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Sample records for 48-month longitudinal cohort

  1. Interactive computer program for optimal designs of longitudinal cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Tekle, Fetene B; Tan, Frans E S; Berger, Martijn P F

    2009-05-01

    Many large scale longitudinal cohort studies have been carried out or are ongoing in different fields of science. Such studies need a careful planning to obtain the desired quality of results with the available resources. In the past, a number of researches have been performed on optimal designs for longitudinal studies. However, there was no computer program yet available to help researchers to plan their longitudinal cohort design in an optimal way. A new interactive computer program for the optimization of designs of longitudinal cohort studies is therefore presented. The computer program helps users to identify the optimal cohort design with an optimal number of repeated measurements per subject and an optimal allocations of time points within a given study period. Further, users can compute the loss in relative efficiencies of any other alternative design compared to the optimal one. The computer program is described and illustrated using a practical example.

  2. Preschool Fears: Longitudinal Sequence and Cohort Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Thomas W.; James, Rebecca Smoak

    1985-01-01

    Using longitudinal data gathered between 1966 and 1981, parent-reported fears of 49 university preschool children were examined with particular attention given to age changes and sex differences. Categories of types of fears reported by Jersild and Holmes (1933) determined a substantial increase in preschool children's fears of the dark, being…

  3. Respiratory Kinematics During Vocalization and Nonspeech Respiration in Children from 9 to 48 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connaghan, Kathryn P.; Moore, Christopher A.; Higashakawa, Masahiko

    2004-01-01

    The development of respiratory drive for vocalization was studied by observing chest wall kinematics longitudinally in 4 typically developing children from the age of 9 to 48 months. Measurements of the relative contribution of rib cage and abdominal movement during vocalization (i.e., babbling and true words) and rest breathing were obtained…

  4. Upper Airway Stimulation for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Patient-Reported Outcomes after 48 Months of Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, M Boyd; Soose, Ryan J; Woodson, B Tucker; Strohl, Kingman P; Maurer, Joachim T; de Vries, Nico; Steward, David L; Baskin, Jonathan Z; Badr, M Safwan; Lin, Ho-Sheng; Padhya, Tapan A; Mickelson, Sam; Anderson, W McDowell; Vanderveken, Olivier M; Strollo, Patrick J

    2017-04-01

    Objective To assess patient-based outcomes of participants in a large cohort study-the STAR trial (Stimulation Therapy for Apnea Reduction)-48 months after implantation with an upper airway stimulation system for moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea. Study Design A multicenter prospective cohort study. Setting Industry-supported multicenter academic and clinical setting. Subjects Participants (n = 91) at 48 months from a cohort of 126 implanted participants. Methods A total of 126 participants received an implanted upper airway stimulation system in a prospective phase III trial. Patient-reported outcomes at 48 months, including Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), and snoring level, were compared with preimplantation baseline. Results A total of 91 subjects completed the 48-month visit. Daytime sleepiness as measured by ESS was significantly reduced ( P = .01), and sleep-related quality of life as measured by FOSQ significantly improved ( P = .01) when compared with baseline. Soft to no snoring was reported by 85% of bed partners. Two patients required additional surgery without complication for lead malfunction. Conclusion Upper airway stimulation maintained a sustained benefit on patient-reported outcomes (ESS, FOSQ, snoring) at 48 months in select patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea.

  5. Cohort Profile: The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Steptoe, Andrew; Breeze, Elizabeth; Banks, James; Nazroo, James

    2013-01-01

    The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) is a panel study of a representative cohort of men and women living in England aged ≥50 years. It was designed as a sister study to the Health and Retirement Study in the USA and is multidisciplinary in orientation, involving the collection of economic, social, psychological, cognitive, health, biological and genetic data. The study commenced in 2002, and the sample has been followed up every 2 years. Data are collected using computer-assisted personal interviews and self-completion questionnaires, with additional nurse visits for the assessment of biomarkers every 4 years. The original sample consisted of 11 391 members ranging in age from 50 to 100 years. ELSA is harmonized with ageing studies in other countries to facilitate international comparisons, and is linked to financial and health registry data. The data set is openly available to researchers and analysts soon after collection (http://www.esds.ac.uk/longitudinal/access/elsa/l5050.asp). PMID:23143611

  6. Gender differences in postpartum depression: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Artazcoz, Lucía

    2010-01-01

    Background The course of depression from pregnancy to 1 year post partum and risk factors among mothers and fathers are not known. Aims (1) To report the longitudinal patterns of depression from the third trimester of pregnancy to 1 year after childbirth; (2) to determine the gender differences between women and their partners in the effect of psychosocial and personal factors on postpartum depression. Methods A longitudinal cohort study was carried out over a consecutive sample of 769 women in their third trimester of pregnancy and their partners attending the prenatal programme in the Valencian Community (Spain) and follow-up at 3 and 12 months post partum. The outcome variable was the presence of depression at 3 or 12 months post partum measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Predictor variables were: psychosocial (marital dissatisfaction, confidant and affective social support) and personal (history of depression, partner's depression and negative life events, depression during the third trimester of pregnancy) variables. Logistic regression models were fitted via generalised estimating equations. Results At 3 and 12 months post partum, 9.3% and 4.4% of mothers and 3.4% and 4.0% of fathers, respectively, were newly diagnosed as having depression. Low marital satisfaction, partner's depression and depression during pregnancy increased the probability of depression during the first 12 months after birth in mothers and fathers. Negative life events increased the risk of depression only among mothers. Conclusions Psychosocial and personal factors were strong predictors of depression during the first 12 months post partum for both mothers and fathers. PMID:20515899

  7. DEMONSTRATION OF LOW COST, LOW BURDEN EXPOSURE MONITORING STRATEGIES FOR USE IN LONGITUDINAL COHORT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A large longitudinal cohort study designed to evaluate the association between children's exposures to environmental agents and health outcomes presents many challenges for exposure monitoring. Exposure of the child must be measured for multiple chemicals through multiple path...

  8. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 2006 Cohort Wave 4 (2009)--Questionnaire. Technical Report 56A

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) program studies the progress of several groups of young Australians as they move from school into post-secondary education and work. This technical paper contains the questionnaire for the LSAY 2006 cohort Wave 4 (2009) data set. [For the "Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY):…

  9. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 1998 Cohort: Wave 12 (2009)--Questionnaire. Technical Report 58A

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) program studies the progress of several groups of young Australians as they move from school into post-secondary education and work. This technical paper contains the questionnaire for the LSAY 1998 cohort Wave 12 (2009) data set. [For the accompanying frequency tables, "Longitudinal Surveys…

  10. Cohort Differences in Cognitive Aging and Terminal Decline in the Seattle Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Hoppmann, Christiane; Willis, Sherry L.; Schaie, K. Warner

    2011-01-01

    Life span researchers have long been interested in how and why fundamental aspects of human ontogeny differ between cohorts of people who have lived through different historical epochs. When examined at the same age, later born cohorts are often cognitively and physically fitter than earlier born cohorts. Less is known, however, about cohort differences in the rate of cognitive aging and if, at the very end of life, pervasive mortality-related processes overshadow and minimize cohort differences. We used data on 5 primary mental abilities from the Seattle Longitudinal Study (Schaie, 2005) to compare both age-related and mortality-related changes between earlier born cohorts (1886–1913) and later born cohorts (1914–1948). Our models covary for several individual and cohort differences in central indicators of life expectancy, education, health, and gender. Age-related growth models corroborate and extend earlier findings by documenting level differences at age 70 of up to 0.50 SD and less steep rates of cognitive aging on all abilities between 50 and 80 years of age favoring the later born cohort. In contrast, mortality-related models provide limited support for positive cohort differences. The later born cohort showed steeper mortality-related declines. We discuss possible reasons why often reported positive secular trends in age-related processes may not generalize to the vulnerable segment of the population that is close to death and suggest routes for further inquiry. PMID:21517155

  11. Age, time period, and birth cohort differences in self-esteem: Reexamining a cohort-sequential longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Twenge, Jean M; Carter, Nathan T; Campbell, W Keith

    2016-12-08

    Orth, Trzesniewski, and Robins (2010) concluded that the nationally representative Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) cohort-sequential study demonstrated moderate to large age differences in self-esteem, and no birth cohort (generational) differences in the age trajectory. In a reanalysis of these data using 2 different statistical techniques, we find significant increases in self-esteem that could be attributed to birth cohort or time period. First, hierarchical linear modeling analyses with birth cohort as a continuous variable (vs. the multiple group formulation used by Orth et al.) find that birth cohort has a measurable influence on self-esteem through its interaction with age. Participants born in later years (e.g., 1960) were higher in self-esteem and were more likely to increase in self-esteem as they aged than participants born in earlier years (e.g., 1920). However, the estimated age trajectory up to age 60 is similar in Orth et al.'s results and in the results from our analyses including cohort. Second, comparing ACL respondents of the same age in 1986 versus 2002 (a time-lag design) yields significant birth cohort differences in self-esteem, with 2002 participants of the same age higher in self-esteem than those in 1986. Combined with some previous studies finding significant increases in self-esteem and positive self-views over time, these results suggest that cultural change in the form of cohort and time period cannot be ignored as influences in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 2009 Cohort: Wave 2 (2010)-- Questionnaire. Technical Report 71A

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) program studies the progress of several groups of young Australians as they move from school into post-secondary education and work. This technical paper contains the questionnaire for the LSAY 2009 cohort Wave 2 (2010) data set.

  13. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 2006 Cohort: Wave 6 (2011)--Questionnaire. Technical Report 75A

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) program studies the progress of several groups of young Australians as they move from school into post-secondary education and work. This series of documents provides supporting information for the LSAY data set of the 2006 cohort at wave 6 (2011). The document presents the questionnaire for LSAY…

  14. Social and Behavioural Outcomes in Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Ginny; Golding, Jean; Norwich, Brahm; Emond, Alan; Ford, Tamsin; Steer, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare social and behavioural outcomes between children formally diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with those of children who displayed autistic traits at preschool age, but remained undiagnosed as teenagers. Method: A secondary analysis of data from a birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…

  15. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 2009 Cohort User Guide. Technical Paper 74

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Developed for users of the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY), this user guide consolidates information about the LSAY 2009 cohort into one document. The guide aims to address all aspects of the LSAY data including: how to access the data; data restrictions; variable naming conventions; the structure of the data; documentation;…

  16. Criminality and suicide: a longitudinal Swedish cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Stenbacka, M; Romelsjö, A; Jokinen, J

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to investigate whether violent and non-violent offending were related to elevated risk of suicide. We also investigated whether the risk was higher among those with repeated offences and how experiences of substance misuse and suicide attempt modified the relationship. Design A nationwide prospective cohort study. Setting A register study of 48 834 conscripted men in 1969/1970 in Sweden followed up during a 35-year period in official registers. Participants A birth cohort of 48 834 men who were mandatory conscripted for military service in 1969/70 at the age of 18–20 years. Possible confounders were retrieved from psychological assessments at conscription and the cohort was linked to mortality and hospitalisation and crime records from 1970 onwards. Estimates of suicide risks were calculated as HR with 95% CIs using Cox proportional regression analyses with adjustment for potential confounding by family, psychological and behavioural factors including substance use and psychiatric disorders. Results Of the total cohort, 2671 (5.5%) persons died during the follow-up period. Of these, 615 (23%) persons died due to suicide. Non-violent criminality was evident for 29% and violent criminality for 4.7% of all the participants. In the crude model, the violent offenders had nearly five times higher risk (HR=4.69, 3.56 to 6.19) to die from suicide and non-violent criminals had about two times higher risk (HR=2.08, 1.72 to 2.52). In the fully adjusted model, the HRs were still significant for suicide in the non-violent group. Conclusions Experiences of violent or non-violent criminality were associated with increased risk of suicide. Comorbidity with alcohol and substance use and psychiatric disorders modified the risk, but the suicide risk remained significantly elevated for non-violent criminals. It is crucial to identify offenders and especially repeated offenders who also suffer from alcohol or substance misuse and psychiatric illness in

  17. Preparation, piloting and validation for a longitudinal birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Golding, Jean

    2009-07-01

    No longitudinal study should go into the field prior to detailed piloting and validation studies of the measures and techniques to be used. Preparation should also involve the training of staff, the acquisition of space and appropriate equipment, and liaison with the community and ethical committees as well as with scientific collaborators. Because different measures will continually be introduced as the participants age, the preparation, piloting and validation studies have to be ongoing. Here we describe some of the different strategies that should be used.

  18. Strengths, Pitfalls, and Lessons from Longitudinal Childhood Asthma Cohorts of Children Followed Up into Adult Life

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a common problem worldwide and longitudinal studies of children followed up into adult life enable the assessment of clinical outcomes, examine the pattern of lung function outcomes, and importantly provide insight into aetiology and prognosis for patients with asthma. The aim of this review is to examine the major childhood asthma cohort studies which have continued into adult life, describing the strengths and weaknesses and the lessons that can be learnt regarding pathophysiology and potential future directions for research. PMID:27872847

  19. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 2006 Cohort Wave 4 (2009)--Frequency Tables. Technical Report 56B

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) program studies the progress of several groups of young Australians as they move from school into post-secondary education and work. This technical paper contains the frequency tables for the LSAY 2006 cohort Wave 4 (2009) data set. [For the "Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY):…

  20. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 1998 Cohort: Wave 12 (2009)--Frequency Tables. Technical Report 58B

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) program studies the progress of several groups of young Australians as they move from school into post-secondary education and work. This technical paper contains the frequency tables for the LSAY 1998 cohort Wave 12 (2009) data set. [For the accompanying questionnaire, "Longitudinal Surveys…

  1. Contemporary options for longitudinal follow-up: lessons learned from a cohort of urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tobler, Amy L; Komro, Kelli A

    2011-05-01

    This study reports efforts to locate and survey participants in Project Northland Chicago (PNC), a longitudinal, group-randomized trial of an alcohol preventive intervention for racial/ethnic minority, urban, early-adolescents, 3-4 years following the end of the intervention. Data were collected annually among students from 6th-8th grade and then at age 17-18. Tracking procedures were used to maintain contact with participants and data collection consisted of three phases: (1) Internet- and mail-based surveys; (2) in-school survey administration; and (3) courier service delivery. Contact was lost with 11% of this urban cohort from the end of the PNC intervention activities through these longterm follow-up efforts, as indicated by returned locating postcards. Fifty-three percent of the cohort responded to the survey, the majority completing in Phase 1 of our data collection. Additional school-based and courier-delivery efforts increased our response rate by 11.5%. Costs per completed survey were $118 in Phase 1, $166 in Phase 2, and $440 in Phase 3. This study illustrates that it is possible to track and follow-up a high-risk cohort as they progress through adolescence, even with minimal efforts in intervening years. Lessons learned from this study may inform future efforts to track and collect longitudinal data among high-risk populations.

  2. Design and analysis of the Community Youth Development Study longitudinal cohort sample.

    PubMed

    Brown, Eric C; Graham, John W; Hawkins, J David; Arthur, Michael W; Baldwin, Megan M; Oesterle, Sabrina; Briney, John S; Catalano, Richard F; Abbott, Robert D

    2009-08-01

    Communities That Care (CTC) is a prevention system designed to reduce adolescent substance use and delinquency through the selection of effective preventive interventions tailored to a community's specific profile of risk and protection. A community-randomized trial of CTC, the Community Youth Development Study, is currently being conducted in 24 communities across the United States. This article describes the rationale, multilevel analyses, and baseline comparability for the study's longitudinal cohort design. The cohort sample consists of 4,407 fifth- and sixth-grade students recruited in 2004 and 2005 and surveyed annually through ninth grade. Results of mixed-model ANOVAs indicated that students in CTC and control communities exhibited no significant differences (ps > .05) in baseline levels of student outcomes.

  3. Longitudinal trends in total serum cholesterol levels in a Japanese cohort, 1958-1986.

    PubMed

    Yamada, M; Wong, F L; Kodama, K; Sasaki, H; Shimaoka, K; Yamakido, M

    1997-04-01

    The 28-year follow-up of a Japanese cohort, having collected vast amounts of data collected on total serum cholesterol (TC), provided an exceptional opportunity to examine TC temporal trends. The longitudinal statistical method of growth-curve analysis was used to elucidate the age-related changes in TC levels and to characterize these trends in relation to sex, birth cohort, time period, place of residence, and body mass index (BMI). Japanese TC levels at initial examination were remarkably lower than those in western countries. During the study period from 1958 to 1986, TC levels increased dramatically with age in both sexes. The slope of the cholesterol growth curve was steeper for women than for men, with the difference growing larger after age 40 years. Drastic changes in Japanese behavior and lifestyle, especially westernization of the diet, are thought to have affected the TC values as time-period effects. As a result of this temporal change, which affected different cohorts at different ages, TC values were higher in members of the younger cohort. The increase of the TC values as time-period effects were larger in earlier period than in later period. These time-period effects appeared to be almost similar in men and women. The TC growth curves also varied by city of residence. Subjects in urban areas had higher TC values than subjects in rural areas. Changes associated with BMI from 1958 to 1986 were only partially responsible for the increased steepness of the TC growth curve.

  4. Longitudinal Intergenerational Birth Cohort Designs: A Systematic Review of Australian and New Zealand Studies

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Michelle L.; Riepsamen, Angelique; Georgiou, Christos; Flood, Victoria M.; Caputi, Peter; Wright, Ian M.; Davis, Warren S.; Jones, Alison; Larkin, Theresa A.; Williamson, Moira J.; Grenyer, Brin F. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The longitudinal birth cohort design has yielded a substantial contribution to knowledge of child health and development. The last full review in New Zealand and Australia in 2004 identified 13 studies. Since then, birth cohort designs continue to be an important tool in understanding how intrauterine, infant and childhood development affect long-term health and well-being. This updated review in a defined geographical area was conducted to better understand the factors associated with successful quality and productivity, and greater scientific and policy contribution and scope. Methods We adopted the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) approach, searching PubMed, Scopus, Cinahl, Medline, Science Direct and ProQuest between 1963 and 2013. Experts were consulted regarding further studies. Five inclusion criteria were used: (1) have longitudinally tracked a birth cohort, (2) have collected data on the child and at least one parent or caregiver (3) be based in Australia or New Zealand, (4) be empirical in design, and (5) have been published in English. Results 10665 records were initially retrieved from which 23 birth cohort studies met the selection criteria. Together these studies recruited 91,196 participants, with 38,600 mothers, 14,206 fathers and 38,390 live births. Seventeen studies were located in Australia and six in New Zealand. Research questions initially focused on the perinatal period, but as studies matured, longer-term effects and outcomes were examined. Conclusions This review demonstrates the significant yield from this effort both in terms of scientific discovery and social policy impact. Further opportunities have been recognised with cross-study collaboration and pooling of data between established and newer studies and international studies to investigate global health determinants. PMID:26991330

  5. 38 CFR 21.78 - Approving more than 48 months of rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and... previously used education benefit entitlement under other programs administered by VA, and the additional... result in more than 48 months being used under all VA education programs, under these conditions...

  6. Methods for a longitudinal cohort of refugee children in a regional community in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Zwi, Karen; Rungan, Santuri; Woolfenden, Susan; Williams, Katrina; Woodland, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Few studies explore the long-term health and well-being of refugee children. A longitudinal cohort of refugee children was created to determine health and well-being outcomes over time. This article describes the methodology used to conduct this study, including sample characteristics and effectiveness of recruitment and retention strategies. Participants Newly arrived refugee children settling in a regional part of Australia aged 6 months to 15 years were recruited between 2009 and 2013 and 85% were followed for an average of 31 months. Method and design General practitioners conducted health and pathology examinations shortly after arrival. Additional follow-up assessments were conducted by the research team at an average of 13 months after arrival for the first (year 2) and 31 months for the second (year 3) assessment. Children under 5 years had developmental and children aged 4–17 years had social–emotional screening. Families were assessed for risk and protective factors using a structured interview and the Social Readjustment Ratings Scale. Parent experience of the research was explored. Findings to date Eligibility criteria were met by 158 of 228 (69%) newly arrived children, 61 of whom (39%) were enrolled. Retention was 100% (n=61) at year 2 and 85% at year 3. The study sample was younger than and had an over-representation of African refugees as compared to the eligible population. Parents reported that the research was respectful. Future plans This study demonstrates that a longitudinal cohort study in refugee children is feasible and acceptable, and retention rates can be high. The establishment of this cohort provides the opportunity to analyse valuable data about the early settlement experience, risk and protective factors and long-term health and well-being outcomes in refugee children. These are necessary to identify refugee children in need of additional support and to guide future service delivery. PMID:27558902

  7. A retrospective longitudinal study of caries development in an Australian Aboriginal birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, L M; Armfield, J M; Roberts-Thomson, K F; Sayers, S M

    2010-01-01

    There are a limited number of longitudinal investigations that examine the progression of dental disease in an indigenous population. Dental examinations of a cohort of indigenous Australians born in Darwin (Australia) between 1987 and 1990 were conducted at ages 6-8 and 11-13 years as part of the Child Dental Health Survey, and 18-20 years as part of the longstanding prospective Aboriginal Birth Cohort (ABC) study. Data was available at all ages for 145 participants. The percent DMFT >0 increased from 17.2 to 44.1 to 81.4%, representing a linear trajectory, whereas mean DMFT increased from 0.3 to 1.0 to 5.6, representing an exponential trajectory. Both trends were significant. At age 18-20 years, the percent DMFT >0 among ABC study participants was 1.2 times that of their counterparts at a national level. The differences were more marked when dental caries severity was considered, with mean DMFT among 18- to 20-year-old ABC study participants being 1.7 times that of similarly aged adults at a national level. Most of this disparity was constituted by the decayed component, with ABC study participants having eight times the mean DT of their national-level counterparts. The findings indicate that Aboriginal young adults in this birth cohort experience a disproportionate amount of dental disease relative to their non-indigenous counterparts, and that this pattern is consistent across the life course.

  8. Social integration and maternal smoking: A longitudinal analysis of a national birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Mumford, Elizabeth A; Liu, Weiwei

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Social support and engagement are related to smoking behavior in general populations, but it is unknown whether these measures of social integration as experienced by recent mothers are related to longitudinal maternal smoking patterns. The purpose of this study is, first, to describe longitudinal patterns of maternal smoking before, during, and after pregnancy through the early childhood parenting years, as well as variation in these patterns; and second, to examine these patterns in relation to social integration, emotional, behavioral, and sociodemographic factors. Methods Among 9,050 mothers of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (a nationally representative probability sample of children born in 2001), we estimated trajectories of maternal smoking with general growth mixture model (GGMM), and examined how baseline predictors are associated with these patterns over a 5 to 6 year period beginning three months prior to pregnancy. Results A 5-class solution identified trajectories of nonsmokers (70.5%), temporary quitters (9.4%), pregnancy-inspired quitters (3.3%), delayed initiators (5.1%), and persistent smokers (11.7%). Modifiable risk factors included postpartum alcohol consumption and behavioral cues from co-resident smokers, while breastfeeding beyond six months and social engagement through religious service attendance were protective characteristics. Conclusions Prevention of and treatment for maternal perinatal and postpartum smoking is best informed by mothers’ emotional, behavioral and sociodemographic characteristics. Religious service attendance, but not measures of social support or social engagement, is a protective factor for maternal smoking trajectories. PMID:26987858

  9. Clinical Significance of Asthma Clusters by Longitudinal Analysis in Korean Asthma Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sujeong; Yoon, Sun-young; Kwon, Hyouk-Soo; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Cho, You Sook; Jang, An-Soo; Park, Jung Won; Nahm, Dong-Ho; Yoon, Ho-Joo; Cho, Sang-Heon; Cho, Young-Joo; Choi, ByoungWhui; Moon, Hee-Bom; Kim, Tae-Bum

    2013-01-01

    Background We have previously identified four distinct groups of asthma patients in Korean cohorts using cluster analysis: (A) smoking asthma, (B) severe obstructive asthma, (C) early-onset atopic asthma, and (D) late-onset mild asthma. Methods and Results A longitudinal analysis of each cluster in a Korean adult asthma cohort was performed to investigate the clinical significance of asthma clusters over 12 months. Cluster A showed relatively high asthma control test (ACT) scores but relatively low FEV1 scores, despite a high percentage of systemic corticosteroid use. Cluster B had the lowest mean FEV1, ACT, and the quality of life questionnaire for adult Korean asthmatics (QLQAKA) scores throughout the year, even though the percentage of systemic corticosteroid use was the highest among the four clusters. Cluster C was ranked second in terms of FEV1, with the second lowest percentage of systemic corticosteroid use, and showed a marked improvement in subjective symptoms over time. Cluster D consistently showed the highest FEV1, the lowest systemic corticosteroid use, and had high ACT and QLQAKA scores. Conclusion Our asthma clusters had clinical significance with consistency among clusters over 12 months. These distinctive phenotypes may be useful in classifying asthma in real practice. PMID:24391784

  10. Prevalence of deliberate self harm and attempted suicide within contemporary Goth youth subculture: longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Young, Robert; Sweeting, Helen; West, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether deliberate self harm is associated with contemporary Goth youth subculture. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting School and community based study of young people living in the Central Clydeside Conurbation, Scotland. Participants 1258 people aged 19, surveyed in 2002-4 and followed-up since age 11 (1994). Main outcome measures Lifetime prevalence of self harm and attempted suicide and their association with Goth youth subculture, before and after adjusting for confounders. Results Identification as belonging to the Goth subculture was strongly associated with lifetime self harm and attempted suicide, with a prevalence of 53% and 47%, respectively among the most highly identified group, and evidence for a dose-response relation. Adjusting for potential confounders did not significantly attenuate this association. Analysis of other youth subcultures showed that this effect was primarily associated with Goth subculture. Conclusions Identification as belonging to the Goth subculture was the best predictor of self harm and attempted suicide. Although based on small numbers, additional longitudinal analysis suggests both selection and modelling mechanisms are involved, selection mechanisms possibly being more likely. PMID:16613936

  11. Cohort Profile: The Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH).

    PubMed

    Kohler, Hans-Peter; Watkins, Susan C; Behrman, Jere R; Anglewicz, Philip; Kohler, Iliana V; Thornton, Rebecca L; Mkandawire, James; Honde, Hastings; Hawara, Augustine; Chilima, Ben; Bandawe, Chiwoza; Mwapasa, Victor; Fleming, Peter; Kalilani-Phiri, Linda

    2015-04-01

    The Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH) is one of very few long-standing, publicly available longitudinal cohort studies in a sub-Saharan African (SSA) context. It provides a rare record of more than a decade of demographic, socioeconomic and health conditions in one of the world's poorest countries. The MLSFH was initially established in 1998 to study social network influences on fertility behaviours and HIV risk perceptions, and over time the focus of the study expanded to include health, sexual behaviours, intergenerational relations and family/household dynamics. The currently available data include MLSFH rounds collected in 1998, 2001, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012 for up to 4000 individuals, providing information about socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, sexual behaviours, marriage, household/family structure, risk perceptions, social networks and social capital, intergenerational relations, HIV/AIDS and other dimensions of health. The MLSFH public use data can be requested on the project website: http://www.malawi.pop.upenn.edu/.

  12. Preliminary Rural Analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Cohort. Rural Early Childhood Brief Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Rural Early Childhood Learning Initiatives - Mississippi State University Early Childhood Institute, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This brief introduces the first results from a rural analysis of selected national datasets. Provided are key findings concerning kindergarten readiness of rural children from an analysis of the Kindergarten Cohort of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS). Future briefs will summarize the findings concerning the health of the Kindergarten…

  13. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 2003 Cohort: Wave 9 (2011)--Frequency Tables. Technical Report 76B

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) program studies the progress of several groups of young Australians as they move from school into post-secondary education and work. This series of documents provides supporting information for the LSAY data set of the 2003 cohort at wave 9 (2011). This document presents the frequency tables for…

  14. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 2003 Cohort Wave 7 (2009)--Frequency Tables. Technical Report 57B

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) program studies the progress of several groups of young Australians as they move from school into post-secondary education and work. This technical paper contains the frequency tables for the LSAY 2003 cohort Wave 7 (2009) data set. [For the related questionnaire, see ED512164.

  15. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 1998 Cohort--User Guide. Data Elements A: Demographics. Technical Report 53A

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This technical paper contains information about the variables in the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) Year 1998 cohort data set. It groups each variable into data elements which identifies common variables within and across waves. Information is provided about each data element including its purpose, values, base populations and…

  16. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 1998 Cohort--User Guide. Data Elements C: Employment. Technical Report 53C

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This technical paper contains information about the variables in the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) Year 1998 cohort data set. It groups each variable into data elements which identifies common variables within and across waves. Information is provided about each data element including its purpose, values, base populations and…

  17. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 1998 Cohort--User Guide. Data Elements D: Social. Technical Report 53D

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This technical paper contains information about the variables in the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) Year 1998 cohort data set. It groups each variable into data elements which identifies common variables within and across waves. Information is provided about each data element including its purpose, values, base populations and…

  18. Self-Beliefs Mediate Math Performance between Primary and Lower Secondary School: A Large-Scale Longitudinal Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Helen C.; Kirschner, Paul A.; Jolles, Jelle

    2015-01-01

    It is often argued that enhancement of self-beliefs should be one of the key goals of education. However, very little is known about the relation between self-beliefs and performance when students move from primary to secondary school in highly differentiated educational systems with early tracking. This large-scale longitudinal cohort study…

  19. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 1995 Cohort--User Guide. Data Elements A: Demographics. Technical Report 49A

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    This technical paper contains information about the variables in the LSAY (Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth) Y95 cohort data set. It groups each variable into data elements which identifies common variables within and across waves. Information is provided about each data element including its purpose, values, base populations and relevant…

  20. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 2006 Cohort: Wave 6 (2011)--Frequency Tables. Technical Report 75B

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) program studies the progress of several groups of young Australians as they move from school into post-secondary education and work. This series of documents provides supporting information for the LSAY data set of the 2006 cohort at wave 6 (2011). This document presents the frequency tables for…

  1. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 1995 Cohort--User Guide. Data Elements C: Employment. Technical Report 49C

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This technical paper contains information about the variables in the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) Year 95 cohort data set. It groups each variable into data elements that identify common variables within and across waves. Information is provided about each data element including its purpose, values, base populations and relevant…

  2. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 1995 Cohort--User Guide. Data Elements D: Social. Technical Report 49D

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This technical paper contains information about the variables in the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) Year 95 cohort data set. It groups each variable into data elements that identify common variables within and across waves. Information is provided about each data element including its purpose, values, base populations and relevant…

  3. Ethnic differences in longitudinal latent verbal profiles in the millennium cohort study*

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Yvonne; Sacker, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Development of verbal skills during early childhood and school age years is consequential for children’s educational achievement and adult outcomes. We examine ethnic differences in longitudinal latent verbal profiles and assess the contribution of family process and family resource factors to observed differences. Methods: Using data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study and the latent profile analysis, we estimate longitudinal latent verbal profiles using verbal skills measured 4 times from age 3–11 years. We investigate the odds of verbal profiles by ethnicity (reported in infancy), and the extent observed differences are mediated by the home learning environment, family routines, and psychosocial environment (measured at age 3). Results: Indian children were twice as likely (OR = 2.14, CI: 1.37–3.33) to be in the high achieving profile, compared to White children. Socioeconomic markers attenuated this advantage to nonsignificance. Pakistani and Bangladeshi children were significantly more likely to be in the low performing group (OR = 2.23, CI: 1.61–3.11; OR = 3.37, CI: 2.20–5.17, respectively). Socioeconomic and psychosocial factors had the strongest mediating influence on the association between lower achieving profiles and Pakistani children, whereas for Bangladeshi children, there was mediation by the home learning environment, family routines, and psychosocial factors. Conclusion: Family process and resource factors explain ethnic differences in longitudinal latent verbal profiles. Family resources explain verbal advantages for Indian children, whereas a range of home environment and socioeconomic factors explain disparities for Pakistani and Bangladeshi children. Future policy initiatives focused on reducing ethnic disparities in children’s development should consider supporting and enhancing family resources and processes. PMID:27999155

  4. The Development of Aggression in 18 to 48 Month Old Children of Alcoholic Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Ellen P.; Eiden, Rina D.; Colder, Craig; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the development of aggressive and oppositional behavior among alcoholic and nonalcoholic families using latent growth modeling. The sample consisted of 226 families assessed at 18, 24, 36, and 48 months of child age. Results indicated that children in families with nonalcoholic parents had the lowest levels of aggressive…

  5. Considerations when using longitudinal cohort studies to assess dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic and chronic health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Scrafford, Carolyn G; Barraj, Leila M; Tsuji, Joyce S

    2016-07-01

    Dietary arsenic exposure and chronic health outcomes are of interest, due in part to increased awareness and data available on inorganic arsenic levels in some foods. Recent concerns regarding levels of inorganic arsenic, the primary form of arsenic of human health concern, in foods are based on extrapolation from adverse health effects observed at high levels of inorganic arsenic exposure; the potential for the occurrence of these health effects from lower levels of dietary inorganic arsenic exposure has not been established. In this review, longitudinal cohort studies are evaluated for their utility in estimating dietary inorganic arsenic exposure and quantifying statistically reliable associations with health outcomes. The primary limiting factor in longitudinal studies is incomplete data on inorganic arsenic levels in foods combined with the aggregation of consumption of foods with varying arsenic levels into a single category, resulting in exposure misclassification. Longitudinal cohort studies could provide some evidence to evaluate associations of dietary patterns related to inorganic arsenic exposure with risk of arsenic-related diseases. However, currently available data from longitudinal cohort studies limit causal analyses regarding the association between inorganic arsenic exposure and health outcomes. Any conclusions should therefore be viewed with knowledge of the analytical and methodological limitations.

  6. Motor vehicle crashes during pregnancy and cerebral palsy during infancy: a longitudinal cohort analysis

    PubMed Central

    Redelmeier, Donald A; Naqib, Faisal; Thiruchelvam, Deva; R Barrett, Jon F

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the incidence of cerebral palsy among children born to mothers who had their pregnancy complicated by a motor vehicle crash. Design Retrospective longitudinal cohort analysis of children born from 1 April 2002 to 31 March 2012 in Ontario, Canada. Participants Cases defined as pregnancies complicated by a motor vehicle crash and controls as remaining pregnancies with no crash. Main outcome Subsequent diagnosis of cerebral palsy by age 3 years. Results A total of 1 325 660 newborns were analysed, of whom 7933 were involved in a motor vehicle crash during pregnancy. A total of 2328 were subsequently diagnosed with cerebral palsy, equal to an absolute risk of 1.8 per 1000 newborns. For the entire cohort, motor vehicle crashes correlated with a 29% increased risk of subsequent cerebral palsy that was not statistically significant (95% CI −16 to +110, p=0.274). The increased risk was only significant for those with preterm birth who showed an 89% increased risk of subsequent cerebral palsy associated with a motor vehicle crash (95% CI +7 to +266, p=0.037). No significant increase was apparent for those with a term delivery (95% CI −62 to +79, p=0.510). A propensity score-matched analysis of preterm births (n=4384) yielded a 138% increased relative risk of cerebral palsy associated with a motor vehicle crash (95% CI +27 to +349, p=0.007), equal to an absolute increase of about 10.9 additional cases per 1000 newborns (18.2 vs 7.3, p=0.010). Conclusions Motor vehicle crashes during pregnancy may be associated with an increased risk of cerebral palsy among the subgroup of cases with preterm birth. The increase highlights a specific role for traffic safety advice in prenatal care. PMID:27650764

  7. Neutralizing antibody titers against dengue virus correlate with protection from symptomatic infection in a longitudinal cohort

    PubMed Central

    Katzelnick, Leah C.; Montoya, Magelda; Gresh, Lionel; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The four dengue virus serotypes (DENV1–4) are mosquito-borne flaviviruses that infect ∼390 million people annually; up to 100 million infections are symptomatic, and 500,000 cases progress to severe disease. Exposure to a heterologous DENV serotype, the specific infecting DENV strains, and the interval of time between infections, as well as age, ethnicity, genetic polymorphisms, and comorbidities of the host, are all risk factors for severe dengue. In contrast, neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) are thought to provide long-lived protection against symptomatic infection and severe dengue. The objective of dengue vaccines is to provide balanced protection against all DENV serotypes simultaneously. However, the association between homotypic and heterotypic NAb titers and protection against symptomatic infection remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the titer of preinfection cross-reactive NAbs correlates with reduced likelihood of symptomatic secondary infection in a longitudinal pediatric dengue cohort in Nicaragua. The protective effect of NAb titers on infection outcome remained significant when controlled for age, number of years between infections, and epidemic force, as well as with relaxed or more stringent criteria for defining inapparent DENV infections. Further, individuals with higher NAb titers immediately after primary infection had delayed symptomatic infections compared with those with lower titers. However, overall NAb titers increased modestly in magnitude and remained serotype cross-reactive in the years between infections, possibly due to reexposure. These findings establish that anti-DENV NAb titers correlate with reduced probability of symptomatic DENV infection and provide insights into longitudinal characteristics of antibody-mediated immunity to DENV in an endemic setting. PMID:26729879

  8. Prenatal Exposure to Organophosphorous Pesticides and Fetal Growth: Pooled Results from Four Longitudinal Birth Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Harley, Kim G.; Engel, Stephanie M.; Vedar, Michelle G.; Eskenazi, Brenda; Whyatt, Robin M.; Lanphear, Bruce P.; Bradman, Asa; Rauh, Virginia A.; Yolton, Kimberly; Hornung, Richard W.; Wetmur, James G.; Chen, Jia; Holland, Nina T.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Perera, Frederica P.; Wolff, Mary S.

    2015-01-01

    , Perera FP, Wolff MS. 2016. Prenatal exposure to organophosphorous pesticides and fetal growth: pooled results from four longitudinal birth cohort studies. Environ Health Perspect 124:1084–1092; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409362 PMID:26685281

  9. Do baby boomers use more healthcare services than other generations? Longitudinal trajectories of physician service use across five birth cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Canizares, Mayilee; Gignac, Monique; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Glazier, Richard H; Badley, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-01

    Objective In light of concerns for meeting the provision of healthcare services given the large numbers of ageing baby boomers, we compared the trajectories of primary care and specialist services use across the lifecourse of 5 birth cohorts and examined factors associated with birth cohort differences. Design Longitudinal panel. Setting Canadian National Population Health Survey (1994–2011). Population Sample of 10 186 individuals aged 20–69 years in 1994–1995 and who were from 5 birth cohorts: Generation X (Gen X; born: 1965–1974), Younger Baby Boomers (born: 1955–1964), Older Baby Boomers (born: 1945–1954), World War II (born: 1935–1944) and pre-World War II (born: 1925–1934). Main outcomes Use of primary care and specialist services. Results Although the overall pattern suggested less use of physician services by each successive recent cohort, this blinded differences in primary and specialist care use by cohort. Multilevel analyses comparing cohorts showed that Gen Xers and younger boomers, particularly those with multimorbidity, were less likely to use primary care than earlier cohorts. In contrast, specialist use was higher in recent cohorts, with Gen Xers having the highest specialist use. These increases were explained by the increasing levels of multimorbidity. Education, income, having a regular source of care, sedentary lifestyle and obesity were significantly associated with physician services use, but only partially contributed to cohort differences. Conclusions The findings suggest a shift from primary care to specialist care among recent cohorts, particularly for those with multimorbidity. This is of concern given policies to promote primary care services to prevent and manage chronic conditions. There is a need for policies to address important generational differences in healthcare preferences and the balance between primary and specialty care to ensure integration and coordination of healthcare delivery. PMID:27687902

  10. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study: assessment of environmental exposures

    PubMed Central

    Takaro, Tim K; Scott, James A; Allen, Ryan W; Anand, Sonia S; Becker, Allan B; Befus, A Dean; Brauer, Michael; Duncan, Joanne; Lefebvre, Diana L; Lou, Wendy; Mandhane, Piush J; McLean, Kathleen E; Miller, Gregory; Sbihi, Hind; Shu, Huan; Subbarao, Padmaja; Turvey, Stuart E; Wheeler, Amanda J; Zeng, Leilei; Sears, Malcolm R; Brook, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development birth cohort was designed to elucidate interactions between environment and genetics underlying development of asthma and allergy. Over 3600 pregnant mothers were recruited from the general population in four provinces with diverse environments. The child is followed to age 5 years, with prospective characterization of diverse exposures during this critical period. Key exposure domains include indoor and outdoor air pollutants, inhalation, ingestion and dermal uptake of chemicals, mold, dampness, biological allergens, pets and pests, housing structure, and living behavior, together with infections, nutrition, psychosocial environment, and medications. Assessments of early life exposures are focused on those linked to inflammatory responses driven by the acquired and innate immune systems. Mothers complete extensive environmental questionnaires including time-activity behavior at recruitment and when the child is 3, 6, 12, 24, 30, 36, 48, and 60 months old. House dust collected during a thorough home assessment at 3–4 months, and biological specimens obtained for multiple exposure-related measurements, are archived for analyses. Geo-locations of homes and daycares and land-use regression for estimating traffic-related air pollution complement time-activity-behavior data to provide comprehensive individual exposure profiles. Several analytical frameworks are proposed to address the many interacting exposure variables and potential issues of co-linearity in this complex data set. PMID:25805254

  11. The Dynamic Relationship Between Physical Function and Cognition in Longitudinal Aging Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Clouston, Sean A. P.; Brewster, Paul; Kuh, Diana; Richards, Marcus; Cooper, Rachel; Hardy, Rebecca; Rubin, Marcie S.; Hofer, Scott M.

    2013-01-01

    On average, older people remember less and walk more slowly than do younger persons. Some researchers argue that this is due in part to a common biologic process underlying age-related declines in both physical and cognitive functioning. Only recently have longitudinal data become available for analyzing this claim. We conducted a systematic review of English-language research published between 2000 and 2011 to evaluate the relations between rates of change in physical and cognitive functioning in older cohorts. Physical functioning was assessed using objective measures: walking speed, grip strength, chair rise time, flamingo stand time, and summary measures of physical functioning. Cognition was measured using mental state examinations, fluid cognition, and diagnosis of impairment. Results depended on measurement type: Change in grip strength was more strongly correlated with mental state, while change in walking speed was more strongly correlated with change in fluid cognition. Examining physical and cognitive functioning can help clinicians and researchers to better identify individuals and groups that are aging differently and at different rates. In future research, investigators should consider the importance of identifying different patterns and rates of decline, examine relations between more diverse types of measures, and analyze the order in which age-related declines occur. PMID:23349427

  12. Outdoor temperature, precipitation, and wind speed affect physical activity levels in children: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Nicholas M.; Myer, Gregory D.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Woo, Jessica G.; Khoury, Philip R.; Hewett, Timothy E.; Daniels, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evaluate effects of local weather conditions on physical activity in early childhood. Methods Longitudinal prospective cohort study of 372 children, 3 years old at enrollment, drawn from a major US metropolitan community. Accelerometer-measured (RT3) physical activity was collected every 4 months over 5 years and matched with daily weather measures: day length, heating/cooling degrees (degrees mean temperature < 65°F or ≥ 65°F, respectively), wind, and precipitation. Mixed regression analyses, adjusted for repeated measures, were used to test the relationship between weather and physical activity. Results Precipitation and wind speed were negatively associated with total physical activity and moderate-vigorous physical activity (P<0.0001). Heating and cooling degrees were negatively associated with total physical activity and moderate-vigorous physical activity and positively associated with inactivity (all P<0.0001), independent of age, sex, race, BMI, day length, wind, and precipitation. For every 10 additional heating degrees there was a five-minute daily reduction in moderate-vigorous physical activity. For every additional 10 cooling degrees there was a 17-minute reduction in moderate-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions Inclement weather (higher/lower temperature, greater wind speed, more rain/snow) is associated with less physical activity in young children. These deleterious effects should be considered when planning physical activity research, interventions, and policies. PMID:25423667

  13. The VA Hypertension Primary Care Longitudinal Cohort: Electronic medical records in the post-genomic era

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Rany M.; Pandey, Braj; Richard, Erin; Fung, Maple M.; Garcia, Erin P.; Brophy, Victoria H.; Schork, Nicholas J.; O'Connor, Daniel T.; Bhatnagar, Vibha

    2011-01-01

    The Veterans Affairs Hypertension Primary Care Longitudinal Cohort (VAHC) was initiated in 2003 as a pilot study designed to link the VA electronic medical record system with individual genetic data. Between June 2003 and December 2004, 1,527 hypertensive participants were recruited. Protected health information (PHI) was extracted from the regional VA data warehouse. Differences between the clinic and mail recruits suggested that clinic recruitment resulted in an over-sampling of African Americans. A review of medical records in a random sample of study participants confirmed that the data warehouse accurately captured most selected diagnoses. Genomic DNA was acquired non-invasively from buccal cells in mouthwash; ~ 96.5 per cent of samples contained DNA suitable for genotyping, with an average DNA yield of 5.02 ± 0.12 micrograms, enough for several thousand genotypes. The coupling of detailed medical databases with genetic information has the potential to facilitate the genetic study of hypertension and other complex diseases. PMID:21216807

  14. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study: assessment of environmental exposures.

    PubMed

    Takaro, Tim K; Scott, James A; Allen, Ryan W; Anand, Sonia S; Becker, Allan B; Befus, A Dean; Brauer, Michael; Duncan, Joanne; Lefebvre, Diana L; Lou, Wendy; Mandhane, Piush J; McLean, Kathleen E; Miller, Gregory; Sbihi, Hind; Shu, Huan; Subbarao, Padmaja; Turvey, Stuart E; Wheeler, Amanda J; Zeng, Leilei; Sears, Malcolm R; Brook, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development birth cohort was designed to elucidate interactions between environment and genetics underlying development of asthma and allergy. Over 3600 pregnant mothers were recruited from the general population in four provinces with diverse environments. The child is followed to age 5 years, with prospective characterization of diverse exposures during this critical period. Key exposure domains include indoor and outdoor air pollutants, inhalation, ingestion and dermal uptake of chemicals, mold, dampness, biological allergens, pets and pests, housing structure, and living behavior, together with infections, nutrition, psychosocial environment, and medications. Assessments of early life exposures are focused on those linked to inflammatory responses driven by the acquired and innate immune systems. Mothers complete extensive environmental questionnaires including time-activity behavior at recruitment and when the child is 3, 6, 12, 24, 30, 36, 48, and 60 months old. House dust collected during a thorough home assessment at 3-4 months, and biological specimens obtained for multiple exposure-related measurements, are archived for analyses. Geo-locations of homes and daycares and land-use regression for estimating traffic-related air pollution complement time-activity-behavior data to provide comprehensive individual exposure profiles. Several analytical frameworks are proposed to address the many interacting exposure variables and potential issues of co-linearity in this complex data set.

  15. Poverty or income inequality as predictor of mortality: longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    Fiscella, K.; Franks, P.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of inequality in income between communities independent of household income on individual all cause mortality in the United States. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study. SUBJECTS: A nationally representative sample of 14,407 people aged 25-74 years in the United States from the first national health and nutrition examination survey. SETTING: Subjects were followed from initial interview in 1971-5 until 1987. Complete follow up information was available for 92.2% of the sample. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relation between both household income and income inequality in community of residence and individual all cause mortality at follow up was examined with Cox proportional hazards survival analysis. RESULTS: Community income inequality showed a significant association with subsequent community mortality, and with individual mortality after adjustment for age, sex, and mean income in the community of residence. After adjustment for individual household income, however, the association with mortality was lost. CONCLUSIONS: In this nationally representative American sample, family income, but not community income inequality, independently predicts mortality. Previously reported ecological associations between income inequality and mortality may reflect confounding between individual family income and mortality. PMID:9185498

  16. Head start participation and school readiness: evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Lee, RaeHyuck; Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n ≈ 6,950), a nationally representative sample of children born in 2001, we examined school readiness (academic skills and socioemotional well-being) at kindergarten entry for children who attended Head Start compared with those who experienced other types of child care (prekindergarten, other center-based care, other nonparental care, or parental care). Using propensity score matching methods and ordinary least squares regressions with rich controls, we found that Head Start participants had higher early reading and math scores than children in other nonparental care or parental care but also higher levels of conduct problems than those in parental care. Head Start participants had lower early reading scores compared with children in prekindergarten and had no differences in any outcomes compared with children in other center-based care. Head Start benefits were more pronounced for children who had low initial cognitive ability or parents with low levels of education or who attended Head Start for more than 20 hr per week.

  17. Online and Offline Recruitment of Young Women for a Longitudinal Health Survey: Findings From the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health 1989-95 Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Jennifer; Anderson, Amy E; Townsend, Natalie; Harris, Melissa L; Tuckerman, Ryan; Pease, Stephanie; Mishra, Gita; Byles, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2012, we set out to recruit a cohort of at least 10,000 women aged 18-23 from across Australia. With recent research demonstrating the inadequacy of traditional approaches to recruiting women in this age group, we elected to conduct open recruiting. Objective Our aim was to report on the overall success of open recruiting and to evaluate the relative success of a variety of recruitment methods in terms of numbers and demographics. Methods We used referrals, Facebook, formal advertising, and incentives in order to recruit the cohort. Results In all, 17,069 women were recruited for the longitudinal online survey, from 54,685 initiated surveys. Of these women, most (69.94%, n=11,799) who joined the longitudinal cohort were recruited via Facebook, 12.72% (n=2145) via the fashion promotion, 7.02% (n=1184) by referral, 4.9% (n=831) via other Web activities, and 5.4% (n=910) via traditional media. Conclusions Facebook was by far the most successful strategy, enrolling a cohort of women with a similar profile to the population of Australian women in terms of age, area of residence, and relationship status. Women recruited via fashion promotion were the least representative. All strategies underrepresented less educated women—a finding that is consistent with more traditional means of recruiting. In conclusion, flexibility in recruitment design, embracing new and traditional media, adopting a dynamic responsive approach, and monitoring the results of recruiting in terms of sample composition and number recruited led to the successful establishment of a new cohort. PMID:25940876

  18. Longitudinal change of selected human milk oligosaccharides and association to infants’ growth, an observatory, single center, longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Le Ye; De Castro, Carlos Antonio; Steenhout, Philippe; Thakkar, Sagar K.

    2017-01-01

    Background Human milk is the recommended and sole nutrient source for newborns. One of the largest components of human milk is oligosaccharides (HMOs) with major constituents determined by the mother genotype for the fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2, secretor) gene. HMO variation has been related with infant microbiota establishment, diarrhea incidence, morbidity and mortality, IgE associated eczema and body composition. Objectives We investigated the (i) dependence of several major representative HMOs on the FUT2 status assessed through breast milk 2’Fucosyllactose (2’FL) and (ii) the relation of the 2’FL status with infant growth up to 4 months of life. Design From an open observatory, single center, longitudinal cohort study with quantitative human milk collection at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum from 50 mothers, who gave birth to 25 female and 25 male singleton infants, we collected a representative sample of human milk. We quantified the following 5 representative HMOs: 2’FL, Lacto-N-tetraose (LNT), Lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT), 3’Sialyllactose (3’SL) and 6’Sialyllactose (6’SL). We grouped the milk samples and corresponding infants according to the measured milk 2’FL concentrations at 30 days of lactation, which clustered around low concentrations (95% CI of mean 12–42 mg/L) and high concentrations (95% CI of mean 1880–2460 mg/L) with the former likely representing Secretor negative mothers. Infant anthropometric measures were recorded at birth, 1, 2 and 4 months of age. Relations among the quantified HMOs and the relation of the high and low 2’FL HMOs groups with infant growth parameters were investigated via linear mixed models. Results The milk samples with low 2’FL concentration had higher LNT and lower LNnT concentrations compared to the samples with high 2’FL. The milk 3’- and 6’SL concentrations were independent of 2’FL. Over lactation time we observed a drop in the concentration of 2’FL, LNT, LNnT and 6’SL, especially

  19. A study of the birth weight-obesity relation using a longitudinal cohort and sibling and twin pairs.

    PubMed

    The, Natalie S; Adair, Linda S; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2010-09-01

    Sibling and twin study designs provide control for confounding factors that are typically unmeasured in traditional cohort studies. Using nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health collected at 3 visits during 1994-2002, the authors evaluated the longitudinal association between birth weight and later obesity in a traditional cohort study (n = 13,763; ages 11-21 years at baseline), controlling for sex, age, race/ethnicity, and parental education. Among persons with a nonobese mother, high birth weight (>4 kg) participants were more likely than normal birth weight (>/=2.5-longitudinal within-pair differences. Birth weight difference was positively associated with body mass index difference later in life for female monozygotic pairs only (beta = 2.67, 95% confidence interval: 0.99, 4.35). Given the null associations observed in the sibling sample, the commonly observed positive association between birth weight and later obesity from cohort analyses may be attributed to confounding by maternal characteristics. Further research is needed to identify specific factors that contribute to the birth weight-obesity relation.

  20. Infant feeding practices in a South African birth cohort-A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Budree, Shrish; Goddard, Elizabeth; Brittain, Kirsty; Cader, Shihaam; Myer, Landon; Zar, Heather J

    2016-10-02

    Childhood malnutrition is highly prevalent in low- and middle-income countries. The choices of complementary foods, which are important in infant nutrition, are poorly described in this setting. We investigated infant feeding practices in a South African birth cohort, the Drakenstein Child Health Study. Longitudinal feeding data were collected from March 2012 to March 2015. Feeding practices at birth, 6-10 and 14 weeks and 6, 9, and 12 months, were investigated using food frequency questionnaires. Anthropometry was measured at birth and 12 months. The quality of the diet was analyzed using the World Health Organization infant and young child feeding indicators. Regression models were used to explore associations between feeding and growth outcomes at 1 year. Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months was low (13%), and 19% of infants were introduced to solid foods before 4 months. There was high daily consumption of processed meat (56%) and inappropriate foods such as fruit juice (82%), soft drinks (54%), and refined sugary foods (51%) at 1 year. Dietary diversity and consumption of iron rich foods were low at 6 months (5% and 3%, respectively) but higher by 12 months (75% and 78%). Longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding was associated with a lower height-for-age z-score at 1 year. Several dietary deficits and a rising trend in the consumption of inappropriate nutritionally poor foods were identified. These findings raise concern about poor dietary practices and the impact on child and long-term health.

  1. Cisplatin Nephrotoxicity and Longitudinal Growth in Children With Solid Tumors: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Triana, Clímaco Andres; Castelán-Martínez, Osvaldo D; Rivas-Ruiz, Rodolfo; Jiménez-Méndez, Ricardo; Medina, Aurora; Clark, Patricia; Rassekh, Rod; Castañeda-Hernández, Gilberto; Carleton, Bruce; Medeiros, Mara

    2015-08-01

    Cisplatin, a major antineoplastic drug used in the treatment of solid tumors, is a known nephrotoxin. This retrospective cohort study evaluated the prevalence and severity of cisplatin nephrotoxicity in 54 children and its impact on height and weight.We recorded the weight, height, serum creatinine, and electrolytes in each cisplatin cycle and after 12 months of treatment. Nephrotoxicity was graded as follows: normal renal function (Grade 0); asymptomatic electrolyte disorders, including an increase in serum creatinine, up to 1.5 times baseline value (Grade 1); need for electrolyte supplementation <3 months and/or increase in serum creatinine 1.5 to 1.9 times from baseline (Grade 2); increase in serum creatinine 2 to 2.9 times from baseline or need for electrolyte supplementation for more than 3 months after treatment completion (Grade 3); and increase in serum creatinine ≥3 times from baseline or renal replacement therapy (Grade 4).Nephrotoxicity was observed in 41 subjects (75.9%). Grade 1 nephrotoxicity was observed in 18 patients (33.3%), Grade 2 in 5 patients (9.2%), and Grade 3 in 18 patients (33.3%). None had Grade 4 nephrotoxicity. Nephrotoxicity patients were younger and received higher cisplatin dose, they also had impairment in longitudinal growth manifested as statistically significant worsening on the height Z Score at 12 months after treatment. We used a multiple logistic regression model using the delta of height Z Score (baseline-12 months) as dependent variable in order to adjust for the main confounder variables such as: germ cell tumor, cisplatin total dose, serum magnesium levels at 12 months, gender, and nephrotoxicity grade. Patients with nephrotoxicity Grade 1 where at higher risk of not growing (OR 5.1, 95% CI 1.07-24.3, P=0.04). The cisplatin total dose had a significant negative relationship with magnesium levels at 12 months (Spearman r=-0.527, P=<0.001).

  2. Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Responses in a Large Longitudinal Sub-Saharan HIV Primary Infection Cohort.

    PubMed

    Landais, Elise; Huang, Xiayu; Havenar-Daughton, Colin; Murrell, Ben; Price, Matt A; Wickramasinghe, Lalinda; Ramos, Alejandra; Bian, Charoan B; Simek, Melissa; Allen, Susan; Karita, Etienne; Kilembe, William; Lakhi, Shabir; Inambao, Mubiana; Kamali, Anatoli; Sanders, Eduard J; Anzala, Omu; Edward, Vinodh; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Tang, Jianming; Gilmour, Jill; Kosakovsky-Pond, Sergei L; Phung, Pham; Wrin, Terri; Crotty, Shane; Godzik, Adam; Poignard, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) are thought to be a critical component of a protective HIV vaccine. However, designing vaccines immunogens able to elicit bnAbs has proven unsuccessful to date. Understanding the correlates and immunological mechanisms leading to the development of bnAb responses during natural HIV infection is thus critical to the design of a protective vaccine. The IAVI Protocol C program investigates a large longitudinal cohort of primary HIV-1 infection in Eastern and South Africa. Development of neutralization was evaluated in 439 donors using a 6 cross-clade pseudo-virus panel predictive of neutralization breadth on larger panels. About 15% of individuals developed bnAb responses, essentially between year 2 and year 4 of infection. Statistical analyses revealed no influence of gender, age or geographical origin on the development of neutralization breadth. However, cross-clade neutralization strongly correlated with high viral load as well as with low CD4 T cell counts, subtype-C infection and HLA-A*03(-) genotype. A correlation with high overall plasma IgG levels and anti-Env IgG binding titers was also found. The latter appeared not associated with higher affinity, suggesting a greater diversity of the anti-Env responses in broad neutralizers. Broadly neutralizing activity targeting glycan-dependent epitopes, largely the N332-glycan epitope region, was detected in nearly half of the broad neutralizers while CD4bs and gp41-MPER bnAb responses were only detected in very few individuals. Together the findings suggest that both viral and host factors are critical for the development of bnAbs and that the HIV Env N332-glycan supersite may be a favorable target for vaccine design.

  3. Characteristics of azathioprine use and cessation in a longitudinal lupus cohort

    PubMed Central

    Croyle, Lucy; Hoi, Alberta; Morand, Eric F

    2015-01-01

    Objective Guidelines for azathioprine (AZA) use in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), including indications for initiation and cessation, are lacking. Clinical decision-making could be improved if reasons for cessation of AZA treatment were standardised. Methods We determined the characteristics of AZA use in a cohort of patients with SLE and evaluated reasons for AZA cessation. Patients with SLE in a single centre had longitudinal recording of disease activity (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI)-2k), laboratory investigations and treatment from 2007 to 2012. Results Of 183 patients studied, 67 used AZA on at least one occasion. There was no significant difference between AZA users and non-users in age or American College of Rheumatology criteria. Compared with those not treated with AZA, patients treated with AZA had higher disease activity (time-adjusted mean SLEDAI 5.2±0.3 vs 3.8±0.3, p=0.0028) and damage (Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC)-SDI 1.6±0.3 vs 1.2±0.1, p=0.0445), and were more likely to have a positive dsDNA (p=0.0130) and receive glucocorticoids (p<0.0001). AZA therapy was ceased in 30/67 (45%) patients. The predominant reasons for cessation were treatment de-escalation 14 (47%), treatment failure 12 (40%) and toxicity 3 (10%). AZA was switched to mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in 9/12 (75%) of treatment failures, and this choice was strongly associated with active lupus nephritis. Conclusions AZA toxicity was uncommon, and many patients ceased therapy in the context of treatment de-escalation. However, the frequent development of active lupus nephritis requiring MMF suggests the need to distinguish refractoriness, under-treatment and non-adherence to AZA in patients with SLE. These findings suggest that future studies of AZA metabolite measurement could prove valuable in the management of SLE. PMID:26322237

  4. Alcohol, Smoking, Physical Activity, Protein, and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: Prospective Longitudinal Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Min Soo; Han, Jun Hyun; Shin, Tae Young; Ko, Kyungtae; Lee, Won Ki; Cho, Sung Tae; Lee, Sang Kon; Lee, Seong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate risk factors for deterioration of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in elderly men in a community-based, prospective longitudinal cohort study. Methods: In a suburban area in Korea, 1,514 subjects aged ≥45 years were randomly selected by systematic sampling. A total of 918 elderly subjects were enrolled in this in-depth clinical study in 2004. Of these, 547 participants were followed up for 3 years and the data was analyzed in 2014. Standard questionnaires were administered face-to-face by trained interviewers. After excluding women, 224 male participants with complete data including transrectal ultrasonography were included in the final analysis. LUTS were diagnosed using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire. Symptom deterioration was defined as a score of ≥8 points during the 3-year follow-up period. Results: LUTS prevalence increased to 13.1% and the mean IPSS increased by 2.6 points during the 3-year period. After adjusting for confounders, a smoking history of ≥50 pack-years was an independent risk factor for deterioration of LUTS and storage subsymptoms compared with no history of smoking (3.1 and 5.1 odds, respectively). Physical activity had a protective effect on voiding subsymptoms. However, high protein diet and alcohol intake were not associated with LUTS deterioration. Conclusions: The LUTS prevalence among elderly men living in a suburban area increased to 13.1% and the IPSS increased by 2.6 points during the 3-year period. A history of heavy smoking, low physical activity, and high protein intake were associated with LUTS deterioration. However, there was no significant association between alcohol intake and LUTS deterioration. PMID:26620903

  5. Evaluation of the National Tips From Former Smokers Campaign: the 2014 Longitudinal Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Deesha; Davis, Kevin; Ridgeway, William; Shafer, Paul; Cox, Shanna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Since 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has aired a national tobacco education campaign to encourage quitting, Tips From Former Smokers (Tips), which consists of graphic antismoking advertisements that feature former cigarette smokers. We evaluated phase 2 of the 2014 campaign by using a nationally representative longitudinal cohort. Methods Cigarette smokers who participated in a baseline survey were re-contacted for follow-up (n = 4,248) approximately 4 months later, immediately after the campaign’s conclusion. The primary outcomes were incidence of a quit attempt in the previous 3 months, intention to quit within 30 days, and intention to quit within 6 months during the postcampaign period. We used multivariate logistic regression models to estimate the odds of each outcome. We also stratified models by race/ethnicity, education, and mental health status. Postcampaign rates of quit attempts, intentions to quit, and sustained quits were also estimated. Results Exposure to the campaign was associated with increased odds of a quit attempt in the previous 3 months (OR, 1.17; P = .03) among baseline smokers and intentions to quit within the next 6 months (OR, 1.28; P = .01) among current smokers at follow-up. The Tips campaign was associated with an estimated 1.83 million additional quit attempts, 1.73 million additional smokers intending to quit within 6 months, and 104,000 sustained quits of at least 6 months. Conclusion The Tips campaign continued to have a significant impact on cessation-related behaviors, providing further justification for the continued use of tobacco education campaigns to accelerate progress toward the goal of reducing adult smoking in the United States. PMID:27010845

  6. Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Responses in a Large Longitudinal Sub-Saharan HIV Primary Infection Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Landais, Elise; Huang, Xiayu; Havenar-Daughton, Colin; Murrell, Ben; Price, Matt A.; Wickramasinghe, Lalinda; Ramos, Alejandra; Bian, Charoan B.; Simek, Melissa; Allen, Susan; Karita, Etienne; Kilembe, William; Lakhi, Shabir; Inambao, Mubiana; Kamali, Anatoli; Sanders, Eduard J.; Anzala, Omu; Edward, Vinodh; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Tang, Jianming; Gilmour, Jill; Kosakovsky-Pond, Sergei L.; Phung, Pham; Wrin, Terri; Crotty, Shane; Godzik, Adam; Poignard, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) are thought to be a critical component of a protective HIV vaccine. However, designing vaccines immunogens able to elicit bnAbs has proven unsuccessful to date. Understanding the correlates and immunological mechanisms leading to the development of bnAb responses during natural HIV infection is thus critical to the design of a protective vaccine. The IAVI Protocol C program investigates a large longitudinal cohort of primary HIV-1 infection in Eastern and South Africa. Development of neutralization was evaluated in 439 donors using a 6 cross-clade pseudo-virus panel predictive of neutralization breadth on larger panels. About 15% of individuals developed bnAb responses, essentially between year 2 and year 4 of infection. Statistical analyses revealed no influence of gender, age or geographical origin on the development of neutralization breadth. However, cross-clade neutralization strongly correlated with high viral load as well as with low CD4 T cell counts, subtype-C infection and HLA-A*03(-) genotype. A correlation with high overall plasma IgG levels and anti-Env IgG binding titers was also found. The latter appeared not associated with higher affinity, suggesting a greater diversity of the anti-Env responses in broad neutralizers. Broadly neutralizing activity targeting glycan-dependent epitopes, largely the N332-glycan epitope region, was detected in nearly half of the broad neutralizers while CD4bs and gp41-MPER bnAb responses were only detected in very few individuals. Together the findings suggest that both viral and host factors are critical for the development of bnAbs and that the HIV Env N332-glycan supersite may be a favorable target for vaccine design. PMID:26766578

  7. Protocol of the Swiss Longitudinal Cohort Study (SWICOS) in rural Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Schoenenberger, Andreas W; Muggli, Franco; Parati, Gianfranco; Gallino, Augusto; Ehret, Georg; Suter, Paolo M; Schoenenberger-Berzins, Renate; Resink, Therese J; Erne, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Increased longevity and consequent major changes in demographics and population lifestyles necessitate new approaches to reduce the burden of ageing-related diseases (including cardiovascular disease) and maintain an optimal quality of life. This study aims to examine and longitudinally follow health status and disease risk factors in a Swiss rural cohort, evaluating all health-related research and practice disciplines to assure development of new implementable and successful preventive strategies for healthy ageing. Methods and objectives Small Swiss villages with low migration rates will be selected for this study. 2 villages (Cama/Lostallo) have already been selected as initial study sites. All residents (age ≥6 years, no upper age limit) are eligible. The target enrolment number per village is 300. Examinations and measurements encompass medical history, anthropometry, cardiac and vascular health, pulmonary function, physical performance, nutritional, mental and emotional status, biochemical and molecular analyses. Follow-up examinations (identical to baseline) will be performed after 5 and 10 years, and in 10-year intervals thereafter. The major objective is to assess, and observe change in, health status over time in a prospective manner. Secondary objectives are to: (1) identify ‘hidden’ (asymptomatic and/or unrecognised) health problems which enhance risk for chronic diseases; (2) identify barriers to accessing healthcare and adapting health behaviours; (3) evaluate efficacy of present preventive strategies and recommendations; (4) evaluate knowledge and attitude towards ongoing health programmes and public health recommendations; (5) monitor change and progress towards the national health objectives; (6) formulate new preventive strategies and recommendations based on the findings and knowledge base of the past 10 years; (7) formulate models for successful prevention of chronic diseases and for healthy ageing. Ethics and

  8. Longitudinal Survey of Carotenoids in Human Milk from Urban Cohorts in China, Mexico, and the USA.

    PubMed

    Lipkie, Tristan E; Morrow, Ardythe L; Jouni, Zeina E; McMahon, Robert J; Ferruzzi, Mario G

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that carotenoids may have particular roles in infant nutrition and development, yet data on the profile and bioavailability of carotenoids from human milk remain sparse. Milk was longitudinally collected at 2, 4, 13, and 26 weeks postpartum from twenty mothers each in China, Mexico, and the USA in the Global Exploration of Human Milk Study (n = 60 donors, n = 240 samples). Maternal and neonatal plasma was analyzed for carotenoids from the USA cohort at 4 weeks postpartum. Carotenoids were analyzed by HPLC and total lipids by Creamatocrit. Across all countries and lactation stages, the top four carotenoids were lutein (median 114.4 nmol/L), β-carotene (49.4 nmol/L), β-cryptoxanthin (33.8 nmol/L), and lycopene (33.7 nmol/L). Non-provitamin A carotenoids (nmol/L) and total lipids (g/L) decreased (p<0.05) with increasing lactation stage, except the provitamin A carotenoids α- and β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene did not significantly change (p>0.05) with lactation stage. Total carotenoid content and lutein content were greatest from China, yet lycopene was lowest from China (p<0.0001). Lutein, β-cryptoxanthin, and β-carotene, and lycopene concentrations in milk were significantly correlated to maternal plasma and neonatal plasma concentrations (p<0.05), with the exception that lycopene was not significantly associated between human milk and neonatal plasma (p>0.3). This enhanced understanding of neonatal exposure to carotenoids during development may help guide dietary recommendations and design of human milk mimetics.

