancer admitted to two acute palliative care units and to compare the accuracy between the temporal and probabilistic approaches. Methods Physicians and nurses prognosticated survival daily for cancer patients in two hospitals until death/discharge using two prognostic approaches: temporal and probabilistic. We assessed accuracy for each method daily during the last 14 days of life comparing accuracy at day −14 (baseline) with accuracy at each time point using a test of proportions. Results 6718 temporal and 6621 probabilistic estimations were provided by physicians and nurses for 311 patients, respectively. Median (interquartile range) survival was 8 (4, 20) days. Temporal CPS had low accuracy (10–40%) and did not change over time. In contrast, probabilistic CPS was significantly more accurate (p<.05 at each time point) but decreased close to death. Conclusion Probabilistic CPS was consistently more accurate than temporal CPS over the last 14 days of life; however, its accuracy decreased as patients approached death. Our findings suggest that better tools to predict impending death are necessary. PMID:24746583

  15. Longitudinal temporal and probabilistic prediction of survival in a cohort of patients with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Perez-Cruz, Pedro E; Dos Santos, Renata; Silva, Thiago Buosi; Crovador, Camila Souza; Nascimento, Maria Salete de Angelis; Hall, Stacy; Fajardo, Julieta; Bruera, Eduardo; Hui, David

    2014-11-01

    Survival prognostication is important during the end of life. The accuracy of clinician prediction of survival (CPS) over time has not been well characterized. The aims of the study were to examine changes in prognostication accuracy during the last 14 days of life in a cohort of patients with advanced cancer admitted to two acute palliative care units and to compare the accuracy between the temporal and probabilistic approaches. Physicians and nurses prognosticated survival daily for cancer patients in two hospitals until death/discharge using two prognostic approaches: temporal and probabilistic. We assessed accuracy for each method daily during the last 14 days of life comparing accuracy at Day -14 (baseline) with accuracy at each time point using a test of proportions. A total of 6718 temporal and 6621 probabilistic estimations were provided by physicians and nurses for 311 patients, respectively. Median (interquartile range) survival was 8 days (4-20 days). Temporal CPS had low accuracy (10%-40%) and did not change over time. In contrast, probabilistic CPS was significantly more accurate (P < .05 at each time point) but decreased close to death. Probabilistic CPS was consistently more accurate than temporal CPS over the last 14 days of life; however, its accuracy decreased as patients approached death. Our findings suggest that better tools to predict impending death are necessary. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Reductions in convictions for violent crime during opioid maintenance treatment: a longitudinal national cohort study.

    PubMed

    Havnes, Ingrid; Bukten, Anne; Gossop, Michael; Waal, Helge; Stangeland, Per; Clausen, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    Although opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) has been found to reduce crime, less is known about its associations with violent crime. This study investigates changes in violent crime convictions prior to, during, and after OMT, and examines the relationship between violent crime convictions prior to OMT with the risk of violent and non-violent crime convictions during treatment. The cohort comprised all who started OMT (n=3221) in Norway between 1997 and 2003. Treatment data were cross linked with the national Crime Registry. Convictions for violent crime 3 years prior to, during, and after treatment were studied. Violent crime rates were significantly reduced during OMT compared with before treatment, for both men and women. The rate of convictions for violent crime during OMT was halved amongst those who remained in treatment. The reduction was less pronounced for those who left treatment: for this group, the rate of violent convictions after OMT was higher than before treatment. The risk of convictions for violent and non-violent crime during OMT was highest for those with violent convictions prior to treatment. Violent crime is reduced during OMT. Screening for violent behaviour and violence risk assessment should be implemented in the treatment system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of smoking on body weight: longitudinal analysis of the SUN cohort.

    PubMed

    Basterra-Gortari, F Javier; Forga, Lluís; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Toledo, Estefanía; Martínez, J Alfredo; Martínez-González, Miguel A

    2010-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate prospectively the association between two major cardiovascular risk factors: smoking and weight gain. We prospectively evaluated 7565 individuals taking part in a dynamic cohort study over a median follow-up period of 50 months. Self-reported weight and physical activity levels had been validated previously. The adjusted mean difference in weight gain relative to never-smokers (the reference group) was estimated for different levels of tobacco exposure. After adjusting for age, baseline body mass index, sedentary lifestyle, changes in physical activity level, total energy intake, fiber intake, food consumption between meals, and sugary soft drink, fast food and alcohol consumption, it was found that individuals who stopped smoking during follow-up had a greater relative weight gain: men 1.63 kg (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-2.19 kg), and women 1.51 kg (95% CI, 1.11-1.91 kg). In addition, active smokers had a greater weight gain than never-smokers: men 0.49 kg (95% CI, 0.11-0.87 kg), and women 0.36 kg (95% CI, 0.07-0.65 kg). Individuals who stopped smoking during follow-up and active smokers both experienced significantly greater weight gains than never-smokers. This association between cardiovascular risk factors should be taken into account when developing prevention programs.

  18. Predictors of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Clinical Performance: A Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taeyeon; Chang, Ji-Young; Myung, Sun Jung; Chang, Yerim; Park, Kyung Duk; Park, Wan Beom; Shin, Chan Soo

    2016-01-01

    Though many medical schools applied various admission criteria in the selection process, the evidence of using those criteria is unclear. This study examined the predictive validity of each admission criterion for student competency. We conducted a prospective cohort study of all students who matriculated to Seoul National University School of Medicine from 2002 to 2008. Demographic characteristics, admission criteria scores, and clinical competencies based on grade point average (GPA), objective structured clinical examination score, and internship score were obtained for each student to analyze the predictive validity of admission criteria. Graduate GPA at the end of 4 years positively correlated with preadmission GPA (p < 0.0001) and written test score (p = 0.012) but negatively correlated with essay test (p = 0.049). Internship score significantly correlated with preadmission GPA and graduate GPA. Regression analysis revealed that the preadmission GPA of the affiliated college and young age at admission could predict GPA, and preadmission GPA and graduate GPA could predict the internship score, which indicates postgraduate clinical performance. These findings suggest that preadmission GPA is a reliable predictor of academic achievement during medical school and postgraduate clinical performance. For assessing nonacademic competencies, further research is needed. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Longitudinal risk profiling for suicidal thoughts and behaviours in a community cohort using decision trees.

    PubMed

    Batterham, Philip J; Christensen, Helen

    2012-12-15

    While associations between specific risk factors and subsequent suicidal thoughts or behaviours have been widely examined, there is limited understanding of the interplay between risk factors in the development of suicide risk. This study used a decision tree approach to develop individual models of suicide risk and identify the risk factors for suicidality that are important for different subpopulations. In a population cohort of 6656 Australian adults, the study examined whether measures of mental health, physical health, personality, substance use, social support, social stressors and background characteristics were associated with suicidal ideation and suicidal behaviours after four-year follow-up. Previous suicidality, anxiety symptoms, depression symptoms, neuroticism and rumination were the strongest predictors of suicidal ideation and behaviour after four years. However, divergent factors were predictive of suicidal thoughts and behaviours across the spectrum of mental health. In particular, substance use was only associated with suicidal thoughts and behaviours in those with moderate levels of anxiety or depression. Most of the measurements were based on self-report. Further research is required to assess whether changes in risk factors lead to changes in suicidality. Examining suicide risk factors using decision trees is a promising approach for developing individualised assessments of suicide risk and tailored intervention programs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Validation of the MDS research criteria for prodromal Parkinson's disease: Longitudinal assessment in a REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) cohort.

    PubMed

    Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Montplaisir, Jacques Y; Pelletier, Amelie; Gagnon, Jean-François; Berg, Daniela; Postuma, Ronald B

    2017-06-01

    Recently, the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society introduced the prodromal criteria for PD. Objectives Our study aimed to examine diagnostic accuracy of the criteria as well as the independence of prodromal markers to predict conversion to PD or dementia with Lewy bodies. This prospective cohort study was performed on 121 individuals with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder who were followed annually for 1 to 12 years. Using data from a comprehensive panel of prodromal markers, likelihood ratio and post-test probability of the criteria were calculated at baseline and during each follow-up visit. Forty-eight (39.7%) individuals with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder converted to PD/dementia with Lewy bodies. The prodromal criteria had 81.3% sensitivity and 67.9% specificity for conversion to PD/dementia with Lewy bodies at 4-year follow-up. One year before conversion, sensitivity was 100%. The criteria predicted dementia with Lewy bodies with even higher accuracy than PD without dementia at onset. Those who met the threshold of prodromal criteria at baseline had significantly more rapid conversion into a neurodegenerative state (4.8 vs. 9.1 years; P < 0.001). Pair-wise combinations of different prodromal markers showed that markers were independent of one another. The prodromal criteria are a promising tool for predicting incidence of PD/dementia with Lewy bodies and conversion time in a rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder cohort, with high sensitivity and high specificity with long follow-up. Prodromal markers influence the overall likelihood ratio independently, allowing them to be reliably multiplied. Defining additional markers with high likelihood ratio, further studies with longitudinal assessment and testing thresholds in different target populations will improve the criteria. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  1. Longitudinal Course of Disease in a Large Cohort of Myositis Patients With Autoantibodies Recognizing the Signal Recognition Particle.

    PubMed

    Pinal-Fernandez, Iago; Parks, Cassie; Werner, Jessie L; Albayda, Jemyma; Paik, Julie; Danoff, Sonye K; Casciola-Rosen, Livia; Christopher-Stine, Lisa; Mammen, Andrew L

    2017-02-01

    Patients with immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM) often have autoantibodies recognizing the signal recognition particle (SRP) or HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR). Here, we studied a cohort of anti-SRP patients to identify factors associated with disease severity and clinical improvement; we also compared the severity of weakness in those with anti-SRP versus anti-HMGCR autoantibodies. All anti-SRP patients in the Johns Hopkins Myositis Cohort from 2002 to 2015 were included. Longitudinal information regarding proximal muscle strength, creatine kinase (CK) levels, and immunosuppressive therapy was recorded at each visit. Univariate and multivariate multilevel regression models were used to assess prognostic factors influencing recovery. Strength in the anti-SRP patients was compared to strength in 49 previously described anti-HMGCR subjects. Data from 37 anti-SRP patients and 380 total clinic visits were analyzed. Younger age at onset was associated with more severe weakness at the first visit (P = 0.02) and all subsequent visits (P = 0.002). Only 50% of patients reached near-full or full strength after 4 years of treatment, and most of these continued to have elevated CK levels. Rituximab appeared to be effective in 13 of 17 anti-SRP patients. Anti-SRP patients were significantly weaker than those with anti-HMGCR autoantibodies (-1.3 strength points; P = 0.001). Younger age at onset is associated with more severe weakness in anti-SRP myositis. Furthermore, even among anti-SRP patients whose strength improved with immunosuppression, most had ongoing disease activity as demonstrated by elevated CK levels. Finally, anti-SRP patients were significantly weaker than anti-HMGCR patients, providing evidence that these autoantibodies are associated with distinct forms of IMNM. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  2. Risk factors for eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age: A 6-year longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Evans, Elizabeth H; Adamson, Ashley J; Basterfield, Laura; Le Couteur, Ann; Reilly, Jessica K; Reilly, John J; Parkinson, Kathryn N

    2017-01-01

    Eating disorders pose risks to health and wellbeing in young adolescents, but prospective studies of risk factors are scarce and this has impeded prevention efforts. This longitudinal study aimed to examine risk factors for eating disorder symptoms in a population-based birth cohort of young adolescents at 12 years. Participants from the Gateshead Millennium Study birth cohort (n = 516; 262 girls and 254 boys) completed self-report questionnaire measures of eating disorder symptoms and putative risk factors at age 7 years, 9 years and 12 years, including dietary restraint, depressive symptoms and body dissatisfaction. Body mass index (BMI) was also measured at each age. Within-time correlates of eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age were greater body dissatisfaction for both sexes and, for girls only, higher depressive symptoms. For both sexes, higher eating disorder symptoms at 9 years old significantly predicted higher eating disorder symptoms at 12 years old. Dietary restraint at 7 years old predicted boys' eating disorder symptoms at age 12, but not girls'. Factors that did not predict eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age were BMI (any age), girls' dietary restraint at 7 years and body dissatisfaction at 7 and 9 years of age for both sexes. In this population-based study, different patterns of predictors and correlates of eating disorder symptoms were found for girls and boys. Body dissatisfaction, a purported risk factor for eating disorder symptoms in young adolescents, developed concurrently with eating disorder symptoms rather than preceding them. However, restraint at age 7 and eating disorder symptoms at age 9 years did predict 12-year eating disorder symptoms. Overall, our findings suggest that efforts to prevent disordered eating might beneficially focus on preadolescent populations.

  3. Sasang constitutional types for the risk prediction of metabolic syndrome: a 14-year longitudinal prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunghee; Lee, Seung Ku; Kim, Jong Yeol; Cho, Namhan; Shin, Chol

    2017-09-02

    To examine whether the use of Sasang constitutional (SC) types, such as Tae-yang (TY), Tae-eum (TE), So-yang (SY), and So-eum (SE) types, increases the accuracy of risk prediction for metabolic syndrome. From 2001 to 2014, 3529 individuals aged 40 to 69 years participated in a longitudinal prospective cohort. The Cox proportional hazard model was utilized to predict the risk of developing metabolic syndrome. During the 14 year follow-up, 1591 incident events of metabolic syndrome were observed. Individuals with TE type had higher body mass indexes and waist circumferences than individuals with SY and SE types. The risk of developing metabolic syndrome was the highest among individuals with the TE type, followed by the SY type and the SE type. When the prediction risk models for incident metabolic syndrome were compared, the area under the curve for the model using SC types was significantly increased to 0.8173. Significant predictors for incident metabolic syndrome were different according to the SC types. For individuals with the TE type, the significant predictors were age, sex, body mass index (BMI), education, smoking, drinking, fasting glucose level, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and triglyceride level. For Individuals with the SE type, the predictors were sex, smoking, fasting glucose, HDL cholesterol level, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and triglyceride level, while the predictors in individuals with the SY type were age, sex, BMI, smoking, drinking, total cholesterol level, fasting glucose level, HDL cholesterol level, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and triglyceride level. In this prospective cohort study among 3529 individuals, we observed that utilizing the SC types significantly increased the accuracy of the risk prediction for the development of metabolic syndrome.

  4. Is adult ADHD a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder? Evidence from a 4-decade longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Terrie E.; Houts, Renate; Asherson, Philip; Belsky, Daniel W; Corcoran, David L; Hammerle, Maggie; Harrington, Honalee; Hogan, Sean; Meier, Madeline; Polanczyk, Guilherme V.; Poulton, Richie; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Caspi, Avshalom

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite a prevailing assumption that adult ADHD is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder, no prospective-longitudinal study has described the childhoods of the adult-ADHD population. We report follow-back analyses of ADHD cases diagnosed in adulthood, alongside follow-forward analyses of ADHD cases diagnosed in childhood, in one cohort. Method Participants belonged to a representative birth cohort of 1,037 individuals born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972-73 and followed to age 38, with 95% retention. Symptoms of ADHD, associated clinical features, comorbid disorders, neuropsychological deficits, GWAS-derived polygenic risk, and life impairment indicators were assessed. Data sources were participants, parents, teachers, informants, neuropsychological testing, and administrative records. Adult ADHD diagnoses used DSM5 criteria, apart from onset-age and cross-setting corroboration, which were study outcomes. Results As expected, the childhood-ADHD group showed 6% prevalence, male excess, childhood comorbid disorders, neurocognitive deficits, polygenic risk, and, despite having outgrown their ADHD diagnosis, residual adult life impairment. As expected, the adult-ADHD group showed 3% prevalence, gender balance, adult substance dependence, adult life impairment, and treatment contact. Unexpectedly, the childhood-ADHD and adult-ADHD groups comprised virtually non-overlapping sets; 90% of adult-ADHD cases lacked a history of childhood ADHD. Also unexpectedly, the adult-ADHD group did not show tested neuropsychological deficits in childhood or adulthood, nor did they show polygenic risk for childhood ADHD. Conclusion Findings raise the possibility that adults presenting with the ADHD symptom picture may not have a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder. If this finding is replicated, then the disorder's place in the classification system must be reconsidered, and research must investigate the etiology of adult ADHD. PMID:25998281

  5. Adiposity, obesity, and arterial aging: longitudinal study of aortic stiffness in the Whitehall II cohort.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Eric J; Shipley, Martin J; Ahmadi-Abhari, Sara; Tabak, Adam G; McEniery, Carmel M; Wilkinson, Ian B; Marmot, Michael G; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimaki, Mika

    2015-08-01

    We sought to determine whether adiposity in later midlife is an independent predictor of accelerated stiffening of the aorta. Whitehall II study participants (3789 men; 1383 women) underwent carotid-femoral applanation tonometry at the mean age of 66 and again 4 years later. General adiposity by body mass index, central adiposity by waist circumference and waist:hip ratio, and fat mass percent by body impedance were assessed 5 years before and at baseline. In linear mixed models adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and mean arterial pressure, all adiposity measures were associated with aortic stiffening measured as increase in pulse wave velocity (PWV) between baseline and follow-up. The associations were similar in the metabolically healthy and unhealthy, according to Adult Treatment Panel-III criteria excluding waist circumference. C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels accounted for part of the longitudinal association between adiposity and PWV change. Adjusting for chronic disease, antihypertensive medication and risk factors, standardized effects of general and central adiposity and fat mass percent on PWV increase (m/s) were similar (0.14, 95% confidence interval: 0.05-0.24, P=0.003; 0.17, 0.08-0.27, P<0.001; 0.14, 0.05-0.22, P=0.002, respectively). Previous adiposity was associated with aortic stiffening independent of change in adiposity, glycaemia, and lipid levels across PWV assessments. We estimated that the body mass index-linked PWV increase will account for 12% of the projected increase in cardiovascular risk because of high body mass index. General and central adiposity in later midlife were strong independent predictors of aortic stiffening. Our findings suggest that adiposity is an important and potentially modifiable determinant of arterial aging.

  6. Exploration of a Polygenic Risk Score for Alcohol Consumption: A Longitudinal Analysis from the ALSPAC Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Simpkin, Andrew J.; Haycock, Philip C.; Dudbridge, Frank; Zuccolo, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Background Uncertainty remains about the true extent by which alcohol consumption causes a number of health outcomes. Genetic variants, or combinations of variants built into a polygenic risk score (PGRS), can be used in an instrumental variable framework to assess causality between a phenotype and disease outcome of interest, a method known as Mendelian randomisation (MR). We aimed to identify genetic variants involved in the aetiology of alcohol consumption, and develop a PGRS for alcohol. Methods Repeated measures of alcohol consumption from mothers and their offspring were collected as part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. We tested the association between 89 SNPs (identified from either published GWAS data or from functional literature) and repeated measures of alcohol consumption, separately in mothers (from ages 28–48) and offspring (from ages 15–21) who had ever reported drinking. We modelled log units of alcohol using a linear mixed model and calculated beta coefficients for each SNP separately. Cross-validation was used to determine an allelic score for alcohol consumption, and the AVENGEME algorithm employed to estimate variance of the trait explained. Results Following correction for multiple testing, one SNP (rs1229984) showed evidence for association with alcohol consumption (β = -0.177, SE = 0.042, p = <0.0001) in the mothers. No SNPs showed evidence for association in the offspring after correcting for multiple testing. The optimal allelic score was generated using p-value cut offs of 0.5 and 0.05 for the mothers and offspring respectively. These scores explained 0.3% and 0.7% of the variance. Conclusion Our PGRS explains a modest amount of the variance in alcohol consumption and larger sample sizes would be required to use our PGRS in an MR framework. PMID:27902751

  7. The Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet (HELIAD): rationale, study design, and cohort description.

    PubMed

    Dardiotis, Efthimios; Kosmidis, Mary H; Yannakoulia, Mary; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M; Scarmeas, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating epidemiological evidence from several populations supports the important role of the Mediterranean-type diet (MeDi) in reducing the risk for age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the relevant literature is clearly deficient for most Mediterranean countries that more closely adhere to the originally described MeDi. Greece resides in the Mediterranean basin, and older generations traditionally adhere to a MeDi. We here present the design and the preliminary baseline characteristics of the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet (HELIAD). The HELIAD is a population-based, multidisciplinary, collaborative study designed to estimate the prevalence and incidence of AD, other dementias, mild cognitive impairment, and other neuropsychiatric conditions of aging in the Greek population and to investigate associations between nutrition and cognitive dysfunction/age-related neuropsychiatric diseases in this Mediterranean population. The study also ascertains several demographic, medical, social, environmental, clinical, nutritional, and neuropsychological determinants and lifestyle activities. In total, 1,050 participants of a random sample have already completed the initial evaluation. The subjects were, on average, 73.4 (SD = 6.0) years old, 60% of the sample were female, and most of the participants were poorly educated with an average of 5.41 (SD = 3.5) years of education. The performance on the neuropsychological tests was equivalent to the average scores of previous normative Greek samples. More than one third of the population under investigation was considered to be at high risk for malnutrition. The HELIAD may provide important data for expanding our knowledge regarding the prevalence, incidence, and risk factors of AD and several other neuropsychiatric diseases in the Mediterranean region. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Longitudinal Trends in Hypertension Management and Mortality Among Octogenarians: Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Dregan, Alex; Ravindrarajah, Rathi; Hazra, Nisha; Hamada, Shota; Jackson, Stephen H D; Gulliford, Martin C

    2016-07-01

    The role of hypertension management among octogenarians is controversial. In this long-term follow-up (>10 years) study, we estimated trends in hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control among octogenarians, and evaluated the relationship of systolic blood pressure (SBP) ranges with mortality. Data were based on the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Outcome measures were hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment and control, and cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality events. Participants were separated into 8 categories of SBP values (<110, 110-119, 120-129, 130-139, 140-149, 150-159, 160-169, and >169 mm Hg). Among 2692 octogenarians, mean SBP levels declined from 147 mm Hg in 1998/2000 to 134 mm Hg in 2012/2013. The decline was of lower magnitude in the 50 to 79 years old subgroup (n=22007). Hypertension prevalence and awareness were 40% and 13%, respectively, higher among octogenarians than the 50 to 79 years of age subgroup, but hypertension treatment rates were similar (≈90%). Around 47% of the treated octogenarians achieved conventional BP targets (<140/90 mm Hg), increasing to 59% when assessed against revised targets (<150/90 mm Hg). All-cause mortality rates were higher (hazard ratio, 1.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.89-2.72) at lower extremes of SBP values (<110 mm Hg). The lowest cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality risk among treated octogenarians was observed for an SBP range of 140 to 149 mm Hg (1.04, 0.60-1.78) and 160 to 169 mm Hg (0.78, 0.51-1.21). An increasing trend in hypertension awareness and treatment was observed in a large sample of community-dwelling octogenarians. The results do not support the view that more stringent BP targets may be associated with lower mortality. © 2016 The Authors.

  9. Antiretroviral therapy, labor productivity, and gender: a longitudinal cohort study of tea pluckers in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    LARSON, Bruce. A.; FOX, Matthew P.; BII, Margaret; ROSEN, Sydney; ROHR, Julia; SHAFFER, Douglas; SAWE, Fredrick; WASUNNA, Monique; SIMON, Jonathon L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on labor productivity and income using detailed employment data from two large tea plantations in western Kenya for HIV-infected tea pluckers who initiated ART. Design Longitudinal study using primary data on key employment outcomes for a group of HIV-infected workers receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and workers in the general workforce. Methods We used nearest-neighbor matching methods to estimate the impacts of HIV/AIDS and ART among 237 HIV-positive pluckers on ART (index group) over a four year period (2 years pre- and post-ART) on four monthly employment outcomes—days plucking tea, total kilograms harvested, total days working, and total labor income. Outcomes for the index group were compared to those for a matched reference group from the general workforce. Results We observed a rapid deterioration in all four outcomes for HIV-infected subjects in the period before ART initiation and then a rapid improvement after treatment initiation. By 18–24 months after treatment initiation, the index group harvested 8% (males) and 19% (females) less tea than reference subjects. The index group earned 6% (males) and 9% (females) less income from labor than reference subjects. Women’s income would have dropped further if they had not been able to offset their decline in tea plucking by spending more time on non-plucking assignments. Conclusions HIV-infected workers experienced long-term income reductions before and after initiating ART. The implications of such long-term impacts in low-income countries have not been adequately addressed. PMID:23014516

  10. Longitudinal changes in lower urinary tract symptoms among a cohort of black American men: the Flint Men's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Aruna V; McLaughlin, Julie C; Jacobsen, Steven J; Logie, John; Dolin, Paul; Dunn, Rodney L; Cooney, Kathleen A; Montie, James E; Schottenfeld, David; Wei, John T

    2004-11-01

    To examine the progression of lower urinary tract symptoms in a longitudinal population-based cohort of black men. Population-based studies of prostatism and longitudinal data regarding changes in lower urinary tract symptom severity have largely focused on white men, with little attention directed toward black men. In 1996, a probability sample of 369 black men, aged 40 to 79 years, residing in Genesee County, Michigan, and without a prior history of prostate cancer/surgery participated in a prostate cancer screening protocol that included completing the American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUASI). Four years after baseline, 175 of the 369 men agreed to participate in the follow-up protocol. Of the 175 men, 149 had not reported undergoing treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia and had complete symptom data. These men were included in this study. Differences between baseline and follow-up AUASI scores were examined. The mean and standard deviation AUASI scores at baseline and follow-up were 7.1 (6.4) and 7.0 (6.8), respectively. Although overall no statistically significant change was found in the mean AUASI during the 4 years of follow-up (-0.11; SD 6.2; P = 0.7), the average change in the symptom score and the variability in the change increased with patient age at baseline from a mean of -0.42 (SD 5.0) among men in their 40s to 2.1 (SD 6.6) among men in their 70s. Of the 91 men (61.1%) who reported mild to no symptoms (AUASI score 7 or less) at baseline, 24 (26.4%) reported moderate to severe symptoms (AUASI score 8 or more) at follow-up. This progression of symptom severity was observed across all ages. In this population-based study of longitudinal changes in urinary symptoms in black men, we found a substantial percentage of men demonstrated a measurable progression in urinary symptom severity over time. Additional studies are needed to examine critically any racial differences in lower urinary tract symptom progression.

  11. Body mass index, adiposity rebound and early feeding in a longitudinal cohort (Raine Study).

    PubMed

    Chivers, P; Hands, B; Parker, H; Bulsara, M; Beilin, L J; Kendall, G E; Oddy, W H

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the influence of type and duration of infant feeding on adiposity rebound and the tracking of body mass index (BMI) from birth to 14 years of age. A sample of 1330 individuals over eight follows-ups was drawn from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Trajectories of BMI from birth to adolescence using linear mixed model analysis investigated the influence of age at which breastfeeding was stopped and the age at which other milk was introduced (binomial 4-month cutoff point). A subsample of linear mixed model-predicted BMI was used to determine BMI and age at nadir for early infant feeding groups. Chi-square analysis between early feeding and weight status (normal weight, overweight and obese) groups found a significant difference between thee age at which breastfeeding was stopped (P<0.001) and the age at which other milk was introduced (P=0.011), with a higher proportion of overweight and obese in the < or = 4-month group, even after controlling for maternal education. Using the linear mixed model, the BMI determined was higher over time for the group that was breastfed for < or = 4 months (P=0.015), with a significant interaction effect with the group in which other milk was introduced at < or = 4 months (P=0.011). Using predicted BMI from the linear mixed model, significant differences for nadirs of adiposity rebound between early feeding groups were found (P<0.005). Early infant feeding was important in the timing of, and BMI at, adiposity rebound. The relationship between infant feeding and BMI remained up to the age of 14 years. Although confounding factors cannot be excluded, these findings support the importance of exclusive breastfeeding for longer than 4 months as a protective behaviour against the development of adolescent obesity.

  12. Naloxone use among overdose prevention trainees in New York City: A longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Siegler, Anne; Huxley-Reicher, Zina; Maldjian, Lara; Jordan, Robyn; Oliver, Chloe; Jakubowski, Andrea; Kunins, Hillary V

    2017-10-01

    Providing naloxone to laypersons who are likely to witness an opioid overdose is now a widespread public health response to the national opioid overdose epidemic. Estimating the proportion of individuals who use naloxone can define its potential impact to reduce overdose deaths at a population level. We determined the proportion of study participants who used naloxone within 12 months following training and factors associated with witnessing overdose and naloxone use. We conducted a prospective, observational study of individuals completing overdose prevention training (OPT) between June and September 2013. Participants were recruited from New York City's six largest overdose prevention programs, all operated by syringe exchange programs. Questionnaires were administered at four time points over 12 months. Main outcomes were witnessing or experiencing overdose, and naloxone administration. Of 675 individuals completing OPT, 429 (64%) were approached and 351 (52%) were enrolled. Overall, 299 (85%) study participants completed at least one follow-up survey; 128 (36%) witnessed at least one overdose. Of 312 witnessed opioid overdoses, naloxone was administered in 241 events (77%); 188 (60%) by the OPT study participant. Eighty-six (25%) study participants administered naloxone at least once. Over one third of study participants (30, 35%) used naloxone 6 or more months after training. Witnessing an overdose and naloxone use was common among this study cohort of OPT trainees. Training individuals at high risk for witnessing overdoses may reduce opioid overdose mortality at a population level if sufficient numbers of potential responders are equipped with naloxone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet is associated with lower incidence of frailty: A longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Veronese, Nicola; Stubbs, Brendon; Noale, Marianna; Solmi, Marco; Rizzoli, Renè; Vaona, Alberto; Demurtas, Jacopo; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Maggi, Stefania

    2017-09-04

    There is a paucity of data investigating the relationship between the Mediterranean diet and frailty, with no data among North American people. We aimed to investigate if adherence to a Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of frailty in a large cohort of North American people. This study included subjects at higher risk or having knee osteoarthritis. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was evaluated using a validated Mediterranean diet score (aMED) as proposed by Panagiotakos and classified into five categories. Frailty was defined using the Study of Osteoporotic Fracture (SOF) index as the presence of ≥2 out of: (i) weight loss ≥5% between baseline and the subsequent follow-up visit; (ii) inability to do five chair stands; (iii) low energy level. During the 8 years follow-up, of the 4421 participants initially included (mean age: 61.2 years, % of females = 58.0), the incidence of frailty was approximately half in those with a higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet (8 for 1000 person years) vs. those with a lower adherence (15 for 1000 persons-years). After adjusting for 10 potential confounders (age, sex, race, body mass index, education, smoking habits, yearly income, physical activity level, Charlson co-morbidity index and daily energy intake), participants with the highest aMED scores were found to have a significant reduction in incident frailty (hazard ratio = 0.71; 95% CIs: 0.50-0.99, p = 0.047) with respect to those in a lower category. Regarding individual components of the Mediterranean diet, low consumption of poultry was found to be associated with higher risk of frailty. A higher adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with a lower incidence of frailty over an 8-year follow-up period, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  14. Women's birth expectations, are they fulfilled? Findings from a longitudinal Swedish cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hildingsson, Ingegerd

    2015-06-01

    The importance of women's expectations on the experience of birth has shown contradictory results regarding fulfilment. The aim of this study was to describe pregnant women's expectations of birth and to investigate if these expectations were fulfilled. An additional aim was to determine if unfulfilled expectations were related to the mode of birth, use of epidural and the birth experience. This research investigated a prospective regional cohort study of 1042 Swedish-speaking women who completed a questionnaire about birth expectations in late pregnancy and were followed up with two months after birth. Five areas were under study: support from partner, support from midwife, control, participation in decision making and the midwife's presence during labour and birth. An index combining expectations and experiences was created. Certain background characteristics were associated with expectations as well as experiences. Statistically significant differences were shown between expectations and experiences in support from midwife (mean 3.41 vs 3.32), support from partner (mean 3.70 vs 3.77), and midwife's presence (mean 3.00 vs 3.39). Experiences 'worse than expected' regarding decision making and control were associated with modes of birth other than vaginal and four out of five areas were associated with a less positive birth experience. Some women had high birth expectations of which some were fulfilled. An expectation on support from the midwife was less likely to be achieved, while support from partner and the midwives' presence were fulfilled. If the woman's expectations were not fulfilled, e.g. became 'worse than expected' this was associated with a less positive overall birth experience as well as with instrumental or surgical mode of birth. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dropout in a longitudinal, cohort study of urologic disease in community men.