  9. Prenatal maternal depression is associated with offspring inflammation at 25 years: a prospective longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Plant, D T; Pawlby, S; Sharp, D; Zunszain, P A; Pariante, C M

    2016-01-01

    Animal studies and a handful of prospective human studies have demonstrated that young offspring exposed to maternal prenatal stress show abnormalities in immune parameters and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis function. No study has examined the effect of maternal prenatal depression on offspring inflammation and HPA axis activity in adulthood, nor the putative role of child maltreatment in inducing these abnormalities. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and awakening cortisol were measured at age 25 in 103 young-adult offspring of the South London Child Development Study (SLCDS), a prospective longitudinal birth cohort of mother–offspring dyads recruited in pregnancy in 1986. Maternal prenatal depression was assessed in pregnancy at 20 and 36 weeks; offspring child maltreatment (birth 17 years) was assessed at offspring ages 11, 16 and 25; and offspring adulthood depression (18–25 years) was assessed at age 25. Exposure to maternal prenatal depression predicted significantly elevated offspring hs-CRP at age 25 (odds ratio=11.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.1, 127.0), P=0.041), independently of child maltreatment and adulthood depression, known risk factors for adulthood inflammation. In contrast, maternal prenatal depression did not predict changes in offspring adulthood cortisol; however, offspring exposure to child maltreatment did, and was associated with elevated awakening cortisol levels (B=161.9, 95% CI (45.4, 278.4), P=0.007). Fetal exposure to maternal depression during pregnancy has effects on immune function that persist for up to a quarter of a century after birth. Findings are consistent with the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) hypothesis for the biological embedding of gestational psychosocial adversity into vulnerability for future physical and mental illness. PMID:27801895

  10. Cohort Differences in Cognitive Aging and Terminal Decline in the Seattle Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Hoppmann, Christiane; Willis, Sherry L.; Schaie, K. Warner

    2011-01-01

    Life span researchers have long been interested in how and why fundamental aspects of human ontogeny differ between cohorts of people who have lived through different historical epochs. When examined at the same age, later born cohorts are often cognitively and physically fitter than earlier born cohorts. Less is known, however, about cohort…

  11. Feasibility of Conducting a Longitudinal, Transnational Study of Filipino Migrants to the United States: A Dual-Cohort Design

    PubMed Central

    Gee, Gilbert C.; de Castro, A.B.; Wang, May C.; Crespi, Catherine M.; Morey, Brittany N.; Fujishiro, Kaori

    2015-01-01

    Most studies of immigrant health are cross-sectional and fail to collect information prior to migration, leading to potential bias and confounding. The present pilot study examines the feasibility of studying migrants prospectively, with baseline data collected before migration. The study followed two cohorts of Filipinos for one year, a migrant cohort (n=27) that emigrated to the U.S. and a second non-migrant cohort (n=26) in the Philippines. The one-year retention rate was 96% The migrant cohort arrived in the U.S. within 2 months of their baseline assessment. Migrants and non-migrants did not differ with regard to body mass index, waist circumference or waist to hip ratio at baseline or at follow-up. It is feasible to conduct a transnational, longitudinal study of two cohorts of Filipinos. This design provides important pre-migration information, is analogous to a natural experiment, can be upscaled, and allows for a rigorous examination of immigrant health. PMID:25913346

  12. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 2009 Cohort User Guide: Data Elements B1--Education (School and School Transition). Technical Paper 74B1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    This is a support document to the "Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 2009 Cohort User Guide" report. Developed for users of LSAY, the user guide consolidates information about the LSAY 2009 cohort into one document. This support document provides school and school transition information for the guide. [For the main report,…

  13. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 2009 Cohort User Guide: Data Elements B2--Education (Post-School). Technical Paper 74B2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    This is a support document to the "Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 2009 Cohort User Guide" report. Developed for users of LSAY, the user guide consolidates information about the LSAY 2009 cohort into one document. This support document provides post-school information for the guide. [For the main report,…

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Kepler planetary candidates. VII. 48-month (Coughlin+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlin, J. L.; Mullally, F.; Thompson, S. E.; Rowe, J. F.; Burke, C. J.; Latham, D. W.; Batalha, N. M.; Ofir, A.; Quarles, B. L.; Henze, C. E.; Wolfgang, A.; Caldwell, D. A.; Bryson, S. T.; Shporer, A.; Catanzarite, J.; Akeson, R.; Barclay, T.; Borucki, W. J.; Boyajian, T. S.; Campbell, J. R.; Christiansen, J. L.; Girouard, F. R.; Haas, M. R.; Howell, S. B.; Huber, D.; Jenkins, J. M.; Li, J.; Patil-Sabale, A.; Quintana, E. V.; Ramirez, S.; Seader, S.; Smith, J. C.; Tenenbaum, P.; Twicken, J. D.; Zamudio, K. A.

    2016-07-01

    This catalog is based on Kepler's 24th data release (DR24), which includes the processing of all data utilizing version 9.2 of the Kepler pipeline (Jenkins et al. 2010ApJ...724.1108J). This marks the first time that all of the Kepler mission data have been processed consistently with the same version of the Kepler pipeline. Over a period of 48 months (2009 May 13 to 2013 May 11), subdivided into 17 quarters (Q1-Q17), a total of 198646 targets were observed. (7 data files).

  15. Microstructural brain development between 30 and 40 weeks corrected age in a longitudinal cohort of extremely preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Kersbergen, Karina J; Leemans, Alexander; Groenendaal, Floris; van der Aa, Niek E; Viergever, Max A; de Vries, Linda S; Benders, Manon J N L

    2014-12-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is frequently used to assess brain development in preterm infants. This study investigates maturational changes in diffusivity measures in 122 regions of the brain between 30 and 40 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) using the neonatal atlas of Oishi and colleagues (Oishi et al., 2011). Forty infants without cerebral injury and with normal neurodevelopmental outcome were selected from a cohort of preterm infants (gestational age<28 weeks), scanned longitudinally at 30 and 40 weeks PMA. Fractional anisotropy (FA) changed significantly in 84 brain regions, with the largest increase in the central brain regions; by contrast, the cortical brain regions showed a decrease in FA. Mean, radial and axial diffusivity all showed a clear decrease in the majority of brain regions. This study provides longitudinal reference diffusivity values in a cohort of extremely preterm infants, showing a central to peripheral and posterior to anterior directed gradient, in line with our current understanding of brain maturation, and adding to this knowledge. This study further elucidates brain maturation in preterm infants during the last 10 weeks prior to term equivalent age. The presented values can be used as a reference for assessing brain development in other cohorts, when investigating the effects of brain injury in this vulnerable period, and to evaluate the effect of future neuroprotective strategies.

  16. Benefits Gained, Benefits Lost: Comparing Baby Boomers to Other Generations in a Longitudinal Cohort Study of Self-Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    BADLEY, ELIZABETH M; CANIZARES, MAYILEE; PERRUCCIO, ANTHONY V; HOGG-JOHNSON, SHEILAH; GIGNAC, MONIQUE AM

    2015-01-01

    Policy Points Despite beliefs that baby boomers are healthier than previous generations, we found no evidence that the health of baby boomers is substantially different from that of the previous or succeeding cohorts. The effects of increased education, higher income, and lower smoking rates on improving self-rated health were nearly counterbalanced by the adverse effect of increasing body mass index (BMI). Assumptions that baby boomers will require less health care as they age because of better education, more prosperity, and less propensity to smoke may not be realized because of increases in obesity. Context Baby boomers are commonly believed to be healthier than the previous generation. Using self-rated health (SRH) as an indicator of health status, this study examines the effects of age, period, and birth cohort on the trajectory of health across 4 generations: World War II (born between 1935 and 1944), older baby boomers (born between 1945 and 1954), younger baby boomers (born between 1955 and 1964), and Generation X (born between 1965 and 1974). Methods We analyzed Canada’s longitudinal National Population Health Survey 1994-2010 (n = 8,570 at baseline), using multilevel growth models to estimate the age trajectory of SRH by cohort, accounting for period and incorporating the influence of changes in education, household income, smoking status, and body mass index (BMI) on SRH over time. Findings SRH worsened with increasing age in all cohorts. Cohort differences in SRH were modest (p = 0.034), but there was a significant period effect (p = 0.002). We found marked cohort effects for increasing education, income, and BMI, and decreasing smoking from the youngest to the oldest cohorts, which were much reduced (education and smoking) or removed (income and BMI) once period was taken into account. At the population level, multivariable analysis showed the benefits of increasing education and income and declines in smoking on the trajectory of improving SRH were

  17. Heavy consumption of dental services; a longitudinal cohort study among Finnish adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A reform to Dental Care legislation in 2002 abolished age limits restricting adults’ use of public dental services in Finland. In the Public Dental Service (PDS) unit of Espoo, the proportion of adult patients rose from 36% to 57%. The aim of this study was to investigate heavy use of dental services by adults and its determinants. Methods A longitudinal cohort study was undertaken based on a PDS patient register. Of all adults who attended the PDS in Espoo in 2004, those who had six or more visits (n=3,173) were assigned to the heavy user group and a comparison group of low users (n=22,820) had three or fewer dental visits. A sample of 320 patients was randomly selected from each group. Baseline information (year 2004) on age, sex, number and type of visit, oral health status and treatment provided was collected from treatment records. Each group was followed-up for five years and information on the number and types of visit was recorded for each year from 2005 to 2009. Results Most heavy users (61.6%) became low users and only 11.2% remained chronic heavy users. Most low users (91.0%) remained low users. For heavy users, the mean number of dental visits per year (3.0) during the follow-up period was significantly lower than initially in 2004 (8.3) (p<0.001) but 74.8% of heavy users had had emergency visits compared with 21.6% of the low users (p<0.001). A third (33%) of the visitors in each group had no proper examination and treatment planning during the 5-year follow-up period and two or more examinations were provided to fewer than half of the heavy (46.1%) or low (46.5%) users. The mean number of treating dentists was 5.7 for heavy users and 3.8 for low users (p<0.001). Conclusions Frequent emergency visits were characteristic of heavy users of dental services. Treatment planning was inadequate, probably partly due to the many dentists involved and too many patients requesting care. Better local management and continuous education are needed to

  18. The development of aggression in 18 to 48 month old children of alcoholic parents.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Ellen P; Eiden, Rina D; Colder, Craig; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2006-06-01

    This study examined the development of aggressive and oppositional behavior among alcoholic and nonalcoholic families using latent growth modeling. The sample consisted of 226 families assessed at 18, 24, 36, and 48 months of child age. Results indicated that children in families with nonalcoholic parents had the lowest levels of aggressive behavior at all time points compared to children with one or more alcoholic parents. Children in families with two alcoholic parents did not exhibit normative decreases in aggressive behavior from 3 to 4 years of age compared to nonalcoholic families. However, this association was no longer significant once a cumulative family risk score was added to the model. Children in families with high cumulative risk scores, reflective of high parental depression, antisocial behavior, negative affect during play, difficult child temperament, marital conflict, fathers' education, and hours spent in child care, had higher levels of aggression at 18 months than children in low risk families. These associations were moderated by child gender. Boys had higher levels of aggressive behavior at all ages than girls, regardless of group status. Cumulative risk was predictive of higher levels of initial aggressive behavior in both girls and boys. However, boys with two alcoholic parents had significantly less of a decline in aggression from 36 to 48 months compared to boys in the nonalcoholic group.

  19. Methods for analyzing observational longitudinal prognosis studies for rheumatic diseases: a review & worked example using a clinic-based cohort of juvenile dermatomyositis patients.

    PubMed

    Lim, Lily Siok Hoon; Pullenayegum, Eleanor; Moineddin, Rahim; Gladman, Dafna D; Silverman, Earl D; Feldman, Brian M

    2017-03-29

    Most outcome studies of rheumatic diseases report outcomes ascertained on a single occasion. While single assessments are sufficient for terminal or irreversible outcomes, they may not be sufficiently informative if outcomes change or fluctuate over time. Consequently, longitudinal studies that measure non-terminal outcomes repeatedly afford a better understanding of disease evolution.Longitudinal studies require special analytic methods. Newer longitudinal analytic methods have evolved tremendously to deal with common challenges in longitudinal observational studies. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have used longitudinal design. This review aims to help readers understand and apply the findings from longitudinal studies. Using a cohort of children with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM), we illustrate how to study evolution of disease activity in JDM using longitudinal methods.

  20. Alterations of the Subgingival Microbiota in Pediatric Crohn's Disease Studied Longitudinally in Discovery and Validation Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Kelsen, Judith; Bittinger, Kyle; Pauly-Hubbard, Helen; Posivak, Leah; Grunberg, Stephanie; Baldassano, Robert; Lewis, James D; Wu, Gary D; Bushman, Frederic D

    2016-01-01

    Background Oral manifestations are common in Crohn's disease (CD). Here we characterized the subgingival microbiota in pediatric CD patients initiating therapy and after 8 weeks to identify microbial community features associated with CD and therapy. Methods Pediatric CD patients were recruited from The Children's Hospital of Pennsylvania. Healthy control subjects were recruited from primary care or orthopedics clinic. Subgingival plaque samples were collected at initiation of therapy and after 8 weeks. Treatment exposures included 5-ASAs, immunomodualtors, steroids, and infliximab. The microbiota was characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The study was repeated in separate discovery (35 CD, 43 healthy) and validation cohorts (43 CD, 31 healthy). Results A majority of subjects in both cohorts demonstrated clinical response after 8 weeks of therapy (discovery cohort 88%, validation cohort 79%). At week 0, both antibiotic exposure and disease state were associated with differences in bacterial community composition. Seventeen genera were identified in the discovery cohort as candidate biomarkers, of which 11 were confirmed in the validation cohort. Capnocytophaga, Rothia, and TM7 were more abundant in CD relative to healthy controls. Other bacteria were reduced in abundance with antibiotic exposure among CD subjects. CD-associated genera were not enriched compared to healthy controls after 8 weeks of therapy. Conclusions Subgingival microbial community structure differed with CD and antibiotic use. Results in the discovery cohort were replicated in a separate validation cohort. Several potentially pathogenic bacterial lineages were associated with CD but were not diminished in abundance by antibiotic treatment, suggesting targets for additional surveillance. PMID:26288001

  1. Assessment of possible impact of a health promotion program in Korea from health risk trends in a longitudinally observed cohort

    PubMed Central

    Park, J; Jee, SH; Edington, DW

    2004-01-01

    Background Longitudinally observed cohort data can be utilized to assess the potential for health promotion and healthcare planning by comparing the estimated risk factor trends of non-intervened with that of intervened. The paper seeks (1) to estimate a natural transition (patterns of movement between states) of health risk state from a Korean cohort data using a Markov model, (2) to derive an effective and necessary health promotion strategy for the population, and (3) to project a possible impact of an intervention program on health status. Methods The observed transition of health risk states in a Korean employee cohort was utilized to estimate the natural flow of aggregated health risk states from eight health risk measures using Markov chain models. In addition, a reinforced transition was simulated, given that a health promotion program was implemented for the cohort, to project a possible impact on improvement of health status. An intervened risk transition was obtained based on age, gender, and baseline risk state, adjusted to match with the Korean cohort, from a simulated random sample of a US employee population, where a health intervention was in place. Results The estimated natural flow (non-intervened), following Markov chain order 2, showed a decrease in low risk state by 3.1 percentage points in the Korean population while the simulated reinforced transition (intervened) projected an increase in low risk state by 7.5 percentage points. Estimated transitions of risk states demonstrated the necessity of not only the risk reduction but also low risk maintenance. Conclusions The frame work of Markov chain efficiently estimated the trend, and captured the tendency in the natural flow. Given only a minimally intense health promotion program, potential risk reduction and low risk maintenance was projected. PMID:15538950

  2. Modeling Longitudinal Changes in Older Adults’ Memory for Spoken Discourse: Findings from the ACTIVE Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Brennan R.; Gross, Alden L.; Parisi, Jeanine M.; Sisco, Shannon M.; Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A. L.; Marsiske, Michael; Rebok, George W.

    2014-01-01

    Episodic memory shows substantial declines with advancing age, but research on longitudinal trajectories of spoken discourse memory (SDM) in older adulthood is limited. Using parallel process latent growth curve models, we examined 10 years of longitudinal data from the no-contact control group (N = 698) of the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) randomized controlled trial in order to test (a) the degree to which SDM declines with advancing age, (b) predictors of these age-related declines, and (c) the within-person relationship between longitudinal changes in SDM and longitudinal changes in fluid reasoning and verbal ability over 10 years, independent of age. Individuals who were younger, White, had more years of formal education, were male, and had better global cognitive function and episodic memory performance at baseline demonstrated greater levels of SDM on average. However, only age at baseline uniquely predicted longitudinal changes in SDM, such that declines accelerated with greater age. Independent of age, within-person decline in reasoning ability over the 10-year study period was substantially correlated with decline in SDM (r = .87). An analogous association with SDM did not hold for verbal ability. The findings suggest that longitudinal declines in fluid cognition are associated with reduced spoken language comprehension. Unlike findings from memory for written prose, preserved verbal ability may not protect against developmental declines in memory for speech. PMID:24304364

  3. Longitudinal association of neighborhood variables with Body Mass Index in Dutch school-age children: The KOALA Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Swantje C; Sleddens, Ester F C; de Vries, Sanne I; Gubbels, Jessica; Thijs, Carel

    2015-06-01

    Changes in the neighborhood environment may explain part of the rapid increase in childhood overweight and obesity during the last decades. To date few theory-driven rather than data-driven studies have explored longitudinal associations between multiple neighborhood characteristics and child body weight development. We aimed to assess the relationship between physical, social and perceived safety related characteristics of the neighborhood and Body Mass Index (BMI) development in children during early school age, using a longitudinal design. We included an examination of moderating and confounding factors based on a conceptual model adapted from the EnRG framework (Environmental Research framework for weight Gain prevention) and empirical research. Analyses included 1887 children from the KOALA Birth Cohort Study followed from baseline age 4-5 years until 8-9 years. For children age 4-5 years, parents completed a questionnaire measuring characteristics of the neighborhood. Reliability and factor analyses were used to identify constructs for neighborhood characteristics. Linear regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between neighborhood constructs and BMI z-scores cross-sectionally at age 4-5 years and longitudinally using Generalized Estimating Equations with BMI z-scores over 5 repeated measurements until age 8-9 years. Fourteen constructs were identified and grouped in three domains including perceived physical, social, or safety related characteristics of the neighborhood. Cross-sectionally, a lower BMI z-score was associated with higher perceived physical attractiveness of the neighborhood environment (standardized regression coefficient (β) -0.078, 95% CI -0.123 to -0.034) and a higher level of social capital (β -0.142, -0.264 to -0.019). Longitudinally, similar associations were observed with potentially even stronger regression coefficients. This study suggests that BMI in children is mainly related to the modifiable physical

  4. EVALUATION OF A REMOTE EXPOSURE MONITORING STRATEGY FOR USE IN LONGITUDINAL COHORT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Federal Government is currently planning a large, prospective birth cohort study known as the National Children's Study that will potentially involve 100,000 children and their families. The observation period will start as close to conception as possible and will continue...

  5. Cliques and Cohesion in a Clinical Psychology Graduate Cohort: A Longitudinal Social Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunze, Kimberley Annette

    2013-01-01

    To date, no published research has utilized social network analysis (SNA) to analyze graduate cohorts in clinical psychology. The purpose of this research is to determine how issues of likability among students correlate with other measures, such as disclosure, health, spiritual maturity, help in projects, familiarity, and ease of providing…

  6. School Health Screening of a Birth Cohort: A Prospective Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrick, Joav; And Others

    1983-01-01

    School-age illnesses in Denmark, coded from information in 4,327 school health records, are reported for a perinatal cohort comprising 9,125 successive live births. Although characteristic somatic disorders continue to rise, problems of a psycho-social nature dominate. Findings suggest that the school health service should be adapted towards…

  7. The Life-Cycle Pattern of Collegiate GPA: Longitudinal Cohort Analysis and Grade Inflation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grove, Wayne A.; Wasserman, Tim

    2004-01-01

    Individual semester-by-semester undergraduate grade point average for each of the eight semesters of the collegiate academic life cycle for five entire student cohorts for the classes of 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2002 at a large, private university in the northeast (N = 12,663) reveal a "check-mark" pattern: students' grades fell in…

  8. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 2003 Cohort: User Guide. Technical Report 54

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) is a research program that tracks young people as they move from school into further study, work and other destinations. This "User guide" has been developed for users of the LSAY data. The guide endeavours to consolidate existing technical documentation and other relevant information…

  9. Contemporary Options for Longitudinal Follow-Up: Lessons Learned from a Cohort of Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobler, Amy L.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports efforts to locate and survey participants in Project Northland Chicago (PNC), a longitudinal, group-randomized trial of an alcohol preventive intervention for racial/ethnic minority, urban, early-adolescents, 3-4 years following the end of the intervention. Data were collected annually among students from 6th-8th grade and then…

  10. Etiology of Pervasive versus Situational Antisocial Behaviors: A Multi-informant Longitudinal Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertz, Jasmin; Zavos, Helena M. S.; Matthews, Timothy; Gray, Rebecca; Best-Lane, Janis; Pariante, Carmine M.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to disentangle pervasive from situational antisocial behaviors using multiple informants, and to investigate their genetic and environmental etiologies in preadolescence and across time. Antisocial behaviors were assessed in 2,232 twins from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study at ages 5 and 12.…

  11. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 2009 Cohort Derived Variables. Technical Report 73

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    This technical paper details the derived variables developed for users of the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) data. These variables fall into the categories of education, employment and social, and help to simplify the use of the data by providing useful indicators for analysis. This paper provides descriptions, formats and…

  12. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 1995 Cohort Derived Variables. Technical Report 69

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    This technical report details the derived variables developed for users of the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) data. The derived variables fall into the categories education, employment and social, and help to simplify the complexity of the LSAY data by providing useful indicators for analysis. To help LSAY data users understand…

  13. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 2009 Cohort: Wave 1 (2009)--Frequency Tables. Technical Report 70

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) program studies the progress of several groups of young Australians as they move from school into post-secondary education and work. Since 2003, the LSAY program has been integrated with the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) conducted by the Organisation for Economic…

  14. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 1995 Cohort: User Guide. Technical Report 49

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) is a research program that tracks young people as they move from school into further study, work and other destinations. It uses large, nationally representative samples of young people to collect information about education and training, work, and social development. It includes surveys…

  15. Drug Exposure Opportunities and Use Patterns among College Students: Results of a Longitudinal Prospective Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Fitzelle, Dawn B.; Johnson, Erin P.; Wish, Eric D.

    2008-01-01

    Underage drinking and drug use among college students are major public health concerns, yet few studies have examined these behaviors and their associated risk factors and consequences prospectively. This paper describes the sampling and recruitment methods of a longitudinal study of 1253 college students at a large, mid-Atlantic university.…

  16. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 1998 Cohort--User Guide. Technical Report 53

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This user guide has been developed for users of the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY). It consolidates existing technical documentation and other information into one document. The guide aims to address all aspects of the LSAY data including: how to access the data, data restrictions, variable naming conventions, the structure of the…

  17. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 2006 Cohort: User Guide. Technical Report 55

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) is a research program that tracks young people as they move from school into further study, work and other destinations. This "User guide" has been developed for users of the LSAY data. The guide endeavours to consolidate existing technical documentation and other relevant information…

  18. Minimizing Respondent Attrition in Longitudinal Research: Practical Implications from a Cohort Study of Adolescent Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boys, Annabel; Marsden, John; Stillwell, Garry; Hatchings, Kevin; Griffiths, Paul; Farrell, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the methods used to maximize retention in a longitudinal study of adolescent drinking. Strategies to minimize attrition included the collection of detailed contact information, incentives for participation, postcard and telephone reminders and telephone interviews. Ninety-six percent of the original sample completed the first follow-up…

  19. A Longitudinal Assessment of an Initial Cohort in a Psychology Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buch, Kim; Spaulding, Sue

    2008-01-01

    Discipline-based learning communities have become a popular strategy for improving student performance and satisfaction. This article describes the goals and features of a university-based, first-year psychology learning community (PLC) implemented in Fall 2003. We also report the results of a longitudinal assessment of the impact of the PLC on…

  20. Persistent cannabis dependence and alcohol dependence represent risks for midlife economic and social problems: A longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Cerdá, Magdalena; Moffitt, Terrie E; Meier, Madeline H; Harrington, HonaLee; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Hogan, Sean; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2016-11-01

    With the increasing legalization of cannabis, understanding the consequences of cannabis use is particularly timely. We examined the association between cannabis use and dependence, prospectively assessed between ages 18-38, and economic and social problems at age 38. We studied participants in the Dunedin Longitudinal Study, a cohort (n=1,037) followed from birth to age 38. Study members with regular cannabis use and persistent dependence experienced downward socioeconomic mobility, more financial difficulties, workplace problems, and relationship conflict in early midlife. Cannabis dependence was not linked to traffic-related convictions. Associations were not explained by socioeconomic adversity, childhood psychopathology, achievement orientation, or family structure; cannabis-related criminal convictions; early onset of cannabis dependence; or comorbid substance dependence. Cannabis dependence was associated with more financial difficulties than alcohol dependence; no difference was found in risks for other economic or social problems. Cannabis dependence is not associated with fewer harmful economic and social problems than alcohol dependence.

  1. The Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam: cohort update 2016 and major findings.

    PubMed

    Hoogendijk, Emiel O; Deeg, Dorly J H; Poppelaars, Jan; van der Horst, Marleen; Broese van Groenou, Marjolein I; Comijs, Hannie C; Pasman, H Roeline W; van Schoor, Natasja M; Suanet, Bianca; Thomése, Fleur; van Tilburg, Theo G; Visser, Marjolein; Huisman, Martijn

    2016-09-01

    The Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA) is an ongoing longitudinal study of older adults in the Netherlands, which started in 1992. LASA is focused on the determinants, trajectories and consequences of physical, cognitive, emotional and social functioning. The study is based on a nationally representative sample of older adults aged 55 years and over. The findings of the LASA study have been reported in over 450 publications so far (see www.lasa-vu.nl ). In this article we describe the background and the design of the LASA study, and provide an update of the methods. In addition, we provide a summary of the major findings from the period 2011-2015.

  2. Modeling and design of a reload PWR core for a 48-month fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, M.V.; Driscoll, M.J.; Todreas, N.E.

    1997-05-01

    The objective of this research was to use state-of-the-art nuclear and fuel performance packages to evaluate the feasibility and costs of a 48 calendar month core in existing pressurized water reactor (PWR) designs, considering the full range of practical design and economic considerations. The driving force behind this research is the desire to make nuclear power more economically competitive with fossil fuel options by expanding the scope for achievement of higher capacity factors. Using CASMO/SIMULATE, a core design with fuel enriched to 7{sup w}/{sub o} U{sup 235} for a single batch loaded, 48-month fuel cycle has been developed. This core achieves an ultra-long cycle length without exceeding current fuel burnup limits. The design uses two different types of burnable poisons. Gadolinium in the form of gadolinium oxide (Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}) mixed with the UO{sub 2} of selected pins is sued to hold down initial reactivity and to control flux peaking throughout the life of the core. A zirconium di-boride (ZrB{sub 2}) integral fuel burnable absorber (IFBA) coating on the Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-UO{sub 2} fuel pellets is added to reduce the critical soluble boron concentration in the reactor coolant to within acceptable limits. Fuel performance issues of concern to this design are also outlined and areas which will require further research are highlighted.

  3. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Psychosis, and Bipolarity: A Longitudinal Cohort and Multigenerational Family Study.

    PubMed

    Cederlöf, Martin; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik; Boman, Marcus; Rück, Christian; Landén, Mikael; Mataix-Cols, David

    2015-09-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often co-occurs with psychotic and bipolar disorders; this comorbidity complicates the clinical management of these conditions. In this population-based longitudinal and multigenerational family study, we examined the patterns of comorbidity, longitudinal risks, and shared familial risks between these disorders. Participants were individuals with a diagnosis of OCD (n = 19,814), schizophrenia (n = 58,336), bipolar disorder (n = 48,180), and schizoaffective disorder (n = 14,904) included in the Swedish Patient Register between January 1969 and December 2009; their first-, second-, and third-degree relatives; and population-matched (1:10 ratio) unaffected comparison individuals and their relatives. The Swedish Prescribed Drug Register was used to control for the potential effect of medication in the longitudinal analyses. Individuals with OCD had a 12-fold increased risk of having a comorbid diagnosis of schizophrenia and a 13-fold increased risk of bipolar disorder and schizoaffective disorder. Longitudinal analyses showed that individuals first diagnosed with OCD had an increased risk for later diagnosis of all other disorders, and vice versa. The risk of bipolar disorder was reduced, but not eliminated, when the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors was adjusted for. OCD-unaffected first-, second-, and third-degree relatives of probands with OCD had a significantly increased risk for all 3 disorders; the magnitude of this risk decreased as the genetic distance increased. We conclude that OCD is etiologically related to both schizophrenia spectrum and bipolar disorders. The results have implications for current gene-searching efforts and for clinical practice.

  4. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Psychosis, and Bipolarity: A Longitudinal Cohort and Multigenerational Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Cederlöf, Martin; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik; Boman, Marcus; Rück, Christian; Landén, Mikael; Mataix-Cols, David

    2015-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often co-occurs with psychotic and bipolar disorders; this comorbidity complicates the clinical management of these conditions. In this population-based longitudinal and multigenerational family study, we examined the patterns of comorbidity, longitudinal risks, and shared familial risks between these disorders. Participants were individuals with a diagnosis of OCD (n = 19814), schizophrenia (n = 58336), bipolar disorder (n = 48180), and schizoaffective disorder (n = 14904) included in the Swedish Patient Register between January 1969 and December 2009; their first-, second-, and third-degree relatives; and population-matched (1:10 ratio) unaffected comparison individuals and their relatives. The Swedish Prescribed Drug Register was used to control for the potential effect of medication in the longitudinal analyses. Individuals with OCD had a 12-fold increased risk of having a comorbid diagnosis of schizophrenia and a 13-fold increased risk of bipolar disorder and schizoaffective disorder. Longitudinal analyses showed that individuals first diagnosed with OCD had an increased risk for later diagnosis of all other disorders, and vice versa. The risk of bipolar disorder was reduced, but not eliminated, when the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors was adjusted for. OCD-unaffected first-, second-, and third-degree relatives of probands with OCD had a significantly increased risk for all 3 disorders; the magnitude of this risk decreased as the genetic distance increased. We conclude that OCD is etiologically related to both schizophrenia spectrum and bipolar disorders. The results have implications for current gene-searching efforts and for clinical practice. PMID:25512596

  5. ADHD and Sleep Quality: Longitudinal Analyses From Childhood to Early Adulthood in a Twin Cohort.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Alice M; Agnew-Blais, Jessica C; Matthews, Timothy; Moffitt, Terrie E; Arseneault, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with poor sleep quality, but there is more to learn about the longitudinal association and aetiology of this association. We investigated the following: (a) Is there an association between childhood ADHD and poor sleep quality in young adulthood? (b) Is this driven by the long-term effects of childhood ADHD or concurrent associations with ADHD in young adulthood? (c) To what extent do genetic and environmental influences explain the overlap between symptoms of ADHD and poor sleep quality? Participants were from the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study of 2,232 twin children born in the United Kingdom in 1994-1995. We ascertained ADHD diagnoses at ages 5, 7, 10, 12, and 18. We assessed sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index at age 18. We used regression models to examine longitudinal associations and bivariate twin modelling to test genetic and environmental influences. Children with ADHD had poorer sleep quality in young adulthood, but only if their ADHD persisted. Adults with ADHD had more sleep problems than those without ADHD, over and above psychiatric comorbidity and maternal insomnia. ADHD and sleep problems in young adulthood were associated because of genetic (55%) and nonshared environmental influences (45%). Should ADHD remit, children with ADHD do not appear to have an increased risk of later sleep problems. Good quality sleep is important for multiple areas of functioning, and a better understanding of why adults with ADHD have poorer sleep quality will further the goal of improving treatments.

  6. Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B): Methodology Report for the 9-Month Data Collection (2001-02). Volume 2: Sampling. NCES 2005-147

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethel, James; Green, James L.; Nord, Christine; Kalton, Graham; West, Jerry

    2005-01-01

    This report is Volume 2 of the methodology report that provides information about the development, design, and conduct of the 9-month data collection of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). This volume begins with a brief overview of the ECLS-B, but focuses on the sample design, calculation of response rates, development…

  7. Preschool: First Findings from the Preschool Follow-Up of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). First Look. NCES 2008-025

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chernoff, Jodi Jacobson; Flanagan, Kristin Denton; McPhee, Cameron; Park, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) is designed to provide detailed information on children's development, health, and early learning experiences in the years leading up to entry into school. The ECLS-B is the first nationally representative study within the United States to directly assess children's early mental and…

  8. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 1998 Cohort--User Guide. Data Elements B1: Education. Technical Report 53B1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This technical paper contains information about the variables in the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) Year 1998 cohort data set. It groups each variable into data elements which identifies common variables within and across waves. Information is provided about each data element including its purpose, values, base populations and…

  9. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 1998 Cohort--User Guide. Data Elements B2: Education. Technical Report 53B2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This technical paper contains information about the variables in the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) Year 1998 cohort data set. It groups each variable into data elements which identifies common variables within and across waves. Information is provided about each data element including its purpose, values, base populations and…

  10. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 1995 Cohort--User Guide. Data Elements B1: Education. Technical Report 49B1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This technical paper contains information about the variables in the LSAY (Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth) Y95 cohort data set. It groups each variable into data elements which identifies common variables within and across waves. Information is provided about each data element including its purpose, values, base populations and relevant.…

  11. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 1995 Cohort--User Guide. Data Elements B2: Education. Technical Report 49B2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This technical paper contains information about the variables in the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) Year 95 cohort data set. It groups each variable into data elements that identify common variables within and across waves. Information is provided about each data element, including its purpose, values, base populations and…

  12. Risk Factors for Asthma-Related Healthcare Use: Longitudinal Analysis Using the NHI Claims Database in a Korean Asthma Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoungjoo; Park, Yunjin; Kim, Yuri; Lee, Yoon Su; Kwon, Hyouk-Soo; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Cho, You Sook; Jang, An-Soo; Park, Jung-Won; Nahm, Dong-Ho; Yoon, Ho-Joo; Cho, Sang-Heon; Cho, Young-Joo; Choi, Byoung Whui; Moon, Hee-Bom; Kim, Tae-Bum

    2014-01-01

    Background Though insurance claims data are useful for researching asthma, they have important limitations, such as a diagnostic inaccuracy and a lack of clinical information. To overcome these drawbacks, we used the novel method by merging the clinical data from our asthma cohort with the National Health Insurance (NHI) claims data. Methods and Results Longitudinal analysis of asthma-related healthcare use from the NHI claims database, merged with data of 736 patients registered in a Korean asthma cohort, was conducted for three consecutive years from registration of the cohort. Asthma-related asthma healthcare referred to outpatient and emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and the use of systemic corticosteroids. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate risk factors for asthma-related healthcare. Over three years after enrollment, many patients changed from tertiary to primary/secondary hospitals with a lack of maintenance of inhaled corticosteroid-based controllers. An independent risk factor for emergency visits was a previous history of asthma exacerbation. In hospitalizations, old age and Asthma Control Test (ACT) score variability were independent risk factors. An independent risk factor for per person cumulative duration of systemic corticosteroids was the FEV1 (Forced expiratory volume in one second)%. The use of systemic corticosteroids was independently associated with being female, the FEV1%, and ACT score variability. Conclusion We found that old age, being female, long-standing asthma, a low FEV1%, asthma brittleness, asthma drug compliance, and a history of asthma exacerbation were independent risk factors for increased asthma-related healthcare use in Korea. PMID:25397972

  13. Longitudinal Assessment of Self-Reported Recent Back Pain and Combat Deployment in the Millennium Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Granado, Nisara S.; Pietrucha, Amanda; Ryan, Margaret; Boyko, Edward J.; Hooper, Tomoko I.; Smith, Besa; Smith, Tyler C.

    2016-01-01

    Study Design. A prospective cohort study. Objective. Activities performed during military operations vary in complexity and physical demand. The risk for mental illness following military combat deployment has been well documented. However, information regarding the possible contribution of back pain to decreased mental and functional health is scarce. To our knowledge, this is the first study to prospectively assess deployment and self-reported recent back pain in a population-based U.S. military cohort. Summary of Background Data. The study consisted of Millennium Cohort participants who were followed for the development of back pain for an average of 3.9 years. Methods. Descriptive statistics and longitudinal analyses were used to assess the temporal relationship of deployment with self-reported recent back pain at follow-up (N = 53,933). Results. Recent back pain was self-reported by 8379 (15.5%) participants at follow-up. After adjusting for covariates, deployers with combat experiences had higher odds [odds ratio (OR) = 1.38, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.28–1.50] of recent back pain than noncombat deployers. There was no association between recent back pain and nondeployers compared with noncombat deployers. Service support/supply handlers were at an increased odds of reporting recent back pain (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.02–1.21) than functional support/administration occupations. Occupations associated with a physically demanding work environment had a higher risk of back pain. Conclusion. Deployers with combat experiences were more likely to report back pain postdeployment. This well-defined group of military personnel may potentially benefit from integrated prevention efforts. Level of Evidence: 3 PMID:27310026

  14. Morphometry Predicts Early GFR Change in Primary Proteinuric Glomerulopathies: A Longitudinal Cohort Study Using Generalized Estimating Equations

    PubMed Central

    Bagnasco, Serena M.; Nast, Cynthia C.; Barisoni, Laura; Conway, Catherine M.; Hewitt, Stephen M.; Song, Peter X. K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Most predictive models of kidney disease progression have not incorporated structural data. If structural variables have been used in models, they have generally been only semi-quantitative. Methods We examined the predictive utility of quantitative structural parameters measured on the digital images of baseline kidney biopsies from the NEPTUNE study of primary proteinuric glomerulopathies. These variables were included in longitudinal statistical models predicting the change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) over up to 55 months of follow-up. Results The participants were fifty-six pediatric and adult subjects from the NEPTUNE longitudinal cohort study who had measurements made on their digital biopsy images; 25% were African-American, 70% were male and 39% were children; 25 had focal segmental glomerular sclerosis, 19 had minimal change disease, and 12 had membranous nephropathy. We considered four different sets of candidate predictors, each including four quantitative structural variables (for example, mean glomerular tuft area, cortical density of patent glomeruli and two of the principal components from the correlation matrix of six fractional cortical areas–interstitium, atrophic tubule, intact tubule, blood vessel, sclerotic glomerulus, and patent glomerulus) along with 13 potentially confounding demographic and clinical variables (such as race, age, diagnosis, and baseline eGFR, quantitative proteinuria and BMI). We used longitudinal linear models based on these 17 variables to predict the change in eGFR over up to 55 months. All 4 models had a leave-one-out cross-validated R2 of about 62%. Conclusions Several combinations of quantitative structural variables were significantly and strongly associated with changes in eGFR. The structural variables were generally stronger than any of the confounding variables, other than baseline eGFR. Our findings suggest that quantitative assessment of diagnostic renal biopsies may play a role in

  15. Conditional Disease Development extracted from Longitudinal Health Care Cohort Data using Layered Network Construction

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Venkateshan; Swartz, Fredrik; Kiani, Narsis A.; Silberberg, Gilad; Tsipras, Giorgos; Gomez-Cabrero, David; Alexanderson, Kristina; Tegnèr, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Health care data holds great promise to be used in clinical decision support systems. However, frequent near-synonymous diagnoses recorded separately, as well as the sheer magnitude and complexity of the disease data makes it challenging to extract non-trivial conclusions beyond confirmatory associations from such a web of interactions. Here we present a systematic methodology to derive statistically valid conditional development of diseases. To this end we utilize a cohort of 5,512,469 individuals followed over 13 years at inpatient care, including data on disability pension and cause of death. By introducing a causal information fraction measure and taking advantage of the composite structure in the ICD codes, we extract an effective directed lower dimensional network representation (100 nodes and 130 edges) of our cohort. Unpacking composite nodes into bipartite graphs retrieves, for example, that individuals with behavioral disorders are more likely to be followed by prescription drug poisoning episodes, whereas women with leiomyoma were more likely to subsequently experience endometriosis. The conditional disease development represent putative causal relations, indicating possible novel clinical relationships and pathophysiological associations that have not been explored yet. PMID:27211115

  16. Duration of lactation and incidence of maternal hypertension: a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Stuebe, Alison M; Schwarz, Eleanor B; Grewen, Karen; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Michels, Karin B; Foster, E Michael; Curhan, Gary; Forman, John

    2011-11-15

    Never or curtailed lactation has been associated with an increased risk for incident hypertension, but the effect of exclusive breastfeeding is unknown. The authors conducted an observational cohort study of 55,636 parous women in the US Nurses' Health Study II. From 1991 to 2005, participants reported 8,861 cases of incident hypertension during 660,880 person-years of follow-up. Never or curtailed lactation was associated with an increased risk of incident hypertension. Compared with women who breastfed their first child for ≥12 months, women who did not breastfeed were more likely to develop hypertension (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18, 1.36), adjusting for family history and lifestyle covariates. Women who never breastfed were more likely to develop hypertension than women who exclusively breastfed their first child for ≥6 months (HR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.20, 1.40). The authors found similar results for women who had never breastfed compared with those who had breastfed each child for an average of ≥12 months (HR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.13, 1.32). In conclusion, never or curtailed lactation was associated with an increased risk of incident maternal hypertension, compared with the recommended ≥6 months of exclusive or ≥12 months of total lactation per child, in a large cohort of parous women.

  17. Cohort Profile: Footprints in Time, the Australian Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children

    PubMed Central

    Thurber, Katherine A; Banks, Emily; Banwell, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Indigenous Australians experience profound levels of disadvantage in health, living standards, life expectancy, education and employment, particularly in comparison with non-Indigenous Australians. Very little information is available about the healthy development of Australian Indigenous children; the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children (LSIC) is designed to fill this knowledge gap. This dataset provides an opportunity to follow the development of up to 1759 Indigenous children. LSIC conducts annual face-to-face interviews with children (aged 0.5–2 and 3.5–5 years at baseline in 2008) and their caregivers. This represents between 5% and 10% of the total population of Indigenous children in these age groups, including families of varied socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds. Study topics include: the physical, social and emotional well-being of children and their caregivers; language; culture; parenting; and early childhood education. LSIC is a shared resource, formed in partnership with communities; its data are readily accessible through the Australian Government Department of Social Services (see http://dss.gov.au/lsic for data and access arrangements). As one of very few longitudinal studies of Indigenous children, and the only national one, LSIC will enable an understanding of Indigenous children from a wide range of environments and cultures. Findings from LSIC form part of a growing infrastructure from which to understand Indigenous child health. PMID:25011454

  18. Childhood obesity and proximity to urban parks and recreational resources: a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wolch, Jennifer; Jerrett, Michael; Reynolds, Kim; McConnell, Rob; Chang, Roger; Dahmann, Nicholas; Brady, Kirby; Gilliland, Frank; Su, Jason G; Berhane, Kiros

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the research was to assess how proximity to parks and recreational resources affects the development of childhood obesity through a longitudinal study. Data were collected on 3173 children aged 9-10 from 12 communities in Southern California in 1993 and 1996. Children were followed for eight years to collect longitudinal information, including objectively measured body mass index (BMI). Multilevel growth curve models were used to assess associations between attained BMI growth at age 18 and numerous environmental variables, including park space and recreational program access. For park acres within a 500 m distance of children's homes, there were significant inverse associations with attained BMI at age 18. Effect sizes were larger for boys than for girls. Recreation programs within a 10 km buffer of children's homes were significantly and inversely associated with achieved levels in BMI at age 18, with effect sizes for boys also larger than those for girls. We conclude that children with better access to parks and recreational resources are less likely to experience significant increases in attained BMI.

  19. Low socioeconomic position and depression persistence: longitudinal results from the GAZEL cohort study.

    PubMed

    Melchior, Maria; Chastang, Jean-François; Leclerc, Annette; Ribet, Céline; Rouillon, Frédéric

    2010-05-15

    Research examining the association between socioeconomic position and depression course has yielded inconsistent results. We tested the association between low socioeconomic position and 7-year depression persistence among 298 community-based individuals with depression (subset of the GAZEL cohort study based in France). Data were analyzed using Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE models). Low socioeconomic position predicted depression persistence (men: low vs. intermediate/high income: OR: 2.52, 95% CI 1.28-4.95; women: low vs. intermediate/high occupational grade: OR: 2.25, 95% CI 1.06-4.80). These associations were reduced and became statistically nonsignificant after controlling for baseline sociodemographic characteristics and stressful life events (men and women), overall health (men), and the severity of mental health difficulties (men and women). Overall, depressed individuals with low socioeconomic position appear disproportionately likely to experience multiple risk factors of long-term depression.

  20. Female College Students' Media Use and Academic Outcomes: Results from a Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Jennifer L; Fielder, Robyn L; Carey, Kate B; Carey, Michael P

    2013-09-01

    This longitudinal study describes women's media use during their first year of college and examines associations between media use and academic outcomes. Female students (N = 483, Mage = 18.1 years) reported on their use of 11 media forms and their grade point average, academic behaviors, academic confidence, and problems affecting schoolwork. Allowing for multi-tasking, women reported nearly 12 hours of media use per day; use of texting, music, the Internet, and social networking was heaviest. In general, media use was negatively associated with academic outcomes after controlling for prior academics and demographics. Exceptions were newspaper reading and music listening, which were positively associated with academic outcomes. There were significant indirect effects of magazine reading and social networking on GPA via academic behaviors, confidence, and problems. Results show that female college students are heavy users of new media, and that some forms of media use may adversely impact academic performance.

  1. Female College Students’ Media Use and Academic Outcomes: Results from a Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Jennifer L.; Fielder, Robyn L.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study describes women’s media use during their first year of college and examines associations between media use and academic outcomes. Female students (N = 483, Mage = 18.1 years) reported on their use of 11 media forms and their grade point average, academic behaviors, academic confidence, and problems affecting schoolwork. Allowing for multi-tasking, women reported nearly 12 hours of media use per day; use of texting, music, the Internet, and social networking was heaviest. In general, media use was negatively associated with academic outcomes after controlling for prior academics and demographics. Exceptions were newspaper reading and music listening, which were positively associated with academic outcomes. There were significant indirect effects of magazine reading and social networking on GPA via academic behaviors, confidence, and problems. Results show that female college students are heavy users of new media, and that some forms of media use may adversely impact academic performance. PMID:24505554

  2. Sleep problems and pain: a longitudinal cohort study in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Bonvanie, Irma J; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Rosmalen, Judith G M; Janssens, Karin A M

    2016-04-01

    Sleep and pain are thought to be bidirectional related on a daily basis in adolescents with chronic pain complaints. In addition, sleep problems have been shown to predict the long-term onset of musculoskeletal pain in middle-aged adults. Yet, the long-term effects of sleep problems on pain duration and different types of pain severity in emerging adults (age: 18-25) are unknown. This study investigated the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship between sleep problems and chronic pain, and musculoskeletal pain, headache, and abdominal pain severity in a general population of emerging adults. We studied whether these relationships were moderated by sex and whether symptoms of anxiety and depression, fatigue, or physical inactivity mediated these effects. Data of participants from the longitudinal Dutch TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey were used. Follow-up data were collected in 1753 participants who participated in the fourth (N = 1668, mean age: 19.0 years [SD = 0.6]) and/or fifth (N = 1501, mean age: 22.3 years [SD = 0.6]) assessment wave. Autoregressive cross-lagged models were used for analyses. Sleep problems were associated with chronic pain, musculoskeletal pain, headache and abdominal pain severity, and predicted chronic pain and an increase in musculoskeletal pain severity at 3 years of follow-up. This prospective effect was stronger in females than in males and was mediated by fatigue but not by symptoms of anxiety and depression or physical inactivity. Only abdominal pain had a small long-term effect on sleep problems. Our results suggest that sleep problems may be an additional target for treatment in female emerging adults with musculoskeletal pain complaints.

  3. Do positive children become positive adults? Evidence from a longitudinal birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Marcus; Huppert, Felicia A

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about the long-term consequences of positive wellbeing in childhood in the general population. We used the MRC National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort) to test associations between adolescent positive wellbeing and social functioning in midlife. Method Temperament and behaviour at ages 13 and 15 years were rated by school teachers on a range of criteria. These mostly referred to absence or presence of conduct and emotional problems, but four items allowed positive ratings: ‘very popular with other children’, ‘unusually happy and contented’, ‘makes friends extremely easily’ and ‘extremely energetic, never tired’. In addition, at age 16 years survey members self-completed the Maudsley Personality Inventory, from which a summary measure of extraversion was derived, as this was previously found to be associated with midlife positive wellbeing in this cohort. Results Being a happy child, defined as receiving at least two of the above teacher ratings, was positively associated with midlife functioning and wellbeing, specifically a low probability of lifetime emotional problems, a high frequency of contact with friends or relatives, engagement in social activities, and to a lesser extent feeling satisfied with accomplishments in working life. These associations were independent of father’s social class, childhood cognition, educational attainment, and midlife occupational social class. There were no independent associations between being a happy child and educational or occupational attainment, being married, engagement in prosocial activities, taking leadership in community activities, and with life satisfaction in general or with family life. Extraversion was associated with a low probability of lifetime emotional problems, high engagement in social activities, being married, general midlife life satisfaction, and satisfaction with family life, but not with social contact, prosocial activity

  4. Is adult ADHD a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder? Evidence from a 4-decade longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Terrie E.; Houts, Renate; Asherson, Philip; Belsky, Daniel W; Corcoran, David L; Hammerle, Maggie; Harrington, Honalee; Hogan, Sean; Meier, Madeline; Polanczyk, Guilherme V.; Poulton, Richie; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Caspi, Avshalom

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite a prevailing assumption that adult ADHD is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder, no prospective-longitudinal study has described the childhoods of the adult-ADHD population. We report follow-back analyses of ADHD cases diagnosed in adulthood, alongside follow-forward analyses of ADHD cases diagnosed in childhood, in one cohort. Method Participants belonged to a representative birth cohort of 1,037 individuals born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972-73 and followed to age 38, with 95% retention. Symptoms of ADHD, associated clinical features, comorbid disorders, neuropsychological deficits, GWAS-derived polygenic risk, and life impairment indicators were assessed. Data sources were participants, parents, teachers, informants, neuropsychological testing, and administrative records. Adult ADHD diagnoses used DSM5 criteria, apart from onset-age and cross-setting corroboration, which were study outcomes. Results As expected, the childhood-ADHD group showed 6% prevalence, male excess, childhood comorbid disorders, neurocognitive deficits, polygenic risk, and, despite having outgrown their ADHD diagnosis, residual adult life impairment. As expected, the adult-ADHD group showed 3% prevalence, gender balance, adult substance dependence, adult life impairment, and treatment contact. Unexpectedly, the childhood-ADHD and adult-ADHD groups comprised virtually non-overlapping sets; 90% of adult-ADHD cases lacked a history of childhood ADHD. Also unexpectedly, the adult-ADHD group did not show tested neuropsychological deficits in childhood or adulthood, nor did they show polygenic risk for childhood ADHD. Conclusion Findings raise the possibility that adults presenting with the ADHD symptom picture may not have a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder. If this finding is replicated, then the disorder's place in the classification system must be reconsidered, and research must investigate the etiology of adult ADHD. PMID:25998281

  5. Risk factors for eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age: A 6-year longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Evans, Elizabeth H; Adamson, Ashley J; Basterfield, Laura; Le Couteur, Ann; Reilly, Jessica K; Reilly, John J; Parkinson, Kathryn N

    2017-01-01

    Eating disorders pose risks to health and wellbeing in young adolescents, but prospective studies of risk factors are scarce and this has impeded prevention efforts. This longitudinal study aimed to examine risk factors for eating disorder symptoms in a population-based birth cohort of young adolescents at 12 years. Participants from the Gateshead Millennium Study birth cohort (n = 516; 262 girls and 254 boys) completed self-report questionnaire measures of eating disorder symptoms and putative risk factors at age 7 years, 9 years and 12 years, including dietary restraint, depressive symptoms and body dissatisfaction. Body mass index (BMI) was also measured at each age. Within-time correlates of eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age were greater body dissatisfaction for both sexes and, for girls only, higher depressive symptoms. For both sexes, higher eating disorder symptoms at 9 years old significantly predicted higher eating disorder symptoms at 12 years old. Dietary restraint at 7 years old predicted boys' eating disorder symptoms at age 12, but not girls'. Factors that did not predict eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age were BMI (any age), girls' dietary restraint at 7 years and body dissatisfaction at 7 and 9 years of age for both sexes. In this population-based study, different patterns of predictors and correlates of eating disorder symptoms were found for girls and boys. Body dissatisfaction, a purported risk factor for eating disorder symptoms in young adolescents, developed concurrently with eating disorder symptoms rather than preceding them. However, restraint at age 7 and eating disorder symptoms at age 9 years did predict 12-year eating disorder symptoms. Overall, our findings suggest that efforts to prevent disordered eating might beneficially focus on preadolescent populations.

  6. Does abortion increase women's risk for post-traumatic stress? Findings from a prospective longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, M Antonia; Rowland, Brenly; McCulloch, Charles E; Foster, Diana G

    2016-01-01

    Objective To prospectively assess women's risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and of experiencing post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) over 4 years after seeking an abortion, and to assess whether symptoms are attributed to the pregnancy, abortion or birth, or other events in women's lives. Design Prospective longitudinal cohort study which followed women from approximately 1 week after receiving or being denied an abortion (baseline), then every 6 months for 4 years (9 interview waves). Setting 30 abortion facilities located throughout the USA. Participants Among 956 women presenting for abortion care, some of whom received an abortion and some of whom were denied due to advanced gestational age; 863 women are included in the longitudinal analyses. Main outcome measures PTSS and PTSD risk were measured using the Primary Care PTSD Screen (PC-PTSD). Index pregnancy-related PTSS was measured by coding the event(s) described by women as the cause of their symptoms. Analyses We used unadjusted and adjusted logistic mixed-effects regression analyses to assess whether PTSS, PTSD risk and pregnancy-related PTSS trajectories of women obtaining abortions differed from those who were denied one. Results At baseline, 39% of participants reported any PTSS and 16% reported three or more symptoms. Among women with symptoms 1-week post-abortion seeking (n=338), 30% said their symptoms were due to experiences of sexual, physical or emotional abuse or violence; 20% attributed their symptoms to non-violent relationship issues; and 19% said they were due to the index pregnancy. Baseline levels of PTSS, PTSD risk and pregnancy-related PTSS outcomes did not differ significantly between women who received and women who were denied an abortion. PTSS, PTSD risk and pregnancy-related PTSS declined over time for all study groups. Conclusions Women who received an abortion were at no higher risk of PTSD than women denied an abortion. PMID:26832431

  7. Role of parenting styles in adolescent substance use: results from a Swedish longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Berge, J; Sundell, K; Öjehagen, A; Håkansson, A

    2016-01-01

    Objective Adolescent substance use is an area of concern because early substance use is associated with a higher risk of adverse outcomes. Parenting style, defined as the general style of parenting, as well as substance-specific parenting practices may influence children's substance use behaviour. The present study aims to probe the impact of parenting style on adolescent substance use. Method A cohort of 1268 adolescents (48% girls), aged 12–13 years at baseline, from 21 junior high schools was assessed in the first semester of junior high school, and then again in the last semester of the 9th grade, 32 months later. Parenting style, operationalised as a fourfold classification of parenting styles, including established risk factors for adolescent substance use, were measured at baseline. Results Neglectful parenting style was associated with worse substance use outcomes across all substances. After adjusting for other proximal risk factors in multivariate analyses, parenting style was found to be unrelated to substance use outcomes with one exception: authoritative parenting style was associated with less frequent drinking. Association with deviant peers, delinquent behaviour, provision of alcohol by parents, and previous use of other substances were associated with substance use outcomes at follow-up. Conclusions The results of the present study indicate that parenting style may be less important for adolescent substance use outcomes than what has previously been assumed, and that association with deviant peers and delinquent behaviour may be more important for adolescent substance use outcomes than general parenting style. PMID:26769781

  8. Longitudinal patterns of methamphetamine, popper (amyl nitrite), and cocaine use and high-risk sexual behavior among a cohort of san francisco men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Colfax, Grant; Coates, Thomas J; Husnik, Marla J; Huang, Yijian; Buchbinder, Susan; Koblin, Beryl; Chesney, Margaret; Vittinghoff, Eric

    2005-03-01

    Most prior studies examining drug use among men who have sex with men (MSM) have been cross-sectional or retrospective and have not determined whether periods of increased drug use are associated with high-risk sexual behavior at the individual level. In this article, we describe patterns of use of methamphetamines, poppers, and sniffed cocaine and sexual risk behavior among 736 San Francisco MSM enrolled in the EXPLORE study and followed for up to 48 months. In longitudinal analysis, use of methamphetamines, poppers, and sniffed cocaine declined during follow-up. However, compared with older participants, younger participants were more likely to increase their drug use over time. Results of conditional logistic regression demonstrated that high-risk sexual behavior was more common during reporting periods characterized by increased methamphetamine, poppers, or sniffed cocaine use. This within-person analysis found that compared with periods of no drug use, periods of both light drug use (less than weekly use of drugs) and heavier drug use (at least weekly use of at least one drug) were significantly associated with increased risk of engaging in unprotected anal sex with an HIV-positive or unknown-status partner. These results suggest that even intermittent, recreational use of these drugs may lead to high-risk sexual behavior, and that, to reduce and prevent risks of HIV, no level of use of these drugs should be considered "safe." HIV prevention interventions should target MSM who report either light or heavy use of methamphetamines, poppers, and sniffed cocaine.

  9. Pregnancy related back pain, is it related to aerobic fitness? A longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Low back pain with onset during pregnancy is common and approximately one out of three women have disabling pain. The pathogenesis of the pain condition is uncertain and there is no information on the role of physical fitness. Whether poorer physical conditioning is a cause or effect of back pain is also disputed and information from prospective studies needed. Methods A cohort of pregnant women, recruited from maternal health care centers in central Sweden, were examined regarding estimated peak oxygen uptake by cycle ergometer test in early pregnancy, reported physical activity prior to pregnancy, basic characteristics, back pain during pregnancy and back pain postpartum. Results Back pain during the current pregnancy was reported by nearly 80% of the women. At the postpartum appointment this prevalence was 40%. No association was displayed between estimated peak oxygen uptake and incidence of back pain during and after pregnancy, adjusted for physical activity, back pain before present pregnancy, previous deliveries, age and weight. A significant inverse association was found between estimated peak oxygen uptake and back pain intensity during pregnancy and a direct association post partum, in a fully adjusted multiple linear regression analysis. Conclusions Estimated peak oxygen uptake and reported physical activity in early pregnancy displayed no influence on the onset of subsequent back pain during or after pregnancy, where the time sequence support the hypothesis that poorer physical deconditioning is not a cause but a consequence of the back pain condition. The mechanism for the attenuating effect of increased oxygen uptake on back pain intensity is uncertain. PMID:22510295

  10. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Asthma Hospital Readmission in Children: a Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Nicholas C.; Ryan, Patrick H.; Huang, Bin; Beck, Andrew F.; Sauers, Hadley S.; Kahn, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) and hospital readmission for asthma or bronchodilator-responsive wheezing. Study design A population-based cohort of 758 children ages 1–16 years, admitted for asthma or bronchodilator-responsive wheezing was assessed for asthma readmission within 12 months. TRAP exposure was estimated using a land use regression model using the home address at index admission; TRAP was dichotomized at the sample median (0.37 μg/m3). Covariates included allergen-specific IgE, tobacco smoke exposure, and social factors obtained at enrollment. Associations between TRAP exposure and readmission were assessed using logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards. Results Study participants were 58% were African American (AA), 32% white; 19% were readmitted within 12 months. Children with higher TRAP exposure were readmitted at a higher rate overall (21% v. 16%, p = 0.05); this association was not significant after adjusting for covariates (adjusted OR 1.4; 95% CI 0.9–2.2). Race modified the observed association: white children with high TRAP exposure had three-fold increased odds of asthma readmission (OR 3.0; 95% CI 1.1–8.1), compared with low exposed whites. TRAP exposure among AA children was not associated with increased readmission (OR.1.1; 95% CI 0.6–1.8). TRAP exposure was associated with decreased time to readmission for high TRAP-exposed white children (HR 3.2; 95% CI 1.5–6.7) vs. AA children (HR 1.0; 95% CI 0.7–1.4); AA children had a higher readmission rate overall. Conclusions TRAP exposure is associated with increased odds of readmission in white children; this relationship was not observed in AA children. PMID:24680015

  11. Weight change before and after the introduction of solids: results from a longitudinal birth cohort.

    PubMed

    van Rossem, Lenie; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Looman, Caspar W N; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S; Mackenbach, Johan P; Moll, Henriëtte A; Raat, Hein

    2013-01-28

    We studied the association, and its direction, between the introduction of solids and weight-for-height (WFH) change between birth and 45 months. Pregnant women were asked to participate in a birth cohort during their first antenatal visit. Data from 3184 children were used. The timing of the introduction of solids was reported by the mother from a questionnaire at 12 months postpartum, and categorised into very early (0-3 months), early (3-6 months) and timely (after 6 months) introduction of solids. Anthropometric data were collected during standardised child health centre visits. WFH was converted into a z-score. Repeated-measurements analyses with splines positioned according to the moments of solid introduction were used to obtain estimates for WFH change before and after the introduction of solids. Analyses were adjusted for educational level, ethnicity, smoking during pregnancy, mother's BMI, breast-feeding, history of food allergy and infant's hospital admission. Before solids were introduced, weight gain was higher in children introduced to solids early (z= 0.65, 95 % CI 0.34, 0.95) than in children introduced to solids very early (z= 0.02, 95 % CI -0.03, 0.08) and timely (z= -0.04, 95 % CI -0.05, -0.03). Shortly after the introduction of solids, children introduced to solids very early and early showed a relative decrease in WFH. WFH change did not differ between the solid introduction groups after 12 months, and at that time, weight change was as expected (i.e. z= 0). We therefore conclude that differences in WFH in childhood are not the result of early introduction to solids.

  12. Adiposity, obesity, and arterial aging: longitudinal study of aortic stiffness in the Whitehall II cohort.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Eric J; Shipley, Martin J; Ahmadi-Abhari, Sara; Tabak, Adam G; McEniery, Carmel M; Wilkinson, Ian B; Marmot, Michael G; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimaki, Mika

    2015-08-01

    We sought to determine whether adiposity in later midlife is an independent predictor of accelerated stiffening of the aorta. Whitehall II study participants (3789 men; 1383 women) underwent carotid-femoral applanation tonometry at the mean age of 66 and again 4 years later. General adiposity by body mass index, central adiposity by waist circumference and waist:hip ratio, and fat mass percent by body impedance were assessed 5 years before and at baseline. In linear mixed models adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and mean arterial pressure, all adiposity measures were associated with aortic stiffening measured as increase in pulse wave velocity (PWV) between baseline and follow-up. The associations were similar in the metabolically healthy and unhealthy, according to Adult Treatment Panel-III criteria excluding waist circumference. C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels accounted for part of the longitudinal association between adiposity and PWV change. Adjusting for chronic disease, antihypertensive medication and risk factors, standardized effects of general and central adiposity and fat mass percent on PWV increase (m/s) were similar (0.14, 95% confidence interval: 0.05-0.24, P=0.003; 0.17, 0.08-0.27, P<0.001; 0.14, 0.05-0.22, P=0.002, respectively). Previous adiposity was associated with aortic stiffening independent of change in adiposity, glycaemia, and lipid levels across PWV assessments. We estimated that the body mass index-linked PWV increase will account for 12% of the projected increase in cardiovascular risk because of high body mass index. General and central adiposity in later midlife were strong independent predictors of aortic stiffening. Our findings suggest that adiposity is an important and potentially modifiable determinant of arterial aging.

  13. Exploration of a Polygenic Risk Score for Alcohol Consumption: A Longitudinal Analysis from the ALSPAC Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Simpkin, Andrew J.; Haycock, Philip C.; Dudbridge, Frank; Zuccolo, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Background Uncertainty remains about the true extent by which alcohol consumption causes a number of health outcomes. Genetic variants, or combinations of variants built into a polygenic risk score (PGRS), can be used in an instrumental variable framework to assess causality between a phenotype and disease outcome of interest, a method known as Mendelian randomisation (MR). We aimed to identify genetic variants involved in the aetiology of alcohol consumption, and develop a PGRS for alcohol. Methods Repeated measures of alcohol consumption from mothers and their offspring were collected as part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. We tested the association between 89 SNPs (identified from either published GWAS data or from functional literature) and repeated measures of alcohol consumption, separately in mothers (from ages 28–48) and offspring (from ages 15–21) who had ever reported drinking. We modelled log units of alcohol using a linear mixed model and calculated beta coefficients for each SNP separately. Cross-validation was used to determine an allelic score for alcohol consumption, and the AVENGEME algorithm employed to estimate variance of the trait explained. Results Following correction for multiple testing, one SNP (rs1229984) showed evidence for association with alcohol consumption (β = -0.177, SE = 0.042, p = <0.0001) in the mothers. No SNPs showed evidence for association in the offspring after correcting for multiple testing. The optimal allelic score was generated using p-value cut offs of 0.5 and 0.05 for the mothers and offspring respectively. These scores explained 0.3% and 0.7% of the variance. Conclusion Our PGRS explains a modest amount of the variance in alcohol consumption and larger sample sizes would be required to use our PGRS in an MR framework. PMID:27902751

  14. Longitudinal study of associations between perceived health status and self reported diseases in the French Gazel cohort

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, P; Gueguen, A; Schmaus, A; Nakache, J; Goldberg, M

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—Although perceived health status is an indicator widely used in epidemiological studies, its relation to various diseases is not well known. The objective of this study is to examine these relations in detail.
DESIGN—Marginal models used for a longitudinal study of the association between three health scales and 47 diseases among 12 164 men and 44 diseases among 4415 women.
SETTING—French Gazel cohort during the period from 1991 to 1996.
MAIN RESULTS—The general health status scale was significantly associated with 43 diseases among men, and 31 among women. Some of these significantly associated diseases were physical (for example, cancer and cerebrovascular accident) and others, psychological (for example, depression). The mental fatigue scale was more specifically associated with psychological disorders, including sleep problems, depression, and nervous diseases. Moreover, modifications in subjects' assessment of their health from one year to the next were generally associated with modifications in reported diseases.
CONCLUSION—Although the mechanism that relates the presence of a disease to perceived health status remains in question, these results show clearly that there is a close association between these two domains that justifies the use of perceived health as a proxy for self reported diseases.