    PubMed

    Gades, Naomi M; Jacobson, Debra J; McGree, Michaela E; Lieber, Michael M; Roberts, Rosebud O; Girman, Cynthia J; Jacobsen, Steven J

    2006-12-14

    Reasons for attrition in studies vary, but may be a major concern in long-term studies if those who drop out differ systematically from those who continue to participate. Factors associated with dropout were evaluated in a twelve-year community-based, prospective cohort study of urologic disease in men. During 1989-1991, 2,115 randomly selected Caucasian men, ages 40-79 years from Olmsted County, Minnesota were enrolled and followed with questionnaires biennially; 332 men were added in follow-up. A random subset (approximately 25%) received a urologic examination. Baseline characteristics including age, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) symptoms, comorbidities, and socioeconomic factors were compared between subjects who did and did not participate after the twelfth year of follow-up. Of the 2,447 men, 195 died and were excluded; 682 did not participate in 2002. Compared with men in the 40-49 year age group, men > or = 70 years of age at baseline had a greater relative odds of dropout, 2.65 (95% CI: 1.93, 3.63). In age-adjusted analyses, relative to men without stroke, men who had suffered a stroke had a higher odds of dropout, age-adjusted OR 3.07 (95% CI: 1.49, 6.33). Presence of at least one BPH symptom was not associated with dropout, (age-adjusted OR 1.12 (95% CI: 0.93, 1.36)). These results provide assurance that dropout was not related to primary study outcomes. However, factors associated with dropout should be taken into account in analyses where they may be potential confounders.

  16. Plasmatic isoforms of cytokeratin 18 and RAGE after severe trauma: a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Uhle, Florian; Nouland, Denise van den; Little, Simon; Menges, Thilo; Weiterer, Sebastian; Szalay, Gabor; Franke, Jörg; Schnettler, Reinhard; Weigand, Markus Alexander; Lichtenstern, Christoph

    2014-10-01

    Life-threatening traumatic injuries lead to a complex inflammation-driven pathophysiology. Receptor of advanced glycation end product (RAGE) is a multiligand receptor of several endogenous alarmins, while cytokeratin 18 is a structural component of the filament of epithelial cells. Both proteins can be frequently found in plasma of patients with different diseases, whereby they have distinct underlying mechanism of formation. In this prospective observational study, we wanted to shed light on the kinetic of plasmatic RAGE and cytokeratin 18 isoforms after severe trauma, thereby also addressing the association of these markers with inflammation and their potential use as biomarkers. Plasma samples of 77 patients with severe multiple trauma as defined by an Injury Severity Score (ISS) 16 or greater were obtained from a local repository and levels of soluble RAGE, endogenous secretory RAGE, cytokeratin 18, cleaved cytokeratin 18, and interleukin 6 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Demographic and routine parameters of the cohort were extracted from an electronic patient data management system. Both RAGE isoforms were transiently increased in plasma within 24 hours after trauma, while cytokeratin 18 levels were unchanged. Moreover, soluble RAGE concentrations in patients with thoracic injuries were higher compared with patients without injury, and both isoforms of RAGE discriminated between patients with most severe adult respiratory distress syndrome and patients with milder forms. In addition, cleaved and total cytokeratin 18 levels differ between patients with hepatic dysfunction and normal function, without possessing discriminatory power. RAGE and cytokeratin 18 isoforms correlated significantly but to a low extent with interleukin 6, while the isoforms of both parameters correlated to a high extent with one another. The release of RAGE (but not cytokeratin 18) isoforms occurs early and transiently after trauma and is associated with the extent of injury and

  17. Weight change before and after the introduction of solids: results from a longitudinal birth cohort.

    PubMed

    van Rossem, Lenie; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Looman, Caspar W N; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S; Mackenbach, Johan P; Moll, Henriëtte A; Raat, Hein

    2013-01-28

    We studied the association, and its direction, between the introduction of solids and weight-for-height (WFH) change between birth and 45 months. Pregnant women were asked to participate in a birth cohort during their first antenatal visit. Data from 3184 children were used. The timing of the introduction of solids was reported by the mother from a questionnaire at 12 months postpartum, and categorised into very early (0-3 months), early (3-6 months) and timely (after 6 months) introduction of solids. Anthropometric data were collected during standardised child health centre visits. WFH was converted into a z-score. Repeated-measurements analyses with splines positioned according to the moments of solid introduction were used to obtain estimates for WFH change before and after the introduction of solids. Analyses were adjusted for educational level, ethnicity, smoking during pregnancy, mother's BMI, breast-feeding, history of food allergy and infant's hospital admission. Before solids were introduced, weight gain was higher in children introduced to solids early (z= 0.65, 95 % CI 0.34, 0.95) than in children introduced to solids very early (z= 0.02, 95 % CI -0.03, 0.08) and timely (z= -0.04, 95 % CI -0.05, -0.03). Shortly after the introduction of solids, children introduced to solids very early and early showed a relative decrease in WFH. WFH change did not differ between the solid introduction groups after 12 months, and at that time, weight change was as expected (i.e. z= 0). We therefore conclude that differences in WFH in childhood are not the result of early introduction to solids.

  18. Role of parenting styles in adolescent substance use: results from a Swedish longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Berge, J; Sundell, K; Öjehagen, A; Håkansson, A

    2016-01-14

    Adolescent substance use is an area of concern because early substance use is associated with a higher risk of adverse outcomes. Parenting style, defined as the general style of parenting, as well as substance-specific parenting practices may influence children's substance use behaviour. The present study aims to probe the impact of parenting style on adolescent substance use. A cohort of 1268 adolescents (48% girls), aged 12-13 years at baseline, from 21 junior high schools was assessed in the first semester of junior high school, and then again in the last semester of the 9th grade, 32 months later. Parenting style, operationalised as a fourfold classification of parenting styles, including established risk factors for adolescent substance use, were measured at baseline. Neglectful parenting style was associated with worse substance use outcomes across all substances. After adjusting for other proximal risk factors in multivariate analyses, parenting style was found to be unrelated to substance use outcomes with one exception: authoritative parenting style was associated with less frequent drinking. Association with deviant peers, delinquent behaviour, provision of alcohol by parents, and previous use of other substances were associated with substance use outcomes at follow-up. The results of the present study indicate that parenting style may be less important for adolescent substance use outcomes than what has previously been assumed, and that association with deviant peers and delinquent behaviour may be more important for adolescent substance use outcomes than general parenting style. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Asthma Hospital Readmission in Children: a Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Nicholas C.; Ryan, Patrick H.; Huang, Bin; Beck, Andrew F.; Sauers, Hadley S.; Kahn, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) and hospital readmission for asthma or bronchodilator-responsive wheezing. Study design A population-based cohort of 758 children ages 1–16 years, admitted for asthma or bronchodilator-responsive wheezing was assessed for asthma readmission within 12 months. TRAP exposure was estimated using a land use regression model using the home address at index admission; TRAP was dichotomized at the sample median (0.37 μg/m3). Covariates included allergen-specific IgE, tobacco smoke exposure, and social factors obtained at enrollment. Associations between TRAP exposure and readmission were assessed using logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards. Results Study participants were 58% were African American (AA), 32% white; 19% were readmitted within 12 months. Children with higher TRAP exposure were readmitted at a higher rate overall (21% v. 16%, p = 0.05); this association was not significant after adjusting for covariates (adjusted OR 1.4; 95% CI 0.9–2.2). Race modified the observed association: white children with high TRAP exposure had three-fold increased odds of asthma readmission (OR 3.0; 95% CI 1.1–8.1), compared with low exposed whites. TRAP exposure among AA children was not associated with increased readmission (OR.1.1; 95% CI 0.6–1.8). TRAP exposure was associated with decreased time to readmission for high TRAP-exposed white children (HR 3.2; 95% CI 1.5–6.7) vs. AA children (HR 1.0; 95% CI 0.7–1.4); AA children had a higher readmission rate overall. Conclusions TRAP exposure is associated with increased odds of readmission in white children; this relationship was not observed in AA children. PMID:24680015

  20. "Do I really want to do this?" Longitudinal cohort study participants' perspectives on postal survey design: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Harcombe, Helen; Derrett, Sarah; Herbison, Peter; McBride, David

    2011-01-27

    Randomised controlled trials have investigated aspects of postal survey design yet cannot elaborate on reasons behind participants' decision making and survey behaviour. This paper reports participants' perspectives of the design of, and participation in, a longitudinal postal cohort survey. It describes strengths and weaknesses in study design from the perspectives of study participants and aims to contribute to the: 1) design of future cohort surveys and questionnaires generally and, 2) design of cohort surveys for people with musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) specifically. In-depth interviews explored the design of postal surveys previously completed by participants. Interviews used open ended questioning with a topic guide for prompts if areas of interest were not covered spontaneously. Thematic data analysis was undertaken based on the framework method. A second researcher verified all coding. Data from fourteen interviews were analysed within three main themes; participation, survey design and survey content. One of the main findings was the importance of clear communication aimed at the correct audience both when inviting potential participants to take part and within the survey itself. Providing enough information about the study, having a topic of interest and an explanation of likely benefits of the study were important when inviting people to participate. The neutrality of the survey and origination from a reputable source were both important; as was an explanation about why information was being collected within the survey itself. Study findings included participants' impressions when invited to take part, why they participated, the acceptability of follow-up of non-responders and why participants completed the follow-up postal survey. Also discussed were participants' first impression of the survey, its length, presentation and participants' views about specific questions within the survey. Ideas generated in this study provide an insight into

  1. "Do I really want to do this?" Longitudinal cohort study participants' perspectives on postal survey design: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Randomised controlled trials have investigated aspects of postal survey design yet cannot elaborate on reasons behind participants' decision making and survey behaviour. This paper reports participants' perspectives of the design of, and participation in, a longitudinal postal cohort survey. It describes strengths and weaknesses in study design from the perspectives of study participants and aims to contribute to the: 1) design of future cohort surveys and questionnaires generally and, 2) design of cohort surveys for people with musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) specifically. Methods In-depth interviews explored the design of postal surveys previously completed by participants. Interviews used open ended questioning with a topic guide for prompts if areas of interest were not covered spontaneously. Thematic data analysis was undertaken based on the framework method. A second researcher verified all coding. Results Data from fourteen interviews were analysed within three main themes; participation, survey design and survey content. One of the main findings was the importance of clear communication aimed at the correct audience both when inviting potential participants to take part and within the survey itself. Providing enough information about the study, having a topic of interest and an explanation of likely benefits of the study were important when inviting people to participate. The neutrality of the survey and origination from a reputable source were both important; as was an explanation about why information was being collected within the survey itself. Study findings included participants' impressions when invited to take part, why they participated, the acceptability of follow-up of non-responders and why participants completed the follow-up postal survey. Also discussed were participants' first impression of the survey, its length, presentation and participants' views about specific questions within the survey. Conclusions Ideas generated in this

  2. Longitudinal study of cardiometabolic risk from early adolescence to early adulthood in an ethnically diverse cohort

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Seeromanie; Silva, Maria João; Molaodi, Oarabile R; Enayat, Zinat E; Cassidy, Aidan; Karamanos, Alexis; Read, Ursula M; Cruickshank, J Kennedy

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine influences of adiposity from early adolescence to early 20s on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in the multiethnic Determinants of young Adult Social well-being and Health (DASH) longitudinal study. Methods In 2002–2003, 6643 11–13-year-olds from 51 London schools participated at baseline, and 4785 were seen again at 14–16 years. Recently, 665 (97% of invited) participated in pilot follow-up at 21–23 years, with biological and psychosocial measures and blood biomarkers (only at 21–23 years). Regression models examined interplay between ethnicity, adiposity and CVD. Results At 21–23 years, ∼30–40% were overweight. About half of the sample had completed a degree with little ethnic variation despite more socioeconomic disadvantage in adolescence among ethnic minorities. Regardless of ethnicity, overweight increased more steeply between 14–16 years and 21–23 years than between 11–13 years and 14–16 years. More overweight among Black Caribbean and Black African females, lower systolic blood pressure (sBP) among Indian females and Pakistani/Bangladeshi males compared with White UK peers, persisted from 11–13 years. At 21–23 years, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was higher among Black Caribbean females, total cholesterol higher and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol lower among Pakistani/Bangladeshis. Overweight was associated with a ∼+2 mm Hg rise in sBP between 11–13 years and 21–23 years. Adiposity measures at 11–13 years were related to allostatic load (a cluster of several risk markers), HbA1c and HDL cholesterol at 21–23 years. Ethnic patterns in CVD biomarkers remained after adjustments. Conclusions Adolescent adiposity posed significant risks at 21–23 years, a period in the lifespan generally ignored in cardiovascular studies, when ethnic/gender variations in CVD are already apparent. PMID:27979836

  3. Head Start Participation and School Readiness: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort December 10, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Lee, RaeHyuck; Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n ≈ 6,950), a nationally representative sample of children born in 2001, we examined school readiness (academic skills and socio-emotional wellbeing) at kindergarten entry for children who attended Head Start compared to those who experienced other types of child care (prekindergarten, other center-based care, other non-parental care, or parental care). Using propensity score matching methods and OLS regressions with rich controls, we found that Head Start participants had higher early reading and math scores than children in other non-parental care or parental care, but also higher levels of conduct problems than those in parental care. Head Start participants had lower early reading scores compared to children in prekindergarten, and had no differences in any outcomes compared to children in other center-based care. Head Start benefits were more pronounced for children who had low initial cognitive ability or low-educated parents, or attended Head Start for more than 20 hours per week. PMID:23527496

  4. Diabetes and disenrollment in a health maintenance organization setting: a 4-year longitudinal study with a matched cohort.

    PubMed

    Legorreta, A P; Meng, Y Y; Leung, K M; Lin, Z; Davidson, M B

    1999-09-01

    The increasing enrollment of Medicare beneficiaries in health maintenance organizations (HMOs) in recent years has caused concern about whether HMOs and their providers have created an unfavorable environment for members who are chronically ill. This study was designed to examine whether there are any differences in disenrollment rates among enrollees with diabetes and enrollees without diabetes. This was a 4-year longitudinal follow-up study with a matched cohort. Medicare beneficiaries (aged > or =65 years) with diabetes identified through pharmacy records in 1994 were matched with a comparison group according to age, sex, comorbidities, and type of provider groups in an HMO in California. The overall distribution of the characteristics of members in the diabetic and matched nondiabetic group is almost identical. The matched-pair chi2 tests indicated that there were no statistical differences in disenrollment rates between diabetic and nondiabetic members during all three follow-up periods (P = 0.16-0.85). We found that the HMO members with diabetes did not disenroll from the HMO at a higher rate than those without diabetes. The findings should alleviate some of the concern that HMOs and their contracted providers have created an unattractive environment for members who have chronic diseases such as diabetes.

  5. Estimating the number of quit attempts it takes to quit smoking successfully in a longitudinal cohort of smokers

    PubMed Central

    Diemert, Lori; Cohen, Joanna E; Bondy, Susan J; Selby, Peter; Philipneri, Anne; Schwartz, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The number of quit attempts it takes a smoker to quit successfully is a commonly reported figure among smoking cessation programmes, but previous estimates have been based on lifetime recall in cross-sectional samples of successful quitters only. The purpose of this study is to improve the estimate of number of quit attempts prior to quitting successfully. Design We used data from 1277 participants who had made an attempt to quit smoking in the Ontario Tobacco Survey, a longitudinal survey of smokers followed every 6 months for up to 3 years beginning in 2005. We calculated the number of quit attempts prior to quitting successfully under four different sets of assumptions. Our expected best set of assumptions incorporated a life table approach accounting for the declining success rates for subsequent observed quit attempts in the cohort. Results The estimated average number of quit attempts expected before quitting successfully ranged from 6.1 under the assumptions consistent with prior research, 19.6 using a constant rate approach, 29.6 using the method with the expected lowest bias, to 142 using an approach including previous recall history. Conclusions Previous estimates of number of quit attempts required to quit may be underestimating the average number of attempts as these estimates excluded smokers who have greater difficulty quitting and relied on lifetime recall of number of attempts. Understanding that for many smokers it may take 30 or more quit attempts before being successful may assist with clinical expectations. PMID:27288378

  6. Saffold Virus, a Human Cardiovirus, and Risk of Persistent Islet Autoantibodies in the Longitudinal Birth Cohort Study MIDIA

    PubMed Central

    de Muinck, Eric J.; Cinek, Ondrej; Stene, Lars C.; Torjesen, Peter A.; Rasmussen, Trond; Rønningen, Kjersti S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the frequency and distribution of Saffold virus in longitudinal stool samples from children, and test for association with development of persistent autoantibodies predictive of type 1 diabetes. A cohort of Norwegian children carrying the HLA genotype associated with highest risk of type 1 diabetes (“DR4-DQ8/DR3-DQ2”) was followed with monthly stool samples from 3 to 35 months of age. Blood samples were tested for autoantibodies to insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase65 and Islet Antigen-2. 2077 stool samples from 27 children with ≥2 repeatedly positive islet autoantibodies (cases), and 53 matched controls were analysed for Saffold virus genomic RNA by semi-quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR. Saffold virus was found in 53 of 2077 (2.6%) samples, with similar proportions between cases (2.5%) and controls (2.6%). The probability of being infected by 3 years of age was 28% (95% CI 0.18–0.40). Viral quantities ranged from <1 to almost 105 copies/μl. Estimated odds ratio between islet autoimmunity and infection episodes prior to seroconversion was 1.98 (95% CI: 0.57–6.91, p = 0.29). Saffold virus had no statistically significant association with islet autoimmunity. PMID:26317929

  7. Saffold Virus, a Human Cardiovirus, and Risk of Persistent Islet Autoantibodies in the Longitudinal Birth Cohort Study MIDIA.

    PubMed

    Tapia, German; Bøås, Håkon; de Muinck, Eric J; Cinek, Ondrej; Stene, Lars C; Torjesen, Peter A; Rasmussen, Trond; Rønningen, Kjersti S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the frequency and distribution of Saffold virus in longitudinal stool samples from children, and test for association with development of persistent autoantibodies predictive of type 1 diabetes. A cohort of Norwegian children carrying the HLA genotype associated with highest risk of type 1 diabetes ("DR4-DQ8/DR3-DQ2") was followed with monthly stool samples from 3 to 35 months of age. Blood samples were tested for autoantibodies to insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase65 and Islet Antigen-2. 2077 stool samples from 27 children with ≥ 2 repeatedly positive islet autoantibodies (cases), and 53 matched controls were analysed for Saffold virus genomic RNA by semi-quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR. Saffold virus was found in 53 of 2077 (2.6%) samples, with similar proportions between cases (2.5%) and controls (2.6%). The probability of being infected by 3 years of age was 28% (95% CI 0.18-0.40). Viral quantities ranged from <1 to almost 105 copies/μl. Estimated odds ratio between islet autoimmunity and infection episodes prior to seroconversion was 1.98 (95% CI: 0.57-6.91, p = 0.29). Saffold virus had no statistically significant association with islet autoimmunity.

  8. Longitudinal study of associations between perceived health status and self reported diseases in the French Gazel cohort

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, P; Gueguen, A; Schmaus, A; Nakache, J; Goldberg, M

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—Although perceived health status is an indicator widely used in epidemiological studies, its relation to various diseases is not well known. The objective of this study is to examine these relations in detail.
DESIGN—Marginal models used for a longitudinal study of the association between three health scales and 47 diseases among 12 164 men and 44 diseases among 4415 women.
SETTING—French Gazel cohort during the period from 1991 to 1996.
MAIN RESULTS—The general health status scale was significantly associated with 43 diseases among men, and 31 among women. Some of these significantly associated diseases were physical (for example, cancer and cerebrovascular accident) and others, psychological (for example, depression). The mental fatigue scale was more specifically associated with psychological disorders, including sleep problems, depression, and nervous diseases. Moreover, modifications in subjects' assessment of their health from one year to the next were generally associated with modifications in reported diseases.
CONCLUSION—Although the mechanism that relates the presence of a disease to perceived health status remains in question, these results show clearly that there is a close association between these two domains that justifies the use of perceived health as a proxy for self reported diseases.


Keywords: marginal model; health scale; self rated disease PMID:11238577

  9. Household Food Insecurity During Childhood and Subsequent Health Status: The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Kindergarten Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Bartfeld, Judith S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined long-term patterns of household food insecurity in children from kindergarten through eighth grade and the association between those patterns and children’s proxy-reported health status in eighth grade. Methods. We obtained data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Kindergarten Cohort, a study that followed a nationally representative sample of students from kindergarten entry in 1998–1999 through eighth grade. We classified food insecurity according to the number of years of reported household food insecurity over 4 observation years. We estimated logistic regression models to estimate the association between cumulative food insecurity exposure and health outcomes. Results. Food insecurity was generally a transient rather than a persistent condition. Persistent food insecurity over the 9-year period was associated with lower health status in eighth grade, whereas more transient food insecurity was not significantly associated with health outcomes in most models. Conclusions. Single-year estimates substantially underestimate the share of children whose households experienced food insecurity at some point during their childhood years. Persistent food insecurity is an important public health issue for children. Policy interventions to alleviate children’s persistent food insecurity may promote child health. PMID:22994255

  10. Contraceptive discontinuation and pregnancy postabortion in Nepal: a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Puri, Mahesh; Henderson, Jillian T; Harper, Cynthia C; Blum, Maya; Joshi, Deepak; Rocca, Corinne H

    2015-04-01

    To examine postabortion contraceptive discontinuation and pregnancy in Nepal, where abortion was decriminalized in 2002. We conducted an observational cohort study of 654 women obtaining abortions from four public and nongovernmental facilities in 2011. Patients completed questionnaires at their abortion visit and 6 and 12 months later. We used Cox proportional hazards models to assess contraceptive discontinuation and pregnancy by method initiated postabortion and other sociodemographic and reproductive factors. Among the 78% (508/654) of women who initiated a modern contraceptive method within 3 months postabortion, the 1-year contraceptive discontinuation rate was 62 per 100 person-years. Discontinuation was far lower among the 5% of women using long-acting reversible methods (21/100 person-years) than among those using condoms (74/100 person-years), pills (61/100 person-years) and the injectable [64/100 person-years; adjusted hazard ratio (aHR)=0.32 (0.15-0.68)]. Unmarried women and those not living with their husband experienced higher contraceptive discontinuation [aHR=2.16 (1.47-3.17)]. The 1-year pregnancy rate for all women was 9/100 person-years. Pregnancy was highest among those who initiated no modern method postabortion (13/100 person-years) and condoms (12/100 person-years), and pregnancy was lowest among users of long-acting reversible methods (3/100 person-years). The poorest women were at increased pregnancy risk [aHR=2.31 (1.32-4.10)]. Women using intrauterine devices and implants experienced greatly reduced contraceptive discontinuation and pregnancy within a year postabortion, although initiation of these long-acting methods was low. Increased availability of long-acting methods in Nepal and similar settings may help to prevent unwanted pregnancy and attendant maternal mortality and morbidities. Initiation of modern contraception was high postabortion; however, 1-year discontinuation was high for the condom, pill and injectable, the methods most

  11. A longitudinal, multicentre, cohort study of community rehabilitation service delivery in long-term neurological conditions

    PubMed Central

    Siegert, Richard J; Jackson, Diana M; Playford, E Diane; Fleminger, Simon; Turner-Stokes, Lynne

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Part A: To pilot the use of a register to identify and monitor patients with complex needs arising from long-term neurological conditions. Part B: To determine the extent to which patients’ needs for health and social services are met following discharge to the community after inpatient rehabilitation; to identify which factors predict unmet needs and to explore the relationship between service provision and outcomes at 12 months. Design A multicentre, prospective, cohort study surveying participants at 1, 6 and 12 months using postal/online questionnaires and telephone interview. Setting Consecutive discharges to the community from all nine tertiary, specialist, inpatient neurorehabilitation services in London over 18 months in 2010–2011. Participants Of 576 admissions 428 patients were recruited at discharge: 256 responded at 4 weeks, 212 at 6 months and 190 at 12 months. Measures Neurological Impairment Scale, The Needs and Provision Complexity Scale, The Northwick Park Dependency Scale, Community Integration Questionnaire, Zarit Burden Inventory. Results n=322 (75%) expressed willingness to be registered, but in practice less than half responded to questionnaires at 6 and 12 months (49% and 44%, respectively), despite extensive efforts to contact them, with no significant differences between responders and non-responders. Significant unmet needs were identified within the first year following discharge, particularly in rehabilitation, social work support and provision of specialist equipment. Dependency for basic care and motor and cognitive impairment predicted services received, together accounting for 40% of the variance. Contra to expectation, patients whose rehabilitation needs were met were more dependent and less well integrated at 12 months post discharge than those with unmet needs. Conclusions Registration is acceptable to most patients, but questionnaires/telephone interviews may not be the most efficient way to reach

  12. The specialty choices of graduates from Brighton and Sussex Medical School: a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Woolf, Katherine; Elton, Caroline; Newport, Melanie

    2015-03-13

    Since 2007 junior doctors in the UK have had to make major career decisions at a point when previously many had not yet chosen a specialty. This study examined when doctors in this new system make specialty choices, which factors influence choices, and whether doctors who choose a specialty they were interested in at medical school are more confident in their choice than those doctors whose interests change post-graduation. Two cohorts of students in their penultimate year at one medical school (n = 227/239) were asked which specialty interested them as a career. Two years later, 210/227 were sent a questionnaire measuring actual specialty chosen, confidence, influence of perceptions of the specialty and experiences on choice, satisfaction with medicine, personality, self-efficacy, and demographics. Medical school and post-graduation choices in the same category were deemed 'stable'. Predictors of stability, and of not having chosen a specialty, were calculated using bootstrapped logistic regression. Differences between specialties on questionnaire factors were analysed. 50% responded (n = 105/277; 44% of the 239 Year 4 students). 65% specialty choices were 'stable'. Factors univariately associated with stability were specialty chosen, having enjoyed the specialty at medical school or since starting work, having first considered the specialty earlier. A regression found doctors who chose psychiatry were more likely to have changed choice than those who chose general practice. Confidence in the choice was not associated with stability. Those who chose general practice valued lifestyle factors. A psychiatry choice was associated with needing a job and using one's intellect to help others. The decision to choose surgical training tended to be made early. Not having applied for specialty training was associated with being lower on agreeableness and conscientiousness. Medical school experiences are important in specialty choice but experiences post-graduation remain

  13. Longitudinal assessment of neuroimaging and clinical markers in autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Yau, Wai-Ying Wendy; Tudorascu, Dana L; McDade, Eric M; Ikonomovic, Snezana; James, Jeffrey A; Minhas, Davneet; Mowrey, Wenzhu; Sheu, Lei K; Snitz, Beth E; Weissfeld, Lisa; Gianaros, Peter J; Aizenstein, Howard J; Price, Julie C; Mathis, Chester A; Lopez, Oscar L; Klunk, William E

    2015-08-01

    The biomarker model of Alzheimer's disease postulates a dynamic sequence of amyloidosis, neurodegeneration, and cognitive decline as an individual progresses from preclinical Alzheimer's disease to dementia. Despite supportive evidence from cross-sectional studies, verification with long-term within-individual data is needed. For this prospective cohort study, carriers of autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease mutations (aged ≥21 years) were recruited from across the USA through referrals by physicians or from affected families. People with mutations in PSEN1, PSEN2, or APP were assessed at the University of Pittsburgh Alzheimer's Disease Research Center every 1-2 years, between March 23, 2003, and Aug 1, 2014. We measured global cerebral amyloid β (Aβ) load using (11)C-Pittsburgh Compound-B PET, posterior cortical metabolism with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET, hippocampal volume (age and sex corrected) with T1-weighted MRI, verbal memory with the ten-item Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Word List Learning Delayed Recall Test, and general cognition with the Mini Mental State Examination. We estimated overall biomarker trajectories across estimated years from symptom onset using linear mixed models, and compared these estimates with cross-sectional data from cognitively normal control individuals (age 65-89 years) who were negative for amyloidosis, hypometabolism, and hippocampal atrophy. In the mutation carriers who had the longest follow-up, we examined the within-individual progression of amyloidosis, metabolism, hippocampal volume, and cognition to identify progressive within-individual changes (a significant change was defined as an increase or decrease of more than two Z scores standardised to controls). 16 people with mutations in PSEN1, PSEN2, or APP, aged 28-56 years, completed between two and eight assessments (a total of 83 assessments) over 2-11 years. Significant differences in mutation carriers compared with controls (p<0

  14. The Longitudinal Course of Insomnia Symptoms: Inequalities by Sex and Occupational Class Among Two Different Age Cohorts Followed for 20 Years in the West of Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Green, Michael J.; Espie, Colin A.; Hunt, Kate; Benzeval, Michaela

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: The natural history of insomnia symptomatology is poorly understood. Cross-sectional associations have been demonstrated among socioeconomic disadvantage, female sex, and poor sleep but it is unclear how these social factors predict patterns of insomnia symptoms over time. The aim of this article is to describe longitudinal patterns of insomnia symptoms as people age and investigate how they vary by sex and occupational class. Design: A prospective cohort study with 20 yr of follow-up from 1987 to 1988. Setting: West of Scotland. Participants: One cohort approximately 36 yr of age at baseline aging to 57 yr (n = 1,444), and another aging from approximately 56 to 76 yr (n = 1,551). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: At approximately 5-yr intervals, respondents self-reported trouble initiating and maintaining sleep. Latent class analysis identified 4 main sleep patterns: a healthy pattern with little sleeping trouble across the 20 yr; an episodic pattern, characterized by trouble maintaining sleep; a chronic pattern with trouble maintaining and initiating sleep throughout the study; and a pattern where symptoms developed during the 20-yr follow-up. Chronic patterns were more likely in the older cohort than the younger one, for women than men in the older cohort, and for those from a manual rather than a nonmanual occupational class in both cohorts. In the middle-aged cohort a developing pattern was more likely for women than men. Conclusions: Chronic symptoms, characterized by both trouble maintaining and initiating sleep, are patterned by social factors. Citation: Green MJ; Espie CA; Hunt K; Benzeval M. The longitudinal course of insomnia symptoms: inequalities by sex and occupational class among two different age cohorts followed for 20 years in the west of Scotland. SLEEP 2012;35(6):815-823. PMID:22654201

  15. Food Consumption and Nutrient Intake by Children Aged 10 to 48 Months Attending Day Care in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Goldbohm, R Alexandra; Rubingh, Carina M; Lanting, Caren I; Joosten, Koen F M

    2016-07-14

    The diet of young children is an important determinant of long-term health effects, such as overweight and obesity. We analyzed two-day food consumption records from 1526 young children (10-48 months old) attending 199 daycare centers across The Netherlands. Data were observed and recorded in diaries by caregivers at the day nursery and by parents at home on days that the children attended the daycare center. According to national and European reference values, the children had an adequate nutrient intake with exception of low intakes of total fat, n-3 fatty acids from fish and possibly iron. Intakes of energy and protein were substantially higher than recommended and part of the population exceeded the tolerable upper intake levels for sodium, zinc and retinol. Consumption of fruit, fats, fish, and fluids was substantially less than recommended. The children used mostly (semi-)skimmed milk products and non-refined bread and cereals, as recommended. Two thirds of the consumed beverages, however, contained sugar and contributed substantially to energy intake. In young children, low intakes of n-3 fatty acids and iron are a potential matter of concern, as are the high intakes of energy, protein, sugared beverages, and milk, since these may increase the risk of becoming overweight.