Keywords: marginal model; health scale; self rated disease PMID:11238577

  15. Estimating the number of quit attempts it takes to quit smoking successfully in a longitudinal cohort of smokers

    PubMed Central

    Diemert, Lori; Cohen, Joanna E; Bondy, Susan J; Selby, Peter; Philipneri, Anne; Schwartz, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The number of quit attempts it takes a smoker to quit successfully is a commonly reported figure among smoking cessation programmes, but previous estimates have been based on lifetime recall in cross-sectional samples of successful quitters only. The purpose of this study is to improve the estimate of number of quit attempts prior to quitting successfully. Design We used data from 1277 participants who had made an attempt to quit smoking in the Ontario Tobacco Survey, a longitudinal survey of smokers followed every 6 months for up to 3 years beginning in 2005. We calculated the number of quit attempts prior to quitting successfully under four different sets of assumptions. Our expected best set of assumptions incorporated a life table approach accounting for the declining success rates for subsequent observed quit attempts in the cohort. Results The estimated average number of quit attempts expected before quitting successfully ranged from 6.1 under the assumptions consistent with prior research, 19.6 using a constant rate approach, 29.6 using the method with the expected lowest bias, to 142 using an approach including previous recall history. Conclusions Previous estimates of number of quit attempts required to quit may be underestimating the average number of attempts as these estimates excluded smokers who have greater difficulty quitting and relied on lifetime recall of number of attempts. Understanding that for many smokers it may take 30 or more quit attempts before being successful may assist with clinical expectations. PMID:27288378

  16. Saffold Virus, a Human Cardiovirus, and Risk of Persistent Islet Autoantibodies in the Longitudinal Birth Cohort Study MIDIA

    PubMed Central

    de Muinck, Eric J.; Cinek, Ondrej; Stene, Lars C.; Torjesen, Peter A.; Rasmussen, Trond; Rønningen, Kjersti S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the frequency and distribution of Saffold virus in longitudinal stool samples from children, and test for association with development of persistent autoantibodies predictive of type 1 diabetes. A cohort of Norwegian children carrying the HLA genotype associated with highest risk of type 1 diabetes (“DR4-DQ8/DR3-DQ2”) was followed with monthly stool samples from 3 to 35 months of age. Blood samples were tested for autoantibodies to insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase65 and Islet Antigen-2. 2077 stool samples from 27 children with ≥2 repeatedly positive islet autoantibodies (cases), and 53 matched controls were analysed for Saffold virus genomic RNA by semi-quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR. Saffold virus was found in 53 of 2077 (2.6%) samples, with similar proportions between cases (2.5%) and controls (2.6%). The probability of being infected by 3 years of age was 28% (95% CI 0.18–0.40). Viral quantities ranged from <1 to almost 105 copies/μl. Estimated odds ratio between islet autoimmunity and infection episodes prior to seroconversion was 1.98 (95% CI: 0.57–6.91, p = 0.29). Saffold virus had no statistically significant association with islet autoimmunity. PMID:26317929

  17. A longitudinal, multicentre, cohort study of community rehabilitation service delivery in long-term neurological conditions

    PubMed Central

    Siegert, Richard J; Jackson, Diana M; Playford, E Diane; Fleminger, Simon; Turner-Stokes, Lynne

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Part A: To pilot the use of a register to identify and monitor patients with complex needs arising from long-term neurological conditions. Part B: To determine the extent to which patients’ needs for health and social services are met following discharge to the community after inpatient rehabilitation; to identify which factors predict unmet needs and to explore the relationship between service provision and outcomes at 12 months. Design A multicentre, prospective, cohort study surveying participants at 1, 6 and 12 months using postal/online questionnaires and telephone interview. Setting Consecutive discharges to the community from all nine tertiary, specialist, inpatient neurorehabilitation services in London over 18 months in 2010–2011. Participants Of 576 admissions 428 patients were recruited at discharge: 256 responded at 4 weeks, 212 at 6 months and 190 at 12 months. Measures Neurological Impairment Scale, The Needs and Provision Complexity Scale, The Northwick Park Dependency Scale, Community Integration Questionnaire, Zarit Burden Inventory. Results n=322 (75%) expressed willingness to be registered, but in practice less than half responded to questionnaires at 6 and 12 months (49% and 44%, respectively), despite extensive efforts to contact them, with no significant differences between responders and non-responders. Significant unmet needs were identified within the first year following discharge, particularly in rehabilitation, social work support and provision of specialist equipment. Dependency for basic care and motor and cognitive impairment predicted services received, together accounting for 40% of the variance. Contra to expectation, patients whose rehabilitation needs were met were more dependent and less well integrated at 12 months post discharge than those with unmet needs. Conclusions Registration is acceptable to most patients, but questionnaires/telephone interviews may not be the most efficient way to reach

  18. Longitudinal study of cardiometabolic risk from early adolescence to early adulthood in an ethnically diverse cohort

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Seeromanie; Silva, Maria João; Molaodi, Oarabile R; Enayat, Zinat E; Cassidy, Aidan; Karamanos, Alexis; Read, Ursula M; Cruickshank, J Kennedy

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine influences of adiposity from early adolescence to early 20s on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in the multiethnic Determinants of young Adult Social well-being and Health (DASH) longitudinal study. Methods In 2002–2003, 6643 11–13-year-olds from 51 London schools participated at baseline, and 4785 were seen again at 14–16 years. Recently, 665 (97% of invited) participated in pilot follow-up at 21–23 years, with biological and psychosocial measures and blood biomarkers (only at 21–23 years). Regression models examined interplay between ethnicity, adiposity and CVD. Results At 21–23 years, ∼30–40% were overweight. About half of the sample had completed a degree with little ethnic variation despite more socioeconomic disadvantage in adolescence among ethnic minorities. Regardless of ethnicity, overweight increased more steeply between 14–16 years and 21–23 years than between 11–13 years and 14–16 years. More overweight among Black Caribbean and Black African females, lower systolic blood pressure (sBP) among Indian females and Pakistani/Bangladeshi males compared with White UK peers, persisted from 11–13 years. At 21–23 years, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was higher among Black Caribbean females, total cholesterol higher and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol lower among Pakistani/Bangladeshis. Overweight was associated with a ∼+2 mm Hg rise in sBP between 11–13 years and 21–23 years. Adiposity measures at 11–13 years were related to allostatic load (a cluster of several risk markers), HbA1c and HDL cholesterol at 21–23 years. Ethnic patterns in CVD biomarkers remained after adjustments. Conclusions Adolescent adiposity posed significant risks at 21–23 years, a period in the lifespan generally ignored in cardiovascular studies, when ethnic/gender variations in CVD are already apparent. PMID:27979836

  19. Rapid virological response of telaprevir and boceprevir in a Brazilian cohort of HCV genotype 1 patients: a multicenter longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Borba, Helena HL; Wiens, Astrid; Steimbach, Laiza M; Tonin, Fernanda S; Pedroso, Maria LA; Ivantes, Cláudia AP; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando; Pontarolo, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Background Chronic hepatitis C is a major public health issue, but there is a gap in the literature regarding the effectiveness and safety of direct-acting antiviral agents in the Brazilian population. The main aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of boceprevir and telaprevir in patients treated at public health care institutions in Brazil. Materials and methods A prospective longitudinal and multicenter study was conducted in five centers in the State of Paraná between September 2014 and June 2016. Data regarding effectiveness and safety were collected from medical records of patients treated with boceprevir or telaprevir. The effectiveness outcome comprised the rapid virological response (RVR). Multivariate analysis was performed to verify the influence of independent variables (ie, age, gender, baseline viral load) on RVR achievement. Results Data were collected from 117 patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection. Fifteen patients received treatment with boceprevir and 102 received telaprevir. The mean age was 51.6 years, 64.1% were male, 44.4% were infected with HCV subtype 1a, 62.4% had a high baseline viral load (≥800,000 IU/mL) and 33% were cirrhotic. Furthermore, 79.5% of patients achieved RVR (26.7% in the boceprevir group and 87.3% in the telaprevir group). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the type of protease inhibitor (boceprevir or telaprevir) and the baseline viral load had an influence on the RVR rate (odds ratio [OR] =0.011; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.001–0.119; P<0.001/OR =13.004; 95% CI: 1.522–111.115; P=0.019, respectively). Conclusion In this longitudinal multicenter cohort study conducted from the Brazilian perspective, differences were found in the RVR rates, favoring telaprevir over boceprevir for genotype 1 HCV-infected patients. In addition, the baseline viral load was associated with RVR achievement in both evaluated groups. As RVR is also reported in the literature as a predictor

  20. Determining Survey Satisficing of Online Longitudinal Survey Data in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study: A Group-Based Trajectory Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Di, Junrui; Li, Ying; Friedman, M Reuel; Reddy, Susheel; Surkan, Pamela J; Shoptaw, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Background Survey satisficing occurs when participants respond to survey questions rapidly without carefully reading or comprehending them. Studies have demonstrated the occurrence of survey satisficing, which can degrade survey quality, particularly in longitudinal studies. Objective The aim of this study is to use a group-based trajectory analysis method to identify satisficers when similar survey questions were asked periodically in a long-standing cohort, and to examine factors associated with satisficing in the surveys having sensitive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related behavioral questions. Methods Behavioral data were collected semiannually online at all four sites of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) from October 2008 through March 2013. Based on the start and end times, and the word counts per variable, response speed (word counts per second) for each participant visit was calculated. Two-step group-based trajectory analyses of the response speed across 9 study visits were performed to identify potential survey satisficing. Generalized linear models with repeated measures were used to investigate the factors associated with satisficing on HIV-related behavioral surveys. Results Among the total 2138 male participants, the median baseline age was 51 years (interquartile range, 45-58); most of the participants were non-Hispanic white (62.72%, 1341/2138) and college graduates (46.59%, 996/2138), and half were HIV seropositive (50.00%, 1069/2138). A total of 543 men (25.40%, 543/2138) were considered potential satisficers with respect to their increased trajectory tendency of response speed. In the multivariate analysis, being 10 years older at the baseline visit increased the odds of satisficing by 44% (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.27-1.62, P<.001). Compared with the non-Hispanic white participants, non-Hispanic black participants were 122% more likely to satisfice the HIV-related behavioral survey (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.69-2.91, P<.001), and 99% more likely

  1. Early Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (EDoGDM) study: a protocol for a prospective, longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin; Xu, Yun; Zhang, Ying; Cai, Jian; Deng, Langhui; Yang, Jianbo; Zhou, Yi; Long, Yuhang; Zhang, Jinxin; Wang, Zilian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in low-risk pregnant women is based on an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) between 24 and 28 gestational weeks. However, there is insufficient evidence for why the test is performed in this time period. Moreover, the fetus may be exposed to hyperglycaemia prior to the current testing time frame, making earlier administration potentially advantageous. The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the GDM diagnostic value of an OGTT performed at 18–20 gestational weeks. The results of the study may provide scientific insight into the most beneficial time of OGTT for pregnant women. Methods and analysis As a prospective, longitudinal cohort study, the Early Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (EDoGDM) study will recruit 570 pregnant women who meet the inclusion and exclusion criteria outlined below. OGTTs will be performed between 18 and 20 gestational weeks (early OGTT) and 24–28 gestational weeks (regular OGTT). Clinical and laboratory information of the mother and their offspring will be collected for analysis. The prevalence of GDM at 18–20 gestational weeks will be described, and the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of early OGTT on diagnosis of GDM will be studied. Clinical outcomes associated with hyperglycaemia will be compared between groups diagnosed by early or regular OGTT. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by The Ethical Committees of The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University (number 2016-042). Signed informed consent will be obtained from all participants. The results of this study will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number NCT02740283. PMID:27872115

  2. Pain, agitation, and behavioural problems in people with dementia admitted to general hospital wards: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Elizabeth L.; White, Nicola; Lord, Kathryn; Leurent, Baptiste; Vickerstaff, Victoria; Scott, Sharon; Jones, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pain is underdetected and undertreated in people with dementia. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of pain in people with dementia admitted to general hospitals and explore the association between pain and behavioural and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD). We conducted a longitudinal cohort study of 230 people, aged above 70, with dementia and unplanned medical admissions to 2 UK hospitals. Participants were assessed at baseline and every 4 days for self-reported pain (yes/no question and FACES scale) and observed pain (Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia scale [PAINAD]) at movement and at rest, for agitation (Cohen–Mansfield Agitating Inventory [CMAI]) and BPSD (Behavioural Pathology in Alzheimer Disease Scale [BEHAVE-AD]). On admission, 27% of participants self-reported pain rising to 39% on at least 1 occasion during admission. Half of them were able to complete the FACES scale, this proportion decreasing with more severe dementia. Using the PAINAD, 19% had pain at rest and 57% had pain on movement on at least 1 occasion (in 16%, this was persistent throughout the admission). In controlled analyses, pain was not associated with CMAI scores but was strongly associated with total BEHAVE-AD scores, both when pain was assessed on movement (β = 0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.07-0.32, P = 0.002) and at rest (β = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.14-0.69, P = 0.003). The association was the strongest for aggression and anxiety. Pain was common in people with dementia admitted to the acute hospital and associated with BPSD. Improved pain management may reduce distressing behaviours and improve the quality of hospital care for people with dementia. PMID:25790457

  3. A Prospective Longitudinal Cohort to Investigate the Effects of Early Life Giardiasis on Growth and All Cause Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Donowitz, Jeffrey R.; Alam, Masud; Kabir, Mamun; Ma, Jennie Z.; Nazib, Forida; Platts-Mills, James A.; Bartelt, Luther A.; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Growth stunting in children under 2 years of age in low-income countries is common. Giardia is a ubiquitous pathogen in this age group but studies investigating Giardia's effect on both growth and diarrhea have produced conflicting results. Methods. We conducted a prospective longitudinal birth cohort study in Dhaka, Bangladesh, with monthly Giardia and continuous diarrheal surveillance. Results. 629 children were enrolled within the first 72 hours of life, and 445 completed 2 years of the study. 12% of children were stunted at birth with 57% stunted by 2 years. 7% of children had a Giardia positive surveillance stool in the first 6 months of life, whereas 74% had a positive stool by 2 years. The median time to first Giardia positive surveillance stool was 17 months. Presence of Giardia in a monthly surveillance stool within the first 6 months of life decreased length-for-age Z score at 2 years by 0.4 (95% confidence interval, −.80 to −.001; P value .05) whereas total number of Giardia positive months over the 2-year period of observation did not. Neither variable was associated with weight-for-age Z score at 2 years. In our model to examine predictors of diarrhea only exclusive breastfeeding was significantly associated with decreased diarrhea (P value <.001). Concomitant giardiasis was neither a risk factor nor protective. Conclusions. Early life Giardia was a risk factor for stunting at age 2 but not poor weight gain. Presence of Giardia neither increased nor decreased odds of acute all cause diarrhea. PMID:27313261

  4. Why Are Children in Urban Neighborhoods at Increased Risk for Psychotic Symptoms? Findings From a UK Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Newbury, Joanne; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Odgers, Candice L.; Fisher, Helen L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Urban upbringing is associated with a 2-fold adulthood psychosis risk, and this association replicates for childhood psychotic symptoms. No study has investigated whether specific features of urban neighborhoods increase children’s risk for psychotic symptoms, despite these early psychotic phenomena elevating risk for schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Methods: Analyses were conducted on over 2000 children from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative cohort of UK-born twins. Neighborhood-level characteristics were assessed for each family via: a geodemographic discriminator indexing neighborhood-level deprivation, postal surveys of over 5000 residents living alongside the children, and in-home interviews with the children’s mothers. Children were interviewed about psychotic symptoms at age 12. Analyses were adjusted for important family-level confounders including socioeconomic status (SES), psychiatric history, and maternal psychosis. Results: Urban residency at age-5 (OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.16–2.77) and age-12 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.15–2.69) were both significantly associated with childhood psychotic symptoms, but not with age-12 anxiety, depression, or antisocial behavior. The association was not attributable to family SES, family psychiatric history, or maternal psychosis, each implicated in childhood mental health. Low social cohesion, together with crime victimization in the neighborhood explained nearly a quarter of the association between urbanicity and childhood psychotic symptoms after considering family-level confounders. Conclusions: Low social cohesion and crime victimization in the neighborhood partly explain why children in cities have an elevated risk of developing psychotic symptoms. Greater understanding of the mechanisms leading from neighborhood-level exposures to psychotic symptoms could help target interventions for emerging childhood psychotic symptoms

  5. Insomnia, Health-Related Quality of Life and Health Outcomes in Children: A Seven Year Longitudinal Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Combs, Daniel; Goodwin, James L.; Quan, Stuart F.; Morgan, Wayne J.; Shetty, Safal; Parthasarathy, Sairam

    2016-01-01

    Insomnia is common in children, and is associated with decreased school performance and increased psychopathology. Although adult insomnia is linked to worsened health-related quality of life (HRQOL), there is insufficient data evaluating insomnia and HRQOL in children. We examined the HRQOL and health associations of insomnia in a longitudinal cohort of 194 children (96 girls, age at study start 8.7 ± 1.6 years, age at data analysis 15.0 ± 1.8 years) over 7 years. International Classification of Sleep Disorders, second edition (ICSD2) derived insomnia was seen intermittently in 27% of children, and was persistent in 4%. Children reporting ICSD2-derived insomnia had lower HRQOL. Additionally, the presence of insomnia was associated with an increased risk of reporting a new medical condition (intermittent insomnia odds ratio 5.9 [95% CI 1.3–26.7, p = 0.04], persistent insomnia odds ratio 8 [95% CI 2.3–27.7, p = 0.001]). Persistent ICSD2-derived insomnia was associated with an increased risk of reporting a new medication (odds ratio 4.9 (95% CI 1.0–23.6), p = 0.049), and reporting a new psychiatric medication (odds ratio 13.7, 95% CI: 2.6–73.5, p = 0.002). These associations were present even after adjusting for socioeconomic factors and the presence of obstructive sleep apnea. Insomnia in children is associated with worsened HRQOL and health outcomes. PMID:27295263

  6. Pain, agitation, and behavioural problems in people with dementia admitted to general hospital wards: a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Elizabeth L; White, Nicola; Lord, Kathryn; Leurent, Baptiste; Vickerstaff, Victoria; Scott, Sharon; Jones, Louise

    2015-04-01

    Pain is underdetected and undertreated in people with dementia. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of pain in people with dementia admitted to general hospitals and explore the association between pain and behavioural and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD). We conducted a longitudinal cohort study of 230 people, aged above 70, with dementia and unplanned medical admissions to 2 UK hospitals. Participants were assessed at baseline and every 4 days for self-reported pain (yes/no question and FACES scale) and observed pain (Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia scale [PAINAD]) at movement and at rest, for agitation (Cohen-Mansfield Agitating Inventory [CMAI]) and BPSD (Behavioural Pathology in Alzheimer Disease Scale [BEHAVE-AD]). On admission, 27% of participants self-reported pain rising to 39% on at least 1 occasion during admission. Half of them were able to complete the FACES scale, this proportion decreasing with more severe dementia. Using the PAINAD, 19% had pain at rest and 57% had pain on movement on at least 1 occasion (in 16%, this was persistent throughout the admission). In controlled analyses, pain was not associated with CMAI scores but was strongly associated with total BEHAVE-AD scores, both when pain was assessed on movement (β = 0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.07-0.32, P = 0.002) and at rest (β = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.14-0.69, P = 0.003). The association was the strongest for aggression and anxiety. Pain was common in people with dementia admitted to the acute hospital and associated with BPSD. Improved pain management may reduce distressing behaviours and improve the quality of hospital care for people with dementia.

  7. Social group memberships in retirement are associated with reduced risk of premature death: evidence from a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Steffens, Niklas K; Cruwys, Tegan; Haslam, Catherine; Jetten, Jolanda; Haslam, S Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Retirement constitutes a major life transition that poses significant challenges to health, with many retirees experiencing a precipitous decline in health status following retirement. We examine the extent to which membership in social groups following retirement determines quality of life and mortality. Design The longitudinal impact of the number of social group memberships before and after the transition to retirement was assessed on retirees’ quality of life and risk of death 6 years later. Setting Nationally representative cohort study of older adults living in England. Participants Adults who underwent the transition to retirement (N=424). A matched control group (N=424) of participants who had comparable demographic and health characteristics at baseline but did not undergo the transition to retirement were also examined. Outcome measures Analyses examined participants’ quality of life and mortality during a period of 6 years. Results Retirees who had two group memberships prior to retirement had a 2% risk of death in the first 6 years of retirement if they maintained membership in two groups, a 5% risk if they lost one group and a 12% risk if they lost both groups. Furthermore, for every group membership that participants lost in the year following retirement, their experienced quality of life 6 years later was approximately 10% lower. These relationships are robust when controlling for key sociodemographic variables (age, gender, relationship status and socioeconomic status prior to retirement). A comparison with a matched control group confirmed that these effects were specific to those undergoing the transition to retirement. The effect of social group memberships on mortality was comparable to that of physical exercise. Conclusions Theoretical implications for our understanding of the determinants of retiree quality of life and health, and practical implications for the support of people transitioning from a life of work to

  8. Female stress urinary incontinence: clinical efficacy and satisfaction after transobturator adjustable tape sling. An observational longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Patrelli, Tito Silvio; Gizzo, Salvatore; Noventa, Marco; Dall'Asta, Andrea; Musarò, Andrea; Faioli, Raffaele; Zanni, Giuliano Carlo; Piantelli, Giovanni; Lukanovic, Adolf; Bacchi Modena, Alberto; Berretta, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    We performed an observational longitudinal cohort study on patients affected by stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and surgically treated with a transobturator adjustable tape sling (TOA) in order to evaluate this surgical procedure in terms of efficacy, safety, quality of life (QoL) improvement, and patient satisfaction. For all patients, we recorded: general features, preoperative SUI risk factors, obstetrics history, preoperative urodynamic tests, intraoperative/postoperative complications, number of postoperative sling regulations, postmicturition residue, and hospital stay. All patients were asked to complete the validated short version of the Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6) questionnaire 18 months after discharge to evaluate the efficacy of the TOA system. We added 2 adjunctive items to the UDI-6 in order to evaluate patient satisfaction and QoL. All 77 surgical procedures were performed under locoregional anesthesia without complications. Postoperative TOA regulations were performed in 46.8% of patients immediately after the procedure and in 14.3% during hospitalization. Before discharge, postmicturition residue was negative in 67 cases and less than 50 cc in 10 cases. Mean hospital stay was 2.18 days. From the questionnaire evaluation, we found that after the procedure, 90.9% of patients showed a complete regression of urinary symptoms, 1.3% obtained considerable relief from preoperative symptoms, and 6.6% reported poor or absent symptom improvements; 75.3% of patients were totally satisfied and 5.2% totally disappointed. The possibility of modulating postoperative sling tension and reusing the surgical materials in association with short hospitalization as well as high patient satisfaction render TOA a safe, effective, and low-cost technique for the treatment of female SUI.

  9. Long-Term Efficacy of First Line Antiretroviral Therapy in Indian HIV-1 Infected Patients: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Neogi, Ujjwal; Heylen, Elsa; Shet, Anita; Chandy, Sara; Shamsunder, Ranjani; Sönnerborg, Anders; Ekstrand, Maria L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Short term efficacy of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in resource-constrained settings is comparable to that found in western studies. However, long term data are limited. India has the third largest HIV infected population in the world but the long-term outcome of first line therapy according to the national guidelines has not been evaluated yet. Therefore, we conducted a long-term longitudinal analysis of the efficacy of the national first-line therapy in India from an observational cohort of Indian patients in two different clinical settings. Methodology/Principal Findings A total 323 patients who had been on ART for a median of 23 months and achieved virological suppression <100 copies/ml by their study baseline visit, were included and followed for two years. Blood samples were collected every six months for viral load and CD4 count. Drug resistance genotyping was performed when the viral load was >2000 copies/mL. Adherence and treatment interruptions (>48 h) were assessed via self-report. In the studied patients, the median duration of viral suppression was 44 months; 15.8% of patients showed viral rebound, and 2.8% viral failure. Viral rebound or failure was significantly negatively related to perfect adherence (100% adherence and no treatment interruption >48 hrs). Virological re-suppression in the subsequent visit was observed in three patients without any change in therapy despite the presence of key mutations. Conclusion/Significance Our study reports for the first time, a good long-term response to the first line therapy for a median of nearly four years although a less than perfect adherence increases the risk for treatment failure and subsequent drug resistance development. The empirical findings in this study also indicate the overall success of the Indian ART program in two different settings which likely are representative of other clinics that operate under the national guidelines. PMID:23383185

  10. The Children Born in 2001 at Kindergarten Entry: First Findings from the Kindergarten Data Collections of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). First Look. NCES 2010-005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Kristin Denton; McPhee, Cameron

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the final two rounds of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), a longitudinal study begun in 2001, this First Look provides a snapshot of the demographic characteristics, reading and mathematics knowledge, fine motor skills, school characteristics, and before- and after-school care arrangements of the cohort…

  11. The Risk of Mortality in Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, and Psoriasis: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, Kevin; Troxel, Andrea B.; Love, ThorvardurJon; Hennessy, Sean; Choi, Hyon; Gelfand, Joel M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Conflicting reports of the mortality risk among patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) exist in the literature. The objective of this study was to examine the risk of mortality in patients with PsA compared to matched controls and to patients with psoriasis and those with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods A longitudinal cohort study was performed in a large United Kingdom medical record database,The Health Improvement Network (THIN), among patients with PsA, RA, or psoriasis with data from 1994-2010. Unexposed controls were matched on practice and start date within the practice for each patient with PsA. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate the relative hazards for death. Results Patients with PsA (N=8,706), RA (N=41,752), psoriasis (N=138,424) and unexposed controls (N=82,258) were identified; 1,442,357 person-years were observed during which 21,825 deaths occurred. Compared with population controls, patients with PsA did not have an increased risk of mortality after adjusting for age and sex (DMARD users: HR 0.94, 95%CI: 0.80-1.10, DMARD non-users: HR 1.06, 95%CI: 0.94-1.19) whereas RA patients had increased mortality (DMARD users HR 1.59, 95%CI: 1.52-1.66, DMARD non-users HR 1.54, 95%CI: 1.47-1.60). Patients with psoriasis who had not been prescribed a DMARD had a small increased risk of mortality (HR 1.08, 95%CI: 1.04-1.12) while those who had been prescribed a DMARD, indicating severe psoriasis, were at increased risk (HR 1.75, 95%CI: 1.56-1.95). Conclusion Patients with RA and psoriasis had elevated mortality compared to the general population. However, patients with PsA did not have a significantly elevated risk of mortality. PMID:23264338

  12. Digit ratio and autism spectrum disorders in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children: a birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Guyatt, Anna Louise; Heron, Jon; Knight, Bernice Le Cornu; Golding, Jean; Rai, Dheeraj

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), a measure commonly used as a proxy for fetal testosterone exposure, is associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), as predicted by the extreme male brain theory of autism. Design A birth cohort study. Setting The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Participants 6015 ALSPAC children with data on digit ratio, at least 1 outcome measure and information on potential confounding variables (parental occupational class, maternal education and age at digit ratio measurement). Digit ratio was measured by the photocopy and calliper method. Outcomes ASD diagnosis (cases were identified previously by record linkage or maternal report) and 4 measures that combine optimally within ALSPAC to predict ASD: the Children's Communication Checklist (coherence subscale), the Social and Communication Disorders Checklist, a repetitive behaviour measure, and the Emotionality, Activity and Sociability scale (sociability subscale). These measures were dichotomised, with approximately 10% defined as the ‘risk’ group. Results Using logistic regression, we examined the association of 2D:4D with ASDs and 4 dichotomised ASD traits. Covariates were occupational class, maternal education and age at 2D:4D measurement. 2D:4D was not associated with ASDs in males (adjusted OR per 1 SD increase in mean 2D:4D, 0.88 (95% CI 0.65 to 1.21), p=0.435) or females (adjusted OR=1.36 (95% CI 0.81 to 2.28), p=0.245). Similar results were observed after adjustment for IQ. There was 1 weak association between reduced coherence and increased left 2D:4D in males, in the opposite direction to that predicted by the extreme male brain theory (adjusted OR=1.15 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.29), p=0.023). Given multiple comparisons, this is consistent with chance. Conclusions In this population-based study, there was no strong evidence of an association between 2D:4D and ASD diagnosis or traits, although the CIs were wide. These

  13. An exploration of the dynamic longitudinal relationship between mental health and alcohol consumption: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite intense investigation, the temporal sequence between alcohol consumption and mental health remains unclear. This study explored the relationship between alcohol consumption and mental health over multiple occasions, and compared a series of competing theoretical models to determine which best reflected the association between the two. Methods Data from phases 5 (1997 to 1999), 7 (2002 to 2004), and 9 (2007 to 2009) of the Whitehall II prospective cohort study were used, providing approximately 10 years of follow-up for 6,330 participants (73% men; mean ± SD age 55.8 ± 6.0 years). Mental health was assessed using the Short Form (SF)-36 mental health component score. Alcohol consumption was defined as the number of UK units of alcohol drunk per week. Four dynamic latent change score models were compared: 1) a baseline model in which alcohol consumption and mental health trajectories did not influence each other, 2) and model in which alcohol consumption influenced changes in mental health but mental health exerted no effect on changes in drinking and 3) vice versa, and (4) a reciprocal model in which both variables influenced changes in each other. Results The third model, in which mental health influenced changes in alcohol consumption but not vice versa, was the best fit. In this model, the effect of previous mental health on upcoming change in alcohol consumption was negative (γ = -0.31, 95% CI -0.52 to -0.10), meaning that those with better mental health tended to make greater reductions (or shallower increases) in their drinking between occasions. Conclusions Mental health appears to be the leading indicator of change in the dynamic longitudinal relationship between mental health and weekly alcohol consumption in this sample of middle-aged adults. In addition to fuelling increases in alcohol consumption among low-level consumers, poor mental health may also be a maintaining factor for heavy alcohol consumption. Future work

  14. The Influence of Preoperative and Postoperative Psychological Symptoms on Clinical Outcome after Shoulder Surgery: A Prospective Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Koorevaar, Rinco C. T.; van ‘t Riet, Esther; Gerritsen, Marleen J. J.; Madden, Kim; Bulstra, Sjoerd K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Psychological symptoms are highly prevalent in patients with shoulder complaints. Psychological symptoms in patients with shoulder complaints might play a role in the aetiology, perceived disability and pain and clinical outcome of treatment. The aim of this study was to assess whether preoperative symptoms of distress, depression, anxiety and somatisation were associated with a change in function after shoulder surgery and postoperative patient perceived improvement of pain and function. In addition, the change of psychological symptoms after shoulder surgery was analyzed and the influence of postoperative symptoms of psychological disorders after surgery on the change in function after shoulder surgery and perceived postoperative improvement of pain and function. Methods and Findings A prospective longitudinal cohort study was performed in a general teaching hospital. 315 consecutive patients planned for elective shoulder surgery were included. Outcome measures included change of Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score and anchor questions about improvement in pain and function after surgery. Psychological symptoms were identified before and 12 months after surgery with the validated Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ). Psychological symptoms were encountered in all the various shoulder diagnoses. Preoperative symptoms of psychological disorders persisted after surgery in 56% of patients, 10% of patients with no symptoms of psychological disorders before surgery developed new psychological symptoms. Preoperative symptoms of psychological disorders were not associated with the change of DASH score and perceived improvement of pain and function after shoulder surgery. Patients with symptoms of psychological disorders after surgery were less likely to improve on the DASH score. Postoperative symptoms of distress and depression were associated with worse perceived improvement of pain. Postoperative symptoms of distress, depression

  15. Predicting growth and curve progression in the individual patient with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: design of a prospective longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Scoliosis is present in 3-5% of the children in the adolescent age group, with a higher incidence in females. Treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is mainly dependent on the progression of the scoliotic curve. There is a close relationship between curve progression and rapid (spinal) growth of the patient during puberty. However, until present time no conclusive method was found for predicting the timing and magnitude of the pubertal growth spurt in total body height, or the curve progression of the idiopathic scoliosis. The goal of this study is to determine the predictive value of several maturity indicators that reflect growth or remaining growth potential, in order to predict timing of the peak growth velocity of total body height in the individual patient with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Furthermore, different parameters are evaluated for their correlation with curve progression in the individual scoliosis patient. Methods/design This prospective, longitudinal cohort study will be incorporated in the usual care of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. All new patients between 8 and 17 years with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (Cobb angle >10 degrees) visiting the outpatient clinic of the University Medical Center Groningen are included in this study. Follow up will take place every 6 months. The present study will use a new ultra-low dose X-ray system which can make total body X-rays. Several maturity indicators are evaluated like different body length dimensions, secondary sexual characteristics, skeletal age in hand and wrist, skeletal age in the elbow, the Risser sign, the status of the triradiate cartilage, and EMG ratios of the paraspinal muscle activity. Correlations of all dimensions will be calculated in relationship to the timing of the pubertal growth spurt, and to the progression of the scoliotic curve. An algorithm will be made for the optimal treatment strategy in the individual patient with adolescent idiopathic

  16. Longitudinal change of neuroimaging and clinical markers in autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Wai-Ying Wendy; Tudorascu, Dana L.; McDade, Eric M.; Ikonomovic, Snezana; James, Jeffrey A.; Minhas, Davneet; Mowrey, Wenzhu; Sheu, Lei K.; Snitz, Beth E.; Weissfeld, Lisa; Gianaros, Peter J.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Price, Julie C.; Mathis, Chester A.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Klunk, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Background The biomarker model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) hypothesizes a dynamic sequence of amyloidosis, neurodegeneration, and cognitive decline, as an individual progresses from preclinical AD to dementia. Despite supportive evidence from cross-sectional studies, verification with long-term within-individual data is needed. Methods Autosomal dominant AD (ADAD) mutation carriers, aged 21 years or older (no cognitive restrictions), were recruited from across the United States via referral by colleagues or ADAD families themselves. Sixteen individuals with mutations in PSEN1, PSEN2 or APP, aged 28 to 56, were assessed longitudinally every one to two years, between March 23, 2003 and August 1, 2014. Participants completed two to eight assessments (total=83), over a period of two to eleven years. We measured global amyloid-beta load with Pittsburgh Compound-B PET, posterior cortical metabolism with [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose PET, hippocampal volume (age-, and gender-corrected) with T1 MRI, verbal memory with 10-item delayed word recall, and general cognition with Mini Mental State Exam. We estimated overall biomarker trajectories across estimated years from symptom onset (EYO) using linear mixed models, and compared ADAD estimates to cross-sectional data from cognitively normal, older controls selected to be negative for amyloidosis, hypometabolism, and hippocampal atrophy. In seven individuals with the longest follow-up (seven/eight assessments spanning six to eleven years), we further examined the within-individual progression of amyloidosis, metabolism, hippocampal volume, and cognition, to identify progressive within-individual change in these markers (increase/decrease of greater than two Z-scores standardized to controls). Findings Significant differences in ADAD compared to controls (p<0·01) were detected in the following order: increased amyloidosis (−7.5 EYO), decreased metabolism (0 EYO), decreased hippocampal volume and verbal memory (+7.5 EYO

  17. Women’s Longitudinal Smoking Patterns from Preconception through Child’s Kindergarten Entry: Profiles of Biological Mothers of a 2001 U.S. Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Mumford, Elizabeth A.; Hair, Elizabeth C.; Yu, Tzy-Chyi; Liu, Weiwei

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify longitudinal patterns of women’s smoking during the pre-conception, perinatal, and early parenting period and describe risk factors distinguishing the different profiles. Methods We conducted longitudinal latent class analysis (LLCA) of maternal smoking status over a six to seven year period in a sample of 8,650 biological mothers of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study – Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), nationally representative of U.S. births in 2001. Results Five latent classes were identified: pregnancy-inspired quitters (4.3%), delayed initiators (5.1%), persistent smokers (8.5%), temporary quitters (10.4%), and nonsmokers (71.7%). These classes were distinguished by age, race/ethnicity, education, poverty status, marital status, parity, drinking behavior, and depression. For example, when compared to those with college degrees, those with less than high school degree are at least five times as likely to be in the delayed initiators, temporary quitters, or persistent smoker classes (versus the nonsmoker class). Conclusions Heterogeneous longitudinal smoking patterns indicate the need for both prevention messages and cessation treatment continuing past parturition, tailored to fit individual profiles in order to achieve reduced health consequences for both mothers and children. PMID:23797269

  18. Multireader assessment as an alternative to reference assessment to improve the detection of radiographic progression in a large longitudinal cohort of rheumatoid arthritis (ESPOIR)

    PubMed Central

    Gandjbakhch, Frederique; Granger, Benjamin; Freund, Romain; Foltz, Violaine; Jousse-Joulin, Sandrine; Devauchelle, Valerie; Afshar, Mona; Albert, Jean David; Bailly, Florian; Constant, Elodie; Biale, Lisa; Milin, Morgane; Couderc, Marion; Denarie, Delphine; Fradin, Anne; Martaille, Virginie; Pierreisnard, Audrey; Poursac, Nicolas; Saraux, Alain; Fautrel, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Structural damage progression is a major outcome in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Its evaluation and follow-up in trials should involve radiographic scoring by 1 or 2 readers (reference assessment), which is challenging in large longitudinal cohorts with multiple assessments. Objectives To compare the reproducibility of multireader and reference assessment to improve the feasibility of detecting radiographic progression in a large cohort of patients with early arthritis (ESPOIR). Methods We used 3 sessions to train 12 rheumatologists in radiographic scoring by the van der Heijde-modified Sharp score (SHS). Multireader scoring was based on 10 trained-reader assessments, each reader scoring a random sample of 1/5 of all available radiographs (for double scoring for each X-ray set) for patients included in the ESPOIR cohort with complete radiographic data at M0 and M60. Reference scoring was performed by 2 experienced readers. Scoring was performed blindly to clinical data, with radiographs in chronological order. We compared multireader and reference assessments by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for SHS and significant radiographic progression (SRP). Results The intrareader and inter-reader reproducibility for trained assessors increased during the training sessions (ICC 0.79 to 0.94 and 0.76 to 0.92), respectively. For the 524 patients included, agreement between multireader and reference assessment of SHS progression between M0 and M60 and SRP assessment were almost perfect, ICC (0.88 (95% CI 0.82 to 0.93)) and (0.99 (95% CI 0.99 to 0.99)), respectively. Conclusions Multireader assessment of radiographic structural damage progression is comparable to reference assessment and could be used to improve the feasibility of radiographic scoring in large longitudinal cohort with numerous X-ray evaluations. PMID:28123779

  19. Risk of depression and self-harm in teenagers identifying with goth subculture: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Bowes, Lucy; Carnegie, Rebecca; Pearson, Rebecca; Mars, Becky; Biddle, Lucy; Maughan, Barbara; Lewis, Glyn; Fernyhough, Charles; Heron, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Previous research has suggested that deliberate self-harm is associated with contemporary goth subculture in young people; however, whether this association is confounded by characteristics of young people, their families, and their circumstances is unclear. We aimed to test whether self-identification as a goth is prospectively associated with emergence of clinical depression and self-harm in early adulthood. Methods We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a UK community-based birth cohort of 14 541 pregnant women with expected delivery between April 1, 1991, and Dec 31, 1992. All children in the study were invited to attend yearly follow-up visits at the research clinic from age 7 years. At 15 years of age, participants reported the extent to which they self-identified as a goth. We assessed depressive mood and self-harm at 15 years with the Development and Wellbeing Assessment (DAWBA) questionnaire, and depression and self-harm at 18 years using the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised. We calculated the prospective association between goth identification at 15 years and depression and self-harm at 18 years using logistic regression analyses. Findings Of 5357 participants who had data available for goth self-identification, 3694 individuals also had data for depression and self-harm outcomes at 18 years. 105 (6%) of 1841 adolescents who did not self-identify as goths met criteria for depression compared with 28 (18%) of 154 who identified as goths very much; for self-harm, the figures were 189 (10%) of 1841 versus 57 (37%) of 154. We noted a dose–response association with goth self-identification both for depression and for self-harm. Compared with young people who did not identify as a goth, those who somewhat identified as being a goth were 1·6 times more likely (unadjusted odds ratio [OR] 1·63, 95% CI 1·14–2·34, p<0·001), and those who very much identified as being a goth were more than three times

  20. A methodology for assessing deployment trauma and its consequences in OEF/OIF/OND veterans: The TRACTS longitudinal prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    McGlinchey, Regina E; Milberg, William P; Fonda, Jennifer R; Fortier, Catherine Brawn

    2017-02-17

    Many US veterans of Afghanistan and Iraq have multiple physical and psychiatric problems. A major focus of research has been on determining the effects of mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI), but mTBI is rarely diagnosed in the absence of co-occurring conditions such as blast exposure, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, substance abuse, etc. These potentially interactive psychological and physical conditions produce complex patterns of cognitive, psychological, and physical symptoms that impede civilian reintegration and complicate efficient and effective treatment planning. The Translational Research Center for TBI and Stress Disorders (TRACTS) has developed a multidisciplinary approach to the assessment of deployment trauma and its consequences in veterans of these wars. The prospective TRACTS longitudinal cohort study conducts state-of-the-art assessments in the domains of biomedical function, lifetime head trauma, psychological function encompassing deployment experience and lifetime exposure to traumatic events, neuropsychological function, and structural and functional neuroimaging. The TRACTS longitudinal cohort study is the first of its kind to comprehensively evaluate lifetime incidence of TBI and PTSD in these veterans, in addition to those incurred during military deployment. The protocol has begun to reveal information that will help improve understanding of the complex pathophysiology associated with co-occurring mTBI and related stress disorders.

  1. Sex-related and tissue-specific effects of tobacco smoking on brain atrophy: assessment in a large longitudinal cohort of healthy elderly

    PubMed Central

    Duriez, Quentin; Crivello, Fabrice; Mazoyer, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of tobacco smoking on brain atrophy in a large cohort of healthy elderly participants (65–80 years). MRI was used for measuring whole brain (WB), gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and hippocampus (HIP) volumes at study entry time (baseline, N = 1451), and the annualized rates of variation of these volumes using a 4-year follow-up MRI in a subpart of the cohort (N = 1111). Effects of smoking status (never, former, or current smoker) at study entry and of lifetime tobacco consumption on these brain phenotypes were studied using sex-stratified AN(C)OVAs, including other health parameters as covariates. At baseline, male current smokers had lower GM, while female current smokers had lower WM. In addition, female former smokers exhibited reduced baseline HIP, the reduction being correlated with lifetime tobacco consumption. Longitudinal analyses demonstrated that current smokers, whether men or women, had larger annualized rates of HIP atrophy, as compared to either non or former smokers, independent of their lifetime consumption of tobacco. There was no effect of smoking on the annualized rate of WM loss. In all cases, measured sizes of these tobacco-smoking effects were of the same order of magnitude than those of age, and larger than effect sizes of any other covariate. These results demonstrate that tobacco smoking is a major factor of brain aging, with sex- and tissue specific effects, notably on the HIP annualized rate of atrophy after the age of 65. PMID:25404916

  2. Lifestyle-Related Factors Contributing to Decline in Knee Extension Strength among Elderly Women: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Narumi; Kim, Miji; Saito, Kyoko; Yoshida, Hideyo; Yoshida, Yuko; Hirano, Hirohiko; Obuchi, Shuichi; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Takao; Kim, Hunkyung

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional and 4-year longitudinal cohort study aimed to clarify how various lifestyle-related variables affect knee extension strength in elderly Japanese women. The participants were community-dwelling women (n = 575) living in the Itabashi Ward of Tokyo, Japan aged 75–85 years at baseline (in 2008) who returned for a follow-up examination 4 years later (in 2012). Maximum isometric knee extension strength in the dominant leg was measured during comprehensive medical check-ups at baseline and follow-up. Interviews with participants included questions on their history of 11 diseases and lifestyle-related factors such as physical activity as well as dietary, smoking, and drinking habits. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses yielded inconsistent results regarding the associations between lifestyle-related factors and knee extension strength. While going out more frequently and regular physical exercise positively affected baseline knee extension strength, they did not affect knee extension strength in the longitudinal analysis. The longitudinal analysis revealed that more frequent intake of soy products or green and yellow vegetables at baseline decreased age-related knee extension strength decline. The inconsistent results from the cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses indicate that conducting both types of analyses is crucial for researching this type of subject. The present study demonstrates that the age-related decline in muscle strength is lower in those who frequently eat soy products or green and yellow vegetables. Thus, recommending higher intake of soy products, and green and yellow vegetables for the elderly might help maintain their muscle health. PMID:26177292

  3. Longitudinal follow-up of the relationship between dietary intake and growth and development in the Lifeways cross-generation cohort study 2001-2013.

    PubMed

    Kelleher, Cecily C; Viljoen, Karien; Khalil, Hala; Somerville, Rebecca; O'Brien, John; Shrivastava, Aakash; Murrin, Celine

    2014-02-01

    In this paper we will review evidence on the early life and familial influences on childhood growth and development, with particular reference to the Lifeways cross-generation cohort study in the Republic of Ireland. The Lifeways cross-generation cohort study was established in 2001-2013 through two maternity hospitals in the Republic of Ireland and was one of many new cohort studies established worldwide in the millennium period. Mothers were recruited at first booking visit, completing a self-administered questionnaire, which included a 147 item semi-quantitative FFQ. Longitudinal follow-up is ongoing in 2013, with linkage data to hospital and general practice records and examination of children when aged 5 and 9 years. The study is one of very few containing data on grandparents of both lineages with at least one grandparent recruited at baseline. There have been consistent associations between parental and grandparental health status characteristics and children's outcomes, including infant birth-weight, BMI when child was aged 5 years and childhood wheeze or asthma when child was aged 3 and aged 5 years. In conclusion, empirical evidence to date shows consistent familial and cross-generational patterns, particularly in the maternal line.

  4. Leveraging ongoing research to evaluate the health impacts of South Africa's salt reduction strategy: a prospective nested cohort within the WHO-SAGE multicountry, longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Charlton, Karen; Menyanu, Elias; Biritwum, Richard Berko; Naidoo, Nirmala; Pieterse, Chiné; Madurai, Savathree (Lorna); Baumgartner, Jeannine; Asare, George A; Thiele, Elizabeth; Schutte, Aletta E; Kowal, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Attempting to curb the rising epidemic of hypertension, South Africa implemented legislation in June 2016 mandating maximum sodium levels in a range of manufactured foods that contribute significantly to population salt intake. This natural experiment, comparing two African countries with and without salt legislation, will provide timely information on the impact of legislative approaches addressing the food supply to improve blood pressure in African populations. This article outlines the design of this ongoing prospective nested cohort study. Methods and analysis Baseline sodium intake was assessed in a nested cohort of the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (WHO-SAGE) wave 2 (2014–2015), a multinational longitudinal study on the health and well-being of adults and the ageing process. The South African cohort consisted of randomly selected households (n=4030) across the country. Spot and 24-hour urine samples are collected in a random subsample (n=1200) and sodium, potassium, creatinine and iodine analysed. Salt behaviour and sociodemographic data are captured using face-to-face interviews, alongside blood pressure and anthropometric measures. Ghana, the selected control country with no formal salt policy, provided a nested subsample (n=1200) contributing spot and 24-hour urine samples from the SAGE Ghana cohort (n=5000). Follow-up interviews and urine collection (wave 3) in both countries will take place in 2017 (postlegislation) to assess change in population-level sodium intake and blood pressure. Ethics and dissemination SAGE was approved by the WHO Ethics Review Committee (reference number RPC149) with local approval from the North-West University Human Research Ethics Committee and University of the Witwatersrand Human Research Ethics Committee (South Africa), and University of Ghana Medical School Ethics and Protocol Review Committee (Ghana). The results of the study will be published in peer-reviewed international journals

  5. A Longitudinal Study of the Social Distribution of Mathematics Achievement for a Cohort of Public High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandeville, Garrett K.; Kennedy, Eugene

    This paper reports the results of a study of changes in the social distribution of mathematics achievement for a cohort of public high school students. Using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) the study sought to identify school characteristics which were significantly correlated with changes in achievement differences from grade 9 to grade 11…

  6. WISC-R Verbal and Performance IQ Discrepancy in an Unselected Cohort: Clinical Significance and Longitudinal Stability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffitt, Terrie E.; Silva, P. A.

    1987-01-01

    Examined children whose Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) verbal and performance Intelligence Quotient discrepancies placed them beyond the 90th percentile. Longitudinal study showed 23 percent of the discrepant cases to be discrepant at two or more ages. Studied frequency of perinatal difficulties, early childhood…

  7. Health Sciences and Medical College Preadmission Criteria and Prediction of In-Course Academic Performance: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Alwan, I.; Al Kushi, M.; Tamim, H.; Magzoub, M.; Elzubeir, M.

    2013-01-01

    High School, Aptitude and Achievement Tests have been utilized since 2002 in Saudi Arabia for the purpose of student selection to health sciences and medical colleges. However, longitudinal studies determining the predictive validity of these so-called cognitive tests for in-course performance is lacking. Our aim was to assess the predictive…

  8. Food Consumption and Nutrient Intake by Children Aged 10 to 48 Months Attending Day Care in The Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Goldbohm, R. Alexandra; Rubingh, Carina M.; Lanting, Caren I.; Joosten, Koen F. M.

    2016-01-01

    The diet of young children is an important determinant of long-term health effects, such as overweight and obesity. We analyzed two-day food consumption records from 1526 young children (10–48 months old) attending 199 daycare centers across The Netherlands. Data were observed and recorded in diaries by caregivers at the day nursery and by parents at home on days that the children attended the daycare center. According to national and European reference values, the children had an adequate nutrient intake with exception of low intakes of total fat, n-3 fatty acids from fish and possibly iron. Intakes of energy and protein were substantially higher than recommended and part of the population exceeded the tolerable upper intake levels for sodium, zinc and retinol. Consumption of fruit, fats, fish, and fluids was substantially less than recommended. The children used mostly (semi-)skimmed milk products and non-refined bread and cereals, as recommended. Two thirds of the consumed beverages, however, contained sugar and contributed substantially to energy intake. In young children, low intakes of n-3 fatty acids and iron are a potential matter of concern, as are the high intakes of energy, protein, sugared beverages, and milk, since these may increase the risk of becoming overweight. PMID:27428995

  9. Food Consumption and Nutrient Intake by Children Aged 10 to 48 Months Attending Day Care in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Goldbohm, R Alexandra; Rubingh, Carina M; Lanting, Caren I; Joosten, Koen F M

    2016-07-14

    The diet of young children is an important determinant of long-term health effects, such as overweight and obesity. We analyzed two-day food consumption records from 1526 young children (10-48 months old) attending 199 daycare centers across The Netherlands. Data were observed and recorded in diaries by caregivers at the day nursery and by parents at home on days that the children attended the daycare center. According to national and European reference values, the children had an adequate nutrient intake with exception of low intakes of total fat, n-3 fatty acids from fish and possibly iron. Intakes of energy and protein were substantially higher than recommended and part of the population exceeded the tolerable upper intake levels for sodium, zinc and retinol. Consumption of fruit, fats, fish, and fluids was substantially less than recommended. The children used mostly (semi-)skimmed milk products and non-refined bread and cereals, as recommended. Two thirds of the consumed beverages, however, contained sugar and contributed substantially to energy intake. In young children, low intakes of n-3 fatty acids and iron are a potential matter of concern, as are the high intakes of energy, protein, sugared beverages, and milk, since these may increase the risk of becoming overweight.

  10. Gestational weight gain standards based on women enrolled in the Fetal Growth Longitudinal Study of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project: a prospective longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Deborah C; Pang, Ruyan; Ohuma, Eric O; Kac, Gilberto; Abrams, Barbara; Rasmussen, Kathleen; Barros, Fernando C; Hirst, Jane E; Lambert, Ann; Papageorghiou, Aris T; Stones, William; Jaffer, Yasmin A; Altman, Douglas G; Noble, J Alison; Giolito, Maria Rosa; Gravett, Michael G; Purwar, Manorama; Kennedy, Stephen H; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Villar, José

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe patterns in maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) in healthy pregnancies with good maternal and perinatal outcomes. Design Prospective longitudinal observational study. Setting Eight geographically diverse urban regions in Brazil, China, India, Italy, Kenya, Oman, United Kingdom, and United States, April 2009 to March 2014. Participants Healthy, well nourished, and educated women enrolled in the Fetal Growth Longitudinal Study component of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project, who had a body mass index (BMI) of 18.50-24.99 in the first trimester of pregnancy. Main outcome measures Maternal weight measured with standardised methods and identical equipment every five weeks (plus/minus one week) from the first antenatal visit (<14 weeks’ gestation) to delivery. After confirmation that data from the study sites could be pooled, a multilevel, linear regression analysis accounting for repeated measures, adjusted for gestational age, was applied to produce the GWG values. Results 13 108 pregnant women at <14 weeks’ gestation were screened, and 4607 met the eligibility criteria, provided consent, and were enrolled. The variance within sites (59.6%) was six times higher than the variance between sites (9.6%). The mean GWGs were 1.64 kg, 2.86 kg, 2.86 kg, 2.59 kg, and 2.56 kg for the gestational age windows 14-18+6 weeks, 19-23+6 weeks, 24-28+6 weeks, 29-33+6 weeks, and 34-40+0 weeks, respectively. Total mean weight gain at 40 weeks’ gestation was 13.7 (SD 4.5) kg for 3097 eligible women with a normal BMI in the first trimester. Of all the weight measurements, 71.7% (10 639/14 846) and 94.9% (14 085/14 846) fell within the expected 1 SD and 2 SD thresholds, respectively. Data were used to determine fitted 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th smoothed GWG centiles by exact week of gestation, with equations for the mean and standard deviation to calculate any desired centiles according to gestational age in exact weeks. Conclusions

  11. Supportive Family Environments Ameliorate the Link Between Racial Discrimination and Epigenetic Aging: A Replication Across Two Longitudinal Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Gene H.; Miller, Gregory E.; Yu, Tianyi; Beach, Steven R. H.; Chen, Edith

    2015-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that supportive family environments during adolescence will buffer exposure to racial discrimination, reducing its impact on biological weathering and its manifestation in cellular aging. Indicators of racial discrimination, supportive family environments, and covariates were collected for 3 consecutive years across adolescence from 2 independent cohorts of African American youth from rural Georgia. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected during young adulthood. Patterns of methylation were used to index epigenetic ages of these cells and the extent to which they differed from participants’ chronological ages. Among youth in supportive family environments, exposure to high levels of racial discrimination did not forecast epigenetic aging. Among youth in less supportive family environments, exposure to high levels of racial discrimination forecast faster epigenetic aging. The results did not change when confounder variables were included in the data analyses, and the results were replicated across cohorts. PMID:26917213

  12. Longitudinal relationships between anxiety, depression, and pain: results from a two-year cohort study of lower extremity trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Renan C; Wegener, Stephen T; Heins, Sara E; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A; Mackenzie, Ellen J; Bosse, Michael J

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that pain, depression, and anxiety are common after trauma. A longitudinal relationship between depression, anxiety, and chronic pain has been hypothesized. Severe lower extremity trauma patients (n = 545) were followed at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after injury using a visual analog "present pain intensity" scale and the depression and anxiety scales of the Brief Symptom Inventory. Structural model results are presented as Standardized Regression Weights (SRW). Multiple imputation was used to account for missing data. A single structural model including all longitudinal pain intensity, anxiety symptoms, and depression symptoms time-points yielded excellent fit measures. Pain weakly predicted depression (3-6 months SRW = 0.07, P = .05; 6-12 months SRW = 0.06, P = .10) and anxiety (3-6 months SRW = 0.05, P = .21; 6-12 months SRW = 0.08, P = .03) during the first year after injury, and did not predict either construct beyond 1 year. Depression did not predict pain over any time period. In contrast, anxiety predicted pain over all time periods (3-6 months SRW = 0.11, P = .012; 6-12 months SRW = 0.14, P = .0065; 12-24 months SRW = 0.18, P < .0001). The results suggest that in the early phase after trauma, pain predicts anxiety and depression, but the magnitude of these relationships are smaller than the longitudinal relationship from anxiety to pain over this period. In the late (or chronic) phase after injury, the longitudinal relationship from anxiety on pain nearly doubles and is the only significant relationship. Despite missing data and a single item measure of pain intensity, these results provide evidence that negative mood, specifically anxiety, has an important role in the persistence of acute pain.

  13. The period effect in the prevalence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy, gross proteinuria, and peripheral neuropathy in type 1 diabetes: A longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Horak, Kayla; Lee, Kristine E.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Aims To investigate whether, for a specific duration of type 1 diabetes, there is a significant change in the prevalence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy, gross proteinuria and peripheral neuropathy in those more recently diagnosed with diabetes (a period effect), in the Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy. Where present, to determine how common risk factors for diabetic complications might be associated with it, and what might be driving it. Materials and methods Longitudinal cohort study with seven examination phases between 1980 and 2014. Multivariate logistic regression models and ordinal parameterization were used to test for and evaluate any period effect. Results There is a period effect in the prevalence of gross proteinuria and peripheral neuropathy (decreasing), as seen with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (p < 0.001). Adjusting for changing levels of common risk factors attenuates the period effect, particularly for proliferative diabetic retinopathy. For gross proteinuria and peripheral neuropathy, however there is a persistent period effect in spite of adjusting for the major risk factors. Conclusions There are period effects in the prevalence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy, gross proteinuria and peripheral neuropathy that cannot be fully explained by changes in common risk factors for complications of type 1 diabetes in this cohort. The role of other potential confounders warrants further exploration. PMID:28362881

  14. Using constructs of the transtheoretical model to predict classes of change in regular physical activity: a multi-ethnic longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dishman, Rod K; Vandenberg, Robert J; Motl, Robert W; Nigg, Claudio R

    2010-10-01

    Explaining variation in meeting recommended levels of physical activity across time is important for the design of effective public health interventions. To model longitudinal change in constructs of the Transtheoretical Model and test their hypothesized relations with change in meeting the Healthy People 2010 guidelines for regular participation in moderate or vigorous physical activity, a cohort (N = 497) from a random, multi-ethnic sample of 700 adults living in Hawaii was assessed at 6-month intervals three or more times for 2 years. Latent class growth modeling was used to classify people according to their initial levels and trajectories of change in the transtheoretical variables and separately according to whether they met the physical activity guideline each time. Relations of the variables and their change with classes of meeting the guideline were then tested using multinomial logistic regression. Despite declines or no change in mean scores for all transtheoretical variables except self-efficacy, participants who maintained or attained the physical activity guideline were more likely to retain higher scores across the 2 years of observation. The usefulness of transtheoretical constructs for predicting maintenance of, or increases in, public health levels of physical activity was generally supported. These longitudinal results support earlier cross-sectional findings which indicate that, contrary to theory, people appear to use both experiential and behavioral processes while they attempt to increase or maintain their physical activity.

  15. Using Constructs of the Transtheoretical Model to Predict Classes of Change in Regular Physical Activity: A Multi-Ethnic Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Vandenberg, Robert J.; Motl, Robert W.; Nigg, Claudio R.

    2011-01-01

    Explaining variation in meeting recommended levels of physical activity across time is important for the design of effective public health interventions. To model longitudinal change in constructs of the Transtheoretical Model and test their hypothesized relations with change in meeting the Healthy People 2010 guidelines for regular participation in moderate or vigorous physical activity, a cohort (N=497) from a random, multi-ethnic sample of 700 adults living in Hawaii was assessed at 6-month intervals three or more times for 2 years. Latent class growth modeling was used to classify people according to their initial levels and trajectories of change in the transtheoretical variables and separately according to whether they met the physical activity guideline each time. Relations of the variables and their change with classes of meeting the guideline were then tested using multinomial logistic regression. Despite declines or no change in mean scores for all transtheoretical variables except self-efficacy, participants who maintained or attained the physical activity guideline were more likely to retain higher scores across the 2 years of observation. The usefulness of transtheoretical constructs for predicting maintenance of, or increases in, public health levels of physical activity was generally supported. These longitudinal results support earlier cross-sectional findings which indicate that, contrary to theory, people appear to use both experiential and behavioral processes while they attempt to increase or maintain their physical activity. PMID:20552417

  16. A Longitudinal Investigation of the Relationship between Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Posttraumatic Growth in a Cohort of Israeli Jews and Palestinians during Ongoing Violence

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Brian J.; Saltzman, Leia Y.; Canetti, Daphna; Hobfoll, Stevan E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Meta-analytic evidence based on cross-sectional investigations between posttraumatic growth (PTG) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) demonstrates that the two concepts are positively related and that ethnic minorities report greater PTG. Few longitudinal studies have quantified this relationship so the evidence is limited regarding the potential benefit PTG may have on post-traumatic adjustment and whether differences between ethnic groups exist. Methods The current study attempts to fill a substantial gap in the literature by exploring the relationship between PTG and PTSD symptom clusters longitudinally using a nationally representative cohort of 1613 Israelis and Palestinian Citizens of Israel (PCI) interviewed via telephone on three measurement occasions during one year. Latent cross-lagged structural models estimated the relationship between PTG and each PTSD symptom cluster, derived from confirmatory factor analysis, representing latent and statistically invariant PTSD symptom factors, best representing PTSD for both ethnic groups. Results PTG was not associated with less PTSD symptom severity in any of the four PTSD clusters, for Jews and PCI. In contrast, PTSD symptom severity assessed earlier was related to later reported PTG in both groups. Conclusions This study demonstrates that PTSD symptoms contribute to greater reported PTG, but that PTG does not provide a salutatory benefit by reducing symptoms of PTSD. PMID:25910043

  17. The Statistical Modeling of Aging and Risk of Transition Project: Data Collection and Harmonization Across 11 Longitudinal Cohort Studies of Aging, Cognition, and Dementia.

    PubMed

    Abner, E L; Schmitt, F A; Nelson, P T; Lou, W; Wan, L; Gauriglia, R; Dodge, H H; Woltjer, R L; Yu, L; Bennett, D A; Schneider, J A; Chen, R; Masaki, K; Katz, M J; Lipton, R B; Dickson, D W; Lim, K O; Hemmy, L S; Cairns, N J; Grant, E; Tyas, S L; Xiong, C; Fardo, D W; Kryscio, R J

    2015-03-01

    Longitudinal cognitive trajectories and other factors associated with mixed neuropathologies (such as Alzheimer's disease with co-occurring cerebrovascular disease) remain incompletely understood, despite being the rule and not the exception in older populations. The Statistical Modeling of Aging and Risk of Transition study (SMART) is a consortium of 11 different high-quality longitudinal studies of aging and cognition (N=11,541 participants) established for the purpose of characterizing risk and protective factors associated with subtypes of age-associated mixed neuropathologies (N=3,001 autopsies). While brain donation was not required for participation in all SMART cohorts, most achieved substantial autopsy rates (i.e., > 50%). Moreover, the studies comprising SMART have large numbers of participants who were followed from intact cognition and transitioned to cognitive impairment and dementia, as well as participants who remained cognitively intact until death. These data provide an exciting opportunity to apply sophisticated statistical methods, like Markov processes, that require large, well-characterized samples. Thus, SMART will serve as an important resource for the field of mixed dementia epidemiology and neuropathology.

  18. Longitudinal changes in tear fluid lipidome brought about by eyelid-warming treatment in a cohort of meibomian gland dysfunction[S

    PubMed Central

    Man Lam, Sin; Tong, Louis; Duan, Xinrui; Acharya, U. Rajendra; Tan, Jen Hong; Petznick, Andrea; Wenk, Markus R.; Shui, Guanghou

    2014-01-01

    Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is a leading cause of evaporative dry eye and ocular discomfort characterized by an unstable tear film principally attributed to afflicted delivery of lipids to the ocular surface. Herein, we elucidated longitudinal tear lipid alterations associated with disease alleviation and symptom improvement in a cohort of MGD patients undergoing eyelid-warming treatment for 12 weeks. Remarkably, eyelid-warming resulted in stark reductions in lysophospholipids (P < 0.001 for lyso-plasmalogen phosphatidylethanolamine, lysophosphatidylcholine, and lysophosphatidylinositol), as well as numerous PUFA-containing diacylglyceride species in tears, accompanied by significant increases in several PUFA-containing phospholipids. These changes in tear lipidomes suggest that eyelid-warming leads to diminished activity of tear phospholipases that preferentially target PUFA-containing phospholipids. In addition, treatment led to appreciable increases (P < 0.001) in O-acyl-ω-hydroxy-FAs (OAHFAs), which are lipid amphiphiles critical to the maintenance of tear film stability. Longitudinal changes in the tear lipids aforementioned also significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with reduced rate of ocular evaporation and improvement in ocular symptoms. The foregoing data thus indicate that excess ocular surface phospholipase activity detrimental to tear film stability could be alleviated by eyelid warming alone without application of steroids and identify tear OAHFAs as suitable markers to monitor treatment response in MGD. PMID:24994912

  19. Longitudinal dose and type of immunosuppression in a national cohort of Australian liver, heart, and lung transplant recipients, 1984-2006.

    PubMed

    Na, Renhua; Laaksonen, Maarit A; Grulich, Andrew E; Webster, Angela C; Meagher, Nicola S; McCaughan, Geoffrey W; Keogh, Anne M; Vajdic, Claire M

    2015-11-01

    Unconfounded comparative data on the type and dose of immunosuppressive agents among solid organ transplant recipients are sparse, as are data on longitudinal immunosuppressive therapy since transplantation. We addressed this issue in a population-based cohort of Australian liver (n = 1895), heart (n = 1220), and lung (n = 1059) transplant recipients, 1984-2006. Data on immunosuppressive therapy were retrospectively collected at discharge, three months, and one, five, 10, and 15 yr after first transplant. We computed unadjusted and adjusted estimates for the association between the type and dose of immunosuppressive therapy and organ type. After adjustment for confounders, use of induction antibody and maintenance corticosteroids was more common in heart and lung compared to liver recipients (p < 0.001), and antibody therapy for rejection more common in liver recipients (p < 0.001). Liver recipients were more likely to receive calcineurin inhibitor monotherapy, with or without corticosteroids, compared to heart and lung recipients (p < 0.001). Liver recipients consistently received lower doses of azathioprine than heart and lung recipients (p < 0.001). These differences in immunosuppression may partly explain variations in immunosuppression-related morbidity by transplanted organ, for example, malignancy risk. Longitudinal changes in the type and the dose of immunosuppressive therapy over time since transplantation also demonstrate the need for time-dependent data in observational research.