  16. Food Consumption and Nutrient Intake by Children Aged 10 to 48 Months Attending Day Care in The Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Goldbohm, R. Alexandra; Rubingh, Carina M.; Lanting, Caren I.; Joosten, Koen F. M.

    2016-01-01

    The diet of young children is an important determinant of long-term health effects, such as overweight and obesity. We analyzed two-day food consumption records from 1526 young children (10–48 months old) attending 199 daycare centers across The Netherlands. Data were observed and recorded in diaries by caregivers at the day nursery and by parents at home on days that the children attended the daycare center. According to national and European reference values, the children had an adequate nutrient intake with exception of low intakes of total fat, n-3 fatty acids from fish and possibly iron. Intakes of energy and protein were substantially higher than recommended and part of the population exceeded the tolerable upper intake levels for sodium, zinc and retinol. Consumption of fruit, fats, fish, and fluids was substantially less than recommended. The children used mostly (semi-)skimmed milk products and non-refined bread and cereals, as recommended. Two thirds of the consumed beverages, however, contained sugar and contributed substantially to energy intake. In young children, low intakes of n-3 fatty acids and iron are a potential matter of concern, as are the high intakes of energy, protein, sugared beverages, and milk, since these may increase the risk of becoming overweight. PMID:27428995

  17. Rapid virological response of telaprevir and boceprevir in a Brazilian cohort of HCV genotype 1 patients: a multicenter longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Borba, Helena HL; Wiens, Astrid; Steimbach, Laiza M; Tonin, Fernanda S; Pedroso, Maria LA; Ivantes, Cláudia AP; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando; Pontarolo, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Background Chronic hepatitis C is a major public health issue, but there is a gap in the literature regarding the effectiveness and safety of direct-acting antiviral agents in the Brazilian population. The main aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of boceprevir and telaprevir in patients treated at public health care institutions in Brazil. Materials and methods A prospective longitudinal and multicenter study was conducted in five centers in the State of Paraná between September 2014 and June 2016. Data regarding effectiveness and safety were collected from medical records of patients treated with boceprevir or telaprevir. The effectiveness outcome comprised the rapid virological response (RVR). Multivariate analysis was performed to verify the influence of independent variables (ie, age, gender, baseline viral load) on RVR achievement. Results Data were collected from 117 patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection. Fifteen patients received treatment with boceprevir and 102 received telaprevir. The mean age was 51.6 years, 64.1% were male, 44.4% were infected with HCV subtype 1a, 62.4% had a high baseline viral load (≥800,000 IU/mL) and 33% were cirrhotic. Furthermore, 79.5% of patients achieved RVR (26.7% in the boceprevir group and 87.3% in the telaprevir group). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the type of protease inhibitor (boceprevir or telaprevir) and the baseline viral load had an influence on the RVR rate (odds ratio [OR] =0.011; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.001–0.119; P<0.001/OR =13.004; 95% CI: 1.522–111.115; P=0.019, respectively). Conclusion In this longitudinal multicenter cohort study conducted from the Brazilian perspective, differences were found in the RVR rates, favoring telaprevir over boceprevir for genotype 1 HCV-infected patients. In addition, the baseline viral load was associated with RVR achievement in both evaluated groups. As RVR is also reported in the literature as a predictor

  18. Does abortion increase women's risk for post-traumatic stress? Findings from a prospective longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Biggs, M Antonia; Rowland, Brenly; McCulloch, Charles E; Foster, Diana G

    2016-02-01

    To prospectively assess women's risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and of experiencing post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) over 4 ears after seeking an abortion, and to assess whether symptoms are attributed to the pregnancy, abortion or birth, or other events in women's lives. Prospective longitudinal cohort study which followed women from approximately 1 week after receiving or being denied an abortion (baseline), then every 6 months for 4 years (9 interview waves). 30 abortion facilities located throughout the USA. Among 956 women presenting for abortion care, some of whom received an abortion and some of whom were denied due to advanced gestational age; 863 women are included in the longitudinal analyses. PTSS and PTSD risk were measured using the Primary Care PTSD Screen (PC-PTSD). Index pregnancy-related PTSS was measured by coding the event(s) described by women as the cause of their symptoms. We used unadjusted and adjusted logistic mixed-effects regression analyses to assess whether PTSS, PTSD risk and pregnancy-related PTSS trajectories of women obtaining abortions differed from those who were denied one. At baseline, 39% of participants reported any PTSS and 16% reported three or more symptoms. Among women with symptoms 1-week post-abortion seeking (n=338), 30% said their symptoms were due to experiences of sexual, physical or emotional abuse or violence; 20% attributed their symptoms to non-violent relationship issues; and 19% said they were due to the index pregnancy. Baseline levels of PTSS, PTSD risk and pregnancy-related PTSS outcomes did not differ significantly between women who received and women who were denied an abortion. PTSS, PTSD risk and pregnancy-related PTSS declined over time for all study groups. Women who received an abortion were at no higher risk of PTSD than women denied an abortion. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Prevalence and prognostic value of subclinical left ventricular systolic dysfunction by global longitudinal strain in a community-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Russo, Cesare; Jin, Zhezhen; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Rundek, Tatjana; Homma, Shunichi; Sacco, Ralph L; Di Tullio, Marco R

    2014-12-01

    Global longitudinal strain (GLS) assessed by speckle-tracking echocardiography has been proposed as a parameter able to reflect early changes in left ventricular systolic function at a stage when left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is still normal. This study aimed at assessing prevalence and prognostic value of left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) assessed by echocardiographic speckle-tracking GLS in a community-based cohort. Participants from the community-based prospective Northern Manhattan Study underwent two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography as part of the Cardiovascular Abnormalities and Brain Lesions study. Left ventricular systolic function was assessed by LVEF and speckle-tracking GLS. Subjects were followed annually (mean = 4.8 ± 1.5 years) and incident vascular events (ischaemic stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular death) were reviewed and adjudicated. Of the 708 study participants, 114 (16.1%) had abnormal GLS but normal LVEF (GLS-LVSD), 30 (4.2%) had abnormal LVEF (LVEF-LVSD), and 564 (79.7%) had normal GLS and LVEF (no-LVSD). In multivariate analysis, risk of events was significantly greater in GLS-LVSD [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 2.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.20-4.77] and in LVEF-LVSD (adjusted HR = 3.51, 95% CI = 1.25-9.88) compared with no-LVSD. Among participants with normal LVEF, lower GLS was significantly associated with events (adjusted HR/unit decrease = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.03-1.28) whereas LVEF was not (adjusted HR/unit decrease = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.94-1.07). The GLS prognostic value was incremental to risk factors and LVEF both in the overall population (chi-square change = 7.406, P = 0.006) and in participants with normal LVEF (chi-square change = 6.357, P = 0.012). In a community-based cohort, GLS-LVSD was four times more frequent than LVEF-LVSD. GLS-LVSD was a powerful and independent predictor of cardiovascular events. Left ventricular

  20. Sedation depth and long-term mortality in mechanically ventilated critically ill adults: a prospective longitudinal multicentre cohort study.

    PubMed

    Shehabi, Yahya; Chan, Lucy; Kadiman, Suhaini; Alias, Anita; Ismail, Wan Nasrudin; Tan, Mohd Ali T Ismail; Khoo, Tien Meng; Ali, Saedah Binti; Saman, Mat Ariffin; Shaltut, Ahmad; Tan, Cheng Cheng; Yong, Cow Yen; Bailey, Michael

    2013-05-01

    To ascertain the relationship among early (first 48 h) deep sedation, time to extubation, delirium and long-term mortality. We conducted a multicentre prospective longitudinal cohort study in 11 Malaysian hospitals including medical/surgical patients (n = 259) who were sedated and ventilated ≥24 h. Patients were followed from ICU admission up to 28 days in ICU with 4-hourly sedation and daily delirium assessments and 180-day mortality. Deep sedation was defined as Richmond Agitation Sedation Score (RASS) ≤-3. The cohort had a mean (SD) age of 53.1 (15.9) years and APACHE II score of 21.3 (8.2) with hospital and 180-day mortality of 82 (31.7%) and 110/237 (46.4%). Patients were followed for 2,657 ICU days and underwent 13,836 RASS assessments. Midazolam prescription was predominant compared to propofol, given to 241 (93%) versus 72 (28%) patients (P < 0.0001) for 966 (39.6%) versus 183 (7.5%) study days respectively. Deep sedation occurred in (182/257) 71% patients at first assessment and in 159 (61%) patients and 1,658 (59%) of all RASS assessments at 48 h. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analysis adjusting for a priori assigned covariates including sedative agents, diagnosis, age, APACHE II score, operative, elective, vasopressors and dialysis showed that early deep sedation was independently associated with longer time to extubation [hazard ratio (HR) 0.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89-0.97, P = 0.003], hospital death (HR 1.11, 95% CI 1.05-1.18, P < 0.001) and 180-day mortality (HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.04-1.15, P = 0.002), but not time to delirium (HR 0.98, P = 0.23). Delirium occurred in 114 (44%) of patients. Irrespective of sedative choice, early deep sedation was independently associated with delayed extubation and higher mortality, and thus was a potentially modifiable risk in interventional trials.

  1. Determining Survey Satisficing of Online Longitudinal Survey Data in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study: A Group-Based Trajectory Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Di, Junrui; Li, Ying; Friedman, M Reuel; Reddy, Susheel; Surkan, Pamela J; Shoptaw, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Background Survey satisficing occurs when participants respond to survey questions rapidly without carefully reading or comprehending them. Studies have demonstrated the occurrence of survey satisficing, which can degrade survey quality, particularly in longitudinal studies. Objective The aim of this study is to use a group-based trajectory analysis method to identify satisficers when similar survey questions were asked periodically in a long-standing cohort, and to examine factors associated with satisficing in the surveys having sensitive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related behavioral questions. Methods Behavioral data were collected semiannually online at all four sites of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) from October 2008 through March 2013. Based on the start and end times, and the word counts per variable, response speed (word counts per second) for each participant visit was calculated. Two-step group-based trajectory analyses of the response speed across 9 study visits were performed to identify potential survey satisficing. Generalized linear models with repeated measures were used to investigate the factors associated with satisficing on HIV-related behavioral surveys. Results Among the total 2138 male participants, the median baseline age was 51 years (interquartile range, 45-58); most of the participants were non-Hispanic white (62.72%, 1341/2138) and college graduates (46.59%, 996/2138), and half were HIV seropositive (50.00%, 1069/2138). A total of 543 men (25.40%, 543/2138) were considered potential satisficers with respect to their increased trajectory tendency of response speed. In the multivariate analysis, being 10 years older at the baseline visit increased the odds of satisficing by 44% (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.27-1.62, P<.001). Compared with the non-Hispanic white participants, non-Hispanic black participants were 122% more likely to satisfice the HIV-related behavioral survey (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.69-2.91, P<.001), and 99% more likely

  2. Insomnia, Health-Related Quality of Life and Health Outcomes in Children: A Seven Year Longitudinal Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Combs, Daniel; Goodwin, James L.; Quan, Stuart F.; Morgan, Wayne J.; Shetty, Safal; Parthasarathy, Sairam

    2016-01-01

    Insomnia is common in children, and is associated with decreased school performance and increased psychopathology. Although adult insomnia is linked to worsened health-related quality of life (HRQOL), there is insufficient data evaluating insomnia and HRQOL in children. We examined the HRQOL and health associations of insomnia in a longitudinal cohort of 194 children (96 girls, age at study start 8.7 ± 1.6 years, age at data analysis 15.0 ± 1.8 years) over 7 years. International Classification of Sleep Disorders, second edition (ICSD2) derived insomnia was seen intermittently in 27% of children, and was persistent in 4%. Children reporting ICSD2-derived insomnia had lower HRQOL. Additionally, the presence of insomnia was associated with an increased risk of reporting a new medical condition (intermittent insomnia odds ratio 5.9 [95% CI 1.3–26.7, p = 0.04], persistent insomnia odds ratio 8 [95% CI 2.3–27.7, p = 0.001]). Persistent ICSD2-derived insomnia was associated with an increased risk of reporting a new medication (odds ratio 4.9 (95% CI 1.0–23.6), p = 0.049), and reporting a new psychiatric medication (odds ratio 13.7, 95% CI: 2.6–73.5, p = 0.002). These associations were present even after adjusting for socioeconomic factors and the presence of obstructive sleep apnea. Insomnia in children is associated with worsened HRQOL and health outcomes. PMID:27295263

  3. The Influence of Preoperative and Postoperative Psychological Symptoms on Clinical Outcome after Shoulder Surgery: A Prospective Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Koorevaar, Rinco C T; van 't Riet, Esther; Gerritsen, Marleen J J; Madden, Kim; Bulstra, Sjoerd K

    2016-01-01

    Psychological symptoms are highly prevalent in patients with shoulder complaints. Psychological symptoms in patients with shoulder complaints might play a role in the aetiology, perceived disability and pain and clinical outcome of treatment. The aim of this study was to assess whether preoperative symptoms of distress, depression, anxiety and somatisation were associated with a change in function after shoulder surgery and postoperative patient perceived improvement of pain and function. In addition, the change of psychological symptoms after shoulder surgery was analyzed and the influence of postoperative symptoms of psychological disorders after surgery on the change in function after shoulder surgery and perceived postoperative improvement of pain and function. A prospective longitudinal cohort study was performed in a general teaching hospital. 315 consecutive patients planned for elective shoulder surgery were included. Outcome measures included change of Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score and anchor questions about improvement in pain and function after surgery. Psychological symptoms were identified before and 12 months after surgery with the validated Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ). Psychological symptoms were encountered in all the various shoulder diagnoses. Preoperative symptoms of psychological disorders persisted after surgery in 56% of patients, 10% of patients with no symptoms of psychological disorders before surgery developed new psychological symptoms. Preoperative symptoms of psychological disorders were not associated with the change of DASH score and perceived improvement of pain and function after shoulder surgery. Patients with symptoms of psychological disorders after surgery were less likely to improve on the DASH score. Postoperative symptoms of distress and depression were associated with worse perceived improvement of pain. Postoperative symptoms of distress, depression and somatisation were

  4. Hearing in school-aged children with trisomy 21 - results of a longitudinal cohort study in children identified at birth.

    PubMed

    Yaneza, M M C; Hunter, K; Irwin, S; Kubba, H

    2016-12-01

    To report the prevalence of hearing problems and the hearing sequelae in school-aged children with trisomy 21 in a longitudinal study. All children with trisomy 21 were identified via schools, community-based child development centres, general practitioners, or the universal newborn hearing screen. Audiological data and otorhinolaryngological problems were prospectively entered in to the Audiological Surveillance Programme database from each visit. Retrospective review of the Audiological Surveillance Programme database in the Glasgow area (United Kingdom) of all children reviewed between 2004 and 2012. All pre-teenaged children with trisomy 21 of school age (aged 5-12 years old). Hearing thresholds, aetiology of hearing loss and management of hearing loss was determined for the cohort of children. A total of 102 children were included. Fifty-four had normal hearing. Twenty-six had fluctuating otitis media with effusion; five had hearing in normal limits, six were managed with hearing aids, fourteen were managed conservatively, and one had ventilation tube insertion. Fifteen had persistent otitis media with effusion; four had ventilation tube insertion; and nine were managed with hearing aids. Seven had mixed hearing loss with four required hearing aids. Otitis media with effusion was the commonest cause of hearing impairment; effusions may fluctuate through the pre-teenaged years, and thus, hearing aids are beneficial. Ventilation tube insertion and bone-conducting hearing aids were useful when ear-level hearing aids were not tolerated. Mixed hearing loss occurred in later years as sensorineural hearing loss developed on a background of otitis media with effusion. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Association Between Burn Injury and Mental Illness among Burn Survivors: A Population-Based, Self-Matched, Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Mason, Stephanie A; Nathens, Avery B; Byrne, James P; Ellis, Janet; Fowler, Robert A; Gonzalez, Alejandro; Karanicolas, Paul J; Moineddin, Rahim; Jeschke, Marc G

    2017-10-01

    Mental health disorders are prevalent before and after burn injury. However, the impact of burn injury on risk of subsequent mental health disorders is unknown. We conducted a population-based, self-matched longitudinal cohort study using administrative data in Ontario, Canada between 2003 and 2011. All adults who survived to discharge after major burn injury were included, and all mental health-related emergency department visits were identified. Rate ratios (RRs) for mental health visits in the 3 years after burn, compared with the 3 years before, were estimated using negative binomial generalized estimating equations. Among 1,530 patients with major burn injury, mental health visits were common both before (141 per 1,000 person years) and after (154 per 1,000 person years) injury. Mental health visits were most common in the 12 weeks immediately preceding injury. No significant difference in the overall visit rate was observed after burn (RR 0.97; 95% CI 0.78 to 1.20), although among patients with less than 1 pre-injury visit, mental health visits tripled (RR 3.72; 95% CI 2.70 to 5.14). Self-harm emergencies increased 2-fold (RR 1.95; 95% CI 1.15 to 3.33). Mental health emergencies are prevalent among burn-injured patients. Although the overall rate of mental health visits is not increased after burn, the rate increases significantly among patients with one or fewer visits pre-injury. Self-harm risk increases significantly after burn injury, underscoring the need for screening and targeted interventions after discharge. An increased rate immediately before burn suggests an opportunity for injury prevention through mental healthcare. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Social group memberships in retirement are associated with reduced risk of premature death: evidence from a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Steffens, Niklas K; Cruwys, Tegan; Haslam, Catherine; Jetten, Jolanda; Haslam, S Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Retirement constitutes a major life transition that poses significant challenges to health, with many retirees experiencing a precipitous decline in health status following retirement. We examine the extent to which membership in social groups following retirement determines quality of life and mortality. Design The longitudinal impact of the number of social group memberships before and after the transition to retirement was assessed on retirees’ quality of life and risk of death 6 years later. Setting Nationally representative cohort study of older adults living in England. Participants Adults who underwent the transition to retirement (N=424). A matched control group (N=424) of participants who had comparable demographic and health characteristics at baseline but did not undergo the transition to retirement were also examined. Outcome measures Analyses examined participants’ quality of life and mortality during a period of 6 years. Results Retirees who had two group memberships prior to retirement had a 2% risk of death in the first 6 years of retirement if they maintained membership in two groups, a 5% risk if they lost one group and a 12% risk if they lost both groups. Furthermore, for every group membership that participants lost in the year following retirement, their experienced quality of life 6 years later was approximately 10% lower. These relationships are robust when controlling for key sociodemographic variables (age, gender, relationship status and socioeconomic status prior to retirement). A comparison with a matched control group confirmed that these effects were specific to those undergoing the transition to retirement. The effect of social group memberships on mortality was comparable to that of physical exercise. Conclusions Theoretical implications for our understanding of the determinants of retiree quality of life and health, and practical implications for the support of people transitioning from a life of work to

  7. Variation in the BDNF gene interacts with age to predict mortality in a prospective, longitudinal cohort with severe TBI

    PubMed Central

    Failla, Michelle D.; Kumar, Raj; Peitzman, Andrew; Conley, Yvette P.; Ferrell, Robert E.; Wagner, Amy K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Mortality predictions following traumatic brain injury (TBI) may be improved by including genetic risk in addition to traditional prognostic variables. One promising target is the gene coding for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a ubiquitous neurotrophin important for neuronal survival and neurogenesis. Objective We hypothesized the addition of BDNF genetic variation would improve mortality prediction models and that BDNF Met-carriers (rs6265) and C-carriers (rs7124442) would have the highest mortality rates post-TBI. Methods This study examined BDNF functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs6265r (val66met) and rs7124442 (T>C) in relation to mortality in a prospective, longitudinal cohort with severe TBI. We examined 315 individuals receiving care for a closed head injury within the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, aged 16–79. Mortality was examined acutely (0–7 days post-injury) and post-acutely (8–365 days post-injury). A gene risk score (GRS) was developed to examine both BDNF loci. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios for survivability post-TBI while controlling for covariates. Results BDNF GRS was significantly associated with acute mortality, regardless of age. Interestingly, subjects in the hypothesized no-risk allele group had the lowest survival probability. Post-acutely, BDNF-GRS interacted with age such that younger participants in the no-risk group had the highest survival probability, while older participants in the hypothesized no-risk group had the lowest probability of survival. Conclusions These data suggest complex relationships between BDNF and TBI mortality that interact with age to influence survival predictions beyond clinical variables alone. Evidence supporting dynamic, temporal balances of pro-survival/pro-apoptotic target receptors may explain injury and age-related gene associations. PMID:25063686

  8. Female stress urinary incontinence: clinical efficacy and satisfaction after transobturator adjustable tape sling. An observational longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Patrelli, Tito Silvio; Gizzo, Salvatore; Noventa, Marco; Dall'Asta, Andrea; Musarò, Andrea; Faioli, Raffaele; Zanni, Giuliano Carlo; Piantelli, Giovanni; Lukanovic, Adolf; Bacchi Modena, Alberto; Berretta, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    We performed an observational longitudinal cohort study on patients affected by stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and surgically treated with a transobturator adjustable tape sling (TOA) in order to evaluate this surgical procedure in terms of efficacy, safety, quality of life (QoL) improvement, and patient satisfaction. For all patients, we recorded: general features, preoperative SUI risk factors, obstetrics history, preoperative urodynamic tests, intraoperative/postoperative complications, number of postoperative sling regulations, postmicturition residue, and hospital stay. All patients were asked to complete the validated short version of the Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6) questionnaire 18 months after discharge to evaluate the efficacy of the TOA system. We added 2 adjunctive items to the UDI-6 in order to evaluate patient satisfaction and QoL. All 77 surgical procedures were performed under locoregional anesthesia without complications. Postoperative TOA regulations were performed in 46.8% of patients immediately after the procedure and in 14.3% during hospitalization. Before discharge, postmicturition residue was negative in 67 cases and less than 50 cc in 10 cases. Mean hospital stay was 2.18 days. From the questionnaire evaluation, we found that after the procedure, 90.9% of patients showed a complete regression of urinary symptoms, 1.3% obtained considerable relief from preoperative symptoms, and 6.6% reported poor or absent symptom improvements; 75.3% of patients were totally satisfied and 5.2% totally disappointed. The possibility of modulating postoperative sling tension and reusing the surgical materials in association with short hospitalization as well as high patient satisfaction render TOA a safe, effective, and low-cost technique for the treatment of female SUI.

  9. Effects of child long-term illness on maternal employment: longitudinal findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Anna; Whitehead, Margaret; Law, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Background: Maternal employment has increased in European countries, but levels of employment are lower among mothers whose children have a limiting long-term illness or disability. However, we do not know whether having a child with a limiting illness prevents take-up or maintenance of paid employment or whether ‘common causes’, such as lack of qualifications or maternal disability lead to both maternal unemployment and childhood illness. Longitudinal data have the potential to distinguish between these. Methods: We analyzed four waves (3, 5, 7 and 11 years) of the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) to examine the relationship between childhood limiting illness and maternal employment, unadjusted and adjusted for covariates. Multinomial regression models were used to test the association between child illness and trajectories of maternal employment. Fixed effects models assessed whether a new report of a child illness increased the odds of a mother exiting employment. Results: At every wave, maternal employment was more likely if the child did not have a limiting illness. After adjustment for covariates, childhood illness was associated with risks of continuous non-employment (adjusted Relative Risk Ratio = 1.46 [Confidence Interval: 1.21, 1.76]) or disrupted employment (aRRR = 1.26 [CI: 1.06, 1.49]), compared with entering or maintaining employment. If a child developed a limiting long-term illness, the likelihood of their mother exiting employment increased (adjusted Odds Ratio = 1.27 [CI: 1.05, 1.54]). Conclusions: ‘Common causes’ did not fully account for the association between child illness and maternal employment. Having a child with a limiting illness potentially reduces maternal employment opportunities. PMID:28177497

  10. Why Are Children in Urban Neighborhoods at Increased Risk for Psychotic Symptoms? Findings From a UK Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Newbury, Joanne; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Odgers, Candice L.; Fisher, Helen L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Urban upbringing is associated with a 2-fold adulthood psychosis risk, and this association replicates for childhood psychotic symptoms. No study has investigated whether specific features of urban neighborhoods increase children’s risk for psychotic symptoms, despite these early psychotic phenomena elevating risk for schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Methods: Analyses were conducted on over 2000 children from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative cohort of UK-born twins. Neighborhood-level characteristics were assessed for each family via: a geodemographic discriminator indexing neighborhood-level deprivation, postal surveys of over 5000 residents living alongside the children, and in-home interviews with the children’s mothers. Children were interviewed about psychotic symptoms at age 12. Analyses were adjusted for important family-level confounders including socioeconomic status (SES), psychiatric history, and maternal psychosis. Results: Urban residency at age-5 (OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.16–2.77) and age-12 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.15–2.69) were both significantly associated with childhood psychotic symptoms, but not with age-12 anxiety, depression, or antisocial behavior. The association was not attributable to family SES, family psychiatric history, or maternal psychosis, each implicated in childhood mental health. Low social cohesion, together with crime victimization in the neighborhood explained nearly a quarter of the association between urbanicity and childhood psychotic symptoms after considering family-level confounders. Conclusions: Low social cohesion and crime victimization in the neighborhood partly explain why children in cities have an elevated risk of developing psychotic symptoms. Greater understanding of the mechanisms leading from neighborhood-level exposures to psychotic symptoms could help target interventions for emerging childhood psychotic symptoms

  11. Breastfeeding, maternal asthma and wheezing in the first year of life: a longitudinal birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Azad, Meghan B; Vehling, Lorena; Lu, Zihang; Dai, David; Subbarao, Padmaja; Becker, Allan B; Mandhane, Piushkumar J; Turvey, Stuart E; Lefebvre, Diana L; Sears, Malcolm R

    2017-05-01

    The impact of breastfeeding on respiratory health is uncertain, particularly when the mother has asthma. We examined the association of breastfeeding and wheezing in the first year of life.We studied 2773 infants from the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort. Caregivers reported on infant feeding and wheezing episodes at 3, 6 and 12 months. Breastfeeding was classified as exclusive, partial (supplemented with formula or complementary foods) or none.Overall, 21% of mothers had asthma, 46% breastfed for at least 12 months and 21% of infants experienced wheezing. Among mothers with asthma, breastfeeding was inversely associated with infant wheezing, independent of maternal smoking, education and other risk factors (adjusted rate ratio (aRR) 0.52; 95% CI 0.35-0.77 for ≥12 versus <6 months breastfeeding). Compared with no breastfeeding at 6 months, wheezing was reduced by 62% with exclusive breastfeeding (aRR 0.38; 95% CI 0.20-0.71) and by 37% with partial breastfeeding supplemented with complementary foods (aRR 0.63; 95% CI 0.43-0.93); however, breastfeeding was not significantly protective when supplemented with formula (aRR 0.89; 95% CI 0.61-1.30). Associations were not significant in the absence of maternal asthma (p-value for interaction <0.01).Breastfeeding appears to confer protection against wheezing in a dose-dependent manner among infants born to mothers with asthma. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  12. Organ damage in sickle cell disease study (ORDISS): protocol for a longitudinal cohort study based in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Anie, Kofi A; Paintsil, Vivian; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Ansong, Daniel; Osei-Akoto, Alex; Ohene-Frempong, Kwaku; Amissah, Kofi Aikins; Addofoh, Nicholas; Ackah, Ezekiel Bonwin; Owusu-Ansah, Amma Twumwa; Ofori-Acquah, Solomon Fiifi

    2017-08-28

    Sickle cell disease is highly prevalent in Africa with a significant public health burden. Nonetheless, morbidity and mortality in sickle cell disease that result from the progression of organ damage is not well understood. The Organ Damage in Sickle Cell Disease Study (ORDISS) is designed as a longitudinal cohort study to provide critical insight into cellular and molecular pathogenesis of chronic organ damage for the development of future innovative treatment. ORDISS aims to recruit children aged 0-15 years who attend the Kumasi Centre for Sickle Cell Disease based at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana. Consent is obtained to collect blood and urine samples from the children during specified clinic visits and hospitalisations for acute events, to identify candidate and genetic markers of specific organ dysfunction and end-organ damage, over a 3 year period. In addition, data concerning clinical history and complications associated with sickle cell disease are collected. Samples are stored in biorepositories and analysed at the Kumasi Centre for Collaborative Research in Tropical Medicine, Ghana and the Centre for Translational and International Haematology, University of Pittsburgh, USA. Appropriate statistical analyses will be performed on the data acquired. Research ethics approval was obtained at all participating sites. Results of the study will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals, and the key findings presented at national and international conferences. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. A Prospective Longitudinal Cohort to Investigate the Effects of Early Life Giardiasis on Growth and All Cause Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Donowitz, Jeffrey R.; Alam, Masud; Kabir, Mamun; Ma, Jennie Z.; Nazib, Forida; Platts-Mills, James A.; Bartelt, Luther A.; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Growth stunting in children under 2 years of age in low-income countries is common. Giardia is a ubiquitous pathogen in this age group but studies investigating Giardia's effect on both growth and diarrhea have produced conflicting results. Methods. We conducted a prospective longitudinal birth cohort study in Dhaka, Bangladesh, with monthly Giardia and continuous diarrheal surveillance. Results. 629 children were enrolled within the first 72 hours of life, and 445 completed 2 years of the study. 12% of children were stunted at birth with 57% stunted by 2 years. 7% of children had a Giardia positive surveillance stool in the first 6 months of life, whereas 74% had a positive stool by 2 years. The median time to first Giardia positive surveillance stool was 17 months. Presence of Giardia in a monthly surveillance stool within the first 6 months of life decreased length-for-age Z score at 2 years by 0.4 (95% confidence interval, −.80 to −.001; P value .05) whereas total number of Giardia positive months over the 2-year period of observation did not. Neither variable was associated with weight-for-age Z score at 2 years. In our model to examine predictors of diarrhea only exclusive breastfeeding was significantly associated with decreased diarrhea (P value <.001). Concomitant giardiasis was neither a risk factor nor protective. Conclusions. Early life Giardia was a risk factor for stunting at age 2 but not poor weight gain. Presence of Giardia neither increased nor decreased odds of acute all cause diarrhea. PMID:27313261

  14. Pain, agitation, and behavioural problems in people with dementia admitted to general hospital wards: a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Elizabeth L; White, Nicola; Lord, Kathryn; Leurent, Baptiste; Vickerstaff, Victoria; Scott, Sharon; Jones, Louise

    2015-04-01

    Pain is underdetected and undertreated in people with dementia. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of pain in people with dementia admitted to general hospitals and explore the association between pain and behavioural and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD). We conducted a longitudinal cohort study of 230 people, aged above 70, with dementia and unplanned medical admissions to 2 UK hospitals. Participants were assessed at baseline and every 4 days for self-reported pain (yes/no question and FACES scale) and observed pain (Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia scale [PAINAD]) at movement and at rest, for agitation (Cohen-Mansfield Agitating Inventory [CMAI]) and BPSD (Behavioural Pathology in Alzheimer Disease Scale [BEHAVE-AD]). On admission, 27% of participants self-reported pain rising to 39% on at least 1 occasion during admission. Half of them were able to complete the FACES scale, this proportion decreasing with more severe dementia. Using the PAINAD, 19% had pain at rest and 57% had pain on movement on at least 1 occasion (in 16%, this was persistent throughout the admission). In controlled analyses, pain was not associated with CMAI scores but was strongly associated with total BEHAVE-AD scores, both when pain was assessed on movement (β = 0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.07-0.32, P = 0.002) and at rest (β = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.14-0.69, P = 0.003). The association was the strongest for aggression and anxiety. Pain was common in people with dementia admitted to the acute hospital and associated with BPSD. Improved pain management may reduce distressing behaviours and improve the quality of hospital care for people with dementia.

  15. Income, wealth and risk of diabetes among older adults: cohort study using the English longitudinal study of ageing.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Takahisa; Gjonça, Edlira; Gulliford, Martin C

    2012-06-01

    Socio-economic status has been associated with diabetes in cross-sectional studies. This study aimed to evaluate associations of household income and wealth with both prevalent and incident diabetes among older adults in the UK. It also evaluated the association between obesity and socio-economic status. A cohort of people aged ≥50 years was selected from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. The relation of prevalent and incident self-reported physician diagnosed diabetes to household income and wealth was evaluated in logistic regression models adjusting for education, social class, housing tenure, age, ethnicity, marital status, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol use and physical activity stratified by sex. The relation of prevalent obesity to household income and wealth was also evaluated using logistic regression models. There were 9053 participants (4021 men and 5032 women) including 721 (8.0%) with diabetes at baseline. Among 8332 participants initially free from diabetes, 246 (3.0%) were diagnosed with diabetes during ∼4 years follow-up. The adjusted odds ratio for prevalent diabetes in the lowest quintile of wealth compared with the highest was 1.56 for men and 2.08 for women. Incident diabetes was associated with lower wealth (P for trend 0.05 for men and 0.004 for women) after adjusting for socio-economic and demographic factors, but attenuated after further adjustment for lifestyle and BMI. Prevalent obesity was significantly associated with lower wealth in women but not in men. Lower wealth, but not income, may be associated with prevalent and incident diabetes among older adults in UK.

  16. Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence and Associations in a Bariatric Surgery Cohort from the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 Study

    PubMed Central

    Selzer, Faith; Smith, Mark D.; Berk, Paul D.; Courcoulas, Anita P.; Inabnet, William B.; King, Wendy C.; Pender, John; Pomp, Alfons; Raum, William J.; Schrope, Beth; Steffen, Kristine J.; Wolfe, Bruce M.; Patterson, Emma J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Metabolic syndrome is associated with higher risk for cardiovascular disease, sleep apnea, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, all common conditions in patients referred for bariatric surgery, and it may predict early postoperative complications. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, defined using updated National Cholesterol Education Program criteria, in adults undergoing bariatric surgery and compare the prevalence of baseline co-morbid conditions and select operative and 30-day postoperative outcomes by metabolic syndrome status. Methods: Complete metabolic syndrome data were available for 2275 of 2458 participants enrolled in the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 (LABS-2), an observational cohort study designed to evaluate long-term safety and efficacy of bariatric surgery in obese adults. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 79.9%. Compared to those without metabolic syndrome, those with metabolic syndrome were significantly more likely to be men, to have a higher prevalence of diabetes and prior cardiac events, to have enlarged livers and higher median levels of liver enzymes, a history of sleep apnea, and a longer length of stay after surgery following laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and gastric sleeves but not open RYGB or laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. Metabolic syndrome status was not significantly related to duration of surgery or rates of composite end points of intraoperative events and 30-day major adverse surgical outcomes. Conclusions: Nearly four in five participants undergoing bariatric surgery presented with metabolic syndrome. Establishing a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in bariatric surgery patients may identify a high-risk patient profile, but does not in itself confer a higher risk for short-term adverse postsurgery outcomes. PMID:24380645

  17. Early Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (EDoGDM) study: a protocol for a prospective, longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin; Xu, Yun; Zhang, Ying; Cai, Jian; Deng, Langhui; Yang, Jianbo; Zhou, Yi; Long, Yuhang; Zhang, Jinxin; Wang, Zilian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in low-risk pregnant women is based on an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) between 24 and 28 gestational weeks. However, there is insufficient evidence for why the test is performed in this time period. Moreover, the fetus may be exposed to hyperglycaemia prior to the current testing time frame, making earlier administration potentially advantageous. The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the GDM diagnostic value of an OGTT performed at 18–20 gestational weeks. The results of the study may provide scientific insight into the most beneficial time of OGTT for pregnant women. Methods and analysis As a prospective, longitudinal cohort study, the Early Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (EDoGDM) study will recruit 570 pregnant women who meet the inclusion and exclusion criteria outlined below. OGTTs will be performed between 18 and 20 gestational weeks (early OGTT) and 24–28 gestational weeks (regular OGTT). Clinical and laboratory information of the mother and their offspring will be collected for analysis. The prevalence of GDM at 18–20 gestational weeks will be described, and the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of early OGTT on diagnosis of GDM will be studied. Clinical outcomes associated with hyperglycaemia will be compared between groups diagnosed by early or regular OGTT. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by The Ethical Committees of The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University (number 2016-042). Signed informed consent will be obtained from all participants. The results of this study will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number NCT02740283. PMID:27872115

  18. Why Are Children in Urban Neighborhoods at Increased Risk for Psychotic Symptoms? Findings From a UK Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Newbury, Joanne; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Odgers, Candice L; Fisher, Helen L

    2016-11-01

    Urban upbringing is associated with a 2-fold adulthood psychosis risk, and this association replicates for childhood psychotic symptoms. No study has investigated whether specific features of urban neighborhoods increase children's risk for psychotic symptoms, despite these early psychotic phenomena elevating risk for schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Analyses were conducted on over 2000 children from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative cohort of UK-born twins. Neighborhood-level characteristics were assessed for each family via: a geodemographic discriminator indexing neighborhood-level deprivation, postal surveys of over 5000 residents living alongside the children, and in-home interviews with the children's mothers. Children were interviewed about psychotic symptoms at age 12. Analyses were adjusted for important family-level confounders including socioeconomic status (SES), psychiatric history, and maternal psychosis. Urban residency at age-5 (OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.16-2.77) and age-12 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.15-2.69) were both significantly associated with childhood psychotic symptoms, but not with age-12 anxiety, depression, or antisocial behavior. The association was not attributable to family SES, family psychiatric history, or maternal psychosis, each implicated in childhood mental health. Low social cohesion, together with crime victimization in the neighborhood explained nearly a quarter of the association between urbanicity and childhood psychotic symptoms after considering family-level confounders. Low social cohesion and crime victimization in the neighborhood partly explain why children in cities have an elevated risk of developing psychotic symptoms. Greater understanding of the mechanisms leading from neighborhood-level exposures to psychotic symptoms could help target interventions for emerging childhood psychotic symptoms. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University

  19. Pain, agitation, and behavioural problems in people with dementia admitted to general hospital wards: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Elizabeth L.; White, Nicola; Lord, Kathryn; Leurent, Baptiste; Vickerstaff, Victoria; Scott, Sharon; Jones, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pain is underdetected and undertreated in people with dementia. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of pain in people with dementia admitted to general hospitals and explore the association between pain and behavioural and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD). We conducted a longitudinal cohort study of 230 people, aged above 70, with dementia and unplanned medical admissions to 2 UK hospitals. Participants were assessed at baseline and every 4 days for self-reported pain (yes/no question and FACES scale) and observed pain (Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia scale [PAINAD]) at movement and at rest, for agitation (Cohen–Mansfield Agitating Inventory [CMAI]) and BPSD (Behavioural Pathology in Alzheimer Disease Scale [BEHAVE-AD]). On admission, 27% of participants self-reported pain rising to 39% on at least 1 occasion during admission. Half of them were able to complete the FACES scale, this proportion decreasing with more severe dementia. Using the PAINAD, 19% had pain at rest and 57% had pain on movement on at least 1 occasion (in 16%, this was persistent throughout the admission). In controlled analyses, pain was not associated with CMAI scores but was strongly associated with total BEHAVE-AD scores, both when pain was assessed on movement (β = 0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.07-0.32, P = 0.002) and at rest (β = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.14-0.69, P = 0.003). The association was the strongest for aggression and anxiety. Pain was common in people with dementia admitted to the acute hospital and associated with BPSD. Improved pain management may reduce distressing behaviours and improve the quality of hospital care for people with dementia. PMID:25790457

  20. Long-Term Efficacy of First Line Antiretroviral Therapy in Indian HIV-1 Infected Patients: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Neogi, Ujjwal; Heylen, Elsa; Shet, Anita; Chandy, Sara; Shamsunder, Ranjani; Sönnerborg, Anders; Ekstrand, Maria L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Short term efficacy of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in resource-constrained settings is comparable to that found in western studies. However, long term data are limited. India has the third largest HIV infected population in the world but the long-term outcome of first line therapy according to the national guidelines has not been evaluated yet. Therefore, we conducted a long-term longitudinal analysis of the efficacy of the national first-line therapy in India from an observational cohort of Indian patients in two different clinical settings. Methodology/Principal Findings A total 323 patients who had been on ART for a median of 23 months and achieved virological suppression <100 copies/ml by their study baseline visit, were included and followed for two years. Blood samples were collected every six months for viral load and CD4 count. Drug resistance genotyping was performed when the viral load was >2000 copies/mL. Adherence and treatment interruptions (>48 h) were assessed via self-report. In the studied patients, the median duration of viral suppression was 44 months; 15.8% of patients showed viral rebound, and 2.8% viral failure. Viral rebound or failure was significantly negatively related to perfect adherence (100% adherence and no treatment interruption >48 hrs). Virological re-suppression in the subsequent visit was observed in three patients without any change in therapy despite the presence of key mutations. Conclusion/Significance Our study reports for the first time, a good long-term response to the first line therapy for a median of nearly four years although a less than perfect adherence increases the risk for treatment failure and subsequent drug resistance development. The empirical findings in this study also indicate the overall success of the Indian ART program in two different settings which likely are representative of other clinics that operate under the national guidelines. PMID:23383185

  1. Community treatment orders and social outcomes for patients with psychosis: a 48-month follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Vergunst, Francis; Rugkåsa, Jorun; Koshiaris, Constantinos; Simon, Judit; Burns, Tom

    2017-09-12

    Community treatment orders (CTOs) are widely used internationally despite a lack of evidence supporting their effectiveness. Most effectiveness studies are relatively short (12-months or less) and focus on clinical symptoms and service data, while a little attention is given to patients' social outcomes and broader welfare. We tested the association between the duration of CTO intervention and patients' long-term social outcomes. A sub-sample (n = 114) of community-based patients from the Oxford Community Treatment Order Evaluation Trial (OCTET) were interviewed 48 months after randomisation. Multivariate regression models were used to examine the association between the duration of the CTO intervention and social outcomes as measured by the social network schedule, Objective Social Outcomes Index, Euro-Qol EQ-5D-3L (EQ-5D), and Oxford Capabilities Questionnaire for Mental Health. No significant association was found between the duration of CTO intervention and social network size (IRR = 0.996, p = .63), objective social outcomes (B = -0.003, p = .77), health-related quality of life (B = 0.001, p = .77), and capabilities (B = 0.046, p = .41). There were no between-group differences in social outcomes when outcomes were stratified by original arm of randomisation. Patients had a mean of 10.2 (SD = 5.9) contacts in their social networks, 42% of whom were relatives. CTO duration was not associated with improvements in patients' social outcomes even over the long term. This study adds to growing concerns about CTO effectiveness and the justification for their continued use.

  2. The Children Born in 2001 at Kindergarten Entry: First Findings from the Kindergarten Data Collections of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). First Look. NCES 2010-005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Kristin Denton; McPhee, Cameron

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the final two rounds of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), a longitudinal study begun in 2001, this First Look provides a snapshot of the demographic characteristics, reading and mathematics knowledge, fine motor skills, school characteristics, and before- and after-school care arrangements of the cohort…

  3. Longitudinal Changes and Interobserver Variability of Systolic Myocardial Deformation Values in a Prospective Cohort of Healthy Fetuses across Gestation and after Delivery.

    PubMed

    Maskatia, Shiraz Arif; Pignatelli, Ricardo H; Ayres, Nancy A; Altman, Carolyn A; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Lee, Wesley

    2016-04-01

    Normative data for fetal myocardial deformation values have not been comprehensively described in a longitudinal cohort. The effect of gestational age on these values and on interobserver variability require further investigation. Sixty gravid women were prospectively enrolled before 20 weeks' gestation. The following measures were obtained by two blinded observers at five time points across gestation and also at 4 to 8 weeks' postnatal age: global circumferential strain and strain rate, global longitudinal left ventricular strain and strain rate, global longitudinal right ventricular strain and strain rate, and left and right ventricular myocardial performance indices. Optimal myocardial visualization and frame rate (≥100 frames/sec) were ensured. For gestational age groups ≥24 weeks, intraclass correlation coefficients between observers were >0.70 for all measures and >0.85 for the majority of measures of myocardial deformation. At 20 to 21 weeks' gestation, intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.35 to 0.52 for longitudinal measures and 0.74 to 0.82 for circumferential measures. Myocardial performance index intraclass correlation coefficients were <0.80 at all time points and <0.70 for most time points. Global longitudinal left ventricular strain and global circumferential strain values remained stable across gestational age groups. Global longitudinal right ventricular strain values remained stable across gestation and increased after birth. Global circumferential strain rate, global longitudinal left ventricular strain rate, and global longitudinal right ventricular strain rate decreased from 20 to 21 weeks' gestation to the remainder of gestation and then remained stable until delivery. Upon delivery, global circumferential strain rate and global longitudinal left ventricular strain rate decreased, and global longitudinal right ventricular strain rate increased. Interobserver variability of fetal strain and strain rate measured at ≥24

  4. Refugees and health care--the need for data: understanding the health of government-assisted refugees in Canada through a prospective longitudinal cohort.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Patricia S; Morgan-Jonker, Cecily; Phung, Charlene M W; Barrios, Rolando; Kaczorowski, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    Canada is a country with large populations of immigrants and refugees. These populations face unique health challenges and barriers to accessing health care services. Amendments to the Canadian Immigration and Refugee Protection Act in 2002 have resulted in an increase in refugees with complex medical needs. However, little is known about the health of refugees on arrival and their subsequent health care trajectories. There is an urgent need for an improved understanding of refugee demographics and health status on arrival, changes in health status over time, utilization of health services, and characteristics associated with optimal health outcomes. This knowledge gap could be addressed through the creation of a longitudinal cohort study of government-assisted refugees (CARs) in British Columbia (BC). The provision of services for CARs in BC lends itself readily to the creation of a prospective CAR cohort. This, combined with access to highly reliable, valid and comprehensive administrative databases available through Population Data BC, would allow for longitudinal follow-up, and ensure low attrition rates. Establishment of such a cohort would improve knowledge of refugee health and could guide health service providers and policy-makers in providing optimal services to GARs.

  5. In utero exposure to atrazine analytes and early menarche in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children Cohort.

    PubMed

    Namulanda, Gonza; Taylor, Ethel; Maisonet, Mildred; Boyd Barr, Dana; Flanders, W Dana; Olson, David; Qualters, Judith R; Vena, John; Northstone, Kate; Naeher, Luke

    2017-07-01

    Evidence from experimental studies suggests that atrazine and its analytes alter the timing of puberty in laboratory animals. Such associations have not been investigated in humans. To determine the association between in utero exposure to atrazine analytes and earlier menarche attainment in a nested case-control study of the population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Cases were girls who reported menarche before 11.5 years while controls were girls who reported menarche at or after 11.5 years. Seven atrazine analyte concentrations were measured in maternal gestational urine samples (sample gestation week median (IQR): 12 (8-17)) during the period 1991-1992, for 174 cases and 195 controls using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We evaluated the study association using multivariate logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. We used multiple imputation to impute missing confounder data for 29% of the study participants. Diaminochlorotriazine (DACT) was the most frequently detected analyte (58%>limit of detection [LOD]) followed by desethyl atrazine (6%), desethyl atrazine mercapturate (3%), atrazine mercapturate (1%), hydroxyl atrazine (1%), atrazine (1%) and desisopropyl atrazine (0.5%). Because of low detection of other analytes, only DACT was included in the exposure-outcome analyses. The adjusted odds of early menarche for girls with DACT exposures≥median was 1.13 (95% Confidence Interval [95% CI]:0.82, 1.55) and exposure

  6. The Influence of Preoperative and Postoperative Psychological Symptoms on Clinical Outcome after Shoulder Surgery: A Prospective Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Koorevaar, Rinco C. T.; van ‘t Riet, Esther; Gerritsen, Marleen J. J.; Madden, Kim; Bulstra, Sjoerd K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Psychological symptoms are highly prevalent in patients with shoulder complaints. Psychological symptoms in patients with shoulder complaints might play a role in the aetiology, perceived disability and pain and clinical outcome of treatment. The aim of this study was to assess whether preoperative symptoms of distress, depression, anxiety and somatisation were associated with a change in function after shoulder surgery and postoperative patient perceived improvement of pain and function. In addition, the change of psychological symptoms after shoulder surgery was analyzed and the influence of postoperative symptoms of psychological disorders after surgery on the change in function after shoulder surgery and perceived postoperative improvement of pain and function. Methods and Findings A prospective longitudinal cohort study was performed in a general teaching hospital. 315 consecutive patients planned for elective shoulder surgery were included. Outcome measures included change of Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score and anchor questions about improvement in pain and function after surgery. Psychological symptoms were identified before and 12 months after surgery with the validated Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ). Psychological symptoms were encountered in all the various shoulder diagnoses. Preoperative symptoms of psychological disorders persisted after surgery in 56% of patients, 10% of patients with no symptoms of psychological disorders before surgery developed new psychological symptoms. Preoperative symptoms of psychological disorders were not associated with the change of DASH score and perceived improvement of pain and function after shoulder surgery. Patients with symptoms of psychological disorders after surgery were less likely to improve on the DASH score. Postoperative symptoms of distress and depression were associated with worse perceived improvement of pain. Postoperative symptoms of distress, depression

  7. The incidence and predictors of depressive and anxiety symptoms in older adults with vision impairment: a longitudinal prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Heesterbeek, Thomas J; van der Aa, Hilde P A; van Rens, Ger H M B; Twisk, Johannes W R; van Nispen, Ruth M A

    2017-07-01

    Depression and anxiety are highly prevalent in older adults with vision impairment. Because symptoms of depression and anxiety appear to fluctuate, it is important to identify patients who are at risk of developing these symptoms for early diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the incidence of subthreshold depression and anxiety, and to investigate predictors of developing symptoms of depression and anxiety in older adults with vision impairment who had no subthreshold depression or anxiety at baseline. A longitudinal prospective cohort study with a follow-up of 24 months in 540 older adults with vision impairment (mean age 75 years, 56% female, 48% macular degeneration, 15% glaucoma) from outpatient low-vision rehabilitation organisations was performed. The cumulative incidences of subthreshold depression and anxiety were calculated and linear mixed models with maximum likelihood estimation were used to determine two prediction models. Main outcome measures were: fluctuations in (i) depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, CES-D) and (ii) anxiety symptoms (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety subscale, HADS-A). The annual cumulative incidences of subthreshold depression and anxiety were 21.3% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 18.7-23.9%) and 9.5% (95% CI 7.4-11.6%), respectively. Risk factors for developing depressive symptoms were: living alone, having just enough money to cover expenses, having macular degeneration, having problems with adaptation to vision loss, reduced health related quality of life, and experiencing symptoms of anxiety. For developing anxiety symptoms, a relatively younger age, experiencing symptoms of depression, not living alone and experiencing hindrance at work proved to be risk factors. This study shows that the incidence of subthreshold depression and anxiety in older adults with vision impairment is twice as high compared with older adults in general and

  8. Digit ratio and autism spectrum disorders in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children: a birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Guyatt, Anna Louise; Heron, Jon; Knight, Bernice Le Cornu; Golding, Jean; Rai, Dheeraj

    2015-08-25

    To investigate whether second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), a measure commonly used as a proxy for fetal testosterone exposure, is associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), as predicted by the extreme male brain theory of autism. A birth cohort study. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). 6015 ALSPAC children with data on digit ratio, at least 1 outcome measure and information on potential confounding variables (parental occupational class, maternal education and age at digit ratio measurement). Digit ratio was measured by the photocopy and calliper method. ASD diagnosis (cases were identified previously by record linkage or maternal report) and 4 measures that combine optimally within ALSPAC to predict ASD: the Children's Communication Checklist (coherence subscale), the Social and Communication Disorders Checklist, a repetitive behaviour measure, and the Emotionality, Activity and Sociability scale (sociability subscale). These measures were dichotomised, with approximately 10% defined as the 'risk' group. Using logistic regression, we examined the association of 2D:4D with ASDs and 4 dichotomised ASD traits. Covariates were occupational class, maternal education and age at 2D:4D measurement. 2D:4D was not associated with ASDs in males (adjusted OR per 1 SD increase in mean 2D:4D, 0.88 (95% CI 0.65 to 1.21), p=0.435) or females (adjusted OR=1.36 (95% CI 0.81 to 2.28), p=0.245). Similar results were observed after adjustment for IQ. There was 1 weak association between reduced coherence and increased left 2D:4D in males, in the opposite direction to that predicted by the extreme male brain theory (adjusted OR=1.15 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.29), p=0.023). Given multiple comparisons, this is consistent with chance. In this population-based study, there was no strong evidence of an association between 2D:4D and ASD diagnosis or traits, although the CIs were wide. These results are not consistent with the extreme male brain theory. Published

  9. Informed decision-making among students analyzing their personal genomes on a whole genome sequencing course: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Multiple laboratories now offer clinical whole genome sequencing (WGS). We anticipate WGS becoming routinely used in research and clinical practice. Many institutions are exploring how best to educate geneticists and other professionals about WGS. Providing students in WGS courses with the option to analyze their own genome sequence is one strategy that might enhance students’ engagement and motivation to learn about personal genomics. However, if this option is presented to students, it is vital they make informed decisions, do not feel pressured into analyzing their own genomes by their course directors or peers, and feel free to analyze a third-party genome if they prefer. We therefore developed a 26-hour introductory genomics course in part to help students make informed decisions about whether to receive personal WGS data in a subsequent advanced genomics course. In the advanced course, they had the option to receive their own personal genome data, or an anonymous genome, at no financial cost to them. Our primary aims were to examine whether students made informed decisions regarding analyzing their personal genomes, and whether there was evidence that the introductory course enabled the students to make a more informed decision. Methods This was a longitudinal cohort study in which students (N = 19) completed questionnaires assessing their intentions, informed decision-making, attitudes and knowledge before (T1) and after (T2) the introductory course, and before the advanced course (T3). Informed decision-making was assessed using the Decisional Conflict Scale. Results At the start of the introductory course (T1), most (17/19) students intended to receive their personal WGS data in the subsequent course, but many expressed conflict around this decision. Decisional conflict decreased after the introductory course (T2) indicating there was an increase in informed decision-making, and did not change before the advanced course (T3). This suggests

  10. Green qualities in the neighbourhood and mental health – results from a longitudinal cohort study in Southern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Poor mental health is a major issue worldwide and causality is complex. For diseases with multifactorial background synergistic effects of person- and place- factors can potentially be preventive. Nature is suggested as one such positive place-factor. In this cohort study we tested the effect of defined green qualities (Serene, Space, Wild, Culture, Lush) in the environment at baseline on mental health at follow-up. We also studied interaction effects on mental health of those place factors and varied person factors (financial stress, living conditions, and physical activity). Methods Data on person factors were extracted from a longitudinal (years 1999/2000 and 2005) population health survey (n = 24945). The participants were geocoded and linked to data on green qualities from landscape assessments, and stored in the Geographical Information System (GIS). Crude odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated, and multivariate logistic analyses were performed. Results Mental health was not affected by access to the chosen green qualities, neither in terms of amount nor in terms of any specific quality. However, we found a reduced risk for poor mental health at follow-up among women, through a significant interaction effect between physical activity and access to the qualities Serene or Space. For men the tendencies were similar, though not significant. Regarding the other three green qualities, as well as amount of qualities, no statistically certain synergistic effects were found. Likewise, no significant synergies were detected between green qualities and the other person-factors. Only advanced exercise significantly reduced the risk for poor mental health among women, but not for men, compared to physical inactivity. Conclusions The results do not directly support the hypothesis of a preventive mental health effect by access to the green qualities. However, the additive effect of serene nature to physical activity contributed to

  11. Predicting growth and curve progression in the individual patient with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: design of a prospective longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Scoliosis is present in 3-5% of the children in the adolescent age group, with a higher incidence in females. Treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is mainly dependent on the progression of the scoliotic curve. There is a close relationship between curve progression and rapid (spinal) growth of the patient during puberty. However, until present time no conclusive method was found for predicting the timing and magnitude of the pubertal growth spurt in total body height, or the curve progression of the idiopathic scoliosis. The goal of this study is to determine the predictive value of several maturity indicators that reflect growth or remaining growth potential, in order to predict timing of the peak growth velocity of total body height in the individual patient with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Furthermore, different parameters are evaluated for their correlation with curve progression in the individual scoliosis patient. Methods/design This prospective, longitudinal cohort study will be incorporated in the usual care of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. All new patients between 8 and 17 years with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (Cobb angle >10 degrees) visiting the outpatient clinic of the University Medical Center Groningen are included in this study. Follow up will take place every 6 months. The present study will use a new ultra-low dose X-ray system which can make total body X-rays. Several maturity indicators are evaluated like different body length dimensions, secondary sexual characteristics, skeletal age in hand and wrist, skeletal age in the elbow, the Risser sign, the status of the triradiate cartilage, and EMG ratios of the paraspinal muscle activity. Correlations of all dimensions will be calculated in relationship to the timing of the pubertal growth spurt, and to the progression of the scoliotic curve. An algorithm will be made for the optimal treatment strategy in the individual patient with adolescent idiopathic

  12. Health Risk Factors Associated with Lifetime Abstinence from Alcohol in the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Kerr, William C; Lui, Camillia K; Williams, Edwina; Ye, Yu; Greenfield, Thomas K; Lown, E Anne

    2017-02-01

    The choice and definition of a comparison group in alcohol-related health studies remains a prominent issue in alcohol epidemiology due to potential biases in the risk estimates. The most commonly used comparison group has been current abstainers; however, this includes former drinkers who may have quit drinking due to health problems. Lifetime abstention could be the best option, but measurement issues, selection biases due to health and other risk factors, and small numbers in populations are important concerns. This study examines characteristics of lifetime abstention and occasional drinking that are relevant for alcohol-related health studies. This study used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort of 14 to 21 year olds followed through 2012 (n = 7,515). Definitions of abstinence and occasional drinking were constructed based on multiple measurements. Descriptive analyses were used to compare the definitions, and in further analysis, lifetime abstainers (n = 718) and lifetime minimal drinkers (n = 1,027) were compared with drinkers across demographics and early-life characteristics (i.e., religion, poverty, parental education, and family alcohol problems) in logistic regression models. Using a strict measurement of zero drinks from adolescence to the 50s, only 1.7% of the sample was defined as lifetime abstainer compared to a broader definition allowing a total of 1 drink over the lifetime that included 9.5% and to lifetime minimal drinking (a total of 3 drinks or less a month), which accounted for 13.7%. Factors significantly associated with lifetime abstention and lifetime minimal drinking included religion, poverty, having no family alcohol problems, Hispanic ethnicity, foreign-born, and female gender. Importantly, work-related health limitations in early life were significantly associated, but not childhood physical and mental health problems. Alcohol-related health studies should utilize lifetime classifications of drinkers

  13. Race-Ethnic Differences in Subclinical Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction by Global Longitudinal Strain: a Community-based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Cesare; Jin, Zhezhen; Homma, Shunichi; Rundek, Tatjana; Elkind, Mitchell S.V.; Sacco, Ralph L.; Di Tullio, Marco R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Race-ethnic differences exist in the epidemiology of heart failure, with blacks experiencing higher incidence and worse prognosis. Left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction (LVSD) detected by speckle-tracking global longitudinal strain (GLS) is a predictor of cardiovascular events including heart failure. It is not known whether race-ethnic differences in GLS-LVSD exist in subjects without overt LV dysfunction. Methods Participants from a tri-ethnic community-based study underwent two-dimensional echocardiography with assessment of LV ejection fraction (LVEF) and GLS by speckle-tracking. Participants with LVEF<50% were excluded. GLS-LVSD was defined as GLS > 95% percentile in a healthy sample (−14.7%). Results Of the 678 study participants (mean age 71±9 years, 61% women), 114 were blacks, 464 Hispanics, and 100 whites. GLS was significantly lower in blacks (−16.5±3.5%) than in whites (−17.5±3.0%) and Hispanics (−17.3±2.9%) in both univariate (p=0.015) and multivariate analysis (p=0.011), whereas LVEF was not significantly different between the 3 groups (64.3±4.6%, 63.4±4.9%, 64.7±4.9% respectively, univariate p=0.064, multivariate p=0.291). GLS-LVSD was more frequent in blacks (27.2%) than in whites (19.0%) and Hispanics (14.9%, p=0.008). In multivariate analysis adjusted for confounders and cardiovascular risk factors, blacks were significantly more likely to have GLS-LVSD (adjusted odds ratio=2.6, 95% confidence intervals=1.4–4.7, p=0.002) compared to the other groups. Conclusions Among participants from a tri-ethnic community cohort, black race was associated with greater degree of subclinical LVSD by GLS than other race-ethnic groups. This difference was independent of confounders and cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25965720