  20. Age 2: Findings from the 2-Year-Old Follow-Up of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). E.D. TAB. NCES 2006-043

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Gail M.; Flanagan, Kristin Denton

    2006-01-01

    This E.D. TAB is the first report produced using data from the second round of data collection for the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), a study of a nationally representative sample of children born in the year 2001. The report provides descriptive information about these children when they were about 2 years old. It…

  1. Children Born in 2001: First Results from the Base Year of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS?B). E.D. TAB. NCES 2005-036.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Kristin Denton; West, Jerry

    2004-01-01

    This E.D. TAB provides descriptive information about children born in the United States in 2001. It is the first publication based on the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS?B), and it presents information on certain child and family characteristics, on children's mental and physical skills, on children's first experiences in…

  2. Fathers of U.S. Children Born in 2001: Findings from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) E.D. TAB. NCES 2006-002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avenilla, Frank; Rosenthal, Emily; Tice, Pete

    2006-01-01

    This E.D. TAB presents information about the biological fathers of children born in the United States in the year 2001. It is the first publication of findings using the data collected from fathers during the base year collection of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). It presents information on the demographic…

  3. Cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons of metabolic profiles between vegetarian and non-vegetarian subjects: a matched cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yen-Feng; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Chiu, Tina H T; Lee, Chun-Yi; Liu, Ting-Ting; Tsao, Chwen Keng; Chuang, Su-Chun; Hsiung, Chao A

    2015-10-28

    Several previous cross-sectional studies have shown that vegetarians have a better metabolic profile than non-vegetarians, suggesting that a vegetarian dietary pattern may help prevent chronic degenerative diseases. However, longitudinal studies on the impact of vegetarian diets on metabolic traits are scarce. We studied how several sub-types of vegetarian diets affect metabolic traits, including waist circumference, BMI, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC), HDL, LDL, TAG and TC:HDL ratio, through both cross-sectional and longitudinal study designs. The study used the MJ Health Screening database, with data collected from 1994 to 2008 in Taiwan, which included 4415 lacto-ovo-vegetarians, 1855 lacto-vegetarians and 1913 vegans; each vegetarian was matched with five non-vegetarians based on age, sex and study site. In the longitudinal follow-up, each additional year of vegan diet lowered the risk of obesity by 7 % (95 % CI 0·88, 0·99), whereas each additional year of lacto-vegetarian diet lowered the risk of elevated SBP by 8 % (95 % CI 0·85, 0·99) and elevated glucose by 7 % (95 % CI 0·87, 0·99), and each additional year of ovo-lacto-vegetarian diet increased abnormal HDL by 7 % (95 % CI 1·03, 1·12), compared with non-vegetarians. In the cross-sectional comparisons, all sub-types of vegetarians had lower likelihoods of abnormalities compared with non-vegetarians on all metabolic traits (P<0·001 for all comparisons), except for HDL and TAG. The better metabolic profile in vegetarians is partially attributable to lower BMI. With proper management of TAG and HDL, along with caution about the intake of refined carbohydrates and fructose, a plant-based diet may benefit all aspects of the metabolic profile.

  4. Etiological overlap between obsessive-compulsive disorder and anorexia nervosa: a longitudinal cohort, multigenerational family and twin study.

    PubMed

    Cederlöf, Martin; Thornton, Laura M; Baker, Jessica; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik; Rück, Christian; Bulik, Cynthia M; Mataix-Cols, David

    2015-10-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often co-occurs with anorexia nervosa (AN), a comorbid profile that complicates the clinical management of both conditions. This population-based study aimed to examine patterns of comorbidity, longitudinal risks, shared familial risks and shared genetic factors between OCD and AN at the population level. Participants were individuals with a diagnosis of OCD (N=19,814) or AN (N=8,462) in the Swedish National Patient Register between January 1992 and December 2009; their first-, second- and third-degree relatives; and population-matched (1:10 ratio) unaffected comparison individuals and their relatives. Female twins from the population-based Swedish Twin Register (N=8,550) were also included. Females with OCD had a 16-fold increased risk of having a comorbid diagnosis of AN, whereas males with OCD had a 37-fold increased risk. Longitudinal analyses showed that individuals first diagnosed with OCD had an increased risk for a later diagnosis of AN (risk ratio, RR=3.6), whereas individuals first diagnosed with AN had an even greater risk for a later diagnosis of OCD (RR=9.6). These longitudinal risks were about twice as high for males than for females. First- and second-degree relatives of probands with OCD had an increased risk for AN, and the magnitude of this risk tended to increase with the degree of genetic relatedness. Bivariate twin models revealed a moderate but significant degree of genetic overlap between self-reported OCD and AN diagnoses (ra =0.52, 95% CI: 0.26-0.81), but most of the genetic variance was disorder-specific. The moderately high genetic correlation supports the idea that this frequently observed comorbid pattern is at least in part due to shared genetic factors, though disorder-specific factors are more important. These results have implications for current gene-searching efforts and for clinical practice.

  5. Etiological overlap between obsessive-compulsive disorder and anorexia nervosa: a longitudinal cohort, multigenerational family and twin study

    PubMed Central

    Cederlöf, Martin; Thornton, Laura M; Baker, Jessica; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik; Rück, Christian; Bulik, Cynthia M; Mataix-Cols, David

    2015-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often co-occurs with anorexia nervosa (AN), a comorbid profile that complicates the clinical management of both conditions. This population-based study aimed to examine patterns of comorbidity, longitudinal risks, shared familial risks and shared genetic factors between OCD and AN at the population level. Participants were individuals with a diagnosis of OCD (N=19,814) or AN (N=8,462) in the Swedish National Patient Register between January 1992 and December 2009; their first-, second- and third-degree relatives; and population-matched (1:10 ratio) unaffected comparison individuals and their relatives. Female twins from the population-based Swedish Twin Register (N=8,550) were also included. Females with OCD had a 16-fold increased risk of having a comorbid diagnosis of AN, whereas males with OCD had a 37-fold increased risk. Longitudinal analyses showed that individuals first diagnosed with OCD had an increased risk for a later diagnosis of AN (risk ratio, RR=3.6), whereas individuals first diagnosed with AN had an even greater risk for a later diagnosis of OCD (RR=9.6). These longitudinal risks were about twice as high for males than for females. First- and second-degree relatives of probands with OCD had an increased risk for AN, and the magnitude of this risk tended to increase with the degree of genetic relatedness. Bivariate twin models revealed a moderate but significant degree of genetic overlap between self-reported OCD and AN diagnoses (ra=0.52, 95% CI: 0.26-0.81), but most of the genetic variance was disorder-specific. The moderately high genetic correlation supports the idea that this frequently observed comorbid pattern is at least in part due to shared genetic factors, though disorder-specific factors are more important. These results have implications for current gene-searching efforts and for clinical practice. PMID:26407789

  6. Longitudinal Associations among Discordant Sexual Orientation Dimensions and Hazardous Drinking in a Cohort of Sexual Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Talley, Amelia E.; Aranda, Frances; Hughes, Tonda L.; Everett, Bethany; Johnson, Timothy P.

    2015-01-01

    We examined differences between sexual minority women’s (SMW’s) sexual identity and sexual behavior or sexual attraction as potential contributors to hazardous drinking across a 10-year period. Data are from a longitudinal study examining drinking and drinking-related problems in a diverse, community-based sample of self-identified SMW (Wave 1: n = 447; Wave 2: n = 384; Wave 3: n = 354). Longitudinal cross-lagged models showed that SMW who report higher levels of identity-behavior or identity-attraction discordance may be at greater risk of concurrent and subsequent hazardous drinking. Results of multigroup models suggest that sexual orientation discordance is a more potent risk factor for risky drinking outcomes among SMW in older adulthood than in younger adulthood. Findings support that discordance between sexual orientation dimensions may contribute to hazardous drinking among SMW and provide evidence that cognitive-behavioral consistency is important for individuals expressing diverse and fluid sexual identities, attraction, and behavior. PMID:25911224

  7. Predictors of interstitial lung disease in early systemic sclerosis: a prospective longitudinal study of the GENISOS cohort

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The objective of the present study was to examine the association of baseline demographic and clinical characteristics with sequentially obtained measurements of forced vital capacity (FVC), expressed as a percentage of the predicted value, and to identify predictors of the decline rate in FVC over time in the Genetics versus Environment in Scleroderma Outcome Study (GENISOS). Methods To date, 266 patients have been enrolled in GENISOS, a prospective, observational cohort of patients with early systemic sclerosis. In addition to pulmonary function tests (PFTs), clinical and laboratory data were obtained from each patient. We analyzed 926 FVC measurements utilizing generalized linear mixed models. The predictive significance of baseline variables for the decline rate in FVC was investigated by the interaction term between the variable and the follow-up time within the first 3 years after enrollment as well as throughout the entire follow-up time. Results The cohort consisted of 125 white, 54 African American, and 77 Hispanic patients with average disease duration of 2.5 years at enrollment. The mean follow-up time was 3.8 years, ranging up to 11.4 years. A number of baseline variables, including antibody status, African American ethnicity, disease type, baseline PFT values, modified Rodnan Skin Score, fibrosis on chest radiograph, and lung and skin subscores of the Severity Index, were associated with serially measured FVC levels. However, only the presence of anti-topoisomerase I antibodies (ATA) was associated with lower FVC levels (P < 0.001) as well as accelerated decline rate in FVC within the first 3 years of follow-up (P = 0.02). None of the baseline variables predicted the rate of decline in FVC on long-term follow-up. Patients with rapidly progressive ILD, however, were under-represented in the long-term follow-up group because the accelerated rate of decline in FVC was associated with poor survival (P = 0.001). Conclusions Presence of ATA was

  8. [Factors affecting the duration of maternal breast-feeding in a cohort of urban mothers studied longitudinally].

    PubMed

    Ruiz, F J; Cravioto, A

    1989-11-01

    A prospective study on the incidence and duration of breastfeeding in a cohort of urban women of the city of Tlaxcala was carried-out in a private pediatric clinic from January, 1983 to December, 1987. In a total of 547 women studied, breastfeeding had a median of three months, and only 5% of the children continued to be breastfed at one year of age. Family tradition of breastfeeding, late introduction of solid foods and/or whole milk and less formal education of the mother were factors related with breastfeeding beyond three months. About 70% of the mothers weaned their children claiming a rejection of the breast-milk by the child, a lack of sufficient quantity to fulfill the child's needs or because of their work outside the home.

  9. Fever in pregnancy and offspring mortality - a longitudinal study of a cohort from 1927 to 1937 on the Faroe Islands.

    PubMed

    Helmsdal, Gunnhild; Olsen, Sjúrour F

    2009-01-01

    In a birth cohort from 1927 to 1937 consisting of 4,208 individuals, we examined the relation between complications in pregnancy and offspring adult mortality. Patterns of increased mortality were observed in the group of males whose mothers had experienced fever during pregnancy, i.e. with all-cause mortality (rate ratio 1.505; 95% CI 1.084-1.926; p=0.057), premature death (rate ratio 1.943; 95% CI 1.486-2.400; p=0.004), and with cancer (rate ratio 2.625; 95% CI 1.845-3.405; p=0.015). To our knowledge, this is the first study to report an association between fever in pregnancy and offspring mortality.

  10. Malnutrition Is Associated with Protection from Rotavirus Diarrhea: Evidence from a Longitudinal Birth Cohort Study in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Verkerke, Hans; Sobuz, Shihab; Ma, Jennie Z.; Petri, Sarah E.; Reichman, Dan; Qadri, Firdausi; Haque, Rashidul

    2016-01-01

    Rotavirus is a leading cause of dehydrating diarrhea and death among infants and children globally, particularly in communities of the developing world. While numerous studies have described the complex relationships among infectious diarrhea, growth faltering, and poverty, the impact of nutritional status on susceptibility to rotavirus diarrhea is not well understood. In a longitudinal study conducted over the first 3 years of life among 626 slum-dwelling infants enrolled at birth in Dhaka, Bangladesh, we observed that common measures of healthy growth and development were positively associated with a risk of symptomatic rotavirus infection. This finding runs counter to the idea that improving childhood nutrition will implicitly decrease the incidence of symptomatic infection by enteric pathogens. As childhood nutrition improves worldwide, rotavirus infection may remain a public health challenge, making universal vaccination of even greater importance. PMID:27510830

  11. Relationship Between Longitudinal Measures of Renal Function and Onset of Dementia Among a Community Cohort of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    O’Hare, Ann M.; Walker, Rod; Haneuse, Sebastian; Crane, Paul K.; McCormick, Wayne C.; Bowen, James D.; Larson, Eric B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Prior studies have described a higher incidence of dementia or worsening cognitive function in patients with lower levels of kidney function at a single point in time. Objectives To evaluate the association between dynamic measures of renal function ascertained over time with onset of dementia. Design prospective community cohort study. Setting and Participants 2,968 adults aged 65 and older followed for the development of dementia over a median of 6.0 years (interquartile range 3.1–10.1 years). Measurements Time varying measures of renal function were constructed based on a total of 49,340 serum creatinine measurements and included: the average level of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), eGFR trajectory and variability in eGFR around this trajectory over 5-year exposure windows. The association between these three eGFR exposure measures and risk of dementia was estimated using a Cox regression model adjusted for other patient characteristics. In sensitivity analyses, we also adjusted for time-varying measures of urine protein by dipstick. Results Patients with lower levels of eGFR had a higher incidence of dementia but this did not reach statistical significance in adjusted analyses (omnibus p value=0.14). There were trends toward a higher adjusted incidence of dementia in patients with positive eGFR trajectories (omnibus p value=0.07) and greater variability in eGFR (omnibus p value=0.04) over time. The results of sensitivity analyses, including those in which we included time-varying measures of proteinuria, were consistent with those of the primary analysis. Conclusion Among a community cohort of older adults followed for a median of 6 years, we did not find strong associations between measures of kidney disease severity and progression and incident dementia. PMID:23231548

  12. Dietary pattern and 20 year mortality in elderly men in Finland, Italy, and The Netherlands: longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    Huijbregts, P.; Feskens, E.; Räsänen, L.; Fidanza, F.; Nissinen, A.; Menotti, A.; Kromhout, D.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of dietary pattern and mortality in international data. DESIGN: Cohort study with 20 years' follow up of mortality. SETTING: Five cohorts in Finland, the Netherlands, and Italy. SUBJECTS: Population based random sample of 3045 men aged 50-70 years in 1970. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Food intake was estimated using a cross check dietary history. In this dietary survey method, the usual food consumption pattern in the 6-12 months is estimated. A healthy diet indicator was calculated for the dietary pattern, using the World Health Organisation's guidelines for the prevention of chronic diseases. Vital status was verified after 20 years of follow up, and death rates were calculated. RESULTS: Dietary intake varied greatly in 1970 between the three countries. In Finland and the Netherlands the intake of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol was high and the intake of alcohol was low; in Italy the opposite was observed. In total 1796 men (59%) died during 20 years of follow up. The healthy diet indicator was inversely associated with mortality (P for trend < 0.05). After adjustment for age, smoking, and alcohol consumption, the relative risk in the group with the healthiest diet indicator compared with the group with the least healthy was 0.87 (95% confidence interval 0.77 to 0.98). Estimated relative risks were essentially similar within each country. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary intake of men aged 50-70 is associated with a 20 year, all cause mortality in different cultures. The healthy diet indicator is useful in evaluating the relation of mortality to dietary patterns. PMID:9233319

  13. Change and stability in work-family conflict and mothers' and fathers' mental health: Longitudinal evidence from an Australian cohort.

    PubMed

    Cooklin, A R; Dinh, H; Strazdins, L; Westrupp, E; Leach, L S; Nicholson, J M

    2016-04-01

    Work-family conflict (WFC) occurs when work or family demands are 'mutually incompatible', with detrimental effects on mental health. This study contributes to the sparse longitudinal research, addressing the following questions: Is WFC a stable or transient feature of family life for mothers and fathers? What happens to mental health if WFC increases, reduces or persists? What work and family characteristics predict WFC transitions and to what extent are they gendered? Secondary analyses of 5 waves of data (child ages 4-5 to 12-13 years) from employed mothers (n = 2693) and fathers (n = 3460) participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children were conducted. WFC transitions, across four two-year intervals (Waves 1-2, 2-3, 3-4, and 4-5) were classified as never, conscript, exit or chronic. Significant proportions of parents experienced change in WFC, between 12 and 16% of mothers and fathers for each transition 'type'. Parents who remained in chronic WFC reported the poorest mental health (adjusted multiple regression analyses), followed by those who conscripted into WFC. When WFC was relieved (exit), both mothers' and fathers' mental health improved significantly. Predictors of conscript and chronic WFC were somewhat distinct for mothers and fathers (adjusted logit regressions). Poor job quality, a skilled occupation and having more children differentiated chronic fathers' from those who exited WFC. For mothers, work factors only (skilled occupation; work hours; job insecurity) predicted chronic WFC. Findings reflect the persistent, gendered nature of work and care shaped by workplaces, but also offer tailored opportunities to redress WFC for mothers and fathers. We contribute novel evidence that mental health is directly influenced by the WFC interface, both positively and negatively, highlighting WFC as a key social determinant of health.

  14. A longitudinal cohort study of Finnish patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome: clinical, immunological, and epidemiological aspects

    PubMed Central

    Pertovaara, M; Pukkala, E; Laippala, P; Miettinen, A; Pasternack, A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To evaluate outcome in a cohort of Finnish patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS).
METHODS—Clinical and laboratory data from the time of diagnosis and follow up were collected from 110 patients with pSS (107 women, three men) diagnosed in 1977-1992 in central Finland. The standardised incidence ratio for cancers was determined as the ratio of the observed number of cases to the expected number based on regional population rates. Eighty one of the 93 patients still alive were interviewed, and clinical and laboratory examinations performed in 1994-1997.
RESULTS—The mean (SD) erythrocyte sedimentation rate (33 (22) v 45 (28) mm/1st h), serum IgG (18.8 (7.4) v 22.5 (8.5) g/l), and serum IgM (1.6 (1.1) v 2.0 (1.2) g/l) at the control visit were significantly (p<0.0001) lower than those at baseline. A similar change was observed in a subgroup of patients never treated with glucocorticosteroids or disease modifying antirheumatic drugs. Three non-Hodgkin's lymphomas were diagnosed (standardised incidence ratio 13; 95% confidence interval 2.7 to 38). In a logistic regression model, the patients with pSS with subsequent lymphoma were found to have higher baseline levels of serum β2 microglobulin than the others (odds ratio 1.9; 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 3.4).
CONCLUSION—The results suggest that mean concentrations of serum IgG and IgM in patients with pSS decline with time, possibly reflecting diminishing inflammatory activity. As in previous studies, the incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas in this cohort of patients with pSS was significantly higher than in the reference population.

 PMID:11302868

  15. Longitudinal study of patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy in Brazil (SaMi-Trop project): a cohort profile

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Clareci Silva; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira; Oliveira, Claudia Di Lorenzo; de Oliveira, Lea Campos; Ferreira, Ariela Mota; Cunha-Neto, Edécio; Bierrenbach, Ana Luiza; Ferreira, João Eduardo; Haikal, Desirée Sant'Ana; Reingold, Arthur L; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz P

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We have established a prospective cohort of 1959 patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy to evaluate if a clinical prediction rule based on ECG, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels, and other biomarkers can be useful in clinical practice. This paper outlines the study and baseline characteristics of the participants. Participants The study is being conducted in 21 municipalities of the northern part of Minas Gerais State in Brazil, and includes a follow-up of 2 years. The baseline evaluation included collection of sociodemographic information, social determinants of health, health-related behaviours, comorbidities, medicines in use, history of previous treatment for Chagas disease, functional class, quality of life, blood sample collection, and ECG. Patients were mostly female, aged 50–74 years, with low family income and educational level, with known Chagas disease for >10 years; 46% presented with functional class >II. Previous use of benznidazole was reported by 25.2% and permanent use of pacemaker by 6.2%. Almost half of the patients presented with high blood cholesterol and hypertension, and one-third of them had diabetes mellitus. N-terminal of the prohormone BNP (NT-ProBNP) level was >300 pg/mL in 30% of the sample. Findings to date Clinical and laboratory markers predictive of severe and progressive Chagas disease were identified as high NT-ProBNP levels, as well as symptoms of advanced heart failure. These results confirm the important residual morbidity of Chagas disease in the remote areas, thus supporting political decisions that should prioritise in addition to epidemiological surveillance the medical treatment of chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy in the coming years. The São Paulo-Minas Gerais Tropical Medicine Research Center (SaMi-Trop) represents a major challenge for focused research in neglected diseases, with knowledge that can be applied in primary healthcare. Future plans We will continue following this patients’ cohort

  16. Incidence of Dengue Virus Infection in Adults and Children in a Prospective Longitudinal Cohort in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Alera, Maria Theresa; Srikiatkhachorn, Anon; Velasco, John Mark; Tac-An, Ilya A.; Lago, Catherine B.; Clapham, Hannah E.; Fernandez, Stefan; Levy, Jens W.; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Klungthong, Chonticha; Macareo, Louis R.; Nisalak, Ananda; Hermann, Laura; Villa, Daisy; Yoon, In-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Background The mean age of dengue has been increasing in some but not all countries. We sought to determine the incidence of dengue virus (DENV) infection in adults and children in a prospective cohort study in the Philippines where dengue is hyperendemic. Methodology/Principal Findings A prospective cohort of subjects ≥6 months old in Cebu City, Philippines, underwent active community-based surveillance for acute febrile illnesses by weekly contact. Fever history within the prior seven days was evaluated with an acute illness visit followed by 2, 5, and 8-day, and 3-week convalescent visits. Blood was collected at the acute and 3-week visits. Scheduled visits took place at enrolment and 12 months that included blood collections. Acute samples were tested by DENV PCR and acute/convalescent samples by DENV IgM/IgG ELISA to identify symptomatic infections. Enrolment and 12-month samples were tested by DENV hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay to identify subclinical infections. Of 1,008 enrolled subjects, 854 completed all study activities at 12 months per-protocol undergoing 868 person-years of surveillance. The incidence of symptomatic and subclinical infections was 1.62 and 7.03 per 100 person-years, respectively. However, in subjects >15 years old, only one symptomatic infection occurred whereas 27 subclinical infections were identified. DENV HAI seroprevalence increased sharply with age with baseline multitypic HAIs associated with fewer symptomatic infections. Using a catalytic model, the historical infection rate among dengue naïve individuals was estimated to be high at 11–22%/year. Conclusions/Significance In this hyperendemic area with high seroprevalence of multitypic DENV HAIs in adults, symptomatic dengue rarely occurred in individuals older than 15 years. Our findings demonstrate that dengue is primarily a pediatric disease in areas with high force of infection. However, the average age of dengue could increase if force of infection decreases

  17. Age-based prediction of incidence of complications during inpatient stroke rehabilitation: a retrospective longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Stroke complications can occur not only in the acute ward but also during the subsequent rehabilitation period. However, existing studies have not adequately addressed the incidence of various complications among stroke in patients undergoing rehabilitation using a longitudinal method. We aimed to investigate the longitudinal impact of age on complication rates in patients undergoing inpatient stroke rehabilitation at different disease stages. Methods Five hundred and sixty-eight first-time stroke patients transferred to the rehabilitation ward between July 2002 and June 2012 were included in the study. Patients were stratified into age groups for comparison: <65 years (young), 65 years to <75 years (younger old), and ≥75 years (older old). In total, 30 different complication types were recorded for analysis. Results Constipation, shoulder pain, symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI), and fever were common complications during initial stay in the rehabilitation ward, and incidence was >10% in all three age groups. The frequency of incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) was higher in the younger old (17.9%) and older old (20.6%) groups than in the young group (4.1%) during initial stay in the rehabilitation ward (p < 0.001). The incidence of UGIB was higher in the younger old (8.04%) and older old (8.33%) groups than in the young group (0.19%) during subsequent stay in the rehabilitation ward (p = 0.011). The incidence of symptomatic UTI was higher in the younger old (21.0%) and older old (20.0%) groups than in the young group (11.5%) during initial stay in the rehabilitation ward (p = 0.019). The incidence of symptomatic UTI was higher in the older old group (29.17%) than in the younger old (9.21%) and young (3.14%) groups during subsequent stay in the rehabilitation ward (p < 0.001). Conclusions Age does not affect every complication type. UGIB and symptomatic UTI occurred more frequently in stroke patients aged

  18. Design and descriptive epidemiology of the Infectious Diseases of East African Livestock (IDEAL) project, a longitudinal calf cohort study in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a widely recognised lack of baseline epidemiological data on the dynamics and impacts of infectious cattle diseases in east Africa. The Infectious Diseases of East African Livestock (IDEAL) project is an epidemiological study of cattle health in western Kenya with the aim of providing baseline epidemiological data, investigating the impact of different infections on key responses such as growth, mortality and morbidity, the additive and/or multiplicative effects of co-infections, and the influence of management and genetic factors. A longitudinal cohort study of newborn calves was conducted in western Kenya between 2007-2009. Calves were randomly selected from all those reported in a 2 stage clustered sampling strategy. Calves were recruited between 3 and 7 days old. A team of veterinarians and animal health assistants carried out 5-weekly, clinical and postmortem visits. Blood and tissue samples were collected in association with all visits and screened using a range of laboratory based diagnostic methods for over 100 different pathogens or infectious exposures. Results The study followed the 548 calves over the first 51 weeks of life or until death and when they were reported clinically ill. The cohort experienced a high all cause mortality rate of 16% with at least 13% of these due to infectious diseases. Only 307 (6%) of routine visits were classified as clinical episodes, with a further 216 reported by farmers. 54% of calves reached one year without a reported clinical episode. Mortality was mainly to east coast fever, haemonchosis, and heartwater. Over 50 pathogens were detected in this population with exposure to a further 6 viruses and bacteria. Conclusion The IDEAL study has demonstrated that it is possible to mount population based longitudinal animal studies. The results quantify for the first time in an animal population the high diversity of pathogens a population may have to deal with and the levels of co-infections with key

  19. Patient Prognostic Score and Associations With Survival Improvement Offered by Radiotherapy After Breast-Conserving Surgery for Ductal Carcinoma In Situ: A Population-Based Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Rachel A.; Vaz-Luis, Ines; Mallory, Melissa Anne; Wong, Stephanie M.; Aydogan, Fatih; DeSantis, Stephen; Barry, William T.; Golshan, Mehra

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Radiotherapy (RT) after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) is a standard treatment option for the management of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). We sought to determine the survival benefit of RT after BCS on the basis of risk factors for local recurrence. Patients and Methods A retrospective longitudinal cohort study was performed to identify patients with DCIS diagnosed between 1988 and 2007 and treated with BCS by using SEER data. Patients were divided into the following two groups: BCS+RT (RT group) and BCS alone (non-RT group). We used a patient prognostic scoring model to stratify patients on the basis of risk of local recurrence. We performed a Cox proportional hazards model with propensity score weighting to evaluate breast cancer mortality between the two groups. Results We identified 32,144 eligible patients with DCIS, 20,329 (63%) in the RT group and 11,815 (37%) in the non-RT group. Overall, 304 breast cancer–specific deaths occurred over a median follow-up of 96 months, with a cumulative incidence of breast cancer mortality at 10 years in the weighted cohorts of 1.8% (RT group) and 2.1% (non-RT group; hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.88). Significant improvements in survival in the RT group compared with the non-RT group were only observed in patients with higher nuclear grade, younger age, and larger tumor size. The magnitude of the survival difference with RT was significantly correlated with prognostic score (P < .001). Conclusion In this population-based study, the patient prognostic score for DCIS is associated with the magnitude of improvement in survival offered by RT after BCS, suggesting that decisions for RT could be tailored on the basis of patient factors, tumor biology, and the prognostic score. PMID:26834064

  20. The Influence of a Sudden Increase in Playing Time on Playing-Related Musculoskeletal Complaints in High-Level Amateur Musicians in a Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Haitjema, Saskia; Groenewegen, Karlijn A.; Rietveld, A. Boni M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Several studies in the domain of professional musicians describe the relation between playing time and the occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints in professional musicians. To date, no longitudinal cohort study into this relationship has been performed and no amateur musicians were studied. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the causal relationship between a sudden increase in playing time among amateur musicians on the occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints in a prospective cohort study. Methods All members of two national Dutch Students Orchestras were asked to participate in the study. These project-based orchestras, consisting of high-level amateurs, followed a nine-hour rehearsing schedule for ten consecutive days. On the first day (t0) and after one week (t1) the subjects were asked to complete a paper-based questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics, music-related questions, questions regarding playing-related musculoskeletal complaints and the music module of the disabilities of arm, shoulder and hand questionnaire. Results The NSO consisted of 85 and the NESKO of 41 members during the study period. 59 subjects completed the questionnaire at both timepoints (response rate 47%). 9 subjects were excluded for being a music academy student, leaving 50 subjects (mean age 22.1, 72% female) suitable for analysis. During the rehearsal week, the prevalence of at least one playing-related musculoskeletal complaint increased from 28% to 80%. The most frequently affected areas were the neck, upper and lower back, hand/and or wrists and shoulders. The DASH music module score increased from 14 at t0 to 23 at t1. Conclusion A point prevalence of 28% at the start of the study that increased remarkably to 80% within a one-week period. Future research should evaluate other risk factors for musculoskeletal complaints in amateur musicians. These risk factors should be the base for the development of preventive measures. PMID:27657537

  1. Tobacco Smoking Is Not Associated With Accelerated Liver Disease in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Hepatitis C Coinfection: A Longitudinal Cohort Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Costiniuk, Cecilia T.; Brunet, Laurence; Rollet-Kurhajec, Kathleen C.; Cooper, Curtis L.; Walmsley, Sharon L.; Gill, M. John; Martel-Laferriere, Valérie; Klein, Marina B.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Tobacco smoking has been shown to be an independent risk factor for liver fibrosis in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in some cross-sectional studies. No longitudinal study has confirmed this relationship, and the effect of tobacco exposure on liver fibrosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-HCV coinfected individuals is unknown. Methods. The study population consisted of participants from the Canadian Co-infection Cohort study (CTN 222), a multicenter longitudinal study of HIV-HCV coinfected individuals from 2003 to 2014. Data were analyzed for all participants who did not have significant fibrosis or end-stage liver disease (ESLD) at baseline. The association between time-updated tobacco exposure (ever vs nonsmokers and pack-years) and progression to significant liver fibrosis (defined as an aspartate-to-platelet ratio index [APRI] ≥1.5) or ESLD was assessed by pooled logistic regression. Results. Of 1072 participants included in the study, 978 (91%) had ever smoked, 817 (76%) were current smokers, and 161 (15%) were previous smokers. Tobacco exposure was not associated with accelerated progression to significant liver fibrosis nor with ESLD when comparing ever vs never smokers (odds ratio [OR] = 1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43–1.69 and OR = 1.20, 95% CI, 0.21–2.18, respectively) or increases in pack-years smoked (OR = 1.05, 95% CI, 0.97–1.14 and OR = 0.94, 95% CI, 0.83–1.05, respectively). Both time-updated alcohol use in the previous 6 months and presence of detectable HCV ribonucleic acid were associated with APRI score ≥1.5. Conclusions. Tobacco exposure does not appear to be associated with accelerated progression of liver disease in this prospective study of HIV-HCV coinfected individuals. PMID:27047987

  2. Establishment of Intestinal Microbiota during Early Life: a Longitudinal, Explorative Study of a Large Cohort of Danish Infants

    PubMed Central

    Bergström, Anders; Skov, Thomas Hjort; Bahl, Martin Iain; Roager, Henrik Munch; Christensen, Line Brinch; Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2014-01-01

    Fecal samples were obtained from a cohort of 330 healthy Danish infants at 9, 18, and 36 months after birth, enabling characterization of interbacterial relationships by use of quantitative PCR targeting 31 selected bacterial 16S rRNA gene targets representing different phylogenetic levels. Nutritional parameters and measures of growth and body composition were determined and investigated in relation to the observed development in microbiota composition. We found that significant changes in the gut microbiota occurred, particularly from age 9 to 18 months, when cessation of breastfeeding and introduction of a complementary feeding induce replacement of a microbiota characterized by lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae with a microbiota dominated by Clostridium spp. and Bacteroides spp. Classification of samples by a proxy enterotype based on the relative levels of Bacteroides spp. and Prevotella spp. showed that enterotype establishment occurs between 9 and 36 months. Thirty percent of the individuals shifted enterotype between 18 and 36 months. The composition of the microbiota was most pronouncedly influenced by the time of cessation of breastfeeding. From 9 to 18 months, a positive correlation was observed between the increase in body mass index and the increase of the short-chain-fatty-acid-producing clostridia, the Clostridum leptum group, and Eubacterium hallii. Considering previously established positive associations between rapid infant weight gain, early breastfeeding discontinuation, and later-life obesity, the corresponding microbial findings seen here warrant attention. PMID:24584251

  3. Establishment of intestinal microbiota during early life: a longitudinal, explorative study of a large cohort of Danish infants.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Anders; Skov, Thomas Hjort; Bahl, Martin Iain; Roager, Henrik Munch; Christensen, Line Brinch; Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F; Licht, Tine Rask

    2014-05-01

    Fecal samples were obtained from a cohort of 330 healthy Danish infants at 9, 18, and 36 months after birth, enabling characterization of interbacterial relationships by use of quantitative PCR targeting 31 selected bacterial 16S rRNA gene targets representing different phylogenetic levels. Nutritional parameters and measures of growth and body composition were determined and investigated in relation to the observed development in microbiota composition. We found that significant changes in the gut microbiota occurred, particularly from age 9 to 18 months, when cessation of breastfeeding and introduction of a complementary feeding induce replacement of a microbiota characterized by lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae with a microbiota dominated by Clostridium spp. and Bacteroides spp. Classification of samples by a proxy enterotype based on the relative levels of Bacteroides spp. and Prevotella spp. showed that enterotype establishment occurs between 9 and 36 months. Thirty percent of the individuals shifted enterotype between 18 and 36 months. The composition of the microbiota was most pronouncedly influenced by the time of cessation of breastfeeding. From 9 to 18 months, a positive correlation was observed between the increase in body mass index and the increase of the short-chain-fatty-acid-producing clostridia, the Clostridum leptum group, and Eubacterium hallii. Considering previously established positive associations between rapid infant weight gain, early breastfeeding discontinuation, and later-life obesity, the corresponding microbial findings seen here warrant attention.

  4. Associations of family and neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics with longitudinal adiposity patterns in a biracial cohort of adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Crespi, Catherine M.; Wang, May C.; Seto, Edmund; Mare, Robert; Gee, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    Although many studies have examined the relationship of adiposity with neighborhood socioeconomic context in adults, few studies have investigated this relationship during adolescence. Using 10-year annual measurements of body mass index, expressed as z-scores (BMIz), obtained from 775 Black and White participants of the NHLBI Growth and Health Study, a prospective cohort study of girls from pre- to post-adolescence, we used multilevel modeling to investigate whether family socioeconomic status (SES) and neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics (measured by census tract median family income) explain variation in BMIz trajectory parameters. Analyses controlled for pubertal maturation. We found that lower SES was associated with higher overall levels of BMIz for both White and Black girls. Additionally, lower SES Black girls had a more sustained increase in BMIz during early adolescence and reached a higher peak compared to higher SES Black girls and to White girls. Neighborhood income was associated with BMIz trajectory for Black girls only. Unexpectedly, among Black girls, living in higher income neighborhoods was associated with higher overall levels of BMIz, controlling for SES. Our findings suggest that neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics may affect adolescent BMIz trajectory differently in different racial/ethnic groups. PMID:25879263

  5. Longitudinal changes in maternal and neonatal anthropometrics: a case study of the Helsinki Birth Cohort, 1934-1944.

    PubMed

    Moltchanova, E; Eriksson, J G

    2015-08-01

    Changes in anthropometrics often reflect changes in living conditions, and one's characteristics at birth may be associated with future health. The aim of this study was to investigate the secular trends in maternal and neonatal anthropometrics in the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. The study participants, thus, comprised all 13,345 live births recorded in Helsinki, Finland, between 1934 and 1944. Adult characteristics of the clinical subsample comprised of 2003 individuals, alive during 2003, were also analyzed. Linear Regression analysis with seasonal terms was applied to see whether clinically and statistically significant trends can be found in maternal age, height and body mass index (BMI) at pregnancy; gestational age, birth weight, ponderal index and sex ratio; and adult height, BMI and fat percentage. Statistically significant trends were found in maternal age and maternal BMI with abrupt changes between 1941 and 1944. Gestational age increased by an average of 0.11% per year (P<0.0001), and the proportion of premature births dropped from 7.9% in 1934 to 4.5% in 1944 (P<0.0001). In the clinical sample, a statistically significant, although small, average annual increase of 0.1% in adult heights was detected (P=0.0012 for men and P=0.0035 for women). In conclusion, although no significant changes were found in either neonatal or adult anthropometrics of babies born in Helsinki between 1934 and 1944, there were abrupt changes in the characteristics of their mothers.

  6. A healthy Nordic diet and physical performance in old age: findings from the longitudinal Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Perälä, Mia-Maria; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela; Männistö, Satu; Salonen, Minna K; Simonen, Mika; Kanerva, Noora; Pohjolainen, Pertti; Kajantie, Eero; Rantanen, Taina; Eriksson, Johan G

    2016-03-14

    Epidemiological studies have shown that a number of nutrients are associated with better physical performance. However, little is still known about the role of the whole diet, particularly a healthy Nordic diet, in relation to physical performance. Therefore, we examined whether a healthy Nordic diet was associated with measures of physical performance 10 years later. We studied 1072 participants from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Participants' diet was assessed using a validated 128-item FFQ at the mean age of 61 years, and a priori-defined Nordic diet score (NDS) was calculated. The score included Nordic fruits and berries, vegetables, cereals, PUFA:SFA and trans-fatty acids ratio, low-fat milk, fish, red and processed meat, total fat and alcohol. At the mean age of 71 years, participants' physical performance was measured using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT), and an overall SFT score was calculated. Women in the highest fourth of the NDS had on average 5 points higher SFT score compared with those in the lowest fourth (P for trend 0·005). No such association was observed in men. Women with the highest score had 17% better result in the 6-min walk test, 16% better arm curl and 20% better chair stand results compared with those with the lowest score (all P values<0·01). In conclusion, a healthy Nordic diet was associated with better overall physical performance among women and might help decrease the risk of disability in old age.

  7. Associations Between the KIAA0319 Dyslexia Susceptibility Gene Variants, Antenatal Maternal Stress, and Reading Ability in a Longitudinal Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Stephanie; Backhouse-Smith, Amelia; Thompson, John M D; Slykerman, Rebecca; Marlow, Gareth; Wall, Clare; Murphy, Rinki; Ferguson, Lynnette R; Mitchell, Edwin A; Waldie, Karen E

    2016-11-01

    Maternal stress during pregnancy has been associated with detrimental cognitive developmental outcomes in offspring. This study investigated whether antenatal maternal perceived stress and variants of the rs12193738 and rs2179515 polymorphisms on the KIAA0319 gene interact to affect reading ability and full-scale IQ (FSIQ) in members of the longitudinal Auckland Birthweight Collaborative study. Antenatal maternal stress was measured at birth, and reading ability was assessed at ages 7 and 16. Reading data were available for 500 participants at age 7 and 479 participants at age 16. FSIQ was measured at ages 7 and 11. At age 11, DNA samples were collected. Analyses of covariance revealed that individuals with the TT genotype of the rs12193738 polymorphism exposed to high maternal stress during pregnancy possessed significantly poorer reading ability (as measured by Woodcock-Johnson Word Identification standard scores) during adolescence compared with TT carriers exposed to low maternal stress. TT carriers of the rs12193738 SNP also obtained lower IQ scores at age 7 than C allele carriers. These findings suggest that the KIAA0319 gene is associated with both reading ability and general cognition, but in different ways. The effect on IQ appears to occur earlier in development and is transient, whereas the effect of reading ability occurs later and is moderated by antenatal maternal stress. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Oropharyngeal Dysphagia in a community-based elderly cohort: the korean longitudinal study on health and aging.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eun Joo; Kim, Mi Hyun; Lim, Jae-young; Paik, Nam-Jong

    2013-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of dysphagia and evaluated the association of dysphagia and activities of daily living in a geriatric population residing in an independent-living facility in Korea. Korean men and women 65-yr and older living in a single, typical South Korean city (n=415) were enrolled in the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging study. Dysphagia was assessed using the Standardized Swallowing Assessment. Data were collected on activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental ADL (IADL), and medical history and laboratory. The overall prevalence of dysphagia in the random sample was 33.7% (95% CI, 29.1-38.4), including 39.5% in men and 28.4% in women. The identified risk factors for dysphagia were men (OR, 3.6, P=0.023), history of stroke (OR, 2.7, P=0.042) and presence of major depressive disorder (OR, 3.0, P=0.022). Dysphagia was associated with impairment in IADL domains of preparing meals and taking medicine (P=0.013 and P=0.007, respectively). This is the first published report of the prevalence of dysphagia in older community-dwelling Koreans. Dysphagia is a common problem among elderly people that limits some IADL domains.

  9. Moving to Serene Nature May Prevent Poor Mental Health--Results from a Swedish Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    van den Bosch, Matilda Annerstedt; Östergren, Per-Olof; Grahn, Patrik; Skärbäck, Erik; Währborg, Peter

    2015-07-14

    Green spaces are recognized for improving mental health, but what particular kind of nature is required is yet not elucidated. This study explores the effect of specific types of recreational nature qualities on mental health. Longitudinal data (1999/2000 and 2005) from a public health survey was distributed to a stratified sample (n = 24,945) of a Swedish population. People from rural or suburban areas (n = 9230) who had moved between baseline and follow-up (n = 1419) were studied. Individual geographic residence codes were linked to five predefined nature qualities, classified in geographic information systems (GIS). Any change in the amount of or type of qualities within 300 m distance between baseline and follow-up was correlated to any change in mental health (as measured by the General Health Questionnaire) by logistic regression models. On average, the population had limited access to nature qualities both pre- and post-move. There was no significant correlation between change in the amount of qualities and change in mental health. However, the specific quality "serene" was a significant determinant with a significantly decreased risk for women of change to mental ill-health at follow-up. The objective definition of the potentially health-promoting quality may facilitate implication in landscape practice and healthy planning.

  10. Moving to Serene Nature May Prevent Poor Mental Health—Results from a Swedish Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Annerstedt van den Bosch, Matilda; Östergren, Per-Olof; Grahn, Patrik; Skärbäck, Erik; Währborg, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Green spaces are recognized for improving mental health, but what particular kind of nature is required is yet not elucidated. This study explores the effect of specific types of recreational nature qualities on mental health. Longitudinal data (1999/2000 and 2005) from a public health survey was distributed to a stratified sample (n = 24,945) of a Swedish population. People from rural or suburban areas (n = 9230) who had moved between baseline and follow-up (n = 1419) were studied. Individual geographic residence codes were linked to five predefined nature qualities, classified in geographic information systems (GIS). Any change in the amount of or type of qualities within 300 m distance between baseline and follow-up was correlated to any change in mental health (as measured by the General Health Questionnaire) by logistic regression models. On average, the population had limited access to nature qualities both pre- and post-move. There was no significant correlation between change in the amount of qualities and change in mental health. However, the specific quality “serene” was a significant determinant with a significantly decreased risk for women of change to mental ill-health at follow-up. The objective definition of the potentially health-promoting quality may facilitate implication in landscape practice and healthy planning. PMID:26184268

  11. Effect of miscarriage history on maternal-infant bonding during the first year postpartum in the First Baby Study: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Miscarriage, the unexpected loss of pregnancy before 20 weeks gestation, may have a negative effect on a mother’s perception of herself as a capable woman and on her emotional health when she is pregnant again subsequent to the miscarriage. As such, a mother with a history of miscarriage may be at greater risk for difficulties navigating the process of becoming a mother and achieving positive maternal-infant bonding with an infant born subsequent to the loss. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of miscarriage history on maternal-infant bonding after the birth of a healthy infant to test the hypothesis that women with a history of miscarriage have decreased maternal-infant bonding compared to women without a history of miscarriage. Methods We completed secondary analysis of the First Baby Study, a longitudinal cohort study, to examine the effect of a history of miscarriage on maternal-infant bonding at 1 month, 6 months, and 12 months after women experienced the birth of their first live-born baby. In a sample of 2798 women living in Pennsylvania, USA, we tested our hypothesis using linear regression analysis of Shortened Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (S-PBQ) scores, followed by longitudinal analysis using a generalized estimating equations model with repeated measures. Results We found that women with a history of miscarriage had similar S-PBQ scores as women without a history of miscarriage at each of the three postpartum time points. Likewise, longitudinal analysis revealed no difference in the pattern of maternal-infant bonding scores between women with and without a history of miscarriage. Conclusions Women in the First Baby Study with a history of miscarriage did not differ from women without a history of miscarriage in their reported level of bonding with their subsequently born infants. It is important for clinicians to recognize that even though some women may experience impaired bonding related to a history of miscarriage

  12. Prenatal Exposure to the Pesticide DDT and Hypertension Diagnosed in Women before Age 50: A Longitudinal Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Cirillo, Piera M.; Terry, Mary Beth; Krigbaum, Nickilou Y.; Flom, Julie D.; Cohn, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Elevated levels of the pesticide DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) have been positively associated with blood pressure and hypertension in studies among adults. Accumulating epidemiologic and toxicologic evidence suggests that hypertension during adulthood may also be affected by earlier life and possibly the prenatal environment. Objectives: We assessed whether prenatal exposure to the pesticide DDT increases risk of adult hypertension. Methods: We examined concentrations of DDT (p,p´- and o,p´-) and its metabolite p,p´-DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) in prenatal serum samples from a subset of women (n = 527) who had participated in the prospective Child Health and Development Studies birth cohort in the San Francisco Bay area while they were pregnant between 1959 and 1967. We surveyed daughters 39–47 years of age by telephone interview from 2005 to 2008 to obtain information on self-reported physician-diagnosed hypertension and use of hypertensive medication. We used multivariable regression analysis of time to hypertension based on the Cox proportional hazards model to estimate relative rates for the association between prenatal DDT exposures and hypertension treated with medication in adulthood, with adjustment for potential confounding by maternal, early-life, and adult exposures. Results: Prenatal p,p´-DDT exposure was associated with hypertension [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 3.6; 95% CI: 1.8, 7.2 and aHR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.2, 5.3 for middle and high tertiles of p,p´-DDT relative to the lowest tertile, respectively]. These associations between p,p´-DDT and hypertension were robust to adjustment for independent hypertension risk factors as well as sensitivity analyses. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the association between DDT exposure and hypertension may have its origins early in development. PMID:23591545

  13. A longitudinal investigation of syndemic conditions among young gay, bisexual, and other MSM: The P18 Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Halkitis, Perry N.; Kapadia, Farzana; Bub, Kristen L.; Barton, Staci; Moreira, Alvaro D.; Stults, Christopher B.

    2014-01-01

    The persistence of disparities in STI/HIV risk among a new generation of emerging adult gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (YMSM) warrant holistic frameworks and new methodologies for investigating the behaviors related to STI/HIV in this group. In order to better understand the continued existence of these disparities in STI/HIV risk among YMSM, the present study evaluated the presence and persistence of syndemic conditions among YMSM by examining the co-occurrence of alcohol and drug use, unprotected sexual behavior, and mental health burden over time. Four waves of data, collected over the first 18 months of a 7 wave, 36-month prospective cohort study of YMSM (n=598) were used to examine the extent to which measurement models of drug use, unprotected sexual behavior, and mental health burden remained consistent across time using latent class modeling. Health challenges persisted across time as these YMSM emerged into young adulthood and the measurement models for the latent constructs of drug use and unprotected sexual behavior were essentially consistent across time whereas models for mental health burden varied over time. In addition to confirming the the robustness of our measurement models which capture a more holistic understandings of the health conditions of drug use, unprotected sex, and mental health burden, these findings underscore the ongoing health challenges YMSM face as they mature into young adulthood. These ongoing health challenges, which have been understood as forming a syndemic, persist over time, and add further evidence to support ongoing and vigilant comprehensive health programming for sexual minority men that move beyond a sole focus on HIV. PMID:25192900

  14. Longitudinal diet quality is not associated with depressive symptoms in a cohort of middle-aged Australian women.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jun S; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Hure, Alexis J; McEvoy, Mark; Byles, Julie; Attia, John

    2016-03-14

    There is increasing evidence for the role of nutrition in the prevention of depression. This study aims to describe changes in diet quality over 12 years among participants in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health in relation to changes in depressive symptoms. Women born between 1946 and 1951 were followed-up for 12 years (2001-2013). Dietary intake was assessed using the Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies (version 2) in 2001, 2007 and every 2-3 years after that until 2013. Diet quality was summarised using the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS). Depressive symptoms were measured using the ten-item Centre for Epidemiologic Depression Scale at every 2-3-year intervals during 2001-2013. Linear mixed models were used to examine trends in diet quality and its sub-components. The same model including time-varying covariates was used to examine associations between diet quality and depressive symptoms adjusting for confounders. Sensitivity analyses were carried out using the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) index to assess diet quality. Minimal changes in overall diet quality and its sub-components over 12 years were observed. There was a significant association between baseline diet quality and depression (β=-0·24, P=0·001), but this was lost when time-varying covariates were added (β=-0·04, P=0·10). Sensitivity analyses showed similar performance for both ARFS and MDP in predicting depressive symptoms. In conclusion, initial associations seen when using baseline measures of diet quality and depressive symptoms disappear when using methods that handle time-varying covariates, suggesting that previous studies indicating a relationship between diet and depression may have been affected by residual confounding.

  15. Slope estimation for informatively right censored longitudinal data modelling the number of observations using geometric and Poisson distributions: application to renal transplant cohort.

    PubMed

    Jaffa, Miran A; Lipsitz, Stuart; Woolson, Robert F

    2015-12-01

    Analysis of longitudinal data is often complicated by the presence of informative right censoring. This type of censoring should be accounted for in the analysis so that valid slope estimates are attained. In this study, we developed a new likelihood-based approach wherein the likelihood function is integrated over random effects to obtain a marginal likelihood function. Maximum likelihood estimates for the population slope were acquired by direct maximisation of the marginal likelihood function and empirical Bayes estimates for the individual slopes were generated using Gaussian quadrature. The performance of the model was assessed using the geometric and Poisson distributions to model the number of observations for every individual subject. Our model generated valid estimates for the slopes under both distributions with minimal bias and mean squared errors. Our sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of the model to assumptions pertaining to the underlying distribution and demonstrated its insensitivity to normality assumptions. Moreover, superiority of the model in terms of accuracy of slope estimates was consistently shown across the different levels of censoring in comparison to the naïve and bootstrap approaches. This model was illustrated using the cohort of renal transplant patients and estimates of the slopes that are adjusted for informative right censoring were acquired.

  16. Automobile Traffic around the Home and Attained Body Mass Index: A Longitudinal Cohort Study of Children aged 10–18 Years

    PubMed Central

    Jerrett, Michael; McConnell, Rob; Chang, C.C. Roger; Wolch, Jennifer; Reynolds, Kim; Lurmann, Frederick; Gilliland, Frank; Berhane, Kiros

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between measured traffic density near the homes of children and attained body mass index (BMI) over an eight-year follow up. Methods Children aged 9–10 years were enrolled across multiple communities in Southern California in 1993 and 1996 (n = 3318). Children were followed until age 18 or high school graduation to collect longitudinal information, including annual height and weight measurements. Multilevel growth curve models were used to assess the association between BMI levels at age 18 and traffic around the home. Results For traffic within 150 m around the child’s home, there were significant positive associations with attained BMI for both sexes at age 18. With the 300 m traffic buffer, associations for both male and female growth in BMI were positive, but significantly elevated only in females. These associations persisted even after controlling for numerous potential confounding variables. Conclusions This analysis yields the first evidence of significant effects from traffic density on BMI levels at age 18 in a large cohort of children. Traffic is a pervasive exposure in most cities, and our results identify traffic as a major risk factor for the development of obesity in children. PMID:19850068

  17. New evidence on the validity of the Arnett Caregiver Interaction Scale: Results from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Colwell, Nicole; Gordon, Rachel A.; Fujimoto, Ken; Kaestner, Robert; Korenman, Sanders

    2013-01-01

    The Arnett Caregiver Interaction Scale (CIS) has been widely used in research studies to measure the quality of caregiver–child interactions. The scale was modeled on a well-established theory of parenting, but there are few psychometric studies of its validity. We applied factor analyses and item response theory methods to assess the psychometric properties of the Arnett CIS in a national sample of toddlers in home-based care and preschoolers in center-based care from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort. We found that a bifactor structure (one common factor and a second set of specific factors) best fits the data. In the Arnett CIS, the bifactor model distinguishes a common substantive dimension from two methodological dimensions (for positively and negatively oriented items). Despite the good fit of this model, the items are skewed (most teachers/caregivers display positive interactions with children) and, as a result, the Arnett CIS is not well suited to distinguish between caregivers who are “highly” versus “moderately” positive in their interactions with children, according to the items on the scale. Regression-adjusted associations between the Arnett CIS and child outcomes are small, especially for preschoolers in centers. We encourage future scale development work on measures of child care quality by early childhood scholars. PMID:24058264

  18. The development of socio-economic health differences in childhood: results of the Dutch longitudinal PIAMA birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background People with higher socio-economic status (SES) are generally in better health. Less is known about when these socio-economic health differences set in during childhood and how they develop over time. The goal of this study was to prospectively study the development of socio-economic health differences in the Netherlands, and to investigate possible explanations for socio-economic variation in childhood health. Methods Data from the Dutch Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study were used for the analyses. The PIAMA study followed 3,963 Dutch children during their first eight years of life. Common childhood health problems (i.e. eczema, asthma symptoms, general health, frequent respiratory infections, overweight, and obesity) were assessed annually using questionnaires. Maternal educational level was used to indicate SES. Possible explanatory lifestyle determinants (breastfeeding, smoking during pregnancy, smoking during the first three months, and day-care centre attendance) and biological determinants (maternal age at birth, birthweight, and older siblings) were analysed using generalized estimating equations. Results This study shows that socio-economic differences in a broad range of health problems are already present early in life, and persist during childhood. Children from families with low socio-economic backgrounds experience more asthma symptoms (odds ratio (OR) 1.27; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.08-1.49), poorer general health (OR 1.36; 95% CI 1.16-1.60), more frequent respiratory infections (OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.35-1.83), more overweight (OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.16-1.73), and more obesity (OR 2.82; 95% CI 1.80-4.41). The most important contributors to the observed childhood socio-economic health disparities are socio-economic differences in maternal age at birth, breastfeeding, and day-care centre attendance. Conclusions Socio-economic health disparities already occur very early in life. Socio

  19. Associations of lipid levels during gestation with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and gestational diabetes mellitus: a prospective longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hong; Liu, Xiaohua; Chen, Yan; HE, Biwei; Cheng, Weiwei

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess associations of elevated lipid levels during gestation with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods This prospective cohort study was conducted in a tertiary maternal hospital in Shanghai, China from February to November 2014. Lipid constituents, including triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) of 1310 eligible women were assessed in the first (10–13+ weeks), second (22–28 weeks) and third (30–35 weeks) trimesters consecutively. Associations of lipid profiles with HDP and/or GDM outcomes were assessed. Results Compared with the normal group, maternal TG concentrations were higher in the HDP/GDM groups across the three trimesters (p<0.001); TC and LDL-c amounts were only higher in the first trimester for the HDP and GDM groups (p<0.05). HDL-c levels were similar in the three groups. Compared with intermediate TG levels (25–75th centile), higher TG amounts (>75th centile) were associated with increased risk of HDP/GDM in each trimester with aORs (95% CI) of 2.04 (1.41 to 2.95), 1.81 (1.25 to 2.63) and 1.78 (1.24 to 2.54), respectively. High TG elevation from the first to third trimesters (>75th centile) was associated with increased risk of HDP, with an aOR of 2.09 (1.16 to 3.78). High TG elevation before 28 weeks was associated with increased risk of GDM, with an aOR of 1.67 (1.10 to 2.54). TG elevation was positively correlated with weight gain during gestation (R=0.089, p=0.005). Conclusions Controlling weight gain during pregnancy could decrease TG elevation and reduce the risk of HDP/GDM. TGs could be used as follow-up parameters during complicated pregnancy, while other lipids are meaningful only in the first trimester. PMID:28011814

  20. Vulnerability for new episodes in recurrent major depressive disorder: protocol for the longitudinal DELTA-neuroimaging cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Mocking, Roel J T; Figueroa, Caroline A; Rive, Maria M; Geugies, Hanneke; Servaas, Michelle N; Assies, Johanna; Koeter, Maarten W J; Vaz, Frédéric M; Wichers, Marieke; van Straalen, Jan P; de Raedt, Rudi; Bockting, Claudi L H; Harmer, Catherine J; Schene, Aart H; Ruhé, Henricus G

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Major depressive disorder (MDD) is widely prevalent and severely disabling, mainly due to its recurrent nature. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying MDD-recurrence may help to identify high-risk patients and to improve the preventive treatment they need. MDD-recurrence has been considered from various levels of perspective including symptomatology, affective neuropsychology, brain circuitry and endocrinology/metabolism. However, MDD-recurrence understanding is limited, because these perspectives have been studied mainly in isolation, cross-sectionally in depressed patients. Therefore, we aim at improving MDD-recurrence understanding by studying these four selected perspectives in combination and prospectively during remission. Methods and analysis In a cohort design, we will include 60 remitted, unipolar, unmedicated, recurrent MDD-participants (35–65 years) with ≥2 MDD-episodes. At baseline, we will compare the MDD-participants with 40 matched controls. Subsequently, we will follow-up the MDD-participants for 2.5 years while monitoring recurrences. We will invite participants with a recurrence to repeat baseline measurements, together with matched remitted MDD-participants. Measurements include questionnaires, sad mood-induction, lifestyle/diet, 3 T structural (T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging) and blood-oxygen-level-dependent functional MRI (fMRI) and MR-spectroscopy. fMRI focusses on resting state, reward/aversive-related learning and emotion regulation. With affective neuropsychological tasks we will test emotional processing. Moreover, we will assess endocrinology (salivary hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate) and metabolism (metabolomics including polyunsaturated fatty acids), and store blood for, for example, inflammation analyses, genomics and proteomics. Finally, we will perform repeated momentary daily assessments using experience sampling methods at baseline. We

  1. Clinical characteristics and evaluation of LDL-cholesterol treatment of the Spanish Familial Hypercholesterolemia Longitudinal Cohort Study (SAFEHEART)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Aim Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients are at high risk for premature coronary heart disease (CHD). Despite the use of statins, most patients do not achieve an optimal LDL-cholesterol goal. The aims of this study are to describe baseline characteristics and to evaluate Lipid Lowering Therapy (LLT) in FH patients recruited in SAFEHEART. Methods and Results A cross-sectional analysis of cases recruited in the Spanish FH cohort at inclusion was performed. Demographic, lifestyle, medical and therapeutic data were collected by specific surveys. Blood samples for lipid profile and DNA were obtained. Genetic test for FH was performed through DNA-microarray. Data from 1852 subjects (47.5% males) over 19 years old were analyzed: 1262 (68.1%, mean age 45.6 years) had genetic diagnosis of FH and 590 (31.9%, mean age 41.3 years) were non-FH. Cardiovascular disease was present in 14% of FH and in 3.2% of non-FH subjects (P < 0.001), and was significantly higher in patients carrying a null mutation compared with those carrying a defective mutation (14.87% vs. 10.6%, respectively, P < 0.05). Prevalence of current smokers was 28.4% in FH subjects. Most FH cases were receiving LLT (84%). Although 51.5% were receiving treatment expected to reduce LDL-c levels at least 50%, only 13.6% were on maximum statin dose combined with ezetimibe. Mean LDL-c level in treated FH cases was 186.5 mg/dl (SD: 65.6) and only 3.4% of patients reached and LDL-c under 100 mg/dl. The best predictor for LDL-c goal attainment was the use of combined therapy with statin and ezetimibe. Conclusion Although most of this high risk population is receiving LLT, prevalence of cardiovascular disease and LDL-c levels are still high and far from the optimum LDL-c therapeutic goal. However, LDL-c levels could be reduced by using more intensive LLT such as combined therapy with maximum statin dose and ezetimibe. PMID:21663647

  2. Long-term Effects of Antihypertensive Drug Use and New-onset Osteoporotic Fracture in Elderly Patients: A Population-based Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hung-Yi; Ma, Kai-Yan; Hsieh, Pei-Ling; Liou, Yi-Sheng; Jong, Gwo-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Background: Antihypertensive drugs have been linked to new-onset osteoporotic fracture (NOF), and different classes of antihypertensive drugs may alter the risk for the development of NOF; however, the classic effect of different antihypertensive drugs on the development of NOF in the elderly has not been well studied during long-term follow-up. Methods: In this study, we investigated the association between different classic antihypertensives and the development of NOF in the elderly. This was a longitudinal cohort study performed using data from claim forms submitted to the Taiwan Bureau of National Health Insurance in Central Taiwan, China including case patients with NOF aged 65–80 years from January 2002 to December 2012 and non-NOF controls. Prescriptions for antihypertensives before the index date were retrieved from a prescription database. We estimated the hazard ratios (HRs) of NOF associated with antihypertensive use. Non-NOF controls served as the reference group. Results: A total of 128 patients with NOF were identified from among 1144 patients with hypertension during the study period. The risk of NOF after adjusting age, sex, comorbidities, and concurrent medications was higher among the users of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (HR, 1.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01–2.66) than among nonusers. Patients who took calcium channel blockers (CCBs) (HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.49–0.99) were at a lower risk of developing NOF than nonusers. Loop diuretics, thiazide diuretics, angiotensin receptor blocker, beta-blocker, and alpha-blocker were not associated with the risk of NOF. Conclusions: Elderly with hypertension who take CCBs are at a lower risk of NOF and that the use of ACE inhibitors was associated with a significantly increased risk of developing NOF during the 11-year follow-up. PMID:27958221

  3. Psychotic experiences and psychotic disorders at age 18 in relation to psychotic experiences at age 12 in a longitudinal population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Zammit, Stanley; Kounali, Daphne; Cannon, Mary; David, Anthony S; Gunnell, David; Heron, Jon; Jones, Peter B; Lewis, Shôn; Sullivan, Sarah; Wolke, Dieter; Lewis, Glyn

    2013-07-01

    OBJECTIVE The authors examined the development of psychotic experiences and psychotic disorders in a large population-based sample of young adults and explored their relationship to psychotic phenomena earlier in childhood. METHOD The authors conducted a longitudinal birth cohort study of individuals assessed with the semistructured Psychosis-Like Symptom Interviews at ages 12 and 18 years. RESULTS Of the 4,724 individuals interviewed at age 18, 433 (9.2%) had either suspected (N=203 [4.3%]) or definite (N=230 [4.9%]) psychotic experiences. Of these, 79 (1.7%) met criteria for a psychotic disorder, and of those, only 50% sought professional help. All psychotic outcomes were more likely in young women and in those from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds. Of the participants who had psychotic experiences at age 12, 78.7% had remitted by age 18. The risk of psychotic disorders at age 18 was greater in those with suspected (odds ratio=5.6, 95% CI=2.6-12.1) and especially in those with definite (odds ratio=12.7, 95% CI=6.2-26.1) psychotic experiences at age 12, and also among those with psychotic experiences at age 12 attributed to sleep or fever or with nonpsychotic experiences such as depersonalization. The positive predictive values for increasing frequency of experiences at age 12 predicting psychotic disorders at age 18 ranged from 5.5% to 22.8%. CONCLUSIONS Despite evidence for a continuum of psychotic experiences from as early as age 12, positive predictive values for predicting psychotic disorders were too low to offer real potential for targeted interventions. Psychotic disorders in young adults are relatively uncommon, but they constitute an important unmet need for care given that half of the individuals in this study who met criteria for a psychiatric disorder had not sought help for these problems despite high levels of associated distress and impairment.

  4. Protocol of a longitudinal cohort study on physical activity behaviour in physically disabled patients participating in a rehabilitation counselling programme: ReSpAct

    PubMed Central

    Alingh, Rolinde A; Hoekstra, Femke; van der Schans, Cees P; Hettinga, Florentina J; Dekker, Rienk; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Stimulating physical activity behaviour in persons with a physical disability is important, especially after discharge from rehabilitation. A tailored counselling programme covering both the period of the rehabilitation treatment and the first months at home seems on the average effective. However, a considerable variation in response is observed in the sense that some patients show a relevant beneficial response while others show no or only a small response on physical activity behaviour. The Rehabilitation, Sports and Active lifestyle (ReSpAct) study aims to estimate the associations of patient and programme characteristics with patients’ physical activity behaviour after their participation in a tailored counselling programme. Methods and analysis A questionnaire-based nationwide longitudinal prospective cohort study is conducted. Participants are recruited from 18 rehabilitation centres and hospitals in The Netherlands. 2000 participants with a physical disability or chronic disease will be followed during and after their participation in a tailored counselling programme. Programme outcomes on physical activity behaviour and patient as well as programme characteristics that may be associated with differences in physical activity behaviour after programme completion are being assessed. Data collection takes place at baseline and 14, 33 and 52 weeks after discharge from rehabilitation. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol has been approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of the University Medical Centre Groningen and at individual participating institutions. All participants give written informed consent. The study results will provide new insights into factors that may help explain the differences in physical activity behaviour of patients with a physical disability after they have participated in the same physical activity and sports stimulation programme. Thereby, it will support healthcare professionals to tailor their guidance and

  5. Ideal cardiovascular health score and incident end-stage renal disease in a community-based longitudinal cohort study: the Kailuan Study

    PubMed Central

    Han, Quan Le; Wu, Shou Ling; Liu, Xiao Xue; An, Sha Sha; Wu, Yun Tao; Gao, Jing Sheng; Chen, Shuo Hua; Liu, Xiao Kun; Zhang, Qi; Mao, Rui Ying; Shang, Xiao Ming

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate an association between ideal cardiovascular health metrics (CVH) and the risk of developing end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Setting Community of Kailuan in Tangshan/China. Participants We examined in a community-based longitudinal cohort study 91 443 participants without history of stroke or myocardial infarction at baseline in 2006–2007, with a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) ≥15 mL/min at baseline, and who participated in at least 1 of 3 follow-up examinations in 2008–2009, 2010–2011 and 2012–2013. Interventions CVH was measured by 7 key health factors (smoking, body mass index, physical activity, healthy dietary score, total cholesterol blood concentration, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose) each of which ranged between ‘ideal’ (2) and ‘poor’ (0). With a maximal CVH score of 14, the study participants were divided into categories of <5, 5–9 and 10–14 points. Primary and secondary outcome measures CHV, incidence of ESRD. Results Incidence of ESRD ranged from 7.06‰ in the lowest CVH category to 2.34‰ in the highest CVH category. After adjusting for age, sex, educational level, income, alcohol consumption and GFR, the lowest CVH category as compared with the highest CVH category had a significantly higher risk of incident ESRD (adjusted HR 2.87; 95% CI 1.53 to 5.39). For every decrease in group number of the cum-CVH score, the risk of ESRD increased by 20% (HR 1.20; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.28). The effect was consistent across sex and all age groups. Conclusions A low CVH score significantly increased the risk of incident ESRD. Risk factors for cardiovascular events may also be associated with an increased risk for kidney failure. PMID:27899399

  6. Bordetella pertussis Infection in South African HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Mother–Infant Dyads: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Marta C.; Downs, Sarah; Jones, Stephanie; van Niekerk, Nadia; Cutland, Clare L.; Madhi, Shabir A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. There is a paucity of data regarding the burden of Bordetella pertussis in African women and young infants, and particularly the impact of maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection thereon. We performed a retrospective analysis of respiratory illness samples from longitudinal cohorts of HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected women and their infants to evaluate the burden of pertussis illness in a black-African community. Methods. The women were followed up for respiratory illness from midpregnancy and together with their infants until 24 weeks postpartum. Respiratory samples obtained at the time of illness visits were tested for B. pertussis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results. The study included 194 HIV-infected and 1060 HIV-uninfected women, and 188 and 1028 infant offspring, respectively. There were 7 PCR-confirmed pertussis cases in the HIV-exposed infants and 30 in HIV-unexposed infants (7.4 vs 5.5 episodes per 1000 infant-months; P = .47), at a mean age of 70.9 days. All infant pertussis cases had a history of cough (mean duration, 6.3 days). Six of 17 (35.3%) pertussis-confirmed cases in infants <2 months of age were admitted to hospital within 21 days of B. pertussis detection, whereas none of the 20 cases ≥2 months of age required hospitalization. Ten PCR-positive pertussis-associated illnesses were detected in HIV-infected women compared with 32 in the HIV-uninfected women (6.8 vs 3.9 episodes per 1000 person-months; P = .12). Conclusions. Bordetella pertussis identification was common among young infants with respiratory illness, most of whom were too young to be fully protected through direct vaccination. Vaccination of pregnant women might be a valuable strategy in a setting such us ours to prevent B. pertussis–associated illness in women and their young infants. PMID:27838670

  7. The role of social support in protecting mental health when employed and unemployed: A longitudinal fixed-effects analysis using 12 annual waves of the HILDA cohort.