  14. The trajectory of physical and mental health from injury to 5 years after multiple trauma: a prospective, longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Soberg, Helene L; Finset, Arnstein; Roise, Olav; Bautz-Holter, Erik

    2012-05-01

    To describe the trajectory of physical and mental health from injury to 5 years postinjury for patients with multiple trauma, and to examine predictors of recovery of physical and mental health. A prospective, longitudinal cohort study with data from injury (baseline), the return home (t1), and 1 (t2), 2 (t3), and 5 (t4) years. Hospital and community setting. Patients (N=105; mean age ± SD, 35.3±14.0y; age range, 18-67y; 83% men) with multiple trauma and a New Injury Severity Score (NISS) ≥16 treated at a regional trauma referral center. Mean NISS ± SD was 34.6±12.6, and mean Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score ± SD was 12.2±3.9. Not applicable. Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS), injury severity parameters, and World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS II) for activities and participation. The proportion with poor physical health (<40 points on the PCS) stabilized at 56% at t4 from 81% at t1. The proportion with poor mental health (<40 points on the MCS) stabilized at 31% at t4 from 43% at t1. Generalized estimating equations showed that predictors of PCS were time points of measurement (Wald, 85.50; P<.001), GCS (B=-.48, P=.004), time in hospital/rehabilitation (B=-.22, P=.001), and the rank-transformed WHODAS II subscales Getting around (B=.16, P<.001) and Participation in society (B=.06, P=.015). Predictors of MCS were time points of measurement (Wald 13.46, P=.004), sex (men/women) (B=-4.24, P=.003), education (low/high) (B=3.43, P=.019), and WHODAS II cognitive function (B=.18, P<.001) and Participation in society (B=.18, P≤.001). Physical and mental health over the 5 years improved with time, but was still significantly below population means. The physical and mental health status stabilized, but the recovery trajectories differed for physical and mental health. Predictors of health were personal and injury-related factors and function in a

  15. Internal living environment and respiratory disease in children: findings from the Growing Up in New Zealand longitudinal child cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tin Tin, Sandar; Woodward, Alistair; Saraf, Rajneeta; Berry, Sarah; Atatoa Carr, Polly; Morton, Susan M B; Grant, Cameron C

    2016-12-08

    The incidence of early childhood acute respiratory infections (ARIs) has been associated with aspects of the indoor environment. In recent years, public awareness about some of these environmental issues has increased, including new laws and subsequent changes in occupant behaviours. This New Zealand study investigated current exposures to specific risk factors in the home during the first five years of life and provided updated evidence on the links between the home environment and childhood ARI hospitalisation. Pregnant women (n = 6822) were recruited in 2009 and 2010, and their 6853 children created a child cohort that was representative of New Zealand births from 2007-10. Longitudinal data were collected through face-to-face interviews and linkage to routinely collected national datasets. Incidence rates with Poisson distribution confidence intervals were computed and Cox regression modelling for repeated events was performed. Living in a rented dwelling (48%), household crowding (22%) or dampness (20%); and, in the child's room, heavy condensation (20%) or mould or mildew on walls or ceilings (13%) were prevalent. In 14% of the households, the mother smoked cigarettes and in 30%, other household members smoked. Electric heaters were commonly used, followed by wood, flued gas and unflued portable gas heaters. The incidence of ARI hospitalisation before age five years was 33/1000 person-years. The risk of ARI hospitalisation was higher for children living in households where there was a gas heater in the child's bedroom: hazard ratio for flued gas heater 1.69 (95% CI: 1.21-2.36); and for unflued gas heater 1.68 (95% CI: 1.12-2.53); and where a gas heater was the sole type of household heating (hazard ratio: 1.64 (95% CI: 1.29-2.09)). The risk was reduced in households that used electric heaters (Hazard ratio: 0.74 (95% CI: 0.61-0.89)) or wood burners (hazard ratio: 0.79 (95% CI: 0.66-0.93)) as a form of household heating. The associations with other risk

  16. An exploration of the dynamic longitudinal relationship between mental health and alcohol consumption: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite intense investigation, the temporal sequence between alcohol consumption and mental health remains unclear. This study explored the relationship between alcohol consumption and mental health over multiple occasions, and compared a series of competing theoretical models to determine which best reflected the association between the two. Methods Data from phases 5 (1997 to 1999), 7 (2002 to 2004), and 9 (2007 to 2009) of the Whitehall II prospective cohort study were used, providing approximately 10 years of follow-up for 6,330 participants (73% men; mean ± SD age 55.8 ± 6.0 years). Mental health was assessed using the Short Form (SF)-36 mental health component score. Alcohol consumption was defined as the number of UK units of alcohol drunk per week. Four dynamic latent change score models were compared: 1) a baseline model in which alcohol consumption and mental health trajectories did not influence each other, 2) and model in which alcohol consumption influenced changes in mental health but mental health exerted no effect on changes in drinking and 3) vice versa, and (4) a reciprocal model in which both variables influenced changes in each other. Results The third model, in which mental health influenced changes in alcohol consumption but not vice versa, was the best fit. In this model, the effect of previous mental health on upcoming change in alcohol consumption was negative (γ = -0.31, 95% CI -0.52 to -0.10), meaning that those with better mental health tended to make greater reductions (or shallower increases) in their drinking between occasions. Conclusions Mental health appears to be the leading indicator of change in the dynamic longitudinal relationship between mental health and weekly alcohol consumption in this sample of middle-aged adults. In addition to fuelling increases in alcohol consumption among low-level consumers, poor mental health may also be a maintaining factor for heavy alcohol consumption. Future work

  17. The Risk of Mortality in Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, and Psoriasis: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, Kevin; Troxel, Andrea B.; Love, ThorvardurJon; Hennessy, Sean; Choi, Hyon; Gelfand, Joel M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Conflicting reports of the mortality risk among patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) exist in the literature. The objective of this study was to examine the risk of mortality in patients with PsA compared to matched controls and to patients with psoriasis and those with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods A longitudinal cohort study was performed in a large United Kingdom medical record database,The Health Improvement Network (THIN), among patients with PsA, RA, or psoriasis with data from 1994-2010. Unexposed controls were matched on practice and start date within the practice for each patient with PsA. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate the relative hazards for death. Results Patients with PsA (N=8,706), RA (N=41,752), psoriasis (N=138,424) and unexposed controls (N=82,258) were identified; 1,442,357 person-years were observed during which 21,825 deaths occurred. Compared with population controls, patients with PsA did not have an increased risk of mortality after adjusting for age and sex (DMARD users: HR 0.94, 95%CI: 0.80-1.10, DMARD non-users: HR 1.06, 95%CI: 0.94-1.19) whereas RA patients had increased mortality (DMARD users HR 1.59, 95%CI: 1.52-1.66, DMARD non-users HR 1.54, 95%CI: 1.47-1.60). Patients with psoriasis who had not been prescribed a DMARD had a small increased risk of mortality (HR 1.08, 95%CI: 1.04-1.12) while those who had been prescribed a DMARD, indicating severe psoriasis, were at increased risk (HR 1.75, 95%CI: 1.56-1.95). Conclusion Patients with RA and psoriasis had elevated mortality compared to the general population. However, patients with PsA did not have a significantly elevated risk of mortality. PMID:23264338

  18. Pertussis vaccination and wheezing illnesses in young children: prospective cohort study. The Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood Team.

    PubMed

    Henderson, J; North, K; Griffiths, M; Harvey, I; Golding, J

    1999-05-01

    To examine the relation between pertussis vaccination and the prevalence of wheezing illnesses in young children. Prospective cohort study. Three former health districts comprising Avon Health Authority. 9444 of 14 138 children enrolled in the Avon longitudinal study of pregnancy and childhood and for whom data on wheezing symptoms, vaccination status, and 15 environmental and biological variables were available. Episodes of wheezing from birth to 6 months, 7-18 months, 19-30 months, and 31-42 months. These time periods were used to derive five categories of wheezing illness: early wheezing (not after 18 months); late onset wheezing (after 18 months); persistent wheezing (at every time period); recurrent wheezing (any combination of two or more episodes for each period); and intermittent wheezing (any combination of single episodes of reported wheezing). These categories were stratified according to parental self reported asthma or allergy. Unadjusted comparisons of the defined wheezing illnesses in vaccinated and non-vaccinated children showed no significant association between pertussis vaccination and any of the wheezing outcomes regardless of stratification for parental asthma or allergy. Wheeze was more common in non-vaccinated children at 18 months, and there was a tendency for late onset wheezing to be associated with non-vaccination in children whose parents did not have asthma, but this was not significant. After adjustment for environmental and biological variables, logistic regression analyses showed no significant increased relative risk for any of the wheezing outcomes in vaccinated children: early wheezing (0.99, 95% confidence interval 0.80 to 1.23), late onset wheezing (0.85, 0.69 to 1.05), persistent wheezing (0.91, 0.47 to 1.79), recurrent wheezing (0.96, 0.72 to 1.26), and intermittent wheezing (1.06, 0.81 to 1.37). No evidence was found that pertussis vaccination increases the risk of wheezing illnesses in young children. Further follow

  19. Longitudinal change of neuroimaging and clinical markers in autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Wai-Ying Wendy; Tudorascu, Dana L.; McDade, Eric M.; Ikonomovic, Snezana; James, Jeffrey A.; Minhas, Davneet; Mowrey, Wenzhu; Sheu, Lei K.; Snitz, Beth E.; Weissfeld, Lisa; Gianaros, Peter J.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Price, Julie C.; Mathis, Chester A.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Klunk, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Background The biomarker model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) hypothesizes a dynamic sequence of amyloidosis, neurodegeneration, and cognitive decline, as an individual progresses from preclinical AD to dementia. Despite supportive evidence from cross-sectional studies, verification with long-term within-individual data is needed. Methods Autosomal dominant AD (ADAD) mutation carriers, aged 21 years or older (no cognitive restrictions), were recruited from across the United States via referral by colleagues or ADAD families themselves. Sixteen individuals with mutations in PSEN1, PSEN2 or APP, aged 28 to 56, were assessed longitudinally every one to two years, between March 23, 2003 and August 1, 2014. Participants completed two to eight assessments (total=83), over a period of two to eleven years. We measured global amyloid-beta load with Pittsburgh Compound-B PET, posterior cortical metabolism with [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose PET, hippocampal volume (age-, and gender-corrected) with T1 MRI, verbal memory with 10-item delayed word recall, and general cognition with Mini Mental State Exam. We estimated overall biomarker trajectories across estimated years from symptom onset (EYO) using linear mixed models, and compared ADAD estimates to cross-sectional data from cognitively normal, older controls selected to be negative for amyloidosis, hypometabolism, and hippocampal atrophy. In seven individuals with the longest follow-up (seven/eight assessments spanning six to eleven years), we further examined the within-individual progression of amyloidosis, metabolism, hippocampal volume, and cognition, to identify progressive within-individual change in these markers (increase/decrease of greater than two Z-scores standardized to controls). Findings Significant differences in ADAD compared to controls (p<0·01) were detected in the following order: increased amyloidosis (−7.5 EYO), decreased metabolism (0 EYO), decreased hippocampal volume and verbal memory (+7.5 EYO

  20. Digit ratio and autism spectrum disorders in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children: a birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Guyatt, Anna Louise; Heron, Jon; Knight, Bernice Le Cornu; Golding, Jean; Rai, Dheeraj

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), a measure commonly used as a proxy for fetal testosterone exposure, is associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), as predicted by the extreme male brain theory of autism. Design A birth cohort study. Setting The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Participants 6015 ALSPAC children with data on digit ratio, at least 1 outcome measure and information on potential confounding variables (parental occupational class, maternal education and age at digit ratio measurement). Digit ratio was measured by the photocopy and calliper method. Outcomes ASD diagnosis (cases were identified previously by record linkage or maternal report) and 4 measures that combine optimally within ALSPAC to predict ASD: the Children's Communication Checklist (coherence subscale), the Social and Communication Disorders Checklist, a repetitive behaviour measure, and the Emotionality, Activity and Sociability scale (sociability subscale). These measures were dichotomised, with approximately 10% defined as the ‘risk’ group. Results Using logistic regression, we examined the association of 2D:4D with ASDs and 4 dichotomised ASD traits. Covariates were occupational class, maternal education and age at 2D:4D measurement. 2D:4D was not associated with ASDs in males (adjusted OR per 1 SD increase in mean 2D:4D, 0.88 (95% CI 0.65 to 1.21), p=0.435) or females (adjusted OR=1.36 (95% CI 0.81 to 2.28), p=0.245). Similar results were observed after adjustment for IQ. There was 1 weak association between reduced coherence and increased left 2D:4D in males, in the opposite direction to that predicted by the extreme male brain theory (adjusted OR=1.15 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.29), p=0.023). Given multiple comparisons, this is consistent with chance. Conclusions In this population-based study, there was no strong evidence of an association between 2D:4D and ASD diagnosis or traits, although the CIs were wide. These

  1. Cognitive development in children up to age 11 years born after ART-a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Barbuscia, Anna; Mills, Melinda C

    2017-05-24

    How does the cognitive development of children conceived after ART (IVF and ICSI) - measured as cognitive skills at age 3, 5, 7 and 11 years - differ over time from those born after natural conception (NC)? Improved measures of cognitive development up to age 5 years were recorded in children conceived with ART compared to NC, which attenuates by 11 years, with ART children still scoring slightly better than NC children. Results on the cognitive outcomes of children conceived after ART have been highly contradictory. Some have shown that ART children have an impaired behavioural, socio-emotional and cognitive development and higher risk of mental disorders. Others have reported no increased risk or difference. Cognitive development has not been previously examined using latent growth curve models from ages 3 to 11 years, also including appropriate attention to confounding parental characteristics. Longitudinal data for the first five waves (2000-2012) of the UK Millennium Cohort Study were used, which is a two-stage sample of all infants born in 2000-2001 and resident in the UK at 9 months of age, drawn from the Department of Social Security Child Benefit Registers. A final sample of N = 15 218 children (125 IVF and 61 ICSI), from 14 816 families was used. Information was available for all waves for 8298 children. Four additional follow-up surveys were conducted in 2003, 2005, 2007 and 2012. Our sample includes children born within a union (married or cohabiting parents) and where information on cognitive scores was available for at least two measurement points. Cognitive development was assessed with the British Ability Scales. At age 3 and 5 years (wave 2 and 3), children completed the naming vocabulary component, which measures expressive verbal ability. At age 7 years (wave 4), verbal cognitive abilities were assessed through the word reading test, and at age 11 years (wave 5) through a verbal similarity test. Two-tailed Student's t-tests examined differences

  2. The U.S. Department of Defense Millennium Cohort Study: Career Span and Beyond Longitudinal Follow-Up

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    disease free at baseline and followed over time to document exposure and disease through temporal sequence. Well- designed prospective cohort studies may...influenced by exposure and/or disease in retrospective or cross- sectional assessment of study pop- ulations. Well-known prospective cohort studies , such...Occupational cohort studies are often defined by a group of workers in a given occupation classified by certain exposures encountered on the job

  3. Women’s Longitudinal Smoking Patterns from Preconception through Child’s Kindergarten Entry: Profiles of Biological Mothers of a 2001 U.S. Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Mumford, Elizabeth A.; Hair, Elizabeth C.; Yu, Tzy-Chyi; Liu, Weiwei

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify longitudinal patterns of women’s smoking during the pre-conception, perinatal, and early parenting period and describe risk factors distinguishing the different profiles. Methods We conducted longitudinal latent class analysis (LLCA) of maternal smoking status over a six to seven year period in a sample of 8,650 biological mothers of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study – Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), nationally representative of U.S. births in 2001. Results Five latent classes were identified: pregnancy-inspired quitters (4.3%), delayed initiators (5.1%), persistent smokers (8.5%), temporary quitters (10.4%), and nonsmokers (71.7%). These classes were distinguished by age, race/ethnicity, education, poverty status, marital status, parity, drinking behavior, and depression. For example, when compared to those with college degrees, those with less than high school degree are at least five times as likely to be in the delayed initiators, temporary quitters, or persistent smoker classes (versus the nonsmoker class). Conclusions Heterogeneous longitudinal smoking patterns indicate the need for both prevention messages and cessation treatment continuing past parturition, tailored to fit individual profiles in order to achieve reduced health consequences for both mothers and children. PMID:23797269

  4. Multireader assessment as an alternative to reference assessment to improve the detection of radiographic progression in a large longitudinal cohort of rheumatoid arthritis (ESPOIR)

    PubMed Central

    Gandjbakhch, Frederique; Granger, Benjamin; Freund, Romain; Foltz, Violaine; Jousse-Joulin, Sandrine; Devauchelle, Valerie; Afshar, Mona; Albert, Jean David; Bailly, Florian; Constant, Elodie; Biale, Lisa; Milin, Morgane; Couderc, Marion; Denarie, Delphine; Fradin, Anne; Martaille, Virginie; Pierreisnard, Audrey; Poursac, Nicolas; Saraux, Alain; Fautrel, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Structural damage progression is a major outcome in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Its evaluation and follow-up in trials should involve radiographic scoring by 1 or 2 readers (reference assessment), which is challenging in large longitudinal cohorts with multiple assessments. Objectives To compare the reproducibility of multireader and reference assessment to improve the feasibility of detecting radiographic progression in a large cohort of patients with early arthritis (ESPOIR). Methods We used 3 sessions to train 12 rheumatologists in radiographic scoring by the van der Heijde-modified Sharp score (SHS). Multireader scoring was based on 10 trained-reader assessments, each reader scoring a random sample of 1/5 of all available radiographs (for double scoring for each X-ray set) for patients included in the ESPOIR cohort with complete radiographic data at M0 and M60. Reference scoring was performed by 2 experienced readers. Scoring was performed blindly to clinical data, with radiographs in chronological order. We compared multireader and reference assessments by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for SHS and significant radiographic progression (SRP). Results The intrareader and inter-reader reproducibility for trained assessors increased during the training sessions (ICC 0.79 to 0.94 and 0.76 to 0.92), respectively. For the 524 patients included, agreement between multireader and reference assessment of SHS progression between M0 and M60 and SRP assessment were almost perfect, ICC (0.88 (95% CI 0.82 to 0.93)) and (0.99 (95% CI 0.99 to 0.99)), respectively. Conclusions Multireader assessment of radiographic structural damage progression is comparable to reference assessment and could be used to improve the feasibility of radiographic scoring in large longitudinal cohort with numerous X-ray evaluations. PMID:28123779

  5. Lifestyle-Related Factors Contributing to Decline in Knee Extension Strength among Elderly Women: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Narumi; Kim, Miji; Saito, Kyoko; Yoshida, Hideyo; Yoshida, Yuko; Hirano, Hirohiko; Obuchi, Shuichi; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Takao; Kim, Hunkyung

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional and 4-year longitudinal cohort study aimed to clarify how various lifestyle-related variables affect knee extension strength in elderly Japanese women. The participants were community-dwelling women (n = 575) living in the Itabashi Ward of Tokyo, Japan aged 75–85 years at baseline (in 2008) who returned for a follow-up examination 4 years later (in 2012). Maximum isometric knee extension strength in the dominant leg was measured during comprehensive medical check-ups at baseline and follow-up. Interviews with participants included questions on their history of 11 diseases and lifestyle-related factors such as physical activity as well as dietary, smoking, and drinking habits. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses yielded inconsistent results regarding the associations between lifestyle-related factors and knee extension strength. While going out more frequently and regular physical exercise positively affected baseline knee extension strength, they did not affect knee extension strength in the longitudinal analysis. The longitudinal analysis revealed that more frequent intake of soy products or green and yellow vegetables at baseline decreased age-related knee extension strength decline. The inconsistent results from the cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses indicate that conducting both types of analyses is crucial for researching this type of subject. The present study demonstrates that the age-related decline in muscle strength is lower in those who frequently eat soy products or green and yellow vegetables. Thus, recommending higher intake of soy products, and green and yellow vegetables for the elderly might help maintain their muscle health. PMID:26177292

  6. Lifestyle-Related Factors Contributing to Decline in Knee Extension Strength among Elderly Women: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Narumi; Kim, Miji; Saito, Kyoko; Yoshida, Hideyo; Yoshida, Yuko; Hirano, Hirohiko; Obuchi, Shuichi; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Takao; Kim, Hunkyung

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional and 4-year longitudinal cohort study aimed to clarify how various lifestyle-related variables affect knee extension strength in elderly Japanese women. The participants were community-dwelling women (n = 575) living in the Itabashi Ward of Tokyo, Japan aged 75-85 years at baseline (in 2008) who returned for a follow-up examination 4 years later (in 2012). Maximum isometric knee extension strength in the dominant leg was measured during comprehensive medical check-ups at baseline and follow-up. Interviews with participants included questions on their history of 11 diseases and lifestyle-related factors such as physical activity as well as dietary, smoking, and drinking habits. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses yielded inconsistent results regarding the associations between lifestyle-related factors and knee extension strength. While going out more frequently and regular physical exercise positively affected baseline knee extension strength, they did not affect knee extension strength in the longitudinal analysis. The longitudinal analysis revealed that more frequent intake of soy products or green and yellow vegetables at baseline decreased age-related knee extension strength decline. The inconsistent results from the cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses indicate that conducting both types of analyses is crucial for researching this type of subject. The present study demonstrates that the age-related decline in muscle strength is lower in those who frequently eat soy products or green and yellow vegetables. Thus, recommending higher intake of soy products, and green and yellow vegetables for the elderly might help maintain their muscle health.

  7. Risk of depression and self-harm in teenagers identifying with goth subculture: a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bowes, Lucy; Carnegie, Rebecca; Pearson, Rebecca; Mars, Becky; Biddle, Lucy; Maughan, Barbara; Lewis, Glyn; Fernyhough, Charles; Heron, Jon

    2015-09-01

    Previous research has suggested that deliberate self-harm is associated with contemporary goth subculture in young people; however, whether this association is confounded by characteristics of young people, their families, and their circumstances is unclear. We aimed to test whether self-identification as a goth is prospectively associated with emergence of clinical depression and self-harm in early adulthood. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a UK community-based birth cohort of 14 541 pregnant women with expected delivery between April 1, 1991, and Dec 31, 1992. All children in the study were invited to attend yearly follow-up visits at the research clinic from age 7 years. At 15 years of age, participants reported the extent to which they self-identified as a goth. We assessed depressive mood and self-harm at 15 years with the Development and Wellbeing Assessment (DAWBA) questionnaire, and depression and self-harm at 18 years using the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised. We calculated the prospective association between goth identification at 15 years and depression and self-harm at 18 years using logistic regression analyses. Of 5357 participants who had data available for goth self-identification, 3694 individuals also had data for depression and self-harm outcomes at 18 years. 105 (6%) of 1841 adolescents who did not self-identify as goths met criteria for depression compared with 28 (18%) of 154 who identified as goths very much; for self-harm, the figures were 189 (10%) of 1841 versus 57 (37%) of 154. We noted a dose-response association with goth self-identification both for depression and for self-harm. Compared with young people who did not identify as a goth, those who somewhat identified as being a goth were 1·6 times more likely (unadjusted odds ratio [OR] 1·63, 95% CI 1·14-2·34, p<0·001), and those who very much identified as being a goth were more than three times more likely (unadjusted OR 3·67, 2·33

  8. Long-term disease progression in spinocerebellar ataxia types 1, 2, 3, and 6: a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, Heike; du Montcel, Sophie Tezenas; Bauer, Peter; Giunti, Paola; Cook, Arron; Labrum, Robyn; Parkinson, Michael H; Durr, Alexandra; Brice, Alexis; Charles, Perrine; Marelli, Cecilia; Mariotti, Caterina; Nanetti, Lorenzo; Panzeri, Marta; Rakowicz, Maria; Sulek, Anna; Sobanska, Anna; Schmitz-Hübsch, Tanja; Schöls, Ludger; Hengel, Holger; Baliko, Laszlo; Melegh, Bela; Filla, Alessandro; Antenora, Antonella; Infante, Jon; Berciano, José; van de Warrenburg, Bart P; Timmann, Dagmar; Szymanski, Sandra; Boesch, Sylvia; Kang, Jun-Suk; Pandolfo, Massimo; Schulz, Jörg B; Molho, Sonia; Diallo, Alhassane; Klockgether, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxias are dominantly inherited neurodegenerative diseases. As potential treatments for these diseases are being developed, precise knowledge of their natural history is needed. We aimed to study the long-term disease progression of the most common spinocerebellar ataxias: SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, and SCA6. Furthermore, we aimed to establish the order and occurrence of non-ataxia symptoms, and identify predictors of disease progression. In this longitudinal cohort study (EUROSCA), we enrolled men and women with positive genetic testing for SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, or SCA6 and with progressive, otherwise unexplained ataxia who were aged 18 years or older from 17 ataxia referral centres in ten European countries. Patients were seen every year for 3 years, and at irregular intervals thereafter. The primary outcome was the scale for the assessment and rating of ataxia (SARA), and the inventory of non-ataxia signs (INAS). We used linear mixed models to analyse progression. To account for dropouts, we applied a pattern-mixture model. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02440763. Between July 1, 2005, and Aug 31, 2006, 526 patients with SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, or SCA6 were enrolled. We analysed data for 462 patients with at least one follow-up visit. Median observation time was 49 months (IQR 35-72). SARA progression data were best fitted with a linear model in all genotypes. Annual SARA score increase was 2.11 (SE 0.12) in patients with SCA1, 1.49 (0.07) in patients with SCA2, 1.56 (0.08) in patients with SCA3, and 0.80 (0.09) in patients with SCA6. The increase of the number of non-ataxia signs reached a plateau in SCA1, SCA2, and SCA3. In patients with SCA6, the number of non-ataxia symptoms increased linearly, but more slowly than in patients with SCA1, SCA2, and SCA3 (p<0.0001). Factors that were associated with faster progression of the SARA score were short duration of follow-up (p=0.0179), older age at inclusion (0.04 [SE 0.02] per additional

  9. Risk of depression and self-harm in teenagers identifying with goth subculture: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Bowes, Lucy; Carnegie, Rebecca; Pearson, Rebecca; Mars, Becky; Biddle, Lucy; Maughan, Barbara; Lewis, Glyn; Fernyhough, Charles; Heron, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Previous research has suggested that deliberate self-harm is associated with contemporary goth subculture in young people; however, whether this association is confounded by characteristics of young people, their families, and their circumstances is unclear. We aimed to test whether self-identification as a goth is prospectively associated with emergence of clinical depression and self-harm in early adulthood. Methods We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a UK community-based birth cohort of 14 541 pregnant women with expected delivery between April 1, 1991, and Dec 31, 1992. All children in the study were invited to attend yearly follow-up visits at the research clinic from age 7 years. At 15 years of age, participants reported the extent to which they self-identified as a goth. We assessed depressive mood and self-harm at 15 years with the Development and Wellbeing Assessment (DAWBA) questionnaire, and depression and self-harm at 18 years using the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised. We calculated the prospective association between goth identification at 15 years and depression and self-harm at 18 years using logistic regression analyses. Findings Of 5357 participants who had data available for goth self-identification, 3694 individuals also had data for depression and self-harm outcomes at 18 years. 105 (6%) of 1841 adolescents who did not self-identify as goths met criteria for depression compared with 28 (18%) of 154 who identified as goths very much; for self-harm, the figures were 189 (10%) of 1841 versus 57 (37%) of 154. We noted a dose–response association with goth self-identification both for depression and for self-harm. Compared with young people who did not identify as a goth, those who somewhat identified as being a goth were 1·6 times more likely (unadjusted odds ratio [OR] 1·63, 95% CI 1·14–2·34, p<0·001), and those who very much identified as being a goth were more than three times

  10. Sex-related and tissue-specific effects of tobacco smoking on brain atrophy: assessment in a large longitudinal cohort of healthy elderly

    PubMed Central

    Duriez, Quentin; Crivello, Fabrice; Mazoyer, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of tobacco smoking on brain atrophy in a large cohort of healthy elderly participants (65–80 years). MRI was used for measuring whole brain (WB), gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and hippocampus (HIP) volumes at study entry time (baseline, N = 1451), and the annualized rates of variation of these volumes using a 4-year follow-up MRI in a subpart of the cohort (N = 1111). Effects of smoking status (never, former, or current smoker) at study entry and of lifetime tobacco consumption on these brain phenotypes were studied using sex-stratified AN(C)OVAs, including other health parameters as covariates. At baseline, male current smokers had lower GM, while female current smokers had lower WM. In addition, female former smokers exhibited reduced baseline HIP, the reduction being correlated with lifetime tobacco consumption. Longitudinal analyses demonstrated that current smokers, whether men or women, had larger annualized rates of HIP atrophy, as compared to either non or former smokers, independent of their lifetime consumption of tobacco. There was no effect of smoking on the annualized rate of WM loss. In all cases, measured sizes of these tobacco-smoking effects were of the same order of magnitude than those of age, and larger than effect sizes of any other covariate. These results demonstrate that tobacco smoking is a major factor of brain aging, with sex- and tissue specific effects, notably on the HIP annualized rate of atrophy after the age of 65. PMID:25404916

  11. A methodology for assessing deployment trauma and its consequences in OEF/OIF/OND veterans: The TRACTS longitudinal prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    McGlinchey, Regina E.; Milberg, William P.; Fonda, Jennifer R.; Fortier, Catherine Brawn

    2017-01-01

    Many US veterans of Afghanistan and Iraq have multiple physical and psychiatric problems. A major focus of research has been on determining the effects of mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI), but mTBI is rarely diagnosed in the absence of co-occurring conditions such as blast exposure, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, substance abuse, etc. These potentially interactive psychological and physical conditions produce complex patterns of cognitive, psychological, and physical symptoms that impede civilian reintegration and complicate efficient and effective treatment planning. The Translational Research Center for TBI and Stress Disorders (TRACTS) has developed a multidisciplinary approach to the assessment of deployment trauma and its consequences in veterans of these wars. The prospective TRACTS longitudinal cohort study conducts state-of-the-art assessments in the domains of biomedical function, lifetime head trauma, psychological function encompassing deployment experience and lifetime exposure to traumatic events, neuropsychological function, and structural and functional neuroimaging. The TRACTS longitudinal cohort study is the first of its kind to comprehensively evaluate lifetime incidence of TBI and PTSD in these veterans, in addition to those incurred during military deployment. The protocol has begun to reveal information that will help improve understanding of the complex pathophysiology associated with co-occurring mTBI and related stress disorders. PMID:28211592

  12. A methodology for assessing deployment trauma and its consequences in OEF/OIF/OND veterans: The TRACTS longitudinal prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    McGlinchey, Regina E; Milberg, William P; Fonda, Jennifer R; Fortier, Catherine Brawn

    2017-02-17

    Many US veterans of Afghanistan and Iraq have multiple physical and psychiatric problems. A major focus of research has been on determining the effects of mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI), but mTBI is rarely diagnosed in the absence of co-occurring conditions such as blast exposure, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, substance abuse, etc. These potentially interactive psychological and physical conditions produce complex patterns of cognitive, psychological, and physical symptoms that impede civilian reintegration and complicate efficient and effective treatment planning. The Translational Research Center for TBI and Stress Disorders (TRACTS) has developed a multidisciplinary approach to the assessment of deployment trauma and its consequences in veterans of these wars. The prospective TRACTS longitudinal cohort study conducts state-of-the-art assessments in the domains of biomedical function, lifetime head trauma, psychological function encompassing deployment experience and lifetime exposure to traumatic events, neuropsychological function, and structural and functional neuroimaging. The TRACTS longitudinal cohort study is the first of its kind to comprehensively evaluate lifetime incidence of TBI and PTSD in these veterans, in addition to those incurred during military deployment. The protocol has begun to reveal information that will help improve understanding of the complex pathophysiology associated with co-occurring mTBI and related stress disorders.

  13. Dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids among breast-feeding and non-breast-feeding 24- to 48-month-old children in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Yakes, Elizabeth A; Arsenault, Joanne E; Islam, M Munirul; Ahmed, Tahmeed; German, J Bruce; Drake, Christiana; Hossain, Mohammad B; Lewis, Bess L; Rahman, Ahmed Shafiqur; Jamil, Kazi M; Brown, Kenneth H

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the adequacy of polyunsaturated fatty acid intake by rural Bangladeshi children 24 to 48 months old in relation to their breast-feeding status. Multistage sampling was used to select a representative sample of children 24 to 48 months of age from 2 rural districts in Bangladesh (n = 479). Two nonconsecutive 24-hour periods of dietary data were collected via 12-hour daytime in-home observations and recall. Breast milk intake was estimated using test weighing. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) method for episodically consumed foods was used to estimate distributions of usual food and nutrient intakes. Based on the estimated intake distributions, >95% of the children had usual fat intakes <30% of total energy. Among 24- to 35-month-old (younger) and 36- to 48-month-old (older) children, respectively, 4% and 16% of breast-feeding children and 31% and 41% of non-breast-feeding children were estimated to consume <10% of total energy from fat. An estimated 80% of all of the children consumed <4% of total energy as linoleic acid, and 99% consumed <1% of energy as α-linolenic acid. Younger breast-feeding children had higher estimated average docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intakes (0.04 g DHA/day) than their non-breast-feeding counterparts (0.01 g DHA/day; P = 0.0005). Both breast-feeding and non-breast-feeding older children had estimated mean DHA intakes of 0.02 g/day (P = 0.74). Rural Bangladeshi children 24 to 48 months old, and especially those who have discontinued breast-feeding, may benefit from increased fat consumption.

  14. Longitudinal association of obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes with risk of elevated aminotransferase levels in a cohort of Mexican health workers.

    PubMed

    Flores, Yvonne N; Auslander, Allyn; Crespi, Catherine M; Rodriguez, Michael; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Durazo, Francisco; Salmerón, Jorge

    2016-05-01

    In Mexico, chronic liver disease have been increasingly found along with the rapidly growing prevalence of obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MS). We aimed to investigate the longitudinal association between these three factors and risk of elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (>40 U/L), a marker for liver damage, in a cohort of Mexican adults. Data were obtained from two separate waves of the Mexican Health Worker Cohort Study: Wave 1 (2004-2006) and Wave 2 (2011-2013). Unconditional logistic regression models were employed to determine the cross-sectional and longitudinal association between these risk factors and elevated ALT levels. The prevalence of elevated ALT was significantly higher among men, individuals aged under 60 years, those who were overweight or obese, diabetic, with MS or heavy/binge drinkers. The longitudinal results indicated that weight gain between waves that resulted in a change in body mass index, along with remaining overweight or obese, were significantly associated with an increased risk of elevated ALT levels. A significantly increased risk of developing elevated ALT was also observed among those who acquired diabetes or MS from Wave 1 to Wave 2. Weight gain and acquiring diabetes or MS are associated with a significant risk of having elevated ALT. These results, within the context of the rapid increase in global obesity rates, call urgently for programs to help to prevent chronic liver disease. © 2016 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Longitudinal follow-up of the relationship between dietary intake and growth and development in the Lifeways cross-generation cohort study 2001-2013.

    PubMed

    Kelleher, Cecily C; Viljoen, Karien; Khalil, Hala; Somerville, Rebecca; O'Brien, John; Shrivastava, Aakash; Murrin, Celine

    2014-02-01

    In this paper we will review evidence on the early life and familial influences on childhood growth and development, with particular reference to the Lifeways cross-generation cohort study in the Republic of Ireland. The Lifeways cross-generation cohort study was established in 2001-2013 through two maternity hospitals in the Republic of Ireland and was one of many new cohort studies established worldwide in the millennium period. Mothers were recruited at first booking visit, completing a self-administered questionnaire, which included a 147 item semi-quantitative FFQ. Longitudinal follow-up is ongoing in 2013, with linkage data to hospital and general practice records and examination of children when aged 5 and 9 years. The study is one of very few containing data on grandparents of both lineages with at least one grandparent recruited at baseline. There have been consistent associations between parental and grandparental health status characteristics and children's outcomes, including infant birth-weight, BMI when child was aged 5 years and childhood wheeze or asthma when child was aged 3 and aged 5 years. In conclusion, empirical evidence to date shows consistent familial and cross-generational patterns, particularly in the maternal line.

  16. WISC-R Verbal and Performance IQ Discrepancy in an Unselected Cohort: Clinical Significance and Longitudinal Stability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffitt, Terrie E.; Silva, P. A.

    1987-01-01

    Examined children whose Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) verbal and performance Intelligence Quotient discrepancies placed them beyond the 90th percentile. Longitudinal study showed 23 percent of the discrepant cases to be discrepant at two or more ages. Studied frequency of perinatal difficulties, early childhood…

  17. Health Sciences and Medical College Preadmission Criteria and Prediction of In-Course Academic Performance: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Alwan, I.; Al Kushi, M.; Tamim, H.; Magzoub, M.; Elzubeir, M.

    2013-01-01

    High School, Aptitude and Achievement Tests have been utilized since 2002 in Saudi Arabia for the purpose of student selection to health sciences and medical colleges. However, longitudinal studies determining the predictive validity of these so-called cognitive tests for in-course performance is lacking. Our aim was to assess the predictive…

  18. Health Sciences and Medical College Preadmission Criteria and Prediction of In-Course Academic Performance: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Alwan, I.; Al Kushi, M.; Tamim, H.; Magzoub, M.; Elzubeir, M.

    2013-01-01

    High School, Aptitude and Achievement Tests have been utilized since 2002 in Saudi Arabia for the purpose of student selection to health sciences and medical colleges. However, longitudinal studies determining the predictive validity of these so-called cognitive tests for in-course performance is lacking. Our aim was to assess the predictive…

  19. WISC-R Verbal and Performance IQ Discrepancy in an Unselected Cohort: Clinical Significance and Longitudinal Stability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffitt, Terrie E.; Silva, P. A.

    1987-01-01

    Examined children whose Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) verbal and performance Intelligence Quotient discrepancies placed them beyond the 90th percentile. Longitudinal study showed 23 percent of the discrepant cases to be discrepant at two or more ages. Studied frequency of perinatal difficulties, early childhood…

  20. Gestational weight gain standards based on women enrolled in the Fetal Growth Longitudinal Study of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project: a prospective longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Deborah C; Pang, Ruyan; Ohuma, Eric O; Kac, Gilberto; Abrams, Barbara; Rasmussen, Kathleen; Barros, Fernando C; Hirst, Jane E; Lambert, Ann; Papageorghiou, Aris T; Stones, William; Jaffer, Yasmin A; Altman, Douglas G; Noble, J Alison; Giolito, Maria Rosa; Gravett, Michael G; Purwar, Manorama; Kennedy, Stephen H; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Villar, José

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe patterns in maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) in healthy pregnancies with good maternal and perinatal outcomes. Design Prospective longitudinal observational study. Setting Eight geographically diverse urban regions in Brazil, China, India, Italy, Kenya, Oman, United Kingdom, and United States, April 2009 to March 2014. Participants Healthy, well nourished, and educated women enrolled in the Fetal Growth Longitudinal Study component of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project, who had a body mass index (BMI) of 18.50-24.99 in the first trimester of pregnancy. Main outcome measures Maternal weight measured with standardised methods and identical equipment every five weeks (plus/minus one week) from the first antenatal visit (<14 weeks’ gestation) to delivery. After confirmation that data from the study sites could be pooled, a multilevel, linear regression analysis accounting for repeated measures, adjusted for gestational age, was applied to produce the GWG values. Results 13 108 pregnant women at <14 weeks’ gestation were screened, and 4607 met the eligibility criteria, provided consent, and were enrolled. The variance within sites (59.6%) was six times higher than the variance between sites (9.6%). The mean GWGs were 1.64 kg, 2.86 kg, 2.86 kg, 2.59 kg, and 2.56 kg for the gestational age windows 14-18+6 weeks, 19-23+6 weeks, 24-28+6 weeks, 29-33+6 weeks, and 34-40+0 weeks, respectively. Total mean weight gain at 40 weeks’ gestation was 13.7 (SD 4.5) kg for 3097 eligible women with a normal BMI in the first trimester. Of all the weight measurements, 71.7% (10 639/14 846) and 94.9% (14 085/14 846) fell within the expected 1 SD and 2 SD thresholds, respectively. Data were used to determine fitted 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th smoothed GWG centiles by exact week of gestation, with equations for the mean and standard deviation to calculate any desired centiles according to gestational age in exact weeks. Conclusions

  1. The effect of drinking water contaminated with perfluoroalkyl substances on a 10-year longitudinal trend of plasma levels in an elderly Uppsala cohort.

    PubMed

    Stubleski, Jordan; Salihovic, Samira; Lind, P Monica; Lind, Lars; Dunder, Linda; McCleaf, Philip; Eurén, Karin; Ahrens, Lutz; Svartengren, Magnus; van Bavel, Bert; Kärrman, Anna

    2017-11-01

    In 2012, drinking water contaminated with per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), foremost perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) at levels over 20ng/L and 40ng/L, respectively, was confirmed in Uppsala, Sweden. We assessed how a longitudinally sampled cohort's temporal trend in PFAS plasma concentration was influenced by their residential location and determined the plausible association or disparity between the PFASs detected in the drinking water and the trend in the study cohort. The Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) cohort provided plasma samples three times from 2001 to 2014. Individuals maintaining the same zip code throughout the study (n = 399) were divided into a reference (no known PFAS exposure), low, intermediate and high exposure area depending on the proportion of contaminated drinking water received. Eight PFASs detected in the majority (75%) of the cohort's plasma samples were evaluated for significant changes in temporal PFAS concentrations using a random effects (mixed) model. PFHxS plasma concentrations continued to significantly increase in individuals living in areas receiving the largest percentage of contaminated drinking water (p < 0.0001), while PFOS showed an overall decrease. The temporal trend of other PFAS plasma concentrations did not show an association to the quality of drinking water received. The distribution of contaminated drinking water had a direct effect on the trend in PFHxS plasma levels among the different exposure groups, resulting in increased concentrations over time, especially in the intermediate and high exposure areas. PFOS and the remaining PFASs did not show the same relationship, suggesting other sources of exposure influenced these PFAS plasma trends. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Leveraging ongoing research to evaluate the health impacts of South Africa's salt reduction strategy: a prospective nested cohort within the WHO-SAGE multicountry, longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Charlton, Karen; Menyanu, Elias; Biritwum, Richard Berko; Naidoo, Nirmala; Pieterse, Chiné; Madurai, Savathree (Lorna); Baumgartner, Jeannine; Asare, George A; Thiele, Elizabeth; Schutte, Aletta E; Kowal, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Attempting to curb the rising epidemic of hypertension, South Africa implemented legislation in June 2016 mandating maximum sodium levels in a range of manufactured foods that contribute significantly to population salt intake. This natural experiment, comparing two African countries with and without salt legislation, will provide timely information on the impact of legislative approaches addressing the food supply to improve blood pressure in African populations. This article outlines the design of this ongoing prospective nested cohort study. Methods and analysis Baseline sodium intake was assessed in a nested cohort of the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (WHO-SAGE) wave 2 (2014–2015), a multinational longitudinal study on the health and well-being of adults and the ageing process. The South African cohort consisted of randomly selected households (n=4030) across the country. Spot and 24-hour urine samples are collected in a random subsample (n=1200) and sodium, potassium, creatinine and iodine analysed. Salt behaviour and sociodemographic data are captured using face-to-face interviews, alongside blood pressure and anthropometric measures. Ghana, the selected control country with no formal salt policy, provided a nested subsample (n=1200) contributing spot and 24-hour urine samples from the SAGE Ghana cohort (n=5000). Follow-up interviews and urine collection (wave 3) in both countries will take place in 2017 (postlegislation) to assess change in population-level sodium intake and blood pressure. Ethics and dissemination SAGE was approved by the WHO Ethics Review Committee (reference number RPC149) with local approval from the North-West University Human Research Ethics Committee and University of the Witwatersrand Human Research Ethics Committee (South Africa), and University of Ghana Medical School Ethics and Protocol Review Committee (Ghana). The results of the study will be published in peer-reviewed international journals

  3. A Longitudinal Study of the Social Distribution of Mathematics Achievement for a Cohort of Public High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandeville, Garrett K.; Kennedy, Eugene

    This paper reports the results of a study of changes in the social distribution of mathematics achievement for a cohort of public high school students. Using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) the study sought to identify school characteristics which were significantly correlated with changes in achievement differences from grade 9 to grade 11…

  4. Linking exposures and health outcomes to a large population-based longitudinal study: the Millennium Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tyler C

    2011-07-01

    To describe current efforts and future potential for understanding long-term health of military service members by linking the Millennium Cohort Study data to exposures and health outcomes. The Millennium Cohort Study launched in 2001, before September 11 and the start of combat operations in Afghanistan and Iraq. Other substantial Department of Defense (DoD) health, personnel, and exposure databases are maintained in electronic form and may be linked by personal identifiers. More than 150,000 consenting members comprise the Millennium Cohort from all services, and include active duty, Reserve, and National Guard current and past members, and represent demographic, occupational, military, and health characteristics of the U.S. military. These prospective data offer symptom assessment, behavioral health, and self-reported exposures that may complement and fill gaps in capability presented by other DoD electronic health and exposure data. In conjunction with Millennium Cohort survey data, prospective individual-level exposure and health outcome assessment is crucial to understand and quantify any long-term health outcomes potentially associated with unique military occupational exposures.

  5. The Development of Multiple Domains of Child and Adolescent Self-Concept: A Cohort Sequential Longitudinal Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, David A.; Maxwell, Scott E.; Martin, Joan M.; Peeke, Lachlan G.; Seroczynski, A.D.; Tran, Jane M.; Hoffman, Kit B.; Ruiz, Mark D.; Jacquez, Farrah; Maschman, Tracy

    2001-01-01

    Examined development of child and adolescent self-concept in two overlapping age cohorts as a function of the self-concept domain, social/developmental/educational transitions, and gender. Structural equation modeling addressed questions about stability of individual differences over time. Multilevel modeling addressed questions about mean-level…

  6. Longitudinal relationships between anxiety, depression, and pain: results from a two-year cohort study of lower extremity trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Renan C; Wegener, Stephen T; Heins, Sara E; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A; Mackenzie, Ellen J; Bosse, Michael J

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that pain, depression, and anxiety are common after trauma. A longitudinal relationship between depression, anxiety, and chronic pain has been hypothesized. Severe lower extremity trauma patients (n = 545) were followed at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after injury using a visual analog "present pain intensity" scale and the depression and anxiety scales of the Brief Symptom Inventory. Structural model results are presented as Standardized Regression Weights (SRW). Multiple imputation was used to account for missing data. A single structural model including all longitudinal pain intensity, anxiety symptoms, and depression symptoms time-points yielded excellent fit measures. Pain weakly predicted depression (3-6 months SRW = 0.07, P = .05; 6-12 months SRW = 0.06, P = .10) and anxiety (3-6 months SRW = 0.05, P = .21; 6-12 months SRW = 0.08, P = .03) during the first year after injury, and did not predict either construct beyond 1 year. Depression did not predict pain over any time period. In contrast, anxiety predicted pain over all time periods (3-6 months SRW = 0.11, P = .012; 6-12 months SRW = 0.14, P = .0065; 12-24 months SRW = 0.18, P < .0001). The results suggest that in the early phase after trauma, pain predicts anxiety and depression, but the magnitude of these relationships are smaller than the longitudinal relationship from anxiety to pain over this period. In the late (or chronic) phase after injury, the longitudinal relationship from anxiety on pain nearly doubles and is the only significant relationship. Despite missing data and a single item measure of pain intensity, these results provide evidence that negative mood, specifically anxiety, has an important role in the persistence of acute pain. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Albuminuria, renal dysfunction and circadian blood pressure rhythm in older men: a population-based longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hong; Huang, Xiaoyan; Risérus, Ulf; Cederholm, Tommy; Sjögren, Per; Lindholm, Bengt; Ärnlöv, Johan; Carrero, Juan Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Background Both albuminuria and kidney dysfunction may affect circadian blood pressure (BP) rhythm, while exacerbating each other's effects. We investigated associations and interactions of these two risk factors with circadian BP rhythm variation and non-dipper pattern progression in community-dwelling older men. Methods This was a cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses in the third and fourth cycles of the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men, including 1051 men (age 71 years) with assessments on urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER), 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) and cystatin-C-estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Of these, 574 men attended re-examination after 6 years. Study outcomes were ABMP changes and non-dipping BP pattern (prevalence and progression). Results UAER associated with circadian BP rhythm both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Longitudinally, significant interactions were observed between UAER and kidney dysfunction (eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) in its association with the changes of both night-time systolic BP (SBP) and night–day SBP ratio. After stratification, UAER strongly predicted night–day SBP ratio change only in those with concurrent kidney dysfunction. At re-examination, 221 new cases of non-dipper were identified. In multivariable logistic models, high UAER associated with increased likelihood of non-dipper progression, but more strongly so among individuals with concurrent kidney dysfunction. These associations were evident also in the subpopulation of non-diabetics and in participants with normal range UAER. Conclusions UAER associates with circadian BP rhythm variation and non-dipper progression in elderly men. Concurrent renal dysfunction modifies and exacerbates these associations. PMID:26413281

  8. The effects of cognitive reserve and lifestyle on cognition and dementia in Parkinson's disease--a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hindle, John V; Hurt, Catherine S; Burn, David J; Brown, Richard G; Samuel, Mike; Wilson, Kenneth C; Clare, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive reserve theory seeks to explain the observed mismatch between the degree of brain pathology and clinical manifestations. Early-life education, midlife social and occupational activities and later-life cognitive and social interactions are associated with a more favourable cognitive trajectory in older people. Previous studies of Parkinson's disease (PD) have suggested a possible role for the effects of cognitive reserve, but further research into different proxies for cognitive reserve and longitudinal studies is required. This study examined the effects of cognitive lifestyle on cross-sectional and longitudinal measures of cognition and dementia severity in people with PD. Baseline assessments of cognition, and of clinical, social and demographic information, were completed by 525 participants with PD. Cognitive assessments were completed by 323 participants at 4-year follow-up. Cognition was assessed using the measures of global cognition dementia severity. Cross-sectional and longitudinal serial analyses of covariance for cognition and binomial regression for dementia were performed. Higher educational level, socio-economic status and recent social engagement were associated with better cross-sectional global cognition. In those with normal cognition at baseline, higher educational level was associated with better global cognition after 4 years. Increasing age and low levels of a measure of recent social engagement were associated with an increased risk of dementia. Higher cognitive reserve has a beneficial effect on performance on cognitive tests and a limited effect on cognitive decline and dementia risk in PD. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Changes in social isolation and loneliness following total hip and knee arthroplasty: longitudinal analysis of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) cohort.

    PubMed

    Smith, T O; Dainty, J R; MacGregor, A J

    2017-09-01

    To determine the prevalence and change in social isolation and loneliness in people before and after total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in England. The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) dataset, a prospective study of community-dwelling older adults, was used to identify people who had undergone primary THA or TKA because of osteoarthritis. Social isolation was assessed using the ELSA Social Isolation Index. Loneliness was evaluated using the Revised University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Loneliness Scale. The prevalence of social isolation and loneliness were calculated and multilevel modelling was performed to assess the potential change of these measures before arthroplasty, within a two-year operative-recovery phase and a following two-year follow-up. The sample consisted of 393 people following THA and TKA. The prevalence of social isolation and loneliness changed from 16.9% to 18.8% pre-operative to 21.8% and 18.9% at the final post-operative follow-up respectively. This was not a statistically significant change for either measure (P = 0.15; P = 0.74). There was a significant difference in social isolation at the recovery phase compared to the pre-operative phase (P = 0.01), where people following arthroplasty reported an increase in social isolation (16.9-21.4%). There was no significant difference between the assessment phases in respect to UCLA Loneliness Scale score (P ≥ 0.74). Given the negative physical and psychological consequences which social isolation and loneliness can have on individuals following THA or TKA, clinicians should be mindful of this health challenge for this population. The reported prevalence of social isolation and loneliness suggests this is an important issue. Copyright © 2017 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Adolescents’ Civic Engagement and Alcohol Use: Longitudinal Evidence for Patterns of Engagement and Use in the Adult Lives of a British cohort

    PubMed Central

    Finlay, Andrea K.; Flanagan, Constance

    2015-01-01

    Participation in discretionary activities during adolescence may facilitate the development of social networks that recruit youth into adult civic life or provide risky contexts that promote alcohol problems. Using data from the 1970 British Cohort Study, latent class analysis was used to identify adolescents’ patterns of civic engagement, alcohol use, and other out-of-school activities at age 16, and test longitudinal links with adult civic engagement and alcohol use at ages 26, 30, and 34. Three classes were identified for both genders. The latent class characterized by involvement in more activities was more likely to be civically engaged in adulthood. The class characterized by the most alcohol use in adolescence had the highest likelihood of adult alcohol use and problems. Results are discussed in light of the health risks associated with each latent class and potential interventions that could be tailored to adolescents based on their patterns of activities. PMID:23462198

  11. KNOW-KT (KoreaN cohort study for outcome in patients with kidney transplantation: a 9-year longitudinal cohort study): study rationale and methodology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Asian patients undergoing kidney transplantation (KT) generally have better renal allograft survival and a lower burden of cardiovascular disease than those of other racial groups. The KNOW-KT aims to explore allograft survival rate, cardiovascular events, and metabolic profiles and to elucidate the risk factors in Korean KT patients. Methods KNOW-KT is a multicenter, observational cohort study encompassing 8 transplant centers in the Republic of Korea. KNOW-KT will enroll 1,000 KT recipients between 2012 and 2015 and follow them up to 9 years. At the time of KT and at pre-specified intervals, clinical information, laboratory test results, and functional and imaging studies on cardiovascular disease and metabolic complications will be recorded. Comorbid status will be assessed by the age-adjusted Charlson co-morbidity index. Medication adherence and information on quality of life (QoL) will be monitored periodically. The QoL will be assessed by the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form. Donors will include both living donors and deceased donors whose status will be assessed by the Kidney Donor Risk Index. Primary endpoints include graft loss and patient mortality. Secondary endpoints include renal functional deterioration (a decrease in eGFR to <30 mL/min/1.73 m2), acute rejection, cardiovascular event, albuminuria, new-onset diabetes after transplant, and QoL. Data on other adverse outcomes including episodes of infection, malignancy, recurrence of original renal disease, fracture, and hospitalization will also be collected. A bio-bank has been established for the acquisition of DNA, RNA, and protein from serum and urine samples of recipients at regular intervals. Bio-samples from donors will also be collected at the time of KT. KNOW-KT was registered in an international clinical trial registry (NCT02042963 at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov) on January 20th, 2014. Conclusion The KNOW-KT, the first large-scale cohort study in Asian KT patients, is

  12. KNOW-KT (KoreaN cohort study for outcome in patients with kidney transplantation: a 9-year longitudinal cohort study): study rationale and methodology.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jaeseok; Lee, Joongyup; Huh, Kyu Ha; Park, Jae Berm; Cho, Jang-Hee; Lee, Sik; Ro, Han; Han, Seung-Yeup; Kim, Young Hoon; Jeong, Jong Cheol; Park, Byung-Joo; Han, Duck Jong; Park, Sung-Bae; Chung, Wookyung; Park, Sung Kwang; Kim, Chan-Duck; Kim, Sung Joo; Kim, Yu Seun; Ahn, Curie

    2014-05-09

    Asian patients undergoing kidney transplantation (KT) generally have better renal allograft survival and a lower burden of cardiovascular disease than those of other racial groups. The KNOW-KT aims to explore allograft survival rate, cardiovascular events, and metabolic profiles and to elucidate the risk factors in Korean KT patients. KNOW-KT is a multicenter, observational cohort study encompassing 8 transplant centers in the Republic of Korea. KNOW-KT will enroll 1,000 KT recipients between 2012 and 2015 and follow them up to 9 years. At the time of KT and at pre-specified intervals, clinical information, laboratory test results, and functional and imaging studies on cardiovascular disease and metabolic complications will be recorded. Comorbid status will be assessed by the age-adjusted Charlson co-morbidity index. Medication adherence and information on quality of life (QoL) will be monitored periodically. The QoL will be assessed by the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form. Donors will include both living donors and deceased donors whose status will be assessed by the Kidney Donor Risk Index. Primary endpoints include graft loss and patient mortality. Secondary endpoints include renal functional deterioration (a decrease in eGFR to <30 mL/min/1.73 m2), acute rejection, cardiovascular event, albuminuria, new-onset diabetes after transplant, and QoL. Data on other adverse outcomes including episodes of infection, malignancy, recurrence of original renal disease, fracture, and hospitalization will also be collected. A bio-bank has been established for the acquisition of DNA, RNA, and protein from serum and urine samples of recipients at regular intervals. Bio-samples from donors will also be collected at the time of KT. KNOW-KT was registered in an international clinical trial registry (NCT02042963 at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov) on January 20th, 2014. The KNOW-KT, the first large-scale cohort study in Asian KT patients, is expected to represent the Asian

  13. Hidden osteophyte formation on plain X-ray is the predictive factor for development of knee osteoarthritis after 48 months--data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    PubMed

    Katsuragi, J; Sasho, T; Yamaguchi, S; Sato, Y; Watanabe, A; Akagi, R; Muramatsu, Y; Mukoyama, S; Akatsu, Y; Fukawa, T; Endo, J; Hoshi, H; Yamamoto, Y; Sasaki, T; Takahashi, K

    2015-03-01

    To examine whether the detection of osteophytes anywhere in the knee could serve as a pre-radiographic biomarker for osteoarthritis (OA) development. Baseline magnetic resonance imaging (MRIs) of 132 participants in the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) were studied. Based on radiographs, 66 knees were assessed as osteoarthritis-free (no-osteoarthritis [NOA], or Kellgren/Lawrence [K/L] severity grade 0/1 both at baseline and 48 months), and another 66 knees were assessed as having radiographic OA changes (pre-radiographic osteoarthritis [PROA], or with K/L grade 0/1 at baseline and grade ≥ 2 at 48 months). Using baseline MRI data, we examined eight sites of osteophyte formation: the medial and lateral femoral condyle (MFC and LFC, respectively); medial and lateral tibial plateau (MTP and LTP, respectively); medial and lateral facets of the patellofemoral joint (PM and PL, respectively); tibial spine (TS); and femoral intercondylar notch (IC). Knee joint osteophyte size was assessed via the 8-point marginal osteophytes item of the whole-organ magnetic resonance imaging score (WORMS). The frequencies and distributions of osteophytes were compared between groups. Mild-size osteophytes (defined as score ≥ 2) were observed more frequently at the MFC (P = 0.00278), MTP (P = 0.0046), TS (P = 0.0146), PM (P < 0.0001), PL (P = 0.0012), and IC (P < 0.0001) in PROA knees than in NOA knees. Moderate-size osteophytes (defined as score ≥ 4) were more frequently observed in PROA knees than in NOA knees only at the IC (P < 0.0001). Knees with osteophyte formation at the IC, even those of K/L severity grade 0/1, are at risk for the development of radiographic OA by 48 months. Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Healthcare Resource Use and Costs in Long-Term Survivors of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A 5-Year Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Ruhl, A Parker; Huang, Minxuan; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Lord, Robert K; Dinglas, Victor D; Chong, Alexandra; Sepulveda, Kristin A; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A; Shanholtz, Carl B; Steinwachs, Donald M; Pronovost, Peter J; Needham, Dale M

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the time-varying relationship of annual physical, psychiatric, and quality of life status with subsequent inpatient healthcare resource use and estimated costs. Five-year longitudinal cohort study. Thirteen ICUs at four teaching hospitals. One hundred thirty-eight patients surviving greater than or equal to 2 years after acute respiratory distress syndrome. None. Postdischarge inpatient resource use data (e.g., hospitalizations, skilled nursing, and rehabilitation facility stays) were collected via a retrospective structured interview at 2 years, with prospective collection every 4 months thereafter, until 5 years postacute respiratory distress syndrome. Adjusted odds ratios for hospitalization and relative medians for estimated episode of care costs were calculated using marginal longitudinal two-part regression. The median (interquartile range) number of inpatient admission hospitalizations was 4 (2-8), with 114 patients (83%) reporting greater than or equal to one hospital readmission. The median (interquartile range) estimated total inpatient postdischarge costs over 5 years were $58,500 ($19,700-157,800; 90th percentile, $328,083). Better annual physical and quality of life status, but not psychiatric status, were associated with fewer subsequent hospitalizations and lower follow-up costs. For example, greater grip strength (per 6 kg) had an odds ratio (95% CI) of 0.85 (0.73-1.00) for inpatient admission, with 23% lower relative median costs, 0.77 (0.69-0.87). In a multisite cohort of long-term acute respiratory distress syndrome survivors, better annual physical and quality of life status, but not psychiatric status, were associated with fewer hospitalizations and lower healthcare costs.

  15. Longitudinal telomere length shortening and cognitive and physical decline in later life: The Lothian Birth Cohorts 1936 and 1921

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Sarah E.; Marioni, Riccardo E.; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen; Pattie, Alison; Gow, Alan J.; Cox, Simon R.; Corley, Janie; von Zglinicki, Thomas; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2016-01-01

    Telomere length is hypothesised to be a biological marker of both cognitive and physical ageing. Here we measure telomere length, and cognitive and physical abilities at mean ages 70, 73 and 76 years in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (LBC1936), and at mean ages 79, 87, 90 and 92 years in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 (LBC1921). We investigate whether telomere length change predicts change in cognitive and physical abilities. In LBC1936 telomere length decreased by an average of 65 base pairs per year and in LBC1921 by 69 base pairs per year. However, change in telomere length did not predict change in cognitive or physical abilities. This study shows that, although cognitive ability, walking speed, lung function and grip strength all decline with age, they do so independently of telomere length shortening. PMID:26876762

  16. Supportive Family Environments Ameliorate the Link Between Racial Discrimination and Epigenetic Aging: A Replication Across Two Longitudinal Cohorts.