    PubMed

    Milner, Allison; Krnjacki, Lauren; Butterworth, Peter; LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2016-03-01

    Perceived social support is associated with overall better mental health. There is also evidence that unemployed workers with higher social support cope better psychologically than those without such support. However, there has been limited research about the effect of social support among people who have experienced both unemployment and employment. We assessed this topic using 12 years of annually collected cohort data. The sample included 3190 people who had experienced both unemployment and employment. We used longitudinal fixed-effects modelling to investigate within-person changes in mental health comparing the role of social support when a person was unemployed to when they were employed. Compared to when a person reported low social support, a change to medium (6.35, 95% 5.66 to 7.04, p < 0.001) or high social support (11.58, 95%, 95% CI 10.81 to 12.36, p < 0.001) was associated with a large increase in mental health (measured on an 100 point scale, with higher scores representing better mental health). When a person was unemployed but had high levels of social support, their mental health was 2.89 points (95% CI 1.67 to 4.11, p < 0.001) higher than when they were employed but had lower social support. The buffering effect of social support was confirmed in stratified analysis. There was a strong direct effect of social support on mental health. The magnitude of these differences could be considered clinically meaningful. Our results also suggest that social support has a significant buffering effect on mental health when a person is unemployed.

  8. Size at birth and early childhood growth in relation to maternal smoking, parity and infant breast-feeding: longitudinal birth cohort study and analysis.

    PubMed

    Ong, Ken K L; Preece, Michael A; Emmett, Pauline M; Ahmed, Marion L; Dunger, David B

    2002-12-01

    There is remarkably wide variation in rates of infancy growth, however, its regulation is not well understood. We examined the relationship between maternal smoking, parity, and breast- or bottle-feeding to size at birth and childhood growth between 0 and 5 y in a large representative birth cohort. A total of 1,335 normal infants had weight, length/height, and head circumference measured at birth and on up to 10 occasions to 5 y old. Multilevel modeling (MLwiN) was used to analyze longitudinal growth data. Infants of maternal smokers were symmetrically small at birth (p < 0.0005) compared with infants of nonsmokers, however, showed complete catch-up growth over the first 12 mo. In contrast, infants of primiparous pregnancies were thin at birth (p < 0.0005), showed dramatic catch-up growth, and were heavier and taller than infants of nonprimiparous pregnancies from 12 mo onwards. Breast-fed infants were similar in size at birth than bottle-fed infants, but grew more slowly during infancy. Among infants who showed catch-up growth, males caught up more rapidly than females (p = 0.002). In conclusion, early postnatal growth rates are strongly influenced by a drive to compensate for antenatal restraint or enhancement of fetal growth by maternal-uterine factors. The mechanisms that signal catch-up or catch-down growth are unknown but may involve programming of appetite. The importance of nutrition on early childhood growth is emphasized by the marked difference in growth rates between breast- and bottle-fed infants. The sequence of fetal growth restraint and postnatal catch-up growth may predispose to obesity risk in this contemporary population.

  9. The influence of neighbourhood-level socioeconomic deprivation on cardiovascular disease mortality in older age: longitudinal multilevel analyses from a cohort of older British men

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, S E; Morris, R W; Whincup, P H; Subramanian, S V; Papacosta, A O; Lennon, Lucy T; Wannamethee, S G

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence from longitudinal studies on the influence of neighbourhood socioeconomic factors in older age on cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality is limited. We aimed to investigate the prospective association of neighbourhood-level deprivation in later life with CVD mortality, and assess the underlying role of established cardiovascular risk factors. Methods A socially representative cohort of 3924 men, aged 60–79 years in 1998–2000, from 24 British towns, was followed up until 2012 for CVD mortality. Quintiles of the national Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD), a composite score of neighbourhood-level factors (including income, employment, education, housing and living environment) were used. Multilevel logistic regression with discrete-time models (stratifying follow-up time into months) were used. Results Over 12 years, 1545 deaths occurred, including 580 from CVD. The risk of CVD mortality showed a graded increase from IMD quintile 1 (least deprived) to 5 (most deprived). Compared to quintile 1, the age-adjusted odds of CVD mortality in quintile 5 were 1.71 (95% CI 1.32 to 2.21), and 1.62 (95% CI 1.23 to 2.13) on further adjustment for individual social class, which was attenuated slightly to 1.44 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.89), but remained statistically significant after adjustment for smoking, body mass index, physical activity and use of alcohol. Further adjustment for blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and prevalent diabetes made little difference. Conclusions Neighbourhood-level deprivation was associated with an increased risk of CVD mortality in older people independent of individual-level social class and cardiovascular risk factors. The role of other specific neighbourhood-level factors merits further research. PMID:26285580

  10. Knowledge and skills retention following Emergency Triage, Assessment and Treatment plus Admission course for final year medical students in Rwanda: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Tuyisenge, Lisine; Kyamanya, Patrick; Van Steirteghem, Samuel; Becker, Martin; English, Mike; Lissauer, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Aim To determine whether, after the Emergency Triage, Assessment and Treatment plus Admission (ETAT+) course, a comprehensive paediatric life support course, final year medical undergraduates in Rwanda would achieve a high level of knowledge and practical skills and if these were retained. To guide further course development, student feedback was obtained. Methods Longitudinal cohort study of knowledge and skills of all final year medical undergraduates at the University of Rwanda in academic year 2011–2012 who attended a 5-day ETAT+ course. Students completed a precourse knowledge test. Knowledge and clinical skills assessments, using standardised marking, were performed immediately postcourse and 3–9 months later. Feedback was obtained using printed questionnaires. Results 84 students attended the course and re-evaluation. Knowledge test showed a significant improvement, from median 47% to 71% correct answers (p<0.001). For two clinical skills scenarios, 98% passed both scenarios, 37% after a retake, 2% failed both scenarios. Three to nine months later, students were re-evaluated, median score for knowledge test 67%, not significantly different from postcourse (p>0.1). For clinical skills, 74% passed, with 32% requiring a retake, 8% failed after retake, 18% failed both scenarios, a significant deterioration (p<0.0001). Conclusions Students performed well on knowledge and skills immediately after a comprehensive ETAT+ course. Knowledge was maintained 3–9 months later. Clinical skills, which require detailed sequential steps, declined, but most were able to perform them satisfactorily after feedback. The course was highly valued, but several short courses and more practical teaching were advocated. PMID:24925893

  11. Recruitment via the Internet and Social Networking Sites: The 1989-1995 Cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health

    PubMed Central

    Hockey, Richard; Powers, Jennifer; Loxton, Deborah; Tooth, Leigh; Rowlands, Ingrid; Byles, Julie; Dobson, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Background Faced with the challenge of recruiting young adults for health studies, researchers have increasingly turned to the Internet and social networking sites, such as Facebook, as part of their recruitment strategy. As yet, few large-scale studies are available that report on the characteristics and representativeness of the sample obtained from such recruitment methods. Objective The intent of the study was to describe the sociodemographic and health characteristics of a national sample of young Australian women recruited mainly through the Internet and social networking sites and to discuss the representativeness of their sociodemographic, health, and lifestyle characteristics relative to the population. Methods A cohort of 17,069 women (born between 1989 and 1995) was recruited in 2012-13 for the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. Sociodemographic characteristics (percentages, means, and 95% confidence intervals) from the online survey data were compared with women aged 18-23 years from the 2011 Australian Census. Sample data were compared by age and education level with data from the 2011-13 Australian Health Survey (AHS). Results Compared to the Australian Census data, study participants were broadly representative in terms of geographical distribution across Australia, marital status (95.62%, 16,321/17,069) were never married), and age distribution. A higher percentage had attained university (22.52%, 3844/17,069) and trade/certificate/diploma qualifications (25.94%, 4428/17,069) compared with this age group of women in the national population (9.4% and 21.7% respectively). Among study participants, 22.05% (3721/16,877) were not in paid employment with 35.18% (5931/16,857) studying 16 or more hours a week. A higher percentage of study participants rated their health in the online survey as fair or poor (rather than good, very good, or excellent) compared with those participating in face-to-face interviews in the AHS (18.77%, 3203

  12. Intake of individual saturated fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease in US men and women: two prospective longitudinal cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Geng; Li, Yanping; Wanders, Anne J; Alssema, Marjan; Zock, Peter L; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between long term intake of individual saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and the risk of coronary heart disease, in two large cohort studies. Design Prospective, longitudinal cohort study. Setting Health professionals in the United States. Participants 73 147 women in the Nurses’ Health Study (1984-2012) and 42 635 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2010), who were free of major chronic diseases at baseline. Main outcome measure Incidence of coronary heart disease (n=7035) was self-reported, and related deaths were identified by searching National Death Index or through report of next of kin or postal authority. Cases were confirmed by medical records review. Results Mean intake of SFAs accounted for 9.0-11.3% energy intake over time, and was mainly composed of lauric acid (12:0), myristic acid (14:0), palmitic acid (16:0), and stearic acid (18:0; 8.8-10.7% energy). Intake of 12:0, 14:0, 16:0 and 18:0 were highly correlated, with Spearman correlation coefficients between 0.38 and 0.93 (all P<0.001). Comparing the highest to the lowest groups of individual SFA intakes, hazard ratios of coronary heart disease were 1.07 (95% confidence interval 0.99 to 1.15; Ptrend=0.05) for 12:0, 1.13 (1.05 to 1.22; Ptrend<0.001) for 14:0, 1.18 (1.09 to 1.27; Ptrend<0.001) for 16:0, 1.18 (1.09 to 1.28; Ptrend<0.001) for 18:0, and 1.18 (1.09 to 1.28; Ptrend<0.001) for all four SFAs combined (12:0-18:0), after multivariate adjustment of lifestyle factors and total energy intake. Hazard ratios of coronary heart disease for isocaloric replacement of 1% energy from 12:0-18:0 were 0.92 (95% confidence interval 0.89 to 0.96; P<0.001) for polyunsaturated fat, 0.95 (0.90 to 1.01; P=0.08) for monounsaturated fat, 0.94 (0.91 to 0.97; P<0.001) for whole grain carbohydrates, and 0.93 (0.89 to 0.97; P=0.001) for plant proteins. For individual SFAs, the lowest risk of coronary heart disease was observed when the most abundant SFA

  13. Musculoskeletal Pain, Self-reported Physical Function, and Quality of Life in the Teen–Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (Teen-LABS) Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Bout-Tabaku, Sharon; Michalsky, Marc P.; Jenkins, Todd M.; Baughcum, Amy; Zeller, Meg H.; Brandt, Mary L.; Courcoulas, Anita; Buncher, Ralph; Helmrath, Michael; Harmon, Carroll M.; Chen, Mike K.; Inge, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Obesity is associated with chronic musculoskeletal pain and is a risk factor for disability and osteoarthritis. OBJECTIVES To describe the prevalence, sites, and intensity of musculoskeletal pain in adolescents with severe obesity; to evaluate associations between musculoskeletal pain and self-reported physical function as well as weight-related quality of life; and to evaluate the association between musculoskeletal pain and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Teen–Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (Teen-LABS) is a prospective, observational study that collects standardized data on adolescents undergoing weight loss surgery at 5 US centers. We examined baseline data from this cohort between February 28, 2007, and December 30, 2011. We excluded adolescents with Blount disease and slipped capital femoral epiphyses. A total of 233 participants were included in these analyses. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES We assessed musculoskeletal pain and pain intensity of the lower back, hips, knees, and ankles/feet using the visual analog scale, categorizing musculoskeletal pain into lower back pain, lower extremity (hips, knees, and feet/ankles combined) pain, and no pain. We assessed self-reported physical function status with the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index and assessed weight-related quality of life with the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life–Kids measure. We adjusted for sex, race, age at surgery, body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), and clinical depressive symptoms in regression analyses. RESULTS Among the 233 participants, the mean (SD) age at surgery was 17.1 (1.56) years and the median BMI was 50.4. Participants were predominantly female (77%), white (73%), and non-Hispanic (93%). Among the participants, 49% had poor functional status and 76% had musculoskeletal pain. Lower back pain was prevalent (63%), followed by ankle

  14. Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Cohort Studies of Suicide Risk Assessment among Psychiatric Patients: Heterogeneity in Results and Lack of Improvement over Time

    PubMed Central

    Large, Matthew; Kaneson, Muthusamy; Myles, Nicholas; Myles, Hannah; Gunaratne, Pramudie; Ryan, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Objective It is widely assumed that the clinical care of psychiatric patients can be guided by estimates of suicide risk and by using patient characteristics to define a group of high-risk patients. However, the statistical strength and reliability of suicide risk categorization is unknown. Our objective was to investigate the odds of suicide in high-risk compared to lower-risk categories and the suicide rates in high-risk and lower-risk groups. Method We located longitudinal cohort studies where psychiatric patients or people who had made suicide attempts were stratified into high-risk and lower-risk groups for suicide with suicide mortality as the outcome by searching for peer reviewed publications indexed in PubMed or PsychINFO. Electronic searches were supplemented by hand searching of included studies and relevant review articles. Two authors independently extracted data regarding effect size, study population and study design from 53 samples of risk-assessed patients reported in 37 studies. Results The pooled odds of suicide among high-risk patients compared to lower-risk patients calculated by random effects meta-analysis was of 4.84 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 3.79–6.20). Between-study heterogeneity was very high (I2 = 93.3). There was no evidence that more recent studies had greater statistical strength than older studies. Over an average follow up period of 63 months the proportion of suicides among the high-risk patients was 5.5% and was 0.9% among lower-risk patients. The meta-analytically derived sensitivity and specificity of a high-risk categorization were 56% and 79% respectively. There was evidence of publication bias in favour of studies that inflated the pooled odds of suicide in high-risk patients. Conclusions The strength of suicide risk categorizations based on the presence of multiple risk factors does not greatly exceed the association between individual suicide risk factors and suicide. A statistically strong and reliable method to

  15. Dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) among breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding 24–48 month old children in Bangladesh1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Yakes, Elizabeth A.; Arsenault, Joanne E.; Islam, M. Munirul; Ahmed, Tahmeed; German, J. Bruce; Drake, Christiana; Hossain, Mohammad B.; Lewis, Bess L.; Rahman, Ahmed Shafiqur; Jamil, Kazi M.; Brown, Kenneth H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the adequacy of polyunsaturated fatty acid intake by rural Bangladeshi children 24–48 months of age in relation to their breastfeeding status. Methods Multi-stage sampling was used to select a representative sample of children 24–48 mo of age from two rural districts in Bangladesh (n=479). Two non-consecutive 24 h periods of dietary data were collected via 12 h daytime in-home observations and recall. Breast milk intake was estimated using test weighing. The National Cancer Institute method for episodically consumed foods was used to estimate distributions of usual food and nutrient intakes. Results Based on the estimated intake distributions, more than 95% of the children had usual fat intakes less than 30% of total energy. Among 24–35 mo (younger) and 36–48 mo (older) children, respectively, 4% and 16% of breastfeeding children and 31% and 41% of non-breastfeeding children were estimated to consume less than 10% of total energy from fat. An estimated 80% of all children consumed less than 4% of total energy as linoleic acid, and 99% consumed less than 1% of energy as alpha-linolenic acid. Younger breastfeeding children had higher estimated average docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intakes (0.04 g DHA/d) than their non-breastfeeding counterparts (0.01 g DHA/d; p = 0.0005). Both breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding older children had estimated mean DHA intakes of 0.02 g/d (p=0.74). Conclusions Rural Bangladeshi children 24–48 months of age, and especially those who have discontinued breastfeeding, may benefit from increased fat consumption. PMID:21336160

  16. Differential associations of plasma lipids with incident dementia and dementia subtypes in the 3C Study: A longitudinal, population-based prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Schilling, Sabrina; Tzourio, Christophe; Soumaré, Aïcha; Kaffashian, Sara; Dartigues, Jean-François; Ancelin, Marie-Laure; Dufouil, Carole; Debette, Stéphanie

    2017-01-01

    Background Vascular risk factors have been proposed as important targets for the prevention of dementia. As lipid fractions represent easily modifiable targets, we examined the longitudinal relationship of baseline lipid fractions with 13-y incident dementia and its subtypes (Alzheimer disease [AD] and mixed or vascular dementia) in older community-dwelling persons. Methods and findings Non-institutionalized persons aged 65+ y (n = 9,294) were recruited for the Three-City Study (3C Study), a population-based cohort study from the electoral rolls of the cities of Dijon, Bordeaux, and Montpellier, France, between March 1999 and March 2001. Follow-up examinations were performed every 2 y after the baseline assessment. The final study sample comprised 7,470 participants from the 3C Study (mean age ± standard deviation [SD] 73.8 ± 5.3 y, 61.0% women) who were prospectively followed up for up to 13 y. Fasting lipid fractions (triglycerides [TGs], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], total cholesterol [TC]) were studied as continuous variables, and results are reported per SD increase of each lipid fraction. Incident dementia and its subtypes were studied as censored variables using Cox models with age as time scale. Analyses were adjusted for sex, study center, and educational level, as well as vascular risk factors and apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 genotype. We corrected for multiple testing, yielding a significance threshold of 0.0169. p-Values above the significance threshold but less than 0.05 were considered nominally significant. During a mean (± SD) follow-up period of 7.9 ± 3.6 y, 779 participants developed incident dementia (n = 532 AD and n = 154 mixed or vascular dementia). Higher LDL-C and TC concentrations at baseline were associated with an increased risk of AD (hazard ratio [HR] per SD increase = 1.13 [95% CI 1.04–1.22], p = 0.0045, and HR = 1.12 [1.03–1.22], p = 0.0072, respectively). These

  17. Childhood-Onset Disease Predicts Mortality in an Adult Cohort of Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Hersh, Aimee O.; Trupin, Laura; Yazdany, Jinoos; Panopalis, Peter; Julian, Laura; Katz, Patricia; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Yelin, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine childhood-onset disease as a predictor of mortality in a cohort of adult patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Data were derived from the University of California Lupus Outcomes Study, a longitudinal cohort of 957 adult subjects with SLE that includes 98 subjects with childhood-onset SLE. Baseline and follow-up data were obtained via telephone interviews conducted between 2002-2007. The number of deaths during 5 years of follow-up was determined and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for the cohort, and across age groups, were calculated. Kaplan-Meier life table analysis was used to compare mortality rates between childhood (defined as SLE diagnosis <18 years) and adult-onset SLE. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to determine predictors of mortality. Results During the median follow-up period of 48 months, 72 deaths (7.5% of subjects) occurred, including 9 (12.5%) among those with childhood-onset SLE. The overall SMR was 2.5 (CI 2.0-3.2). In Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, after adjusting for age, childhood-onset subjects were at increased risk for mortality throughout the follow-up period (p<0.0001). In a multivariate model adjusting for age, disease duration and other covariates, childhood-onset SLE was independently associated with an increased mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-7.3), as was low socioeconomic status measured by education (HR: 1.9; 95% CI 1.1-3.2) and end stage renal disease (HR: 2.1; 95% CI 1.1-4.0). Conclusion Childhood-onset SLE was a strong predictor of mortality in this cohort. Interventions are needed to prevent early mortality in this population. PMID:20235215

  18. A Functional Vesicular Monoamine Transporter 1 (VMAT1) Gene Variant Is Associated with Affect and the Prevalence of Anxiety, Affective, and Alcohol Use Disorders in a Longitudinal Population-Representative Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Vaht, Mariliis; Kiive, Evelyn; Veidebaum, Toomas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Inter-individual differences in the monoaminergic systems have been shown to moderate the risk for a lifetime history of anxiety, affective, and alcohol use disorders. A common single nucleotide polymorphism in the vesicular monoamine transporter 1 gene (VMAT1 rs1390938 G/A; Thr136Ile) has been reported as functional in vitro and associated with bipolar disorder and anxiety. We aimed at assessing the association between the VMAT1 genotype, affect, and affect-related psychiatric disorders in a longitudinal population-representative study. Methods: We used the database of the Estonian Children Personality Behaviour and Health Study (beginning in 1998). Cohorts of initially 9- (recalled at ages 15 and 18 years, n=579) and 15- (recalled at ages 18 and 25 years; n=654) year-old children provided self-reports on impulsivity, anxiety, depressiveness, neuroticism, and alcohol use. In addition, psychiatric assessment based on DSM-IV was carried out in the older cohort at age 25 years. Results: Subjects homozygous for the less prevalent A (136Ile) allele reported lower maladaptive impulsivity, state and trait anxiety, depressiveness, and neuroticism and were less likely to have been diagnosed with an affective, anxiety, and/or alcohol use disorder by young adulthood. While in the younger cohort alcohol use started at younger age, this birth cohort effect was dependent on genotype: only G allele carriers and in particular the GG homozygotes started alcohol use earlier. Conclusions: VMAT1 rs1390938/Thr136Ile is associated with mood, personality, and alcohol use in the general population. Subjects homozygous for the “hyperfunction” allele (AA; Ile/Ile) appear to be more resilient to these disorders. PMID:26861143

  19. DEMONSTRATION OF LOW COST BURDEN, EXPOSURE MONITORING STRATEGIES FOR USE IN LONGITUDINAL COHORT STUDIES - VOLUME I - FINAL REPORT AND VOLUME II - APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Federal Government is currently planning a large, prospective birth cohort study known as the National Children's Study that will potentially involve 100,000 children and their families. The observation period will start as close to conception as possible and will continue f...

  20. Cohort profile: the Motorik-Modul Longitudinal Study: physical fitness and physical activity as determinants of health development in German children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Matthias O; Bös, Klaus; Jekauc, Darko; Karger, Claudia; Mewes, Nadine; Oberger, Jennifer; Reimers, Anne K; Schlenker, Lars; Worth, Annette; Woll, Alexander

    2014-10-01

    The Motorik-Modul (MoMo) Longitudinal Study aims to contribute to long-term improvement in the health of German children and adolescents by focusing on: (i) the development of physical fitness and physical activity (including period effects); (ii) the individual and physical/social environmental determinants of the development of physical fitness and physical activity; and (iii) the impact of physical fitness and physical activity on the development of physical and mental health. The MoMo Longitudinal Study began with a nationwide representative sample of 4529 children and adolescents who ranged in age from 4-17 years at the study baseline (2003-2006). The first survey wave of the MoMo Longitudinal Study was conducted between 2009 and 2012, with two subsequent survey waves to be conducted between 2014 and 2016 and 2018 and 2020, respectively. The MoMo Longitudinal Study includes a physical fitness test profile, a physical activity questionnaire, and subjective and objective measures of health from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (KiGGS). Data access is provided on request (alexander.woll@kit.edu). For further information, including a complete list of publications please visit www.motorik-modul.de.

  1. Planetary Candidates Observed by Kepler. VII. The First Fully Uniform Catalog Based on the Entire 48-month Data Set (Q1-Q17 DR24)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlin, Jeffrey L.; Mullally, F.; Thompson, Susan E.; Rowe, Jason F.; Burke, Christopher J.; Latham, David W.; Batalha, Natalie M.; Ofir, Aviv; Quarles, Billy L.; Henze, Christopher E.; Wolfgang, Angie; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Shporer, Avi; Catanzarite, Joseph; Akeson, Rachel; Barclay, Thomas; Borucki, William J.; Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Campbell, Jennifer R.; Christiansen, Jessie L.; Girouard, Forrest R.; Haas, Michael R.; Howell, Steve B.; Huber, Daniel; Jenkins, Jon M.; Li, Jie; Patil-Sabale, Anima; Quintana, Elisa V.; Ramirez, Solange; Seader, Shawn; Smith, Jeffrey C.; Tenenbaum, Peter; Twicken, Joseph D.; Zamudio, Khadeejah A.

    2016-05-01

    We present the seventh Kepler planet candidate (PC) catalog, which is the first catalog to be based on the entire, uniformly processed 48-month Kepler data set. This is the first fully automated catalog, employing robotic vetting procedures to uniformly evaluate every periodic signal detected by the Q1-Q17 Data Release 24 (DR24) Kepler pipeline. While we prioritize uniform vetting over the absolute correctness of individual objects, we find that our robotic vetting is overall comparable to, and in most cases superior to, the human vetting procedures employed by past catalogs. This catalog is the first to utilize artificial transit injection to evaluate the performance of our vetting procedures and to quantify potential biases, which are essential for accurate computation of planetary occurrence rates. With respect to the cumulative Kepler Object of Interest (KOI) catalog, we designate 1478 new KOIs, of which 402 are dispositioned as PCs. Also, 237 KOIs dispositioned as false positives (FPs) in previous Kepler catalogs have their disposition changed to PC and 118 PCs have their disposition changed to FPs. This brings the total number of known KOIs to 8826 and PCs to 4696. We compare the Q1-Q17 DR24 KOI catalog to previous KOI catalogs, as well as ancillary Kepler catalogs, finding good agreement between them. We highlight new PCs that are both potentially rocky and potentially in the habitable zone of their host stars, many of which orbit solar-type stars. This work represents significant progress in accurately determining the fraction of Earth-size planets in the habitable zone of Sun-like stars. The full catalog is publicly available at the NASA Exoplanet Archive.

  2. Intakes and breast-milk concentrations of essential fatty acids are low among Bangladeshi women with 24-48-month-old children.

    PubMed

    Yakes, Elizabeth A; Arsenault, Joanne E; Munirul Islam, M; Hossain, Mohammad B; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Bruce German, J; Gillies, Laura A; Shafiqur Rahman, Ahmed; Drake, Christiana; Jamil, Kazi M; Lewis, Bess L; Brown, Kenneth H

    2011-06-01

    Maternal fat intake and adipose reserves are major sources of PUFA during lactation. The present study examined the cross-sectional relationship between prolonged breast-feeding and maternal BMI, assessed adequacy of fat intake among lactating and non-lactating mothers of children 24-48 months of age and determined breast-milk fatty acid composition. Multi-stage sampling was used to select a representative sample of mothers from two rural districts in Bangladesh (n 474). Dietary data were collected during two non-consecutive 24 h periods via 12 h in-home daytime observations and recall. The National Cancer Institute method for episodically consumed foods was used to estimate usual intake distributions. Breast milk samples were collected from ninety-eight women, and breast-milk fatty acid methyl esters were quantified using GC. Approximately 42 % of lactating v. 26 % of non-lactating mothers were underweight (BMI < 18·5 kg/m2; P = 0·0003). The maternal diet was low in total fat (approximately 8 % of mean total energy) and food sources of PUFA, including oil and animal source foods, resulting in a low estimated mean total consumption of PUFA (5·1 g/d). Almost all women were estimated to consume less than the recommended intake levels for total fat, total PUFA, α-linolenic acid (ALA) and DHA. Median breast-milk linoleic acid (8·5 % weight) and ALA (0·2 %) concentrations were among the lowest reported in the literature, in contrast with arachidonic acid (0·5 %) and DHA (0·3 %) concentrations, which were mid-range. Bangladeshi women in general, and especially those who practise prolonged breast-feeding, may benefit from increased consumption of food sources of PUFA.

  3. A possible strategy for developing a model to account for attrition bias in a longitudinal cohort to investigate associations between exclusive breastfeeding and overweight and obesity at 20 years.

    PubMed

    Oddy, Wendy H; Smith, Grant J; Jacoby, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to develop a method that could be applied in a longitudinal cohort study to account for attrition bias in an investigation of exclusive breastfeeding and prevalence of overweight and obesity at 20 years. Participants were compared to non-participants to identify a priori good candidates to predict missing-ness. A logistic regression missing-ness model was developed where probabilities were calculated to generate a pseudo-population of survivors with similar distribution to the original cohort. Final analysis comprised a weighted logistic regression model for cessation of breastfeeding as predicted by overweight and obesity, adjusting for confounding factors, that incorporated generalised estimating equations as final predictive models. Following weighting and scaling in the generalised estimating equation model, the cessation of exclusive breastfeeding before 6 months, compared to 6 months or later was associated with an increased prevalence of overweight and obesity at 20 years (odds ratio 1.47; 95% confidence interval: 1.12-1.93; p = 0.005). Inverse probability weighting offers a possible solution when attrition threatens to bias the results of a study.

  4. Feasibility of Identifying a Female Sex Worker Cohort at High Risk of HIV Infection in the Caribbean for HIV Vaccine Efficacy Trials: Longitudinal Results of HVTN 907

    PubMed Central

    Deschamps, Marie Marcelle; Metch, Barbara; Morgan, Cecilia A; Zorrilla, Carmen D; Donastorg, Yeycy; Swann, Edith; Taina, Dadaille; Patrice, Joseph; JW, Pape

    2015-01-01

    Background Identifying cohorts of Caribbean women with HIV infection rates sufficient for inclusion in HIV vaccine efficacy trials has been challenging. HVTN 907 determined the feasibility of identifying and retaining a cohort of women at high risk for HIV acquisition by focusing recruitment on female sex workers (FSW). Methods HIV uninfected FSWs, residing in Haiti, Dominican Republic (DR) and Puerto Rico (PR), who reported unprotected sex and met previously described more stringent site-specific eligibility criteria14, were eligible. Behavioral risk assessment, HIV counseling and testing and pregnancy testing were done at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months. Results Among 799 FSWs (264 from DR, 334 from Haiti, 201 from PR), the median age was 26 years, with 54% having less than a high school education and 45% having a monthly household income of less than $US100. Median number of male partners six months prior to screening was 200. Retention at 18 months was 93%. Twelve women became HIV infected, nine from Haiti. The annualized HIV incidence was 1.07 % (95% CI 0.55%, 1.87%). Pregnancy incidence was 22.5% (95% CI 21.9, 29.5%). Statistically significant declines in risk behaviors occurred between screening and the 18 month visit assessment. Discussion The HVTN 907 study identified a high risk cohort of women with excellent retention for all 3 sites, despite major challenges especially in Haiti. These results show that a bridging study of a vaccine shown to be efficacious in other clade settings would be possible among FSW in the region, particularly in Haiti. PMID:26761272

  5. Association between neighbourhood air pollution concentrations and dispensed medication for psychiatric disorders in a large longitudinal cohort of Swedish children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bråbäck, Lennart; Åström, Daniel Oudin; Strömgren, Magnus; Forsberg, Bertil

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations between exposure to air pollution and child and adolescent mental health. Design Observational study. Setting Swedish National Register data on dispensed medications for a broad range of psychiatric disorders, including sedative medications, sleeping pills and antipsychotic medications, together with socioeconomic and demographic data and a national land use regression model for air pollution concentrations for NO2, PM10 and PM2.5. Participants The entire population under 18 years of age in 4 major counties. We excluded cohort members whose parents had dispensed a medication in the same medication group since the start date of the register. The cohort size was 552 221. Main outcome measures Cox proportional hazards models to estimate HRs and their 95% CIs for the outcomes, adjusted for individual-level and group-level characteristics. Results The average length of follow-up was 3.5 years, with an average number of events per 1000 cohort members of ∼21. The mean annual level of NO2 was 9.8 µg/m3. Children and adolescents living in areas with higher air pollution concentrations were more likely to have a dispensed medication for a psychiatric disorder during follow-up (HR=1.09, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.12, associated with a 10 µg/m3 increase in NO2). The association with NO2 was clearly present in 3 out of 4 counties in the study area; however, no statistically significant heterogeneity was detected. Conclusion There may be a link between exposure to air pollution and dispensed medications for certain psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents even at the relatively low levels of air pollution in the study regions. The findings should be corroborated by others. PMID:27259522

  6. At the interface of community and healthcare systems: a longitudinal cohort study on evolving health and the impact of primary healthcare from the patient's perspectiv

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Massive efforts in Canada have been made to renew primary healthcare. However, although early evaluations of initiatives and research on certain aspects of the reform are promising, none have examined the link between patient assessments of care and health outcomes or the impacts at a population level. The goal of this project is to examine the effect of patient-centred and effective primary healthcare on the evolution of chronic illness burden and health functioning in a population, and in particularly vulnerable groups: the multi-morbid and the poor. Methods/Design A randomly selected cohort of 2000 adults aged 25 to 75 years will be recruited within the geographic boundaries of four local healthcare networks in Quebec. At recruitment, cohort members will report on socio-demographic information, functional health and healthcare use. Two weeks, 12 months and 24 months after recruitment, cohort participants will complete a self-administered questionnaire on current health and health behaviours in order to evaluate primary healthcare received in the previous year. The dependent variables are calculated as change over time of functional health status, chronic illness burden, and health behaviours. Dimensions of patient-centred care and clinical processes are measured using sub-scales of validated instruments. We will use Poisson regression modelling to estimate the incidence rate of chronic illness burden scores and structural equation modelling to explore relationships between variables and to examine the impact of dimensions of patient-centred care and effective primary healthcare. Discussion Results will provide valuable information for primary healthcare clinicians on the course of chronic illness over time and the impact on health outcomes of accessible, patient-centred and effective care. A demonstration of impact will contribute to the promotion of continuous quality improvement activities at a clinical level. While considerable advances have been

  7. A Case Study of Parent-Child Interactions of a Child with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (3-48 Months) and Comparison with Typically-Developing Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedenbro, Monica; Tjus, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    Early triadic interaction, the reciprocal action between mother-father-child, is described in the family of a girl diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorder (DSM 299.00) and learning difficulties at seven years. By chance, the family participated in a longitudinal study examining triadic interaction in 20 Swedish families using the Lausanne…

  8. KOOS Pain as a Marker for Significant Knee Pain Two and Six Years after Primary ACL Reconstruction: A Multicenter Orthopaedic Outcomes Network (MOON) Prospective Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wasserstein, D; Huston, LJ; Nwosu, S; Spindler, KP

    2015-01-01

    Objective The prevalence of radiographic osteoarthritis (OA) after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) approaches 50%, yet the prevalence of significant knee pain is unknown. We applied three different models of Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) thresholds for significant knee pain to an ACLR cohort to identify prevalence and risk factors. Design Multicenter Orthopaedic Outcomes Network (MOON) prospective cohort patients with a unilateral primary ACLR and normal contralateral knee were assessed at 2 and 6 years. Independent variables included patient demographics, validated Patient Reported Outcomes (PRO; Marx activity score, KOOS), and surgical characteristics. Models included: (1) KOOS criteria for a painful knee = quality of life subscale <87.5 and ≥2 of: KOOSpain <86.1, KOOSsymptoms <85.7, KOOSADL <86.8, or KOOSsports/rec <85.0; (2) KOOSpain subscale score ≤72 (≥2 standard deviations below population mean); (3) 10-point KOOSpain drop from 2 to 6 years. Proportional odds models (alpha≤0.05) were used. Results 1,761 patients of median age 23 years, median BMI 24.8 kg/m2 and 56% male met inclusion, with 87% (1530/1761) and 86% (1506/1761) follow-up at 2 and 6 years, respectively. At 6 years, n=592 (39%), n=131 (9%) and n=169 (12%) met criteria for models #1 through #3, respectively. The most consistent and strongest independent risk factor at both time-points was subsequent ipsilateral knee surgery. Low 2-year Marx activity score increased the odds of a painful knee at 6 years. Conclusions Significant knee pain is prevalent after ACLR; with those who undergo subsequent ipsilateral surgery at greatest risk. The relationship between pain and structural OA warrants further study. PMID:26072385

  9. Levels of risk: maternal-, middle childhood-, and neighborhood-level predictors of adolescent disinhibitory behaviors from a longitudinal birth cohort in the United States.

    PubMed

    Keyes, Katherine M; Keyes, Margaret A; March, Dana; Susser, Ezra

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Disruptive behavior in adolescence may indicate a broad vulnerability to disinhibition, which begins in childhood and culminates in adult externalizing psychopathology. We utilized prospective birth cohort data to assess childhood predictors of adolescent disinhibition. We also examined the effect of pre-adolescent fluctuation in cognitive ability. METHODS: Data were drawn from the Child Health and Development Study cohort, born 1961-1963; we used the subsample who participated in follow-up through adolescence (n=1752). Six indicators of behavioral disinhibition (BD), reported in adolescence, were analyzed as a count outcome. Predictor variables were drawn from several waves of data collection and included individual-, maternal-, and neighborhood-level measures. Cognitive ability was assessed with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test at two time points. Neighborhood characteristics were assessed using census data from 1970. RESULTS: Number of BD indicators was predicted by maternal characteristics at prenatal assessment (maternal age and alcohol consumption) and age-10 assessment (maternal smoking, education, and separation from father). Characteristics of the child that predicted BD included birth order and conduct problems in middle childhood. Neighborhood poverty did not predict BD. Regardless of initial cognitive ability score, movement to a higher quartile by adolescence was associated with lower BD, while movement to a lower quartile was associated with higher BD. CONCLUSION: Risk for adolescent BD exists prenatally and extends through middle childhood. Change in cognitive ability during pre-adolescence emerged as a potentially important factor that merits further investigation. A greater focus on the life course can aid in comprehensively understanding disruptive behavior emergence in adolescence.

  10. Baseline serum MMP-3 levels in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis are still independently predictive of radiographic progression in a longitudinal observational cohort at 8 years follow up

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction At present, there is no reliable tool for predicting disease outcome in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We previously demonstrated an association between specific baseline biomarkers/clinical measures including matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) and 2-year radiographic progression in patients with RA. This study further evaluates the predictive capability of these baseline variables with outcome extended over 8-years. Methods Fifty-eight of the original cohort (n = 118) had radiographic progression from baseline to mean 8.2-years determined using the van der Heijde modified Sharp method. The contribution of each predictor variable towards radiographic progression was assessed with univariate and multivariate analyses. Results Traditional factors (including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP), and rheumatoid factor) and biomarkers of tissue destruction (including MMP-3, C-telopeptide of type II collagen, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1) measured at baseline were associated with radiographic progression at endpoint. Multivariate logistic regression identified anti-CCP seropositivity [OR 9.29, 95%CI: 2.29-37.64], baseline elevated MMP-3 [OR 8.25, 95%CI: 2.54-26.78] and baseline radiographic damage [OR 5.83, 95%CI: 1.88-18.10] as the strongest independent predictors of radiographic progression. A model incorporating these variables had a predictive accuracy of 0.87, assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Conclusion In our cohort with onset of RA symptoms < 2-years, multivariate analysis identified anti-CCP status and baseline MMP-3 as the strongest independent predictors of radiographic disease outcome at 8.2-years. This finding suggests determination of baseline MMP-3, in conjunction with traditional serologic markers, may provide additional prognostic information for patients with RA. Furthermore

  11. Methodologic and Logistic Issues in Conducting Longitudinal Birth Cohort Studies: Lessons Learned from the Centers for Children’s Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research

    PubMed Central

    Eskenazi, Brenda; Gladstone, Eleanor A.; Berkowitz, Gertrud S.; Drew, Christina H.; Faustman, Elaine M.; Holland, Nina T.; Lanphear, Bruce; Meisel, Stefanie J.; Perera, Frederica P.; Rauh, Virginia A.; Sweeney, Anne; Whyatt, Robin M.; Yolton, Kimberly

    2005-01-01

    In anticipation of the National Children’s Study, lessons can be learned from the smaller birth cohort studies conducted by five Centers for Children’s Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The populations studied are diverse in ethnicity and social class and reside in urban and rural environments. Although almost all of the centers chose to enroll participants through medical care facilities, they had to develop independent staffs and structures because of the overburdened medical care system. Some of the lessons learned by the centers include the importance of continuous funding, building community partnerships to conduct culturally appropriate research, hiring bilingual and bicultural staff from the community, prioritizing research goals, developing biorepositories to ensure future utility of samples, instituting quality control procedures for all aspects of specimen and data collection, maintaining frequent contact with study participants, ensuring ethical conduct of the research in a changing medical-legal climate, and communicating results in a timely and appropriate manner to participants and the wider community. All centers underestimated the necessary start-up time, staff, and costs in conducting these birth cohort studies. Despite the logistical complexity and added expenses, all centers emphasize the importance of studying the impact of environmental exposures on those children most at risk, those living in minority and low-income communities. These centers present barriers encountered, solutions found, and considerations for future research, with the hope that the lessons learned can help inform the planning and conduct of the National Children’s Study. PMID:16203258

  12. Longitudinal Evaluation of Multi-phasic, Odontological and Nutritional Associations in Dentists (LEMONADE Study): Study Design and Profile of Nationwide Cohort Participants at Baseline

    PubMed Central

    Wakai, Kenji; Naito, Mariko; Naito, Toru; Nakagaki, Haruo; Umemura, Osami; Yokota, Makoto; Hanada, Nobuhiro; Kawamura, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Background To examine the association between oral health and general well-being, we are currently conducting a nationwide cohort study comprising members of the Japan Dental Association (JDA). Herein, we describe the study design and the profile of the participants at baseline. Methods From 2001 through 2006, the participants completed a baseline questionnaire that surveyed factors related to lifestyle, general health, and oral health. Morbidity and mortality have been monitored by using information from fraternal insurance programs operated by prefectural dental associations. All respondents provided written, informed consent for participation and the use of their insurance data. Results A total of 21 272 JDA members participated in the baseline survey (response rate, 36.2%). Their mean age ± SD was 52.3 ± 12.3 years; 8.0% were women. Among the respondents, 30.2% of men and 10.7% of women were current smokers; 73.5% of men and 44.8% of women were current drinkers. The cohort scored higher on oral health indices than did the general Japanese population: dentists were more likely to brush their teeth ≥3 times/day, to have ≥20 teeth, to have fewer lost teeth, to be free from periodontal diseases, and to have higher General Oral Health Assessment Index scores. There was, however, considerable inter-individual variation in scores on the indices. Conclusions More than one-third of JDA members participated in the study. Their oral average health status was better than that of the general population. Nevertheless, it will be possible to compare morbidity and mortality between those with better and worse scores on oral health indices. PMID:19265274

  13. Longitudinal changes in neurodevelopmental outcomes between 18 and 36 months in children with prenatal triptan exposure: findings from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Mollie E; Frazier, Jean A; Nordeng, Hedvig M E; Lapane, Kate L

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study sought to determine whether changes in neurodevelopmental outcomes between 18 and 36 months of age were associated with prenatal exposure to triptan medications, a class of 5-HT receptor agonists used in the treatment of migraine. Method Using data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, a prospective birth cohort that includes nearly 40% of all pregnancies in Norway from 1999 to 2008, we identified 50 469 mother–child dyads who met inclusion criteria and were present for at least one follow-up assessment at 18 or 36 months postpartum. Neurodevelopment was assessed using the Child Behaviour Checklist, the Emotionality, Activity, and Shyness Questionnaire, and the Ages and Stages Questionnaire. We used generalised estimating equations to evaluate change from 18 to 36 months for children prenatally exposed to triptans, relative to contrast groups, and used marginal structural models with inverse probability of treatment and censoring weights to address time-varying exposure and confounding as well as loss to follow-up. Results Among eligible participants (n=50 469), 1.0% used a triptan during pregnancy, 2.0% used triptans prior to pregnancy only, 8.0% reported migraine without triptan use and 89.0% had no history of migraine. Children with prenatal triptan exposure had greater increases in emotionality (r-RR 2.18, 95% CI 1.03 to 4.53) and activity problems (r-RR 1.70, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.8) compared to children born to mothers who discontinued triptan use prior to pregnancy. Conclusion Prenatal triptan exposure was associated with changes over time in externalising-type behaviours such as emotionality and activity, but not with internalising-type behaviours. PMID:27625061

  14. Longitudinal comparison of quality of life in patients undergoing laparoscopic Toupet fundoplication versus magnetic sphincter augmentation: Observational cohort study with propensity score analysis.

    PubMed

    Asti, Emanuele; Bonitta, Gianluca; Lovece, Andrea; Lazzari, Veronica; Bonavina, Luigi

    2016-07-01

    Only a minority of patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) are offered a surgical option. This is mostly due to the fear of potential side effects, the variable success rate, and the extreme alteration of gastric anatomy with the current gold standard, the laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. It has been reported that laparoscopic Toupet fundoplication (LTF) and laparoscopic sphincter augmentation using a magnetic device (LINX) can treat reflux more physiologically and with a lower incidence of side-effects and reoperation rate. We present the first comparing quality of life in patients undergoing LTF versus LINX.Observational cohort study. Consecutive patients undergoing LTF or LINX over the same time period were compared by using the propensity score full matching method and generalized estimating equation. Criteria of exclusion were >3 cm hiatal hernia, grade C-D esophagitis, ineffective esophageal motility, body mass index >35, and previous upper abdominal surgery. The primary study outcome was quality of life measured with the Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease-Health Related Quality of Life (GERD-HRQL) questionnaire. Secondary outcomes were proton pump inhibitors (PPI) use, presence of gas-related symptoms or dysphagia, and reoperation-free probability.Between March 2007 and July 2014, 238 patients with GERD met the criteria of inclusion in the study. Of these, 103 underwent an LTF and 135 a LINX procedure. All patients had a minimum 1-year follow-up. Over time, patients in both groups had similar GERD-HRQL scores (odds ratio [OR] 1.04, confidence interval [CI] 0.89-1.27; P = 0.578), PPI use (OR 1.18, CI 0.81-1.70; P = 0.388), gas-related symptoms (OR 0.69, CI 0.21-2.28; P = 0.542), dysphagia (OR 0.62, CI 0.26-1.30; P = 0.241), and reoperation-free probability (stratified log-rank test = 0.556).In 2 concurrent cohorts of patients with early stage GERD undergoing LTF or LINX and matched by propensity score analysis, health

  15. Traumatic stress and the mediating role of alcohol use on HIV-related sexual risk behavior: Results from a longitudinal cohort of South African women who attend alcohol-serving venues

    PubMed Central

    Abler, Laurie; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Watt, Melissa H.; Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree

    2014-01-01

    Background In South Africa, alcohol contributes to the HIV epidemic, in part, by influencing sexual behaviors. For some, high levels of alcohol consumption may be driven by previous traumatic experiences that result in traumatic stress. The purpose of this study was to quantify the longitudinal association between traumatic stress and unprotected sex among women who attend drinking venues and to assess whether this association was explained by mediation through alcohol use. Methods Data were collected in four waves over a year from a prospective cohort of 560 women who regularly attended alcohol-serving venues in a Cape Town township. Longitudinal mixed models examined: 1) the relationship between traumatic stress and counts of unprotected sex, and 2) whether alcohol use mediated the association between traumatic stress and unprotected sex. Results Most women reported elevated traumatic stress (80%) and hazardous alcohol use (88%) at least once during the study period. In models adjusted for covariates, traumatic stress was associated with unprotected sex (b=0.28, SE=0.06, t=4.82, p<.001). In addition, traumatic stress was associated with alcohol use (b=0.27, SE=0.02, t=14.25, p<.001), and was also associated with unprotected sex (b=0.20, SE=0.06, t=3.27, p<.01) while controlling for alcohol use (b=0.28, SE=0.07, t=4.25, p<.001). The test for the mediated effect established that alcohol use was a significant mediator, accounting for 27% of the total effect of traumatic stress on unprotected sex. Conclusions These results highlight the need to address traumatic stress among female venue patrons as an important precursor of HIV risk due to alcohol use. PMID:25394191

  16. Spanish-Speaking Preschoolers' Early Literacy Development: A Longitudinal Experimental Comparison of Predominantly English and Transitional Bilingual Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duran, Lillian; Roseth, Cary; Hoffman, Patricia; Robertshaw, M. Brooke

    2013-01-01

    The present article reports third-year findings from a three-year longitudinal, experimental-control study involving 31 Spanish-speaking preschoolers (aged 38-48 months) randomly assigned to two Head Start classrooms. In Year 1 preschoolers were randomly assigned to a transitional bilingual education (TBE) or predominantly English classroom, and…

  17. Risk Factors Linked to Psychological Distress, Productivity Losses, and Sick Leave in Low-Back-Pain Employees: A Three-Year Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Compare, Angelo; Marchettini, Paolo; Zarbo, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Background. Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common health problems worldwide. Purpose. To investigate the link between baseline demographic and occupational, medical, and lifestyle data with following psychological and occupational outcomes in a large sample of employees with LBP over a 3-year period. Study Design. Three-year prospective cohort study. Methods. Italian-speaking employees (N = 4492) with a diagnosis of LBP were included. Screening at Time 1 was done in order to collect information about severity and classification of LBP, demographic, lifestyle, and occupational status data. Psychological distress (PGWBI) and occupational burden were assessed after 3 years. Results. After 3 years, employees with LBP not due to organic causes had an increased risk of psychological distress. Gender appears to be an important variable for following occupational burden. Indeed, being a white-collar man with a LBP without organic causes seems to be a protective factor for following work outcomes, while being a white-collar woman with a LBP not due to organic causes appears to be a risk factor for subsequent sick leave. Moreover, LBP severity affects psychological and occupational outcomes. Conclusion. Our findings have several implications that could be considered in preventive and supportive programs for LBP employees.

  18. Bonafide, type-specific human papillomavirus persistence among HIV-positive pregnant women: predictive value for cytological abnormalities, a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Meyrelles, Angela RI; Siqueira, Juliana D; dos Santos, Pâmela P; Hofer, Cristina B; Luiz, Ronir R; Seuánez, Héctor N; Almeida, Gutemberg; Soares, Marcelo A; Soares, Esmeralda A; Machado, Elizabeth S

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the rate of human papillomavirus (HPV) persistence, associated risk factors, and predictors of cytological alteration outcomes in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnant women over an 18-month period. HPV was typed through L1 gene sequencing in cervical smears collected during gestation and at 12 months after delivery. Outcomes were defined as nonpersistence (clearance of the HPV in the 2nd sample), re-infection (detection of different types of HPV in the 2 samples), and type-specific HPV persistence (the same HPV type found in both samples). An unfavourable cytological outcome was considered when the second exam showed progression to squamous intraepithelial lesion or high squamous intraepithelial lesion. Ninety patients were studied. HPV DNA persistence occurred in 50% of the cases composed of type-specific persistence (30%) or re-infection (20%). A low CD4+T-cell count at entry was a risk factor for type-specific, re-infection, or HPV DNA persistence. The odds ratio (OR) was almost three times higher in the type-specific group when compared with the re-infection group (OR = 2.8; 95% confidence interval: 0.43-22.79). Our findings show that bonafide (type-specific) HPV persistence is a stronger predictor for the development of cytological abnormalities, highlighting the need for HPV typing as opposed to HPV DNA testing in the clinical setting. PMID:26872340

  19. Risk Factors Linked to Psychological Distress, Productivity Losses, and Sick Leave in Low-Back-Pain Employees: A Three-Year Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Marchettini, Paolo; Zarbo, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Background. Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common health problems worldwide. Purpose. To investigate the link between baseline demographic and occupational, medical, and lifestyle data with following psychological and occupational outcomes in a large sample of employees with LBP over a 3-year period. Study Design. Three-year prospective cohort study. Methods. Italian-speaking employees (N = 4492) with a diagnosis of LBP were included. Screening at Time 1 was done in order to collect information about severity and classification of LBP, demographic, lifestyle, and occupational status data. Psychological distress (PGWBI) and occupational burden were assessed after 3 years. Results. After 3 years, employees with LBP not due to organic causes had an increased risk of psychological distress. Gender appears to be an important variable for following occupational burden. Indeed, being a white-collar man with a LBP without organic causes seems to be a protective factor for following work outcomes, while being a white-collar woman with a LBP not due to organic causes appears to be a risk factor for subsequent sick leave. Moreover, LBP severity affects psychological and occupational outcomes. Conclusion. Our findings have several implications that could be considered in preventive and supportive programs for LBP employees. PMID:27635259

  20. A cohort study of the acute and chronic respiratory effects of toner exposure among handlers: a longitudinal analyses from 2004 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Kazunori; Hasegawa, Masayuki; Ando, Hajime; Hata, Koichi; Kitamura, Hiroko; Ogami, Akira; Higashi, Toshiaki

    2016-10-08

    This study examines the acute and chronic respiratory effects of toner exposure based on markers for interstitial pneumonia, oxidative stress and pulmonary function tests. A total of 112 subjects working in a Japanese toner and photocopier manufacturing company participated in this study in 2004. We annually conducted personal exposure measurements, pulmonary function tests, chest X-ray examinations, biomarkers, and questionnaires on respiratory symptoms to the subjects. We report in this paper the results of the analysis of combined annual survey point data from 2004 to 2008 and data from three annual survey points, 2004, 2008, and 2013. During these survey periods, we observed that none of subjects had a new onset of respiratory disease or died of such a disease. In both the analyses, there were no significant differences in each biomarker and pulmonary function tests within the subjects, nor between a toner-handling group and a non-toner-handling group, except for a few results on pulmonary function tests. The findings of this study suggest that there were no acute and chronic respiratory effects of toner exposure in this cohort group, although the number of subjects was small and the level of toner exposure in this worksite was low.

  1. A cohort study of the acute and chronic respiratory effects of toner exposure among handlers: a longitudinal analyses from 2004 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    IKEGAMI, Kazunori; HASEGAWA, Masayuki; ANDO, Hajime; HATA, Koichi; KITAMURA, Hiroko; OGAMI, Akira; HIGASHI, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the acute and chronic respiratory effects of toner exposure based on markers for interstitial pneumonia, oxidative stress and pulmonary function tests. A total of 112 subjects working in a Japanese toner and photocopier manufacturing company participated in this study in 2004. We annually conducted personal exposure measurements, pulmonary function tests, chest X–ray examinations, biomarkers, and questionnaires on respiratory symptoms to the subjects. We report in this paper the results of the analysis of combined annual survey point data from 2004 to 2008 and data from three annual survey points, 2004, 2008, and 2013. During these survey periods, we observed that none of subjects had a new onset of respiratory disease or died of such a disease. In both the analyses, there were no significant differences in each biomarker and pulmonary function tests within the subjects, nor between a toner–handling group and a non–toner–handling group, except for a few results on pulmonary function tests. The findings of this study suggest that there were no acute and chronic respiratory effects of toner exposure in this cohort group, although the number of subjects was small and the level of toner exposure in this worksite was low. PMID:27021062

  2. Longitudinal study of childhood adiposity and the risk of developing components of metabolic syndrome-the Da Qing children cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan-Yan; Lee, Yung-Seng; Wang, Jin-Ping; Jiang, Ya-Yun; Li, Hui; An, Ya-Li; Hu, Ying-Hua; Lee, Kok O; Li, Guang-Wei

    2011-09-01

    Childhood adiposity is increasingly recognized as a significant predictor of cardiometabolic risks in later life. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with longitudinal changes in weight during childhood and the development of metabolic disease risk factors. Four hundred twenty-four children from DaQing city, China, were recruited at 5 y old and followed up for 5 y. Birth weight, television (TV) viewing time at 5 y old, blood pressure, anthropometric measurements, fasting plasma insulin (FI), and triglycerides (TG) levels were measured at 5 and 10 y old. Both birth weight and TV viewing time at 5 y old significantly correlated with percentage of ideal weight for height (WFH) at 5 y old (WFH5; p = 0.0032 and p = 0.01), but only TV time was significantly correlated with WFH at 10 y old (WFH10; p < 0.0001). Blood pressures, FI, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and TG at 10 y old were significantly greater in those children who had greater change in WFH from 5 to 10 y old (ΔWFH). We concluded that TV viewing time was the stronger determinant of later childhood adiposity. A greater ΔWFH was associated with increased cardiometabolic risk factors at 10 y old.

  3. Change of School in Early Adolescence and Adverse Obesity-Related Dietary Behavior: A Longitudinal Cohort Study, Victoria, Australia, 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Lisa M.; Allender, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Environments that facilitate energy-dense, nutrient-poor diets are associated with childhood obesity. We examined the effect of a change of school environment on the prevalence of obesity and related dietary behavior in early adolescence. Methods Fifteen schools in Victoria, Australia, were recruited at random from the bottom 2 strata of a 5-level socioeconomic scale. In 9 schools, students in grade 6 primary school transitioned to different schools for grade 7 secondary school, whereas in 6 schools, students remained in the same school from grade 6 to grade 7. Time 1 measures were collected from students (N = 245) in grade 6 (aged 11–13 y). Time 2 data were collected from 243 (99%) of the original cohort in grade 7. Data collected were dietary recall self-reported by students via questionnaire, measured height and weight of students, and aspects of the school food environment via school staff survey. Comparative and mixed model regression analyses were conducted. Results Of 243 students, 63% (n= 152) changed schools from time 1 to time 2, with no significant difference in weight status. Students who changed schools reported an increase in purchases of after-school snack food, greater sweetened beverage intake, fewer fruit-and-vegetable classroom breaks, and less encouragement for healthy eating compared with students who remained in the same school. School staff surveys showed that more primary than secondary schools had written healthy canteen policies and fewer days of canteen or food services operation. Conclusion A change of school environment has negative effects on children’s obesity-related dietary behavior. Consistent policy is needed across school types to support healthy eating in school environments. PMID:26355826

  4. Use of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Risk of Chronic Kidney Disease in Subjects With Hypertension: Nationwide Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Wang, Hongjian; Hsu, Yueh-Han; Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Huang, Ya-Wen; Chang, Yu-Kang; Liu, Jia-Sin; Hsiung, Chao A; Tsai, Hui-Ju

    2015-09-01

    Limited studies have examined the effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use on the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD), especially in subjects with hypertension. Using National Health Insurance claims data in Taiwan, we conducted a propensity score-matched cohort study to investigate the relationship between NSAID use and CKD in subjects with hypertension. A total of 31976 subjects were included in this study: subjects not taking any NSAIDs in 2007 (n=10782); subjects taking NSAIDs for 1 to 89 days in 2007 (n=10605); and subjects taking NSAIDs for ≥90 days in 2007 (n=10589). We performed multivariable proportional hazard models to determine the relationship between NSAID use and CKD. The results showed that NSAID use was associated with a 1.18-fold increased risk of CKD in subjects taking NSAIDs for 1 to 89 days; and a 1.32-fold increased risk of CKD in hypertension subjects taking NSAIDs for ≥90 days, compared with subjects not taking any NSAIDs, after controlling for the confounding factors. In subgroup analyses, subjects taking NSAIDs for ≥90 days, >1 defined daily dose per day or taking NSAIDs >15 cumulative defined daily doses had a greater risk of CKD than subjects not taking any NSAID, but not for congestive heart failure, stroke, cancer, osteoarthritis, or rheumatoid arthritis. These results provide supportive evidence that NSAID use is associated with increased risk of CKD in subjects with hypertension. It is important to closely monitor the effects of NSAID use, particularly in patients with hypertension, a susceptible population for CKD.

  5. Maternal intake of vitamins A, E and K in pregnancy and child allergic disease: a longitudinal study from the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Maslova, Ekaterina; Hansen, Susanne; Strøm, Marin; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2014-03-28

    Fat-soluble vitamins A, E and K have been shown to play roles in immunity and inflammation, but studies on child allergic disease have been few and inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between maternal intake of vitamins A, E and K in mid-pregnancy and child asthma and allergic rhinitis. We used data on 44 594 mother-child pairs from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Maternal intake of fat-soluble vitamins was calculated based on the information from a validated FFQ completed in mid-pregnancy. At 18 months, interviews with the mothers were conducted to evaluate doctor-diagnosed child asthma. At age 7 years, we assessed child asthma and allergic rhinitis using questions from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire and by national registries on hospital contacts and medication use. Current asthma was defined as asthma diagnosis and wheeze in the past 12 months by maternal report. We calculated multivariable risk ratios and 95 % CI by comparing the highest v. lowest quintile (Q) of maternal vitamin A, E and K intake in relation to child allergic disease outcomes. Maternal total vitamin K intake was directly associated with ever admitted asthma (Q5 v. Q1: 1·23, 95 % CI 1·01, 1·50) and current asthma at 7 years (Q5 v. Q1: 1·30, 95 % CI 0·99, 1·70). Weak inverse associations were present for maternal vitamin A and E intake during pregnancy with child allergic rhinitis. Maternal vitamin K intake during pregnancy may increase the risk of child asthma, and should be explored further on a mechanistic level. Conversely, maternal vitamin A and E intake may protect against child allergic rhinitis.

  6. Longitudinal cohort study to determine effectiveness of a novel simulated case and feedback system to improve clinical pathway adherence in breast, lung and GI cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kubal, Timothy; Letson, Doug G; Chiappori, Alberto A; Springett, Gregory M; Tamondong Lachica, Diana; Peabody, John W

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study examined whether a measurement and feedback system led to improvements in adherence to clinical pathways. Design The M-QURE (Moffitt—Quality, Understanding, Research and Evidence) Initiative was introduced in 2012 to enhance and improve adherence to pathways at Moffitt Cancer Center (MCC) in three broad clinical areas: breast, lung and gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. M-QURE used simulated patient vignettes based on MCC's Clinical Pathways to benchmark clinician adherence and monitor change over three rounds of implementation. Setting MCC, located in Tampa, Florida, a National Cancer Institute Comprehensive Cancer Center. Participants Three non-overlapping cohorts at MCC (one each in breast, lung and GI) totalling 48 providers participated in this study, with each member of the multidisciplinary team (composed of medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, surgeons and advanced practice providers) invited to participate. Interventions Each participant was asked to complete a set of simulated patient vignettes over three rounds within their own cancer specialty. Participants were required to complete all assigned vignettes over each of the three rounds, or they would be excluded from this study. Primary outcome measure Increased domain and overall provider care adherence to clinical pathways, as scored by blinded physician abstractors. Results We found significant improvements in pathway adherence between the third and first rounds of data collection particularly for workup and treatment of cancer cases. By clinical grouping, breast improved by 13.6% (p<0.001), and lung improved by 12.1% (p<0.001) over baseline, whereas GI showed a decrease of 1.4% (p=0.68). Conclusions Clinical pathway adherence improved in a short timeframe for breast and lung cancers using group-level measurement and individual feedback. This suggests that a measurement and feedback programme may be a useful tool to improve clinical pathway adherence. PMID:27625063

  7. More improvement than progression of liver fibrosis following antiretroviral therapy in a longitudinal cohort of HIV-infected patients with or without HBV and HCV co-infections.

    PubMed

    Ding, Y; Duan, S; Ye, R; Yang, Y; Yao, S; Wang, J; Cao, D; Liu, X; Lu, L; Jia, M; Wu, Z; He, N

    2016-12-07

    We examined the effect of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on liver fibrosis among HIV-infected patients with or without hepatitis B (HBV) or C virus (HCV) co-infection. This was a retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected patients receiving cART during 2004-2016. Liver fibrosis was assessed using Fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) score with three classifications: Class 1, <1.45; Class 2, 1.45-3.25; Class 3, >3.25. Of 3900 participants, 68.6% were HIV mono-infected, 5.3% were HIV/HBV co-infected, 23.8% were HIV/HCV co-infected and 2.3% were HIV/HBV/HCV co-infected. Participants received follow-up treatment (median was 3.3 years). Improvement to a lower class was observed in Class 2 (52.6%) and Class 3 (74.2%), respectively. Progression to a higher class was observed in 12.8% and 5.0% in Class 1 and Class 2, respectively, and with a median time of 5.7 months. For improvement to lower classes, older age, male, Dai ethnicity, injection drug use, HCV co-infection and tenofovir for treatment were negative predictors, but in Class 3 of FIB-4 and time-updated increases in CD4 count from baseline were positive predictors. For progression to higher classes, older age, male, Jingpo ethnicity and HCV co-infection were positive predictors, while baseline CD4 count and in Class 2 of FIB-4 were negative predictors. Improvement to lower class linked with decreased mortality risk among patients in Class 3. Early cART initiation for HIV-infected patients with and without hepatitis co-infections may mitigate or slow down some of liver fibrosis, but special attention should be given to those who are older, male, co-infected with HCV.

  8. Fish intake during pregnancy and the risk of child asthma and allergic rhinitis - longitudinal evidence from the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Maslova, Ekaterina; Strøm, Marin; Oken, Emily; Campos, Hannia; Lange, Christoph; Gold, Diane; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2013-10-01

    Maternal fish intake during pregnancy may influence the risk of child asthma and allergic rhinitis, yet evidence is conflicting on its association with these outcomes. We examined the associations of maternal fish intake during pregnancy with child asthma and allergic rhinitis. Mothers in the Danish National Birth Cohort (n 28 936) reported their fish intake at 12 and 30 weeks of gestation. Using multivariate logistic regression, we examined the associations of fish intake with child wheeze, asthma and rhinitis assessed at several time points: ever wheeze, recurrent wheeze (>3 episodes), ever asthma and allergic rhinitis, and current asthma, assessed at 18 months (n approximately 22,000) and 7 years (n approximately 17,000) using self-report and registry data on hospitalisations and prescribed medications. Compared with consistently high fish intake during pregnancy (fish as a sandwich or hot meal > or equal to 2-3 times/week), never eating fish was associated with a higher risk of child asthma diagnosis at 18 months (OR 1·30, 95% CI 1·05, 1·63, P=0·02), and ever asthma by hospitalisation (OR 1·46, 95% CI 0·99, 2·13, P=0·05) and medication prescription (OR 1·37, 95% CI 1·10, 1·71, P=0·01). A dose-response was present for asthma at 18 months only (P for trend=0·001). We found no associations with wheeze or recurrent wheeze at 18 months or with allergic rhinitis. The results suggest that high (v. no) maternal fish intake during pregnancy is protective against both early and ever asthma in 7-year-old children.