    PubMed

    Brody, Gene H; Miller, Gregory E; Yu, Tianyi; Beach, Steven R H; Chen, Edith

    2016-04-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that supportive family environments during adolescence buffer exposure to racial discrimination, reducing its impact on biological weathering and its manifestation in cellular aging. Perceived racial discrimination, support in the family environment, and confounder variables were assessed for 3 consecutive years across adolescence in two independent cohorts of African American youth from rural Georgia. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected during young adulthood. Patterns of methylation were used to index the epigenetic ages of these cells and the extent to which they differed from participants' chronological ages. Among youth in supportive family environments, exposure to higher levels of racial discrimination did not forecast greater epigenetic aging. Among youth in less supportive family environments, exposure to higher levels of racial discrimination did forecast greater epigenetic aging. The associations emerged independently of confounder variables, and the results were replicated across the two cohorts. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Supportive Family Environments Ameliorate the Link Between Racial Discrimination and Epigenetic Aging: A Replication Across Two Longitudinal Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Gene H.; Miller, Gregory E.; Yu, Tianyi; Beach, Steven R. H.; Chen, Edith

    2015-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that supportive family environments during adolescence will buffer exposure to racial discrimination, reducing its impact on biological weathering and its manifestation in cellular aging. Indicators of racial discrimination, supportive family environments, and covariates were collected for 3 consecutive years across adolescence from 2 independent cohorts of African American youth from rural Georgia. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected during young adulthood. Patterns of methylation were used to index epigenetic ages of these cells and the extent to which they differed from participants’ chronological ages. Among youth in supportive family environments, exposure to high levels of racial discrimination did not forecast epigenetic aging. Among youth in less supportive family environments, exposure to high levels of racial discrimination forecast faster epigenetic aging. The results did not change when confounder variables were included in the data analyses, and the results were replicated across cohorts. PMID:26917213

  18. The U.S. Department of Veterans' Affairs depleted uranium exposed cohort at 25 Years: Longitudinal surveillance results.

    PubMed

    McDiarmid, Melissa A; Gaitens, Joanna M; Hines, Stella; Condon, Marian; Roth, Tracy; Oliver, Marc; Gucer, Patricia; Brown, Lawrence; Centeno, Jose A; Dux, Moira; Squibb, Katherine S

    2017-01-01

    A small group of Gulf War I veterans wounded in depleted uranium (DU) friendly-fire incidents have been monitored for health changes in a clinical surveillance program at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Baltimore since 1994. During the spring of 2015, an in-patient clinical surveillance protocol was performed on 36 members of the cohort, including exposure monitoring for total and isotopic uranium concentrations in urine and a comprehensive assessment of health outcomes. On-going mobilization of U from embedded fragments is evidenced by elevated urine U concentrations. The DU isotopic signature is observed principally in participants possessing embedded fragments. Those with only an inhalation exposure have lower urine U concentration and a natural isotopic signature. At 25 years since first exposure to DU, an aging cohort of military veterans continues to show no U-related health effects in known target organs of U toxicity. As U body burden continues to accrue from in-situ mobilization from metal fragment depots, and increases with exposure duration, critical tissue-specific U concentration thresholds may be reached, thus recommending on-going surveillance of this veteran cohort. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. A Longitudinal Investigation of the Relationship between Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Posttraumatic Growth in a Cohort of Israeli Jews and Palestinians during Ongoing Violence

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Brian J.; Saltzman, Leia Y.; Canetti, Daphna; Hobfoll, Stevan E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Meta-analytic evidence based on cross-sectional investigations between posttraumatic growth (PTG) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) demonstrates that the two concepts are positively related and that ethnic minorities report greater PTG. Few longitudinal studies have quantified this relationship so the evidence is limited regarding the potential benefit PTG may have on post-traumatic adjustment and whether differences between ethnic groups exist. Methods The current study attempts to fill a substantial gap in the literature by exploring the relationship between PTG and PTSD symptom clusters longitudinally using a nationally representative cohort of 1613 Israelis and Palestinian Citizens of Israel (PCI) interviewed via telephone on three measurement occasions during one year. Latent cross-lagged structural models estimated the relationship between PTG and each PTSD symptom cluster, derived from confirmatory factor analysis, representing latent and statistically invariant PTSD symptom factors, best representing PTSD for both ethnic groups. Results PTG was not associated with less PTSD symptom severity in any of the four PTSD clusters, for Jews and PCI. In contrast, PTSD symptom severity assessed earlier was related to later reported PTG in both groups. Conclusions This study demonstrates that PTSD symptoms contribute to greater reported PTG, but that PTG does not provide a salutatory benefit by reducing symptoms of PTSD. PMID:25910043

  20. Longitudinal dose and type of immunosuppression in a national cohort of Australian liver, heart, and lung transplant recipients, 1984-2006.

    PubMed

    Na, Renhua; Laaksonen, Maarit A; Grulich, Andrew E; Webster, Angela C; Meagher, Nicola S; McCaughan, Geoffrey W; Keogh, Anne M; Vajdic, Claire M

    2015-11-01

    Unconfounded comparative data on the type and dose of immunosuppressive agents among solid organ transplant recipients are sparse, as are data on longitudinal immunosuppressive therapy since transplantation. We addressed this issue in a population-based cohort of Australian liver (n = 1895), heart (n = 1220), and lung (n = 1059) transplant recipients, 1984-2006. Data on immunosuppressive therapy were retrospectively collected at discharge, three months, and one, five, 10, and 15 yr after first transplant. We computed unadjusted and adjusted estimates for the association between the type and dose of immunosuppressive therapy and organ type. After adjustment for confounders, use of induction antibody and maintenance corticosteroids was more common in heart and lung compared to liver recipients (p < 0.001), and antibody therapy for rejection more common in liver recipients (p < 0.001). Liver recipients were more likely to receive calcineurin inhibitor monotherapy, with or without corticosteroids, compared to heart and lung recipients (p < 0.001). Liver recipients consistently received lower doses of azathioprine than heart and lung recipients (p < 0.001). These differences in immunosuppression may partly explain variations in immunosuppression-related morbidity by transplanted organ, for example, malignancy risk. Longitudinal changes in the type and the dose of immunosuppressive therapy over time since transplantation also demonstrate the need for time-dependent data in observational research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Using constructs of the transtheoretical model to predict classes of change in regular physical activity: a multi-ethnic longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dishman, Rod K; Vandenberg, Robert J; Motl, Robert W; Nigg, Claudio R

    2010-10-01

    Explaining variation in meeting recommended levels of physical activity across time is important for the design of effective public health interventions. To model longitudinal change in constructs of the Transtheoretical Model and test their hypothesized relations with change in meeting the Healthy People 2010 guidelines for regular participation in moderate or vigorous physical activity, a cohort (N = 497) from a random, multi-ethnic sample of 700 adults living in Hawaii was assessed at 6-month intervals three or more times for 2 years. Latent class growth modeling was used to classify people according to their initial levels and trajectories of change in the transtheoretical variables and separately according to whether they met the physical activity guideline each time. Relations of the variables and their change with classes of meeting the guideline were then tested using multinomial logistic regression. Despite declines or no change in mean scores for all transtheoretical variables except self-efficacy, participants who maintained or attained the physical activity guideline were more likely to retain higher scores across the 2 years of observation. The usefulness of transtheoretical constructs for predicting maintenance of, or increases in, public health levels of physical activity was generally supported. These longitudinal results support earlier cross-sectional findings which indicate that, contrary to theory, people appear to use both experiential and behavioral processes while they attempt to increase or maintain their physical activity.

  2. Using Constructs of the Transtheoretical Model to Predict Classes of Change in Regular Physical Activity: A Multi-Ethnic Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Vandenberg, Robert J.; Motl, Robert W.; Nigg, Claudio R.

    2011-01-01

    Explaining variation in meeting recommended levels of physical activity across time is important for the design of effective public health interventions. To model longitudinal change in constructs of the Transtheoretical Model and test their hypothesized relations with change in meeting the Healthy People 2010 guidelines for regular participation in moderate or vigorous physical activity, a cohort (N=497) from a random, multi-ethnic sample of 700 adults living in Hawaii was assessed at 6-month intervals three or more times for 2 years. Latent class growth modeling was used to classify people according to their initial levels and trajectories of change in the transtheoretical variables and separately according to whether they met the physical activity guideline each time. Relations of the variables and their change with classes of meeting the guideline were then tested using multinomial logistic regression. Despite declines or no change in mean scores for all transtheoretical variables except self-efficacy, participants who maintained or attained the physical activity guideline were more likely to retain higher scores across the 2 years of observation. The usefulness of transtheoretical constructs for predicting maintenance of, or increases in, public health levels of physical activity was generally supported. These longitudinal results support earlier cross-sectional findings which indicate that, contrary to theory, people appear to use both experiential and behavioral processes while they attempt to increase or maintain their physical activity. PMID:20552417

  3. A Longitudinal Investigation of the Relationship between Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Posttraumatic Growth in a Cohort of Israeli Jews and Palestinians during Ongoing Violence.

    PubMed

    Hall, Brian J; Saltzman, Leia Y; Canetti, Daphna; Hobfoll, Stevan E

    2015-01-01

    Meta-analytic evidence based on cross-sectional investigations between posttraumatic growth (PTG) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) demonstrates that the two concepts are positively related and that ethnic minorities report greater PTG. Few longitudinal studies have quantified this relationship so the evidence is limited regarding the potential benefit PTG may have on post-traumatic adjustment and whether differences between ethnic groups exist. The current study attempts to fill a substantial gap in the literature by exploring the relationship between PTG and PTSD symptom clusters longitudinally using a nationally representative cohort of 1613 Israelis and Palestinian Citizens of Israel (PCI) interviewed via telephone on three measurement occasions during one year. Latent cross-lagged structural models estimated the relationship between PTG and each PTSD symptom cluster, derived from confirmatory factor analysis, representing latent and statistically invariant PTSD symptom factors, best representing PTSD for both ethnic groups. PTG was not associated with less PTSD symptom severity in any of the four PTSD clusters, for Jews and PCI. In contrast, PTSD symptom severity assessed earlier was related to later reported PTG in both groups. This study demonstrates that PTSD symptoms contribute to greater reported PTG, but that PTG does not provide a salutatory benefit by reducing symptoms of PTSD.

  4. Longitudinal changes in tear fluid lipidome brought about by eyelid-warming treatment in a cohort of meibomian gland dysfunction[S

    PubMed Central

    Man Lam, Sin; Tong, Louis; Duan, Xinrui; Acharya, U. Rajendra; Tan, Jen Hong; Petznick, Andrea; Wenk, Markus R.; Shui, Guanghou

    2014-01-01

    Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is a leading cause of evaporative dry eye and ocular discomfort characterized by an unstable tear film principally attributed to afflicted delivery of lipids to the ocular surface. Herein, we elucidated longitudinal tear lipid alterations associated with disease alleviation and symptom improvement in a cohort of MGD patients undergoing eyelid-warming treatment for 12 weeks. Remarkably, eyelid-warming resulted in stark reductions in lysophospholipids (P < 0.001 for lyso-plasmalogen phosphatidylethanolamine, lysophosphatidylcholine, and lysophosphatidylinositol), as well as numerous PUFA-containing diacylglyceride species in tears, accompanied by significant increases in several PUFA-containing phospholipids. These changes in tear lipidomes suggest that eyelid-warming leads to diminished activity of tear phospholipases that preferentially target PUFA-containing phospholipids. In addition, treatment led to appreciable increases (P < 0.001) in O-acyl-ω-hydroxy-FAs (OAHFAs), which are lipid amphiphiles critical to the maintenance of tear film stability. Longitudinal changes in the tear lipids aforementioned also significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with reduced rate of ocular evaporation and improvement in ocular symptoms. The foregoing data thus indicate that excess ocular surface phospholipase activity detrimental to tear film stability could be alleviated by eyelid warming alone without application of steroids and identify tear OAHFAs as suitable markers to monitor treatment response in MGD. PMID:24994912

  5. The Statistical Modeling of Aging and Risk of Transition Project: Data Collection and Harmonization Across 11 Longitudinal Cohort Studies of Aging, Cognition, and Dementia.

    PubMed

    Abner, E L; Schmitt, F A; Nelson, P T; Lou, W; Wan, L; Gauriglia, R; Dodge, H H; Woltjer, R L; Yu, L; Bennett, D A; Schneider, J A; Chen, R; Masaki, K; Katz, M J; Lipton, R B; Dickson, D W; Lim, K O; Hemmy, L S; Cairns, N J; Grant, E; Tyas, S L; Xiong, C; Fardo, D W; Kryscio, R J

    2015-03-01

    Longitudinal cognitive trajectories and other factors associated with mixed neuropathologies (such as Alzheimer's disease with co-occurring cerebrovascular disease) remain incompletely understood, despite being the rule and not the exception in older populations. The Statistical Modeling of Aging and Risk of Transition study (SMART) is a consortium of 11 different high-quality longitudinal studies of aging and cognition (N=11,541 participants) established for the purpose of characterizing risk and protective factors associated with subtypes of age-associated mixed neuropathologies (N=3,001 autopsies). While brain donation was not required for participation in all SMART cohorts, most achieved substantial autopsy rates (i.e., > 50%). Moreover, the studies comprising SMART have large numbers of participants who were followed from intact cognition and transitioned to cognitive impairment and dementia, as well as participants who remained cognitively intact until death. These data provide an exciting opportunity to apply sophisticated statistical methods, like Markov processes, that require large, well-characterized samples. Thus, SMART will serve as an important resource for the field of mixed dementia epidemiology and neuropathology.

  6. Longitudinal association of antidepressant medication use with metabolic syndrome: Results of a 9-year follow-up of the D.E.S.I.R. cohort study.

    PubMed

    Azevedo Da Silva, Marine; Balkau, Beverley; Roussel, Ronan; Tichet, Jean; Fumeron, Frédéric; Fagherazzi, Guy; Nabi, Hermann

    2016-12-01

    To examine longitudinal associations between antidepressant medication use and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). 5014 participants (49.8% were men) from the D.E.S.I.R. cohort study, aged 30-65 years at baseline in 1994-1996, were followed over 9 years at 3-yearly intervals (1997-1999, 2000-2002, and 2003-2005). Antidepressant use and MetS, defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria (NCEP-ATP III) and the American Heart Association and the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI) criteria, were assessed concurrently at four medical examinations. In fully-adjusted longitudinal logistic regression analyses based on generalized estimating equations, antidepressant users had a 9% (p=0.011) and a 6% (p=0.036) greater annual increase in the odds of having the MetS defined by NCEP-ATP III and AHA/NHLBI criteria respectively. Sex-specific analyses showed that this association was confined to men only. When the different types of antidepressant were considered, men who used selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), imipramine type antidepressants or "other" antidepressants had a 52% (p=0.028), 31% (p=0.011), and 16% (p=0.016) greater annual increase in the odds of having the MetS over time compared to non-users, respectively. These associations depended on the definition of the MetS. Our longitudinal data showed that antidepressant use was associated with an increased odds of having the MetS in men but not in women and this was mainly for SSRIs, imipramine type and "other" antidepressants. People on antidepressants may need to be checked regularly for the elements of the metabolic syndrome treatable by change in diet, physical activity and/or by medication therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons of metabolic profiles between vegetarian and non-vegetarian subjects: a matched cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yen-Feng; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Chiu, Tina H T; Lee, Chun-Yi; Liu, Ting-Ting; Tsao, Chwen Keng; Chuang, Su-Chun; Hsiung, Chao A

    2015-10-28

    Several previous cross-sectional studies have shown that vegetarians have a better metabolic profile than non-vegetarians, suggesting that a vegetarian dietary pattern may help prevent chronic degenerative diseases. However, longitudinal studies on the impact of vegetarian diets on metabolic traits are scarce. We studied how several sub-types of vegetarian diets affect metabolic traits, including waist circumference, BMI, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC), HDL, LDL, TAG and TC:HDL ratio, through both cross-sectional and longitudinal study designs. The study used the MJ Health Screening database, with data collected from 1994 to 2008 in Taiwan, which included 4415 lacto-ovo-vegetarians, 1855 lacto-vegetarians and 1913 vegans; each vegetarian was matched with five non-vegetarians based on age, sex and study site. In the longitudinal follow-up, each additional year of vegan diet lowered the risk of obesity by 7 % (95 % CI 0·88, 0·99), whereas each additional year of lacto-vegetarian diet lowered the risk of elevated SBP by 8 % (95 % CI 0·85, 0·99) and elevated glucose by 7 % (95 % CI 0·87, 0·99), and each additional year of ovo-lacto-vegetarian diet increased abnormal HDL by 7 % (95 % CI 1·03, 1·12), compared with non-vegetarians. In the cross-sectional comparisons, all sub-types of vegetarians had lower likelihoods of abnormalities compared with non-vegetarians on all metabolic traits (P<0·001 for all comparisons), except for HDL and TAG. The better metabolic profile in vegetarians is partially attributable to lower BMI. With proper management of TAG and HDL, along with caution about the intake of refined carbohydrates and fructose, a plant-based diet may benefit all aspects of the metabolic profile.

  8. Etiological overlap between obsessive-compulsive disorder and anorexia nervosa: a longitudinal cohort, multigenerational family and twin study.

    PubMed

    Cederlöf, Martin; Thornton, Laura M; Baker, Jessica; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik; Rück, Christian; Bulik, Cynthia M; Mataix-Cols, David

    2015-10-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often co-occurs with anorexia nervosa (AN), a comorbid profile that complicates the clinical management of both conditions. This population-based study aimed to examine patterns of comorbidity, longitudinal risks, shared familial risks and shared genetic factors between OCD and AN at the population level. Participants were individuals with a diagnosis of OCD (N=19,814) or AN (N=8,462) in the Swedish National Patient Register between January 1992 and December 2009; their first-, second- and third-degree relatives; and population-matched (1:10 ratio) unaffected comparison individuals and their relatives. Female twins from the population-based Swedish Twin Register (N=8,550) were also included. Females with OCD had a 16-fold increased risk of having a comorbid diagnosis of AN, whereas males with OCD had a 37-fold increased risk. Longitudinal analyses showed that individuals first diagnosed with OCD had an increased risk for a later diagnosis of AN (risk ratio, RR=3.6), whereas individuals first diagnosed with AN had an even greater risk for a later diagnosis of OCD (RR=9.6). These longitudinal risks were about twice as high for males than for females. First- and second-degree relatives of probands with OCD had an increased risk for AN, and the magnitude of this risk tended to increase with the degree of genetic relatedness. Bivariate twin models revealed a moderate but significant degree of genetic overlap between self-reported OCD and AN diagnoses (ra =0.52, 95% CI: 0.26-0.81), but most of the genetic variance was disorder-specific. The moderately high genetic correlation supports the idea that this frequently observed comorbid pattern is at least in part due to shared genetic factors, though disorder-specific factors are more important. These results have implications for current gene-searching efforts and for clinical practice.

  9. Etiological overlap between obsessive-compulsive disorder and anorexia nervosa: a longitudinal cohort, multigenerational family and twin study

    PubMed Central

    Cederlöf, Martin; Thornton, Laura M; Baker, Jessica; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik; Rück, Christian; Bulik, Cynthia M; Mataix-Cols, David

    2015-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often co-occurs with anorexia nervosa (AN), a comorbid profile that complicates the clinical management of both conditions. This population-based study aimed to examine patterns of comorbidity, longitudinal risks, shared familial risks and shared genetic factors between OCD and AN at the population level. Participants were individuals with a diagnosis of OCD (N=19,814) or AN (N=8,462) in the Swedish National Patient Register between January 1992 and December 2009; their first-, second- and third-degree relatives; and population-matched (1:10 ratio) unaffected comparison individuals and their relatives. Female twins from the population-based Swedish Twin Register (N=8,550) were also included. Females with OCD had a 16-fold increased risk of having a comorbid diagnosis of AN, whereas males with OCD had a 37-fold increased risk. Longitudinal analyses showed that individuals first diagnosed with OCD had an increased risk for a later diagnosis of AN (risk ratio, RR=3.6), whereas individuals first diagnosed with AN had an even greater risk for a later diagnosis of OCD (RR=9.6). These longitudinal risks were about twice as high for males than for females. First- and second-degree relatives of probands with OCD had an increased risk for AN, and the magnitude of this risk tended to increase with the degree of genetic relatedness. Bivariate twin models revealed a moderate but significant degree of genetic overlap between self-reported OCD and AN diagnoses (ra=0.52, 95% CI: 0.26-0.81), but most of the genetic variance was disorder-specific. The moderately high genetic correlation supports the idea that this frequently observed comorbid pattern is at least in part due to shared genetic factors, though disorder-specific factors are more important. These results have implications for current gene-searching efforts and for clinical practice. PMID:26407789

  10. The period effect in the prevalence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy, gross proteinuria, and peripheral neuropathy in type 1 diabetes: A longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Horak, Kayla; Lee, Kristine E.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Aims To investigate whether, for a specific duration of type 1 diabetes, there is a significant change in the prevalence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy, gross proteinuria and peripheral neuropathy in those more recently diagnosed with diabetes (a period effect), in the Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy. Where present, to determine how common risk factors for diabetic complications might be associated with it, and what might be driving it. Materials and methods Longitudinal cohort study with seven examination phases between 1980 and 2014. Multivariate logistic regression models and ordinal parameterization were used to test for and evaluate any period effect. Results There is a period effect in the prevalence of gross proteinuria and peripheral neuropathy (decreasing), as seen with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (p < 0.001). Adjusting for changing levels of common risk factors attenuates the period effect, particularly for proliferative diabetic retinopathy. For gross proteinuria and peripheral neuropathy, however there is a persistent period effect in spite of adjusting for the major risk factors. Conclusions There are period effects in the prevalence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy, gross proteinuria and peripheral neuropathy that cannot be fully explained by changes in common risk factors for complications of type 1 diabetes in this cohort. The role of other potential confounders warrants further exploration. PMID:28362881

  11. Coexisting geriatric anxiety and depressive disorders may increase the risk of ischemic heart disease mortality-a nationwide longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wei Hung; Lee, I Hui; Chen, Wei Tseng; Chen, Po See; Yang, Yen Kuang; Chen, Kao Chin

    2016-12-14

    In the elderly, the risk of mortality because of physical illnesses related to anxiety disorders varies with potential confounding influences, including comorbidity with depressive disorders. Our study aimed to explore (i) whether anxiety disorders increase the risk of mortality in the elderly, and (ii) whether the risk of mortality mediated by anxiety and depressive disorders differs between physical illnesses. Our longitudinal cohort study included subjects aged over 60 years from the National Health Insurance Research Database. One thousand and eighty-six subjects with anxiety disorders and 50 554 control subjects without anxiety disorders were included. Propensity score-matched cohorts were analyzed. Rate ratios (RRs) were calculated for the risk of mortality associated with different physical illnesses with comorbidities of either anxiety disorders only or both anxiety and depressive disorders. The risk of mortality in patients with anxiety disorders was significantly higher than controls, and was even higher when subjects had both anxiety and depressive disorder comorbidities. Furthermore, the co-occurrence of anxiety and depressive disorders increased the risk of mortality in elderly patients with ischemic heart diseases (RR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.14-2.24). Coexisting anxiety and depressive disorders could increase the risk of mortality in elderly patients with ischemic heart diseases. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Age and gender differences in the influence of social support on mental health: a longitudinal fixed-effects analysis using 13 annual waves of the HILDA cohort.

    PubMed

    Milner, A; Krnjacki, L; LaMontagne, A D

    2016-11-01

    Perceived social support is associated with better mental health. There has been limited attention to how these relationships are modified by age and gender. We assessed this topic using 13 years of cohort data. Prospective cohort study. The outcome was the Mental Health Inventory-5 (MHI-5), a reliable and valid screening instrument for mood disorders. The main exposure was a social support scale composed of 10 items. We used longitudinal fixed-effects regression modelling to investigate within-person changes in mental health. Analytic models controlled for within-person sources of bias. We controlled for time-related factors by including them into regression modelling. The provision of higher levels of social support was associated with greater improvements in mental health for people aged under 30 years than for older age groups. The mental health of females appeared to benefit slightly more from higher levels of social support than males. Improvements in the MHI-5 were on a scale that could be considered clinically significant. The benefits of social support for young people may be connected to age-related transitions in self-identity and peer friendship networks. Results for females may reflect their tendency to place greater emphasis on social networks than males. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Multistate transitional models for measuring adherence to breast cancer screening: A population-based longitudinal cohort study with over two million women.

    PubMed

    Sutradhar, R; Gu, S; Paszat, L F

    2017-06-01

    Objective Prior work on the disparities among women in breast cancer screening adherence has been methodologically limited. This longitudinal study determines and examines the factors associated with becoming adherent. Methods In a cohort of Canadian women aged 50-74, a three-state transitional model was used to examine adherence to screening for breast cancer. The proportion of time spent being non-adherent with screening was calculated for each woman during her observation window. Using age as the time scale, a relative rate multivariable regression was implemented under the three-state transitional model, to examine the association between covariates (all time-varying) and the rate of becoming adherent. Results The cohort consisted of 2,537,960 women with a median follow-up of 8.46 years. Nearly 31% of women were continually up-to-date with breast screening. Once a woman was non-adherent, the rate of becoming adherent was higher among longer term residents (relative rate = 1.289, 95% confidence interval 1.275-1.302), those from wealthier neighbourhoods, and those who had an identifiable primary care provider who was female or had graduated in Canada. Conclusion Individual and physician-level characteristics play an important role in a woman's adherence to screening. This work improves the quality of evidence regarding disparities among women in adherence to breast cancer screening and provides a novel methodological foundation to investigate adherence for other types of screening, including cervix and colorectal cancer screening.

  14. Short sleep duration reduces the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease onset in men: a community-based longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Teruki; Kumagi, Teru; Furukawa, Shinya; Hirooka, Masashi; Kawasaki, Keitarou; Koizumi, Mitsuhito; Todo, Yasuhiko; Yamamoto, Shin; Tokumoto, Yoshio; Ikeda, Yoshio; Abe, Masanori; Kitai, Kohichiro; Matsuura, Bunzo; Hiasa, Yoichi

    2015-05-01

    Epidemiologic studies show an association between short sleep duration and the presence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study examined the association between short sleep duration and the onset of NAFLD. This community-based, retrospective, longitudinal cohort study included 6,370 Japanese subjects who had undergone annual health check-ups more than twice at a single center between April 2003 and March 2010. After excluding 3,941 subjects, the records of 2,429 Japanese subjects were reviewed. Two groups comprised the study cohort: those with short (≤ 6 h) sleep durations (n = 1,543) and those with moderate (7-8 h) sleep durations (n = 886). During the observation period, 296 subjects developed NAFLD. Multivariate analysis identified an association between short sleep duration and the reduced onset of NAFLD in men (odds ratio: 0.551, 95% confidence interval 0.365-0.832, p = 0.005). There was no association between short sleep duration and NAFLD onset in women. The prevalence of NAFLD onset in men increased significantly as sleep duration increased, as follows: 12.5, 18.4, and 27.4% among subjects who had sleep durations of ≤ 4, 5-6, and 7-8 h, respectively (p = 0.02). This study demonstrates an association between sleep duration and NAFLD onset. Short sleep duration reduced the risk of NAFLD onset in men. Correct recognition is important to prevent disease progression and further complications.

  15. A longitudinal study of the infant nasopharyngeal microbiota: The effects of age, illness and antibiotic use in a cohort of South East Asian children.

    PubMed

    Salter, Susannah J; Turner, Claudia; Watthanaworawit, Wanitda; de Goffau, Marcus C; Wagner, Josef; Parkhill, Julian; Bentley, Stephen D; Goldblatt, David; Nosten, Francois; Turner, Paul

    2017-10-02

    A longitudinal study was undertaken in infants living in the Maela refugee camp on the Thailand-Myanmar border between 2007 and 2010. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected monthly, from birth to 24 months of age, with additional swabs taken if the infant was diagnosed with pneumonia according to WHO clinical criteria. At the time of collection, swabs were cultured for Streptococcus pneumoniae and multiple serotype carriage was assessed. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene profiles of 544 swabs from 21 infants were analysed to see how the microbiota changes with age, respiratory infection, antibiotic consumption and pneumococcal acquisition. The nasopharyngeal microbiota is a somewhat homogenous community compared to that of other body sites. In this cohort it is dominated by five taxa: Moraxella, Streptococcus, Haemophilus, Corynebacterium and an uncharacterized Flavobacteriaceae taxon of 93% nucleotide similarity to Ornithobacterium. Infant age correlates with certain changes in the microbiota across the cohort: Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium are associated with the first few months of life while Moraxella and the uncharacterised Flavobacteriaceae increase in proportional abundance with age. Respiratory illness and antibiotic use often coincide with an unpredictable perturbation of the microbiota that differs from infant to infant and in different illness episodes. The previously described interaction between Dolosigranulum and Streptococcus was observed in these data. Monthly sampling demonstrates that the nasopharyngeal microbiota is in flux throughout the first two years of life, and that in this refugee camp population the pool of potential bacterial colonisers may be limited.

  16. Fathers of U.S. Children Born in 2001: Findings from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) E.D. TAB. NCES 2006-002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avenilla, Frank; Rosenthal, Emily; Tice, Pete

    2006-01-01

    This E.D. TAB presents information about the biological fathers of children born in the United States in the year 2001. It is the first publication of findings using the data collected from fathers during the base year collection of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). It presents information on the demographic…

  17. Age 2: Findings from the 2-Year-Old Follow-Up of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). E.D. TAB. NCES 2006-043

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Gail M.; Flanagan, Kristin Denton

    2006-01-01

    This E.D. TAB is the first report produced using data from the second round of data collection for the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), a study of a nationally representative sample of children born in the year 2001. The report provides descriptive information about these children when they were about 2 years old. It…

  18. Children Born in 2001: First Results from the Base Year of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS?B). E.D. TAB. NCES 2005-036.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Kristin Denton; West, Jerry

    2004-01-01

    This E.D. TAB provides descriptive information about children born in the United States in 2001. It is the first publication based on the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS?B), and it presents information on certain child and family characteristics, on children's mental and physical skills, on children's first experiences in…

  19. Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) Methodology Report for the Nine-Month Data Collection (2001-02). Volume 1: Psychometric Characteristics. NCES 2005-100

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreassen, Carol; Fletcher, Philip

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the psychometric characteristics and related methodology of the 9-month data collection of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) in the Institute of Education Sciences, in collaboration with several…

  20. Decline in cognitive performance between ages 13 and 18 years and the risk for psychosis in adulthood: a Swedish longitudinal cohort study in males.