  9. Antihypertensive Drug Use and New-Onset Diabetes in Female Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: A Population-based Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Liou, Yi-Sheng; Chen, Hung-Yi; Tien, Lyun; Gu, Yi-Sian; Jong, Gwo-Ping

    2015-09-01

    Antihypertensives have been linked to new-onset diabetes (NOD) and different classes of antihypertensives may alter the risk for the development of NOD; however, the effect of different antihypertensives on the development of NOD in women with hypertension and coronary artery disease (CAD) has not been well studied. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between usage of different antihypertensive drugs and the development of NOD in female patients with hypertension and CAD.Data in this retrospective cohort study were obtained from claim forms submitted to the Taiwan Bureau of National Health Insurance in central Taiwan during the period 2006-2011. We estimated the odds ratios (OR) to approximate the relative risk of NOD development associated with antihypertensive drug use.Of the 20,108 female patients with CAD at baseline, 2288 patients developed NOD during the 6-year follow-up. Subjects treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (OR, 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84-1.00), angiotensin receptor blockers (OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.82-0.99), and alpha-blockers (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.79-0.98) in the adjusted analyses had greater reductions of the risk than among nonusers. Patients who took diuretics (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01-1.20), beta-blockers (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.04-1.21), and calcium channel blockers (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.02-1.18) were at high risk of developing NOD than nonusers. Vasodilators were not associated with risk of NOD.We conclude that women with hypertension who take ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and alpha-blockers are at lower risk of NOD and that use of diuretics, beta-blockers, and calcium channel blockers was associated with a significantly increased risk of developing NOD during the 6-year follow-up.

  10. Dyspareunia in the Context of Psychopathology, Personality Traits, and Coping Resources: Results From a Prospective Longitudinal Cohort Study From Age 30 to 50.

    PubMed

    Leeners, Brigitte; Hengartner, Michael P; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Rössler, Wulf; Angst, Jules

    2015-08-01

    Although dyspareunia has a major impact on sexual and general wellbeing, there are few data on the longitudinal development of its prevalence in representative study groups. Therefore, it was the aim of the present study to fill this gap by evaluating the prevalence of dyspareunia in a representative sample at age 30, 35, 41, and 50. Additional aims were to determine the association between dyspareunia, psychopathological covariates, personality characteristics, and coping resources. Semi-structured interviews with single-item questions on sexual problems in general as well as dyspareunia were used to gain information on 1-year as well as long-time prevalence rates. Psychopathological covariates were explored with the SCL-90-R. The Freiburger Personality Inventory (Freiburger Persönlichkeits Inventar, FPI) assessed personality characteristics. Scales of sense of mastery and self-esteem were used to investigate coping resources. Twelve months prevalence of dyspareunia varied between 4.5 and 6.4 % with a mean of 5.6 % and a long-time risk of 19.3 %. No relation between age and the prevalence rates was found. Dyspareunia was related to psychopathological covariates, especially depression. With respect to personality traits as measured with the FPI only nervousness showed a significant association with dyspareunia, whereas coping resources were unrelated. As dyspareunia is experienced by about 20 % of all women, it represents a frequent sexual problem. Therefore, assessment of dyspareunia should be integrated into primary care of women at any age and diagnostic as well as therapeutic strategies should be based on physiological and psychological factors.

  11. Protocol for a prospective, longitudinal, cohort study of postconcussive symptoms in children: the Take C.A.Re (Concussion Assessment and Recovery Research) study

    PubMed Central

    Bressan, Silvia; Takagi, Michael; Anderson, Vicki; Davis, Gavin A; Oakley, Ed; Dunne, Kevin; Clarke, Cathriona; Doyle, Melissa; Hearps, Stephen; Ignjatovic, Vera; Seal, Marc; Babl, Franz E

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A substantial minority of children who sustain a concussion suffer prolonged postconcussive symptoms. These symptoms can persist for more than 1 month postinjury and include physical, cognitive, behavioural and emotional changes. Those affected can develop significant disability, diminishing their quality of life. The precise prevalence of postconcussive symptoms following child concussion is unclear, with heterogeneous and at times conflicting results published regarding factors that predict children at risk for developing long-lasting postconcussive symptoms. The aim of the Take C.A.Re (Concussion Assessment and Recovery Research) study is to provide an in-depth multidimensional description of the postconcussive recovery trajectories from a physical, neurocognitive and psychosocial perspective in the 3 months following concussion, with a focus on the early postconcussive period, and identification of factors associated with prolonged recovery. Methods and analysis Take C.A.Re is a prospective, longitudinal study at a tertiary children's hospital, recruiting and assessing patients aged 5–<18 years who present to the emergency department with a concussion and following them at 1–4 days, 2 weeks, 1 month and 3 months postinjury. Multiple domains are assessed: postconcussive symptoms, balance and coordination, neurocognition, behaviour, quality of life, fatigue, post-traumatic stress symptoms, parental distress and family burden. ‘Delayed recovery’ is operationalised as the presence of ≥3 symptoms on the Post Concussive Symptoms Inventory rated as worse compared with baseline. Main analyses comprise analysis of variance (recovery trajectories, delayed vs normal recovery groups) and regression analyses of predictors of recovery (preinjury, acute and family factors). Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained through the Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne Human Research Ethics Committee (33122). We aim to

  12. Reading Comprehension in a Large Cohort of French First Graders from Low Socio-Economic Status Families: A 7-Month Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Gentaz, Edouard; Sprenger-Charolles, Liliane; Theurel, Anne; Colé, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    Background The literature suggests that a complex relationship exists between the three main skills involved in reading comprehension (decoding, listening comprehension and vocabulary) and that this relationship depends on at least three other factors orthographic transparency, children’s grade level and socioeconomic status (SES). This study investigated the relative contribution of the predictors of reading comprehension in a longitudinal design (from beginning to end of the first grade) in 394 French children from low SES families. Methodology/Principal findings Reading comprehension was measured at the end of the first grade using two tasks one with short utterances and one with a medium length narrative text. Accuracy in listening comprehension and vocabulary, and fluency of decoding skills, were measured at the beginning and end of the first grade. Accuracy in decoding skills was measured only at the beginning. Regression analyses showed that listening comprehension and decoding skills (accuracy and fluency) always significantly predicted reading comprehension. The contribution of decoding was greater when reading comprehension was assessed via the task using short utterances. Between the two assessments, the contribution of vocabulary, and of decoding skills especially, increased, while that of listening comprehension remained unchanged. Conclusion/Significance These results challenge the ‘simple view of reading’. They also have educational implications, since they show that it is possible to assess decoding and reading comprehension very early on in an orthography (i.e., French), which is less deep than the English one even in low SES children. These assessments, associated with those of listening comprehension and vocabulary, may allow early identification of children at risk for reading difficulty, and to set up early remedial training, which is the most effective, for them. PMID:24250802

  13. Longitudinal cohort protocol study of oropharyngeal dysphagia: relationships to gross motor attainment, growth and nutritional status in preschool children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Benfer, Katherine A; Weir, Kelly A; Bell, Kristie L; Ware, Robert S; Davies, Peter S W; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia (OPD) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is estimated to be between 19% and 99%. OPD can impact on children's growth, nutrition and overall health. Despite the growing recognition of the extent and significance of health issues relating to OPD in children with CP, lack of knowledge of its profile in this subpopulation remains. This study aims to investigate the relationship between OPD, attainment of gross motor skills, growth and nutritional status in young children with CP at and between two crucial age points, 18–24 and 36 months, corrected age. Methods and analysis This prospective longitudinal population-based study aims to recruit a total of 200 children with CP born in Queensland, Australia between 1 September 2006 and 31 December 2009 (60 per birth-year). Outcomes include clinically assessed OPD (Schedule for Oral Motor Assessment, Dysphagia Disorders Survey, Pre-Speech Assessment Scale, signs suggestive of pharyngeal phase impairment, Thomas-Stonell and Greenberg Saliva Severity Scale), parent-reported OPD on a feeding questionnaire, gross motor skills (Gross Motor Function Measure, Gross Motor Function Classification System and motor type), growth and nutritional status (linear growth and body composition) and dietary intake (3 day food record). The strength of relationship between outcome and exposure variables will be analysed using regression modelling with ORs and relative risk ratios. Ethics and dissemination This protocol describes a study that provides the first large population-based study of OPD in a representative sample of preschool children with CP, using direct clinical assessment. Ethics has been obtained through the University of Queensland Medical Research Ethics Committee, the Children's Health Services District Ethics Committee, and at other regional and organisational ethics committees. Results are planned to be disseminated in six papers submitted to peer reviewed journals

  14. Light drinking versus abstinence in pregnancy – behavioural and cognitive outcomes in 7-year-old children: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Y; Iacovou, M; Quigley, MA; Gray, R; Wolke, D; Kelly, J; Sacker, A

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess whether light drinking in pregnancy is linked to unfavourable developmental outcomes in children. Design Prospective population-based cohort. Setting UK. Population Ten thousand five hundred and thirty-four 7-year-olds. Methods Quasi-experimental using propensity score matching (PSM) to compare children born to light (up to 2 units per week) and non-drinkers. Main outcome measures Behavioural difficulties rated by parents and teachers; cognitive test scores for reading, maths and spatial skills. Results Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and PSM analyses are presented. For behavioural difficulties, unadjusted estimates for percentage standard deviation (SD) score differences ranged from 2 to 14%. On adjustment for potential confounders, differences were attenuated, with a loss of statistical significance, except for teacher-rated boys' difficulties. For boys, parent-rated behavioural difficulties: unadjusted, −11.5; OLS, −4.3; PSM, −6.8; teacher-rated behavioural difficulties: unadjusted, −13.9; OLS, −9.6; PSM, −10.8. For girls, parent-rated behavioural difficulties: unadjusted, −9.6; OLS, −2.9; PSM, −4.5; teacher-rated behavioural difficulties: unadjusted, −2.4; OLS, 4.9; PSM, 3.9. For cognitive test scores, unadjusted estimates for differences ranged between 12 and 21% of an SD score for reading, maths and spatial skills. After adjustment for potential confounders, estimates were reduced, but remained statistically significantly different for reading and for spatial skills in boys. For boys, reading: unadjusted, 20.9; OLS, 8.3; PSM, 7.3; maths: unadjusted, 14.7; OLS, 5.0; PSM, 6.5; spatial skills: unadjusted, 16.2; OLS, 7.6; PSM, 8.1. For girls, reading: unadjusted, 11.6; OLS, −0.3; PSM, −0.5; maths: unadjusted, 12.9; OLS, 4.3; PSM, 3.9; spatial skills: unadjusted, 16.2; OLS, 7.7; PSM, 6.4. Conclusion The findings suggest that light drinking during pregnancy is not linked to developmental problems in mid

  15. The Association between Polypharmacy and Dementia: A Nested Case-Control Study Based on a 12-Year Longitudinal Cohort Database in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hae-Young; Park, Ji-Won; Song, Hong Ji; Sohn, Hyun Soon; Kwon, Jin-Won

    2017-01-01

    Dementia is a major concern among growing chronic diseases in the aging society and its association with polypharmacy has not been adequately assessed. The objective of this study was to determine the association between polypharmacy and dementia through multiple statistical approaches. We conducted a nested case-control study for newly diagnosed dementia cases using the South Korean National Health Insurance Service sample cohort database (2002–2013, n = 1,025,340). Interactions between polypharmacy (an average use of ≥5 prescription drugs daily) and comorbidities or potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) were tested. The odds ratios (ORs) for dementia were analyzed according to the presence of comorbidities, PIM uses, the average number of prescribed daily drugs, and significant interactions with polypharmacy using univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses. A higher prevalence of comorbidities, history of PIM use, higher PIM exposure, and higher proportion of polypharmacy were noted among cases than in controls. In the univariate analysis, the OR for dementia increased significantly with the increase in the number of prescribed drugs [1–<5 drugs: 1.72, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.56–1.88; 5–<10 drugs: 2.64, 95% CI: 2.32–3.05; ≥10 drugs: 3.35, 95% CI: 2.38–4.71; <1 drug used as reference]. Polypharmacy was correlated with comorbidities and PIM use, and significant interactions were observed between polypharmacy and anticholinergics; H2-receptor antagonists; and comorbidities such as hypertension, peripheral or cerebrovascular disease, congestive heart failure, hemiplegia, diabetes, depression, all other mental disorders, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, peptic ulcer disease, and chronic liver disease (p<0.001). In the multiple regression analysis, most cases exhibited increasing ORs for dementia with increasing polypharmacy levels. Moreover, the increase in OR was more evident in the absence of drugs or comorbidities that

  16. Trajectories of maternal depression and offspring psychopathology at 6 years: 2004 Pelotas cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Matijasevich, Alicia; Murray, Joseph; Cooper, Peter J.; Anselmi, Luciana; Barros, Aluísio J.D.; Barros, Fernando C.; Santos, Iná S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have addressed the course and severity of maternal depression and its effects on child psychiatric disorders from a longitudinal perspective. This study aimed to identify longitudinal patterns of maternal depression and to evaluate whether distinct depression trajectories predict particular psychiatric disorders in offspring. Methods Cohort of 4231 births followed-up in the city of Pelotas, Brazil. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 3, 12, 24 and 48 months and 6 years after delivery. Psychiatric disorders in 6-year-old children were evaluated through the development and well-being assessment (DAWBA) instrument. Trajectories of maternal depression were calculated using a group-based modelling approach. Results We identified five trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms: a “low” trajectory (34.8%), a “moderate low” (40.9%), a “increasing” (9.0%), a “decreasing” (9.9%), and a “high-chronic” trajectory (5.4%). The probability of children having any psychiatric disorder, as well as both internalizing and externalizing problems, increased as we moved from the “low” to the “high-chronic” trajectory. These differences were not explained by maternal and child characteristics examined in multivariate analyses. Limitations Data on maternal depression at 3-months was available on only a sub-sample. In addition, we had to rely on maternal report of child’s behavior alone. Conclusions The study revealed an additive effect on child outcome of maternal depression over time. We identified a group of mothers with chronic and severe symptoms of depression throughout the first six years of the child life and for this group child psychiatric outcome was particularly compromised. PMID:25553403

  17. Nested Cohort

    Cancer.gov

    NestedCohort is an R software package for fitting Kaplan-Meier and Cox Models to estimate standardized survival and attributable risks for studies where covariates of interest are observed on only a sample of the cohort.

  18. The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status for Hearing Impaired Individuals (RBANS-H) before and after Cochlear Implantation: A Protocol for a Prospective, Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Claes, Annes J.; Mertens, Griet; Gilles, Annick; Hofkens-Van den Brandt, Anouk; Fransen, Erik; Van Rompaey, Vincent; Van de Heyning, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background: Currently, an independent relationship between hearing loss and cognitive decline in older adults is suggested by large prospective studies. In general, cochlear implants improve hearing and the quality of life in severely to profoundly hearing impaired older persons. However, little is known about the effects of cochlear implantation on the cognitive evolution in this population. Aim of the study: The primary goal of this prospective, longitudinal cohort study is to explore the cognitive profile of severely to profoundly postlingually hearing impaired subjects before and after cochlear implantation. In addition, the current study aims to investigate the relationship between the cognitive function, audiometric performances, quality of life, and self-reliance in these patients. Methods: Twenty-five patients aged 55 or older, scheduled for cochlear implantation, will be enrolled in the study. They will be examined prior to implantation, at 6 and 12 months after implantation and annually thereafter. The test battery consists of (1) a cognitive examination, using the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status adapted for Hearing impaired persons (RBANS-H), (2) an audiological examination, including unaided and aided pure tone audiometry, speech audiometry in quiet and speech audiometry in noise, (3) the administration of four questionnaires evaluating quality of life and subjective hearing benefit and (4) a semi-structured interview about the self-reliance of the participant. Discussion: Up until now only one study has been conducted on this topic, focusing on the short-term effects of cochlear implantation on cognition in older adults. The present study is the first study to apply a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment adapted for severely to profoundly hearing impaired subjects in order to investigate the cognitive capabilities before and after cochlear implantation. Trial registration: The present protocol is

  19. Basal CD34+ Cell Count Predicts Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Mobilization in Healthy Donors after Administration of G-CSF: a Longitudinal, Prospective, Observational, Single-Center, Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Martino, Massimo; Gori, Mercedes; Pitino, Annalisa; Gentile, Massimo; Dattola, Antonia; Pontari, Antonella; Vigna, Ernesto; Moscato, Tiziana; Recchia, Anna Grazia; Barilla', Santina; Tripepi, Giovanni; Morabito, Fortunato

    2017-03-24

    A longitudinal, prospective, observational, single-center, cohort study on healthy donors (HDs) was designed to identify predictors of CD34+ cells on day 5 with emphasis on the predictive value of the basal CD34+ cell count. As potential predictors of mobilization, age, sex, body weight, height, blood volume as well as white blood cell count, peripheral blood (PB) mononuclear cells, platelet count, hematocrit, and hemoglobin levels were considered. Two different evaluations of CD34+ cell counts were determined for each donor: baseline (before granulocyte colony-stimulating factor [G-CSF] administration) and in PB after G-CSF administration on the morning of the fifth day (day 5). A total 128 consecutive HDs (66 males) with a median age of 43 years were enrolled. CD34+ levels on day 5 displayed a non-normal distribution with a median value of 75.5 cells/µL. To account for the non-normal distribution of the dependent variable, a quantile regression analysis to predict CD34+ on day 5 using the baseline value of CD34+ as the key predictor was performed. On crude analysis, a baseline value of CD34+ ranging from 0.5 to 1 cells/µL predicts a median value of 50 cells/µL on day 5; a value of 2 cells/µL predicts a median value of 70.7 cells/µL; a value of 3-4 cells/µL predicts a median value of 91.3 cells/µL, and a value ≥ 5 predicts a median value of 112 cells/µL. In conclusion, the baseline PB CD34+ cell count correlates with the effectiveness of allogeneic PBSC mobilization and could be useful to plan the collection.

  20. Impact of integrated upper limb spasticity management including botulinum toxin A on patient-centred goal attainment: rationale and protocol for an international prospective, longitudinal cohort study (ULIS-III)

    PubMed Central

    Turner-Stokes, Lynne; Ashford, Stephen; Jacinto, Jorge; Maisonobe, Pascal; Balcaitiene, Jovita; Fheodoroff, Klemens

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Describe the rationale and protocol for the Upper Limb International Spasticity (ULIS)-III study, which aims to evaluate the impact of integrated spasticity management, involving multiple botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) injection cycles and concomitant therapies, on patient-centred goal attainment. Outline novel outcome assessment methods for ULIS-III and report initial evaluation data from goal setting in early stages of the study. Design Large international longitudinal cohort study of integrated upper limb spasticity management, including BoNT-A. Participants and setting ULIS-III is a 2-year study expected to enrol >1000 participants at 58 study centres across 14 countries. Interventions The study design is non-interventional and intended to reflect real-life clinical practice. It will describe injection practices and additional treatment strategies, and record clinical decision-making in a serial approach to long-term spasticity management. Outcome measures ULIS-III will use a goal-directed approach to selection of targeted standardised measures to capture the diversity of presentation, goals and outcomes. ULIS-III will implement the Upper Limb Spasticity Index, a battery of assessments including a structured approach to goal attainment scaling (Goal Attainment Scaling—Evaluation of Outcomes for Upper Limb Spasticity tool), alongside a limited set of standardised measures, chosen according to patients' selected goal areas. Concomitant therapy inputs, patient satisfaction with engagement in goal setting, health economic end points and health-related quality of life data will also be captured. Results of initial evaluation of goal quality Recruitment started in January 2015. By June 2015, 58 sites had been identified and initial data collected for 79 patients across 13 sites in 3 countries. Goal setting data were quality-checked and centres rated on the basis of function-related and Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, Timed (SMART

  1. An Historical Framework for Cohort Differences in Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Schaie, K. Warner; Willis, Sherry L.; Pennak, Sara

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews key issues regarding the controversy on the direction and magnitude of cohort differences in intelligence. Data from the Seattle Longitudinal Study (SLS) illustrate why differences must be studied across multiple cohorts and multiple chronological ages. Differential cohort patterns for multiple dimensions of intelligence are described. A conceptual framework is suggested for the identification of historical influences important for developmental study of cohort differences. PMID:16858496

  2. Longitudinal relations among language skills, anger expression, and regulatory strategies in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Roben, Caroline K P; Cole, Pamela M; Armstrong, Laura Marie

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that as children's language skill develops in early childhood, it comes to help children regulate their emotions (Cole, Armstrong, & Pemberton, 2010; Kopp, 1989), but the pathways by which this occurs have not been studied empirically. In a longitudinal study of 120 children from 18 to 48 months of age, associations among child language skill, observed anger expression, and regulatory strategies during a delay task were examined. Toddlers with better language skill, and whose language skill increased more over time, appeared less angry at 48 months and their anger declined more over time. Two regulatory strategies, support seeking and distraction, explained a portion of the variance in the association between language skill and anger expression after toddlerhood.

  3. Longitudinal Relations Among Language Skills, Anger Expression, and Regulatory Strategies in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Roben, Caroline K.P.; Cole, Pamela M.; Armstrong, Laura Marie

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that as children’s language skill develops in early childhood, it comes to help children regulate their emotions (Cole, Armstrong, & Pemberton, 2010; Kopp, 1989), but the pathways by which this occurs have not been studied empirically. In a longitudinal study of 120 children from 18 to 48 months of age, associations among child language skill, observed anger expression, and regulatory strategies during a delay task were examined. Toddlers with better language skill, and whose language skill increased more over time, appeared less angry at 48 months and their anger declined more over time. Two regulatory strategies, support-seeking and distraction, explained a portion of the variance in the association between language skill and anger expression by 36 months. PMID:23278601

  4. Longitudinal research strategies: advantages, problems, and prospects.

    PubMed

    Farrington, D P

    1991-05-01

    The single-cohort, long-term longitudinal survey has many advantages in comparison with a cross-sectional survey in advancing knowledge about offending and other types of psychopathology, notably in providing information about onset and desistance, about continuity and prediction, and about within-individual change. However, the longitudinal survey also has significant problems, notably in confounding aging and period effects, delayed results, achieving continuity in funding and research direction, and cumulative attrition. This paper suggests the use of a multiple-cohort sequential strategy (the "accelerated longitudinal design") as a way of achieving the benefits of the longitudinal method while minimizing the problems in advancing knowledge about the natural history, causes, prevention, and treatment of psychopathological disorders.

  5. Longitudinal Outcomes for Mathematics Achievement for Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Sharon; Watson, Silvana M. R.

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the first 6 waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), the authors examined mathematics achievement and growth trajectories by learning disability (LD) subgroups. The 2-level (time-student) growth curve model showed that lower levels of mathematics achievement were already evident at…

  6. International standards for symphysis-fundal height based on serial measurements from the Fetal Growth Longitudinal Study of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project: prospective cohort study in eight countries

    PubMed Central

    Ohuma, Eric O; Gravett, Michael G; Hirst, Jane; da Silveira, Mariangela F; Lambert, Ann; Carvalho, Maria; Jaffer, Yasmin A; Altman, Douglas G; Noble, Julia A; Bertino, Enrico; Purwar, Manorama; Pang, Ruyan; Cheikh Ismail, Leila; Victora, Cesar; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Kennedy, Stephen H; Villar, José

    2016-01-01

    Objective To create international symphysis-fundal height standards derived from pregnancies of healthy women with good maternal and perinatal outcomes. Design Prospective longitudinal observational study. Setting Eight geographically diverse urban regions in Brazil, China, India, Italy, Kenya, Oman, United Kingdom, and United States. Participants Healthy, well nourished pregnant women enrolled into the Fetal Growth Longitudinal Study component of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project at 9-14 weeks’ gestation, and followed up until birth. Main outcome measures Symphysis-fundal height was measured every five weeks from 14 weeks’ gestation until birth using standardised methods and dedicated research staff who were blinded to the symphysis-fundal height measurements by turning the tape measure so that numbers were not visible during examination. The best fitting curve was selected using second degree fractional polynomials and further modelled in a multilevel framework to account for the longitudinal design of the study. Results Of 13 108 women screened in the first trimester, 4607 (35.1%) met the study entry criteria. Of the eligible women, 4321 (93.8%) had pregnancies without major complications and delivered live singletons without congenital malformations. The median number of symphysis-fundal height measurements was 5.0 (range 1-7); 3976 (92.0%) women had four or more measurements. Symphysis-fundal height measurements increased almost linearly with gestational age; data were used to determine fitted 3rd, 50th, and 97th centile curves, which showed excellent agreement with observed values. Conclusions This study presents international standards to measure symphysis-fundal height as a first level screening tool for fetal growth disturbances. PMID:27821614

  7. A Longitudinal Intergenerational Analysis of Executive Functions During Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, Kimberly; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Wang, Zhe; Morasch, Katherine C.; Bell, Martha Ann

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of executive function (EF) in both clinical and educational contexts, the etiology of individual differences in early childhood EF remains poorly understood. This study provides the first longitudinal intergenerational analysis of mother-child EF associations during early childhood. A group of children and their mothers (n = 62) completed age-appropriate EF tasks. Mother and child EF were modestly correlated by 24 months of age and this association was stable through 48 months. Importantly, maternal-child EF associations were still robust after controlling for verbal ability (potential indicator of verbal/crystallized intelligence) and maternal education (correlate of socioeconomic status and verbal intelligence). Potential implications of these findings as well as underlying mechanisms of the maternal-child EF association (gene-environment interplay) are discussed. PMID:25284715

  8. Data resource profile: 1991 Canadian Census Cohort.

    PubMed

    Peters, Paul A; Tjepkema, Michael; Wilkins, Russell; Fines, Philippe; Crouse, Daniel L; Chan, Ping Ching Winnie; Burnett, Richard T

    2013-10-01

    The 1991 Canadian Census Cohort is the largest population-based cohort in Canada (N=2,734,835). Prior to the creation of this Cohort, no national population-based Canadian cohort was available to examine mortality by socioeconomic indicators. The 1991 Canadian Census Cohort was created via the linkage of a sub-sample of respondents from the mandatory 1991 Canadian Census long-form to historical tax summary files, Canadian Mortality Database, Canadian Cancer Database, 1991 Health and Activity Limitation Survey and a sub-sample of the Longitudinal Worker File. Overall ascertainment of mortality and cancer is anticipated to be nearly complete and the Cohort is broadly representative of most groups in the Canadian population. The Cohort has been used to examine mortality outcomes by different indicators of socioeconomic status, occupational categories, ethnic groups, educational attainment, and for exposure to ambient air pollution. Results have shown that the estimated remaining years of life at age 25 differed substantially by income adequacy quintile, educational attainment, housing type and Aboriginal ancestry.

  9. Birth size, risk factors across life and cognition in late life: protocol of prospective longitudinal follow-up of the MYNAH (MYsore studies of Natal effects on Ageing and Health) cohort

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, Murali; Kumar, G Mohan; Veena, S R; Krishnaveni, G V; Kumaran, Kalyanaraman; Karat, Samuel Christaprasad; Coakley, Patsy; Osmond, Clive; Copeland, John R M; Chandak, Giriraj; Bhat, Dattatray; Varghese, Mathew; Prince, Martin; Fall, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Introduction For late-life neurocognitive disorders, as for other late-life chronic diseases, much recent interest has focused on the possible relevance of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Programming by undernutrition in utero, followed by overnutrition in adult life may lead to an increased risk, possibly mediated through cardiovascular and metabolic pathways. This study will specifically examine, if lower birth weight is associated with poorer cognitive functioning in late life in a south Indian population. Methods and analysis From 1934 onwards, the birth weight, length and head circumference of all babies born in the CSI Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, India, were recorded in obstetric notes. Approximately 800 men and women from the Mysore Birth Records Cohort aged above 55 years, and a reliable informant for each, will be asked to participate in a single cross-sectional baseline assessment for cognitive function, mental health and cardiometabolic disorders. Participants will be assessed for hypertension, type-2 diabetes and coronary heart disease, nutritional status, health behaviours and lifestyles, family living arrangements, economic status, social support and social networks. Additional investigations include blood tests (for diabetes, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, anaemia, vitamin B12 and folate deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, renal impairment, thyroid disease and Apolipoprotein E genotype), anthropometry, ECG, blood pressure, spirometry and body composition (bioimpedance). We will develop an analysis plan, first using traditional univariate and multivariable analytical paradigms with independent, dependent and mediating/confounding/interacting variables to test the main hypotheses. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the research ethics committee of CSI Holdsworth Memorial Hospital. The findings will be disseminated locally and at international meetings, and will be published in open access peer

  10. The association of peripubertal serum concentrations of organochlorine chemicals and blood lead with growth and pubertal development in a longitudinal cohort of boys: a review of published results from the Russian Children's Study.

    PubMed

    Sergeyev, Oleg; Burns, Jane S; Williams, Paige L; Korrick, Susan A; Lee, Mary M; Revich, Boris; Hauser, Russ

    2017-03-01

    Organochlorine chemicals and lead are environmental exposures that have endocrine disrupting properties (EDCs) which interfere with many aspects of hormone action. Childhood and adolescence are windows of susceptibility for adverse health effects of EDCs. Our ongoing study, the Russian Children's Study (RCS), is one of the few longitudinal studies investigating the impact of EDCs on growth and puberty in boys. It is conducted in the historically contaminated city of Chapaevsk, in the Samara region. The study focuses on evaluating the associations of persistent organochlorine chemicals and lead with growth and pubertal timing. At enrollment in 2003-2005, we collected blood from 516 boys at ages 8-9 years to measure dioxins, furans, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated pesticides and lead. At enrollment and at annual visits through the ages of 18-19 years, a physician performed physical examinations that included pubertal staging and testicular volume measurements. We review the history of Chapaevsk as a research site and summarize published RCS data on the association of peripubertal serum concentrations of organochlorines and blood lead levels with growth, pubertal onset and sexual maturity. Overall, we found that persistent organochlorines and lead negatively affected growth during puberty. Our results also suggest that total toxic equivalents (TEQs), dioxin-like compounds, organochlorine pesticides and lead may delay, while nondioxin-like-PCBs may advance, the timing of male puberty. These findings promoted remediation programs in Chapaevsk, with improvement in health indicators, resulting in Chapaevsk being designated a member of the World Health Organization (WHO) network "Healthy Cities" in 2015.

  11. Pain relief and improved physical function in knee osteoarthritis patients receiving ongoing hylan G-F 20, a high-molecular-weight hyaluronan, versus other treatment options: data from a large real-world longitudinal cohort in Canada.

    PubMed

    Petrella, Robert J; Wakeford, Craig

    2015-01-01

    From the Southwestern Ontario database, one of the largest primary-care datasets in Canada, 1,263 patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of one or both knees were identified who received two consecutive series of intra-articular (IA) injections of hylan G-F 20 preparation and no other prescribed OA medications, and were evaluated fully between 2006 and 2012. A cohort of 3,318 demographically matched OA patients who had not been treated with IA injection therapy was identified from the same database for comparison. Responses to therapy were assessed by means of a 10-point visual analog scale (VAS) for pain at rest and after completion of a 6-minute walk test (6 MWT), while physical capacity was measured by performance in the 6 MWT itself. After two cycles of hylan G-F 20 therapy, the average VAS score for pain at rest declined from 7.82 ± 1.27 at baseline to 4.16 ± 1.51 (average change 3.66 ± 1.78, significantly more than the reduction of 3.12 ± 2.03 seen in the reference group [P < 0.012]) and the average VAS score for pain after the 6 MWT decreased by 5.56 ± 1.74 points (from 9.58 ± 0.4 at baseline to 4.02 ± 1.67 at the final assessment), a significantly larger change than that seen in the reference group (Δ2.99 ± 1.85; P<0.001 for intergroup comparison). Distance walked in the 6 MWT increased on average by 115 m, significantly more than that seen in the reference group (Δ91 m; P < 0.001 for intergroup comparison). These findings from a primary-care database suggest sustained benefits in terms of pain and physical function from repeat cycles of IA injections of hylan G-F 20 and no other prescribed OA medications in adults with OA of the knee.

  12. Pain relief and improved physical function in knee osteoarthritis patients receiving ongoing hylan G-F 20, a high-molecular-weight hyaluronan, versus other treatment options: data from a large real-world longitudinal cohort in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Petrella, Robert J; Wakeford, Craig

    2015-01-01

    From the Southwestern Ontario database, one of the largest primary-care datasets in Canada, 1,263 patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of one or both knees were identified who received two consecutive series of intra-articular (IA) injections of hylan G-F 20 preparation and no other prescribed OA medications, and were evaluated fully between 2006 and 2012. A cohort of 3,318 demographically matched OA patients who had not been treated with IA injection therapy was identified from the same database for comparison. Responses to therapy were assessed by means of a 10-point visual analog scale (VAS) for pain at rest and after completion of a 6-minute walk test (6MWT), while physical capacity was measured by performance in the 6MWT itself. After two cycles of hylan G-F 20 therapy, the average VAS score for pain at rest declined from 7.82±1.27 at baseline to 4.16±1.51 (average change 3.66±1.78, significantly more than the reduction of 3.12±2.03 seen in the reference group [P<0.012]) and the average VAS score for pain after the 6MWT decreased by 5.56±1.74 points (from 9.58±0.4 at baseline to 4.02±1.67 at the final assessment), a significantly larger change than that seen in the reference group (Δ2.99±1.85; P<0.001 for intergroup comparison). Distance walked in the 6MWT increased on average by 115 m, significantly more than that seen in the reference group (Δ91 m; P<0.001 for intergroup comparison). These findings from a primary-care database suggest sustained benefits in terms of pain and physical function from repeat cycles of IA injections of hylan G-F 20 and no other prescribed OA medications in adults with OA of the knee. PMID:26508838

  13. Trajectories of Mental Health over 16 Years amongst Young Adult Women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…

  14. NCI Cohort Consortium Membership

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Cohort Consortium membership is international and includes investigators responsible for more than 40 high-quality cohorts who are studying large and diverse populations in more than 15 different countries.

  15. Cohort profile: the Spanish WORKing life Social Security (WORKss) cohort study

    PubMed Central

    López Gómez, María Andrée; Durán, Xavier; Zaballa, Elena; Sanchez-Niubo, Albert; Delclos, George L; Benavides, Fernando G

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The global economy is changing the labour market and social protection systems in Europe. The effect of both changes on health needs to be monitored in view of an ageing population and the resulting increase in prevalence of chronic health conditions. The Spanish WORKing life Social Security (WORKss) cohort study provides unique longitudinal data to study the impact of labour trajectories and employment conditions on health, in terms of sickness absence, permanent disability and death. Participants The WORKss cohort originated from the Continuous Working Life Sample (CWLS) generated by the General Directorate for the Organization of the Social Security in Spain. The CWLS contains a 4% representative sample of all individuals in contact with the Social Security system. The WORKss cohort exclusively includes individuals with a labour trajectory from 1981 or later. In 2004, the cohort was initiated with 1 022 779 Social Security members: 840 770 (82.2%) contributors and 182 009 (17.8%) beneficiaries aged 16 and older. Findings to date The WORKss cohort includes demographic characteristics, chronological data about employment history, retirement, permanent disability and death. These data make possible the measurement of incidence of permanent disability, the number of potential years of working life lost, and the number of contracts and inactive periods with the Social Security system. The WORKss cohort was linked to temporary sickness absence registries to study medical diagnoses that lead to permanent disability and consequently to an earlier exit from the labour market in unhealthy conditions. Future plans Thanks to its administrative source, the WORKss cohort study will continue follow-up in the coming years, keeping the representativeness of the Spanish population affiliated to the Social Security system. The linkage between the WORKss cohort and temporary sickness absence registries is envisioned to continue. Future plans include the linkage of

  16. A Cross-Cohort Examination of Nonmarital Teenage Childbearing. JCPR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mach, Traci

    This paper examines the nonmarital teenage childbearing behavior of two cohorts of women from the National Longitudinal Surveys (born between 1957-1964, making them teenagers during the 1970s-80s, and between 1980-94, making them teenagers during the late 1990s-early 2000s). The two cohorts faced substantially different social and economic…

  17. Global teaching and training initiatives for emerging cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Jessica K; Santoyo-Vistrain, Rocío; Havelick, David; Cohen, Amy; Kalyesubula, Robert; Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo O; Mattsson, Jens G; Adami, Hans-Olov; Dalal, Shona

    2012-09-01

    A striking disparity exists across the globe, with essentially no large-scale longitudinal studies ongoing in regions that will be significantly affected by the oncoming non-communicable disease epidemic. The successful implementation of cohort studies in most low-resource research environments presents unique challenges that may be aided by coordinated training programs. Leaders of emerging cohort studies attending the First World Cohort Integration Workshop were surveyed about training priorities, unmet needs and potential cross-cohort solutions to these barriers through an electronic pre-workshop questionnaire and focus groups. Cohort studies representing India, Mexico, Nigeria, South Africa, Sweden, Tanzania and Uganda described similar training needs, including on-the-job training, data analysis software instruction, and database and bio-bank management. A lack of funding and protected time for training activities were commonly identified constraints. Proposed solutions include a collaborative cross-cohort teaching platform with web-based content and interactive teaching methods for a range of research personnel. An international network for research mentorship and idea exchange, and modifying the graduate thesis structure were also identified as key initiatives. Cross-cohort integrated educational initiatives will efficiently meet shared needs, catalyze the development of emerging cohorts, speed closure of the global disparity in cohort research, and may fortify scientific capacity development in low-resource settings.

  18. Constructing Alternate Assessment Cohorts: An Oregon Perspective. Research Brief 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saven, Jessica L.; Farley, Dan; Tindal, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinally modeling the growth of students with significant cognitive disabilities (SWSCDs) on alternate assessments based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS) presents many challenges for states. The number of students in Grades 3-8 who remain in a cohort group varies over time, depending on the methods used to construct the…

  19. Longitudinal Investigation of Source Memory Reveals Different Developmental Trajectories for Item Memory and Binding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggins, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    The present study used a cohort-sequential design to examine developmental changes in children's ability to bind items in memory during early and middle childhood. Three cohorts of children (aged 4, 6, or 8 years) were followed longitudinally for 3 years. Each year, children completed a source memory paradigm assessing memory for items and…

  20. Schooling, Childhood Poverty and International Development: Choices and Challenges in a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyden, Jo; James, Zoe

    2014-01-01

    Due to the rarity of longitudinal data, evidence on the benefits of education across the life-course is relatively sparse in developing countries. Young Lives is the only comparative dual-cohort study to combine data collection using mixed-methods at child, household, school and community levels, following 12,000 children in two cohorts across…

  1. Longitudinal Stability of the Beck Depression Inventory II: A Latent Trait-State-Occasion Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Pei-Chen

    2016-01-01

    In a six-wave longitudinal study with two cohorts (660 adolescents and 630 young adults), this study investigated the longitudinal stability of the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) using the Trait-State-Occasion (TSO) model. The results revealed that the full TSO model was the best fitting representation of the depression measured by the…

  2. An Investigation into Using National Longitudinal Studies to Examine Trends in Educational Attainment and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNiece, Rosie; Bidgood, Penelope; Soan, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Longitudinal studies can provide individual histories of educational attainment and are becoming widely used in educational research. Two national longitudinal studies, the National Child Development Study (NCDS) and the British Cohort Study of 1970 (BCS70), are used here to investigate changing trends in the educational attainment of children in…

  3. A Longitudinal Study of Midage Women with Indicators of Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairweather-Schmidt, A. Kate; Lee, Christina; Wade, Tracey D.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study of midage women has two main aims: to examine the effect of disordered eating (DE) on quality of life (QoL) among women, including a comparison with a younger cohort and to investigate the mediating roles of both depressive symptoms and social support on the longitudinal relationship between DE and QoL as potential…

  4. Cohort Profile Update: The GAZEL Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Marcel; Leclerc, Annette; Zins, Marie

    2015-02-01

    The original GAZEL cohort was composed of 20 625 employees of the French national gas and electricity companies (15 011 male employees then aged 40 to 50 years and 5614 women between 35 and 50 years old) at its inception in 1989. A Cohort Profile article was published in 2007. By the end of 2013, participants were aged 60-75, and almost all of them retired during follow-up. Accordingly, the main focus of research in the past decade was devoted to the study of the persistent, long-term effects of occupational exposures after retirement; of the transition between professionally active life and retirement; and on determinants of early ageing. Accordingly, in addition to the health, behavioural and social data collected yearly since the beginning of the follow-up, new data were thus collected on cognitive complaints, cognitive and physical functioning, limitations in daily activities, time use and social relationships of retirees. This update presents the main findings of research within the GAZEL Cohort Study during the past 7 years. Any research group, in France or elsewhere, can submit a research proposal to work on the GAZEL cohort. To do this, interested researchers should contact one of the principal investigators of the GAZEL Cohort Study.

  5. Accelerated longitudinal designs: An overview of modelling, power, costs and handling missing data

    PubMed Central

    Galbraith, Sally; Bowden, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal studies are often used to investigate age-related developmental change. Whereas a single cohort design takes a group of individuals at the same initial age and follows them over time, an accelerated longitudinal design takes multiple single cohorts, each one starting at a different age. The main advantage of an accelerated longitudinal design is its ability to span the age range of interest in a shorter period of time than would be possible with a single cohort longitudinal design. This paper considers design issues for accelerated longitudinal studies. A linear mixed effect model is considered to describe the responses over age with random effects for intercept and slope parameters. Random and fixed cohort effects are used to cope with the potential bias accelerated longitudinal designs have due to multiple cohorts. The impact of other factors such as costs and the impact of dropouts on the power of testing or the precision of estimating parameters are examined. As duration-related costs increase relative to recruitment costs the best designs shift towards shorter duration and eventually cross-sectional design being best. For designs with the same duration but differing interval between measurements, we found there was a cutoff point for measurement costs relative to recruitment costs relating to frequency of measurements. Under our model of 30% dropout there was a maximum power loss of 7%. PMID:25147228

  6. Cohort profile: UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS).

    PubMed

    Connelly, Roxanne; Platt, Lucinda

    2014-12-01

    The UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) is an observational, multidisciplinary cohort study that was set up to follow the lives of children born at the turn of the new century. The MCS is nationally representative and 18 552 families (18 827 children) were recruited to the cohort in the first sweep. There have currently been five main sweeps of data collection, at ages 9 months and 3, 5, 7 and 11 years. A further sweep of data collection is planned for age 14 years. A range of health-related data have been collected as well as measures concerning child development, cognitive ability and educational attainment. The data also include a wealth of information describing the social, economic and demographic characteristics of the cohort members and their families. In addition, the MCS data have been linked to administrative data resources including health records. The MCS provides a unique and valuable resource for the analysis of health outcomes and health inequalities. The MCS data are freely available to bona fide researchers under standard access conditions via the UK Data Service (http://ukdataservice.ac.uk) and the MCS website provides detailed information on the study (http://www.cls.ioe.ac.uk/mcs).

  7. Longitudinal Multistage Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Steffi

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces longitudinal multistage testing (lMST), a special form of multistage testing (MST), as a method for adaptive testing in longitudinal large-scale studies. In lMST designs, test forms of different difficulty levels are used, whereas the values on a pretest determine the routing to these test forms. Since lMST allows for…

  8. Longitudinal impedance of RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J. M.; Mernick, K.

    2015-05-03

    The longitudinal impedance of the two RHIC rings has been measured using the effect of potential well distortion on longitudinal Schottky measurements. For the blue RHIC ring Im(Z/n) = 1.5±0.2Ω. For the yellow ring Im(Z/n) = 5.4±1Ω.

  9. Longitudinal Stability Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz,M.

    2009-01-02

    Coupled bunch longitudinal stability in the presence of high frequency impedances is considered. A frequency domain technique is developed and compared with simulations. The frequency domain technique allows for absolute stability tests and is applied to the problem of longitudinal stability in RHIC with the new 56 MHz RF system.

  10. Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts

    Cancer.gov

    Cohort studies are fundamental for epidemiological research by helping researchers better understand the etiology of cancer and provide insights into the key determinants of this disease and its outcomes.

  11. Cohort profile: The Isle of Man Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Goodfellow, Stephanie A; Rolfe, Edna M; Golding, Jean

    2013-10-01

    The Isle of Man is a self-governing British Crown Dependency situated equidistantly from England, Scotland and Ireland. In 1991, its population of ∼75,000 comprised ∼50% indigenous Manx and 50% immigrants, mainly from the surrounding countries. It was invited to join the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood. The aim of the study was to enrol all pregnant women resident on the Island with an expected date of delivery in the 18-month period of January 1991-June 1992. A total of 1314 livebirths formed the eligible cohort. Questionnaires were completed by mothers and their partners during pregnancy and subsequently at 6 weeks, 6 months, 18 months, 3, 5, 7 and 15/16 years. Hands-on examination of the children occurred at age 7 years, when biological samples were collected. Teachers completed questionnaires at 7 and 15 years; medical records were extracted for the obstetric and childhood periods. Response rates varied from >80% from teachers and children at 15 years to only 23% from partners when their children were aged 7 years. Selected data sets are available to collaborators, although many of the data need funds for further collaboration.

  12. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Autistic Traits in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children: Precursors and Early Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Patrick F.; Golding, Jean; Emond, Alan; Steer, Colin D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To chart the emergence of precursors and early signs of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and autistic traits in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a prospective longitudinal cohort study of the surviving offspring of 14,541 pregnant women from southwestern England with an expected delivery date between April 1991 and…

  13. Differences in Causal Estimates from Longitudinal Analyses of Residualized versus Simple Gain Scores: Contrasting Controls for Selection and Regression Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larzelere, Robert E.; Ferrer, Emilio; Kuhn, Brett R.; Danelia, Ketevan

    2010-01-01

    This study estimates the causal effects of six corrective actions for children's problem behaviors, comparing four types of longitudinal analyses that correct for pre-existing differences in a cohort of 1,464 4- and 5-year-olds from Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) data. Analyses of residualized gain scores found…

  14. [Methodological problems of longitudinal studies on schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Häfner, H; an der Heiden, W

    2000-05-01

    Longitudinal studies are a key to understanding schizophrenia. They are the more informative, the longer the periods covered. Hence, good studies into the course of schizophrenia almost exclusively involve a lot of effort and cost. In practice, however, time-consuming methods and design variables must be avoided. The pitfalls this constraint produces are instructive of the difficulties longitudinal studies are faced with in striving for valid results. For reasons of research economy, requirements must be adjusted to study objectives. Studies into the short term course are less time-consuming, but because of the rapid changes in the illness course study intervals should be defined clearly and observed strictly. In long-term studies, too, one source of error lies in the highly varying lengths of illness of the patients studied. Even some of the classic long-term studies are marred by this error. The beginning of the follow-up period should be comparable across the study cohort and as close to illness onset as possible. To obtain generally valid results the probands must be representative of all the illness cases in the general population not only at the outset, but also all the later stages of the study. Besides the efforts to avoid attrition in the study cohort, ways must be found for correcting and estimating data for an acceptable proportion of drop-outs. In the analysis of course and outcome the indicators chosen must be apt to the traditional subtypes as well as to a theoretical symptom patterns and empirical symptom structures. In the context of typical design variables of longitudinal studies the assets and weaknesses of two retrospective and one prospective design will be discussed. Concerning the social course, importance of disease-independent factors, such as age, sex and level of social development at illness onset, as well as of control groups will be demonstrated. Predictor models will be discussed with reference to the direct and indirect influences

  15. NCI Cohort Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Cohort Consortium is an extramural-intramural partnership formed by the National Cancer Institute to address the need for large-scale collaborations to pool the large quantity of data and biospecimens necessary to conduct a wide range of cancer studies.

  16. Coming of Age in the 1990s: The Eighth-Grade Class of 1988 12 Years Later. Initial Results from the Fourth Follow-Up to the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988. Statistical Analysis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingels, Steven J.; Curtin, Thomas R.; Kaufman, Phillip; Alt, Martha Naomi; Chen, Xianglei; Owings, Jeffrey A.

    This report examines the eighth grade cohort of 1888 in the year 2000. It presents findings from the fourth followup survey of the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88), from the year in which most cohort members turned 26. The period in which this cohort attended school saw major initiatives in educational reform in the United…

  17. The Effects of Multiple Reformed Courses on Freshman Cohorts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Robert B.; West, Emily A.; Potter, Wendell H.

    2010-02-01

    Beginning fall 2007 successive 48-student cohorts of entering freshmen bio-science majors have been enrolled in reformed course sections to test the proposition that students who were exposed simultaneously to both math and science courses, which explicitly stress sense-making rather than memorization, would more quickly develop habits of mind and approaches to learning that are more productive and useful than the memorization mindset that is so typical of entering freshmen. Preliminary results show positive performance gains of the cohort students in subsequent courses. Variations in the sequence of course offerings has allowed the separate analysis of the impact of taking a radically reformed physics course even on immediately following science courses in the freshman year. Longitudinal performance data through fall-quarter 2009 for cohorts entering in 2007 and 2008 will be presented as well as qualitative interview and survey data. )

  18. The American College of Rheumatology and the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus in two multiethnic cohorts: a commentary.

    PubMed

    Pons-Estel, G J; Wojdyla, D; McGwin, G; Magder, L S; Petri, M A; Pons-Estel, B A; Alarcón, G S

    2014-01-01

    The authors offer some comments on the advantages and possible drawbacks of using the SLICC criteria in longitudinal observational studies and clinical trials after applying and comparing them to the ACR criteria in two multinational, multiethnic lupus cohorts.

  19. International Childhood Cancer Cohort Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    An alliance of several large-scale prospective cohort studies of children to pool data and biospecimens from individual cohorts to study various modifiable and genetic factors in relation to cancer risk

  20. Longitudinal Functional Data Analysis.

    PubMed

    Park, So Young; Staicu, Ana-Maria

    We consider dependent functional data that are correlated because of a longitudinal-based design: each subject is observed at repeated times and at each time a functional observation (curve) is recorded. We propose a novel parsimonious modeling framework for repeatedly observed functional observations that allows to extract low dimensional features. The proposed methodology accounts for the longitudinal design, is designed to study the dynamic behavior of the underlying process, allows prediction of full future trajectory, and is computationally fast. Theoretical properties of this framework are studied and numerical investigations confirm excellent behavior in finite samples. The proposed method is motivated by and applied to a diffusion tensor imaging study of multiple sclerosis.

  1. Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS)

    PubMed Central

    Justice, Amy C.; Dombrowski, Elizabeth; Conigliaro, Joseph; Fultz, Shawn L.; Gibson, Deborah; Madenwald, Tamra; Goulet, Joseph; Simberkoff, Michael; Butt, Adeel A.; Rimland, David; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C.; Gibert, Cynthia L.; Oursler, Kris Ann K.; Brown, Sheldon; Leaf, David A.; Goetz, Matthew B.; Bryant, Kendall

    2010-01-01

    Background The Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) is a study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected and uninfected patients seen in infectious disease and general medical clinics. VACS includes the earlier 3 and 5 site studies (VACS 3 and VACS 5) as well as the ongoing 8 site study. Objectives We sought to provide background and context for analyses based upon VACS data, including study design and rationale as well as its basic protocol and the baseline characteristics of the enrolled sample. Research Design We undertook a prospectively consented multisite observational study of veterans in care with and without HIV infection. Measures Data were derived from patient and provider self report, telephone interviews, blood and DNA samples, focus groups, and full access to the national VA “paperless” electronic medical record system. Results More than 7200 veterans have been enrolled in at least one of the studies. The 8 site study (VACS) has enrolled 2979 HIV-infected and 3019 HIV-uninfected age–race–site matched comparators and has achieved stratified enrollment targets for race/ethnicity and age and 99% of its total target enrollment as of October 30, 2005. Participants in VACS are similar to other veterans receiving care within the VA. VACS participants are older and more predominantly black than those reported by the Centers for Disease Control. Conclusions VACS has assembled a rich, in-depth, and representative sample of veterans in care with and without HIV infection to conduct longitudinal analyses of questions concerning the association between alcohol use and related comorbid and AIDS-defining conditions. PMID:16849964

  2. Short communication: feasibility and acceptability of developing a multisite clinical cohort of transgender people with HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Poteat, Tonia C; Hanna, David B; Althoff, Keri N

    2015-09-01

    Transgender women bear a disproportionate burden of HIV, yet data among this population are not routinely collected in HIV clinical cohorts. Brief surveys and follow-up qualitative interviews were conducted with principal investigators or designated representatives of 17 HIV clinical cohorts to determine the acceptability and feasibility of pooling transgender-specific data from existing HIV clinical cohort studies. Twelve of 17 sites reported that they already collect gender identity data but not consistently. Others were receptive to collecting this information. Many also expressed interest in a study of clinical outcomes among HIV-infected transgender women using pooled data across cohorts. The collection of longitudinal data on transgender people living with HIV is acceptable and feasible for most North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD) cohorts. HIV clinical cohort studies should make efforts to include transgender individuals and develop the tools to collect quality data on this high-need population.

  3. Longitudinal discharge laser electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Warner, B.E.; Miller, J.L.; Ault, E.R.

    1994-08-23

    The improved longitudinal discharge laser electrode with IR baffle includes an electrode made up of washers spaced along the laser axis in order to form inter-washer spaces for hollow cathode discharge to take place and for IR radiation to be trapped. Additional IR baffles can be placed between the electrode ann the window. 2 figs.

  4. Longitudinal discharge laser baffles

    DOEpatents

    Warner, B.E.; Ault, E.R.

    1994-06-07

    The IR baffles placed between the window and the electrode of a longitudinal discharge laser improve laser performance by intercepting off-axis IR radiation from the laser and in doing so reduce window heating and subsequent optical distortion of the laser beam. 1 fig.

  5. Longitudinal discharge laser baffles

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Bruce E.; Ault, Earl R.

    1994-01-01

    The IR baffles placed between the window and the electrode of a longitudinal discharge laser improve laser performance by intercepting off-axis IR radiation from the laser and in doing so reduce window heating and subsequent optical distortion of the laser beam.

  6. Longitudinal discharge laser electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Bruce E.; Miller, John L.; Ault, Earl R.

    1994-01-01

    The improved longitudinal discharge laser electrode with IR baffle includes an electrode made up of washers spaced along the laser axis in order to form inter-washer spaces for hollow cathode discharge to take place and for IR radiation to be trapped. Additional IR baffles can be placed between the electrode ann the window.

  7. Cohort profile: Shahroud Eye Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Fotouhi, Akbar; Hashemi, Hassan; Shariati, Mohammad; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Yazdani, Kamran; Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Koohian, Hassan; Khademi, Mohammad Reza; Hodjatjalali, Kamran; Kheirkhah, Ahmad; Chaman, Reza; Malihi, Sarvenaz; Mirzaii, Mehdi; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi

    2013-10-01

    The Shahroud Eye Cohort Study was set up to determine the prevalence and incidence of visual impairment and major eye conditions in the 40-64-year-old population of Shahroud as a Middle Eastern population. The first phase of the study was conducted in 2009-10. Using random cluster sampling, 6311 Shahroud inhabitants were invited for ophthalmologic examinations; of these, 5190 participants completed phase 1 (participation rate of 82.2%). All participants were interviewed to collect data on participants' demographics, occupation status, socioeconomic status, history of smoking, and medical and ophthalmic history, as well as history of medication, and the quality and duration of their insurance. DNA and plasma samples, as well as four dots of whole blood were collected from participants. Extensive optometric and ophthalmologic examinations were performed for each participant, including lensometry of current glasses, testing near and far visual acuity; determining objective and subjective refraction; eye motility; cycloplegic refraction; colour vision test; slit-lamp biomicroscopy and intraocular pressure measurement; direct and indirect fundoscopy; perimetry test; ocular biometry; corneal topography; lens and fundus photography; and the Schirmer's (1008 participants) and tear breakup time tests (1013 participants). The study data are available for collaborative research at Noor Ophthalmology Research Center, Tehran, Iran.

  8. Cohort Profile: Mysore Parthenon Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Veena, Sargoor R; Hill, Jacqueline C; Karat, Samuel C; Fall, Caroline HD

    2015-01-01

    The Mysore Parthenon Birth Cohort was established to examine the long-term effects of maternal glucose tolerance and nutritional status on cardiovascular disease risk factors in the offspring. During 1997–98, 830 of 1233 women recruited from the antenatal clinics of the Holdsworth Memorial Hospital (HMH), Mysore, India, underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Of these, 667 women delivered live babies at HMH. Four babies with major congenital anomalies were excluded, and the remaining 663 were included for further follow-up. The babies had detailed anthropometry at birth and at 6–12-monthly intervals subsequently. Detailed cardiovascular investigations were done at ages 5, 9.5 and 13.5 years in the children, and in the parents at the 5-year and 9.5-year follow-ups. This ongoing study provides extensive data on serial anthropometry and body composition, physiological and biochemical measures, dietary intake, nutritional status, physical activity measures, stress reactivity measures and cognitive function, and socio-demographic parameters for the offspring. Data on anthropometry, cardiovascular risk factors and nutritional status are available for mothers during pregnancy. Anthropometry and risk factor measures are available for both parents at follow-up. PMID:24609067

  9. Cohort profile: Mysore parthenon birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Veena, Sargoor R; Hill, Jacqueline C; Karat, Samuel C; Fall, Caroline H D

    2015-02-01

    The Mysore Parthenon Birth Cohort was established to examine the long-term effects of maternal glucose tolerance and nutritional status on cardiovascular disease risk factors in the offspring. During 1997-98, 830 of 1233 women recruited from the antenatal clinics of the Holdsworth Memorial Hospital (HMH), Mysore, India, underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Of these, 667 women delivered live babies at HMH. Four babies with major congenital anomalies were excluded, and the remaining 663 were included for further follow-up. The babies had detailed anthropometry at birth and at 6-12-monthly intervals subsequently. Detailed cardiovascular investigations were done at ages 5, 9.5 and 13.5 years in the children, and in the parents at the 5-year and 9.5-year follow-ups. This ongoing study provides extensive data on serial anthropometry and body composition, physiological and biochemical measures, dietary intake, nutritional status, physical activity measures, stress reactivity measures and cognitive function, and socio-demographic parameters for the offspring. Data on anthropometry, cardiovascular risk factors and nutritional status are available for mothers during pregnancy. Anthropometry and risk factor measures are available for both parents at follow-up.

  10. The international primary ciliary dyskinesia cohort (iPCD Cohort): methods and first results

    PubMed Central

    Goutaki, Myrofora; Maurer, Elisabeth; Halbeisen, Florian S.; Amirav, Israel; Barbato, Angelo; Behan, Laura; Boon, Mieke; Casaulta, Carmen; Clement, Annick; Crowley, Suzanne; Haarman, Eric; Hogg, Claire; Karadag, Bulent; Koerner-Rettberg, Cordula; Leigh, Margaret W.; Loebinger, Michael R.; Mazurek, Henryk; Morgan, Lucy; Nielsen, Kim G.; Omran, Heymut; Schwerk, Nicolaus; Scigliano, Sergio; Werner, Claudius; Yiallouros, Panayiotis; Zivkovic, Zorica; Lucas, Jane S.

    2017-01-01

    Data on primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) epidemiology is scarce and published studies are characterised by low numbers. In the framework of the European Union project BESTCILIA we aimed to combine all available datasets in a retrospective international PCD cohort (iPCD Cohort). We identified eligible datasets by performing a systematic review of published studies containing clinical information on PCD, and by contacting members of past and current European Respiratory Society Task Forces on PCD. We compared the contents of the datasets, clarified definitions and pooled them in a standardised format. As of April 2016 the iPCD Cohort includes data on 3013 patients from 18 countries. It includes data on diagnostic evaluations, symptoms, lung function, growth and treatments. Longitudinal data are currently available for 542 patients. The extent of clinical details per patient varies between centres. More than 50% of patients have a definite PCD diagnosis based on recent guidelines. Children aged 10–19 years are the largest age group, followed by younger children (≤9 years) and young adults (20–29 years). This is the largest observational PCD dataset available to date. It will allow us to answer pertinent questions on clinical phenotype, disease severity, prognosis and effect of treatments, and to investigate genotype–phenotype correlations. PMID:28052956

  11. The international primary ciliary dyskinesia cohort (iPCD Cohort): methods and first results.

    PubMed

    Goutaki, Myrofora; Maurer, Elisabeth; Halbeisen, Florian S; Amirav, Israel; Barbato, Angelo; Behan, Laura; Boon, Mieke; Casaulta, Carmen; Clement, Annick; Crowley, Suzanne; Haarman, Eric; Hogg, Claire; Karadag, Bulent; Koerner-Rettberg, Cordula; Leigh, Margaret W; Loebinger, Michael R; Mazurek, Henryk; Morgan, Lucy; Nielsen, Kim G; Omran, Heymut; Schwerk, Nicolaus; Scigliano, Sergio; Werner, Claudius; Yiallouros, Panayiotis; Zivkovic, Zorica; Lucas, Jane S; Kuehni, Claudia E

    2017-01-01

    Data on primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) epidemiology is scarce and published studies are characterised by low numbers. In the framework of the European Union project BESTCILIA we aimed to combine all available datasets in a retrospective international PCD cohort (iPCD Cohort).We identified eligible datasets by performing a systematic review of published studies containing clinical information on PCD, and by contacting members of past and current European Respiratory Society Task Forces on PCD. We compared the contents of the datasets, clarified definitions and pooled them in a standardised format.As of April 2016 the iPCD Cohort includes data on 3013 patients from 18 countries. It includes data on diagnostic evaluations, symptoms, lung function, growth and treatments. Longitudinal data are currently available for 542 patients. The extent of clinical details per patient varies between centres. More than 50% of patients have a definite PCD diagnosis based on recent guidelines. Children aged 10-19 years are the largest age group, followed by younger children (≤9 years) and young adults (20-29 years).This is the largest observational PCD dataset available to date. It will allow us to answer pertinent questions on clinical phenotype, disease severity, prognosis and effect of treatments, and to investigate genotype-phenotype correlations.

  12. Experimental Demonstration of Longitudinal Magnification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razpet, Nada; Susman, Katarina; Cepic, Mojca

    2009-01-01

    We describe an experiment which enables the observation of longitudinal magnification for the real image of a three-dimensional (3D) object formed by a converging lens. The experiment also shows the absence of longitudinal inversion. Possible reasons for misconceptions with respect to real images and longitudinal inversions are discussed and a…

  13. Premarital sexual standards and sociosexuality: gender, ethnicity, and cohort differences.

    PubMed

    Sprecher, Susan; Treger, Stanislav; Sakaluk, John K

    2013-11-01

    In this article, we present results from a "cohort-longitudinal" analysis of sexual attitudes and behaviors based on a large sample of young adults (N = 7,777) obtained from a university setting over a 23-year period. We investigated gender, ethnicity, and cohort differences in sexual permissiveness, endorsement of the double standard, and sociosexuality. Compared to women, men had more permissive attitudes, particularly about sex in casual relationships, endorsed the double standard to a greater degree, and had a more unrestricted sociosexuality. Black men were generally more permissive than White, Hispanic, and Asian men, whereas ethnic differences were not found among women. Participants from the 1995-1999 cohort were slightly less permissive than those from the 1990-1994 and 2005-2012 cohorts. Although prior meta-analytic studies (e.g., Petersen & Hyde, 2010) found reduced gender differences in sexuality over time, our cohort analyses suggest that gender differences in sexual permissiveness have not changed over the past two decades among college students.

  14. Parent and Child Personality Traits and Children's Externalizing Problem Behavior from Age 4 to 9 Years: A Cohort-Sequential Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinzie, P.; Onghena, P.; Hellinckx, W.

    2005-01-01

    Cohort-sequential latent growth modeling was used to analyze longitudinal data for children's externalizing behavior from four overlapping age cohorts (4, 5, 6, and 7 years at first assessment) measured at three annual time points. The data included mother and father ratings on the Child Behavior Checklist and the Five-Factor Personality Inventory…

  15. Muon cooling: longitudinal compression.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yu; Antognini, Aldo; Bertl, Wilhelm; Hildebrandt, Malte; Khaw, Kim Siang; Kirch, Klaus; Papa, Angela; Petitjean, Claude; Piegsa, Florian M; Ritt, Stefan; Sedlak, Kamil; Stoykov, Alexey; Taqqu, David

    2014-06-06

    A 10  MeV/c positive muon beam was stopped in helium gas of a few mbar in a magnetic field of 5 T. The muon "swarm" has been efficiently compressed from a length of 16 cm down to a few mm along the magnetic field axis (longitudinal compression) using electrostatic fields. The simulation reproduces the low energy interactions of slow muons in helium gas. Phase space compression occurs on the order of microseconds, compatible with the muon lifetime of 2  μs. This paves the way for the preparation of a high-quality low-energy muon beam, with an increase in phase space density relative to a standard surface muon beam of 10^{7}. The achievable phase space compression by using only the longitudinal stage presented here is of the order of 10^{4}.

  16. Longitudinal standards for height and height velocity in Korean children and adolescents: the Kangwha study. [corrected].

    PubMed

    Chae, Hyun Wook; Suh, Il; Kwon, Ah Reum; Kim, Ye Jin; Kim, Yong Hyuk; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Ha Yan; Oh, Sun Min; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Kim, Duk Hee; Kim, Ho-Seong

    2013-10-01

    Longitudinal standards for height and height velocity are essential to monitor for appropriate linear growth. We aimed to construct standards in Korean children and adolescents through the population-based longitudinal Kangwha study. Our study was a part of a community-based prospective cohort study from 1986 to 1999 with 800 school children. Height and height velocity were recorded annually from age 6 until final height. Results were compared with cross-sectional data from the 2007 Korean National Growth Charts. Final height was 173.5 cm in boys and 160.5 cm in girls. Although final height was similar between longitudinal and cross-sectional standards, the mean height for age was higher in the longitudinal standard by 1-4 cm from age 6 until the completion of puberty. Using the longitudinal standard, age at peak height velocity (PHV) was 12 in boys and 10 in girls; height velocity at PHV was 8.62 cm/yr in boys and 7.07 cm/yr in girls. The mean height velocity was less than 1 cm/yr at age 17 in boys and 15 in girls. Thus, we have presented the first report of longitudinal standards for height and height velocity in Korean children and adolescents by analyzing longitudinal data from the Kangwha cohort.

  17. Magnesium intake and depression: the SUN cohort.

    PubMed

    Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena

    2016-03-01

    A higher magnesium intake may reduce the risk of depression. We analyzed this association in the SUN Mediterranean cohort with an expanded sample size (n = 15,836) and a long follow-up (median = 10.2 y). We followed 9,289 women (age = 34.8, SD = 10.4) and 6,547 men (age = 42.8, SD = 13.1) initially free of any history of depression for a new-onset of medically diagnosed depression (maximum follow-up = 15.9 y). All participants in this cohort were university educated. We systematically reviewed previous studies relating magnesium to depression. We observed 837 incident cases of depression during 147,915 person-years of follow-up in the SUN cohort. No significant association of magnesium intake with the risk of depression was found, with a fully-adjusted hazard ratio = 0.85 (95% confidence interval = 0.60-1.22, for fifth versus first quintile). When we used a more restrictive definition for depression (both a medical diagnosis and habitual use of antidepressants), this HR was 0.63 (0.35-1.14). No significant association was found in our systematic review. No conclusive evidence for an association between magnesium dietary intake and depression incidence was found. Further longitudinal studies with a larger sample size and a better assessment of confounders and of depression cases are needed to try to identify potential protection against depression by magnesium.

  18. Timing of First Childbirth and Young Women's Postsecondary Education in an Inner-City Minority Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between the timing of women's first childbirth and their postsecondary education using an inner-city minority cohort. The study sample (695 females) was drawn from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), an ongoing investigation of a panel of low-income minority children (94% African American) born in…

  19. The Impact of Streaming on Attainment at Age Seven: Evidence from the Millennium Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Samantha; Hallam, Sue

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between stream placement and the academic progress made by children in England in Year 2 of primary school, drawing on data from the longitudinal Millennium Cohort Study (MCS). The MCS is a sample of 19,000 children born across the UK around the turn of the century and their families. Academic progress was…

  20. Head Start and Urban Children's School Readiness: A Birth Cohort Study in 18 Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane

    2011-01-01

    We used longitudinal data from a birth cohort study, the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, to investigate the links between Head Start and school readiness in a large and diverse sample of urban children at age 5 (N = 2,803; 18 cities). We found that Head Start attendance was associated with enhanced cognitive ability and social…

  1. Head Start and Urban Children's School Readiness: A Birth Cohort Study in 18 Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors used data from a large longitudinal birth cohort study of primarily low-income children in urban areas, the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS), to investigate the effects of Head Start participation on children's school readiness. The fact that their sample was mainly made up of disadvantaged families…

  2. A Birth Cohort Study: Conceptual and Design Considerations and Rationale. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin; Manlove, Jennifer; Richter, Kerry; Halle, Tamara; Le Menestrel, Suzanne; Zaslow, Martha; Greene, Angela Dungee; Mariner, Carrie; Romano, Angela; Bridges, Lisa

    The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort 2000 (ECLS-B) is a study that will assess children's health status and their growth and development in domains that are critical for later school readiness and academic achievement. This paper is one of several that have been prepared in support of ECLS-B design efforts. It is anticipated that…

  3. Involvement in Bullying and Suicide-Related Behavior at 11 Years: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsper, Catherine; Lereya, Tanya; Zanarini, Mary; Wolke, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the prospective link between involvement in bullying (bully, victim, bully/victim), and subsequent suicide ideation and suicidal/self-injurious behavior, in preadolescent children in the United Kingdom. Method: A total of 6,043 children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort were assessed to…

  4. Very Early Predictors of Conduct Problems and Crime: Results from a National Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Joseph; Irving, Barrie; Farrington, David P.; Colman, Ian; Bloxsom, Claire A. J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Longitudinal research has produced a wealth of knowledge about individual, family, and social predictors of crime. However, nearly all studies have started after children are age 5, and little is known about earlier risk factors. Methods: The 1970 British Cohort Study is a prospective population survey of more than 16,000 children born…

  5. What Effect Did the Global Financial Crisis Have upon Youth Wellbeing? Evidence from Four Australian Cohorts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Philip D.; Jerrim, John; Anders, Jake

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has suggested significant negative effects of the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) on mental health and wellbeing. In this article, the authors suggest that the developmental period of late adolescence may be at particular risk of economic downturns. Harmonizing 4 longitudinal cohorts of Australian youth (N = 38,017), we estimate the…

  6. Child Maltreatment in the "Children of the Nineties": A Cohort Study of Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidebotham, Peter; Heron, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To analyze the multiple factors affecting the risk of maltreatment in young children within a comprehensive theoretical framework. Methods: The research is based on a large UK cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Out of 14,256 children participating in the study, 293 were investigated by social services for…

  7. Undergraduates' Use of Google vs. Library Resources: A Four-Year Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perruso, Carol

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study at a large public university surveyed students of the 2008 freshmen cohort over four years about their use of websites and library resources for their research papers. The three goals of the study were to track changes in reported research behavior over time, to see if students' reported source choices were associated with…

  8. The Initial Work and Education Experiences of Early School Leavers: A Comparative Study of Australia and the United States. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Stephen; Rumberger, Russell

    A study examined experiences of early leavers in the United States (US) and Australia in the first two years beyond high school. Data were from these comparable longitudinal surveys: US data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988; Australian data from the 1975 cohort of the Youth in Transition surveys. Findings indicated similar…

  9. Anonymization of Longitudinal Electronic Medical Records

    PubMed Central

    Tamersoy, Acar; Loukides, Grigorios; Nergiz, Mehmet Ercan; Saygin, Yucel; Malin, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    Electronic medical record (EMR) systems have enabled healthcare providers to collect detailed patient information from the primary care domain. At the same time, longitudinal data from EMRs are increasingly combined with biorepositories to generate personalized clinical decision support protocols. Emerging policies encourage investigators to disseminate such data in a deidentified form for reuse and collaboration, but organizations are hesitant to do so because they fear such actions will jeopardize patient privacy. In particular, there are concerns that residual demographic and clinical features could be exploited for reidentification purposes. Various approaches have been developed to anonymize clinical data, but they neglect temporal information and are, thus, insufficient for emerging biomedical research paradigms. This paper proposes a novel approach to share patient-specific longitudinal data that offers robust privacy guarantees, while preserving data utility for many biomedical investigations. Our approach aggregates temporal and diagnostic information using heuristics inspired from sequence alignment and clustering methods. We demonstrate that the proposed approach can generate anonymized data that permit effective biomedical analysis using several patient cohorts derived from the EMR system of the Vanderbilt University Medical Center. PMID:22287248

  10. Developmental Changes in Depressive Cognitions: A Longitudinal Evaluation of the Cognitive Triad Inventory for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGrange, Beth; Cole, David A.; Dallaire, Danielle H.; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.; Pineda, Ashley Q.; Truss, Alanna E.; Folmer, Amy

    2008-01-01

    As part of a longitudinal study, the Cognitive Triad Inventory for Children (CTI-C; N. J. Kaslow, K. D. Stark, B. Printz, R. Livingston, & S. L. Tsai, 1992) as well as other measures of cognitive style and depressive symptoms were administered annually to 3 cohorts of children starting in Grades 2, 4, and 6. Developmentally based analyses revealed…

  11. A Longitudinal Investigation of the Antecedents of Locus of Control Orientation in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickline, Virginia B.; Nowicki, Stephen, Jr.; Kincheloe, Amy Ransom; Osborn, Albert F.

    2011-01-01

    Locus of control (LOC) is related to many aspects of human behavior, yet relatively little is known about what factors in early childhood may dispose a child to develop an internal or external LOC orientation. Data from a British epidemiological, longitudinal, cohort study of 12,463 children and their mothers were used to identify, from a wide…

  12. Muscle Fiber Size and Function in Elderly Humans: A Longitudinal Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cross-sectional studies are likely to underestimate age-related changes in skeletal muscle strength and mass. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to assess whole muscle and single muscle fiber alterations in the same cohort of 12 older (mean age: start of study=71.1+/-5.4 yrs and end of study...

  13. Achievement Motivation Revisited: New Longitudinal Data to Demonstrate Its Predictive Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustinx, Paul W. J.; Kuyper, Hans; van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.; Dijkstra, Pieternel

    2009-01-01

    During recent decades, the classical one-dimensional concept of achievement motivation has become less popular among motivation researchers. This study aims to revive the concept by demonstrating its predictive power using longitudinal data from two cohort samples, each with 20,000 Dutch secondary school students. Two measures of achievement…

  14. Early Word Decoding Ability as a Longitudinal Predictor of Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordström, Thomas; Jacobson, Christer; Söderberg, Pernilla

    2016-01-01

    This study, using a longitudinal design with a Swedish cohort of young readers, investigates if children's early word decoding ability in second grade can predict later academic performance. In an effort to estimate the unique effect of early word decoding (grade 2) with academic performance (grade 9), gender and non-verbal cognitive ability were…

  15. Prenatal Stress and Risk of Febrile Seizures in Children: A Nationwide Longitudinal Study in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jorn; Obel, Carsten; Christensen, Jakob; Precht, Dorthe Hansen; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to examine whether exposure to prenatal stress following maternal bereavement is associated with an increased risk of febrile seizures. In a longitudinal population-based cohort study, we followed 1,431,175 children born in Denmark. A total of 34,777 children were born to women who lost a close relative during pregnancy or within 1 year…

  16. Development of Attributional Beliefs and Strategic Knowledge in Years 5?9: A Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Lorna K.S.; Moore, Phillip J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a three-year longitudinal study of students' attributional beliefs and strategic knowledge in school learning. Two cohorts of primary and high school students were followed for three years from Years 5-7 and 7-9, respectively. Data were collected each year on students' attributional beliefs regarding the reasons for their…

  17. Rural Disparities in Baseline Data of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study: A Chartbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Cathy; Shores, Elizabeth F.; Zaslow, Martha; Brown, Brett; Aufseeser, Dena; Bell, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    This report shows the rural disparities in the baseline data of the Birth and Kindergarten Cohorts of the national Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS). The National Center for Rural Early Childhood Learning Initiatives, known as Rural Early Childhood, commissioned Child Trends to perform the analysis of key indicators of child well-being and…

  18. Long-Term Benefits of Full-Day Kindergarten: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownell, M. D.; Nickel, N. C.; Chateau, D.; Martens, P. J.; Taylor, C.; Crockett, L.; Katz, A.; Sarkar, J.; Burland, E.; Goh, C. Y.

    2015-01-01

    In the first longitudinal, population-based study of full-day kindergarten (FDK) outcomes beyond primary school in Canada, we used linked administrative data to follow 15 kindergarten cohorts (n ranging from 112 to 736) up to grade 9. Provincial assessments conducted in grades 3, 7, and 8 and course marks and credits earned in grade 9 were…

  19. Longitudinal Associations between Perceived Parent-Child Relationship Quality and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branje, Susan J. T.; Hale, William W., III; Frijns, Tom; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined bidirectional paths between perceived parent-adolescent relationship quality and depressive symptoms, as well as the moderating role of sex, age, and personality type. 1313 Dutch adolescents (51% girls) from two cohorts (923 12-year olds and 390 16-year olds at Wave 1) reported on their personality, depressive…

  20. Longitudinal Evaluation of Peer Health Education on a College Campus: Impact on Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sabina; Park, Yong S.; Israel, Tania; Cordero, Elizabeth D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated the longitudinal impact of peer health education on the health behaviors of undergraduate students pertaining to alcohol and drug use, eating and nutrition, and sexual health. Participants: From fall 2003 to spring 2006, the authors annually administered a Web-based survey to a cohort of 2,000 randomly selected…

  1. Attention Problems in Very Preterm Children from Childhood to Adulthood: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeman, Linda D.; Jaekel, Julia; Baumann, Nicole; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Background: Very preterm (VP; gestational age <32 weeks) and very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 grams) is related to attention problems in childhood and adulthood. The stability of these problems into adulthood is not known. Methods: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study is a prospective cohort study that followed 260 VP/VLBW and 229 term-born…

  2. Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study: 1996-2001 (BPS:1996/2001) Methodology Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wine, Jennifer S.; Heuer, Ruth E.; Wheeless, Sara C.; Francis, Talbric L.; Franklin, Jeff W.; Dudley, Kristin M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the procedures and results of the full-scale Implementation of the final followup interview with the Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study 1996/2001. This study follows a cohort first interviewed in 1996 in their first year of postsecondary education. (SLD)

  3. Impact of Curriculum on Understanding of Professional Practice: A Longitudinal Study of Students Commencing Dental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieser, Jules A.; Dall'Alba, Gloria; Livingstone, Vicki

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines changes in understanding of dental practice among a cohort of students in the early years of a dentistry programme. In their first two professional years, we identified five distinct understandings of dental practice that we have ordered from least to most comprehensive: "relieving pain or generally caring for…

  4. Moving Forward: College and Career Transitions of LAMP Graduates. Findings from the LAMP Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacAllum, Keith; Yoder, Karla; Kim, Scott; Bozick, Robert

    A longitudinal study examined the college and career transitions of graduates of the Lansing Area Manufacturing Partnership (LAMP) program, which is a school-to-career (STC) program sponsored by the United Auto Workers, General Motors Corporation, and Michigan's Ingham County Intermediate School District. The progress of three cohorts of LAMP…

  5. Design and methods of the national Vietnam veterans longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Schlenger, William E; Corry, Nida H; Kulka, Richard A; Williams, Christianna S; Henn-Haase, Clare; Marmar, Charles R

    2015-09-01

    The National Vietnam Veterans Longitudinal Study (NVVLS) is the second assessment of a representative cohort of US veterans who served during the Vietnam War era, either in Vietnam or elsewhere. The cohort was initially surveyed in the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (NVVRS) from 1984 to 1988 to assess the prevalence, incidence, and effects of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other post-war problems. The NVVLS sought to re-interview the cohort to assess the long-term course of PTSD. NVVLS data collection began July 3, 2012 and ended May 17, 2013, comprising three components: a mailed health questionnaire, a telephone health survey interview, and, for a probability sample of theater Veterans, a clinical diagnostic telephone interview administered by licensed psychologists. Excluding decedents, 78.8% completed the questionnaire and/or telephone survey, and 55.0% of selected living veterans participated in the clinical interview. This report provides a description of the NVVLS design and methods. Together, the NVVRS and NVVLS constitute a nationally representative longitudinal study of Vietnam veterans, and extend the NVVRS as a critical resource for scientific and policy analyses for Vietnam veterans, with policy relevance for Iraq and Afghanistan veterans.

  6. South Yorkshire Cohort: a 'cohort trials facility' study of health and weight - Protocol for the recruitment phase

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Growing levels of both obesity and chronic disease in the general population pose a major public health problem. In the UK, an innovative 'health and weight' cohort trials facility, the 'South Yorkshire Cohort', is being built in order to provide robust evidence to inform policy, commissioning and clinical decisions in this field. This protocol reports the design of the facility and outlines the recruitment phase methods. Method/Design The South Yorkshire Cohort health and weight study uses the cohort multiple randomised controlled trial design. This design recruits a large observational cohort of patients with the condition(s) of interest which then provides a facility for multiple randomised controlled trials (with large representative samples of participants, long term outcomes as standard, increased comparability between each trial conducted within the cohort and increased efficiency particularly for trials of expensive interventions) as well as ongoing information as to the natural history of the condition and treatment as usual. This study aims to recruit 20,000 participants to the population based South Yorkshire Cohort health and weight research trials facility. Participants are recruited by invitation letters from their General Practitioners. Data is collected using postal and/or online patient self completed Health Questionnaires. NHS numbers will be used to facilitate record linkage and access to routine data. Participants are eligible if they are: aged 16 - 85 years, registered with one of 40 practices in South Yorkshire, provide consent for further contact from the researchers and to have their information used to look at the benefit of health treatments. The first wave of data is being collected during 2010/12 and further waves are planned at 2 - 5 year intervals for the planned 20 year duration of the facility. Discussion The South Yorkshire Cohort combines the strengths of the standard observational, longitudinal cohort study design with

  7. Selection factors in cohort studies

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, W.J.

    1985-05-01

    Cohort studies play an important role in the quantitation of cancer risk among occupationally exposed individuals. Properly conducted cohort studies can develop important data on the age, time, and exposure dependence of cancer risk. Such information allows identification of possible selection effects which may be present and allows generalization of risk estimates to other exposure circumstances.

  8. Modeling nonstationary longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Antón, V; Zimmerman, D L

    2000-09-01

    An important theme of longitudinal data analysis in the past two decades has been the development and use of explicit parametric models for the data's variance-covariance structure. A variety of these models have been proposed, of which most are second-order stationary. A few are flexible enough to accommodate nonstationarity, i.e., nonconstant variances and/or correlations that are not a function solely of elapsed time between measurements. We review five nonstationary models that we regard as most useful: (1) the unstructured covariance model, (2) unstructured antedependence models, (3) structured antedependence models, (4) autoregressive integrated moving average and similar models, and (5) random coefficients models. We evaluate the relative strengths and limitations of each model, emphasizing when it is inappropriate or unlikely to be useful. We present three examples to illustrate the fitting and comparison of the models and to demonstrate that nonstationary longitudinal data can be modeled effectively and, in some cases, quite parsimoniously. In these examples, the antedependence models generally prove to be superior and the random coefficients models prove to be inferior. We conclude that antedependence models should be given much greater consideration than they have historically received.

  9. Cardiovascular Disease Risk in NASA Astronauts Across the Lifespan: Historical Cohort Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charvat, Jacqueline M.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Davenport, Eddie; Barlow, Carolyn E.; Radford, Nina B.; De Fina, Laura F.; Stenger, Michael B.; Van Baalen, Mary

    2017-01-01

    Acute effects of spaceflight on the cardiovascular system have been studied extensively, but the combined chronic effects of spaceflight and aging are not well understood. Preparation for and participation in space flight activities are potentially associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors (e.g., altered dietary and exercise habits, physical and emotional stress, circadian shifts, radiation). Further, astronauts who travel into space multiple times may be at an increased risk across their lifespan. However, comparing the risk of cardiovascular disease in astronauts to other large cohorts is difficult. For example, comparisons between astronauts and large national cohorts, such as the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the National Health Information Survey, are hampered by significant differences in health status between astronauts and the general population, and most of these national studies fail to provide longitudinal data on population health. To address those limitations, NASA's Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health previously sought to compare the astronauts to a cohort of civil servants employed at the Johnson Space Center. However, differences between the astronauts and civil servants at the beginning of the study, as well as differential follow up, limited the ability to interpret the results. To resolve some of these limitations, two unique cohorts of healthy workers, U.S. Air Force aviators and Cooper Center Longitudinal Study participants, have been identified as potential comparison populations for the astronaut corps. The Air Force cohort was chosen due to similarities in health at selection, screening, and some occupational exposures that Air Force aviators endure, many of which mirror that of the astronaut corps. The Cooper Clinic cohort, a generally healthy prevention cohort, was chosen for the vast array of clinical cardiovascular measures collected in a longitudinal manner complementary to those collected on

  10. Family meal frequency and weight status among adolescents: cross-sectional and 5-year longitudinal associations.

    PubMed

    Fulkerson, Jayne A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J; Story, Mary

    2008-11-01

    This study examined cross-sectional and 5-year longitudinal associations between the frequency of family meals and overweight status (>85th percentile for age and gender) in a large, diverse population of adolescents (n = 2,516). The population included two cohorts (midadolescence to young adulthood, n = 1,710, and early adolescence to midadolescence, n = 806). Logistic regression models tested cross-sectional and longitudinal (1999-2004) associations between family meal frequency and overweight status. Two sets of models are presented: (i) models adjusted only for baseline demographic characteristics and (ii) models also adjusted for physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and energy intake. Longitudinal models adjusted for baseline overweight status. Although significant inverse associations between family meal frequency and overweight status were observed for early adolescent females in all cross-sectional models (P < 0.001), longitudinal associations were not significant. Neither cross-sectional nor longitudinal associations were significant for males of either cohort and older females in any models. Young adolescent females who do not eat meals with their families may be at risk for overweight; however, the increased risk may not persist over a 5-year period. Eating family meals during high school may not protect against overweight during young adulthood. Although previous longitudinal research has suggested significant dietary and psychosocial benefits related to family meal frequency, the weight-related benefits of family meals may be more complex and deserving of further study, including an examination of the quality and quantity of food consumed at family meals.

  11. Prevalence of exposure to potentially traumatic events in a healthy birth cohort of very young children in the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Ford, Julian D; Fraleigh, Lisa; McCarthy, Kimberly; Carter, Alice S

    2010-12-01

    Prevalence estimates of very young children's exposure to potentially traumatic events (PTEs) are limited. The study objective was to estimate the lifetime prevalence and correlates of noninterpersonal PTEs and violence exposure in a representative healthy birth cohort (ages 1-3 years) from an urban-suburban region of the United States (37.8% minority, 20.2% poverty). Parents completed 2 surveys approximately 1-year apart. By 24-48 months of age, the prevalence of exposure was 26.3% (14.5% noninterpersonal, 13.8% violence). Exposure was common among children living in poverty (49.0% overall, 19.7% noninterpersonal, 33.7% violence). The most consistent factors associated with exposure were poverty, parental depressive symptoms, and single parenting. Findings underscore the potential for prevention and intervention in early childhood to advance public health and reduce morbidity.

  12. A Cohort, Is a Cohort, Is a Cohort...or Is It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pemberton, Cynthia Lee A.; Akkary, Rima Karami

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a multi-year qualitative study based upon life-history narratives of women pursuing doctoral degrees in Educational Leadership. This paper focuses on findings specific to educational cohort models, and suggests that perhaps, at least for women, naturally emergent cohorts--born of relationships of choice--may be…

  13. Are Minority Children Disproportionately Represented in Early Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Maczuga, Steve

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether and to what extent children who are racial-ethnic minorities are disproportionately represented in early intervention and/or early childhood special education (EI/ECSE). We did so by analyzing a large sample of 48-month-olds (N = 7,950) participating in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), a…

  14. Effects of Divorce and Cohabitation Dissolution on Preschoolers' Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jay

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey--Birth cohort ("N" = 6,450), the present study hypothesized that 48-month-old children of divorced mothers would score lower on emerging literacy than the children of formerly cohabiting mothers, compared with the children of mothers in stable marriage. The children of mothers who…

  15. Longitudinal Mixed Membership Trajectory Models for Disability Survey Data.

    PubMed

    Manrique-Vallier, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    We develop new methods for analyzing discrete multivariate longitudinal data and apply them to functional disability data on U.S. elderly population from the National Long Term Care Survey (NLTCS), 1982-2004. Our models build on a mixed membership framework, in which individuals are allowed multiple membership on a set of extreme profiles characterized by time-dependent trajectories of progression into disability. We also develop an extension that allows us to incorporate birth-cohort effects, in order to assess inter-generational changes. Applying these methods we find that most individuals follow trajectories that imply a late onset of disability, and that younger cohorts tend to develop disabilities at a later stage in life compared to their elders.

  16. Longitudinal Trajectories of Food Insecurity Among Children of Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Miller, Daniel P; Chang, Jina; Ha, Yoonsook; Sprague Martinez, Linda

    2016-11-09

    Although research consistently points to higher rates of food insecurity (FI) among children of immigrants (COI), this is the first study to examine longitudinal trajectories of FI for this group. We used growth curve modeling and data from the 1998 Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort to compare trajectories of FI for COI and children of U.S.-born parents. After controlling for socioeconomic status and participation in nutrition programs, first- and second-generation COI had significantly higher initial and ongoing rates of FI compared to children of U.S.-born parents. Additional analyses found that all differences between COI and children of U.S.-born parents occurred for families in poverty. We find that COI from poor families have higher rates of FI, with some differences among COI by immigrant generation. Policymakers may need to focus on avenues other than public assistance to reduce FI among COI living in poverty.

  17. Creation of a new longitudinal corpus of clinical narratives.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vishesh; Stubbs, Amber; Shaw, Stanley; Uzuner, Özlem

    2015-12-01

    The 2014 i2b2/UTHealth Natural Language Processing (NLP) shared task featured a new longitudinal corpus of 1304 records representing 296 diabetic patients. The corpus contains three cohorts: patients who have a diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) in their first record, and continue to have it in subsequent records; patients who do not have a diagnosis of CAD in the first record, but develop it by the last record; patients who do not have a diagnosis of CAD in any record. This paper details the process used to select records for this corpus and provides an overview of novel research uses for this corpus. This corpus is the only annotated corpus of longitudinal clinical narratives currently available for research to the general research community.

  18. Longitudinal Stern-Gerlach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higinbotham, Douglas

    2006-11-01

    In 1922 Otto Stern and Walther Gerlach split a beam of silver atoms using a transverse gradient field. This experiment, which lead to the understanding that electrons have intrinsic spin, oddly enough does not work for free electrons due to the interplay between the Lorentz force and Heisenberg uncertainly principle. Recent calculations, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79 (1997) 4517 and Phys. Rev. Lett. 86 (2001) 4508, have shown that a dismissed idea of L. Brillouin from 1928 to use a longitudinal gradient field to minimize the effect of the Lorentz force may in fact be possible. The history of the Stern-Gerlach device will be presented along with the revived ideas for separating a beam of free electrons into its two spin states.

  19. Digital Longitudinal Tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimkus, Daniel Steven

    1985-12-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate the clinical utility of digital longitudinal tomosynthesis in radiology. By acquiring a finite group of digital images during a longitudinal tomographic exposure, and processing these images, tomographic planes, other than the fulcrum plane, can be reconstructed. This process is now termed "tomosynthesis". A prototype system utilizing this technique was developed. Both phantom and patient studies were done with this system. The phantom studies were evaluated by subjective, visual criterion and by quantitative analysis of edge sharpness and noise in the reconstructions. Two groups of patients and one volunteer were studied. The first patient group consisted of 8 patients undergoing intravenous urography (IVU). These patients had digital tomography and film tomography of the abdomen. The second patient group consisted of 4 patients with lung cancer admitted to the hospital for laser resection of endobronchial tumor. These patients had mediastinal digital tomograms to evaluate the trachea and mainstem bronchi. The knee of one volunteer was imaged by film tomography and digital tomography. The results of the phantom studies showed that the digital reconstructions accurately produced images of the desired planes. The edge sharpness of the reconstructions approached that of the acquired images. Adequate reconstructions were achieved with as few as 5 images acquired during the exposure, with the quality of the reconstructions improving as the number of images acquired increased. The IVU patients' digital studies had less contrast and spatial resolution than the film tomograms. The single renal lesion visible on the film tomograms was also visible in the digital images. The digital mediastinal studies were felt by several radiologists to be superior to a standard chest xray in evaluating the airways. The digital images of the volunteer's knee showed many of the same anatomic features as the film tomogram, but the digital

  20. Bayesian joint modeling of longitudinal and spatial survival AIDS data.

    PubMed

    Martins, Rui; Silva, Giovani L; Andreozzi, Valeska

    2016-08-30

    Joint analysis of longitudinal and survival data has received increasing attention in the recent years, especially for analyzing cancer and AIDS data. As both repeated measurements (longitudinal) and time-to-event (survival) outcomes are observed in an individual, a joint modeling is more appropriate because it takes into account the dependence between the two types of responses, which are often analyzed separately. We propose a Bayesian hierarchical model for jointly modeling longitudinal and survival data considering functional time and spatial frailty effects, respectively. That is, the proposed model deals with non-linear longitudinal effects and spatial survival effects accounting for the unobserved heterogeneity among individuals living in the same region. This joint approach is applied to a cohort study of patients with HIV/AIDS in Brazil during the years 2002-2006. Our Bayesian joint model presents considerable improvements in the estimation of survival times of the Brazilian HIV/AIDS patients when compared with those obtained through a separate survival model and shows that the spatial risk of death is the same across the different Brazilian states. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Role of dietary patterns, sedentary behaviour and overweight on the longitudinal development of childhood constipation: the Generation R study.

    PubMed

    Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; de Vries, Jeanne H; Escher, Johanna C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Raat, Hein; Moll, Henriette A

    2013-10-01

    The influence of childhood nutrition on the development of constipation beyond the period of weaning and breastfeeding is relatively understudied. In addition, eating patterns in childhood can be highly correlated with overweight and sedentary behaviour, which may also have an influence on constipation. The aim of this study was to assess whether common dietary patterns, sedentary behaviour and childhood overweight are associated with constipation in childhood. The study was embedded in a population-based prospective birth cohort. Information on dietary intake was obtained by a food frequency questionnaire at the child's age of 14 months (n = 2420). The adherence scores on a 'Health conscious' and 'Western-like' diet were extracted from principal component analysis. At the age of 24, 36 and 48 months, information on constipation and sedentary behaviour, and weight and height was obtained by parental-derived questionnaires and from the child health centres, respectively. Adherence to a 'Western-like' dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of constipation up to 48 months [adjusted odds ratio (aOR); 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.39; 1.02-1.87], which was not mediated by overweight or sedentary behaviour. Adherence to a 'Health Conscious' dietary pattern was only associated at short term, with a lower prevalence of constipation at 24 months (aOR; 95%CI: 0.65; 0.44-0.96). No association was found between overweight, sedentary behaviour and constipation. Our results suggest that specific dietary patterns in early childhood could be associated with higher or lower risks for constipation, but these effects are time-dependent. Overweight and sedentary behaviour seem to not have a major role on constipation in childhood.

  2. Structure and Correlates of Cognitive Aging in a Narrow Age Cohort

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aging-related changes occur for multiple domains of cognitive functioning. An accumulating body of research indicates that, rather than representing statistically independent phenomena, aging-related cognitive changes are moderately to strongly correlated across domains. However, previous studies have typically been conducted in age-heterogeneous samples over longitudinal time lags of 6 or more years, and have failed to consider whether results are robust to a comprehensive set of controls. Capitalizing on 3-year longitudinal data from the Lothian Birth Cohort of 1936, we took a longitudinal narrow age cohort approach to examine cross-domain cognitive change interrelations from ages 70 to 73 years. We fit multivariate latent difference score models to factors representing visuospatial ability, processing speed, memory, and crystallized ability. Changes were moderately interrelated, with a general factor of change accounting for 47% of the variance in changes across domains. Change interrelations persisted at close to full strength after controlling for a comprehensive set of demographic, physical, and medical factors including educational attainment, childhood intelligence, physical function, APOE genotype, smoking status, diagnosis of hypertension, diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, and diagnosis of diabetes. Thus, the positive manifold of aging-related cognitive changes is highly robust in that it can be detected in a narrow age cohort followed over a relatively brief longitudinal period, and persists even after controlling for many potential confounders. PMID:24955992

  3. Cohort: critical science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digney, Bruce L.

    2007-04-01

    Unmanned vehicle systems is an attractive technology for the military, but whose promises have remained largely undelivered. There currently exist fielded remote controlled UGVs and high altitude UAV whose benefits are based on standoff in low complexity environments with sufficiently low control reaction time requirements to allow for teleoperation. While effective within there limited operational niche such systems do not meet with the vision of future military UxV scenarios. Such scenarios envision unmanned vehicles operating effectively in complex environments and situations with high levels of independence and effective coordination with other machines and humans pursing high level, changing and sometimes conflicting goals. While these aims are clearly ambitious they do provide necessary targets and inspiration with hopes of fielding near term useful semi-autonomous unmanned systems. Autonomy involves many fields of research including machine vision, artificial intelligence, control theory, machine learning and distributed systems all of which are intertwined and have goals of creating more versatile broadly applicable algorithms. Cohort is a major Applied Research Program (ARP) led by Defence R&D Canada (DRDC) Suffield and its aim is to develop coordinated teams of unmanned vehicles (UxVs) for urban environments. This paper will discuss the critical science being addressed by DRDC developing semi-autonomous systems.

  4. Cohort Profile: HAART Observational Medical Evaluation and Research (HOMER) cohort.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Sophie; Cescon, Angela; Samji, Hasina; Cui, Zishan; Yip, Benita; Lepik, Katherine J; Moore, David; Lima, Viviane D; Nosyk, Bohdan; Harrigan, P Richard; Montaner, Julio S G; Shannon, Kate; Wood, Evan; Hogg, Robert S

    2015-02-01

    Since 1986, antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been available free of charge to individuals living with HIV in British Columbia (BC), Canada, through the BC Centre of Excellence in HIV/AIDS (BC-CfE) Drug Treatment Program (DTP). The Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) Observational Medical Evaluation and Research (HOMER) cohort was established in 1996 to maintain a prospective record of clinical measurements and medication profiles of a subset of DTP participants initiating HAART in BC. This unique cohort provides a comprehensive data source to investigate mortality, prognostic factors and treatment response among people living with HIV in BC from the inception of HAART. Currently over 5000 individuals are enrolled in the HOMER cohort. Data captured include socio-demographic characteristics (e.g. sex, age, ethnicity, health authority), clinical variables (e.g. CD4 cell count, plasma HIV viral load, AIDS-defining illness, hepatitis C co-infection, mortality) and treatment variables (e.g. HAART regimens, date of treatment initiation, treatment interruptions, adherence data, resistance testing). Research findings from the HOMER cohort have featured in numerous high-impact peer-reviewed journals. The HOMER cohort collaborates with other HIV cohorts on both national and international scales to answer complex HIV-specific research questions, and welcomes input from external investigators regarding potential research proposals or future collaborations. For further information please contact the principal investigator, Dr Robert Hogg (robert_hogg@sfu.ca).

  5. Cohort Profile Update: The China Jintan Child Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong; Cao, Siyuan; Chen, Zehang; Raine, Adrian; Hanlon, Alexandra; Ai, Yuexian; Zhou, Guoping; Yan, Chonghuai; Leung, Patrick W; McCauley, Linda; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The China Jintan Child Cohort study began in 2004 with 1656 pre-school participants and a research focus on studying the impact of environmental exposures, such as lead, on children’s neurobehavioural outcomes. This population cohort now includes around 1000 of the original participants, who have been assessed three times over a period of 10 years. Since the original IJE cohort profile publication in 2010, participants have experienced a critical developmental transition from pre-school to school age and then adolescence. The study has also witnessed an increase in breadth and depth of data collection from the original aim of risk assessment. This cohort has added new directions to investigate the mechanisms and protective factors for the relationship between early health factors and child physical and mental health outcomes, with an emphasis on neurobehavioural consequences. The study now encompasses 11 domains, composed of repeated measures of the original variables and new domains of biomarkers, sleep, psychophysiology, neurocognition, personality, peer relationship, mindfulness and family dynamics. Depth of evaluation has increased from parent/teacher report to self/peer report and intergenerational family report. Consequently, the cohort has additional directions to include: (i) classmates of the original cohort participants for peer relationship assessment; and (ii) parental and grandparental measures to assess personality and dynamics within families. We welcome interest in our study and ask investigators to contact the corresponding author for additional information on data acquisition. PMID:26323725

  6. Survival and Cause of Death among a Cohort of Confirmed Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Cases

    PubMed Central

    Paulukonis, Susan T.; Roberts, Eric M.; Valle, Jhaqueline P.; Collins, Natalie N.; English, Paul B.; Kaye, Wendy E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Estimates of survival from disease onset range from 20 to 48 months and have been generated using clinical populations or death records alone. Methods Data on a cohort of ALS cases diagnosed between 2009–2011 were collected as part of the Los Angeles and San Francisco Bay Area Metropolitan ALS Surveillance projects; death records 2009–2013 were linked to these confirmed cases to determine survival post diagnosis and factors associated with survival time. Results There were 618 cases identified and 283 of these died during the follow up time period. Median age at death was 64.3 years, and median survival time post-diagnosis was 2.6 years. Age at diagnosis and year of diagnosis were predictors of survival time in adjusted models; those diagnosed at age 80 or older had shorter survival than those diagnosed at age 50 or younger. Most (92%) had ALS noted as a cause of death. Discussion Survival post-diagnosis may be improved compared with previous reports. Age at diagnosis continues to be the strongest predictor of prognosis; recall case reporting bias may play a role in estimates of survival time. PMID:26172548

  7. Prospective cohort study of spinal muscular atrophy types 2 and 3

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Petra; McDermott, Michael P.; Darras, Basil T.; Finkel, Richard S.; Sproule, Douglas M.; Kang, Peter B.; Oskoui, Maryam; Constantinescu, Andrei; Gooch, Clifton L.; Foley, A. Reghan; Yang, Michele L.; Tawil, Rabi; Chung, Wendy K.; Martens, William B.; Montes, Jacqueline; Battista, Vanessa; O'Hagen, Jessica; Dunaway, Sally; Flickinger, Jean; Quigley, Janet; Riley, Susan; Glanzman, Allan M.; Benton, Maryjane; Ryan, Patricia A.; Punyanitya, Mark; Montgomery, Megan J.; Marra, Jonathan; Koo, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the natural history of spinal muscular atrophy type 2 and type 3 (SMA 2/3) beyond 1 year and to report data on clinical and biological outcomes for use in trial planning. Methods: We conducted a prospective observational cohort study of 79 children and young adults with SMA 2/3 who participated in evaluations for up to 48 months. Clinically, we evaluated motor and pulmonary function, quality of life, and muscle strength. We also measured SMN2 copy number, hematologic and biochemical profiles, muscle mass by dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and the compound motor action potential (CMAP) in a hand muscle. Data were analyzed for associations between clinical and biological/laboratory characteristics cross-sectionally, and for change over time in outcomes using all available data. Results: In cross-sectional analyses, certain biological measures (specifically, CMAP, DXA fat-free mass index, and SMN2 copy number) and muscle strength measures were associated with motor function. Motor and pulmonary function declined over time, particularly at time points beyond 12 months of follow-up. Conclusion: The intermediate and mild phenotypes of SMA show slow functional declines when observation periods exceed 1 year. Whole body muscle mass, hand muscle compound motor action potentials, and muscle strength are associated with clinical measures of motor function. The data from this study will be useful for clinical trial planning and suggest that CMAP and DXA warrant further evaluation as potential biomarkers. PMID:23077013

  8. Longitudinal changes in lung hyperinflation in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jimyung; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Yeon Joo; Park, Jong Sun; Cho, Young-Jae; Lee, Jae Ho; Lee, Choon-Taek; Yoon, Ho Il

    2017-01-01

    Purpose COPD is characterized by an accelerated and progressive decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and lung hyperinflation. Although lung hyperinflation is the hallmark of COPD, data on the longitudinal changes in lung hyperinflation and any association with the decline in FEV1 are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the longitudinal changes in lung hyperinflation and to investigate its relationship with FEV1 decline. Patients and methods We conducted a prospective cohort study and studied 176 COPD patients with annual lung volume measurements over a period of 5 years or more. We used a random coefficient model to calculate the annual changes in lung volumes and to evaluate the factors associated with changes in lung hyperinflation. Additionally, the relationship between the change in lung hyperinflation and FEV1 was assessed. Results Residual volume (RV), inspiratory capacity (IC), and total lung capacity (TLC) declined at a mean rate of 39.5, 49.6, and 63.8 mL/year, respectively. While IC/TLC declined at 0.70%/year, RV/TLC also declined at 0.35%/year. Changes in both IC/TLC and RV/TLC varied significantly. Frequent exacerbations led to an increase in RV/TLC and faster decline in IC/TLC over time. RV/TLC declined in 59.7% and increased in 40.3% of the patients. A significant negative correlation was found between the rates of change in FEV1 and RV/TLC, and the rate of decline in FEV1 was greater in patients with an increase in RV/TLC than in those with a decline in RV/TLC (54.2 vs 10.7 mL/year, P<0.001). Conclusion The rate of change in lung hyperinflation varied greatly among COPD patients. Progression of hyperinflation was associated with frequent exacerbations and a faster decline in FEV1. PMID:28223790

  9. Comparison of longitudinal variance components and regression-based approaches for linkage detection on chromosome 17 for systolic blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Mariza de; Olswold, Curtis

    2003-01-01

    We compare two methods to detect genetic linkage by using serial observations of systolic blood pressure in pedigree data from the Framingham Heart Study focusing on chromosome 17. The first method is a variance components (VC) approach that incorporates longitudinal pedigree data, and the second method is a regression-based approach that summarizes all longitudinal measures in one single measure. No evidence of linkage was found either using the VC longitudinal approach or the regression-based approach, except when all time points were used from Cohorts 1 and 2 and only subjects aged 25 and 75 years were included. PMID:14975085

  10. Cohort profile: Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC).

    PubMed

    May, Margaret T; Ingle, Suzanne M; Costagliola, Dominique; Justice, Amy C; de Wolf, Frank; Cavassini, Matthias; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Casabona, Jordi; Hogg, Robert S; Mocroft, Amanda; Lampe, Fiona C; Dabis, François; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Sterling, Timothy R; del Amo, Julia; Gill, M John; Crane, Heidi M; Saag, Michael S; Guest, Jodie; Brodt, Hans-Reinhard; Sterne, Jonathan A C

    2014-06-01

    The advent of effective combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 1996 resulted in fewer patients experiencing clinical events, so that some prognostic analyses of individual cohort studies of human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals had low statistical power. Because of this, the Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC) of HIV cohort studies in Europe and North America was established in 2000, with the aim of studying the prognosis for clinical events in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the mortality of adult patients treated for HIV-1 infection. In 2002, the ART-CC collected data on more than 12,000 patients in 13 cohorts who had begun combination ART between 1995 and 2001. Subsequent updates took place in 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2010. The ART-CC data base now includes data on more than 70,000 patients participating in 19 cohorts who began treatment before the end of 2009. Data are collected on patient demographics (e.g. sex, age, assumed transmission group, race/ethnicity, geographical origin), HIV biomarkers (e.g. CD4 cell count, plasma viral load of HIV-1), ART regimen, dates and types of AIDS events, and dates and causes of death. In recent years, additional data on co-infections such as hepatitis C; risk factors such as smoking, alcohol and drug use; non-HIV biomarkers such as haemoglobin and liver enzymes; and adherence to ART have been collected whenever available. The data remain the property of the contributing cohorts, whose representatives manage the ART-CC via the steering committee of the Collaboration. External collaboration is welcomed. Details of contacts are given on the ART-CC website (www.art-cohort-collaboration.org).

  11. Cohort Profile: Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC)

    PubMed Central

    May, Margaret T; Ingle, Suzanne M; Costagliola, Dominique; Justice, Amy C; de Wolf, Frank; Cavassini, Matthias; D’Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Casabona, Jordi; Hogg, Robert S; Mocroft, Amanda; Lampe, Fiona C; Dabis, François; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Sterling, Timothy R; del Amo, Julia; Gill, M John; Crane, Heidi M; Saag, Michael S; Guest, Jodie; Brodt, Hans-Reinhard; Sterne, Jonathan AC

    2014-01-01

    The advent of effective combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 1996 resulted in fewer patients experiencing clinical events, so that some prognostic analyses of individual cohort studies of human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals had low statistical power. Because of this, the Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC) of HIV cohort studies in Europe and North America was established in 2000, with the aim of studying the prognosis for clinical events in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the mortality of adult patients treated for HIV-1 infection. In 2002, the ART-CC collected data on more than 12,000 patients in 13 cohorts who had begun combination ART between 1995 and 2001. Subsequent updates took place in 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2010. The ART-CC data base now includes data on more than 70 000 patients participating in 19 cohorts who began treatment before the end of 2009. Data are collected on patient demographics (e.g. sex, age, assumed transmission group, race/ethnicity, geographical origin), HIV biomarkers (e.g. CD4 cell count, plasma viral load of HIV-1), ART regimen, dates and types of AIDS events, and dates and causes of death. In recent years, additional data on co-infections such as hepatitis C; risk factors such as smoking, alcohol and drug use; non-HIV biomarkers such as haemoglobin and liver enzymes; and adherence to ART have been collected whenever available. The data remain the property of the contributing cohorts, whose representatives manage the ART-CC via the steering committee of the Collaboration. External collaboration is welcomed. Details of contacts are given on the ART-CC website (www.art-cohort-collaboration.org). PMID:23599235

  12. Ten years of progress in the Hokkaido birth cohort study on environment and children's health: cohort profile--updated 2013.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Reiko; Kobayashi, Sachiko; Ikeno, Tamiko; Araki, Atsuko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Itoh, Sachiko; Sasaki, Seiko; Okada, Emiko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Kashino, Ikuko; Itoh, Kumiko; Nakajima, Sonomi

    2013-11-01

    The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health is an ongoing cohort study that began in 2002. The study consists of two prospective birth cohorts, the Sapporo cohort (n = 514) and the Hokkaido large-scale cohort (n = 20,940). The primary goals of this study are to first examine the potential negative effects of perinatal environmental chemical exposures on birth outcomes, including congenital malformations and growth retardation; second, to evaluate the development of allergies, infectious diseases and neurodevelopmental disorders and perform longitudinal observations of the children's physical development to clarify the causal relationship between these outcomes and environmental chemicals; third, to identify individuals genetically susceptible to environmental chemicals; finally, to identify the additive effects of various environmental factors in our daily life, such as secondhand smoke exposure or low folate intake during early pregnancy. In this paper, we introduce our recent progress in the Hokkaido study with a cohort profile updated in 2013. For the last ten years, we followed pregnant women and their offspring, measuring various environmental chemicals, i.e., PCB, OH-PCB and dioxins, PFCs (Perfluorinated Compounds), Organochlorine pesticides, Phthalates, bisphenol A and mercury. We discovered that the concentration of toxic equivalents (TEQ) of dioxin and other specific congeners of PCDF or PCDD have effects on birth weight, infants' neurodevelopment and immune function. There were significant gender differences in these effects; our results suggest that male infants have more susceptibility to those chemical exposures than female infants. Interestingly, we found maternal genetic polymorphisms in AHR, CYP1A1 or GSTs that significantly modified the dioxin concentrations in maternal blood, suggesting different dioxin accumulations in the bodies of individuals with these genotypes, which would lead to different dioxin exposure levels. These genetic

  13. Have Gender Gaps in Math Closed? Achievement, Teacher Perceptions, and Learning Behaviors across Two ECLS-K Cohorts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimpian, Joseph R.; Lubienski, Sarah T.; Timmer, Jennifer D.; Makowski, Martha B.; Miller, Emily K.

    2016-01-01

    Studies using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K:1999) revealed gender gaps in mathematics achievement and teacher perceptions. However, recent evidence suggests that gender gaps have closed on state tests, raising the question of whether such gaps are absent in the ECLS-K:2011 cohort.…

  14. Hopelessness as a Predictor of Attempted Suicide among First Admission Patients with Psychosis: A 10-Year Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klonsky, E. David; Kotov, Roman; Bakst, Shelly; Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Bromet, Evelyn J.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the longitudinal relationship of hopelessness to attempted suicide in psychotic disorders. This study addresses this gap by assessing hopelessness and attempted suicide at multiple time-points over 10 years in a first-admission cohort with psychosis (n = 414). Approximately one in five participants attempted suicide during…

  15. The Impact of Research Training and Research Codes of Practice on Submission of Doctoral Degrees: An Exploratory Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Robin; Marshall, Neill; Leonardo, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The paper examines the impact of the transformations in doctoral education in the arts, humanities and social sciences in the United Kingdom over the past decade. It focuses on the introduction of formal research training and codes of research practice and in the first longitudinal candidate cohort study examines their impact on doctoral outcomes,…

  16. Factors Influencing Enrolment: A Case Study from Birth to Twenty, the 1990 Birth Cohort in Soweto-Johannesburg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Linda M.; Panday, Saadhna; Norris, Shane A.

    2009-01-01

    Longitudinal studies offer significant advantages in rendering data commensurate with the complexity of human development. However, incomplete enrolment and attrition over time can introduce bias. Furthermore, there is a scarcity of evaluative information on cohorts in developing countries. This paper documents various strategies adopted to…

  17. Child Sexual Abuse and Persistence of Risky Sexual Behaviors and Negative Sexual Outcomes over Adulthood: Findings from a Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Roode, Thea; Dickson, Nigel; Herbison, Peter; Paul, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the impact of child sexual abuse (CSA) on adult sexual behaviors and outcomes over three age periods. Methods: A longitudinal study of a birth cohort born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972/1973 was used. Information on CSA was sought at age 26, and on sexual behaviors and outcomes at ages 21, 26, and 32. Comparisons were…

  18. Current status of longitudinal stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donlan, Charles J

    1948-01-01

    The problems of static and dynamic longitudinal stability both at high speeds and at low speeds are discussed and data are presented which indicate recent progress made in the solution of these problems.

  19. Confounding in longitudinal studies in addiction treatment research

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Matthias; Dunn, Graham; Millar, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The effectiveness of treatment for people with substance use disorders is usually examined using longitudinal cohorts. In these studies, treatment is often considered as a time-varying exposure. The aim of this commentary is to examine confounding in this context, when the confounding variable is time-invariant and when it is time-varying. Method: Types of confounding are described with examples and illustrated using path diagrams. Simulations are used to demonstrate the direction of confounding bias and the extent that it is accounted for using standard regression adjustment techniques. Results: When the confounding variable is time invariant or time varying and not influenced by prior treatment, then standard adjustment techniques are adequate to control for confounding bias, provided that in the latter scenario the time-varying form of the variable is used. When the confounder is time varying and affected by prior treatment status (i.e. it is a mediator of treatment), then standard methods of adjustment result in inconsistency. Conclusions: In longitudinal cohorts where treatment exposure is time varying, confounding is an issue which should be considered, even if treatment exposure is initially randomized. In these studies, standard methods of adjustment may result be inadequate, even when all confounders have been identified. This occurs when the confounder is also a mediator of treatment. This is a likely scenario in many studies in addiction.

  20. Confounding in longitudinal studies in addiction treatment research.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Matthias; Dunn, Graham; Millar, Tim

    2017-05-04

    Background: The effectiveness of treatment for people with substance use disorders is usually examined using longitudinal cohorts. In these studies, treatment is often considered as a time-varying exposure. The aim of this commentary is to examine confounding in this context, when the confounding variable is time-invariant and when it is time-varying. Method: Types of confounding are described with examples and illustrated using path diagrams. Simulations are used to demonstrate the direction of confounding bias and the extent that it is accounted for using standard regression adjustment techniques. Results: When the confounding variable is time invariant or time varying and not influenced by prior treatment, then standard adjustment techniques are adequate to control for confounding bias, provided that in the latter scenario the time-varying form of the variable is used. When the confounder is time varying and affected by prior treatment status (i.e. it is a mediator of treatment), then standard methods of adjustment result in inconsistency. Conclusions: In longitudinal cohorts where treatment exposure is time varying, confounding is an issue which should be considered, even if treatment exposure is initially randomized. In these studies, standard methods of adjustment may result be inadequate, even when all confounders have been identified. This occurs when the confounder is also a mediator of treatment. This is a likely scenario in many studies in addiction.

  1. Cohort Profile Update: The 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Gigante, Denise P; Gonçalves, Helen; dos Santos Motta, JanainaVieira; Loret de Mola, Christian; Oliveira, Isabel O; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, we update the profile of the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study.In 1982, 5914 live births whose families lived in the urban are of Pelotas were enrolled in the cohort. In 2012–13, we tried to locate the whole original cohort; 3701 participants were interviewed who, added to the 325 known deaths, represented a follow-up rate of 68.1%. In contrast to the previous home interviews, in this wave all participants were invited to visit the research clinic to be interviewed and examined. The visit was carried out at a mean age of 30.2 years and mainly focused on four categories of outcomes: (i) mental health; (ii) body composition; (iii) precursors of complex chronic diseases; and (iv) human capital. Requests for collaboration by outside researchers are welcome. PMID:25733577

  2. Cohort Profile Update: The 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Gigante, Denise P; Gonçalves, Helen; dos Santos Motta, JanainaVieira; Loret de Mola, Christian; Oliveira, Isabel O; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2015-04-01

    In this manuscript, we update the profile of the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study.In 1982, 5914 live births whose families lived in the urban are of Pelotas were enrolled in the cohort. In 2012-13, we tried to locate the whole original cohort; 3701 participants were interviewed who, added to the 325 known deaths, represented a follow-up rate of 68.1%. In contrast to the previous home interviews, in this wave all participants were invited to visit the research clinic to be interviewed and examined. The visit was carried out at a mean age of 30.2 years and mainly focused on four categories of outcomes: (i) mental health; (ii) body composition; (iii) precursors of complex chronic diseases; and (iv) human capital. Requests for collaboration by outside researchers are welcome.

  3. Longitudinal Associations between Perceived Parent-Adolescent Attachment Relationship Quality and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Symptoms in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Eijck, Fenna E. A. M.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Hale, William W., III; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the direction of effects between adolescents' generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms and perceived parent-adolescent attachment relationship quality, as well as the moderating role of gender and age. 1,313 Dutch adolescents (48.5% boys) from two age cohorts of early (n = 923, M[subscript age] = 12 at W1) and…

  4. Longitudinal association between dairy consumption and changes of body weight and waist circumference: the Framingham Heart Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy foods are nutrient dense and may be protective against long-term weight gain. We aimed to examine the longitudinal association between dairy consumption and annualized changes in weight and waist circumference (WC) in adults. Members of the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort who participa...

  5. Before and after Third Grade: Longitudinal Evidence for the Shifting Role of Socioeconomic Status in Reading Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffer, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Using longitudinal data on a nationally representative U.S. cohort, this study investigated the relationship between socioeconomic status and students' reading growth between kindergarten and eighth grade. Piecewise latent growth modeling was used to describe nonlinear growth trajectories in reading during three developmental periods: kindergarten…

  6. Strategies To Maximize Retention of a Sample of Young Adolescents in a Longitudinal Evaluation of "Healthy & Alive!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simkin, Linda S.; Hirsch, Lesley; Radosh, Alice; Middlestadt, Susan E.; Kaiser, Javaid; Santelli, John S.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the effectiveness of strategies to maximize cohort retention in a longitudinal evaluation of a middle school human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted disease prevention intervention. Retention rates of 80 percent at 6 months and 73 percent at 18 months were achieved. This required joint, proactive problem solving at the…

  7. The Longitudinal Association of Childhood School Engagement with Adult Educational and Occupational Achievement: Findings from an Australian National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott-Chapman, Joan; Martin, Kara; Ollington, Nadia; Venn, Alison; Dwyer, Terry; Gall, Seana

    2014-01-01

    The research investigated the association between school engagement and adult education and occupation outcomes, within the context of a 1985 Australian longitudinal national cohort study of the factors affecting children's long-term health and well-being. School engagement may be more modifiable than other factors related to academic success,…

  8. Self-Esteem Development across the Life Span: A Longitudinal Study with a Large Sample from Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orth, Ulrich; Maes, Jürgen; Schmitt, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the development of self-esteem across the life span. Data came from a German longitudinal study with 3 assessments across 4 years of a sample of 2,509 individuals ages 14 to 89 years. The self-esteem measure used showed strong measurement invariance across assessments and birth cohorts. Latent growth curve analyses indicated…

  9. The Effects of Part-Time Work on School Students. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Lyn

    A study examined character and consequences of student part-time work using data from the 1975 birth cohort of the Youth in Transition project of the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth program. Findings indicated that most students worked because they liked the independence their job gave, enjoyed the work, and believed the experience would…

  10. A Longitudinal Look at Attitudes and Perceptions Related to the Integration of Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlin, Donna F.; White, Arthur L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide an in-depth analysis of attitudes and perceptions related to the integration of mathematics, science, and technology education of preservice teachers preparing to teach STEM disciplines. Longitudinal data by individual cohort and across 7 years of the Integrated Mathematics, Science, and Technology (MSAT)…

  11. Cohort profile: the Hawai'i Family Study of Cognition.

    PubMed

    Onoye, Jane M M; Hishinuma, Earl S; McArdle, John J; Zonderman, Alan B; Bumanglag, R Janine; Takeshita, Junji

    2014-12-01

    Intergenerational longitudinal studies over the lifespan provide valuable information for understanding the contexts and dynamic relations among cognition, family and health in adults and the elderly. The Hawai'i Family Study of Cognition (HFSC), initiated in the early 1970s, included a cohort of over 6500 individuals representing over 1800 families of parents and their offspring. The HFSC gathered data on cognitive, personality, biological and other psychosocial variables, and provided novel information on the nature of cognitive abilities, especially on family issues. Some families were reassessed with short-term retesting in the 1970s. A select sample of offspring and their siblings and spouses were re-measured in the 1980s. Decades later, a 40-year follow-up of the original HFSC cohort was facilitated by the availability of contemporary tracking and tracing methods and internet-based testing. A subgroup of the original HFSC participants was re-contacted and retested on contemporary cognitive as well as socio-demographic and health measures. In this paper, we describe the original HFSC cohort and the design and methodology of the re-contact and retest studies of the HFSC, plans for expanding the re-contact and retesting, as well as directions for future research and collaborations. The Principal Investigator may be contacted for more information regarding the application, review and approval process for data access requests from qualified individuals outside the project.

  12. Cohort Profile: The Hawai’i Family Study of Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Onoye, Jane MM; Hishinuma, Earl S; McArdle, John J; Zonderman, Alan B; Takeshita, Junji

    2014-01-01

    Intergenerational longitudinal studies over the lifespan provide valuable information for understanding the contexts and dynamic relations among cognition, family and health in adults and the elderly. The Hawai‘i Family Study of Cognition (HFSC), initiated in the early 1970s, included a cohort of over 6500 individuals representing over 1800 families of parents and their offspring. The HFSC gathered data on cognitive, personality, biological and other psychosocial variables, and provided novel information on the nature of cognitive abilities, especially on family issues. Some families were reassessed with short-term retesting in the 1970s. A select sample of offspring and their siblings and spouses were re-measured in the 1980s. Decades later, a 40-year follow-up of the original HFSC cohort was facilitated by the availability of contemporary tracking and tracing methods and internet-based testing. A subgroup of the original HFSC participants was re-contacted and retested on contemporary cognitive as well as socio-demographic and health measures. In this paper, we describe the original HFSC cohort and the design and methodology of the re-contact and retest studies of the HFSC, plans for expanding the re-contact and retesting, as well as directions for future research and collaborations. The Principal Investigator may be contacted for more information regarding the application, review and approval process for data access requests from qualified individuals outside the project. PMID:24639439

  13. Personality and Smoking Status: A Longitudinal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Munafó, Marcus R.; Black, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    We attempted to clarify the strength and nature of the association between personality and smoking status in early and middle adulthood, using a longitudinal study design. Data from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, based on a stratified sample of all single, legitimate births occurring in England, Wales, and Scotland in one week of March 1946 (N=5,362), were analyzed using generalized estimating equations methods to account for the correlation between the smoking status variables for the same individual over time. The unadjusted estimates indicated that the odds of being a current smoker increased with higher personality score for both extraversion (p<.0001) and neuroticism (p<.0001) traits. Sex was significantly associated with being a current smoker (p<.0001), with males more likely than females to be current smokers. Current smoking decreased with increasing age (p<.0001). These relationships were maintained in the fully adjusted model. These data indicate that both higher levels of extraversion and higher levels of neuroticism, as measured at age 16, are independently associated with an increased likelihood of subsequently being a current smoker rather than a nonsmoker at all time points, although the observed effect sizes were small. Males also were more likely than females to be current smokers, and increasing age reduced the likelihood of being a current smoker, which is consistent with an attempt by a subset of smokers in the cohort to subsequently stop smoking. PMID:17365771

  14. The association between education and induced abortion for three cohorts of adults in Finland.

    PubMed

    Väisänen, Heini

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores whether the likelihood of abortion by education changed over time in Finland, where comprehensive family planning services and sexuality education have been available since the early 1970s. This subject has not previously been studied longitudinally with comprehensive and reliable data. A unique longitudinal set of register data of more than 250,000 women aged 20-49 born in 1955-59, 1965-69, and 1975-79 was analysed, using descriptive statistics, concentration curves, and discrete-time event-history models. Women with basic education had a higher likelihood of abortion than others and the association grew stronger for later cohorts. Selection into education may explain this phenomenon: although it was fairly common to have only basic education in the 1955-59 cohort, it became increasingly unusual over time. Thus, even though family planning services were easily available, socio-economic differences in the likelihood of abortion remained.

  15. Longitudinal Development of Refractive Error in Children With Accommodative Esotropia: Onset, Amblyopia, and Anisometropia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingyun; Morale, Sarah E.; Ren, Xiaowei; Birch, Eileen E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We investigated longitudinal changes of refractive error in children with accommodative esotropia (ET) throughout the first 12 years of life, its dependence on age at onset of ET, and whether amblyopia or anisometropia are associated with defective emmetropization. Methods Longitudinal refractive errors in children with accommodative ET were analyzed retrospectively. Eligibility criteria included: initial hyperopia ≥+4.00 diopters (D), initial cycloplegic refraction before 4 years, at least 3 visits, and at least one visit between 7 and 12 years. Children were classified as having infantile (N = 30; onset ≤12 months) or late-onset (N = 78; onset at 18–48 months) accommodative ET. Cycloplegic refractions culled from medical records were converted into spherical equivalent (SEQ). Results Although the initial visit right eye SEQ was similar for the infantile and late-onset groups (+5.86 ± 1.28 and +5.67 ± 1.26 D, respectively), there were different developmental changes in refractive error. Neither group had a significant decrease in hyperopia before age 7 years, but after 7 years, the infantile group experienced a myopic shift of −0.43 D/y. The late-onset group did not experience a myopic shift at 7 to 12 years. Among amblyopic children, a slower myopic shift was observed for the amblyopic eye. Among anisometropic children, the more hyperopic eye experienced more myopic shift than the less hyperopic eye. Conclusions Children with infantile accommodative ET experienced prolonged hyperopia followed by a myopic shift after 7 years of age, consistent with dissociation between infantile emmetropization and school age myopic shift. In contrast, children with late-onset accommodative ET had little myopic shift before or after 7 years. PMID:27116548

  16. Challenges and strategies for cohort retention and data collection in an indigenous population: Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Longitudinal prospective birth cohort studies are pivotal to identifying fundamental causes and determinants of disease and health over the life course. There is limited information about the challenges, retention, and collection strategies in the study of Indigenous populations. The aim is to describe the follow-up rates of an Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort study and how they were achieved. Methods Participants were 686 babies enrolled between January 1987 and March 1990, born to a mother recorded in the Delivery Suite Register of the Royal Darwin Hospital (RDH) as a self-identified Aboriginal. The majority of the participants (70%) resided in Northern Territory within rural, remote and very remote Aboriginal communities that maintain traditional connections to their land and culture. The Aboriginal communities are within a sparsely populated (0.2 people/ km2) area of approximately 900,000 km2 (347sq miles), with poor communication and transport infrastructures. Follow-ups collecting biomedical and lifestyle data directly from participants in over 40 locations were conducted at 11.4 years (Wave-2) and 18.2 years (Wave-3), with Wave-4 follow-up currently underway. Results Follow-ups at 11 and 18 years of age successfully examined 86% and 72% of living participants respectively. Strategies addressing logistic, cultural and ethical challenges are documented. Conclusions Satisfactory follow-up rates of a prospective longitudinal Indigenous birth cohort with traditional characteristics are possible while maintaining scientific rigor in a challenging setting. Approaches included flexibility, respect, and transparent communication along with the adoption of culturally sensitive behaviours. This work should inform and assist researchers undertaking or planning similar studies in Indigenous and developing populations. PMID:24568142

  17. Longitudinal investigation of source memory reveals different developmental trajectories for item memory and binding

    PubMed Central

    Riggins, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    The present study used a cohort-sequential design to examine developmental changes in children's ability to bind items in memory during early and middle childhood. Three cohorts of children (aged 4, 6, or 8 years) were followed longitudinally for three years. Each year, children completed a source memory paradigm assessing memory for items and binding. Results suggest linear increases in memory for individual items (facts or sources) between 4 and 10 years of age, but that memory for correct fact/source combinations (indicative of binding) showed accelerated rates of change between 5 and 7 years. Taken together, these results suggest differences exist in developmental trajectories between the development of memory processes underlying successful item memory and processes underlying binding. Implications of these findings are discussed in relation to longitudinal research examining autobiographical memory. PMID:23855256

  18. Measuring Knowledge Integration Learning of Energy Topics: A two-year longitudinal study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Ryoo, Kihyun; Linn, Marcia C.; Sato, Elissa; Svihla, Vanessa

    2015-05-01

    Although researchers call for inquiry learning in science, science assessments rarely capture the impact of inquiry instruction. This paper reports on the development and validation of assessments designed to measure middle-school students' progress in gaining integrated understanding of energy while studying an inquiry-oriented curriculum. The assessment development was guided by the knowledge integration framework. Over 2 years of implementation, more than 4,000 students from 4 schools participated in the study, including a cross-sectional and a longitudinal cohort. Results from item response modeling analyses revealed that: (a) the assessments demonstrated satisfactory psychometric properties in terms of reliability and validity; (b) both the cross-sectional and longitudinal cohorts made progress on integrating their understanding energy concepts; and (c) among many factors (e.g. gender, grade, school, and home language) associated with students' science performance, unit implementation was the strongest predictor.

  19. Cohort profile: the Social Inequality in Cancer (SIC) cohort study.

    PubMed

    Nordahl, Helene; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Diderichsen, Finn; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Osler, Merete; Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard; Prescott, Eva; Tjønneland, Anne; Lange, Theis; Keiding, Niels; Andersen, Per Kragh; Andersen, Ingelise

    2014-12-01

    The Social Inequality in Cancer (SIC) cohort study was established to determine pathways through which socioeconomic position affects morbidity and mortality, in particular common subtypes of cancer. Data from seven well-established cohort studies from Denmark were pooled. Combining these cohorts provided a unique opportunity to generate a large study population with long follow-up and sufficient statistical power to develop and apply new methods for quantification of the two basic mechanisms underlying social inequalities in cancer-mediation and interaction. The SIC cohort included 83 006 participants aged 20-98 years at baseline. A wide range of behavioural and biological risk factors such as smoking, physical inactivity, alcohol intake, hormone replacement therapy, body mass index, blood pressure and serum cholesterol were assessed by self-administered questionnaires, physical examinations and blood samples. All participants were followed up in nationwide demographic and healthcare registries. For those interested in collaboration, further details can be obtained by contacting the Steering Committee at the Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, at inan@sund.ku.dk.

  20. Academic dishonesty among Italian nursing students: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Macale, Loreana; Ghezzi, Valerio; Rocco, Gennaro; Fida, Roberta; Vellone, Ercole; Alvaro, Rosaria

    2017-03-01

    Considering the ethical issues related to nursing and that Ethics is an integral part of the nursing education in the degree course, one would suppose that academic dishonesty might be less frequent in nursing students than in students of other disciplines. However, several studies show that this trend of deceitful behaviour seems to be similar among the university nursing students and those of other disciplines. The aim of this study is to investigate the phenomenon of academic dishonesty in the classroom from a longitudinal perspective within a cohort of Italian nursing students. A non-experimental longitudinal design was used. All nursing students were recruited from the Nursing Science Bachelor Degree Program of a big Italian university in the centre of Italy and participants were part of an ongoing longitudinal research project which started in 2011 on nursing students' wellbeing. The results show that students get accustomed to taking academically deceitful actions. They come to consider their behaviours acceptable and normal, thereby stabilizing them, which increases the probability of stabilizing subsequent deceitful behaviours. The stability through time of academic cheating behaviours committed during higher education, within the study's timeframe, provides important perspectives into the establishment of rigorous standards of ethical and moral behaviours by the students.

  1. The LIFE Child study: a population-based perinatal and pediatric cohort in Germany.

    PubMed

    Poulain, Tanja; Baber, Ronny; Vogel, Mandy; Pietzner, Diana; Kirsten, Toralf; Jurkutat, Anne; Hiemisch, Andreas; Hilbert, Anja; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Thiery, Joachim; Fuchs, Michael; Hirsch, Christian; Rauscher, Franziska G; Loeffler, Markus; Körner, Antje; Nüchter, Matthias; Kiess, Wieland

    2017-01-31

    The LIFE Child study is a large population-based longitudinal childhood cohort study conducted in the city of Leipzig, Germany. As a part of LIFE, a research project conducted at the Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases, it aims to monitor healthy child development from birth to adulthood and to understand the development of lifestyle diseases such as obesity. The study consists of three interrelated cohorts; the birth cohort, the health cohort, and the obesity cohort. Depending on age and cohort, the comprehensive study program comprises different medical, psychological, and sociodemographic assessments as well as the collection of biological samples. Optimal data acquisition, process management, and data analysis are guaranteed by a professional team of physicians, certified study assistants, quality managers, scientists and statisticians. Due to the high popularity of the study, more than 3000 children have already participated until the end of 2015, and two-thirds of them participate continuously. The large quantity of acquired data allows LIFE Child to gain profound knowledge on the development of children growing up in the twenty-first century. This article reports the number of available and analyzable data and demonstrates the high relevance and potential of the study.

  2. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury among "Privileged" Youths: Longitudinal and Cross-Sectional Approaches to Developmental Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Tuppett M.; Tracy, Allison J.; Luthar, Suniya S.

    2008-01-01

    This investigation examined process-level pathways to nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI; e.g., self-cutting, -burning, -hitting) in 2 cohorts of suburban, upper-middle-class youths: a cross-sectional sample of 9th-12th graders (n = 1,036, 51.9% girls) on the West Coast and a longitudinal sample followed annually from the 6th through 12th grades (n =…

  3. Student perceptions of stress, coping, relationships, and academic civility: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Clark, Cynthia M; Nguyen, Danh T; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina

    2014-01-01

    Academic incivility can increase student stress, jeopardize learning, damage relationships, and negatively impact the academic environment. This 3-year longitudinal study measured a cohort of prelicensure nursing students' progressive perceptions of stress, coping, student-student and faculty-student relationships, and levels of academic civility. While civility scores remained mild to moderately high overall, there was a slightly declining trend over the 3-year period. Perceived stressors and coping strategies and ways to improve academic civility are identified and discussed.