    PubMed

    MacCabe, James H; Wicks, Susanne; Löfving, Sofia; David, Anthony S; Berndtsson, Åsa; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric; Allebeck, Peter; Dalman, Christina

    2013-03-01

    Clear evidence from many prospective, population-based studies indicates that patients who develop psychosis in adulthood experienced various cognitive deficits during childhood and adolescence. However, it is unclear whether these deficits become more severe during adolescence. To assess the influence of cognitive developmental trajectories in adolescence and young adulthood on the risk for psychosis in adulthood. Longitudinal cohort study. Academic research. POPULATION-BASED COHORTS: Four population-based cohorts of adolescent boys and young men born in Sweden in 1953, 1967, 1972, and 1977, totaling 10,717 individuals, and followed up through December 31, 2006. Scores on tests of verbal, spatial, and inductive ability at age 13 years and in equivalent tests at army conscription (age 18 years). Hospital admissions for nonaffective or affective psychoses in adulthood. A relative decline (compared with the unaffected population) in verbal ability between ages 13 and 18 years was associated with increased risk for schizophrenia and for other nonaffective and affective psychoses (adjusted hazard ratio for schizophrenia for an increase of 1 SD in verbal ability, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.40-0.88; P = .009). Decline between ages 13 and 18 years was a much stronger predictor of psychosis than the verbal ability score at age 18 years alone. The association remained significant after adjustment for urbanicity, parental educational level, and family history of psychosis and persisted when cases with onset before age 25 years were excluded, indicating that this was not a prodromal effect. A relative decline in cognitive performance in adolescence and young adulthood, particularly in verbal ability, is associated with increased risk for psychosis in adulthood, and a relative decline in verbal ability between ages 13 and 18 years is a stronger predictor of psychosis than verbal ability at age 18 years alone. This suggests an impairment of late neurodevelopment affecting the acquisition

  1. Gender and psychosocial factors associated with healthy lifestyle in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohort: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Patrão, Ana Luísa; Almeida, Maria da Conceição; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Chor, Dora; Aquino, Estela M L

    2017-08-28

    It has been estimated that over 50% of the premature deaths occurring in Western countries can be attributed to causes rooted in lifestyle. In turn, leading a healthy lifestyle has also been associated with a wide range of psychosocial factors. Today, it is known that these differ among men and women. The present article aimed to identify, from a gender-based perspective, the psychosocial factors associated with healthy lifestyles in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohort, the largest study concerning adult health conducted in Latin America to date. This cross-sectional study was conducted using ELSA-Brasil baseline data, collected between 2008 and 2010. Six Brazilian public higher education and research institutions. The ELSA-Brasil cohort consists of approximately 15 000 employees (8218 women and 6887 men), both currently working and retired. The lifestyle indicator was constructed by summing the scores attributed to four different behaviours. The women of the ELSA-Brasil cohort have healthier lifestyles than men. In women, strong associations were found between a healthy lifestyle and age 60 years or older, Asian race and university level of education or higher. In men, being 60 years or older, of Asian or Caucasian race, having a high-school equivalent level of education or higher, being retired, having a housekeeper, having a good or very good self-perception of health and being satisfied with body image were the psychosocial factors associated with leading a healthy lifestyle. The factors that influenced healthy lifestyles were found to differ among men and women, a fact that must be addressed when developing programmes designed to promote health. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Longitudinal Associations among Discordant Sexual Orientation Dimensions and Hazardous Drinking in a Cohort of Sexual Minority Women.

    PubMed

    Talley, Amelia E; Aranda, Frances; Hughes, Tonda L; Everett, Bethany; Johnson, Timothy P

    2015-06-01

    We examined differences between sexual minority women's (SMW's) sexual identity and sexual behavior or sexual attraction as potential contributors to hazardous drinking across a 10-year period. Data are from a longitudinal study examining drinking and drinking-related problems in a diverse, community-based sample of self-identified SMW (Wave 1: n = 447; Wave 2: n = 384; Wave 3: n = 354). Longitudinal cross-lagged models showed that SMW who report higher levels of identity-behavior or identity-attraction discordance may be at greater risk of concurrent and subsequent hazardous drinking. Results of multigroup models suggest that sexual orientation discordance is a more potent risk factor for risky drinking outcomes among SMW in older adulthood than in younger adulthood. Findings support that discordance between sexual orientation dimensions may contribute to hazardous drinking among SMW and provide evidence that cognitive-behavioral consistency is important for individuals expressing diverse and fluid sexual identities, attraction, and behavior. © American Sociological Association 2015.

  3. Longitudinal Associations among Discordant Sexual Orientation Dimensions and Hazardous Drinking in a Cohort of Sexual Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Talley, Amelia E.; Aranda, Frances; Hughes, Tonda L.; Everett, Bethany; Johnson, Timothy P.

    2015-01-01

    We examined differences between sexual minority women’s (SMW’s) sexual identity and sexual behavior or sexual attraction as potential contributors to hazardous drinking across a 10-year period. Data are from a longitudinal study examining drinking and drinking-related problems in a diverse, community-based sample of self-identified SMW (Wave 1: n = 447; Wave 2: n = 384; Wave 3: n = 354). Longitudinal cross-lagged models showed that SMW who report higher levels of identity-behavior or identity-attraction discordance may be at greater risk of concurrent and subsequent hazardous drinking. Results of multigroup models suggest that sexual orientation discordance is a more potent risk factor for risky drinking outcomes among SMW in older adulthood than in younger adulthood. Findings support that discordance between sexual orientation dimensions may contribute to hazardous drinking among SMW and provide evidence that cognitive-behavioral consistency is important for individuals expressing diverse and fluid sexual identities, attraction, and behavior. PMID:25911224

  4. ADHD Symptoms in a Non-Referred Low Birthweight/Preterm Cohort: Longitudinal Profiles, Outcomes, and Associated Features

    PubMed Central

    Krasner, Aaron J.; Turner, J. Blake; Feldman, Judith F.; Silberman, Anna E.; Fisher, Prudence W.; Workman, Catherine C.; Posner, Jonathan E.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Lorenz, John M.; Shaffer, David; Whitaker, Agnes H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study’s objective is to differentiate possible ADHD syndromes on the basis of symptom trajectories, prognosis, and associated clinical features in a high-risk cohort. Method Latent class analysis of inattentive (IA) and hyperactive–impulsive (HI) symptoms in 387 non-disabled members of a regional low birthweight/preterm birth cohort who were evaluated for ADHD at 6, 9, and 16 years. Adolescent functional outcomes and other clinical features were examined across the classes. Results Three latent classes were identified: unaffected (modest IA and HI symptom prevalences at six, remitting by nine), school age limited (relatively high IA and HI symptom prevalences at six and nine, declining by 16), and persistent inattentive (high IA and HI prevalences at six and nine, with high IA levels persisting to 16). The persistent inattentive class was distinctively associated with poor functioning, motor problems, other psychiatric disorders, and social difficulties as indexed by a positive screen for autism spectrum disorder at 16. Conclusion These findings differentiate a potential persistent inattentive syndrome relevant to ADHD evaluation and treatment. PMID:26700791

  5. Malnutrition Is Associated with Protection from Rotavirus Diarrhea: Evidence from a Longitudinal Birth Cohort Study in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Verkerke, Hans; Sobuz, Shihab; Ma, Jennie Z.; Petri, Sarah E.; Reichman, Dan; Qadri, Firdausi; Haque, Rashidul

    2016-01-01

    Rotavirus is a leading cause of dehydrating diarrhea and death among infants and children globally, particularly in communities of the developing world. While numerous studies have described the complex relationships among infectious diarrhea, growth faltering, and poverty, the impact of nutritional status on susceptibility to rotavirus diarrhea is not well understood. In a longitudinal study conducted over the first 3 years of life among 626 slum-dwelling infants enrolled at birth in Dhaka, Bangladesh, we observed that common measures of healthy growth and development were positively associated with a risk of symptomatic rotavirus infection. This finding runs counter to the idea that improving childhood nutrition will implicitly decrease the incidence of symptomatic infection by enteric pathogens. As childhood nutrition improves worldwide, rotavirus infection may remain a public health challenge, making universal vaccination of even greater importance. PMID:27510830

  6. Work-related factors and violence among nursing staff in the European NEXT study: a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Camerino, Donatella; Estryn-Behar, Madeleine; Conway, Paul Maurice; van Der Heijden, Beatrice Isabella Johanna Maria; Hasselhorn, Hans-Martin

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence of workplace violence is rather frequent within the nursing profession, with well-known consequences on the psychological health of victims. This study is aimed at assessing the relationships between relevant individual, organizational, and psychosocial factors, and the frequency of several types of workplace violence; the direct as well as the interactive impact of violence and psychosocial factors on organizational commitment and perceived health. Questionnaire-based cross-sectional and longitudinal survey designs were employed for the two study objectives, respectively. Five hundred and sixty-five healthcare institutions from eight European countries participated in the Nurses' Early Exit Study. The 34,107 participants were nursing staff holding different qualifications. The response rate was 55.1% in the cross-sectional part and 40.5% in the follow-up phase. At baseline, the respondents were mostly female (89.3%), in the age group 30-44 years (52.9%), registered or specialized nurses (67.0%), working mainly in medico-surgical wards (36.3%), and employed full-time (72.8%). In the cross-sectional analysis, the relationship between the predictor variables and frequency of violence was assessed by means of a hierarchical multiple linear regression. In the longitudinal analysis, main direct and interactive effects of violence and psychosocial factors on perceived health and organizational commitment were assessed by means of hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses with interaction terms. Higher levels of adverse work-related factors were significantly associated with higher frequency of the distinguished types of violence. Significant interactions were found between psychosocial factors and violence only in predicting organizational commitment, even if effect sizes were very low. No interactions were observed for perceived health. The prevalence of the distinguished types of violence varied across the participating countries according to the

  7. Change and stability in work-family conflict and mothers' and fathers' mental health: Longitudinal evidence from an Australian cohort.

    PubMed

    Cooklin, A R; Dinh, H; Strazdins, L; Westrupp, E; Leach, L S; Nicholson, J M

    2016-04-01

    Work-family conflict (WFC) occurs when work or family demands are 'mutually incompatible', with detrimental effects on mental health. This study contributes to the sparse longitudinal research, addressing the following questions: Is WFC a stable or transient feature of family life for mothers and fathers? What happens to mental health if WFC increases, reduces or persists? What work and family characteristics predict WFC transitions and to what extent are they gendered? Secondary analyses of 5 waves of data (child ages 4-5 to 12-13 years) from employed mothers (n = 2693) and fathers (n = 3460) participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children were conducted. WFC transitions, across four two-year intervals (Waves 1-2, 2-3, 3-4, and 4-5) were classified as never, conscript, exit or chronic. Significant proportions of parents experienced change in WFC, between 12 and 16% of mothers and fathers for each transition 'type'. Parents who remained in chronic WFC reported the poorest mental health (adjusted multiple regression analyses), followed by those who conscripted into WFC. When WFC was relieved (exit), both mothers' and fathers' mental health improved significantly. Predictors of conscript and chronic WFC were somewhat distinct for mothers and fathers (adjusted logit regressions). Poor job quality, a skilled occupation and having more children differentiated chronic fathers' from those who exited WFC. For mothers, work factors only (skilled occupation; work hours; job insecurity) predicted chronic WFC. Findings reflect the persistent, gendered nature of work and care shaped by workplaces, but also offer tailored opportunities to redress WFC for mothers and fathers. We contribute novel evidence that mental health is directly influenced by the WFC interface, both positively and negatively, highlighting WFC as a key social determinant of health.

  8. Predictors of interstitial lung disease in early systemic sclerosis: a prospective longitudinal study of the GENISOS cohort.

    PubMed

    Assassi, Shervin; Sharif, Roozbeh; Lasky, Robert E; McNearney, Terry A; Estrada-Y-Martin, Rosa M; Draeger, Hilda; Nair, Deepthi K; Fritzler, Marvin J; Reveille, John D; Arnett, Frank C; Mayes, Maureen D

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the association of baseline demographic and clinical characteristics with sequentially obtained measurements of forced vital capacity (FVC), expressed as a percentage of the predicted value, and to identify predictors of the decline rate in FVC over time in the Genetics versus Environment in Scleroderma Outcome Study (GENISOS). To date, 266 patients have been enrolled in GENISOS, a prospective, observational cohort of patients with early systemic sclerosis. In addition to pulmonary function tests (PFTs), clinical and laboratory data were obtained from each patient. We analyzed 926 FVC measurements utilizing generalized linear mixed models. The predictive significance of baseline variables for the decline rate in FVC was investigated by the interaction term between the variable and the follow-up time within the first 3 years after enrollment as well as throughout the entire follow-up time. The cohort consisted of 125 white, 54 African American, and 77 Hispanic patients with average disease duration of 2.5 years at enrollment. The mean follow-up time was 3.8 years, ranging up to 11.4 years. A number of baseline variables, including antibody status, African American ethnicity, disease type, baseline PFT values, modified Rodnan Skin Score, fibrosis on chest radiograph, and lung and skin subscores of the Severity Index, were associated with serially measured FVC levels. However, only the presence of anti-topoisomerase I antibodies (ATA) was associated with lower FVC levels (P < 0.001) as well as accelerated decline rate in FVC within the first 3 years of follow-up (P = 0.02). None of the baseline variables predicted the rate of decline in FVC on long-term follow-up. Patients with rapidly progressive ILD, however, were under-represented in the long-term follow-up group because the accelerated rate of decline in FVC was associated with poor survival (P = 0.001). Presence of ATA was the only baseline variable associated

  9. Predictors of interstitial lung disease in early systemic sclerosis: a prospective longitudinal study of the GENISOS cohort

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The objective of the present study was to examine the association of baseline demographic and clinical characteristics with sequentially obtained measurements of forced vital capacity (FVC), expressed as a percentage of the predicted value, and to identify predictors of the decline rate in FVC over time in the Genetics versus Environment in Scleroderma Outcome Study (GENISOS). Methods To date, 266 patients have been enrolled in GENISOS, a prospective, observational cohort of patients with early systemic sclerosis. In addition to pulmonary function tests (PFTs), clinical and laboratory data were obtained from each patient. We analyzed 926 FVC measurements utilizing generalized linear mixed models. The predictive significance of baseline variables for the decline rate in FVC was investigated by the interaction term between the variable and the follow-up time within the first 3 years after enrollment as well as throughout the entire follow-up time. Results The cohort consisted of 125 white, 54 African American, and 77 Hispanic patients with average disease duration of 2.5 years at enrollment. The mean follow-up time was 3.8 years, ranging up to 11.4 years. A number of baseline variables, including antibody status, African American ethnicity, disease type, baseline PFT values, modified Rodnan Skin Score, fibrosis on chest radiograph, and lung and skin subscores of the Severity Index, were associated with serially measured FVC levels. However, only the presence of anti-topoisomerase I antibodies (ATA) was associated with lower FVC levels (P < 0.001) as well as accelerated decline rate in FVC within the first 3 years of follow-up (P = 0.02). None of the baseline variables predicted the rate of decline in FVC on long-term follow-up. Patients with rapidly progressive ILD, however, were under-represented in the long-term follow-up group because the accelerated rate of decline in FVC was associated with poor survival (P = 0.001). Conclusions Presence of ATA was

  10. Fever in pregnancy and offspring mortality - a longitudinal study of a cohort from 1927 to 1937 on the Faroe Islands.

    PubMed

    Helmsdal, Gunnhild; Olsen, Sjúrour F

    2009-01-01

    In a birth cohort from 1927 to 1937 consisting of 4,208 individuals, we examined the relation between complications in pregnancy and offspring adult mortality. Patterns of increased mortality were observed in the group of males whose mothers had experienced fever during pregnancy, i.e. with all-cause mortality (rate ratio 1.505; 95% CI 1.084-1.926; p=0.057), premature death (rate ratio 1.943; 95% CI 1.486-2.400; p=0.004), and with cancer (rate ratio 2.625; 95% CI 1.845-3.405; p=0.015). To our knowledge, this is the first study to report an association between fever in pregnancy and offspring mortality.

  11. [Factors affecting the duration of maternal breast-feeding in a cohort of urban mothers studied longitudinally].

    PubMed

    Ruiz, F J; Cravioto, A

    1989-11-01

    A prospective study on the incidence and duration of breastfeeding in a cohort of urban women of the city of Tlaxcala was carried-out in a private pediatric clinic from January, 1983 to December, 1987. In a total of 547 women studied, breastfeeding had a median of three months, and only 5% of the children continued to be breastfed at one year of age. Family tradition of breastfeeding, late introduction of solid foods and/or whole milk and less formal education of the mother were factors related with breastfeeding beyond three months. About 70% of the mothers weaned their children claiming a rejection of the breast-milk by the child, a lack of sufficient quantity to fulfill the child's needs or because of their work outside the home.

  12. The "medicine in Australia: balancing employment and life (MABEL)" longitudinal survey--protocol and baseline data for a prospective cohort study of Australian doctors' workforce participation.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Catherine M; Scott, Anthony; Jeon, Sung-Hee; Humphreys, John; Kalb, Guyonne; Witt, Julia; Leahy, Anne

    2010-02-25

    While there is considerable research on medical workforce supply trends, there is little research examining the determinants of labour supply decisions for the medical workforce. The "Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL)" study investigates workforce participation patterns and their determinants using a longitudinal survey of Australian doctors. It aims to generate evidence to support developing effective policy responses to workforce issues such as shortages and maldistribution. This paper describes the study protocol and baseline cohort, including an analysis of response rates and response bias. MABEL is a prospective cohort study. All Australian doctors undertaking clinical work in 2008 (n = 54,750) were invited to participate, and annual waves of data collections will be undertaken until at least 2011. Data are collected by paper or optional online version of a questionnaire, with content tailored to four sub-groups of clinicians: general practitioners, specialists, specialists in training, and hospital non-specialists. In the baseline wave, data were collected on: job satisfaction, attitudes to work and intentions to quit or change hours worked; a discrete choice experiment examining preferences and trade-offs for different types of jobs; work setting; workload; finances; geographic location; demographics; and family circumstances. The baseline cohort includes 10,498 Australian doctors, representing an overall response rate of 19.36%. This includes 3,906 general practitioners, 4,596 specialists, 1,072 specialists in training, and 924 hospital non-specialists. Respondents were more likely to be younger, female, and to come from non-metropolitan areas, the latter partly reflecting the effect of a financial incentive on response for doctors in remote and rural areas. Specialists and specialists in training were more likely to respond, whilst hospital non-specialists were less likely to respond. The distribution of hours worked was similar

  13. The "Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL)" longitudinal survey - Protocol and baseline data for a prospective cohort study of Australian doctors' workforce participation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background While there is considerable research on medical workforce supply trends, there is little research examining the determinants of labour supply decisions for the medical workforce. The "Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL)" study investigates workforce participation patterns and their determinants using a longitudinal survey of Australian doctors. It aims to generate evidence to support developing effective policy responses to workforce issues such as shortages and maldistribution. This paper describes the study protocol and baseline cohort, including an analysis of response rates and response bias. Methods/Design MABEL is a prospective cohort study. All Australian doctors undertaking clinical work in 2008 (n = 54,750) were invited to participate, and annual waves of data collections will be undertaken until at least 2011. Data are collected by paper or optional online version of a questionnaire, with content tailored to four sub-groups of clinicians: general practitioners, specialists, specialists in training, and hospital non-specialists. In the baseline wave, data were collected on: job satisfaction, attitudes to work and intentions to quit or change hours worked; a discrete choice experiment examining preferences and trade-offs for different types of jobs; work setting; workload; finances; geographic location; demographics; and family circumstances. Discussion The baseline cohort includes 10,498 Australian doctors, representing an overall response rate of 19.36%. This includes 3,906 general practitioners, 4,596 specialists, 1,072 specialists in training, and 924 hospital non-specialists. Respondents were more likely to be younger, female, and to come from non-metropolitan areas, the latter partly reflecting the effect of a financial incentive on response for doctors in remote and rural areas. Specialists and specialists in training were more likely to respond, whilst hospital non-specialists were less likely to respond. The

  14. The effectiveness of emergency nurse practitioner service in the management of patients presenting to rural hospitals with chest pain: a multisite prospective longitudinal nested cohort study.

    PubMed

    Roche, Tina E; Gardner, Glenn; Jack, Leanne

    2017-06-27

    Health reforms in service improvement have included the use of nurse practitioners. In rural emergency departments, nurse practitioners work to the full scope of their expanded role across all patient acuities including those presenting with undifferentiated chest pain. Currently, there is a paucity of evidence regarding the effectiveness of emergency nurse practitioner service in rural emergency departments. Inquiry into the safety and quality of the service, particularly regarding the management of complex conditions is a priority to ensure that this service improvement model meets health care needs of rural communities. This study used a prospective, longitudinal nested cohort study of rural emergency departments in Queensland, Australia. Sixty-one consecutive adult patients with chest pain who presented between November 2014 and February 2016 were recruited into the study cohort. A nested cohort of 41 participants with suspected or confirmed acute coronary syndrome were identified. The primary outcome was adherence to guidelines and diagnostic accuracy of electrocardiograph interpretation for the nested cohort. Secondary outcomes included service indicators of waiting times, diagnostic accuracy as measured by unplanned representation rates, satisfaction with care, quality-of-life, and functional status. Data were examined and compared for differences for participants managed by emergency nurse practitioners and those managed in the standard model of care. The median waiting time was 8.0 min (IQR 20) and length-of-stay was 100.0 min (IQR 64). Participants were 2.4 times more likely to have an unplanned representation if managed by the standard service model. The majority of participants (91.5%) were highly satisfied with the care that they received, which was maintained at 30-day follow-up measurement. In the evaluation of quality of life and functional status, summary scores for the SF-12 were comparable with previous studies. No differences were

  15. Leveraging ongoing research to evaluate the health impacts of South Africa's salt reduction strategy: a prospective nested cohort within the WHO-SAGE multicountry, longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Karen; Ware, Lisa J; Menyanu, Elias; Biritwum, Richard Berko; Naidoo, Nirmala; Pieterse, Chiné; Madurai, Savathree Lorna; Baumgartner, Jeannine; Asare, George A; Thiele, Elizabeth; Schutte, Aletta E; Kowal, Paul

    2016-11-30

    Attempting to curb the rising epidemic of hypertension, South Africa implemented legislation in June 2016 mandating maximum sodium levels in a range of manufactured foods that contribute significantly to population salt intake. This natural experiment, comparing two African countries with and without salt legislation, will provide timely information on the impact of legislative approaches addressing the food supply to improve blood pressure in African populations. This article outlines the design of this ongoing prospective nested cohort study. Baseline sodium intake was assessed in a nested cohort of the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (WHO-SAGE) wave 2 (2014-2015), a multinational longitudinal study on the health and well-being of adults and the ageing process. The South African cohort consisted of randomly selected households (n=4030) across the country. Spot and 24-hour urine samples are collected in a random subsample (n=1200) and sodium, potassium, creatinine and iodine analysed. Salt behaviour and sociodemographic data are captured using face-to-face interviews, alongside blood pressure and anthropometric measures. Ghana, the selected control country with no formal salt policy, provided a nested subsample (n=1200) contributing spot and 24-hour urine samples from the SAGE Ghana cohort (n=5000). Follow-up interviews and urine collection (wave 3) in both countries will take place in 2017 (postlegislation) to assess change in population-level sodium intake and blood pressure. SAGE was approved by the WHO Ethics Review Committee (reference number RPC149) with local approval from the North-West University Human Research Ethics Committee and University of the Witwatersrand Human Research Ethics Committee (South Africa), and University of Ghana Medical School Ethics and Protocol Review Committee (Ghana). The results of the study will be published in peer-reviewed international journals, presented at national and international conferences, and summarised

  16. Relationship Between Longitudinal Measures of Renal Function and Onset of Dementia Among a Community Cohort of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    O’Hare, Ann M.; Walker, Rod; Haneuse, Sebastian; Crane, Paul K.; McCormick, Wayne C.; Bowen, James D.; Larson, Eric B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Prior studies have described a higher incidence of dementia or worsening cognitive function in patients with lower levels of kidney function at a single point in time. Objectives To evaluate the association between dynamic measures of renal function ascertained over time with onset of dementia. Design prospective community cohort study. Setting and Participants 2,968 adults aged 65 and older followed for the development of dementia over a median of 6.0 years (interquartile range 3.1–10.1 years). Measurements Time varying measures of renal function were constructed based on a total of 49,340 serum creatinine measurements and included: the average level of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), eGFR trajectory and variability in eGFR around this trajectory over 5-year exposure windows. The association between these three eGFR exposure measures and risk of dementia was estimated using a Cox regression model adjusted for other patient characteristics. In sensitivity analyses, we also adjusted for time-varying measures of urine protein by dipstick. Results Patients with lower levels of eGFR had a higher incidence of dementia but this did not reach statistical significance in adjusted analyses (omnibus p value=0.14). There were trends toward a higher adjusted incidence of dementia in patients with positive eGFR trajectories (omnibus p value=0.07) and greater variability in eGFR (omnibus p value=0.04) over time. The results of sensitivity analyses, including those in which we included time-varying measures of proteinuria, were consistent with those of the primary analysis. Conclusion Among a community cohort of older adults followed for a median of 6 years, we did not find strong associations between measures of kidney disease severity and progression and incident dementia. PMID:23231548

  17. Dietary pattern and 20 year mortality in elderly men in Finland, Italy, and The Netherlands: longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    Huijbregts, P.; Feskens, E.; Räsänen, L.; Fidanza, F.; Nissinen, A.; Menotti, A.; Kromhout, D.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of dietary pattern and mortality in international data. DESIGN: Cohort study with 20 years' follow up of mortality. SETTING: Five cohorts in Finland, the Netherlands, and Italy. SUBJECTS: Population based random sample of 3045 men aged 50-70 years in 1970. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Food intake was estimated using a cross check dietary history. In this dietary survey method, the usual food consumption pattern in the 6-12 months is estimated. A healthy diet indicator was calculated for the dietary pattern, using the World Health Organisation's guidelines for the prevention of chronic diseases. Vital status was verified after 20 years of follow up, and death rates were calculated. RESULTS: Dietary intake varied greatly in 1970 between the three countries. In Finland and the Netherlands the intake of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol was high and the intake of alcohol was low; in Italy the opposite was observed. In total 1796 men (59%) died during 20 years of follow up. The healthy diet indicator was inversely associated with mortality (P for trend < 0.05). After adjustment for age, smoking, and alcohol consumption, the relative risk in the group with the healthiest diet indicator compared with the group with the least healthy was 0.87 (95% confidence interval 0.77 to 0.98). Estimated relative risks were essentially similar within each country. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary intake of men aged 50-70 is associated with a 20 year, all cause mortality in different cultures. The healthy diet indicator is useful in evaluating the relation of mortality to dietary patterns. PMID:9233319

  18. Longitudinal investigation of nasopharyngeal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in early infancy: The PATCH birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, M-H; Chiu, C-Y; Shih, H-J; Liao, S-L; Hua, M-C; Huang, S-H; Yao, T-C; Lai, S-H; Huang, T-S; Yeh, K-W; Chen, L-C; Su, K-W; Lim, W-H; Chang, Y-J; Chiang, C-H; Huang, S-Y; Huang, J-L

    2017-02-01

    The study aimed to determine the long-term Staphylococcus aureus colonization patterns and strain relatedness, and the association between maternal and infant colonization in infancy. A birth cohort study was conducted from January 2012 to November 2014. Nasopharyngeal swabs for S. aureus detection were collected from infants at the age of 1, 2, 4, 6 and 12 months and from mothers when their children were 1-month-old. In total, 254 samples were collected at each planned visit during the first 12-month study. The prevalence of S. aureus colonization decreased in the first year of life, ranging from 61.0% (155/254) at the age of 1 month to 12.2% (31/254) at 12 months. Persistent colonization, defined as a positive culture on four or five occasions, was detected in only 13.8% (35/254) of carriers. Most of the persistent carriers were colonized with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) only, and among persistent MRSA carriers, 61.1% (11/18) had indistinguishable genotypes. Of the mothers with MRSA colonization, 77.1% (27/35) had infants who were concomitantly colonized at the age of 1 month; 70.4% (19/27) of the infant-mother paired isolates belonged to indistinguishable or related subtypes, which suggests that surrounding carriers, probably their mothers, may be the possible source for MRSA acquisition in early infancy. Staphylococcus aureus colonization including MRSA was commonly observed in our cohort. Strains of persistent MRSA among infant-mother pairs were usually of indistinguishable genotypes. Therefore, horizontal spread within households is possibly an important factor related to infant MRSA colonization. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Carpal tunnel syndrome and manual work: the OCTOPUS cohort, results of a ten-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Violante, Francesco S; Farioli, Andrea; Graziosi, Francesca; Marinelli, Francesco; Curti, Stefania; Armstrong, Thomas J; Mattioli, Stefano; Bonfiglioli, Roberta

    2016-07-01

    The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) proposed a method to assess the hand, wrist and forearm biomechanical overload based on exertions frequency (hand-activity level) and force use (normalized peak force). We applied the ACGIH threshold limit value (TLV)® method to a large occupational cohort to assess its ability to predict carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) onset. A cohort of industrial and service workers was followed-up between 2000 and 2011. We investigated the incidence of CTS symptoms and CTS confirmed by nerve conduction studies (NCS). We then classified exposure with respect to action limit (AL) and TLV. Cox regression models including age, gender, body mass index, and presence of predisposing pathologies were conducted to estimate hazard ratios (HR) of CTS and population attributable fractions. We analyzed data from 3131 workers [females, N=2032 (65%); mean age at baseline 39.3, standard deviation (SD) 9.4 years]. We observed 431 incident cases of CTS symptoms in 8000 person-years and 126 cases of CTS confirmed by NCS in 8883 person-years. The ACGIH TLV® method predicted both CTS symptoms [HR between AL and TLV 2.18, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.86-2.56; above TLV 2.07, 95% CI 1.52-2.81] and CTS confirmed by NCS (HR between AL and TLV 1.93, 95% CI 1.38-2.71; above TLV 1.95, 95% CI 1.27-3.00). About one third of CTS cases were attributable to exposure levels above the AL. The ACGIH TLV® method predicted the risk of CTS, but the dose-response was flat above the AL; a fine-tuning of the proposed thresholds should be considered.

  20. Age-based prediction of incidence of complications during inpatient stroke rehabilitation: a retrospective longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Stroke complications can occur not only in the acute ward but also during the subsequent rehabilitation period. However, existing studies have not adequately addressed the incidence of various complications among stroke in patients undergoing rehabilitation using a longitudinal method. We aimed to investigate the longitudinal impact of age on complication rates in patients undergoing inpatient stroke rehabilitation at different disease stages. Methods Five hundred and sixty-eight first-time stroke patients transferred to the rehabilitation ward between July 2002 and June 2012 were included in the study. Patients were stratified into age groups for comparison: <65 years (young), 65 years to <75 years (younger old), and ≥75 years (older old). In total, 30 different complication types were recorded for analysis. Results Constipation, shoulder pain, symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI), and fever were common complications during initial stay in the rehabilitation ward, and incidence was >10% in all three age groups. The frequency of incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) was higher in the younger old (17.9%) and older old (20.6%) groups than in the young group (4.1%) during initial stay in the rehabilitation ward (p < 0.001). The incidence of UGIB was higher in the younger old (8.04%) and older old (8.