  4. The Literacy Factor in the Optimal Age Discussion: A Five-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfenninger, Simone E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the impact of L2 literacy on the development of writing proficiency in the L3, as related to age of onset (AO) of instruction, as well as the effects of AO on ultimate L3 attainment at the end of the period of normal schooling. Using longitudinal data for the same student cohort (200 Swiss learners of English) at the beginning…

  5. Pioglitazone use and risk of bladder cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes: retrospective cohort study using datasets from four European countries

    PubMed Central

    Heintjes, Edith M; Williams, Rachael; Hoti, Fabian; Christopher, Solomon; Majak, Maila; Kool-Houweling, Leanne; Strongman, Helen; Linder, Marie; Dolin, Paul; Bahmanyar, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between pioglitazone use and bladder cancer risk in patients with type 2 diabetes. Design Retrospective cohort study using propensity score matched cohorts. Settings Healthcare databases from Finland, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Data comprised country specific datasets of linked records on prescriptions, hospitals, general practitioners, cancer, and deaths. Participants Patients with type 2 diabetes who initiated pioglitazone (n=56 337) matched with patients with type 2 diabetes in the same country exposed to diabetes drug treatments other than pioglitazone (n=317 109). Two matched cohorts were created, using a 1:1 fixed ratio (nearest match cohort) and a 1:10 variable ratio (multiple match cohort). Patients were matched on treatment history and propensity scores accounting for several variables associated with pioglitazone initiation. Main outcome measures Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by Cox’s proportional hazards model with adjustments for relevant confounders. To assess the robustness of the findings, several sensitivity and stratified analyses were performed. Results In the cohort exposed to pioglitazone treatment, 130 bladder cancers occurred over a mean follow-up time of 2.9 years. In the nearest match and multiple match cohorts not exposed to pioglitazone treatment, 153 and 970 bladder cancers were recorded, with a mean follow‑up time of 2.8 and 2.9 years, respectively. With regards to bladder cancer risk, the adjusted hazard ratio for patients ever exposed versus never exposed to pioglitazone was 0.99 (95% confidence interval 0.75 to 1.30) and 1.00 (0.83 to 1.21) in the nearest and multiple match cohorts, respectively. Increasing duration of pioglitazone use and increasing cumulative dose were not associated with risk of bladder cancer (>48 months of pioglitazone use, adjusted hazard ratio 0.86 (0.44 to 1.66); >40 000 mg cumulative dose, 0.65 (0.33 to 1

  6. Propranolol Reduces Cancer Risk: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ping-Ying; Huang, Wen-Yen; Lin, Cheng-Li; Huang, Tzu-Chuan; Wu, Yi-Ying; Chen, Jia-Hong; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-07-01

    β-Blockers have been reported to exhibit potential anticancer effects in cancer cell lines and animal models. However, clinical studies have yielded inconsistent results regarding cancer outcomes and cancer risk when β-blockers were used. This study investigated the association between propranolol and cancer risk.Between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2011, a patient cohort was extracted from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000, a subset of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A propranolol cohort (propranolol usage >6 months) and nonpropranolol cohort were matched using a propensity score. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of cancer associated with propranolol treatment.The study sample comprised 24,238 patients. After a 12-year follow-up period, the cumulative incidence for developing cancer was low in the propranolol cohort (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.67-0.85; P < 0.001). Patients with propranolol treatment exhibited significantly lower risks of cancers in head and neck (HR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.35-0.95), esophagus (HR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.13-0.96), stomach (HR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.30-0.98), colon (HR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.49-0.93), and prostate cancers (HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.33-0.83). The protective effect of propranolol for head and neck, stomach, colon, and prostate cancers was most substantial when exposure duration exceeded 1000 days.This study supports the proposition that propranolol can reduce the risk of head and neck, esophagus, stomach, colon, and prostate cancers. Further prospective study is necessary to confirm these findings.

  7. Quantitative muscle strength assessment in duchenne muscular dystrophy: longitudinal study and correlation with functional measures

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to perform a longitudinal assessment using Quantitative Muscle Testing (QMT) in a cohort of ambulant boys affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and to correlate the results of QMT with functional measures. This study is to date the most thorough long-term evaluation of QMT in a cohort of DMD patients correlated with other measures, such as the North Star Ambulatory Assessment (NSAA) or thee 6-min walk test (6MWT). Methods This is a single centre, prospective, non-randomised, study assessing QMT using the Kin Com® 125 machine in a study cohort of 28 ambulant DMD boys, aged 5 to 12 years. This cohort was assessed longitudinally over a 12 months period of time with 3 monthly assessments for QMT and with assessment of functional abilities, using the NSAA and the 6MWT at baseline and at 12 months only. QMT was also used in a control group of 13 healthy age-matched boys examined at baseline and at 12 months. Results There was an increase in QMT over 12 months in boys below the age of 7.5 years while in boys above the age of 7.5 years, QMT showed a significant decrease. All the average one-year changes were significantly different than those experienced by healthy controls. We also found a good correlation between quantitative tests and the other measures that was more obvious in the stronger children. Conclusion Our longitudinal data using QMT in a cohort of DMD patients suggest that this could be used as an additional tool to monitor changes, providing additional information on segmental strength. PMID:22974002

  8. Cohort Default Rates in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Shannon M.

    2011-01-01

    Burgeoning student loan debt indicates problems not only for the country's borrowers but also for the postsecondary system. The rise in student loan defaults signifies a rise in institutional cohort default rates (CDRs)--a measure of accountability that informs the government and the general public how well an institution prepares its students for…

  9. Modeling Community through Cohort Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basom, Margaret R.; Yerkes, Diane M.

    This paper explores the nature of the curriculum within learning communities, specifically, learning communities in leadership preparation programs. It also addresses how cohorts of learning communities operate effectively as cohesive groups, and how they, in turn, promote the enhancement of individuals. The process curriculum advocated in this…

  10. [Clinical research X. From the clinical judgement to the cohort design].

    PubMed

    Talavera, Juan O; Rivas-Ruiz, Rodolfo

    2012-01-01

    The second research design with higher quality of information, only after the clinical trial is the cohort, although it does not have the possibility of assigning the maneuver, it has the opportunity to follow subjects over time. Any research that tries to explain the phenomenon of causality runs the risk of bias, however, the characteristics of the cohort studies try to avoid them. Its main features are: 1. Be observational, where the researcher only measures the presence of the maneuver, characteristic that divides subjects into exposed and unexposed. 2. Be longitudinal, which provides the opportunity to track the subject through time documenting the temporal sequence of components ocurrence. 3. The directionality in measurements, generating what we know as prolective, retrolective and retro-prolective cohort studies; the former is the one with the highest quality as a result of the measurement of the variables in real time. 4. Be a comparative study.

  11. Trauma, comorbidity, and mortality following diagnoses of severe stress and adjustment disorders: a nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gradus, Jaimie L; Antonsen, Sussie; Svensson, Elisabeth; Lash, Timothy L; Resick, Patricia A; Hansen, Jens Georg

    2015-09-01

    Longitudinal outcomes following stress or trauma diagnoses are receiving attention, yet population-based studies are few. The aims of the present cohort study were to examine the cumulative incidence of traumatic events and psychiatric diagnoses following diagnoses of severe stress and adjustment disorders categorized using International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, codes and to examine associations of these diagnoses with all-cause mortality and suicide. Data came from a longitudinal cohort of all Danes who received a diagnosis of reaction to severe stress or adjustment disorders (International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, code F43.x) between 1995 and 2011, and they were compared with data from a general-population cohort. Cumulative incidence curves were plotted to examine traumatic experiences and psychiatric diagnoses during the study period. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to examine the associations of the disorders with mortality and suicide. Participants with stress diagnoses had a higher incidence of traumatic events and psychiatric diagnoses than did the comparison group. Each disorder was associated with a higher rate of all-cause mortality than that seen in the comparison cohort, and strong associations with suicide were found after adjustment. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of the associations of stress disorders with a variety of outcomes, and we found that stress diagnoses may have long-lasting and potentially severe consequences.

  12. Longitudinal dynamics in storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Colton, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    The single-particle equations of motion are derived for charged particles in a storage ring. Longitudinal space charge is included in the potential assuming an infinitely conducting circular beam pipe with a distributed inductance. The framework uses Hamilton's equations with the canonical variables phi and W. The Twiss parameters for longitudinal motion are also defined for the small amplitude synchrotron oscillations. The space-charge Hamiltonian is calculated for both parabolic bunches and ''matched'' bunches. A brief analysis including second-harmonic rf contributions is also given. The final sections supply calculations of dynamical quantities and particle simulations with the space-charge effects neglected.

  13. A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study of Migraine and Organic-Psychogenic Erectile Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Szu-Hsien; Chuang, Eric; Chuang, Tien-Yow; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Ming-Chia; Yen, Der-Jen; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As chronic illnesses and chronic pain are related to erectile dysfunction (ED), migraine as a prevalent chronic disorder affecting lots of people all over the world may negatively affect quality of life as well as sexual function. However, a large-scale population-based study of erectile dysfunction and other different comorbidities in patients with migraine is quite limited. This cohort longitudinal study aimed to estimate the association between migraine and ED using a nationwide population-based database in Taiwan. The data used for this cohort study were retrieved from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 in Taiwan. We identified 5015 patients with migraine and frequency matched 20,060 controls without migraine from 2000 to 2011. The occurrence of ED was followed up until the end of 2011. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to analyze the risks of ED. The overall incidence of ED was 1.78-fold greater in the migraine cohort than in the comparison cohort (23.3 vs 10.5 per 10,000 person-years; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.31–2.41). Furthermore, patients with migraine were 1.75-fold more likely to develop organic ED (95% CI = 1.27–2.41) than were the comparison cohort. The migraine patients with anxiety had a 3.6-fold higher HR of having been diagnosed with ED than the comparison cohort without anxiety (95% CI, 2.10–6.18). The results support that patients with migraine have a higher incidence of being diagnosed with ED, particularly in the patient with the comorbidity of anxiety. PMID:26962838

  14. Rationales, design and recruitment for the Elfe longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Bois, Corinne; Pirus, Claudine; Sarter, Hélène; Salines, Georges; Leridon, Henri

    2009-01-01

    Background Many factors act simultaneously in childhood to influence health status, life chances and well being, including pre-birth influences, the environmental pollutants of early life, health status but also the social influences of family and school. A cohort study is needed to disentangle these influences and explore attribution. Methods Elfe will be a nationally representative cohort of 20 000 children followed from birth to adulthood using a multidisciplinary approach. The cohort will be based on the INSEE Permanent Demographic Panel (EDP) established using census data and civil records. The sample size has been defined in order to match the representativeness criteria and to obtain some prevalence estimation, but also to address the research area of low exposure/rare effects. The cohort will be based on repeated surveys by face to face or phone interview (at birth and each year) as well as medical interview (at 2 years) and examination (at 6 years). Furthermore, biological samples will be taken at birth to evaluate the foetal exposition to toxic substances, environmental sensors will be placed in the child's homes. Pilot studies have been initiated in 2007 (500 children) with an overall acceptance rate of 55% and are currently under progress, the 2-year survey being carried out in October this year. Discussion The longitudinal study will provide a unique source of data to analyse the development of children in their environment, to study the various factors interacting throughout the life course up to adulthood and to determine the impact of childhood experience on the individual's physical, psychological, social and professional development. PMID:19772571

  15. Personality change over 40 years of adulthood: hierarchical linear modeling analyses of two longitudinal samples.

    PubMed

    Helson, Ravenna; Jones, Constance; Kwan, Virginia S Y

    2002-09-01

    Normative personality change over 40 years was shown in 2 longitudinal cohorts with hierarchical linear modeling of California Psychological Inventory data obtained at multiple times between ages 21-75. Although themes of change and the paucity of differences attributable to gender and cohort largely supported findings of multiethnic cross-sectional samples, the authors also found much quadratic change and much individual variability. The form of quadratic change supported predictions about the influence of period of life and social climate as factors in change over the adult years: Scores on Dominance and Independence peaked in the middle age of both cohorts, and scores on Responsibility were lowest during peak years of the culture of individualism. The idea that personality change is most pronounced before age 30 and then reaches a plateau received no support.

  16. A Study of Group Dynamics in Educational Leadership Cohort and Non-Cohort Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenlee, Bobbie J.; Karanxha, Zorka

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine group dynamics of educational leadership students in cohorts and make comparisons with the group dynamics characteristics of non-cohort students. Cohorts have emerged as dynamic and adaptive entities with attendant group dynamic processes that shape collective learning and action. Cohort (n=42) and…

  17. Hemorrhagic Longitudinally Extensive Transverse Myelitis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chris Y; Riangwiwat, Tanawan; Nakamoto, Beau K

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) may be associated with viral triggers, including both infections and vaccinations. We present a case of a healthy immunocompetent 33-year-old woman who developed a hemorrhagic LETM 2 weeks after seasonal influenza vaccination. Hemorrhagic LETM has not to our knowledge been reported after influenza vaccination. It may represent a forme fruste variant of acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis.

  18. Regression Splines with Longitudinal Data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many clinical trial studies, patients are observed and/or measured on multiple occasions. To account for the longitudinal nature of the data, a mixed model analysis implemented using SAS PROC MIXED is commonly used. It is typical to make comparisons between dose or treatment groups, possibly cont...

  19. Longitudinal Studies of Spelling Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Nick

    Noting that proposed models of literacy development suggest that reading and writing mutually influence and grow from each other, this paper summarizes aspects of stage theories of literacy development and an integrative model, and considers how the model fared in empirical longitudinal tests. The paper begins with a summary of the modal aspects…

  20. Longitudinal Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Frontotemporal Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, Colin J; Simpson, Ivor J A; Nicholas, Jennifer M; Fletcher, Phillip D; Downey, Laura E; Golden, Hannah L; Clark, Camilla N; Schmitz, Nicole; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Schott, Jonathan M; Zhang, Hui; Ourselin, Sebastian; Warren, Jason D; Fox, Nick C

    2015-01-01

    Objective Novel biomarkers for monitoring progression in neurodegenerative conditions are needed. Measurement of microstructural changes in white matter (WM) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) may be a useful outcome measure. Here we report trajectories of WM change using serial DTI in a cohort with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). Methods Twenty-three patients with bvFTD (12 having genetic mutations), and 18 age-matched control participants were assessed using DTI and neuropsychological batteries at baseline and ∼1.3 years later. Baseline and follow-up DTI scans were registered using a groupwise approach. Annualized rates of change for DTI metrics, neuropsychological measures, and whole brain volume were calculated. DTI metric performances were compared, and sample sizes for potential clinical trials were calculated. Results In the bvFTD group as a whole, rates of change in fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) within the right paracallosal cingulum were greatest (FA: −6.8%/yr, p < 0.001; MD: 2.9%/yr, p = 0.01). MAPT carriers had the greatest change within left uncinate fasciculus (FA: −7.9%/yr, p < 0.001; MD: 10.9%/yr, p < 0.001); sporadic bvFTD and C9ORF72 carriers had the greatest change within right paracallosal cingulum (sporadic bvFTD, FA: −6.7%/yr, p < 0.001; MD: 3.8%/yr, p = 0.001; C9ORF72, FA: −6.8%/yr, p = 0.004). Sample size estimates using FA change were substantially lower than neuropsychological or whole brain measures of change. Interpretation Serial DTI scans may be useful for measuring disease progression in bvFTD, with particular trajectories of WM damage emerging. Sample size calculations suggest that longitudinal DTI may be a useful biomarker in future clinical trials. PMID:25363208

  1. Longitudinal Commercial Claims–Based Cost Analysis of Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, Kathryn; Weisman, Thomas; Engel, Tyler; Turpcu, Adam; Blumen, Helen; Rajput, Yamina; Dave, Purav

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetic retinopathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes. The screening of patients with diabetes to detect retinopathy is recommended by several professional guidelines but is an underutilized service. Objective To analyze the relationship between the frequency of retinopathy screening and the cost of care in adult patients with diabetes. Methods Truven Health MarketScan commercial databases (2000–2013) were used to identify the diabetic population aged 18 to 64 years for the performance of a 2001–2013 annual trend analysis of patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes and a 10-year longitudinal analysis of patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. In the trend analysis, the prevalence of diabetes, screening rate, and allowed cost per member per month (PMPM) were calculated. In the longitudinal analysis, data from 4 index years (2001–2004) of patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes were combined, and the costs were adjusted to be comparable to the 2004 index year cohort, using the annual diabetes population cost trends calculated in the trend analysis. The longitudinal population was segmented into the number of years of diabetic retinopathy screening (ie, 0, 1–4, 5–7, and 8–10), and the relationship between the years of screening and the PMPM allowed costs was analyzed. The difference in mean incremental cost between years 1 and 10 in each of the 4 cohorts was compared after adjusting for explanatory variables. Results In the trend analysis, between 2001 and 2013, the prevalence of diabetes increased from 3.93% to 5.08%, retinal screening increased from 26.27% to 29.58%, and the average total unadjusted allowed cost of care for each patient with diabetes increased from $822 to $1395 PMPM. In the longitudinal analysis, the difference between the screening cohorts’ mean incremental cost increase was $185 between the 0- and 1–4–year cohorts (P <.003) and $202 between the 0- and 5–7–year cohorts (P <.023). The

  2. A regression model analysis of longitudinal dental caries data.

    PubMed

    Ringelberg, M L; Tonascia, J A

    1976-03-01

    Longitudinal data on caries experience were derived from the reexamination and interview of a cohort of 306 subjects with an average follow-up period of 33 years after the baseline examination. Analysis of the data was accomplished by the use of contingency tables utilizing enumeration statistics compared with a multiple regression analysis. The analyses indicated a strong association of caries experience at one point in time with the caries experience of that same person earlier in life. The regression model approach offers adjustment of any given independent variable for the effect of all other independent variables, providing a powerful means of bias reduction. The model is also useful in separating out the specific effect of an independent variable over and above the contribution of other variables. The model used explained 35% of the variability in the DMFS scores recorded. Similar models could be useful adjuncts in the analyses of dental epidemiologic data.

  3. A Longitudinal Study of Memory Advantages in Bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Ljungberg, Jessica K.; Hansson, Patrik; Andrés, Pilar; Josefsson, Maria; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

    2013-01-01

    Typically, studies of cognitive advantages in bilinguals have been conducted previously by using executive and inhibitory tasks (e.g. Simon task) and applying cross-sectional designs. This study longitudinally investigated bilingual advantages on episodic memory recall, verbal letter and categorical fluency during the trajectory of life. Monolingual and bilingual participants (n = 178) between 35–70 years at baseline were drawn from the Betula Prospective Cohort Study of aging, memory, and health. Results showed that bilinguals outperformed monolinguals at the first testing session and across time both in episodic memory recall and in letter fluency. No interaction with age was found indicating that the rate of change across ages was similar for bilinguals and monolinguals. As predicted and in line with studies applying cross-sectional designs, no advantages associated with bilingualism were found in the categorical fluency task. The results are discussed in the light of successful aging. PMID:24023803

  4. Lack of replication for the myosin-18B association with mathematical ability in independent cohorts.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, K A; Fajutrao Valles, S F; Moll, K; Northstone, K; Ring, S; Pennell, C; Wang, C; Leavett, R; Hayiou-Thomas, M E; Thompson, P; Simpson, N H; Fisher, S E; Whitehouse, A J O; Snowling, M J; Newbury, D F; Paracchini, S

    2015-04-01

    Twin studies indicate that dyscalculia (or mathematical disability) is caused partly by a genetic component, which is yet to be understood at the molecular level. Recently, a coding variant (rs133885) in the myosin-18B gene was shown to be associated with mathematical abilities with a specific effect among children with dyslexia. This association represents one of the most significant genetic associations reported to date for mathematical abilities and the only one reaching genome-wide statistical significance. We conducted a replication study in different cohorts to assess the effect of rs133885 maths-related measures. The study was conducted primarily using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), (N = 3819). We tested additional cohorts including the York Cohort, the Specific Language Impairment Consortium (SLIC) cohort and the Raine Cohort, and stratified them for a definition of dyslexia whenever possible. We did not observe any associations between rs133885 in myosin-18B and mathematical abilities among individuals with dyslexia or in the general population. Our results suggest that the myosin-18B variant is unlikely to be a main factor contributing to mathematical abilities.

  5. Riyadh Mother and Baby Multicenter Cohort Study: The Cohort Profile

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeil, Samia; Alzeidan, Rasmieh; Elawad, Mamoun; Tabassum, Rabeena; Hansoti, Shehnaz; Magzoup, Mohie Edein; Al-Kadri, Hanan; Elsherif, Elham; Al-Mandil, Hazim; Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer; Zakaria, Nasria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effects of non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity, on the mother and the infant. Methods A multicentre cohort study was conducted in three hospitals in the city of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. All Saudi women and their babies who delivered in participating hospitals were eligible for recruitment. Data on socio-demographic characteristics in addition to the maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy were collected. The cohort demographic profile was recorded and the prevalence of maternal conditions including gestational diabetes, pre-gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and obesity were estimated. Findings The total number of women who delivered in participating hospitals during the study period was 16,012 of which 14,568 women participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 29 ± 5.9 years and over 40% were university graduates. Most of the participants were housewives, 70% were high or middle income and 22% were exposed to secondhand smoke. Of the total cohort, 24% were married to a first cousin. More than 68% of the participants were either overweight or obese. The preterm delivery rate was 9%, while 1.5% of the deliveries were postdate. The stillbirth rate was 13/1000 live birth. The prevalence of gestational diabetes was 24% and that of pre-gestational diabetes was 4.3%. The preeclampsia prevalence was 1.1%. The labour induction rate was 15.5% and the cesarean section rate was 25%. Conclusion Pregnant women in Saudi Arabia have a unique demographic profile. The prevalence of obesity and diabetes in pregnancy are among the highest in the world. PMID:26937965

  6. Cohort Profile: The Applied Research Group for Kids (TARGet Kids!).

    PubMed

    Carsley, Sarah; Borkhoff, Cornelia M; Maguire, Jonathon L; Birken, Catherine S; Khovratovich, Marina; McCrindle, Brian; Macarthur, Colin; Parkin, Patricia C

    2015-06-01

    The Applied Research Group for Kids (TARGet Kids!) is an ongoing open longitudinal cohort study enrolling healthy children (from birth to 5 years of age) and following them into adolescence. The aim of the TARGet Kids! cohort is to link early life exposures to health problems including obesity, micronutrient deficiencies and developmental problems. The overarching goal is to improve the health of Canadians by optimizing growth and developmental trajectories through preventive interventions in early childhood. TARGet Kids!, the only child health research network embedded in primary care practices in Canada, leverages the unique relationship between children and families and their trusted primary care practitioners, with whom they have at least seven health supervision visits in the first 5 years of life. Children are enrolled during regularly scheduled well-child visits. To date, we have enrolled 5062 children. In addition to demographic information, we collect physical measurements (e.g. height, weight), lifestyle factors (nutrition, screen time and physical activity), child behaviour and developmental screening and a blood sample (providing measures of cardiometabolic, iron and vitamin D status, and trace metals). All data are collected at each well-child visit: twice a year until age 2 and every year until age 10. Information can be found at: http://www.targetkids.ca/contact-us/.

  7. LONGITUDINAL LASER WIRE AT SNS

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, Alexander V; Liu, Yun; Zhukov, Alexander P

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a longitudinal H- beam profile scanner that utilizes laser light to detach convoy electrons and an MCP to collect and measure these electrons. The scanner is located in MEBT with H- energy of 2.5MeV and an RF frequency 402.5MHz. The picosecond pulsed laser runs at 80.5MHz in sync with the accelerator RF. The laser beam is delivered to the beam line through a 30m optical fiber. The pulse width after the fiber transmission measures about 10ps. Scanning the laser phase effectively allows measurements to move along ion bunch longitudinal position. We are able to reliably measure production beam bunch length with this method. The biggest problem we have encountered is background signal from electrons being stripped by vacuum. Several techniques of signal detection are discussed.

  8. Hemorrhagic Longitudinally Extensive Transverse Myelitis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chris Y.; Riangwiwat, Tanawan

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) may be associated with viral triggers, including both infections and vaccinations. We present a case of a healthy immunocompetent 33-year-old woman who developed a hemorrhagic LETM 2 weeks after seasonal influenza vaccination. Hemorrhagic LETM has not to our knowledge been reported after influenza vaccination. It may represent a forme fruste variant of acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis. PMID:27847660

  9. Longitudinal bulk acoustic mass sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, J. H.; Teva, J.; Boisen, A.; Davis, Z. J.

    2009-07-20

    A polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever is fabricated and operated in air at 51 MHz. A mass sensitivity of 100 Hz/fg (1 fg=10{sup -15} g) is obtained from the preliminary experiments where a minute mass is deposited on the device by means of focused ion beam. The total noise in the currently applied measurement system allows for a minimum detectable mass of 0.5 fg in air.

  10. Longitudinal bulk acoustic mass sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, J. H.; Teva, J.; Boisen, A.; Davis, Z. J.

    2009-07-01

    A polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever is fabricated and operated in air at 51 MHz. A mass sensitivity of 100 Hz/fg (1 fg=10-15 g) is obtained from the preliminary experiments where a minute mass is deposited on the device by means of focused ion beam. The total noise in the currently applied measurement system allows for a minimum detectable mass of 0.5 fg in air.

  11. Integrating prospective longitudinal data: modeling personality and health in the Terman Life Cycle and Hawaii Longitudinal Studies.

    PubMed

    Kern, Margaret L; Hampson, Sarah E; Goldberg, Lewis R; Friedman, Howard S

    2014-05-01

    The present study used a collaborative framework to integrate 2 long-term prospective studies: the Terman Life Cycle Study and the Hawaii Personality and Health Longitudinal Study. Within a 5-factor personality-trait framework, teacher assessments of child personality were rationally and empirically aligned to establish similar factor structures across samples. Comparable items related to adult self-rated health, education, and alcohol use were harmonized, and data were pooled on harmonized items. A structural model was estimated as a multigroup analysis. Harmonized child personality factors were then used to examine markers of physiological dysfunction in the Hawaii sample and mortality risk in the Terman sample. Harmonized conscientiousness predicted less physiological dysfunction in the Hawaii sample and lower mortality risk in the Terman sample. These results illustrate how collaborative, integrative work with multiple samples offers the exciting possibility that samples from different cohorts and ages can be linked together to directly test life span theories of personality and health.

  12. Parameterized Linear Longitudinal Airship Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulczycki, Eric; Elfes, Alberto; Bayard, David; Quadrelli, Marco; Johnson, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    A parameterized linear mathematical model of the longitudinal dynamics of an airship is undergoing development. This model is intended to be used in designing control systems for future airships that would operate in the atmospheres of Earth and remote planets. Heretofore, the development of linearized models of the longitudinal dynamics of airships has been costly in that it has been necessary to perform extensive flight testing and to use system-identification techniques to construct models that fit the flight-test data. The present model is a generic one that can be relatively easily specialized to approximate the dynamics of specific airships at specific operating points, without need for further system identification, and with significantly less flight testing. The approach taken in the present development is to merge the linearized dynamical equations of an airship with techniques for estimation of aircraft stability derivatives, and to thereby make it possible to construct a linearized dynamical model of the longitudinal dynamics of a specific airship from geometric and aerodynamic data pertaining to that airship. (It is also planned to develop a model of the lateral dynamics by use of the same methods.) All of the aerodynamic data needed to construct the model of a specific airship can be obtained from wind-tunnel testing and computational fluid dynamics

  13. Predictors of Suicidal Ideation in Late Childhood and Adolescence: A 5-Year Follow-Up of Two Nationally Representative Cohorts in the Republic of Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sunhee

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the trajectory of suicidal ideation in childhood and adolescence and identifies its strong predictors. Secondary data obtained from two nationally representative cohorts of South Korean youth were longitudinally analyzed using frequencies, percentages, and discrete time survival analysis. This study revealed an increase in the…

  14. The Impact of Bullying Perpetration and Victimization on Later Violence and Psychological Distress: A Study of Resilience among a Scottish Youth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McVie, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the impact of bullying between age 13 and 16 years on negative outcomes at age 17 years, taking into account various resilience factors at the individual, family, and community level. Using longitudinal data from the Edinburgh Study of Youth Transitions and Crime, a prospective cohort study of around 4,300 young people in…

  15. Cohort profiles of the cross-sectional and prospective participant groups in the second Diabetes MILES—Australia (MILES-2) study

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Jessica L; Holmes-Truscott, Elizabeth; Ventura, Adriana D; Hendrieckx, Christel; Pouwer, Frans; Speight, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Purpose More research into the psychosocial aspects of diabetes is needed so that the health and quality of life of people with the condition can be improved. To fill this gap, we conducted the second Diabetes MILES—Australia study (MILES-2), a survey focused on psychological, behavioural and social aspects of diabetes. The aim of the MILES-2 study was to provide a (1) longitudinal follow-up of the original MILES 2011 study cohort; (2) cross-sectional assessment of a new cohort. Participants Eligible participants were English-speaking Australians with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, aged 18–75 years. Longitudinal cohort participants were mailed/emailed study invitations directly by researchers. Random sampling (stratified by diabetes type, insulin use, state) of the National Diabetes Services Scheme (NDSS) database and nationwide advertisements were used to recruit new cohort participants. The final sample included N=2342 eligible respondents (longitudinal cohort: n=504; 2015 new cohort: n=1838); 54% had type 2 diabetes. Findings to date Survey respondents were from an advantaged socioeconomic background compared to the general population. Respondents with type 1 diabetes were over-represented in the new cohort (45%) relative to the planned stratification (40% type 1 diabetes, 60% type 2 diabetes). Respondents with insulin-treated type 2 diabetes were under-represented in the new cohort relative to the stratified sampling (42% invited vs 50% response). Participants who completed both the 2011 and 2015 surveys were more likely than those completing the 2011 survey only to have type 1 diabetes, report a higher education and annual income, and live in metropolitan areas. Participant feedback indicated that the survey was perceived as relevant and valuable. Future plans The depth and breadth of the data available in this large sample will highlight unmet needs and priority areas for future investigation and, crucially, will inform policy, programme and intervention

  16. Cohort profile: The Limache, Chile, birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia; Zumelzú, Elinor; Rona, Roberto J

    2014-08-01

    The Limache cohort was set up to assess the programming and life course events hypotheses in relation to cardiovascular risk factors and chronic respiratory conditions, especially asthma, in the context of an unprecedented economic growth in Chile. The cohort was a representative sample of 1232 participants born between 1974 and 1978 in the hospital of Limache. The study includes data collected at birth, during the 1st year of life, at 22 to 28 years (collected between 2000 and 2002) and at 32 to 38 years (collected between 2010 and 2012). The data collected include anthropometric measurements at birth, 1st year of life and in adulthood, socio-economic and demographic data, lifestyle information including smoking, alcohol consumption and food intake, respiratory symptoms, lung function, broncho-reactivity to methacholine and skin prick reaction to eight allergens, measurement of cardiovascular risk factors and information on common mental health, mainly in the most recent study. The principal researchers welcome collaborative projects, especially those that will compare similar data sets in other settings.

  17. Cohort Profile: The Limache, Chile, birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia; Zumelzú, Elinor; Rona, Roberto J

    2014-01-01

    The Limache cohort was set up to assess the programming and life course events hypotheses in relation to cardiovascular risk factors and chronic respiratory conditions, especially asthma, in the context of an unprecedented economic growth in Chile. The cohort was a representative sample of 1232 participants born between 1974 and 1978 in the hospital of Limache. The study includes data collected at birth, during the 1st year of life, at 22 to 28 years (collected between 2000 and 2002) and at 32 to 38 years (collected between 2010 and 2012). The data collected include anthropometric measurements at birth, 1st year of life and in adulthood, socio-economic and demographic data, lifestyle information including smoking, alcohol consumption and food intake, respiratory symptoms, lung function, broncho-reactivity to methacholine and skin prick reaction to eight allergens, measurement of cardiovascular risk factors and information on common mental health, mainly in the most recent study. The principal researchers welcome collaborative projects, especially those that will compare similar data sets in other settings [E-mail: hamigo@med.uchile.cl]. PMID:24366489

  18. Genetic linkage analysis of longitudinal hypertension phenotypes using three summary measures

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Shaoqi; Li, Lin; Li, Xia; Moser, Kathy L; Guo, Zheng; Shen, Gongqing; Cannata, Ruth; Zirzow, Erich; Topol, Eric J; Wang, Qing

    2003-01-01

    Background Longitudinal data often have multiple (repeated) measures recorded along a time trajectory. For example, the two cohorts from the Framingham Heart Study (GAW13 Problem 1) contain 21 and 5 repeated measures for hypertension phenotypes as well as epidemiological risk factors, respectively. Direct modelling of a large number of serially and biologically correlated traits in the context of linkage analysis can be prohibitively complex. Alternatively, we may consider using univariate transformation for linkage analysis of longitudinal repeated measures. Results We evaluated the utility of three conventional summary measures (mean, slope, and principal components) for genetic linkage analysis of longitudinal phenotypes by analyzing the chromosome 10 data of the Framingham Heart Study. Except for the temporal slope, all of the summary methods and the multivariate analysis identified the previously reported region, marker GATA64A09, for systolic blood pressure or high blood pressure. Further analysis revealed that this region may harbor gene(s) affecting human blood pressure at multiple stages of life. Conclusion We conclude that mean and principal components are feasible alternatives for genetic linkage analysis of longitudinal phenotypes, but the slope might have a separate genetic basis from that of the original longitudinal phenotypes. PMID:14975092

  19. Outcome of endoscopy-negative iron deficiency anemia in patients above 65: A longitudinal multicenter cohort.

    PubMed

    Clere-Jehl, Raphaël; Sauleau, Erik; Ciuca, Stefan; Schaeffer, Mickael; Lopes, Amanda; Goichot, Bernard; Vogel, Thomas; Kaltenbach, Georges; Bouvard, Eric; Pasquali, Jean-Louis; Sereni, Daniel; Andres, Emmanuel; Bourgarit, Anne

    2016-11-01

    After the age of 65 years, iron deficiency anemia (IDA) requires the elimination of digestive neoplasia and is explored with upper and lower gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy. However, such explorations are negative in 14% to 37% of patients. To further evaluate this issue, we evaluated the outcomes of patients aged over 65 years with endoscopy-negative IDA.We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of in-patients over the age of 65 years with IDA (hemoglobin <12 g/dL and ferritin <70 μg/L) who had negative complete upper and lower GI endoscopies in 7 tertiary medical hospitals. Death, the persistence of anemia, further investigations, and the final diagnosis for IDA were analyzed after at least 12 months by calling the patients' general practitioners and using hospital records.Between 2004 and 2011, 69 patients (74% women) with a median age of 78 (interquartile range (IQR) 75-82) years and hemoglobin and ferritin levels of 8.4 (IQR 6.8-9.9) g/dL and 14 (IQR 8-27) μg/L, respectively, had endoscopy-negative IDA, and 73% of these patients received daily antithrombotics. After a follow-up of 41 ± 22 months, 23 (33%) of the patients were dead; 5 deaths were linked with the IDA, and 45 (65%) patients had persistent anemia, which was significantly associated with death (P = 0.007). Further investigations were performed in 45 patients; 64% of the second-look GI endoscopies led to significant changes in treatment compared with 25% for the capsule endoscopies. Conventional diagnoses of IDA were ultimately established for 19 (27%) patients and included 3 cancer patients. Among the 50 other patients, 40 (58%) had antithrombotics.In endoscopy-negative IDA over the age of 65 years, further investigations should be reserved for patients with persistent anemia, and second-look GI endoscopy should be favored. If the results of these investigations are negative, the role of antithrombotics should be considered.

  20. Tabulating Ingestion of Mocha Solution (TIMS): a longitudinal prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Staios, Gregory; Khan, Waqas U.; Chiuccariello, Lina; Sellings, Laurie H.; De Sousa, Kim; Wang, Shan; Lo, Steven; Elkader, Alexander K.

    2011-01-01

    The annual “Roll Up the Rim to Win” contest at Tim Hortons restaurants provides customers the opportunity to win prizes. This study investigated win ratios, prize types and patterns of coffee consumption. PMID:22159361

  1. Research of the Holiday kind: Tabulating Ingestion of Mocha Solution (TIMS): a longitudinal prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Staios, Gregory; Khan, Waqas U; Chiuccariello, Lina; Sellings, Laurie H; De Sousa, Kim; Wang, Shan; Lo, Steven; Elkader, Alexander K

    2011-12-13

    The annual "Roll Up the Rim to Win" contest at Tim Hortons restaurants provides customers the opportunity to win prizes. This study investigated win ratios, prize types and patterns of coffee consumption.

  2. Redefining Gulf War Illness Using Longitudinal Health Data: The Fort Devens Cohort

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    deficits, skin rash, gastrointestinal difficulties and sleep problems. The initial attempts at identifying case definition used a one-time cross...sectional health symptom report, which is insufficient for determining a case definition given that symptoms often show remitting and relapsing tendencies...more appropriate treatment avenues for ill veterans, it is essential that a refined case definition be found taking change over time into account and

  3. Substance use disorders, psychiatric disorders, and mortality after release from prison: a nationwide longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Zheng; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik; Fazel, Seena

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background High mortality rates have been reported in people released from prison compared with the general population. However, few studies have investigated potential risk factors associated with these high rates, especially psychiatric determinants. We aimed to investigate the association between psychiatric disorders and mortality in people released from prison in Sweden. Methods We studied all people who were imprisoned since Jan 1, 2000, and released before Dec 31, 2009, in Sweden for risks of all-cause and external-cause (accidents, suicide, homicide) mortality after prison release. We obtained data for substance use disorders and other psychiatric disorders, and criminological and sociodemographic factors from population-based registers. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) by Cox regression, and then used them to calculate population attributable fractions for post-release mortality. To control for potential familial confounding, we compared individuals in the study with siblings who were also released from prison, but without psychiatric disorders. We tested whether any independent risk factors improved the prediction of mortality beyond age, sex, and criminal history. Findings We identified 47 326 individuals who were imprisoned. During a median follow-up time of 5·1 years (IQR 2·6–7·5), we recorded 2874 (6%) deaths after release from prison. The overall all-cause mortality rate was 1205 deaths per 100 000 person-years. Substance use disorders significantly increased the rate of all-cause mortality (alcohol use: adjusted HR 1·62, 95% CI 1·48–1·77; drug use: 1·67, 1·53–1·83), and the association was independent of sociodemographic, criminological, and familial factors. We identified no strong evidence that other psychiatric disorders increased mortality after we controlled for potential confounders. In people released from prison, 925 (34%) of all-cause deaths in men and 85 (50%) in women were potentially attributable to substance use disorders. Substance use disorders were also an independent determinant of external-cause mortality, with population attributable fraction estimates at 42% in men and 70% in women. Substance use disorders significantly improved the prediction of external-cause mortality, in addition to sociodemographic and criminological factors. Interpretation Interventions to address substance use disorders could substantially decrease the burden of excess mortality in people released from prison, but might need to be provided beyond the immediate period after release. Funding Wellcome Trust, Swedish Research Council, and the Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare. PMID:26360286

  4. LONGITUDINAL ANALYSIS OF AMBIENT POLLUTION AND OXYGEN SATURATION IN A COHORT OF ELDERLY INDIVIDUALS. (R826780)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  5. Erythrocyte pyruvate kinase deficiency in an old-order Amish cohort: longitudinal risk and disease management.

    PubMed

    Rider, Nicholas L; Strauss, Kevin A; Brown, Krysta; Finkenstedt, Armin; Puffenberger, Erik G; Hendrickson, Christine L; Robinson, Donna L; Muenke, Nikolas; Tselepis, Chris; Saunders, Lauren; Zoller, Heinz; Morton, D Holmes

    2011-10-01

    Pyruvate kinase deficiency is a chronic illness with age specific consequences. Newborns suffer life-threatening hemolytic crisis and hyperbilirubinemia. Adults are at risk for infections because of asplenia, pregnancy-related morbidity, and may suffer organ damage because of systemic iron overload. We describe 27 Old Order Amish patients (ages 8 months-52 years) homozygous for c.1436G>A mutations in PKLR. Each subject had a predictable neonatal course requiring packed red blood cell transfusions (30 ± 5 mL/kg) to control hemolytic disease and intensive phototherapy to prevent kernicterus. Hemochromatosis affected 29% (n = 4) of adult patients, who had inappropriately normal serum hepcidin (34.5 ± 12.7 ng/mL) and GDF-15 (595 ± 335pg/mL) relative to hyperferritinemia (769 ± 595 mg/dL). A high prevalence of HFE gene mutations exists in this population and may contribute to iron-related morbidity. Based on our observations, we present a strategy for long-term management of pyruvate kinase deficiency.

  6. Design and Analysis of the Community Youth Development Study Longitudinal Cohort Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Eric C.; Graham, John W.; Hawkins, J. David; Arthur, Michael W.; Baldwin, Megan M.; Oesterle, Sabrina; Briney, John S.; Catalano, Richard F.; Abbott, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Communities That Care (CTC) is a prevention system designed to reduce adolescent substance use and delinquency through the selection of effective preventive interventions tailored to a community's specific profile of risk and protection. A community-randomized trial of CTC, the Community Youth Development Study, is currently being conducted in 24…

  7. Cognitive distortions and ADHD in pathological gambling: A national longitudinal case-control cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Romo, Lucia; Legauffre, Cindy; Guilleux, Alice; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Fatséas, Mélina; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Luquiens, Amandine; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The primary outcome of our study was to assess the links between the level of cognitive distortions and the severity of gambling disorder. We also aimed at assessing the links between patient gambling trajectories and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Materials and methods The study population (n = 628) was comprised of problem and non-problem gamblers of both sexes between 18 and 65 years of age, who reported gambling on at least one occasion during the previous year. Data encompassed socio-demographic characteristics, gambling habits, the South Oaks Gambling Screen, the Gambling Attitudes and Beliefs Survey – 23, the Wender Utah Rating Scale – Child, and the Adult ADHD Self-report Scale. Results The cognitive distortions with the greatest correlation to the severity of gambling disorder were the “Chasing” and “Emotions.” These two dimensions were able to distinguish between problem gamblers seeking treatment or not. While age of onset of gambling and length of gambling practice were not associated with the level of distorted cognitions, a period of abstinence of at least 1 month was associated with a lower level of distorted cognitions. The presence of ADHD resulted in a higher level of distorted cognitions. Conclusion Cognitive work is essential to the prevention, and the treatment, of pathological gambling, especially with respect to emotional biases and chasing behavior. The instauration of an abstinence period of at least 1 month under medical supervision could be a promising therapeutic lead for reducing gambling-related erroneous thoughts and for improving care strategies of pathological gamblers. PMID:27774813

  8. Redefining Gulf War Illness Using Longitudinal Health Data: The Fort Devens Cohort

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION : Boston VA Research Institute, Inc. Boston, MA 02130...NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER E-Mail: mhk@bu.edu 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING... ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Boston VA Research Institute, Inc. Boston, MA 02130 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND

  9. Disordered Eating and Weight Changes after Deployment: Longitudinal Assessment of a Large US Military Cohort

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-04

    manic - depressive disorder, or post-traumatic stress disorder or by the reporting of medication use for anxiety, depression , or stress. Baseline...regarding past and current conflicts in the Persian Gulf has found that deployment- related stress produces anxiety, depression , post-traumatic stress...severe. History of a diagnosed men- tal disorder was determined by the reporting of a physician’s diagnosis of depression , schizophrenia or psychosis

  10. Ageing and Dementia in a Longitudinal Study of a Cohort with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Janet; Collins, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Background: A population sample of people with Down syndrome has been studied from infancy and has now been followed up again at age 47 years. Methods: Intelligence and language skills were tested and daily living skills assessed. Memory/cognitive deterioration was examined using two test instruments. Results: Scores on verbal tests of…

  11. Infant Motor Development Is Associated with Adult Cognitive Categorisation in a Longitudinal Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, G. K.; Veijola, J.; Moilanen, K.; Miettunen, J.; Glahn, D. C.; Cannon, T. D.; Jones, P. B.; Isohanni, M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The relationship between the age of reaching infant developmental milestones and later intellectual function within the normal population remains unresolved. We hypothesised that the age of learning to stand in infancy would be associated with adult executive function and that the association would be apparent throughout the range of…

  12. Longitudinal statistics on work activity and use of employment supports for new Social Security Disability Insurance beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Su; Stapleton, David C

    2011-01-01

    We present longitudinal employment and work-incentive statistics for individuals who began receiving Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) benefits from 1996 through 2006. For the longest-observed cohort, 28 percent returned to work, 6.5 percent had their benefits suspended for work in at least 1 month, and 3.7 percent had their benefits terminated for work. The corresponding percentages are much higher for those who were younger than age 40 when they entered the DI program. Most first suspensions occurred within 5 years after entry. Cross-state variation in outcomes is high, and, to the extent observed, statistics for more recent cohorts are lower.

  13. Longitudinal study of workers in an aluminum smelter

    SciTech Connect

    Chan-Yeung, M.; Enarson, D.A.; MacLean, L.; Irving, D.

    1989-05-01

    We conducted a 6-y follow-up study that included workers in an aluminum smelter in British Columbia. Of the original cohort, 951 workers left the industry and 985 workers participated in both studies. Comparison of those who left and those who remained showed that those who left were (1) older, (2) had a slightly higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms, and (3) had lower lung function; this was especially true for workers who were 50 + y of age at the time the initial study was conducted. Analyses were conducted only on 586 male workers who did not change their job location or smoking habits between the initial and the follow-up study. Potroom workers in the ''high-exposure'' group had a significant reduction in the prevalence of cough, but experienced an increase in the prevalence of wheeze. There was no significant difference in the annual decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec and forced vital capacity between the potroom workers and controls. In general, older workers and smokers had a greater decline in lung function compared to younger workers and nonsmokers. Leukocyte count done during the initial study was found to be an independent predictor of longitudinal decline in lung function. The lack of exposure effect on longitudinal decline in lung function could be due to ''healthy worker'' effect and improvement in the working condition of the smelter.

  14. Considerations on Optimal Fluoride Intake using Dental Fluorosis and Dental Caries Outcomes – A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Warren, John J.; Levy, Steven M.; Broffitt, Barbara; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Kanellis, Michael J.; Weber-Gasparoni, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The “optimal” intake of fluoride has been widely accepted for decades as between 0.05 and 0.07 mg fluoride per kilogram of body weight but is based on limited scientific evidence. The purpose of this paper is to present longitudinal fluoride intake data for children free of dental fluorosis in the early-erupting permanent dentition and free of dental caries in both the primary and early-erupting permanent teeth as an estimate of optimal fluoride intake. Methods Data on fluoride ingestion were obtained from parents of 602 Iowa Fluoride Study children through periodic questionnaires at the ages of 6 weeks, 3, 6, 9, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32 and 36 months, and then at 6-month intervals thereafter. Estimates of total fluoride intake at each time point were made by summing amounts from water, dentifrice, and supplements as well as other foods and beverages made with or containing water. Caries data were obtained from examinations of children at ages 5 and 9 years, while fluorosis data were obtained from examinations only at age 9. Results The estimated mean daily fluoride intake for those children with no caries history and no fluorosis at age 9 was at or below 0.05 mgF/kg bw for nearly all time points through the first 48 months of life, and this level declined thereafter. Children with caries had generally slightly less intakes, while those with fluorosis generally had slightly higher intakes. Conclusions Given the overlap among caries/fluorosis groups in mean fluoride intake and extreme variability in individual fluoride intakes firmly recommending an “optimal” fluoride intake is problematic. PMID:19054310

  15. HEAVY DRINKING TRAJECTORIES AMONG MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN: A LONGITUDINAL, GROUP-BASED ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Brandon DL; Shoveller, Jean A.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Koblin, Beryl A.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Zaller, Nickolas D.; Operario, Don

    2014-01-01

    Background Heavy episodic drinking (HED) is associated with sexual risk behavior and HIV seroconversion among men who have sex with men (MSM), yet few studies have examined heavy drinking typologies in this population. Methods We analyzed data from 4,075 HIV-uninfected MSM (aged 16 to 88) participating in EXPLORE, a 48-month behavioral intervention trial, to determine the patterns and predictors of HED trajectories. Heavy episodic drinking was defined as the number of days in which ≥5 alcohol drinks were consumed in the past 6 months. Longitudinal group-based mixture models were used to identify HED trajectories, and multinomial logistic regression was used to determine correlates of membership in each group. Results We identified five distinct HED trajectories: non-heavy drinkers (31.9%); infrequent heavy drinkers (i.e., <10 heavy drinking days per 6 month period, 54.3%); regular heavy drinkers (30-45 heavy drinking days per 6 months, 8.4%); drinkers who increased HED over time (average 33 days in the past six months to 77 days at end of follow-up, 3.6%); and very frequent heavy drinkers (>100 days per 6 months, 1.7%). Intervention arm did not predict drinking trajectory patterns. Younger age, self-identifying as white, lower educational attainment, depressive symptoms, and stimulant use were also associated with reporting heavier drinking trajectories. Compared to non-heavy drinkers, participants who increased HED more often experienced a history of childhood sexual abuse. Over the study period, depressive symptomatology increased significantly among very frequent heavy drinkers. Conclusions Socioeconomic factors, substance use, depression, and childhood sexual abuse were associated with heavier drinking patterns among MSM. Multi-component interventions to reduce HED should seek to mitigate the adverse impacts of low educational attainment, depression, and early traumatic life events on the initiation, continuation or escalation of frequent HED among MSM. PMID

  16. The High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09): A First Look at Fall 2009 Ninth-Graders. NCES 2011-327

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingels, Steven J.; Dalton, Ben; Holder, Tommy E., Jr.; Lauff, Erich; Burns, Laura J.

    2011-01-01

    This First Look presents findings from the base-year survey of the newly launched High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09), the first round of a study that will follow a ninth-grade cohort through high school and into their postsecondary years. HSLS:09 is the fifth in a series of National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) high school…

  17. Adult Life-Span Patterns in WAIS-R Block Design Performance: Cross-Sectional versus Longitudinal Age Gradients and Relations to Demographic Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronnlund, Michael; Nilsson, Lars-Goran

    2006-01-01

    Aging patterns in WAIS-R Block Design Test (BDT) were examined cross-sectionally and longitudinally. One sample (35-80 years, n=1000) was assessed in 1988-1990 and five years later (836 returned). An independent cohort-matched sample (n=974) was assessed at Time 2 to control for practice effects. Relations between BDT, gender, and education were…

  18. Young People outside the Labour Force and Full-Time Education: Activities and Profiles. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth. Research Report 45

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Kylie

    2005-01-01

    This report focuses on a group of young people who are not involved in full-time education or the labour force, that is, they are not studying full-time, nor are they working or looking for work. The data used in this report are drawn from the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY), which studies the progress of cohorts of young…

  19. VISION versus PRAGMATISM: Citizenship in the Secondary School Curriculum in England. Citizenship Education Longitudinal Study: Fifth Annual Report. Research Report RR845

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerry, David; Lopes, Joana; Nelson, Julie; White, Kerensa; Cleaver, Elizabeth; Benton, Tom

    2007-01-01

    The National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) is carrying out a nine year evaluation of citizenship education in England on behalf of the Department for Education and Skills (DfES). The Citizenship Education Longitudinal Study (hereafter, the Study) began in 2001 and is tracking a cohort of young people from age 11 to 18, who entered…

  20. Early Oral Language and Later Reading Development in Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners: Evidence from a Nine-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffer, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Using nationally-representative, longitudinal data on a cohort of Spanish-speaking English language learners in the U.S., this study investigated the extent to which early oral language proficiency in Spanish and English predicts later levels and rates of growth in English reading. Latent growth models indicated that both Spanish and English…

  1. Assessing the Value of Additional Years of Schooling for the Non-Academically Inclined. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth. Research Report 38

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockery, Alfred Michael

    2005-01-01

    In this report data from the 1995 Year 9 Cohort of the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) is used along with a variety of empirical approaches to assess the benefits of additional years of schooling for various groups of youth conditional upon their estimated propensity to engage in further schooling. Background material is provided…

  2. Longitudinal association of dairy consumption with the changes in blood pressure and the risk of incident hypertension: the Framingham Heart Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We aimed to examine the longitudinal association of dairy consumption with the changes in blood pressure (BP) and the risk of incident hypertension (HTN) among adults. This study included 2636 Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort members who participated in the 5th through 8th examinations (1991-...

  3. 2004/09 Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study (BPS:04/09). Full-Scale Methodology Report. NCES 2012-246

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wine, Jennifer; Janson, Natasha; Wheeless, Sara

    2011-01-01

    This report describes and evaluates the methods and procedures used in the 2004/09 Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study (BPS:04/09). BPS:04/09 is the second and final follow-up interview for the cohort of first-time beginning postsecondary students identified in the 2004 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study. For the first time…

  4. 1993/03 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:93/03) Field Test Methodology Report. Working Paper Series. NCES 2004-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wine, J.; Cominole, M.; Carwile, S.; Franklin, J.; Carley-Baxter, L.; and Wheeless, S.

    2004-01-01

    The 1993/03 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:93/03), sponsored by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), U.S. Department of Education, followed a cohort of students who earned bachelor's degrees during the 1992?93 academic year. These students were first interviewed in 1993, as part of the 1993 National Postsecondary…

  5. "Changes in Levels of Social Isolation and Loneliness among Older People in a Rural Area: A Twenty-Year Longitudinal Study"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenger, G. Clare; Burholt, Vanessa

    2004-01-01

    The Bangor Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), conducted in rural Wales from 1979 to 1999, followed a cohort of survivors from more than 500 people over 20 years. Using both quantitative and qualitative data from the study, the factors associated with increases and decreases in loneliness and social isolation were identified. The study was based…

  6. The Effects of School-Based Parental Involvement on Academic Achievement at the Child and Elementary School Level: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sira; Holloway, Susan D.

    2017-01-01

    Policymakers view parental involvement (PI) as a crucial component of school reform efforts, but evidence of its effect on student achievement is equivocal. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort dataset, we examined the long-term impact on student- and school-level achievement of three types of school-based PI: PI to…

  7. A Cohort Model of Fertility Postponement

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Joshua R.; Cassidy, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new formal model in which demographic behavior such as fertility is postponed by differing amounts depending only on cohort membership. The cohort-based model shows the effects of cohort shifts on period fertility measures and provides an accompanying tempo adjustment to determine the period fertility that would have occurred without postponement. Cohort-based postponement spans multiple periods and produces “fertility momentum,” with implications for future fertility rates. We illustrate several methods for model estimation and apply the model to fertility in several countries. We also compare the fit of period-based and cohort-based shift models to the recent Dutch fertility surface, showing how cohort- and period-based postponement can occur simultaneously. PMID:25233957

  8. Study Design and Outcomes of Korean Obstructive Lung Disease (KOLD) Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Tai Sun; Lee, Jae Seung; Seo, Joon Beom; Hong, Yoonki; Yoo, Jung-Wan; Kang, Byung Ju; Lee, Sei Won; Oh, Yeon-Mok

    2014-01-01

    Background The Korean Obstructive Lung Disease (KOLD) Cohort Study is a prospective longitudinal study of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, or other unclassified obstructive lung diseases. It was designed to develop new classification models and biomarkers that predict clinically relevant outcomes for patients with obstructive lung diseases. Methods Patients over 18 years old who have chronic respiratory symptoms and airflow limitations or bronchial hyper-responsiveness were enrolled at 17 centers in South Korea. After a baseline visit, the subjects were followed up every 3 months for various assessments. Results From June 2005 to October 2013, a total of 477 subjects (433 [91%] males; 381 [80%] diagnosed with COPD) were enrolled. Analyses of the KOLD Cohort Study identified distinct phenotypes in patients with COPD, and predictors of therapeutic responses and exacerbations as well as the factors related to pulmonary hypertension in COPD. In addition, several genotypes were associated with radiological phenotypes and therapeutic responses among Korean COPD patients. Conclusion The KOLD Cohort Study is one of the leading long-term prospective longitudinal studies investigating heterogeneity of the COPD and is expected to provide new insights for pathogenesis and the long-term progression of COPD. PMID:24851130

  9. The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health: Using Focus Groups to Inform Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Recruitment and retention of participants to large-scale, longitudinal studies can be a challenge, particularly when trying to target young women. Qualitative inquiries with members of the target population can prove valuable in assisting with the development of effective recruiting techniques. Researchers in the current study made use of focus group methodology to identify how to encourage young women aged 18-23 to participate in a national cohort online survey. Objective Our objectives were to gain insight into how to encourage young women to participate in a large-scale, longitudinal health survey, as well as to evaluate the survey instrument and mode of administration. Methods The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health used focus group methodology to learn how to encourage young women to participate in a large-scale, longitudinal Web-based health survey and to evaluate the survey instrument and mode of administration. Nineteen groups, involving 75 women aged 18-23 years, were held in remote, regional, and urban areas of New South Wales and Queensland. Results Focus groups were held in 2 stages, with discussions lasting from 19 minutes to over 1 hour. The focus groups allowed concord to be reached regarding survey promotion using social media, why personal information was needed, strategies to ensure confidentiality, how best to ask sensitive questions, and survey design for ease of completion. Recruitment into the focus groups proved difficult: the groups varied in size between 1 and 8 participants, with the majority conducted with 2 participants. Conclusions Intense recruitment efforts and variation in final focus group numbers highlights the “hard to reach” character of young women. However, the benefits of conducting focus group discussions as a preparatory stage to the recruitment of a large cohort for a longitudinal Web-based health survey were upheld. PMID:26902160

  10. Causal mediation analysis for longitudinal data with exogenous exposure

    PubMed Central

    Bind, M.-A. C.; Vanderweele, T. J.; Coull, B. A.; Schwartz, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    Mediation analysis is a valuable approach to examine pathways in epidemiological research. Prospective cohort studies are often conducted to study biological mechanisms and often collect longitudinal measurements on each participant. Mediation formulae for longitudinal data have been developed. Here, we formalize the natural direct and indirect effects using a causal framework with potential outcomes that allows for an interaction between the exposure and the mediator. To allow different types of longitudinal measures of the mediator and outcome, we assume two generalized mixed-effects models for both the mediator and the outcome. The model for the mediator has subject-specific random intercepts and random exposure slopes for each cluster, and the outcome model has random intercepts and random slopes for the exposure, the mediator, and their interaction. We also expand our approach to settings with multiple mediators and derive the mediated effects, jointly through all mediators. Our method requires the absence of time-varying confounding with respect to the exposure and the mediator. This assumption is achieved in settings with exogenous exposure and mediator, especially when exposure and mediator are not affected by variables measured at earlier time points. We apply the methodology to data from the Normative Aging Study and estimate the direct and indirect effects, via DNA methylation, of air pollution, and temperature on intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) protein levels. Our results suggest that air pollution and temperature have a direct effect on ICAM-1 protein levels (i.e. not through a change in ICAM-1 DNA methylation) and that temperature has an indirect effect via a change in ICAM-1 DNA methylation. PMID:26272993

  11. Examining the longitudinal relationship between change in sleep and obesity risk in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lytle, Leslie A; Murray, David M; Laska, Melissa N; Pasch, Keryn E; Anderson, Sarah E; Farbakhsh, Kian

    2013-06-01

    Evidence is building regarding the association between inadequate amounts of sleep and the risk of obesity, especially in younger children. Less is known about the relationship between change in sleep and change in weight during adolescence. The objective of this study was to examine the longitudinal relationship between change in sleep duration and change in body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (PBF) in a cohort of adolescents. The cohort included 723 adolescents (mean age = 14.7 years at baseline) from Minnesota. Total sleep duration was assessed via self-report. BMI and PBF were objectively assessed. Covariates used in the multivariate analyses included energy intake as assessed through 24-hour recalls, activity levels as assessed by accelerometers, screen time/sedentary behavior, depression, and sociodemographic characteristics. For both males and females, average BMI and PBF increased slightly over the 2 years and average sleep duration decreased by about 30 minutes. The authors saw no statistically significant longitudinal relationships between change in total sleep and change in BMI or PBF over time in either girls or boys. The only longitudinal relationship that approached statistical significance was a positive association between sleep and PBF in females (p = .068). This research contributes to the literature as the only study to date to examine how change in sleep duration during adolescence may be related to a concomitant change in BMI and body fat. The findings of this study do not support the hypothesis that a decline in sleep duration during adolescence increases obesity risk.

  12. The course of skull deformation from birth to 5 years of age: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    van Vlimmeren, Leo A; Engelbert, Raoul Hh; Pelsma, Maaike; Groenewoud, Hans Mm; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M; der Sanden, Maria Wg Nijhuis-van

    2017-01-01

    In a continuation of a prospective longitudinal cohort study in a healthy population on the course of skull shape from birth to 24 months, at 5 years of age, 248 children participated in a follow-up assessment using plagiocephalometry (ODDI-oblique diameter difference index, CPI-cranio proportional index). Data from the original study sampled at birth, 7 weeks, 6, 12, and 24 months were used in two linear mixed models.

  13. Age, Birth Cohorts, and Drinking: An Illustration of the Hazards of Inferring Effects from Cohort Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Norval D.

    1981-01-01

    Analyzes problems in the use of cohort data as illustrated by cohort data on drinking alcoholic beverages taken from American national surveys conducted during the late 1950s, late 1960s, and late 1970s. Researchers are cautioned that all available "side information" should be considered before statistical cohort models are tested. (Author/RC)

  14. Factors influencing enrollment: a case study from Birth to Twenty, the 1990 birth cohort in Soweto-Johannesburg.

    PubMed

    Richter, Linda M; Panday, Saadhna; Norris, Shane A

    2009-08-01

    Longitudinal studies offer significant advantages in rendering data commensurate with the complexity of human development. However, incomplete enrollment and attrition over time can introduce bias. Furthermore, there is a scarcity of evaluative information on cohorts in developing countries. This paper documents various strategies adopted to minimize loss to follow up and describes a retrospective analysis of a small group of families who were missed during initial enrollment and through several subsequent rounds of data collection of the Birth to Twenty (BT20) birth cohort in Soweto-Johannesburg, South Africa that began in 1990. A purposive case study approach was used, and 10 of the 119 families missed at enrollment were interviewed to investigate why these families were not enrolled into the study. The findings demonstrate that high mobility, both within urban areas and between urban and rural areas, are a major challenge for longitudinal studies in densely populated urban areas. In addition, enrollment was also affected by individuals changing their names, largely motivated to facilitate access to employment under Apartheid, as well as varying motivations for participating in research. Longitudinal studies in the developing country context must be mindful of the political, social and economic climate that influences enrollment and ongoing cohort maintenance.

  15. The Impact of Maternal Gestational Stress on Motor Development in Late Childhood and Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Tegan; Bulsara, Max; Robinson, Monique; Hands, Beth

    2016-01-01

    The number and timing of stressors experienced during pregnancy were investigated using longitudinal data from the Western Australian Pregnancy (Raine) Study cohort (N = 2,900). Motor development data were collected at 10 (n = 1,622), 14 (n = 1,584), and 17 (n = 1,222) years using the McCarron Assessment of Neuromuscular Development. Linear mixed…

  16. Survival effect of first- and second-line treatments for patients with primary glioblastoma: a cohort study from a prospective registry, 1997–2010

    PubMed Central

    Nava, Francesca; Tramacere, Irene; Fittipaldo, Andrea; Bruzzone, Maria Grazia; DiMeco, Francesco; Fariselli, Laura; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Pollo, Bianca; Salmaggi, Andrea; Silvani, Antonio; Farinotti, Mariangela; Filippini, Graziella

    2014-01-01

    Background Prospective follow-up studies of large cohorts of patients with glioblastoma (GBM) are needed to assess the effectiveness of conventional treatments in clinical practice. We report GBM survival data from the Brain Cancer Register of the Fondazione Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta (INCB) in Milan, Italy, which collected longitudinal data for all consecutive patients with GBM from 1997 to 2010. Methods Survival data were obtained from 764 patients (aged>16 years) with histologically confirmed primary GBM who were diagnosed and treated over a 7-year period (2004–2010) with follow-up to April 2012 (cohort II). Equivalent data from 490 GBM patients diagnosed and treated over the preceding 7 years (1997–2003) with follow-up to April 2005 (cohort I) were available for comparison. Progression-free survival (PFS) was available from 361 and 219 patients actively followed up at INCB in cohorts II and I, respectively. Results Survival probabilities were 54% at 1 year, 21% at 2 years, and 11% at 3 years, respectively, in cohort II compared with 47%, 11%, and 5%, respectively, in cohort I. PFS was 22% and 12% at 1 year in cohorts II and I. Better survival and PFS in cohort II was significantly associated with introduction of the Stupp protocol into clinical practice, with adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of 0.78 for survival and 0.73 for PFS, or a 22% relative decrease in the risk of death and a 27% relative decrease in the risk of recurrence. After recurrence, reoperation was performed in one-fifth of cohort I and in one-third of cohort II but was not effective (HR, 1.05 in cohort I and 1.02 in cohort II). Second-line chemotherapy, mainly consisting of nitrosourea-based chemotherapy, temozolomide, mitoxantrone, fotemustine, and bevacizumab, improved survival in both cohorts (HR, 0.57 in cohort I and 0.74 in cohort II). Radiosurgery was also effective (HR, 0.52 in cohort II). Conclusions We found a significant increase in overall survival, PFS, and survival after

  17. Longitudinal study of fingerprint recognition.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K

    2015-07-14

    Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject's age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis.

  18. Longitudinal study of fingerprint recognition

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K.

    2015-01-01

    Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject’s age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis. PMID:26124106

  19. Graduate Cohort Approach in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson-Gearhart, Jeanine

    2012-01-01

    The use of the cohorts in teacher education has steadily increased over the last decade. Research indicates both beneficial and negative aspects to this approach, with the field undecided. This study focuses on a Midwestern university's accelerated graduate program for special educators. The program uses a mixed cohort approach to model…

  20. Body size dynamics in young adults: 8-year follow up of cohorts in Brazil and Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Yiengprugsawan, V; Horta, B L; Motta, J V S; Gigante, D; Seubsman, S-A; Sleigh, A

    2016-01-01

    Increase in body size has appeared as an epidemic in Western countries and is now rapidly emerging in low- and middle-income countries, contributing to the rise in non-communicable diseases worldwide. Brazil and Thailand have gone through similar economic and health transitions, and this unique comparative study investigates changes in body size (body mass index) in relation to socioeconomic status in two cohorts of similar age followed from 2004/2005 to 2012/2013. At 20–24 years of age, Pelotas cohort members had a much higher prevalence of overweight and obesity (20.7 and 8.6%) than the Thai cohort (6.0 and 1.7%); these proportions rose to 34.6% and 22.9% vs 15.8% and 5.1%, respectively, in their early 30s. An association between a higher socioeconomic status and increase in overweight and obesity was observed among males; but an inverse pattern was noted for females in both cohorts and remained statistically significant after 8 years of follow up. Our comparative longitudinal analyses highlight the relationship between two middle-income settings facing rapid increases in body size (2–3 fold increase in the rate of overweight and obesity). Long-term follow up and a lifecourse approach for effective prevention of obesity will minimize adverse health burdens in later life. PMID:27428871